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Sample records for modeling factors influencing

  1. Consumer's Online Shopping Influence Factors and Decision-Making Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Xiangbin; Dai, Shiliang

    Previous research on online consumer behavior has mostly been confined to the perceived risk which is used to explain those barriers for purchasing online. However, perceived benefit is another important factor which influences consumers’ decision when shopping online. As a result, an integrated consumer online shopping decision-making model is developed which contains three elements—Consumer, Product, and Web Site. This model proposed relative factors which influence the consumers’ intention during the online shopping progress, and divided them into two different dimensions—mentally level and material level. We tested those factors with surveys, from both online volunteers and offline paper surveys with more than 200 samples. With the help of SEM, the experimental results show that the proposed model and method can be used to analyze consumer’s online shopping decision-making process effectively.

  2. A holistic model of advocacy: factors that influence its use.

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    Kubsch, Sylvia M; Sternard, Marsha J; Hovarter, Rebecca; Matzke, Vicki

    2004-02-01

    Although advocacy is embraced by nursing as an essential component of holistic philosophy, its scope is often limited in practice. In this article, a research study that examined the use of an expanded definition of advocacy is described. A link to the role of advocacy as a complementary therapy and in relation to facilitating the use of complementary therapies by patients is provided. Fifty-two registered nurses completed a researcher developed advocacy research instrument that assessed the use of moral-ethical, legal, political, spiritual, and substitutive advocacy along with various factors thought to influence the use of advocacy including moral development, perceived assertiveness, and perceived job security. An additional 40 RN-BSN students generated case studies of advocacy enacted in practice that were used as examples of the five categories of advocacy and to support the findings of the survey. Results indicated that moral-ethical advocacy was used more often than the other four categories. Moral stage development had a significant effect on substitutive advocacy but assertiveness and job security were not significant factors influencing any category of advocacy.

  3. Factors influencing protein tyrosine nitration--structure-based predictive models.

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    Bayden, Alexander S; Yakovlev, Vasily A; Graves, Paul R; Mikkelsen, Ross B; Kellogg, Glen E

    2011-03-15

    Models for exploring tyrosine nitration in proteins have been created based on 3D structural features of 20 proteins for which high-resolution X-ray crystallographic or NMR data are available and for which nitration of 35 total tyrosines has been experimentally proven under oxidative stress. Factors suggested in previous work to enhance nitration were examined with quantitative structural descriptors. The role of neighboring acidic and basic residues is complex: for the majority of tyrosines that are nitrated the distance to the heteroatom of the closest charged side chain corresponds to the distance needed for suspected nitrating species to form hydrogen bond bridges between the tyrosine and that charged amino acid. This suggests that such bridges play a very important role in tyrosine nitration. Nitration is generally hindered for tyrosines that are buried and for those tyrosines for which there is insufficient space for the nitro group. For in vitro nitration, closed environments with nearby heteroatoms or unsaturated centers that can stabilize radicals are somewhat favored. Four quantitative structure-based models, depending on the conditions of nitration, have been developed for predicting site-specific tyrosine nitration. The best model, relevant for both in vitro and in vivo cases, predicts 30 of 35 tyrosine nitrations (positive predictive value) and has a sensitivity of 60/71 (11 false positives). Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Logistic regression models of factors influencing the location of bioenergy and biofuels plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    T.M. Young; R.L. Zaretzki; J.H. Perdue; F.M. Guess; X. Liu

    2011-01-01

    Logistic regression models were developed to identify significant factors that influence the location of existing wood-using bioenergy/biofuels plants and traditional wood-using facilities. Logistic models provided quantitative insight for variables influencing the location of woody biomass-using facilities. Availability of "thinnings to a basal area of 31.7m2/ha...

  5. Analysis on influencing factors of clinical teachers’ job satisfaction by structural equation model

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    Haiyi Jia

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available [Research objective] Analyze the influencing factors of clinical teachers’ job satisfaction. [Research method] The ERG theory was used as the framework to design the questionnaires. Data were analyzed by structural equation model for investigating the influencing factors. [Research result] The modified model shows that factors of existence needs and growth needs have direct influence on the job satisfaction of clinical teachers, the influence coefficients are 0.540 and 0.380. The three influencing factors have positive effects on each other, and the correlation coefficients are 0.620, 0.400 and 0.330 respectively. [Research conclusion] Relevant departments should take active measures to improve job satisfaction of clinical teachers from two aspects: existence needs and growth needs, and to improve their work enthusiasm and teaching quality.

  6. Factors Influencing Teachers' Intention to Use Technology: Model Development and Test

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    Teo, Timothy

    2011-01-01

    Among the key players in any effective integration of technology in teaching and learning is the teacher. Despite the research that has been conducted to examine the factors that explain teachers' intention to use technology, few have developed a model to statistically explain the interactions among these factors and how they influence teachers'…

  7. Selection of asset investment models by hospitals: examination of influencing factors, using Switzerland as an example.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eicher, Bernhard

    2016-10-01

    Hospitals are responsible for a remarkable part of the annual increase in healthcare expenditure. This article examines one of the major cost drivers, the expenditure for investment in hospital assets. The study, conducted in Switzerland, identifies factors that influence hospitals' investment decisions. A suggestion on how to categorize asset investment models is presented based on the life cycle of an asset, and its influencing factors defined based on transaction cost economics. The influence of five factors (human asset specificity, physical asset specificity, uncertainty, bargaining power, and privacy of ownership) on the selection of an asset investment model is examined using a two-step fuzzy-set Qualitative Comparative Analysis. The research shows that outsourcing-oriented asset investment models are particularly favored in the presence of two combinations of influencing factors: First, if technological uncertainty is high and both human asset specificity and bargaining power of a hospital are low. Second, if assets are very specific, technological uncertainty is high and there is a private hospital with low bargaining power, outsourcing-oriented asset investment models are favored too. Using Qualitative Comparative Analysis, it can be demonstrated that investment decisions of hospitals do not depend on isolated influencing factors but on a combination of factors. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  8. Antecedents Factors that Influence Soy Consumption: A Structural Equation Modeling Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Balasubramanian, Siva K.; Moon, Wanki; Rimal, Arbindra; Coker, Kesha

    2009-01-01

    We propose a structural model of antecedent factors that affect the frequency of soy consumption. This model, suggests that soy-general knowledge influences perceptions about nutrition concern, health benefits of soy, soy related personal beliefs and personal attitudes toward soy. Health benefits of soy, in turn, impacts soy-related personal beliefs and personal attitudes toward soy. Additionally, soy-related personal beliefs influence personal attitudes toward soy. Finally, both nutrition co...

  9. EXPLORING FACTORS INFLUENCING FINANCIAL PLANNING AFTER RETIREMENT: STRUCTURAL EQUATION MODELING APPROACH

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    Md. Abdul Jalil

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The study explores the critical factors that influence financial planning after retirement among Malaysians, an area which has somewhat been largely overlooked by the extant literature. The study has used a quantitative method to survey a sample of 170 Malaysian citizens, from various places in the Klang Valley area. Exploratory factor analysis, confirmatory factor analysis and structural equation modeling were used to analyze the data. The results suggest that the paths are interrelated to the casual processes significantly. Furthermore, individual’s income or monthly salary is found to be the most important factor influencing financial planning, followed by attitude and culture. The results are mainly favourable to academics and practitioners in Malaysia by contributing an understanding into critical factors that influence people to make financial plan before their retirement. The study provides implications of the findings in the concluding section.

  10. The Factors Influencing Satisfaction with Public City Transport: A Structural Equation Modelling Approach

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    Pawlasova Pavlina

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Satisfaction is one of the key factors which influences customer loyalty. We assume that the satisfied customer will be willing to use the ssame service provider again. The overall passengers´ satisfaction with public city transport may be affected by the overall service quality. Frequency, punctuality, cleanliness in the vehicle, proximity, speed, fare, accessibility and safety of transport, information and other factors can influence passengers´ satisfaction. The aim of this paper is to quantify factors and identify the most important factors influencing customer satisfaction with public city transport within conditions of the Czech Republic. Two methods of analysis are applied in order to fulfil the aim. The method of factor analysis and the method Varimax were used in order to categorize variables according to their mutual relations. The method of structural equation modelling was used to evaluate the factors and validate the model. Then, the optimal model was found. The logistic parameters, including service continuity and frequency, and service, including information rate, station proximity and vehicle cleanliness, are the factors influencing passengers´ satisfaction on a large scale.

  11. Geographical Detector Model for Influencing Factors of Industrial Sector Carbon Dioxide Emissions in Inner Mongolia, China

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    Rina Wu

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Studying the influencing factors of carbon dioxide emissions is not only practically but also theoretically crucial for establishing regional carbon-reduction policies, developing low-carbon economy and solving the climate problems. Therefore, we used a geographical detector model which is consists of four parts, i.e., risk detector, factor detector, ecological detector and interaction detector to analyze the effect of these social economic factors, i.e., GDP, industrial structure, urbanization rate, economic growth rate, population and road density on the increase of energy consumption carbon dioxide emissions in industrial sector in Inner Mongolia northeast of China. Thus, combining with the result of four detectors, we found that GDP and population more influence than economic growth rate, industrial structure, urbanization rate and road density. The interactive effect of any two influencing factors enhances the increase of the carbon dioxide emissions. The findings of this research have significant policy implications for regions like Inner Mongolia.

  12. A proposed model of factors influencing hydrogen fuel cell vehicle acceptance

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    Imanina, N. H. Noor; Kwe Lu, Tan; Fadhilah, A. R.

    2016-03-01

    Issues such as environmental problem and energy insecurity keep worsening as a result of energy use from household to huge industries including automotive industry. Recently, a new type of zero emission vehicle, hydrogen fuel cell vehicle (HFCV) has received attention. Although there are argues on the feasibility of hydrogen as the future fuel, there is another important issue, which is the acceptance of HFCV. The study of technology acceptance in the early stage is a vital key for a successful introduction and penetration of a technology. This paper proposes a model of factors influencing green vehicle acceptance, specifically HFCV. This model is built base on two technology acceptance theories and other empirical studies of vehicle acceptance. It aims to provide a base for finding the key factors influencing new sustainable energy fuelled vehicle, HFCV acceptance which is achieved by explaining intention to accept HFCV. Intention is influenced by attitude, subjective norm and perceived behavioural control from Theory of Planned Behaviour and personal norm from Norm Activation Theory. In the framework, attitude is influenced by perceptions of benefits and risks, and social trust. Perceived behavioural control is influenced by government interventions. Personal norm is influenced by outcome efficacy and problem awareness.

  13. Logistic Retrogression Model for Evaluating the Influence of Environmental Factors on Legislative Data

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    Jennifer Somali Angeyo

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Applicability of artificial intelligence techniques, in evaluating the influence of the environmental factors in legislative data was found amenable in an earlier study - SVM performed to satisfying results with a 21.5 percent error rate for passage of legislation as compared to the performance of ANN at 28 percent error rate and K-NN at 29 percent error rate. These techniques reported both collective influence (ANN, K-NN and SVM and respective influence (SVM one-against-all classifier. Determining the environmental influences - individually or in combination with other factors, could only be measurably achieved using other modeling techniques, despite SVM with probabilistic output of 76 percent outperforming PNN with 71 percent out. A triangulation of both statistical and artificial intelligence modeling techniques in classification is thus proposed for decision making support in legislative drafting, given that computations involving statistical approach correctly predicted up to 98.20 percent and placed economic considerations as the most important factor for the passing of a bill with economic connotations. Other predictions involving political, social, cultural factors did not however, perform as well as the PNN and SVM with probabilistic output.

  14. Factors influencing community health centers' efficiency: a latent growth curve modeling approach.

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    Marathe, Shriram; Wan, Thomas T H; Zhang, Jackie; Sherin, Kevin

    2007-10-01

    The objective of study is to examine factors affecting the variation in technical and cost efficiency of community health centers (CHCs). A panel study design was formulated to examine the relationships among the contextual, organizational structural, and performance variables. Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA) of technical efficiency and latent growth curve modeling of multi-wave technical and cost efficiency were performed. Regardless of the efficiency measures, CHC efficiency was influenced more by contextual factors than organizational structural factors. The study confirms the independent and additive influences of contextual and organizational predictors on efficiency. The change in CHC technical efficiency positively affects the change in CHC cost efficiency. The practical implication of this finding is that healthcare managers can simultaneously optimize both technical and cost efficiency through appropriate use of inputs to generate optimal outputs. An innovative solution is to employ decision support software to prepare an expert system to assist poorly performing CHCs to achieve better cost efficiency through optimizing technical efficiency.

  15. Structural equation modeling analysis of factors influencing architects' trust in project design teams

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DING Zhi-kun; NG Fung-fai; WANG Jia-yuan

    2009-01-01

    This paper describes a structural equation modeling (SEM) analysis of factors influencing architects' trust in project design teams. We undertook a survey of architects, during which we distributed 193 questionnaires in 29 A-level architectural We used Amos 6.0 for SEM to identify significant personal construct based factors affecting interpersonal trust. The results show that only social interaction between architects significantly affects their interpersonal trust. The explained variance of trust is not very high in the model. Therefore, future research should add more factors into the current model. The practical implication is that team managers should promote the social interactions between team members such that the interpersonal trust level between team members can be improved.

  16. Linear model analysis of the influencing factors of boar longevity in Southern China.

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    Wang, Chao; Li, Jia-Lian; Wei, Hong-Kui; Zhou, Yuan-Fei; Jiang, Si-Wen; Peng, Jian

    2017-04-15

    This study aimed to investigate the factors influencing the boar herd life month (BHLM) in Southern China. A total of 1630 records of culling boars from nine artificial insemination centers were collected from January 2013 to May 2016. A logistic regression model and two linear models were used to analyze the effects of breed, housing type, age at herd entry, and seed stock herd on boar removal reason and BHLM, respectively. Boar breed and the age at herd entry had significant effects on the removal reasons (P linear models (with or without removal reason including) showed boars raised individually in stalls exhibited shorter BHLM than those raised in pens (P introduction.

  17. Explanatory models of mental distress and influencing factors in a multi-cultural setting, Khartoum, Sudan

    OpenAIRE

    Haugum, Mona

    2011-01-01

    Background: It has been recognized that explanatory models (EMs) of mental distress play an important role in how people perceive causes of mental illness, how these illnesses are presented and where treatment is sought. The main objective of this study was to explore EMs within a non-clinical sample in a low-income and multicultural setting and to identify the most common category of EMs. The secondary objectives were to assess the influence of demographic factors, perceived accessibility of...

  18. Analyzing Factors Influencing Teaching as a Career Choice Using Structural Equation Modeling

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    Budhinath Padhy

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the study is to analyze factors influencing students’ perceptions of teaching as a career choice using structural equation modeling with the goal of shaping a teacher education recruitment program. In this study, 458 students from a Midwestern university in the United States responded to an online survey about career-related factors they value, their expectation that teaching would offer those factors, and any social-influence factors that might encourage them to choose a teaching career. The effect of 10 exogenous motivation variables (value-environment, value-intrinsic, value-extrinsic, value-altruistic, expectancy-environment, expectancy-intrinsic, expectancy-extrinsic, social-media-education, social-prior-experience, and social-suggestions on choosing a teaching career was examined. Results of our analysis showed that the factors related to expectancy-environment, expectancy-intrinsic, social-media-education, social-prior-experience, and social-suggestions were found to be significant, whereas value-related factors and expectancy-extrinsic factors were found to be insignificant.

  19. Modeling the factors that influence knowledge transfer in mergers and acquisitions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YU; Haiyan; LIANG; Zhanping

    2010-01-01

    This paper constructs a model on the factors that influence knowledge transfer in mergers and acquisitions(M&A)and validates it via questionnaire surveys.Using 125valid collected questionnaires,multiple linear regression analysis and hierarchical regression analysis showed that five out of the ten factors had a positive effect on knowledge transfer effect.The ranking of factor importance,from high to low,was knowledge explicitness,relationship quality,learning intent,advanced transfer activities,and learning capability,which is fairly consistent with positive factors observed in other interorganizational knowledge transfer researches.Our results also showed that one of the control variables(size of acquired firm)had neither a direct or indirect effect on knowledge transfer in M&A.Additionally,our research found that knowledge distance and degree of M&A integration had a positive influence on knowledge transfer effect at the early stage after M&A,but had a negative influence at the late stage.Based on this research,several suggestions for knowledge transfer in M&A are proposed.

  20. A survey of the influencing factors and models for resident's household waste management behavior

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    The problem of household solid waste has been concerned and researched on by municipalities and researchers.At present, household solid waste has been changed to management problem from technical one. From the point view of management, the research on household solid waste is to study the factors which influence resident's behavior of managtng their waste. Based on the literature review, firstly, this paper summarizes those factors which have already been identified to have impact on resident's behavior of managing their waste. They are social-demographic variables,knowledge, environmental values, psychological factors, publicity and system design. Secondly, three typical models of the relationship between factors and behavior, which are factors determining task performance in waste management,conceptualization of waste management behavior and the theoretical model of repeated behavior on household waste management, are analyzed and the deficiencies of these models are also analyzed. Finally, according to the current situation in household waste management and the culture and resident's habits in China, this paper puts forward a research focus and suggestions about resident 's behavior of household solid waste management.

  1. Spatial Durbin Model (SDM For Identified Influence Dengue Hemorrhagic Fever Factors in Kabupaten Malang

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    Indah Resti Ayuni Suri

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Dengue Hemorrhagic Fever or usually populer call DBD (Demam Berdarah Degue is the cronic desease that caused by virus infection who carry by Aedes Aegypti mousquito. The observation act by DBD descriptioning and some factors territorial view that influence them, also DBD’s modeling use Spatial Durbin Model (SDM. SDM is the particullary case from Spatial Autoregresive Model (SAR, it means modeling with spatial lag at dependen variable and independen variable. This observation use ratio DBD invectors amount with population amount of citizenry at Kabupaten Malang in 2009. Some variable was used, those are the precentation of existention free number embrio, ratio of civil amount between family, procentation of healthy clinic between invectors and procentase of the invectors who taking care by medical help with amount of invectors. The fourth variables are independen variable to ratio of DBD invector amount with population of citizenry amount, as dependen variable trough spatial SDM modelling. The result of SDM parameter modelling, the significant influence variable in session % is the procentation of free amount embrio existention from their own district, the procentation of healthy clinic amount with the DBD invector amount from their own district, the ratio of the population of citizenry with the family from their neighborhood district, and the procentation of healthy clinic amount with the DBD invector amount from their neighborhood district.

  2. Modeling the City Distribution System Reliability with Bayesian Networks to Identify Influence Factors

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    Hao Zhang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Under the increasingly uncertain economic environment, the research on the reliability of urban distribution system has great practical significance for the integration of logistics and supply chain resources. This paper summarizes the factors that affect the city logistics distribution system. Starting from the research of factors that influence the reliability of city distribution system, further construction of city distribution system reliability influence model is built based on Bayesian networks. The complex problem is simplified by using the sub-Bayesian network, and an example is analyzed. In the calculation process, we combined the traditional Bayesian algorithm and the Expectation Maximization (EM algorithm, which made the Bayesian model able to lay a more accurate foundation. The results show that the Bayesian network can accurately reflect the dynamic relationship among the factors affecting the reliability of urban distribution system. Moreover, by changing the prior probability of the node of the cause, the correlation degree between the variables that affect the successful distribution can be calculated. The results have significant practical significance on improving the quality of distribution, the level of distribution, and the efficiency of enterprises.

  3. A path analysis model of factors influencing children's requests for unhealthy foods.

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    Pettigrew, Simone; Jongenelis, Michelle; Miller, Caroline; Chapman, Kathy

    2017-01-01

    Little is known about the complex combination of factors influencing the extent to which children request unhealthy foods from their parents. The aim of this study was to develop a comprehensive model of influencing factors to provide insight into potential methods of reducing these requests. A web panel provider was used to administer a national online survey to a sample of 1302 Australian parent-child dyads (total sample n=2604). Initial univariate analyses identified potential predictors of children's requests for and consumption of unhealthy foods. The identified variables were subsequently incorporated into a path analysis model that included both parents' and children's reports of children's requests for unhealthy foods. The resulting model accounted for a substantial 31% of the variance in parent-reported food request frequency and 27% of the variance in child-reported request frequency. The variable demonstrating the strongest direct association with both parents' and children's reports of request frequency was the frequency of children's current intake of unhealthy foods. Parents' and children's exposure to food advertising and television viewing time were also positively associated with children's unhealthy food requests. The results highlight the need to break the habitual provision of unhealthy foods to avoid a vicious cycle of requests resulting in consumption. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Measuring Technological, Organizational and Environmental Factors Influencing the Adoption Intentions of Public Cloud Computing Using a Proposed Integrated Model

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    Minimol Anil Job

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this research is to identify the factors influencing the intentions to adopt the public computing by the private sector firms. In this research the researcher examined the ten factors influencing the cloud computing adoption using a proposed integrated model which incorporates aspects of the Technology, Organization and Environment factors such as Complexity, Compatibility, Security Concerns, Trialability, Cost Saving, Top Management Support, Prior IT Experience, Organizational Readiness, Competitive Pressure and External Support. In order to test influencing factors a survey was conducted and one hundred and twenty two valid responses were received from IT decision makers from forty firms in different industries. The results revealed that the Compatibility, Cost Saving, Trialability and External Support are the main influential factors in the adoption intentions of public cloud computing. Future research could be built on this study by developing different model for each industry because each industry has unique characteristics that can influence the adoption of the technological innovations.

  5. The Factors Influencing Satisfaction with Public City Transport: A Structural Equation Modelling Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Pawlasova Pavlina

    2015-01-01

    Satisfaction is one of the key factors which influences customer loyalty. We assume that the satisfied customer will be willing to use the ssame service provider again. The overall passengers´ satisfaction with public city transport may be affected by the overall service quality. Frequency, punctuality, cleanliness in the vehicle, proximity, speed, fare, accessibility and safety of transport, information and other factors can influence passengers´ satisfaction. The aim of this pap...

  6. Modelling the factors influencing the selection of the construction equipment for Indian construction organizations

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    S.V.S. Raja Prasad

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The contribution of Indian construction sector to the GDP is approximately 10%. Under new government policy, it is anticipated that $1000 Billion share for exclusively infrastructure segment would be completed within the next few years. Construction sector in developing country like India still depends on labor and the practice of mechanization, adopting to use of versatile construction equipment is not in force. The need for implementing new technologies and automation is essential to improve the quality, safety and efficiency. To meet the challenges ahead the construction, organizations should focus on utilization of machinery/equipment to achieve desirable results. Modern construction is characterized by the increase in utilization of equipment to accomplish numerous construction activities. The selection of construction equipment often affects the required amount of time and effort. It is therefore important for managements of construction organizations and planners to be familiar with the features of various types of equipment commonly used in construction activities. The selection of appropriate equipment is a crucial decision making process as it involves huge capital investment. The purpose of the present study is to develop a model pertaining to the factors influencing the selection of construction equipment by using interpretive structural modelling and the results indicate that productivity and safety are the important factors in selection of equipment in Indian construction organizations.

  7. A New Benchmark for Internet Use: A Logistic Modeling of Factors Influencing Internet Use in Canada, 2005

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    Noce, Anthony A.; McKeown, Larry

    2008-01-01

    Internet diffusion is not homogeneous and depends on many factors. This study uses data from the Canadian Internet Use Survey (CIUS) to explore the extent demographic variables affect Internet use by individuals in Canada. A logistic model confirms that certain factors, educational attainment, and geography in particular influence Internet use in…

  8. The Examination of Factors Influencing Social Media Usage by African American Small Business Owners Using the UTAUT Model

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    Serben, Dion F.

    2014-01-01

    The unified theory of acceptance and use of technology (UTAUT) model has demonstrated the influencing factors for various business technology uses within the organizational system. However, in the context of African American small businesses (AASB), there was very little evidence of research to determine factors affecting the intention to use…

  9. Mouse models for studying genetic influences on factors determining smoking cessation success in humans

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    Hall, F. Scott; Markou, Athina; Levin, Edward D.; Uhl, George R.

    2014-01-01

    Humans differ in their ability to quit using addictive substances, including nicotine, the major psychoactive ingredient in tobacco. For tobacco smoking, a substantial body of evidence, largely derived from twin studies, indicates that approximately half of these individual differences in ability to quit are heritable [1, 2], genetic influences that likely overlap with those for other addictive substances [3]. Both twin and molecular genetic studies support overlapping influences on nicotine addiction vulnerability and smoking cessation success, although there is little formal analysis of the twin data that supports this important point [2, 3]. None of the current datasets provides clear data concerning which heritable factors might provide robust dimensions around which individuals differ in ability to quit smoking. One approach to this problem is to test mice with genetic variations in genes that contain human variants that alter quit-success. This review considers which features of quit success should be included in a comprehensive approach to elucidating the genetics of quit success, and how those features may be modeled in mice. PMID:22304675

  10. Factors influencing QTL mapping accuracy under complicated genetic models by computer simulation.

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    Su, C F; Wang, W; Gong, S L; Zuo, J H; Li, S J

    2016-12-19

    The accuracy of quantitative trait loci (QTLs) identified using different sample sizes and marker densities was evaluated in different genetic models. Model I assumed one additive QTL; Model II assumed three additive QTLs plus one pair of epistatic QTLs; and Model III assumed two additive QTLs with opposite genetic effects plus two pairs of epistatic QTLs. Recombinant inbred lines (RILs) (50-1500 samples) were simulated according to the Models to study the influence of different sample sizes under different genetic models on QTL mapping accuracy. RILs with 10-100 target chromosome markers were simulated according to Models I and II to evaluate the influence of marker density on QTL mapping accuracy. Different marker densities did not significantly influence accurate estimation of genetic effects with simple additive models, but influenced QTL mapping accuracy in the additive and epistatic models. The optimum marker density was approximately 20 markers when the recombination fraction between two adjacent markers was 0.056 in the additive and epistatic models. A sample size of 150 was sufficient for detecting simple additive QTLs. Thus, a sample size of approximately 450 is needed to detect QTLs with additive and epistatic models. Sample size must be approximately 750 to detect QTLs with additive, epistatic, and combined effects between QTLs. The sample size should be increased to >750 if the genetic models of the data set become more complicated than Model III. Our results provide a theoretical basis for marker-assisted selection breeding and molecular design breeding.

  11. Modelling the interactions among factors that influence successful computerisation of small business

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    Gerard Fogarty

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Small businesses face many problems if they are to survive the first five years of operation. The increasing complexity of information needed to run a business in the 21st Century has added another obstacle to what is already a tough course. Sooner or later, survivors are faced with the prospect of investing in computer based information systems (CBIS. Properly handled, the investment will improve the competitiveness of the company. Badly handled, the investment will handicap the company and perhaps even lead to its closure. Using survey methodology, the present study collected information from 171 small businesses that had purchased computer systems with a view to finding out what factors contribute to successful implementation of CBIS. The variables studied included background characteristics of the organization, background characteristics of the Chief Executive Officer, decision making processes, and a range of variables relating to the performance of the system itself. The outcome variable was user satisfaction. We developed and tested a CBIS implementation success model based on these variables. Results showed that although the performance of the system was the immediate determinant of satisfaction, the background variables had both direct and indirect (mediated effects on satisfaction. These findings emphasise the importance of going beyond the immediate surrounds of a computing environment if one wishes to explain the factors that influence CBIS success in small businesses.

  12. Factors influencing adherence to psychopharmacological medications in psychiatric patients: a structural equation modeling approach

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    De las Cuevas, Carlos; de Leon, Jose; Peñate, Wenceslao; Betancort, Moisés

    2017-01-01

    Purpose To evaluate pathways through which sociodemographic, clinical, attitudinal, and perceived health control variables impact psychiatric patients’ adherence to psychopharmacological medications. Method A sample of 966 consecutive psychiatric outpatients was studied. The variables were sociodemographic (age, gender, and education), clinical (diagnoses, drug treatment, and treatment duration), attitudinal (attitudes toward psychopharmacological medication and preferences regarding participation in decision-making), perception of control over health (health locus of control, self-efficacy, and psychological reactance), and level of adherence to psychopharmacological medications. Structural equation modeling was applied to examine the nonstraightforward relationships and the interactive effects among the analyzed variables. Results Structural equation modeling demonstrated that psychiatric patients’ treatment adherence was associated: 1) negatively with cognitive psychological reactance (adherence decreased as cognitive psychological reactance increased), 2) positively with patients’ trust in their psychiatrists (doctors’ subscale), 3) negatively with patients’ belief that they are in control of their mental health and that their mental health depends on their own actions (internal subscale), and 4) positively (although weakly) with age. Self-efficacy indirectly influenced treatment adherence through internal health locus of control. Conclusion This study provides support for the hypothesis that perceived health control variables play a relevant role in psychiatric patients’ adherence to psychopharmacological medications. The findings highlight the importance of considering prospective studies of patients’ psychological reactance and health locus of control as they may be clinically relevant factors contributing to adherence to psychopharmacological medications.

  13. Modeling factors influencing the demand for emergency department services in ontario: a comparison of methods

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    Meaney Christopher

    2011-08-01

    investigating predictors of increased emergency department utilization. Six different multiple regression models for count data were fitted to assess the influence of predictors on demand for emergency department services, including: Poisson, Negative Binomial, Zero-Inflated Poisson, Zero-Inflated Negative Binomial, Hurdle Poisson, and Hurdle Negative Binomial. Comparison of competing models was assessed by the Vuong test statistic. Results The CCHS cycle 2.1 respondents were a roughly equal mix of males (50.4% and females (49.6%. The majority (86.2% were young-middle aged adults between the ages of 20-64, living in predominantly urban environments (85.9%, with mid-high household incomes (92.2% and well-educated, receiving at least a high-school diploma (84.1%. Many participants reported no chronic disease (51.9%, fell into a small number (0-5 of ambulatory diagnostic groups (62.3%, and perceived their health status as good/excellent (88.1%; however, were projected to have high Resource Utilization Band levels of health resource utilization (68.2%. These factors were largely stable for CCHS cycle 3.1 respondents. Factors influencing demand for emergency department services varied according to the severity of triage scores at initial presentation. For example, although a non-significant predictor of the odds of emergency department utilization in high severity cases, access to a primary care physician was a statistically significant predictor of the likelihood of emergency department utilization (OR: 0.69; 95% CI OR: 0.63-0.75 and the rate of emergency department utilization (RR: 0.57; 95% CI RR: 0.50-0.66 in low severity cases. Conclusion Using a theoretically appropriate hurdle negative binomial regression model this unique study illustrates that access to a primary care physician is an important predictor of both the odds and rate of emergency department utilization in Ontario. Restructuring primary care services, with aims of increasing access to undersupplied populations

  14. Structural Analysis of the Factors Influencing the Financing of Forestry Enterprises Based on Interpretive Structural Modeling(ISM)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhen; WANG; Weiping; LIU; Xiaomin; JIANG

    2015-01-01

    Through the collection of related literature,we point out the six major factors influencing China’s forestry enterprises’ financing: insufficient national support; regulations and institutional environmental factors; narrow channels of financing; inappropriate existing mortgagebacked approach; forestry production characteristics; forestry enterprises’ defects. Then,we use interpretive structural modeling( ISM) from System Engineering to analyze the structure of the six factors and set up ladder-type structure. We put three factors including forestry production characteristics,shortcomings of forestry enterprises and regulatory,institutional and environmental factors as basic factors and put other three factors as important factors. From the perspective of the government and enterprises,we put forward some personal advices and ideas based on the basic factors and important factors to ease the financing difficulties of forestry enterprises.

  15. Factors Influencing Adoption of Information Technology Infrastructure Library: Utilizing the Technology Acceptance Model (TAM)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, Din S. Z.

    2013-01-01

    There is a shortage of evidence based research that provides organizations with the necessary information in support of their technology adoption decisions in relation to ITSM technologies. As such, this research study attempted to bridge the gap by offering insight on possible factors that could influence such decisions. An examination of…

  16. Factors Influencing Adoption of Information Technology Infrastructure Library: Utilizing the Technology Acceptance Model (TAM)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, Din S. Z.

    2013-01-01

    There is a shortage of evidence based research that provides organizations with the necessary information in support of their technology adoption decisions in relation to ITSM technologies. As such, this research study attempted to bridge the gap by offering insight on possible factors that could influence such decisions. An examination of…

  17. Impact of DEM Resolution and Spatial Scale: Analysis of Influence Factors and Parameters on Physically Based Distributed Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanchen Zhang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Physically based distributed hydrological models were used to describe small-scale hydrological information in detail. However, the sensitivity of the model to spatially varied parameters and inputs limits the accuracy for application. In this paper, relevant influence factors and sensitive parameters were analyzed to solve this problem. First, a set of digital elevation model (DEM resolutions and channel thresholds were generated to extract the hydrological influence factors. Second, a numerical relationship between sensitive parameters and influence factors was established to define parameters reasonably. Next, the topographic index (TI was computed to study the similarity. At last, simulation results were analyzed in two different ways: (1 to observe the change regularity of influence factors and sensitive parameters through the variation of DEM resolutions and channel thresholds and (2 to compare the simulation accuracy of the nested catchment, particularly in the subcatchments and interior grids. Increasing the grid size from 250 m to 1000 m, the TI increased from 9.08 to 11.16 and the Nash-Sutcliffe efficiency (NSE decreased from 0.77 to 0.75. Utilizing the parameters calculated by the established relationship, the simulation results show the same NSE in the outlet and a better NSE in the simple subcatchment than the calculated interior grids.

  18. Which psychological factors influence Internet addiction? Evidence through an integrative model

    OpenAIRE

    Burnay, Jonathan; Billieux, Joël; Blairy, Sylvie; Laroi, Frank

    2015-01-01

    Since the appearance of Internet, several preoccupations have appeared as a result, with Internet addiction being one of the most common. The goals of the present study were two-fold. First, to examine which psychological factors are relevant to explain Internet addiction, including impulsivity, passion and social provision. Second, to incorporate all these factors into an integrative model. Based on multiple regressions and path analysis, results revealed a positive relation between Internet...

  19. Choice Model and Influencing Factor Analysis of Travel Mode for Migrant Workers: Case Study in Xi’an, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong Chen

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Based on the basic theory and methods of disaggregate choice model, the influencing factors in travel mode choice for migrant workers are analyzed, according to 1366 data samples of Xi’an migrant workers. Walking, bus, subway, and taxi are taken as the alternative parts of travel modes for migrant workers, and a multinomial logit (MNL model of travel mode for migrant workers is set up. The validity of the model is verified by the hit rate, and the hit rates of four travel modes are all greater than 80%. Finally, the influence of different factors affecting the choice of travel mode is analyzed in detail, and the inelasticity of each factor is analyzed with the elasticity theory. Influencing factors such as age, education level, and monthly gross income have significant impact on travel choice mode for migrant workers. The elasticity values of education degree are greater than 1, indicating that it on the travel mode choice is of elasticity, while the elasticity values of gender, industry distribution, and travel purpose are less than 1, indicating that these factors on travel mode choice are of inelasticity.

  20. Markov model of the loan portfolio dynamics considering influence of management and external economic factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bozhalkina, Yana; Timofeeva, Galina

    2016-12-01

    Mathematical model of loan portfolio in the form of a controlled Markov chain with discrete time is considered. It is assumed that coefficients of migration matrix depend on corrective actions and external factors. Corrective actions include process of receiving applications, interaction with existing solvent and insolvent clients. External factors are macroeconomic indicators, such as inflation and unemployment rates, exchange rates, consumer price indices, etc. Changes in corrective actions adjust the intensity of transitions in the migration matrix. The mathematical model for forecasting the credit portfolio structure taking into account a cumulative impact of internal and external changes is obtained.

  1. [Analysis of dietary pattern and diabetes mellitus influencing factors identified by classification tree model in adults of Fujian].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, F L; Ye, Y; Yan, Y S

    2017-05-10

    Objective: To find out the dietary patterns and explore the relationship between environmental factors (especially dietary patterns) and diabetes mellitus in the adults of Fujian. Methods: Multi-stage sampling method were used to survey residents aged ≥18 years by questionnaire, physical examination and laboratory detection in 10 disease surveillance points in Fujian. Factor analysis was used to identify the dietary patterns, while logistic regression model was applied to analyze relationship between dietary patterns and diabetes mellitus, and classification tree model was adopted to identify the influencing factors for diabetes mellitus. Results: There were four dietary patterns in the population, including meat, plant, high-quality protein, and fried food and beverages patterns. The result of logistic analysis showed that plant pattern, which has higher factor loading of fresh fruit-vegetables and cereal-tubers, was a protective factor for non-diabetes mellitus. The risk of diabetes mellitus in the population at T2 and T3 levels of factor score were 0.727 (95%CI:0.561-0.943) times and 0.736 (95%CI: 0.573-0.944) times higher, respectively, than those whose factor score was in lowest quartile. Thirteen influencing factors and eleven group at high-risk for diabetes mellitus were identified by classification tree model. The influencing factors were dyslipidemia, age, family history of diabetes, hypertension, physical activity, career, sex, sedentary time, abdominal adiposity, BMI, marital status, sleep time and high-quality protein pattern. Conclusion: There is a close association between dietary patterns and diabetes mellitus. It is necessary to promote healthy and reasonable diet, strengthen the monitoring and control of blood lipids, blood pressure and body weight, and have good lifestyle for the prevention and control of diabetes mellitus.

  2. Use of linear regression models to determine influence factors on the concentration levels of radon in occupied houses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buermeyer, Jonas; Gundlach, Matthias; Grund, Anna-Lisa; Grimm, Volker; Spizyn, Alexander; Breckow, Joachim

    2016-09-01

    This work is part of the analysis of the effects of constructional energy-saving measures to radon concentration levels in dwellings performed on behalf of the German Federal Office for Radiation Protection. In parallel to radon measurements for five buildings, both meteorological data outside the buildings and the indoor climate factors were recorded. In order to access effects of inhabited buildings, the amount of carbon dioxide (CO2) was measured. For a statistical linear regression model, the data of one object was chosen as an example. Three dummy variables were extracted from the process of the CO2 concentration to provide information on the usage and ventilation of the room. The analysis revealed a highly autoregressive model for the radon concentration with additional influence by the natural environmental factors. The autoregression implies a strong dependency on a radon source since it reflects a backward dependency in time. At this point of the investigation, it cannot be determined whether the influence by outside factors affects the source of radon or the habitant’s ventilation behavior resulting in variation of the occurring concentration levels. In any case, the regression analysis might provide further information that would help to distinguish these effects. In the next step, the influence factors will be weighted according to their impact on the concentration levels. This might lead to a model that enables the prediction of radon concentration levels based on the measurement of CO2 in combination with environmental parameters, as well as the development of advices for ventilation.

  3. A Model of Consumer Response to Over-the-Counter Drug Advertising: Antecedents and Influencing Factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huh, Jisu; Delorme, Denise E; Reid, Leonard N

    2016-01-01

    Given the importance of over-the-counter (OTC) drugs in the health care marketplace and lack of systematic research on OTC drug advertising (OTCA) effects, this study tested a theory-based, product category-specific OTCA effects model. Structural equation modeling analysis of data for 1 OTC drug category, analgesics, supported the proposed model, explaining the OTCA effect process from key consumer antecedents to ad involvement, from ad involvement to ad attention, from ad attention to cognitive responses, then to affective/evaluative responses, leading to the final behavioral outcome. Several noteworthy patterns also emerged: (a) Product involvement was directly linked to ad attention, rather than exerting an indirect influence through ad involvement; (b) ad attention was significantly related to both cognitive and affective/evaluative responses to different degrees, with stronger links to cognitive responses; and

  4. Analysis of causal relationships by structural equation modeling to determine the factors influencing cognitive function in elderly people in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimura, Daisuke; Nakatani, Ken; Takeda, Tokunori; Fujita, Takashi; Sunahara, Nobuyuki; Inoue, Katsumi; Notoya, Masako

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to identify a potentiality factor that is a preventive factor for decline in cognitive function. Additionally, this study pursues to clarify the causal relationship between the each potential factor and its influence on cognitive function. Subjects were 366 elderly community residents (mean age 73.7 ± 6.4, male 51, female 315) who participated in the Taketoyo Project from 2007 to 2011. Factor analysis was conducted to identify groupings within mental, social, life, physical and cognitive functions. In order to detect clusters of 14 variables, the item scores were subjected to confirmatory factor analysis. We performed Structural Equation Modeling analysis to calculate the standardization coefficient and correlation coefficient for every factor. The cause and effect hypothesis model was used to gather two intervention theory hypotheses for dementia prevention (direct effect, indirect effect) in one system. Finally, we performed another Structural Equation Modeling analysis to calculate the standardization of the cause and effect hypothesis model. Social participation was found to be activated by the improvement of four factors, and in turn, activated "Social participation" acted on cognitive function.

  5. Models of Anaylzing the Influence of Factors on Forming Profit Rate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klara S. Jakovčević

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The analysis in this paper is focused on identifying the impact of individual factors on the elements of the profit rate. The primary aim of this work is a methodological overview of solutions for understanding the full content of the profit rate as a cause of economic quality as well as indicators of the results of reproduction. Application of model analysis of profit rate factors was performed in an enterprise from Serbia that manufactures construction materials from baked clay. The aim is of application is to test the range in determining elements and factors of economic success of the enterprise, and quantification of changes in its assumptions. The results are useful guideline for the management to take organizational measures to increase the economic success of the enterprise. This means eliminating the negative, emphasizing the positive impact of objectively, and organizational factors to make higher economic success. Based on empirical research, it could be concluded that the proposed quantitative models of analyzing the dynamics of enterprise business quality could be applied in practice.

  6. Impairment-Factor-Based Audiovisual Quality Model for IPTV: Influence of Video Resolution, Degradation Type, and Content Type

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Garcia MN

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an audiovisual quality model for IPTV services. The model estimates the audiovisual quality of standard and high definition video as perceived by the user. The model is developed for applications such as network planning and packet-layer quality monitoring. It mainly covers audio and video compression artifacts and impairments due to packet loss. The quality tests conducted for model development demonstrate a mutual influence of the perceived audio and video quality, and the predominance of the video quality for the overall audiovisual quality. The balance between audio quality and video quality, however, depends on the content, the video format, and the audio degradation type. The proposed model is based on impairment factors which quantify the quality-impact of the different degradations. The impairment factors are computed from parameters extracted from the bitstream or packet headers. For high definition video, the model predictions show a correlation with unknown subjective ratings of 95%. For comparison, we have developed a more classical audiovisual quality model which is based on the audio and video qualities and their interaction. Both quality- and impairment-factor-based models are further refined by taking the content-type into account. At last, the different model variants are compared with modeling approaches described in the literature.

  7. Factors influencing separation distances against odour annoyance calculated by Gaussian and Lagrangian dispersion models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piringer, Martin; Knauder, Werner; Petz, Erwin; Schauberger, Günther

    2016-09-01

    Direction-dependent separation distances to avoid odour annoyance, calculated with the Gaussian Austrian Odour Dispersion Model AODM and the Lagrangian particle diffusion model LASAT at two sites, are analysed and compared. The relevant short-term peak odour concentrations are calculated with a stability-dependent peak-to-mean algorithm. The same emission and meteorological data, but model-specific atmospheric stability classes are used. The estimate of atmospheric stability is obtained from three-axis ultrasonic anemometers using the standard deviations of the three wind components and the Obukhov stability parameter. The results are demonstrated for the Austrian villages Reidling and Weissbach with very different topographical surroundings and meteorological conditions. Both the differences in the wind and stability regimes as well as the decrease of the peak-to-mean factors with distance lead to deviations in the separation distances between the two sites. The Lagrangian model, due to its model physics, generally calculates larger separation distances. For worst-case calculations necessary with environmental impact assessment studies, the use of a Lagrangian model is therefore to be preferred over that of a Gaussian model. The study and findings relate to the Austrian odour impact criteria.

  8. PD98059 Influences Immune Factors and Enhances Opioid Analgesia in Model of Neuropathy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ewelina Rojewska

    Full Text Available Neuropathic pain treatment remains challenging due to ineffective therapy and resistance to opioid analgesia. Mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase (MAPKK have been identified as the crucial regulators of pro- and antinociceptive factors. We used PD98059, an inhibitor of the MAPKK family members MEK1/2. The aim of study was to examine the influence of single and/or repeated PD98059 on nociception and opioid effectiveness in neuropathy. Moreover, we examined how PD98059 influences selected members of cellular pathways and cytokines. The PD98059 (2.5 mcg was intrathecally preemptively administered before chronic constriction injury (CCI, and then once daily for 7 days. Additionally, at day 7 after CCI the PD98059-treated rats received a single injection of opioids. Using Western blot and qRT-PCR techniques in PD98059-treated rats we analyzed the mRNA and/or protein level of p38, ERK1/2, JNK, NF-kappaB, IL-1beta, IL-6, iNOS and IL-10 in the lumbar spinal cord. Our results indicate that PD98059 has an analgesic effects and potentiates morphine and/or buprenorphine analgesia. Parallel we observed that PD98059 inhibit upregulation of the CCI-elevated p38, ERK1/2, JNK and NF-kappaB protein levels. Moreover, PD98059 also prevented increase of pro- (IL-1beta, IL-6, and iNOS but enhances anti-nociceptive (IL-10 factors. Summing up, PD98059 diminished pain and increased the effectiveness of opioids in neuropathy. The inhibition of MEKs might inactivate a variety of cell signaling pathways that are implicated in nociception.

  9. PD98059 Influences Immune Factors and Enhances Opioid Analgesia in Model of Neuropathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rojewska, Ewelina; Popiolek-Barczyk, Katarzyna; Kolosowska, Natalia; Piotrowska, Anna; Zychowska, Magdalena; Makuch, Wioletta; Przewlocka, Barbara; Mika, Joanna

    2015-01-01

    Neuropathic pain treatment remains challenging due to ineffective therapy and resistance to opioid analgesia. Mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase (MAPKK) have been identified as the crucial regulators of pro- and antinociceptive factors. We used PD98059, an inhibitor of the MAPKK family members MEK1/2. The aim of study was to examine the influence of single and/or repeated PD98059 on nociception and opioid effectiveness in neuropathy. Moreover, we examined how PD98059 influences selected members of cellular pathways and cytokines. The PD98059 (2.5 mcg) was intrathecally preemptively administered before chronic constriction injury (CCI), and then once daily for 7 days. Additionally, at day 7 after CCI the PD98059-treated rats received a single injection of opioids. Using Western blot and qRT-PCR techniques in PD98059-treated rats we analyzed the mRNA and/or protein level of p38, ERK1/2, JNK, NF-kappaB, IL-1beta, IL-6, iNOS and IL-10 in the lumbar spinal cord. Our results indicate that PD98059 has an analgesic effects and potentiates morphine and/or buprenorphine analgesia. Parallel we observed that PD98059 inhibit upregulation of the CCI-elevated p38, ERK1/2, JNK and NF-kappaB protein levels. Moreover, PD98059 also prevented increase of pro- (IL-1beta, IL-6, and iNOS) but enhances anti-nociceptive (IL-10) factors. Summing up, PD98059 diminished pain and increased the effectiveness of opioids in neuropathy. The inhibition of MEKs might inactivate a variety of cell signaling pathways that are implicated in nociception.

  10. PD98059 Influences Immune Factors and Enhances Opioid Analgesia in Model of Neuropathy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rojewska, Ewelina; Popiolek-Barczyk, Katarzyna; Kolosowska, Natalia; Piotrowska, Anna; Zychowska, Magdalena; Makuch, Wioletta; Przewlocka, Barbara; Mika, Joanna

    2015-01-01

    Neuropathic pain treatment remains challenging due to ineffective therapy and resistance to opioid analgesia. Mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase (MAPKK) have been identified as the crucial regulators of pro- and antinociceptive factors. We used PD98059, an inhibitor of the MAPKK family members MEK1/2. The aim of study was to examine the influence of single and/or repeated PD98059 on nociception and opioid effectiveness in neuropathy. Moreover, we examined how PD98059 influences selected members of cellular pathways and cytokines. The PD98059 (2.5 mcg) was intrathecally preemptively administered before chronic constriction injury (CCI), and then once daily for 7 days. Additionally, at day 7 after CCI the PD98059-treated rats received a single injection of opioids. Using Western blot and qRT-PCR techniques in PD98059-treated rats we analyzed the mRNA and/or protein level of p38, ERK1/2, JNK, NF-kappaB, IL-1beta, IL-6, iNOS and IL-10 in the lumbar spinal cord. Our results indicate that PD98059 has an analgesic effects and potentiates morphine and/or buprenorphine analgesia. Parallel we observed that PD98059 inhibit upregulation of the CCI-elevated p38, ERK1/2, JNK and NF-kappaB protein levels. Moreover, PD98059 also prevented increase of pro- (IL-1beta, IL-6, and iNOS) but enhances anti-nociceptive (IL-10) factors. Summing up, PD98059 diminished pain and increased the effectiveness of opioids in neuropathy. The inhibition of MEKs might inactivate a variety of cell signaling pathways that are implicated in nociception. PMID:26426693

  11. Macro-economic factors influencing the architectural business model shift in the pharmaceutical industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dierks, Raphaela Marie Louisa; Bruyère, Olivier; Reginster, Jean-Yves; Richy, Florent-Frederic

    2016-10-01

    Technological innovations, new regulations, increasing costs of drug productions and new demands are only few key drivers of a projected alternation in the pharmaceutical industry. The purpose of this review is to understand the macro economic factors responsible for the business model revolution to possess a competitive advantage over market players. Areas covered: Existing literature on macro-economic factors changing the pharmaceutical landscape has been reviewed to present a clear image of the current market environment. Expert commentary: Literature shows that pharmaceutical companies are facing an architectural alteration, however the evidence on the rationale driving the transformation is outstanding. Merger & Acquisitions (M&A) deals and collaborations are headlining the papers. Q1 2016 did show a major slowdown in M&A deals by volume since 2013 (with deal cancellations of Pfizer and Allergan, or the downfall of Valeant), but pharmaceutical analysts remain confident that this shortfall was a consequence of the equity market volatility. It seems likely that the shift to an M&A model will become apparent during the remainder of 2016, with deal announcements of Abbott Laboratories, AbbVie and Sanofi worth USD 45billion showing the appetite of big pharma companies to shift from the fully vertical integrated business model to more horizontal business models.

  12. Factors influencing voluntary premarital medical examination in Zhejiang province, China: a culturally-tailored health behavioral model analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Premarital medical examination (PME) compliance rate has dropped drastically since it became voluntary in China in 2003. This study aimed to establish a prediction model to be a theoretic framework for analyzing factors affecting PME compliance in Zhejiang province, China. Methods A culturally-tailored health behavioral model combining the Health Behavioral Model (HBM) and the Theory of Reasoned Action (TRA) was established to analyze the data from a cross-sectional questionnaire survey (n = 2,572) using the intercept method at the county marriage registration office in 12 counties from Zhejiang in 2010. Participants were grouped by high (n = 1,795) and low (n = 777) social desirability responding tendency (SDRT) by Marlowe-Crowne Social Desirability Scale (MCSDS). A structural equation modeling (SEM) was conducted to evaluate behavioral determinants for their influences on PME compliance in both high and low SDRT groups. Results 69.8% of the participants had high SDRT and tended to overly report benefits and underreport barriers, which may affect prediction accuracy on PME participation. In the low SDRT group, the prediction model showed the most influencing factor on PME compliance was behavioral intention, with standardized structural coefficients (SSCs) being 0.75 (P social environmental factors. The verified prediction model was tested to be an effective theoretic framework for the prediction of factors affecting voluntary PME compliance. It also should be noted that internationally available behavioral theories and models need to be culturally tailored to adapt to particular populations. This study has provided new insights for establishing a theoretical model to understand health behaviors in China. PMID:24972866

  13. Structural equation model to investigate the factors influencing quality performance in Indian construction projects

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    S Shanmugapriya; K Subramanian

    2015-09-01

    Indian construction industry has seen remarkable growth and it is an integral part of the economy with massive foreign investments which demands quality construction. The pressure to reduce time and cost of construction increases the risk on the part of stakeholders with respect to quality and safety of the construction. The problem is serious and dangerous in developing countries like India which requires focus and attention for sustained growth in construction sector. This research reports on the adoption and development of structural equation model to study the fundamental relationship between five enablers of European Foundation for quality management (EFQM) framework to improve the quality performance in Indian construction projects. Data collected from clients, contractors and consultants of Indian construction industry through questionnaire survey was used to analyze the conceptual framework using smart PLS software. The conceptual model in this research includes eight hypotheses and T-statistics values is used for checking the significance of the hypothesis. The findings of the study revealed that leadership factor has strongest total effect on people factor (Path coefficient = 0.77) and process factor has strongest effect in achieving the goals of quality performance improvement in construction projects (Path coefficient = 0.7). The results indicate that Indian construction organizations must give top priority to leadership and process related problems in various phases of the project to result in continuous improvement in quality performance.

  14. Factors influencing protein tyrosine nitration – structure-based predictive models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayden, Alexander S.; Yakovlev, Vasily A.; Graves, Paul R.; Mikkelsen, Ross B.; Kellogg, Glen E.

    2010-01-01

    Models for exploring tyrosine nitration in proteins have been created based on 3D structural features of 20 proteins for which high resolution X-ray crystallographic or NMR data are available and for which nitration of 35 total tyrosines has been experimentally proven under oxidative stress. Factors suggested in previous work to enhance nitration were examined with quantitative structural descriptors. The role of neighboring acidic and basic residues is complex: for the majority of tyrosines that are nitrated the distance to the heteroatom of the closest charged sidechain corresponds to the distance needed for suspected nitrating species to form hydrogen bond bridges between the tyrosine and that charged amino acid. This suggests that such bridges play a very important role in tyrosine nitration. Nitration is generally hindered for tyrosines that are buried and for those tyrosines where there is insufficient space for the nitro group. For in vitro nitration, closed environments with nearby heteroatoms or unsaturated centers that can stabilize radicals are somewhat favored. Four quantitative structure-based models, depending on the conditions of nitration, have been developed for predicting site-specific tyrosine nitration. The best model, relevant for both in vitro and in vivo cases predicts 30 of 35 tyrosine nitrations (positive predictive value) and has a sensitivity of 60/71 (11 false positives). PMID:21172423

  15. A Structural Equation Model (SEM of Governing Factors Influencing the Implementation of T-Government

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sameer Alshetewi

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Governments around the world have invested significant sums of money on Information and Communication Technology (ICT to improve the efficiency and effectiveness of services been provided to their citizens. However, they have not achieved the desired results because of the lack of interoperability between different government entities. Therefore, many governments have started shifting away from the original concept of e-Government towards a much more transformational approach that encompasses the entire relationship between different government departments and users of public services, which can be termed as transformational government (t- Government. In this paper, a model is proposed for governing factors that impact the implementation of t-Government such as strategy, leadership, stakeholders, citizen centricity and funding in the context of Saudi Arabia. Five constructs are hypothesised to be related to the implementation of t-Government. To clarify the relationships among these constructs, a structural equation model (SEM is utilised to examine the model fit with the five hypotheses. The results show that there are positive and significant relationships among the constructs such as the relationships between strategy and t-Government; the relationships between stakeholders and t-Government; the relationships between leadership and t-Government. This study also showed an insignificant relationship between citizens’ centricity and t-Government and also an insignificant relationship between funding and t-Government. document is a “live” template and already defines the components of your paper [title, text, heads, etc.] in its style sheet.

  16. Modeling the influence of local environmental factors on malaria transmission in Benin and its implications for cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cottrell, Gilles; Kouwaye, Bienvenue; Pierrat, Charlotte; le Port, Agnès; Bouraïma, Aziz; Fonton, Noël; Hounkonnou, Mahouton Norbert; Massougbodji, Achille; Corbel, Vincent; Garcia, André

    2012-01-01

    Malaria remains endemic in tropical areas, especially in Africa. For the evaluation of new tools and to further our understanding of host-parasite interactions, knowing the environmental risk of transmission--even at a very local scale--is essential. The aim of this study was to assess how malaria transmission is influenced and can be predicted by local climatic and environmental factors.As the entomological part of a cohort study of 650 newborn babies in nine villages in the Tori Bossito district of Southern Benin between June 2007 and February 2010, human landing catches were performed to assess the density of malaria vectors and transmission intensity. Climatic factors as well as household characteristics were recorded throughout the study. Statistical correlations between Anopheles density and environmental and climatic factors were tested using a three-level Poisson mixed regression model. The results showed both temporal variations in vector density (related to season and rainfall), and spatial variations at the level of both village and house. These spatial variations could be largely explained by factors associated with the house's immediate surroundings, namely soil type, vegetation index and the proximity of a watercourse. Based on these results, a predictive regression model was developed using a leave-one-out method, to predict the spatiotemporal variability of malaria transmission in the nine villages.This study points up the importance of local environmental factors in malaria transmission and describes a model to predict the transmission risk of individual children, based on environmental and behavioral characteristics.

  17. Reduction of Influence Factors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Regtien, Paulus P.L.; Sydenham, Peter H.; Thorn, Richard

    Any measurement system has imperfections and any act of measurement is liable to errors. Measurement errors either originate from system deficiencies (for instance system noise, quantization, and drift), or are due to environmental influences such as thermal, electromagnetic, and mechanical

  18. Modeling and Finite Element Analysis of Load-Carrying Performance of a Wind Turbine Considering the Influence of Assembly Factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianmei Wang

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available In this work, a wind turbine shrink disk is used as the research object to investigate load-carrying performance of a multi-layer interference fit, and the theoretical model and finite element model are constructed. According to those models, a MW-level turbine shrink disk is designed, and a test device is developed to apply torque to this turbine shrink disk by hydraulic jack. Then, the circumferential slip between the contact surfaces is monitored and the slip of all contact surfaces is zero. This conclusion verifies the reasonability of the proposed models. The effect of the key influencing factors, such as machining deviation, assembly clearance and propel stroke, were analyzed. The contact pressure and load torque of the mating surfaces were obtained by building typical models with different parameters using finite element analysis (FEA. The results show that the minimum assembly clearance and the machining deviation within the machining range have little influence on load-carrying performance of multi-layer interference fit, while having a greater influence on the maximum assembly clearance and the propel stroke. The results also show that the load-carrying performance of a multiple-layer interference fit can be ensured only if the key factors are set within a reasonable design range. To avoid the abnormal operation of equipment caused by insufficient load torque, the propel stroke during practical assembly should be at least 0.95 times the designed propel stroke, which is significant in guiding the design and assembly of the multi-layer interference fit.

  19. Modeling Factors that Influence Firm Performance in the Eastern Hardwood Lumber Manufacturing Industry

    OpenAIRE

    Perkins, Brian

    2009-01-01

    This research investigated the relationship between several firm-controlled, marketing and management factors and firm performance. Hypotheses describing the relationship between the strategic, geographic, tactical, technological and organizational factors and firm performance of hardwood lumber manufacturers were tested. These factors were operationalized, measured in a mail survey and used in statistical analysis to identify relationships among the variables. An adjusted response rate of...

  20. Phonological Awareness: Factors of Influence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frohlich, Linda Paulina; Petermann, Franz; Metz, Dorothee

    2013-01-01

    Early child development is influenced by various genetic and environmental factors. This study aims to identify factors that affect the phonological awareness of preschool and first grade children. Based on a sample of 330 German-speaking children (mean age = 6.2 years) the following domains were evaluated: Parent factors, birth and pregnancy,…

  1. Factors influencing adoption of farm management practices in three agrobiodiversity hotspots in India: an analysis using the Count Data Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prabhakaran T. Raghu

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Sustainable agricultural practices require, among other factors, adoption of improved nutrient management techniques, pest mitigation technology and soil conservation measures. Such improved management practices can be tools for enhancing crop productivity. Data on micro-level farm management practices from developing countries is either scarce or unavailable, despite the importance of their policy implications with regard to resource allocation. The present study investigates adoption of some farm management practices and factors influencing the adoption behavior of farm households in three agrobiodiversity hotspots in India: Kundra block in the Koraput district of Odisha, Meenangadi panchayat in the Wayanad district of Kerala and Kolli Hills in the Namakkal district of Tamil Nadu. Information on farm management practices was collected from November 2011 to February 2012 from 3845 households, of which the data from 2726 farm households was used for analysis. The three most popular farm management practices adopted by farmers include: application of chemical fertilizers, farm yard manure and green manure for managing nutrients; application of chemical pesticides, inter-cropping and mixed cropping for mitigating pests; and contour bunds, grass bunds and trenches for soil conservation. A Negative Binomial count data regression model was used to estimate factors influencing decision-making by farmers on farm management practices. The regression results indicate that farmers who received information from agricultural extension are statistically significant and positively related to the adoption of farm management practices. Another key finding shows the negative relationship between cultivation of local varieties and adoption of farm management practices.

  2. Factors influencing behavior and transferability of habitat models for a benthic stream fish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kevin N. Leftwich; Paul L. Angermeier; C. Andrew Dolloff

    1997-01-01

    The authors examined the predictive power and transferability of habitat-based models by comparing associations of tangerine darter Percina aurantiaca and stream habitat at local and regional scales in North Fork Holston River (NFHR) and Little River, VA. The models correctly predicted the presence or absence of tangerine darters in NFHR for 64 percent (local model)...

  3. Modelling nutrient concentration to determine the environmental factors influencing grass quality

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Dudeni-Tlhone, N

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper uses the spatial and the least squares (Analysis of Covariance-ANCOVA) regression methods to evaluate the important environmental factors in estimating quality grass for grazing (based on the nitrogen (N) content in grass...

  4. Factors influencing the renal arterial Doppler waveform: a simulation study using an electrical circuit model (secondary publication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chang Kyu Sung

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The goal of this study was to evaluate the effect of vascular compliance, resistance, and pulse rate on the resistive index (RI by using an electrical circuit model to simulate renal blood flow. Methods: In order to analyze the renal arterial Doppler waveform, we modeled the renal blood-flow circuit with an equivalent simple electrical circuit containing resistance, inductance, and capacitance. The relationships among the impedance, resistance, and compliance of the circuit were derived from well-known equations, including Kirchhoff’s current law for alternating current circuits. Simulated velocity-time profiles for pulsatile flow were generated using Mathematica (Wolfram Research and the influence of resistance, compliance, and pulse rate on waveforms and the RI was evaluated. Results: Resistance and compliance were found to alter the waveforms independently. The impedance of the circuit increased with increasing proximal compliance, proximal resistance, and distal resistance. The impedance decreased with increasing distal compliance. The RI of the circuit decreased with increasing proximal compliance and resistance. The RI increased with increasing distal compliance and resistance. No positive correlation between impedance and the RI was found. Pulse rate was found to be an extrinsic factor that also influenced the RI. Conclusion: This simulation study using an electrical circuit model led to a better understanding of the renal arterial Doppler waveform and the RI, which may be useful for interpreting Doppler findings in various clinical settings.

  5. Factors influencing the renal arterial Doppler waveform: a simulation study using an electrical circuit model (secondary publication)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sung, Chang Kyu [Dept. of Radiology, SMG-SNU Boramae Medical Center, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Han, Bong Soo [Dept. of Radiological Science, College of Health Science, Yonsei University, Wonju (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Seung Hyup [Dept. of Radiology, Institute of Radiation Medicine, Seoul National University Hospital, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-01-15

    The goal of this study was to evaluate the effect of vascular compliance, resistance, and pulse rate on the resistive index (RI) by using an electrical circuit model to simulate renal blood flow. In order to analyze the renal arterial Doppler waveform, we modeled the renal blood-flow circuit with an equivalent simple electrical circuit containing resistance, inductance, and capacitance. The relationships among the impedance, resistance, and compliance of the circuit were derived from well-known equations, including Kirchhoff’s current law for alternating current circuits. Simulated velocity-time profiles for pulsatile flow were generated using Mathematica (Wolfram Research) and the influence of resistance, compliance, and pulse rate on waveforms and the RI was evaluated. Resistance and compliance were found to alter the waveforms independently. The impedance of the circuit increased with increasing proximal compliance, proximal resistance, and distal resistance. The impedance decreased with increasing distal compliance. The RI of the circuit decreased with increasing proximal compliance and resistance. The RI increased with increasing distal compliance and resistance. No positive correlation between impedance and the RI was found. Pulse rate was found to be an extrinsic factor that also influenced the RI. This simulation study using an electrical circuit model led to a better understanding of the renal arterial Doppler waveform and the RI, which may be useful for interpreting Doppler findings in various clinical settings.

  6. [Factors influencing long-term survival in patients with nonoperable lung cancer: an analysis by Cox model].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, W; Zhao, W; Sun, L

    1996-09-01

    This paper reports a prospective survey of 173 patients with nonoperable lung cancer between January. 1, 1983 to March. 1, 1985. The follow-up rate was 97.7% over five years. Fourteen factors including sex, age, course of disease before treatment, clinical stage, performance status, size of mass, metastatic status, hemoglobin before treatment, short-term response to treatment and so on which might influence long term survival were studied by univariate analysis (Kruskal-Wallis test for Kaplan-Meier survival curve) and by multivariate analysis (Cox's proportional hazad model and audio-visual chart test for goodness of fit). Multivariate analysis using Cox's model revealed 6 significant prognostic factors: performance status, short-term response to treatment, clinical stage, hemoglobin before treatment, smoking index and method of treatment. The survival prediction equation was chi 2 = 72.14, nu = 6, P < 0.0001. The results indicate that the performance status and the CR rate of the initial treatment, among other things, is the major factors affecting prognosis.

  7. How to introduce medical ethics at the bedside - Factors influencing the implementation of an ethical decision-making model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer-Zehnder, Barbara; Albisser Schleger, Heidi; Tanner, Sabine; Schnurrer, Valentin; Vogt, Deborah R; Reiter-Theil, Stella; Pargger, Hans

    2017-02-23

    As the implementation of new approaches and procedures of medical ethics is as complex and resource-consuming as in other fields, strategies and activities must be carefully planned to use the available means and funds responsibly. Which facilitators and barriers influence the implementation of a medical ethics decision-making model in daily routine? Up to now, there has been little examination of these factors in this field. A medical ethics decision-making model called METAP was introduced on three intensive care units and two geriatric wards. An evaluation study was performed from 7 months after deployment of the project until two and a half years. Quantitative and qualitative methods including a questionnaire, semi-structured face-to-face and group-interviews were used. Sixty-three participants from different professional groups took part in 33 face-to-face and 9 group interviews, and 122 questionnaires could be analysed. The facilitating factors most frequently mentioned were: acceptance and presence of the model, support given by the medical and nursing management, an existing or developing (explicit) ethics culture, perception of a need for a medical ethics decision-making model, and engaged staff members. Lack of presence and acceptance, insufficient time resources and staff, poor inter-professional collaboration, absence of ethical competence, and not recognizing ethical problems were identified as inhibiting the implementation of the METAP model. However, the results of the questionnaire as well as of explicit inquiry showed that the respondents stated to have had enough time and staff available to use METAP if necessary. Facilitators and barriers of the implementation of a medical ethics decision-making model are quite similar to that of medical guidelines. The planning for implementing an ethics model or guideline can, therefore, benefit from the extensive literature and experience concerning the implementation of medical guidelines. Lack of time and

  8. An improved car-following model considering influence of other factors on traffic jam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge, Hong-xia; Meng, Xiang-pei; Ma, Jian; Lo, Siu-ming

    2012-12-01

    In the Letter, a modified car-following model is presented, in which, the effects of vehicles (or non-motor vehicles) on other lanes without isolation belts are taken into account. The stability condition of the model is obtained by using the control theory method. To check the validity of the present theoretical scheme, the numerical simulation is carried out for the new car-following model, and the simulation result is consistent with the theoretical analysis.

  9. MODELLING OF THE RISK FACTORS AND CHRONIC DISEASESTHAT INFLUENCE THE DEVELOPMENT OF SERIOUS HEALTHCOMPLICATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maja Atanasijević-Kunc

    2008-08-01

    For a quantitative evaluation of the mentioned patient groups, the age distribution andan estimation of the treatment expenses a dynamic mathematical model was developed,where special attention was devoted to its structure, as it should enable the sequentialconstruction and representation of different forms of data information. The model wasrealized in the Matlab program package with the Simulink Toolbox.

  10. MODEL OF CHOICES, INSTITUTIONS AND DIRECT DEMOCRACY QUASI-ECONOMIC FACTORS OF THE INFLUENCE OF UNDERGROUND ECONOMY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Corneliu Sorin BAICU

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Research in recent decades has shown that an analysis of underground economy from the limiting perspective of economic factors of influence is insufficient. Through an integrative approach it is opened the way to a multidisciplinary and multi causal understanding of all factors (economic, noneconomic, quasi economic that influence the phenomenon of underground economy. The present work pleads for the analysis of the concept underground economy (multidimensional and composite through the instruments of study: the choices, institutions and direct democracy. The model of choices express the decision of labor force to activate on the official labor market or to the illegal labor market in the context given by opportunities, preferences and constraints. Institutions defines the capacity of regulation  and implementation of government policies with implications in stimulating or discouraging economic subjects to hide activities in the sphere of underground economy. Direct democracy through its institutions (referendums, legislative initiatives provides the political framework for the active involvement of the taxpayer as a voter or elector to a healthy and sustainable economic development. The results of active involvement of citizens consist in a more effective implementation of strategies and tax policies and a reduction of  incentives to escape in the sphere of economic informality.  

  11. Factors influencing healthy eating habits among college students: an application of the health belief model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deshpande, Sameer; Basil, Michael D; Basil, Debra Z

    2009-01-01

    Poor eating habits are an important public health issue that has large health and economic implications. Many food preferences are established early, but because people make more and more independent eating decisions as they move through adolescence, the transition to independent living during the university days is an important event. To study the phenomenon of food selection, the heath belief model was applied to predict the likelihood of healthy eating among university students. Structural equation modeling was used to investigate the validity of the health belief model (HBM) among 194 students, followed by gender-based analyses. The data strongly supported the HBM. Social change campaign implications are discussed.

  12. ENERGY EFFICIENCY. TRENDS AND INFLUENCE FACTORS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zizi GOSCHIN

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Energy efficiency is correlated with many factors of influence: Gross National Income per capita, energy imports (% of energy use, renewable combustible and waste (% of total, energy use per capita, services as % of GDP and others. In this paper we are testing a model of piecewise linear regression with breakpoint in order to measure the influence of these factors on the variation of GDP per unit of energy use in Europe in the year 2003.

  13. Investigation of Factors Influencing Turkey's PISA 2006 Science Achievement with Structural Equation Modelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anil, Duygu

    2011-01-01

    This study aims, in line with PISA (Programmes for International Students' Achievement Evaluation) 2006, at constructing a structural equation model between variables considered to be associated with 15 year old Turkish students' science achievement scores and their responses to students questionnaire. In this sense, this is a relational research…

  14. Child′s dental fear: Cause related factors and the influence of audiovisual modeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jayanthi Mungara

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Delivery of effective dental treatment to a child patient requires thorough knowledge to recognize dental fear and its management by the application of behavioral management techniques. Children′s Fear Survey Schedule - Dental Subscale (CFSS-DS helps in identification of specific stimuli which provoke fear in children with regard to dental situation. Audiovisual modeling can be successfully used in pediatric dental practice. Aim: To assess the degree of fear provoked by various stimuli in the dental office and to evaluate the effect of audiovisual modeling on dental fear of children using CFSS-DS. Materials and Methods: Ninety children were divided equally into experimental (group I and control (group II groups and were assessed in two visits for their degree of fear and the effect of audiovisual modeling, with the help of CFSS-DS. Results: The most fear-provoking stimulus for children was injection and the least was to open the mouth and having somebody look at them. There was no statistically significant difference in the overall mean CFSS-DS scores between the two groups during the initial session (P > 0.05. However, in the final session, a statistically significant difference was observed in the overall mean fear scores between the groups (P < 0.01. Significant improvement was seen in group I, while no significant change was noted in case of group II. Conclusion: Audiovisual modeling resulted in a significant reduction of overall fear as well as specific fear in relation to most of the items. A significant reduction of fear toward dentists, doctors in general, injections, being looked at, the sight, sounds, and act of the dentist drilling, and having the nurse clean their teeth was observed.

  15. Evaluation of factors influencing soluble microbial product in submerged MBR through hybrid ASM model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fangyue LI; Joachim BEHRENDT; Knut WICHMANN; Ralf OTTERPOHL

    2009-01-01

    In this study, a mathematical model was established to predict the formation of the soluble microbial product (SMP) in a submerged membrane bioreaetor. The developed model was calibrated under the reference condition. Simulation results were in good agreement with the measured results under the reference condition. The calibrated model was then used in the scenario studies to evaluate the effect of three chosen operating parameters: hydraulic retention time (HRT),dissolved oxygen concentration, and sludge retention time (SRT). Simulation results revealed that the SMP dominated the soluble organic substances in the supernatant. The scenario studies also revealed that the HRT can be decreased to 1 h without deteriorating the effluent quality; dissolved oxygen concentration in the reactor can be kept at 2-3 mg/L to maintain the effluent quality, reduce the content of SMP, and minimize operating costs; the optimal SRT can be controlled to 10-15 d to achieve complete nitrification process, less membrane fouling potential, and acceptable organic removal efficiency.

  16. Critical factors influencing physicians' intention to use computerized clinical practice guidelines: an integrative model of activity theory and the technology acceptance model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsiao, Ju-Ling; Chen, Rai-Fu

    2016-01-16

    With the widespread use of information communication technologies, computerized clinical practice guidelines are developed and considered as effective decision supporting tools in assisting the processes of clinical activities. However, the development of computerized clinical practice guidelines in Taiwan is still at the early stage and acceptance level among major users (physicians) of computerized clinical practice guidelines is not satisfactory. This study aims to investigate critical factors influencing physicians' intention to computerized clinical practice guideline use through an integrative model of activity theory and the technology acceptance model. The survey methodology was employed to collect data from physicians of the investigated hospitals that have implemented computerized clinical practice guidelines. A total of 505 questionnaires were sent out, with 238 completed copies returned, indicating a valid response rate of 47.1 %. The collected data was then analyzed by structural equation modeling technique. The results showed that attitudes toward using computerized clinical practice guidelines (γ = 0.451, p critical factors influencing physicians' intention to use computerized clinical practice guidelines, and these factors can explain 68.6 % of the variance in intention to use computerized clinical practice guidelines. This study confirmed that some subject (human) factors, environment (organization) factors, tool (technology) factors mentioned in the activity theory should be carefully considered when introducing computerized clinical practice guidelines. Managers should pay much attention on those identified factors and provide adequate resources and incentives to help the promotion and use of computerized clinical practice guidelines. Through the appropriate use of computerized clinical practice guidelines, the clinical benefits, particularly in improving quality of care and facilitating the clinical processes, will be realized.

  17. A model for analysing factors which may influence quality management procedures in higher education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cătălin MAICAN

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In all universities, the Office for Quality Assurance defines the procedure for assessing the performance of the teaching staff, with a view to establishing students’ perception as regards the teachers’ activity from the point of view of the quality of the teaching process, of the relationship with the students and of the assistance provided for learning. The present paper aims at creating a combined model for evaluation, based on Data Mining statistical methods: starting from the findings revealed by the evaluations teachers performed to students, using the cluster analysis and the discriminant analysis, we identified the subjects which produced significant differences between students’ grades, subjects which were subsequently subjected to an evaluation by students. The results of these analyses allowed the formulation of certain measures for enhancing the quality of the evaluation process.

  18. Factors Influencing the Quality of Mobile Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alin ZAMFIROIU

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Mobile applications are becoming increasingly used. Mobile devices are becoming indispensable for the user. In the material are claiming the sales of mobile devices internationally and the use of mobile applications compared to traditional internet use on desktop systems for the United States. Are presented influences the quality of mobile applications and based on these influencing factors built a model of choice for optimal application of mobile applications and traditional desktop application. At the end of the material presented methods to increase quality by tracking the influence factors during the development of mobile applications.

  19. Factors influencing the fruit crops and seed fates of Pistacia chinensis: the results of structural equation modeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongling Guo

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Seed production and quality are important factors influencing population regeneration in many seed plants. We used structural equation modeling to investigate how plant and fruit traits interact with each other to influence the fruit crops and seed fates of Pistacia chinensis. From May to September 2009, we sampled 45 fruiting female trees and measured plant traits (height, DBH and crown area, fruit traits (infructescence size, fruit size and the fruit crop of each sampled tree in Jiyuan City of Henan Province, Central China. The fruit crops of P. chinensis were positively correlated with tree height, crown area and infructescence size but not significantly correlated with DBH or fruit size. The fruit crop of an individual tree had no negative direct effect on the infestation of seeds by wasps (Eurytoma plotnikovi. Such a direct effect would be predicted by the predator satiation hypothesis. Tree height and fruit size had a positive direct effect on the seed predation rate, but a significant negative correlation was found between the seed predation rate and the rate of seedlessness. Our results indicate that seedless fruits may serve as a defensive mechanism against insect seed predators. In addition, both seedless and insect-infested fruits had a negative direct effect on seed survival, and DBH, infructescence size and fruit crop had a positive indirect effect on seed survival. However, tree height and fruit size had negative indirect effects on seed survival. In conclusion, we have shown that both plant and fruit traits can strongly influence fruit crops and insect seed predation and subsequently determine the seed quality and population regeneration of P. chinensis.

  20. Factors Influencing Healthcare Service Quality

    OpenAIRE

    Ali Mohammad Mosadeghrad

    2014-01-01

    Background The main purpose of this study was to identify factors that influence healthcare quality in the Iranian context. Methods Exploratory in-depth individual and focus group interviews were conducted with 222 healthcare stakeholders including healthcare providers, managers, policy-makers, and payers to identify factors affecting the quality of healthcare services provided in Iranian healthcare organisations. Results Quality in healthcare is a production o...

  1. Factors influencing transfection efficiency of pIDUA/nanoemulsion complexes in a mucopolysaccharidosis type I murine model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraga, Michelle; de Carvalho, Talita Giacomet; Bidone, Juliana; Schuh, Roselena Silvestri; Matte, Ursula; Teixeira, Helder Ferreira

    2017-01-01

    Mucopolysaccharidosis type I (MPS I) is an autosomal disease caused by alpha-l-iduronidase (IDUA) deficiency. This study used IDUA knockout mice as a model to evaluate whether parameters such as dose of plasmid and time of treatment could influence the transfection efficiency of complexes formed with PEGylated cationic nanoemulsions and plasmid (pIDUA), which contains the gene that encodes for IDUA. Formulations were composed of medium chain triglycerides, 1,2-dioleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphoethanolamine, 1,2-distearoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphoethanolamine-N-(amino[polyethylene glycol]-2000), 1,2-dioleoyl-sn-glycero-3-trimethylammonium propane (DOTAP), glycerol, and water and were prepared by the adsorption or encapsulation of preformed pIDUA–DOTAP complexes by high-pressure homogenization. A progressive increase in IDUA expression was observed with an increase in the dose and time of transfection for mice treated with both complexes (adsorbed and encapsulated), especially in the liver. Regardless of the complex administered, a significant increase in IDUA activity was detected in lungs and liver compared with nontreated MPS I when a dose of 60 μg was administered and IDUA activity was measured 7 days postadministration. Tissue sections of major organs showed no presence of cell necrosis, inflammatory infiltrate, or an increase in apoptosis. Furthermore, immunohistochemistry for CD68 showed no difference in the number of macrophage cells in treated and nontreated animals, indicating the absence of inflammatory reaction caused by the treatment. The data set obtained in this study allowed establishing that factors such as dose and time can influence transfection efficiency in different degrees and that these complexes did not lead to any lethal effect in the MPS I murine model used. PMID:28352175

  2. Physiological factors influencing capillary growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egginton, S

    2011-07-01

    (1) Angiogenesis (growth of new capillaries from an existing capillary bed) may result from a mismatch in microvascular supply and metabolic demand (metabolic error signal). Krogh examined the distribution and number of capillaries to explore the correlation between O(2) delivery and O(2) consumption. Subsequently, the heterogeneity in angiogenic response within a muscle has been shown to reflect either differences in fibre type composition or mechanical load. However, local control leads to targetted angiogenesis in the vicinity of glycolytic fibre types following muscle stimulation, or oxidative fibres following endurance training, while heterogeneity of capillary spacing is maintained during ontogenetic growth. (2) Despite limited microscopy resolution and lack of specific markers, Krogh's interest in the structure of the capillary wall paved the way for understanding the mechanisms of capillary growth. Angiogenesis may be influenced by the response of perivascular or stromal cells (fibroblasts, macrophages and pericytes) to altered activity, likely acting as a source for chemical signals modulating capillary growth such as vascular endothelial growth factor. In addition, haemodynamic factors such as shear stress and muscle stretch play a significant role in adaptive remodelling of the microcirculation. (3) Most indices of capillarity are highly dependent on fibre size, resulting in possible bias because of scaling. To examine the consequences of capillary distribution, it is therefore helpful to quantify the area of tissue supplied by individual capillaries. This allows the spatial limitations inherent in most models of tissue oxygenation to be overcome generating an alternative approach to Krogh's tissue cylinder, the capillary domain, to improve descriptions of intracellular oxygen diffusion. © 2010 The Author. Acta Physiologica © 2010 Scandinavian Physiological Society.

  3. A Review Of Major Impact Factors Of Hostilities Influencing Biodiversity In The Eastern Ukraine (Modeled On Selected Animal Species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasyliuk O. V.

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available We identified major factors (both direct and indirect, caused by the hostilities in Ukrainian ATO zone that adversely influence local biodiversity and environment. Damaged conservational territories (objects of nature conservation fund were assessed. One of the most severe factors, the fires were studied using data from Terra MODIS remote sensing, resulting in a model of localization and spatial configuration of fires on natural and agricultural territories in ATO zone during June-September 2014. In that period, 2901 ignitions were registered in ATO zone, exceeding the numbers for previous four years. It was determined that 81 % of all of the ignitions happened on natural steppe and forest areas, 19 % in settlements. Th e fires damaged 18 % of forest area, 23 % of the steppe area and 14 % of arable lands of ATO zone. For two snake species of Red book of Ukraine — eastern Elaphe dione and more widespread Hierophis caspius — it was shown that most of the animals and their biotopes in Luhansk and Donetsk Regions of Ukraine are under threat. Far example, 65–82 % of 108 finds of these Colubridae registered in the eastern Ukraine are located in the ATO zone and near to hostilities. GIS models also showed that more than 50 % of biotopes, suitable for these snakes, are in the ATO zone or near it. Based on world-wide experience and our own observations, we safely assume that the events of 2014 in the ATO territory can possibly cause far-reaching adverse consequences for natural landscapes, local flora and fauna, and the massive local disappearance of plant and animal populations.

  4. Considering the Influence of Multi-weather-factors to Forecasting the Water Requirement of Well Irrigation Rice Based on ANN Model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FU Qiang; FU Hong; LIANG Chuan

    2004-01-01

    The author considered the influences of several weather factors, such as air temperature, sunlight, saturation deficiency, wind speed and so on to forecasting the water requirement of well irrigation rice based on Artificial Neutron Network. Through dealing with the time series of water requirement and its influence factors, the author applied the multi-dimension data correlation analysis to ensure the net structure. Thus, the ANN model to forecast the water requirement of well irrigation rice has been built. By means of the ANN model, uncertainty relation between water requirement and many influence factors among the interior and exterior can be discovered. The results of ANN model is good, and can provide some references for establishing the water saving irrigation system.

  5. Factors influencing the productivity of irrigated crops in Southern Peru, in relation to prediction by simulation models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Versteeg, M.N.

    1985-01-01

    The objective of the study was to determine the growth potential of alfalfa, potato, Rhodes grass and maize in the irrigated desert of S. Peru, as at that production level the highest utilization efficiency of irrigation water is usually obtained. Important growth- influencing factors were identifie

  6. Factors influencing the productivity of irrigated crops in Southern Peru, in relation to prediction by simulation models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Versteeg, M.N.

    1985-01-01

    The objective of the study was to determine the growth potential of alfalfa, potato, Rhodes grass and maize in the irrigated desert of S. Peru, as at that production level the highest utilization efficiency of irrigation water is usually obtained. Important growth- influencing factors were identifie

  7. Factors influencing pacing in triathlon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Sam Sx; Peiffer, Jeremiah J; Brisswalter, Jeanick; Nosaka, Kazunori; Abbiss, Chris R

    2014-01-01

    Triathlon is a multisport event consisting of sequential swim, cycle, and run disciplines performed over a variety of distances. This complex and unique sport requires athletes to appropriately distribute their speed or energy expenditure (ie, pacing) within each discipline as well as over the entire event. As with most physical activity, the regulation of pacing in triathlon may be influenced by a multitude of intrinsic and extrinsic factors. The majority of current research focuses mainly on the Olympic distance, whilst much less literature is available on other triathlon distances such as the sprint, half-Ironman, and Ironman distances. Furthermore, little is understood regarding the specific physiological, environmental, and interdisciplinary effects on pacing. Therefore, this article discusses the pacing strategies observed in triathlon across different distances, and elucidates the possible factors influencing pacing within the three specific disciplines of a triathlon.

  8. Factors Influencing High School Students' Career Aspirations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Mei; Pan, Wei; Newmeyer, Mark D.

    2008-01-01

    This article explores the factors influencing high school students' career aspirations with a study analyzing 141 high school students. The Social Cognitive Career Development Model was utilized to examine the interactive relationships among learning experiences, career self-efficacy, outcome expectations, career interests, and career choices. The…

  9. Which factors influence the ability of a computational model to predict the in vivo deformation behaviour of skeletal muscle?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loerakker, S; Bader, D L; Baaijens, F P T; Oomens, C W J

    2013-01-01

    Deep tissue injury (DTI) is a severe form of pressure ulcer where tissue damage starts in deep tissues underneath intact skin. Tissue deformation may play an important role in the aetiology, which can be investigated using an experimental-numerical approach. Recently, an animal-specific finite element model has been developed to simulate experiments in which muscle tissue was compressed with an indenter. In this study, the material behaviour and boundary conditions were adapted to improve the agreement between model and experiment and to investigate the influence of these adaptations on the predicted strain distribution. The use of a highly nonlinear material law and including friction between the indenter and the muscle both improved the quality of the model and considerably influenced the estimated strain distribution. With the improved model, the required sample size to detect significant differences between loading conditions can be diminished, which is clearly relevant in experiments involving animals.

  10. Factors Influencing Quasistatic Modeling of Deformation and Failure in Rock-Like Solids by the Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    X. W. Tang

    2013-01-01

    actual test of marble material. Typical results of the axial stress-strain response from infinitesimal to finite deformation as well as the progressive failure process for the marble tests are given and the influences of various factors are discussed. It is found that only provided proper choices of particle momentum equation and the smoothing length parameter, the SPH method is capable for favorably reproducing the deformation and progressive failure evolution in rock-like materials under quasistatic compression loads.

  11. Factors Influencing Healthcare Service Quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Mohammad Mosadeghrad

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Background The main purpose of this study was to identify factors that influence healthcare quality in the Iranian context. Methods Exploratory in-depth individual and focus group interviews were conducted with 222 healthcare stakeholders including healthcare providers, managers, policy-makers, and payers to identify factors affecting the quality of healthcare services provided in Iranian healthcare organisations. Results Quality in healthcare is a production of cooperation between the patient and the healthcare provider in a supportive environment. Personal factors of the provider and the patient, and factors pertaining to the healthcare organisation, healthcare system, and the broader environment affect healthcare service quality. Healthcare quality can be improved by supportive visionary leadership, proper planning, education and training, availability of resources, effective management of resources, employees and processes, and collaboration and cooperation among providers. Conclusion This article contributes to healthcare theory and practice by developing a conceptual framework that provides policy-makers and managers a practical understanding of factors that affect healthcare service quality.

  12. Factors Influencing Self-Regulation in E-learning 2.0: Confirmatory Factor Model | Facteurs qui influencent la maîtrise de soi en cyberapprentissage 2.0 : modèle de facteur confirmative

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong Zhao

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The importance of self-regulation in e-learning has been well noted in research. Relevant studies have shown a consistent positive correlation between learners’ self-regulation and their success rate in e-learning. Increasing attention has been paid to developing learners’ self-regulated abilities in e-learning. For students, what and how to learn are largely predetermined by the learning environment provided by their institutions. Environmental determinants play a key role in shaping self-regulation in the learning process. This paper reports a study on the influences of the e-learning 2.0 environment on self-regulation. The study identified the factors that influence self-regulation in such an environment and determine the relationships between the factors and self-regulation. A theoretical model to categorize the success factors for self-regulated learning was proposed for this kind of environment. Based on the model, a questionnaire was designed and administered to more than two hundred and fifty distance learning students in Beijing and Hong Kong. Through structural equation modeling (SEM technique, relationships between environmental factors and self-regulation were analyzed. Statistical results showed that several factors affect self-regulation in the e-learning 2.0 environment. They include system quality, information quality, service quality, and user satisfaction. L’importance de la maîtrise de soi en cyberapprentissage a été bien étudiée. Les études pertinentes ont démontré une corrélation positive uniforme entre la maîtrise de soi des apprenants et leurs taux de réussite en apprentissage en ligne. Une attention croissante a été portée au développement des aptitudes de maîtrise de soi des élèves en cyberapprentissage. Pour les élèves, quoi apprendre et comment sont des questions principalement prédéterminées par l’environnement d’apprentissage qu’offrent leurs établissements. Les d

  13. Analysis of Influencing Factors of Water Footprint Based on the STIRPAT Model: Evidence from the Beijing Agricultural Sector

    OpenAIRE

    Chen Jin; Kai Huang; Yajuan Yu; Yue Zhang

    2016-01-01

    Beijing suffers from a severe water shortage. To find the key factors that impact the agricultural water footprint (WF) within Beijing to relieve the pressure on water resources, this study quantifies the agricultural WF within Beijing from 1980 to 2012 and examines the factors of population, urbanization level, GDP per capita, Engel coefficient, and total rural power using an extended stochastic impact by regression on population, affluence and technology (STIRPAT) model. Ridge regression is...

  14. Evaluating the influence of physical, economic and managerial factors on sheet erosion in rangelands of SW Spain by performing a sensitivity analysis on an integrated dynamic model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibáñez, J; Lavado Contador, J F; Schnabel, S; Martínez Valderrama, J

    2016-02-15

    An integrated dynamic model was used to evaluate the influence of climatic, soil, pastoral, economic and managerial factors on sheet erosion in rangelands of SW Spain (dehesas). This was achieved by means of a variance-based sensitivity analysis. Topsoil erodibility, climate change and a combined factor related to soil water storage capacity and the pasture production function were the factors which influenced water erosion the most. Of them, climate change is the main source of uncertainty, though in this study it caused a reduction in the mean and the variance of long-term erosion rates. The economic and managerial factors showed scant influence on soil erosion, meaning that it is unlikely to find such influence in the study area for the time being. This is because the low profitability of the livestock business maintains stocking rates at low levels. However, the potential impact of livestock, through which economic and managerial factors affect soil erosion, proved to be greater in absolute value than the impact of climate change. Therefore, if changes in some economic or managerial factors led to higher stocking rates in the future, significant increases in erosion rates would be expected.

  15. Factors influencing pacing in triathlon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wu SSX

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Sam SX Wu,1 Jeremiah J Peiffer,2 Jeanick Brisswalter,3 Kazunori Nosaka,1 Chris R Abbiss1 1Centre for Exercise and Sports Science Research, School of Exercise and Health Sciences, Edith Cowan University, Perth, WA, Australia; 2School of Psychology and Exercise Science, Murdoch University, Perth, WA, Australia; 3Laboratory of Human Motricity, Education Sport and Health, University of Nice Sophia Antipolis, Nice, France Abstract: Triathlon is a multisport event consisting of sequential swim, cycle, and run disciplines performed over a variety of distances. This complex and unique sport requires athletes to appropriately distribute their speed or energy expenditure (ie, pacing within each discipline as well as over the entire event. As with most physical activity, the regulation of pacing in triathlon may be influenced by a multitude of intrinsic and extrinsic factors. The majority of current research focuses mainly on the Olympic distance, whilst much less literature is available on other triathlon distances such as the sprint, half-Ironman, and Ironman distances. Furthermore, little is understood regarding the specific physiological, environmental, and interdisciplinary effects on pacing. Therefore, this article discusses the pacing strategies observed in triathlon across different distances, and elucidates the possible factors influencing pacing within the three specific disciplines of a triathlon. Keywords: cycle, endurance, multisport, pacing strategy, run, swim

  16. Mathematical Modeling of Melanoma Cell Migration with an Elastic Continuum Model for the Evaluation of the Influence of Tumor Necrosis Factor-Alpha on Migration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia Vianna Gallinaro

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available An elastic continuum mathematical model was implemented to study collective C8161 melanoma cell migration during a “scratch wound” assay, in control and under the influence of the proinflammatory cytokine tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α. The model has four constants: force that results from lamellipod formation (F, adhesion constant between cells and extracellular matrix (ECM (b, cell layer elasticity modulus (k, and growth rate (ρ. A nonlinear regression routine was used to obtain the parameters of the model with data from an experiment made with C8161 melanoma cells, with and without TNF-α. Coefficient of determination for both situations was R2=0.89 and R2=0.92, respectively. The parameters values obtained were similar to the ones found in the literature. However, the adhesion constant value decreased with the introduction of TNF-α, which is not in accordance with expected since the presence of TNF-α is associated with an increased expression of integrins that would promote an enhanced adhesion among cells. The model was used in a study relating to the adhesion constant and cell migration, and the results suggested that cell migration decreases with higher adhesion, which is also not in accordance with expected. These differences would not occur if it was considered that TNF-α increases the elasticity modulus of the cell layer.

  17. Factors influencing women's decisions to purchase specific ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Keywords: multi-nutrient supplements; survey; children; women's decisions. Factors influencing .... associations between level of education and various factors influencing women's ..... Social marketing improved the use of multivitamin and ...

  18. Factors that influence women's dispositions toward science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atria, Catherine Graczyk

    Females have been underrepresented in the study of science and science careers for decades although advancements have been made in closing this gender gap, the gap persists particularly in the physical sciences. Variables which influence a woman's desire to pursue and maintain a science course of study and career must be discovered. The United States lags behind other industrialized countries in the fields of science, math, and engineering. Females comprise an estimated half of the population; their potential contributions cannot be ignored or overlooked. This retrospective research study explores the personal experiences of ten women enrolled in science majors, with science related career plans. The goal of this study is to describe the factors that influence the participants' interest in science. The findings, the effect of science coursework, science teachers' personality and manner, other influential educational personnel, role models and mentors, external influences exclusive of school, parental influence, locus of control and positive attitudes toward science confirm what other researchers have found.

  19. Factors Influencing Learner Permit Duration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johnathon P. Ehsani

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available An increasing number of countries are requiring an extended learner permit prior to independent driving. The question of when drivers begin the learner permit period, and how long they hold the permit before advancing to independent licensure has received little research attention. Licensure timing is likely to be related to “push” and “pull” factors which may encourage or inhibit the process. To examine this question, we recruited a sample of 90 novice drivers (49 females and 41 males, average age of 15.6 years soon after they obtained a learner permit and instrumented their vehicles to collect a range of driving data. Participants completed a series of surveys at recruitment related to factors that may influence licensure timing. Two distinct findings emerged from the time-to-event analysis that tested these push and pull factors in relation to licensure timing. The first can be conceptualized as teens’ motivation to drive (push, reflected in a younger age when obtaining a learner permit and extensive pre-permit driving experience. The second finding was teens’ perceptions of their parents’ knowledge of their activities (pull; a proxy for a parents’ attentiveness to their teens’ lives. Teens who reported higher levels of their parents’ knowledge of their activities took longer to advance to independent driving. These findings suggest time-to-licensure may be related to teens’ internal motivation to drive, and the ability of parents to facilitate or impede early licensure.

  20. What Factors Influence Knowledge Sharing in Organizations?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Razmerita, Liana; Kirchner, Kathrin; Nielsen, Pia

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Enterprise social media platforms provide new ways of sharing knowledge and communicating within organizations to benefit from the social capital and valuable knowledge that employees have. Drawing on social dilemma and self-determination theory, the aim of the study is to understand what...... factors drive employees’ participation and what factors hamper their participation in enterprise social media. Design/methodology/approach: Based on a literature review, a unified research model is derived integrating demographic, individual, organizational and technological factors that influence...... knowledge sharing framework helps to understand what factors impact engagement on social media. Furthermore the article suggests different types of interventions to overcome the social dilemma of knowledge sharing. Originality/value: The study contributes to an understanding of factors leading...

  1. Analysis of Influencing Factors of Water Footprint Based on the STIRPAT Model: Evidence from the Beijing Agricultural Sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Jin

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Beijing suffers from a severe water shortage. To find the key factors that impact the agricultural water footprint (WF within Beijing to relieve the pressure on water resources, this study quantifies the agricultural WF within Beijing from 1980 to 2012 and examines the factors of population, urbanization level, GDP per capita, Engel coefficient, and total rural power using an extended stochastic impact by regression on population, affluence and technology (STIRPAT model. Ridge regression is employed to fit the extended STIRPAT model. The empirical results reveal that the Engel coefficient, which is defined as the total amount of food expenses accounted for the proportion of total personal consumption expenditures, has the largest positive impact on the increase in the agricultural WF, followed by urbanization. In contrast, total rural power, population, and GDP per capita can decrease the agricultural WF. Finally, policy recommendations from technological development, agriculture plantation structure adjustment, and virtual water imports are provided to cope with water shortages.

  2. Investigating different factors influencing on brand equity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Afsane Zamanimoghadam

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to determine and prioritize factors influencing on brand equity in consumer’s point of view for a case study of Samsung appliance consumers in city of Tehran, Iran. The study investigates the effects of four factors in terms of the customer's perspective, price, advertisement, family and brand image, by dimensions of brand equity, perceived quality, brand awareness, brand association, brand loyalty, on brand equity. The research method is based on a descriptive-survey research. The questionnaire includes Samsung consumers in city of Tehran, Iran. To test the hypotheses, SPSS and LISREL software packages are used. For data analysis, descriptive statistics and inferential statistical tests including structural equation modeling and path analysis are used. The results of the survey have indicated that family and brand image influence positively on brand equity but the effects of advertisement and price on brand equity were not confirmed.

  3. FACTORS INFLUENCING THE EVOLUTION OF YOUTH TRAVEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Student Claudia MOISĂ

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Youth travel is an important part of global tourism, consequently, getting to know the evolution of this form of tourism requires an approach of the aspects regarding the permissive and restrictive factors that influence the youth travel dynamic worldwide. In terms of the factors that influence youth travel, we highlighted these two categories of factors (permissive and restrictive and, within each category, we tried to singularize the influence of every factor over youth travel.

  4. Factors Influencing the Consumption of Pulses in Rural and Urban ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    factors that influenced the extent of consumption in urban areas. In summary, the model .... model to control for self-selection bias because some potential consumers may ... accommodate consumer's zero value of purchase as an outcome of a ...

  5. INFLUENCE OF SERVICE FACTORS IN THE MODEL OF PUBLIC TRANSPORT MODE: A BANJARMASIN – BANJARBARU ROUTE CASE STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iphan F. Radam

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This research is aimed to examine the extent to which the service factors will affect the probability of people choice on public transports offered. The service factors are essential since the habits in the planning of new public transport at developing cities tend to prioritizes “travel time” and “travel cost” only. Consequently, there will be more than a small number of new public transports that will meet the same fate as the previous ones, i.e. unable to attract the users’ interest. The research is focused on Banjarmasin City and Banjarbaru City which are two administrative cities with high development level and are large generation/attraction zones in South Borneo. The tendency of the use of private vehicles remains high with one of the reasons is the level of transportation services which are still low. Therefore, the planning of new alternative transports (bus is required, in addition to the existing Paratransit transportation (mikrolet/Indonesian minibus. To obtain a utility and probability model of the of travelers (users in selecting the public transport modes between the existing transports and new bus alternative transports, the Logit method approach was used and the data were collected by using Stated Preference technique. From the result of this research, the model of mode choice is obtained by including service factors showing the improvement of goodness of fit model, and is compared by those without including service factors. The average of service effect on the increase in the choice probability of the services is 22%, both in the sensitivity of the travel time and travel costs.

  6. Multilevel Mixture Factor Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varriale, Roberta; Vermunt, Jeroen K.

    2012-01-01

    Factor analysis is a statistical method for describing the associations among sets of observed variables in terms of a small number of underlying continuous latent variables. Various authors have proposed multilevel extensions of the factor model for the analysis of data sets with a hierarchical structure. These Multilevel Factor Models (MFMs)…

  7. Calcareous Bio-Concretions in the Northern Adriatic Sea: Habitat Types, Environmental Factors that Influence Habitat Distributions, and Predictive Modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falace, Annalisa; Kaleb, Sara; Curiel, Daniele; Miotti, Chiara; Galli, Giovanni; Querin, Stefano; Ballesteros, Enric; Solidoro, Cosimo; Bandelj, Vinko

    2015-01-01

    Habitat classifications provide guidelines for mapping and comparing marine resources across geographic regions. Calcareous bio-concretions and their associated biota have not been exhaustively categorized. Furthermore, for management and conservation purposes, species and habitat mapping is critical. Recently, several developments have occurred in the field of predictive habitat modeling, and multiple methods are available. In this study, we defined the habitats constituting northern Adriatic biogenic reefs and created a predictive habitat distribution model. We used an updated dataset of the epibenthic assemblages to define the habitats, which we verified using the fuzzy k-means (FKM) clustering method. Redundancy analysis was employed to model the relationships between the environmental descriptors and the FKM membership grades. Predictive modelling was carried out to map habitats across the basin. Habitat A (opportunistic macroalgae, encrusting Porifera, bioeroders) characterizes reefs closest to the coastline, which are affected by coastal currents and river inputs. Habitat B is distinguished by massive Porifera, erect Tunicata, and non-calcareous encrusting algae (Peyssonnelia spp.). Habitat C (non-articulated coralline, Polycitor adriaticus) is predicted in deeper areas. The onshore-offshore gradient explains the variability of the assemblages because of the influence of coastal freshwater, which is the main driver of nutrient dynamics. This model supports the interpretation of Habitat A and C as the extremes of a gradient that characterizes the epibenthic assemblages, while Habitat B demonstrates intermediate characteristics. Areas of transition are a natural feature of the marine environment and may include a mixture of habitats and species. The habitats proposed are easy to identify in the field, are related to different environmental features, and may be suitable for application in studies focused on other geographic areas. The habitat model outputs

  8. Calcareous Bio-Concretions in the Northern Adriatic Sea: Habitat Types, Environmental Factors that Influence Habitat Distributions, and Predictive Modeling.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annalisa Falace

    Full Text Available Habitat classifications provide guidelines for mapping and comparing marine resources across geographic regions. Calcareous bio-concretions and their associated biota have not been exhaustively categorized. Furthermore, for management and conservation purposes, species and habitat mapping is critical. Recently, several developments have occurred in the field of predictive habitat modeling, and multiple methods are available. In this study, we defined the habitats constituting northern Adriatic biogenic reefs and created a predictive habitat distribution model. We used an updated dataset of the epibenthic assemblages to define the habitats, which we verified using the fuzzy k-means (FKM clustering method. Redundancy analysis was employed to model the relationships between the environmental descriptors and the FKM membership grades. Predictive modelling was carried out to map habitats across the basin. Habitat A (opportunistic macroalgae, encrusting Porifera, bioeroders characterizes reefs closest to the coastline, which are affected by coastal currents and river inputs. Habitat B is distinguished by massive Porifera, erect Tunicata, and non-calcareous encrusting algae (Peyssonnelia spp.. Habitat C (non-articulated coralline, Polycitor adriaticus is predicted in deeper areas. The onshore-offshore gradient explains the variability of the assemblages because of the influence of coastal freshwater, which is the main driver of nutrient dynamics. This model supports the interpretation of Habitat A and C as the extremes of a gradient that characterizes the epibenthic assemblages, while Habitat B demonstrates intermediate characteristics. Areas of transition are a natural feature of the marine environment and may include a mixture of habitats and species. The habitats proposed are easy to identify in the field, are related to different environmental features, and may be suitable for application in studies focused on other geographic areas. The habitat

  9. A Study on the Factors Influencing the Income Gap between Urban and Rural Areas Based on State-space Model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiaofang; ZOU; Xueqin; JIANG

    2014-01-01

    The increasingly widening income gap between urban and rural areas is affected by many factors. Using the stepwise regression analysis,we find that urbanization level,socio-economic development,education level,financial development scale and financial development efficiency have the greatest impact on the income gap between urban and rural areas. By cointegration test,it is found that there is a long-term equilibrium relationship between these five variables and the income gap between urban and rural areas. We build the state-space model to research the dynamic impact of these factors on the income gap between urban and rural areas. The results show that by improving the level of urbanization,we can effectively narrow the income gap between urban and rural areas,while socio-economic development,the improvement of education level,expansion of financial development scale and financial development efficiency all significantly expand the income gap between urban and rural areas.

  10. Application of artificial neural network model for groundwater level forecasting in a river island with artificial influencing factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sanghoon; Yoon, Heesung; Park, Byeong-Hak; Lee, Kang-Kun

    2017-04-01

    Groundwater use has been increased for various purposes like agriculture, industry or drinking water in recent years, the issue related to sustainability on the groundwater use also has been raised. Accordingly, forecasting the groundwater level is of great importance for planning sustainable use of groundwater. In a small island surrounded by the Han River, South Korea, seasonal fluctuation of the groundwater level is characterized by multiple factors such as recharge/discharge event of the Paldang dam, Water Curtain Cultivation (WCC) during the winter season, operation of Groundwater Heat Pump System (GWHP). For a period when the dam operation is only occurred in the study area, a prediction of the groundwater level can be easily achieved by a simple cross-correlation model. However, for a period when the WCC and the GWHP systems are working together, the groundwater level prediction is challenging due to its unpredictable operation of the two systems. This study performed Artificial Neural Network (ANN) model to forecast the groundwater level in the river area reflecting the various predictable/unpredictable factors. For constructing the ANN models, two monitoring wells, YSN1 and YSO8, which are located near the injection and abstraction wells for the GWHP system were selected, respectively. By training with the groundwater level data measured in January 2015 to August 2015, response of groundwater level by each of the surface water level, the WCC and the GWHP system were evaluated. Consequentially, groundwater levels in December 2015 to March 2016 were predicted by ANN models, providing optimal fits in comparison to the observed water levels. This study suggests that the ANN model is a useful tool to forecast the groundwater level in terms of the management of groundwater. Acknowledgement : Financial support was provided by the "R&D Project on Environmental Management of Geologic CO2 Storage" from the KEITI (Project Number: 2014001810003) This research was

  11. Analysis of the flood extent extraction model and the natural flood influencing factors: A GIS-based and remote sensing analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawal, D. U.; Matori, A. N.; Yusuf, K. W.; Hashim, A. M.; Balogun, A. L.

    2014-02-01

    Serious floods have hit the State of Perlis in 2005, 2010, as well as 2011. Perlis is situated in the northern part of Peninsula Malaysia. The floods caused great damage to properties and human lives. There are various methods used in an attempt to provide the most reliable ways to reduce the flood risk and damage to the optimum level by identifying the flood vulnerable zones. The purpose of this paper is to develop a flood extent extraction model based on Minimum Distance Algorithm and to overlay with the natural flood influencing factors considered herein in order to examine the effect of each factor in flood generation. GIS spatial database was created from a geological map, SPOT satellite image, and the topographical map. An attribute database was equally created from field investigations and historical flood areas reports of the study area. The results show a great correlation between the flood extent extraction model and the flood factors.

  12. CREDIT LEVEL INFLUENCING FACTORS AT HUNGARIAN FARMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toth Jozsef

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we estimate the impact of different factors on creditability of agricultural farms. According to the literature the collateral (tangible assets, the farm size, productivity, and subsidies should have significant effects on farm loans. We use data from the Hungarian Farm Accountancy Data Network to test our two hypotheses and theoretical assumptions for the period 2001-2010. Because of using panel data, we do our estimations using fixed effects econometrics model to test our assumptions. The results indicate that the chosen factors have significant influence on total liabilities and short- and long-term loans as well. With specially interest of subsidies the growing level of supports decrease the need of other financial tools. At output factors (inclusive farm size have significant and positive effect, same as collateral (tangible assets.

  13. Development of models of assessment of influence of human factor upon innovation development of railroad transport enterprises

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samsonkin Valerii M.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Changes in the socio-economic environment of functioning of railroad companies and corresponding transition to market economic conditions make us deeply reconsider our relation to the human factor as the main source of increase of the level of efficiency of both individual railroad enterprises and companies in general. But, apart from exclusively humanistic (evolution relation to this process, it is necessary to find means of formalisation of professional activity of a person or certification of personnel. The article is devoted to the above stated issues. In the result of the study the article develops a model of analysis of professional activity of a person at railroad transport, which gives a possibility to numerically determine the level of intellectual, social and physical components of the human factor and also to identify directions and efficiency of investing and a model of determination of the number, which ensures optimisation of the number of personnel of enterprises and structural subdivisions. In order to identify the most significant resources that are connected with personnel, time, place, method, motivation type, obtained effect and intensity of railroad transport operation the article offers to analyse results of professional activity of personnel of each structural subdivision by the “what” is created / developed / performed (regarding professional activity, “where” (enterprise name and its subordination,“when” and “who” created (developed / performed and “how” and “why” scheme.

  14. Demotivating factors influencing rubber production workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Reza Iravani

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Motivation is one of the most important factors influencing workers' productivity. An increase in workers' motivation could add more value to organizations' structure and influence the profitability, significantly. In this paper, we study different factors on demotivating workers using questionnaire consist of various questions. The questionnaire is distributed among some employees who work for rubber production units located in Esfahan, Iran. The results of this survey indicate that discrimination on annual job compensation, entrusting responsibilities and unpleasant relationship with family partner are some of the most important factors influencing employees' motivation. While financial factors play important role on increasing employees' motivation, non-financial factors are considered more important.

  15. Regional accumulation characteristics of cadmium in vegetables: Influencing factors, transfer model and indication of soil threshold content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yang; Chen, Weiping; Wang, Meie; Peng, Chi

    2016-12-01

    A regional investigation in the Youxian prefecture, southern China, was conducted to analyze the impact of environmental factors including soil properties and irrigation in conjunction with the use of fertilizers on the accumulation of Cd in vegetables. The Cd transfer potential from soil to vegetable was provided by the plant uptake factor (PUF), which varied by three orders of magnitude and was described by a Gaussian distribution model. The soil pH, content of soil organic matter (SOM), concentrations of Zn in the soil, pH of irrigation water and nitrogenous fertilizers contributed significantly to the PUF variations. A path model analysis, however, revealed the principal control of the PUF values resulted from the soil pH, soil Zn concentrations and SOM. Transfer functions were developed using the total soil Cd concentrations, soil pH, and SOM. They explained 56% of the variance for all samples irrespective of the vegetable genotypes. The transfer functions predicted the probability of exceeding China food safety standard concentrations for Cd in four major consumable vegetables under different soil conditions. Poor production practices in the study area involved usage of soil with pH values ≤ 5.5, especially for the cultivation of Raphanus sativus L., even with soil Cd concentrations below the China soil quality standard. We found the soil standard Cd concentrations for cultivating vegetables was not strict enough for strongly acidic (pH ≤ 5.5) and SOM-poor (SOM ≤ 10 g kg(-1)) soils present in southern China. It is thus necessary to address the effect of environmental variables to generate a suitable Cd threshold for cultivated soils. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Influence factors of capacity loss after short-time standing of metal-hydride electrode and its EIS model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王倩楠; 晁栋梁; 周万海; 陈云贵; 吴朝玲

    2013-01-01

    Considerable irreversible capacity loss was observed after the electrode standing at small state-of-charge (SOC) for only a short term. Influence of SOC, standing time and the replacement elements of LaNi5-type hydrogen storage alloys to standing was discussed. Charge-transfer resistance, exchange current density (I0), and hydrogen diffusion coefficient were determined based on the study of electrochemical impedance spectrum (EIS), linear polarization (LP) and constant potential step (CPS), respectively. The oxi-dation of metal Ni on the alloy surface after standing was responsible for the rapid deterioration of capacity, charge-transfer resistance and I0. Galvanostatic, LP, EIS and CPS measurements suggested the presence of an oxide and/or corrosion layer on the alloy surface of raw material and electrode after standing at 0%SOC for 2 d. It was proved that the first small semicircle in high-frequency region of EIS was related to this layer. Novel EIS model in metal hydride electrode was proposed accordingly.

  17. Application of Parametric Models of Survival Analysis in Determining the Cancer Influencing Factors in Patients with Thyroid Nodules

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Yazdani Charati

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Background & aim: One of the most common clinical problems among individuals is thyroid nodule diseases which are characterized by one or more nodules in the thyroid and are usually benign. It can be said that thyroid cancer is the most common endocrine cancer worldwide. This study aimed to determine the risk factors for cancer in patients with thyroid nodule in Mazandaran province,Iran, using parametric survival analysis. Methods: In the present historical cohort study, 26,730 patients with thyroid nodules who were referred to health care centers from July 2002 to March 2008 were identified. Parametric log-normal and log-logistic models were compared with and without taking frailty into account. The criterion for comparing models was Akaike's criterion. All calculations were performed with the SPSS software and the significance level was considered 0.05. Results: The mean time of the conversion of thyroid nodules to cancer in patients was found to be 29.32 months. Using Kaplan-Meier method, survival rates of one year, five years and ten years of nodule conversion to cancer was calculated 94.6, 88.6 and respectively. According to the log rank test age (p=0.03, hypothyroidism (p=0.01, bilateral nodules (p <0.001, a multi-nodular goiter (p <0.001, TSH hormone (p <0.001, T4 hormones (p = 0.005, cholesterol (p = 0.03, creatinin levels (p = 0.001 a significant relationship was seen. Based on the Akaike's criterion, the lognormal model which takes frailty into account best fits to the data. Conclusion: Based on the log-normal model with frailty, It can be concluded that the thyroid nodule patients with abnormal TSH hormone are 6.55 times more likely to develop risk of thyroid cancer than patients who had normal TSH hormone overall. This model also indicated that patients who had heart palpitations are 5.52 times more likely to develop risk of cancer than patients who did not have heart palpitations.

  18. [Methods of mathematical modeling in morphological diagnostics of Chernobyl factor influence on the testes of coal miners of Donbas--the Chernobyl disaster fighters].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danylov, Iu V; Motkov, K V; Shevchenko, T I

    2014-01-01

    The morphometric estimation of parenchyma and stroma condition included the determination of 29 parameters in testicles at 27 persons. The mathematical model of morphogenesis of testicles was created by Bayes' method. The method of differential diagnosis of testicles tissues' changes conditioned by the influence of the Chernobyl factor and/or unfavorable terms of the work in underground coal mines have been worked out. Its practical use provides exactness and reliability of the diagnosis (not less than 95%), independence from the level of the qualification and personal experience of the doctor, allows us to unify, optimize and individualize the diagnostic algorithms, answer the requirements of evidential medicine.

  19. The Depression Initiative. Description of a collaborative care model for depression and of the factors influencing its implementation in the primary care setting in the Netherlands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fransina J. de Jong

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: In the Depression Initiative, a promising collaborative care model for depression that was developed in the US was adapted for implementation in the Netherlands. Aim: Description of a collaborative care model for major depressive disorder (MDD and of the factors influencing its implementation in the primary care setting in the Netherlands. Data sources: Data collected during the preparation phase of the CC:DIP trial of the Depression Initiative, literature, policy documents, information sheets from professional associations. Results: Factors facilitating the implementation of the collaborative care model are continuous supervision of the care managers by the consultant psychiatrist and the trainers, a supportive web-based tracking system and the new reimbursement system that allows for introduction of a mental health care-practice nurse (MHC-PN in the general practices and coverage of the treatment costs. Impeding factors might be the relatively high percentage of solo-primary care practices, the small percentage of professionals that are located in the same building, unfamiliarity with the concept of collaboration as required for collaborative care, the reimbursement system that demands regular negotiations between each health care provider and the insurance companies and the reluctance general practitioners might feel to expand their responsibility for their depressed patients. Conclusion: Implementation of the collaborative care model in the Netherlands requires extensive training and supervision on micro level, facilitation of reimbursement on meso- and macro level and structural effort to change the treatment culture for chronic mental disorders in the primary care setting.

  20. 卓越领导的类型、影响因素与作用模型%The Types, Influence Factors and Function Models of Outstanding Leadership

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    诸彦含; 刘丽颖

    2016-01-01

    对卓越领导理论模型的内涵解读、影响因素等方面的研究前沿进行梳理整合;将追随者的调节焦点嵌入个体影响层面,并基于过程论视角建构不同阶段下卓越领导的作用模型。%Based on the previous researches , this paper firstly reviews recent outstanding leadership researches in aspects of concept , as well as influence factors .Secondly , embeds followers'regulatory focus into individual-level influence frame-work, and constructs the function models of outstanding leadership under different stages from a perspective of process .Fi-nally, it points out the existing shortages and some future research directions .

  1. Factors Influencing the Consumption of Pulses in Rural and Urban ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Factors Influencing the Consumption of Pulses in Rural and Urban Areas of Tanzania. ... Model results revealed that household sizes and education levels of the ... To increase the market share of pulses, traders should devise effective ...

  2. Factors influencing choice of paediatrics as a career among medical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    female students (30%) considered gender distribution to be a factor influencing their career choice (p=0.046). ... role models in the specialty, job opportunities and financial .... of non-responder bias, although the relatively high response.

  3. Postmodernism, Therapeutic Common Factors, and Innovation: Contemporary Influences Shaping a More Efficient and Effective Model of School Counseling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, James F.; Gee, Corrie R.

    2006-01-01

    School counseling lacks clarity. This confusion is the result of competing models and confusing standards, domains, and competencies. This article offers a simplified model of school counseling entitled the "Six 'C' Model" (i.e., Care, Collaboration, Champion, Challenge, Courage, and Commitment). The interactive model is informed by the following…

  4. Psychological Factors Influencing Consumer Behaviour

    OpenAIRE

    Vainikka, Bianca

    2015-01-01

    This paper’s aim is to provide an in-depth elucidation of the many aspects that influence consumer behaviour. The study of consumer behaviour emphasizes the “why” and “how” questions involved in decision making and buying behaviour. This exciting field visits a dynamic blend of themes of consumer marketing strategies, psychology and behavioural discipline. Consumer behaviour in this day and age is highly applicable to modern society as it is an integral part of our everyday lives. This paper ...

  5. Model Correction Factor Method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Claus; Randrup-Thomsen, Søren; Morsing Johannesen, Johannes

    1997-01-01

    The model correction factor method is proposed as an alternative to traditional polynomial based response surface techniques in structural reliability considering a computationally time consuming limit state procedure as a 'black box'. The class of polynomial functions is replaced by a limit...... statebased on an idealized mechanical model to be adapted to the original limit state by the model correction factor. Reliable approximations are obtained by iterative use of gradient information on the original limit state function analogously to previous response surface approaches. However, the strength...... of the model correction factor method, is that in simpler form not using gradient information on the original limit state function or only using this information once, a drastic reduction of the number of limit state evaluation is obtained together with good approximations on the reliability. Methods...

  6. Host factors influencing viral persistence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Allan Randrup; Nansen, A; Ørding Andreasen, Susanne

    2000-01-01

    host were used. Our results reveal that very different outcomes may be observed depending on virus strain and immunocompetence of the host. Thus while CD4+ cells are not critical during the initial phase of virus control, infectious virus reappear in mice lacking CD4+ cells, B cells or CD40 ligand...... that these different outcomes may be explained in relatively simple mathematical terms. This suggests that modelling may be used as a means to predict critical host and virus parameters. Therefore, combining mathematical modelling with precise, quantitative, in vivo analyses looks to be a promising approach...

  7. Thymic Output: Influence Factors and Molecular Mechanism

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Rong Jin; Jun Zhang; Weifeng Chen

    2006-01-01

    Thymus is a primary lymphoid organ, able to generate mature T cells that eventually colonize secondary lymphoid organs, and is therefore essential for peripheral T cell renewal. Recent data showed that normal thymocyte export can be altered by several influence factors including several chemokines,sphingosinel-phosphate (S1P),transcription factors such as Foxjl, Kruppel-like transcription factor 2 (KLF2) and antigen stimulation, etc. In this review, we summarized the recent reports about study strategies, influence factors and possible molecular mechanisms in thymic output.

  8. 31. FACTORS INFLUENCING UTILIZATION OF INTERMITTENT ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Esem

    treatment of malaria during pregnancy(IPTp), effective IPTp service utilization ... effective case management of malaria. Despite the ... Factors influencing IPTp utilization identified in the study included; educational status of a woman,. Medical ...

  9. Home Environmental Factors Influencing Performance and Progress ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... Factors Influencing Performance and Progress of Primary School Pupils in ... found that parents' educational level and income level have a bearing on school ... on school progress and performance, however; home language did play a role.

  10. Factors Influencing Self Employment Media Service Providers ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Factors Influencing Self Employment Media Service Providers among Tertiary ... role stereotype and common business practices on media self employment in ... Sex, Psycho-social Characteristics, self Employment, Providing Media Services.

  11. Age-Related Factors That Influence Fertility

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... can be found at the NICHD Pregnancy Loss topic page . Committee on Gynecologic Practice of American College of ... 2012, from http://www.nichd.nih.gov/health/topics/pregnancyloss/researchinfo/Pages/default.aspx [top] « Lifestyle Factors That Influence Fertility ...

  12. Factors that negatively influence consumption of traditionally ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Factors that negatively influence consumption of traditionally fermented milk ... of sub-Saharan Africa and a number of health benefits to human beings are ... Key words: Mursik, Lactic acid bacteria (LAB), probiotic, Preschoolers, Focus group

  13. FACTORS INFLUENCING THE SELECTION OF DENTAL NURSING ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    drclement

    FACTORS INFLUENCING THE SELECTION OF DENTAL NURSING AS A. PROFESSION ... Colleges of Health Technology undergoing external ... questionnaire requested information on age ... individual with good communication skills and ...

  14. Factors that Influence Adolescents to Smoke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Karen H.; Stutts, Mary Ann

    1999-01-01

    A survey of the factors that influence adolescents (n=246) to smoke found that family smoking behavior, peer pressure, and prior beliefs were more important in predicting smoking level than were advertising and antismoking information. (Author/JOW)

  15. FACTORS INFLUENCING SUSTAINED MANAGERIAL EFFICIENCY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandru Marius RIZESCU

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The concept of effectiveness is learnable in economic theory and practice with various forms of manifestation of the results obtained by the managers, such as profitability, the productivity of factors of production, capital efficiency, cost savings, etc. Regarded as the organizing principle and driving activity in the market economy, it has a much richer content and also favorable results of generalizing all derived by managers. Choosing effective in meeting needs with limited resources or powerlessness to maximize resource needs under restrains, are expressions through which efficiency is situated at the heart of economic theory and practice.

  16. The Main Influencing Factors of Customer Trust in China’s Import Cross-Border E- commerce Business Model

    OpenAIRE

    Zhou, Lu; Liu, Jiaqi; Lu, Yanzhu

    2016-01-01

    China’s import cross-border e-commerce (CICBEC) business model differs from other online shopping business models in both the participators and transaction processes. Government as an important participator has greatly promoted the healthy and rapid development of this business model. As a vital topic in all kinds of businesses, customer trust is also a core research topic in online shopping. Many scholars have studied customer trust in traditional online shopping while few of them focused on...

  17. Variation properties of ionospheric eclipse factor and ionospheric influence factor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO Chunmei; YUAN Yunbin; OU Jikun; CHEN Jinping

    2005-01-01

    The concepts and calculation methods of ionospheric eclipse factor (IEF) and ionospheric influence factor (IFF) are further illustrated. The temporal and spacial variation properties of IEF and IFF are studied, which shows that the properties are influenced by the geographic position and season. The possibility of improving the precision of using GPS data to determine ionospheric delay based on the above variation properties is also analysed.

  18. Examinations of factors influencing toe grip strength.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soma, Masayuki; Murata, Shin; Kai, Yoshihiro; Nakae, Hideyuki; Satou, Yousuke; Murata, Jun; Miyazaki, Junya

    2016-11-01

    [Purpose] This study examined the relationship between toe grip strength and its associated factors by focusing on factors that were suggested to have a relationship with toe grip strength in previous studies, aiming to clarify the factors influencing the toe grip strength of healthy women. [Subjects and Methods] Twelve healthy young women were selected for this study. Their toe grip strength, angular changes in their ankle joint during toe grip, maximum voluntary contraction activities of the rectus femoris, biceps femoris, and tibialis anterior muscles, and the medial head of the gastrocnemius muscles were measured using electromyography. Their toe curl ability, foot-arch height ratio, and weight were also measured. [Results] Multiple regression analysis demonstrated that the predictors of toe grip strength in the resulting model were foot-arch height ratio and the percentage of integrated electromyography (%IEMG) of the tibialis anterior muscle, as the dependent variables. This reveals that women whose tibialis anterior muscle %IEMG values and foot-arch height ratio are high have greater %IEMG values have greater toe grip strength. [Conclusion] These findings suggest a significant relationship between foot-arch height ratio and toe grip strength, with a reciprocal interaction. These findings further indicate that the risk of falls by the elderly could be decreased if toe grip strength were enhanced, by increasing the height of a low foot-arch with the help of an inserted insole.

  19. A model study of factors influencing projected changes in regional sea level over the twenty-first century

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pardaens, Anne K.; Lowe, J.A. [Met Office, Hadley Centre, Exeter, Devon (United Kingdom); Gregory, J.M. [Met Office, Hadley Centre, Exeter, Devon (United Kingdom); University of Reading, Department of Meteorology, Walker Institute for Climate System Research, Earley Gate, PO Box 243, Reading (United Kingdom)

    2011-05-15

    In addition to projected increases in global mean sea level over the 21st century, model simulations suggest there will also be changes in the regional distribution of sea level relative to the global mean. There is a considerable spread in the projected patterns of these changes by current models, as shown by the recent Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) Fourth Assessment (AR4). This spread has not reduced from that given by the Third Assessment models. Comparison with projections by ensembles of models based on a single structure supports an earlier suggestion that models of similar formulation give more similar patterns of sea level change. Analysing an AR4 ensemble of model projections under a business-as-usual scenario shows that steric changes (associated with subsurface ocean density changes) largely dominate the sea level pattern changes. The relative importance of subsurface temperature or salinity changes in contributing to this differs from region to region and, to an extent, from model-to-model. In general, thermosteric changes give the spatial variations in the Southern Ocean, halosteric changes dominate in the Arctic and strong compensation between thermosteric and halosteric changes characterises the Atlantic. The magnitude of sea level and component changes in the Atlantic appear to be linked to the amount of Atlantic meridional overturning circulation (MOC) weakening. When the MOC weakening is substantial, the Atlantic thermosteric patterns of change arise from a dominant role of ocean advective heat flux changes. (orig.)

  20. Factors influencing consumer dietary health preventative behaviours

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ritson Christopher

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The deterioration of the health status of the Romanian population during the economic transition from a centrally planned to a free market economy has been linked to lifestyles factors (e.g. diet regarded as a main determinants of the disparity in life expectancy between Eastern and Western Europe. Reforms in the health care system in this transition economy aim to focus on preventive action. The purpose of this study was to identify the factors that impact on the individual decision to engage in Dietary Health Preventive Behaviour (DHPB and investigate their influence in the context of an adapted health cognition model. Methods A population-based study recruited 485 adult respondents using random route sampling and face-to-face administered questionnaires. Results and discussion Respondents' health motivation, beliefs that diet can prevent disease, knowledge about nutrition, level of education attainment and age have a positive influence on DHPB. Perceived barriers to healthy eating have a negative impact on alcohol moderation. The information acquisition behaviour (frequency of reading food labels is negatively predicted by age and positively predicted by health motivation, education, self-reported knowledge about nutrition and household financial status. A significant segment of respondents believe they are not susceptible to the elicited diseases. Health promotion strategies should aim to change the judgments of health risk. Conclusion The adaptation of the Health Belief Model and the Theory of Health Preventive Behaviour represents a valid framework of predicting DHPB. The negative sign of perceived threat of disease on DHPB may suggest that, under an income constraint, consumers tend to trade off long-term health benefits for short-term benefits. This cautions against the use of negative messages in public health campaigns. Raising the awareness of diet-disease relationships, knowledge about nutrition (particularly

  1. FACTORS INFLUENCING COMPOSTING POULTRY WASTE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michał Kopeć

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Organic recycling of waste, taking into account sanitary safety, should be a fundamental method for recovering the nutrients present in the waste for plants and organic matter. It also refers to by-products of animal origin, which are not intended for consumption by humans. In the present research , composting of hydrated poultry slaughterhouse waste with maize straw was carried out. A combination with fodder yeast and post-cellulose lime was also introduced, which modified chemical and physico-chemical properties of the mixtures. The experiment was carried out by recording the biomass temperature for 110 days in 1.2×1.0×0.8 m reactors with perforated bottoms enabling active aeration. The following parameters were taken into consideration in the composted material: carbon, nitrogen, sulfur, respiratory activity, microorganisms, fractions of compost obtained after washing on sieves. Small amounts of fodder yeast favoured the development of microorganisms and caused a sanitary risk in the final product. At the initial stage, the temperature of raw compost in that object was several degrees lower than in the case of the composted mass without yeast addition. The addition of post-cellulose lime at ratios 6.5:1:6.5 (maize straw: poultry slaughterhouse waste: post-cellulose lime caused a change in the time of microbiological activity, and led to its inhibition in the final process. In comparison to objects with poultry waste, the highest degree of hygienization was found in the compost with post-cellulose lime (with pH close to neutral. By adjusting the ratios of substrates we can influence the microbiological activity, but the amounts of individual substrates should be determined taking into account the quality of the obtained compost.

  2. Factors influencing alginate gel biocompatibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tam, Susan K; Dusseault, Julie; Bilodeau, Stéphanie; Langlois, Geneviève; Hallé, Jean-Pierre; Yahia, L'Hocine

    2011-07-01

    Alginate remains the most popular polymer used for cell encapsulation, yet its biocompatibility is inconsistent. Two commercially available alginates were compared, one with 71% guluronate (HiG), and the other with 44% (IntG). Both alginates were purified, and their purities were verified. After 2 days in the peritoneal cavity of C57BL/6J mice, barium (Ba)-gel and calcium (Ca)-gel beads of IntG alginate were clean, while host cells were adhered to beads of HiG alginate. IntG gel beads, however, showed fragmentation in vivo while HiG gel beads stayed firm. The physicochemical properties of the sodium alginates and their gels were thoroughly characterized. The intrinsic viscosity of IntG alginate was 2.5-fold higher than that of HiG alginate, suggesting a greater molecular mass. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy indicated that both alginates were similar in elemental composition, including low levels of counterions in all gels. The wettabilities of the alginates and gels were also identical, as measured by contact angles of water on dry films. Ba-gel beads of HiG alginate resisted swelling and degradation when immersed in water, much more than the other gel beads. These results suggest that the main factors contributing to the biocompatibility of gels of purified alginate are the mannuronate/guluronate content and/or intrinsic viscosity.

  3. study of most important factors influencing the effectiveness of teaching from viewpoint of graduate students: AHP model approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sh Sadigh Maroufi

    2014-12-01

    Results: According to the students participating in the study, the eloquent, simple expression and clear conveyance of the subject were the most important factors (0.216, while the assessment of students at each session, in the mid-term exam, and in the final exam was of the lowest importance regarding the effectiveness of academic teaching (0.057. No significant difference was found between male and female students considering factors affecting effective teaching. Conclusion: Results indicated that the eloquent and simple expression of subjects has the greatest impact on teaching effectiveness. Therefore, to promote the current situation, the high-ranking educational authorities of the university are required to take into account the quality of teaching effectiveness, for instance, to organize appropriate and purposeful training courses.

  4. Application of Parametric Models of Survival Analysis in Determining the Cancer Influencing Factors in Patients with Thyroid Nodules

    OpenAIRE

    J.Yazdani Charati; O. Akha; AR Baghestani; F. Khosravi; Y Kavyani Charati

    2015-01-01

    Background & aim: One of the most common clinical problems among individuals is thyroid nodule diseases which are characterized by one or more nodules in the thyroid and are usually benign. It can be said that thyroid cancer is the most common endocrine cancer worldwide. This study aimed to determine the risk factors for cancer in patients with thyroid nodule in Mazandaran province,Iran, using parametric survival analysis. Methods: In the present historical cohort study, 26,730 patients w...

  5. An innovation resistance factor model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siti Salwa Mohd Ishak

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The process and implementation strategy of information technology in construction is generally considered through the limiting prism of theoretical contexts generated from innovation diffusion and acceptance. This research argues that more attention should be given to understanding the positive effects of resistance. The study develops a theoretical framing for the Integrated Resistance Factor Model (IRFM. The framing uses a combination of diffusion of innovation theory, technology acceptance model and social network perspective. The model is tested to identify the most significant resistance factors using Partial Least Square (PLS technique. All constructs proposed in the model are found to be significant, valid and consistent with the theoretical framework. IRFM is shown to be an effective and appropriate model of user resistance factors. The most critical factors to influence technology resistance in the online project information management system (OPIMS context are: support from leaders and peers, complexity of the technology, compatibility with key work practices; and pre-trial of the technology before it is actually deployed. The study provides a new model for further research in technology innovation specific to the construction industry.

  6. What Factors Influence Wind Perceptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stein, Tatiana

    Over the last decade, wind power has emerged as a possible source of energy and has attracted the attention of homeowners and policy makers worldwide. Many technological hurdles have been overcome in the last few years that make this technology feasible and economical. The United States has added more wind power than any other type of electric generation in 2012. Depending on the location, wind resources have shown to have the potential to offer 20% of the nation's electricity; a single, large wind turbine has the capacity to produce enough electricity to power 350 homes. Throughout the development of wind turbines, however, energy companies have seen significant public opposition towards the tall white structures. The purpose of this research was to measure peoples' perceptions on wind turbine development throughout their growth, from proposal to existing phase. Three hypotheses were developed based on the participant's political affiliation, proximity and knowledge of wind turbines. To validate these hypotheses, participants were asked an array of questions regarding their perception on economic, environmental, and social impacts of wind turbines with an online service called Amazon Mechanical Turk. The responses were from residents living in the United States and required them to provide their zip code for subsequent analysis. The analysis from the data obtained suggests that participants are favorable towards wind turbine development and would be supportive of using the technology in their community. Political affiliation and proximity to the nearest wind turbine in any phase of development (proposal, construction, existing) were also analyzed to determine if they had an effect on a person's overall perception on wind turbines and their technology. From the analysis, political affiliation was seen to be an indirect factor to understanding favorability towards wind turbines; the more liberal you are, the more supportive you will be towards renewable energy use

  7. Patient factors that influence warfarin dose response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Pamela J

    2010-06-01

    Warfarin has long been the mainstay of oral anticoagulation therapy for the treatment and prevention of venous and arterial thrombosis. The narrow therapeutic index of warfarin, and the complex number of factors that influence international normalized ratio (INR) response, makes optimization of warfarin therapy challenging. Determination of the appropriate warfarin dose during initiation and maintenance therapy requires an understanding of patient factors that influence dose response: age, body weight, nutritional status, acute and chronic disease states, and changes in concomitant drug therapy and diet. This review will examine specific clinical factors that can affect the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of warfarin, as well as the role of pharmacogenetics in optimizing warfarin therapy.

  8. The Influence of Self-Efficacy and Motivational Factors on Academic Performance in General Chemistry Course: A Modeling Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alci, Bulent

    2015-01-01

    This study aims to determine the predictive and explanatory model in terms of university students' academic performance in "General Chemistry" course and their motivational features. The participants were 169 university students in the 1st grade at university. Of the participants, 132 were female and 37 were male students. Regarding…

  9. The Interdependence of the Factors Influencing the Perceived Quality of the Online Learning Experience: A Causal Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peltier, James W.; Schibrowsky, John A.; Drago, William

    2007-01-01

    A structural model of the drivers of online education is proposed and tested. The findings help to identify the interrelated nature of the lectures delivered via technology outside of the traditional classroom, the importance of mentoring, the need to develop course structure, the changing roles for instructors and students, and the importance of…

  10. Adolescent Sibling Relationship Quality and Adjustment: Sibling Trustworthiness and Modeling, as Factors Directly and Indirectly Influencing These Associations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gamble, Wendy C.; Yu, Jeong Jin; Kuehn, Emily D.

    2011-01-01

    The main goal of this study was to examine the direct and moderating effects of trustworthiness and modeling on adolescent siblings' adjustment. Data were collected from 438 families including a mother, a younger sibling in fifth, sixth, or seventh grade (M = 11.6 years), and an older sibling (M = 14.3 years). Respondents completed Web-based…

  11. The Influence of Self-Efficacy and Motivational Factors on Academic Performance in General Chemistry Course: A Modeling Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alci, Bulent

    2015-01-01

    This study aims to determine the predictive and explanatory model in terms of university students' academic performance in "General Chemistry" course and their motivational features. The participants were 169 university students in the 1st grade at university. Of the participants, 132 were female and 37 were male students. Regarding…

  12. Influence factors and prediction of stormwater runoff of urban green space in Tianjin, China: laboratory experiment and quantitative theory model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xu; You, Xue-Yi; Ji, Min; Nima, Ciren

    2013-01-01

    The effects of limiting factors such as rainfall intensity, rainfall duration, grass type and vegetation coverage on the stormwater runoff of urban green space was investigated in Tianjin. The prediction equation of stormwater runoff was established by the quantitative theory with the lab experimental data of soil columns. It was validated by three field experiments and the relative errors between predicted and measured stormwater runoff are 1.41, 1.52 and 7.35%, respectively. The results implied that the prediction equation could be used to forecast the stormwater runoff of urban green space. The results of range and variance analysis indicated the sequence order of limiting factors is rainfall intensity > grass type > rainfall duration > vegetation coverage. The least runoff of green land in the present study is the combination of rainfall intensity 60.0 mm/h, duration 60.0 min, grass Festuca arundinacea and vegetation coverage 90.0%. When the intensity and duration of rainfall are 60.0 mm/h and 90.0 min, the predicted volumetric runoff coefficient is 0.23 with Festuca arundinacea of 90.0% vegetation coverage. The present approach indicated that green space is an effective method to reduce stormwater runoff and the conclusions are mainly applicable to Tianjin and the semi-arid areas with main summer precipitation and long-time interval rainfalls.

  13. Expression of the growth factor progranulin in endothelial cells influences growth and development of blood vessels: a novel mouse model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huishi Toh

    Full Text Available Progranulin is a secreted glycoprotein that regulates cell proliferation, migration and survival. It has roles in development, tumorigenesis, wound healing, neurodegeneration and inflammation. Endothelia in tumors, wounds and placenta express elevated levels of progranulin. In culture, progranulin activates endothelial proliferation and migration. This suggested that progranulin might regulate angiogenesis. It was, however, unclear how elevated endothelial progranulin levels influence vascular growth in vivo. To address this issue, we generated mice with progranulin expression targeted specifically to developing endothelial cells using a Tie2-promoter/enhancer construct. Three Tie2-Grn mouse lines were generated with varying Tie2-Grn copy number, and were called GrnLo, GrnMid, and GrnHi. All three lines showed increased mortality that correlates with Tie2-Grn copy number, with greatest mortality and lowest germline transmission in the GrnHi line. Death of the transgenic animals occurred around birth, and continued for three days after birth. Those that survived beyond day 3 survived into adulthood. Transgenic neonates that died showed vascular abnormalities of varying severity. Some exhibited bleeding into body cavities such as the pericardial space. Smaller localized hemorrhages were seen in many organs. Blood vessels were often dilated and thin-walled. To establish the development of these abnormalities, we examined mice at early (E10.5-14.5 and later (E15.5-17.5 developmental phases. Early events during vasculogenesis appear unaffected by Tie2-Grn as apparently normal primary vasculature had been established at E10.5. The earliest onset of vascular abnormality was at E15.5, with focal cerebral hemorrhage and enlarged vessels in various organs. Aberrant Tie2-Grn positive vessels showed thinning of the basement membrane and reduced investiture with mural cells. We conclude that progranulin promotes exaggerated vessel growth in vivo, with

  14. Expression of the growth factor progranulin in endothelial cells influences growth and development of blood vessels: a novel mouse model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toh, Huishi; Cao, Mingju; Daniels, Eugene; Bateman, Andrew

    2013-01-01

    Progranulin is a secreted glycoprotein that regulates cell proliferation, migration and survival. It has roles in development, tumorigenesis, wound healing, neurodegeneration and inflammation. Endothelia in tumors, wounds and placenta express elevated levels of progranulin. In culture, progranulin activates endothelial proliferation and migration. This suggested that progranulin might regulate angiogenesis. It was, however, unclear how elevated endothelial progranulin levels influence vascular growth in vivo. To address this issue, we generated mice with progranulin expression targeted specifically to developing endothelial cells using a Tie2-promoter/enhancer construct. Three Tie2-Grn mouse lines were generated with varying Tie2-Grn copy number, and were called GrnLo, GrnMid, and GrnHi. All three lines showed increased mortality that correlates with Tie2-Grn copy number, with greatest mortality and lowest germline transmission in the GrnHi line. Death of the transgenic animals occurred around birth, and continued for three days after birth. Those that survived beyond day 3 survived into adulthood. Transgenic neonates that died showed vascular abnormalities of varying severity. Some exhibited bleeding into body cavities such as the pericardial space. Smaller localized hemorrhages were seen in many organs. Blood vessels were often dilated and thin-walled. To establish the development of these abnormalities, we examined mice at early (E10.5-14.5) and later (E15.5-17.5) developmental phases. Early events during vasculogenesis appear unaffected by Tie2-Grn as apparently normal primary vasculature had been established at E10.5. The earliest onset of vascular abnormality was at E15.5, with focal cerebral hemorrhage and enlarged vessels in various organs. Aberrant Tie2-Grn positive vessels showed thinning of the basement membrane and reduced investiture with mural cells. We conclude that progranulin promotes exaggerated vessel growth in vivo, with subsequent effects in

  15. Factors Influencing Psychological Help Seeking in Adults: A Qualitative Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Topkaya, Nursel

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the current research is to identify which factors, and in what direction these factors influence adults' decisions to seek psychological help for their personal problems. The research was designed as a phenomenology model; the data was gathered through the semi-structured interview technique, which is mostly used in qualitative research…

  16. Individual Influence on Model Selection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sterba, Sonya K.; Pek, Jolynn

    2012-01-01

    Researchers in psychology are increasingly using model selection strategies to decide among competing models, rather than evaluating the fit of a given model in isolation. However, such interest in model selection outpaces an awareness that one or a few cases can have disproportionate impact on the model ranking. Though case influence on the fit…

  17. Factors Influencing the Selection of the Systems Integration Organizational Model Type for Planning and Implementing Government High-Technology Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Leann; Utley, Dawn

    2006-01-01

    While there has been extensive research in defining project organizational structures for traditional projects, little research exists to support high technology government project s organizational structure definition. High-Technology Government projects differ from traditional projects in that they are non-profit, span across Government-Industry organizations, typically require significant integration effort, and are strongly susceptible to a volatile external environment. Systems Integration implementation has been identified as a major contributor to both project success and failure. The literature research bridges program management organizational planning, systems integration, organizational theory, and independent project reports, in order to assess Systems Integration (SI) organizational structure selection for improving the high-technology government project s probability of success. This paper will describe the methodology used to 1) Identify and assess SI organizational structures and their success rate, and 2) Identify key factors to be used in the selection of these SI organizational structures during the acquisition strategy process.

  18. Influencing factors in the CO-precipitation process of superparamagnetic iron oxide nano particles: A model based study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roth, Hans-Christian; Schwaminger, Sebastian P.; Schindler, Michael [Bioseparation Engineering Group, Technische Universität München, Boltzmannstraße 15, Garching d-85748 (Germany); Wagner, Friedrich E. [Technische Universität München, Physics Department El5, Garching d-85748 (Germany); Berensmeier, Sonja, E-mail: s.berensmeier@tum.de [Bioseparation Engineering Group, Technische Universität München, Boltzmannstraße 15, Garching d-85748 (Germany)

    2015-03-01

    The study, presented here, focuses on the impact of synthesis parameters on the co-precipitation process of superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles. Particle diameters between 3 and 17 nm and saturation magnetizations from 26 to 89 Am{sup 2} kg{sup −1} were achieved by variation of iron salt concentration, reaction temperature, ratio of hydroxide ions to iron ions and ratio of Fe{sup 3+}/Fe{sup 2+}. All synthesis assays were conceived according to the “design of experiments” method. The results were fitted to significant models. Subsequent validation experiments could confirm the models with an accuracy>95%. The characterization of the chemical composition, as well as structural and magnetic properties was carried out using powder X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, Raman and Mössbauer spectroscopy and superconducting quantum interference device magnetometry. The results reveal that the particles' saturation magnetization can be enhanced by the employment of high iron salt concentrations and a molar ratio of Fe{sup 3+}/Fe{sup 2+} below 2:1. Furthermore, the particle size can be increased by higher iron salt concentrations and a hyperstoichiometric normal ratio of hydroxide ions to iron ions of 1.4:1. Overall results indicate that the saturation magnetization is directly related to the particle size. - Highlights: • We model the impact of synthesis parameters in the Massart process. • Optimization of synthesis parameters according to particle size and magnetization. • Particles are fully characterized with XRD, TEM and SQUID magnetometry.

  19. Factors that influence young people's mental health help-seeking behaviour: a study based on the Health Belief Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connor, Peter J; Martin, Brett; Weeks, Clinton S; Ong, Luzian

    2014-11-01

    To identify key predictors and moderators of mental health 'help-seeking behavior' in adolescents. Mental illness is highly prevalent in adolescents and young adults; however, individuals in this demographic group are among the least likely to seek help for such illnesses. Very little quantitative research has examined predictors of help-seeking behaviour in this demographic group. A cross-sectional design was used. A group of 180 volunteers between the ages of 17-25 completed a survey designed to measure hypothesized predictors and moderators of help-seeking behaviour. Predictors included a range of health beliefs, personality traits and attitudes. Data were collected in August 2010 and were analysed using two standard and three hierarchical multiple regression analyses. The standard multiple regression analyses revealed that extraversion, perceived benefits of seeking help, perceived barriers to seeking help and social support were direct predictors of help-seeking behaviour. Tests of moderated relationships (using hierarchical multiple regression analyses) indicated that perceived benefits were more important than barriers in predicting help-seeking behaviour. In addition, perceived susceptibility did not predict help-seeking behaviour unless individuals were health conscious to begin with or they believed that they would benefit from help. A range of personality traits, attitudes and health beliefs can predict help-seeking behaviour for mental health problems in adolescents. The variable 'Perceived Benefits' is of particular importance as it is: (1) a strong and robust predictor of help-seeking behaviour; and (2) a factor that can theoretically be modified based on health promotion programmes. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Influencing factors in MMR immunisation decision making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Marie C; Cox, Carol L

    Immunisation decision making is not a straightforward process for parents. Many factors influence parental decision making on whether they immunise their child with the measles, mumps and rubella (MMR) vaccine. The feasibility study described in this article provides insight into influencing factors associated with decisions regarding the immunisation of children by parents. The study findings suggest that the practice nurse is a credible source of information for parents seeking informed decision making. At a time when the incidence of measles and mumps is rising in the UK, the provision of appropriate information by the practice nurse has the potential to increase uptake of the MMR vaccine.

  1. Model approaches for estimating the influence of time-varying socio-environmental factors on macroparasite transmission in two endemic regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Remais, Justin; Zhong, Bo; Carlton, Elizabeth J; Spear, Robert C

    2009-12-01

    The environmental determinants of vector- and host-borne diseases include time-varying components that modify key transmission parameters, resulting in transient couplings between environmental phenomena and transmission processes. While some time-varying drivers are periodic in nature, some are aperiodic, such as those that involve episodic events or complex patterns of human behavior. Understanding these couplings can allow for prediction of periods of peak infection risk, and ultimately presents opportunities for optimizing intervention selection and timing. Schistosome macroparasites of humans exhibit multiple free-living stages as well as intermediate hosts, and are thus model organisms for illustrating the influence of environmental forcing on transmission. Time-varying environmental factors, termed gating functions, for schistosomes include larval response to temperature and rainfall, seasonal water contact patterns and snail population dynamics driven by weather variables. The biological bases for these modifiers are reviewed, and their values are estimated and incorporated into a transmission model that simulates a multi-year period in two schistosomiasis endemic regions. Modeling results combined with a scale dependent correlation analysis indicate the end effect of these site-specific gating functions is to strongly govern worm burden in these communities, in a manner particularly sensitive to the hydrological differences between sites. Two classes of gating functions were identified, those that act in concert to modify human infection (and determine worm acquisition late in the season), and those that act on snail infection (and determine early season worm acquisition). The importance of these factors for control programs and surveillance is discussed.

  2. Factors influencing superimposition error of 3D cephalometric landmarks by plane orientation method using 4 reference points: 4 point superimposition error regression model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jae Joon Hwang

    Full Text Available Superimposition has been used as a method to evaluate the changes of orthodontic or orthopedic treatment in the dental field. With the introduction of cone beam CT (CBCT, evaluating 3 dimensional changes after treatment became possible by superimposition. 4 point plane orientation is one of the simplest ways to achieve superimposition of 3 dimensional images. To find factors influencing superimposition error of cephalometric landmarks by 4 point plane orientation method and to evaluate the reproducibility of cephalometric landmarks for analyzing superimposition error, 20 patients were analyzed who had normal skeletal and occlusal relationship and took CBCT for diagnosis of temporomandibular disorder. The nasion, sella turcica, basion and midpoint between the left and the right most posterior point of the lesser wing of sphenoidal bone were used to define a three-dimensional (3D anatomical reference co-ordinate system. Another 15 reference cephalometric points were also determined three times in the same image. Reorientation error of each landmark could be explained substantially (23% by linear regression model, which consists of 3 factors describing position of each landmark towards reference axes and locating error. 4 point plane orientation system may produce an amount of reorientation error that may vary according to the perpendicular distance between the landmark and the x-axis; the reorientation error also increases as the locating error and shift of reference axes viewed from each landmark increases. Therefore, in order to reduce the reorientation error, accuracy of all landmarks including the reference points is important. Construction of the regression model using reference points of greater precision is required for the clinical application of this model.

  3. INFLUENCE FACTORS FOR LEASING MARKET CONTRACTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oana BĂRBULESCU

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to investigate the relationship between leasing contracts and some factors that influence the value of these contracts. In order to do this, we have decided on some quantitative marketing research by appealing to statistics for accomplishing the objectives that we have set: to find a correlation between the turnover percentage assigned to leasing expenses and several influence factors. This study indicated that the more contracts are signed by a firm, the more likely is to assign a bigger fraction of the income to each new leasing contract. The study confirmed that bigger companies are relying more on leasing as a way of financing than small companies. This study also discovered that companies with more employees are using larger contracts in order to sustain their activity. The findings are expected to contribute to adjusting the offers by the leasing companies, taking into consideration these factors and to using these factors in order to better predict the market evolution.

  4. Cholesterol as a factor regulating the influence of natural (PAF and lysoPAF) vs synthetic (ED) ether lipids on model lipid membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flasiński, Michał; Wydro, Paweł; Hąc-Wydro, Katarzyna; Dynarowicz-Łątka, Patrycja

    2013-11-01

    In this work we have performed a comparative study on the effect of antineoplastic ether lipid-edelfosine (ED), its natural analogs - Platelet Activating Factor (PAF) and its precursor (lyso-PAF), both lacking anticancer properties, on cholesterol/phosphatidylcholine (Chol/PC) monolayers, serving as model membranes. Since all the above ether lipids are membrane active, it can be expected that their effect on membranes may differentiate their biological activity. Our investigations were aimed at studying potential relationship of the effect of ED, PAF and lyso-PAF on model membranes, differing in condensation. We have modified molecular packing of Chol/PC model systems either by increasing the level of sterol in the system or changing the structure of PC, while keeping the same sterol content. Additionally, we have performed a detailed comparison of the miscibility of ED, PAF and lyso-PAF with various membrane lipids. The collected data evidenced that all the investigated ether lipids influence Chol/PC films in the same way; however, in a different magnitude. Moreover, the interactions of ED, PAF and lyso-PAF with model membranes were the strongest at the highest level of sterol in the system. A thorough analysis of the obtained results has proved that the effect of the investigated ether lipids on membranes is not dependent on the condensation of the system, but it is strongly determined by the concentration of cholesterol. Since ED was found to interact with model membranes stronger than PAF and lyso-PAF, we have suggested that this fact may contribute to differences in cytotoxicity of these compounds.

  5. A factor analysis to detect factors influencing building national brand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naser Azad

    Full Text Available Developing a national brand is one of the most important issues for development of a brand. In this study, we present factor analysis to detect the most important factors in building a national brand. The proposed study uses factor analysis to extract the most influencing factors and the sample size has been chosen from two major auto makers in Iran called Iran Khodro and Saipa. The questionnaire was designed in Likert scale and distributed among 235 experts. Cronbach alpha is calculated as 84%, which is well above the minimum desirable limit of 0.70. The implementation of factor analysis provides six factors including “cultural image of customers”, “exciting characteristics”, “competitive pricing strategies”, “perception image” and “previous perceptions”.

  6. On factors influencing students’ listening abilities

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡天秀

    2012-01-01

    As we all know,listening,speaking,reading,and writing are four basic skills in language teaching and learning.Listening plays an important role in improving other skills.There are some factors influencing students’ listening abilities.So it’s important for teachers to improve students’ listening abilities.

  7. Factors influencing laser cutting of wood

    Science.gov (United States)

    V.G. Barnekov; C.W. McMillin; H.A. Huber

    1986-01-01

    Factors influencing the ability of lasers to cut wood may be generally classified into these three areas: 1) characteristics of the laser beam; 2) equipment and processing variables; and 3) properties of the workpiece. Effects of beam power, mode, polarization, and stability are discussed as are aspects of optics, location of focal point, feed speed, gas-jet assist...

  8. Factors influencing the process of farm liquidation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michał Dudek

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In the paper the logit analysis was used in order to define the factors influencing farm liquidation. The prevalence of this phenomenon and its regional differences were analysed. Significant and negative impact of the number of people in a family farm and the number of machinery and technical equipment, as well as the positive impact of the farmer’ age are reported.

  9. Social Factors Influencing Child Health in Ghana.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emmanuel Quansah

    Full Text Available Social factors have profound effects on health. Children are especially vulnerable to social influences, particularly in their early years. Adverse social exposures in childhood can lead to chronic disorders later in life. Here, we sought to identify and evaluate the impact of social factors on child health in Ghana. As Ghana is unlikely to achieve the Millennium Development Goals' target of reducing child mortality by two-thirds between 1990 and 2015, we deemed it necessary to identify social determinants that might have contributed to the non-realisation of this goal.ScienceDirect, PubMed, MEDLINE via EBSCO and Google Scholar were searched for published articles reporting on the influence of social factors on child health in Ghana. After screening the 98 articles identified, 34 of them that met our inclusion criteria were selected for qualitative review.Major social factors influencing child health in the country include maternal education, rural-urban disparities (place of residence, family income (wealth/poverty and high dependency (multiparousity. These factors are associated with child mortality, nutritional status of children, completion of immunisation programmes, health-seeking behaviour and hygiene practices.Several social factors influence child health outcomes in Ghana. Developing more effective responses to these social determinants would require sustainable efforts from all stakeholders including the Government, healthcare providers and families. We recommend the development of interventions that would support families through direct social support initiatives aimed at alleviating poverty and inequality, and indirect approaches targeted at eliminating the dependence of poor health outcomes on social factors. Importantly, the expansion of quality free education interventions to improve would-be-mother's health knowledge is emphasised.

  10. Problem solving III: factors influencing classroom problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sayonara Salvador Cabral da Costa

    1997-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a review of the literature in the area of problem solving, particularly in physics, focusing only on factors that influence classroom problem solving. Fifty-seven papers have been analyzed in terms of theoretical basis, investigated factors/methodology and findings/relevant factors, which were organized in a table that served as support for a synthesis made by the authors. It is the third of a four-paper series reviewing different aspects of the problem solving subject.

  11. Uncovering Factors Influencing Interpersonal Health Communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donné, Lennie; Jansen, Carel; Hoeks, John

    2017-01-01

    Talking to friends, family, or peers about health issues might, among other things, increase knowledge of social norms and feelings of self-efficacy in adopting a healthier lifestyle. We often see interpersonal health communication as an important mediating factor in the effects of health campaigns on health behavior. No research has been done so far, however, on factors that influence whether and how people talk about health issues without being exposed to a health campaign first. In this exploratory study, we interviewed 12 participants about their communication behavior concerning six different health themes, like smoking and exercising. The results suggest that at least four types of interpersonal health communication can be distinguished, each influenced by different factors, like conversational partner and objective of the conversation. Future research should take this diversity of interpersonal health communication into account, and focus on designing health campaigns that aim to trigger dialogue within target populations.

  12. FACTORS INFLUENCING YIELD SPREADS OF THE MALAYSIAN BONDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norliza Ahmad

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Malaysian bond market is developing rapidly but not much is understood in terms of macroeconomic factors that could influence the yield spread of the Ringgit Malaysian denominated bonds. Based on a multifactor model, this paper examines the impact of four macroeconomic factors namely: Kuala Lumpur Composite Index (KLCI, Industry Production Index (IPI, Consumer Price Index (CPI and interest rates (IR on bond yield spread of the Malaysian Government Securities (MGS and Corporate Bonds (CBs for a period from January 2001 to December 2008. The findings support the expected hypotheses that CPI and IR are the major drivers that influence the changes in MGS yield spreads. However IPI and KLCI have weak and no influence on MGS yield spreads respectively Whilst IR, CPI and IPI have significant influence on the yield spreads of CB1, CB2 and CB3, KLCI has significant influence only on the CB1 yield spread but not on CB2 and CB3 yield spreads.

  13. Theoretical difference between impact factor and influence factor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Đilda Pečarić

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Bibliometric constructions of "knowledge maps" and "cognitive structures of science" do not differentiate between impact and influence factors. The difference can be constructedaccording to different meaning and interpretation of the terms reference and citation. Reference is "acknowledgment which one author gives to another", whereas citation is "acknowledgment which one document receives from another". Development of Information Science according to period and subject area is analyzed on the corpus of citation literature retrieved from doctoral dissertations in Information Science from 1978 to 2007 at Croatian universities. The research aim is to indicate the difference between document impact factor and author's influence factor (i.e. reference ability to produce effects on actions, behavior, and opinions of authors of doctoral theses. The influence factor serves to distinguish the key role of cited authors in time and according to the duration of the influence (the average age for cited papers of dominant authors in different periods is between eight and ten years. The difference between linear and interactive communication seems vital for the interpretation of cited half-life, i.e. the attitude of one science community towards used information resources and cognitive heritage. The analyzed corpus of 22,210 citations can be divided into three communication phases according to influence factor criteria: in the phase of dialogue and interactive communication 25% of bibliographic units are cited in the first four years; in the second phase another 25% of units are cited from the fifth to the ninth year; after ten years, in the dominant linear communication phase, approximately 30% of units are cited.

  14. Investigating important factors influencing purchasing from chains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naser Azad

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we survey important factors, influencing customers to buy more from one of well known food market operating in capital city of Iran named Shahrvand. The survey studies the effects of six factors including customer's perception, persuasive factors, brand, customers' expectations, product's characteristics and special features of store on attracting more customers. We have distributed questionnaire among 196 customers who regularly visit stores and analyzed details of the data. The results indicate that customers' perception is the most important item, which includes eight components. Years of experience is the most important item in our survey followed by impact of color and working hours. Diversity of services is another factor, which plays the most important role followed by quality of services. Next, fidelity and brand are other most important factors and the name of store and risk are in lower degree of importance.

  15. Human Factors Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-01-01

    Jack is an advanced human factors software package that provides a three dimensional model for predicting how a human will interact with a given system or environment. It can be used for a broad range of computer-aided design applications. Jack was developed by the computer Graphics Research Laboratory of the University of Pennsylvania with assistance from NASA's Johnson Space Center, Ames Research Center and the Army. It is the University's first commercial product. Jack is still used for academic purposes at the University of Pennsylvania. Commercial rights were given to Transom Technologies, Inc.

  16. Influence of organizational factors on safety

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haber, S.B.; Metlay, D.S.; Crouch, D.A.

    1990-01-01

    There is a need for a better understanding of exactly how organizational management factors at a nuclear power plant (NPP) affect plant safety performance, either directly or indirectly, and how these factors might be observed, measured, and evaluated. The purpose of this research project is to respond to that need by developing a general methodology for characterizing these organizational and management factors, systematically collecting information on their status and integrating that information into various types of evaluative activities. Research to date has included the development of the Nuclear Organization and Management Analysis Concept (NOMAC) of a NPP, the identification of key organizational and management factors, and the identification of the methods for systematically measuring and analyzing the influence of these factors on performance. Most recently, two field studies, one at a fossil fuel plant and the other at a NPP, were conducted using the developed methodology. Results are presented from both studies highlighting the acceptability, practicality, and usefulness of the methods used to assess the influence of various organizational and management factors including culture, communication, decision-making, standardization, and oversight. 6 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  17. Factors Influencing Colorectal Cancer Screening Participation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Z. Gimeno García

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Colorectal cancer (CRC is a major health problem worldwide. Although population-based CRC screening is strongly recommended in average-risk population, compliance rates are still far from the desirable rates. High levels of screening uptake are necessary for the success of any screening program. Therefore, the investigation of factors influencing participation is crucial prior to design and launches a population-based organized screening campaign. Several studies have identified screening behaviour factors related to potential participants, providers, or health care system. These influencing factors can also be classified in non-modifiable (i.e., demographic factors, education, health insurance, or income and modifiable factors (i.e., knowledge about CRC and screening, patient and provider attitudes or structural barriers for screening. Modifiable determinants are of great interest as they are plausible targets for interventions. Interventions at different levels (patient, providers or health care system have been tested across the studies with different results. This paper analyzes factors related to CRC screening behaviour and potential interventions designed to improve screening uptake.

  18. A Structural Equation Model of the Factors Associated with Influence and Power of IT Departments and Their Relationship to Firm's IT Orientation and Business Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kowshik, Raghu V.

    2010-01-01

    Although few firms can function without an information technology (IT) department, senior executives often consider IT as secondary. Historically, studies have found IT departments to have low influence and power status compared to other departments. Few, if any, studies have investigated what factors contribute to this subservient position. Three…

  19. 商业模式创新采纳影响因素研究%Influencing Factors of Business Model Innovation Adoption

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡保亮

    2013-01-01

    建立商业模式创新采纳影响因素研究模型,并通过案例调查获取122家服务业企业数据对该模型进行实证分析。研究表明,技术优势、高管支持有利于企业采纳产业模式创新维;资本供给有利于企业采纳企业模式创新维,市场需求则相反;市场需求、高管支持有利于企业采纳收入模式创新维,技术优势、资本供给则相反。%The paper builds the research model of business model innovation adoption and tests it with data from 122 service enterprises empirically .The results show that technology advantage and top management support have positive influence on industry model innovation; capital supply has positive influence on enterprise model innovation , and market demand has negative influence; market demand and top management support have positive influence on revenue model innovation , technology advantage and capital supply have negative influence .

  20. Influence of Biomedical Factors on the Five Viscera Score (FVS on Middle-Aged and Elderly Individuals: Application of Structural Equation Modeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taro Tomura

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The five viscera score (FVS is a diagnostic scale for traditional Chinese medicine (TCM. The purposes of current study are to elucidate the characteristics of FVS obtained from middle-aged to elderly individuals and to investigate the validity of FVS using biological medical data of middle-aged and elderly individuals. Structural equation modeling (SEM was used to conduct assessments between FVS and medical data. Eighty men and 99 women participated in this study, whose mean ages (SD were 58 ± 7 years in both genders showing no significant difference. FVS of women was significantly higher than that of men in the spleen of the 50s (P=0.019 and liver of the 60s age group (P=0.030. By SEM, the following biomedical factors were found to influence viscera: gender, diastolic blood pressure, and HDL-C for the liver; GLU, GOT, and γ-GTP for the spleen; age, BMI, and HCRP for the lungs; and HbA1c and creatinine clearance for the kidneys. These results provide objective evidence that FVS can be used for TCM diagnosis in middle-aged and elderly individuals.

  1. 基于VAR模型分析我国CPI的影响因素%Based on VAR model to analyze the influencing factors of China's CPI

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2013-01-01

    In order to analyze the influence factors of CPI in China in recent years, based on the VAR model and impulse response function and variance decomposition method, CPI reaction was sensitive to itself, and generalized money supply growth rate had a little impact on the CPI, but can not be ignored. The fixed asset investment growth rate and kerosene, electricity price index were not obvious on the role of the CPI.%  为了分析近年来我国 CPI 的影响因素,基于 VAR 模型并利用脉冲响应函数和方差分解方法,得出CPI对自身的反应较敏感,工业品出厂价格指数对CPI的冲击较大,广义货币供应量增长率对CPI的冲击较小,但不可忽视,固定资产投资增长率和煤油电价格指数对CPI的作用不明显。

  2. Modeling the key factors that could influence the diffusion of CO2 from a wellbore blowout in the Ordos Basin, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qi; Shi, Hui; Yang, Duoxing; Wei, Xiaochen

    2016-11-26

    Carbon dioxide (CO2) blowout from a wellbore is regarded as a potential environment risk of a CO2 capture and storage (CCS) project. In this paper, an assumed blowout of a wellbore was examined for China's Shenhua CCS demonstration project. The significant factors that influenced the diffusion of CO2 were identified by using a response surface method with the Box-Behnken experiment design. The numerical simulations showed that the mass emission rate of CO2 from the source and the ambient wind speed have significant influence on the area of interest (the area of high CO2 concentration above 30,000 ppm). There is a strong positive correlation between the mass emission rate and the area of interest, but there is a strong negative correlation between the ambient wind speed and the area of interest. Several other variables have very little influence on the area of interest, e.g., the temperature of CO2, ambient temperature, relative humidity, and stability class values. Due to the weather conditions at the Shenhua CCS demonstration site at the time of the modeled CO2 blowout, the largest diffusion distance of CO2 in the downwind direction did not exceed 200 m along the centerline. When the ambient wind speed is in the range of 0.1-2.0 m/s and the mass emission rate is in the range of 60-120 kg/s, the range of the diffusion of CO2 is at the most dangerous level (i.e., almost all Grade Four marks in the risk matrix). Therefore, if the injection of CO2 takes place in a region that has relatively low perennial wind speed, special attention should be paid to the formulation of pre-planned, emergency measures in case there is a leakage accident. The proposed risk matrix that classifies and grades blowout risks can be used as a reference for the development of appropriate regulations. This work may offer some indicators in developing risk profiles and emergency responses for CO2 blowouts.

  3. Factors influencing the feasibility of laparoscopy colectomy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    He Zhiyun; Zhang Zhongtao

    2014-01-01

    Objective The objective was to review the factors affecting the feasibility of performing successful laparoscopic colectomy.Data sources The literatures about the risk factors closely related to the ability to perform laparoscopic colectomy on different surgical diseases of the colon cited in this review were obtained from PubMed published in English from 2006 to 2012.Study selection Original articles regarding the risk factors that affect the ability to perform laparoscopic colectomy were selected.Results Obesity,diabetes,inflammatory bowel diseases,advanced age,emergency operation,and pelvic anatomy are all important risk factors that increase the risk of developing serious complications such as hemorrhage,anastomotic leak,and skin and soft tissue infections following laparoscopic colectomy.These factors also increase the likelihood of conversion to an open operation.In this study,we reviewed the recent original articles about the relationship of laparoscopic colectomy with these risk factors.We also describe some strategies that limit the likelihood of these complications and the likelihood of conversion to an open operation.Conclusions Obesity,diabetes,inflammatory bowel diseases,age,emergency operation,and pelvic anatomy are all important risk factors that increase the risk of either serious complications or conversion to open operation with laparoscopic colectomy.Evaluation of these risk factors preoperatively should influence the decision to perform colectomy using laparoscopic techniques.

  4. Factors Influencing Tacit Knowledge in Construction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jawahar Nesan

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Increased complexity of the construction business and consequentuse of new management concepts and technologies ledconstruction organisations to focus more on the transfer of explicitknowledge. However, it is the tacit knowledge that determinesthe construction companies’ competitiveness in a business thatis driven by turbulent market conditions and customers’ everincreasingdemands. This paper highlights the importance of tacitknowledge sharing in construction, explores the challenges andopportunities to efficiently share tacit knowledge, and based on theliterature review identifies some critical factors that influence tacitknowledge in construction. It is argued that employees’ knowledgesharing (learning behaviours are influenced by work practices thatare borne by respective organisational behaviours. Organisational,cultural, and project characteristics that facilitate knowledgesharing among construction employees are explored and thepractices that influence the construction employee behaviour insharing tacit knowledge are highlighted.

  5. Factors Influencing Tacit Knowledge in Construction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jawahar Nesan

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Increased complexity of the construction business and consequentuse of new management concepts and technologies ledconstruction organisations to focus more on the transfer of explicitknowledge. However, it is the tacit knowledge that determinesthe construction companies’ competitiveness in a business thatis driven by turbulent market conditions and customers’ everincreasingdemands. This paper highlights the importance of tacitknowledge sharing in construction, explores the challenges andopportunities to efficiently share tacit knowledge, and based on theliterature review identifies some critical factors that influence tacitknowledge in construction. It is argued that employees’ knowledgesharing (learning behaviours are influenced by work practices thatare borne by respective organisational behaviours. Organisational,cultural, and project characteristics that facilitate knowledgesharing among construction employees are explored and thepractices that influence the construction employee behaviour insharing tacit knowledge are highlighted.

  6. Microencapsulation techniques, factors influencing encapsulation efficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jyothi, N Venkata Naga; Prasanna, P Muthu; Sakarkar, Suhas Narayan; Prabha, K Surya; Ramaiah, P Seetha; Srawan, G Y

    2010-05-01

    Microencapsulation is one of the quality preservation techniques of sensitive substances and a method for production of materials with new valuable properties. Microencapsulation is a process of enclosing micron-sized particles in a polymeric shell. There are different techniques available for the encapsulation of drug entities. The encapsulation efficiency of the microparticle or microsphere or microcapsule depends upon different factors like concentration of the polymer, solubility of polymer in solvent, rate of solvent removal, solubility of organic solvent in water, etc. The present article provides a literature review of different microencapsulation techniques and different factors influencing the encapsulation efficiency of the microencapsulation technique.

  7. Factors Influencing Consumer Behavior of Smartphone Users

    OpenAIRE

    Nagarkoti, Bishal

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the study is to know about the factors influencing consumer behavior of Smartphone users. Under this study, the main focus is to identify whether Smartphone users buy Smartphone because of their need or wish, reasons to buy expensive smart phones, how social and personal factors affect them to make purchasing decision, for what purposes they use Smartphone, where and how long a day, change in usage of com-puters due to Smartphone and how high is the phone bill after using Smartphon...

  8. FACTORS INFLUENCING BENDING RIGIDITY OF SUBMERGED VEGETATION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU Long-hua; YANG Xiao-li

    2011-01-01

    The bending rigidity of submerged vegetation is closely related with vegetative drag force.This work aims at determining the effects of flow conditions and characteristics of vegetation on the bending rigidity of submerged vegetation.Based on the dimensional analysis method,the factors influencing the bending rigidity of individual submerged vegetation were analyzed.The relationship between the relative bending rigidity and its influencing factors was investigated by experimental observation,and a relative bending rigidity expression for submerged vegetation was obtained by means of multiple linear regression method.The results show that the submerged vegetation has three states under different inflow conditions,and the each critical relative bending rigidity of individual submerged vegetation was determined for the different states of submerged vegetation.

  9. Social Factors Influencing Participation in Sport for the Deaf.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, David A.

    1987-01-01

    The article looks at social factors influencing participation in sport by the deaf including communication mode and value orientations of community, family, school, and peers of both the hearing and deaf world. A model for integration of the deaf into sports is offered. (DB)

  10. Factors Influencing Impulse Buying in Retail Stores

    OpenAIRE

    Giorgadze, Nino

    2014-01-01

    Impulse buying is a widely pervasive phenomenon. Statistics shows that more and more shoppers are experiencing irresistible urge to purchase unplanned and in most cases unnecessary product. Existing researches fall short in identifying most suitable tools that marketers can adopt in order to promote impulsive sales. Therefore, this thesis provides deep analysis of those, controllable factors that influence impulse buying. Particularly four external cues are examined: product display, promotio...

  11. Major Factors influences the 2008 Stock Market

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    @@ 2007 was an unusual year for China's stock market, as the index climbed from 2675 points up to 6124 by the end of the year, setting new records again and again throughout 2007. What will happen to the stock market in the coming 2008? Let's havea look at some of the main factors that will influence the stock market this year, perhaps we can find out if 2008 will be another memorable year full of surprises.

  12. Factors influencing the eicosanoids synthesis in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szefel, Jarosław; Kruszewski, Wiesław Janusz; Sobczak, Ewa

    2015-01-01

    External factors activate a sequence of reactions involving the reception, transduction, and transmission of signals to effector cells. There are two main phases of the body's reaction to harmful factors: the first aims to neutralize the harmful factor, while in the second the inflammatory process is reduced in size and resolved. Secondary messengers such as eicosanoids are active in both phases. The discovery of lipoxins and epi-lipoxins demonstrated that not all arachidonic acid (AA) derivatives have proinflammatory activity. It was also revealed that metabolites of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) such as resolvins, protectins, and maresins also take part in the resolution of inflammation. Knowledge of the above properties has stimulated several clinical trials on the influence of EPA and DHA supplementation on various diseases. However, the equivocal results of those trials prevent the formulation of guidelines on EPA and DHA supplementation. Prescription drugs are among the substances with the strongest influence on the profile and quantity of the synthesized eicosanoids. The lack of knowledge about their influence on the conversion of EPA and DHA into eicosanoids may lead to erroneous conclusions from clinical trials.

  13. A Review of Factors Influencing Health Inequalities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassan Almaspoor Khanghah

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available ​Background and Objectives : Inequity in health is a universal term which is used for showing current differences, variations and inequalities of people in accessing to health services. The current study aimed to assess the factors influencing health inequalities to present the results to the researchers and health care professionals. Material and Methods : In this review, several databases including PubMed, Proquest, Scopus, Google Scholar search engine, SID and IranDoc were searched within 2000-2014 period. We found 746 articles and refined them step by step according to the aim of the study by reviewing the titles, abstracts and full texts. Finally, 16 articles were selected for further study Results: In the present study, identified determinants in health inequalities were as follows: 1- Economic and income factors 2- Political factors, social and public policy 3- Cultural and social values 4- social and demographic factors 5- Behavioral, psychological and biological factors. Although, other factors like governmental, international, social cohesion, incidents and even the health system itself were involved in health inequalities, but the listed determinants were among the most important determinants in health inequalities in the conducted studies. Conclusion : Given the importance of people's health and inequalities in health, the approach should focus on reducing the inequalities in all policies and development programs and the role of these factors should be taken into consideration by managers and policy-makers

  14. Influence of social factors on lead exposure and child development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bornschein, R.L.

    1985-10-01

    A brief overview of current views of child development is provided, with particular attention given to the role the child's physical and social environment plays in influencing the developmental process. Examples from the recent literature are used to illustrate how these factors can influence lead exposure and most importantly how they might interact with lead to ameliorate or exacerbate possible lead effects. An example is provided which demonstrates that failure to control adequately and to adjust the data statistically to correct for the influence of these factors can lead one erroneously to attribute cognitive and behavioral changes to lead. Finally, data from the Cincinnati Prospective Lead Study are presented to illustrate the application of structural equation modeling as a means for unraveling the complex web of sociodemographic, environmental and behavioral influences on childhood lead exposure.

  15. Factors influencing adherence among older people with osteoarthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loew, Laurianne; Brosseau, Lucie; Kenny, Glen P; Durand-Bush, Natalie; Poitras, Stéphane; De Angelis, Gino; Wells, George A

    2016-09-01

    This study aims to identify potential factors that could affect adherence and influence the implementation of an evidence-based structured walking program, among older adults diagnosed with knee osteoarthritis. A total of 69 participants with mild to moderate osteoarthritis of the knee fulfilled an online survey on potential factors that could affect their adherence to an evidence-based structured walking program. Adherence with regard to the influencing factors was explored using a logistic regression model. Results tend to show higher odds of adhering to the evidence-based walking program if the participants were supervised (more than 2.9 times as high), supported by family/friends (more than 3.7 times as high), and not influenced by emotional involvement (more than 11 times as high). The odds of adhering were 3.6 times lower for participants who indicated a change in their medication intake and 3.1 times lower for individuals who considered themselves as less physically active (95 % confidence interval (CI)). Our exploratory findings identified and defined potential adherence factors that could guide health professionals in their practice to better identify positive influences and obstacles to treatment adherence, which would lead to the adoption of a more patient-centered approach. A large-scale study is required to clearly delineate the key factors that would influence adherence. We addressed a new knowledge gap by identifying the main strategies to promote the long-term adherence of community-based walking program.

  16. Internal factors influencing the knowledge continuity ensuring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hana Urbancová

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the systematic ensuring of knowledge continuity is the continuity of an organisation’s development, the quality of managerial positions and the continuity of decision-making. By ensuring knowledge continuity, organisations may gain a performance-enhancing factor. The objective of the article is to identify the level of impact of decisive internal factors determining knowledge continuity ensuring and contributing to the efficiency of the organisations. Knowledge continuity ensuring as an internal force, however, can together with the right employees, help adapt more quickly to external conditions that organisations can hardly control. Monitoring and ensuring knowledge continuity can contribute to a higher quality of processes in general, in particular processes exploiting knowledge, and thus help improve the level of management. The first part of the article presents theoretical views on the aspects of knowledge continuity ensuring in organisations while the second part analyses the findings of the surveys carried out among managers in organisations in the Czech Republic. Based on the summary of the outcomes obtained it is possible to say that internal factors influence knowledge continuity ensuring in organisations, however, the level of impact of individual factors is determined by their size. The findings regarding the impact of each of the factors show that the most significant barriers to knowledge continuity ensuring are those associated with the human factor.

  17. Environmental factors influencing the development of atherosclerosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrzej Brodziak

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the paper is to present an overview of recent findings on the environmental and behavioral factors influencing the development of atherosclerosis. The authors primarily concentrated on deliberations of possibile main causes of the damage of the endothelium. At the same time the following pathogenic mechanisms as cellular dysfunction, inflammation and coagulation disorders have been enumerated. The links between the state of the vascular endothelium and life style have been emphasized. It is also important to note that the primary causes of the endothelial damage should be traced as originally suggested many years ago viewing such factors as anger, hostility, aggression, impulsiveness and depression but with a new approach. The authors supplement the comments, on the environmental factors influencing the development of atherosclerosis, with basic data on family predisposition to the development of this disease. They highlight that current genetic research have not determined genes responsible for atheroscelosis. According to the authors the considerations and conclusions presented in this overview are important for the educational purposes related to the most frequent disease process resulting in many diseases in medical disciplines.

  18. Contextual factors influencing research use in nursing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    French, Beverley

    2005-01-01

    Contextual factors are perceived to be significant barriers to research-utilisation-related activity, but little is known about how context impacts on specific research-based decisions, or how the individual interacts with the organisation in the requirement for research-based change. This study describes the impact of contextual factors on the practical reasoning of nurse specialists in the construction of policy for practice. Three groups of clinical nurse specialists were observed during a series of meetings convened to construct evidence-based guidelines for nursing practice. Transcripts of the meetings were analysed to identify and categorise the physical, social, political, and economic influences on 31 nursing issues. Multiple contextual factors influenced each decision made, with decisions about nursing practice bounded by setting and system considerations, relationships with others in the care team, and resource constraints. Practitioners were involved in weighing up alternative scenarios, contexts, and contingencies for each decision, requiring strategies to adapt and reconstruct the nature of care, to influence others, and to affect organisational decision-making processes. The practical accomplishment of evidence-based practice required diverse skills: translating between evidence and practice; mediating the values, preferences, and working practices of multiple stakeholders; negotiating organisational complexity and the management of boundaries; and coordinating inter-organisational and inter-agency working. Nurse specialists in this study had a significant role in instigating, fuelling, and coordinating policy review, predominantly by communication across professional and organisational boundaries. Clinical specialists acting as organisational boundary spanners require skills in the informal cultural work of organising, facilitating, and maintaining links across professional, team, and organisational boundaries. If their role in the negotiation of

  19. Influence of selected factors on induced syneresis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jovanović Snežana T.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Syneresis is the process of whey separation induced by gel contraction resulting in rearranging or restructuring of casein matrix formed during enzymatic coagulation. Numerous factors can influence the process of syneresis. The influences of pH, calcium concentration, temperature of coagulation of milk and applied heat treatment on the syneresis induced by different intensity of centrifugal force have been investigated. Coagulated samples were centrifuged at 1000, 2000 and 3000 rpm for 5 min, respectively. Reconstituted skim milk powder (control sample and reconstituted non-fat milk heat treated at 87ºC/10 min (experimental sample are coagulated at temperatures of 30ºC and 35ºC, at pH value of 5.8 and 6.2, and with the addition of 100, 200 and 400 mg/l of CaCl2, respectively. Centrifugation at 1000 rpm of both control and experimental samples didn’t recover any sera, regardless of the applied coagulation conditions. This indicates that the intensity of centrifugal force wasn’t strong enough to disrupt gel structure and cause syneresis. When the intensity of centrifugal force was increased up to 2000 rpm, the syneresis was induced, but the degree of syneresis depended on the applied factors of coagulation, primary on the applied heat treatments and temperature of coagulation. The amount of added CaCl2 didn’t have a significant influence on the induced syneresis at 2000 rpm. The induced syneresis was very significant for both control and experimental samples when the intensity of centrifugal force of 3000 rpm was applied. It was also noted that curd produced from heat treated milk in which milk protein coaggregates were formed, released less sera regardless of the applied coagulation factors.

  20. Analysis of Influencing Factors of Construction Cost Based on Interpretative Structural Modeling%基于解释结构模型的施工成本影响因素分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱晶

    2015-01-01

    Recognizing factors which influence construction cost and figuring out the relationship between factors is of signifi -cance for cost management .On the basis of literature review , fifteen influencing factors were proposed .And the hierarchical structure model of factors which influence construction cost was constructed based on interpretative structural modeling (ISM). The hierarchical relationship of influencing factors was acquired and strategies used to control construction cost were put forward . It aims at improving construction cost management by providing solving ideas for construction enterprises .%论述了识别影响施工成本的因素,理清施工成本各影响因素之间的关系对做好施工成本管理具有的重要意义,通过文献研究提炼出影响施工成本的15个因素,并借助解释结构模型构建了施工成本影响因素的层次结构模型,得出了各影响因素之间的层次关系,在此基础上分析了控制施工成本的策略,为施工企业提高施工成本管理水平提供了一种新思路。

  1. Factors influencing aircraft ground handling performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yager, T. J.

    1983-01-01

    Problems associated with aircraft ground handling operations on wet runways are discussed and major factors which influence tire/runway braking and cornering traction capability are identified including runway characteristics, tire hydroplaning, brake system anomalies, and pilot inputs. Research results from tests with instrumented ground vehicles and aircraft, and aircraft wet runway accident investigation are summarized to indicate the effects of different aircraft, tire, and runway parameters. Several promising means are described for improving tire/runway water drainage capability, brake system efficiency, and pilot training to help optimize aircraft traction performance on wet runways.

  2. CONSIDERATIONS REGARDING THE FACTORS THAT INFLUENCE THE PERFORMANCE OF CLUSTER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DANA-CODRUŢA DUDĂ-DĂIANU

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Economic performance is an objective of each cluster and innovation is a result of future performance indicator. The working paper proposed to measure the cluster performance based on three success factors: competitiveness cluster, cluster growth and the degree of the objectives. Based on Porter's diamond model will be a breakdown of the main factors influencing the development of clusters and their delineation in general and specific factors cluster. In the same time, will analyze the main directions that define performance clusters: access to resources, access to specialized knowledge, entrepreneurship based on the opportunities, collaboration between organizations and cluster specific organizational culture.

  3. Theoretical Analysis Model of the Adoption of Reactive and Proactive Eco-Innovation Strategies: the Influence of Contextual Factors Internal and External to Organizations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marlete Beatriz Maçaneiro

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This article aims to provide research propositions of the relationship between internal and external contextual factors and strategies for reac tive and proactive eco-innovation, defining the theoretical analysis model from these propositi ons. Therefore, this study is characterized as a theoretical essay, adopting the methodological procedure of literature review, through an analysis of national and international articles on the subject of eco-innovation strategy. As a result, the external and internal factors that affe ct the adoption of eco-innovation strategies were defined and propositions were made for their r elationship. With this theoretical approach and the establishment of the factors, it was possib le to design the theoretical model to analyze the impact of contextual factors on the adoption of eco-innovation strategies.

  4. Factors influencing the cardiac MIBG accumulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takatsu, Hisato; Fujiwara, Hisayoshi [Gifu Univ. (Japan). School of Medicine

    1997-02-01

    Following factors possibly influencing the cardiac MIBG accumulation were examined mainly in mice. 1. The specific activity of the MIBG (meta-iodo-benzyl guanidine) on the neuronal and non-neuronal fractions. 2. Motor restriction stress on MIBG accumulation and washout. 3. Loading and restriction of sodium chloride on the accumulation and effect of suppression of renin-angiotensin system. 4. Examinations in Dahl rats. 125I- or 131I-MIBG was intravenously administered to mice at 74 kBq. At 30 min or 4 hr after administration, mice were sacrificed and their left ventricles were dissected out for measurement of radioactivity in a liquid scintillation counter. Salt-sensitive and -resistant Dahl rats were given with 37 MBq of 123I-MIBG and cardiac radioactivity was measured externally for calculation of washout. Factors examined were found highly correlated with the accumulation of MIBG and measurement of its washout was considered useful for evaluating sympathetic activity. (K.H.)

  5. A survey on factors influencing city branding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed Mohsen Mahmoudzadeh

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, the issue of “globalization” is entering to all areas in the world. In addition to products and companies, cities and countries also have the opportunity to see themselves as important actors in international arena. Places define their positions in different fields like business, leisure and recreation, educational opportunities, living, etc. This paper presents an empirical study to introduce city branding as one of the solutions to join globalization process. The method of this research is based on the “descriptive-analytic” and utilize the available literature and experts’ opinions to prioritize the influencing factors of city branding. We use Delphi consensus methods and technique of analytical hierarchy process to evaluate the factors. Finally, the results of the study indicate that security, transportation and mental creativity are the weakest fields and business and shopping facilities are strong fields of city branding in metropolitan of Tehran.

  6. A study of factors influencing advanced puberty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong Jun Park

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Purpose : The purpose of this study was to evaluate the timing of puberty and the factors inducing advanced puberty in elemental school students of low grades. Methods : The 1st, 2nd, and 3rd grade elemental students from the Goyang province were randomly selected, and their sexual maturation rate was assessed by physical examination. After obtaining an informed consent, a questionnaire was administered to the parents; eating habits, lifestyle, use of growth-inducing medication, and present illness of the students were evaluated to determine the factors that induced advanced puberty. The data were statistically analyzed. Results : We selected 170 children and the girls:boys sex ratio was 1.2:1. Two 9-year-old boys were in genital stage 2. Two (14.3% 6-year-old girls, 6 (19.4% 7-year-old girls, 15 (39.6% 8-year-old girls, and 4 (57.1% 9-year-old girls were in breast stage 2. The average pubertal timing predicted for girls was 9.11¡?#?.86; years. The main factors influencing pubertal timing were obesity scale, frequency of eating fast food, and the use of growth-inducing medication. A high rating on the obesity scale and high frequency of eating fast food indicated advanced stage of puberty. Growth-inducing medication induced puberty through obesity. Conclusion : We proposed that predictive average pubertal timing in girls was 9.11¡?#?.86; years, which was consistent with the previously reported findings from abroad. The significant influencing factors in advanced puberty were obesity scale and frequency of fast food.

  7. Factors influencing seed germination in Cerrado grasses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosana Marta Kolb

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Few studies address the ecology of herbs of Cerrado grasslands, which are ecosystems where the long dry season, high temperatures, insolation, fire and invasive grasses greatly influencing germination and the establishment of plants. We assessed germination of 13 species of Poaceae from Cerrado grasslands under nursery conditions or in germination chambers, the latter with i recently collected seeds and seeds after six months storage, ii under constant and alternating temperatures, and iii in the presence and absence of light. Germinability, mean germination time (MGT and required light were quantified to elucidate factors involved in successful germination. Germinability was low for most grasses, probably because of low seed viability. For most species, germinability and MGT were not altered by seed storage. Germination percentages were higher at alternating temperatures and in the presence of light, factors that are more similar to natural environmental situations compared with constant temperature or the absence of light. Our findings indicate that alternating temperatures and light incidence are key factors for germination of species of Poaceae. The maintenance of these environmental factors, which are crucial for the conservation of Cerrado grasslands, depends on appropriate management interventions, such as fire management and the control of biological invasion.

  8. Factors Influencing Acceptance Of Contraceptive Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anita Gupta

    1997-04-01

    Full Text Available Research Problem: What are the factors influencing acceptance of contraceptive methods.Objective: To study the determinants influencing contra­ceptive acceptance.Study design: Population based cross - sectional study.Setting: Rural area of East DelhiParticipants: Married women in the reproductive age group.Sample:Stratified sampling technique was used to draw the sample.Sample Size: 328 married women of reproductive age group.Study Variables: Socio-economic status, Type of contraceptive, Family size, Male child.Outcome Variables: Acceptance of contraceptivesStatistical Analysis: By proportions.Result: Prevalence of use of contraception at the time of data collection was 40.5%. Tubectomy and vasectomy were most commonly used methods. (59.4%, n - 133. Educational status of the women positively influenced the contraceptive acceptance but income did not. Desire for more children was single most important deterrent for accepting contraception.Recommendations:(i             Traditional method of contraception should be given more attention.(ii            Couplesshould be brought in the contraceptive use net at the early stage of marriage.

  9. Landslide forecasting and factors influencing predictability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Intrieri, Emanuele; Gigli, Giovanni

    2016-11-01

    Forecasting a catastrophic collapse is a key element in landslide risk reduction, but it is also a very difficult task owing to the scientific difficulties in predicting a complex natural event and also to the severe social repercussions caused by a false or missed alarm. A prediction is always affected by a certain error; however, when this error can imply evacuations or other severe consequences a high reliability in the forecast is, at least, desirable. In order to increase the confidence of predictions, a new methodology is presented here. In contrast to traditional approaches, this methodology iteratively applies several forecasting methods based on displacement data and, thanks to an innovative data representation, gives a valuation of the reliability of the prediction. This approach has been employed to back-analyse 15 landslide collapses. By introducing a predictability index, this study also contributes to the understanding of how geology and other factors influence the possibility of forecasting a slope failure. The results showed how kinematics, and all the factors influencing it, such as geomechanics, rainfall and other external agents, are key concerning landslide predictability.

  10. Evaluation of the efficacy of factors influencing on marketing SMEs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mona Yaghoubi

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an empirical investigation to study the effects of different factors influencing on marketing in small and medium enterprises (SMEs in city of Tehran, Iran. The study has been accomplished among 57 SMEs out of 70 active business units who were involved in hand made carpet. The survey uses a questionnaire originally developed by Merrilees et al. (2011 [Merrilees, B., Rundle-Thiele, S., & Lye, A. (2011. Marketing capabilities: Antecedents and implications for B2B SME performance. Industrial Marketing Management, 40(3, 368-375.] to determine the factors influencing on marketing SMEs. Using structural equation modeling, the results of survey indicate that market orientation, management capability, innovation capability and brand capability of SME's marketing performance influence on development of marketing, positively.

  11. The Influence Factors and Mechanism of Societal Risk Perception

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Rui; Shi, Kan; Li, Shu

    Risk perception is one of important subjects in management psychology and cognitive psychology. It is of great value in the theory and practice to investigate the societal hazards that the public cares a lot especially in Socio-economic transition period. A survey including 30 hazards and 6 risk attributes was designed and distributed to about 2, 485 residents of 8 districts, Beijing. The major findings are listed as following: Firstly, a scale of societal risk perception was designed and 2 factors were identified (Dread Risk & Unknown Risk). Secondly, structural equation model was used to analyze the influence factors and mechanism of societal risk perception. Risk preference, government support and social justice could influence societal risk perception directly. Government support fully moderated the relationship between government trust and societal risk perception. Societal risk perception influenced life satisfaction, public policy preferences and social development belief.

  12. Intrinsic and extrinsic factors influencing large African herbivore movements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Venter, J.A.; Prins, H.H.T.; Mashanova, A.; Boer, de W.F.; Slotow, R.

    2015-01-01

    Understanding environmental as well as anthropogenic factors that influence large herbivore ecological patterns and processes should underpin their conservation and management. We assessed the influence of intrinsic, extrinsic environmental and extrinsic anthropogenic factors on movement behaviour o

  13. Multilevel factors influencing preterm birth in an urban setting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saba W. Masho

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Racial disparity in preterm is a major problem in the US. Although significant strides have been made in identifying some of the risk factors, the complexities between community and individual factors are not understood. This study examines the influence of individual and community level factors affecting preterm birth among Black and White women in an urban setting. A 10-year live birth registry dataset from a mid-sized, racially diverse city was analyzed (N = 30,591. Data were geocoded and merged with block group level Census data. Five hierarchical models were examined using PROC GLIMMIX. Education, illicit drug use, pregnancy complications, previous preterm birth, paternal presence, inadequate and adequate plus prenatal care, and poverty were associated with preterm births in both Blacks and Whites. In Black women, increasing maternal age, maternal smoking, and a previous infant death were significant predictors of preterm births, which was not the case for White women. Residing in medium or high poverty neighborhoods resulted in 19% and 28% higher odds, respectively, of preterm birth for Black women. In addition to individual level factors, neighborhood poverty is an important risk factor influencing preterm birth. It is essential to engage multisectoral agencies in addressing factors influencing preterm birth.

  14. URETERAL ACCESS SHEATH INFLUENCE ON THE URETERAL WALL EVALUATED BY CYCLOOXYGENASE-2 AND TUMOUR NECROSIS FACTOR- α IN A PORCINE MODEL

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lildal, Søren Kissow; Nørregaard, Rikke; Andreassen, Kim Hovgaard;

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To examine the effect of ureteral access sheaths (UAS) on the expression of the proinflammatory mediators cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) and tumour necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) in the ureteral wall. MATERIAL AND METHODS: In 22 pigs a ureteral access sheath was inserted and removed after 2 minutes......, respectively. CONCLUSION: The pro-inflammatory mediators COX-2 and TNF-α were significantly up-regulated in the ureteral wall by the influence of ureteral access sheaths. These findings may have implications for postoperative pain, drainage and complications....

  15. Classifying bio-concentration factor with random forest algorithm, influence of the bio-accumulative vs. non-bio-accumulative compound ratio to modelling result, and applicability domain for random forest model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piir, G; Sild, S; Maran, U

    2014-01-01

    In environmental risk assessment, the bio-concentration factor (BCF) is a widely used parameter in the estimation of the bio-accumulation potential of chemicals. BCF data often have an uneven distribution of classes (bio-accumulative vs. non-bio-accumulative), which could severely bias the classification results towards the prevailing class. The present study focuses on the influence of uneven distribution of the classes in training phase of Random Forest (RF) classification models. Three different training set designs were used and descriptors selected to the models based on the occurrence frequency in RF trees and considering the mechanistic aspects they reflect. Models were compared and their classification performance was analysed, indicating good predictive characteristics (sensitivity = 0.90 and specificity = 0.83) for the balanced set; also imbalanced sets have their strengths in certain application scenarios. The confidence of classifications was assessed with a new schema for the applicability domain that makes use of the RF proximity matrix by analysing the similarity between the predicted compound and the training set of the model. All developed models were made available in the transparent, accessible and reproducible way in QsarDB repository (http://dx.doi.org/10.15152/QDB.116).

  16. Analysis of nanomechanical properties of Borrelia burgdorferi spirochetes under the influence of lytic factors in an in vitro model using atomic force microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tokarska-Rodak, Małgorzata; Kozioł-Montewka, Maria; Skrzypiec, Krzysztof; Chmielewski, Tomasz; Mendyk, Ewaryst; Tylewska-Wierzbanowska, Stanisława

    2015-11-12

    Atomic force microscopy (AFM) is an experimental technique which recently has been used in biology, microbiology, and medicine to investigate the topography of surfaces and in the evaluation of mechanical properties of cells. The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of the complement system and specific anti-Borrelia antibodies in in vitro conditions on the modification of nanomechanical features of B. burgdorferi B31 cells. In order to assess the influence of the complement system and anti-Borrelia antibodies on B. burgdorferi s.s. B31 spirochetes, the bacteria were incubated together with plasma of identified status. The samples were applied on the surface of mica disks. Young's modulus and adhesive forces were analyzed with a NanoScope V, MultiMode 8 AFM microscope (Bruker) by the PeakForce QNM technique in air using NanoScope Analysis 1.40 software (Bruker). The average value of flexibility of spirochetes' surface expressed by Young's modulus was 10185.32 MPa, whereas the adhesion force was 3.68 nN. AFM is a modern tool with a broad spectrum of observational and measurement abilities. Young's modulus and the adhesion force can be treated as parameters in the evaluation of intensity and changes which take place in pathogenic microorganisms under the influence of various lytic factors. The visualization of the changes in association with nanomechanical features provides a realistic portrayal of the lytic abilities of the elements of the innate and adaptive human immune system.

  17. Factors influencing career choice in anaesthesiology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asha Tyagi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: There is a shortage of anaesthesiologists in India. The factors that prompt medical students to opt for anaesthesiology as their career are not known; neither do we have any mechanism to know a student′s stress-bearing ability before he/she opts for a stressful career like anaesthesiology. We conducted an anonymous, questionnaire-based, cross-sectional survey among 200 post-graduate anaesthesiology students to know various factors that they considered while opting for this speciality, and also evaluated their stress-bearing ability using Antonovsky′s 13-point sense of coherence scale. Methods: Two-hundred anaesthesiology students were asked to complete a questionnaire regarding the factors they considered important while opting for anaesthesiology, also enumerated in order of importance the three most important factors that led to opting this career. Students also answered the questions in Antonovsky′s sense of coherence (SOC scale. Results: Economic security was considered by maximum number of students (67.7%, while intellectual stimulation/challenge offered by anaesthesiology was rated first in order of importance. Influence of doctor−patient relationship was not considered by large number of students. The weak SOC score (55 (25 th percentile was not greatly different than the mean SOC score (60 in the survey. Conclusion: Increasing the exposure of students to anaesthesiology at undergraduate level and building public awareness about the speciality will prompt more students to opt for the speciality, while career counselling with regard to specific needs of a speciality and ability of a student will help in opting the speciality that best suits the student′s personality.

  18. Factors influencing nurses' perceptions of occupational safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samur, Menevse; Intepeler, Seyda Seren

    2017-01-02

    To determine nurses' perceptions of occupational safety and their work environment and examine the sociodemographic traits and job characteristics that influence their occupational safety, we studied a sample of 278 nurses. According to the nurses, the quality of their work environment is average, and occupational safety is insufficient. In the subdimensions of the work environment scale, it was determined that the nurses think "labor force and other resources" are insufficient. In the occupational safety subdimensions "occupational illnesses and complaints" and "administrative support and approaches," they considered occupational safety to be insufficient. "Doctor-nurse-colleague relationships," "exposure to violence," and "work unit" (eg, internal medicine, surgical, intensive care) are the main factors that affect occupational safety. This study determined that hospital administrations should develop and immediately implement plans to ameliorate communication and clinical precautions and to reduce exposure to violence.

  19. Factors Influencing Sulfinatodehalogenation Reactions of Perhalocarbons

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU,Kai(吴恺); CHEN,Qing-Yun(陈庆云)

    2004-01-01

    The study on the factors influencing sulfinatodehalogenation of perfluorohexyl chloride plus octene-1 by using Na2S2O4/NaHCO3 discovered that among the various solvents tested(e.g.Me2SO,NMP,DMAc,CH3CN,CH3CN/H2O)at different temperatures,Me2SO was found to be the most suitable solvent and the conversion of the chloride was very dependent on the reaction temperature.When Me2SO was used in the reaction of perfluoroalkyl iodides,the reaction temperature could be decreased by 20℃ as compared with that carried out in CH3CN/H2O to reach the comparable yields.

  20. Factors influencing presence in virtual worlds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chow, Meyrick C M

    2012-01-01

    Virtual worlds are showing potential as an effective platform for a variety of activities, including learning. The concept of presence (the sensation of "being there" in a mediated environment) has received substantial attention from the virtual reality community, and the effectiveness of virtual worlds has often been linked to the feelings of presence reported by their users. The present study examined the effects of attitude and perceived ease of use on sense of presence in Second Life, which is one of the most known and used virtual worlds. Based on data from a survey of 206 nursing students, hypotheses are empirically tested. Findings suggest that users' attitude toward using Second Life and their perceived ease of use of it have a positive effect on their sense of presence in the virtual environment. This study advances our understanding of factors influencing presence in virtual worlds.

  1. Factors influencing women's decision making in hysterectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janda, Monika; Armfield, Nigel R; Page, Katie; Kerr, Gayle; Kurz, Suzanne; Jackson, Graeme; Currie, Jason; Weaver, Edward; Yazdani, Anusch; Obermair, Andreas

    2017-09-12

    To explore factors influencing how well-informed women felt about hysterectomy, influences on their decision making, and on them receiving a less-invasive alternative to open surgery. Online questionnaire, conducted in 2015-2016, of women who had received a hysterectomy in Australia, in the preceding two years. Questionnaires were completed by 2319/6000 women (39% response). Most women (n=2225; 96%) felt well-informed about hysterectomy. Women were more aware of the open abdominal approach (n=1798; 77%), than of less-invasive vaginal (n=1552; 67%), laparoscopic (n=1540; 66%), laparoscopic-assisted (n=1303; 56%), and robotic approaches (n=289; 12%). Most women (n=1435; 62%) reported their gynaecologist was the most influential information source. Women who received information about hysterectomy from a GP (OR=1.47; 95% CI 1.15-1.90), or from a gynaecologist (OR=1.3; 95% CI 1.06-1.58), were more likely to feel better informed (p<0.01). This study is important because it helps clinicians, researchers and health policy makers to understand why many women still receive an open abdominal approach despite many learned societies recommending to avoid it if possible. Additional information, or education about avoiding open abdominal approach where possible may lead to a greater number of women receiving less-invasive types of hysterectomy in the future. Crown Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Influence of spatially-dependent, modeled soil carbon emission factors on life-cycle greenhouse gas emissions of corn and cellulosic ethanol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qin, Zhangcai; Dunn, Jennifer B.; Kwon, Ho-young; Mueller, Steffen; Wander, Michelle M.

    2016-01-01

    Converting land to biofuel feedstock production incurs changes in soil organic carbon (SOC) that can influence biofuel life-cycle greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. Estimates of these land use change (LUC) and life-cycle GHG emissions affect biofuels’ attractiveness and eligibility under a number of renewable fuel policies in the U.S. and abroad. Modeling was used to refine the spatial resolution and depth-extent of domestic estimates of SOC change for land (cropland, cropland pasture, grasslands, and forests) conversion scenarios to biofuel crops (corn, corn stover, switchgrass, Miscanthus, poplar, and willow). In most regions, conversions from cropland and cropland pasture to biofuel crops led to neutral or small levels of SOC sequestration, while conversion of grassland and forest generally caused net SOC loss. Results of SOC change were incorporated into the Greenhouse Gases, Regulated Emissions, and Energy use in Transportation (GREET) model to assess their influence on life-cycle GHG emissions for the biofuels considered. Total LUC GHG emissions (g CO2eq MJ-1) were 2.1–9.3 for corn, -0.7 for corn stover, -3.4–12.9 for switchgrass, and -20.1–-6.2 for Miscanthus; these varied with SOC modeling assumptions applied. Extending soil depth from 30 to 100cm affected spatially-explicit SOC change and overall LUC GHG emissions; however the influence on LUC GHG emissions estimates were less significant in corn and corn stover than cellulosic feedstocks. Total life-cycle GHG emissions (g CO2eq MJ-1, 100cm) were estimated to be 59–66 for corn ethanol, 14 for stover ethanol, 18-26 for switchgrass ethanol, and -0.6–-7 for Miscanthus ethanol.

  3. Study of Influencing Factors on ConsumerOnline Impulse Buying

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2015-01-01

    The convenience and anonymity of online shopping have stimulated people's impulse buying tendency. Impulse buying is notonly a competitive method for businesses, but also a crucial factor influencing sales of e-commerce. Based on a systematic reviewof literatures, this paper explores factors affecting the online impulse buying. Moreover, by using the S-O-R model, this paperdescribes the formation mechanism of the online impulse buying behavior. At Last, it points out issues worthy of future studies.For example, this paper suggests to take into consideration of sociocultural impact and to put more emphasis on empirical studies.

  4. Factors Influencing Students’ Perceptions of Online Teamwork

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irina Falls

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The evolution of online teaching in higher education demands a change in the types of pedagogies used in those courses. An example of one of these important pedagogies includes online teamwork. Teamwork in this context is one in which the majority of the individual’s grade is dependent on the positive or negative group experiences. This study utilized the theoretical framework of social motivation and cohesion to identify the factors shaping students’ perceptions of teamwork in online college courses. In these courses, the pedagogical approach known as the Five Pillars of effective collaborative work was applied. An Online Teamwork Learning Survey was developed based on these principles and completed by 62 undergraduate students enrolled in semester-long online courses required in their early childhood education program of study. Using a comparison between pre–postsurveys and regression analysis, the results showed that although the students’ perceptions of teamwork did not significantly change, the factors influencing their responses during the posttest doubled in number. The results showed that through carefully designed virtual teamwork activities, students learned that essential team characteristics such as promotive interaction, individual accountability, and positive interdependence are an integral part of effective collaboration and strong predictors of teamwork perception.

  5. The Influence of Contextual and Psychosocial Factors on Handwashing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seimetz, Elisabeth; Boyayo, Anne-Marie; Mosler, Hans-Joachim

    2016-06-01

    Even though washing hands with soap is among the most effective measures to reduce the risk of infection, handwashing rates in infrastructure-restricted settings remain seriously low. Little is known about how context alone and in interaction with psychosocial factors influence hand hygiene behavior. The aim of this article was to explore how both contextual and psychosocial factors affect handwashing practices. A cross-sectional survey was conducted with 660 caregivers of primary school children in rural Burundi. Hierarchical regression analyses revealed that household wealth, the amount of water per person, and having a designated place for washing hands were contextual factors significantly predicting handwashing frequency, whereas the contextual factors, time spent collecting water and amount of money spent on soap, were not significant predictors. The contextual factors explained about 13% of the variance of reported handwashing frequency. The addition of the psychosocial factors to the regression model resulted in a significant 41% increase of explained variation in handwashing frequency. In this final model, the amount of water was the only contextual factor that remained a significant predictor. The most important predictors were a belief of self-efficacy, planning how, when, and where to wash hands, and always remembering to do so. The findings suggest that contextual constraints might be perceived rather than actual barriers and highlight the role of psychosocial factors in understanding hygiene behaviors. © The American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene.

  6. Shell model and spectroscopic factors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poves, P. [Madrid Univ. Autonoma and IFT, UAM/CSIC, E-28049 (Spain)

    2007-07-01

    In these lectures, I introduce the notion of spectroscopic factor in the shell model context. A brief review is given of the present status of the large scale applications of the Interacting Shell Model. The spectroscopic factors and the spectroscopic strength are discussed for nuclei in the vicinity of magic closures and for deformed nuclei. (author)

  7. Exploring Factors Influencing the Adoption of Mobile Commerce

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tariq Bhatti,

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available This study presents an extended technology acceptance model that integrates innovation diffusion theory to investigate what determine user mobile commerce acceptance. This paper models the factors relationships such as perceived usefulness, perceived ease of use, personal innovativene ss, subjective norms, behavioral control and intention to adopt mobile commerce. The proposed model was empirically tested using data collected from a survey of mobile commerce consumers. Empirical data from regression analysis reflects users ease of use influence behavioral intention to adopt mobile commerce. The majority of positive relationships between perceived ease of use, subjective norms, behavioral control and intention to adopt are supported by empirical data. Results also reveal that behavioral control and subjective norms influence perceived ease of use which affects then their adoption intention. The paper concludes some important implications for the practitioners.

  8. Factors influencing physicians' knowledge sharing on web medical forums.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Tung Cheng; Lai, Ming Cheng; Yang, Shu Wen

    2016-09-01

    Web medical forums are relatively unique as knowledge-sharing platforms because physicians participate exclusively as knowledge contributors and not as knowledge recipients. Using the perspective of social exchange theory and considering both extrinsic and intrinsic motivations, this study aims to elicit the factors that significantly influence the willingness of physicians to share professional knowledge on web medical forums and develops a research model to explore the motivations that underlie physicians' knowledge-sharing attitudes. This model hypothesizes that constructs, including shared vision, reputation, altruism, and self-efficacy, positively influence these attitudes and, by extension, positively impact knowledge-sharing intention. A conventional sampling method and the direct recruitment of physicians at their outpatient clinic gathered valid data from a total of 164 physicians for analysis in the model. The empirical results support the validity of the proposed model and identified shared vision as the most significant factor of influence on knowledge-sharing attitudes, followed in descending order by knowledge-sharing self-efficacy, reputation, and altruism.

  9. Preoperative factors influencing success in pterygium surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Torres-Gimeno Ana

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To identify preoperative, perioperative and postoperative risk factors that influence the success of pterygium surgery. Methods This is a prospective study of thirty-six patients with primary or recurrent pterygia. A detailed anamnesis and an ophthalmological examination were performed looking for the following factors: age, race, latitude and altitude of the main place of residence, hours of exposure to the sun, use of protective measures against UV-radiation, classification of pterygium, width of the pterygium at limbus, surgical technique (conjunctival autograft plus suturing versus tissue glue, graft alterations (misapposition, granuloma, haemorrhage, oedema, retraction or necrosis, and postoperative symptoms (foreign-body sensation, pain. The examinations were performed 2 and 7 days and 2, 6 and 12 months after surgery. In addition, recurrence was defined as any growth of conjunctiva into the cornea. Results A logistic regression and a survival analysis have been used to perform data analysis. A total number of 36 patients completed a one year follow-up. A total of 13 patients were born and lived in Spain, and 26 came from other countries, mostly Latin America. A total number of 8 males (no women presented a recurrence, mainly between 2 and 6 months. The hours of sun exposure through their life was independently related to surgical success. Pterygia of less than 5 mm of base width showed a weak positive correlation with recurrence. None of the other factors considered were significantly related to recurrence. Conclusions Male gender and high sun exposure are strongly and independently related to surgical success after the removal of pterygia.

  10. The cyclical component factor model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahl, Christian Møller; Hansen, Henrik; Smidt, John

    Forecasting using factor models based on large data sets have received ample attention due to the models' ability to increase forecast accuracy with respect to a range of key macroeconomic variables in the US and the UK. However, forecasts based on such factor models do not uniformly outperform...... the simple autoregressive model when using data from other countries. In this paper we propose to estimate the factors based on the pure cyclical components of the series entering the large data set. Monte Carlo evidence and an empirical illustration using Danish data shows that this procedure can indeed...

  11. Hospital organizational factors influence work-family conflict in registered nurses: Multilevel modeling of a nation-wide cross-sectional survey in Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leineweber, C; Chungkham, H S; Westerlund, H; Tishelman, C; Lindqvist, R

    2014-05-01

    The present shortage of registered nurses (RNs) in many European countries is expected to continue and worsen, which poses a substantial threat to the maintenance of healthcare in this region. Work-family conflict is a known risk factor for turnover and sickness absence. This paper empirically examines whether the nurse practice environment is associated with experienced work-family conflict. A multilevel model was fit with the individual RN at the 1st, and the hospital department at the 2nd level using cross-sectional RN survey data from the Swedish part of RN4CAST, an EU 7th framework project. The data analyzed here is based on a national sample of 8356 female and 592 male RNs from 369 hospital departments. We found that 6% of the variability in work-family conflict experienced by RNs was at the department level. Organizational level factors significantly accounted for most of the variability at this level with two of the work practice environment factors examined, staffing adequacy and nurse involvement in hospital affairs, significantly related to work-family conflict. Due to the design of the study, factors on ward and work group levels could not be analyzed, but are likely to account for additional variance which in the present analysis appears to be on the individual level, with private life factors likely explaining another major part. These results suggest that higher level organizational factors in health care have a significant impact on the risk of work-family conflict among RNs through their impact on the nurse practice environment. Lower level organizational factors should be investigated in future studies using hierarchical multilevel sampling. Copyright © 2013 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  12. The Influencing Factors of Enterprise Sustainable Innovation: An Empirical Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Si-Hua Chen

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Sustainable innovation is the inexhaustible source of development of enterprises. Within fierce market competition, only by depending on continuous innovation can an enterprise exist and develop. By conducting an exploratory factor analysis and a confirmatory factor analysis, this paper proposes a theoretical model, dividing enterprise sustainable innovation ability into three aspects: knowledge innovation capability, production innovation capability, and market innovation capability, and analyzes the influencing factors respectively. Finally, applying this theoretical model to a practical case, with system dynamics method, the simulation results show that they are consistent with real enterprise facts. Therefore, the framework of determinants of sustainable innovation built in this paper has already been verified theoretically and practically. It not only lays a theoretical foundation for further research, but also provides a clear ground for firms to improve their sustainable innovation.

  13. Remarks on the physical factor influencing the individual language learners

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘晨君

    2015-01-01

    individual language learner as a subject of learning can be influenced by many factors such as physical factor,cognitive factor,and affective factor.All of which play an important role in language learning.These three factors are worthy of our research and physical factor will be discussed in this essay.

  14. The Influence Factors of the BZ Oscillating Reaction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU XiuHui; GAO JinZhang

    2001-01-01

    @@ As a typical oscillating chemical reaction, studies of the Belousov-Zhabotinsky reaction have not only yielded important results to provide insights to many kinetic and thermodynamic problems, but also provided suggestive models for a number of important biological processes. Now the BZ reaction has become a useful experimental model for studying nonlinear phenomena in distributed systems. We carried out a systematic study of the influence factors on the BZ reaction in a closed system, and some new observations are reported here forthe first time.

  15. THE INFLUENCE OF CORPORATE SPECIFIC FACTORS UPON FINANCING DECISIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lacatus Viorel-Dorin

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to analyze the existing theories for the capital structure of a corporation and to determine the factors that influence the financing decisions of Romanian corporations. The gearing ratios vary a lot among Romanian corporations pointing out the fact that the internal specific factors are the ones with a greater impact upon their capital structure, and not the external factors. Our empiric research evaluates the determining factors for the debt ratio (total debt/total assets of some Romanian corporations, focusing on its explanatory variables by including them within simple and multiple econometric models. The panel data indicators computed for the companies in the Cluj area listed on the Bucharest Stock Exchange were evaluated with the OLS and FEM techniques.The results have been interpreted, pointing out that company size and asset turnover seem to have a positive influence upon the debt ratio of selected companies, while profitability and liquidity seem to influence the debt ratio of selected companies negatively.

  16. Factors Influencing Rural Teacher Flow in Yunnan Ethnic Minority Areas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yan; SUN; Zhaochang; REN; Yang; HE; Haijiao; ZHU

    2013-01-01

    Ethnic minority areas area old revolutionary base areas,areas inhabited by ethnic minorities,remote areas,impoverished areas, and also difficult areas for construction of socialist harmonious society.Studying on factors influencing rural teacher flow in ethnic minority areas is of great significance to improving local teacher team structure and promoting balanced development of urban and rural education.However,it lacks empirical analysis based on field survey for the nonce.In this study,based on interview and questionnaire data of education departments and school leaders in 4 ethnic minority areas of Yunnan Province,it established binary Logistic model,analyzed factors influencing rural teacher flow in ethnic minority areas of Yunnan Province,and finally present policy recommendations.

  17. Factors influencing medication label viewing in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheah, Yong Kang; Chong, Yen Wan

    2016-07-12

    The misuse of medicine is a serious public health issue worldwide. An important factor that contributes to the misuse of medicine is the lack of medication label viewing by consumers. The objective of the present study is to examine the socio-economic, demographic and lifestyle factors associated with medication label viewing among Malaysian adults. The empirical analysis is based on a nationally representative data set of 30,992 respondents. An ordered probit model is used to examine different types of medication label viewers. The results of this study suggest that socio-economic (i.e. age, income level, education level, location of residence), demographic (i.e. gender, ethnicity, marital status) and lifestyle factors (i.e. physical activity, smoking) have significant effects on medication label viewing. It is found that age, low-income and low-education level reduce the likelihood of viewing medication label. Based on these findings, several policy implications are suggested. The present study provides policy makers with baseline information regarding which cohorts of individuals to focus on in efforts to increase the frequency of medication label viewing.

  18. Factors influencing recognition of interrupted speech.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xin; Humes, Larry E

    2010-10-01

    This study examined the effect of interruption parameters (e.g., interruption rate, on-duration and proportion), linguistic factors, and other general factors, on the recognition of interrupted consonant-vowel-consonant (CVC) words in quiet. Sixty-two young adults with normal-hearing were randomly assigned to one of three test groups, "male65," "female65" and "male85," that differed in talker (male/female) and presentation level (65/85 dB SPL), with about 20 subjects per group. A total of 13 stimulus conditions, representing different interruption patterns within the words (i.e., various combinations of three interruption parameters), in combination with two values (easy and hard) of lexical difficulty were examined (i.e., 13×2=26 test conditions) within each group. Results showed that, overall, the proportion of speech and lexical difficulty had major effects on the integration and recognition of interrupted CVC words, while the other variables had small effects. Interactions between interruption parameters and linguistic factors were observed: to reach the same degree of word-recognition performance, less acoustic information was required for lexically easy words than hard words. Implications of the findings of the current study for models of the temporal integration of speech are discussed.

  19. Physical factors influence for biologic systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piruzyan, L. A.

    2005-08-01

    Physical methods are widely spread in diagnostics and therapy of different pathologies, especially in oncology. The application of lasers occurred to be the perspective approach for combined methods application in medicine. Our work is devoted to investigation of thermal effect of focused laser beam in the model of Garding-Passi melanoma and also to the study of free radicals activity after the radiation with non-focused laser beam. The histologic alterations correlated with theoretical calculations of temperature distribution in irradiated tissue for energies 30-60 J attracted our interest. The values of maximal temperatures in depths of tissue for energies 30-60 J were carried out. In the model of permanent magnetic field (PMF) effect for mice ascites sarcoma 37 we have showed the linear dependence of tumor growth inhibition from the period of PMF treatment. Simultaneously we investigated PMF influence for free radical"s (FR) concentrations in mice organs and tissues and potentially appearing questions of PMF effect for biopotential in connection with FR formation. We have also studied the alterations of K, Na and Ca ions concentrations in ascetic fluids after animal"s PMF treatment. We revealed some reasons of biopotential generation and concluded that biopotential is not the result of specific ions gradient only but its generation can be followed by free radicals states appearance and occurrence of semi-conductivity in biostructures.

  20. Hydrolysis kinetics of atrazine and influence factors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    The hydrolysis kinetics of atrazine in distilled water and leaching water from soil, and their influence factors were studied by incubation at 35℃ and HPLC analysis method in this paper. The kinetic process of atrazine hydrolysis can be described by the first-order reaction law. The results showed that the hydrolysis rate constants k in leaching water and distilled water were 1.606x10-3/d and 1.055x10-3/d, respectively; the half-life of atrazine hydrolysis in distilled water at pH 3, pH 4.5 and pH 8 were 373 days, 522 days and 657 days respectively. The results also showed that the proton in reaction solution can catalyze the atrazine hydrolysis; humic acid and NH4+ etc. substances in aqueous solution can facilitate atrazine hydrolysis; rate constants of atrazine hydrolysis with humic acid and NH4NO3 were 2.431x10-3/d and 1.498x10-3/d respectively which were 2.3 and 1.42 times of control(1.055x10-3/d); anion NO3- can inhibit catalysis of humic acid to atrazine hydrolysis.

  1. Factors influencing competitive anxiety in Brazilian athletes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos Gimenes Fernandes

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The study of factors influencing competitive anxiety, according to a multidimensional perspective and supported by valid instruments, is scarce among Brazilian athletes of different sports. The present study aims to: i investigate the theoretical relationship between the different dimensions of the multidimensional theory of anxiety (i.e., cognitive anxiety, somatic anxiety and self-confidence; and ii investigate the effects of gender, type of sport (individual or collective and competitive experience levels on cognitive anxiety, somatic anxiety and self-confidence. A total of 303 athletes (233 males and 70 females, from different sports, aged between 18 and 40 years (M =24.22, SD = 5.07 completed a shortened version of CSAI-2 (i.e., CSAI-2R, about one hour before the start of competitions. Results revealed significant correlations between cognitive anxiety, somatic anxiety and self-confidence dimensions, in accordance with the assumptions of the multidimensional theory. Additionally, comparative analyses indicated that female athletes and athletes from collective sports showed higher levels of cognitive anxiety, while male athletes and athletes with high competitive experience reported higher levels of self-confidence. These results were discussed taking into account the theoretical and practical implications of these findings for planning interventions of sport psychology in Brazil with athletes of different contexts.

  2. Factors That Influence Primary Cilium Length

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miyoshi,Ko

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Almost all mammalian cells carry one primary cilium that functions as a biosensor for chemical and mechanical stimuli. Genetic damages that compromise cilia formation or function cause a spectrum of disorders referred to as ciliapathies. Recent studies have demonstrated that some pharmacological agents and extracellular environmental changes can alter primary cilium length. Renal injury is a well-known example of an environmental insult that triggers cilia length modification. Lithium treatment causes primary cilia to extend in several cell types including neuronal cells;this phenomenon is likely independent of glycogen synthase kinase-3β inhibition. In renal epithelial cell lines, deflection of the primary cilia by fluid shear shortens them by reducing the intracellular cyclic AMP level, leading to a subsequent decrease in mechanosensitivity to fluid shear. Primary cilium length is also influenced by the dynamics of actin filaments and microtubules through the levels of soluble tubulin in the cytosol available for primary cilia extension. Thus, mammalian cells can adapt to the extracellular environment by modulating the primary cilium length, and this feedback system utilizing primary cilia might exist throughout the mammalian body. Further investigation is required concerning the precise molecular mechanisms underlying the control of primary cilium length in response to environmental factors.

  3. Exploring factors influencing smoking behaviour in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheah, Yong Kang; Naidu, Balkish Mahadir

    2012-01-01

    The objective of present study is to investigate the determinants of smoking behaviour among adults in Malaysia. Findings of the Third National Health and Morbidity Survey (NHMS-3) by the Ministry of Health, Malaysia, were used. The sample consisted of 34,539 observations. A logistic regression model was thus applied to estimate the probability to participate in smoking. Age, income, gender, marital status, ethnicity, employment status, residential area, education, lifestyle and health status were statistically significant in affecting the likelihood of smoking. Specifically, youngsters, low income earners, males, unmarried individuals, Malays, employed individuals, rural residents and primary educated individuals were more likely to smoke. In conclusion, socio-demographic, lifestyle and health factors have significant impacts on smoking participation in Malaysia. Based on these empirical findings, several policy implications are suggested.

  4. Urban water consumption and its influencing factors in China

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fan, Liangxin; Gai, Lingtong; Tong, Yan; Li, Ruihua

    2017-01-01

    Factors that affect water consumption should be identified to develop effective public policies. However, factors influencing domestic water consumption in cities in China, particularly on a national scale, are unclear. In this study, urban water consumption and its influencing factors in 286

  5. What Factors Influence a Teacher's Commitment to Student Learning?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dannetta, Vincent

    2002-01-01

    Study of the personal, organizational, student-related factors influencing teacher commitment to student learning. Finds, for example, that among personal factors intrinsic rewards are more important than extrinsic rewards, that among organization factors collegiality is an important influence on commitment to student learning, and that among…

  6. Factors influencing consumer satisfaction with health care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deshpande, Satish P; Deshpande, Samir S

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine factors that impact consumer satisfaction with health care. This is a secondary analysis of the Center for Studying Health System Change's 2010 Health Tracking Household Survey. Regression analysis was used to examine the impact of treatment issues, financial issues, family-related issues, sources of health care information, location, and demographics-related factors on satisfaction with health care. The study involved 12280 subjects, 56% of whom were very satisfied with their health care, whereas 66% were very satisfied with their primary care physician. Fourteen percent of the subjects had no health insurance; 34% of the subjects got their health care information from the Web. Satisfaction with primary care physician, general health status, promptness of visit to doctor, insurance type, medical cost per family, annual income, persons in family, health care information from friends, and age significantly impacted satisfaction with health care. The regression models accounted for 23% of the variance in health care satisfaction. Satisfaction with primary care physicians, health insurance, and general health status are the 3 most significant indicators of an individual's satisfaction with health care.

  7. A Comparison of Factors that Influence the Lyophilization Process

    OpenAIRE

    Dumitru Mnerie; Gabriela-victoria Anghel; Alin Vasile Mnerie; Constantin Cheveresan

    2007-01-01

    The lyophilization (or freeze drying) process for agro-foods products depends on a series of technological factors that are in an inter-dependence with the process performance. This paper presents an expert method and its application. This method characterizes the influence factors of the lyophilization process, after the importance level of some factors in correlation with other factors, is defined. Only the most important factors were considered; influence considerations were made in relati...

  8. Factors Influencing Food Choice in the Elderly Mauritian Population ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Factors Influencing Food Choice in the Elderly Mauritian Population. ... in influencing food choices and thus food intake of the elderly people in Mauritius. A cross-sectional nutritional survey was carried out in different regions around the island ...

  9. Factors influencing riverine fish assemblages in Massachusetts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armstrong, David S.; Richards, Todd A.; Levin, Sara B.

    2011-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Massachusetts Department of Conservation and Recreation, Massachusetts Department of Environmental Protection, and the Massachusetts Department of Fish and Game, conducted an investigation of fish assemblages in small- to medium-sized Massachusetts streams. The objective of this study was to determine relations between fish-assemblage characteristics and anthropogenic factors, including impervious cover and estimated flow alteration, relative to the effects of environmental factors, including physical-basin characteristics and land use. The results of this investigation supersede those of a preliminary analysis published in 2010. Fish data were obtained for 669 fish-sampling sites from the Massachusetts Division of Fisheries and Wildlife fish-community database. A review of the literature was used to select fish metrics - species richness, abundance of individual species, and abundances of species grouped on life history traits - responsive to flow alteration. The contributing areas to the fish-sampling sites were delineated and used with a geographic information system to determine a set of environmental and anthropogenic factors that were tested for use as explanatory variables in regression models. Reported and estimated withdrawals and return flows were used together with simulated unaltered streamflows to estimate altered streamflows and indicators of flow alteration for each fish-sampling site. Altered streamflows and indicators of flow alteration were calculated on the basis of methods developed in a previous U.S. Geological Survey study in which unaltered daily streamflows were simulated for a 44-year period (water years 1961-2004), and streamflow alterations were estimated by use of water-withdrawal and wastewater-return data previously reported to the State for the 2000-04 period and estimated domestic-well withdrawals and septic-system discharges. A variable selection process, conducted using principal

  10. Factors of Influence on Receivables and Payables and Their Classification

    OpenAIRE

    Kuzmin Oleg Ye.; Volovich Yelena B.

    2013-01-01

    The approaches to classification factors of receivables and payables are analyzed in the article. In order to develop effective methods of receivables and payables management, its factors of influence are proposed to divide into three groups - macro factors, the factors of enterprises immediate environment and micro factors.

  11. Influencing Factors of Rural Human Consumption in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun LI

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper combines the social capital theory, the ordered choice model, and the case study in order to analyze the influence factors of the rural human consumption. The results show the presence of inverted U shape curve relation between human consumption amount and age. Human communication range, income, the highest single human consumption amount and the minimum amount, occupation, family population, the existing of human consumption capacity and the scope of the existing relationships between interpersonal relationship satisfaction and other factors on human consumption level has positive influence on human consumption level. Domestic researches on human behaviour are wide, but most of the studies are focused on the social, human, and psychological disciplines. For the origin of human consumption, scholars focus on four aspects like novelty, human or mutual needs. This research is based on field investigation conducted in Niuxintai village, Liaoning Province, in order to understand the current situation of the rural human consumption in China, and to explain the function and influencing factors of human consumption.

  12. Research on Factors Influencing Individual's Behavior of Energy Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Yanfeng

    With the rapid rise of distributed generation, Internet of Things, and mobile Internet, both U.S. and European smart home manufacturers have developed energy management solutions for individual usage. These applications help people manage their energy consumption more efficiently. Domestic manufacturers have also launched similar products. This paper focuses on the factors influencing Energy Management Behaviour (EMB) at the individual level. By reviewing academic literature, conducting surveys in Beijing, Shanghai and Guangzhou, the author builds an integrated behavioural energy management model of the Chinese energy consumers. This paper takes the vague term of EMB and redefines it as a function of two separate behavioural concepts: Energy Management Intention (EMI), and the traditional Energy Saving Intention (ESI). Secondly, the author conducts statistical analyses on these two behavioural concepts. EMI is the main driver behind an individual's EMB. EMI is affected by Behavioural Attitudes, Subjective Norms, and Perceived Behavioural Control (PBC). Among these three key factors, PBC exerts the strongest influence. This implies that the promotion of the energy management concept is mainly driven by good application user experience (UX). The traditional ESI also demonstrates positive influence on EMB, but its impact is weaker than the impacts arising under EMI's three factors. In other words, the government and manufacturers may not be able to change an individual's energy management behaviour if they rely solely on their traditional promotion strategies. In addition, the study finds that the government may achieve better promotional results by launching subsidies to the manufacturers of these kinds of applications and smart appliances.

  13. Factors influencing response to treatment of pulmonary tuberculosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiyama J

    2000-08-01

    Full Text Available We analyzed 150 patients with pulmonary tuberculosis from 1990 to 1996 (i to evaluate the frequency of drug resistance, (ii to elucidate factors influencing the response to chemotherapy, and (iii to attempt to improve the therapeutic approach. Multidrug-resistant tuberculosis strains were not found. By univariate analysis, there were 8 factors associated with an increased sputum conversion time: male gender, prior treatment, complications, progressive chest radiographic findings, a high Ziehl-Neelsen stain score, lymphocytopenia, a high erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR, and hypoproteinemia. Complications, prior treatment, a high Ziehl-Neelsen stain score, and a high ESR were independent predictive factors in a Cox proportional hazard model. Recursive partitioning and amalgamation (RPA defined 3 subgroups that responded to treatment. In order to reduce the time to sputum conversion, poor responders according to the RPA should be treated with a 4-drug regimen containing pyrazinamide.

  14. Investigating the influence of social desirability on personality factor structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellingson, J E; Smith, D B; Sackett, P R

    2001-02-01

    This study provides a comprehensive investigation into whether social desirability alters the factor structure of personality measures. The study brought together 4 large data sets wherein different organizational samples responded to different personality measures. This facilitated conducting 4 separate yet parallel investigations. Within each data set, individuals identified through a social desirability scale as responding in an honest manner were grouped together, and individuals identified as responding in a highly socially desirable manner were grouped together. Using various analyses, the fit of higher order factor structure models was compared across the 2 groups. Results were the same for each data set. Social desirability had little influence on the higher order factor structures that characterized the relationships among the scales of the personality measures.

  15. Factors influencing power hand tool fastening accuracy and reaction forces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radwin, Robert G; Chourasia, Amrish O; Howery, Robert S; Fronczak, Frank J; Yen, Thomas Y; Subedi, Yashpal; Sesto, Mary E

    2014-06-01

    A laboratory study investigated the relationship between power hand tool and task-related factors affecting threaded fastener torque accuracy and associated handle reaction force. We previously developed a biodynamic model to predict handle reaction forces. We hypothesized that torque accuracy was related to the same factors that affect operator capacity to react against impulsive tool forces, as predicted by the model. The independent variables included tool (pistol grip on a vertical surface, right angle on a horizontal surface), fastener torque rate (hard, soft), horizontal distance (30 cm and 60 cm), and vertical distance (80 cm, 110 cm, and 140 cm). Ten participants (five male and five female) fastened 12 similar bolts for each experimental condition. Average torque error (audited - target torque) was affected by fastener torque rate and operator position. Torque error decreased 33% for soft torque rates, whereas handle forces greatly increased (170%). Torque error also decreased for the far horizontal distance 7% to 14%, when vertical distance was in the middle or high, but handle force decreased slightly 3% to 5%. The evidence suggests that although both tool and task factors affect fastening accuracy, they each influence handle reaction forces differently. We conclude that these differences are attributed to different parameters each factor influences affecting the dynamics of threaded faster tool operation. Fastener torque rate affects the tool dynamics, whereas posture affects the spring-mass-damping biodynamic properties of the human operator. The prediction of handle reaction force using an operator biodynamic model may be useful for codifying complex and unobvious relationships between tool and task factors for minimizing torque error while controlling handle force.

  16. Factors influencing behavior in the forced swim test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogdanova, Olena V; Kanekar, Shami; D'Anci, Kristen E; Renshaw, Perry F

    2013-06-13

    The forced swim test (FST) is a behavioral test in rodents which was developed in 1978 by Porsolt and colleagues as a model for predicting the clinical efficacy of antidepressant drugs. A modified version of the FST added the classification of active behaviors into swimming and climbing, in order to facilitate the differentiation between serotonergic and noradrenergic classes of antidepressant drugs. The FST is now widely used in basic research and the pharmaceutical screening of potential antidepressant treatments. It is also one of the most commonly used tests to assess depressive-like behavior in animal models. Despite the simplicity and sensitivity of the FST procedure, important differences even in baseline immobility rates have been reported between different groups, which complicate the comparison of results across studies. In spite of several methodological papers and reviews published on the FST, the need still exists for clarification of factors which can influence the procedure. While most recent reviews have focused on antidepressant effects observed with the FST, this one considers the methodological aspects of the procedure, aiming to summarize issues beyond antidepressant action in the FST. The previously published literature is analyzed for factors which are known to influence animal behavior in the FST. These include biological factors, such as strain, age, body weight, gender and individual differences between animals; influence of preconditioning before the FST: handling, social isolation or enriched environment, food manipulations, various kinds of stress, endocrine manipulations and surgery; schedule and routes of treatment, dosage and type of the drugs as well as experimental design and laboratory environmental effects. Consideration of these factors in planning experiments may result in more consistent FST results.

  17. Influencing factors in the health promoting behaviors of Urinary system based on health belief model in pregnant women in Bushehr 2013-14

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farzaneh Noroozi

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Urinary tract infection is the second most common complication of pregnancy that will follow with maternal and fetal complications. The aim of this study was to identify factors affecting the urinary system health promoting behaviors in pregnant women based on the health belief model. Materials and methods: The present study is a descriptive - analytic study was performed on 250 pregnant women referred to health centers of Bushehr. The tools for collecting information was a multi sectional questionnaire consisting of demographic information, measurement of urinary system health behavior, knowledge and health belief model constructs, which its validity and reliability were ensured previously. Data analysis was performed with SPSS version 20 by using correlation coefficient and linear regression tests. Results: The mean age of subjects 27/4±4/4 years.The relationship between demographic variables and health behavior wasn’t found. The most people (179 equivalents to 71/6% had medium level of knowledge about urinary tract infection, and only 44 women (17.6% had appropriate awareness. Mean score of preventive behaviors was significant difference between different levels of knowledge (p =0/026, self efficacy (p=0/000 and perceived barriers (p=0/002. In multivariate ANOVA, only the self efficacy had strong positive relationship with the preventing behaviors of urinary tract infection (p=0/000. Conclusion: Based on these results, the necessity of education based on health belief model with an emphasis on increasing the efficacy is necessary.

  18. Prognostic factors influencing clinical outcomes of glioblastoma multiforme

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Shou-wei; QIU Xiao-guang; CHEN Bao-shi; ZHANG Wei; REN Huan; WANG Zhong-cheng; JIANG Tao

    2009-01-01

    Background Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is the most malignant kind of astrocytic tumors and is associated with a poor prognosis. In this retrospective study, we assessed the clinical, radiological, genetic molecular and treatment factors that influence clinical outcomes of patients with GBM.Methods A total of 116 patients with GBM who received surgery and radiation between January 2006 and December 2007 were included in this study. Kaplan-Meier survival analysis and Cox regression analysis were used to find the factors independently influencing patients' progression free survival (PFS) time and overall survival (OS) time.Results Age, preoperative Kamofsky Performance Scale (KPS) score, KPS score change at 2 weeks after operation, neurological deficit symptoms, tumor resection extent, maximal tumor diameter, involvement of eloquent cortex or deep structure, involvement of brain lobe, Ki-67 expression level and adjuvant chemotherapy were statistically significant factors (P <0.05) for both PFS and OS in the univariate analysis. Cox proportional hazards modeling revealed that age ≤50 years, preoperative KPS score ≥80, KPS score change after operation ≥0, involvement of single frontal lobe,non-eloquent area or deep structure involvement, low Ki-67 expression and adjuvant chemotherapy were independent favorable factors (P <0.05) for patients' clinical outcomes.Conclusions Age at diagnosis, preoperative KPS score, KPS score change at 2 weeks postoperation, involvement of brain lobe, involvement of eloquent cortex or deep structure, Ki-67 expression level and adjuvant chemotherapy correlate significantly with the prognosis of patients with GBM.

  19. 湖泊富营养化因子对叶绿素a影响的SEM分析%Influences of Lake Eutrophication Factors on Chlorophyll a Using Structural Equation Model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘巧红; 张浩; 吴开亚; 刘丽

    2012-01-01

    Taking Chaohu Lake basin for an example, this paper analyzes the influences of eutrophication factors on chlorophyll a by using structural equation model (SEM). According to the mechanism of lake eutrophication, four intrinsic variables including physical factors, nutrients, organism and phytoplankton are introduced in this model. Along with five eutrophication factors, the SEM-based eutrophication model is established. The results show that the SEM-based model demonstrates the relationship between eutrophication factors and chlorophyll a, and it can directly predict the concentration of chlorophyll a with combination of other methods.%根据湖泊富营养化成因机理,采用结构方程模型(SEM),引入物理环境、有机物、营养盐和浮游植物4个潜变量,并结合选取的5个影响因子,建立了富营养化结构方程模型,以便模拟各因子对巢湖流域南淝河入巢湖口水体中叶绿素a的影响.结果表明,该模型揭示了富营养化各要素与叶绿素a之间的复杂关系,与其他方法相结合可直接预测叶绿素a的浓度.

  20. Analysis of Factors Influencing the Growth of Export of Agricultural Products in Yunnan Province: An Empirical Study Based on CMS Model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dongmei; LI; Jianxing; LU; Zhiwen; XIAO; Bo; LI

    2013-01-01

    Yunnan Province is the bridgehead for the opening of the southwest region in China,and the economic frontier of China-ASEAN economic cooperation,where the export of agricultural products plays an important role in promoting the openness of the southwest region and strengthening China-ASEAN economic cooperation.In this paper,we use CMS model to analyze causes of the increase in the exports of agricultural products in Yunnan Province during the period 2001-2010.It is found that the expanded import scale of agricultural products in the world,improvement in the export competitiveness of products and the adaption of product export structure to the changes in the structure of world import demand,are the main factors responsible for increase in the exports of agricultural products in Yunnan Province.In recent years, the improvement of competitiveness of the export of agricultural products becomes a key factor for the growth of the export of agricultural products in Yunnan Province.In terms of the products classified,strong export competitiveness has promoted the export of plant products,such as beverages and tobacco,while weak export competitiveness and unreasonable export structure has impeded the export of animal products,plant and animal oil and fat products.

  1. Factors Influencing the Adoption of Minimally Invasive Surgery

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    of institutional, patient and surgeon-related factors ... Surgical site infections ... Factors influencing choice of open procedures over MIS are summarized in Table 1. The main .... written with pharmaceutical products in mind (25). ... JAMA Intern.

  2. External factors influencing the environmental performance of South African firms

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Peart, R

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available This article reviews the external factors that influence environmental performance of companies in South Africa, drawing on international and local literature. After considering factors within the natural, social, economic and institutional...

  3. Fish consumption preferences and factors influencing it

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet Ferit Can

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Fish consumption preferences are affected by individuals’ socioeconomic characteristics. The aims of the present paper were (i to obtain information on fish consumption level and frequency; (ii to investigate the associations between the socioeconomic characteristics of consumers and their preferences; and (iii to examine the influence of determinants on fish consumption. Data were gathered through a questionnaire completed by a total of 127 randomly selected individuals from different socioeconomic backgrounds from the Antakya, Turkey. The average consumption was found to be 2.98 kg/person/year for fish. Anchovies, gilt-head sea bream, and sea bass were reported as the most consumed three species, respectively. Significant differences in fish consumption were found among age groups, gender groups, and education groups, as well as between marital statuses. A majority of the consumers eat fish once a month throughout the year or only during the winter months. Fish consumption level and frequency were significantly positively correlated with education (p<0.01, income (p<0.05 and total meat consumption (p<0.01. The stepwise multiple regression model explained 41.7% (p<0.01 of the total variance for fish consumption. The amount and frequency of the consumption in the region, which is very far below the world and Turkey average especially for lower socioeconomic groups and for less-consumed fish species, can be increased by certain policies, such as training, advertising and different marketing strategies. Moreover, consumption should be distributed equally throughout the year instead of consuming only in certain seasons.

  4. Factors influencing knowledge and practice of exclusive ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The independent variables were maternal education, marital status, both ... maternal employment status, health factors (place of delivery and maternal chronic illness) ... It was evident that family support is a key factor in the success of EBF with ...

  5. Factors influencing electric utility expansion. Volume II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Masud, E. [ed.

    1977-01-01

    This report, Vol. 2, submitted by the General Electric Co., identifies factors that should be considered in planning interconnected systems and discusses how these factors relate to one another. The objective is to identify all the factors and classify them by their use and importance in arriving at a decision. Chapter 2 discusses the utility system and its system behavior characteristics, emphasizing behavior that affects the planning of the bulk-power generation and transmission system. Chapter 3 introduces interconnection planning by discussing the new system characteristics brought to operation and planning. Forty-two factors associated with cost, reliability, constraints, and coordination are related to each other by factor trees. Factor trees display the relationship of one factor such as reliability to more-detailed factors which in turn are further related to individual characteristics of facilities. These factor trees provide a structure to the presentation. A questionnaire including the 42 factors was completed by 52 system planners from utility companies and government authorities. The results of these questionnaires are tabulated and presented with pertinent discussion of each factor. Chapter 4 deals with generation planning, recognizing the existence of interconnections. Chapter 5 addresses transmission planning, questions related to reliability and cost measures and constraints, and factors related to both analytical techniques and planning procedures. The chapter ends with a discussion of combined generation-transmission planning. (MCW)

  6. Influencing Factors of Commercial Bank Customer Assets Risk Based on Cox Model%基于Cox模型的商业银行顾客资产风险影响因素

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李云飞; 周镭; 任静思

    2012-01-01

    Card customers of Xi'an commercial bank were chosen as research object to find key elements that influence customer assets risk of commercial banks. The investigation data were obtained by typical sampling acquisition, and then the Cox model was employed to analyze the influence factors that influence the customer assets risk of commercial bank. Results show that among those 7 key influencing factors,the product quality and the price are risk factors; service quality,convenience,enterprise social responsibility, enterprise ethics and enterprise reputation are protection factors. The study can help enterprises to better manage customer assets, and it also has important reference value for enterprises to formulate and implement customer assets risk management strategy.%以西安市商业银行银行卡持有顾客为研究对象,在采用典型抽样获取调研数据的基础上,运用Cox模型分析了商业银行顾客资产风险的各种影响因素.结果表明:在影响商业银行顾客资产风险的7个关键要素中,除产品质量和价格为危险因素以外,服务质量、便利性、企业社会责任、企业道德和企业信誉均为保护因素.该研究对于企业更好地管理顾客资产,制定和实施顾客资产风险管理战略具有重要的参考价值.

  7. Ureteral Access Sheath Influence on the Ureteral Wall Evaluated by Cyclooxygenase-2 and Tumor Necrosis Factor-α in a Porcine Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lildal, Søren Kissow; Nørregaard, Rikke; Andreassen, Kim Hovgaard; Christiansen, Frederikke Eichner; Jung, Helene; Pedersen, Malene Roland

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Objective: To examine the effect of ureteral access sheath (UAS) on the expression of the pro-inflammatory mediators cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) in the ureteral wall. Material and Methods: In 22 pigs an UAS was inserted and removed after 2 minutes on one side and 2 hours on the contralateral side. Postoperatively ureters were excised in vivo, and tissue samples from the distal (2 minutes/2 hours) and proximal ureter (2 minutes/2 hours) were snap-frozen before quantitative polymerase chain reaction analysis of COX-2 and TNF-α. Five unmanipulated ureteral units from other pigs served as the control group. Results: Compared to controls COX-2 mRNA was significantly upregulated in all UAS treated ureteral groups. Similarly, TNF-α mRNA was upregulated in all groups except the 2-minute proximal ureteral group. Both COX-2 and TNF-α expression were significantly higher in the distal than in the proximal ureter in the UAS treated ureters. After UAS insertion for 2 minutes, expression levels in the distal ureter were increased 6.5- and 8-fold for COX-2 and TNF-α, respectively; and after 2 hours of UAS placement COX-2 and TNF-α mRNA expression levels were increased 9- and 9.5-fold, respectively. Conclusion: The pro-inflammatory mediators COX-2 and TNF-α were significantly upregulated in the ureteral wall by the influence of UAS. These findings may have implications for postoperative pain, drainage, and complications. PMID:27998175

  8. Community Factors Influencing Birth Spacing among Married ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AJRH Managing Editor

    outcomes. This study investigates community-level influences on birth spacing outcomes among women aged 15-49 in Uganda ...... childhood stunting in nigeria: A multilevel analysis. ... Equity monitoring for social marketing: Use of wealth.

  9. Dermal factors influencing measurement of skin autofluorescence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Noordzij, Margaretha J.; Lefrandt, Johan; Graaff, Reindert; Smit, Andries J.

    Background: Skin autofluorescence (SAF) is a noninvasive marker of accumulation of advanced glycation end products. It predicts cardiovascular complications and mortality in diabetes and renal failure. We assessed the influence of potential common confounders in SAF measurement, by determining the

  10. FACTORS INFLUENCING ADOPTION DECISIONS OF MAIZE FARMERS IN NIGERIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olusegun Ayodeji Fadare

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The needs to develop improved varieties of maize have been in the heart of various researchers and institutions in Nigeria because of its strategic role in tackling food insecurity and poverty. Despite substantial efforts to improve maize varieties, the level of adoption of improved maize varieties (IMV in Nigeria in still very low. Although previous adoption studies have indicated a number of socioeconomic and institutional/organizational variables as important factors influencing adoption of improved maize (crop varieties in the country, whether these factors are the main issues of concern, and whether the inclusion of regional/agro-ecological variables in adoption model are also important in explaining what could drive farmers’ adoption behaviour requires investigation. This study therefore examined factors influencing adoption of IMV among farmers in Nigeria using a selected portion of the Nigeria Living Standard Measurement Survey data collected by the National Bureau of Statistics and the World Bank for 2010/2011 cropping season with descriptive statistics and probit model as tools for data analysis. The results suggest, in line with some previous studies, that farm size, education level of farmers and access to extension services would significantly influence adoption of IMV. The results also indicate that farmers across the entire agro-ecological regions of country share some negative sentiments regarding adoption of IMV. Renewed emphasis on interventions that would enable farmers gain more access to farmland, and promote formal education and extension service are advocated. An attempt to incorporate variables that capture farmers’ perception/experience on agroclimatic/ ecologically related concerns in adoption study could aid better understand of what drives farmers’ adoption decisions across the country especially in the light of the emerging climate change issues and its implication on food production.

  11. 181例住院初产妇母乳喂养方式的影响因素分析%PRECEDE Model-based Analysis of Breastfeeding Pattern of Primiparas and Its Influence Factors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张利娟; 张广清; 杨明; 袁颖星; 方妙春

    2014-01-01

    目的:运用PRECEDE模式探讨初产妇母乳喂养方式的影响因素,为临床母乳喂养拟订教育措施,开展有效的健康教育提供依据。方法采用横断面调查法,基于PRECEDE模式理论自行设计母乳喂养影响因素调查问卷,对符合纳入标准的181例住院初产妇进行调查,探讨母乳喂养倾向、促成、强化因素与喂养方式的关系。结果住院期间纯母乳喂养率为58.0%,多因素Logistic回归分析结果显示:婴儿性别和倾向因素(母乳喂养知识、喂养信心与态度和所希望的喂养方式)为母乳喂养方式的影响因素(P0.05)。结论应结合婴儿性别、喂养知识、信心与态度、所希望的喂养方式等影响因素采取针对性的健康教育干预,从而更有效地促成纯母乳喂养行为。%Objective To analyze the influence factors of breastfeeding pattern of primiparas with PRECEDE model and to provide reference for effective health education. Methods In this descriptive cross-sectional study, a self-designed questionnaire of the influence factors of breastfeeding based on PRECED model was employed to investigate 181 hospitalized primiparas through convenience sampling to analyze the relationship among predisposing factors, reinforcing factors, enabling factors and the breastfeeding pattern. Results Exclusive breastfeeding rate reached 58.0% during hospitalization. Multivariate logistic regression showed that influence factors of breastfeeding pattern included gender of the infants and predisposing factors such as breastfeeding knowledge, confidence and attitude of breastfeeding and expected feeding method ( P0.05). Conclusion The breastfeeding rate needs to be improved and health education should be conducted taking the impact factors of gender of the infants, breastfeeding knowledge, confidence and attitude of breastfeeding and expected feeding method into consideration.

  12. Analysis of influencing factors on fine sediment flocculation in the Changjiang Estuary

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蒋国俊; 姚言明; 唐子文

    2002-01-01

    -- Based on the test data in dynamic water and static water, the main factors, which influence the fine sediment flocculation, are analyzed with a gray model method of correlation theory. It is shown that the main influencing factors are water temperature, settling time, salinity, grain size, sediment concentration and current velocity according to the correlation coefficients. Among them, the salinity and the sediment grain size are critical type influencing factors (CrTIF); the settling time, the sediment concentration and the velocity are continuous type influencing factors (CoTIF); and the water temperature has the characteristics of both. When the critical values of CrTIF are reached or exceeded,the fine sediments will be flocculated, but values of CrTIF will not influence the settlement strength of flocs. The influence of CoTIF is continuous. The values of the CoTIF will not only influence the occurrence of flocculation but also the settlement strength of the flocs.

  13. Factors influencing crime rates: an econometric analysis approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bothos, John M. A.; Thomopoulos, Stelios C. A.

    2016-05-01

    The scope of the present study is to research the dynamics that determine the commission of crimes in the US society. Our study is part of a model we are developing to understand urban crime dynamics and to enhance citizens' "perception of security" in large urban environments. The main targets of our research are to highlight dependence of crime rates on certain social and economic factors and basic elements of state anticrime policies. In conducting our research, we use as guides previous relevant studies on crime dependence, that have been performed with similar quantitative analyses in mind, regarding the dependence of crime on certain social and economic factors using statistics and econometric modelling. Our first approach consists of conceptual state space dynamic cross-sectional econometric models that incorporate a feedback loop that describes crime as a feedback process. In order to define dynamically the model variables, we use statistical analysis on crime records and on records about social and economic conditions and policing characteristics (like police force and policing results - crime arrests), to determine their influence as independent variables on crime, as the dependent variable of our model. The econometric models we apply in this first approach are an exponential log linear model and a logit model. In a second approach, we try to study the evolvement of violent crime through time in the US, independently as an autonomous social phenomenon, using autoregressive and moving average time-series econometric models. Our findings show that there are certain social and economic characteristics that affect the formation of crime rates in the US, either positively or negatively. Furthermore, the results of our time-series econometric modelling show that violent crime, viewed solely and independently as a social phenomenon, correlates with previous years crime rates and depends on the social and economic environment's conditions during previous years.

  14. Socio-economic, cultural and livelihood factors influencing local ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Socio-economic, cultural and livelihood factors influencing local people ... The social and economic circumstances prevailing in Tanzania today have made ... sociocultural and livelihood factors that influence community participation in ... Increased capacity for conservation skills was the most important driver of community ...

  15. Analysis of Factors Influencing Farmers’ Identification of Entrepreneurial Opportunity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jing; GAO; Fang; YANG

    2013-01-01

    Based on the survey data of entrepreneurship concerning farmers in China,this article uses the multivariate adjustment regression analysis method,to analyze the factors influencing farmers’ identification of entrepreneurial opportunity and the mechanism. The results show that demographic characteristics are still an important factor influencing farmers’ identification of entrepreneurial opportunity,but the extent of its influence is weaker than entrepreneurs’ trait. The new trait theory is verified in farmers’ entrepreneurship opportunity behavior; entrepreneurship environment is becoming an important factor influencing entrepreneurial opportunity identification,whose regulation effect on entrepreneurs’ social network and previous experience is stronger than the regulation effect on entrepreneurs’ psychological trait.

  16. The Stakeholders’ Views on Factors Influencing Nutrition Policy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jeruszka-Bielak, Marta; Sicinska, Ewa; de Wit, Liesbeth;

    2015-01-01

    ) participated in the study. The remaining interviewees represented non-governmental organisations (n=6), industry (n=4) or were independent academic or health professional experts (n=5). Data were analysed by theoretical interpretative thematic analysis. Insights from interviewees on the development...... of micronutrient policies were grouped using the Public Health Nutrition Policy-making model. The main factors infl uencing the micronutrient policies were: systematic monitoring of nutrition and health, causal relationships between consumers’ diet-related behaviours and health outcomes, scientific recommendations...... engagement, relationships between stakeholders (Policy and institutions area). The spectrum and weight of the factors influencing nutritional policy depends on nutrient, country and degree of its “advanced status” within nutrition policy, political environment, culture and socio-economic conditions as well...

  17. Investigating the Influence of Motivational Factors on Conceptual Change in a Digital Learning Context Using the Dual-Situated Learning Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tseng, Chung-Hsien; Tuan, Hsiao-Lin; Chin, Chi-Chin

    2010-09-01

    This study examines the relationship between the learning motivation and conceptual change of 127 eighth graders, after they have learned the acid, base, and salt concept in a digital learning context, designed according to the dual-situated learning model (DSLM). Two instruments-the students' motivation towards science learning (SMTSL) questionnaire and the acid-base-salt concept diagnostic test (CDT)-were used in the study. The questionnaire and the test were given to students in pre-test, post-test, and delayed post-test. Based on their motivation questionnaire scores, 18 students were selected from various scoring ranges for semi-structural interviews. Results showed that, after experiencing DSLM digital learning, students' post-CDT and delay-CDT scores were significantly higher than pre-CDT scores (p Pearson correlation analysis indicated that students' conceptual change (ΔCDT) was significantly correlated with motivational factors such as self-efficacy (SE), active learning strategy (ALS), science learning value (SLV), achievement goal (AG), and learning environment stimulation (LES) (p correlation to ΔCDT, particularly for SE, ALS, and AG.

  18. FACTORS INFLUENCING FRICTION OF PHOSPHATE COATINGS,

    Science.gov (United States)

    surface roughness, crystalline structure , and velocity. The coefficients of friction for manganese phosphate coatings did not differ to any practical...The coefficient of friction was independent of the applied load. Velocity during dynamic testing, surface finish, and crystalline structure influenced

  19. Dermal factors influencing measurement of skin autofluorescence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Noordzij, Margaretha J.; Lefrandt, Johan; Graaff, Reindert; Smit, Andries J.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Skin autofluorescence (SAF) is a noninvasive marker of accumulation of advanced glycation end products. It predicts cardiovascular complications and mortality in diabetes and renal failure. We assessed the influence of potential common confounders in SAF measurement, by determining the e

  20. Factors influencing societal response of nanotechnology : an expert stakeholder analysis

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    Nanotechnology can be described as an emerging technology and, as has been the case with other emerging technologies such as genetic modification, different socio-psychological factors will potentially influence societal responses to its development and application. These factors will play an important role in how nanotechnology is developed and commercialised. This article aims to identify expert opinion on factors influencing societal response to applications of nanotechnology. Structured i...

  1. Factors Influencing Job Satisfaction among Army Chaplains

    Science.gov (United States)

    1976-05-20

    supported by Maslow’s need hierarchy, it is not substantiated by Herzberg’s Two Factor Theory. Still another approach is that of Leon Festinger’s...Herzberg, Vroom, McGregor, Lawler and Festinger provide a basic JWM » -, —_—^ . foundation and starting point for examining the factors of chaplain...identity, and autonomy, which are examined in this section. Further, Leon Festinger’s work on "cognitive dissonance" points toward the

  2. Factors influencing consumer dietary health preventative behaviours

    OpenAIRE

    Petrovici, Dan A.; Ritson, Christopher

    2006-01-01

    Background The deterioration of the health status of the Romanian population during the economic transition from a centrally planned to a free market economy has been linked to lifestyles factors (e.g. diet) regarded as a main determinants of the disparity in life expectancy between Eastern and Western Europe. Reforms in the health care system in this transition economy aim to focus on preventive action. The purpose of this study was to identify the factors that impact on the individual decis...

  3. Research on influencing factors of LED frequency response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luan, Tianyu; Qian, Keyuan

    2017-08-01

    In LED-based visible light communication, the choice of light source device is an important issue. In this paper, the frequency response (FR) of different types of blue LEDs and phosphors is measured. On the basis of that, this paper proposes the FR model of phosphor and supplements the FR model of blue LED. And also, a method is proposed to calculate the FR of phosphor coated LEDs using FR of blue LED and that of phosphor. On this basis, this paper analyses the influencing factors of the FR of blue LED and FR of phosphor respectively. It provides guidance for not only selecting the light source device but also selecting and blending phosphor in visible light communication based on LED.

  4. Factors influencing career choice after initial training in surgery.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    McHugh, Seamus

    2012-02-01

    INTRODUCTION: Irish general surgery faces a recruitment crisis with only 87 of 145 (60%) basic surgical training (BST) places filled in 2009. We assessed basic surgical trainees to identify objective, and potentially modifiable, factors that influence ultimate recruitment into a general surgical career. METHODS: Candidates commencing BST training during a 5-year period between 2004 and 2008 were included in a quantitative study. In addition a total of 2,536 candidates, representing all those who commenced surgical training in Ireland since 1960 were identified through the Royal College of Surgeons in Ireland (RCSI) database and invited to complete an online survey. Statistical analysis was performed using SPSS version 15, with p < 0.05 considered significant. RESULTS: During the 5-year quantitative study period there were 381 BST trainees. Gender was a significant predictor of career choice with women more likely to ultimately choose a nonsurgical career after initial surgical training (p = 0.049). Passing surgical membership examinations (MRCS) also was predictive of remaining in surgery (p = 0.005). Training region was not a significant predictor of ultimate career choice. There were 418 survey respondents. The influence of role models was most commonly cited as influencing candidates in choosing to commence surgical training. Candidates who rated "academic opportunity" (p = 0.023) and "intellectual challenge" (p = 0.047) as factors that influenced their decision to commence surgical training were more likely to ultimately continue their careers in a surgical speciality. CONCLUSIONS: This study describes the career pathway of surgical trainees and confirms the importance of academic achievement in discriminating between candidates applying for surgical training schemes.

  5. Giving children a voice: Exploring qualitative perspectives on factors influencing recess physical activity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pawlowski, Charlotte Skau; Schipperijn, Jasper; Tjørnhøj-Thomsen, Tine

    2017-01-01

    11–12-year-old children. The socio-ecological model was used as the overall theoretical framework. Twelve factors were identified as influencing the children’s recess physical activity: bodily self-esteem and ability; gender; gendered school culture; peer influence; conflicts and exclusion; space...... of actions addressing factors from different layers in the socio-ecological model to increase recess physical activity....

  6. Factors which influence on the development of the enterprise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.V. Raiko

    2015-09-01

    such factors as the level of the production organization and resource usage, level of marketing activity and level of distribution and consumption of the products on the indicators of the enterprise’s economic effectiveness. In this way we identified factors that influence the development of the enterprise and facilitate its success with the support of marketing in three groups: 1 the first group reflects the tendencies of the enterprise’s development and its investment attractiveness; 2 the second group is the enterprise’s resource capabilities, which is defined by the availability of tangible and financial assets; 3 the third group is the enterprise’s competiveness. Conclusions and directions for further research. The results presented in the article demonstrate sufficiently high accuracy in representing existing functional connections among the selected factors and dependent variables. Such review wil help to provide more complete, representative and objective data that will form a basis for recommendations development. It is possible to do using mathematical models on economics, models that characterize the interconnections between the enterprises business results and factors of its marketing activity.

  7. Influence of Nutritional Factors on Lipid Metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-12-01

    conditions of chronic high level fat oxidation such as exercise, Askew et al. (121) fed exercising rats diets supplemented with 0.5Z L- carnitine . Although...exercise increased adipose tissue fatty acid turnover, supplemental dietary carnitine neither increased skeletal muscle in vitro fatty acid oxidation...some investigators believe the relative activities of the sn-glycerolphosphate acyltransferase and carnitine palmttyltrans- ferase may influence the

  8. Dermal factors influencing measurement of skin autofluorescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noordzij, Margaretha J; Lefrandt, Joop D; Graaff, Reindert; Smit, Andries J

    2011-02-01

    Skin autofluorescence (SAF) is a noninvasive marker of accumulation of advanced glycation end products. It predicts cardiovascular complications and mortality in diabetes and renal failure. We assessed the influence of potential common confounders in SAF measurement, by determining the effects of endogenous and exogenous local dermal changes by body creams, hyperemia, vasoconstriction, and hydration. SAF was measured before and after local administration of body lotion, day cream, sunscreen, or self-browning cream and after attempts to remove these effects with alcohol swabs and washing. SAF was measured before and during three hyperemia maneuvers: vasoconstriction and on a dry and wet skin. The body lotion increased SAF by 18%. Day cream, sunscreen, and self-browning cream gave an increase of >100%. Except for body lotion, subsequent cleaning with alcohol swabs and washing with soap did not return SAF to baseline values. The effect of self-browning cream persisted for 2 weeks and that of sunscreen for 4 days. Hyperemia caused by a hot bath, capsicum cream, or postocclusive reactive hyperemia gave a decrease in SAF of, respectively, 18%, 22%, and 2.3%. Vasoconstriction caused by immersing the arm in cold water gave a 10% increase. Hydration state did not influence SAF. Measurement of SAF is strongly affected by several skin creams. This effect was often not fully corrected by alcohol swabs and washing with soap and may persist for many days. Marked hyperemia and vasoconstriction also influence SAF. We advise avoiding these potential error sources.

  9. Choice of treatment with antidepressants: influencing factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Himmerich, Hubertus; Wranik, Dominika W

    2012-01-01

    Depressive disorders place a large burden on patients and on society. Although efficacious treatment options for unipolar depressive disorders exist, substantial gaps in care remain. In part, the challenge lies in the matching of individual patients with appropriate care. This is complicated by the steady increases in the variety of antidepressants available in the market. The goal of this study is to highlight the decision processes in the selection of antidepressants by clinicians, given that most treatments have similar clinical effectiveness profiles. We conducted a systematic literature review of studies that referred to the decisions surrounding treatment with antidepressants for the treatment of non-psychotic unipolar depression. Our analysis of the literature reveals that the choice of treatment is based on a variety of factors, of which clinical evidence is only one. These factors can be categorized into clinical factors such as illness and treatment characteristics, individual factors such as patient and physician characteristics, and contextual factors such as setting characteristics, decision supports and pharmacoeconomic aspects. Illness characteristics are defined by the type and severity of depression. Treatment characteristics include drug properties, efficacy, effectiveness and favorable as well as unintended adverse effects of the drug. Examples for patient characteristics are co-morbidities and individual preferences, and physician characteristics include knowledge, experience, values and beliefs, and the relationship with the patient. Treatment guidelines, algorithms, and most recently, computational supports and biological markers serve as decision supports.

  10. Factors influencing quality of life in asthmatics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Al-kalemji, Abir; Petersen, Karin Dam; Sørensen, Jan

    2013-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: The quality of life (QOL) in persons with asthma is reduced and different factors such as demography, asthma severity and psychiatric comorbidity play an influential role. However, little is known about the interplay of these factors. OBJECTIVE: To describe QOL in relation to asthma...... and analyse for the relative impact of asthma severity, psychiatric comorbidity, lifestyle (smoking and obesity) and demographic determinants on QOL in persons with asthma. METHODS: One thousand one hundred sixty-one subjects from an earlier cohort with and without asthma were sent an asthma screening...... gender and smoking were associated with reduced QOL, suggesting that these factors play an independent role on lowering QOL. Depression did not inflate the relationship between asthma severity and worse QOL, suggesting that asthma severity plays an independent role on everyday life regardless...

  11. Factors influencing nurses' participation in clinical research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobson, Ann F; Warner, Andrea M; Fleming, Eileen; Schmidt, Bruce

    2008-01-01

    Clinical research is necessary for developing nursing's body of knowledge and improving the quality of gastroenterology nursing care. The support and participation of nursing staff are crucial to conducting interventional research. Identification of characteristics of nurses and their work settings that facilitate or impede participation in research is needed. The purpose of this descriptive correlational study was to examine the effect of personal and professional characteristics and attitudes about nursing research on staff nurses' participation in a clinical nursing research project. A questionnaire measuring nurses' attitudes, perceptions of availability of support, and research use was distributed to staff nurses working on an endoscopy lab and two same-day surgery units where a nursing research study had recently been conducted. Investigator-developed items measured nurses' attitudes about the utility and feasibility of the interventions tested in the original study. A total of 36 usable questionnaires comprised the sample. Factor analysis of the two questionnaires resulted in three-factor (Importance of Research, Interest in Research, and Environment Support of Research) and two-factor (Value of Cognitive-Behavioral Interventions [CBIs] and Participation in Study) solutions, respectively. There were no statistically significant differences in mean scores for the five factors between nurses who did (n = 19) and those who did not (n = 17) participate in the original study. The Participation in Research Factor was significantly negatively correlated with years in nursing (r = -.336, p body of knowledge about factors that facilitate or impede staff nurses' involvement in research. This knowledge will be useful for nurse researchers planning intervention studies to forecast and foster staff nurse involvement in their projects. Findings may also be useful to nurse managers, nurse educators, and staff development personnel in assessing and promoting staff nurses

  12. Factors Influencing Museum Sustainability and Indicators for Museum Sustainability Measurement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Izabela Luiza Pop

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this research was to identify the factors upon which museum sustainability depends and the way in which this can be measured. Methodologically, we applied a qualitative research approach, using semi-structured interviews with experts from the Romanian museum sector, complemented by an in-depth study of the literature in this field. Results indicated that any objective measuring of sustainability must take into account the size of a museum’s collections and its organizational structure. It was also found that museum type can affect sustainability via its competitive advantage. However, the sustainability of a museum is not strictly determined by these factors, but also by the management and marketing strategies applied. Based on analysis of literature- and respondent-based factors influencing sustainability, this article proposes a set of 33 indicators that can be used by museums to measure their sustainability, as well as a model that enables evaluation of the sustainability levels of various museums comparatively, regardless of their type, size or importance (e.g., national, regional and local. The results obtained are useful both from a theoretical point of view, given that there are few writings on this topic, and from a practical point of view, as they provide a basis for a clear, objective model of museum sustainability measurement.

  13. Factors influencing wood mobilization 1 in Minnesota streams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merten, Eric; Finlay, Jacques; Johnson, Lucinda; Newman, Raymond; Stefan, Heinz; Vondracek, Bruce C.

    2010-01-01

    [1] Natural pieces of wood provide a variety of ecosystem functions in streams including habitat, organic matter retention, increased hyporheic exchange and transient storage, and enhanced hydraulic and geomorphic heterogeneity. Wood mobilization is a critical process in determining the residence time of wood. We documented the characteristics and locations of 865 natural wood pieces (>0.05 m in diameter for a portion >1 m in length) in nine streams along the north shore of Lake Superior in Minnesota. We determined the locations of the pieces again after an overbank stormflow event to determine the factors that influenced mobilization of stationary wood pieces in natural streams. Seven of 11 potential predictor variables were identified with multiple logistic regression as significant to mobilization: burial, effective depth, ratio of piece length to effective stream width (length ratio), bracing, rootwad presence, downstream force ratio, and draft ratio. The final model (Pmobilization under natural conditions is a complex function of both mechanical factors (burial, length ratio, bracing, rootwad presence, draft ratio) and hydraulic factors (effective depth, downstream force ratio). If stable pieces are a goal for stream management then features such as partial burial, low effective depth, high length relative to channel width, bracing against other objects (e.g., stream banks, trees, rocks, or larger wood pieces), and rootwads are desirable. Using the model equation from this study, stewards of natural resources can better manage in-stream wood for the benefit of stream ecosystems.

  14. Influencing factors of infrared surveying in roadway

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CAI Kang-xu; GUO Da

    2006-01-01

    The main factors that affect infrared surveying in roadway include that property of rock, electromechanical equipments running, environmental temperature, hydrogeology and support material etc. This paper sums up the expression features of these disturbing factor through theoretical analysis and actual measurement contrasts and considers that some tunnel section does not suit to go on infrared survey, for instance, soft rock meets water to expanse, and surround rock has obviously pouring water. The basic methods had made evading disturbing of electromechanical equipments, environmental temperature and protect material etc to become possible. It is helpful that offers infrared surveying technical service for production safety better in roadway.

  15. Bayesian Estimation of Categorical Dynamic Factor Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhiyong; Nesselroade, John R.

    2007-01-01

    Dynamic factor models have been used to analyze continuous time series behavioral data. We extend 2 main dynamic factor model variations--the direct autoregressive factor score (DAFS) model and the white noise factor score (WNFS) model--to categorical DAFS and WNFS models in the framework of the underlying variable method and illustrate them with…

  16. Emergency department crowding: Factors influencing flow

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Linden, M.C.

    2015-01-01

    This thesis focuses on emergency department (ED) crowding. In the first part (ED crowding in the Netherlands) the current state of EDs regarding patients’ length of stay and ED managers’ experiences of crowding are described. Part two (input factors) contains three studies which describe the case lo

  17. Research on Conception Model for Influencing Factors of KnoWledge CollaBoration among Enterprises%企业间知识协同的影响因素概念模型研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王慧; 戚晶晶

    2014-01-01

    企业间通过知识的扩散、传播与共享可以提升自身的竞争优势。采用文献研究法,识别企业间知识协同活动过程中企业主体、知识属性和协同环境的相关要素,构建知识协同影响因素概念模型,可以发现,在协同主体的各个相关要素中,各个影响因素之间相互影响、相互作用,但并非相互独立。其中企业文化、协同意愿、智力资源作为中介变量,组织结构作为调节变量影响着协同效应。%ABstract:The competitive advantage can be improved among enterpriSeS through diffuSion,diSSemination and Sharing of knowledge. By USing literature reSearch method,recogniZing the related elementS of enterpriSe main body ,knowledge attribute and collaborative environment in the proceSS of collaborative activitieS among enterpriSeS, conStructing conception model for influencing factorS of knowledge collaboration,it can be found that in every relat-ed factor of collaborative main body,the variouS influencing factorS are mutually affected and interacted but not in-dependent. The enterpriSe culture,cooperative intention,the intelligence reSourceS aS the intermediary variable and organiZation Structure aS a moderating variable affect the collaborative effect.

  18. Influence of lifestyle factors on mammographic density in postmenopausal women.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Judith S Brand

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Mammographic density is a strong risk factor for breast cancer. Apart from hormone replacement therapy (HRT, little is known about lifestyle factors that influence breast density. METHODS: We examined the effect of smoking, alcohol and physical activity on mammographic density in a population-based sample of postmenopausal women without breast cancer. Lifestyle factors were assessed by a questionnaire and percentage and area measures of mammographic density were measured using computer-assisted software. General linear models were used to assess the association between lifestyle factors and mammographic density and effect modification by body mass index (BMI and HRT was studied. RESULTS: Overall, alcohol intake was positively associated with percent mammographic density (P trend  = 0.07. This association was modified by HRT use (P interaction  = 0.06: increasing alcohol intake was associated with increasing percent density in current HRT users (P trend  = 0.01 but not in non-current users (P trend  = 0.82. A similar interaction between alcohol and HRT was found for the absolute dense area, with a positive association being present in current HRT users only (P interaction  = 0.04. No differences in mammographic density were observed across categories of smoking and physical activity, neither overall nor in stratified analyses by BMI and HRT use. CONCLUSIONS: Increasing alcohol intake is associated with an increase in mammography density, whereas smoking and physical activity do not seem to influence density. The observed interaction between alcohol and HRT may pose an opportunity for HRT users to lower their mammographic density and breast cancer risk.

  19. Factors influencing a problem-based learning implementation: A case study of IT courses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darus, Norida Muhd; Mohd, Haslina; Baharom, Fauziah; Saip, Mohamed Ali; Puteh, Nurnasran; Marzuki @ Matt, Zaharin; Husain, Mohd Zabidin; Yasin, Azman

    2016-08-01

    IT students must be trained to work efficiently as teamwork. One of the techniques that can be used to train them is through Problem-Based Learning (PBL) approach. The PBL implementation can be influenced by various factors depending on the ultimate goal of the study. This study is focusing on the IT students' perception of the PBL implementation. The student's perception is important to ensure the successfulness of the PBL implementation. Therefore, it is important to identify the factors that might influence the implementation of PBL of IT courses. This study aims to identify some catalyst factors that may influence the PBL implementation of IT courses. The study involved three (3) main phases: identifying PBL implementation factors, constructing a PBL model, and PBL model validation using statistical analysis. Four main factors are identified: PBL Characteristics, PBL Course Assessment, PBL Practices, and PBL Perception. Based on these four factors, a PBL model is constructed. Then, based on the proposed PBL model, four hypotheses are formulated and analyzed to validate the model. All hypotheses are significantly acceptable. The result shows that the PBL Characteristics and PBL Course Assessment factors are significantly influenced the PBL Practices and indirectly influenced the Students' Perception of the PBL Implementation for IT courses. This PBL model can assist decision makers in enhancing the PBL teaching and learning strategy for IT courses. It is also can be tested to other courses in the future.

  20. Orifice plate cavitation mechanism and its influencing factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wan-zheng AI

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The orifice plate energy dissipater is an economic and highly efficient dissipater. However, there is a risk of cavitaion around the orifice plate flow. In order to provide references for engineering practice, we examined the cavitation mechanism around the orifice plate and its influencing factors by utilizing mathematical analysis methods to analyze the flow conditions around the orifice plate in view of gas bubble dynamics. Through the research presented in this paper, the following can be observed: The critical radius and the critical pressure of the gas nucleus in orifice plate flow increase with its initial state parameter ; the development speed of bubbles stabilizes at a certain value after experiencing a peak value and a small valley value; and the orifice plate cavitation is closely related to the distribution of the gas nucleus in flow. For computing the orifice plate cavitation number, we ought to take into account the effects of pressure fluctuation. The development time of the gas nucleus from the initial radius to the critical radius is about 10-7-10-5 s; therefore, the gas nucleus has sufficient time to develop into bubbles in the negative half-cycle of flow fluctuation. The orifice critical cavitation number is closely related to the orifice plate size, and especially closely related with the ratio of the orifice plate radius to the tunnel radius. The approximate formula for the critical cavitation number of the square orifice plate that only considers the main influencing factor was obtained by model experiments.

  1. Research on China's Aquaculture Efficiency Evaluation and Influencing Factors with Undesirable Outputs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JI Jianyue; WANG Pingping

    2015-01-01

    Taking the aquaculture area, the number of farming boats and that of aquaculturist as input variables, the aquaculture production as desirable output variable and polluted economic loss as undesirable output variable, this paper conducts SBM model to evaluate the aquaculture efficiency based on the data of 16 aquaculture-developed provinces in China from 2004 to 2011. The results show the efficiency in China has not changed much in recent years with the efficiency values mainly between 0.39 and 0.53, and the efficiency of marine-aquaculture-dominated provinces is generally higher than that of freshwater-aquaculture-dominated ones. To analyze the difference under the efficiency, the panel Tobit model is used with education level factor, training factor, technology ex-tension factor, technical level factor, scale factor and species factor as the efficiency influencing factors. The results show that tech-nology extension factor and technical level factor have significant positive influence.

  2. Models of Teaching: Indicators Influencing Teachers' Perception of Pedagogical Choice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nordyke, Alison Michelle

    2011-01-01

    The models of teaching are systematic tools that allow teachers to vary their classroom pedagogical practices to meet the needs of all learners in their classroom. This study was designed to determine key factors that influence teachers' decisions when determining a model of teaching for classroom instruction and to identify how teacher training…

  3. Models of Teaching: Indicators Influencing Teachers' Perception of Pedagogical Choice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nordyke, Alison Michelle

    2011-01-01

    The models of teaching are systematic tools that allow teachers to vary their classroom pedagogical practices to meet the needs of all learners in their classroom. This study was designed to determine key factors that influence teachers' decisions when determining a model of teaching for classroom instruction and to identify how teacher training…

  4. [Factors that influence student ratings of instruction].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chae, Su Jin; Choung, Yun Hoon; Chung, Yoon Sok

    2015-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the validity of student ratings of instruction by analyzing their relationships with several variables, including gender, academic rank, specialty, teaching time, and teaching method, at a medical school. This study analyzed the student ratings of 297 courses at Ajou University School of Medicine in 2013. SPSS version 12.0 was used to analyze the data and statistics by t-test, analysis of variance, and Scheffe test. There were no statistically significant differences in student ratings between gender, rank, and specialty. However, student ratings were significantly influenced by teaching times and methods (pStudent ratings were high for teaching times of 10 hours or more and small-group learning, compared with lectures. There was relatively mean differences in students ratings by teaching times, specialty and rank, although the difference in ratings was not statistically significant. Student ratings can be classified by teaching time and method for summative purposes. To apply student ratings to the evaluation of the performance of faculty, further studies are needed to analyze the variables that influence student ratings.

  5. Analysis on Factors Influencing Unmarried Adolescent Sex Behavior in Shanghai City under the Multilevel Model%上海市未婚青少年性行为影响因素多水平模型分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张鹏; 楼超华; 高尔生

    2012-01-01

    Objective To explore influencing factors of sex behavior among unmarried adolescent in Shanghai under the multilevel model. Methods We chose unmarried adolescents aged 15 to 24 among 60 neighborhood/village committees in Shanghai through stratified random sampling. Then a model of 2 levels logistic was fitted. Results The prev-alence of sex behavior among unmarried adolescents was 12. 9% , including 16. 7% for male and 8. 9% for female. According to the results of the 2 level logistic model analysis, we learn that the protective factors of sex be-havior among unmarried adolescent were education, student status and the score of school sex information respectively. The risk factors were age,gen-der , score of dangerous behavior, score of peer or media sex information, sex pressure from peer and pornographic information contacting. Conclu-sion According to the analysis of influencing factors of sex behavior a-mong unmarried adolescent under the multilevel model, customized inter-vention measures based on these factors could be designed for adolescents.%目的 通过建立多水平模型,探讨上海市未婚青少年性行为现况及影响因素.方法 采用分层随机抽样方法选取上海市辖区内60个居/村委会15 ~24岁青少年进行调查,并对数据进行两水平logistic模型拟合.结果 上海市未婚青少年性行为发生率为12.9%,其中男性l6 7%,女性8 9%.未婚青少年性行为影响因素两水平logistic回归模型结果显示,文化程度、在读学生和学校性信息评分是青少年性行为保护因素;年龄、性别、危险行为评分、同伴和媒体性信息评分、同伴性压力和黄色信息是性行为危险因素.结论 可根据多水平模型对上海市未婚青少年性行为影响因素的分析,对青少年开展有针对性的生殖健康干预.

  6. Grey Correlation Analysis on Main Factors Influencing the Shape of Blasted Stockpile Based on Weibull Model%基于Weibull模型的爆堆形态主要影响因素的灰色关联分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩亮; 毕文广; 李红江; 师相; 李柄成

    2011-01-01

    露天矿爆破中爆堆形态的影响因素众多,为找出影响爆堆形态的主控因素,引入灰色关联理论,由于爆堆形态无法用数字参量表达,因此很难直接利用灰色关联理论对其进行计算,通过引入Weibull模型对实测爆堆形态曲线进行拟合计算,完成了爆堆形态参数的量化过程,并对黑岱沟露天煤矿的49组实例进行了灰色关联度计算,得到了各因素对爆堆形态影响的关联序列,并对其进行了分析。该研究对于露天矿爆堆形态的设计优化具有一定的指导意义。%There are many factors influencing the shape of blasted stockpile in the open -pit. In order to find the main influence factors, the grey correlation theory is introduced. However, it is difficult to calculate the shape of blasted stockpile directly using grey correlation theory due to it is unable to express the shape with digital parameters. In this paper, by leading into Weibull model, the fitting calculation of the actual shape curve of blasted stockpile was accomplished, which made quantification of parameters of blasted stockpile. The 49 examples from Heidaigou open -pit were calculated with grey correlation theory, correlativity sequence of influencing factors of the blasted stockpile shape was obtained, and the results were analyzed. The research has definited significance for optimizing the shape design of blasted stockpile in openpit.

  7. Factors influencing women's attitudes towards midwifery: Tool validation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Rajabi, Omaymah; Al-Hadid, Lourance; Subih, Maha

    2015-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to validate a tool that explores the factors influencing women's opinion of and attitudes towards midwifery. A descriptive, cross-sectional design was used. The sample consisted of 526 Jordanian women. Cluster sampling was used to ensure a representative sample; then, convenience sampling was performed. The instrument asked non-identifying demographic questions and covered factors reported in literature to influence women's attitudes towards and views of the profession. The resulting instrument consisted of five factors explained by 29 items. These factors were women's general view of midwives, midwife duties, professional ethics, media influence and demotivating factors associated with working as a midwife. Although the instrument is valid and reliable, it needs further testing in other studies. Taking the factors reported on by the present study into account in public policy-making could promote better understanding of midwifery and improve its status in the community. © 2014 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  8. Factors influencing early survival after liver transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stock, P G; Estrin, J A; Fryd, D S; Payne, W D; Belani, K G; Elick, B A; Najarian, J S; Ascher, N L

    1989-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyze data from all adult and pediatric liver transplants performed between January 1, 1983 and January 15, 1986 at the University of Minnesota Hospital and identify perioperative variables that predict patient survival and could aid in patient selection. Charts, intraoperative anesthesia records, blood bank records, flow sheets, outpatient records, and autopsy reports were examined in 45 pediatric and 15 adult patients who underwent primary orthotopic liver transplantation. Analysis of the data can be summarized as follows: (1) Pediatric patients whose coagulation parameters could not be corrected prior to operation and who consequently required preoperative exchange transfusion had poorer outcomes than those not requiring an exchange to correct coagulation parameters. (2) The rapid infusion technique for massive blood transfusion resulted in significantly decreased blood loss and intraoperative blood product replacement. (3) Twenty-four hour postoperative factor V levels were good predictors of survival. Patients with poor factor V levels required rigorous replacement of coagulation factors. (4) Pediatric patients with uncorrectable coagulopathies requiring immediate postoperative exchange transfusion had extremely high mortality.

  9. Clinically important factors influencing endothelial function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vapaatalo, H; Mervaala, E

    2001-01-01

    The endothelium, a continuous cellular monolayer lining the blood vessels, has an enormous range of important homeostatic roles. It serves and participates in highly active metabolic and regulatory functions including control of primary hemostasis, blood coagulation and fibrinolysis, platelet and leukocyte interactions with the vessel wall, interaction with lipoprotein metabolism, presentation of histocompatibility antigens, regulation of vascular tone and growth and further of blood pressure. Many crucial vasoactive endogenous compounds like prostacyclin, thromboxane, nitric oxide, endothelin, angiotensin, endothelium derived hyperpolarizing factor, free radicals and bradykinin are formed in the endothelial cells to control the functions of vascular smooth muscle cells and of circulating blood cells. These versatile and complex systems and cellular interactions are extremely vulnerable. The balances may be disturbed by numerous endogenous and exogenous factors including psychological and physical stress, disease states characterized by vasospasm, inflammation, leukocyte and platelet adhesion and aggregation, thrombosis, abnormal vascular proliferation, atherosclerosis and hypertension. The endothelial cells are also the site of action of many drugs and exogenous toxic substances (e.g. smoking, alcohol). As markers and assays for endothelial dysfunction, direct measurement of nitric oxide, its metabolites from plasma and urine, functional measurement of vascular nitric oxide dependent responses and assay of different circulating markers have been used. In numerous pathological conditions (e.g. atherosclerosis, hypertension, congestive heart failure, hyperhomocysteinemia, diabetes, renal failure, transplantation, liver cirrhosis) endothelial dysfunction has been described to exist. Some of them, as well as hormonal and nutritional factors and drug treatment will be discussed in this short review.

  10. Industrial sustainable development level in China and its influencing factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongjian Cao

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This research aims to set up a comprehensive index system to evaluate the sustainable development level of the industrial sector in China and to determine the key influencing factors that hinder the sector’s sustainable development. To achieve these research goals, we build a theoretical model with 26 indexes selected from resource, environment, economy, and society subsystems. An empirical analysis is conducted through Principal Component Analysis and Structural Equation Modeling. Results indicate that the sustainable development level of China’s industrial sector became positive in 2007 and peaked in 2012. The environment subsystem has the largest effect on the sustainable development level. The sustainable development level is also greatly influenced by solid wastes, production of non-renewable resources, energy consumption per unit of gross domestic product (GDP, and industrial research and development (R&D expenditure. The basic conclusion is that the sustainable development level of the industrial sector in China can be enhanced through improving the utilization efficiency of resources, increasing the contribution of technology progress to GDP, and developing renewable resources.

  11. An index model for measuring microblog users’ influence

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fuyong; YUAN; Jing; FENG; Qianqian; FU

    2012-01-01

    Purpose:The paper aims to build an index model for measuring microblog users’influence by taking microbloggers of Sina Weibo as a research sample.Design/methodology/approach:Our user influence index model emphasizes link analysis and user activities in the microblogging network.We conduct experiments to investigate the performance of our model by using data crawled from Sina Weibo.Findings:User influence is correlated to the attention that a user has received from his/her audience,the user’s activities and his/her tweets’influence.Experimental results show that our model can reflect microbloggers’influence in a more reasonable way.Research limitations:More factors need to be considered to identify different influential users at different time periods.Practical implications:The results of the study provide us with insights both into the way to measure microblog users’influence and to rank users based on their influence.Originality/value:By combining link analysis and user activities,this index model can reduce the impact of dummy follower accounts on user influence,reflecting a user’s real influence in the microblog system.

  12. Factors Influencing the Performance of Coal Briquettes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Unsia HABIB

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The continuous supply of energy resources is essential for the development of any nation. The economic and social life of any nation depends enormously on the energy resources. Over the past few years the energy crisis is becoming a major issue in developing countries as Pakistan. Oil, Natural gas and hydro are the three major energy resources of the Pakistan. These conventional energy resources were being exploited in the past leading to an issue of energy crisis in the country. Replacing expensive imported energy resources with coal briquettes made from indigenous coal reserves can provide fuel for the local residential and commercial markets. Coal briquettes formation is a process to convert coal powder into a specific shape with the help of a binder. An external force is applied to the coal binder mixture to make a firm body of desired shape. The briquettes formed this way will not disintegrate under normal conditions of transportation and use. Coal briquettes are preferred over raw coal because they are a smokeless, strong and low emissive fuel that can be used in numerous domestic and commercial applications. The performance of coal briquettes formed is dependent largely upon its thermal properties and the mechanical strength. Nowadays an environmentally safe briquettes formation process is also included in the performance criteria of coal briquettes. The mechanical strength of coal briquettes affects its storage and transportation to the intended market. The studies on coal briquettes show that coal briquettes quality depends on many factors like the type of binder, quantity of binder, grade of coal, moisture level, coal particle size and its distribution etc. These factors along with some of the factors as time of compaction, compaction temperature, and compaction pressure and moisture level are discussed in this paper to evaluate the performance of briquetting technology in future.

  13. Environmental Factors Influencing Arctic Halogen Chemistry During Late Spring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burd, J.; Nghiem, S. V.; Simpson, W. R.

    2015-12-01

    Reactive halogen radicals (e.g. Br, Cl atoms and their oxides, BrO, ClO) are important oxidizers in the troposphere that decrease atmospheric pollutants and deplete tropospheric ozone, affecting the abundance of other oxidizers such as the hydroxyl radical. During Arctic springtime, the heterogeneous chemical cycles (often called the "bromine explosion") produce high levels of bromine monoxide (BrO), through reactions on saline snow, ice, and/or aerosol surfaces. Multi-AXis Differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopy (MAX-DOAS) measured BrO at Barrow, AK, from 2008-2009 and 2012-2015, as well at various locations above the frozen Arctic Ocean with O-Buoys in 2008 and 2011-2015. Observed BrO levels drop suddenly during late spring (May-June) and generally do not recover, which indicates the bromine explosion cycle can no longer produce significant amounts of BrO. We have established, through an objective algorithm, the local day of year of this drop in BrO as the "seasonal end." Additionally, in about half of the years, "recurrence" events were observed where BrO levels recover for at least a day. This study investigates the environmental factors influencing seasonal end and recurrence events including: temperature, relative humidity, precipitation and snowmelt. Analysis of BrO and air temperature revealed the temperature reaches 0°C within five days of the seasonal end event; however, temperatures drop below freezing during a recurrence event. In addition, there are periods where the temperature remains below freezing, but no recurrence event is observed. This BrO and temperature analysis indicates above-freezing air temperature prevents reactive bromine release; however, it is not the only environmental factor influencing this heterogeneous recycling. Further analysis of additional environmental influences on the bromine explosion cycle could help to better understand and model bromine chemistry in the Arctic.

  14. Organizational Culture Factors that Can Influence Knowledge Transfer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioan Pastor

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The paper tries to establish the correlation that exists between the types of organizational culture and the factors that influence knowledge transfer. We started from the hypothesis that organizations which have high scores for cultural factors of openness to change and innovation as well as for task-oriented organizational growth will have the tendency of being favourable to knowledge transfer. Moreover, we started from the hypothesis that organizations that have high scores for bureaucracy and competition factors will have the tendency of being unfavourable to knowledge transfer. The research reached the conclusion that there seems to be a correlation between organizational culture and the factors that influence knowledge transfer.

  15. Factors influencing condom use among Nigerian undergraduates: A ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Factors influencing condom use among Nigerian undergraduates: A mixed method study. ... PROMOTING ACCESS TO AFRICAN RESEARCH ... group discussions) and quantitative (cross-sectional survey) methods were utilised for this study.

  16. Social and economic factors influencing the patronage and use of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Social and economic factors influencing the patronage and use of complementary and alternative medicine in Enugu. ... Journal of Pharmacy & Bioresources ... approaches to medical treatment that are outside of mainstream medical training.

  17. Personal and Socio-Economic Factors Influencing Female Choice of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Personal and Socio-Economic Factors Influencing Female Choice of Courses in ... Female students in six (Arts, Education, Pharmacy, Science, Social Sciences and ... services to secondary school students in the choice of courses and career.

  18. Factors Influencing the Development of Practical Skills of Interns ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Factors Influencing the Development of Practical Skills of Interns Working in ... It starts with a good theoretical preparation and some practical experience at university. ... The relationship between intern and senior doctor was important when it ...

  19. Factors influencing the job satisfaction of academics in higher ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Factors influencing the job satisfaction of academics in higher education. ... 94 respondents from similar departments at a residential and a distance education institution. A questionnaire focused on teaching, research, community service, ...

  20. Assessment of risk factors that influence pregnancy outcomes in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Keywords: Pregnancy outcome, low birth weight, Apgar score, maternal age, Tanzania ... (2006) reported that, several risk factors influence neonatal mortality. ..... which is the lowest cut off point for the classification of normal blood pressure.

  1. 'Mum never loved me.' How structural factors influence adolescent ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    How structural factors influence adolescent sexual and reproductive health ... Research in high income countries shows parent–child connectedness to be ... to young people's low self-esteem and risky sexual behaviour while unplanned ...

  2. Analysis of Socio-Economic Factors Influencing Farmers' Adoption ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Analysis of Socio-Economic Factors Influencing Farmers' Adoption of Rice ... Farming experience, household size, farm size and extension contact ... gender, market availability, education, extension contact, labour availability and farm size.

  3. Factors Influencing Farmer Output in the International Fund for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    kim

    Department of Rural Sociology and Extension. Michael Okpara ... This study analysed factors influencing International Fund for Agricultural. Development ..... farmers (50.9%) acquired secondary education as against Cross River IFAD farmers.

  4. Characteristics and factors influencing fast food intake of young ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Characteristics and factors influencing fast food intake of young adult consumers in Johannesburg, South Africa. ... their reasons for and frequency of fast food consumption, their specific fast food choices, and their attitudes towards health.

  5. LITERATURE REVIEW ON FACTORS INFLUENCING MILK PURCHASE BEHAVIOUR

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Klaudia Kurajdova; Janka Taborecka-Petrovicova

    2015-01-01

    In today’s highly informed, competitive and saturated market, a key to success of any business depends on knowing consumer and his consumption patterns and recognizing and understanding factors influencing...

  6. Socio-Demographic Factors Influencing Work-Role Salience Among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Socio-Demographic Factors Influencing Work-Role Salience Among ... The findings showed that students from lower socio-economic status homes and those ... The need to involve the students\\' parents in career education programmes and ...

  7. Factors Influencing Food Choice in the Elderly Mauritian Population

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    admpather

    Only the factor of taste influencing food choice was significantly different between the two ..... available through the media, promotions, and advertising may confuse consumers and cause ... Predictors of self-initiated, healthful dietary change.

  8. Factors influencing eating attitudes in secondary-school girls in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Factors influencing eating attitudes in secondary-school girls in South Africa - a preliminary stud. ... PROMOTING ACCESS TO AFRICAN RESEARCH. AFRICAN JOURNALS ONLINE (AJOL) ... South African Medical Journal. Journal Home ...

  9. Factors influencing utilization of Natural Family Planning among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Factors influencing utilization of Natural Family Planning among Child Bearing Women in Chilonga ... Medical Journal of Zambia ... The literature review was mainly obtained from studies conducted globally, regionally and Zambia inclusively.

  10. Prevalence Of Early Childhood Malnutrition And Influencing Factors ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    therefore, to asses the prevalence of malnutrition and the factors influencing the ... childhood malnutrition in Kabarole District and other areas in Uganda, and ..... Jitta JJ, Migadde M and J Mudusu Determinants of Malnutrition in under-fives.

  11. INFLUENCING FACTORS OF PRICE AND ASSOCIATED STRATEGIES

    OpenAIRE

    Liviu NEAMTU; NEAMTU Adina Claudia

    2012-01-01

    The price is an important element in product position; it is a means of sending signals to consumers about the nature and quality of the product. When, for a certain business environment, the demand curve is known in relation to market (competition) costs and prices, the firm can choose a pricing policy simultaneously with business strategy. This study synthesizes the key-factors occurring in choosing a business strategy and the game of price and cost on the market As an approach to pricing p...

  12. Emotional Factors Influencing Students’ English Writing Competence

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    聂勇伟

    2015-01-01

    As an international common language,English becomes more and more important.Students try their best to improve their English writing competence,especially as the social’s requirements for their English writing become higher and higher.However,students’English writing is very poor,fewer and fewer of them can write fluent English.Through the study of this topic,the author hopes it can remove students’emotional obstacles of English writing learning,master the direction of emotional factor,arouse students’interesting in learning oral English,make them practice English writing positively and obtain a better teaching effect

  13. Treatment Factors That Influence Mortality in Acromegaly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCabe, John; Ayuk, John; Sherlock, Mark

    2016-01-01

    Acromegaly is a rare condition characterized by excessive secretion of growth hormone (GH), which is almost always due to a pituitary adenoma. Acromegaly is associated with significant morbidity such as hypertension, type 2 diabetes, cardiomyopathy, obstructive sleep apnoea, malignancy and musculoskeletal abnormalities. Acromegaly has also been associated with increased mortality in several retrospective studies. This review will focus on the epidemiological data relating to mortality rates in acromegaly, the relationship between acromegaly and malignancy, the role of GH and insulin-like growth factor-I in assessing the risk of future mortality, and the impact of radiotherapy and hypopituitarism on mortality.

  14. Factors Influencing Teachers' Professional Competence Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grangeat, Michel; Gray, Peter

    2007-01-01

    This article aims to increase understanding and knowledge concerning teachers' competence enhancement. Models used in industrial contexts are analysed in order to elaborate a framework relevant to understand teachers' learning. This specifies components of the work environment that are mobilised by teachers in order to achieve their goals. It is…

  15. Influence of Macroeconomic Factors on Residential Property ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sultan

    of macroeconomic on real estate pricing in. Greece between 1981-1999 and ... multi-equation regression analysis to model the bi-causal ... Abuja is the capital city of Nigeria. Abuja is selected for ..... Joshi, H. (2006). Identifying the asset price.

  16. Factors Influencing University Drop Out Rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araque, Francisco; Roldan, Concepcion; Salguero, Alberto

    2009-01-01

    This paper develops personalized models for different university degrees to obtain the risk of each student abandoning his degree and analyzes the profile for undergraduates that abandon the degree. In this study three faculties located in Granada, South of Spain, were involved. In Software Engineering three university degrees with 10,844…

  17. Factors influencing the intention to watch online video advertising.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Joonghwa; Lee, Mira

    2011-10-01

    This study examines the factors influencing consumer intention to watch online video ads, by applying the theory of reasoned action. The attitude toward watching online video ads, the subjective norm, and prior frequency of watching online video ads positively influence the intention to watch online video ads. Further, beliefs held about entertainment and information outcomes from watching online video ads and subjective norm influence attitude toward watching these ads.

  18. FACTORS INFLUENCING BRAND EQUITY OF BALI AS A TOURISM DESTINATION

    OpenAIRE

    I Ketut Surya Diarta; I Gde Pitana; Nyoman Darma Putra; Agung Suryawan Wiranatha

    2016-01-01

    Globally, competition among tourism destinations is more stringent in getting foreign tourists, including Bali. One effort to win the competition is increasing destination brand equity through maintaining its influencing factors and gaining tourist positive behavior toward destination. This effort, in long run, will increase and stabilize destination revenue and sustainability. This research aims to analyze factors influencing brand equity of Bali as a tourism destination. This research was c...

  19. Factors Influencing the Disabled's Employment in the Competitive Labour Market.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mannila, Simo

    1995-01-01

    Factors influencing the job search outcomes of 1,353 Finnish individuals with disabilities were studied, focusing on age, gender, domicile, basic education, vocational training, and type of disability. Results showed that age, education, and domicile influenced outcomes, and labor market status was to some extent gender specific. (JDD)

  20. STUDY ON FACTORS INFLUENCING INK ABSORPTION OF COATED PAPER

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yanxin Liu; Chuanshan Zhao; Shuxia Shang; Zhongwei Sun

    2004-01-01

    Ink absorption is one of the most important factors which influence printing properties. This article had discussed the influence of coating properties,technologies of heating and pressure etc. on ink absorption and showed that ink absorption can be adjusted and coating surface structure can be improved when technologies of heating and pressure change, pigment and adhesive altered.

  1. Factors influencing the frequency of children's consumption of soft drinks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pettigrew, Simone; Jongenelis, Michelle; Chapman, Kathy; Miller, Caroline

    2015-08-01

    Among other focus areas, interventions designed to improve children's diets need to address key factors contributing to children's consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages. The present study employed structural equation modelling to investigate the relationship between a broad range of predictor variables and the frequency with which Australian children consume soft drinks. In total, 1302 parents of children aged 8 to 14 years responded to an online survey about their children's food consumption behaviours. Soft drink consumption frequency was primarily influenced by parents' attitudes to soft drinks, children's pestering behaviours, and perceived social norms relating to children's consumption of these products. Importantly, pestering and social norms had significant direct effects on consumption frequency in addition to indirect effects via their impact on parents' attitudes to soft drink.

  2. Linguistic Factors Influencing Speech Audiometric Assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coene, Martine; Krijger, Stefanie; Meeuws, Matthias; De Ceulaer, Geert; Govaerts, Paul J

    2016-01-01

    In speech audiometric testing, hearing performance is typically measured by calculating the number of correct repetitions of a speech stimulus. We investigate to what extent the repetition accuracy of Dutch speech stimuli presented against a background noise is influenced by nonauditory processes. We show that variation in verbal repetition accuracy is partially explained by morpholexical and syntactic features of the target language. Verbs, prepositions, conjunctions, determiners, and pronouns yield significantly lower correct repetitions than nouns, adjectives, or adverbs. The reduced repetition performance for verbs and function words is probably best explained by the similarities in the perceptual nature of verbal morphology and function words in Dutch. For sentences, an overall negative effect of syntactic complexity on speech repetition accuracy was found. The lowest number of correct repetitions was obtained with passive sentences, reflecting the cognitive cost of processing a noncanonical sentence structure. Taken together, these findings may have important implications for the audiological practice. In combination with hearing loss, linguistic complexity may increase the cognitive demands to process sentences in noise, leading to suboptimal functional hearing in day-to-day listening situations. Using test sentences with varying degrees of syntactic complexity may therefore provide useful information to measure functional hearing benefits.

  3. Do early life factors influence body mass index in adolescents?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.Z. Goldani

    Full Text Available The association between early life factors and body mass index (BMI in adulthood has been demonstrated in developed countries. The aim of the present study was to assess the influence of early life factors (birth weight, gestational age, maternal smoking, and social class on BMI in young adulthood with adjustment for adult socioeconomic position. A cohort study was carried out in 1978/79 with 6827 mother-child pairs from Ribeirão Preto city, located in the most developed economic area of the country. Biological, economic and social variables and newborn anthropometric measurements were obtained shortly after delivery. In 1996, 1189 males from this cohort, 34.3% of the original male population, were submitted to anthropometric measurements and were asked about their current schooling on the occasion of army recruitment. A multiple linear regression model was applied to determine variables associated with BMI. Mean BMI was 22.7 (95%CI = 22.5-23.0. After adjustment, BMI was 1.22 kg/m² higher among infants born with high birth weight (³4000 g, 1.21 kg/m² higher among individuals of low social class at birth and 0.69 kg/m² higher among individuals whose mothers smoked during pregnancy (P < 0.05. The association between social class at birth and BMI remained statistically significant (P < 0.05 even after adjustment for adult schooling. These findings suggest that early life social influences on BMI were more important and were not reversed by late socioeconomic position. Therefore, prevention of overweight and obesity should focus not only on changes in adult life styles but also on factors such as high birth weight.

  4. Factors influencing dependence on mobile phone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad-Hossein Biglu

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The purpose of current study was to investigate the relationship between the problematic use of mobile phone and Big Five personality traits among students of Tabriz University of Medical Sciences in Tabriz, Iran. Methods: A total number of 120 students (80 females and 40 males were selected by applying proportional randomized classification sampling method from Tabriz University of Medical Sciences. The Mobile Phone Problematic Use Scale (MPPUS and demographic questionnaire were used to gather data. Data were analyzed using SPSS software. Results: Analysis of gathered data showed that gender, neuroticism, extraversion, and openness to experience had positive correlation with the problematic use of mobile phone, whereas conscientiousness and agreeableness were not correlated with the problematic use of mobile phone. Conclusion: The evaluation of Big Five personality traits would be a reliable factor for predicting the problematic use of mobile phone among students.

  5. Factors influencing citizen participation in community management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Shamai

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The primary objective of this study is to assess the factors affecting citizen participation in community management in district 13 of Tehran Municipality. Measured variables are: social cohesion, profitable partnerships, social-economic agencies, trust among civilians, trust in municipality management, feelings of powerlessness and social anomie. The results of the implementation of Pearson correlation test show that all of these variables had significant relationships with community participation in neighborhood management. The results of multiple regression analysis showed that three variables of social cohesion, profitable partnerships and socio-economic status had explained 37% of changes in citizen participation in community management while the changing social cohesion maintained the highest impact.

  6. Factors influencing excessive daytime sleepiness in adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thiago de Souza Vilela

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective: Sleep deprivation in adolescents has lately become a health issue that tends to increase with higher stress prevalence, extenuating routines, and new technological devices that impair adolescents' bedtime. Therefore, this study aimed to assess the excessive sleepiness frequency and the factors that might be associated to it in this population. Methods: The cross-sectional study analyzed 531 adolescents aged 10–18 years old from two private schools and one public school. Five questionnaires were applied: the Cleveland Adolescent Sleepiness Questionnaire; the Sleep Disturbance Scale for Children; the Brazilian Economic Classification Criteria; the General Health and Sexual Maturation Questionnaire; and the Physical Activity Questionnaire. The statistical analyses were based on comparisons between schools and sleepiness and non-sleepiness groups, using linear correlation and logistic regression. Results: Sleep deprivation was present in 39% of the adolescents; sleep deficit was higher in private school adolescents (p < 0.001, and there was a positive correlation between age and sleep deficit (p < 0.001; r = 0.337. Logistic regression showed that older age (p = 0.002; PR: 1.21 [CI: 1.07–1.36] and higher score level for sleep hyperhidrosis in the sleep disturbance scale (p = 0.02; PR: 1.16 [CI: 1.02–1.32] were risk factors for worse degree of sleepiness. Conclusions: Sleep deficit appears to be a reality among adolescents; the results suggest a higher prevalence in students from private schools. Sleep deprivation is associated with older age in adolescents and possible presence of sleep disorders, such as sleep hyperhidrosis.

  7. Factors influencing weight gain after renal transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, C P; Gallagher-Lepak, S; Zhu, Y R; Porth, C; Kelber, S; Roza, A M; Adams, M B

    1993-10-01

    Weight gain following renal transplantation occurs frequently but has not been investigated quantitatively. A retrospective chart review of 115 adult renal transplant recipients was used to describe patterns of weight gain during the first 5 years after transplantation. Only 23 subjects (21%) were overweight before their transplant. Sixty-six subjects (57%) experienced a weight gain of greater than or equal to 10%, and 49 subjects (43%) were overweight according to Metropolitan relative weight criteria at 1 year after transplantation. There was an inverse correlation between advancing age and weight gain, with the youngest patients (18-29 years) having a 13.3% weight gain and the oldest patients (age greater than 50 years) having the lowest gain of 8.3% at 1 year (P = 0.047). Black recipients experienced a greater weight gain than whites during the first posttransplant year (14.6% vs. 9.0%; P = 0.043), and maintained or increased this difference over the 5-year period. Men and women experienced comparable weight gain during the first year (9.5% vs. 12.1%), but women continued to gain weight throughout the 5-year study (21.0% total weight gain). The men remained stable after the first year (10.8% total weight gain). Recipients who experienced at least a 10% weight gain also increased their serum cholesterol (mean 261 vs. 219) and triglyceride (mean 277 vs. 159) levels significantly, whereas those without weight gain did not. Weight gain did not correlate with cumulative steroid dose, donor source (living-related versus cadaver), rejection history, pre-existing obesity, the number of months on dialysis before transplantation, or posttransplant renal function. Posttransplant weight gain is related mainly to demographic factors, not to treatment factors associated with the transplant. The average weight gain during the first year after renal transplantation is approximately 10%. This increased weight, coupled with changes in lipid metabolism, may be significant in

  8. Factors influencing professional life satisfaction among neurologists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teixeira-Poit, Stephanie M; Halpern, Michael T; Kane, Heather L; Keating, Michael; Olmsted, Murrey

    2017-06-19

    Predicted shortages in the supply of neurologists may limit patients' access to and quality of care for neurological disorders. Retaining neurologists already in practice provides one opportunity to support the overall supply of practicing neurologists. Understanding factors associated with professional life satisfaction (and dissatisfaction) and implementing policies to enhance satisfaction may encourage neurologists to remain in clinical practice. In this paper, we present results from the first study examining factors associated with professional life satisfaction among a large sample of U.S, neurologists. We collaborated with the AAN to survey a sample of U.S. neurologists about their professional life satisfaction. Analyses examined the association of physician and practice characteristics with aspects of professional life satisfaction, including satisfaction with their career in medicine, medical specialty, current position, relationship with colleagues, relationship with patients, work/life balance, and pay. The study population consisted of 625 neurologists. In multivariate regression analyses, no single group or population stratum indicated high (or low) responses to all aspects of satisfaction. Older neurologists reported higher satisfaction with career, specialty, and relationship with patients than younger neurologists. Female neurologists had significantly lower satisfaction with pay than male neurologists. Neurologists who spent more time in research and teaching had greater satisfaction with specialty, relationship with colleagues, and relationship with patients than those spending no time in research. Neurologists who practiced in small cities/rural areas reported lower satisfaction across multiple dimensions than those practicing in large urban areas. Neurologists in solo practice had greater satisfaction with the relationship with their patients, but lower satisfaction with pay. Satisfaction is a multidimensional construct that is associated with

  9. Factors influencing the stream-aquifer flow exchange coefficient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morel-Seytoux, Hubert J; Mehl, Steffen; Morgado, Kyle

    2014-01-01

    Knowledge of river gain from or loss to a hydraulically connected water table aquifer is crucial in issues of water rights and also when attempting to optimize conjunctive use of surface and ground waters. Typically in groundwater models this exchange flow is related to a difference in head between the river and some point in the aquifer, through a "coefficient." This coefficient has been defined differently as well as the location for the head in the aquifer. This paper proposes a new coefficient, analytically derived, and a specific location for the point where the aquifer head is used in the difference. The dimensionless part of the coefficient is referred to as the SAFE (stream-aquifer flow exchange) dimensionless conductance. The paper investigates the factors that influence the value of this new conductance. Among these factors are (1) the wetted perimeter of the cross-section, (2) the degree of penetration of the cross-section, and (3) the shape of the cross-section. The study shows that these factors just listed are indeed ordered in their respective level of importance. In addition the study verifies that the analytical correct value of the coefficient is matched by finite difference simulation only if the grid system is sufficiently fine. Thus the use of the analytical value of the coefficient is an accurate and efficient alternative to ad hoc estimates for the coefficient typically used in finite difference and finite element methods. © 2013, National Ground Water Association.

  10. Modeling dietary influences on offspring metabolic programming in Drosophila melanogaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brookheart, Rita T; Duncan, Jennifer G

    2016-09-01

    The influence of nutrition on offspring metabolism has become a hot topic in recent years owing to the growing prevalence of maternal and childhood obesity. Studies in mammals have identified several factors correlating with parental and early offspring dietary influences on progeny health; however, the molecular mechanisms that underlie these factors remain undiscovered. Mammalian metabolic tissues and pathways are heavily conserved in Drosophila melanogaster, making the fly an invaluable genetic model organism for studying metabolism. In this review, we discuss the metabolic similarities between mammals and Drosophila and present evidence supporting its use as an emerging model of metabolic programming.

  11. Factors influencing teamwork and collaboration within a tertiary medical center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chien, Shu Feng; Wan, Thomas TH; Chen, Yu-Chih

    2012-01-01

    AIM: To understand how work climate and related factors influence teamwork and collaboration in a large medical center. METHODS: A survey of 3462 employees was conducted to generate responses to Sexton’s Safety Attitudes Questionnaire (SAQ) to assess perceptions of work environment via a series of five-point, Likert-scaled questions. Path analysis was performed, using teamwork (TW) and collaboration (CO) as endogenous variables. The exogenous variables are effective communication (EC), safety culture (SC), job satisfaction (JS), work pressure (PR), and work climate (WC). The measurement instruments for the variables or summated subscales are presented. Reliability of each sub-scale are calculated. Alpha Cronbach coefficients are relatively strong: TW (0.81), CO (0.76), EC (0.70), SC (0.83), JS (0.91), WP (0.85), and WC (0.78). Confirmatory factor analysis was performed for each of these constructs. RESULTS: Path analysis enables to identify statistically significant predictors of two endogenous variables, teamwork and intra-organizational collaboration. Significant amounts of variance in perceived teamwork (R2 = 0.59) and in collaboration (R2 = 0.75) are accounted for by the predictor variables. In the initial model, safety culture is the most important predictor of perceived teamwork, with a β weight of 0.51, and work climate is the most significant predictor of collaboration, with a β weight of 0.84. After eliminating statistically insignificant causal paths and allowing correlated predictors1, the revised model shows that work climate is the only predictor positively influencing both teamwork (β = 0.26) and collaboration (β = 0.88). A relatively weak positive (β = 0.14) but statistically significant relationship exists between teamwork and collaboration when the effects of other predictors are simultaneously controlled. CONCLUSION: Hospital executives who are interested in improving collaboration should assess the work climate to ensure that employees are

  12. Factors influencing teamwork and collaboration within a tertiary medical center.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chien, Shu Feng; Wan, Thomas Th; Chen, Yu-Chih

    2012-04-26

    To understand how work climate and related factors influence teamwork and collaboration in a large medical center. A survey of 3462 employees was conducted to generate responses to Sexton's Safety Attitudes Questionnaire (SAQ) to assess perceptions of work environment via a series of five-point, Likert-scaled questions. Path analysis was performed, using teamwork (TW) and collaboration (CO) as endogenous variables. The exogenous variables are effective communication (EC), safety culture (SC), job satisfaction (JS), work pressure (PR), and work climate (WC). The measurement instruments for the variables or summated subscales are presented. Reliability of each sub-scale are calculated. Alpha Cronbach coefficients are relatively strong: TW (0.81), CO (0.76), EC (0.70), SC (0.83), JS (0.91), WP (0.85), and WC (0.78). Confirmatory factor analysis was performed for each of these constructs. Path analysis enables to identify statistically significant predictors of two endogenous variables, teamwork and intra-organizational collaboration. Significant amounts of variance in perceived teamwork (R(2) = 0.59) and in collaboration (R(2) = 0.75) are accounted for by the predictor variables. In the initial model, safety culture is the most important predictor of perceived teamwork, with a β weight of 0.51, and work climate is the most significant predictor of collaboration, with a β weight of 0.84. After eliminating statistically insignificant causal paths and allowing correlated predictors1, the revised model shows that work climate is the only predictor positively influencing both teamwork (β = 0.26) and collaboration (β = 0.88). A relatively weak positive (β = 0.14) but statistically significant relationship exists between teamwork and collaboration when the effects of other predictors are simultaneously controlled. Hospital executives who are interested in improving collaboration should assess the work climate to ensure that employees are operating in a setting conducive

  13. Factors influencing phototaxis in nocturnal migrating birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Xuebing; Chen, Mingyan; Wu, Zhaolu; Wang, Zijiang

    2014-12-01

    Many migratory bird species fly during the night (nocturnal migrants) and have been shown to display some phototaxis to artificial light. During 2006 to 2009, we investigated phototaxis in nocturnal migrants at Jinshan Yakou in Xinping County (N23°56', E101°30'; 2400 m above sea-level), and at the Niaowang Mountain in Funing County (N23°30', E105°35'; 1400 m above sea-level), both in the Yunnan Province of Southwest China. A total of 5069 birds, representing 129 species, were captured by mist-netting and artificial light. The extent of phototaxis effect on bird migration was examined during all four seasons, three phases of the moon, and under two weather conditions (mist and wind). Data were statistically analyzed to determine the extent to which these factors may impact phototaxis of nocturnal migrants. The results point to phototaxis in birds migrating in the spring and autumn, especially in the autumn. Furthermore, migrating birds were more readily attracted to artificial lights during nights with little moonlight, mist, and a headwind. Regardless of the initial orientation in which birds flew, either following the wind or against the wind, birds would always fly against the wind when flying towards the light. This study broadens our understanding of the nocturnal bird migration, potentially resulting in improved bird ringing practices, increased awareness, and better policies regarding bird protection.

  14. Analysis of Influencing Factors on South Korea Tourists Demands for China Based on Double Logarithmic Model%基于双对数模型的人境韩国游客旅游需求影响因素分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵陶钧; 杨丽琼; 和亚君

    2012-01-01

    South Korea is one of the main tourist countries in China' s inbound market, and therefore it is of important significance to research influencing factors of South Korea tourist demand for China. By using the double logarithmic model and SPSS20 tool to analyse the data, this article makes a conclusion that the ratio of consumer price index (CPI) of both South Korea and China, per capita GDP of South Korea and SARS event are the main factors which influence the South Korea tourist demands for China, while the exchange rate of Won against RMB, the finance crisis of Southeast Asia and the finance crisis of the world don' t have the significant impacts on demand. Among these factors, the ratio of CPI of both South Korea and China, per capita GDP of South Korea and exchange rate of Won against RMB have positive correlation with South Korea tourist demand for China, while other factors have negative correlation with it. During the analysis, the article puts forward the view that a factor With insignificant ' t' test should not be removed from the model under certain conditions, and also explores the methods of choosing data.%借助双对数模型,使用SPSS20软件得出了对韩国游客旅华需求影响的主要因素有韩国与中国相对CPI、韩国人均GDP以及非典事件,而韩元兑人民币汇率、亚洲金融危机、全球金融危机对需求的影响不显著,其中对需求的作用为正相关的因素有韩国与中国相对CPI、韩国人均GDP以及韩元兑人民币汇率,其余因素表现为负相关作用。分析过程中提出了在符合一定条件的前提下不应将没有通过t检验的因素从模型中剔除的看法,同时对数据的选择进行了探索。

  15. Factors influencing ring closure through olefin metathesis - A perspective

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Subrata Ghosh; Sarita Ghosh; Niladri Sarkar

    2006-05-01

    Success of ring closure reactions of substrates having two terminal alkenes through olefin metathesis depends on a number of factors such as catalysts, nature and size of the rings to be formed and the substituents/functional groups present on the alkenes as well as at the allylic position. This article presents an overview of these influencing factors with illustrative examples.

  16. Professional Identity Development in Higher Education: Influencing Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbarà-i-Molinero, Alba; Cascón-Pereira, Rosalía; Hernández-Lara, Ana beatriz

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: In the last few years, the interest on professional identity development (PID) and the factors that influence PID has become central in higher education (HE) literature. However, the knowledge developed in this domain has focussed on a factor at a time and on a degree or discipline, thus being difficult to have a general picture of all…

  17. Influence of Psychological Factors on the Improvement of Spoken English

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    董宁

    2013-01-01

      From learner's innermost feelings,the author attempts to elaborate the influences of psychological factors on improving the spoken language. The study of spoken English is a very complex process, which is affected easily by learner's linguistic environment and character. We can draw a conclusion that psychological factors are an important problem and cannot be neglected.

  18. Factors influencing societal response of nanotechnology : an expert stakeholder analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gupta, N.; Fischer, A.R.H.; Lans, van der I.A.; Frewer, L.J.

    2012-01-01

    Nanotechnology can be described as an emerging technology and, as has been the case with other emerging technologies such as genetic modification, different socio-psychological factors will potentially influence societal responses to its development and application. These factors will play an import

  19. The influence of motivational factors on choice behaviour

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Amelsfort, D.H.; Steg, L.; Bliemer, M.C.J.; Schuitema, G.

    2010-01-01

    In this paper we investigate if and how motivational factors influence choice behaviour. We study four motivational factors: attitude towards car use, personal norm to reduce car use, car use habit, and perceived behavioural control to change car use to explain the choice behaviour of respondents in

  20. Using mixed methods to identify factors influencing patient flow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Vaerenbergh, Cindy

    2009-11-01

    An effective method of identifying operational factors that influence patient flow can potentially lead to improvements and thus have huge benefits on the efficiency of hospital departments. This paper presents a new inductive mixed-method approach to identify operational factors that influence patient flow through an accident and emergency (A&E) department. Preliminary explorative observations were conducted, followed by semi-structured interviews with key stakeholders. A questionnaire survey of all medical, nursing, porter and clerical staff was then conducted. The observations provided factors for further exploration: skill-mix, long working hours, equipment availability, lack of orientation programmes, inefficient IT use and issues regarding communication structures. Interviewees highlighted several factors, including availability of medical supervision and senior nursing staff, nursing documentation issues, lack of morale due to overcrowding, personality differences and factors relating to the department layout. The questionnaire respondents strongly supported the importance of the previously identified factors. This paper demonstrates an effective mixed-method approach that can be replicated by other health-care managers to identify factors influencing patient flow. Further benefits include increased volume and quality of data, increased staff awareness for the influence of internal factors on patient flow and enhancing the evidence base for future decision making when prioritizing A&E projects.

  1. Psychosocial Factors Influencing Competency of Children's Statements on Sexual Trauma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Tae Kyung; Choi, Soul; Shin, Yee Jin

    2011-01-01

    Objectives: The objectives of this study are to assess children's competence to state their traumatic experience and to determine psychosocial factors influencing the competency of children's statements, such as emotional factors of children and parents and trauma-related variables, in Korean child sex abuse victims. Methods: We enrolled 214…

  2. Factors Influencing Technology Planning in Developing Countries: A Literature Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keengwe, Jared; Malapile, Sandy

    2014-01-01

    This article is a literature review concerning the factors that play an important role in the development of educational technology plans in the educational system of developing countries (DCs). Largely, the technology plans are influenced by factors that emanates from within the country (internal) and those outside of their borders (external).…

  3. Factors that Influence Students' Decision to Dropout of Online Courses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willging, Pedro A.; Johnson, Scott D.

    2009-01-01

    Although there are many reasons why students dropout of college courses, those reasons may be unique for students who are enrolled in an online program. Issues of isolation, disconnectedness, and technological problems may be factors that influence a student to leave a course. To understand these factors, an online survey was developed to collect…

  4. The alternative sigma factor B modulates virulence gene expression in a murine Staphylococcus aureus infection model but does not influence kidney gene expression pattern of the host.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Depke, Maren; Burian, Marc; Schäfer, Tina; Bröker, Barbara M; Ohlsen, Knut; Völker, Uwe

    2012-01-01

    Infections caused by Staphylococcus aureus are associated with significant morbidity and mortality and are an increasing threat not only in hospital settings. The expression of the staphylococcal virulence factor repertoire is known to be affected by the alternative sigma factor B (SigB). However, its impact during infection still is a matter of debate. Kidney tissues of controls or mice infected with S. aureus HG001 or its isogenic sigB mutant were analyzed by transcriptome profiling to monitor the host response, and additionally expression of selected S. aureus genes was monitored by RT-qPCR. Direct transcript analysis by RT-qPCR revealed significant SigB activity in all mice infected with the wild-type strain, but not in its isogenic sigB mutant (p<0.0001). Despite a clear-cut difference in the SigB-dependent transcription pattern of virulence genes (clfA, aur, and hla), the host reaction to infection (either wild type or sigB mutant) was almost identical. Despite its significant activity in vivo, loss of SigB did neither have an effect on the outcome of infection nor on murine kidney gene expression pattern. Thus, these data support the role of SigB as virulence modulator rather than being a virulence determinant by itself.

  5. Factors influencing nursing career choices and choice of study program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haron, Yafa; Reicher, Sima; Riba, Shoshana

    2014-01-01

    In advance of a recruitment campaign, Israeli first-year nursing students of all ethnicities were surveyed to elucidate what factors had influenced them to make nursing their career and what sort of training track they preferred. The responses made it clear that different factors influence different groups differently. There were noticeable differences by gender, age, and ethnicity. Overall, training institutions were chosen for their closeness to the student's home but other factors also operated among particular groups, such as institutional prestige and flexible entry criteria. There was a blatant preference for academic, particularly university-sited, programs over diploma programs.

  6. A Discussion on Motivation Factor Influencing Second Language Acquisition

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    盛芊芊

    2016-01-01

    Various characteristics can influence students'second language acquisition and language development, which in-cludes age, gender, personality, cognitive ability, motivation, learning strategies and so on. Among all these factors mentioned, motivation factor that is categorized into learner factors affects learner's learning effect to a great extent. In this paper, motiva-tion characteristic that influences second language learning are discussed. At last, some strategies on the real classroom teaching application are provided after the discussion, which aims at making contribution to the second language teaching process as well as students'language development.

  7. Nurturing Sport Expertise: Factors Influencing the Development of Elite Athlete

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Joseph; Horton, Sean; Robertson-Wilson, Jennifer; Wall, Michael

    2003-01-01

    The development of expertise in sport is the result of successful interaction of biological, psychological, and sociological constraints. This review examines the training and environmental factors that influence the acquisition of sport expertise. Research examining the quality and quantity of training indicate that these two elements are crucial predictors of attainment. In addition, the possession of resources such as parental support and adequate coaching are essential. Social factors such as cultural influences and the relative age effect are also considered as determinants of sport expertise. Although it is evident that environmental factors are essential to the acquisition of high levels of sport development, further research is clearly required. PMID:24616603

  8. NURTURING SPORT EXPERTISE: FACTORS INFLUENCING THE DEVELOPMENT OF ELITE ATHLETE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Wall

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available The development of expertise in sport is the result of successful interaction of biological, psychological, and sociological constraints. This review examines the training and environmental factors that influence the acquisition of sport expertise. Research examining the quality and quantity of training indicate that these two elements are crucial predictors of attainment. In addition, the possession of resources such as parental support and adequate coaching are essential. Social factors such as cultural influences and the relative age effect are also considered as determinants of sport expertise. Although it is evident that environmental factors are essential to the acquisition of high levels of sport development, further research is clearly required

  9. Factors influencing lysis time stochasticity in bacteriophage λ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dennehy John J

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Despite identical genotypes and seemingly uniform environments, stochastic gene expression and other dynamic intracellular processes can produce considerable phenotypic diversity within clonal microbes. One trait that provides a good model to explore the molecular basis of stochastic variation is the timing of host lysis by bacteriophage (phage. Results Individual lysis events of thermally-inducible λ lysogens were observed using a temperature-controlled perfusion chamber mounted on an inverted microscope. Both mean lysis time (MLT and its associated standard deviation (SD were estimated. Using the SD as a measure of lysis time stochasticity, we showed that lysogenic cells in controlled environments varied widely in lysis times, and that the level of lysis time stochasticity depended on allelic variation in the holin sequence, late promoter (pR' activity, and host growth rate. In general, the MLT was positively correlated with the SD. Both lower pR' activities and lower host growth rates resulted in larger SDs. Results from premature lysis, induced by adding KCN at different time points after lysogen induction, showed a negative correlation between the timing of KCN addition and lysis time stochasticity. Conclusions Taken together with results published by others, we conclude that a large fraction of λ lysis time stochasticity is the result of random events following the expression and diffusion of the holin protein. Consequently, factors influencing the timing of reaching critical holin concentrations in the cell membrane, such as holin production rate, strongly influence the mean lysis time and the lysis time stochasticity.

  10. Factors Influencing the Insured Wishes of Shaanxi Farmers Based on the Logit Model%基于Logit模型下影响陕西农民参保意愿的因素分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李京芯; 夏显力

    2015-01-01

    From the factors affecting farmers' insured wishes for micro-insurance in Shaanxi Province, this paper conducted questionnaire, established Logit model and analyzed the main influencing factors. The results showed that, Shaanxi farmer's age, education level, cognitive level for insurance and risk profile in recent years had significant effect on the insured wishes of farmers, in which the age and education level had a negative correlation with the insured wishes and other factors had a positive correlation.%从影响陕西省农民参加小额保险影响因素出发,进行问卷调查,建立Logit模型,分析影响陕西省农民参保意愿的主要因素。研究结果表明,陕西农民的年龄、接受教育程度的高低、对于保险的认知水平和近三年风险状况等因素对农民的参保意愿影响显著,其中年龄和接受教育的程度的影响为负相关,其他影响因素为正相关。

  11. Factors influencing Sudanese microfinance intention to adopt mobile banking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anwar Ammar

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Access to financial service has become a key phenomenon for economic development and poverty alleviation .Microfinance is one way of fighting poverty in Sudan, where most citizens are in need of it. However, despite the initial results showing a positive impact of microfinance on the livelihood of low-income people in Sudan, around 8 million of the Sudanese poor people are excluded from microfinance services. One potential remedy for the limited outreach of microfinance in Sudan may lie within enhancing the capacity of microfinance services providers (MFPs in the utilization of modern technology. Recent innovation in providing financial services in a convenient and efficient way is the use of mobile banking (m-banking technology in microfinance. M-banking promises to increase the efficiency and outreach of microfinance services in developing countries. This paper tries to examine the factors that influence the adoption of m-banking by microfinance sector in Sudan. In this respect, hypotheses were developed guided by Unified Theory of Acceptance and Use of Technology (UTAUT and Technology-organization-Environment (TOE models. Primary data were collected from MFPs and microfinance customers in Sudan using questionnaires and interviews. The study contributes to knowledge in terms of methods used by extending aforementioned theories through adding new variables to both models by putting both models in one study to fill the gaps in past studies; via examination of the demand (customers and supply (institutions through modifying them to include new variables related to m-banking in microfinance.

  12. Which factors influence women in the decision to breastfeed?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cândida Canicali Primo

    Full Text Available Objective.Identify the factors that influence women in the decision to breastfeed. Methods. Integrative review. Information was gathered from original articles, case studies, theoretical studies, consensus and systematic reviews published between 2007-2013 in Spanish, Portuguese and English and recovered in the databases MEDLINE and LILACS. The descriptors used in this study were: breastfeeding, maternal behavior, risk factors, lactation and newborn. Results. Were included 30 articles, grouped into five categories. Factors influencing the decision of the breastfeeding woman are a convergence of breastfeeding's advantages, benefits and justifications, family, social and professional support, sociodemographic and clinical characteristics of women, personal experience and family tradition and personal choice. Conclusion. The decision to breastfeed by women is influenced by a convergence of factors. It is essential the role of nursing to encourage women in the decision to initiate and maintain breastfeeding her child.

  13. The Infinite Hierarchical Factor Regression Model

    CERN Document Server

    Rai, Piyush

    2009-01-01

    We propose a nonparametric Bayesian factor regression model that accounts for uncertainty in the number of factors, and the relationship between factors. To accomplish this, we propose a sparse variant of the Indian Buffet Process and couple this with a hierarchical model over factors, based on Kingman's coalescent. We apply this model to two problems (factor analysis and factor regression) in gene-expression data analysis.

  14. RISK FACTORS INFLUENCING CONSTRUCTION PROCUREMENT PERFORMANCE IN NIGERIA

    OpenAIRE

    Dahiru, A; Aminu, Muhammad Bashir

    2016-01-01

    One of the challenges facing construction procurement performance is the failure to determine the risk related factors limiting its success. These risk factors can cause a significant increase in the procurement cost leading to an increase in the overall project cost. The purpose of this study is to identify and evaluate the risk factors influencing construction procurement performance with a view to achieve the overall project performance. The objectives are to establish a relative significa...

  15. Environmental factors influencing asexual reproductive processes in echinoderms

    OpenAIRE

    Mladenov, Pv

    1996-01-01

    This review provides a brief update of the occurrence and adaptive significance of asexual reproduction in echinoderms. It then focuses on the state of knowledge of biotic and abiotic factors that influence asexual processes in this group, particularly factors that may play a role in regulating the expression and relative proportion of asexual versus sexual phenotypes within populations of species, as well as factors modulating and triggering asexual processes. The information presented in th...

  16. Orifice plate cavitation mechanism and its influencing factors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wan-zheng AI; Tian-ming DING

    2010-01-01

    The orifice plate energy dissipater is an economic and highly efficient dissipater.However,there is a risk of cavitaion around the orifice plate flow.In order to provide references for engineering practice,we examined the cavitation mechanism around the orifice plate and its influencing factors by utilizing mathematical analysis methods to analyze the flow conditions around the orifice plate in view of gas bubble dynamics.Through the research presented in this paper,the following can be observed:The critical radius and the critical pressure of the gas nucleus in orifice plate flow increase with its initial state parameter τ0;the development speed of bubbles stabilizes at a certain value after experiencing a peak value and a small valley value;and the orifice plate cavitation is closely related to the distribution of the gas nucleus in flow.For computing the orifice plate cavitation number,we ought to take into account the effects of pressure fluctuation.The development time of the gas nucleus from the initial radius to the critical radius is about10-7-10-5 s;therefore,the gas nucleus has sufficient time to develop into bubbles in the negative half-cycle of flow fluctuation.The orifice critical cavitation number is closely related to the orifice plate size,and especially closely related with the ratio of the orifice plate radius to the tunnel radius.The approximate formula for the critical cavitation number of the square orifice plate that only considers the main influencing factor was obtained by model experiments.

  17. Genetic and environmental factors influencing the Placental Growth Factor (PGF) variation in two populations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sorice, Rossella; Ruggiero, Daniela; Nutile, Teresa

    2012-01-01

    . However, to date, no information is available regarding the genetics of PGF variability. Furthermore, even though the effect of environmental factors (e.g.: cigarette smoking) on angiogenesis has been explored, no data on the influence of these factors on PGF levels have been reported so far. Here we have...... strongly replicated in the Danish sample. These results, for the first time, support the hypothesis of the presence of genetic and environmental factors influencing PGF plasma variability....

  18. Multilevel model for influencing factors of health system responsiveness in Henan province%河南省卫生系统反应性影响因素多水平模型分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵倩倩; 杨永利; 施学忠

    2011-01-01

    目的 探讨河南省卫生系统反应性的主要影响因素.方法 采用多阶段分层整群随机抽样方法,在河南省16个城市抽取年满18周岁居民3 000人进行问卷调查,对其中在过去12个月中接受过医疗机构服务,且完成卫生系统反应性问卷调查的1 311人的卫生系统反应性评分进行因子分析,以渊奁个体为水平1,以不同地区为水平21,采用二水平方差成分模型分析卫生系统反应性影响因素.结果 卫生系统反应性存在地区聚集性(χ2=5.76.P=0.016);年龄较大(60~69岁)、饮酒频率越高、参与社会活动有轻度困难、拥有门诊保险的人群对卫生系统反应性评价较低,回归系数β分别为0.231、0.086、0.119、0.488,Wald检验P<0.05.结论 河南省卫生系统反应性的影响因素主要是地区差异以及弱势人群;应用二水平方差成分模型可准确估计其影响因素.%Objective To investigate the influencing factors of health system responsiveness in Henan province. Methods By multi-stage stratified cluster random sampling technique,3 000 residents aged over 18 years were sampled from 16 cities of Henan province,of which, 1 311 residents who received service in medical clinics during past 12 months and fulfilled a questionnaire on health system responsiveness were investigated. Scores of health system responsiveness were calculated with factor analysis. Two level variance component model with level one for individual and level two for city was used for the influencing factors of health system responsiveness. Results There was a regional cluster in health system responsiveness (x2 = 5.76. P = 0. 016 ). Four kinds of population ( with older age of 60 - 69 years, frequent alcohol drinking,having slight difficulties in social activities.having outpatient insurance) reported low evaluations for the responsiveness with the β values of 0.231,0. 086.0. 119, and 0. 488, respectively ( P < 0. 05 for Wald test). Conclusion The

  19. Spatial heterogeneity of factors influencing forest fires size in northern Mexico

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gustavo Perez-Verdin; Marco Antonio Marquez-Linares; Maricela Salmeron-Macias

    2014-01-01

    In Mexico, forest fires are strongly influenced by environ-mental, topographic, and anthropogenic factors. A government-based database covering the period 2000-2011 was used to analyze the spatial heterogeneity of the factors influencing forest fire size in the state of Durango, Mexico. Ordinary least squares and geographically weighted regression models were fit to identify the main factors as well as their spatial influence on fire size. Results indicate that fire size is greatly affected by distance to roads, distance to towns, precipitation, temperature, and a population gravity index. The geographically weighted model was better than the ordinary least squares model. The improvement of the former is due to the influence of factors that were found to be non-stationary. These results suggest that geographic location determines the influence of a factor on fire size. While the models can be greatly improved with additional information, the study suggests the need to adopt fire management policies to more efficiently reduce the effect of anthropogenic factors. These policies may include more training for landowners who use fire for clearing, closure of roads, application of thinning, prescribed burning, and fire breaks in perimeters adjacent to roads.

  20. The wills of older people: risk factors for undue influence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peisah, C; Finkel, S; Shulman, K; Melding, P; Luxenberg, J; Heinik, J; Jacoby, R; Reisberg, B; Stoppe, G; Barker, A; Firmino, H; Bennett, H

    2009-02-01

    As people live longer, there is increasing potential for mental disorders to interfere with testamentary distribution and render older people more vulnerable to "undue influence" when they are making a will. Accordingly, clinicians dealing with the mental disorders of older people will be called upon increasingly to advise the courts about a person's vulnerability to undue influence. A Subcommittee of the IPA Task Force on Testamentary Capacity and Undue Influence undertook to establish consensus on the definition of undue influence and the provision of guidelines for expert assessment of risk factors for undue influence. International jurisdictions differ in their approach to the notion of undue influence. Despite differences in legal systems, from a clinical perspective, the subcommittee identified some common "red flags" which might alert the expert to risk of undue influence. These include: (i) social or environmental risk factors such as dependency, isolation, family conflict and recent bereavement; (ii) psychological and physical risk factors such as physical disability, deathbed wills, sexual bargaining, personality disorders, substance abuse and mental disorders including dementia, delirium, mood and paranoid disorders; and (iii) legal risk factors such as unnatural provisions in a will, or provisions not in keeping with previous wishes of the person making the will, and the instigation or procurement of a will by a beneficiary. This review provides some guidance for experts who are requested by the courts to provide an opinion on the risk of undue influence. Whilst international jurisdictions require different thresholds of proof for a finding of undue influence, there is good international consensus on the clinical indicators for the concept.

  1. [Factors influencing research activity of Andalusian nurses and improvement strategies].

    Science.gov (United States)

    López Alonso, Sergio R; Gálvez González, María; Amezcua, Manuel

    2013-04-01

    To identify factors influencing research activity of Andalusian nurses and to find improvement strategies. Qualitative research using SWOT analysis (weaknesses, threats, strengths, opportunities). Nurses were selected deliberately in eight groups according to predetermined criteria. Analysis included categorization and relationship of factors and strategies. 81 participants were included in groups of 7-12 range. 45 categories were identified with 212 factors: 12 weaknesses (50 factors), 10 strengths (44 factors), 12 threats (68 factors) and 11 opportunities (50 factors). In addition, 32 categories were identified with 53 strategies: 14 categories of W-T strategies (42 strategies), 3 categories of S-T strategies (11 strategies), 5 categories of W-O strategies (13 strategies) and 10 categories of S-O strategies (41 strategies). Nurses identified numerous factors, mainly threats. The strategies are focused on W-T but they also suggest many but weak 5-0 strategies due to the low potential of the opportunities and strengths perceived.

  2. Sow and litter factors influencing colostrum yield and nutritional composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Declerck, I; Dewulf, J; Piepers, S; Decaluwé, R; Maes, D

    2015-03-01

    One of the main characteristics of colostrum intake (CI), colostrum yield (CY), and colostrum composition (CC) in pigs is its variability. The present observational study aimed to investigate factors influencing CY and CC in 10 commercial herds. In total, 100 sows of 5 different breeds and their 1,455 live-born piglets were included. Sows' CY was estimated by the CI of their suckling piglets. Colostrum composition was analyzed by LactoScope Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. Colostrum yield averaged 3,500 ± 110 g and the percentage of colostral fat (CF), protein, and lactose in colostrum averaged 5.39 ± 0.12, 16.49 ± 0.14, and 2.02 ± 0.05 %, respectively. The effect of sow, litter, and parturition factors on CY and CC were evaluated with a linear mixed regression model with herd included as a random factor. Sows with a gestation length (GL) of 113 d had a higher CY (4,178 ± 506 g) than sows with a GL of 114 to 115 d (3,342 ± 107 g; = 0.04). An interaction was found between the litter birth weight of suckling piglets (LW) and GL ( = 0.03). In sows with a GL of 114 to 115 d, CY increased with higher LW ( = 0.009). A shorter interval between birth and first suckling of the litter was related to a higher CY ( colostrums was higher in Hypor sows (6.35 ± 0.51) than in PIC (4.98 ± 0.27; = 0.001), Topigs 20 (5.05 ± 0.14; < 0.001), and Danbred (5.34 ± 0.22; < 0.001) sows. The percentage of CF was negatively associated with parity ( = 0.02) and positively associated with the number of live-born piglets ( = 0.03). The percentages of colostral protein and lactose were not significantly associated with any factor in the multivariable model. In conclusion, this study demonstrated that CY and CF are affected by different sow and litter factors. Pig producers may implement these observations in their management to maximize production or reproduction potential by optimizing CI, CY, and CC.

  3. Factors Affecting Choice in A Multi-Stage Model: The Influence of Saliency and Similarity on Retrieval Set and the Implication of Context Effect on Consideration Set

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric Santosa

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available While it is considered a new paradigm in consumer research, the multi-stage model of consumer decision-making remains unclear as to whether brands are easily retrieved. Likewise, the process of consideration, after particular brands are successfully retrieved, is still in question. This study purports to investigate the effects of saliency and similarity on the ease of retrieval. In addition, referring to some studies of context effect, the effects of attraction, compromise, and assimilation are examined to observe whether they contribute to consideration. A within-subject design is employed in this study. Previously, three preliminary studies are arranged to determine the dominants, new entrants, attributes, and other criteria nominated in the experimental study. The results turn out to be supporting the hypotheses.

  4. A survey on critical factors influencing organizational commitment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamidreza Kheirkhah

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Organizational commitment is an important issue and organization attitude has become an area of study among many researchers in the fields of organizational behavior. In fact, there are many studies on human resource management where the effects of organizational commitment on other issues have been investigated and the purpose of this research is to find critical factors influencing on organizational commitment. Based on an exploration of the literature review and interviews, the proposed study of this paper extracts 24 variables and using factor analysis, we select the most important factors, which are grouped in four categories. The implementation of our factor analysis has revealed Affective commitment, Continuous commitment, Moral commitment and Enduring commitment are the most important factors influencing organizational commitment.

  5. A survey on critical factors influencing agricultural insurance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Valipour

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Agricultural business is a very high-risk job and an increase demand for agricultural products from one side and steady increase in production cost and weather changes, on the other side, have motivated many to use insurance for agricultural products. Insurance plays an important role in influencing crop production and insured satisfaction or farmers. The purpose of this research is to find critical components in agricultural insurance. Based on an exploration of the literature review and interviews, the proposed study of this paper extracts 24 variables and using factor analysis, we select the most important factors, which are grouped in seven categories. The implementation of our factor analysis has revealed uncertainty, moderator, market equilibrium, risky environment, empowering factor, education, training, structural hazards and natural ecosystems as the most important factors influencing agricultural industry.

  6. The Influence Factors,Opportunities and Obstacles of Business Model Innovation in the New Energy Industry%新能源产业商业模式创新的影响因素、机会与障碍

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邢相军

    2014-01-01

    The influence factors of business model innovation in the new energy industry include both the external and internal factors. The external factors include such factors as market demand,policy orientation,technological drivers and the characteristics of target groups;while the internal factors include such factors as industrial features,the current situation of profit earning,and entrepreneurs’quality. The integration process of enterprises and the environment,the restructuring of value chain and the reorganization of enterprises’internal unit are the opportunities for the business model innovation in the new energy industry. The enterprises should correctly identify the opportunities and obstacles in the process of business innovation,adapt to the development trend of economic globalization and informationization to contribute to the sustainable social and economic development of China.%新能源产业商业模式创新的影响因素包括外部因素和内部因素,市场需求、政策导向、技术驱动和目标群体特征是外部影响因素的主要内容,而行业特征、盈利现状、企业家素质则是其内部影响因素;企业与所处环境的融合过程,与供应商、客户、合作伙伴价值链的重构以及企业内部单元的调整重组构成了新能源产业商业模式创新的机会。企业应正确识别商业模式创新过程中的机会和障碍,适应经济全球化和信息化的发展趋势,为我国社会与经济的持续发展作出贡献。

  7. FACTORS INFLUENCING BRAND EQUITY OF BALI AS A TOURISM DESTINATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I Ketut Surya Diarta

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Globally, competition among tourism destinations is more stringent in getting foreign tourists, including Bali. One effort to win the competition is increasing destination brand equity through maintaining its influencing factors and gaining tourist positive behavior toward destination. This effort, in long run, will increase and stabilize destination revenue and sustainability. This research aims to analyze factors influencing brand equity of Bali as a tourism destination. This research was conducted in Bali’s five major tourism objects. The 240 foreign tourists were chosen as respondents through convenience sampling technique. Data were analyzed using factor analysis. The results showed that factors that significantly influenced Bali brand equity were: symbolic and experiential benefit factor, direct and indirect destinations attributes, destination reliability and tangibility, assurance and empathy, brand destinations recognition and recall, destinations common psychological attributes, destination common functional attributes, unique functional attributes, behavioral loyalty, destination awareness, and attitudinal loyalty. Given the fluctuative nature of brand equity, Bali needs a consistent effort to maintain or to enhance brand equity of Bali as a tourism destination. Maintaining the dominant factors that influence the strength of brand equity can be used as a basis to develop destination branding strategy to expand market segment,  choose the right target market, and anchoring destination position in world market competition.

  8. Factors negatively influencing knowledge sharing in software development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucas T. Khoza

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: ‘Knowledge is power’ and software developing organisations are dependent on knowledge to achieve and maintain a competitive advantage. Subsequently, knowledge sharing is a key factor for modern software developing organisations to succeed in today’s competitive environment. For software developing organisations to reach their goals and objectives, knowledge sharing – and in particular the sharing of useful knowledge – needs to be targeted. To promote knowledge sharing, factors influencing knowledge sharing need to be identified and understood.Objective: This study seeks to identify factors that negatively influence knowledge sharing in software development in the developing country context.Method: Expert sampling as a subcategory of purposive sampling was employed to extract information, views and opinions from experts in the field of information and communication technology, more specifically from those who are involved in software development projects. Four Johannesburg-based software developing organisations listed on the Johannesburg Stock Exchange (JSE, South Africa, participated in this research study. Quantitative data were collected using an online questionnaire with closed-ended questions.Results: Findings of this research reveal that job security, motivation, time constraints, physiological factors, communication, resistance to change and rewards are core factors negatively influencing knowledge sharing in software developing organisations.Conclusions: Improved understanding of factors negatively influencing knowledge sharing is expected to assist software developing organisations in closing the gap for software development projects failing to meet the triple constraint of time, cost and scope.

  9. Understanding Influence within the Context of Nursing: Development of the Adams Influence Model Using Practice, Research, and Theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Jeffrey M; Natarajan, Sudha

    2016-01-01

    Acquiring influence, and knowing how to use it, is a required competency for nurse leaders, yet the concept of influence and how it works is not well described in the nursing literature. In this article, the authors examine what is known about influence and present an influence model specific to nurse leaders. The Adams Influence Model was developed through an iterative process and is based on a comprehensive review of the influence literature, expert commentary, multiple pilot studies, evaluation of nursing theories, and validation by an external data source. Rather than defining "how to" influence, the model serves as a guide for personal reflection, helping nurse leaders understand and reflect on the influence process and factors, tactics, and strategies they can use when seeking to influence others.

  10. ICT Interventions for Girls: Factors Influencing ICT Career Intentions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Gorbacheva

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Intervention programs aimed at promoting study and work opportunities in the Information and Communications Technology (ICT field to schoolgirls have been encouraged to combat a decline in the interest among girls to study ICT at school. The goal of our study is to investigate the influence of such interventions on schoolgirls’ intentions to choose a career in the ICT field by analysing comprehensive survey data (n = 3577, collected during four interventions in Australia, using the Partial Least Squares method. Our study is also aimed at identifying other factors influencing ICT career intentions. We found that the attitude towards interventions has an indirect influence on ICT career intentions by affecting interest in ICT. Our results also challenge several existing theoretical studies by showing that factors that had previously been suggested as influencers were found to have little or no impact in this study, these being same-sex education and computer usage.

  11. Factors Influencing the Intended Likelihood of Exposing Sexual Infidelity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kruger, Daniel J; Fisher, Maryanne L; Fitzgerald, Carey J

    2015-08-01

    There is a considerable body of literature on infidelity within romantic relationships. However, there is a gap in the scientific literature on factors influencing the likelihood of uninvolved individuals exposing sexual infidelity. Therefore, we devised an exploratory study examining a wide range of potentially relevant factors. Based in part on evolutionary theory, we anticipated nine potential domains or types of influences on the likelihoods of exposing or protecting cheaters, including kinship, strong social alliances, financial support, previous relationship behaviors (including infidelity and abuse), potential relationship transitions, stronger sexual and emotional aspects of the extra-pair relationship, and disease risk. The pattern of results supported these predictions (N = 159 men, 328 women). In addition, there appeared to be a small positive bias for participants to report infidelity when provided with any additional information about the situation. Overall, this study contributes a broad initial description of factors influencing the predicted likelihood of exposing sexual infidelity and encourages further studies in this area.

  12. Empirical Analysis on Factors Influencing Distribution of Vegetal Production

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wenjie; WU

    2015-01-01

    Since the reform and opening-up,there has been a great change in spatial pattern of China’s vegetable production. This paper studied vegetable production in provinces of China in 1978- 2013. From the sequential characteristics,China’s vegetable production area is constantly growing and takes on stage characteristic. From the spatial distribution,China’s vegetable production takes on the trend of " going down the south" and " marching the west". In order to grasp rules of changes of vegetable production and the influence factors,this paper made theoretical and empirical analysis on factors possibly influencing distribution of vegetable production. Results show that major factors influencing distribution of China’s vegetable production include irrigation condition,non-agricultural employment,market demand,knowledge spillover,comparative effectiveness,rural road and government policies.

  13. MOTIVATIONS AND FACTORS INFLUENCING THE DECISION OF ONLINE TRADING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioana Ancuta IANCU

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In this study, using survey data, we explore motivations and factors that influence the Romanian investors to trade online even if they initially traded through a broker. To identify the factors we used secondary sources and for exploring the factors that influence the decision of trading online we used primary data. We find that investors decide to trade online especially because they spend less time, they have an easier access to information (due to the fact that most of the online trading platforms have notifications and alarms for news that can affect the stock market and they know how to use the internet. We discover that only a few investors are influenced by advertising and the fact that it is fashionable to trade online.

  14. Factors Influencing Poverty Alleviation amongst Microfinance Adopting Households in Zambia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mavhungu Abel Mafukata

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this paper is to investigate the factors having the most influence on the alleviation of poverty amongst the households adopting microfinance in Zambia. Ninety nine (n=99 respondents were randomly and purposively selected from amongst 340 microfinance adopters of the so-called Micro Bankers Trust programme operating a microfinance business in the Makululu Compound of Kabwe, Zambia. Socio-demographic primary data were collected through face-to-face interviews based on a semi-structured questionnaire instrument. The data were entered into an excel spreadsheet for analysis. The descriptive data were thereafter exported and fitted to an empirical model. The descriptive results revealed that the majority of the respondents were married, unemployed, fairly educated younger women from larger-sized poor households who drew their household income mainly from microfinance activities. The majority of the respondents thought microfinance had improved their well-being in some crucial areas. The results of the empirical model found that some respondents were indeed alleviated from poverty through microfinance. Conclusion drawn in this paper is that microfinance does alleviate poverty of the poor.

  15. Factors influencing the tolerance of flufenacet applications in winter rye

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    In winter rye which is grown mostly on locations with a lighter soil texture loose silky-bent grass (Apera spica-venti) is a dominate weed grass. Because of increasing herbicide resistance the control of A. spica-venti becomes more difficult. To manage resistant weed grass populations in winter rye flufenacet is a very important active substance. However, the application of flufenacet can lead to substantially culture damage. The influence of different factors influencing the tolerance of ...

  16. Factors Influencing Mathematic Problem-Solving Ability of Sixth Grade Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sakorn Pimta

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: This study aims to investigate factors influencing mathematic problem-solving ability of sixth grade students. One thousand and twenty eight of sixth grade students, studying in the second semester of academic year 2007 were sampled by stratified random sampling technique. Approach: The research instruments used in the study included mathematic problem-solving ability test and questionnaires. Data was analyzed by Path Analysis. Results: Factors influencing mathematic problem-solving ability were represented as following: (1 direct factors influencing mathematic problem-solving ability were described that direct and indirect factors influencing mathematic problem-solving ability were attitude towards mathematics, self-esteem and teachers’ teaching behavior. Indirect factors influencing mathematic problem-solving ability were motivation and self-efficacy (2 factor models influencing mathematic problem-solving ability of sixth grade students was associated with visual data (3 The developed model could describe variance of skill in mathematic problem-solving at 63.00 % (R2 = 0.63. Conclusion: Teacher’s behaviors took both direct and indirect effects on the students’ mathematic problem solving. The teachers are supposed to study the methods to develop this ability deeply and then bring them to manage the activities in class that encourage students to be enthusiastic to learn and have good attitude toward mathematic learning or to get students’ concentration.

  17. Empirical Research on Influencing Factors of Cultivation Land Intensive Use in Chongqing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    Taking Chongqing as example, the paper ascertains the influencing factors of cultivation land intensive use from aspects of land conditions, family conditions and land operation conditions and theoretically expects the influencing relations of factors to the intensive uses. Collecting the land conditions, family conditions and land operation conditions through surveys, analyzes each influencing factors in a statistical description way. Constructing the empirical model, calculates the relations of land intensive use to the influencing factors with SPSS. The calculation results show a significant inverse correlation between land intensive use and land area, the space between land and counties, family members, the number of migrant workers, types of cultivation land, land transfer conditions. There is a significant positive correlation between land use and family average income, land investment. Based on these, the paper puts forwards corresponding suggestions and countermeasures of highlighting the land intensive using levels.

  18. A study on important factors influencing on the effectiveness of futures research, training and employment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahra Moghimi

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an empirical investigation to find out important factors influencing future research, training and employment in Iranian scientific environment. The proposed model of this paper prepares a questionnaire consists of various questions and distributes it among some experts and analyze them using DEMATEL model. The model divides the 7 factors into two groups of cause and effect. On the cause side, there are four factors including preventing future unemployment crises, detecting future skills, finding future profitable/unprofitable job opportunities and prevention on having open position with no volunteer to work. On the effect factors, there are three factors influencing the future research including detecting the present risk associated with jobs, detecting necessary standards for future works and creating a balance between demand and supply.

  19. A Two-Factor Model of Temperament

    OpenAIRE

    Evans, David E.; Rothbart, Mary K.

    2009-01-01

    The higher order structure of temperament was examined in two studies using the Adult Temperament Questionnaire. Because previous research showed robust levels of convergence between Rothbart’s constructs of temperament and the Big Five factors, we hypothesized a higher order two-factor model of temperament based on Digman’s higher order two-factor model of personality traits derived from factor analysis of the Big Five factors. Study 1 included 258 undergraduates. Digman’s model did not fit ...

  20. 大学英语课堂教学效果影响因素研究--基于两水平模型%Research on Influencing Factors of College English Classroom Teaching Based on Two-level Model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙方莉

    2014-01-01

    This paper establishes a two-level model,using the first CET 4 scores as the dependent variable and the students’class,gender,age,nationality,place of origin and the college entrance examination scores as the independent variables,with the aim to analyze the influencing factors of college English classroom teaching. This research finds that the influencing factors from both teachers and students are important,but the characteristics of the students themselves are more important. Students’English scores in high school have a significant impact on the college English classroom teaching. Gender,age,nationality and place of origin also have a relevant relationship with college English classroom teaching effects.%以英语四级首次考试成绩作为因变量,以学生的班级、性别、年龄、民族、籍贯和高考英语成绩为自变量建立了两水平模型,分析了影响大学英语课堂教学效果的因素。研究发现,教师与学生因素对大学英语课堂教学效果都很重要,但学生本身的特征更重要一些。高中英语学习成绩对大学英语课堂教学效果具有显著的影响,性别、年龄、民族、籍贯与大学英语课堂教学效果也存在相关性。

  1. Exploring the Spatial-Temporal Disparities of Urban Land Use Economic Efficiency in China and Its Influencing Factors under Environmental Constraints Based on a Sequential Slacks-Based Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hualin Xie

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Using a sequential slack-based measure (SSBM model, this paper analyzes the spatiotemporal disparities of urban land use economic efficiency (ULUEE under environmental constraints, and its influencing factors in 270 cities across China from 2003–2012. The main results are as follows: (1 The average ULUEE for Chinese cities is only 0.411, and out of the 270 cities, only six cities are always efficient in urban land use in the study period. Most cities have a lot of room to improve the economic output of secondary and tertiary industries, as well as environmental protection work; (2 The eastern region of China enjoys the highest ULUEE, followed by the western and central regions. Super-scale cities show the best performance of all four city scales, followed by large-scale, small-scale and medium-scale cities. Cities with relatively developed economies and less pollutant discharge always have better ULUEE; (3 The results of slack variables analysis show that most cities have problems such as the labor surplus, over-development, excessive pollutant discharge, economic output shortage, and unreasonable use of funds is the most serious one; (4 The regression results of the influencing factors show that improvements of the per capita GDP and land use intensity are helpful to raise ULUEE. The urbanization rate and the proportion of foreign enterprises’ output account for the total output in the secondary and tertiary industries only have the same effect in some regions and city scales. The land management policy and land leasing policy have negative impact on the ULUEE in all the three regions and four city scales; (5 Some targeted policy goals are proposed, including the reduction of surplus labor, and pay more attention to environmental protection. Most importantly, effective implementation of land management policies from the central government, and stopping blind leasing of land to make up the local government’s financial deficit would be very

  2. Factors influencing consumer behaviour in market vegetables in Yemen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tarish H. Al-Gahaifi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the research is to understand factors influencing consumer behaviour when buying vegetables in Republic of Yemen. Data collection was done by structured questionnaire administered through schools, universities, government offices, and markets from 13 provinces in 5 governorates. Random convenience sampling technique was used. Total sample comprised of 463 completed questionnaires which were used for analysis. The respondents were classified into five categories on the base of their monthly income, age, education, gender, and type of settlement. Authors present the factors that can influence significantly this behaviour, e.g. price, quality, the location of seller, habit, personal relationship between consumer and seller, occasions, discount, sorting, word-mouth, time of purchase, the way of products display, and recommendation of friends and families. From the obtained results, it is obvious that there was high influence on the behaviour of Yemeni consumer when buying vegetables for factors price, occasions, discontent, and time of purchase, while factors habit, display, sorting, and the location of seller suggests medium influence, and the influence was low for word-mouth.

  3. Psychosocial factors for influencing healthy aging in adults in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, KyungHun; Lee, YunJung; Gu, JaSung; Oh, Hee; Han, JongHee; Kim, KwuyBun

    2015-03-07

    Healthy aging includes physical, psychological, social, and spiritual well-being in later years. The purpose of this study is to identify the psychosocial factors influencing healthy aging and examining their socio-demographic characteristics. Perceived health status, depression, self-esteem, self-achievement, ego-integrity, participation in leisure activities, and loneliness were identified as influential factors in healthy aging. 171 Korean adults aged between 45 and 77 years-old participated in the study. Self-reporting questionnaires were used, followed by descriptive statistics and multiple regressions as inferential statistical analyses. There were significant differences between participants' general characteristics: age, education, religion, housing, hobby, and economic status. The factors related to healthy aging had positive correlation with perceived health status, self-esteem, self-achievements, and leisure activities, and negative correlation with depression and loneliness. The factors influencing healthy aging were depression, leisure activities, perceived health status, ego integrity, and self-achievements. These factors were able to explain 51.9%. According to the results, depression is the factor with the greatest influence on healthy aging. Perceived health status, ego integrity, self-achievement, self-esteem, participation of leisure activities were also influential on healthy aging as beneficial factors.

  4. Factors of influence and changes in the tourism consumer behaviour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fratu, D.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Consumer behaviour is a very important aspect to be studied in every marketing activity, therefore in tourism marketing as well. Defining and identifying the factors that influence consumers help in understanding individual needs and buying processes in their whole complexity. Consumers have changed their behaviour over the last two years due to the instability of the economic environment. The author describes in this article the factors which influence consumer behaviour and also presents how it has changed over the past two years.

  5. FUEL CONSUMPTION: A MAJOR FACTOR INFLUENCING SALES OF NEW PERSONAL VEHICLES. EVIDENCE FROM ROMANIAN DATA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Pîrvu

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to demonstrate empirically the validity of our supposition: the fuel consumption is currently the most important factor that influences sales of new personal vehicles. Factors that characterize an economical vehicle make 60 per cent of new personal vehicle buying decisions and the fuel consumption is the most important of these factors. The linear model for estimating the number of new personal vehicle registrations has good fit to the data.

  6. Factors Influencing High School Students' Science Enrollments Patterns: Academic Abilities, Parental Influences, and Attitudes toward Science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khoury, Ghada A.; Voss, Burton E.

    This study was designed, using a path analytic model, to assess the relative impact of different factors on science concentration decisions made by grade 10 high school students (N=237). Included in the model were selected demographic and socioeconomic factors, academic abilities factors (including logical thinking), indicators of home and school…

  7. Population Distribution and Influencing Factors Based on ESDA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lv Chen; Fan Jie; Sun Wei

    2012-01-01

    Based on the exploratory spatial data analysis (ESDA) technique and geographic information system (GIS) platform, with statistic data of counties in 2005, this paper confirms that there is a large population density gap between counties in 2005 because the Gini coefficient is 0.55. Population distribution does not change a lot during the past decades, and the southeast China is still much more densely populated than the northwest China. The global spa- tial autoeorrelation of population distribution is obvious because Moran's I scores 0.42 and local spatial autocorrelation is partly significant. Climate and elevation are still the main natural influ- encing factors. Meanwhile industrial structure and transportation significantly influence population distribution. Different combinations of natural factors have different effects on population distribution. For a long term, climate and terrain factor stability affect population distribution. But its influence will be weakened by progress of technology. Economic development is the main factor that changes population distribution for a short term.

  8. Quantifying influences of physiographic factors on temperate dryland vegetation, Northwest China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Ziqiang; Zhang, Xiaoyu; Xu, Xiaoming; Zhang, Hong; Wu, Zhitao; Pang, Jing

    2017-01-01

    Variability in satellite measurements of terrestrial greenness in drylands is widely observed in land surface processes and global change studies. Yet the underlying causes differ and are not fully understood. Here, we used the GeogDetector model, a new spatial statistical approach, to examine the individual and combined influences of physiographic factors on dryland vegetation greenness changes, and to identify the most suitable characteristics of each principal factor for stimulating vegetation growth. Our results indicated that dryland greenness was predominantly affected by precipitation, soil type, vegetation type, and temperature, either separately or in concert. The interaction between pairs of physiographic factors enhanced the influence of any single factor and displayed significantly non-linear influences on vegetation greenness. Our results also implied that vegetation greenness could be promoted by adopting favorable ranges or types of major physiographical factors, thus beneficial for ecological conservation and restoration that aimed at mitigating environmental degradation. PMID:28067259

  9. What factors influence UK medical students' choice of foundation school?

    OpenAIRE

    Miah, S.; Pang, K.H.; Rebello, W.; Rubakumar, Z.; Fung, V; Venugopal, S.; Begum, H.

    2017-01-01

    Background: We aimed to identify the factors influencing UK medical student applicants’ choice of foundation school. We also explored the factors that doctors currently approaching the end of their 2-year program believe should be considered. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted during the 2013–2014 academic year. An online questionnaire was distributed to 2092 final-year medical students from nine UK medical schools and 84 foundation year-2 (FY2) doctors from eight foundation sc...

  10. Psychosocial factors for influencing healthy aging in adults in Korea

    OpenAIRE

    Han, KyungHun; Lee, YunJung; Gu, JaSung; Oh, Hee; Han, JongHee; Kim, KwuyBun

    2015-01-01

    Background Healthy aging includes physical, psychological, social, and spiritual well-being in later years. The purpose of this study is to identify the psychosocial factors influencing healthy aging and examining their socio-demographic characteristics. Perceived health status, depression, self-esteem, self-achievement, ego-integrity, participation in leisure activities, and loneliness were identified as influential factors in healthy aging. Methods 171 Korean adults aged between 45 and 77 y...

  11. Factors that influence business strategies of direct foreign investments in emerging countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cláudia Wirz Leite Sá

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available The purpose in this article is to propose an analytical model of the factors that influence business strategies of direct foreign investment in emerging markets. To this end, a literature review was conducted to identify the factors considered relevant to business investment in developing economies. The analytical model was developed on the basis of this review. This model includes external factors (driving mechanisms and internal factors (leveraging mechanisms. Two dimensions of external factors were identified: macroenvironmental (localization advantages and micro environmental (internalization advantages. The third dimension, internal factors, is composed of characteristics of the investing firms themselves (proprietary advantages. This model can be applied to the analysis of industries as a whole or to specific industrial segments, in terms of their attractiveness to foreign direct investment.

  12. Robust and Sparse Factor Modelling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Croux, Christophe; Exterkate, Peter

    Factor construction methods are widely used to summarize a large panel of variables by means of a relatively small number of representative factors. We propose a novel factor construction procedure that enjoys the properties of robustness to outliers and of sparsity; that is, having relatively few...... nonzero factor loadings. Compared to the traditional factor construction method, we find that this procedure leads to a favorable forecasting performance in the presence of outliers and to better interpretable factors. We investigate the performance of the method in a Monte Carlo experiment...

  13. Influence Factor of Thermal Conductivity of Cement Concrete and Its Prediction Model%水泥混凝土导热性能影响因素及预估模型研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘凯; 王芳; 王选仓

    2012-01-01

    In order to improve the efficiency of snow melting and deicing, pavement concrete material that possesses good thermal conductivity was studied. Concrete mixture of common concrete, steel fiber concrete and carbon fiber concrete were obtained through laboratory testing. Thermal conductivity of these concrete was measured by thermal conductivity detector. The influence of factors on thermal conductivity, namely, aggregate volume content, sand percentage, water-cement ratio, temperature, fiber type and content were investigated. Various factors were sorted based on generalized gray correlation method. Prediction model of thermal conductivity of three kinds of concrete were established according to the test results and the influence. The results show that steel fiber concrete is strongly recommended as melting-snow and deicing pavement material. Fiber type and content plays dominant role on thermal conductivity. The influence of aggregate volume content, temperature and water-cement ratio is greater than the sand percentage.%为提高融冰雪效率,研究具有良好导热性能的混凝土铺面材料,通过试验得出了普通、钢纤维、碳纤维混凝土的配合比,采用热传导仪测定了它们的导热系数λ.系统研究了骨料体积分数、砂率、水灰比、温度、纤维种类和掺量对混凝土导热系数的影响规律,并基于广义灰关联法对各因素进行排序,依据测试结果和影响规律建立了以上3类混凝土导热系数预估模型.结果表明:钢纤维混凝土最适宜作为融冰雪路面材料;纤维种类和掺量对混凝土导热性能起主导作用,骨料体积分数、温度和水灰比的影响次之,砂率的影响最小.

  14. Infrapopliteal Percutaneous Transluminal Balloon Angioplasty: Clinical Results and Influence Factors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, Jang Hyeon; Lee, Seung Jin; Jung, Hye Doo; Lim, Jae Hoon; Chang, Nam Kyu; Yim, Nam Yeol; Kim, Jae Kyu [Dept. of Radiology, Chonnam National University Hospital, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Keun Bae [Dept. of Radiology, Chonnam National University Hospital, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-09-15

    To assess the efficacy of percutaneous transluminal angioplasty (PTA) in patients with infrapopliteal arterial disease, and to determine the influencing factor for prognosis. A total of 55 patients (60 limbs) with infrapopliteal arterial stenosis or occlusion underwent PTA. Atherosclerotic risk factors, clinical symptoms, TransAtlantic Inter-Society Consensus (TASC) classification, and vascular wall calcification were evaluated before PTA. The number of patent infrapopliteal arteries was estimated, and the outcome was evaluated by symptom relief and limb salvage. Technical success was achieved in 53/60 limbs (88.3%) and 81/93 arteries (87.1%), TASC classification (p = 0.038) and vascular calcification (p = 0.002) influenced on technical failure. During follow-up, 26 of 55 limbs (47%) achieved symptom relief and 42/55 limbs (76%) underwent limb salvage. Non-diabetic patients (9/12, 75%) were superior to diabetic patients (17/43, 40%) in terms of symptom relief (p = 0.024). TASC classification and vascular wall calcification influenced on symptom relief and limb salvage. The number of patent infrapopliteal arteries after PTA influenced symptom relief (p < 0.001) and limb amputation (p = 0.003). PTA in patients with chronic critical limb ischemia is worthwhile as a primary treatment. The influence factors should be considered before PTA, and PTA should be performed in as many involved arteries as possible.

  15. Factors that influence the speed of bacterial wood degradation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klaassen, R.K.W.M.; Overeem, van B.S.

    2012-01-01

    Bacterial wood decay is a serious threat to the many wooden foundation piles in the Netherlands. In order to learn more about the factors that influence the process of decay, approx. 2000 wood samples taken from Amsterdam piles heads were analysed on type and degree of decay and for 59 extracted pil

  16. Modifiable factors influencing relapses and disability in multiple sclerosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D'hooghe, M. B.; Nagels, G.; Bissay, V.; De Keyser, J.

    2010-01-01

    A growing body of literature indicates that the natural course of multiple sclerosis can be influenced by a number of factors. Strong evidence suggests that relapses can be triggered by infections, the postpartum period and stressful life events. Vaccinations against influenza, hepatitis B and tetan

  17. Factors Influencing the Academic Persistence of College Students with ADHD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melara, Claudia Alexia

    2012-01-01

    Students with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) are at greater risk for failing to complete their postsecondary educational degrees than their typical peers. The present qualitative sought to identify factors influencing the academic persistence of students with ADHD in postsecondary settings. Utilizing direct interviews with…

  18. Information Booklets about Cancer: Factors Influencing Patient Satisfaction and Utilisation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butow, Phyllis; Brindle, Elizabeth; McConnell, David; Boakes, Robert; Tattersall, Martin

    1998-01-01

    Explored factors influencing patient satisfaction with and utilization of information booklets. Patients (N=36) rated five booklets, and strongly preferred one with a grade-eight reading level. The relationship of preference and recall was investigated. No difference between those who seek or avoid information was found. Additional findings are…

  19. Factors Influencing Consent to Having Videotaped Mental Health Sessions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ko, Kenton; Goebert, Deborah

    2011-01-01

    Objective: The authors critically reviewed the literature regarding factors influencing consent to having videotaped mental health sessions. Methods: The authors searched the literature in PubMed, PsycINFO, Google Scholar, and Web of Science from the mid-1950s through February 2009. Results: The authors identified 27 studies, of which 19 (73%)…

  20. Identifying factors that influence workplace learning in postgraduate medical education.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stok-Koch, E.G.H.J.; Bolhuis, S.M.; Koopmans, R.T.C.M.

    2007-01-01

    CONTEXT: In their postgraduate educational programs, residents are immersed in a complex workplace. To improve the quality of the training program, it is necessary to gain insight into the factors that influence the process of learning in the workplace. METHODS: An exploratory study was carried out

  1. The genetic factors influencing the development of trichotillomania

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Koushik Chatterjee

    2012-08-01

    Trichotillomania (TTM), an obsessive–compulsive spectrum disorder (OCSD), is a psychiatric condition characterized by repetitive hair pulling. Evidence from family and twin studies suggest a heritable link of TTM. Functional polymorphisms in genes involved in neuronal pathways might influence the susceptibility to TTM. This review is an attempt to compile the genetic factors reported to modify the development of TTM.

  2. Abuse of Working Children and Influencing Factors, Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oncu, Emine; Kurt, Ahmet Oner; Esenay, Figen Isik; Ozer, Fatma

    2013-01-01

    Objective: The study was planned as the research of the kind/kinds of abuse and the factors influencing the abuse that the children under 18 who are working full-time at a workplace and enrolled in a vocational training center subjected to. Method: Questionnaires were administered to 595 apprentices who were attending a vocational training center.…

  3. Factors Influencing Stress, Burnout, and Retention of Secondary Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Molly H.

    2011-01-01

    This study examines the stress, burnout, satisfaction, and preventive coping skills of nearly 400 secondary teachers to determine variables contributing to these major factors influencing teachers. Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) statistics were conducted that found the burnout levels between new and experienced teachers are significantly different,…

  4. Investigation and control of factors influencing resistance upset butt welding.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kerstens, N.F.H.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this work is to investigate the factors influencing the resistance upset butt welding process to obtain an understanding of the metal behaviour and welding process characteristics, so that new automotive steels can be welded with reduced development time and fewer failures in

  5. Factors that Influence Informal Learning in the Workplace

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berg, Shelley A.; Chyung, Seung Youn

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this research is to investigate factors that influence informal learning in the workplace and the types of informal learning activities people engage in at work. More specifically, the research examined: the relationship between informal learning engagement and the presence of learning organization characteristics; and…

  6. Factors Influencing the Academic Persistence of College Students with ADHD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melara, Claudia Alexia

    2012-01-01

    Students with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) are at greater risk for failing to complete their postsecondary educational degrees than their typical peers. The present qualitative sought to identify factors influencing the academic persistence of students with ADHD in postsecondary settings. Utilizing direct interviews with…

  7. Factors influencing career choice after initial training in surgery.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    McHugh, Seamus

    2011-03-01

    Irish general surgery faces a recruitment crisis with only 87 of 145 (60%) basic surgical training (BST) places filled in 2009. We assessed basic surgical trainees to identify objective, and potentially modifiable, factors that influence ultimate recruitment into a general surgical career.

  8. Factors Influencing Career Choice of Management Students in India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agarwala, Tanuja

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: This paper aims to explore the influence of a range of factors on the career choice of management students in India. The importance of different individuals in the family and at work in making career choices among these students is also to be explored. In addition, the study seeks to address the relationship of the cultural values of…

  9. Hepatitus B virus infection : factors influencing the outcome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. van Hattum (Jan)

    1986-01-01

    textabstractThis study was designed to find correlations between the various courses of disease after hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection and factors that could conceivably have influenced the course of disease. The aim of the study was to find correlations between parameters of viral replication and

  10. Modifiable factors influencing relapses and disability in multiple sclerosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D'hooghe, M. B.; Nagels, G.; Bissay, V.; De Keyser, J.

    A growing body of literature indicates that the natural course of multiple sclerosis can be influenced by a number of factors. Strong evidence suggests that relapses can be triggered by infections, the postpartum period and stressful life events. Vaccinations against influenza, hepatitis B and

  11. Consumers with Major Depressive Disorder: Factors Influencing Job Placement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hergenrather, Kenneth C.; Haase, Eileen; Zeglin, Robert J.; Rhodes, Scott D.

    2013-01-01

    The theory of planned behavior (TPB) was applied to study the factors that influence the intention of public rehabilitation placement professionals to place consumers with major depressive disorder (MDD) in jobs. A sample of 108 public rehabilitation placement professionals in the Mid-Atlantic region of the United States completed the MDD…

  12. Investigation and control of factors influencing resistance upset butt welding.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kerstens, N.F.H.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this work is to investigate the factors influencing the resistance upset butt welding process to obtain an understanding of the metal behaviour and welding process characteristics, so that new automotive steels can be welded with reduced development time and fewer failures in producti

  13. Factors Influencing the Occurrence of Adult Agricultural Education Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christmas, Oren L.; Warmbrod, J. Robert

    A study examined the institutional factors the influence whether or not adult agricultural education programs are offered in high schools. All Ohio secondary schools that offered vocational agriculture programs in agricultural production or farm business management during 1985-1986 (a total of 260 schools) were included in the study. Data were…

  14. Social and Environmental Factors Influencing In-Prison Drug Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodall, James

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: There is a strong political imperative to regard the prison as a key social setting for health promotion, but evidence indicates that drug misuse continues to be a significant issue for many prisoners. This paper aims to examine the social and environmental factors within the setting that influence individuals' drug taking.…

  15. Leadership Factors Influencing the Performance of Educational Institutions. Final Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiedler, Fred E.

    This document is the summary report of a study having as its main objectives: (1) an intensive study of organizational and group-structural factors influencing the research and teaching effectiveness of individual faculty members and their relations to the students; (2) research investigating the effect of academic area and technology on…

  16. Factors Influencing Latino Participation in Community-Based Diabetes Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francis, Sarah L.; Noterman, Amber; Litchfield, Ruth

    2014-01-01

    An Extension diabetes program (DP) was revised for Latinos; however, participation was limited. Factors influencing low participation rates were examined. Five Latinos interested in the DP participated in a focus group discussion. Transcripts were analyzed for themes. Preferred education programs were multi-session, local, group classes led by an…

  17. Hepatitus B virus infection : factors influencing the outcome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. van Hattum (Jan)

    1986-01-01

    textabstractThis study was designed to find correlations between the various courses of disease after hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection and factors that could conceivably have influenced the course of disease. The aim of the study was to find correlations between parameters of viral replication and

  18. Factors Influencing Student Participation in College Study Abroad Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bandyopadhyay, Soumava; Bandyopadhyay, Kakoli

    2015-01-01

    This paper proposes a theoretical framework to investigate the factors that influence student participation in college study abroad programs. The authors posit that students' general perceptions regarding the study abroad experience and their expectations of intercultural awareness from study abroad programs will impact their perceptions of…

  19. Factors that Influence Women's Technical Skill Development in Outdoor Adventure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warren, Karen; Loeffler, TA

    2006-01-01

    This article provides a theoretical foundation for understanding women's technical skill development (TSD) in outdoor adventure. An examination of societal and biological factors influencing women's TSD focuses on gender role socialization, sense of competence, technical conditioning, sexism, spatial ability, and risk-taking. The article suggests…

  20. Identifying factors that influence workplace learning in postgraduate medical educaton

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L. Stok-Koch; R. Koopmans; Dr. S. Bolhuis

    2007-01-01

    In their postgraduate educational programs, residents are immersed in a complex workplace. To improve the quality of the training program, it is necessary to gain insight into the factors that influence the process of learning in the workplace. An exploratory study was carried out among 56 nursing

  1. Factors influencing adherence to an emergency department national protocol.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ebben, R.H.A.; Vloet, L.C.M.; Groot, J.M. de; Achterberg, T. van

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this study was to identify factors that influence emergency nurses' adherence to an emergency department national protocol (EDNP). A survey of emergency nurses (n=200) and physicians with medical end responsibility on an emergency department (n=103) was carried out. Emergency nurses

  2. STUDY ON MAJOR FACTORS INFLUENCING SPONTANEOUS COMBUSTION OF COAL

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Deng Jun; Xu Jingcai; Zhang Xinghai

    2000-01-01

    This paper theoretically analyzes major factors influencing spontaneous combustion of coal, such as molecule structure of coal, porosity, temperature, concentration of oxygen, coal thickness, velocity of face advance, and so on; and probes into how they affect the process of spontaneous combustion of coal, which is of momentous significance to predict or control self-ignition of coal.

  3. External and Internal Factors Influencing Happiness in Elite Collegiate Athletes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denny, Katherine G.; Steiner, Hans

    2009-01-01

    When under conditions of high demand and allostatic load, are happiness and satisfaction in four domains (family, friends, academics, recreation) influenced more by external or internal factors? Do student-athletes who lead exceedingly complicated lives report happiness as a function of athletic achievement or internal disposition? Stanford…

  4. Product development alliances: factors influencing formation and success

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Johanne Rønnow; Harmsen, Hanne; Friis, Alan

    2008-01-01

    Purpose - The objective of this paper is to develop a framework, based on existing literature, for factors influencing the formation and success of product development alliances, and relate this specifically to the food industry. Design/methodology/approach - Case study of a product development a...

  5. Factors influencing beta-amylase activity in sorghum malt

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Taylor, JRN

    1993-09-01

    Full Text Available An investigation into factors influencing beta-amylase activity in sorghum malt confirmed that ungerminated sorghum grain exhibited essentially no beta-amylase activity. Malted sorghum had beta-amylase activity less than 25% of the level in barley...

  6. INFLUENCE FACTOR ANALYSIS OF CHINESE STUDENTS' LERANING STYLES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周平

    2009-01-01

    Learning style, aiming at language learner, is a hot issue of second language acquisition. The article first reviews the various definitions of learning style. From the perspective of cognition, three influence factors of Chinese students' learning styles are analyzed. Suggestions are proposed for teachers to help students develop learning styles.

  7. International preferences for pork appearance: II. Factors influencing consumer choice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ngapo, T.M.; Martin, J.F.; Dransfield, E.

    2007-01-01

    The preference for pork varying in its fat cover, lean colour, marbling and drip differs among countries, but the influence of socio-demographic factors is unknown. In this study of 11,717 consumers from 22 countries, more than 80% of consumers liked pork, thought that pork quality was at least

  8. Identifying factors that influence workplace learning in postgraduate medical education.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stok-Koch, E.G.H.J.; Bolhuis, S.M.; Koopmans, R.T.C.M.

    2007-01-01

    CONTEXT: In their postgraduate educational programs, residents are immersed in a complex workplace. To improve the quality of the training program, it is necessary to gain insight into the factors that influence the process of learning in the workplace. METHODS: An exploratory study was carried out

  9. Identifying factors that influence workplace learning in postgraduate medical educaton

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stok-Koch, L.; Bolhuis, S.; Koopmans, R.

    2007-01-01

    In their postgraduate educational programs, residents are immersed in a complex workplace. To improve the quality of the training program, it is necessary to gain insight into the factors that influence the process of learning in the workplace. An exploratory study was carried out among 56 nursing h

  10. Consumers with Major Depressive Disorder: Factors Influencing Job Placement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hergenrather, Kenneth C.; Haase, Eileen; Zeglin, Robert J.; Rhodes, Scott D.

    2013-01-01

    The theory of planned behavior (TPB) was applied to study the factors that influence the intention of public rehabilitation placement professionals to place consumers with major depressive disorder (MDD) in jobs. A sample of 108 public rehabilitation placement professionals in the Mid-Atlantic region of the United States completed the MDD…

  11. FACTORS INFLUENCING THE PURCHASE DECISION OF ORGANIC TOFU

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tantry Nugroho

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to analyze the factors that influence consumers in making the decision to buy organic tofu. The theory of factors that influence the purchasing behavior developed by Kotler was used as the analytical tool, and these factors include cultural factors, social factors, personal factors, psychological factors and purchasing process. These data were collected through interview techniques and analyzed descriptively using multinomial logistic regression. The characteristics of respondents indicated the consumers who never bought organic tofu are mostly at the age of 26-35 years old and university graduates, do not work, have an expenditure from Rp 1 million to Rp 2.5 million, are highly knowledge, and have the highest scores on the perceptions on sustainable and environmentally friendly organic farming, health benefits, and a more expensive price. There are a number of factors that influence consumers in making purchase decisions of organic tofu including age, education, knowledge and product external factors. The consumers who are potentially interested in purchasing the organic tofu are at the age of 36–50 years old, university graduates, highly knowledgeable in food and organic tofu products, because the higher the education and knowledge, the greater the interest in buying the products, and they approved of the external products such as price, advertising, personal selling and places of selling which are also potentially equal. The managerial implications for the business agents of tofu organic product is that they must be more active in assuring the consumers that these products are good for them by creating a blog, an ad in the local paper, or a pamphlet containing information of the product.Keywords: purchase decision, logistic regression, organic tofu product, purchasing interest

  12. Factors influencing the flavour of game meat: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neethling, J; Hoffman, L C; Muller, M

    2016-03-01

    Flavour is a very important attribute contributing to the sensory quality of meat and meat products. Although the sensory quality of meat includes orthonasal and retronasal aroma, taste, as well as appearance, juiciness and other textural attributes, the focus of this review is primarily on flavour. The influence of species, age, gender, muscle anatomical location, diet, harvesting conditions, ageing of meat, packaging and storage, as well as cooking method on the flavour of game meat are discussed. Very little research is available on the factors influencing the flavour of the meat derived from wild and free-living game species. The aim of this literature review is thus to discuss the key ante- and post-mortem factors that influence the flavour of game meat, with specific focus on wild and free-living South African game species.

  13. Factors Influencing Renewable Energy Production & Supply - A Global Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Anika; Saqlawi, Juman Al

    2016-04-01

    Renewable energy is one of the key technologies through which the energy needs of the future can be met in a sustainable and carbon-neutral manner. Increasing the share of renewable energy in the total energy mix of each country is therefore a critical need. While different countries have approached this in different ways, there are some common aspects which influence the pace and effectiveness of renewable energy incorporation. This presentation looks at data and information from 34 selected countries, analyses the patterns, compares the different parameters and identifies the common factors which positively influence renewable energy incorporation. The most successful countries are analysed for their renewable energy performance against their GDP, policy/regulatory initiatives in the field of renewables, landmass, climatic conditions and population to identify the most influencing factors to bring about positive change in renewable energy share.

  14. Factors influencing radiation therapy student clinical placement satisfaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bridge, Pete; Carmichael, Mary-Ann [School of Clinical Sciences, Queensland University of Technology, Brisbane (Australia)

    2014-02-15

    Introduction: Radiation therapy students at Queensland University of Technology (QUT) attend clinical placements at five different clinical departments with varying resources and support strategies. This study aimed to determine the relative availability and perceived importance of different factors affecting student support while on clinical placement. The purpose of the research was to inform development of future support mechanisms to enhance radiation therapy students’ experience on clinical placement. Methods: This study used anonymous Likert-style surveys to gather data from years 1 and 2 radiation therapy students from QUT and clinical educators from Queensland relating to availability and importance of support mechanisms during clinical placements in a semester. Results: The study findings demonstrated student satisfaction with clinical support and suggested that level of support on placement influenced student employment choices. Staff support was perceived as more important than physical resources; particularly access to a named mentor, a clinical educator and weekly formative feedback. Both students and educators highlighted the impact of time pressures. Conclusions: The support offered to radiation therapy students by clinical staff is more highly valued than physical resources or models of placement support. Protected time and acknowledgement of the importance of clinical education roles are both invaluable. Joint investment in mentor support by both universities and clinical departments is crucial for facilitation of effective clinical learning.

  15. Factors that influence the effectiveness of sanitation programs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marilu eFernandez

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Local governments in both Mexico and the U.S. spend considerable money on public services, which do not always bring the expected results. For instance, a large part of the public budget is destined to solve social and health problems such as public sanitation. Government has attacked the problem by providing public sanitation infrastructure (such as garbage and recycling receptacles and the use of social ad campaigns. However, these efforts do not always impact the habits of residents and bring the desired changes in city sanitation.This paper presents a case study that used a participatory method to address an innovative city sanitation effort: The Clean City Program in Puebla, Mexico. This program adopted social marketing techniques, a discipline born in the 70s when the principles and practices developed to sell products and services started to be applied to sell ideas, attitudes or behaviors. Social marketing programs have been adopted by governments to change attitudes and behavior in areas such as public services.The paper first describes the context and strategies of the program which included the use of the promotora model to engage community members. The researchers then make use of qualitative data gathered throughout program planning and implementation to evaluate the impact of the social marketing programs and its effectiveness. The paper analyses social, educational, economic, demographic and cultural factors that influence the effectiveness of sanitation programs and presents recommendations for strategies to engage community members in community sanitation programs.

  16. Preparation of Chitosan Nanoparticles: A Study of Influencing Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thakur, Anupama; Taranjit

    2011-12-01

    Chitosan (CS), a cationic polysaccharide, offers great advantages for ionic interactions with negatively charged species such as sodium tripolyphosphate (STPP) leading to the formation of biocompatible crosslinked chitosan nanoparticles In the present work, an attempt has been made to systematically study the following factors influencing the ionotropic gelation of chitosan with STPP to produce CS nanoparticles: effect of pH of solution, CS concentration, STPP concentration and CS/STPP ratio. The results show that with the increase in CS concentration, the yield of the nanoparticle decreases whereas size increases. The mean size of the prepared nanoparticles varied between 120 to 720 nm and zeta potential between +14 mV to +53 mV . Nanoparticle size and yield was found to be strongly dependent on solution pH. Nanoparticle size decreased with increase in solution pH from 4 to 5 and yield was found to be maximum at pH = 5. With increase in STPP concentration, the size and yield of the nanoparticle increased. The potential of CS nanoparticles to trap amoxicillin trihydrate, taken as the model drug, was also studied. The maximum drug loading capacity was found to be 35% at a solution pH = 5 for 0.2% CS and 0.086% STPP.

  17. Factors that Influence the Effectiveness of Sanitation Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez-Haddad, Marilu; Ingram, Maia

    2015-01-01

    Local governments in both Mexico and the U.S. spend considerable money on public services, which do not always bring the expected results. For instance, a large part of the public budget is destined to solve social and health problems, such as public sanitation. Government has attacked the problem by providing public sanitation infrastructure (such as garbage and recycling receptacles) and by using social ad campaigns. However, these efforts do not always affect the habits of residents and bring the desired changes in city sanitation. This article presents a case study that used a participatory method to address an innovative city sanitation effort: The Clean City Program in Puebla, Mexico. This program adopted social marketing techniques, a discipline born in the 70s when the principles and practices developed to sell products and services started to be applied to sell ideas, attitudes, or behaviors. Social marketing programs have been adopted by governments to change attitudes and behavior in areas such as public services. The article first describes the context and strategies of the program, which included the use of the promotora model to engage community members. The researchers then make use of qualitative data gathered throughout program planning and implementation to evaluate the impact of the social marketing programs and its effectiveness. The article analyzes social, educational, economic, demographic, and cultural factors that influence the effectiveness of sanitation programs and presents recommendations for strategies to engage community members in community sanitation programs.

  18. 服装网络购买意愿影响因素的假设模型及实证研究%Hypothesis Model and Empirical Study of Factors Influencing Apparel Online Purchase Intention

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周芬芳; 王朝晖

    2012-01-01

    以刺激-机体-反应模型(Stimulus-Organism-Response,简称S-O-R模型)为理论框架,将影响服装网络购买意愿的因素归纳为消费者特征因素、产品特征因素和网络零售商特征因素.将产品特征因素中的品牌和促销,网络零售商特征因素中的产品信息作为环境刺激因素(S),将消费者特征因素中的情绪和认知因素作为机体(O),购买意愿作为反应(R),构建出服装网络消费者购买意愿影响因素的理论假设模型.制作了模拟服装网站,将其作为考察不同组合下消费者内部心理认知和购买意愿差异的实验载体,通过信度、效度和因子分析对实验数据的品质进行检验,然后运用结构方程模型对11个假设进行了检验.结果证明:本研究所建立的模型有一定的可行性,可以为企业提供一定的理论支持.%The factors influencing purchase intention were divided into three parts-, consumer characteristics, product characteristics and web site retailer' s characteristics, on the basis of S-O-R. The brand and promotion from product characteristics, and product information from web site retailer' s characteristics were selected as stimuli(S) , the consumer characteristics were selected as or-ganism(O) , the purchase intention was selected as response(R). The model of effects on apparel online purchase intention was created with the selected S, O, R, then the corresponding hypotheses model was conducted. An experiment website was constructed to examine the diversity of the consumers' emotional and cognitive factor, purchase intention in different context. The data's quality was tested with reliability analysis, validity analysis and factor analysis. Eleven hypotheses were tested with AMOS17. 0. The results showed that the model had certain feasibility and could provide theoretical basis for apparel enterprise.

  19. Study on neural network model for calculating subsidence factor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GUO Wen-bing; ZHANG Jie

    2007-01-01

    The major factors influencing subsidence factor were comprehensively analyzed. Then the artificial neural network model for calculating subsidence factor was set up with the theory of artificial neural network (ANN). A large amount of data from observation stations in China was collected and used as learning and training samples to train and test the artificial neural network model. The calculated results of the ANN model and the observed values were compared and analyzed in this paper. The results demonstrate that many factors can be considered in this model and the result is more precise and closer to observed values to calculate the subsidence factor by the ANN model. It can satisfy the need of engineering.

  20. Factors influencing obstacle crossing performance in patients with Parkinson's disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying-Yi Liao

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Tripping over obstacles is the major cause of falls in community-dwelling patients with Parkinson's disease (PD. Understanding the factors associated with the obstacle crossing behavior may help to develop possible training programs for crossing performance. This study aimed to identify the relationships and important factors determining obstacle crossing performance in patients with PD. METHODS: Forty-two idiopathic patients with PD (Hoehn and Yahr stages I to III participated in this study. Obstacle crossing performance was recorded by the Liberty system, a three-dimensional motion capture device. Maximal isometric strength of the lower extremity was measured by a handheld dynamometer. Dynamic balance and sensory integration ability were assessed using the Balance Master system. Movement velocity (MV, maximal excursion (ME, and directional control (DC were obtained during the limits of stability test to quantify dynamic balance. The sum of sensory organization test (SOT scores was used to quantify sensory organization ability. RESULTS: Both crossing stride length and stride velocity correlated significantly with lower extremity muscle strength, dynamic balance control (forward and sideward, and sum of SOT scores. From the regression model, forward DC and ankle dorsiflexor strength were identified as two major determinants for crossing performance (R(2 = .37 to.41 for the crossing stride length, R(2 = .43 to.44 for the crossing stride velocity. CONCLUSIONS: Lower extremity muscle strength, dynamic balance control and sensory integration ability significantly influence obstacle crossing performance. We suggest an emphasis on muscle strengthening exercises (especially ankle dorsiflexors, balance training (especially forward DC, and sensory integration training to improve obstacle crossing performance in patients with PD.

  1. Denitrification in upland of China: Magnitude and influencing factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jinyang; Yan, Xiaoyuan

    2016-12-01

    A better understanding of influencing factors and accurate estimate of soil denitrification is a global concern. Here we present a synthesis of 300 observations of denitrification in Chinese upland soils from 39 field and laboratory studies using the acetylene inhibition technique. The results of a linear mixed model analysis showed that the rates of soil denitrification were significantly affected by crop type, soil organic carbon, soil pH, the measurement period, and the rate of N application. The emission factor (EF) and N2O/(N2O + N2) ratio for soil denitrification were on average 2.11 ± 0.17% and 0.508 ± 0.020, respectively. Our meta-analysis indicated that N fertilization increased soil denitrification by 311% (95% CI: 279-346%) and 112% (95% CI: 66-171%) in the field and laboratory studies, respectively. Substantial interactive effects between soil properties and N fertilization on soil denitrification were found. Although the highest values of both the rate of denitrification and the EF were found in vegetable fields, the size of the stimulating effect of N fertilization on soil denitrification was lower in vegetable fields than in maize and wheat fields. These results suggest that the crop-specific effect is important and that vegetable fields are potential hot spots of denitrification in Chinese uplands. Based on either the EF or the N2O/(N2O + N2) ratio obtained, the estimated amount of total denitrification from the upland soils was an order of magnitude lower than that from budget calculations, suggesting that the acetylene inhibition technique may significantly underestimate denitrification in Chinese upland soils.

  2. Why neurology? Factors which influence career choice in neurology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albert, Dara V; Hoyle, Chad; Yin, Han; McCoyd, Matthew; Lukas, Rimas V

    2016-01-01

    To evaluate the factors which influence the decision to pursue a career in neurology. An anonymous survey was developed using a Likert scale to rate responses. The survey was sent to adult and child neurology faculty, residents and fellows, as well as medical students applying for neurology. Descriptive statistics were used to analyse the factors of influence. Respondents were subsequently categorized into pre-neurology trainees, neurology trainees, child neurologists and adult neurologists, and differences between the groups were analysed using Pearson's chi-square test. One hundred and thirty-three anonymous responses were received. The respondents were neurologists across all levels of training and practice. Across all respondents, the most common factor of high importance was intellectual content of specialty, challenging diagnostic problems, type of patient encountered and interest in helping people. Responses were similar across the groups; however, the earliest trainees cited interest in helping people as most important, while those in neurology training and beyond cite intellectual content of the specialty as most important. As trainees transition from their earliest levels of clinical experience into working as residents and faculty, there is a shift in the cited important factors. Lifestyle and financial factors seem to be the least motivating across all groups. Encouragement from peers, mentors, faculty and practicing physicians is considered high influences in a smaller number of neurologists. This may present an opportunity for practicing neurologists to make connections with medical students early in their education in an effort to encourage and mentor candidates.

  3. A Review of Factors Influencing Athletes' Food Choices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birkenhead, Karen L; Slater, Gary

    2015-11-01

    Athletes make food choices on a daily basis that can affect both health and performance. A well planned nutrition strategy that includes the careful timing and selection of appropriate foods and fluids helps to maximize training adaptations and, thus, should be an integral part of the athlete's training programme. Factors that motivate food selection include taste, convenience, nutrition knowledge and beliefs. Food choice is also influenced by physiological, social, psychological and economic factors and varies both within and between individuals and populations. This review highlights the multidimensional nature of food choice and the depth of previous research investigating eating behaviours. Despite numerous studies with general populations, little exploration has been carried out with athletes, yet the energy demands of sport typically require individuals to make more frequent and/or appropriate food choices. While factors that are important to general populations also apply to athletes, it seems likely, given the competitive demands of sport, that performance would be an important factor influencing food choice. It is unclear if athletes place the same degree of importance on these factors or how food choice is influenced by involvement in sport. There is a clear need for further research exploring the food choice motives of athletes, preferably in conjunction with research investigating dietary intake to establish if intent translates into practice.

  4. Factors influencing first childbearing timing decisions among men: Path analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kariman, Nourossadat; Amerian, Maliheh; Jannati, Padideh; Salmani, Fatemeh

    2016-01-01

    Background: Factors that influence men’s childbearing intentions have been relatively unexplored in the literature. Objective: This study aimed to determine the influencing factors about the first childbearing timing decisions of men. Materials and Methods: In this cross-sectional study, 300 men who were referred to private and governmental healthcare centers in Shahrood, Iran were randomly recruited from April to September 2014. Data were collected using a demographic questionnaire, the Quality of Life Questionnaire; ENRICH Marital Satisfaction Questionnaire, Synder’s Hope Scale, and the Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support. Results: After removing the statistically insignificant paths, men’s age at marriage had the highest direct effect (β=0.86) on their first childbearing decision. Marital satisfaction (β=-0.09), social support (β=0.06), economic status (β=0.06), and quality of life (β=-0.08) were other effective factors on men’s first childbearing decisions. Moreover, marital satisfaction and social support had significant indirect effects on men’s childbearing decisions (β=-0.04 and -0.01, respectively). Conclusion: Many factors, including personal factors (age at marriage and quality of life), family factors (marital satisfaction), and social factors (social support), can affect men’s decision to have a child. Policymakers are hence required to develop strategies to promote the socioeconomic and family conditions of the couples and to encourage them to have as many children as they desire at an appropriate time. PMID:27738661

  5. Exploring Factors Influencing the Adoption of Mobile Commerce

    OpenAIRE

    Tariq Bhatti,

    2007-01-01

    This study presents an extended technology acceptance model that integrates innovation diffusion theory to investigate what determine user mobile commerce acceptance. This paper models the factors relationships such as perceived usefulness, perceived ease of use, personal innovativene ss, subjective norms, behavioral control and intention to adopt mobile commerce. The proposed model was empirically tested using data collected from a survey of mobile commerce consume...

  6. Analytic Couple Modeling Introducing Device Design Factor, Fin Factor, Thermal Diffusivity Factor, and Inductance Factor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackey, Jon; Sehirlioglu, Alp; Dynys, Fred

    2014-01-01

    A set of convenient thermoelectric device solutions have been derived in order to capture a number of factors which are previously only resolved with numerical techniques. The concise conversion efficiency equations derived from governing equations provide intuitive and straight-forward design guidelines. These guidelines allow for better device design without requiring detailed numerical modeling. The analytical modeling accounts for factors such as i) variable temperature boundary conditions, ii) lateral heat transfer, iii) temperature variable material properties, and iv) transient operation. New dimensionless parameters, similar to the figure of merit, are introduced including the device design factor, fin factor, thermal diffusivity factor, and inductance factor. These new device factors allow for the straight-forward description of phenomenon generally only captured with numerical work otherwise. As an example a device design factor of 0.38, which accounts for thermal resistance of the hot and cold shoes, can be used to calculate a conversion efficiency of 2.28 while the ideal conversion efficiency based on figure of merit alone would be 6.15. Likewise an ideal couple with efficiency of 6.15 will be reduced to 5.33 when lateral heat is accounted for with a fin factor of 1.0.

  7. Variance of indoor radon concentration: Major influencing factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yarmoshenko, I; Vasilyev, A; Malinovsky, G; Bossew, P; Žunić, Z S; Onischenko, A; Zhukovsky, M

    2016-01-15

    Variance of radon concentration in dwelling atmosphere is analysed with regard to geogenic and anthropogenic influencing factors. Analysis includes review of 81 national and regional indoor radon surveys with varying sampling pattern, sample size and duration of measurements and detailed consideration of two regional surveys (Sverdlovsk oblast, Russia and Niška Banja, Serbia). The analysis of the geometric standard deviation revealed that main factors influencing the dispersion of indoor radon concentration over the territory are as follows: area of territory, sample size, characteristics of measurements technique, the radon geogenic potential, building construction characteristics and living habits. As shown for Sverdlovsk oblast and Niška Banja town the dispersion as quantified by GSD is reduced by restricting to certain levels of control factors. Application of the developed approach to characterization of the world population radon exposure is discussed.

  8. Factors influencing Neurodevelopment after Cardiac Surgery during Infancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hedwig Hubertine Hövels-Gürich

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Short- and long-term neurodevelopmental (ND disabilities with negative impact on psychosocial and academic performance, quality of life and independence in adulthood are known to be the most common sequelae for surviving children after surgery for congenital heart disease (CHD. This article reviews influences and risk factors for ND impairment. For a long time, the search for independent risk factors was focused on the perioperative period and modalities of cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB. CPB operations to ensure intraoperative vital organ perfusion and oxygen supply with or without circulatory arrest or regional cerebral perfusion bear specific risks. Examples for such risks are embolization, deep hypothermia, flow rate, hemodilution, blood gas management, postoperative hyperthermia, systemic-inflammatory response and capillary leak syndrome. However, influences of these procedure-specific risk factors on ND outcome have not been found as strong as expected. Furthermore, modifications have not been found to support the effectiveness of the currently used neuroprotective strategies.Postoperative factors, such as need for extracorporal membrane oxygenation or assist device support and duration of hospital stay, significantly influence ND parameters. On the other hand, the so-called innate, less modifiable patient-specific risk factors have been found to exert significant influences on ND outcomes. Examples are type and severity of CHD, genetic or syndromic abnormalities as well as prematurity and low birth weight.Structural and hemodynamic characteristics of different CHDs are assumed to result in impaired brain growth and delayed maturation with special respect to the white matter. Beginning in the fetal period, this so-called encephalopathy of CHD is suggested a major innate risk factor for pre-, peri- and postoperative additional hypoxic or ischemic brain injury and subsequent ND impairment. Furthermore, MRI studies on brain volume, structure and

  9. Factors Influencing Neurodevelopment after Cardiac Surgery during Infancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hövels-Gürich, Hedwig Hubertine

    2016-01-01

    Short- and long-term neurodevelopmental (ND) disabilities with negative impact on psychosocial and academic performance, quality of life, and independence in adulthood are known to be the most common sequelae for surviving children after surgery for congenital heart disease (CHD). This article reviews influences and risk factors for ND impairment. For a long time, the search for independent risk factors was focused on the perioperative period and modalities of cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB). CPB operations to ensure intraoperative vital organ perfusion and oxygen supply with or without circulatory arrest or regional cerebral perfusion bear specific risks. Examples of such risks are embolization, deep hypothermia, flow rate, hemodilution, blood gas management, postoperative hyperthermia, systemic inflammatory response, and capillary leak syndrome. However, influences of these procedure-specific risk factors on ND outcome have not been found as strong as expected. Furthermore, modifications have not been found to support the effectiveness of the currently used neuroprotective strategies. Postoperative factors, such as need for extracorporal membrane oxygenation or assist device support and duration of hospital stay, significantly influence ND parameters. On the other hand, the so-called “innate,” less modifiable patient-specific risk factors have been found to exert significant influences on ND outcomes. Examples are type and severity of CHD, genetic or syndromic abnormalities, as well as prematurity and low birth weight. Structural and hemodynamic characteristics of different CHDs are assumed to result in impaired brain growth and delayed maturation with respect to the white matter. Beginning in the fetal period, this so-called “encephalopathy of CHD” is suggested a major innate risk factor for pre-, peri-, and postoperative additional hypoxic or ischemic brain injury and subsequent ND impairment. Furthermore, MRI studies on brain volume, structure, and

  10. An exploration study on factors influencing Iranian food industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arash Hosseinzadeh

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The proposed study of this paper present an empirical investigation to detect important factors impacting on food market using factor analysis. The proposed study designed a questionnaire, distributed among 207 customers who were regular customers of two food chains in city of Tehran, Iran named Shahrvand and Hyperstar. The results of our survey indicate that six major factors including brand loyalty, physical characteristics, pricing effects, performance characteristics, brand relationship and brand position influence food industry, significantly. In terms of the first factor, brand loyalty, “Trust”, “Packaging design characteristics”, “Competitive pricing strategy”, “Stability in quality”, “External relationships” and “Meeting expectations” are important factors in different categories.

  11. The Factors Influencing on Consumption of Palm Cooking Oil in Indonesia

    OpenAIRE

    Ermy Teti; Sakti Hutabarat; Asriati Nofionna

    2011-01-01

    Cooking oil is one of the most sensitive basic needs in Indonesia. The aims of the researchare to analyze factors influencing consumption of cooking oil, the cooking oil price, and theCrude Palm Oil price in Indonesia. Using simultaneous equation model, the study show thatpalm cooking oil consumption is significantly affected by domestic palm cooking oil priceand number of population. Whilst palm cooking oil price is significantly influenced by thecooking palm oil production and the domestic ...

  12. Factors Influencing the Effectiveness of Inventory Management in Manufacturing SMEs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Shiau Wei; Tasmin, R.; Nor Aziati, A. H.; Zuraidah Rasi, Raja; Ismail, Fadillah Binti; Yaw, Li Ping

    2017-08-01

    Effectiveness of inventory management is a vital part in the manufacturing organization to be more competitive. The previous studies have indicated that there are several factors influencing the effectiveness of inventory management in the organization but there is lack of researchers who carried out the research in the manufacturing small medium enterprise in Johor. Therefore, the purpose of this research is to identify the problem of inventory management faced by the manufacturing small medium enterprise and also to determine the factors that will influence the effectiveness of inventory management. In completing this research, 80 employees were selected randomly from the manufacturing small medium enterprise in Batu Pahat, Johor and they were requested to complete questionnaires. The result have shown that the problems of inventory management faced by manufacturing organization were underproduction, overproduction, stock out situation, delays in the delivery of raw materials and discrepancy of records. The factors, documentation/store records, planning, knowledge of employees/staff skill have shown to significantly influence the effectiveness of inventory management while the funds have shown slightly significant influence on the inventory management in manufacturing small medium enterprises. This quantitative study is important to the manufacturing organization in Malaysia because it provides the guidelines to the employers of manufacturing small medium enterprises in Batu Pahat, Johor.

  13. Factors Influencing the Behavioural Intention towards Full Electric Vehicles: An Empirical Study in Macau

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan K. W. Lai

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This study examines the factors that influence individual intentions towards the adoption of full electric vehicles. A sample including 308 respondents was collected on the streets of Macau. The collected data were analysed by confirmatory factor analysis and structural equation modelling. The results demonstrate that environmental concerns and the perception of environmental policy are antecedent factors of the perception of full electric vehicles, which influences the behavioural intention to purchase full electric vehicles. This study also finds that the perception of economic benefit is one of the key factors influencing the adoption of full electric vehicles. Vehicle operators seek economic benefits from future long-term fuel savings, high energy efficiency, and cheap electricity. Thus, a government striving to promote low-carbon transportation needs to scale up its efforts to enhance citizens’ environmental concerns and to establish proper environmental policy as well as to provide long-term financial and strategic support for electric vehicles.

  14. Investigation of the factors influencing the potential indicator of a construction site

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lapidus Azariy Abramovich

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Today the quality of a construction object represents a sum of a number of indicators, which depends on the construction complex as a whole during the implementation steps of a construction project. The lack of an instrument for evaluating the influence on the final quality indicator is vivid. In the article the method of expert estimation is presented as an instrument for choosing the factors influencing the potential indicator of a construction site. The means to analyze the results is chosen. The authors calculated the matrix of the factors intercorrelation, which influence the final figure. These factors are grouped with the purpose to reduce the general number of experiments. The weight characteristics of the formed groups are calculated. The authors also analyzed the information loss extend as a result of factors quantity change in a model.

  15. Giving children a voice: Exploring qualitative perspectives on factors influencing recess physical activity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pawlowski, Charlotte Skau; Schipperijn, Jasper; Tjørnhøj-Thomsen, Tine

    2017-01-01

    Facilitators and barriers to recess physical activity are not well understood. To date, research on recess physical activity has predominantly focused on quantitative measures typically focusing on a narrow set of predefined factors, often constructed by adults. To really understand the factors...... affecting recess physical activity it is crucial to observe and listen to children to know how they engage in and perceive recess physical activity. The aim of this paper was to gain knowledge on children’s perceptions and experiences of factors influencing their physical activity behaviour during recess...... 11–12-year-old children. The socio-ecological model was used as the overall theoretical framework. Twelve factors were identified as influencing the children’s recess physical activity: bodily self-esteem and ability; gender; gendered school culture; peer influence; conflicts and exclusion; space...

  16. Shape Factor Modeling and Simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-01

    10 3. Shape Factor Distributions for Natural Fragments 12 3.1 Platonic Solids and Uniform Viewing from All Viewpoints 12 3.2 Natural Fragments from...12 Fig. 9 The 5 Platonic solids. ............................................................. 12 Fig. 10 Mean shape factor of...of the 5 Platonic solids............................................ 13 Table 3 Sequence of viewing angles in Icosahedron Gage

  17. Factors influencing societal response of nanotechnology: an expert stakeholder analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gupta, Nidhi, E-mail: nidhi.gupta@wur.nl; Fischer, Arnout R. H., E-mail: arnout.fischer@wur.nl; Lans, Ivo A. van der, E-mail: Ivo.vanderLans@wur.nl [Wageningen University, Marketing and Consumer Behaviour Group (Netherlands); Frewer, Lynn J., E-mail: lynn.frewer@newcastle.ac.uk [Newcastle University, School of Agriculture, Food and Rural Development (United Kingdom)

    2012-05-15

    Nanotechnology can be described as an emerging technology and, as has been the case with other emerging technologies such as genetic modification, different socio-psychological factors will potentially influence societal responses to its development and application. These factors will play an important role in how nanotechnology is developed and commercialised. This article aims to identify expert opinion on factors influencing societal response to applications of nanotechnology. Structured interviews with experts on nanotechnology from North West Europe were conducted using repertory grid methodology in conjunction with generalized Procrustes analysis to examine the psychological constructs underlying societal uptake of 15 key applications of nanotechnology drawn from different areas (e.g. medicine, agriculture and environment, chemical, food, military, sports, and cosmetics). Based on expert judgement, the main factors influencing societal response to different applications of nanotechnology will be the extent to which applications are perceived to be beneficial, useful, and necessary, and how 'real' and physically close to the end-user these applications are perceived to be by the public.

  18. Monitoring Athletes Through Self-Report: Factors Influencing Implementation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna E. Saw

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Monitoring athletic preparation facilitates the evaluation and adjustment of practices to optimize performance outcomes. Self-report measures such as questionnaires and diaries are suggested to be a simple and cost-effective approach to monitoring an athlete’s response to training, however their efficacy is dependent on how they are implemented and used. This study sought to identify the perceived factors influencing the implementation of athlete self-report measures (ASRM in elite sport settings. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with athletes, coaches and sports science and medicine staff at a national sporting institute (n = 30. Interviewees represented 20 different sports programs and had varying experience with ASRM. Purported factors influencing the implementation of ASRM related to the measure itself (e.g., accessibility, timing of completion, and the social environment (e.g., buy-in, reinforcement. Social environmental factors included individual, inter-personal and organizational levels which is consistent with a social ecological framework. An adaptation of this framework was combined with the factors associated with the measure to illustrate the inter-relations and influence upon compliance, data accuracy and athletic outcomes. To improve implementation of ASRM and ultimately athletic outcomes, a multi-factorial and multi-level approach is needed.

  19. Factors that influence on the decisions of battered women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juana Robledo Martín

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Violence towards and against women consists in any kind of violation of woman’s personality, her physical integrity or her freedom of movement. Nowadays, gender-based violence is considered a state and public health problem as well as a social concerning subject.Objective: To identify the factors that influence on the decisions that battered women make.Methodology: The study population are battered women who live in Madrid province and who are being attended in the Municipal Points of the Regional Observatory against the Gender Violence.The information was collected by performing focus groups and deep interviews.Results: There are several factors which influence on the decisions that battered women make, like the existence or not of children they have to take care of, the economic dependence and the ignorance of the woman, in some cases, of the existence of this ill-treatment, but over all, we could even say beyond all these, there is one that is the most important, common and we could say it is the main axis that determine their behaviour. This factor is fear.Discussion: When attending these women we may be aware of the psychological situation they are, and we should be able to identify if the woman is asking us for help when she comes to us and try to identify and treat this factor that influences the decisions the woman we attend makes.

  20. Factors influencing societal response of nanotechnology: an expert stakeholder analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Nidhi; Fischer, Arnout R H; van der Lans, Ivo A; Frewer, Lynn J

    2012-05-01

    Nanotechnology can be described as an emerging technology and, as has been the case with other emerging technologies such as genetic modification, different socio-psychological factors will potentially influence societal responses to its development and application. These factors will play an important role in how nanotechnology is developed and commercialised. This article aims to identify expert opinion on factors influencing societal response to applications of nanotechnology. Structured interviews with experts on nanotechnology from North West Europe were conducted using repertory grid methodology in conjunction with generalized Procrustes analysis to examine the psychological constructs underlying societal uptake of 15 key applications of nanotechnology drawn from different areas (e.g. medicine, agriculture and environment, chemical, food, military, sports, and cosmetics). Based on expert judgement, the main factors influencing societal response to different applications of nanotechnology will be the extent to which applications are perceived to be beneficial, useful, and necessary, and how 'real' and physically close to the end-user these applications are perceived to be by the public. ELECTRONIC SUPPLEMENTARY MATERIAL: The online version of this article (doi:10.1007/s11051-012-0857-x) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.

  1. Factors influencing societal response of nanotechnology: an expert stakeholder analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Nidhi; Fischer, Arnout R. H.; van der Lans, Ivo A.; Frewer, Lynn J.

    2012-05-01

    Nanotechnology can be described as an emerging technology and, as has been the case with other emerging technologies such as genetic modification, different socio-psychological factors will potentially influence societal responses to its development and application. These factors will play an important role in how nanotechnology is developed and commercialised. This article aims to identify expert opinion on factors influencing societal response to applications of nanotechnology. Structured interviews with experts on nanotechnology from North West Europe were conducted using repertory grid methodology in conjunction with generalized Procrustes analysis to examine the psychological constructs underlying societal uptake of 15 key applications of nanotechnology drawn from different areas (e.g. medicine, agriculture and environment, chemical, food, military, sports, and cosmetics). Based on expert judgement, the main factors influencing societal response to different applications of nanotechnology will be the extent to which applications are perceived to be beneficial, useful, and necessary, and how 'real' and physically close to the end-user these applications are perceived to be by the public.

  2. 员工反伦理行为模型与影响因素评述%The Theoretical Model and Influence Factors of Employee′s Anti-Ethical Behavior

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马璐; 杜明飞; 韦慧民

    2014-01-01

    员工反伦理行为是指员工自身意愿地违背组织及其他成员合法权益的行为,国外对此已有几十年的研究,而我国对此研究才刚起步。本文回顾了员工反伦理行为的概念、内涵,梳理了员工反伦理行为的模型和影响因素,并就目前研究的不足和未来研究方向提出了建议。%Employee′s anti-ethical behavior refers to the willing behavior of people , against organization and the lawful rights and interests of other members .Foreign countries have been studying it for decades while China just starts .This paper reviews the concept of employee′s anti-ethical behavior, deeply and systematically combs employee′s anti-ethi-cal behavior model and influence factors , and in view of the shortcomings of present study provides suggestions for the fu-ture research.

  3. A Structural Equation Model about Influencing Factors on Nuclear Acceptance%基于结构方程模型的核电接受度影响因素研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陶威锭; 申世飞; 康晓文

    2016-01-01

    针对核电接受度影响因素问题,以感知风险、感知利益、信任水平、认知水平4个因素作为核心影响因素,基于问卷调研数据,建立结构方程模型进行实证分析,结果表明:公众主要通过利弊比较与托付判断两种模式形成核电接受度;信任水平在公众接受度形成过程中发挥关键作用;提升公众对核电的利益感知比降低风险感知对提高公众核电接受度有更好的效果;认知水平与核电接受度间有正相关关系.%According to the analysis about the influencing factors on nuclear acceptance , perceived risk , perceived benefit , trust and knowledge are the main factors .A structural equation model , based on the inquiry data of surveys in 2011 and 2013, was constructed.The results indicated that:(1) the public decided their acceptance on nuclear projects mainly through benefit -risk comparison, or entrusting the decision makers;(2) trust played a key role in the forming process of public nuclear accept-ance;(3) it was more efficient to increase public nuclear acceptance through increasing perceived benefit than deceasing per -ceived risk;(4) knowledge had a positive correlation with nuclear acceptance.

  4. A national study of factors influencing the career choice of osteopathic and allopathic family physicians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, G; Cummings, M; Veloski, J J; Brose, J

    1996-12-01

    This study examines the differences between osteopathic and allopathic physicians regarding those factors influencing their career choice of family practice. A total of 256 osteopathic physicians and 717 allopathic family physicians were surveyed. The surveyed physicians graduated in 1983 and 1984. Comparisons were made on 19 variables that influenced the physicians' decisions to enter family practice as well as on the six factor scores derived from these 19 variables. Osteopathic physicians' decisions to choose family practice was more influenced by financial obligations, medical school experiences, and family values, whereas the allopathic physicians were more influenced by personal social value. Overall, medical school experience and personal social value were two important factors that explained the largest variances of the 19 predictors influencing physicians' decisions to enter family practice. Those allopathic medical schools whose mission emphasizes the production of generalist physicians may be able to model some approaches already in place at osteopathic medical schools. Because of the influence of the personal social value factor in medical students' choosing family practice medicine, this factor warrants further study.

  5. Reseacr h on the influence factors of private cars travel behavior based on the logit model%基于 Logit 模型的私家车出行影响因素分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王志建; 王力; 刘小明

    2014-01-01

    文章旨在分析影响人们出行需求及行为的因素,并寻找其内在的规律性。在进行大量数据调查及分析的基础上,通过SPSS软件运用Logistic回归模型分析得出相关影响因素,并对相关影响因素进行分析,得出动态交通信息服务在一定程度上能够决定私家车出行路线选择,交通信息发布的实时性和准确性有待进一步提高,而且出行者更不愿意遇到交通事故或交通拥堵。通过分析动态交通信息背景下出行者交通出行行为的变化趋势,可以更好的缓解北京的交通拥堵情况。%The purpose of this paper is to analyze what factors were influencing people's travel demand and behavior , and find its inherent regularity.Based on a large amount of data investigations and analyses , and using the SPSS software and the Logistic Regression model , the related factors influencing traveler behavior are derived and analyzed .It has been concluded that the dynamic traffic information service decides the choice of the private car travel route to a certain ex-tent, the accuracy and real-time performance of released traffic information need to be further improved , and travelers are more reluctant to encounter a traffic accident or traffic jams .Through analysis of how to more effectively change travelers ’ behavior in the background of dynamic traffic information ,we can better alleviate traffic congestion in Beijing .

  6. Skewed factor models using selection mechanisms

    KAUST Repository

    Kim, Hyoung-Moon

    2015-12-21

    Traditional factor models explicitly or implicitly assume that the factors follow a multivariate normal distribution; that is, only moments up to order two are involved. However, it may happen in real data problems that the first two moments cannot explain the factors. Based on this motivation, here we devise three new skewed factor models, the skew-normal, the skew-tt, and the generalized skew-normal factor models depending on a selection mechanism on the factors. The ECME algorithms are adopted to estimate related parameters for statistical inference. Monte Carlo simulations validate our new models and we demonstrate the need for skewed factor models using the classic open/closed book exam scores dataset.

  7. An exploration study on factors influencing green marketing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mojtaba Esmaeeli

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available These days, there have been tremendous efforts on offering products, which are environment friendly. Green marketing plays an important role for attracting new customer and customer retention. This paper presents an empirical investigation based on the implementation of factor analysis to locate important factors influencing green marketing planning and strategies. building market oriented business units. The study designs a questionnaire including 23 questions and the questionnaire was distributed among 200 people who were visiting organic product exhibition. Cronbach alpha was calculated as 0.845, which is well above the minimum acceptable limit and validates the results. The results of factor analysis reveal four major factors including green labeling, compatibility, product value and marketing component and size.

  8. Journal impact factor: this editorial, academic and scientific influence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz, Milton Artur; Greco, Oswaldo Tadeu; Braile, Domingo Marcolino

    2009-01-01

    In this report the authors present information on the bibliometric instruments and their importance in measuring the quality of scientific journals and researchers. They in particular the history and deployment of the impact factor of the existing Institute for Scientific Information since 1955. Are presented and discussed the criticism regarding the inadequacy of the impact factor for evaluation of scientific production, misuse and strategies editorial handling of the bibliometric index. It is presented to the new classification CAPES for the journals, based on various criteria and the impact factor and its influence on national scientific and academic life. The authors conclude that, despite all obstacles and discussions, the impact factor of the Institute for Scientific Information is still an useful tool and the only isolation available to assess the scientific and intellectual productivity.

  9. Factor Influencing Creative Industries Development in Kenjeran Surabaya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siswanto, V. K.; Santoso, E. B.

    2017-07-01

    Indonesia needs to improve the competitiveness of local products to optimize its contribution to the ASEAN Economic Community (AEC) for the welfare of the population. This can be done by improving the development of creative industries. Kenjeran Sub District is one of the coastal villages in the city of Surabaya, which has a large number of poor people. The potential of the creative industries is still not visible in efforts to increase public welfare. Therefore, it is necessary to investigate the factors that influence the development of creative industries in Kenjeran. This study using in-depth interview were analysed using content analysis and Cartesian diagram to determine the important factors that affect the development of creative industries in Sub district of Kenjeran. By using five respondents from the government shows that the factors that have a high level of importance and advantages are low among other regulatory factors of raw materials, import and export, extortion, and administrative procedures.

  10. Succesful Lean Manufacturing Implementation: Internal Key Influencing Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Virginia, Iuga; Claudiu, Kifor

    2015-09-01

    Manufacturing sectors and companies all over the world are successfully implementing lean principles within their processes. Nowadays, lean has become an indispensable part of global players. Companies worldwide need to be aware of multiple factors which weigh heavily on the success or failure of lean implementation. This paper focuses on giving a brief and structured overview over the fundamental organizational factors which play a substantial role for the lean manufacturing (LM) implementation process. The study below focuses on internal factors which are indispensable for a successful LM implementation within organizations. It is imperative that these internal factors are known, recognized and taken into consideration during the whole LM implementation process. Ignoring their influence on the process's implementation may lead to endangering the expected results or to making the process more difficult which could result in much higher human resource consumption.

  11. Modeling Ability Differentiation in the Second-Order Factor Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molenaar, Dylan; Dolan, Conor V.; van der Maas, Han L. J.

    2011-01-01

    In this article we present factor models to test for ability differentiation. Ability differentiation predicts that the size of IQ subtest correlations decreases as a function of the general intelligence factor. In the Schmid-Leiman decomposition of the second-order factor model, we model differentiation by introducing heteroscedastic residuals,…

  12. Modeling ability differentiation in the second-order factor model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Molenaar, D.; Dolan, C.V.; van der Maas, H.L.J.

    2011-01-01

    In this article we present factor models to test for ability differentiation. Ability differentiation predicts that the size of IQ subtest correlations decreases as a function of the general intelligence factor. In the Schmid-Leiman decomposition of the second-order factor model, we model

  13. The influence of various factors on milk clotting time

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jovanović Snežana T.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The influence of pH (6.5 and 5.8, amount of added CaCl2 (0, 200 and 400 mg/l, coagulation temperature (30ºC and 35ºC and heat treatment of milk (65ºC/30 min and 87ºC/10 min on the rate of rennet induced milk coagulation (s were investigated. The time (s from rennet addition to onset of gelation (as indicated by the first visible floccules was measured. The milk samples heat-treated at 87ºC/10 min, with 400 mg/l added CaCl2, which were coagulated at 35ºC and pH 5.8, coagulated 23.28-fold faster than the same samples without added CaCl2, which were coagulated at 30ºC and pH 6.5. The results of investigations related to the influence of particular coagulation factors on the coagulation rate of heat-treated milk showed that at pH 6.5 the most pronounced influence was demonstrated by the amount of Ca2+ and temperature of coagulation. At pH 5.8, different amounts of Ca2 and used temperatures of coagulation did not influence coagulation rate regardless of the used heat treatment of milk. The influence of used heat treatment of milk was particularly pronounced during coagulation of samples without added CaCl2 that coagulated at 30ºC and pH 6.5. The used heat treatment of milk practically did not influence the milk coagulation rate at pH 5.8. The greatest influence on milk coagulation rate was showed by pH. This influence was the most marked in coagulation of samples in which the coaggregates were formed, regardless of the amount of added Ca2+ and used coagulation temperatures.

  14. Health related quality of life and influencing factors among welders.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jingxiang Qin

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Occupational exposure to welding fumes is a serious occupational health problem all over the world. Welders are exposed to many occupational hazards; these hazards might cause some occupational diseases. The aim of the study was to assess the health related quality of life (HRQL of electric welders in Shanghai China and explore influencing factors to HRQL of welders. METHODS: 301 male welders (without pneumoconiosis and 305 non-dust male workers in Shanghai were enrolled in this study. Short Form-36 (SF-36 health survey questionnaires were applied in this cross-sectional study. Socio-demographic, working and health factors were also collected. Multiple stepwise regress analysis was used to identify significant factors related to the eight dimension scores. RESULTS: Six dimensions including role-physical (RP, bodily pain (BP, general health (GH, validity (VT, social function (SF, and mental health (MH were significantly worse in welders compared to non-dust workers. Multiple stepwise regress analysis results show that native place, monthly income, quantity of children, drinking, sleep time, welding type, use of personal protective equipment (PPE, great events in life, and some symptoms including dizziness, discomfort of cervical vertebra, low back pain, cough and insomnia may be influencing factors for HRQL of welders. Among these factors, only sleep time and the use of PPE were salutary. CONCLUSIONS: Some dimensions of HRQL of these welders have been affected. Enterprises which employ welders should take measures to protect the health of these people and improve their HRQL.

  15. Children's disaster reactions: the influence of family and social factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfefferbaum, Betty; Jacobs, Anne K; Houston, J Brian; Griffin, Natalie

    2015-07-01

    This review examines family (demographics, parent reactions and interactions, and parenting style) and social (remote effects, disaster media coverage, exposure to secondary adversities, and social support) factors that influence children's disaster reactions. Lower family socioeconomic status, high parental stress, poor parental coping, contact with media coverage, and exposure to secondary adversities have been associated with adverse outcomes. Social support may provide protection to children in the post-disaster environment though more research is needed to clarify the effects of certain forms of social support. The interaction of the factors described in this review with culture needs further exploration.

  16. INVESTIGATING FACTORS INFLUENCING STUDENTS’ LEARNING IN A TEAM TEACHING SETTING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brenda

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Team teaching factors, including mission clarity, affiliation, innovativeness, and fairness, are examined to determine how they influence student learning in a team-taught course. The study involved 184 college students enrolled in an Introduction to Computers course delivered in a team-taught format in a large university located in the United States. The collaborative teaching design followed a traditional team teaching approach with an instructor team teaching the same course collaboratively. Students enrolled in the team-taught course filled out an online survey targeted at identifying key factors that influence student-based outcomes (satisfaction and competency in the course. Results showed that instructor team mission clarity, affiliation, and fairness are significantly related to students’ satisfaction while instructor team mission clarity and fairness are significantly related to students’ competency.

  17. Factors influencing energy efficiency investments in existing Swedish residential buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nair, Gireesh; Gustavsson, Leif; Mahapatra, Krushna [Ecotechnology, Mid Sweden University, SE-83125 Oestersund (Sweden)

    2010-06-15

    We used the data from a survey conducted in 2008 of 3,000 owners of detached houses to analyse the factors that influence the adoption of investment measures to improve the energy efficiency of their buildings. For the majority of Swedish homeowners, it was important to reduce their household energy use, and most of them undertook no-cost measures as compared to investment measures. Personal attributes such as income, education, age and contextual factors, including age of the house, thermal discomfort, past investment, and perceived energy cost, influence homeowners' preference for a particular type of energy efficiency measure. The implications for promoting the implementation of energy efficiency investment measures are discussed. (author)

  18. Factors influencing prehospital delay for patients with acute myocardial infarction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shujuan CHENG; Lufen GUO; Juyuan LIU; Xiaoling ZHU; Hongbing YAN

    2007-01-01

    Objective To investigate the influencing factors for prehospital delay in patients with acute myocardial infarction (AMI).Methods A total of 807 consecutive patients with AMI who presented to the emergency department of Beijing Anzhen Hospital were analyzed. The influence of several potential risk factors on the prehospital delay time (PDT) was evaluated by comparing patients admitted more than 2 hours after onset of chese pain with those admitted within 2 hours after onset. Results Among 807 patients, 402 came to the hospital within 2 hours while the others arrived at the hospital after 2 hours. The median PDT was 130 min. Among the potential variables, advanced age, history of diabetes mellitus, occurrence of symptom at night and use of emergency medical service significantly affected PDT by multivariate analysis. Conclusion Interventions aimed at reducing the prehospital delay in AMI should primarily focus on the awareness of the risk and help-seeking behavior of patients.

  19. Cognitive and Affective Factors of TV Advertising's Influence on Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wartella, Ellen

    1984-01-01

    Reviews the research on children's understanding of the intent of advertising, the persuasive impact of television commercials, and children's cognitive defenses and resistance to such persuasion. Concludes that any model which tries to account for advertising's influence on children must incorporate affective as well as cognitive components. (PD)

  20. Cognitive and Affective Factors of TV Advertising's Influence on Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wartella, Ellen

    1984-01-01

    Reviews the research on children's understanding of the intent of advertising, the persuasive impact of television commercials, and children's cognitive defenses and resistance to such persuasion. Concludes that any model which tries to account for advertising's influence on children must incorporate affective as well as cognitive components. (PD)