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Sample records for modeling factors influencing

  1. Factors influencing creep model equation selection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holdsworth, S.R.; Askins, M.; Baker, A.; Gariboldi, E.; Holmstroem, S.; Klenk, A.; Ringel, M.; Merckling, G.; Sandstrom, R.; Schwienheer, M.; Spigarelli, S.

    2008-01-01

    During the course of the EU-funded Advanced-Creep Thematic Network, ECCC-WG1 reviewed the applicability and effectiveness of a range of model equations to represent the accumulation of creep strain in various engineering alloys. In addition to considering the experience of network members, the ability of several models to describe the deformation characteristics of large single and multi-cast collations of ε(t,T,σ) creep curves have been evaluated in an intensive assessment inter-comparison activity involving three steels, 21/4 CrMo (P22), 9CrMoVNb (Steel-91) and 18Cr13NiMo (Type-316). The choice of the most appropriate creep model equation for a given application depends not only on the high-temperature deformation characteristics of the material under consideration, but also on the characteristics of the dataset, the number of casts for which creep curves are available and on the strain regime for which an analytical representation is required. The paper focuses on the factors which can influence creep model selection and model-fitting approach for multi-source, multi-cast datasets

  2. Hierarchical and coupling model of factors influencing vessel traffic flow.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhao Liu

    Full Text Available Understanding the characteristics of vessel traffic flow is crucial in maintaining navigation safety, efficiency, and overall waterway transportation management. Factors influencing vessel traffic flow possess diverse features such as hierarchy, uncertainty, nonlinearity, complexity, and interdependency. To reveal the impact mechanism of the factors influencing vessel traffic flow, a hierarchical model and a coupling model are proposed in this study based on the interpretative structural modeling method. The hierarchical model explains the hierarchies and relationships of the factors using a graph. The coupling model provides a quantitative method that explores interaction effects of factors using a coupling coefficient. The coupling coefficient is obtained by determining the quantitative indicators of the factors and their weights. Thereafter, the data obtained from Port of Tianjin is used to verify the proposed coupling model. The results show that the hierarchical model of the factors influencing vessel traffic flow can explain the level, structure, and interaction effect of the factors; the coupling model is efficient in analyzing factors influencing traffic volumes. The proposed method can be used for analyzing increases in vessel traffic flow in waterway transportation system.

  3. Hierarchical and coupling model of factors influencing vessel traffic flow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhao; Liu, Jingxian; Li, Huanhuan; Li, Zongzhi; Tan, Zhirong; Liu, Ryan Wen; Liu, Yi

    2017-01-01

    Understanding the characteristics of vessel traffic flow is crucial in maintaining navigation safety, efficiency, and overall waterway transportation management. Factors influencing vessel traffic flow possess diverse features such as hierarchy, uncertainty, nonlinearity, complexity, and interdependency. To reveal the impact mechanism of the factors influencing vessel traffic flow, a hierarchical model and a coupling model are proposed in this study based on the interpretative structural modeling method. The hierarchical model explains the hierarchies and relationships of the factors using a graph. The coupling model provides a quantitative method that explores interaction effects of factors using a coupling coefficient. The coupling coefficient is obtained by determining the quantitative indicators of the factors and their weights. Thereafter, the data obtained from Port of Tianjin is used to verify the proposed coupling model. The results show that the hierarchical model of the factors influencing vessel traffic flow can explain the level, structure, and interaction effect of the factors; the coupling model is efficient in analyzing factors influencing traffic volumes. The proposed method can be used for analyzing increases in vessel traffic flow in waterway transportation system.

  4. Modelling of Supercapacitors: Factors Influencing Performance

    OpenAIRE

    Kroupa, M; Offer, GJ; Kosek, J

    2016-01-01

    The utilizable capacitance of Electrochemical Double Layer Capacitors (EDLCs) is a function of the frequency at which they are operated and this is strongly dependent on the construction and physical parameters of the device. We simulate the dynamic behavior of an EDLC using a spatially resolved model based on the porous electrode theory. The model of Verbrugge and Liu (J. Electrochem. Soc. 152, D79 (2005)) was extended with a dimension describing the transport into the carbon particle pores....

  5. Modeling Factors with Influence on Sustainable University Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oana Dumitrascu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this paper is to present the factors with influence on the sustainable university management and the relationships between them. In the scientific approach we begin from a graphical model, according to which the extracurricular activities together with internal environmental factors influence students’ involvement in such activities, the university attractiveness, their academic performance and their integration into the socially-economic and natural environment (components related with sustainable development. The model emphasizes that individual performances, related to students’ participation in extracurricular activities, have a positive influence on the sustainability of university management. The results of the study have shown that the university sustainability may be influenced by a number of factors, such as students’ performance, students’ involvement in extracurricular activities or university’s attractiveness and can in turn influence implicitly also the sustainability of university management. The originality of the paper consists in the relationships study using the modeling method in general and informatics tools of modeling in particular, as well as through graphical visualization of some influences, on the sustainability university management.

  6. Consumer's Online Shopping Influence Factors and Decision-Making Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Xiangbin; Dai, Shiliang

    Previous research on online consumer behavior has mostly been confined to the perceived risk which is used to explain those barriers for purchasing online. However, perceived benefit is another important factor which influences consumers’ decision when shopping online. As a result, an integrated consumer online shopping decision-making model is developed which contains three elements—Consumer, Product, and Web Site. This model proposed relative factors which influence the consumers’ intention during the online shopping progress, and divided them into two different dimensions—mentally level and material level. We tested those factors with surveys, from both online volunteers and offline paper surveys with more than 200 samples. With the help of SEM, the experimental results show that the proposed model and method can be used to analyze consumer’s online shopping decision-making process effectively.

  7. The Modeling of Factors That Influence Coast Guard Manpower Requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-12-01

    applications, and common data warehouses needed to fully develop an effective and efficient manpower requirements engineering and management program. The... manpower requirements determination ensures a ready force, and safe and effective mission execution. Shortage or excess of manpower is the catalyst...FACTORS THAT INFLUENCE COAST GUARD MANPOWER REQUIREMENTS by Kara M. Lavin December 2014 Thesis Advisor: Ronald E. Giachetti Co-Advisor

  8. Influencing Factors and Simplified Model of Film Hole Irrigation

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    Yi-Bo Li

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Film hole irrigation is an advanced low-cost and high-efficiency irrigation method, which can improve water conservation and water use efficiency. Given its various advantages and potential applications, we conducted a laboratory study to investigate the effects of soil texture, bulk density, initial soil moisture, irrigation depth, opening ratio (ρ, film hole diameter (D, and spacing on cumulative infiltration using SWMS-2D. We then proposed a simplified model based on the Kostiakov model for infiltration estimation. Error analyses indicated SWMS-2D to be suitable for infiltration simulation of film hole irrigation. Additional SWMS-2D-based investigations indicated that, for a certain soil, initial soil moisture and irrigation depth had the weakest effects on cumulative infiltration, whereas ρ and D had the strongest effects on cumulative infiltration. A simplified model with ρ and D was further established, and its use was then expanded to different soils. Verification based on seven soil types indicated that the established simplified double-factor model effectively estimates cumulative infiltration for film hole irrigation, with a small mean average error of 0.141–2.299 mm, a root mean square error of 0.177–2.722 mm, a percent bias of −2.131–1.479%, and a large Nash–Sutcliffe coefficient that is close to 1.0.

  9. Logistic regression models of factors influencing the location of bioenergy and biofuels plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    T.M. Young; R.L. Zaretzki; J.H. Perdue; F.M. Guess; X. Liu

    2011-01-01

    Logistic regression models were developed to identify significant factors that influence the location of existing wood-using bioenergy/biofuels plants and traditional wood-using facilities. Logistic models provided quantitative insight for variables influencing the location of woody biomass-using facilities. Availability of "thinnings to a basal area of 31.7m2/ha...

  10. The Influence Factor Model for the Popularity of Mobile Phone without Considering the Price Factor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Hongming; Peng, Diefei; Wu, Hailin; Yang, Zihui

    2018-01-01

    Based on the statistical data like economic development, social development, population indicator and so on, this paper establishes the linear regression model which influences the popularity rate of mobile phone users.

  11. Analysis on influencing factors of clinical teachers’ job satisfaction by structural equation model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haiyi Jia

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available [Research objective] Analyze the influencing factors of clinical teachers’ job satisfaction. [Research method] The ERG theory was used as the framework to design the questionnaires. Data were analyzed by structural equation model for investigating the influencing factors. [Research result] The modified model shows that factors of existence needs and growth needs have direct influence on the job satisfaction of clinical teachers, the influence coefficients are 0.540 and 0.380. The three influencing factors have positive effects on each other, and the correlation coefficients are 0.620, 0.400 and 0.330 respectively. [Research conclusion] Relevant departments should take active measures to improve job satisfaction of clinical teachers from two aspects: existence needs and growth needs, and to improve their work enthusiasm and teaching quality.

  12. Selection of asset investment models by hospitals: examination of influencing factors, using Switzerland as an example.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eicher, Bernhard

    2016-10-01

    Hospitals are responsible for a remarkable part of the annual increase in healthcare expenditure. This article examines one of the major cost drivers, the expenditure for investment in hospital assets. The study, conducted in Switzerland, identifies factors that influence hospitals' investment decisions. A suggestion on how to categorize asset investment models is presented based on the life cycle of an asset, and its influencing factors defined based on transaction cost economics. The influence of five factors (human asset specificity, physical asset specificity, uncertainty, bargaining power, and privacy of ownership) on the selection of an asset investment model is examined using a two-step fuzzy-set Qualitative Comparative Analysis. The research shows that outsourcing-oriented asset investment models are particularly favored in the presence of two combinations of influencing factors: First, if technological uncertainty is high and both human asset specificity and bargaining power of a hospital are low. Second, if assets are very specific, technological uncertainty is high and there is a private hospital with low bargaining power, outsourcing-oriented asset investment models are favored too. Using Qualitative Comparative Analysis, it can be demonstrated that investment decisions of hospitals do not depend on isolated influencing factors but on a combination of factors. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  13. Antecedents Factors that Influence Soy Consumption: A Structural Equation Modeling Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Balasubramanian, Siva K.; Moon, Wanki; Rimal, Arbindra; Coker, Kesha

    2009-01-01

    We propose a structural model of antecedent factors that affect the frequency of soy consumption. This model, suggests that soy-general knowledge influences perceptions about nutrition concern, health benefits of soy, soy related personal beliefs and personal attitudes toward soy. Health benefits of soy, in turn, impacts soy-related personal beliefs and personal attitudes toward soy. Additionally, soy-related personal beliefs influence personal attitudes toward soy. Finally, both nutrition co...

  14. Analysis on influence factors of China's CO2 emissions based on Path-STIRPAT model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Huanan; Mu Hailin; Zhang Ming; Li Nan

    2011-01-01

    With the intensification of global warming and continued growth in energy consumption, China is facing increasing pressure to cut its CO 2 (carbon dioxide) emissions down. This paper discusses the driving forces influencing China's CO 2 emissions based on Path-STIRPAT model-a method combining Path analysis with STIRPAT (stochastic impacts by regression on population, affluence and technology) model. The analysis shows that GDP per capita (A), industrial structure (IS), population (P), urbanization level (R) and technology level (T) are the main factors influencing China's CO 2 emissions, which exert an influence interactively and collaboratively. The sequence of the size of factors' direct influence on China's CO 2 emission is A>T>P>R>IS, while that of factors' total influence is A>R>P>T>IS. One percent increase in A, IS, P, R and T leads to 0.44, 1.58, 1.31, 1.12 and -1.09 percentage change in CO 2 emission totally, where their direct contribution is 0.45, 0.07, 0.63, 0.08, 0.92, respectively. Improving T is the most important way for CO 2 reduction in China. - Highlights: → We analyze the driving forces influencing China's CO 2 emissions. → Five macro factors like per capita GDP are the main influencing factors. → These factors exert an influence interactively and collaboratively. → Different factors' direct and total influence on China's CO 2 emission is different. → Improving technology level is the most important way for CO 2 reduction in China.

  15. The Factors Influencing Satisfaction with Public City Transport: A Structural Equation Modelling Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pawlasova Pavlina

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Satisfaction is one of the key factors which influences customer loyalty. We assume that the satisfied customer will be willing to use the ssame service provider again. The overall passengers´ satisfaction with public city transport may be affected by the overall service quality. Frequency, punctuality, cleanliness in the vehicle, proximity, speed, fare, accessibility and safety of transport, information and other factors can influence passengers´ satisfaction. The aim of this paper is to quantify factors and identify the most important factors influencing customer satisfaction with public city transport within conditions of the Czech Republic. Two methods of analysis are applied in order to fulfil the aim. The method of factor analysis and the method Varimax were used in order to categorize variables according to their mutual relations. The method of structural equation modelling was used to evaluate the factors and validate the model. Then, the optimal model was found. The logistic parameters, including service continuity and frequency, and service, including information rate, station proximity and vehicle cleanliness, are the factors influencing passengers´ satisfaction on a large scale.

  16. Human factors influencing decision making

    OpenAIRE

    Jacobs, Patricia A.

    1998-01-01

    This report supplies references and comments on literature that identifies human factors influencing decision making, particularly military decision making. The literature has been classified as follows (the classes are not mutually exclusive): features of human information processing; decision making models which are not mathematical models but rather are descriptive; non- personality factors influencing decision making; national characteristics influencing decision makin...

  17. Geographical Detector Model for Influencing Factors of Industrial Sector Carbon Dioxide Emissions in Inner Mongolia, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rina Wu

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Studying the influencing factors of carbon dioxide emissions is not only practically but also theoretically crucial for establishing regional carbon-reduction policies, developing low-carbon economy and solving the climate problems. Therefore, we used a geographical detector model which is consists of four parts, i.e., risk detector, factor detector, ecological detector and interaction detector to analyze the effect of these social economic factors, i.e., GDP, industrial structure, urbanization rate, economic growth rate, population and road density on the increase of energy consumption carbon dioxide emissions in industrial sector in Inner Mongolia northeast of China. Thus, combining with the result of four detectors, we found that GDP and population more influence than economic growth rate, industrial structure, urbanization rate and road density. The interactive effect of any two influencing factors enhances the increase of the carbon dioxide emissions. The findings of this research have significant policy implications for regions like Inner Mongolia.

  18. Deposition to forests in Europe: most important factors influencing dry deposition and models used for generalisation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Erisman, Jan Willem; Draaijers, Geert

    2003-01-01

    The influence of forest characteristics on deposition can be modelled reasonably well; forest edge effects and dynamical processes are still uncertain. - Dry deposition of gases and particles to forests is influenced by factors influencing the turbulent transport, such as wind speed, tree height, canopy closure, LAI, etc. as well as by factors influencing surface condition, such as precipitation, relative humidity, global radiation, etc. In this paper, an overview of these factors is given and it is shown which are the most important determining temporal and spatial variation of dry deposition of sodium and sulphur. Furthermore, it is evaluated how well current deposition models are able to describe the temporal and spatial variation in dry deposition. It is concluded that the temporal variation is not modelled well enough, because of limited surface-wetness exchange parameterisations. The influence of forest characteristics are modelled reasonably well, provided enough data describing the forests and the spatial variation in concentration is available. For Europe these data are not available. The means to decrease the atmospheric deposition through forest management is discussed

  19. Analysis on trust influencing factors and trust model from multiple perspectives of online Auction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Wang

    2017-10-01

    Current reputation models lack the research on online auction trading completely so they cannot entirely reflect the reputation status of users and may cause problems on operability. To evaluate the user trust in online auction correctly, a trust computing model based on multiple influencing factors is established. It aims at overcoming the efficiency of current trust computing methods and the limitations of traditional theoretical trust models. The improved model comprehensively considers the trust degree evaluation factors of three types of participants according to different participation modes of online auctioneers, to improve the accuracy, effectiveness and robustness of the trust degree. The experiments test the efficiency and the performance of our model under different scale of malicious user, under environment like eBay and Sporas model. The experimental results analysis show the model proposed in this paper makes up the deficiency of existing model and it also has better feasibility.

  20. An extended technology acceptance model for detecting influencing factors: An empirical investigation

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    Mohamd Hakkak

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The rapid diffusion of the Internet has radically changed the delivery channels applied by the financial services industry. The aim of this study is to identify the influencing factors that encourage customers to adopt online banking in Khorramabad. The research constructs are developed based on the technology acceptance model (TAM and incorporates some extra important control variables. The model is empirically verified to study the factors influencing the online banking adoption behavior of 210 customers of Tejarat Banks in Khorramabad. The findings of the study suggest that the quality of the internet connection, the awareness of online banking and its benefits, the social influence and computer self-efficacy have significant impacts on the perceived usefulness (PU and perceived ease of use (PEOU of online banking acceptance. Trust and resistance to change also have significant impact on the attitude towards the likelihood of adopting online banking.

  1. A proposed model of factors influencing hydrogen fuel cell vehicle acceptance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imanina, N. H. Noor; Kwe Lu, Tan; Fadhilah, A. R.

    2016-03-01

    Issues such as environmental problem and energy insecurity keep worsening as a result of energy use from household to huge industries including automotive industry. Recently, a new type of zero emission vehicle, hydrogen fuel cell vehicle (HFCV) has received attention. Although there are argues on the feasibility of hydrogen as the future fuel, there is another important issue, which is the acceptance of HFCV. The study of technology acceptance in the early stage is a vital key for a successful introduction and penetration of a technology. This paper proposes a model of factors influencing green vehicle acceptance, specifically HFCV. This model is built base on two technology acceptance theories and other empirical studies of vehicle acceptance. It aims to provide a base for finding the key factors influencing new sustainable energy fuelled vehicle, HFCV acceptance which is achieved by explaining intention to accept HFCV. Intention is influenced by attitude, subjective norm and perceived behavioural control from Theory of Planned Behaviour and personal norm from Norm Activation Theory. In the framework, attitude is influenced by perceptions of benefits and risks, and social trust. Perceived behavioural control is influenced by government interventions. Personal norm is influenced by outcome efficacy and problem awareness.

  2. Dimensional Model for Estimating Factors influencing Childhood Obesity: Path Analysis Based Modeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Kheirollahpour

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this study is to identify and develop a comprehensive model which estimates and evaluates the overall relations among the factors that lead to weight gain in children by using structural equation modeling. The proposed models in this study explore the connection among the socioeconomic status of the family, parental feeding practice, and physical activity. Six structural models were tested to identify the direct and indirect relationship between the socioeconomic status and parental feeding practice general level of physical activity, and weight status of children. Finally, a comprehensive model was devised to show how these factors relate to each other as well as to the body mass index (BMI of the children simultaneously. Concerning the methodology of the current study, confirmatory factor analysis (CFA was applied to reveal the hidden (secondary effect of socioeconomic factors on feeding practice and ultimately on the weight status of the children and also to determine the degree of model fit. The comprehensive structural model tested in this study suggested that there are significant direct and indirect relationships among variables of interest. Moreover, the results suggest that parental feeding practice and physical activity are mediators in the structural model.

  3. Structural equation modeling analysis of factors influencing architects' trust in project design teams

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DING Zhi-kun; NG Fung-fai; WANG Jia-yuan

    2009-01-01

    This paper describes a structural equation modeling (SEM) analysis of factors influencing architects' trust in project design teams. We undertook a survey of architects, during which we distributed 193 questionnaires in 29 A-level architectural We used Amos 6.0 for SEM to identify significant personal construct based factors affecting interpersonal trust. The results show that only social interaction between architects significantly affects their interpersonal trust. The explained variance of trust is not very high in the model. Therefore, future research should add more factors into the current model. The practical implication is that team managers should promote the social interactions between team members such that the interpersonal trust level between team members can be improved.

  4. Determining factors influencing survival of breast cancer by fuzzy logistic regression model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikbakht, Roya; Bahrampour, Abbas

    2017-01-01

    Fuzzy logistic regression model can be used for determining influential factors of disease. This study explores the important factors of actual predictive survival factors of breast cancer's patients. We used breast cancer data which collected by cancer registry of Kerman University of Medical Sciences during the period of 2000-2007. The variables such as morphology, grade, age, and treatments (surgery, radiotherapy, and chemotherapy) were applied in the fuzzy logistic regression model. Performance of model was determined in terms of mean degree of membership (MDM). The study results showed that almost 41% of patients were in neoplasm and malignant group and more than two-third of them were still alive after 5-year follow-up. Based on the fuzzy logistic model, the most important factors influencing survival were chemotherapy, morphology, and radiotherapy, respectively. Furthermore, the MDM criteria show that the fuzzy logistic regression have a good fit on the data (MDM = 0.86). Fuzzy logistic regression model showed that chemotherapy is more important than radiotherapy in survival of patients with breast cancer. In addition, another ability of this model is calculating possibilistic odds of survival in cancer patients. The results of this study can be applied in clinical research. Furthermore, there are few studies which applied the fuzzy logistic models. Furthermore, we recommend using this model in various research areas.

  5. Analyzing Factors Influencing Teaching as a Career Choice Using Structural Equation Modeling

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    Budhinath Padhy

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the study is to analyze factors influencing students’ perceptions of teaching as a career choice using structural equation modeling with the goal of shaping a teacher education recruitment program. In this study, 458 students from a Midwestern university in the United States responded to an online survey about career-related factors they value, their expectation that teaching would offer those factors, and any social-influence factors that might encourage them to choose a teaching career. The effect of 10 exogenous motivation variables (value-environment, value-intrinsic, value-extrinsic, value-altruistic, expectancy-environment, expectancy-intrinsic, expectancy-extrinsic, social-media-education, social-prior-experience, and social-suggestions on choosing a teaching career was examined. Results of our analysis showed that the factors related to expectancy-environment, expectancy-intrinsic, social-media-education, social-prior-experience, and social-suggestions were found to be significant, whereas value-related factors and expectancy-extrinsic factors were found to be insignificant.

  6. Modeling the factors that influence knowledge transfer in mergers and acquisitions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YU Haiyan; LIANG Zhanping

    2010-01-01

    This paper constructs a model on the factors that influence knowledge transfer in mergers and acquisitions (M&A) and validates it via questionnaire surveys.Using 125 valid collected questionnaires,multiple linear regression analysis and hierarchical regression analysis showed that five out of the ten factors had a positive effect on knowledge transfer effect.The ranking of factor importance,from high to low,was knowledge explicitness,relationship quality,learning intent,advanced transfer activities,and learning capability,which is fairly consistent with positive factors observed in other interorganizational knowledge transfer researches.Our results also showed that one of the control variables (size of acquired firm) had neither a direct or indirect effect on knowledge transfer in M&A.Additionally,our research found that knowledge distance and degree of M&A integration had a positive influence on knowledge transfer effect at the early stage after M&A,but had a negative influence at the late stage.Based on this research,several suggestions for knowledge transfer in M&A are proposed.

  7. Modeling the factors that influence knowledge transfer in mergers and acquisitions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YU; Haiyan; LIANG; Zhanping

    2010-01-01

    This paper constructs a model on the factors that influence knowledge transfer in mergers and acquisitions(M&A)and validates it via questionnaire surveys.Using 125valid collected questionnaires,multiple linear regression analysis and hierarchical regression analysis showed that five out of the ten factors had a positive effect on knowledge transfer effect.The ranking of factor importance,from high to low,was knowledge explicitness,relationship quality,learning intent,advanced transfer activities,and learning capability,which is fairly consistent with positive factors observed in other interorganizational knowledge transfer researches.Our results also showed that one of the control variables(size of acquired firm)had neither a direct or indirect effect on knowledge transfer in M&A.Additionally,our research found that knowledge distance and degree of M&A integration had a positive influence on knowledge transfer effect at the early stage after M&A,but had a negative influence at the late stage.Based on this research,several suggestions for knowledge transfer in M&A are proposed.

  8. Factors Influencing Implementation of OHSAS 18001 in Indian Construction Organizations: Interpretive Structural Modeling Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajaprasad, Sunku Venkata Siva; Chalapathi, Pasupulati Venkata

    2015-09-01

    Construction activity has made considerable breakthroughs in the past two decades on the back of increases in development activities, government policies, and public demand. At the same time, occupational health and safety issues have become a major concern to construction organizations. The unsatisfactory safety performance of the construction industry has always been highlighted since the safety management system is neglected area and not implemented systematically in Indian construction organizations. Due to a lack of enforcement of the applicable legislation, most of the construction organizations are forced to opt for the implementation of Occupational Health Safety Assessment Series (OHSAS) 18001 to improve safety performance. In order to better understand factors influencing the implementation of OHSAS 18001, an interpretive structural modeling approach has been applied and the factors have been classified using matrice d'impacts croises-multiplication appliqué a un classement (MICMAC) analysis. The study proposes the underlying theoretical framework to identify factors and to help management of Indian construction organizations to understand the interaction among factors influencing in implementation of OHSAS 18001. Safety culture, continual improvement, morale of employees, and safety training have been identified as dependent variables. Safety performance, sustainable construction, and conducive working environment have been identified as linkage variables. Management commitment and safety policy have been identified as the driver variables. Management commitment has the maximum driving power and the most influential factor is safety policy, which states clearly the commitment of top management towards occupational safety and health.

  9. A survey of the influencing factors and models for resident's household waste management behavior

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    The problem of household solid waste has been concerned and researched on by municipalities and researchers.At present, household solid waste has been changed to management problem from technical one. From the point view of management, the research on household solid waste is to study the factors which influence resident's behavior of managtng their waste. Based on the literature review, firstly, this paper summarizes those factors which have already been identified to have impact on resident's behavior of managing their waste. They are social-demographic variables,knowledge, environmental values, psychological factors, publicity and system design. Secondly, three typical models of the relationship between factors and behavior, which are factors determining task performance in waste management,conceptualization of waste management behavior and the theoretical model of repeated behavior on household waste management, are analyzed and the deficiencies of these models are also analyzed. Finally, according to the current situation in household waste management and the culture and resident's habits in China, this paper puts forward a research focus and suggestions about resident 's behavior of household solid waste management.

  10. Linear model analysis of the influencing factors of boar longevity in Southern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chao; Li, Jia-Lian; Wei, Hong-Kui; Zhou, Yuan-Fei; Jiang, Si-Wen; Peng, Jian

    2017-04-15

    This study aimed to investigate the factors influencing the boar herd life month (BHLM) in Southern China. A total of 1630 records of culling boars from nine artificial insemination centers were collected from January 2013 to May 2016. A logistic regression model and two linear models were used to analyze the effects of breed, housing type, age at herd entry, and seed stock herd on boar removal reason and BHLM, respectively. Boar breed and the age at herd entry had significant effects on the removal reasons (P linear models (with or without removal reason including) showed boars raised individually in stalls exhibited shorter BHLM than those raised in pens (P introduction. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  11. Uncovering the influence of social skills and psychosociological factors on pain sensitivity using structural equation modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Yoichi; Nishi, Yuki; Nishi, Yuki; Osumi, Michihiro; Morioka, Shu

    2017-01-01

    Pain is a subjective emotional experience that is influenced by psychosociological factors such as social skills, which are defined as problem-solving abilities in social interactions. This study aimed to reveal the relationships among pain, social skills, and other psychosociological factors by using structural equation modeling. A total of 101 healthy volunteers (41 men and 60 women; mean age: 36.6±12.7 years) participated in this study. To evoke participants' sense of inner pain, we showed them images of painful scenes on a PC screen and asked them to evaluate the pain intensity by using the visual analog scale (VAS). We examined the correlation between social skills and VAS, constructed a hypothetical model based on results from previous studies and the current correlational analysis results, and verified the model's fit using structural equation modeling. We found significant positive correlations between VAS and total social skills values, as well as between VAS and the "start of relationships" subscales. Structural equation modeling revealed that the values for "start of relationships" had a direct effect on VAS values (path coefficient =0.32, p social support. The results indicated that extroverted people are more sensitive to inner pain and tend to get more social support and maintain a better psychological condition.

  12. Analysis of Influence Factors of PM2.5 in Chengdu Based on VAR Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mingzhi, Luo

    2017-05-01

    Air pollution and smog are the serious harms to public health and has attracted public attention. Based on the vector auto-regressive (VAR) model, we analysed the influence factors of PM2.5 in Chengdu, investigated the effect of other kinds of air pollutants and meteorological factors onthe PM2.5 by using the methods of generalized impulse response function, variance decomposition analysis, Granger causality test and therelated daily data from December 1, 2013 to November 14, 2016 in Chengdu city to the empirical study. The resultsshow that the influence factors of PM2.5 were stable;the increase of nitrogen dioxide, ozone,precipitation and temperature difference led to the increase of PM2.5 concentration while the increase ofthe wind speed, PM10, sulphur dioxide and carbon monoxide resulted in the decrease of PM2.5 concentration.Climate conditions,nitrogen dioxide and ozone are Granger causes for PM2.5.It is suggestedthat the key for the control of PM2.5 must be based on the cause and formation rules of PM2.5.A further study on nitrogen dioxide and ozone may play an important role in finding out the real source and formation reasons of PM2.5.

  13. Determination of the Factors Influencing Store Preference in Erzurum by a Multinomial Logit Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hüseyin ÖZER

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this study is to determine factors influencing store preference of the store costumers in Erzurum in terms of some characteristics of the store and its product and costumers’ demographic characteristics (sex, age, marital status, level of education and their income level. In order to carry out this objective, Pearson chi-square test is applied to determine whether there is a relationship between the store preference and customer, stores, and some characteristics of products and a multinominal logit model is fitted by stepwise regression method to the cross-section data compiled from a questionnaire applied to 384 store costumers in the center of Erzurum province. According to the model estimation and test results, the variables of marital status (married, education (primary and cheapness (unimportant for Migros; education (middle for Özmar and marital status (married for the other stores are determined as statistically significant at the level of 5 percent

  14. Influencing Factors and Consequences of Workplace Bullying among Nurses: A Structural Equation Modeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seonyoung Yun, PhD, RN

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The purpose of this study was to build and test a model outlining the factors related to workplace bullying among nurses. The hypothesized model included authentic leadership and a relationship-oriented organizational culture as influencing factors, symptom experience and turnover intention as consequences, and positive psychological capital as a mediator of workplace bullying among nurses. Methods: We obtained structured questionnaire data from 301 nurses working at hospitals in South Korea. Based on these data, the developed model was verified via a structural equation modeling analysis using SPSS and AMOS program. Results: The fit indices of the hypothesized model satisfied recommended levels; χ2 = 397.58 (p < .001, normed χ2 (χ2/df = 1.82, RMR = .05, TLI = .93, CFI = .94, RMSEA = .05. A relationship-oriented organizational culture had a direct effect on workplace bullying (β = −.48, p < .001. Furthermore, workplace bullying had a direct effect on symptom experience (β = .36, p < .001, and this relationship was mediated by positive psychological capital (β = .15, p = .003. Workplace bullying also had an indirect effect on turnover intention (β = .20, p = .007. Finally, symptom experience had a direct effect on turnover intention (β = .31, p = .002. Conclusion: These results suggest that workplace bullying among nurses may be prevented by constructing a relationship-oriented organizational culture, as long as employees have sufficient positive psychological capital. In this regard, workplace bullying among nurses should be addressed using a comprehensive strategy that considers both individual and organizational factors. Keywords: bullying, leadership, nurses, organizational culture, personnel turnover

  15. [Natural factors influencing sleep].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jurkowski, Marek K; Bobek-Billewicz, Barbara

    2007-01-01

    Sleep is a universal phenomenon of human and animal lives, although the importance of sleep for homeo-stasis is still unknown. Sleep disturbances influence many behavioral and physiologic processes, leading to health complications including death. On the other hand, sleep improvement can beneficially influence the course of healing of many disorders and can be a prognostic of health recovery. The factors influencing sleep have different biological and chemical origins. They are classical hormones, hypothalamic releasing and inhibitory hormones, neuropeptides, peptides and others as cytokines, prostaglandins, oleamid, adenosine, nitric oxide. These factors regulate most physiologic processes and are likely elements integrating sleep with physiology and physiology with sleep in health and disorders.

  16. The Factors Influencing Satisfaction with Public City Transport: A Structural Equation Modelling Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Pawlasova Pavlina

    2015-01-01

    Satisfaction is one of the key factors which influences customer loyalty. We assume that the satisfied customer will be willing to use the ssame service provider again. The overall passengers´ satisfaction with public city transport may be affected by the overall service quality. Frequency, punctuality, cleanliness in the vehicle, proximity, speed, fare, accessibility and safety of transport, information and other factors can influence passengers´ satisfaction. The aim of this pap...

  17. Model of medicines sales forecasting taking into account factors of influence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kravets, A. G.; Al-Gunaid, M. A.; Loshmanov, V. I.; Rasulov, S. S.; Lempert, L. B.

    2018-05-01

    The article describes a method for forecasting sales of medicines in conditions of data sampling, which is insufficient for building a model based on historical data alone. The developed method is applicable mainly to new drugs that are already licensed and released for sale but do not yet have stable sales performance in the market. The purpose of this study is to prove the effectiveness of the suggested method forecasting drug sales, taking into account the selected factors of influence, revealed during the review of existing solutions and analysis of the specificity of the area under study. Three experiments were performed on samples of different volumes, which showed an improvement in the accuracy of forecasting sales in small samples.

  18. Modelling the factors influencing the selection of the construction equipment for Indian construction organizations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.V.S. Raja Prasad

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The contribution of Indian construction sector to the GDP is approximately 10%. Under new government policy, it is anticipated that $1000 Billion share for exclusively infrastructure segment would be completed within the next few years. Construction sector in developing country like India still depends on labor and the practice of mechanization, adopting to use of versatile construction equipment is not in force. The need for implementing new technologies and automation is essential to improve the quality, safety and efficiency. To meet the challenges ahead the construction, organizations should focus on utilization of machinery/equipment to achieve desirable results. Modern construction is characterized by the increase in utilization of equipment to accomplish numerous construction activities. The selection of construction equipment often affects the required amount of time and effort. It is therefore important for managements of construction organizations and planners to be familiar with the features of various types of equipment commonly used in construction activities. The selection of appropriate equipment is a crucial decision making process as it involves huge capital investment. The purpose of the present study is to develop a model pertaining to the factors influencing the selection of construction equipment by using interpretive structural modelling and the results indicate that productivity and safety are the important factors in selection of equipment in Indian construction organizations.

  19. Modelling categorical data to identify factors influencing concern for the natural environment in Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parizanganeh, Abdolhossein; Lakhan, V Chris; Yazdani, Mahmoud; Ahmad, Sajid R

    2011-10-01

    Loglinear modelling techniques were used to identify the interactions and interrelationships underlying categorical environmental concern data collected from 9062 respondents in Iran. After fitting various loglinear models to the data, the most parsimonious model highlighted that a combination of interacting factors, namely educational attainment, age, gender, and residential location were responsible for influencing personal concern for the environment. Although high educational attainment had a close correspondence with high concern for the environment the loglinear results, when visualized with a geographical information system, demonstrated wide spatial variations in educational attainment and concern for the environment. Nearly two-thirds of the respondents were not highly educated, and were therefore not highly concerned for the environment. The finding that both rural and urban male and female respondents in the 15-24 years age category, with 10-12 years of education, had the strongest interaction with personal concern for the environment could be beneficial for policy planners to utilize education as the primary instrument to enhance environmental governance and prospects for sustainable development. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Dome effect of black carbon and its key influencing factors: a one-dimensional modelling study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zilin; Huang, Xin; Ding, Aijun

    2018-02-01

    Black carbon (BC) has been identified to play a critical role in aerosol-planetary boundary layer (PBL) interaction and further deterioration of near-surface air pollution in megacities, which has been referred to as the dome effect. However, the impacts of key factors that influence this effect, such as the vertical distribution and aging processes of BC, as well as the underlying land surface, have not been quantitatively explored yet. Here, based on available in situ measurements of meteorology and atmospheric aerosols together with the meteorology-chemistry online coupled model WRF-Chem, we conduct a set of parallel simulations to quantify the roles of these factors in influencing the BC dome effect and surface haze pollution. Furthermore, we discuss the main implications of the results to air pollution mitigation in China. We found that the impact of BC on the PBL is very sensitive to the altitude of aerosol layer. The upper-level BC, especially that near the capping inversion, is more essential in suppressing the PBL height and weakening the turbulent mixing. The dome effect of BC tends to be significantly intensified as BC mixed with scattering aerosols during winter haze events, resulting in a decrease in PBL height by more than 15 %. In addition, the dome effect is more substantial (up to 15 %) in rural areas than that in the urban areas with the same BC loading, indicating an unexpected regional impact of such an effect to air quality in countryside. This study indicates that China's regional air pollution would greatly benefit from BC emission reductions, especially those from elevated sources from chimneys and also domestic combustion in rural areas, through weakening the aerosol-boundary layer interactions that are triggered by BC.

  1. The Examination of Factors Influencing Social Media Usage by African American Small Business Owners Using the UTAUT Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serben, Dion F.

    2014-01-01

    The unified theory of acceptance and use of technology (UTAUT) model has demonstrated the influencing factors for various business technology uses within the organizational system. However, in the context of African American small businesses (AASB), there was very little evidence of research to determine factors affecting the intention to use…

  2. Modelling the interactions among factors that influence successful computerisation of small business

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerard Fogarty

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Small businesses face many problems if they are to survive the first five years of operation. The increasing complexity of information needed to run a business in the 21st Century has added another obstacle to what is already a tough course. Sooner or later, survivors are faced with the prospect of investing in computer based information systems (CBIS. Properly handled, the investment will improve the competitiveness of the company. Badly handled, the investment will handicap the company and perhaps even lead to its closure. Using survey methodology, the present study collected information from 171 small businesses that had purchased computer systems with a view to finding out what factors contribute to successful implementation of CBIS. The variables studied included background characteristics of the organization, background characteristics of the Chief Executive Officer, decision making processes, and a range of variables relating to the performance of the system itself. The outcome variable was user satisfaction. We developed and tested a CBIS implementation success model based on these variables. Results showed that although the performance of the system was the immediate determinant of satisfaction, the background variables had both direct and indirect (mediated effects on satisfaction. These findings emphasise the importance of going beyond the immediate surrounds of a computing environment if one wishes to explain the factors that influence CBIS success in small businesses.

  3. Factors influencing adherence to psychopharmacological medications in psychiatric patients: a structural equation modeling approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Las Cuevas, Carlos; de Leon, Jose; Peñate, Wenceslao; Betancort, Moisés

    2017-01-01

    To evaluate pathways through which sociodemographic, clinical, attitudinal, and perceived health control variables impact psychiatric patients' adherence to psychopharmacological medications. A sample of 966 consecutive psychiatric outpatients was studied. The variables were sociodemographic (age, gender, and education), clinical (diagnoses, drug treatment, and treatment duration), attitudinal (attitudes toward psychopharmacological medication and preferences regarding participation in decision-making), perception of control over health (health locus of control, self-efficacy, and psychological reactance), and level of adherence to psychopharmacological medications. Structural equation modeling was applied to examine the nonstraightforward relationships and the interactive effects among the analyzed variables. Structural equation modeling demonstrated that psychiatric patients' treatment adherence was associated: 1) negatively with cognitive psychological reactance (adherence decreased as cognitive psychological reactance increased), 2) positively with patients' trust in their psychiatrists (doctors' subscale), 3) negatively with patients' belief that they are in control of their mental health and that their mental health depends on their own actions (internal subscale), and 4) positively (although weakly) with age. Self-efficacy indirectly influenced treatment adherence through internal health locus of control. This study provides support for the hypothesis that perceived health control variables play a relevant role in psychiatric patients' adherence to psychopharmacological medications. The findings highlight the importance of considering prospective studies of patients' psychological reactance and health locus of control as they may be clinically relevant factors contributing to adherence to psychopharmacological medications.

  4. Modeling factors influencing the demand for emergency department services in ontario: a comparison of methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meaney Christopher

    2011-08-01

    investigating predictors of increased emergency department utilization. Six different multiple regression models for count data were fitted to assess the influence of predictors on demand for emergency department services, including: Poisson, Negative Binomial, Zero-Inflated Poisson, Zero-Inflated Negative Binomial, Hurdle Poisson, and Hurdle Negative Binomial. Comparison of competing models was assessed by the Vuong test statistic. Results The CCHS cycle 2.1 respondents were a roughly equal mix of males (50.4% and females (49.6%. The majority (86.2% were young-middle aged adults between the ages of 20-64, living in predominantly urban environments (85.9%, with mid-high household incomes (92.2% and well-educated, receiving at least a high-school diploma (84.1%. Many participants reported no chronic disease (51.9%, fell into a small number (0-5 of ambulatory diagnostic groups (62.3%, and perceived their health status as good/excellent (88.1%; however, were projected to have high Resource Utilization Band levels of health resource utilization (68.2%. These factors were largely stable for CCHS cycle 3.1 respondents. Factors influencing demand for emergency department services varied according to the severity of triage scores at initial presentation. For example, although a non-significant predictor of the odds of emergency department utilization in high severity cases, access to a primary care physician was a statistically significant predictor of the likelihood of emergency department utilization (OR: 0.69; 95% CI OR: 0.63-0.75 and the rate of emergency department utilization (RR: 0.57; 95% CI RR: 0.50-0.66 in low severity cases. Conclusion Using a theoretically appropriate hurdle negative binomial regression model this unique study illustrates that access to a primary care physician is an important predictor of both the odds and rate of emergency department utilization in Ontario. Restructuring primary care services, with aims of increasing access to undersupplied populations

  5. Modeling factors influencing the demand for emergency department services in Ontario: a comparison of methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moineddin, Rahim; Meaney, Christopher; Agha, Mohammad; Zagorski, Brandon; Glazier, Richard Henry

    2011-08-19

    department utilization. Six different multiple regression models for count data were fitted to assess the influence of predictors on demand for emergency department services, including: Poisson, Negative Binomial, Zero-Inflated Poisson, Zero-Inflated Negative Binomial, Hurdle Poisson, and Hurdle Negative Binomial. Comparison of competing models was assessed by the Vuong test statistic. The CCHS cycle 2.1 respondents were a roughly equal mix of males (50.4%) and females (49.6%). The majority (86.2%) were young-middle aged adults between the ages of 20-64, living in predominantly urban environments (85.9%), with mid-high household incomes (92.2%) and well-educated, receiving at least a high-school diploma (84.1%). Many participants reported no chronic disease (51.9%), fell into a small number (0-5) of ambulatory diagnostic groups (62.3%), and perceived their health status as good/excellent (88.1%); however, were projected to have high Resource Utilization Band levels of health resource utilization (68.2%). These factors were largely stable for CCHS cycle 3.1 respondents. Factors influencing demand for emergency department services varied according to the severity of triage scores at initial presentation. For example, although a non-significant predictor of the odds of emergency department utilization in high severity cases, access to a primary care physician was a statistically significant predictor of the likelihood of emergency department utilization (OR: 0.69; 95% CI OR: 0.63-0.75) and the rate of emergency department utilization (RR: 0.57; 95% CI RR: 0.50-0.66) in low severity cases. Using a theoretically appropriate hurdle negative binomial regression model this unique study illustrates that access to a primary care physician is an important predictor of both the odds and rate of emergency department utilization in Ontario. Restructuring primary care services, with aims of increasing access to undersupplied populations may result in decreased emergency department

  6. Analysis of Factors that Influence Infiltration Rates using the HELP Model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dyer, J.; Shipmon, J.

    2017-01-01

    The Hydrologic Evaluation of Landfill Performance (HELP) model is used by Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) in conjunction with PORFLOW groundwater flow simulation software to make longterm predictions of the fate and transport of radionuclides in the environment at radiological waste sites. The work summarized in this report supports preparation of the planned 2018 Performance Assessment for the E-Area Low-Level Waste Facility (LLWF) at the Savannah River Site (SRS). More specifically, this project focused on conducting a sensitivity analysis of infiltration (i.e., the rate at which water travels vertically in soil) through the proposed E-Area LLWF closure cap. A sensitivity analysis was completed using HELP v3.95D to identify the cap design and material property parameters that most impact infiltration rates through the proposed closure cap for a 10,000-year simulation period. The results of the sensitivity analysis indicate that saturated hydraulic conductivity (Ksat) for select cap layers, precipitation rate, surface vegetation type, and geomembrane layer defect density are dominant factors limiting infiltration rate. Interestingly, calculated infiltration rates were substantially influenced by changes in the saturated hydraulic conductivity of the Upper Foundation and Lateral Drainage layers. For example, an order-of-magnitude decrease in Ksat for the Upper Foundation layer lowered the maximum infiltration rate from a base-case 11 inches per year to only two inches per year. Conversely, an order-of-magnitude increase in Ksat led to an increase in infiltration rate from 11 to 15 inches per year. This work and its results provide a framework for quantifying uncertainty in the radionuclide transport and dose models for the planned 2018 E-Area Performance Assessment. Future work will focus on the development of a nonlinear regression model for infiltration rate using Minitab 17® to facilitate execution of probabilistic simulations in the GoldSim® overall

  7. Analysis of Factors that Influence Infiltration Rates using the HELP Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dyer, J. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Shipmon, J. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2017-09-28

    The Hydrologic Evaluation of Landfill Performance (HELP) model is used by Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) in conjunction with PORFLOW groundwater flow simulation software to make longterm predictions of the fate and transport of radionuclides in the environment at radiological waste sites. The work summarized in this report supports preparation of the planned 2018 Performance Assessment for the E-Area Low-Level Waste Facility (LLWF) at the Savannah River Site (SRS). More specifically, this project focused on conducting a sensitivity analysis of infiltration (i.e., the rate at which water travels vertically in soil) through the proposed E-Area LLWF closure cap. A sensitivity analysis was completed using HELP v3.95D to identify the cap design and material property parameters that most impact infiltration rates through the proposed closure cap for a 10,000-year simulation period. The results of the sensitivity analysis indicate that saturated hydraulic conductivity (Ksat) for select cap layers, precipitation rate, surface vegetation type, and geomembrane layer defect density are dominant factors limiting infiltration rate. Interestingly, calculated infiltration rates were substantially influenced by changes in the saturated hydraulic conductivity of the Upper Foundation and Lateral Drainage layers. For example, an order-of-magnitude decrease in Ksat for the Upper Foundation layer lowered the maximum infiltration rate from a base-case 11 inches per year to only two inches per year. Conversely, an order-of-magnitude increase in Ksat led to an increase in infiltration rate from 11 to 15 inches per year. This work and its results provide a framework for quantifying uncertainty in the radionuclide transport and dose models for the planned 2018 E-Area Performance Assessment. Future work will focus on the development of a nonlinear regression model for infiltration rate using Minitab 17® to facilitate execution of probabilistic simulations in the GoldSim® overall

  8. (Reinforcing) Factors Influencing a Physical Education Teacher's Use of the Direct Instruction Model Teaching Games

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayantilal, Kumar; O'Leary, Nick

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore how a physical education (PE) teacher employed the direct instruction model (DIM) teaching games in a United Kingdom secondary school. The research sought to identify how the teacher utilised the DIM and those factors that influenced his use of the model. Occupational socialization was used to identify the…

  9. Modelling crop land use change derived from influencing factors selected and ranked by farmers in North temperate agricultural regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehdi, Bano; Lehner, Bernhard; Ludwig, Ralf

    2018-08-01

    To develop meaningful land use scenarios, drivers that affect changes in the landscape are required. In this study, driving factors that influence farmers to change crops on their farm were determined. A questionnaire was administered to four independent groups of farmers who identified and ranked influencing factors pertaining to their choices of crops. The farmers were located in two mid-latitude agricultural watersheds (in Germany and Canada). The ranked influencing factors were used to develop a "farmer driven" scenario to 2040 in both watersheds. Results showed that the most important influencing factors for farmers to change crops were the "economic return of the crop" and "market factors". Yet, when the drivers of crop land use change were grouped into two categories of "financial" and "indirectly-related financial" factors, the "financial" factors made up approximately half of the influencing factors. For some responses, the "indirectly-related financial" factors (i.e. "access to farm equipment", the "farm experience", and "climate") ranked higher than or just as high as the financial factors. Overall, in the four farmer groups the differences between the rankings of the influencing factors were minor, indicating that drivers may be transferable between farms if the farmers are full-time and the farming regions have comparable growing seasons, access to markets, similar technology, and government programs for farm income. In addition to the "farmer driven" scenario, a "policy driven" scenario was derived for each watershed based only on available information on the financial incentives provided to farmers (i.e. agricultural subsidies, income support, crop insurance). The influencing factors ranked by the farmers provided in-depth information that was not captured by the "policy driven" scenario and contributed to improving predictions for crop land use development. This straight-forward method to rank qualitative data provided by farmers can easily be

  10. Unravelling the influence of smoking initiation and cessation on premature mortality using a common latent factor model

    OpenAIRE

    Silvia Balia; Andrew M. Jones

    2007-01-01

    Duration models for lifespan and smoking, that focus on the socio-economic gradient in smoking durations and length of life, are estimated controlling for individual-specific unobservable heterogeneity by means of a latent factor model. The latent factor influences the risk of starting and quitting smoking as well as the hazard of mortality. Frailty could in°uence smoking behaviour through two mechanisms: the effect of life expectancy on initiation of smok- ing and the impact of adverse healt...

  11. Factors Influencing Adoption of Information Technology Infrastructure Library: Utilizing the Technology Acceptance Model (TAM)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, Din S. Z.

    2013-01-01

    There is a shortage of evidence based research that provides organizations with the necessary information in support of their technology adoption decisions in relation to ITSM technologies. As such, this research study attempted to bridge the gap by offering insight on possible factors that could influence such decisions. An examination of…

  12. Factors influencing residents' evaluations of clinical faculty member teaching qualities and role model status

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arah, Onyebuchi A.; Heineman, Maas J.; Lombarts, Kiki M. J. M. H.

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVES Evaluations of faculty members are widely used to identify excellent or substandard teaching performance. In order to enable such evaluations to be properly interpreted and used in faculty development, it is essential to understand the factors that influence resident doctors' (residents)

  13. A Study on Influencing Factors of Knowledge Management Systems Adoption: Models Comparison Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Mei-Chun Yeh; Ming-Shu Yuan

    2007-01-01

    Using Linear Structural Relation model (LISREL model) as analysis method and technology acceptance model and decomposed theory of planned behavior as research foundation, this study approachesmainly from the angle of behavioral intention to examine the influential factors of 421 employees adopting knowledge management systems and in the meantime to compare the two method models mentioned on the top. According to the research, there is no, in comparison with technology acceptance model anddeco...

  14. Factors influencing residents' evaluations of clinical faculty member teaching qualities and role model status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arah, Onyebuchi A; Heineman, Maas J; Lombarts, Kiki M J M H

    2012-04-01

      Evaluations of faculty members are widely used to identify excellent or substandard teaching performance. In order to enable such evaluations to be properly interpreted and used in faculty development, it is essential to understand the factors that influence resident doctors' (residents) evaluations of the teaching qualities of faculty members and their perceptions of faculty members as role-model specialists.   We carried out a cross-sectional survey within a longitudinal study of the System for Evaluation of Teaching Qualities (SETQ) of clinical teachers. The study sample included 889 residents and 1014 faculty members in 61 teaching programmes spanning 22 specialties in 20 hospitals in the Netherlands. Main outcome measures included residents' (i) global and (ii) specific ratings of faculty member teaching qualities, and (iii) global ratings of faculty members as role-model specialists. Statistical analysis was conducted using adjusted multivariable logistic generalised estimating equations.   In total, 690 residents (77.6%) completed 6485 evaluations of 962 faculty members, 848 (83.6%) of whom also self-evaluated. More recently certified faculty members, those who had attended a teacher training programme, and those who spent more time teaching than seeing patients or conducting research were more likely to score highly on most teaching qualities. However, faculty members who had undergone teacher training were less likely to be seen as role models (odds ratio [OR] 0.72, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.59-0.88). In addition, faculty members were evaluated slightly higher by male than female residents on core teaching domains and overall teaching quality, but were less likely to be seen as role models by male residents (OR 0.80, 95% CI 0.67-0.97). Lastly, faculty members had higher odds of receiving top scores in specific teaching domains from residents in the first 4 years of residency and were less likely to be considered as role models by more

  15. The Research on Influencing Factors of Medical Logistics Cost Based on ISM Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhai Yunkai

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The reason why medical logistics cost remains high is a system problem, this paper analyzes the system through the ISM model. The result presents that medical logistics cost factors have four levels of relationship, primary factor is the national policies, secondary factors are the talent construction and pharmaceutical enterprise scale, Intermediate factors are medical information management system and inventory cost, the key factors are transportation cost and distribution center location. Finally, according to the four levels of relationship, this paper put forward specific suggestions to reduce logistics cost.

  16. Factors influencing adherence to psychopharmacological medications in psychiatric patients: a structural equation modeling approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    De las Cuevas C

    2017-03-01

    positively (although weakly with age. Self-efficacy indirectly influenced treatment adherence through internal health locus of control.Conclusion: This study provides support for the hypothesis that perceived health control variables play a relevant role in psychiatric patients’ adherence to psychopharmacological medications. The findings highlight the importance of considering prospective studies of patients’ psychological reactance and health locus of control as they may be clinically relevant factors contributing to adherence to psychopharmacological medications. Keywords: attitude to health, medication adherence, health behavior, internal-external control, model, statistical, psychiatry

  17. A Model of Consumer Response to Over-the-Counter Drug Advertising: Antecedents and Influencing Factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huh, Jisu; Delorme, Denise E; Reid, Leonard N

    2016-01-01

    Given the importance of over-the-counter (OTC) drugs in the health care marketplace and lack of systematic research on OTC drug advertising (OTCA) effects, this study tested a theory-based, product category-specific OTCA effects model. Structural equation modeling analysis of data for 1 OTC drug category, analgesics, supported the proposed model, explaining the OTCA effect process from key consumer antecedents to ad involvement, from ad involvement to ad attention, from ad attention to cognitive responses, then to affective/evaluative responses, leading to the final behavioral outcome. Several noteworthy patterns also emerged: (a) Product involvement was directly linked to ad attention, rather than exerting an indirect influence through ad involvement; (b) ad attention was significantly related to both cognitive and affective/evaluative responses to different degrees, with stronger links to cognitive responses; and (c) ad-prompted actions were influenced by both ad trust and ad attitude.

  18. Markov model of the loan portfolio dynamics considering influence of management and external economic factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bozhalkina, Yana; Timofeeva, Galina

    2016-12-01

    Mathematical model of loan portfolio in the form of a controlled Markov chain with discrete time is considered. It is assumed that coefficients of migration matrix depend on corrective actions and external factors. Corrective actions include process of receiving applications, interaction with existing solvent and insolvent clients. External factors are macroeconomic indicators, such as inflation and unemployment rates, exchange rates, consumer price indices, etc. Changes in corrective actions adjust the intensity of transitions in the migration matrix. The mathematical model for forecasting the credit portfolio structure taking into account a cumulative impact of internal and external changes is obtained.

  19. [Analysis of dietary pattern and diabetes mellitus influencing factors identified by classification tree model in adults of Fujian].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, F L; Ye, Y; Yan, Y S

    2017-05-10

    Objective: To find out the dietary patterns and explore the relationship between environmental factors (especially dietary patterns) and diabetes mellitus in the adults of Fujian. Methods: Multi-stage sampling method were used to survey residents aged ≥18 years by questionnaire, physical examination and laboratory detection in 10 disease surveillance points in Fujian. Factor analysis was used to identify the dietary patterns, while logistic regression model was applied to analyze relationship between dietary patterns and diabetes mellitus, and classification tree model was adopted to identify the influencing factors for diabetes mellitus. Results: There were four dietary patterns in the population, including meat, plant, high-quality protein, and fried food and beverages patterns. The result of logistic analysis showed that plant pattern, which has higher factor loading of fresh fruit-vegetables and cereal-tubers, was a protective factor for non-diabetes mellitus. The risk of diabetes mellitus in the population at T2 and T3 levels of factor score were 0.727 (95 %CI: 0.561-0.943) times and 0.736 (95 %CI : 0.573-0.944) times higher, respectively, than those whose factor score was in lowest quartile. Thirteen influencing factors and eleven group at high-risk for diabetes mellitus were identified by classification tree model. The influencing factors were dyslipidemia, age, family history of diabetes, hypertension, physical activity, career, sex, sedentary time, abdominal adiposity, BMI, marital status, sleep time and high-quality protein pattern. Conclusion: There is a close association between dietary patterns and diabetes mellitus. It is necessary to promote healthy and reasonable diet, strengthen the monitoring and control of blood lipids, blood pressure and body weight, and have good lifestyle for the prevention and control of diabetes mellitus.

  20. Analysis on the influence factors of Bitcoin's price based on VEC model

    OpenAIRE

    Zhu, Yechen; Dickinson, David; Li, Jianjun

    2017-01-01

    Background: Bitcoin, the most innovate digital currency as of now, created since 2008, even through experienced its ups and downs, still keeps drawing attentions to all parts of society. It relies on peer-to-peer network, achieved decentralization, anonymous and transparent. As the most representative digital currency, people curious to study how Bitcoin' price changes in the past. Methods: In this paper, we use monthly data from 2011 to 2016 to build a VEC model to exam how economic factors ...

  1. MODELING POLLINATION FACTORS THAT INFLUENCE ALFALFA SEED YIELD IN NORTH-CENTRAL NEVADA

    OpenAIRE

    BREAZEALE, Don; FERNANDEZ, George; NARAYANAN, Rangesan

    2008-01-01

    The relative importance of both environmental and management factors on alfalfa seed yield was investigated on North–Central Nevada farms. Multiple linear regression models using 2002-2003 data revealed that cumulative tripped fl owers increased seed yield in both years. Field location does not appear to make a difference in the observed variation in tripped fl ower production. The results suggest that seed yield can be increased by (a) by placing bee shelters closer and (b) cultural practice...

  2. Models of Anaylzing the Influence of Factors on Forming Profit Rate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klara S. Jakovčević

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The analysis in this paper is focused on identifying the impact of individual factors on the elements of the profit rate. The primary aim of this work is a methodological overview of solutions for understanding the full content of the profit rate as a cause of economic quality as well as indicators of the results of reproduction. Application of model analysis of profit rate factors was performed in an enterprise from Serbia that manufactures construction materials from baked clay. The aim is of application is to test the range in determining elements and factors of economic success of the enterprise, and quantification of changes in its assumptions. The results are useful guideline for the management to take organizational measures to increase the economic success of the enterprise. This means eliminating the negative, emphasizing the positive impact of objectively, and organizational factors to make higher economic success. Based on empirical research, it could be concluded that the proposed quantitative models of analyzing the dynamics of enterprise business quality could be applied in practice.

  3. Air-gun signature modelling considering the influence of mechanical structure factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Guofa; Liu, Zhao; Wang, Jianhua; Cao, Mingqiang

    2014-01-01

    In marine seismic prospecting, as the air-gun array is usually composed of different types of air-guns, the signature modelling of different air-guns is particularly important to the array design. Different types of air-guns have different mechanical structures, which directly or indirectly affect the signatures. In order to simulate the influence of the mechanical structure, five parameters—the throttling constant, throttling power law exponent, mass release efficiency, fluid viscosity and heat transfer coefficient—are used in signature modelling. Through minimizing the energy relative error between the simulated and the measured signatures by the simulated annealing method, the five optimal parameters can be estimated. The method is tested in a field experiment, and the consistency between the simulated and the measured signatures is improved with the optimal parameters. (paper)

  4. A fractal model of effective stress of porous media and the analysis of influence factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wei; Zhao, Huan; Li, Siqi; Sun, Wenfeng; Wang, Lei; Li, Bing

    2018-03-01

    The basic concept of effective stress describes the characteristics of fluid and solid interaction in porous media. In this paper, based on the theory of fractal geometry, a fractal model was built to analyze the relationship between the microstructure and the effective stress of porous media. From the microscopic point of view, the influence of effective stress on pore structure of porous media was demonstrated. Theoretical analysis and experimental results show that: (i) the fractal model of effective stress can be used to describe the relationship between effective stress and the microstructure of porous media; (ii) a linear increase in the effective stress leads to exponential increases in fractal dimension, porosity and pore number of the porous media, and causes a decreasing trend in the average pore radius.

  5. Choice Model and Influencing Factor Analysis of Travel Mode for Migrant Workers: Case Study in Xi’an, China

    OpenAIRE

    Hong Chen; Zuo-xian Gan; Yu-ting He

    2015-01-01

    Based on the basic theory and methods of disaggregate choice model, the influencing factors in travel mode choice for migrant workers are analyzed, according to 1366 data samples of Xi’an migrant workers. Walking, bus, subway, and taxi are taken as the alternative parts of travel modes for migrant workers, and a multinomial logit (MNL) model of travel mode for migrant workers is set up. The validity of the model is verified by the hit rate, and the hit rates of four travel modes are all great...

  6. Impairment-Factor-Based Audiovisual Quality Model for IPTV: Influence of Video Resolution, Degradation Type, and Content Type

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Garcia MN

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an audiovisual quality model for IPTV services. The model estimates the audiovisual quality of standard and high definition video as perceived by the user. The model is developed for applications such as network planning and packet-layer quality monitoring. It mainly covers audio and video compression artifacts and impairments due to packet loss. The quality tests conducted for model development demonstrate a mutual influence of the perceived audio and video quality, and the predominance of the video quality for the overall audiovisual quality. The balance between audio quality and video quality, however, depends on the content, the video format, and the audio degradation type. The proposed model is based on impairment factors which quantify the quality-impact of the different degradations. The impairment factors are computed from parameters extracted from the bitstream or packet headers. For high definition video, the model predictions show a correlation with unknown subjective ratings of 95%. For comparison, we have developed a more classical audiovisual quality model which is based on the audio and video qualities and their interaction. Both quality- and impairment-factor-based models are further refined by taking the content-type into account. At last, the different model variants are compared with modeling approaches described in the literature.

  7. Macro-economic factors influencing the architectural business model shift in the pharmaceutical industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dierks, Raphaela Marie Louisa; Bruyère, Olivier; Reginster, Jean-Yves; Richy, Florent-Frederic

    2016-10-01

    Technological innovations, new regulations, increasing costs of drug productions and new demands are only few key drivers of a projected alternation in the pharmaceutical industry. The purpose of this review is to understand the macro economic factors responsible for the business model revolution to possess a competitive advantage over market players. Areas covered: Existing literature on macro-economic factors changing the pharmaceutical landscape has been reviewed to present a clear image of the current market environment. Expert commentary: Literature shows that pharmaceutical companies are facing an architectural alteration, however the evidence on the rationale driving the transformation is outstanding. Merger & Acquisitions (M&A) deals and collaborations are headlining the papers. Q1 2016 did show a major slowdown in M&A deals by volume since 2013 (with deal cancellations of Pfizer and Allergan, or the downfall of Valeant), but pharmaceutical analysts remain confident that this shortfall was a consequence of the equity market volatility. It seems likely that the shift to an M&A model will become apparent during the remainder of 2016, with deal announcements of Abbott Laboratories, AbbVie and Sanofi worth USD 45billion showing the appetite of big pharma companies to shift from the fully vertical integrated business model to more horizontal business models.

  8. Factors that influence spontaneous reporting of adverse drug reactions: a model centralized in the medical professional.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herdeiro, María T; Polonia, Jorge; Gestal-Otero, Juan J; Figueiras, Adolfo

    2004-11-01

    The spontaneous reporting of adverse drug reactions (ADRs) through the yellow card and made concrete by the knowledge and attitudes of doctors, has been rousing a great deal of bibliographical interest in recent years. However, there does not seem to be any actual revision in the theme on which the theoretical models that explain the process of decision in reporting are proposed. In this work an explanatory model of the factors that condition reporting is proposed and a revision of the literature on the subject has also been carried out. The proposed model is centralized in the medical professional and it considers the habit of reporting as the result of the doctor's formation and his interaction with the environment. The combination of knowledge-attitudes-practices and the theory of the satisfaction of needs seemed very adequate for ADR systematization. The results also indicate that, to improve the participation of health professionals in surveillance systems through spontaneous reporting, it might be necessary to design combined strategies that modify both intrinsic (knowledge, attitudes) and extrinsic (relationship between health professionals and their patients, the national health system and pharmaceutical companies) factors.

  9. The Influencing Factors, Regional Difference and Temporal Variation of Industrial Technology Innovation: Evidence with the FOA-GRNN Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongli Zhang

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Technology innovation is a motivating force for sustainable development. The recognition and measurement of influencing factors are a basic prerequisite of technology innovation research. In response to the gaps and shortages of existing theories and methods, this paper builds the impact indicators of technology innovation, the proposed FOA-GRNN model, and analyzes the influencing factors, regional differences and temporal variations of technology innovation based on industrial above-scale enterprises of 31 provinces in China from 2008 to 2015. The empirical results show that innovation investment is a determinant of technology innovation in China, and is more and more significant; meanwhile a wide gap of innovation resource between Eastern China and Western China exists. In general, the enterprise scale has a negative effect: with enlargement of enterprise in China, the innovation efficiency of enterprise will decline, while the effect has regional disparity, with positive influence in Central and Western China, and negative influence in Eastern China. Government support has negative effects on technology innovation: indirect equity investment contributes more to technology innovation than direct fund support. Innovation environment has positive and weak effects on technology innovation, but it is the biggest obstacle in Western China, and the innovation environment in China has improved continuously. This paper provides new evidence that can shine some light on determining the factors affecting technology innovation, and also presents a novel approach, which comprises characteristics of nonlinear function approximation, high accuracy and a small sample.

  10. EXPOSURE TO MASS MEDIA AS A DOMINANT FACTOR INFLUENCING PUBLIC STIGMA TOWARD MENTAL ILLNESS BASED ON SUNRISE MODEL APPROACH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ni Made Sintha Pratiwi

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: The person suffering mental disorders is not only burdened by his condition but also by the stigma. The impact of stigma extremely influences society that it is considered to be the obstacle in mental disorders therapy. Stigma as the society adverse view toward severe mental disorders is related with the cultural aspect. The interaction appeared from each component of nursing model namely sunrise model, which a model developed by Madeleine Leininger is connected with the wide society views about severe mental disorders condition in society. Objective: The aim of this study was to analyze the factors related to public stigma and to find out the dominant factors related to public stigma about severe mental illness through sunrise model approach in Sukonolo Village, Malang Regency. Methods: This study using observational analytical design with cross sectional approach. There were 150 respondents contributed in this study. The respondents were obtained using purposive sampling technique. Results: The results showed a significant relationship between mass media exposure, spiritual well-being, interpersonal contact, attitude, and knowledge with public stigma about mental illness. The result from multiple logistic regression shows the low exposure of mass media has the highest OR value at 26.744. Conclusion: There were significant correlation between mass media exposure, spiritual well-being, interpersonal contact, attitude, and knowledge with public stigma toward mental illness. Mass media exposure as a dominant factor influencing public stigma toward mental illness.

  11. Mathematic Modeling of Experimental Results on the Influence of Technological Factors on Production in Some Energy Crops

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mona CRISTESCU

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available The present article, based on data obtained from a study which analyzed the influence of technological and ecological factors on rape plants (Brassica napus production capacity - the Bolero variety – approaches the model of linear regression and the model of the smallest squares. The experimental results were mathematically interpreted using the “variance analysis” method. The study shows that the yields and therefore the profit rate for the studied rapeseed variety was of up to 55, 05%, depending on the seeding density (in this case: 100 germinable seeds / m2 , level of fertilization, as well as on the pedo-climatic conditions of the area

  12. FACTORS INFLUENCING E-COMMERCE ADOPTION BY SMES INDONESIA: A CONCEPTUAL MODEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evi Triandini

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available E-commerce present different prospect to Small and Medium Sized Enterprises (SMEs andprovides benefits to SMEs. At this stage, there are a number of studies focused on SMEs indeveloped countries. For developing countries, the situation is quite different. Furthermore, thereis still limited number of researches on e-commerce adoption by SMEs in Indonesia. SMEs playa vital role in reducing the rate of poverty and unemployment in Indonesian economy. In 2009,micro, small and medium enterprises in Indonesia consist of 52.7 million units or 99.99% of thetotal business enterprises, and employ 96.21 million people or 97% of the total labor forces. SMEsin Indonesia faced internal and external problems. This study explores various factors influencinge-commerce adoption by SMEs in several countries and projecting it to Indonesia. Results showsthat there are a number of perceived opportunities presented by e-commerce adoption inIndonesia, i.e. extending market-reach and even global, increasing customer personalizeservices, and improving its competitiveness. Furthermore, this study also proposes six potentialfactors influenced the adoption of e-commerce by SMEs in Indonesia, i.e. perceived usefulness,perceived ease of use, relative advantage, perceived risk, perceived trust, and compatibility.

  13. East meets West: the influence of racial, ethnic and cultural risk factors on cardiac surgical risk model performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soo-Hoo, Sarah; Nemeth, Samantha; Baser, Onur; Argenziano, Michael; Kurlansky, Paul

    2018-01-01

    To explore the impact of racial and ethnic diversity on the performance of cardiac surgical risk models, the Chinese SinoSCORE was compared with the Society of Thoracic Surgeons (STS) risk model in a diverse American population. The SinoSCORE risk model was applied to 13 969 consecutive coronary artery bypass surgery patients from twelve American institutions. SinoSCORE risk factors were entered into a logistic regression to create a 'derived' SinoSCORE whose performance was compared with that of the STS risk model. Observed mortality was 1.51% (66% of that predicted by STS model). The SinoSCORE 'low-risk' group had a mortality of 0.15%±0.04%, while the medium-risk and high-risk groups had mortalities of 0.35%±0.06% and 2.13%±0.14%, respectively. The derived SinoSCORE model had a relatively good discrimination (area under of the curve (AUC)=0.785) compared with that of the STS risk score (AUC=0.811; P=0.18 comparing the two). However, specific factors that were significant in the original SinoSCORE but that lacked significance in our derived model included body mass index, preoperative atrial fibrillation and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. SinoSCORE demonstrated limited discrimination when applied to an American population. The derived SinoSCORE had a discrimination comparable with that of the STS, suggesting underlying similarities of physiological substrate undergoing surgery. However, differential influence of various risk factors suggests that there may be varying degrees of importance and interactions between risk factors. Clinicians should exercise caution when applying risk models across varying populations due to potential differences that racial, ethnic and geographic factors may play in cardiac disease and surgical outcomes.

  14. Modeling the influence of local environmental factors on malaria transmission in Benin and its implications for cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cottrell, Gilles; Kouwaye, Bienvenue; Pierrat, Charlotte; le Port, Agnès; Bouraïma, Aziz; Fonton, Noël; Hounkonnou, Mahouton Norbert; Massougbodji, Achille; Corbel, Vincent; Garcia, André

    2012-01-01

    Malaria remains endemic in tropical areas, especially in Africa. For the evaluation of new tools and to further our understanding of host-parasite interactions, knowing the environmental risk of transmission--even at a very local scale--is essential. The aim of this study was to assess how malaria transmission is influenced and can be predicted by local climatic and environmental factors.As the entomological part of a cohort study of 650 newborn babies in nine villages in the Tori Bossito district of Southern Benin between June 2007 and February 2010, human landing catches were performed to assess the density of malaria vectors and transmission intensity. Climatic factors as well as household characteristics were recorded throughout the study. Statistical correlations between Anopheles density and environmental and climatic factors were tested using a three-level Poisson mixed regression model. The results showed both temporal variations in vector density (related to season and rainfall), and spatial variations at the level of both village and house. These spatial variations could be largely explained by factors associated with the house's immediate surroundings, namely soil type, vegetation index and the proximity of a watercourse. Based on these results, a predictive regression model was developed using a leave-one-out method, to predict the spatiotemporal variability of malaria transmission in the nine villages.This study points up the importance of local environmental factors in malaria transmission and describes a model to predict the transmission risk of individual children, based on environmental and behavioral characteristics.

  15. Influencing Mechanism of Potential Factors on Passengers’ Long-Distance Travel Mode Choices Based on Structural Equation Modeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yun Wang

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Understanding the public transportation users’ preferences to long-distance travel modes would contribute to reasonable developing policies and resource allocation. This paper aims to explore the influencing mechanism of potential factors on the long-distance travel mode choice. A survey was conducted to collect the data. The analysis of variance (ANOVA approach was applied to analyze the correlation relationship between potential factors and travel mode choice behavior. The results showed that, except gender, service demand for safety and departure time, all of the other factors significantly influenced the travel mode choice behavior. Specifically, passengers with higher education level and income level were more likely to choose high-speed railway (HSR and plane; passengers caring about travel expense were more likely to choose ordinary train, whereas plane and HSR may be chosen more by passengers caring more about comfort, punctuality and efficiency; the more passengers were satisfied with travel modes’ service performance, the more they would be likely to choose them; the most competitive distance ranges for coach, ordinary train, HSR and plane were below 500 km, 500–1000 km, 500–1500 km and over 1500 km, respectively. Besides, the structural equation modeling (SEM technique was applied to investigate the influencing mechanism of factors on the long-distance travel mode choice. The results revealed that travel distance was the most significant variable directly influencing passengers’ mode choices, followed by the service demand, performance evaluation, and personal attributes. Furthermore, personal attributes were verified to have an indirect effect on travel mode choice behavior by significantly affecting the service demand and performance evaluation.

  16. Modeling and Finite Element Analysis of Load-Carrying Performance of a Wind Turbine Considering the Influence of Assembly Factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianmei Wang

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available In this work, a wind turbine shrink disk is used as the research object to investigate load-carrying performance of a multi-layer interference fit, and the theoretical model and finite element model are constructed. According to those models, a MW-level turbine shrink disk is designed, and a test device is developed to apply torque to this turbine shrink disk by hydraulic jack. Then, the circumferential slip between the contact surfaces is monitored and the slip of all contact surfaces is zero. This conclusion verifies the reasonability of the proposed models. The effect of the key influencing factors, such as machining deviation, assembly clearance and propel stroke, were analyzed. The contact pressure and load torque of the mating surfaces were obtained by building typical models with different parameters using finite element analysis (FEA. The results show that the minimum assembly clearance and the machining deviation within the machining range have little influence on load-carrying performance of multi-layer interference fit, while having a greater influence on the maximum assembly clearance and the propel stroke. The results also show that the load-carrying performance of a multiple-layer interference fit can be ensured only if the key factors are set within a reasonable design range. To avoid the abnormal operation of equipment caused by insufficient load torque, the propel stroke during practical assembly should be at least 0.95 times the designed propel stroke, which is significant in guiding the design and assembly of the multi-layer interference fit.

  17. Modelling studies for influence factors of gas bubble in compressed air energy storage in aquifers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo, Chaobin; Zhang, Keni; Li, Cai; Wang, Xiaoyu

    2016-01-01

    CAES (Compressed air energy storage) is credited with its potential ability for large-scale energy storage. Generally, it is more convenient using deep aquifers than employing underground caverns for energy storage, because of extensive presence of aquifers. During the first stage in a typical process of CAESA (compressed air energy storage in aquifers), a large amount of compressed air is injected into the target aquifer to develop an initial space (a gas bubble) for energy storage. In this study, numerical simulations were conducted to investigate the influence of aquifer's permeability, geological structure and operation parameters on the formation of gas bubble and the sustainability for the later cycling operation. The SCT (system cycle times) was designed as a parameter to evaluate the reservoir performance and the effect of operation parameters. Simulation results for pressure and gas saturation results of basic model confirm the feasibility of compressed air energy storage in aquifers. The results of different permeability cases show that, for a certain scale of CAESA system, there is an optimum permeability range for a candidate aquifer. An aquifer within this permeability range will not only satisfy the injectivity requirement but also have the best energy efficiency. Structural impact analysis indicates that the anticline structure has the best performance to hold the bubble under the same daily cycling schedule with the same initial injected air mass. In addition, our results indicate that the SCT shows a logarithmic growth as the injected air mass increase. During the formation of gas bubble, compressed air should be injected into aquifers with moderate rate and the injection can be done in several stages with different injection rate to avoid onset pressure. - Highlights: • Impact of permeability, geological structure, operation parameters was investigated. • With certain air production rate, an optimum permeability exists for performance.

  18. Factors influencing plant invasiveness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yvette Ortega; Dean Pearson

    2009-01-01

    Invasiveness of spotted knapweed and biological control agents. Dean and Yvette are examining the influence of drought on the invasiveness of spotted knapweed (Centaurea maculosa) and its susceptibility to herbivory by biological control agents. In collaboration with the University of Montana and Forest Health Protection, researchers have constructed 150...

  19. Factors influencing the occupational injuries of physical therapists in Taiwan: A hierarchical linear model approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Yu-Hui; Wu, Yu-Lung; Huang, Wan-Yun

    2017-01-01

    The evidence literature suggests that physical therapy practitioners are subjected to a high probability of acquiring work-related injuries, but only a few studies have specifically investigated Taiwanese physical therapy practitioners. This study was conducted to determine the relationships among individual and group hospital-level factors that contribute to the medical expenses for the occupational injuries of physical therapy practitioners in Taiwan. Physical therapy practitioners in Taiwan with occupational injuries were selected from the 2013 National Health Insurance Research Databases (NHIRD). The age, gender, job title, hospitals attributes, and outpatient data of physical therapy practitioners who sustained an occupational injury in 2013 were obtained with SAS 9.3. SPSS 20.0 and HLM 7.01 were used to conduct descriptive and hierarchical linear model analyses, respectively. The job title of physical therapy practitioners at the individual level and the hospital type at the group level exert positive effects on per person medical expenses. Hospital hierarchy moderates the individual-level relationships of age and job title with the per person medical expenses. Considering that age, job title, and hospital hierarchy affect medical expenses for the occupational injuries of physical therapy practitioners, we suggest strengthening related safety education and training and elevating the self-awareness of the risk of occupational injuries of physical therapy practitioners to reduce and prevent the occurrence of such injuries.

  20. An innovation diffusion model of a local electricity network that is influenced by internal and external factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hattam, Laura; Greetham, Danica Vukadinović

    2018-01-01

    Haynes et al. (1977) derived a nonlinear differential equation to determine the spread of innovations within a social network across space and time. This model depends upon the imitators and the innovators within the social system, where the imitators respond to internal influences, whilst the innovators react to external factors. Here, this differential equation is applied to simulate the uptake of a low-carbon technology (LCT) within a real local electricity network that is situated in the UK. This network comprises of many households that are assigned to certain feeders. Firstly, travelling wave solutions of Haynes' model are used to predict adoption times as a function of the imitation and innovation influences. Then, the grid that represents the electricity network is created so that the finite element method (FEM) can be implemented. Next, innovation diffusion is modelled with Haynes' equation and the FEM, where varying magnitudes of the internal and external pressures are imposed. Consequently, the impact of these model parameters is investigated. Moreover, LCT adoption trajectories at fixed feeder locations are calculated, which give a macroscopic understanding of the uptake behaviour at specific network sites. Lastly, the adoption of LCTs at a household level is examined, where microscopic and macroscopic approaches are combined.

  1. Factors influencing adoption of farm management practices in three agrobiodiversity hotspots in India: an analysis using the Count Data Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prabhakaran T. Raghu

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Sustainable agricultural practices require, among other factors, adoption of improved nutrient management techniques, pest mitigation technology and soil conservation measures. Such improved management practices can be tools for enhancing crop productivity. Data on micro-level farm management practices from developing countries is either scarce or unavailable, despite the importance of their policy implications with regard to resource allocation. The present study investigates adoption of some farm management practices and factors influencing the adoption behavior of farm households in three agrobiodiversity hotspots in India: Kundra block in the Koraput district of Odisha, Meenangadi panchayat in the Wayanad district of Kerala and Kolli Hills in the Namakkal district of Tamil Nadu. Information on farm management practices was collected from November 2011 to February 2012 from 3845 households, of which the data from 2726 farm households was used for analysis. The three most popular farm management practices adopted by farmers include: application of chemical fertilizers, farm yard manure and green manure for managing nutrients; application of chemical pesticides, inter-cropping and mixed cropping for mitigating pests; and contour bunds, grass bunds and trenches for soil conservation. A Negative Binomial count data regression model was used to estimate factors influencing decision-making by farmers on farm management practices. The regression results indicate that farmers who received information from agricultural extension are statistically significant and positively related to the adoption of farm management practices. Another key finding shows the negative relationship between cultivation of local varieties and adoption of farm management practices.

  2. Factors Influencing Implementation of OHSAS 18001 in Indian Construction Organizations: Interpretive Structural Modeling Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunku Venkata Siva Rajaprasad

    2015-09-01

    Conclusion: Management commitment has the maximum driving power and the most influential factor is safety policy, which states clearly the commitment of top management towards occupational safety and health.

  3. Modelling nutrient concentration to determine the environmental factors influencing grass quality

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Dudeni-Tlhone, N

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper uses the spatial and the least squares (Analysis of Covariance-ANCOVA) regression methods to evaluate the important environmental factors in estimating quality grass for grazing (based on the nitrogen (N) content in grass...

  4. Modeling the influence of local environmental factors on malaria transmission in Benin and its implications for cohort study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilles Cottrell

    Full Text Available Malaria remains endemic in tropical areas, especially in Africa. For the evaluation of new tools and to further our understanding of host-parasite interactions, knowing the environmental risk of transmission--even at a very local scale--is essential. The aim of this study was to assess how malaria transmission is influenced and can be predicted by local climatic and environmental factors.As the entomological part of a cohort study of 650 newborn babies in nine villages in the Tori Bossito district of Southern Benin between June 2007 and February 2010, human landing catches were performed to assess the density of malaria vectors and transmission intensity. Climatic factors as well as household characteristics were recorded throughout the study. Statistical correlations between Anopheles density and environmental and climatic factors were tested using a three-level Poisson mixed regression model. The results showed both temporal variations in vector density (related to season and rainfall, and spatial variations at the level of both village and house. These spatial variations could be largely explained by factors associated with the house's immediate surroundings, namely soil type, vegetation index and the proximity of a watercourse. Based on these results, a predictive regression model was developed using a leave-one-out method, to predict the spatiotemporal variability of malaria transmission in the nine villages.This study points up the importance of local environmental factors in malaria transmission and describes a model to predict the transmission risk of individual children, based on environmental and behavioral characteristics.

  5. Factors Influencing of Social Conflict

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suwandi Sumartias

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Social conflicts that occur in several areas in Indonesia lately, one of them is caused by the weakness of law certainty. This is feared to threaten the integration of the Republic of Indonesia. This study aims to determine the factors that affect social conflict in Manis Lor village in Kuningan district. The method used the explanatory quantitative methods, the statistical test Path Analysis. The study population was a formal and informal community leaders (village chief, clergy, and youth, and the people who involved in a conflict in Manis Lor village Kuningan regency. The result shows a There is no significant influence between social identity factors with social conflict anarchist. b There is significant influence between socio-economic factors with social conflict anarchists. c There is no significant influence between the credibility factor anarchist leaders with social conflict. d There is no significant influence between the motive factor with anarchist social conflict. e There is significant influence between personality factors/beliefs with anarchist social conflict. f There is significant influence of behavioral factors anarchist communication with social conflict.

  6. MODELLING OF THE RISK FACTORS AND CHRONIC DISEASESTHAT INFLUENCE THE DEVELOPMENT OF SERIOUS HEALTHCOMPLICATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maja Atanasijević-Kunc

    2008-08-01

    For a quantitative evaluation of the mentioned patient groups, the age distribution andan estimation of the treatment expenses a dynamic mathematical model was developed,where special attention was devoted to its structure, as it should enable the sequentialconstruction and representation of different forms of data information. The model wasrealized in the Matlab program package with the Simulink Toolbox.

  7. Dynamics Modelling of Transmission Gear Rattle and Analysis on Influence Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Xiaona; Zhang, Honghui

    2018-02-01

    Based on the vibration dynamics modeling for the single stage gear of transmission system, this paper is to understand the mechanism of transmission rattle. The dynamic model response using MATLAB and Runge-Kutta algorithm is analyzed, and the ways for reducing the rattle noise of the automotive transmission is summarized.

  8. Factors influencing the renal arterial Doppler waveform: a simulation study using an electrical circuit model (secondary publication)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sung, Chang Kyu [Dept. of Radiology, SMG-SNU Boramae Medical Center, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Han, Bong Soo [Dept. of Radiological Science, College of Health Science, Yonsei University, Wonju (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Seung Hyup [Dept. of Radiology, Institute of Radiation Medicine, Seoul National University Hospital, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-01-15

    The goal of this study was to evaluate the effect of vascular compliance, resistance, and pulse rate on the resistive index (RI) by using an electrical circuit model to simulate renal blood flow. In order to analyze the renal arterial Doppler waveform, we modeled the renal blood-flow circuit with an equivalent simple electrical circuit containing resistance, inductance, and capacitance. The relationships among the impedance, resistance, and compliance of the circuit were derived from well-known equations, including Kirchhoff’s current law for alternating current circuits. Simulated velocity-time profiles for pulsatile flow were generated using Mathematica (Wolfram Research) and the influence of resistance, compliance, and pulse rate on waveforms and the RI was evaluated. Resistance and compliance were found to alter the waveforms independently. The impedance of the circuit increased with increasing proximal compliance, proximal resistance, and distal resistance. The impedance decreased with increasing distal compliance. The RI of the circuit decreased with increasing proximal compliance and resistance. The RI increased with increasing distal compliance and resistance. No positive correlation between impedance and the RI was found. Pulse rate was found to be an extrinsic factor that also influenced the RI. This simulation study using an electrical circuit model led to a better understanding of the renal arterial Doppler waveform and the RI, which may be useful for interpreting Doppler findings in various clinical settings.

  9. Factors influencing the renal arterial Doppler waveform: a simulation study using an electrical circuit model (secondary publication)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sung, Chang Kyu; Han, Bong Soo; Kim, Seung Hyup

    2016-01-01

    The goal of this study was to evaluate the effect of vascular compliance, resistance, and pulse rate on the resistive index (RI) by using an electrical circuit model to simulate renal blood flow. In order to analyze the renal arterial Doppler waveform, we modeled the renal blood-flow circuit with an equivalent simple electrical circuit containing resistance, inductance, and capacitance. The relationships among the impedance, resistance, and compliance of the circuit were derived from well-known equations, including Kirchhoff’s current law for alternating current circuits. Simulated velocity-time profiles for pulsatile flow were generated using Mathematica (Wolfram Research) and the influence of resistance, compliance, and pulse rate on waveforms and the RI was evaluated. Resistance and compliance were found to alter the waveforms independently. The impedance of the circuit increased with increasing proximal compliance, proximal resistance, and distal resistance. The impedance decreased with increasing distal compliance. The RI of the circuit decreased with increasing proximal compliance and resistance. The RI increased with increasing distal compliance and resistance. No positive correlation between impedance and the RI was found. Pulse rate was found to be an extrinsic factor that also influenced the RI. This simulation study using an electrical circuit model led to a better understanding of the renal arterial Doppler waveform and the RI, which may be useful for interpreting Doppler findings in various clinical settings

  10. Factors influencing pursuit of hearing evaluation: Enhancing the health belief model with perceived burden from hearing loss on communication partners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulz, Kristine A; Modeste, Naomi; Lee, Jerry; Roberts, Rhonda; Saunders, Gabrielle H; Witsell, David L

    2016-07-01

    There is limited application of health behavior-based theoretical models in hearing healthcare, yet other fields utilizing these models have shown their value in affecting behavior change. The health belief model (HBM) has demonstrated appropriateness for hearing research. This study assessed factors that influence an individual with suspected hearing loss to pursue clinical evaluation, with a focus on perceived burden of hearing loss on communication partners, using the HBM as a framework. Cross-sectional design collecting demographics along with three validated hearing-loss related questionnaires. Patients from Duke University Medical Center Otolaryngology Clinic aged 55-75 years who indicated a communication partner had expressed concern about their hearing. A final sample of 413 completed questionnaire sets was achieved. The HBM model construct 'cues to action' was a significant (p loss on communication partners was a significant (p model fit when added to the HBM: 72.0% correct prediction when burden is added versus 66.6% when not (p models in hearing healthcare is warranted.

  11. How to introduce medical ethics at the bedside - Factors influencing the implementation of an ethical decision-making model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer-Zehnder, Barbara; Albisser Schleger, Heidi; Tanner, Sabine; Schnurrer, Valentin; Vogt, Deborah R; Reiter-Theil, Stella; Pargger, Hans

    2017-02-23

    As the implementation of new approaches and procedures of medical ethics is as complex and resource-consuming as in other fields, strategies and activities must be carefully planned to use the available means and funds responsibly. Which facilitators and barriers influence the implementation of a medical ethics decision-making model in daily routine? Up to now, there has been little examination of these factors in this field. A medical ethics decision-making model called METAP was introduced on three intensive care units and two geriatric wards. An evaluation study was performed from 7 months after deployment of the project until two and a half years. Quantitative and qualitative methods including a questionnaire, semi-structured face-to-face and group-interviews were used. Sixty-three participants from different professional groups took part in 33 face-to-face and 9 group interviews, and 122 questionnaires could be analysed. The facilitating factors most frequently mentioned were: acceptance and presence of the model, support given by the medical and nursing management, an existing or developing (explicit) ethics culture, perception of a need for a medical ethics decision-making model, and engaged staff members. Lack of presence and acceptance, insufficient time resources and staff, poor inter-professional collaboration, absence of ethical competence, and not recognizing ethical problems were identified as inhibiting the implementation of the METAP model. However, the results of the questionnaire as well as of explicit inquiry showed that the respondents stated to have had enough time and staff available to use METAP if necessary. Facilitators and barriers of the implementation of a medical ethics decision-making model are quite similar to that of medical guidelines. The planning for implementing an ethics model or guideline can, therefore, benefit from the extensive literature and experience concerning the implementation of medical guidelines. Lack of time and

  12. Water Use Efficiency and Its Influencing Factors in China: Based on the Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA—Tobit Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuqiao Wang

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Water resources are important and irreplaceable natural and economic resources. Achieving a balance between economic prosperity and protection of water resource environments is a major issue in China. This article develops a data envelopment analysis (DEA approach with undesirable outputs by using Seiford’s linear converting method to estimate water use efficiencies for 30 provinces in China, from 2008–2016,and then analyzes the influencing factors while using a DEA-Tobit model. The findings show that the overall water use efficiency of the measured Chinese provinces, when considering sewage emissions as the undesirable output, is 0.582. Thus, most regions still need improvement. Provinces with the highest water efficiency are located in economically developed Eastern China. The spatial pattern of water use efficiency in China is consistent with the general pattern of regional economic development. This study implies that factors like export dependence, technical progress, and educational value have a positive influence on water use efficiency. Further, while industrial structure has had a negative impact, government intervention has had little impact on water use efficiency. These research results will provide a scientific basis for the government to make plans for water resource development, and it may be helpful in improving regional sustainable development.

  13. Sexual risk behavior among youth: modeling the influence of prosocial activities and socioeconomic factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramirez-Valles, J; Zimmerman, M A; Newcomb, M D

    1998-09-01

    Sexual activity among high-school-aged youths has steadily increased since the 1970s, emerging as a significant public health concern. Yet, patterns of youth sexual risk behavior are shaped by social class, race, and gender. Based on sociological theories of financial deprivation and collective socialization, we develop and test a model of the relationships among neighborhood poverty; family structure and social class position; parental involvement; prosocial activities; race; and gender as they predict youth sexual risk behavior. We employ structural equation modeling to test this model on a cross-sectional sample of 370 sexually active high-school students from a midwestern city; 57 percent (n = 209) are males and 86 percent are African American. We find that family structure indirectly predicts sexual risk behavior through neighborhood poverty, parental involvement, and prosocial activities. In addition, family class position indirectly predicts sexual risk behavior through neighborhood poverty and prosocial activities. We address implications for theory and health promotion.

  14. Factors Influencing College Women's Contraceptive Behavior: An Application of the Integrative Model of Behavioral Prediction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutton, Jazmyne A.; Walsh-Buhi, Eric R.

    2017-01-01

    Objective: This study investigated variables within the Integrative Model of Behavioral Prediction (IMBP) as well as differences across socioeconomic status (SES) levels within the context of inconsistent contraceptive use among college women. Participants: A nonprobability sample of 515 female college students completed an Internet-based survey…

  15. Factors influencing sorption of ciprofloxacin onto activated sludge: Experimental assessment and modelling implications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Polesel, Fabio; Lehnberg, Kai; Dott, Wolfgang

    2015-01-01

    was registered under anaerobic conditions. The activated sludge model for xenobiotics (ASM-X) was extended with Freundlich-based sorption kinetics and used to predict the fate of ciprofloxacin in a wastewater treatment plant (WWTP). Scenario simulations, using experimental Freundlich parameters, were used...

  16. Child′s dental fear: Cause related factors and the influence of audiovisual modeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jayanthi Mungara

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Delivery of effective dental treatment to a child patient requires thorough knowledge to recognize dental fear and its management by the application of behavioral management techniques. Children′s Fear Survey Schedule - Dental Subscale (CFSS-DS helps in identification of specific stimuli which provoke fear in children with regard to dental situation. Audiovisual modeling can be successfully used in pediatric dental practice. Aim: To assess the degree of fear provoked by various stimuli in the dental office and to evaluate the effect of audiovisual modeling on dental fear of children using CFSS-DS. Materials and Methods: Ninety children were divided equally into experimental (group I and control (group II groups and were assessed in two visits for their degree of fear and the effect of audiovisual modeling, with the help of CFSS-DS. Results: The most fear-provoking stimulus for children was injection and the least was to open the mouth and having somebody look at them. There was no statistically significant difference in the overall mean CFSS-DS scores between the two groups during the initial session (P > 0.05. However, in the final session, a statistically significant difference was observed in the overall mean fear scores between the groups (P < 0.01. Significant improvement was seen in group I, while no significant change was noted in case of group II. Conclusion: Audiovisual modeling resulted in a significant reduction of overall fear as well as specific fear in relation to most of the items. A significant reduction of fear toward dentists, doctors in general, injections, being looked at, the sight, sounds, and act of the dentist drilling, and having the nurse clean their teeth was observed.

  17. Factors influencing the parameterization of anvil clouds within general circulation models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leone, J.M. Jr.; Chin, H.N.

    1994-01-01

    The overall goal of this project is to improve the representation of clouds and their effects within global climate models (GCMs). We have concentrated on a small portion of the overall goal, the evolution of convectively generated cirrus clouds and their effects on the large-scale environment. Because of the large range of time and length scales involved, we have been using a multi-scale attack. For the early time generation and development of the cirrus anvil, we are using a cloud-scale model with horizontal resolution of 1 to 2 kilometers; for the larger scale transport by the larger scale flow, we are using a mesoscale model with a horizontal resolution of 20 to 60 kilometers. The eventual goal is to use the information obtained from these simulations, together with available observations, to derive improved cloud parameterizations for use in GCMs. This paper presents a new tool, a cirrus generator, that we have developed to aid in our mesoscale studies

  18. Modeling a hierarchical structure of factors influencing exploitation policy for water distribution systems using ISM approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jasiulewicz-Kaczmarek, Małgorzata; Wyczółkowski, Ryszard; Gładysiak, Violetta

    2017-12-01

    Water distribution systems are one of the basic elements of contemporary technical infrastructure of urban and rural areas. It is a complex engineering system composed of transmission networks and auxiliary equipment (e.g. controllers, checkouts etc.), scattered territorially over a large area. From the water distribution system operation point of view, its basic features are: functional variability, resulting from the need to adjust the system to temporary fluctuations in demand for water and territorial dispersion. The main research questions are: What external factors should be taken into account when developing an effective water distribution policy? Does the size and nature of the water distribution system significantly affect the exploitation policy implemented? These questions have shaped the objectives of research and the method of research implementation.

  19. Modelling the factors that influence Generation Y students' attitudes towards advertising in the facebook environment / Hilda Bongazana Dondolo

    OpenAIRE

    Dondolo, Hilda Bongazana

    2014-01-01

    Previous research has provided insights into factors influencing attitudes toward advertising in general, and those factors influencing attitudes toward advertising in a particular medium. However, attitudes towards Facebook advertising, especially those of Generation Y, have received relatively little research attention, especially in the South African context. The Generation Y cohort (individuals born between 1986 and 2005) are heavy users of Facebook, and access the site on a daily basis. ...

  20. Model of T-Type Fracture in Coal Fracturing and Analysis of Influence Factors of Fracture Morphology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuwei Li

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Special T-type fractures can be formed when coal is hydraulically fractured and there is currently no relevant theoretical model to calculate and describe them. This paper first establishes the height calculation model of vertical fractures in multi-layered formations and deduces the stress intensity factor (SIF at the upper and lower sides of the fracture in the process of vertical fracture extension. Combined with the fracture tip stress analysis method of fracture mechanics theory, the horizontal bedding is taken into account for tensile and shear failure, and the critical mechanical conditions for the formation of horizontal fracture in coal are obtained. Finally, the model of T-type fracture in coal fracturing is established, and it is verified by fracturing simulation experiments. The model calculation result shows that the increase of vertical fracture height facilitates the increase of horizontal fracture length. The fracture toughness of coal has a significant influence on the length of horizontal fracture and there is a threshold. When the fracture toughness is less than the threshold, the length of horizontal fracture remains unchanged, otherwise, the length of horizontal fracture increases rapidly with the increase of fracture toughness. When the shear strength of the interface between the coalbed and the interlayer increases, the length of the horizontal fracture of the T-type fracture rapidly decreases.

  1. ENERGY EFFICIENCY. TRENDS AND INFLUENCE FACTORS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zizi GOSCHIN

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Energy efficiency is correlated with many factors of influence: Gross National Income per capita, energy imports (% of energy use, renewable combustible and waste (% of total, energy use per capita, services as % of GDP and others. In this paper we are testing a model of piecewise linear regression with breakpoint in order to measure the influence of these factors on the variation of GDP per unit of energy use in Europe in the year 2003.

  2. A model for analysing factors which may influence quality management procedures in higher education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cătălin MAICAN

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In all universities, the Office for Quality Assurance defines the procedure for assessing the performance of the teaching staff, with a view to establishing students’ perception as regards the teachers’ activity from the point of view of the quality of the teaching process, of the relationship with the students and of the assistance provided for learning. The present paper aims at creating a combined model for evaluation, based on Data Mining statistical methods: starting from the findings revealed by the evaluations teachers performed to students, using the cluster analysis and the discriminant analysis, we identified the subjects which produced significant differences between students’ grades, subjects which were subsequently subjected to an evaluation by students. The results of these analyses allowed the formulation of certain measures for enhancing the quality of the evaluation process.

  3. Factors influencing women's decisions to purchase specific ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    aimed at identifying the factors that influence women's decisions to purchase specific .... influence of all the factors influencing their decision to purchase a selected .... one free” promotions seemed to have had the greatest influence on this ...

  4. [Multivariate and multilevel model analysis on factors that influencing the literacy of health among high school students in Guangdong province].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Xiao-hua; Xu, Ya; Zhou, Shu-dong; Gao, Yan-hui; Li, Yan-fen

    2011-09-01

    To analyze the awareness on health among high school students and its influencing factors in Guangdong. Multi-stage sampling and questionnaire "2009 health awareness survey of the Chinese citizens" developed by our Department of Health, were used. Data were analyzed by multivariate multilevel model under MLwinN 2.19 software. The mean scores on knowledge and ideas, behaviors and related skills among 1606 high school students of Guangdong province, were 69.08 ± 14.81, 60.05 ± 16.85 and 74.99 ± 21.17 respectively. Three items on health showed that they all related to each other and relations between grades (0.972, 0.715 and 0.855) were greater than the individuals (0.565, 0.426 and 0.438). Factors as students from outside the Pearl River Delta region or from the rural areas, being male, at general secondary schools, at grade one, with poor academic performance and more pocket money etc., had lower levels on those related information of health.

  5. FACTORS INFLUENCING SECOND LANGUAGE ACQUISITION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siti Khasinah

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Motivation, attitude, age, intelligence, aptitude, cognitive style, and personality are considered as factors that greatly influence someone in the process of his or her second language acquisition. Experts state that those factors give a more dominant contribution in SLA to learners variedly, depend on who the learners are, their age, how they behave toward the language, their cognitive ability, and also the way they learn.

  6. Cognitive modeling and dynamic probabilistic simulation of operating crew response to complex system accidents. Part 2: IDAC performance influencing factors model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, Y.H.J.; Mosleh, A.

    2007-01-01

    This is the second in a series of five papers describing the information, decision, and action in crew context (IDAC) model for human reliability analysis. An example application of this modeling technique is also discussed in this series. The model is developed to probabilistically predict the responses of the nuclear power plant control room operating crew in accident conditions. The operator response spectrum includes cognitive, psychological, and physical activities during the course of an accident. This paper identifies the IDAC set of performance influencing factors (PIFs), providing their definitions and causal organization in the form of a modular influence diagram. Fifty PIFs are identified to support the IDAC model to be implemented in a computer simulation environment. They are classified into eleven hierarchically structured groups. The PIFs within each group are independent to each other; however, dependencies may exist between PIFs within different groups. The supporting evidence for the selection and organization of the influence paths based on psychological literature, observations, and various human reliability analysis methodologies is also indicated

  7. Factors influencing bone scan quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adams, F.G.; Shirley, A.W.

    1983-01-01

    A reliable subjective method of assessing bone scan quality is described. A large number of variables which theoretically could influence scan quality were submitted to regression and factor analysis. Obesity, age, sex and abnormality of scan were found to be significant but weak variables. (orig.)

  8. Key Factors Influencing the Energy Absorption of Dual-Phase Steels: Multiscale Material Model Approach and Microstructural Optimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belgasam, Tarek M.; Zbib, Hussein M.

    2018-06-01

    The increase in use of dual-phase (DP) steel grades by vehicle manufacturers to enhance crash resistance and reduce body car weight requires the development of a clear understanding of the effect of various microstructural parameters on the energy absorption in these materials. Accordingly, DP steelmakers are interested in predicting the effect of various microscopic factors as well as optimizing microstructural properties for application in crash-relevant components of vehicle bodies. This study presents a microstructure-based approach using a multiscale material and structure model. In this approach, Digimat and LS-DYNA software were coupled and employed to provide a full micro-macro multiscale material model, which is then used to simulate tensile tests. Microstructures with varied ferrite grain sizes, martensite volume fractions, and carbon content in DP steels were studied. The impact of these microstructural features at different strain rates on energy absorption characteristics of DP steels is investigated numerically using an elasto-viscoplastic constitutive model. The model is implemented in a multiscale finite-element framework. A comprehensive statistical parametric study using response surface methodology is performed to determine the optimum microstructural features for a required tensile toughness at different strain rates. The simulation results are validated using experimental data found in the literature. The developed methodology proved to be effective for investigating the influence and interaction of key microscopic properties on the energy absorption characteristics of DP steels. Furthermore, it is shown that this method can be used to identify optimum microstructural conditions at different strain-rate conditions.

  9. Physiological factors influencing capillary growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egginton, S

    2011-07-01

    (1) Angiogenesis (growth of new capillaries from an existing capillary bed) may result from a mismatch in microvascular supply and metabolic demand (metabolic error signal). Krogh examined the distribution and number of capillaries to explore the correlation between O(2) delivery and O(2) consumption. Subsequently, the heterogeneity in angiogenic response within a muscle has been shown to reflect either differences in fibre type composition or mechanical load. However, local control leads to targetted angiogenesis in the vicinity of glycolytic fibre types following muscle stimulation, or oxidative fibres following endurance training, while heterogeneity of capillary spacing is maintained during ontogenetic growth. (2) Despite limited microscopy resolution and lack of specific markers, Krogh's interest in the structure of the capillary wall paved the way for understanding the mechanisms of capillary growth. Angiogenesis may be influenced by the response of perivascular or stromal cells (fibroblasts, macrophages and pericytes) to altered activity, likely acting as a source for chemical signals modulating capillary growth such as vascular endothelial growth factor. In addition, haemodynamic factors such as shear stress and muscle stretch play a significant role in adaptive remodelling of the microcirculation. (3) Most indices of capillarity are highly dependent on fibre size, resulting in possible bias because of scaling. To examine the consequences of capillary distribution, it is therefore helpful to quantify the area of tissue supplied by individual capillaries. This allows the spatial limitations inherent in most models of tissue oxygenation to be overcome generating an alternative approach to Krogh's tissue cylinder, the capillary domain, to improve descriptions of intracellular oxygen diffusion. © 2010 The Author. Acta Physiologica © 2010 Scandinavian Physiological Society.

  10. What factors influence mitigative capacity?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winkler, Harald; Baumert, Kevin; Blanchard, Odile; Burch, Sarah; Robinson, John

    2007-01-01

    This article builds on Yohe's seminal piece on mitigative capacity, which elaborates 'determinants' of mitigative capacity, also reflected in the IPCC's third assessment report. We propose a revised definition, where mitigative capacity is a country's ability to reduce anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions or enhance natural sinks. By 'ability' we mean skills, competencies, fitness, and proficiencies that a country has attained which can contribute to GHG emissions mitigation. A conceptual framework is proposed, linking mitigative capacity to a country's sustainable development path, and grouping the factors influencing mitigative capacity into three main sets: economic factors, institutional ones, and technology. Both quantitative and qualitative analysis of factors is presented, showing how these factors vary across countries. We suggest that it is the interplay between the three economic factors-income, abatement cost and opportunity cost-that shape mitigative capacity. We find that income is an important economic factor influencing mitigative capacity, while abatement cost is important in turning mitigative capacity into actual mitigation. Technology is a critical mitigative capacity, including the ability to absorb existing climate-friendly technologies or to develop innovative ones. Institutional factors that promote mitigative capacity include the effectiveness of government regulation, clear market rules, a skilled work force and public awareness. We briefly investigate such as high abatement cost or lack of political willingness that prevent mitigative capacity from being translated into mitigation

  11. Factors influencing the productivity of irrigated crops in Southern Peru, in relation to prediction by simulation models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Versteeg, M.N.

    1985-01-01

    The objective of the study was to determine the growth potential of alfalfa, potato, Rhodes grass and maize in the irrigated desert of S. Peru, as at that production level the highest utilization efficiency of irrigation water is usually obtained. Important growth- influencing factors were

  12. Modelling-based identification of factors influencing campylobacters in chicken broiler houses and on carcasses sampled after processing and chilling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutchison, M L; Taylor, M J; Tchòrzewska, M A; Ford, G; Madden, R H; Knowles, T G

    2017-05-01

    To identify production and processing practices that might reduce Campylobacter numbers contaminating chicken broiler carcasses. The numbers of campylobacters were determined on carcass neck skins after processing or in broiler house litter samples. Supplementary information that described farm layouts, farming conditions for individual flocks, the slaughterhouse layouts and operating conditions inside plants was collected, matched with each Campylobacter test result. Statistical models predicting the numbers of campylobacters on neck skins and in litter were constructed. Carcass microbial contamination was more strongly influenced by on-farm production practices compared with slaughterhouse activities. We observed correlations between the chilling, washing and defeathering stages of processing and the numbers of campylobacters on carcasses. There were factors on farm that also correlated with numbers of campylobacters in litter. These included bird gender, the exclusion of dogs from houses, beetle presence in the house litter and the materials used to construct the house frame. Changes in farming practices have greater potential for reducing chicken carcass microbial contamination compared with processing interventions. Routine commercial practices were identified that were correlated with lowered numbers of campylobacters. Consequently, these practices are likely to be both cost-effective and suitable for adoption into established farms and commercial processing. © 2017 The Authors. Journal of Applied Microbiology published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Society for Applied Microbiology.

  13. Critical factors influencing physicians' intention to use computerized clinical practice guidelines: an integrative model of activity theory and the technology acceptance model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsiao, Ju-Ling; Chen, Rai-Fu

    2016-01-16

    With the widespread use of information communication technologies, computerized clinical practice guidelines are developed and considered as effective decision supporting tools in assisting the processes of clinical activities. However, the development of computerized clinical practice guidelines in Taiwan is still at the early stage and acceptance level among major users (physicians) of computerized clinical practice guidelines is not satisfactory. This study aims to investigate critical factors influencing physicians' intention to computerized clinical practice guideline use through an integrative model of activity theory and the technology acceptance model. The survey methodology was employed to collect data from physicians of the investigated hospitals that have implemented computerized clinical practice guidelines. A total of 505 questionnaires were sent out, with 238 completed copies returned, indicating a valid response rate of 47.1 %. The collected data was then analyzed by structural equation modeling technique. The results showed that attitudes toward using computerized clinical practice guidelines (γ = 0.451, p technology) factors mentioned in the activity theory should be carefully considered when introducing computerized clinical practice guidelines. Managers should pay much attention on those identified factors and provide adequate resources and incentives to help the promotion and use of computerized clinical practice guidelines. Through the appropriate use of computerized clinical practice guidelines, the clinical benefits, particularly in improving quality of care and facilitating the clinical processes, will be realized.

  14. Factors influencing transfection efficiency of pIDUA/nanoemulsion complexes in a mucopolysaccharidosis type I murine model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fraga M

    2017-03-01

    caused by the treatment. The data set obtained in this study allowed establishing that factors such as dose and time can influence transfection efficiency in different degrees and that these complexes did not lead to any lethal effect in the MPS I murine model used. Keywords: cationic nanoemulsions, DSPE-PEG, MPS I, plasmid, pIDUA

  15. Factors Influencing Donor Partnership Effectiveness | IDRC ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2010-11-03

    Nov 3, 2010 ... A two-dimensional tool probing eight factors that influence partnership performance was developed, and used in conjunction with a Partnering Process Model, to guide the preparation of the case studies. The incorporation of the temporality dimension is quite novel and adds to the understanding and ...

  16. Factors Influencing Medical Students' Choice of Specialty

    OpenAIRE

    Chang, Pei-Yeh; Hung, Chih-Young; Wang, Kuei-lng; Huang, Yuan-Huei; Chang, King-Jen

    2006-01-01

    Medical school graduates are the source of a country's physicians. Determining how the graduates of these schools select their areas of specialization is the key to achieving a balanced distribution of doctors among all specialties. The purposes of this study were to determine the factors that influence medical students' choice of medical specialty, and to derive the relative weight of each factor. Methods: We constructed a two-tiered analytic hierarchy process (AHP) model which was repres...

  17. Influencing Factors and Development Trend Analysis of China Electric Grid Investment Demand Based on a Panel Co-Integration Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinchao Li

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Electric grid investment demand analysis is significant to reasonably arranging construction funds for the electric grid and reduce costs. This paper used the panel data of electric grid investment from 23 provinces of China between 2004 and 2016 as samples to analyze the influence between electric grid investment demand and GDP, population scale, social electricity consumption, installed electrical capacity, and peak load based on co-integration tests. We find that GDP and peak load have positive influences on electric grid investment demand, but the impact of population scale, social electricity consumption, and installed electrical capacity on electric grid investment is not remarkable. We divide different regions in China into the eastern region, central region, and western region to analyze influence factors of electric grid investment, finally obtaining key factors in the eastern, central, and western regions. In the end, according to the analysis of key factors, we make a prediction about China’s electric grid investment for 2020 in different scenarios. The results offer a certain understanding for the development trend of China’s electric grid investment and contribute to the future development of electric grid investment.

  18. College factors that influence drinking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Presley, Cheryl A; Meilman, Philip W; Leichliter, Jami S

    2002-03-01

    The purpose of this article is to examine the aspects of collegiate environments, rather than student characteristics, that influence drinking. Unfortunately, the existing literature is scant on this topic. A literature review of articles primarily published within the last 10 years, along with some earlier "landmark" studies of collegiate drinking in the United States, was conducted to determine institutional factors that influence the consumption of alcohol. In addition, a demonstration analysis of Core Alcohol and Drug Survey research findings was conducted to further elucidate the issues. Several factors have been shown to relate to drinking: (1) organizational property variables of campuses, including affiliations (historically black institutions, women's institutions), presence of a Greek system, athletics and 2- or 4-year designation; (2) physical and behavioral property variables of campuses, including type of residence, institution size, location and quantity of heavy episodic drinking; and (3) campus community property variables, including pricing and availability and outlet density. Studies, however, tend to look at individual variables one at a time rather than in combination (multivariate analyses). Some new analyses, using Core Alcohol and Drug Survey data sets, are presented as examples of promising approaches to future research. Given the complexities of campus environments, it continues to be a challenge to the field to firmly establish the most compelling institutional and environmental factors relating to high-risk collegiate drinking.

  19. Factors Influencing Healthcare Service Quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Mohammad Mosadeghrad

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Background The main purpose of this study was to identify factors that influence healthcare quality in the Iranian context. Methods Exploratory in-depth individual and focus group interviews were conducted with 222 healthcare stakeholders including healthcare providers, managers, policy-makers, and payers to identify factors affecting the quality of healthcare services provided in Iranian healthcare organisations. Results Quality in healthcare is a production of cooperation between the patient and the healthcare provider in a supportive environment. Personal factors of the provider and the patient, and factors pertaining to the healthcare organisation, healthcare system, and the broader environment affect healthcare service quality. Healthcare quality can be improved by supportive visionary leadership, proper planning, education and training, availability of resources, effective management of resources, employees and processes, and collaboration and cooperation among providers. Conclusion This article contributes to healthcare theory and practice by developing a conceptual framework that provides policy-makers and managers a practical understanding of factors that affect healthcare service quality.

  20. Factors Influencing Self-Regulation in E-learning 2.0: Confirmatory Factor Model | Facteurs qui influencent la maîtrise de soi en cyberapprentissage 2.0 : modèle de facteur confirmative

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong Zhao

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The importance of self-regulation in e-learning has been well noted in research. Relevant studies have shown a consistent positive correlation between learners’ self-regulation and their success rate in e-learning. Increasing attention has been paid to developing learners’ self-regulated abilities in e-learning. For students, what and how to learn are largely predetermined by the learning environment provided by their institutions. Environmental determinants play a key role in shaping self-regulation in the learning process. This paper reports a study on the influences of the e-learning 2.0 environment on self-regulation. The study identified the factors that influence self-regulation in such an environment and determine the relationships between the factors and self-regulation. A theoretical model to categorize the success factors for self-regulated learning was proposed for this kind of environment. Based on the model, a questionnaire was designed and administered to more than two hundred and fifty distance learning students in Beijing and Hong Kong. Through structural equation modeling (SEM technique, relationships between environmental factors and self-regulation were analyzed. Statistical results showed that several factors affect self-regulation in the e-learning 2.0 environment. They include system quality, information quality, service quality, and user satisfaction. L’importance de la maîtrise de soi en cyberapprentissage a été bien étudiée. Les études pertinentes ont démontré une corrélation positive uniforme entre la maîtrise de soi des apprenants et leurs taux de réussite en apprentissage en ligne. Une attention croissante a été portée au développement des aptitudes de maîtrise de soi des élèves en cyberapprentissage. Pour les élèves, quoi apprendre et comment sont des questions principalement prédéterminées par l’environnement d’apprentissage qu’offrent leurs établissements. Les d

  1. Factors influencing cassava - pulp fermentation period for gari ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Factors influencing cassava - pulp fermentation period for gari processing among ... Result of probit model analysis at 5% significance level shows an R value ... Marital status (2.236**) and respondents' cultural influences (1.960**) were ...

  2. Factors Influencing Learner Permit Duration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johnathon P. Ehsani

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available An increasing number of countries are requiring an extended learner permit prior to independent driving. The question of when drivers begin the learner permit period, and how long they hold the permit before advancing to independent licensure has received little research attention. Licensure timing is likely to be related to “push” and “pull” factors which may encourage or inhibit the process. To examine this question, we recruited a sample of 90 novice drivers (49 females and 41 males, average age of 15.6 years soon after they obtained a learner permit and instrumented their vehicles to collect a range of driving data. Participants completed a series of surveys at recruitment related to factors that may influence licensure timing. Two distinct findings emerged from the time-to-event analysis that tested these push and pull factors in relation to licensure timing. The first can be conceptualized as teens’ motivation to drive (push, reflected in a younger age when obtaining a learner permit and extensive pre-permit driving experience. The second finding was teens’ perceptions of their parents’ knowledge of their activities (pull; a proxy for a parents’ attentiveness to their teens’ lives. Teens who reported higher levels of their parents’ knowledge of their activities took longer to advance to independent driving. These findings suggest time-to-licensure may be related to teens’ internal motivation to drive, and the ability of parents to facilitate or impede early licensure.

  3. Factors that influence women's dispositions toward science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atria, Catherine Graczyk

    Females have been underrepresented in the study of science and science careers for decades although advancements have been made in closing this gender gap, the gap persists particularly in the physical sciences. Variables which influence a woman's desire to pursue and maintain a science course of study and career must be discovered. The United States lags behind other industrialized countries in the fields of science, math, and engineering. Females comprise an estimated half of the population; their potential contributions cannot be ignored or overlooked. This retrospective research study explores the personal experiences of ten women enrolled in science majors, with science related career plans. The goal of this study is to describe the factors that influence the participants' interest in science. The findings, the effect of science coursework, science teachers' personality and manner, other influential educational personnel, role models and mentors, external influences exclusive of school, parental influence, locus of control and positive attitudes toward science confirm what other researchers have found.

  4. Factors influencing knowledge and practice of exclusive ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Factors influencing knowledge and practice of exclusive breastfeeding in Nyando ... The overall objective of this study was to determine factors influencing the ... EBF and its benefits), pre lacteal feeds and exclusive breastfeeding consistency.

  5. Effects of attitude, social influence, and self-efficacy model factors on regular mammography performance in life-transition aged women in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Chang Hyun; Kim, Young Im

    2015-01-01

    This study analyzed predictors of regular mammography performance in Korea. In addition, we determined factors affecting regular mammography performance in life-transition aged women by applying an attitude, social influence, and self-efficacy (ASE) model. Data were collected from women aged over 40 years residing in province J in Korea. The 178 enrolled subjects provided informed voluntary consent prior to completing a structural questionnaire. The overall regular mammography performance rate of the subjects was 41.6%. Older age, city residency, high income and part-time job were associated with a high regular mammography performance. Among women who had undergone more breast self-examinations (BSE) or more doctors' physical examinations (PE), there were higher regular mammography performance rates. All three ASE model factors were significantly associated with regular mammography performance. Women with a high level of positive ASE values had a significantly high regular mammography performance rate. Within the ASE model, self-efficacy and social influence were particularly important. Logistic regression analysis explained 34.7% of regular mammography performance and PE experience (β=4.645, p=.003), part- time job (β=4.010, p=.050), self-efficacy (β=1.820, p=.026) and social influence (β=1.509, p=.038) were significant factors. Promotional strategies that could improve self-efficacy, reinforce social influence and reduce geographical, time and financial barriers are needed to increase the regular mammography performance rate in life-transition aged.

  6. What Factors Influence Knowledge Sharing in Organizations?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Razmerita, Liana; Kirchner, Kathrin; Nielsen, Pia

    2016-01-01

    factors drive employees’ participation and what factors hamper their participation in enterprise social media. Design/methodology/approach: Based on a literature review, a unified research model is derived integrating demographic, individual, organizational and technological factors that influence......Purpose: Enterprise social media platforms provide new ways of sharing knowledge and communicating within organizations to benefit from the social capital and valuable knowledge that employees have. Drawing on social dilemma and self-determination theory, the aim of the study is to understand what...... knowledge sharing framework helps to understand what factors impact engagement on social media. Furthermore the article suggests different types of interventions to overcome the social dilemma of knowledge sharing. Originality/value: The study contributes to an understanding of factors leading...

  7. Prediction of soil urea conversion and quantification of the importance degrees of influencing factors through a new combinatorial model based on cluster method and artificial neural network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, Tao; Guo, Xianghong; Sun, Xihuan; Ma, Juanjuan; Zhang, Shaowen; Zhang, Yong

    2018-05-01

    Quantitative prediction of soil urea conversion is crucial in determining the mechanism of nitrogen transformation and understanding the dynamics of soil nutrients. This study aimed to establish a combinatorial prediction model (MCA-F-ANN) for soil urea conversion and quantify the relative importance degrees (RIDs) of influencing factors with the MCA-F-ANN method. Data samples were obtained from laboratory culture experiments, and soil nitrogen content and physicochemical properties were measured every other day. Results showed that when MCA-F-ANN was used, the mean-absolute-percent error values of NH 4 + -N, NO 3 - -N, and NH 3 contents were 3.180%, 2.756%, and 3.656%, respectively. MCA-F-ANN predicted urea transformation under multi-factor coupling conditions more accurately than traditional models did. The RIDs of reaction time (RT), electrical conductivity (EC), temperature (T), pH, nitrogen application rate (F), and moisture content (W) were 32.2%-36.5%, 24.0%-28.9%, 12.8%-15.2%, 9.8%-12.5%, 7.8%-11.0%, and 3.5%-6.0%, respectively. The RIDs of the influencing factors in a descending order showed the pattern RT > EC > T > pH > F > W. RT and EC were the key factors in the urea conversion process. The prediction accuracy of urea transformation process was improved, and the RIDs of the influencing factors were quantified. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Analysis of Influencing Factors of Water Footprint Based on the STIRPAT Model: Evidence from the Beijing Agricultural Sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Jin

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Beijing suffers from a severe water shortage. To find the key factors that impact the agricultural water footprint (WF within Beijing to relieve the pressure on water resources, this study quantifies the agricultural WF within Beijing from 1980 to 2012 and examines the factors of population, urbanization level, GDP per capita, Engel coefficient, and total rural power using an extended stochastic impact by regression on population, affluence and technology (STIRPAT model. Ridge regression is employed to fit the extended STIRPAT model. The empirical results reveal that the Engel coefficient, which is defined as the total amount of food expenses accounted for the proportion of total personal consumption expenditures, has the largest positive impact on the increase in the agricultural WF, followed by urbanization. In contrast, total rural power, population, and GDP per capita can decrease the agricultural WF. Finally, policy recommendations from technological development, agriculture plantation structure adjustment, and virtual water imports are provided to cope with water shortages.

  9. Study of depression influencing factors with zero-inflated regression models in a large-scale population survey

    OpenAIRE

    Xu, Tao; Zhu, Guangjin; Han, Shaomei

    2017-01-01

    Objectives The number of depression symptoms can be considered as count data in order to get complete and accurate analyses findings in studies of depression. This study aims to compare the goodness of fit of four count outcomes models by a large survey sample to identify the optimum model for a risk factor study of the number of depression symptoms. Methods 15 820 subjects, aged 10 to 80 years old, who were not suffering from serious chronic diseases and had not run a high fever in the past ...

  10. Multiparameter models in the management of the development of territories, taking into account the influence of hydrometeorological factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Istomin, E. P.; Popov, N. N.; Sokolov, A. G.; Fokicheva, A. A.

    2018-01-01

    The article considers the geoinformation management of the territory as a way to manage the organizational and technical systems and territories distributed in space. The article describes the main factors for the development and implementation of management decisions, requirements for the territorial management system and the structure of knowledge and data. Mathematical one-parameter and multiparameter models of risk assessment of management decisions applied to the natural and climatic potential of the development of the territory were considered.

  11. Research on the influencing factors of financing efficiency of big data industry based on panel data model--Empirical evidence from Guizhou province

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chenggang; Feng, Yujia

    2018-03-01

    This paper mainly studies the influence factors of financing efficiency of Guizhou big data industry, and selects the financial and macro data of 20 Guizhou big data enterprises from 2010 to 2016. Using the DEA model to obtain the financing efficiency of Guizhou big data enterprises. A panel data model is constructed to select the six macro and micro influencing factors for panel data analysis. The results show that the external economic environment, the turnover rate of the total assets of the enterprises, the increase of operating income, the increase of the revenue per share of each share of the business income have positive impact on the financing efficiency of of the big data industry in Guizhou. The key to improve the financing efficiency of Guizhou big data enterprises is to improve.

  12. Factors Influencing HEPA Filter Performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parsons, M.S.; Waggoner, Ch.A.

    2009-01-01

    Properly functioning HEPA air filtration systems depend on a variety of factors that start with the use of fully characterized challenge conditions for system design and then process control during operation. This paper addresses factors that should be considered during the design phase as well as operating parameters that can be monitored to ensure filter function and lifetime. HEPA filters used in nuclear applications are expected to meet design, fabrication, and performance requirements set forth in the ASME AG-1 standard. The DOE publication Nuclear Air Cleaning Handbook (NACH) is an additional guidance document for design and operation HEPA filter systems in DOE facilities. These two guidelines establish basic maximum operating parameters for temperature, maximum aerosol particle size, maximum particulate matter mass concentration, acceptable differential pressure range, and filter media velocity. Each of these parameters is discussed along with data linking variability of each parameter with filter function and lifetime. Temporal uncertainty associated with gas composition, temperature, and absolute pressure of the air flow can have a direct impact on the volumetric flow rate of the system with a corresponding impact on filter media velocity. Correlations between standard units of flow rate (standard meters per minute or cubic feet per minute) versus actual units of volumetric flow rate are shown for variations in relative humidity for a 70 deg. C to 200 deg. C temperature range as an example of gas composition that, uncorrected, will influence media velocity. The AG-1 standard establishes a 2.5 cm/s (5 feet per minute) ceiling for media velocities of nuclear grade HEPA filters. Data are presented that show the impact of media velocities from 2.0 to 4.0 cm/s media velocities (4 to 8 fpm) on differential pressure, filter efficiency, and filter lifetime. Data will also be presented correlating media velocity effects with two different particle size

  13. Application of artificial neural network model for groundwater level forecasting in a river island with artificial influencing factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sanghoon; Yoon, Heesung; Park, Byeong-Hak; Lee, Kang-Kun

    2017-04-01

    Groundwater use has been increased for various purposes like agriculture, industry or drinking water in recent years, the issue related to sustainability on the groundwater use also has been raised. Accordingly, forecasting the groundwater level is of great importance for planning sustainable use of groundwater. In a small island surrounded by the Han River, South Korea, seasonal fluctuation of the groundwater level is characterized by multiple factors such as recharge/discharge event of the Paldang dam, Water Curtain Cultivation (WCC) during the winter season, operation of Groundwater Heat Pump System (GWHP). For a period when the dam operation is only occurred in the study area, a prediction of the groundwater level can be easily achieved by a simple cross-correlation model. However, for a period when the WCC and the GWHP systems are working together, the groundwater level prediction is challenging due to its unpredictable operation of the two systems. This study performed Artificial Neural Network (ANN) model to forecast the groundwater level in the river area reflecting the various predictable/unpredictable factors. For constructing the ANN models, two monitoring wells, YSN1 and YSO8, which are located near the injection and abstraction wells for the GWHP system were selected, respectively. By training with the groundwater level data measured in January 2015 to August 2015, response of groundwater level by each of the surface water level, the WCC and the GWHP system were evaluated. Consequentially, groundwater levels in December 2015 to March 2016 were predicted by ANN models, providing optimal fits in comparison to the observed water levels. This study suggests that the ANN model is a useful tool to forecast the groundwater level in terms of the management of groundwater. Acknowledgement : Financial support was provided by the "R&D Project on Environmental Management of Geologic CO2 Storage" from the KEITI (Project Number: 2014001810003) This research was

  14. Investigating different factors influencing on brand equity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Afsane Zamanimoghadam

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to determine and prioritize factors influencing on brand equity in consumer’s point of view for a case study of Samsung appliance consumers in city of Tehran, Iran. The study investigates the effects of four factors in terms of the customer's perspective, price, advertisement, family and brand image, by dimensions of brand equity, perceived quality, brand awareness, brand association, brand loyalty, on brand equity. The research method is based on a descriptive-survey research. The questionnaire includes Samsung consumers in city of Tehran, Iran. To test the hypotheses, SPSS and LISREL software packages are used. For data analysis, descriptive statistics and inferential statistical tests including structural equation modeling and path analysis are used. The results of the survey have indicated that family and brand image influence positively on brand equity but the effects of advertisement and price on brand equity were not confirmed.

  15. FACTORS INFLUENCING THE EVOLUTION OF YOUTH TRAVEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Student Claudia MOISĂ

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Youth travel is an important part of global tourism, consequently, getting to know the evolution of this form of tourism requires an approach of the aspects regarding the permissive and restrictive factors that influence the youth travel dynamic worldwide. In terms of the factors that influence youth travel, we highlighted these two categories of factors (permissive and restrictive and, within each category, we tried to singularize the influence of every factor over youth travel.

  16. Factors influencing boar sperm cryosurvival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roca, J; Hernández, M; Carvajal, G; Vázquez, J M; Martínez, E A

    2006-10-01

    Optimal sperm cryopreservation is a prerequisite for the sustainable commercial application of frozen-thawed boar semen for AI. Three experiments were performed to identify factors influencing variability of postthaw sperm survival among 464 boar ejaculates. Sperm-rich ejaculate fractions were cryopre-served using a standard freezing-thawing procedure for 0.5-mL plastic straws and computer-controlled freezing equipment. Postthaw sperm motility (assessed with a computer-assisted semen analysis system) and viability (simultaneously probed by flow cytometry analysis after triple-fluorescent stain), evaluated 30 and 150 min postthaw, were used to estimate the success of cryopreservation. In the first experiment, 168 unselected ejaculates (1 ejaculate/boar), from boars of 6 breeds with a wide age range (8 to 48 mo), were cryopreserved over a 12-mo period to evaluate the predictive value of boar (breed and age), semen collection, transport variables (season of ejaculate collection, interval between collections, and ejaculate temperature exposure), initial semen traits, and sperm quality before freezing on sperm survival after freezing-thawing. In Exp. 2, 4 ejaculates from each of 29 boars, preselected according to their initial semen traits and sperm quality before freezing, were collected and frozen over a 6-mo period to evaluate the influence of interboar and intraboar ejaculate variability in the survival of sperm after cryopreservation. In Exp. 3, 12 ejaculates preselected as for Exp. 2, from each of 15 boars with known good sperm cryosurvival, were collected and frozen over a 12-mo period to estimate the sustainability of sperm cryosurvival between ejaculates over time. Boar and semen collection and transport variables were not predictive of sperm cryosurvival among ejaculates. Initial semen traits and sperm quality variables observed before freezing explained 23.2 and 10.9%, respectively, of the variation in postthaw sperm motility and viability. However, more that

  17. Analysis of the flood extent extraction model and the natural flood influencing factors: A GIS-based and remote sensing analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lawal, D U; Matori, A N; Yusuf, K W; Hashim, A M; Balogun, A L

    2014-01-01

    Serious floods have hit the State of Perlis in 2005, 2010, as well as 2011. Perlis is situated in the northern part of Peninsula Malaysia. The floods caused great damage to properties and human lives. There are various methods used in an attempt to provide the most reliable ways to reduce the flood risk and damage to the optimum level by identifying the flood vulnerable zones. The purpose of this paper is to develop a flood extent extraction model based on Minimum Distance Algorithm and to overlay with the natural flood influencing factors considered herein in order to examine the effect of each factor in flood generation. GIS spatial database was created from a geological map, SPOT satellite image, and the topographical map. An attribute database was equally created from field investigations and historical flood areas reports of the study area. The results show a great correlation between the flood extent extraction model and the flood factors

  18. Development of models of assessment of influence of human factor upon innovation development of railroad transport enterprises

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samsonkin Valerii M.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Changes in the socio-economic environment of functioning of railroad companies and corresponding transition to market economic conditions make us deeply reconsider our relation to the human factor as the main source of increase of the level of efficiency of both individual railroad enterprises and companies in general. But, apart from exclusively humanistic (evolution relation to this process, it is necessary to find means of formalisation of professional activity of a person or certification of personnel. The article is devoted to the above stated issues. In the result of the study the article develops a model of analysis of professional activity of a person at railroad transport, which gives a possibility to numerically determine the level of intellectual, social and physical components of the human factor and also to identify directions and efficiency of investing and a model of determination of the number, which ensures optimisation of the number of personnel of enterprises and structural subdivisions. In order to identify the most significant resources that are connected with personnel, time, place, method, motivation type, obtained effect and intensity of railroad transport operation the article offers to analyse results of professional activity of personnel of each structural subdivision by the “what” is created / developed / performed (regarding professional activity, “where” (enterprise name and its subordination,“when” and “who” created (developed / performed and “how” and “why” scheme.

  19. Factors that negatively influence consumption of traditionally ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Factors that negatively influence consumption of traditionally fermented milk ... in various countries of sub-Saharan Africa and a number of health benefits to human ... influence consumption of Mursik, a traditionally fermented milk product from ...

  20. Study on the related factors influencing the formation of intra-aneurysmal thrombosis in the established side-wall aneurysmal model in canine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou Bing; Li Minghua; Wang Jianbo; Zhu Yueqi; Yuan Jianhua; Yu Wenqiang

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To analyze the related factors influencing the formation of intra-aneurysmal thrombosis (IAT) in the established side-wall aneurysmal model in canine, and to discuss the measures to prevent the occurrence of IAT. Methods: Twenty canines were randomly divided into 4 groups for building side-wall aneurysmal model: group A, vertical aneurysm without use of postoperative anticoagulation medication; group B, vertical aneurysm with use of postoperative anticoagulation medication; group C, oblique aneurysm without use of postoperative anticoagulation medication; and group D, oblique aneurysm with use of postoperative anticoagulation medication. Angiography was performed to evaluate the IAT. The potential related factors influencing the formation of IAT, including sex, age, operative time, aneurysmal morphology, postoperative anticoagulation medication and cervical hematoma, were statistically analysed with emphasis on aneurysmal morphology and the use of postoperative anticoagulation medication. The statistical software SPSS 12.0 was employed. Results: A total of 40 aneurysms were successfully established in 20 canines. Cervical hematoma occurred in 7 canines and IAT developed in 8 aneurysms. The univariate analysis showed that the formation of IAT was significantly influenced by the aneurysmal morphology and cervical hematoma. Surprisingly, the formation of IAT bore no relation to the postoperative anticoagulation, whether the medication was employed or not, which was further confirmed by stratified analysis. Conclusion: To establish oblique aneurysm and to reduce the occurrence of cervical hematoma can effectively decrease the incidence of IAT in established side-wall aneurysmal model in canine. The postoperative anticoagulation medication can not decrease the incidence of IAT. (authors)

  1. Demotivating factors influencing rubber production workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Reza Iravani

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Motivation is one of the most important factors influencing workers' productivity. An increase in workers' motivation could add more value to organizations' structure and influence the profitability, significantly. In this paper, we study different factors on demotivating workers using questionnaire consist of various questions. The questionnaire is distributed among some employees who work for rubber production units located in Esfahan, Iran. The results of this survey indicate that discrimination on annual job compensation, entrusting responsibilities and unpleasant relationship with family partner are some of the most important factors influencing employees' motivation. While financial factors play important role on increasing employees' motivation, non-financial factors are considered more important.

  2. Ecological efficiency in China and its influencing factors-a super-efficient SBM metafrontier-Malmquist-Tobit model study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Xiaojun; Wang, Changxin; Yu, Yuanbo; Li, Yudong; Dong, Biying; Zhang, Xinyu; Niu, Xueqi; Yang, Qian; Chen, Ruimin; Li, Yifan; Gu, Yihan

    2018-05-15

    Ecological problem is one of the core issues that restrain China's economic development at present, and it is urgently needed to be solved properly and effectively. Based on panel data from 30 regions, this paper uses a super efficiency slack-based measure (SBM) model that introduces the undesirable output to calculate the ecological efficiency, and then uses traditional and metafrontier-Malmquist index method to study regional change trends and technology gap ratios (TGRs). Finally, the Tobit regression and principal component analysis methods are used to analysis the main factors affecting eco-efficiency and impact degree. The results show that about 60% of China's provinces have effective eco-efficiency, and the overall ecological efficiency of China is at the superior middling level, but there is a serious imbalance among different provinces and regions. Ecological efficiency has an obvious spatial cluster effect. There are differences among regional TGR values. Most regions show a downward trend and the phenomenon of focusing on economic development at the expense of ecological protection still exists. Expansion of opening to the outside, increases in R&D spending, and improvement of population urbanization rate have positive effects on eco-efficiency. Blind economic expansion, increases of industrial structure, and proportion of energy consumption have negative effects on eco-efficiency.

  3. [METHODS OF MATHEMATICAL MODELING IN MORPHOLOGICAL DIAGNOSTICS OF CHORNOBYL FACTOR INFLUENCE ON PROSTATE GLAND OF COAL MINERS-- THE CHERNOBYL DISASTER FIGHTERS].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danylov, Iu V; Motkov, K V; Shevchenko, T I

    2014-01-01

    The morphometric estimation of parenchyma and stroma condition included the determination of 25 parameters in a prostate gland at 27 persons. The mathematical model of morphogenesis of prostate gland was created by Bayes' method. The method of differential diagnosis of a prostate gland tissues' changes conditioned by the influence of the Chernobyl factor and/or unfavorable terms of the work in underground coal mines have been worked out. Its practical use provides exactness and reliability of the diagnosis (not less than 95%), independence from the level of the qualification and personal experience of the doctor, allows us to unify, optimize and individualize the diagnostic algorithms, answer the requirements of evidential medicine.

  4. [Methods of mathematical modeling in morphological diagnostics of Chernobyl factor influence on the testes of coal miners of Donbas--the Chernobyl disaster fighters].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danylov, Iu V; Motkov, K V; Shevchenko, T I

    2014-01-01

    The morphometric estimation of parenchyma and stroma condition included the determination of 29 parameters in testicles at 27 persons. The mathematical model of morphogenesis of testicles was created by Bayes' method. The method of differential diagnosis of testicles tissues' changes conditioned by the influence of the Chernobyl factor and/or unfavorable terms of the work in underground coal mines have been worked out. Its practical use provides exactness and reliability of the diagnosis (not less than 95%), independence from the level of the qualification and personal experience of the doctor, allows us to unify, optimize and individualize the diagnostic algorithms, answer the requirements of evidential medicine.

  5. Factors Influencing Substance Abuse among Undergraduate ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study investigated the factors influencing substance abuse amongundergraduate students in Osun State; Nigeria. A sample of 1, 200undergraduate students were randomly selected from three tertiaryinstitution in Osun State. Factors Influencing Substance Abuse Questionnaire (FISA) was developed by the researcher ...

  6. Factors influencing customer satisfaction with reference and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper examines factors influencing customer satisfaction with reference and information services in an academic environment. The paper identifies types of reference services in libraries, factors influencing customer satisfaction and dissatisfaction with reference and information services and suggested the way forward ...

  7. Factors Influencing Livelihood Diversification among Rural Farmers ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This research study was set out to analyze factors influencing rural farmer's engagement in livelihood diversification in the study area. The specific objectives were; to identify the different levels of farmers' engagement in livelihood diversification, determine the socio-demographic factors or forces that influence farmers' ...

  8. Factors Influencing Endometrial Thickness in Postmenopausal Women

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Cut‑off values for endometrial thickness (ET) in asymptomatic postmenopausal woman have been standardized. However, there are no comprehensive studies to document how various factors can influence the ET after the age of menopause. Aim: To study the various factors influencing the ET in ...

  9. Organizational factors influencing improvements in safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marcus, A.; Nichols, M.L.; Olson, J.; Osborn, R.; Thurber, J.

    1992-01-01

    Research reported here seeks to identify the key organizational factors that influence safety-related performance indicators in nuclear power plants over time. It builds upon organizational factors identified in NUREG/CR-5437, and begins to develop a theory of safety-related performance and performance improvement based on economic and behavioral theories of the firm. Central to the theory are concepts of past performance, problem recognition, resource availability, resource allocation, and business strategies that focus attention. Variables which reflect those concepts are combined in statistical models and tested for their ability to explain scrams, safety system actuations, significant events, safety system failures, radiation exposure, and critical hours. Results show the performance indicators differ with respect to the sets of variables which serve as the best predictors of future performance, and past performance is the most consistent predictor of future performance

  10. Factors influencing global antiretroviral procurement prices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wirtz, Veronika J; Forsythe, Steven; Valencia-Mendoza, Atanacio; Bautista-Arredondo, Sergio

    2009-11-18

    Antiretroviral medicines (ARVs) are one of the most costly parts of HIV/AIDS treatment. Many countries are struggling to provide universal access to ARVs for all people living with HIV and AIDS. Although substantial price reductions of ARVs have occurred, especially between 2002 and 2008, achieving sustainable access for the next several decades remains a major challenge for most low- and middle-income countries. The objectives of the present study were twofold: first, to analyze global ARV prices between 2005 and 2008 and associated factors, particularly procurement methods and key donor policies on ARV procurement efficiency; second, to discuss the options of procurement processes and policies that should be considered when implementing or reforming access to ARV programs. An ARV-medicines price-analysis was carried out using the Global Price Reporting Mechanism from the World Health Organization. For a selection of 12 ARVs, global median prices and price variation were calculated. Linear regression models for each ARV were used to identify factors that were associated with lower procurement prices. Logistic regression models were used to identify the characteristics of those countries which procure below the highest and lowest direct manufactured costs. Three key factors appear to have an influence on a country's ARV prices: (a) whether the product is generic or not; (b) the socioeconomic status of the country; (c) whether the country is a member of the Clinton HIV/AIDS Initiative. Factors which did not influence procurement below the highest direct manufactured costs were HIV prevalence, procurement volume, whether the country belongs to the least developed countries or a focus country of the United States President's Emergency Plan For AIDS Relief. One of the principal mechanisms that can help to lower prices for ARV over the next several decades is increasing procurement efficiency. Benchmarking prices could be one useful tool to achieve this.

  11. Postmodernism, Therapeutic Common Factors, and Innovation: Contemporary Influences Shaping a More Efficient and Effective Model of School Counseling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, James F.; Gee, Corrie R.

    2006-01-01

    School counseling lacks clarity. This confusion is the result of competing models and confusing standards, domains, and competencies. This article offers a simplified model of school counseling entitled the "Six 'C' Model" (i.e., Care, Collaboration, Champion, Challenge, Courage, and Commitment). The interactive model is informed by the…

  12. Factors that influence the acceptance of telemetry by emergency medical technicians in ambulances: an application of the extended technology acceptance model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Ji Young; Kim, Ki Young; Lee, Kang Hyun

    2014-12-01

    The aim of the study was to verify the effects of patient factors perceived by emergency medical technicians (EMTs) as well as their social and organizational factors on prehospital telemetry use intention based on the technology use intention and elaboration likelihood models. This is a retrospective empirical study. Questionnaires were developed on the basis of clinical factors of 72,907 patients assessed by prehospital telemetry from January 1, 2009 to April 30, 2012 by reviewing their prehospital medical care records and in-hospital medical records. Questionnaires regarding the social and organizational factors of EMTs were created on the basis of a literature review. To verify which factors affect the utilization of telemetry, we developed a partial least-squares route model on the basis of each characteristic. In total, 136 EMTs who had experience in using prehospital telemetry were surveyed from April 1 to April 7, 2013. Reliability, validity, hypotheses, and the model goodness of fit of the study tools were tested. The clinical factors of the patients (path coefficient=-0.12; t=2.38), subjective norm (path coefficient=0.18; t=2.63), and job fit (path coefficient=0.45; t=5.29) positively affected the perceived usefulness (p<0.010). Meanwhile, the clinical factors of the patients (path coefficients=-0.19; t=4.46), subjective norm (path coefficient=0.08; t=1.97), loyalty incentives (path coefficient=-0.17; t=3.83), job fit (path coefficient=-0.32; t=7.06), organizational facilitations (path coefficient=0.08; t=1.99), and technical factors (i.e., usefulness and ease of use) positively affected attitudes (path coefficient=0.10, 0.58; t=2.62, 5.81; p<0.010). Attitudes and perceived usefulness significantly positively affected use intention. Factors that influence the use of telemetry by EMTs in ambulances included patients' clinical factors, as well as complex organizational and environmental factors surrounding the EMTs' occupational environments. This suggests

  13. Emergency Department Crowding: Factors Influencing Flow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arkun, Alp

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: The objective of this study was to evaluate those factors, both intrinsic and extrinsic to the emergency department (ED that influence two specific components of throughput: “door-to-doctor” time and dwell time.Methods: We used a prospective observational study design to determine the variables that played a significant role in determining ED flow. All adult patients seen or waiting to be seen in the ED were observed at 8pm (Monday-Friday during a three-month period. Variables measured included daily ED volume, patient acuity, staffing, ED occupancy, daily admissions, ED boarder volume, hospital volume, and intensive care unit volume. Both log-rank tests and time-to-wait (survival proportional-hazard regression models were fitted to determine which variables were most significant in predicting “door-to-doctor” and dwell times, with full account of the censoring for some patients.Results: We captured 1,543 patients during our study period, representing 27% of total daily volume. The ED operated at an average of 85% capacity (61-102% with an average of 27% boarding. Median “door-to-doctor” time was 1.8 hours, with the biggest influence being triage category, day of the week, and ED occupancy. Median dwell time was 5.5 hours with similar variable influences.Conclusion: The largest contributors to decreased patient flow through the ED at our institution were triage category, ED occupancy, and day of the week. Although the statistically significant factors influencing patient throughput at our institution involve problems with inflow, an increase in ED occupancy could be due to substantial outflow obstruction and may indicate the necessity for increased capacity both within the ED and hospital. [West J Emerg Med. 2010; 11(1:10-15

  14. Emergency department crowding: factors influencing flow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arkun, Alp; Briggs, William M; Patel, Sweha; Datillo, Paris A; Bove, Joseph; Birkhahn, Robert H

    2010-02-01

    THE OBJECTIVE OF THIS STUDY WAS TO EVALUATE THOSE FACTORS, BOTH INTRINSIC AND EXTRINSIC TO THE EMERGENCY DEPARTMENT (ED) THAT INFLUENCE TWO SPECIFIC COMPONENTS OF THROUGHPUT: "door-to-doctor" time and dwell time. We used a prospective observational study design to determine the variables that played a significant role in determining ED flow. All adult patients seen or waiting to be seen in the ED were observed at 8pm (Monday-Friday) during a three-month period. Variables measured included daily ED volume, patient acuity, staffing, ED occupancy, daily admissions, ED boarder volume, hospital volume, and intensive care unit volume. Both log-rank tests and time-to-wait (survival) proportional-hazard regression models were fitted to determine which variables were most significant in predicting "door-to-doctor" and dwell times, with full account of the censoring for some patients. We captured 1,543 patients during our study period, representing 27% of total daily volume. The ED operated at an average of 85% capacity (61-102%) with an average of 27% boarding. Median "door-to-doctor" time was 1.8 hours, with the biggest influence being triage category, day of the week, and ED occupancy. Median dwell time was 5.5 hours with similar variable influences. The largest contributors to decreased patient flow through the ED at our institution were triage category, ED occupancy, and day of the week. Although the statistically significant factors influencing patient throughput at our institution involve problems with inflow, an increase in ED occupancy could be due to substantial outflow obstruction and may indicate the necessity for increased capacity both within the ED and hospital.

  15. Modelling of Factors Influencing Gender Difference in Mathematics Achievement Using TIMSS 2011 Data for Singaporean Eighth Grade Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoo, Yang Seok

    2018-01-01

    Numerous studies have attributed gender difference in mathematics achievement to various sociocultural influences. Singapore is a country of higher gender equality as represented in the Global Gender Gap Index and Singaporean girls perform as well or higher than boys in international mathematics assessments. This study develops a conceptual model…

  16. Influencing Factors and Development Trend Analysis of China Electric Grid Investment Demand Based on a Panel Co-Integration Model

    OpenAIRE

    Jinchao Li; Lin Chen; Yuwei Xiang; Jinying Li; Dong Peng

    2018-01-01

    Electric grid investment demand analysis is significant to reasonably arranging construction funds for the electric grid and reduce costs. This paper used the panel data of electric grid investment from 23 provinces of China between 2004 and 2016 as samples to analyze the influence between electric grid investment demand and GDP, population scale, social electricity consumption, installed electrical capacity, and peak load based on co-integration tests. We find that GDP and peak load have pos...

  17. INFLUENCE OF SERVICE FACTORS IN THE MODEL OF PUBLIC TRANSPORT MODE: A BANJARMASIN – BANJARBARU ROUTE CASE STUDY

    OpenAIRE

    Iphan F. Radam; Agus T. Mulyono; Bagus H. Setiadji

    2015-01-01

    This research is aimed to examine the extent to which the service factors will affect the probability of people choice on public transports offered. The service factors are essential since the habits in the planning of new public transport at developing cities tend to prioritizes “travel time” and “travel cost” only. Consequently, there will be more than a small number of new public transports that will meet the same fate as the previous ones, i.e. unable to attract the users’ interest. The r...

  18. Modeling the Influences of Upper-Elementary School Students' Digital Reading Literacy, Socioeconomic Factors, and Self-Regulated Learning Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Shin-Feng

    2017-01-01

    Background: Reading is an interactive and constructive process of making meaning by engaging a variety of materials and sources and by participating in reading communities at school or in daily life. Aim: The purpose of this study was to explore the factors affecting digital reading literacy among upper-elementary school students. Method: A…

  19. Modelling the multilevel structure and mixed effects of the factors influencing the energy consumption of electric vehicles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Kai; Wang, Jiangbo; Yamamoto, Toshiyuki; Morikawa, Takayuki

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • The impacts of driving heterogeneity on EVs’ energy efficiency are examined. • Several multilevel mixed-effects regression models are proposed and compared. • The most reasonable nested structure is extracted from the long term GPS data. • Proposed model improves the energy estimation accuracy by 7.5%. - Abstract: To improve the accuracy of estimation of the energy consumption of electric vehicles (EVs) and to enable the alleviation of range anxiety through the introduction of EV charging stations at suitable locations for the near future, multilevel mixed-effects linear regression models were used in this study to estimate the actual energy efficiency of EVs. The impacts of the heterogeneity in driving behaviour among various road environments and traffic conditions on EV energy efficiency were extracted from long-term daily trip-based energy consumption data, which were collected over 12 months from 68 in-use EVs in Aichi Prefecture in Japan. Considering the variations in energy efficiency associated with different types of EV ownership, different external environments, and different driving habits, a two-level random intercept model, three two-level mixed-effects models, and two three-level mixed-effects models were developed and compared. The most reasonable nesting structure was determined by comparing the models, which were designed with different nesting structures and different random variance component specifications, thereby revealing the potential correlations and non-constant variability of the energy consumption per kilometre (ECPK) and improving the estimation accuracy by 7.5%.

  20. Community Factors Influencing Birth Spacing among Married ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AJRH Managing Editor

    level factors on birth spacing behaviour in Uganda and Zimbabwe, to ... environments as potential influences on birth spacing ..... health: multivariable cross-country analysis, MACRO ... Equity monitoring for social marketing: Use of wealth.

  1. Factors Influencing Self Employment Media Service Providers ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Factors Influencing Self Employment Media Service Providers among Tertiary ... role stereotype and common business practices on media self employment in ... Sex, Psycho-social Characteristics, self Employment, Providing Media Services.

  2. Influence of Macroeconomic Factors on Residential Property ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sultan

    exerted by macroeconomic factors on residential property returns in Abuja. The backward .... explanatory power and positive influence of employment and ...... Project. Management In Property Development: the Nigeria experience. Ibadan:.

  3. Factors Influencing Adoption of Cocoa Technologies Disseminated ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Factors Influencing Adoption of Cocoa Technologies Disseminated by Olam Organisation in ... Journal of Agricultural Research and Development ... level, household size, no of farm family assisting on the farm, management system adopted, ...

  4. Assessment of Factors Influencing Beneficiary Participation in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ISSN 0794-5698. Assessment of Factors Influencing Beneficiary Participation in Fadama II Project ... project implementation (80%) in the stages of project development. Women .... the project as they appeared to have more family burden to ...

  5. Host factors influencing viral persistence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Allan Randrup; Nansen, A; Ørding Andreasen, Susanne

    2000-01-01

    host were used. Our results reveal that very different outcomes may be observed depending on virus strain and immunocompetence of the host. Thus while CD4+ cells are not critical during the initial phase of virus control, infectious virus reappear in mice lacking CD4+ cells, B cells or CD40 ligand...... replication, mice lacking the ability to produce interferon-gamma may develop either a severe, mostly fatal, T-cell mediated wasting syndrome or a chronic infection characterized by long-term coexistence of antiviral cytotoxic T lymphocytes and infectious virus. Mathematical modelling indicates...

  6. Factors influencing detail detectability in radiologic imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gurvich, A.M.

    1985-01-01

    The detectability of various details is estimated quantitatively from the essential technical parameters of the imaging system and additional influencing factors including viewing of the image. The analysis implies the formation of the input radiation distribution (contrast formation, influence of kVp). Noise, image contrast (gamma), modulation transfer function and contrast threshold of the observer are of different influence on details of different size. Thus further optimization of imaging systems and their adaption to specific imaging tasks are facilitated

  7. Model Correction Factor Method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Claus; Randrup-Thomsen, Søren; Morsing Johannesen, Johannes

    1997-01-01

    The model correction factor method is proposed as an alternative to traditional polynomial based response surface techniques in structural reliability considering a computationally time consuming limit state procedure as a 'black box'. The class of polynomial functions is replaced by a limit...... of the model correction factor method, is that in simpler form not using gradient information on the original limit state function or only using this information once, a drastic reduction of the number of limit state evaluation is obtained together with good approximations on the reliability. Methods...

  8. Factors Influencing Title VII Bilingual Program Institutionalization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Gerald R.; And Others

    1985-01-01

    This study of the primary restraining and driving forces that influence Title VII bilingual education programs found the external environment, the local community, to be the main factor influencing institutionalization and self-renewal. The internal environment--the local school, and the local school's organization or central office, school board,…

  9. An extension of technology acceptance model to determine factors that influence the intention to use electronic collection system in Nigerian federal hospitals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kabir, Muhammad Auwal; Saidin, Siti Zabedah; Ahmi, Aidi

    2017-10-01

    The aim of this paper is to develop a conceptual framework that would be used in determining the factors that influence the behavioral intention to use electronic collection system in federal government owned hospitals in Nigeria. The framework is supported by Technology Acceptance Model (TAM) as the underlying theory of the study. Past literature on individual user intention were thoroughly reviewed and found that TAM is fit appropriate in explaining the phenomenon under study. Based on the reviewed literature, it is expected that perceived usefulness and perceived ease of use will influence the intention of users (employees) to use e-collection system in the performance of their job tasks in Nigerian federal hospitals. In other words, users with higher perception on the system's usefulness and its ease of use are more likely to express their interest and willingness to use the system. In addition, the study has extended TAM with facilitating conditions construct and the research is expected to discover the level of its influence on behavioral intention to use e-collection system.

  10. Factors influencing consumer dietary health preventative behaviours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrovici, Dan A; Ritson, Christopher

    2006-09-01

    The deterioration of the health status of the Romanian population during the economic transition from a centrally planned to a free market economy has been linked to lifestyles factors (e.g. diet) regarded as a main determinants of the disparity in life expectancy between Eastern and Western Europe. Reforms in the health care system in this transition economy aim to focus on preventive action. The purpose of this study was to identify the factors that impact on the individual decision to engage in Dietary Health Preventive Behaviour (DHPB) and investigate their influence in the context of an adapted health cognition model. A population-based study recruited 485 adult respondents using random route sampling and face-to-face administered questionnaires. Respondents' health motivation, beliefs that diet can prevent disease, knowledge about nutrition, level of education attainment and age have a positive influence on DHPB. Perceived barriers to healthy eating have a negative impact on alcohol moderation. The information acquisition behaviour (frequency of reading food labels) is negatively predicted by age and positively predicted by health motivation, education, self-reported knowledge about nutrition and household financial status. A significant segment of respondents believe they are not susceptible to the elicited diseases. Health promotion strategies should aim to change the judgments of health risk. The adaptation of the Health Belief Model and the Theory of Health Preventive Behaviour represents a valid framework of predicting DHPB. The negative sign of perceived threat of disease on DHPB may suggest that, under an income constraint, consumers tend to trade off long-term health benefits for short-term benefits. This cautions against the use of negative messages in public health campaigns. Raising the awareness of diet-disease relationships, knowledge about nutrition (particularly sources and risks associated with dietary fat and cholesterol) may induce people to

  11. Factors influencing consumer dietary health preventative behaviours

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ritson Christopher

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The deterioration of the health status of the Romanian population during the economic transition from a centrally planned to a free market economy has been linked to lifestyles factors (e.g. diet regarded as a main determinants of the disparity in life expectancy between Eastern and Western Europe. Reforms in the health care system in this transition economy aim to focus on preventive action. The purpose of this study was to identify the factors that impact on the individual decision to engage in Dietary Health Preventive Behaviour (DHPB and investigate their influence in the context of an adapted health cognition model. Methods A population-based study recruited 485 adult respondents using random route sampling and face-to-face administered questionnaires. Results and discussion Respondents' health motivation, beliefs that diet can prevent disease, knowledge about nutrition, level of education attainment and age have a positive influence on DHPB. Perceived barriers to healthy eating have a negative impact on alcohol moderation. The information acquisition behaviour (frequency of reading food labels is negatively predicted by age and positively predicted by health motivation, education, self-reported knowledge about nutrition and household financial status. A significant segment of respondents believe they are not susceptible to the elicited diseases. Health promotion strategies should aim to change the judgments of health risk. Conclusion The adaptation of the Health Belief Model and the Theory of Health Preventive Behaviour represents a valid framework of predicting DHPB. The negative sign of perceived threat of disease on DHPB may suggest that, under an income constraint, consumers tend to trade off long-term health benefits for short-term benefits. This cautions against the use of negative messages in public health campaigns. Raising the awareness of diet-disease relationships, knowledge about nutrition (particularly

  12. The Influence of Self-Efficacy and Motivational Factors on Academic Performance in General Chemistry Course: A Modeling Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alci, Bulent

    2015-01-01

    This study aims to determine the predictive and explanatory model in terms of university students' academic performance in "General Chemistry" course and their motivational features. The participants were 169 university students in the 1st grade at university. Of the participants, 132 were female and 37 were male students. Regarding…

  13. Validating a Model of Motivational Factors Influencing Involvement for Parents of Transition-Age Youth with Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirano, Kara A.; Shanley, Lina; Garbacz, S. Andrew; Rowe, Dawn A.; Lindstrom, Lauren; Leve, Leslie D.

    2018-01-01

    Parent involvement is a predictor of postsecondary education and employment outcomes, but rigorous measures of parent involvement for youth with disabilities are lacking. Hirano, Garbacz, Shanley, and Rowe adapted scales based on Hoover-Dempsey and Sandler model of parent involvement for use with parents of youth with disabilities aged 14 to 23.…

  14. Adolescent Sibling Relationship Quality and Adjustment: Sibling Trustworthiness and Modeling, as Factors Directly and Indirectly Influencing These Associations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gamble, Wendy C.; Yu, Jeong Jin; Kuehn, Emily D.

    2011-01-01

    The main goal of this study was to examine the direct and moderating effects of trustworthiness and modeling on adolescent siblings' adjustment. Data were collected from 438 families including a mother, a younger sibling in fifth, sixth, or seventh grade (M = 11.6 years), and an older sibling (M = 14.3 years). Respondents completed Web-based…

  15. The mathematical model for the investigation of different influence factors on the economic and ecological indicators of a wheel tractor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zakharchuk V.I.

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available To solve the problem of oil deficit and reduce emissions of harmful substances from exhaust gases of vehicles alternative motor fuels, including biodiesel may by used. Most of wheel tractors are used as technological transport in agriculture, industry and municipal services. The article aims to clarify the mathematical model to determine the effect of the type of fuel used wheeled tractors on its performance. The mathematical model of the system "operator-wheel tractor-road" for the design research impact type of fuel on harmful emissions and fuel consumption wheeled tractor, is used as technological transport during its movement for driving cycle. Driving cycle showed main modes of motion there are acceleration, motion with constant speed and deceleration. The mathematical model allows to accurately consider peculiarities of the wheel tractor as the vehicle and engine describing its characteristics by polinomial dependencies. In mathematical models specified polynomial dependences that describe the fuel supply cycle indicated torque, fuel consumption and concentrations of main harmful substances in the exhaust gases of diesel during operation on diesel and biodiesel.

  16. What Factors Influence Wind Perceptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stein, Tatiana

    Over the last decade, wind power has emerged as a possible source of energy and has attracted the attention of homeowners and policy makers worldwide. Many technological hurdles have been overcome in the last few years that make this technology feasible and economical. The United States has added more wind power than any other type of electric generation in 2012. Depending on the location, wind resources have shown to have the potential to offer 20% of the nation's electricity; a single, large wind turbine has the capacity to produce enough electricity to power 350 homes. Throughout the development of wind turbines, however, energy companies have seen significant public opposition towards the tall white structures. The purpose of this research was to measure peoples' perceptions on wind turbine development throughout their growth, from proposal to existing phase. Three hypotheses were developed based on the participant's political affiliation, proximity and knowledge of wind turbines. To validate these hypotheses, participants were asked an array of questions regarding their perception on economic, environmental, and social impacts of wind turbines with an online service called Amazon Mechanical Turk. The responses were from residents living in the United States and required them to provide their zip code for subsequent analysis. The analysis from the data obtained suggests that participants are favorable towards wind turbine development and would be supportive of using the technology in their community. Political affiliation and proximity to the nearest wind turbine in any phase of development (proposal, construction, existing) were also analyzed to determine if they had an effect on a person's overall perception on wind turbines and their technology. From the analysis, political affiliation was seen to be an indirect factor to understanding favorability towards wind turbines; the more liberal you are, the more supportive you will be towards renewable energy use

  17. An innovation resistance factor model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siti Salwa Mohd Ishak

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The process and implementation strategy of information technology in construction is generally considered through the limiting prism of theoretical contexts generated from innovation diffusion and acceptance. This research argues that more attention should be given to understanding the positive effects of resistance. The study develops a theoretical framing for the Integrated Resistance Factor Model (IRFM. The framing uses a combination of diffusion of innovation theory, technology acceptance model and social network perspective. The model is tested to identify the most significant resistance factors using Partial Least Square (PLS technique. All constructs proposed in the model are found to be significant, valid and consistent with the theoretical framework. IRFM is shown to be an effective and appropriate model of user resistance factors. The most critical factors to influence technology resistance in the online project information management system (OPIMS context are: support from leaders and peers, complexity of the technology, compatibility with key work practices; and pre-trial of the technology before it is actually deployed. The study provides a new model for further research in technology innovation specific to the construction industry.

  18. Expression of the growth factor progranulin in endothelial cells influences growth and development of blood vessels: a novel mouse model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toh, Huishi; Cao, Mingju; Daniels, Eugene; Bateman, Andrew

    2013-01-01

    Progranulin is a secreted glycoprotein that regulates cell proliferation, migration and survival. It has roles in development, tumorigenesis, wound healing, neurodegeneration and inflammation. Endothelia in tumors, wounds and placenta express elevated levels of progranulin. In culture, progranulin activates endothelial proliferation and migration. This suggested that progranulin might regulate angiogenesis. It was, however, unclear how elevated endothelial progranulin levels influence vascular growth in vivo. To address this issue, we generated mice with progranulin expression targeted specifically to developing endothelial cells using a Tie2-promoter/enhancer construct. Three Tie2-Grn mouse lines were generated with varying Tie2-Grn copy number, and were called GrnLo, GrnMid, and GrnHi. All three lines showed increased mortality that correlates with Tie2-Grn copy number, with greatest mortality and lowest germline transmission in the GrnHi line. Death of the transgenic animals occurred around birth, and continued for three days after birth. Those that survived beyond day 3 survived into adulthood. Transgenic neonates that died showed vascular abnormalities of varying severity. Some exhibited bleeding into body cavities such as the pericardial space. Smaller localized hemorrhages were seen in many organs. Blood vessels were often dilated and thin-walled. To establish the development of these abnormalities, we examined mice at early (E10.5-14.5) and later (E15.5-17.5) developmental phases. Early events during vasculogenesis appear unaffected by Tie2-Grn as apparently normal primary vasculature had been established at E10.5. The earliest onset of vascular abnormality was at E15.5, with focal cerebral hemorrhage and enlarged vessels in various organs. Aberrant Tie2-Grn positive vessels showed thinning of the basement membrane and reduced investiture with mural cells. We conclude that progranulin promotes exaggerated vessel growth in vivo, with subsequent effects in

  19. Expression of the growth factor progranulin in endothelial cells influences growth and development of blood vessels: a novel mouse model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huishi Toh

    Full Text Available Progranulin is a secreted glycoprotein that regulates cell proliferation, migration and survival. It has roles in development, tumorigenesis, wound healing, neurodegeneration and inflammation. Endothelia in tumors, wounds and placenta express elevated levels of progranulin. In culture, progranulin activates endothelial proliferation and migration. This suggested that progranulin might regulate angiogenesis. It was, however, unclear how elevated endothelial progranulin levels influence vascular growth in vivo. To address this issue, we generated mice with progranulin expression targeted specifically to developing endothelial cells using a Tie2-promoter/enhancer construct. Three Tie2-Grn mouse lines were generated with varying Tie2-Grn copy number, and were called GrnLo, GrnMid, and GrnHi. All three lines showed increased mortality that correlates with Tie2-Grn copy number, with greatest mortality and lowest germline transmission in the GrnHi line. Death of the transgenic animals occurred around birth, and continued for three days after birth. Those that survived beyond day 3 survived into adulthood. Transgenic neonates that died showed vascular abnormalities of varying severity. Some exhibited bleeding into body cavities such as the pericardial space. Smaller localized hemorrhages were seen in many organs. Blood vessels were often dilated and thin-walled. To establish the development of these abnormalities, we examined mice at early (E10.5-14.5 and later (E15.5-17.5 developmental phases. Early events during vasculogenesis appear unaffected by Tie2-Grn as apparently normal primary vasculature had been established at E10.5. The earliest onset of vascular abnormality was at E15.5, with focal cerebral hemorrhage and enlarged vessels in various organs. Aberrant Tie2-Grn positive vessels showed thinning of the basement membrane and reduced investiture with mural cells. We conclude that progranulin promotes exaggerated vessel growth in vivo, with

  20. Factors Influencing the Selection of the Systems Integration Organizational Model Type for Planning and Implementing Government High-Technology Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Leann; Utley, Dawn

    2006-01-01

    While there has been extensive research in defining project organizational structures for traditional projects, little research exists to support high technology government project s organizational structure definition. High-Technology Government projects differ from traditional projects in that they are non-profit, span across Government-Industry organizations, typically require significant integration effort, and are strongly susceptible to a volatile external environment. Systems Integration implementation has been identified as a major contributor to both project success and failure. The literature research bridges program management organizational planning, systems integration, organizational theory, and independent project reports, in order to assess Systems Integration (SI) organizational structure selection for improving the high-technology government project s probability of success. This paper will describe the methodology used to 1) Identify and assess SI organizational structures and their success rate, and 2) Identify key factors to be used in the selection of these SI organizational structures during the acquisition strategy process.

  1. A spatiotemporal mixed model to assess the influence of environmental and socioeconomic factors on the incidence of hand, foot and mouth disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lianfa Li

    2018-02-01

    the multivariate models. Efron’s cross-validation R2 of 0.83 was acquired using our approach. The spatial effect accounted for 23% of the R2, and notable patterns of the posterior spatial effect were captured. Conclusions We developed a geo-additive mixed spatiotemporal model to assess the influence of meteorological, environmental and socioeconomic factors on HFMD incidence and explored spatiotemporal patterns of such incidence. Our approach achieved a competitive performance in cross-validation and revealed strong spatial patterns for the HFMD incidence rate, illustrating important implications for the epidemiology of HFMD.

  2. Maturity of hospital information systems: Most important influencing factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vidal Carvalho, João; Rocha, Álvaro; Abreu, António

    2017-07-01

    Maturity models facilitate organizational management, including information systems management, with hospital organizations no exception. This article puts forth a study carried out with a group of experts in the field of hospital information systems management with a view to identifying the main influencing factors to be included in an encompassing maturity model for hospital information systems management. This study is based on the results of a literature review, which identified maturity models in the health field and relevant influencing factors. The development of this model is justified to the extent that the available maturity models for the hospital information systems management field reveal multiple limitations, including lack of detail, absence of tools to determine their maturity and lack of characterization for stages of maturity structured by different influencing factors.

  3. The Influence On Factors In Attitudes Toward Acceptance Of The Information System Using Technology Acceptance Model TAM Case Study SPAN System In Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donny Maha Putra

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Theoretically and practically Technology Acceptance Model TAM is a model that is considered most appropriate in explaining how the user receives a system. This study aimed to analyze the factors that influence the attitudes towards the acceptance of Sistem Perbendaharaan Anggaran Negara SPAN using TAM approach. The problems raised in this research aims to determine the attitude of the use of the transition process lagecy system to the new system which for many users create conflict in the process of adaptation. On the basis of this proposed theoretical models to test hypotheses using Structural Equation Model SEM and analysis tool using lisrel. This research was conducted in all offices DG of Treasury of Ministry of Finance with 210 respondents were chosen at random to represent each office. The results of this study prove 4 hypothesis is accepted from 8 hypothesis namely a a negative affect with the results demonstrabilty b computer self-efficacy with the output quality c computer self-efficacy with the perceived ease of use d perceived ease of use with the perceived of usefulness. Overall indicates that the application of the SPAN system in the Ministry of Finance of In Indonesia can be accepted by users.

  4. Pathologist workforce in the United States: I. Development of a predictive model to examine factors influencing supply.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robboy, Stanley J; Weintraub, Sally; Horvath, Andrew E; Jensen, Bradden W; Alexander, C Bruce; Fody, Edward P; Crawford, James M; Clark, Jimmy R; Cantor-Weinberg, Julie; Joshi, Megha G; Cohen, Michael B; Prystowsky, Michael B; Bean, Sarah M; Gupta, Saurabh; Powell, Suzanne Z; Speights, V O; Gross, David J; Black-Schaffer, W Stephen

    2013-12-01

    Results of prior pathology workforce surveys have varied between a state of equilibrium and predictions of shortage. To assess the current and future supply of pathologists, and apply a dynamic modeling tool for assessing the effects of changing market forces and emerging technologies on the supply of pathologists' services through 2030. Data came from various sources, including the literature, College of American Pathologists' internal data, and primary research through custom-developed surveys for the membership and for pathology practice managers Through 2010, there were approximately 18 000 actively practicing pathologists in the United States (5.7 per 100 000 population), approximately 93% of whom were board certified. Our model projects that the absolute and per capita numbers of practicing pathologists will decrease to approximately 14 000 full-time equivalent (FTE) pathologists or 3.7 per 100 000 in the coming 2 decades. This projection reflects that beginning in 2015, the numbers of pathologists retiring will increase precipitously, and is anticipated to peak by 2021. Including all types of separation, the net pathologist strength will begin falling by year 2015. Unless workforce entry or exit rates change, this trend will continue at least through 2030. These changes reflect the closure of many training programs 2 to 4 decades ago and the substantially decreased number of graduating residents. This comprehensive analysis predicts that pathologist numbers will decline steadily beginning in 2015. Anticipated population growth in general and increases in disease incidence owing to the aging population, to be presented in a companion article on demand, will lead to a net deficit in excess of more than 5700 FTE pathologists. To reach the projected need in pathologist numbers of nearly 20 000 FTE by 2030 will require an increase from today of approximately 8.1% more residency positions. We believe a pathologist shortage will negatively impact both

  5. Factors influencing job satisfaction and organizational commitment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Liana M

    2008-01-01

    To assess the relationship between intrinsic and extrinsic motivational factors influencing job satisfaction and the perspective of frontline medical imaging staff in acute care health care facilities in the United States. The sample consisted of 359 registered radiologic technologists who were working as staff technologists in acute care health care facilities in the United States. The results of the study suggest that satisfaction with intrinsic and extrinsic motivators influences overall satisfaction with the work environment and job and commitment to the employer.

  6. Factors influencing superimposition error of 3D cephalometric landmarks by plane orientation method using 4 reference points: 4 point superimposition error regression model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Jae Joon; Kim, Kee-Deog; Park, Hyok; Park, Chang Seo; Jeong, Ho-Gul

    2014-01-01

    Superimposition has been used as a method to evaluate the changes of orthodontic or orthopedic treatment in the dental field. With the introduction of cone beam CT (CBCT), evaluating 3 dimensional changes after treatment became possible by superimposition. 4 point plane orientation is one of the simplest ways to achieve superimposition of 3 dimensional images. To find factors influencing superimposition error of cephalometric landmarks by 4 point plane orientation method and to evaluate the reproducibility of cephalometric landmarks for analyzing superimposition error, 20 patients were analyzed who had normal skeletal and occlusal relationship and took CBCT for diagnosis of temporomandibular disorder. The nasion, sella turcica, basion and midpoint between the left and the right most posterior point of the lesser wing of sphenoidal bone were used to define a three-dimensional (3D) anatomical reference co-ordinate system. Another 15 reference cephalometric points were also determined three times in the same image. Reorientation error of each landmark could be explained substantially (23%) by linear regression model, which consists of 3 factors describing position of each landmark towards reference axes and locating error. 4 point plane orientation system may produce an amount of reorientation error that may vary according to the perpendicular distance between the landmark and the x-axis; the reorientation error also increases as the locating error and shift of reference axes viewed from each landmark increases. Therefore, in order to reduce the reorientation error, accuracy of all landmarks including the reference points is important. Construction of the regression model using reference points of greater precision is required for the clinical application of this model.

  7. Overview of factors influencing the secondary market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bleistine, P.A.

    1982-01-01

    The major factor influencing secondary trading for the last few years has been the large contractural commitments built up by consumers for reactor programs which have proven to be unrealistic. The situation has intensified as a result of utilities needing to generate capital through inventory liquidation or reductions. The flexibilities in most contracts are inadequate to match the types of external and/or internal factors faced by the industry. This situation also suggests the need for secondary markets to help the industry adjust to unforeseen difficulties. They are very active markets at this time, but their influence in relation to the long-term method of doing business should not be exaggerated

  8. Factors influencing job satisfaction of oncology nurses over time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cummings, Greta; Olson, Karin; Raymond-Seniuk, Christy; Lo, Eliza; Masaoud, Elmabrok; Bakker, Debra; Fitch, Margaret; Green, Esther; Butler, Lorna; Conlon, Michael

    2013-01-01

    In this study, we tested a structural equation model to examine work environment factors related to changes in job satisfaction of oncology nurses between 2004 and 2006. Relational leadership and good physician/nurse relationships consistently influenced perceptions of enough RNs to provide quality care, and freedom to make patient care decisions, which, in turn, directly influenced nurses' job satisfaction over time. Supervisor support in resolving conflict and the ability to influence patient care outcomes were significant influences on job satisfaction in 2004, whereas, in 2006, a clear philosophy of nursing had a greater significant influence. Several factors that influence job satisfaction of oncology nurses in Canada have changed over time, which may reflect changes in work environments and work life. These findings suggest opportunities to modify work conditions that could improve nurses' job satisfaction and work life.

  9. The Scale, Structure and Influencing Factors of Total Carbon Emissions from Households in 30 Provinces of China—Based on the Extended STIRPAT Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong Wang

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Household carbon emissions are important components of total carbon emissions. The consumer side of energy-saving emissions reduction is an essential factor in reducing carbon emissions. In this paper, the carbon emissions coefficient method and Consumer Lifestyle Approach (CLA were used to calculate the total carbon emissions of households in 30 provinces of China from 2006 to 2015, and based on the extended Stochastic Impacts by Regression on Population, Affluence, and Technology (STIRPAT model, the factors influencing the total carbon emissions of households were analyzed. The results indicated that, first, over the past ten years, the energy and products carbon emissions from China’s households have demonstrated a rapid growth trend and that regional distributions present obvious differences. Second, China’s energy carbon emissions due to household consumption primarily derived from the residents’ consumption of electricity and coal; China’s products household carbon emissions primarily derived from residents’ consumption of the high carbon emission categories: residences, food, transportation and communications. Third, in terms of influencing factors, the number of households in China plays a significant role in the total carbon emissions of China’s households. The ratio of children 0–14 years old and gender ratio (female = 100 are two factors that reflect the demographic structure, have significant effects on the total carbon emissions of China’s households, and are all positive. Gross Domestic Product (GDP per capita plays a role in boosting the total carbon emissions of China’s households. The effect of the carbon emission intensity on total household carbon emissions is positive. The industrial structure (the proportion of secondary industries’ added value to the regional GDP has curbed the growth of total carbon emissions from China’s household consumption. The results of this study provide data to support the

  10. Factors influencing the choice of surgery as a career by ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    37.5%, p = 0.042). Having surgeons as role models, staff advisers or first degree relatives were significantly associated with selecting a career in surgery. Conclusion: Gender, marital status, having surgeons as role models, staff advisers or first degree relatives in medical school are significant factors influencing the choice ...

  11. INFLUENCE FACTORS FOR LEASING MARKET CONTRACTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oana BĂRBULESCU

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to investigate the relationship between leasing contracts and some factors that influence the value of these contracts. In order to do this, we have decided on some quantitative marketing research by appealing to statistics for accomplishing the objectives that we have set: to find a correlation between the turnover percentage assigned to leasing expenses and several influence factors. This study indicated that the more contracts are signed by a firm, the more likely is to assign a bigger fraction of the income to each new leasing contract. The study confirmed that bigger companies are relying more on leasing as a way of financing than small companies. This study also discovered that companies with more employees are using larger contracts in order to sustain their activity. The findings are expected to contribute to adjusting the offers by the leasing companies, taking into consideration these factors and to using these factors in order to better predict the market evolution.

  12. A factor analysis to detect factors influencing building national brand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naser Azad

    Full Text Available Developing a national brand is one of the most important issues for development of a brand. In this study, we present factor analysis to detect the most important factors in building a national brand. The proposed study uses factor analysis to extract the most influencing factors and the sample size has been chosen from two major auto makers in Iran called Iran Khodro and Saipa. The questionnaire was designed in Likert scale and distributed among 235 experts. Cronbach alpha is calculated as 84%, which is well above the minimum desirable limit of 0.70. The implementation of factor analysis provides six factors including “cultural image of customers”, “exciting characteristics”, “competitive pricing strategies”, “perception image” and “previous perceptions”.

  13. Factors influencing woodlands of southwestern North Dakota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michele M. Girard; Harold Goetz; Ardell J. Bjugstad

    1987-01-01

    Literature pertaining to woodlands of southwestern North Dakota is reviewed. Woodland species composition and distribution, and factors influencing woodland ecosystems such as climate, logging, fire, and grazing are described. Potential management and improvement techniques using vegetation and livestock manipulation have been suggested.

  14. Factors influencing HIV seroprevalence rate among pregnant ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Human immune deficiency virus (HIV) seroprevalence among pregnant women in Calabar was studied. The aims were to establish HIV seroprevalence rate and to identify factors which influence this rate in our pregnant women. HIV seroprevalence rate of 2.7% among antenatal women in Calabar was recorded with a ...

  15. Factors influencing insulin secretion from encapsulated islets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Haan, BJ; Faas, MM; de Vos, P

    2003-01-01

    Adequate regulation of glucose levels by a microencapsulated pancreatic islet graft requires a minute-to-minute regulation of blood glucose. To design such a transplant, it is mandatory to have sufficient insight in factors influencing the kinetics of insulin secretion by encapsulated islets. The

  16. Socio-Economic Factors Influencing Entrepreneurship Among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Socio-Economic Factors Influencing Entrepreneurship Among Women In Fishing Communities In Ondo State, Nigeria. ... The study found that overall entrepreneurial rating of the study group is low, essential input can not be easily gotten in the area, the respondents has large household size thereby had a large dependents ...

  17. Factors Influencing Information and Communication Technology ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Information and communication technology (ICT) is a veritable tool for sustainable agricultural development in Nigeria. This paper analyzed the factors that influenced ICT use by women research scientists in the Universities of Agriculture in Nigeria. Simple random sampling technique was used to select 40 respondents per ...

  18. Factors Influencing Examination Malpractice in Secondary Schools ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The main purpose of this study was to investigate factors influencing examination malpractice in some selected secondary schools in Cross River State, Nigeria. A sample of one thousand two hundred (1200) students were selected across the three educational zones of Ogoja, Ikom and Calabar using stratified, random ...

  19. Factors influencing laser cutting of wood

    Science.gov (United States)

    V.G. Barnekov; C.W. McMillin; H.A. Huber

    1986-01-01

    Factors influencing the ability of lasers to cut wood may be generally classified into these three areas: 1) characteristics of the laser beam; 2) equipment and processing variables; and 3) properties of the workpiece. Effects of beam power, mode, polarization, and stability are discussed as are aspects of optics, location of focal point, feed speed, gas-jet assist...

  20. Factors that influence advertising design ideation | Usman ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Factors that influence advertising design ideation. ... PROMOTING ACCESS TO AFRICAN RESEARCH ... inevitably, more than ever before, on advertisement to take products to the doorsteps of potential consumers. Consequently, local and global corporations employ all manner of advertising media to achieve their end.

  1. Factors Influencing Smallholder Farmers Participation in IFAD ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    2015-02-02

    Feb 2, 2015 ... This study assessed Factors Influencing smallholder farmers' ... percent of the population engaged in agricultural activities as a career and ... that the major source of income of the poor is agriculture and ... shown that farmers have different reasons for participation in agricultural ... 30 Dan gamau 534. 30.

  2. Exploring Factors That Influence Quality Literature Circles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Chase; Mohr, Kathleen A. J.

    2018-01-01

    Research indicates that literature circles are an authentic means for literacy development that students typically enjoy. To better understand the potential value and to add to the research base regarding literature circles, this study, involving 17 fourth graders, explores factors that may influence the quality of literature discussions,…

  3. Social Factors Influencing Child Health in Ghana.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emmanuel Quansah

    Full Text Available Social factors have profound effects on health. Children are especially vulnerable to social influences, particularly in their early years. Adverse social exposures in childhood can lead to chronic disorders later in life. Here, we sought to identify and evaluate the impact of social factors on child health in Ghana. As Ghana is unlikely to achieve the Millennium Development Goals' target of reducing child mortality by two-thirds between 1990 and 2015, we deemed it necessary to identify social determinants that might have contributed to the non-realisation of this goal.ScienceDirect, PubMed, MEDLINE via EBSCO and Google Scholar were searched for published articles reporting on the influence of social factors on child health in Ghana. After screening the 98 articles identified, 34 of them that met our inclusion criteria were selected for qualitative review.Major social factors influencing child health in the country include maternal education, rural-urban disparities (place of residence, family income (wealth/poverty and high dependency (multiparousity. These factors are associated with child mortality, nutritional status of children, completion of immunisation programmes, health-seeking behaviour and hygiene practices.Several social factors influence child health outcomes in Ghana. Developing more effective responses to these social determinants would require sustainable efforts from all stakeholders including the Government, healthcare providers and families. We recommend the development of interventions that would support families through direct social support initiatives aimed at alleviating poverty and inequality, and indirect approaches targeted at eliminating the dependence of poor health outcomes on social factors. Importantly, the expansion of quality free education interventions to improve would-be-mother's health knowledge is emphasised.

  4. Theoretical difference between impact factor and influence factor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Đilda Pečarić

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Bibliometric constructions of "knowledge maps" and "cognitive structures of science" do not differentiate between impact and influence factors. The difference can be constructedaccording to different meaning and interpretation of the terms reference and citation. Reference is "acknowledgment which one author gives to another", whereas citation is "acknowledgment which one document receives from another". Development of Information Science according to period and subject area is analyzed on the corpus of citation literature retrieved from doctoral dissertations in Information Science from 1978 to 2007 at Croatian universities. The research aim is to indicate the difference between document impact factor and author's influence factor (i.e. reference ability to produce effects on actions, behavior, and opinions of authors of doctoral theses. The influence factor serves to distinguish the key role of cited authors in time and according to the duration of the influence (the average age for cited papers of dominant authors in different periods is between eight and ten years. The difference between linear and interactive communication seems vital for the interpretation of cited half-life, i.e. the attitude of one science community towards used information resources and cognitive heritage. The analyzed corpus of 22,210 citations can be divided into three communication phases according to influence factor criteria: in the phase of dialogue and interactive communication 25% of bibliographic units are cited in the first four years; in the second phase another 25% of units are cited from the fifth to the ninth year; after ten years, in the dominant linear communication phase, approximately 30% of units are cited.

  5. Investigating important factors influencing purchasing from chains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naser Azad

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we survey important factors, influencing customers to buy more from one of well known food market operating in capital city of Iran named Shahrvand. The survey studies the effects of six factors including customer's perception, persuasive factors, brand, customers' expectations, product's characteristics and special features of store on attracting more customers. We have distributed questionnaire among 196 customers who regularly visit stores and analyzed details of the data. The results indicate that customers' perception is the most important item, which includes eight components. Years of experience is the most important item in our survey followed by impact of color and working hours. Diversity of services is another factor, which plays the most important role followed by quality of services. Next, fidelity and brand are other most important factors and the name of store and risk are in lower degree of importance.

  6. FACTORS INFLUENCING YIELD SPREADS OF THE MALAYSIAN BONDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norliza Ahmad

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Malaysian bond market is developing rapidly but not much is understood in terms of macroeconomic factors that could influence the yield spread of the Ringgit Malaysian denominated bonds. Based on a multifactor model, this paper examines the impact of four macroeconomic factors namely: Kuala Lumpur Composite Index (KLCI, Industry Production Index (IPI, Consumer Price Index (CPI and interest rates (IR on bond yield spread of the Malaysian Government Securities (MGS and Corporate Bonds (CBs for a period from January 2001 to December 2008. The findings support the expected hypotheses that CPI and IR are the major drivers that influence the changes in MGS yield spreads. However IPI and KLCI have weak and no influence on MGS yield spreads respectively Whilst IR, CPI and IPI have significant influence on the yield spreads of CB1, CB2 and CB3, KLCI has significant influence only on the CB1 yield spread but not on CB2 and CB3 yield spreads.

  7. Influence of organizational factors on safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haber, S.B.; Metlay, D.S.; Crouch, D.A.

    1990-01-01

    There is a need for a better understanding of exactly how organizational management factors at a nuclear power plant (NPP) affect plant safety performance, either directly or indirectly, and how these factors might be observed, measured, and evaluated. The purpose of this research project is to respond to that need by developing a general methodology for characterizing these organizational and management factors, systematically collecting information on their status and integrating that information into various types of evaluative activities. Research to date has included the development of the Nuclear Organization and Management Analysis Concept (NOMAC) of a NPP, the identification of key organizational and management factors, and the identification of the methods for systematically measuring and analyzing the influence of these factors on performance. Most recently, two field studies, one at a fossil fuel plant and the other at a NPP, were conducted using the developed methodology. Results are presented from both studies highlighting the acceptability, practicality, and usefulness of the methods used to assess the influence of various organizational and management factors including culture, communication, decision-making, standardization, and oversight. 6 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab

  8. Factors Influencing Colorectal Cancer Screening Participation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Z. Gimeno García

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Colorectal cancer (CRC is a major health problem worldwide. Although population-based CRC screening is strongly recommended in average-risk population, compliance rates are still far from the desirable rates. High levels of screening uptake are necessary for the success of any screening program. Therefore, the investigation of factors influencing participation is crucial prior to design and launches a population-based organized screening campaign. Several studies have identified screening behaviour factors related to potential participants, providers, or health care system. These influencing factors can also be classified in non-modifiable (i.e., demographic factors, education, health insurance, or income and modifiable factors (i.e., knowledge about CRC and screening, patient and provider attitudes or structural barriers for screening. Modifiable determinants are of great interest as they are plausible targets for interventions. Interventions at different levels (patient, providers or health care system have been tested across the studies with different results. This paper analyzes factors related to CRC screening behaviour and potential interventions designed to improve screening uptake.

  9. Influence of Biomedical Factors on the Five Viscera Score (FVS on Middle-Aged and Elderly Individuals: Application of Structural Equation Modeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taro Tomura

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The five viscera score (FVS is a diagnostic scale for traditional Chinese medicine (TCM. The purposes of current study are to elucidate the characteristics of FVS obtained from middle-aged to elderly individuals and to investigate the validity of FVS using biological medical data of middle-aged and elderly individuals. Structural equation modeling (SEM was used to conduct assessments between FVS and medical data. Eighty men and 99 women participated in this study, whose mean ages (SD were 58 ± 7 years in both genders showing no significant difference. FVS of women was significantly higher than that of men in the spleen of the 50s (P=0.019 and liver of the 60s age group (P=0.030. By SEM, the following biomedical factors were found to influence viscera: gender, diastolic blood pressure, and HDL-C for the liver; GLU, GOT, and γ-GTP for the spleen; age, BMI, and HCRP for the lungs; and HbA1c and creatinine clearance for the kidneys. These results provide objective evidence that FVS can be used for TCM diagnosis in middle-aged and elderly individuals.

  10. Nursing students' learning dynamics and influencing factors in clinical contexts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jung Jae; Clarke, Charlotte L; Carson, Maggie N

    2018-03-01

    Clinical placements are essential for students to develop clinical skills to qualify as nurses. However, various difficulties encountered by nursing students during their clinical education detract from developing clinical competencies. This constructivist grounded theory study aims to explore nursing students' experiences in clinical nursing education, and to identify the factors that influence the clinical education students receive. Twenty-one individual and six group semi-structured interviews were conducted with sixteen fourth year nursing students and four registered nurses. This research identified six factors that influence nursing students' clinical education: interpersonal, socio-cultural, instructional, environmental, emotional and physical factors. The research has developed a dynamic model of learning in clinical contexts, which offers opportunities to understand how students' learning is influenced multifactorially during clinical placements. The understanding and application of the model can improve nursing instructional design, and subsequently, nursing students' learning in clinical contexts. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Factors influencing the perception of organic certification logos in Turkey

    OpenAIRE

    Karahan Uysal, Ö.; Miran, B.; Abay, C.; Boyaci, M.; Janssen, M.; Hamm, U.

    2013-01-01

    Consumers’ perceptions on organic certification logos and the factors influencing these perceptions were explored. Data from surveys conducted in major cities of Turkey revealed that organic food consumers had little knowledge about logos, although the declared level of trust in organic logos was high. According to ordered logit models, consumer’s perceptions on organic certification logos were influenced by purchasing frequency and weight of organic foods in total food consumption. Dummy v...

  12. Modeling the key factors that could influence the diffusion of CO2 from a wellbore blowout in the Ordos Basin, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qi; Shi, Hui; Yang, Duoxing; Wei, Xiaochen

    2017-02-01

    Carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) blowout from a wellbore is regarded as a potential environment risk of a CO 2 capture and storage (CCS) project. In this paper, an assumed blowout of a wellbore was examined for China's Shenhua CCS demonstration project. The significant factors that influenced the diffusion of CO 2 were identified by using a response surface method with the Box-Behnken experiment design. The numerical simulations showed that the mass emission rate of CO 2 from the source and the ambient wind speed have significant influence on the area of interest (the area of high CO 2 concentration above 30,000 ppm). There is a strong positive correlation between the mass emission rate and the area of interest, but there is a strong negative correlation between the ambient wind speed and the area of interest. Several other variables have very little influence on the area of interest, e.g., the temperature of CO 2 , ambient temperature, relative humidity, and stability class values. Due to the weather conditions at the Shenhua CCS demonstration site at the time of the modeled CO 2 blowout, the largest diffusion distance of CO 2 in the downwind direction did not exceed 200 m along the centerline. When the ambient wind speed is in the range of 0.1-2.0 m/s and the mass emission rate is in the range of 60-120 kg/s, the range of the diffusion of CO 2 is at the most dangerous level (i.e., almost all Grade Four marks in the risk matrix). Therefore, if the injection of CO 2 takes place in a region that has relatively low perennial wind speed, special attention should be paid to the formulation of pre-planned, emergency measures in case there is a leakage accident. The proposed risk matrix that classifies and grades blowout risks can be used as a reference for the development of appropriate regulations. This work may offer some indicators in developing risk profiles and emergency responses for CO 2 blowouts.

  13. Factors Influencing Tacit Knowledge in Construction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jawahar Nesan

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Increased complexity of the construction business and consequentuse of new management concepts and technologies ledconstruction organisations to focus more on the transfer of explicitknowledge. However, it is the tacit knowledge that determinesthe construction companies’ competitiveness in a business thatis driven by turbulent market conditions and customers’ everincreasingdemands. This paper highlights the importance of tacitknowledge sharing in construction, explores the challenges andopportunities to efficiently share tacit knowledge, and based on theliterature review identifies some critical factors that influence tacitknowledge in construction. It is argued that employees’ knowledgesharing (learning behaviours are influenced by work practices thatare borne by respective organisational behaviours. Organisational,cultural, and project characteristics that facilitate knowledgesharing among construction employees are explored and thepractices that influence the construction employee behaviour insharing tacit knowledge are highlighted.

  14. An extended model of reasoned action to understand the influence of individual- and network-level factors on African Americans' participation in HIV vaccine research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frew, Paula M; Archibald, Matthew; Diallo, Dazon Dixon; Hou, Su-I; Horton, Takeia; Chan, Kayshin; Mulligan, Mark J; del Rio, Carlos

    2010-06-01

    In the United States, the number and proportion of HIV/AIDS cases among black/African Americans continue to highlight the need for new biomedical prevention interventions, including an HIV vaccine, microbicide, or new antiretroviral (ARV) prevention strategies such as pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) to complement existing condom usage, harm reduction methods, and behavioral change strategies to stem the HIV epidemic. Although black/African Americans are disproportionately impacted by HIV/AIDS, their participation in HIV clinical research continues to have unique challenges. We theorize that interaction among multilevel factors creates ideal alignment for minority participation in HIV clinical studies. Thus, we initially set out to test an extended model of reasoned action with 362 participants to understand the interplay of sociopsychological and network-level considerations influencing minority participation in HIV prevention research efforts. In this study, we linked the intrapersonal dimensions of attitudes, beliefs, and normative concerns to community-level components, appraisal of involvement with the clinical research organization, an entity which operates within a networked structure of community partner agencies, and identification with coalition advocacy aims. Various participatory outcomes were explored including involvement in future HIV vaccine community functions, participation in community promotion of HIV vaccine research, and community mobilization. Three-stage least squares estimates indicated similar findings across three models. Significant effects demonstrate the importance of positive attitudes toward HIV vaccine research, favorable health research beliefs, perceived social support for participation, HIV/AIDS issue engagement, and perceived relevance of the clinical research site's mission and values. Identification of these nuanced pathway effects provides implications for tailored community program development.

  15. An Extended Model of Reasoned Action to Understand the Influence of Individual- and Network-Level Factors on African Americans’ Participation in HIV Vaccine Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frew, Paula M.; Archibald, Matthew; Diallo, Dazon Dixon; Hou, Su-I; Horton, Takeia; Chan, Kayshin; Mulligan, Mark J.; del Rio, Carlos

    2010-01-01

    In the United States, the number and proportion of HIV/AIDS cases among black/African Americans continue to highlight the need for new biomedical prevention interventions, including an HIV vaccine, microbicide, or new antiretroviral (ARV) prevention strategies such as pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) to complement existing condom usage, harm reduction methods, and behavioral change strategies to stem the HIV epidemic. Although black/African Americans are disproportionately impacted by HIV/AIDS, their participation in HIV clinical research continues to have unique challenges. We theorize that interaction among multilevel factors creates ideal alignment for minority participation in HIV clinical studies. Thus, we initially set out to test an extended model of reasoned action with 362 participants to understand the interplay of sociopsychological and network-level considerations influencing minority participation in HIV prevention research efforts. In this study, we linked the intrapersonal dimensions of attitudes, beliefs, and normative concerns to community-level components, appraisal of involvement with the clinical research organization, an entity which operates within a networked structure of community partner agencies, and identification with coalition advocacy aims. Various participatory outcomes were explored including involvement in future HIV vaccine community functions, participation in community promotion of HIV vaccine research, and community mobilization. Three-stage least squares estimates indicated similar findings across three models. Significant effects demonstrate the importance of positive attitudes toward HIV vaccine research, favorable health research beliefs, perceived social support for participation, HIV/AIDS issue engagement, and perceived relevance of the clinical research site’s mission and values. Identification of these nuanced pathway effects provides implications for tailored community program development. PMID:20012200

  16. FACTORS INFLUENCING THE MANAGEMENT OF ADHD

    OpenAIRE

    S ARMAN; M SOLTANI

    2003-01-01

    Introduction: Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)is the most common psychiatric disorder among school age children. It consists of hyperactivity, inattention and impulsive behavior. The onset of the disorder is before the age of 7 years and it happens at least in two situations. It causes significant impairment in social and academic functioning. A determination of factors that influences the therapeutic response in ADHD is the aim of this study. Methods: This study is design...

  17. Factors influencing laser cutting of wood

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barnekov, V. G.; McMillin, C. W.; Huber, H. A.

    1986-07-01

    Factors influencing the ability of lasers to cut wood may be generally classified into these three areas: 1) characteristics of the laser beam; 2) equipment and processing variables; and 3) properties of the work piece. Effects of beam power, mode, polarization, and stability are discussed as are aspects of optics, location of focal point, feed speed, gas-jet assist system and work piece thickness, density, and moisture content. (author)

  18. Psychological Factors Influencing Life Satisfaction of Undergraduates

    OpenAIRE

    Ajayi, Olubukola; Adewumi, Bukunmi

    2017-01-01

    This study was designed to assess the psychological factors influencing life satisfaction of undergraduates. The instruments used were Perceived Stress Scale (PSS), Wong and Law Emotional Intelligence Scale (WLEIS), Rosenberge Self-esteem Scale (RSS), and Satisfaction with Life Scale (SWLS). A total number of 190 participants were purposively selected across various faculties in Ekiti State University. Four hypotheses were tested using Independent t-test to find the effects of perceived stres...

  19. Abiotic factors influencing tropical dry forests regeneration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ceccon Eliane

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Tropical dry forests represent nearly half the tropical forests in the world and are the ecosystems registering the greatest deterioration from the anthropogenic exploitation of the land. This paper presents a review on the dynamics of tropical dry forests regeneration and the main abiotic factors influencing this regeneration, such as seasonal nature, soil fertility and humidity, and natural and anthropic disturbances. The main purpose is to clearly understand an important part of TDF succession dynamics.

  20. FACTORS INFLUENCING YIELD SPREADS OF THE MALAYSIAN BONDS

    OpenAIRE

    Norliza Ahmad; Joriah Muhammad; Tajul Ariffin Masron

    2009-01-01

    Malaysian bond market is developing rapidly but not much is understood in terms of macroeconomic factors that could influence the yield spread of the Ringgit Malaysian denominated bonds. Based on a multifactor model, this paper examines the impact of four macroeconomic factors namely: Kuala Lumpur Composite Index (KLCI), Industry Production Index (IPI), Consumer Price Index (CPI) and interest rates (IR) on bond yield spread of the Malaysian Government Securities (MGS) and Corporate Bonds (CBs...

  1. [Factors influencing nurses' organizational citizenship behavior].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Junhee; Yun, Eunkyung; Han, Sangsook

    2009-08-01

    This study was conducted to identify the factors that influence nurses' organizational citizenship behavior. A cross-sectional design was used, with a convenience sample of 547 nurses from four university hospitals in Seoul and Gyeonggi province. The data were collected through a questionnaire survey done from September 22 to October 10, 2008. The tools used for this study were scales on organizational citizenship behavior (14 items), self-leadership (14 items), empowerment (10 items), organizational commitment (7 items), job satisfaction (8 items) and transformational.transactional leadership (14 items). Cronbach's alpha and factor analysis were examined to test reliability and construct validity of the scale. The data collected were processed using SPSS Window 15.0 Program for actual numbers and percentages, differences in the dependent variable according to general characteristics, and means, standard deviations, correlation coefficients and multiple regression analysis. The factors influencing nurses' organizational citizenship behavior were identified as self-leadership(beta=.247), empowerment (beta=.233), job satisfaction (beta=.209), organizational commitment (beta=.158), and transactional leadership (beta=.142). Five factors explained 42.0% of nurses' organizational citizenship behavior. The results of this study can be used to develop further management strategies for enhancement of nurses' organizational citizenship behavior.

  2. Cerebrospinal Fluid Pressure: Revisiting Factors Influencing Optic Nerve Head Biomechanics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hua, Yi; Voorhees, Andrew P.; Sigal, Ian A.

    2018-01-01

    Purpose To model the sensitivity of the optic nerve head (ONH) biomechanical environment to acute variations in IOP, cerebrospinal fluid pressure (CSFP), and central retinal artery blood pressure (BP). Methods We extended a previously published numerical model of the ONH to include 24 factors representing tissue anatomy and mechanical properties, all three pressures, and constraints on the optic nerve (CON). A total of 8340 models were studied to predict factor influences on 98 responses in a two-step process: a fractional factorial screening analysis to identify the 16 most influential factors, followed by a response surface methodology to predict factor effects in detail. Results The six most influential factors were, in order: IOP, CON, moduli of the sclera, lamina cribrosa (LC) and dura, and CSFP. IOP and CSFP affected different aspects of ONH biomechanics. The strongest influence of CSFP, more than twice that of IOP, was on the rotation of the peripapillary sclera. CSFP had similar influence on LC stretch and compression to moduli of sclera and LC. On some ONHs, CSFP caused large retrolamina deformations and subarachnoid expansion. CON had a strong influence on LC displacement. BP overall influence was 633 times smaller than that of IOP. Conclusions Models predict that IOP and CSFP are the top and sixth most influential factors on ONH biomechanics. Different IOP and CSFP effects suggest that translaminar pressure difference may not be a good parameter to predict biomechanics-related glaucomatous neuropathy. CON may drastically affect the responses relating to gross ONH geometry and should be determined experimentally. PMID:29332130

  3. Internal factors influencing the knowledge continuity ensuring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hana Urbancová

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the systematic ensuring of knowledge continuity is the continuity of an organisation’s development, the quality of managerial positions and the continuity of decision-making. By ensuring knowledge continuity, organisations may gain a performance-enhancing factor. The objective of the article is to identify the level of impact of decisive internal factors determining knowledge continuity ensuring and contributing to the efficiency of the organisations. Knowledge continuity ensuring as an internal force, however, can together with the right employees, help adapt more quickly to external conditions that organisations can hardly control. Monitoring and ensuring knowledge continuity can contribute to a higher quality of processes in general, in particular processes exploiting knowledge, and thus help improve the level of management. The first part of the article presents theoretical views on the aspects of knowledge continuity ensuring in organisations while the second part analyses the findings of the surveys carried out among managers in organisations in the Czech Republic. Based on the summary of the outcomes obtained it is possible to say that internal factors influence knowledge continuity ensuring in organisations, however, the level of impact of individual factors is determined by their size. The findings regarding the impact of each of the factors show that the most significant barriers to knowledge continuity ensuring are those associated with the human factor.

  4. Factors influencing internal color of cooked meats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suman, Surendranath P; Nair, Mahesh N; Joseph, Poulson; Hunt, Melvin C

    2016-10-01

    This manuscript overviews the pertinent research on internal color of uncured cooked meats, biochemical processes involved in meat cookery, and fundamental mechanisms governing myoglobin thermal stability. Heat-induced denaturation of myoglobin, responsible for the characteristic dull-brown color of cooked meats, is influenced by a multitude of endogenous (i.e., pH, muscle source, species, redox state) and exogenous (i.e., packaging, ingredients, storage) factors. The interactions between these factors critically influence the internal cooked color and can confuse the consumers, who often perceive cooked color to be a reliable indicator for doneness and safety. While certain phenomena in cooked meat color are cosmetic in nature, others can mislead consumers and result in foodborne illnesses. Research in meat color suggests that processing technologies and cooking practices in industry as well as households influence the internal cooked color. Additionally, the guidelines of many international public health and regulatory authorities recommend using meat thermometers to determine safe cooking endpoint temperature and to ensure product safety. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. A brief review of salient factors influencing adult eating behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emilien, Christine; Hollis, James H

    2017-12-01

    A better understanding of the factors that influence eating behaviour is of importance as our food choices are associated with the risk of developing chronic diseases such as obesity, CVD, type 2 diabetes or some forms of cancer. In addition, accumulating evidence suggests that the industrial food production system is a major contributor to greenhouse gas emission and may be unsustainable. Therefore, our food choices may also contribute to climate change. By identifying the factors that influence eating behaviour new interventions may be developed, at the individual or population level, to modify eating behaviour and contribute to society's health and environmental goals. Research indicates that eating behaviour is dictated by a complex interaction between physiology, environment, psychology, culture, socio-economics and genetics that is not fully understood. While a growing body of research has identified how several single factors influence eating behaviour, a better understanding of how these factors interact is required to facilitate the developing new models of eating behaviour. Due to the diversity of influences on eating behaviour this would probably necessitate a greater focus on multi-disciplinary research. In the present review, the influence of several salient physiological and environmental factors (largely related to food characteristics) on meal initiation, satiation (meal size) and satiety (inter-meal interval) are briefly discussed. Due to the large literature this review is not exhaustive but illustrates the complexity of eating behaviour. The present review will also highlight several limitations that apply to eating behaviour research.

  6. Factors influencing thermal tolerances of individual organisms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hutchison, V.H.

    1976-01-01

    The diversity of experimental methods and terminology employed by investigators to measure the effects of high temperatures on individual organisms, plus the often overlooked complexities of the holocoenotic environment, has often led to disconcerting conclusions. A plea is made for standardization of testing methods and for a wider appreciation of factors that may alter thermal tolerances. The influence of elevated temperature is grouped into three categories, lethal effects, controlling effects, and directive effects, all of which should be considered in assessing the impact of thermal effluent on organisms. In addition, the terminology (acclimation, acclimatization, adaptation, habituation, lethal temperature, critical thermal maximum, etc.) needs standardized definitions. The important factors influencing thermal effects on organisms include photoperiod, seasonal and daily cycles, geographic variation, diet, sex, breeding condition, age, life-cycle stage, salinity, chemicals, body water content and partitioning, oxygen supply, pH, innate and learned behavior, history of thermal exposure, sublethal exposure to limiting factors, and experimental methods. Examples of most of these are given to illustrate the role of temperature in the holocoenotic environmental complex of individual organisms

  7. [New nurse turnover intention and influencing factors].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Sang Sook; Sohn, In Soon; Kim, Nam Eun

    2009-12-01

    The study was done to identify turnover intention in new nurses according to characteristics of the nurses and other factors affecting turnover and to provide data to set up a strategy to reduce the turnover. Data were collected from 1,077 new nurses who had less than 12 months employment experience and worked in one of 188 hospitals. Eight research instruments were used. Data analysis was done using SPSS WIN 15.0 program. Several factors influence new nurse turnover intention. The average score for turnover intention was 2.12. The scores for subscales were self efficacy, 3.76, nursing performance, 3.90, job satisfaction, 2.09, organization commitment, 1.28, stress, 1.32, burnout, 2.82 and nursing organizational culture, 3.29. Turnover intention was related to self efficacy, nursing performance, job satisfaction, organization commitment, stress, burnout, nursing organizational culture, duration of in-class training, duration of on the job training, number of hospital beds, length of employment and duration of employment in current workplace. The predicting factors for turnover intention were burnout, stress, duration of employment in the current workplace, self efficacy and nursing performance. Those factors explained 51.6% of turnover intention. New nurse turnover intention can be reduced by mitigating the factors affecting this intention.

  8. Quantitative influence of risk factors on blood glucose level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Songjing; Luo, Senlin; Pan, Limin; Zhang, Tiemei; Han, Longfei; Zhao, Haixiu

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study is to quantitatively analyze the influence of risk factors on the blood glucose level, and to provide theory basis for understanding the characteristics of blood glucose change and confirming the intervention index for type 2 diabetes. The quantitative method is proposed to analyze the influence of risk factors on blood glucose using back propagation (BP) neural network. Ten risk factors are screened first. Then the cohort is divided into nine groups by gender and age. According to the minimum error principle, nine BP models are trained respectively. The quantitative values of the influence of different risk factors on the blood glucose change can be obtained by sensitivity calculation. The experiment results indicate that weight is the leading cause of blood glucose change (0.2449). The second factors are cholesterol, age and triglyceride. The total ratio of these four factors reaches to 77% of the nine screened risk factors. And the sensitivity sequences can provide judgment method for individual intervention. This method can be applied to risk factors quantitative analysis of other diseases and potentially used for clinical practitioners to identify high risk populations for type 2 diabetes as well as other disease.

  9. Emergency Department Crowding: Factors Influencing Flow

    OpenAIRE

    Arkun, Alp; Briggs, William M; Patel, Sweha; Datillo, Paris A; Bove, Joseph; Birkhahn, Robert H

    2010-01-01

    Background: The objective of this study was to evaluate those factors, both intrinsic and extrinsic to the emergency department (ED) that influence two specific components of throughput: “door-to-doctor” time and dwell time. Methods: We used a prospective observational study design to determine the variables that played a significant role in determining ED flow. All adult patients seen or waiting to be seen in the ED were observed at 8pm (Monday-Friday) during a three-month period. V...

  10. Factors influencing variation in dentist service rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grembowski, D; Milgrom, P; Fiset, L

    1990-01-01

    In the previous article, we calculated dentist service rates for 200 general dentists based on a homogeneous, well-educated, upper-middle-class population of patients. Wide variations in the rates were detected. In this analysis, factors influencing variation in the rates were identified. Variation in rates for categories of dental services was explained by practice characteristics, patient exposure to fluoridated water supplies, and non-price competition in the dental market. Rates were greatest in large, busy practices in markets with high fees. Older practices consistently had lower rates across services. As a whole, these variables explained between 5 and 30 percent of the variation in the rates.

  11. Factors influencing the cardiac MIBG accumulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takatsu, Hisato; Fujiwara, Hisayoshi

    1997-01-01

    Following factors possibly influencing the cardiac MIBG accumulation were examined mainly in mice. 1. The specific activity of the MIBG (meta-iodo-benzyl guanidine) on the neuronal and non-neuronal fractions. 2. Motor restriction stress on MIBG accumulation and washout. 3. Loading and restriction of sodium chloride on the accumulation and effect of suppression of renin-angiotensin system. 4. Examinations in Dahl rats. 125I- or 131I-MIBG was intravenously administered to mice at 74 kBq. At 30 min or 4 hr after administration, mice were sacrificed and their left ventricles were dissected out for measurement of radioactivity in a liquid scintillation counter. Salt-sensitive and -resistant Dahl rats were given with 37 MBq of 123I-MIBG and cardiac radioactivity was measured externally for calculation of washout. Factors examined were found highly correlated with the accumulation of MIBG and measurement of its washout was considered useful for evaluating sympathetic activity. (K.H.)

  12. A survey on factors influencing city branding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed Mohsen Mahmoudzadeh

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, the issue of “globalization” is entering to all areas in the world. In addition to products and companies, cities and countries also have the opportunity to see themselves as important actors in international arena. Places define their positions in different fields like business, leisure and recreation, educational opportunities, living, etc. This paper presents an empirical study to introduce city branding as one of the solutions to join globalization process. The method of this research is based on the “descriptive-analytic” and utilize the available literature and experts’ opinions to prioritize the influencing factors of city branding. We use Delphi consensus methods and technique of analytical hierarchy process to evaluate the factors. Finally, the results of the study indicate that security, transportation and mental creativity are the weakest fields and business and shopping facilities are strong fields of city branding in metropolitan of Tehran.

  13. Automation bias: empirical results assessing influencing factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goddard, Kate; Roudsari, Abdul; Wyatt, Jeremy C

    2014-05-01

    To investigate the rate of automation bias - the propensity of people to over rely on automated advice and the factors associated with it. Tested factors were attitudinal - trust and confidence, non-attitudinal - decision support experience and clinical experience, and environmental - task difficulty. The paradigm of simulated decision support advice within a prescribing context was used. The study employed within participant before-after design, whereby 26 UK NHS General Practitioners were shown 20 hypothetical prescribing scenarios with prevalidated correct and incorrect answers - advice was incorrect in 6 scenarios. They were asked to prescribe for each case, followed by being shown simulated advice. Participants were then asked whether they wished to change their prescription, and the post-advice prescription was recorded. Rate of overall decision switching was captured. Automation bias was measured by negative consultations - correct to incorrect prescription switching. Participants changed prescriptions in 22.5% of scenarios. The pre-advice accuracy rate of the clinicians was 50.38%, which improved to 58.27% post-advice. The CDSS improved the decision accuracy in 13.1% of prescribing cases. The rate of automation bias, as measured by decision switches from correct pre-advice, to incorrect post-advice was 5.2% of all cases - a net improvement of 8%. More immediate factors such as trust in the specific CDSS, decision confidence, and task difficulty influenced rate of decision switching. Lower clinical experience was associated with more decision switching. Age, DSS experience and trust in CDSS generally were not significantly associated with decision switching. This study adds to the literature surrounding automation bias in terms of its potential frequency and influencing factors. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Factors influencing seed germination in Cerrado grasses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosana Marta Kolb

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Few studies address the ecology of herbs of Cerrado grasslands, which are ecosystems where the long dry season, high temperatures, insolation, fire and invasive grasses greatly influencing germination and the establishment of plants. We assessed germination of 13 species of Poaceae from Cerrado grasslands under nursery conditions or in germination chambers, the latter with i recently collected seeds and seeds after six months storage, ii under constant and alternating temperatures, and iii in the presence and absence of light. Germinability, mean germination time (MGT and required light were quantified to elucidate factors involved in successful germination. Germinability was low for most grasses, probably because of low seed viability. For most species, germinability and MGT were not altered by seed storage. Germination percentages were higher at alternating temperatures and in the presence of light, factors that are more similar to natural environmental situations compared with constant temperature or the absence of light. Our findings indicate that alternating temperatures and light incidence are key factors for germination of species of Poaceae. The maintenance of these environmental factors, which are crucial for the conservation of Cerrado grasslands, depends on appropriate management interventions, such as fire management and the control of biological invasion.

  15. Factors that influence nurses' job satisfaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Chen-Chung; Samuels, Michael E; Alexander, Judith W

    2003-05-01

    To examine factors affecting the job satisfaction of registered nurses (RNs). A growing recognition of job dissatisfaction among RNs in South Carolina hospitals has contributed to current problems with recruitment and retention. If administrators identify factors influencing RNs' job satisfaction in hospitals and implement strategies to address these factors, RN turnover rates will decrease and recruiting and retention rates will increase. A cross-sectional study of secondary data was designed to identify the individual, work, and geographic factors that impact nursing job satisfaction at the state level. A 27-question self-administered survey was sent to 17,500 RNs in South Carolina with postage-paid envelopes for their responses. Surveys from 3472 nurses were completed anonymously. Univariate statistics were used to describe the study sample. One-way and multivariable Analysis of Variance were used to determine which variables contributed the most to job satisfaction. For about two thirds of the RNs, job satisfaction remained the same or had lessened over the past 2 years. In addition, statistically significant differences were found between job satisfaction and years of service, job position, hospital retirement plan, and geographic area. The findings have implications for nurse managers and hospital administrators for planning and implementing effective health policies that will meet the unique needs of their staffs and organizations. Such research is particularly relevant in this difficult time of nursing shortages throughout the healthcare industry.

  16. What factors influence British medical students' career intentions?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibrahim, Michael; Fanshawe, Angela; Patel, Vanash; Goswami, Karan; Chilvers, Geoffrey; Ting, Michelle; Pilavakis, Yiannis; Rao, Christopher; Athanasiou, Thanos

    2014-12-01

    The aim of this study was to identify factors that influence career choice in UK medical students. Students at seven institutions were invited to rate how important various factors were on influencing their career choices and how interested they were in pursuing different specialties. The influence of interpersonal relationship networks on career choice was also evaluated. 641 responses were collected. 44% (283) were male, 16% (105) were graduates and 41% (263) were final-year students. For Dermatology (p = 0.009), Paediatrics (p = 0.000), Radiology (p = 0.000), Emergency Medicine (p = 0.018) and Cardiothoracic Surgery (p = 0.000), there was a clear correlation between completing a clinical attachment and an interest in pursuing the specialty. Perceived characteristics of the speciality, individually and in clusters were considered important by specific subgroups of students, such as those interested in surgery. These students considered prestige (p = 0.0003), role models (p = 0.014), financial rewards after training (p = 0.0196) and technical challenge (p = 0.0011) as important factors. Demographics such as sex and age played a significant role in career choice. Interpersonal relationship networks do not have a significant influence on career intentions. This study shows that the career intentions of British medical students are influenced by their undergraduate experience and by the weight they place on different specialty-related factors.

  17. Factors Influencing Acceptance Of Contraceptive Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anita Gupta

    1997-04-01

    Full Text Available Research Problem: What are the factors influencing acceptance of contraceptive methods. Objective: To study the determinants influencing contra­ceptive acceptance. Study design: Population based cross - sectional study. Setting: Rural area of East Delhi. Participants: Married women in the reproductive age group. Sample:Stratified sampling technique was used to draw the sample. Sample Size: 328 married women of reproductive age group. Study Variables: Socio-economic status, Type of contraceptive, Family size, Male child. Outcome Variables: Acceptance of contraceptives Statistical Analysis: By proportions. Result: Prevalence of use of contraception at the time of data collection was 40.5%. Tubectomy and vasectomy were most commonly used methods. (59.4%, n - 133. Educational status of the women positively influenced the contraceptive acceptance but income did not. Desire for more children was single most important deterrent for accepting contraception. Recommendations: (i             Traditional method of contraception should be given more attention. (ii            Couplesshould be brought in the contraceptive use net at the early stage of marriage.

  18. Comparison of the influence of two models of mild stress on hippocampal brain-derived neurotrophin factor (BDNF) immunoreactivity in old age rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badowska-Szalewska, Ewa; Ludkiewicz, Beata; Krawczyk, Rafał; Melka, Natalia; Moryś, Janusz

    2017-01-01

    The way hippocampal neurons function during stress in old age (critical times of life) is dependent on brain derived neurotrophin factor (BDNF). This study examined the influence of acute and chronic forced swim (FS) or high-light open field (HL‑OF) stimulation on the density of BDNF immunoreactive (ir) neurons in the hippocampal pyramidal layers of CA1, CA2, CA3 regions and the granular layer of dentate gyrus (DG) in old (postnatal day 720; P720) Wistar Han rats. Our data showed that in comparison with non-stressed rats, acute FS caused a significant increase in the density of BDNF-ir neurons in CA2 and CA3, while acute HL-OF led to an increase in this factor in all hippocampal subfields with the exception of DG. However, the density of BDNF-ir cells remained unchanged after exposure to chronic FS or HL‑OF in the hippocampal regions in relation to the control rats. These results indicate that acute FS or HL-OF proved to be a stressor that induces an increase in the density of BDNF-ir pyramidal neurons, which was probably connected with up-regulation of HPA axis activity and short‑time memory processing of the stressful situation. Moreover, as far as the influence on BDNF-ir cells in hippocampus is concerned, chronic FS or HL-OF was not an aggravating factor for rats in the ontogenetic periods studied.

  19. Factors influencing tinnitus loudness and annoyance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiller, Wolfgang; Goebel, Gerhard

    2006-12-01

    To evaluate the 2 major components of tinnitus severity, loudness and annoyance, and their degree of dependence on characteristics of tinnitus manifestation, history, and etiology. Cross-sectional survey performed during the first months of 2004. Nonclinical population. A total of 4995 members of the German Tinnitus League. Comprehensive screening questionnaire, including the Klockhoff and Lindblom loudness grading system and the miniversion of the Tinnitus Questionnaire. A moderate correlation of 0.45 was found between tinnitus loudness and annoyance. Both factors were generally higher in men, those older than 50 years, those with binaural and centrally perceived tinnitus, those with increased noise sensitivity, and those who had continuous tinnitus without interruptions. Tinnitus that lasted 12 months or less had a stronger influence on annoyance (odds ratio [OR], 1.96) than on loudness (OR, 0.45), whereas the contrary was found for tinnitus of more than 5 years' duration (ORs, 0.72 and 2.11, respectively). Loudness and annoyance were increased in subjects with coexisting hearing loss, vertigo, and hyperacusis. The impact of hyperacusis on annoyance was clearly stronger than on loudness (ORs, 21.91 vs 9.47). Several clinical factors of tinnitus influence perceived loudness and annoyance. Both are distinguishable components of tinnitus severity.

  20. Factors influencing endometrial thickness in postmenopausal women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hebbar, S; Chaya, V; Rai, L; Ramachandran, A

    2014-07-01

    Cut-off values for endometrial thickness (ET) in asymptomatic postmenopausal woman have been standardized. However, there are no comprehensive studies to document how various factors can influence the ET after the age of menopause. To study the various factors influencing the ET in postmenopausal women. This was a prospective observational study. A total of 110 postmenopausal women underwent detailed history taking, clinical examination, and transvaginal scan for uterine volume and ovarian volume. The volumes were calculated by using ellipsoid formula: Width × thickness × height × 0.523. The variation in ET with respect to the influencing factors such as age, duration of menopause, parity, body mass index (BMI), medical illness like diabetes/hypertension, drugs like tamoxifen, presence of myoma, uterine volume, ovarian volume, and serum estradiol (in selected patients) were measured. Descriptive analysis was performed using SPSS software (version 16, Chicago II, USA) to obtain mean, standard deviation (SD), 95% confidence intervals (CIs) and inter quartile ranges. Comparison of means was carried out using analysis of variance. The mean (SD) age of the patients was 55.4 (6.91) years (95% CI, 54.1, 56.7). The mean (SD) age at menopause was 47.95 (3.90) years (95% CI, 47.2, 48.7) and the mean (SD) duration of menopause was 7.27 (6.65) years (95% CI, 6.01, 8.53). The mean (SD) ET was 3.8 (2.3) mm (95% CI, 3.36, 4.23). Medical illness like diabetes and hypertension did not alter the ET. ET increased as BMI increased and it was statistically significant. The presence of myoma increased uterine volume significantly and was associated with thick endometrial stripe. Similarly, whenever the ovaries were visualized and as the ovarian volume increased, there was an increase in ET. When ET was > 4 mm (n = 37), they were offered endocel, of which 16 agreed to undergo the procedure. None were found to have endometrial cancer. This study suggests that parity, BMI, presence of

  1. Factors that influence peripheral nerve regeneration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krarup, Christian; Archibald, Simon J; Madison, Roger D

    2002-01-01

    median nerve lesions (n = 46) in nonhuman primates over 3 to 4 years, a time span comparable with such lesions in humans. Nerve gap distances of 5, 20, or 50mm were repaired with nerve grafts or collagen-based nerve guide tubes, and three electrophysiological outcome measures were followed: (1) compound...... muscle action potentials in the abductor pollicis brevis muscle, (2) the number and size of motor units in reinnervated muscle, and (3) compound sensory action potentials from digital nerve. A statistical model was used to assess the influence of three variables (repair type, nerve gap distance, and time...... to earliest muscle reinnervation) on the final recovery of the outcome measures. Nerve gap distance and the repair type, individually and concertedly, strongly influenced the time to earliest muscle reinnervation, and only time to reinnervation was significant when all three variables were included as outcome...

  2. Factors influencing US medical students' decision to pursue surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Lauren E; Cooper, Clairice A; Guo, Weidun Alan

    2016-06-01

    Interest and applications to surgery have steadily decreased over recent years in the United States. The goal of this review is to collect the current literature regarding US medical students' experience in surgery and factors influencing their intention to pursue surgery as a career. We hypothesize that multiple factors influence US medical students' career choice in surgery. Six electronic databases (PubMed, SCOPUS, Web of Science, Education Resources Information Center, Embase, and PsycINFO) were searched. The inclusion criteria were studies published after the new century related to factors influencing surgical career choice among US medical students. Factors influencing US medical student surgical career decision-making were recorded. A quality index score was given to each article selected to minimize risk of bias. We identified 38 relevant articles of more than 1000 nonduplicated titles. The factors influencing medical student decision for a surgical career were categorized into five domains: mentorship and role model (n = 12), experience (clerkship n = 9, stereotype n = 4), timing of exposure (n = 9), personal (lifestyle n = 8, gender n = 6, finance n = 3), and others (n = 2). This comprehensive systemic review identifies mentorship, experience in surgery, stereotypes, timing of exposure, and personal factors to be major determinants in medical students' decisions to pursue surgery. These represent areas that can be improved to attract applicants to general surgery residencies. Surgical faculty and residents can have a positive influence on medical students' decisions to pursue surgery as a career. Early introduction to the field of surgery, as well as recruitment strategies during the preclinical and clinical years of medical school can increase students' interest in a surgical career. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Factors influencing career decisions in internal medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macdonald, C; Cawood, T

    2012-08-01

    Numerous factors influence career decisions for internal medicine trainees and Fellows. There is a perception that a greater emphasis is placed on work-family balance by younger physicians. To determine the characteristics of the modern internal medicine workforce and ascertain whether job flexibility is important to career decision-making. We hypothesised that factors which reflect flexibility would be highly influential in decision-making, especially for women and those with young children. A questionnaire was mailed to 250 New Zealand internal medicine trainees and Fellows. It focused on factors, including job flexibility, interest and collegial support, and included demographic details which were primarily aimed at ascertaining family responsibilities. Response rate was 54%. The majority of female physicians are the main person responsible for their children (62%), and the majority of their partners work full-time (80%). This contrasts with male physicians, of whom only 4% are the main person responsible for their children. Flexibility was found to be more influential in women, those with young children, trainees and those working in outpatient-based subspecialties. However, contrary to our original hypothesis, flexibility was not reported to be highly influential in any group, with career choice being most influenced by interest and enjoyment, intellectual challenge and variety within the job. It is hoped that results will inform employers and those involved with training to enable them to better cater for the needs of the workforce and also encourage trainees to consider future family commitments when making career decisions. © 2012 The Authors. Internal Medicine Journal © 2012 Royal Australasian College of Physicians.

  4. Evaluation of the efficacy of factors influencing on marketing SMEs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mona Yaghoubi

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an empirical investigation to study the effects of different factors influencing on marketing in small and medium enterprises (SMEs in city of Tehran, Iran. The study has been accomplished among 57 SMEs out of 70 active business units who were involved in hand made carpet. The survey uses a questionnaire originally developed by Merrilees et al. (2011 [Merrilees, B., Rundle-Thiele, S., & Lye, A. (2011. Marketing capabilities: Antecedents and implications for B2B SME performance. Industrial Marketing Management, 40(3, 368-375.] to determine the factors influencing on marketing SMEs. Using structural equation modeling, the results of survey indicate that market orientation, management capability, innovation capability and brand capability of SME's marketing performance influence on development of marketing, positively.

  5. The Influence Factors and Mechanism of Societal Risk Perception

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Rui; Shi, Kan; Li, Shu

    Risk perception is one of important subjects in management psychology and cognitive psychology. It is of great value in the theory and practice to investigate the societal hazards that the public cares a lot especially in Socio-economic transition period. A survey including 30 hazards and 6 risk attributes was designed and distributed to about 2, 485 residents of 8 districts, Beijing. The major findings are listed as following: Firstly, a scale of societal risk perception was designed and 2 factors were identified (Dread Risk & Unknown Risk). Secondly, structural equation model was used to analyze the influence factors and mechanism of societal risk perception. Risk preference, government support and social justice could influence societal risk perception directly. Government support fully moderated the relationship between government trust and societal risk perception. Societal risk perception influenced life satisfaction, public policy preferences and social development belief.

  6. FACTORS INFLUENCING FOOD NEOPHOBIA. A BRIEF REVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    STOICA Maricica

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, the number of new food products has increased considerably. Nevertheless, not all new food products are accepted and understood by consumers, the innovations in the food sector are often not well received by the market, partly due to a phenomenon known as food neophobia. Food neophobia, a general aversion to try new or unfamiliar foods, has a major impact on preferences, selection and food product acceptability. The neophobic consumers tend to display negative attitudes and less pleasure in relation to new food products. Food neophobia is based on three main reasons for rejection of a food, such as: dislike of its sensory characteristics, fear of negative consequences of eating it, and disgust arising from the idea of the food’s nature or origin. Phobia towards the introduction of unfamiliar foods in the diet can occur for several different factors, such as: socio-demographic characteristics, education level and lifestyle, degree of urbanization, income level, arousal, personal experiences, advertising, fashion, advices of other persons, and habits. This review paper was designed to provide up-to-date relevant information on factors influencing food neophobia, like social factors, type of new food, education, and arousal. The scientific information presented here could help food scientists in new food development, and food companies to develop the best marketing strategies that lead to a general decrease in neophobic consumers’ behaviour. The application of appropriate marketing strategies may allow the product to reach a competitive advantage and be successful.

  7. Influence of organizational factors on performance reliability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haber, S.B.; O'Brien, J.N.; Metlay, D.S.; Crouch, D.A.

    1991-12-01

    This is the first volume of a two-volume report. Volume 2 will be published at a later date. This report presents the results of a research project conducted by Brookhaven National Laboratory for the United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Office of Nuclear Regulatory Research. The purpose of the project was to develop a general methodology to be use in the assessment of the organizational factors which affect performance reliability (safety) in a nuclear power plant. The research described in this report includes the development of the Nuclear Organization and Management Analysis Concept (GNOMIC). This concept characterizes the organizational factors that impact safety performance in a nuclear power plant and identifies some methods for systematically measuring and analyzing the influence of these factors on safety performance. This report is divided into two parts; Part 1 presents an overview of the development of the methodology, while Part 2 provides more details and a technical analysis of the methodological development. Specifically, the results of two demonstration studies, the feasibility of the methodology, and a specific applications for which the methodology was developed are presented

  8. Evaluation of Factors Influencing Job Satisfaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara A. Sypniewska

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The term “job satisfaction” is derived from the humanities, psychology and sociology. In the field of psychology, it is a state where an employee has an emotional perception of his situation and reacts with feelings of pleasure or pain. In sociology, it is considered a variable in different categories related to how each employee evaluates and thinks about his work. Job satisfaction is closely related to the performance and quality of work performed by an employee and, consequently, translates into the success of an organization, because a satisfied employee builds and participates in the success of any organization. This article presents the results of the research conducted by the author in 2012 on a sample of 215 people. Respondents represented different organizations. The aim of the study was to identify and assess the significance of individual factors influencing satisfaction and dissatisfaction with work and demonstrate their impact on the overall assessment of job satisfaction. The study showed that between the weight attributed to individual factors and overall job satisfaction there are many statistically significant correlations referring mainly to selected on the basis of analysis respondents’ groups. The study confirms the raised thesis concerning the validity of research in the factors affecting the general feeling of satisfaction by the employees.

  9. Multilevel factors influencing preterm birth in an urban setting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saba W. Masho

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Racial disparity in preterm is a major problem in the US. Although significant strides have been made in identifying some of the risk factors, the complexities between community and individual factors are not understood. This study examines the influence of individual and community level factors affecting preterm birth among Black and White women in an urban setting. A 10-year live birth registry dataset from a mid-sized, racially diverse city was analyzed (N = 30,591. Data were geocoded and merged with block group level Census data. Five hierarchical models were examined using PROC GLIMMIX. Education, illicit drug use, pregnancy complications, previous preterm birth, paternal presence, inadequate and adequate plus prenatal care, and poverty were associated with preterm births in both Blacks and Whites. In Black women, increasing maternal age, maternal smoking, and a previous infant death were significant predictors of preterm births, which was not the case for White women. Residing in medium or high poverty neighborhoods resulted in 19% and 28% higher odds, respectively, of preterm birth for Black women. In addition to individual level factors, neighborhood poverty is an important risk factor influencing preterm birth. It is essential to engage multisectoral agencies in addressing factors influencing preterm birth.

  10. Lentivector Integration Sites in Ependymal Cells From a Model of Metachromatic Leukodystrophy: Non-B DNA as a New Factor Influencing Integration

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAllister, Robert G; Liu, Jiahui; Woods, Matthew W; Tom, Sean K; Rupar, C Anthony; Barr, Stephen D

    2014-01-01

    The blood–brain barrier controls the passage of molecules from the blood into the central nervous system (CNS) and is a major challenge for treatment of neurological diseases. Metachromatic leukodystrophy is a neurodegenerative lysosomal storage disease caused by loss of arylsulfatase A (ARSA) activity. Gene therapy via intraventricular injection of a lentiviral vector is a potential approach to rapidly and permanently deliver therapeutic levels of ARSA to the CNS. We present the distribution of integration sites of a lentiviral vector encoding human ARSA (LV-ARSA) in murine brain choroid plexus and ependymal cells, administered via a single intracranial injection into the CNS. LV-ARSA did not exhibit a strong preference for integration in or near actively transcribed genes, but exhibited a strong preference for integration in or near satellite DNA. We identified several genomic hotspots for LV-ARSA integration and identified a consensus target site sequence characterized by two G-quadruplex-forming motifs flanking the integration site. In addition, our analysis identified several other non-B DNA motifs as new factors that potentially influence lentivirus integration, including human immunodeficiency virus type-1 in human cells. Together, our data demonstrate a clinically favorable integration site profile in the murine brain and identify non-B DNA as a potential new host factor that influences lentiviral integration in murine and human cells. PMID:25158091

  11. Intrinsic and extrinsic factors influencing large African herbivore movements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Venter, J.A.; Prins, H.H.T.; Mashanova, A.; Boer, de W.F.; Slotow, R.

    2015-01-01

    Understanding environmental as well as anthropogenic factors that influence large herbivore ecological patterns and processes should underpin their conservation and management. We assessed the influence of intrinsic, extrinsic environmental and extrinsic anthropogenic factors on movement behaviour

  12. Habitat factors influencing the distribution of Cymbopogon validus in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Habitat factors influencing the distribution of Cymbopogon validus in Mkambati Game Reserve, Transkei. ... disturbance; game reserve; grassland; grasslands; habitat conditions; habitat factors; mkambati game ... AJOL African Journals Online.

  13. [Bioavailability and factors influencing its rate].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vraníková, Barbora; Gajdziok, Jan

    Bioavailability can be defined as the rate and range of active ingredient absorption, when it becomes available in the systemic circulation or at the desired site of drug action, respectively. Drug bioavailability after oral administration is affected by anumber of different factors, including physicochemical properties of the drug, physiological aspects, the type of dosage form, food intake, biorhythms, and intra- and interindividual variability of the human population. This article is the first from the series dealing with the bioavailability and methods leading to its improvement. The aim of the present paper is to provide an overview of aspects influencing the rate of bioavailability after oral administration of the active ingredient. Subsequentarticles will provide detailed descriptions of methods used for dug bioavailability improvement, which are here only summarized.

  14. Factors influencing initiation of breast-feeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekwo, E E; Dusdieker, L B; Booth, B M

    1983-04-01

    We used the critical incidence method to study factors motivating 33 primigravidas and 39 multigravidas to initiate breast-feeding of their infants. Women chose breast-feeding because they believed that it would provide protection to the infant against infection, establish maternal-infant bonding, was convenient, provided better nutrition than cow's milk formula, was emotionally satisfying, and was the natural way to feed infants. The decision to breast-feed was made well in advance of pregnancy by primigravidas and shortly before pregnancy by multigravidas. Friends who had successfully nursed infants were as influential as immediate family members in influencing our study subjects in their decision to breast-feed. Prenatal counseling, though important, may not be the optimal period for motivating women to breast-feed.

  15. Factors influencing presence in virtual worlds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chow, Meyrick C M

    2012-01-01

    Virtual worlds are showing potential as an effective platform for a variety of activities, including learning. The concept of presence (the sensation of "being there" in a mediated environment) has received substantial attention from the virtual reality community, and the effectiveness of virtual worlds has often been linked to the feelings of presence reported by their users. The present study examined the effects of attitude and perceived ease of use on sense of presence in Second Life, which is one of the most known and used virtual worlds. Based on data from a survey of 206 nursing students, hypotheses are empirically tested. Findings suggest that users' attitude toward using Second Life and their perceived ease of use of it have a positive effect on their sense of presence in the virtual environment. This study advances our understanding of factors influencing presence in virtual worlds.

  16. FACTORS INFLUENCING THE MANAGEMENT OF ADHD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S ARMAN

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHDis the most common psychiatric disorder among school age children. It consists of hyperactivity, inattention and impulsive behavior. The onset of the disorder is before the age of 7 years and it happens at least in two situations. It causes significant impairment in social and academic functioning. A determination of factors that influences the therapeutic response in ADHD is the aim of this study. Methods: This study is designed as an analytic descriptive on hyperactive children. The tools that were used was the interview with parents and it provided CSI-4 checklist. Results: Methylphenidate was completely effective in ADHD and oppositional defiant disorder and was effective in majority sign of conduct disorder. There wasn't any relation between therapeutic response and demographic characteristics. Discussion: Methylphenidate is effective not only in ADHD but also in mixed ADHD and disruptive behavior.

  17. An empirical investigation on factors influencing on brand loyalty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naser Azad

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Building a competitive brand is a key success specially in banking industry. This paper presents a study to investigate important factors influencing brand loyalty among special customers in one of biggest Iranian banks in Iran. The study designs a questionnaire and distributes it among 249 regular customers who are special customers in various banks in city of Tehran, Iran. The study uses structural equation modeling to find important factors and they are ranked using TOPSIS method. In our study, Cronbach alpha has been calculated as 0.815 and there are eight influencing factors including flexibility in offering various services, building good relationship with customers, technology and processes, customers’ experiences, brand identity in continuous advertisement, organization size, customer perception on reputation of brand and customers’ tendency to build better brand loyalty. In our survey, flexibility in offering various services received the highest rank followed by building good relationship with customers.

  18. Geochemical factors influencing vault design and layout

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gascoyne, M.; Stroes-Gascoyne, S.; Sargent, F.P.

    1995-01-01

    The design and construction of a vault for used nuclear fuel in crystalline rock may be influenced by a number of geochemical factors. During the siting stage, information is needed regarding the rock type, heterogeneities in its composition and the mineralogy of permeable zones because these will cause variations in thermal conductivity, strength and radionuclide sorptive properties of the rock. These factors may affect decisions regarding depth of vault construction, tunnel dimensions and spacing of panels and waste containers. The decision on whether groundwaters are allowed to flow freely into a planned excavation may depend on measurements of their chemical compositions, microbiological contents and presence of hazardous or corrosive constituents. During site characterization, borehole drilling from the surface and subsequent hydraulic testing will introduce both chemical and microbiological contaminants that may further influence this decision. During vault construction, the geochemistry of the rock may cause changes to the characterization, design and construction of the vault. For example, high salinity fluids in micropores in the rock could prevent the use of radar surveys to detect fractures in the surrounding rock. High rock salinity may also cause unacceptably high total dissolved solids loadings in water discharged from the facility. Again, the presence of toxic, corrosive or radioactive constituents in inflowing groundwater may require grouting or, if inflow is needed for service operations, development of treatment facilities both above and below ground. In addition, the use of explosives will cause high organic and nitrate loadings in service water as well as the possible impregnation of these chemicals in the damaged wall-rock surrounding an excavation. These chemicals may remain despite cleaning efforts and act as nutrients to promote microbial activity in the post-closure phase. In the operational phase, further design and construction, changes

  19. The cognitive mediation model: factors influencing public knowledge of the H1N1 pandemic and intention to take precautionary behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Shirley S; Peh, Xianghong; Soh, Veronica W L

    2013-01-01

    This study uses the cognitive mediation model as the theoretical framework to examine the influence of motivations, communication, and news elaboration on public knowledge of the H1N1 pandemic and the intention to take precautionary behaviors in Singapore. Using a nationally representative random digit dialing telephone survey of 1,055 adult Singaporeans, the authors' results show that the cognitive mediation model can be applied to health contexts, in which motivations (surveillance gratification, guidance, and need for cognition) were positively associated with news attention, elaboration, and interpersonal communication. News attention, elaboration, and interpersonal communication in turn positively influence public knowledge about the H1N1 influenza. In addition, results show that the motivations have significant indirect effects on behavioral intentions, as partially mediated by communication (media attention and interpersonal communication), elaboration, and knowledge. The authors conclude that the cognitive mediation model can be extended to behavioral outcomes, above and beyond knowledge. Implications for theory and practice for health communication were discussed.

  20. Influence of spatially dependent, modeled soil carbon emission factors on life-cycle greenhouse gas emissions of corn and cellulosic ethanol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qin, Zhangcai [Energy Systems Division, Argonne National Laboratory, 9700 South Cass Avenue Argonne IL 60439 USA; Dunn, Jennifer B. [Energy Systems Division, Argonne National Laboratory, 9700 South Cass Avenue Argonne IL 60439 USA; Kwon, Hoyoung [Environment and Production Technology Division, International Food Policy Research Institute, 2033 K St. NW Washington DC 20006 USA; Mueller, Steffen [Energy Resources Center, University of Illinois at Chicago, 1309 South Halsted Street Chicago IL 60607 USA; Wander, Michelle M. [Department of Natural Resources and Environmental Sciences, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, 1102 South Goodwin Avenue Urbana IL 61801 USA

    2016-03-03

    Converting land to biofuel feedstock production incurs changes in soil organic carbon (SOC) that can influence biofuel life-cycle greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. Estimates of these land use change (LUC) and life-cycle GHG emissions affect biofuels’ attractiveness and eligibility under a number of renewable fuel policies in the U.S. and abroad. Modeling was used to refine the spatial resolution and depth-extent of domestic estimates of SOC change for land (cropland, cropland pasture, grasslands, and forests) conversion scenarios to biofuel crops (corn, corn stover, switchgrass, Miscanthus, poplar, and willow). In most regions, conversions from cropland and cropland pasture to biofuel crops led to neutral or small levels of SOC sequestration, while conversion of grassland and forest generally caused net SOC loss. Results of SOC change were incorporated into the Greenhouse Gases, Regulated Emissions, and Energy use in Transportation (GREET) model to assess their influence on life-cycle GHG emissions for the biofuels considered. Total LUC GHG emissions (g CO2eq MJ-1) were 2.1–9.3 for corn, -0.7 for corn stover, -3.4–12.9 for switchgrass, and -20.1–-6.2 for Miscanthus; these varied with SOC modeling assumptions applied. Extending soil depth from 30 to 100cm affected spatially-explicit SOC change and overall LUC GHG emissions; however the influence on LUC GHG emissions estimates were less significant in corn and corn stover than cellulosic feedstocks. Total life-cycle GHG emissions (g CO2eq MJ-1, 100cm) were estimated to be 59–66 for corn ethanol, 14 for stover ethanol, 18-26 for switchgrass ethanol, and -0.6–-7 for Miscanthus ethanol.

  1. Factors influencing choice of oral hygiene products by dental ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Several factors, such as cost, branding, packaging and family influence, had been implicated as influencing the choice of toothpastes and toothbrushes by individuals. Media advertisement is also considered a very strong factor influencing consumer's choice. Aim: To assess the extent to which some factors ...

  2. Factors Influencing Brand Loyalty For Samsung Mobile Users In Nepal

    OpenAIRE

    Singh, Bikash

    2016-01-01

    Master's thesis Business Administration BE501 - University of Agder 2016 Brand loyalty is one of the key element to success for the business organization. There is a high competition between the brand of the smart phone companies, so it is necessary to develop customer trust to build brand loyalty. The study aims to identify the factors influencing brand loyalty in Nepalese market. The model studies the effect of different independent variables that determines brand loyalty. Regression ana...

  3. Factors Influencing Acceptance of Electronic Health Records in Hospitals

    OpenAIRE

    Wilkins, Melinda A

    2009-01-01

    The study's aim was to examine factors that may influence health information managers in the adoption of electronic health records. The Technology Acceptance Model (TAM) served as theoretical foundation for this quantitative study. Hospital health information managers in Arkansas were queried as to the constructs of perceived usefulness, perceived ease of use, and behavior intention. The study population comprised 94 health information managers with a return rate of 74.5 percent. One manager ...

  4. An Investigation of Contingency Factors Influencing Intellectual Capital Information

    OpenAIRE

    Mohammad Soheily; Shahnaznayebzadeh; Ramin Abghari

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the contingency factors influencing the companies' intellectual capital information operating in Yazd industrial city. The study model was formed using intellectual capital as dependent variable and environmental uncertainty, technology advancement and business strategy as independent variables. For purpose of the present study, the applied and correlational methods were used. Data collection was conducted using questionnaires and survey methods. The...

  5. Shell model and spectroscopic factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poves, P.

    2007-01-01

    In these lectures, I introduce the notion of spectroscopic factor in the shell model context. A brief review is given of the present status of the large scale applications of the Interacting Shell Model. The spectroscopic factors and the spectroscopic strength are discussed for nuclei in the vicinity of magic closures and for deformed nuclei. (author)

  6. Factors Influencing Students’ Perceptions of Online Teamwork

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irina Falls

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The evolution of online teaching in higher education demands a change in the types of pedagogies used in those courses. An example of one of these important pedagogies includes online teamwork. Teamwork in this context is one in which the majority of the individual’s grade is dependent on the positive or negative group experiences. This study utilized the theoretical framework of social motivation and cohesion to identify the factors shaping students’ perceptions of teamwork in online college courses. In these courses, the pedagogical approach known as the Five Pillars of effective collaborative work was applied. An Online Teamwork Learning Survey was developed based on these principles and completed by 62 undergraduate students enrolled in semester-long online courses required in their early childhood education program of study. Using a comparison between pre–postsurveys and regression analysis, the results showed that although the students’ perceptions of teamwork did not significantly change, the factors influencing their responses during the posttest doubled in number. The results showed that through carefully designed virtual teamwork activities, students learned that essential team characteristics such as promotive interaction, individual accountability, and positive interdependence are an integral part of effective collaboration and strong predictors of teamwork perception.

  7. Factors Influencing Teamwork in Health Care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mijal Michał

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to analyse different views on interpersonal relations and team composition among managers and medical professionals with respect to the transition of professional roles in healthcare in Poland. To achieve that goal, a description based on a quantitative and qualitative questionnaire was conducted. Since the questionnaire covered various areas of health care, only its small fraction was used for the analysis. The main result is that most of the medical professionals and medical managers consider technology to be the single most important external factor influencing the team work efficiency and team composition in health care, and the managers consider skillset as the crucial factor determining whether a person would be a good team member. Based on the literature on professional roles in health care and their evolution in recent years, one can assume that constant development and lifelong learning would play a significant role in the healthcare systems reform. The findings are an important contribution to the discussion of the healthcare reform and its possible directions in future years as well a reference point for policy makers.

  8. Factors influencing performance within startup assistance organizations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ceaușu Ioana

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Startup assistance organizations, and especially business accelerators have gained a lot of traction in the last years, captioning not only the attention of the public, but most importantly that of investors and other stakeholders. It has become a challenge for many all around the world to develop such programs, but many have failed or did not have their expected results, meaning medium to long-term sustainable and profitable alumni start-ups. As high amounts of resources, both human and financial, are being invested in the design and development of such programs, it is important to understand what sets apart the successful business acceleration programs from the ones that fail. The current paper is reviewing the up-to-date theoretical literature and studies on the matter at hand, in order to identify the most relevant factors influencing startup assistance organizations’ performance. The objective behind identifying these factors is to get a better understanding of best practices of such successful programs and set the basis for future research regarding the development of a set of metrics for more accurately measuring their performance.

  9. Preoperative factors influencing success in pterygium surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres-Gimeno, Ana; Martínez-Costa, Lucía; Ayala, Guillermo

    2012-08-08

    To identify preoperative, perioperative and postoperative risk factors that influence the success of pterygium surgery. This is a prospective study of thirty-six patients with primary or recurrent pterygia. A detailed anamnesis and an ophthalmological examination were performed looking for the following factors: age, race, latitude and altitude of the main place of residence, hours of exposure to the sun, use of protective measures against UV-radiation, classification of pterygium, width of the pterygium at limbus, surgical technique (conjunctival autograft plus suturing versus tissue glue), graft alterations (misapposition, granuloma, haemorrhage, oedema, retraction or necrosis), and postoperative symptoms (foreign-body sensation, pain). The examinations were performed 2 and 7 days and 2, 6 and 12 months after surgery. In addition, recurrence was defined as any growth of conjunctiva into the cornea. A logistic regression and a survival analysis have been used to perform data analysis. A total number of 36 patients completed a one year follow-up. A total of 13 patients were born and lived in Spain, and 26 came from other countries, mostly Latin America. A total number of 8 males (no women) presented a recurrence, mainly between 2 and 6 months. The hours of sun exposure through their life was independently related to surgical success. Pterygia of less than 5 mm of base width showed a weak positive correlation with recurrence. None of the other factors considered were significantly related to recurrence. Male gender and high sun exposure are strongly and independently related to surgical success after the removal of pterygia.

  10. Preoperative factors influencing success in pterygium surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Torres-Gimeno Ana

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To identify preoperative, perioperative and postoperative risk factors that influence the success of pterygium surgery. Methods This is a prospective study of thirty-six patients with primary or recurrent pterygia. A detailed anamnesis and an ophthalmological examination were performed looking for the following factors: age, race, latitude and altitude of the main place of residence, hours of exposure to the sun, use of protective measures against UV-radiation, classification of pterygium, width of the pterygium at limbus, surgical technique (conjunctival autograft plus suturing versus tissue glue, graft alterations (misapposition, granuloma, haemorrhage, oedema, retraction or necrosis, and postoperative symptoms (foreign-body sensation, pain. The examinations were performed 2 and 7 days and 2, 6 and 12 months after surgery. In addition, recurrence was defined as any growth of conjunctiva into the cornea. Results A logistic regression and a survival analysis have been used to perform data analysis. A total number of 36 patients completed a one year follow-up. A total of 13 patients were born and lived in Spain, and 26 came from other countries, mostly Latin America. A total number of 8 males (no women presented a recurrence, mainly between 2 and 6 months. The hours of sun exposure through their life was independently related to surgical success. Pterygia of less than 5 mm of base width showed a weak positive correlation with recurrence. None of the other factors considered were significantly related to recurrence. Conclusions Male gender and high sun exposure are strongly and independently related to surgical success after the removal of pterygia.

  11. Hospital organizational factors influence work-family conflict in registered nurses: Multilevel modeling of a nation-wide cross-sectional survey in Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leineweber, C; Chungkham, H S; Westerlund, H; Tishelman, C; Lindqvist, R

    2014-05-01

    The present shortage of registered nurses (RNs) in many European countries is expected to continue and worsen, which poses a substantial threat to the maintenance of healthcare in this region. Work-family conflict is a known risk factor for turnover and sickness absence. This paper empirically examines whether the nurse practice environment is associated with experienced work-family conflict. A multilevel model was fit with the individual RN at the 1st, and the hospital department at the 2nd level using cross-sectional RN survey data from the Swedish part of RN4CAST, an EU 7th framework project. The data analyzed here is based on a national sample of 8356 female and 592 male RNs from 369 hospital departments. We found that 6% of the variability in work-family conflict experienced by RNs was at the department level. Organizational level factors significantly accounted for most of the variability at this level with two of the work practice environment factors examined, staffing adequacy and nurse involvement in hospital affairs, significantly related to work-family conflict. Due to the design of the study, factors on ward and work group levels could not be analyzed, but are likely to account for additional variance which in the present analysis appears to be on the individual level, with private life factors likely explaining another major part. These results suggest that higher level organizational factors in health care have a significant impact on the risk of work-family conflict among RNs through their impact on the nurse practice environment. Lower level organizational factors should be investigated in future studies using hierarchical multilevel sampling. Copyright © 2013 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  12. The factors influencing nonlinear characteristics of the short-circuit current in dye-sensitized solar cells investigated by a numerical model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Yushuai; Dong, Xiandui

    2013-06-24

    A numerical model for interpretation of the light-intensity-dependent nonlinear characteristics of the short-circuit current in dye-sensitized solar cells is suggested. The model is based on the continuity equation and includes the influences of the nongeminate recombination between electrons and electron acceptors in the electrolyte and the geminate recombination between electrons and oxidized dye molecules. The influences of the order and rate constant of the nongeminate recombination reaction, the light-absorption coefficient of the dye, the film thickness, the rate constant of geminate recombination, and the regeneration rate constant on the nonlinear characteristics of the short-circuit current are simulated and analyzed. It is proposed that superlinear and sublinear characteristics of the short-circuit current should be attributed to low electron-collection efficiency and low dye-regeneration efficiency, respectively. These results allow a deep understanding of the origin of the nonlinear characteristics of the short-circuit current in solar cells. Copyright © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  13. Study of Influencing Factors on ConsumerOnline Impulse Buying

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2015-01-01

    The convenience and anonymity of online shopping have stimulated people's impulse buying tendency. Impulse buying is notonly a competitive method for businesses, but also a crucial factor influencing sales of e-commerce. Based on a systematic reviewof literatures, this paper explores factors affecting the online impulse buying. Moreover, by using the S-O-R model, this paperdescribes the formation mechanism of the online impulse buying behavior. At Last, it points out issues worthy of future studies.For example, this paper suggests to take into consideration of sociocultural impact and to put more emphasis on empirical studies.

  14. Analysis of nanomechanical properties of Borrelia burgdorferi spirochetes under the influence of lytic factors in an in vitro model using atomic force microscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Małgorzata Tokarska-Rodak

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Atomic force microscopy (AFM is an experimental technique which recently has been used in biology, microbiology, and medicine to investigate the topography of surfaces and in the evaluation of mechanical properties of cells. The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of the complement system and specific anti-Borrelia antibodies in in vitro conditions on the modification of nanomechanical features of B. burgdorferi B31 cells. Material and methods: In order to assess the influence of the complement system and anti-Borrelia antibodies on B. burgdorferi s.s. B31 spirochetes, the bacteria were incubated together with plasma of identified status. The samples were applied on the surface of mica disks. Young’s modulus and adhesive forces were analyzed with a NanoScope V, MultiMode 8 AFM microscope (Bruker by the PeakForce QNM technique in air using NanoScope Analysis 1.40 software (Bruker.Results/Conclusion: The average value of flexibility of spirochetes’ surface expressed by Young’s modulus was 10185.32 MPa, whereas the adhesion force was 3.68 nN. AFM is a modern tool with a broad spectrum of observational and measurement abilities. Young’s modulus and the adhesion force can be treated as parameters in the evaluation of intensity and changes which take place in pathogenic microorganisms under the influence of various lytic factors. The visualization of the changes in association with nanomechanical features provides a realistic portrayal of the lytic abilities of the elements of the innate and adaptive human immune system.

  15. Factors influencing message dissemination through social media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Zeyu; Yang, Huancheng; Fu, Yang; Fu, Dianzheng; Podobnik, Boris; Stanley, H. Eugene

    2018-06-01

    Online social networks strongly impact our daily lives. An internet user (a "Netizen") wants messages to be efficiently disseminated. The susceptible-infected-recovered (SIR) dissemination model is the traditional tool for exploring the spreading mechanism of information diffusion. We here test our SIR-based dissemination model on open and real-world data collected from Twitter. We locate and identify phase transitions in the message dissemination process. We find that message content is a stronger factor than the popularity of the sender. We also find that the probability that a message will be forwarded has a threshold that affects its ability to spread, and when the probability is above the threshold the message quickly achieves mass dissemination.

  16. Factors influencing physicians' knowledge sharing on web medical forums.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Tung Cheng; Lai, Ming Cheng; Yang, Shu Wen

    2016-09-01

    Web medical forums are relatively unique as knowledge-sharing platforms because physicians participate exclusively as knowledge contributors and not as knowledge recipients. Using the perspective of social exchange theory and considering both extrinsic and intrinsic motivations, this study aims to elicit the factors that significantly influence the willingness of physicians to share professional knowledge on web medical forums and develops a research model to explore the motivations that underlie physicians' knowledge-sharing attitudes. This model hypothesizes that constructs, including shared vision, reputation, altruism, and self-efficacy, positively influence these attitudes and, by extension, positively impact knowledge-sharing intention. A conventional sampling method and the direct recruitment of physicians at their outpatient clinic gathered valid data from a total of 164 physicians for analysis in the model. The empirical results support the validity of the proposed model and identified shared vision as the most significant factor of influence on knowledge-sharing attitudes, followed in descending order by knowledge-sharing self-efficacy, reputation, and altruism. © The Author(s) 2015.

  17. Influence of Terraced area DEM Resolution on RUSLE LS Factor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hongming; Baartman, Jantiene E. M.; Yang, Xiaomei; Gai, Lingtong; Geissen, Viollette

    2017-04-01

    Topography has a large impact on the erosion of soil by water. Slope steepness and slope length are combined (the LS factor) in the universal soil-loss equation (USLE) and its revised version (RUSLE) for predicting soil erosion. The LS factor is usually extracted from a digital elevation model (DEM). The grid size of the DEM will thus influence the LS factor and the subsequent calculation of soil loss. Terracing is considered as a support practice factor (P) in the USLE/RUSLE equations, which is multiplied with the other USLE/RUSLE factors. However, as terraces change the slope length and steepness, they also affect the LS factor. The effect of DEM grid size on the LS factor has not been investigated for a terraced area. We obtained a high-resolution DEM by unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) photogrammetry, from which the slope steepness, slope length, and LS factor were extracted. The changes in these parameters at various DEM resolutions were then analysed. The DEM produced detailed LS-factor maps, particularly for low LS factors. High (small valleys, gullies, and terrace ridges) and low (flats and terrace fields) spatial frequencies were both sensitive to changes in resolution, so the areas of higher and lower slope steepness both decreased with increasing grid size. Average slope steepness decreased and average slope length increased with grid size. Slope length, however, had a larger effect than slope steepness on the LS factor as the grid size varied. The LS factor increased when the grid size increased from 0.5 to 30-m and increased significantly at grid sizes >5-m. The LS factor was increasingly overestimated as grid size decreased. The LS factor decreased from grid sizes of 30 to 100-m, because the details of the terraced terrain were gradually lost, but the factor was still overestimated.

  18. Factors influencing induction of adaptive response

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Misonoh, Jun; Ojima, Mitsuaki; Yonezawa, Morio

    2000-01-01

    Exposure to low doses of X-rays makes ICR mice resistant to subsequent sublethal irradiation and decrease mortality from hematopoietic death. Many factors, however, influence the induction of radioresistance. For instances, in ICR mice, the priming irradiation with 0.50 Gy was effective in the induction of radioresistance, when it is given at 6-week old, 2 weeks prior to subsequent sublethal irradiation. One hundred-fifty kV X-ray filtered off the soft component through 1.0 mm aluminum and 0.2 mm copper induces radioadaptive response as well as the harder radiation such as 260 kV X-ray filtered through 0.5 mm aluminum and 0.3 mm copper. Dose rate of priming irradiation also seemed to influence the induction of radioresistance. Priming irradiation with 0.50 Gy at 0.50 Gy/min and 0.25 Gy/min induced adaptive response, while same 0.50 Gy given at 0.063 Gy/min didn't. To make the matter complicated, when mice were pre-irradiated with 0.50 Gy at 0.013 Gy/min in the irradiation cell which was 1.2 x 1.2 x 1.4 times larger than the usual one, adaptive response was induced again. These results suggested that mice felt more uncomfortable when they were packing in the irradiation cell with little free space even for several minutes than when they were placed in the cell with much free space for about 40 minutes, and such a stress might give the mice some resistance to the subsequent sublethal irradiation. (author)

  19. The Influencing Factors of Enterprise Sustainable Innovation: An Empirical Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Si-Hua Chen

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Sustainable innovation is the inexhaustible source of development of enterprises. Within fierce market competition, only by depending on continuous innovation can an enterprise exist and develop. By conducting an exploratory factor analysis and a confirmatory factor analysis, this paper proposes a theoretical model, dividing enterprise sustainable innovation ability into three aspects: knowledge innovation capability, production innovation capability, and market innovation capability, and analyzes the influencing factors respectively. Finally, applying this theoretical model to a practical case, with system dynamics method, the simulation results show that they are consistent with real enterprise facts. Therefore, the framework of determinants of sustainable innovation built in this paper has already been verified theoretically and practically. It not only lays a theoretical foundation for further research, but also provides a clear ground for firms to improve their sustainable innovation.

  20. Fundamental factors influencing portal image quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jaffray, D.A.

    1995-01-01

    It has been recognized that improved methods of verifying radiation field placement in external beam radiotherapy are required in order to make frequent checks of field placement feasible. As a result, a large number of electronic portal imaging systems have been developed as possible replacements for film. These developments have produced digital systems with faster acquisition and improved display contrast, however, the quality of the images acquired with such systems is still disappointing. This presentation examines many of the fundamental factors which limit the quality of radiographs obtained with a megavoltage radiotherapy beam. The size and shape of the radiation sources (focal and extra-focal) in radiotherapy machines and their influence on the spatial resolution of portal images are examined. Monte Carlo simulations of x-ray interactions within the patient determined that a significant fraction of the x-ray scatter generated in the patient is due to bremsstrahlung and positron annihilation. Depending on the detector, the scatter signal can reduce the differential signal-to-noise by 20%. Furthermore, a Monte Carlo study of the interaction of x-rays within typical fluoroscopic imaging detectors (metal plate/phosphor screen) demonstrates the degrading effect of energy absorption noise on the detective quantum efficiency of fluoroscopic based imaging systems. Finally, the spatial frequency content in the x-ray shadowgram is demonstrated to change with x-ray energy, resulting in images that appear to have reduced spatial resolution at megavoltage energies. The relative magnitude of each of these factors will be presented and recommendations for the next generation of portal imaging systems will be made

  1. External and internal factors influencing happiness in elite collegiate athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denny, Katherine G; Steiner, Hans

    2009-03-01

    When under conditions of high demand and allostatic load, are happiness and satisfaction in four domains (family, friends, academics, recreation) influenced more by external or internal factors? Do student-athletes who lead exceedingly complicated lives report happiness as a function of athletic achievement or internal disposition? Stanford student-athletes (N=140) were studied with a standardized questionnaire which examined internal factors ((1) locus of control, (2) mindfulness, (3) self-restraint, and (4) self-esteem) to see whether they better account for happiness than external factors (playing time, scholarship). As predicted, internal factors were more powerful correlates of happiness when holding constant demographics. Regression models differed for different aspects of happiness, but the main postulated result of internal versus external was maintained throughout. These findings have implications for how well athletes cope with adversity which, in turn, could shed light on the development of traits that may provide a buffer against adversity and build resilience.

  2. THE INFLUENCE OF CORPORATE SPECIFIC FACTORS UPON FINANCING DECISIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lacatus Viorel-Dorin

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to analyze the existing theories for the capital structure of a corporation and to determine the factors that influence the financing decisions of Romanian corporations. The gearing ratios vary a lot among Romanian corporations pointing out the fact that the internal specific factors are the ones with a greater impact upon their capital structure, and not the external factors. Our empiric research evaluates the determining factors for the debt ratio (total debt/total assets of some Romanian corporations, focusing on its explanatory variables by including them within simple and multiple econometric models. The panel data indicators computed for the companies in the Cluj area listed on the Bucharest Stock Exchange were evaluated with the OLS and FEM techniques.The results have been interpreted, pointing out that company size and asset turnover seem to have a positive influence upon the debt ratio of selected companies, while profitability and liquidity seem to influence the debt ratio of selected companies negatively.

  3. An Investigation into factors influencing the choice of business ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    There was significant difference between male and female career influencing factors. There was no significant difference regarding the influence exercised by parent in the students' choice of Business Education. There is significant difference between male and female in the influence exerted by external factors in their ...

  4. Influence of hemodynamic factors on rupture of intracranial aneurysms: patient-specific 3D mirror aneurysms model computational fluid dynamics simulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, G; Huang, L; Zhang, X L; Wang, S Z; Hong, Y; Hu, Z; Geng, D Y

    2011-08-01

    Hemodynamics factors play an important role in the rupture of cerebral aneurysms. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the impact of hemodynamic factors on the rupture of the MANs with 3D reconstruction model CFD simulation. RDSA was performed in 9 pairs of intracranial MANs. Each pair was divided into ruptured and unruptured groups. The hemodynamic factors of the aneurysms and their parent arteries were compared. There was a significant difference in the WSS at peak systole between the regions of the aneurysms and their parent arteries in the ruptured group (ie, 6.49 ± 3.48 Pa versus 8.78 ± 3.57 Pa, P =.015) but not in the unruptured group (ie, 9.80 ± 4.12 Pa versus 10.17 ± 7.48 Pa, P =.678). The proportion of the low WSS area to the whole area of the aneurysms was 12.20 ± 18.08% in the ruptured group and 3.96 ± 6.91% in the unruptured group; the difference between the 2 groups was statistically significant (P =.015). The OSI was 0.0879 ± 0.0764 in the ruptured group, which was significantly higher than that of the unruptured group (ie, 0.0183 ± 0.0191, P =.008). MANs may be a useful disease model to investigate possible causes linked to ruptured aneurysms. The ruptured aneurysms manifested lower WSS compared with their parent arteries, a higher proportion of the low WSS area to the whole area of aneurysm, and higher OSI compared with the unruptured aneurysms.

  5. Analysis of influencing factors on public perception in contaminated site management: Simulation by structural equation modeling at four sites in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiaonuo; Chen, Weiping; Cundy, Andrew B; Chang, Andrew C; Jiao, Wentao

    2018-03-15

    Public perception towards contaminated site management, a not readily quantifiable latent parameter, was linked through structural equation modeling in this paper to 22 measurable/observable manifest variables associated with the extent of information dissemination and public knowledge of soil pollution, attitude towards remediation policies, and participation in risk mitigation processes. Data obtained through a survey of 412 community residents at four remediation sites in China were employed in the model validation. The outcomes showed that public perception towards contaminated site management might be explained through selected measurable parameters in five categories, namely information disclosure, knowledge of soil pollution, expectations of remediation and redevelopment outcomes, public participation, and site policy, along with their interactions. Among these, information dissemination and attitude towards management policies exhibited significant influence in promoting positive public perception. Based on these examples, responsible agencies therefore should focus on public accessibility to reliable information, and encourage public inputs into policies for contaminated site management, in order to gain public confidence during remediation and regeneration projects. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. What factors influence the use of contracts in the context of NHS dental practice? A systematic review of theory and logic model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Rebecca; Mosedale, Sarah; Garner, Jayne; Perkins, Elizabeth

    2014-05-01

    UK NHS contracts mediate the relationship between dental and medical practitioners as independent contractors, and the state which reimburses them for their services to patients. There have been successive revisions of dental and medical contracts since the 1990s alongside a change in the levels of professional dominance and accountability. Unintended consequences of the 2006 dental contract have led to plans for further reform. We set out to identify the factors which facilitate and hinder the use of contracts in this area. Previous reviews of theory have been narrative, and based on macro-theory arising from various disciplines such as economics, sociology and political science. This paper presents a systematic review and aggregative synthesis of the theories of contracting for publicly funded health care. A logic map conveys internal pathways linking competition for contracts to opportunism. We identify that whilst practitioners' responses to contract rules is a result of micro-level bargaining clarifying patients' and providers' interests, responses are also influenced by relationships with commissioners and wider personal, professional and political networks. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  7. Identification and control of factors influencing flow-accelerated corrosion in HRSG units using computational fluid dynamics modeling, full-scale air flow testing, and risk analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pietrowski, Ronald L. [The Consolidated Edison Company of New York, Inc., New York, NY (United States)

    2010-11-15

    In 2009, Consolidated Edison's East River heat recovery steam generator units 10 and 20 both experienced economizer tube failures which forced each unit offline. Extensive inspections indicated that the primary failure mechanism was flow-accelerated corrosion (FAC). The inspections revealed evidence of active FAC in all 7 of the economizer modules, with the most advanced stages of degradation being noted in center modules. Analysis determined that various factors were influencing and enabling this corrosion mechanism. Computational fluid dynamics and full-scale air flow testing showed very turbulent feedwater flow prevalent in areas of the modules corresponding with the pattern of FAC damage observed through inspection. It also identified preferential flow paths, with higher flow velocities, in certain tubes directly under the inlet nozzles. A FAC risk analysis identified more general susceptibility to FAC in the areas experiencing damage due to feedwater pH, operating temperatures, local shear fluid forces, and the chemical composition of the original materials of construction. These, in combination, were the primary root causes of the failures. Corrective actions were identified, analyzed, and implemented, resulting in equipment replacements and repairs. (orig.)

  8. What factors influence the use of contracts in the context of NHS dental practice? A systematic review of theory and logic model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Rebecca; Mosedale, Sarah; Garner, Jayne; Perkins, Elizabeth

    2014-01-01

    UK NHS contracts mediate the relationship between dental and medical practitioners as independent contractors, and the state which reimburses them for their services to patients. There have been successive revisions of dental and medical contracts since the 1990s alongside a change in the levels of professional dominance and accountability. Unintended consequences of the 2006 dental contract have led to plans for further reform. We set out to identify the factors which facilitate and hinder the use of contracts in this area. Previous reviews of theory have been narrative, and based on macro-theory arising from various disciplines such as economics, sociology and political science. This paper presents a systematic review and aggregative synthesis of the theories of contracting for publicly funded health care. A logic map conveys internal pathways linking competition for contracts to opportunism. We identify that whilst practitioners' responses to contract rules is a result of micro-level bargaining clarifying patients' and providers' interests, responses are also influenced by relationships with commissioners and wider personal, professional and political networks. PMID:24608120

  9. Influencing factors in the health promoting behaviors of Urinary system based on health belief model in pregnant women in Bushehr 2013-14

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farzaneh Noroozi

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Urinary tract infection is the second most common complication of pregnancy that will follow with maternal and fetal complications. The aim of this study was to identify factors affecting the urinary system health promoting behaviors in pregnant women based on the health belief model. Materials and methods: The present study is a descriptive - analytic study was performed on 250 pregnant women referred to health centers of Bushehr. The tools for collecting information was a multi sectional questionnaire consisting of demographic information, measurement of urinary system health behavior, knowledge and health belief model constructs, which its validity and reliability were ensured previously. Data analysis was performed with SPSS version 20 by using correlation coefficient and linear regression tests. Results: The mean age of subjects 27/4±4/4 years.The relationship between demographic variables and health behavior wasn’t found. The most people (179 equivalents to 71/6% had medium level of knowledge about urinary tract infection, and only 44 women (17.6% had appropriate awareness. Mean score of preventive behaviors was significant difference between different levels of knowledge (p =0/026, self efficacy (p=0/000 and perceived barriers (p=0/002. In multivariate ANOVA, only the self efficacy had strong positive relationship with the preventing behaviors of urinary tract infection (p=0/000. Conclusion: Based on these results, the necessity of education based on health belief model with an emphasis on increasing the efficacy is necessary.

  10. Urban water consumption and its influencing factors in China

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fan, Liangxin; Gai, Lingtong; Tong, Yan; Li, Ruihua

    2017-01-01

    Factors that affect water consumption should be identified to develop effective public policies. However, factors influencing domestic water consumption in cities in China, particularly on a national scale, are unclear. In this study, urban water consumption and its influencing factors in 286

  11. Factors influencing choice of paediatrics as a career among medical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    None of the male students but 12 of the female students (30%) considered gender distribution to be a factor influencing their career choice (p=0.046). Conclusion. This study indicates that paediatrics is popular among female students and that several factors influence choice of this specialty. Understanding these factors may ...

  12. Factors Influencing Prevention and Control of Malaria among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AJRH Managing Editor

    investigate factors that influence malaria prevention and control practices among pregnant ... treatment of clinical cases and the promotion of ... influence their decision regarding malaria ..... have the ability to purchase anti-malaria drugs that.

  13. Factors influencing the adoption of mobile financial services in the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Factors influencing the adoption of mobile financial services in the unbanked population. ... Inkanyiso: Journal of Humanities and Social Sciences ... the influences of the adoption behaviour at different level of market maturity and points of time.

  14. Factors influencing the usage of different types of malaria prevention ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: To examine factors which influence the use of different types of malaria prevention ... risk areas, religion, education and income influenced ITN usage, whereas only age, malaria .... the uptake of IPTp given that the person would not.

  15. Factors that influencing veterinary drug’s metabolisation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina, Romeo T.

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper wants to make a recall for the vet practitioners, of the main veterinary drug's metabolism rate influencing factors. Among the most important physiological factors (pharmacokinetics, sanguine flow and urinary ones, plasmatic proteins binding, enzymatic induction and inhibition are essential. Between the animal’s bounded factors more important are: species, individuality, age, sex, pregnancy, alimentation, genetic factors, and health status and from exogenous factors, daily rhythm, influences of chemical compounds and of the stress are presented.

  16. A Comparison of Factors that Influence the Lyophilization Process

    OpenAIRE

    Mnerie, Dumitru; Anghel, Gabriela Victoria; Mnerie, Alin Vasile; Cheveresan, Constantin

    2007-01-01

    The lyophilization (or freeze drying) process for agro-foods products depends on a series of technological factors that are in an inter-dependence with the process performance. This paper presents an expert method and its application. This method characterizes the influence factors of the lyophilization process, after the importance level of some factors in correlation with other factors, is defined. Only the most important factors were considered; influence considerations were made in relati...

  17. Research on Factors Influencing Individual's Behavior of Energy Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Yanfeng

    With the rapid rise of distributed generation, Internet of Things, and mobile Internet, both U.S. and European smart home manufacturers have developed energy management solutions for individual usage. These applications help people manage their energy consumption more efficiently. Domestic manufacturers have also launched similar products. This paper focuses on the factors influencing Energy Management Behaviour (EMB) at the individual level. By reviewing academic literature, conducting surveys in Beijing, Shanghai and Guangzhou, the author builds an integrated behavioural energy management model of the Chinese energy consumers. This paper takes the vague term of EMB and redefines it as a function of two separate behavioural concepts: Energy Management Intention (EMI), and the traditional Energy Saving Intention (ESI). Secondly, the author conducts statistical analyses on these two behavioural concepts. EMI is the main driver behind an individual's EMB. EMI is affected by Behavioural Attitudes, Subjective Norms, and Perceived Behavioural Control (PBC). Among these three key factors, PBC exerts the strongest influence. This implies that the promotion of the energy management concept is mainly driven by good application user experience (UX). The traditional ESI also demonstrates positive influence on EMB, but its impact is weaker than the impacts arising under EMI's three factors. In other words, the government and manufacturers may not be able to change an individual's energy management behaviour if they rely solely on their traditional promotion strategies. In addition, the study finds that the government may achieve better promotional results by launching subsidies to the manufacturers of these kinds of applications and smart appliances.

  18. Pakistani medical students' specialty preference and the influencing factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rehman, Anis; Rehman, Tariq; Shaikh, Muhammad Ateeb; Yasmin, Haleema; Asif, Ammara; Kafil, Hina

    2011-07-01

    To elucidate the specialty preferences of Pakistani medical students and the factors which influence medical students to make the decision regarding which specialty to pursue. Both basic sciences and clinical students from four medical colleges of Pakistan, i.e., Dow Medical College, Sindh Medical College, Liaquat National Medical College and Muhammad Medical College, were included in the cross-sectional survey during the period of July 2008 to Jan' 2009. After ethical acceptance, data was collected using convenient sampling technique. The questionnaire covered the following demographic details: 13 common specialties and 15 influencing factors. Questionnaires included in the analysis were 771. Most students gave preference to surgery and its associated sub-specialties (50.3%) followed by internal medicine (26.8%), paediatrics (23.2%), dermatology (16.7%), gynaecology and obstetrics (16.7%), psychiatry (13.1%), radiology (10.8%), ENT (8.8%), anaesthesiology (8.7%), administrative medicine (8.6%), orthopaedics (8.2%), ophthalmology (7.5%), and laboratory medicine (6.1%). The highly considered factors (regarding specialties) chosen by 70% of the medical students were: applicable to respective personalities of the individuals, prestige and respect, international opportunities, and time commitment. Surgical-skills, job availability, financial rating, academic performance, and a role model were moderately influencing factors. Hospital environment, parents, general practice, peer-pressure and personal health were the least influential. This trend suggests competition in surgery and its sub-specialties along with internal medicine, paediatrics, dermatology, gynaecology and obstetrics. Specialty suited to personality, time commitment, prestige/respect and international opportunity, influenced more than 70% of the students.

  19. Factors influencing power hand tool fastening accuracy and reaction forces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radwin, Robert G; Chourasia, Amrish O; Howery, Robert S; Fronczak, Frank J; Yen, Thomas Y; Subedi, Yashpal; Sesto, Mary E

    2014-06-01

    A laboratory study investigated the relationship between power hand tool and task-related factors affecting threaded fastener torque accuracy and associated handle reaction force. We previously developed a biodynamic model to predict handle reaction forces. We hypothesized that torque accuracy was related to the same factors that affect operator capacity to react against impulsive tool forces, as predicted by the model. The independent variables included tool (pistol grip on a vertical surface, right angle on a horizontal surface), fastener torque rate (hard, soft), horizontal distance (30 cm and 60 cm), and vertical distance (80 cm, 110 cm, and 140 cm). Ten participants (five male and five female) fastened 12 similar bolts for each experimental condition. Average torque error (audited - target torque) was affected by fastener torque rate and operator position. Torque error decreased 33% for soft torque rates, whereas handle forces greatly increased (170%). Torque error also decreased for the far horizontal distance 7% to 14%, when vertical distance was in the middle or high, but handle force decreased slightly 3% to 5%. The evidence suggests that although both tool and task factors affect fastening accuracy, they each influence handle reaction forces differently. We conclude that these differences are attributed to different parameters each factor influences affecting the dynamics of threaded faster tool operation. Fastener torque rate affects the tool dynamics, whereas posture affects the spring-mass-damping biodynamic properties of the human operator. The prediction of handle reaction force using an operator biodynamic model may be useful for codifying complex and unobvious relationships between tool and task factors for minimizing torque error while controlling handle force.

  20. Fish consumption preferences and factors influencing it

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet Ferit Can

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Fish consumption preferences are affected by individuals’ socioeconomic characteristics. The aims of the present paper were (i to obtain information on fish consumption level and frequency; (ii to investigate the associations between the socioeconomic characteristics of consumers and their preferences; and (iii to examine the influence of determinants on fish consumption. Data were gathered through a questionnaire completed by a total of 127 randomly selected individuals from different socioeconomic backgrounds from the Antakya, Turkey. The average consumption was found to be 2.98 kg/person/year for fish. Anchovies, gilt-head sea bream, and sea bass were reported as the most consumed three species, respectively. Significant differences in fish consumption were found among age groups, gender groups, and education groups, as well as between marital statuses. A majority of the consumers eat fish once a month throughout the year or only during the winter months. Fish consumption level and frequency were significantly positively correlated with education (p<0.01, income (p<0.05 and total meat consumption (p<0.01. The stepwise multiple regression model explained 41.7% (p<0.01 of the total variance for fish consumption. The amount and frequency of the consumption in the region, which is very far below the world and Turkey average especially for lower socioeconomic groups and for less-consumed fish species, can be increased by certain policies, such as training, advertising and different marketing strategies. Moreover, consumption should be distributed equally throughout the year instead of consuming only in certain seasons.

  1. Assessing the influence of land use land cover pattern, socio economic factors and air quality status to predict morbidity on the basis of logistic based regression model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dixit, A.; Singh, V. K.

    2017-12-01

    Recent studies conducted by World Health Organisation (WHO) estimated that 92 % of the total world population are living in places where the air quality level has exceeded the WHO standard limit for air quality. This is due to the change in Land Use Land Cover (LULC) pattern, socio economic drivers and anthropogenic heat emission caused by manmade activity. Thereby, many prevalent human respiratory diseases such as lung cancer, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and emphysema have increased in recent times. In this study, a quantitative relationship is developed between land use (built-up land, water bodies, and vegetation), socio economic drivers and air quality parameters using logistic based regression model over 7 different cities of India for the winter season of 2012 to 2016. Different LULC, socio economic, industrial emission sources, meteorological condition and air quality level from the monitoring stations are taken to estimate the influence on morbidity of each city. Results of correlation are analyzed between land use variables and monthly concentration of pollutants. These values range from 0.63 to 0.76. Similarly, the correlation value between land use variable with socio economic and morbidity ranges from 0.57 to 0.73. The performance of model is improved from 67 % to 79 % in estimating morbidity for the year 2015 and 2016 due to the better availability of observed data.The study highlights the growing importance of incorporating socio-economic drivers with air quality data for evaluating morbidity rate for each city in comparison to just change in quantitative analysis of air quality.

  2. Using multilevel models to evaluate the influence of contextual factors on HIV/AIDS, sexually transmitted infections, and risky sexual behavior in sub-Saharan Africa: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward-Peterson, Melissa; Fennie, Kristopher; Mauck, Daniel; Shakir, Maryam; Cosner, Chelsea; Bhoite, Prasad; Trepka, Mary Jo; Madhivanan, Purnima

    2018-02-01

    To describe the use of multilevel models (MLMs) in evaluating the influence of contextual factors on HIV/AIDS, sexually transmitted infections (STIs), and risky sexual behavior (RSB) in sub-Saharan Africa. Ten databases were searched through May 29, 2016. Two reviewers completed screening and full-text review. Studies examining the influence of contextual factors on HIV/AIDS, STIs, and RSB and using MLMs for analysis were included. The Quality Assessment Tool for Quantitative Studies was used to evaluate study quality. A total of 118 studies met inclusion criteria. Seventy-four studies focused on HIV/AIDS-related topics; 46 focused on RSB. No studies related to STIs other than HIV/AIDS met the eligibility criteria. Of five studies examining HIV serostatus and community socioeconomic factors, three found an association between poverty and measures of inequality and increased HIV prevalence. Among studies examining RSB, associations were found with numerous contextual factors, including poverty, education, and gender norms. Studies using MLMs indicate that several contextual factors, including community measures of socioeconomic status and educational attainment, are associated with a number of outcomes related to HIV/AIDS and RSB. Future studies using MLMs should focus on contextual-level interventions to strengthen the evidence base for causality. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Factors influencing behavior in the forced swim test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogdanova, Olena V.; Kanekar, Shami; D’Anci, Kristen E.; Renshaw, Perry F.

    2017-01-01

    The forced swim test (FST) is a behavioral test in rodents which was developed in 1978 by Porsolt and colleagues as a model for predicting the clinical efficacy of antidepressant drugs. A modified version of the FST added the classification of active behaviors into swimming and climbing, in order to facilitate the differentiation between serotonergic and noradrenergic classes of antidepressant drugs. The FST is now widely used in basic research and the pharmaceutical screening of potential antidepressant treatments. It is also one of the most commonly used tests to assess depressive-like behavior in animal models. Despite the simplicity and sensitivity of the FST procedure, important differences even in baseline immobility rates have been reported between different groups, which complicate the comparison of results across studies. In spite of several methodological papers and reviews published on the FST, the need still exists for clarification of factors which can influence the procedure. While most recent reviews have focused on antidepressant effects observed with the FST, this one considers the methodological aspects of the procedure, aiming to summarize issues beyond antidepressant action in the FST. The previously published literature is analyzed for factors which are known to influence animal behavior in the FST. These include biological factors, such as strain, age, body weight, gender and individual differences between animals; influence of preconditioning before the FST: handling, social isolation or enriched environment, food manipulations, various kinds of stress, endocrine manipulations and surgery; schedule and routes of treatment, dosage and type of the drugs as well as experimental design and laboratory environmental effects. Consideration of these factors in planning experiments may result in more consistent FST results. PMID:23685235

  4. Coverage, efficacy or dosing interval: which factor predominantly influences the impact of routine childhood vaccination for the prevention of varicella? A model-based study for Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katsiaryna Holl

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Varicella is a highly infectious disease with a significant public health and economic burden, which can be prevented with childhood routine varicella vaccination. Vaccination strategies differ by country. Some factors are known to play an important role (number of doses, coverage, dosing interval, efficacy and catch-up programmes, however, their relative impact on the reduction of varicella in the population remains unclear. This paper aims to help policy makers prioritise the critical factors to achieve the most successful vaccination programme with the available budget. Methods Scenarios assessed the impact of different vaccination strategies on reduction of varicella disease in the population. A dynamic transmission model was used and adapted to fit Italian demographics and population mixing patterns. Inputs included coverage, number of doses, dosing intervals, first-dose efficacy and availability of catch-up programmes, based on strategies currently used or likely to be used in different countries. The time horizon was 30 years. Results Both one- and two-dose routine varicella vaccination strategies prevented a comparable number of varicella cases with complications, but two-doses provided broader protection due to prevention of a higher number of milder varicella cases. A catch-up programme in susceptible adolescents aged 10–14 years old reduced varicella cases by 27–43 % in older children, which are often more severe than in younger children. Coverage, for all strategies, sustained at high levels achieved the largest reduction in varicella. In general, a 20 % increase in coverage resulted in a further 27–31 % reduction in varicella cases. When high coverage is reached, the impact of dosing interval and first-dose vaccine efficacy had a relatively lower impact on disease prevention in the population. Compared to the long (11 years dosing interval, the short (5 months and medium (5 years interval schedules

  5. Factors influencing electric utility expansion. Volume II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Masud, E. [ed.

    1977-01-01

    This report, Vol. 2, submitted by the General Electric Co., identifies factors that should be considered in planning interconnected systems and discusses how these factors relate to one another. The objective is to identify all the factors and classify them by their use and importance in arriving at a decision. Chapter 2 discusses the utility system and its system behavior characteristics, emphasizing behavior that affects the planning of the bulk-power generation and transmission system. Chapter 3 introduces interconnection planning by discussing the new system characteristics brought to operation and planning. Forty-two factors associated with cost, reliability, constraints, and coordination are related to each other by factor trees. Factor trees display the relationship of one factor such as reliability to more-detailed factors which in turn are further related to individual characteristics of facilities. These factor trees provide a structure to the presentation. A questionnaire including the 42 factors was completed by 52 system planners from utility companies and government authorities. The results of these questionnaires are tabulated and presented with pertinent discussion of each factor. Chapter 4 deals with generation planning, recognizing the existence of interconnections. Chapter 5 addresses transmission planning, questions related to reliability and cost measures and constraints, and factors related to both analytical techniques and planning procedures. The chapter ends with a discussion of combined generation-transmission planning. (MCW)

  6. An Evaluation on Factors Influencing Decision making for Malaysia Disaster Management: The Confirmatory Factor Analysis Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zubir, S. N. A.; Thiruchelvam, S.; Mustapha, K. N. M.; Che Muda, Z.; Ghazali, A.; Hakimie, H.

    2017-12-01

    For the past few years, natural disaster has been the subject of debate in disaster management especially in flood disaster. Each year, natural disaster results in significant loss of life, destruction of homes and public infrastructure, and economic hardship. Hence, an effective and efficient flood disaster management would assure non-futile efforts for life saving. The aim of this article is to examine the relationship between approach, decision maker, influence factor, result, and ethic to decision making for flood disaster management in Malaysia. The key elements of decision making in the disaster management were studied based on the literature. Questionnaire surveys were administered among lead agencies at East Coast of Malaysia in the state of Kelantan and Pahang. A total of 307 valid responses had been obtained for further analysis. Exploratory Factor Analysis (EFA) and Confirmatory Factor Analysis (CFA) were carried out to analyse the measurement model involved in the study. The CFA for second-order reflective and first-order reflective measurement model indicates that approach, decision maker, influence factor, result, and ethic have a significant and direct effect on decision making during disaster. The results from this study showed that decision- making during disaster is an important element for disaster management to necessitate a successful collaborative decision making. The measurement model is accepted to proceed with further analysis known as Structural Equation Modeling (SEM) and can be assessed for the future research.

  7. Dermal factors influencing measurement of skin autofluorescence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Noordzij, Margaretha J.; Lefrandt, Johan; Graaff, Reindert; Smit, Andries J.

    Background: Skin autofluorescence (SAF) is a noninvasive marker of accumulation of advanced glycation end products. It predicts cardiovascular complications and mortality in diabetes and renal failure. We assessed the influence of potential common confounders in SAF measurement, by determining the

  8. factors influencing condom use among nigerian undergraduates

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2012-12-01

    Dec 1, 2012 ... Nigeria. Study design: Both qualitative (focus group discussions) and quantitative (cross-sectional ... Keywords: Condom, unsafe sex, HIV, gender, undergraduates. ..... QUESTIONS: the following may influence condom.

  9. Domain-General Factors Influencing Numerical and Arithmetic Processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Knops

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This special issue contains 18 articles that address the question how numerical processes interact with domain-general factors. We start the editorial with a discussion of how to define domain-general versus domain-specific factors and then discuss the contributions to this special issue grouped into two core numerical domains that are subject to domain-general influences (see Figure 1. The first group of contributions addresses the question how numbers interact with spatial factors. The second group of contributions is concerned with factors that determine and predict arithmetic understanding, performance and development. This special issue shows that domain-general (Table 1a as well as domain-specific (Table 1b abilities influence numerical and arithmetic performance virtually at all levels and make it clear that for the field of numerical cognition a sole focus on one or several domain-specific factors like the approximate number system or spatial-numerical associations is not sufficient. Vice versa, in most studies that included domain-general and domain-specific variables, domain-specific numerical variables predicted arithmetic performance above and beyond domain-general variables. Therefore, a sole focus on domain-general aspects such as, for example, working memory, to explain, predict and foster arithmetic learning is also not sufficient. Based on the articles in this special issue we conclude that both domain-general and domain-specific factors contribute to numerical cognition. But the how, why and when of their contribution still needs to be better understood. We hope that this special issue may be helpful to readers in constraining future theory and model building about the interplay of domain-specific and domain-general factors.

  10. Factors influencing antibiotic prescribing in long-term care facilities: a qualitative in-depth study.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buul, L.W. van; Steen, J.T. van der; Doncker, S.M.M.M.; Achterberg, W.P.; Schellevis, F.G.; Veenhuizen, R.B.; Hertogh, C.M.P.M.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Insight into factors that influence antibiotic prescribing is crucial when developing interventions aimed at a more rational use of antibiotics. We examined factors that influence antibiotic prescribing in long-term care facilities, and present a conceptual model that integrates these

  11. Factors influencing antibiotic prescribing in long-term care facilities: a qualitative in-depth study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Buul, L.W.; van der Steen, J.T.; Doncker, S.M.; Achterberg, W.P.; Schellevis, F.G.; Veenhuizen, R.B.; Hertogh, C.M.P.M.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Insight into factors that influence antibiotic prescribing is crucial when developing interventions aimed at a more rational use of antibiotics. We examined factors that influence antibiotic prescribing in long-term care facilities, and present a conceptual model that integrates these

  12. External factors influencing the environmental performance of South African firms

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Peart, R

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available This article reviews the external factors that influence environmental performance of companies in South Africa, drawing on international and local literature. After considering factors within the natural, social, economic and institutional...

  13. Factors influencing women\\'s decisions to purchase specific children ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Factors influencing women\\'s decisions to purchase specific children\\'s ... they had selected a children's multi-nutrient supplement with the intention of buying it. ... Price, performance and brand loyalty, affect and normative factors were most ...

  14. Factors influencing the pattern of malnutrition among acutely ill ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Factors influencing the pattern of malnutrition among acutely ill children presenting in ... height/length) measurements and z-scores calculated for the individual nutritional ... The factors associated with malnutrition included early introduction of ...

  15. Factors that influence exercise activity among women post hip fracture participating in the Exercise Plus Program

    OpenAIRE

    Resnick, Barbara; Orwig, Denise; D?Adamo, Christopher; Yu-Yahiro, Janet; Hawkes, William; Shardell, Michelle; Golden, Justine; Zimmerman, Sheryl; Magaziner, Jay

    2007-01-01

    Using a social ecological model, this paper describes selected intra- and interpersonal factors that influence exercise behavior in women post hip fracture who participated in the Exercise Plus Program. Model testing of factors that influence exercise behavior at 2, 6 and 12 months post hip fracture was done. The full model hypothesized that demographic variables; cognitive, affective, physical and functional status; pain; fear of falling; social support for exercise, and exposure to the Exer...

  16. Factors that influencing the usage of global distribution system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budiasa, I. M.; Suparta, I. K.; Nadra, N. M.

    2018-01-01

    The advancement of Tourism is supported by Information and Communication Technology (ICT) innovation and changes. The use of GDS (Global Distribution System) i.e. Amadeus, Galileo, Sabre, and Worldspan in the tourism industry can increase the availability, frequency and speed of communication among the companies in providing services to potential tourists. This research is to investigate the factors that influence the actual use of GDS in the tourism industry especially travel agents, airlines and hotels in Bali. This research employed a mixed method of quantitative and qualitative approaches. Field surveys were conducted and 80 valid questionnaires were received and analyzed by using SPSS 17.0; descriptive, correlation, factor analysis and regression tests were conducted. The variables used are Perceived Ease of Use and Perceived Usefulness (Technology Acceptance Model); Awareness, Perceived Risk and Communication Channels are examined. This research revealed that Perceived Ease of Use, Perceived Usefulness, Awareness, and Communication Channels influence the Behavioural intention to use GDS, whereas Perceived Risk were found not significant influence the use of GDS. These findings enable travel agent, airline and hotel companies to make provision decision with respect to the actual use of GDS.

  17. Factors influencing crime rates: an econometric analysis approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bothos, John M. A.; Thomopoulos, Stelios C. A.

    2016-05-01

    The scope of the present study is to research the dynamics that determine the commission of crimes in the US society. Our study is part of a model we are developing to understand urban crime dynamics and to enhance citizens' "perception of security" in large urban environments. The main targets of our research are to highlight dependence of crime rates on certain social and economic factors and basic elements of state anticrime policies. In conducting our research, we use as guides previous relevant studies on crime dependence, that have been performed with similar quantitative analyses in mind, regarding the dependence of crime on certain social and economic factors using statistics and econometric modelling. Our first approach consists of conceptual state space dynamic cross-sectional econometric models that incorporate a feedback loop that describes crime as a feedback process. In order to define dynamically the model variables, we use statistical analysis on crime records and on records about social and economic conditions and policing characteristics (like police force and policing results - crime arrests), to determine their influence as independent variables on crime, as the dependent variable of our model. The econometric models we apply in this first approach are an exponential log linear model and a logit model. In a second approach, we try to study the evolvement of violent crime through time in the US, independently as an autonomous social phenomenon, using autoregressive and moving average time-series econometric models. Our findings show that there are certain social and economic characteristics that affect the formation of crime rates in the US, either positively or negatively. Furthermore, the results of our time-series econometric modelling show that violent crime, viewed solely and independently as a social phenomenon, correlates with previous years crime rates and depends on the social and economic environment's conditions during previous years.

  18. FACTORS INFLUENCING ADOPTION DECISIONS OF MAIZE FARMERS IN NIGERIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olusegun Ayodeji Fadare

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The needs to develop improved varieties of maize have been in the heart of various researchers and institutions in Nigeria because of its strategic role in tackling food insecurity and poverty. Despite substantial efforts to improve maize varieties, the level of adoption of improved maize varieties (IMV in Nigeria in still very low. Although previous adoption studies have indicated a number of socioeconomic and institutional/organizational variables as important factors influencing adoption of improved maize (crop varieties in the country, whether these factors are the main issues of concern, and whether the inclusion of regional/agro-ecological variables in adoption model are also important in explaining what could drive farmers’ adoption behaviour requires investigation. This study therefore examined factors influencing adoption of IMV among farmers in Nigeria using a selected portion of the Nigeria Living Standard Measurement Survey data collected by the National Bureau of Statistics and the World Bank for 2010/2011 cropping season with descriptive statistics and probit model as tools for data analysis. The results suggest, in line with some previous studies, that farm size, education level of farmers and access to extension services would significantly influence adoption of IMV. The results also indicate that farmers across the entire agro-ecological regions of country share some negative sentiments regarding adoption of IMV. Renewed emphasis on interventions that would enable farmers gain more access to farmland, and promote formal education and extension service are advocated. An attempt to incorporate variables that capture farmers’ perception/experience on agroclimatic/ ecologically related concerns in adoption study could aid better understand of what drives farmers’ adoption decisions across the country especially in the light of the emerging climate change issues and its implication on food production.

  19. Factors influencing quality of life in asthmatics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Al-kalemji, Abir; Petersen, Karin Dam; Sørensen, Jan

    2013-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: The quality of life (QOL) in persons with asthma is reduced and different factors such as demography, asthma severity and psychiatric comorbidity play an influential role. However, little is known about the interplay of these factors. OBJECTIVE: To describe QOL in relation to asthma...

  20. Factors influencing e-commerce development in Serbia

    OpenAIRE

    Kalinić, Zoran; Ranković, Vladimir; Kalinić, Ljubina

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, an overview of current state of e-commerce development in Serbia is presented. Also, some important factors influencing e-commerce diffusion are discussed. The factors are divided into four groups: technical factors, which cover e- commerce telecommunication and logistics infrastructure; legal factors, i.e. necessary laws and regulations on e-commerce; economic factors, and psychological factors and local culture. The study showed very strong correlation between broadband inter...

  1. Clinical factors influencing participation in society after successful kidney transplantation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Mei, S.F.; Groothoff, J.W.; van Sonderen, E.L.P.; van den Heuvel, W.J.A.; de Jong, P.E.; van Son, W.J.

    2006-01-01

    Background. Little information is available on the degree of actual social functioning after successful kidney transplantation. Moreover, information on factors that influence participation in social activities is scarce. The aim of this study was to examine the influence of clinical factors on

  2. Factors influencing selection of office furniture by corporations and universities

    Science.gov (United States)

    R. Bruce Anderson

    1976-01-01

    Evaluation of the factors that influence the selection of office furniture by large corporations and universities shows that quality, appearance, and purchase price have the most important influence on the purchase decision. The intended use of the furniture and the appearance of the furniture were the key factors in the purchase of wooden furniture.

  3. Factors Influencing Pregnancy Desires among HIV Positive Women ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Factors Influencing Pregnancy Desires among HIV Positive Women in Sibande District in Mpumalanga, South Africa. ... Gender and Behaviour ... The objective of the study is to present findings on factors influencing pregnancy desires amongst HIV positive women that have participated in Prevention of Mother to child ...

  4. Psychosocial Factors Influencing Attitudes Towards Internet Piracy ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In all a total of two hundred and fifty participants were drawn through accidental sampling technique for this study. Their age ranged between 19-48 ... In the same view, consumers ethnic group was not found to significantly influence attitude towards Internet piracy (F(3,246) = .404, P> .05). Reasons were given why the ...

  5. Perceptions of Child Caregivers About Factors Influencing ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nutrition, health education and measles immunization are crucial components of preventive eye health services in the prevention of corneal blindness. This study explores ... The interplay between nutrition and corneal blindness was unknown to mothers in this study. The strong influence ... effectiveness and sustainability.

  6. Factors Influencing Degradation of Mercaptans by Thiobacillus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Degradation of methylmercaptans by Thiobacillus thioparus TK-m was influenced by pH of the reaction medium. Ratios of headspace concentrations in empty vials and those of acidified buffer solutions were less than 1.0. 95% of the H2S was in headspace with the remaining 5% in solution upon acidification. The values for ...

  7. Community Factors Influencing Birth Spacing among Married ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The significance of community-level demographic and fertility norms, gender norms, economic prosperity, and family planning behaviors demonstrate the broad influence of community variables on birth spacing outcomes. This analysis highlights the importance of moving beyond individual and household-level ...

  8. Factors Influencing the Predictive Power of Models for Predicting Mortality and/or Heart Failure Hospitalization in Patients With Heart Failure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ouwerkerk, Wouter; Voors, Adriaan A.; Zwinderman, Aeilko H.

    2014-01-01

    The present paper systematically reviews and compares existing prediction models in order to establish the strongest variables, models, and model characteristics in patients with heart failure predicting outcome. To improve decision making accurately predicting mortality and heart-failure

  9. Factors Influencing the Phenotypic Characterization of the Oral Marker, PROP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beverly J. Tepper

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available In the last several decades, the genetic ability to taste the bitter compound, 6-n-propyltiouracil (PROP has attracted considerable attention as a model for understanding individual differences in taste perception, and as an oral marker for food preferences and eating behavior that ultimately impacts nutritional status and health. However, some studies do not support this role. This review describes common factors that can influence the characterization of this phenotype including: (1 changes in taste sensitivity with increasing age; (2 gender differences in taste perception; and (3 effects of smoking and obesity. We suggest that attention to these factors during PROP screening could strengthen the associations between this phenotype and a variety of health outcomes ranging from variation in body composition to oral health and cancer risk.

  10. Influence Factors of the Economic Development Level Across European Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Ioana POPA

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The economic development level of a country refers to the measure of the progress in an economy that could be measured, especially through GDP or GDP per capita. The level of these indicators can be influenced by many factors as a large scale, from social and economical to environmental and government policies factors. The paper aims to investigate some of these influence factors of the economic development level, represented in this case by GDP per capita, across European countries in the context of the most recently crisis, named the Great Recession (2008 and after, when the economies are starting to recover (2013. Using linear regression in R (lm function, the goal is to explain the relationship between the interest variable (GDP per capita and certain independent variables. It is expected that even tough the estimators are to be different – as level – in both cases studied, the relationship type between them to be the same. The goodness of fit for the models used will be made based on ANOVA.

  11. Factors influencing early stage healthcare-academia partnerships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uvhagen, Håkan; von Knorring, Mia; Hasson, Henna; Øvretveit, John; Hansson, Johan

    2018-02-12

    Purpose The purpose of this paper is to explore factors influencing early implementation and intermediate outcomes of a healthcare-academia partnership in a primary healthcare setting. Design/methodology/approach The Academic Primary Healthcare Network (APHN) initiative was launched in 2011 in Stockholm County, Sweden and included 201 primary healthcare centres. Semi-structured interviews were conducted in 2013-2014 with all coordinating managers ( n=8) and coordinators ( n=4). A strategic change model framework was used to collect and analyse data. Findings Several factors were identified to aid early implementation: assignment and guidelines that allowed flexibility; supportive management; dedicated staff; facilities that enabled APHN actions to be integrated into healthcare practice; and positive experiences from research and educational activities. Implementation was hindered by: discrepancies between objectives and resources; underspecified guidelines that trigger passivity; limited research and educational activities; a conflicting non-supportive reimbursement system; limited planning; and organisational fragmentation. Intermediate outcomes revealed that various actions, informed by the APHN assignment, were launched in all APHNs. Practical implications The findings can be rendered applicable by preparing stakeholders in healthcare services to optimise early implementation of healthcare-academia partnerships. Originality/value This study increases understanding of interactions between factors that influence early stage partnerships between healthcare services and academia in primary healthcare settings.

  12. Choosing child and adolescent psychiatry: factors influencing medical students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volpe, Tiziana; Boydell, Katherine M; Pignatiello, Antonio

    2013-11-01

    To examine the factors influencing medical students to choose child and adolescent psychiatry as a career specialty. Quantitative and qualitative methods were used. A web-based survey was distributed to child and adolescent psychiatrists at the University of Toronto. In-depth interviews were held with select child and adolescent psychiatrists as well as a focus group with psychiatry residents. Retrospective accounts of the factors that influenced their decision to choose psychiatry and/or child and adolescent psychiatry as a specialty were collected. Ninety-two percent of participants indicated that recruitment of child psychiatrists in Canada is a problem. The recent decision by the Royal College of Physicians and Surgeons to recognize child and adolescent psychiatry as a subspecialty and introduce an extra year of training was identified as a further challenge to recruitment efforts. Other deterrents included lower salary than other subspecialties, lack of exposure during training, stigma, and lack of interest in treating children. Recruitment into psychiatry was enhanced by good role modeling, early exposure in medical school, an interest in brain research, and career and lifestyle issues. A rebranding of the role and perception of psychiatry is needed to attract future psychiatrists. Early exposure to innovations in child and adolescent psychiatry and positive role models are critical in attracting medical students. Recruitment should begin in the first year of medical school and include an enriched paediatric curriculum.

  13. Particulate pollution in ventilated space: Analysis of influencing factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao Bin; Wu Jun

    2009-01-01

    Particle pollution has been identified to be a major indoor air pollution problem as many epidemiologic evidences have indicated that the particle exposure affects the occupant health. In common practice, mechanical ventilation is introduced to maintain a satisfactory indoor air quality for the occupant, which includes the area of particle control within the space. In order to have an effective control to the indoor particle pollution, it is important to understand the major factors influencing the indoor particle concentration in the breathing zone. This study employs a previously proposed approach to study the particle pollution in a typical ventilation system. The model simultaneously takes into account the interactions between particle transport in ventilation ducts and rooms and particle spatial distribution. It has been proven that an entire ventilation system, including filters, ducts and rooms, can be regarded as a serial of filters in steady-state cases, hence the name 'particle filter group model'. The particle concentration in the breathing zone is calculated under different conditions, and the result is then validated by experimental data. Based on the results, four main factors that affect the particle concentration in the breathing zone are identified, they are fresh air rate, particle filter efficiency, the type of the ventilation duct (roughness) and ventilation modes. Their degrees of influence are analyzed and then the possible measures to improve/control the indoor particle pollution are suggested

  14. Choosing Child and Adolescent Psychiatry: Factors Influencing Medical Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volpe, Tiziana; Boydell, Katherine M.; Pignatiello, Antonio

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To examine the factors influencing medical students to choose child and adolescent psychiatry as a career specialty. Method: Quantitative and qualitative methods were used. A web-based survey was distributed to child and adolescent psychiatrists at the University of Toronto. In-depth interviews were held with select child and adolescent psychiatrists as well as a focus group with psychiatry residents. Retrospective accounts of the factors that influenced their decision to choose psychiatry and/or child and adolescent psychiatry as a specialty were collected. Results: Ninety-two percent of participants indicated that recruitment of child psychiatrists in Canada is a problem. The recent decision by the Royal College of Physicians and Surgeons to recognize child and adolescent psychiatry as a subspecialty and introduce an extra year of training was identified as a further challenge to recruitment efforts. Other deterrents included lower salary than other subspecialties, lack of exposure during training, stigma, and lack of interest in treating children. Recruitment into psychiatry was enhanced by good role modeling, early exposure in medical school, an interest in brain research, and career and lifestyle issues. Conclusions: A rebranding of the role and perception of psychiatry is needed to attract future psychiatrists. Early exposure to innovations in child and adolescent psychiatry and positive role models are critical in attracting medical students. Recruitment should begin in the first year of medical school and include an enriched paediatric curriculum. PMID:24223044

  15. Factors influencing antibiotic prescribing in long-term care facilities: a qualitative in-depth study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Buul, Laura W; van der Steen, Jenny T; Doncker, Sarah M M M; Achterberg, Wilco P; Schellevis, François G; Veenhuizen, Ruth B; Hertogh, Cees M P M

    2014-12-16

    Insight into factors that influence antibiotic prescribing is crucial when developing interventions aimed at a more rational use of antibiotics. We examined factors that influence antibiotic prescribing in long-term care facilities, and present a conceptual model that integrates these factors. Semi-structured qualitative interviews were conducted with physicians (n = 13) and nursing staff (n = 13) in five nursing homes and two residential care homes in the central-west region of the Netherlands. An iterative analysis was applied to interviews with physicians to identify and categorize factors that influence antibiotic prescribing, and to integrate these into a conceptual model. This conceptual model was triangulated with the perspectives of nursing staff. The analysis resulted in the identification of six categories of factors that can influence the antibiotic prescribing decision: the clinical situation, advance care plans, utilization of diagnostic resources, physicians' perceived risks, influence of others, and influence of the environment. Each category comprises several factors that may influence the decision to prescribe or not prescribe antibiotics directly (e.g. pressure of patients' family leading to antibiotic prescribing) or indirectly via influence on other factors (e.g. unfamiliarity with patients resulting in a higher physician perceived risk of non-treatment, in turn resulting in a higher tendency to prescribe antibiotics). Our interview study shows that several non-rational factors may affect antibiotic prescribing decision making in long-term care facilities, suggesting opportunities to reduce inappropriate antibiotic use. We developed a conceptual model that integrates the identified categories of influencing factors and shows the relationships between those categories. This model may be used as a practical tool in long-term care facilities to identify local factors potentially leading to inappropriate prescribing, and to subsequently

  16. Factors influencing the prevalence of primary dysmenorrhoea ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... of primary dysmenorrhoea amongst Abia State university medical students, South ... its impact on school and social activities and the students' management strategies. ... is high, and not consistently associated with demographic risk factors.

  17. Determination of Mucosal Secretory Factors that Influence ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Understanding the complex factors that can lead to HIV infection is crucial to addressing the problem among vulnerable ... Related content ... Policy in Focus publishes a special issue profiling evidence to empower women in the labour market.

  18. Is Subjective Status Influenced by Psychosocial Factors?

    OpenAIRE

    Lundberg, Johanna; Kristenson, Margareta

    2008-01-01

    Objective Associations between subjective status and health are still relatively unexplored. This study aimed at testing whether subjective status is uniquely confounded by psychosocial factors compared to objective status, and what factors that may predict subjective status. Design A cross-sectional analysis of a population-based, random sample of 795 middle-aged men and women from the southeast of Sweden. Questionnaires included subjective status, objective measures of socioeconomic status,...

  19. Gender-related factors influencing perceptions of homosexuality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, F Y; McCreary, D R; Carpenter, K M; Engle, A; Korchynsky, R

    1999-01-01

    There is a long history linking gender role conformity to perceived homosexuality. However, the lack of a systematic theoretical model hinders the elucidation of the interrelationships among gender stereotypes, conformity to gender stereotypes, and perceived homosexuality, as well as other factors which may mediate these relationships. The purpose of the present study was to propose such a model by combining theories of gender stereotype formation and maintenance with research investigating perceptions of homosexuality. Specifically, this study examined college students' perceptions of gender role characteristics in male and female adult target persons and these students' perceptions of the likelihood that the targets were homosexual. Path analysis demonstrated that the sex and occupation of the target person were significantly related to perceived masculinity, femininity, and homosexuality of the target person. Furthermore, individual differences in these relationships were observed, indicating that the sex and gender role characteristics of the participant influenced perceptions of the gender role attributes and homosexuality of the target person.

  20. Factors influencing career choice after initial training in surgery.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    McHugh, Seamus

    2012-02-01

    INTRODUCTION: Irish general surgery faces a recruitment crisis with only 87 of 145 (60%) basic surgical training (BST) places filled in 2009. We assessed basic surgical trainees to identify objective, and potentially modifiable, factors that influence ultimate recruitment into a general surgical career. METHODS: Candidates commencing BST training during a 5-year period between 2004 and 2008 were included in a quantitative study. In addition a total of 2,536 candidates, representing all those who commenced surgical training in Ireland since 1960 were identified through the Royal College of Surgeons in Ireland (RCSI) database and invited to complete an online survey. Statistical analysis was performed using SPSS version 15, with p < 0.05 considered significant. RESULTS: During the 5-year quantitative study period there were 381 BST trainees. Gender was a significant predictor of career choice with women more likely to ultimately choose a nonsurgical career after initial surgical training (p = 0.049). Passing surgical membership examinations (MRCS) also was predictive of remaining in surgery (p = 0.005). Training region was not a significant predictor of ultimate career choice. There were 418 survey respondents. The influence of role models was most commonly cited as influencing candidates in choosing to commence surgical training. Candidates who rated "academic opportunity" (p = 0.023) and "intellectual challenge" (p = 0.047) as factors that influenced their decision to commence surgical training were more likely to ultimately continue their careers in a surgical speciality. CONCLUSIONS: This study describes the career pathway of surgical trainees and confirms the importance of academic achievement in discriminating between candidates applying for surgical training schemes.

  1. Factors Influencing Organization Adoption Decision On Cloud Computing

    OpenAIRE

    Ailar Rahimli

    2013-01-01

    Cloud computing is a developing field, using by organization that require to computing resource to provide the organizational computing needs. The goal of this research is evaluate the factors that influence on organization decision to adopt the cloud computing in Malaysia. Factors that relate to cloud computing adoption that include : need for cloud computing, cost effectiveness, security effectiveness of cloud computing and reliability. This paper evaluated the factors that influence on ado...

  2. Factors influencing societal response of nanotechnology : an expert stakeholder analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Gupta, N.; Fischer, A.R.H.; Lans, van der, I.A.; Frewer, L.J.

    2012-01-01

    Nanotechnology can be described as an emerging technology and, as has been the case with other emerging technologies such as genetic modification, different socio-psychological factors will potentially influence societal responses to its development and application. These factors will play an important role in how nanotechnology is developed and commercialised. This article aims to identify expert opinion on factors influencing societal response to applications of nanotechnology. Structured i...

  3. Factors influencing societal response of nanotechnology: an expert stakeholder analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Gupta, Nidhi; Fischer, Arnout R. H.; van der Lans, Ivo A.; Frewer, Lynn J.

    2012-01-01

    Nanotechnology can be described as an emerging technology and, as has been the case with other emerging technologies such as genetic modification, different socio-psychological factors will potentially influence societal responses to its development and application. These factors will play an important role in how nanotechnology is developed and commercialised. This article aims to identify expert opinion on factors influencing societal response to applications of nanotechnology. Structured i...

  4. Influence Factors of the Economic Development Level Across European Countries

    OpenAIRE

    Diana Ioana POPA

    2016-01-01

    The economic development level of a country refers to the measure of the progress in an economy that could be measured, especially through GDP or GDP per capita. The level of these indicators can be influenced by many factors as a large scale, from social and economical to environmental and government policies factors. The paper aims to investigate some of these influence factors of the economic development level, represented in this case by GDP per capita, across European countries in the...

  5. Additional factors influencing resident satisfaction and dissatisfaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jalal SR

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Seyed Ramin Jalal, Abdirahman Osman, Saeed Azizi  Faculty of Medicine, St George’s Hospital Medical School, London, UK We have read the recent review article by Kahn et al1 with great interest. The original article was detailed and informative, and we felt it would be helpful to expand on the factors affecting resident satisfaction and dissatisfaction. As senior medical students in clinical years, we spend a significant portion of our time shadowing specialist trainees. Thus, we can offer a unique perspective on the factors affecting trainee satisfaction and well-being. View the original paper by Kahn and colleagues. 

  6. Factors influencing stakeholders attitudes toward genetically modified aedes mosquito.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amin, Latifah; Hashim, Hasrizul

    2015-06-01

    Dengue fever is a debilitating and infectious disease that could be life-threatening. It is caused by the dengue virus which affects millions of people in the tropical area. Currently, there is no cure for the disease as there is no vaccine available. Thus, prevention of the vector population using conventional methods is by far the main strategy but has been found ineffective. A genetically modified (GM) mosquito is among the favoured alternatives to curb dengue fever in Malaysia. Past studies have shown that development and diffusion of gene technology products depends heavily upon public acceptance. The purpose of this study is to identify the relevant factors influencing stakeholders' attitudes toward the GM Aedes mosquito and to analyse the relationships between all the factors using the structural equation model. A survey was carried out on 509 respondents from various stakeholder groups in the Klang Valley region of Malaysia. Results of the survey have confirmed that public perception towards complex issues such as gene technology should be seen as a multi-faceted process. The perceived benefit-perceived risk balance is very important in determining the most predominant predictor of attitudes toward a GM mosquito. In this study the stakeholders perceived the benefit of the GM mosquito as outweighing its risk, translating perceived benefit as the most important direct predictor of attitudes toward the GM mosquito. Trust in key players has a direct influence on attitudes toward the GM mosquito while moral concern exhibited an indirect influence through perceived benefits. Other factors such as attitudes toward technology and nature were also indirect predictors of attitudes toward the GM mosquito while religiosity and engagement did not exhibited any significant roles. The research findings serve as a useful database to understand public acceptance and the social construct of public attitudes towards the GM mosquito to combat dengue.

  7. Implementing complex innovations: factors influencing middle manager support.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chuang, Emmeline; Jason, Kendra; Morgan, Jennifer Craft

    2011-01-01

    Middle manager resistance is often described as a major challenge for upper-level administrators seeking to implement complex innovations such as evidence-based protocols or new skills training. However, factors influencing middle manager support for innovation implementation are currently understudied in the U.S. health care literature. This article examined the factors that influence middle managers' support for and participation in the implementation of work-based learning, a complex innovation adopted by health care organizations to improve the jobs, educational pathways, skills, and/or credentials of their frontline workers. We conducted semistructured interviews and focus groups with 92 middle managers in 17 health care organizations. Questions focused on understanding middle managers' support for work-based learning as a complex innovation, facilitators and barriers to the implementation process, and the systems changes needed to support the implementation of this innovation. Factors that emerged as influential to middle manager support were similar to those found in broader models of innovation implementation within the health care literature. However, our findings extend previous research by developing an understanding about how middle managers perceived these constructs and by identifying specific strategies for how to influence middle manager support for the innovation implementation process. These findings were generally consistent across different types of health care organizations. Study findings suggest that middle manager support was highest when managers felt the innovation fit their workplace needs and priorities and when they had more discretion and control over how it was implemented. Leaders seeking to implement innovations should consider the interplay between middle managers' control and discretion, their narrow focus on the performance of their own departments or units, and the dedication of staff and other resources for empowering their

  8. Maternal sociodemographic factors that influence full child ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    single parenting, inadequate antenatal care, ethnicity and negative belief in vaccination to low immunisation uptake around the ... the maternal sociodemographic factors that are associated with child ... mothers <18 years old (odds ratio (OR) 0.53; confidence interval (CI) 0.34 - 0.84) and mothers residing in the northern ...

  9. Factors Influencing Medical Students' Choice of Specialty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pei-Yeh Chang

    2006-01-01

    Conclusion: This study found that personal intelligence/ability preference and career opportunities were more important factors to the current generation of students in choosing a specialty. Knowledge of these students' attitudes could form the basis for the development of strategies to enhance the attractiveness of specialties facing the problem of a shortage of manpower.

  10. 122 Factors Influencing Information and Communication Technology ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Yemi Olojede

    Women Research Scientists in Universities of Agriculture in Nigeria ... recommends that researchers should restructure their work schedule to accommodate ICT practice and use in order to enhance ICT use. Keywords: Factors of ICT ... potential to reduce poverty and improve livelihoods by empowering users with timely.

  11. Factors influencing adherence to routine iron supplementation ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Anemia in pregnancy is a common problem especially in developing countries. and has been linked with feotal and maternal complications. Taking iron supplements could reduce anaemia in pregnancy but some pregnant women do not adhere to this. The study identified some factors associated with non adherence ...

  12. Home Environmental Factors Influencing Performance and Progress ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Our findings support other studies which found that parents' educational level and income level have a bearing on school progress and performance. Contrary to most research findings mother tongue instruction did not eme1rge as an important explanatory factor on school progress and performance, however; home ...

  13. Biodemographic And Health Seeking Behavior Factors Influencing ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study findings show primarily - amongst the biodemographic and health seeking services factors, delivery-related maternal health complicacies, blindness, higher order births, twin births, lower household size and interaction effect of higher order live births and male child are significantly correlated with higher neonatal ...

  14. Home Environmental Factors Influencing Performance and Progress ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2010-05-11

    May 11, 2010 ... internal factors for low school performance, this study focused on the learners ... Namibia. Although numerous studies have confinned socio-economic ... Many studies support the view that family background is the strongest single predictor of ..... Windhoek is clearly stratified, mainly following income levels.

  15. Environmental Factors Influencing Artisanal Fishing in Eastern ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    The study identified the environmental factors affecting artisanal fishing in. Eastern Obolo local government area of Akwa ... colonial administration (Anko &Eyo, 2003). According to Olomola (1998), artisanal ... The problems faced by artisanal fishers in Nigeria are not far from what is experienced by artisanal fishermen in ...

  16. Factors influencing purchase intention towards consumer-to-consumer e-commerce

    OpenAIRE

    Muhammad Dachyar; Liska Banjarnahor

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: This study explores factors that influence consumer’s purchase intention at three consumer-to-consumer (C2C) e-commerce companies in Indonesia. Design/methodology: 5 Expert opinions are used to determine the indicators of each factor and the Structural Equation Modelling (SEM) method is used to analyze the empirical data of 400 respondents for each company. Findings: It is found different significant factors that influence customer’s purchase intention in each compa...

  17. Factors Influencing Museum Sustainability and Indicators for Museum Sustainability Measurement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Izabela Luiza Pop

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this research was to identify the factors upon which museum sustainability depends and the way in which this can be measured. Methodologically, we applied a qualitative research approach, using semi-structured interviews with experts from the Romanian museum sector, complemented by an in-depth study of the literature in this field. Results indicated that any objective measuring of sustainability must take into account the size of a museum’s collections and its organizational structure. It was also found that museum type can affect sustainability via its competitive advantage. However, the sustainability of a museum is not strictly determined by these factors, but also by the management and marketing strategies applied. Based on analysis of literature- and respondent-based factors influencing sustainability, this article proposes a set of 33 indicators that can be used by museums to measure their sustainability, as well as a model that enables evaluation of the sustainability levels of various museums comparatively, regardless of their type, size or importance (e.g., national, regional and local. The results obtained are useful both from a theoretical point of view, given that there are few writings on this topic, and from a practical point of view, as they provide a basis for a clear, objective model of museum sustainability measurement.

  18. Beyond the learning curve: factors influencing cost reductions in photovoltaics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nemet, Gregory F.

    2006-01-01

    The extent and timing of cost-reducing improvements in low-carbon energy systems are important sources of uncertainty in future levels of greenhouse-gas emissions. Models that assess the costs of climate change mitigation policy, and energy policy in general, rely heavily on learning curves to include technology dynamics. Historically, no energy technology has changed more dramatically than photovoltaics (PV), the cost of which has declined by a factor of nearly 100 since the 1950s. Which changes were most important in accounting for the cost reductions that have occurred over the past three decades? Are these results consistent with the notion that learning from experience drove technical change? In this paper, empirical data are assembled to populate a simple model identifying the most important factors affecting the cost of PV. The results indicate that learning from experience, the theoretical mechanism used to explain learning curves, only weakly explains change in the most important factors-plant size, module efficiency, and the cost of silicon. Ways in which the consideration of a broader set of influences, such as technical barriers, industry structure, and characteristics of demand, might be used to inform energy technology policy are discussed

  19. Factors influencing bacterial adhesion to contact lenses

    OpenAIRE

    Dutta, Debarun; Cole, Nerida; Willcox, Mark

    2012-01-01

    The process of any contact lens related keratitis generally starts with the adhesion of opportunistic pathogens to contact lens surface. This article focuses on identifying the factors which have been reported to affect bacterial adhesion to contact lenses. Adhesion to lenses differs between various genera/species/strains of bacteria. Pseudomonas aeruginosa, which is the predominant causative organism, adheres in the highest numbers to both hydrogel and silicone hydrogel lenses in vitro. The ...

  20. Nutritional factors influencing milk urea in buffaloes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Proto

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Urea is the primary form in which N is excreted in ruminants. Milk urea (MU content was introduced as a means to monitor the efficiency of protein utilisation in dairy cattle (Baker et al., 1995; Roseler et al., 1993; Bertoni, 1995. In this study the effect of some nutrition factors on MU content in buffalo herds was analysed in order to examine the possibility that protein nutrition could be monitored by means of milk urea at herd level........

  1. Factors influencing eating attitudes in secondary-school girls in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Family, especially maternal, factors play a role in determining eating attitudes. Peer and media (television) factors are not significantly influential. The findings provide preliminary data on factors that influence eating attrtudes in a group at risk for the development of eating disorders. The findings have implications for the ...

  2. Factors Influencing Stormwater Mitigation in Permeable Pavement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chun Yan Liu

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Permeable pavement (PP is used worldwide to mitigate surface runoff in urban areas. Various studies have examined the factors governing the hydrologic performance of PP. However, relatively little is known about the relative importance of these governing factors and the long-term hydrologic performance of PP. This study applied numerical models—calibrated and validated using existing experimental results—to simulate hundreds of event-based and two long-term rainfall scenarios for two designs of PP. Based on the event-based simulation results, rainfall intensity, rainfall volume, thickness of the storage layer and the hydraulic conductivity of the subgrade were identified as the most influential factors in PP runoff reduction. Over the long term, PP performed significantly better in a relatively drier climate (e.g., New York, reducing nearly 90% of runoff volume compared to 70% in a relatively wetter climate (e.g., Hong Kong. The two designs of PP examined performed differently, and the difference was more apparent in the relatively wetter climate. This study generated insights that will help the design and implementation of PP to mitigate stormwater worldwide.

  3. An investigation on factors influencing on human resources productivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masoumeh Seifi Divkolaii

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Human resources development is one of the most important components of any organization and detecting important factors influencing on human resources management plays essential role on the success of the firms. In this paper, we present an empirical investigation to determine different factors influencing productivity of human resources of Islamic Republic of Iran Broadcasting (IRIB in province of Mazandaran, Iran. The study uses analytical hierarchy process (AHP to rank 17 important factors and determines that personal characteristics were the most important factors followed by management related factors and environmental factors. In terms of personal characteristics, job satisfaction plays essential role on human resources development. In terms of managerial factors, paying attention on continuous job improvement by receiving appropriate training is the most important factor followed by welfare facilities for employees and using a system of reward/punishment in organization. Finally, in terms of environmental factors, occupational safety is number one priority followed by organizational rules and regulations.

  4. INFLUENCE FACTORS AND MANIFESTATIONS OF PRODUCTIVITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel DĂNECI-PĂTRĂU

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Notion almost unknown before 1950, labor productivity is now commonly used by economists, engineers, sociologists and politicians alike, influencing all the important issues of the time. Under these circumstances, if it is accepted that labor productivity is the driving variable that generates economic progress, it is justified that people need to increase their efforts to enhance, its value through various means. This article presents the findings of a theoretical research literature regarding landmarks in the evolution of labor productivity. Arguments justifying such an approach have been given by the fact that the labor issue presents an interest not only at the micro level, individual (the consequences it has on the individual work, but also at the macro level, societal (employment relations on the market labor, insurance systems and the offer educational services on the market today.

  5. Factors influencing radon attenuation by tailing covers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silker, W.B.; Rogers, V.C.

    1981-07-01

    The US NRC, in its Generic Environmental Impact Statement on uranium milling has specified that the radon flux escaping a uranium mill tailings pile will be reduced to pCi/m 2 s by application of covering layers of soils and clays. These covers present a radon diffusion barrier, which sufficiently increases the time required for radon passage from the tailings to the atmosphere to allow for decay of 222 Rn within the cover. The depth of cover necessary to reduce the escaping radon flux to the prescribed level is to be determined by calculation, and requires precise knowledge of the radon diffusion coefficient in the covering media. A Radon Attenuation Test Facility was developed to determine rates of radon diffusion through candidate cover materials. This paper describes this facility and its application for determining the influence of physical properties of the soil column on the radon diffusion coefficient

  6. Factors influencing incident reporting in surgical care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreckler, S; Catchpole, K; McCulloch, P; Handa, A

    2009-04-01

    To evaluate the process of incident reporting in a surgical setting. In particular: the influence of event outcome on reporting behaviour; staff perception of surgical complications as reportable events. Anonymous web-based questionnaire survey. General Surgical Department in a UK teaching hospital. Of 203 eligible staff, 55 (76.4%) doctors and 82 (62.6%) nurses participated. Knowledge and use of local reporting system; propensity to report incidents which vary by outcome (harm, no harm, harm prevented); propensity to report surgical complications; practical and psychological barriers to reporting. Nurses were significantly more likely to know of the local reporting system and to have recently completed a report than doctors. The level of harm (F(1.8,246) = 254.2, pvs 53%, z = 4.633, psystems.

  7. Factors influencing the effectiveness of research ethics committees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuppli, C A; Fraser, D

    2007-05-01

    Research ethics committees - animal ethics committees (AECs) for animal-based research and institutional research boards (IRBs) for human subjects - have a key role in research governance, but there has been little study of the factors influencing their effectiveness. The objectives of this study were to examine how the effectiveness of a research ethics committee is influenced by committee composition and dynamics, recruitment of members, workload, participation level and member turnover. As a model, 28 members of AECs at four universities in western Canada were interviewed. Committees were selected to represent variation in the number and type of protocols reviewed, and participants were selected to include different types of committee members. We found that a bias towards institutional or scientific interests may result from (1) a preponderance of institutional and scientist members, (2) an intimidating atmosphere for community members and other minority members, (3) recruitment of community members who are affiliated with the institution and (4) members joining for reasons other than to fulfil the committee mandate. Thoroughness of protocol review may be influenced by heavy workloads, type of review process and lack of full committee participation. These results, together with results from the literature on research ethics committees, suggested potential ways to improve the effectiveness of research ethics committees.

  8. Influence of lifestyle factors on mammographic density in postmenopausal women.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Judith S Brand

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Mammographic density is a strong risk factor for breast cancer. Apart from hormone replacement therapy (HRT, little is known about lifestyle factors that influence breast density. METHODS: We examined the effect of smoking, alcohol and physical activity on mammographic density in a population-based sample of postmenopausal women without breast cancer. Lifestyle factors were assessed by a questionnaire and percentage and area measures of mammographic density were measured using computer-assisted software. General linear models were used to assess the association between lifestyle factors and mammographic density and effect modification by body mass index (BMI and HRT was studied. RESULTS: Overall, alcohol intake was positively associated with percent mammographic density (P trend  = 0.07. This association was modified by HRT use (P interaction  = 0.06: increasing alcohol intake was associated with increasing percent density in current HRT users (P trend  = 0.01 but not in non-current users (P trend  = 0.82. A similar interaction between alcohol and HRT was found for the absolute dense area, with a positive association being present in current HRT users only (P interaction  = 0.04. No differences in mammographic density were observed across categories of smoking and physical activity, neither overall nor in stratified analyses by BMI and HRT use. CONCLUSIONS: Increasing alcohol intake is associated with an increase in mammography density, whereas smoking and physical activity do not seem to influence density. The observed interaction between alcohol and HRT may pose an opportunity for HRT users to lower their mammographic density and breast cancer risk.

  9. Key factors influencing lung cancer survival in northern Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mangone, Lucia; Minicozzi, Pamela; Vicentini, Massimo; Giacomin, Adriano; Caldarella, Adele; Cirilli, Claudia; Falcini, Fabio; Giorgi Rossi, Paolo; Sant, Milena

    2013-06-01

    Lung cancer is a major cause of cancer death worldwide. The aims of this study were to analyze presentation, treatment and survival for lung cancer in northern Italy, and identify factors influencing survival. A total of 1180 lung cancer cases diagnosed in four north Italian cancer registries (Biella, Modena, Reggio Emilia, Romagna) in 2003-2005 were analyzed. Information on morphology, stage, diagnostic examinations, chemotherapy, radiotherapy, and surgical treatment was collected from clinical records. Three-year relative survival and relative excess risks of death were estimated. Overall, 10% of cases were stage I, 50% stage IV, and 12% stage unknown. Romagna - where sophisticated diagnostic examinations were performed more often - had proportionately more microscopically verified cases and resected cases than Biella. Romagna had also high proportions of cases given chemotherapy and radiotherapy. Three-year survival was 14%, range 10% (Biella) to 19% (Romagna); 69% for stage I, 3% for stage IV. Stage I survival was higher in Romagna (82%) than Reggio Emilia and Biella (60-61%) but for operated stage I cases, survival was similar (88%) in Romagna and Biella. The fully adjusted model showed a higher risk of death in Biella (1.23, 95%CI 1.02-1.48) than Modena (reference). Stage and surgery are key factors influencing survival. Centralizing lung cancer treatment to improve diagnostic work-up may improve outcomes. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Factors influencing workplace health promotion intervention: a qualitative systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rojatz, Daniela; Merchant, Almas; Nitsch, Martina

    2017-10-01

    Although workplace health promotion (WHP) has evolved over the last 40 years, systematically collected knowledge on factors influencing the functioning of WHP is scarce. Therefore, a qualitative systematic literature review was carried out to systematically identify and synthesize factors influencing the phases of WHP interventions: needs assessment, planning, implementation and evaluation. Research evidence was identified by searching electronic databases (Scopus, PubMed, Social Sciences Citation Index, ASSIA, ERIC, IBBS and PsycINFO) from 1998 to 2013, as well as by cross-checking reference lists of included peer-reviewed articles. The inclusion criteria were: original empirical research, description of WHP, description of barriers to and/or facilitators of the planning, implementation and/or evaluation of WHP. Finally, 54 full texts were included. From these, influencing factors were extracted and summarized using thematic analysis. The majority of influencing factors referred to the implementation phase, few dealt with planning and/or evaluation and none with needs assessment. The influencing factors were condensed into topics with respect to factors at contextual level (e.g. economic crisis); factors at organizational level (e.g. management support); factors at intervention level (e.g. quality of intervention concept); factors at implementer level (e.g. resources); factors at participant level (e.g. commitment to intervention) and factors referring to methodological and data aspects (e.g. data-collection issues). Factors regarding contextual issues and organizational aspects were identified across three phases. Therefore, future research and practice should consider not only the influencing factors at different levels, but also at different phases of WHP interventions. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  11. Factors that influence current tuberculosis epidemiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millet, Juan-Pablo; Moreno, Antonio; Fina, Laia; del Baño, Lucía; Orcau, Angels; de Olalla, Patricia García; Caylà, Joan A

    2013-06-01

    According to WHO estimates, in 2010 there were 8.8 million new cases of tuberculosis (TB) and 1.5 million deaths. TB has been classically associated with poverty, overcrowding and malnutrition. Low income countries and deprived areas, within big cities in developed countries, present the highest TB incidences and TB mortality rates. These are the settings where immigration, important social inequalities, HIV infection and drug or alcohol abuse may coexist, all factors strongly associated with TB. In spite of the political, economical, research and community efforts, TB remains a major global health problem worldwide. Moreover, in this new century, new challenges such as multidrug-resistance extension, migration to big cities and the new treatments with anti-tumour necrosis alpha factor for inflammatory diseases have emerged and threaten the decreasing trend in the global number of TB cases in the last years. We must also be aware about the impact that smoking and diabetes pandemics may be having on the incidence of TB. The existence of a good TB Prevention and Control Program is essential to fight against TB. The coordination among clinicians, microbiologists, epidemiologists and others, and the link between surveillance, control and research should always be a priority for a TB Program. Each city and country should define their needs according to the epidemiological situation. Local TB control programs will have to adapt to any new challenge that arises in order to respond to the needs of their population.

  12. Factors influencing microinjection molding replication quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vera, Julie; Brulez, Anne-Catherine; Contraires, Elise; Larochette, Mathieu; Trannoy-Orban, Nathalie; Pignon, Maxime; Mauclair, Cyril; Valette, Stéphane; Benayoun, Stéphane

    2018-01-01

    In recent years, there has been increased interest in producing and providing high-precision plastic parts that can be manufactured by microinjection molding: gears, pumps, optical grating elements, and so on. For all of these applications, the replication quality is essential. This study has two goals: (1) fabrication of high-precision parts using the conventional injection molding machine; (2) identification of robust parameters that ensure production quality. Thus, different technological solutions have been used: cavity vacuuming and the use of a mold coated with DLC or CrN deposits. AFM and SEM analyses were carried out to characterize the replication profile. The replication quality was studied in terms of the process parameters, coated and uncoated molds and crystallinity of the polymer. Specific studies were processed to quantify the replicability of injection molded parts (ABS, PC and PP). Analysis of the Taguchi experimental designs permits prioritization of the impact of each parameter on the replication quality. A discussion taking into account these new parameters and the thermal and spreading properties on the coatings is proposed. It appeared that, in general, increasing the mold temperature improves the molten polymer fill in submicron features except for the steel insert (for which the presence of a vacuum is the most important factor). Moreover, the DLC coating was the best coating to increase the quality of the replication. This result could be explained by the lower thermal diffusivity of this coating. We noted that the viscosity of the polymers is not a primordial factor of the replication quality.

  13. Factors influencing EPR dosimetry in fingernails

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dubner, D.L.; Spinella, M.R.; Bof, E.

    2010-01-01

    The technique based on the detection of ionizing radiation induced radicals by EPR in tooth enamel is an established method for the dosimetry of exposed persons in radiological emergencies. Dosimetry based on EPR spectral analysis of fingernail clippings, currently under development, has the practical advantage of the easier sample collection. A limiting factor is that overlapping the radiation induced signal (RIS), fingernails have shown the presence of two mechanically induced signals, called MIS1 and MIS2, due to elastic and plastic deformation respectively, at the time of fingernails cutting. With a water treatment, MIS1 is eliminated while MIS2 is considerably reduced. The calibration curves needed for radiation accident dosimetry should have 'universal' characteristics, ie. Represent the variability that can be found in different individuals. Early studies were directed to the analysis of factors affecting the development of such universal calibration curves. The peak to peak amplitude of the signal before and after the water treatment as well as the effect of size and number of clippings were studied. Furthermore, the interpersonal and intrapersonal variability were analyzed. Taking into account these previous studies, the optimal conditions for measurement were determined and EPR spectra of samples irradiated at different doses were used for the developing of dose-response curves. This paper presents the analysis of the results.(authors) [es

  14. Factors influencing surface roughness of polyimide film

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yao Hong; Zhang Zhanwen; Huang Yong; Li Bo; Li Sai

    2011-01-01

    The polyimide (PI) films of pyromellitic dianhydride-oxydiamiline (PMDA-ODA) were fabricated using vapor deposition polymerization (VDP) method under high vacuum pressure of 10-4 Pa level. The influence of equipment, substrate temperature, the process of heating and deposition ratio of monomers on the surface roughness of the PI films was investigated. The surface topography of films was measured by interferometer microscopy and scanning electron microscopy(SEM), and the surface roughness was probed with atomic force microscopy(AFM). The results show that consecutive films can be formed when the distance from steering flow pipe to substrate is 74 cm. The surface roughnesses are 291.2 nm and 61.9 nm respectively for one-step heating process and multi-step heating process, and using fine mesh can effectively avoid the splash of materials. The surface roughness can be 3.3 nm when the deposition rate ratio of PMDA to ODA is 0.9:1, and keeping the temperature of substrate around 30 degree C is advantageous to form a film with planar micro-surface topography. (authors)

  15. Determination of the Main Influencing Factors on Road Fatalities Using an Integrated Neuro-Fuzzy Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amir Masoud Rahimi

    Full Text Available Abstract This paper proposed an integrated algorithm of neuro-fuzzy techniques to examine the complex impact of socio-technical influencing factors on road fatalities. The proposed algorithm could handle complexity, non-linearity and fuzziness in the modeling environment due to its mechanism. The Neuro-fuzzy algorithm for determination of the potential influencing factors on road fatalities consisted of two phases. In the first phase, intelligent techniques are compared for their improved accuracy in predicting fatality rate with respect to some socio-technical influencing factors. Then in the second phase, sensitivity analysis is performed to calculate the pure effect on fatality rate of the potential influencing factors. The applicability and usefulness of the proposed algorithm is illustrated using the data in Iran provincial road transportation systems in the time period 2012-2014. Results show that road design improvement, number of trips, and number of passengers are the most influencing factors on provincial road fatality rate.

  16. Factors influencing a problem-based learning implementation: A case study of IT courses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darus, Norida Muhd; Mohd, Haslina; Baharom, Fauziah; Saip, Mohamed Ali; Puteh, Nurnasran; Marzuki @ Matt, Zaharin; Husain, Mohd Zabidin; Yasin, Azman

    2016-08-01

    IT students must be trained to work efficiently as teamwork. One of the techniques that can be used to train them is through Problem-Based Learning (PBL) approach. The PBL implementation can be influenced by various factors depending on the ultimate goal of the study. This study is focusing on the IT students' perception of the PBL implementation. The student's perception is important to ensure the successfulness of the PBL implementation. Therefore, it is important to identify the factors that might influence the implementation of PBL of IT courses. This study aims to identify some catalyst factors that may influence the PBL implementation of IT courses. The study involved three (3) main phases: identifying PBL implementation factors, constructing a PBL model, and PBL model validation using statistical analysis. Four main factors are identified: PBL Characteristics, PBL Course Assessment, PBL Practices, and PBL Perception. Based on these four factors, a PBL model is constructed. Then, based on the proposed PBL model, four hypotheses are formulated and analyzed to validate the model. All hypotheses are significantly acceptable. The result shows that the PBL Characteristics and PBL Course Assessment factors are significantly influenced the PBL Practices and indirectly influenced the Students' Perception of the PBL Implementation for IT courses. This PBL model can assist decision makers in enhancing the PBL teaching and learning strategy for IT courses. It is also can be tested to other courses in the future.

  17. Influence of socioeconomic factors in muscle dysmorphia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mercedes Rizo-Baeza

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: Introduction and objective: In muscle dysmorphia (MD the patient thinks he is smaller and less muscular than he really is. As in other addictive diseases, its prevention and early diagnosis are the key to avoid associated disorders. It is established as an objective to determine if there are associated socio-demographic factors. Material and methods: Cross-sectional observational study of 140 men, between 16-45 years old, who practice bodybuilding in gyms of different socioeconomic levels, at least 6 months prior to the study, 4 days / week, 1 hour / day, who signed the informed consent and without chronic illness. The main variable was the presence of symptoms of DM using the muscle appearance satisfaction scale (44 patients and the secondary variables were age, coexistence, children, educational level and monthly income. Frequencies were used in the qualitative variables, and averages and standard deviations in the quantitative variables, in the bivariate analysis of the Chisquare test and the t-student test respectively and the binary logistic regression (presence / absence of MD to eliminate confounding factors, the probabilities were calculated associated Results: The gymnasts have an average age of 26.1 (SD = 7.1 years; the majority live with their parents (56.4%; they do not have children (89.3%; the academic levels are balanced and the economic income is mostly low / medium (79.3%. In the bivariate analysis, is observed a higher risk at a younger age (p = 0.027 and when they live with their parents (limit of significance. Significance is not observed with the variables having children, educational level or economic income. In the binary logistic regression these meanings are lost, although the graphic representation of the probability in relation with age seems to be a risk factor, as well as living with the parents or as a couple. Conclusion: Among men who practice bodybuilding, it is usually a risk to suffer MD, to be younger

  18. FACTORS THAT INFLUENCE THE INTENTION FOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NICULIȚĂ ZENOBIA

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The present article presents the research results of an applied study regarding the impact of work style and organizational climate on teachers' intention to leave their workplace in the foreseeable future. A sample of 150 teachers aged 21-56, employees of 10 schools from Bucharest, Romania has been the focus of the research, aiming to identify the differences between the group of participants that expressed their intent to leave the organization (called the turnover group and the ones that stated their intention to remain employed in the school (non-fluctuation group regarding work style and its factors and the perceived traits of the organizational climate for the schools employing them at the time of the study. Teachers included in the turnover group revealed a more dynamic work style and a significantly more negative perception of the organizational climate.

  19. Organizational factors influencing improvements in safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marcus, A.; Nichols, M.L.; Olson, J.; Osborn, R.; Thurber, J.

    1991-01-01

    Results of conceptual and empirical research conducted by this research team, and published in NUREG-CR 5437, suggested that processes of organizational problem solving and learning provide a promising area for understanding improvement in safety-related performance in nuclear power plants. In this paper the authors describe the way in which they have built upon that work and gone much further in empirically examining a range of potentially important organizational factors related to safety. The paper describes (1) overall trends in plant performance over time on the Nuclear Regulatory Commission performance indicators, (2) the major elements in the conceptual framework guiding the current work, which seeks among other things to explain those trends, (3) the specific variables used as measures of the central concepts, (4) the results to date of the quantitative empirical work and qualitative work in progress, and (5) conclusions from the research

  20. Factors influencing dependence on mobile phone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad-Hossein Biglu

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The purpose of current study was to investigate the relationship between the problematic use of mobile phone and Big Five personality traits among students of Tabriz University of Medical Sciences in Tabriz, Iran. Methods: A total number of 120 students (80 females and 40 males were selected by applying proportional randomized classification sampling method from Tabriz University of Medical Sciences. The Mobile Phone Problematic Use Scale (MPPUS and demographic questionnaire were used to gather data. Data were analyzed using SPSS software. Results: Analysis of gathered data showed that gender, neuroticism, extraversion, and openness to experience had positive correlation with the problematic use of mobile phone, whereas conscientiousness and agreeableness were not correlated with the problematic use of mobile phone. Conclusion: The evaluation of Big Five personality traits would be a reliable factor for predicting the problematic use of mobile phone among students.

  1. Wheat Industry: Which Factors Influence Innovation?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vitor Francisco Dalla Corte

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available A change in the profile of food consumption is occurring because of the new context of demographic growth, the increase of income in developing economies, and urbanization. In Brazil, consumption patterns have trended from fresh to processed food and internal and external growth in demand has led to opportunities that require new and higher levels of technological innovation and associated managerial skill. The aim of this study was to evaluate the role of innovation on a key Brazilian food industry: wheat product markets. Results showed that while most firms did not innovate in the past year, new investments in R&D were important for innovation to occur compared to other factors such as the size of the company, the integration in supply chain, and the age of the company. These results demonstrate that innovation is not a random or unpredictable process, but a complex and diverse process that may be specific to each industry.

  2. Influence factors in the Knowledge Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Sánchez Ramírez

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available There are factors which impel or slow down the knowledge processes into the organizations which in turn affect the completion of its vision as an ideal planning. The organizational memory, repetition of unconscious acts and the extended practice plays an important role in the meaning of the action and the goal to transform the plans into attainment through the manifest knowledge which turns into conclusion and makes a systematic knowing infused with values as an important core source for the firm. They conceive maturity stages of development within the companies which interact mutually, starting with the organizational memory which embodies the past and present successes, passing towards unconscious acts which can risk the true knowledge content to an extended practice stage based in years of experience.

  3. Influence of processing factors over concrete strength.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kara, K. A.; Dolzhenko, A. V.; Zharikov, I. S.

    2018-03-01

    Construction of facilities of cast in-situ reinforced concrete poses additional requirements to quality of material, peculiarities of the construction process may sometimes lead to appearance of lamination planes and inhomogeneity of concrete, which reduce strength of the material and structure as a whole. Technology compliance while working with cast in-situ concrete has a significant impact onto the concrete strength. Such process factors as concrete curing, vibration and compaction of the concrete mixture, temperature treatment, etc., when they are countered or inadequately followed lead to a significant reduction in concrete strength. Here, the authors experimentally quantitatively determine the loss of strength in in-situ cast concrete structures due to inadequate following of process requirements, in comparison with full compliance.

  4. Factors influencing professional life satisfaction among neurologists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teixeira-Poit, Stephanie M; Halpern, Michael T; Kane, Heather L; Keating, Michael; Olmsted, Murrey

    2017-06-19

    Predicted shortages in the supply of neurologists may limit patients' access to and quality of care for neurological disorders. Retaining neurologists already in practice provides one opportunity to support the overall supply of practicing neurologists. Understanding factors associated with professional life satisfaction (and dissatisfaction) and implementing policies to enhance satisfaction may encourage neurologists to remain in clinical practice. In this paper, we present results from the first study examining factors associated with professional life satisfaction among a large sample of U.S, neurologists. We collaborated with the AAN to survey a sample of U.S. neurologists about their professional life satisfaction. Analyses examined the association of physician and practice characteristics with aspects of professional life satisfaction, including satisfaction with their career in medicine, medical specialty, current position, relationship with colleagues, relationship with patients, work/life balance, and pay. The study population consisted of 625 neurologists. In multivariate regression analyses, no single group or population stratum indicated high (or low) responses to all aspects of satisfaction. Older neurologists reported higher satisfaction with career, specialty, and relationship with patients than younger neurologists. Female neurologists had significantly lower satisfaction with pay than male neurologists. Neurologists who spent more time in research and teaching had greater satisfaction with specialty, relationship with colleagues, and relationship with patients than those spending no time in research. Neurologists who practiced in small cities/rural areas reported lower satisfaction across multiple dimensions than those practicing in large urban areas. Neurologists in solo practice had greater satisfaction with the relationship with their patients, but lower satisfaction with pay. Satisfaction is a multidimensional construct that is associated with

  5. Assessing the Factors Influencing Women Attainment of Household ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study assessed the factors influencing the attainment of household food security in Ikwuano ... Data analysis utilized descriptive statistics such as frequency counts, ... had no access to credits, 71.7% had no contact with extension service.

  6. The Influence of Psychological Factors in Meniere's Disease | Orji ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Influence of Psychological Factors in Meniere's Disease. ... Annals of Medical and Health Sciences Research ... probably through disorders of the autonomic nervous system occasioned by the increased levels of stress‑related hormones.

  7. Influence of bioregion and environmental factors on the growth, size ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The influence of bioregion and important environmental factors in South Africa ... the production efficiency of cows through the implementation of management ... genetic component was not separated from the environmental components.

  8. Factors influencing recruitment and retention of professional nurses ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    J. Lyn Haskins

    factors influencing recruitment and retention of three categories of HPs in KwaZulu-Natal and has ...... tion, with good career opportunities which were similar in both urban and rural .... attract nurses to rural areas: A multicountry discrete choice.

  9. Factors that influence doctors in the assessment of applicants for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Factors that influence doctors in the assessment of applicants for disability grant. ... and the usefulness of the committees were important in decision making. ... assessment of applicants for a disability grant is a subjective and emotional task.

  10. Evaluation of some genetic factors influencing the phenotypic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Evaluation of some genetic factors influencing the phenotypic severity of β thalassemia Egyptian patients. Ibtessam R Hussein, Amina M Medhat, Samir F Zohny, Alice K Abd El-Aleem, Ghada Y El-Kammah, Bardees M Foda ...

  11. Social Cultural Factors Influencing Women's Participation in Sports ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Social Cultural Factors Influencing Women's Participation in Sports as Perceived by Female Students of the University of Ilorin. ... sports competition while mass media should organize enlightenment programmes that will mitigate the ...

  12. Physico-chemical and biotic factors influencing microalgal seed ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Physico-chemical and biotic factors influencing microalgal seed culture propagation for inoculation of a ... African Journal of Biotechnology ... used to inoculate an open raceway pond for large scale biomass production for biodiesel production.

  13. Factors Influencing the Willingness to Pay User Fees

    OpenAIRE

    Morse, George W.

    2012-01-01

    In this Note I explore the factors which influence the demand side of program participation, or the willingness to pay (WTP). The WTP estimates can help you determine how many people will participate in an event at each fee level.

  14. Factors influencing adherence to dietary guidelines: a qualitative ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2014-01-17

    Jan 17, 2014 ... Original Research: Factors influencing adherence to dietary guidelines. 76. 2014 Volume ..... eat, because they dik (tired) of giving you special food. Then they go .... patients in this study were satisfied with the advice received ...

  15. 38 FACTORS THAT INFLUENCE IRON STATUS OF PREGNANT ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    sys01

    The study investigated the factors that influence iron ... approaches employed for promotion of girl-child education and prevention of adolescent .... purchase food items rich in haem iron such as ... decision making, life style options, and control.

  16. factors influencing the choice of health care providing facility among

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In the public sector ... Objectives: This study aimed to assess the factors influencing choice and satisfaction with health service providers among local ... the consumer of healthcare services cannot control. ..... Acquisition of Stable Food.

  17. Factors influencing the adoption of smartphones by undergraduate ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Factors influencing the adoption of smartphones by undergraduate students at ... ha ve thus far c oncentrated on the adoption of mobile technologies especially ... who may also want to explore the implementation of mobile learning systems, ...

  18. Socio-Cultural Factors Influencing Consent For Research In Nigeria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Socio-Cultural Factors Influencing Consent For Research In Nigeria: Lessons ... for Health Research Ethics in enforcing researchers' compliance with ethical standards in ... Genuine respect for human dignity requires deeper understanding of ...

  19. Assessment of the prevalence and factors influencing adherence to ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    admin

    adherence to exclusive breast feeding among HIV positive ... Despite its benefits, the practice of EBF among HIV positive mothers is low in Ethiopia. Objective: This study is intended to assess factors influencing adherence to exclusively breast ...

  20. Factors influencing breastfeeding practices in Edo state, Nigeria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In Nigeria however, young infants may not benefit from such a practice as a ... The purpose of this study was to determine factors influencing breastfeeding practices in Edo State, Nigeria. ... Only 20 per cent practiced exclusive breastfeeding.

  1. Factors Influencing Student Nurses' Performance in the Final ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Factors Influencing Student Nurses' Performance in the Final Practical Examination ... Staff development courses can be held to coordinate the work of the school ... to authentic individual nursing care of patients so that they use the individual ...

  2. Factors influencing perceived sustainability of Dutch community health programs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vermeer, A. J. M.; van Assema, P.; Hesdahl, B.; Harting, J.; de Vries, N. K.

    2015-01-01

    We assessed the perceived sustainability of community health programs organized by local intersectoral coalitions, as well as the factors that collaborating partners think might influence sustainability. Semi-structured interviews were conducted among 31 collaborating partners of 5 community health

  3. Chapter 4. Radioactivity of waters and factors influencing its value

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toelgyessy, J.; Harangozo, M.

    2000-01-01

    This is a chapter of textbook of radioecology for university students. In this chapter authors deal with radioactivity of waters and factors influencing its value. Chapter consists of next parts: (1) Natural radioactivity of hydrosphere; (2) Radioactive contamination of hydrosphere

  4. Factors influencing the teaching of physical education and sport in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Factors influencing the teaching of physical education and sport in Cluster H Shools ... and nine heads of schools selected using the random sampling technique. ... the participation of children with disabilities in Physical Education and Sports.

  5. Factors influencing the density of aerobic granular sludge.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Winkler, M.K.; Kleerebezem, R.; Strous, M.; Chandran, K.; Loosdrecht, M.C. van

    2013-01-01

    In the present study, the factors influencing density of granular sludge particles were evaluated. Granules consist of microbes, precipitates and of extracellular polymeric substance. The volume fractions of the bacterial layers were experimentally estimated by fluorescent in situ hybridisation

  6. Factors influencing Nigerian men's decision to undergo prostate ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: This study explores the factors that influence a group of Nigerian men's decision to go for Prostate Specific ..... older they were in the habit of regularly visiting the hospi- .... friends with prostate cancer was an important stimulus.

  7. Factors influencing condom use among Nigerian undergraduates: A ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Factors influencing condom use among Nigerian undergraduates: A mixed method study. ... PROMOTING ACCESS TO AFRICAN RESEARCH ... group discussions) and quantitative (cross-sectional survey) methods were utilised for this study.

  8. Methodology for studying of influence of fire factor on geosystems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuriy Vasilovyth Buts

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Materials about the impact of emergency situations of the technogenic and natural character, caused by fires, on geosystems are presented. Methodological features of researches on fire factor influence on geosystem components are shown.

  9. E-commerce factors influencing consumers‘ online shopping decision

    OpenAIRE

    Baubonienė, Živilė; Gulevičiūtė, Gintarė

    2015-01-01

    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to look at the factors driving online shopping and to develop an understanding of the factors influencing the online shopping by the consumers. This is done by exploring the factors that encourage consumers to shop online through analysis of such advantages as security, fast delivery, comparable price, convenience, cheaper prices and a wider choice. At the same time, the research project reveals the factors that are discouraging for consumers and the ben...

  10. Factors influencing the intention to watch online video advertising.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Joonghwa; Lee, Mira

    2011-10-01

    This study examines the factors influencing consumer intention to watch online video ads, by applying the theory of reasoned action. The attitude toward watching online video ads, the subjective norm, and prior frequency of watching online video ads positively influence the intention to watch online video ads. Further, beliefs held about entertainment and information outcomes from watching online video ads and subjective norm influence attitude toward watching these ads.

  11. Investigation of factors influencing the attrition breakage of coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oberholzer, V.; van der Walt, J. [North West University, Mmabatho (South Africa). School of Chemical & Minerals Engineering

    2009-04-15

    The presence of fines (particles smaller than 6 mm in diameter) causes hydrodynamic problems in gasifiers and therefore it is of great importance to minimize the amount of fine coal in the feed. This serves as motivation for understanding coal's breakage mechanisms, which could lead to the ability to predict the generation of fines. The aim of this project was to simulate the pulsating effect of the conveyor belt in order to investigate factors influencing the breakage. Results indicated that an increased initial particle size had an increasing effect in the amount of fines generated. Weathering had an insignificant effect on the breakage of coal. To conclude, a breakage model was developed to describe the rate of breakage out of the top size when a combination of two breakage modes is present.

  12. Factors Influencing Job Satisfaction Among Long-Term Care Staff.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doran, Kelly; Resnick, Barbara; Swanberg, Jennifer

    2017-11-01

    We assessed the intrapersonal, interpersonal, and organizational factors that predicted job satisfaction among long-term care employees. Baseline data were used to describe characteristics that influence job satisfaction. Using a forced linear regression model, while controlling for age and job title, we assessed if higher physical activity levels, fewer symptoms of depression, stress, and/or anxiety (ie, decreased mood), less back pain, stronger social support, and reports of low work demands were associated with higher job satisfaction. Mood (β = -0.412, P = 0.003) explained 17% of the variance in job satisfaction. This information can be used to guide facility wide programs and interventions aimed at increasing job satisfaction among all long-term care staff.

  13. Factors influencing Salmonella carcass prevalence in Danish pig abattoirs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Freitas de Matos Baptista, Filipa; Dahl, J.; Nielsen, Liza Rosenbaum

    2010-01-01

    The Danish Salmonella Surveillance-and-Control Programme in finisher pigs includes both herd and carcass surveillance. Herd surveillance consists of serological testing of meat-juice samples and classification of herds into three Salmonella seroprevalence levels. At the abattoirs, carcass swabs...... from five pigs are collected daily and analysed as a pooled sample to evaluate the Salmonella carcass prevalence. This study aimed to investigate factors associated with Salmonella carcass prevalence in Denmark. A total of 20,196 pooled carcass swabs collected in 23 Danish abattoirs were included...... in the analysis. A multilevel logistic regression model was used taking into account the two-level data structure (abattoir, carcass pool) and adjusting the parameter estimates to the random variation at the abattoir level. Study results indicated that carcass contamination was mainly influenced...

  14. A study on packaging factors influencing on export development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mina Mohammadi

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Packaging is an important instrument of commerce and trade in the world, it plays essential role in increasing sales and export and thus it maximizes profits generated in enterprises. Hence, the appropriate packaging for the producer generates necessary incentives for production, partly preserves them against zany opponents, and finally provides the customer with much more variety and choosing the right products. Packaging in fact, is a major contributor to the performance of customer relationship management. This survey determines five packaging factors influencing on export development including communications, infrastructure, awareness, design and technical extraction. Through the implementation of principal component analysis, the effective role of packaging components on exports is measured. Exploratory research model indicates that all five packing components were effective in export development of food industry.

  15. Factors That Influence Technology Integration in the Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montgomery, Maureen C.

    2017-01-01

    Education is one area where the use of technology has had great impact on student learning. The integration of technology in teaching and learning can significantly influence the outcome of education in the classroom. However, there are a myriad of factors that influence technology integration in the classroom. The purpose of this study was to…

  16. Factors Influencing Choice of Inguinal Hernia Repair Technique

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study sought to highlight factors that may influence ... Experienced peers play a major role in training on the various repair ... Reasons influencing choice of repair technique include training ... (after appendectomy) accounting for 10 to 15% of all surgical ..... in medical school [as undergraduate students or as residents].

  17. Influence of breed and environmental factors on litter parameters of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Influence of breed and environmental factors on litter parameters of rabbits ... There was a non-significant effect of season on litter site at birth, kits alive at birth and ... to rabbit reproduction as it influenced negatively more litter parameters than ...

  18. Factors influencing the, selection of state office furniture

    Science.gov (United States)

    R. Bruce Anderson; R. Bruce Anderson

    1973-01-01

    Evaluation of the factors influencing the selection of office furniture by nine state governments shows that quality and purchase price have the most important influence on the purchase decision. The intended use of the furniture and the purchasing regulations of the states were key f8CbrS in the use of wood furniture.

  19. Environmental factors influencing fluctuation of share prices on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Environmental factors influencing fluctuation of share prices on Nigeria stock exchange market. ... What are these environmental variables that affect the fluctuation of share prices in Nigeria? ... The results show inflation, money supply, total deficits index of industrial production, interest rate and GDP influence stock prices.

  20. Factors influencing bacterial adhesion to contact lenses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutta, Debarun; Cole, Nerida; Willcox, Mark

    2012-01-01

    The process of any contact lens related keratitis generally starts with the adhesion of opportunistic pathogens to contact lens surface. This article focuses on identifying the factors which have been reported to affect bacterial adhesion to contact lenses. Adhesion to lenses differs between various genera/species/strains of bacteria. Pseudomonas aeruginosa, which is the predominant causative organism, adheres in the highest numbers to both hydrogel and silicone hydrogel lenses in vitro. The adhesion of this strain reaches maximum numbers within 1h in most in vitro studies and a biofilm has generally formed within 24 h of cells adhering to the lens surface. Physical and chemical properties of contact lens material affect bacterial adhesion. The water content of hydroxyethylmethacrylate (HEMA)-based lenses and their iconicity affect the ability of bacteria to adhere. The higher hydrophobicity of silicone hydrogel lenses compared to HEMA-based lenses has been implicated in the higher numbers of bacteria that can adhere to their surfaces. Lens wear has different effects on bacterial adhesion, partly due to differences between wearers, responses of bacterial strains and the ability of certain tear film proteins when bound to a lens surface to kill certain types of bacteria.

  1. Factors that Influence Quality Service of Teachers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Nur Mustafa

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Education as a profession requires a thorough commitment and sincerity among educators in guiding and shaping the patterns of learning toward forming identities and lead change in the students. As an adult with a lot of knowledge and experience, classroom becomes an important medium for the delivery and access to knowledge to the students in an instructional condition that effectively and efficiently. Therefore, all educators need to prepare themselves to face challenges to deal with children as a leader in charge in constructing a conducive and persuasive educational relationship. Important characteristics in this context is how to create a memorable delivery systems that meet the standard qualities and aligned with the education laws enforced. As a teacher who has received training from experts and civil servants thus all actions taken should be sincere, open, meet the service specification that gives attention to the self-esteem of the students with a good service, quality, and meet their needs. Therefore, this study will discuss the main factors that affect the quality of service to the students among the teachers namely motivation and professional competence. Selected samples in this study were 327 teachers from Secondary School in Pekanbaru. This study has shown a clear interest in improving the quality of motivation and the quality of service of teachers to the students. The aspects of the professional competence of teachers are still experiencing problems in applying the knowledge and skills to lead and manage the classroom inrealizing   a conducive environment.

  2. Factors influencing improved attendance in the UK fire service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Litchfield, I; Hinckley, P

    2016-12-01

    Sickness absence rates in the UK continue to exceed those in much of the developed world, with an annual cost to employers of £29 billion. Rates of sickness absence in the public sector are higher than those in the private sector, with the exception of the fire service where they are consistently lower. To understand the influences that increase attendance among operational firefighters. A series of semi-structured interviews undertaken with operational staff to explore their attitudes to sickness absence. Review and analysis of participant responses identified a number of key themes, namely employee well-being, including physical fitness and mental health; employee engagement with the fire service as manifested by culture, experience, nature of the job and leadership; organizational factors including the staffing model and relationship with occupational health services and policy, which describes both refinements to and implementation of targeted policies. Previously observed factors such as improved fitness and the distinct firefighter culture play a role, yet other factors emerged that could explain the differences. These include the greater work-life balance offered by their shift patterns, the terms and conditions of employment and perhaps most importantly the evolution of precisely targeted policies that understand the unique nature of the operational fire service. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Occupational Medicine.

  3. Factors influencing teamwork and collaboration within a tertiary medical center.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chien, Shu Feng; Wan, Thomas Th; Chen, Yu-Chih

    2012-04-26

    To understand how work climate and related factors influence teamwork and collaboration in a large medical center. A survey of 3462 employees was conducted to generate responses to Sexton's Safety Attitudes Questionnaire (SAQ) to assess perceptions of work environment via a series of five-point, Likert-scaled questions. Path analysis was performed, using teamwork (TW) and collaboration (CO) as endogenous variables. The exogenous variables are effective communication (EC), safety culture (SC), job satisfaction (JS), work pressure (PR), and work climate (WC). The measurement instruments for the variables or summated subscales are presented. Reliability of each sub-scale are calculated. Alpha Cronbach coefficients are relatively strong: TW (0.81), CO (0.76), EC (0.70), SC (0.83), JS (0.91), WP (0.85), and WC (0.78). Confirmatory factor analysis was performed for each of these constructs. Path analysis enables to identify statistically significant predictors of two endogenous variables, teamwork and intra-organizational collaboration. Significant amounts of variance in perceived teamwork (R(2) = 0.59) and in collaboration (R(2) = 0.75) are accounted for by the predictor variables. In the initial model, safety culture is the most important predictor of perceived teamwork, with a β weight of 0.51, and work climate is the most significant predictor of collaboration, with a β weight of 0.84. After eliminating statistically insignificant causal paths and allowing correlated predictors1, the revised model shows that work climate is the only predictor positively influencing both teamwork (β = 0.26) and collaboration (β = 0.88). A relatively weak positive (β = 0.14) but statistically significant relationship exists between teamwork and collaboration when the effects of other predictors are simultaneously controlled. Hospital executives who are interested in improving collaboration should assess the work climate to ensure that employees are operating in a setting conducive

  4. Factors influencing teamwork and collaboration within a tertiary medical center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chien, Shu Feng; Wan, Thomas TH; Chen, Yu-Chih

    2012-01-01

    AIM: To understand how work climate and related factors influence teamwork and collaboration in a large medical center. METHODS: A survey of 3462 employees was conducted to generate responses to Sexton’s Safety Attitudes Questionnaire (SAQ) to assess perceptions of work environment via a series of five-point, Likert-scaled questions. Path analysis was performed, using teamwork (TW) and collaboration (CO) as endogenous variables. The exogenous variables are effective communication (EC), safety culture (SC), job satisfaction (JS), work pressure (PR), and work climate (WC). The measurement instruments for the variables or summated subscales are presented. Reliability of each sub-scale are calculated. Alpha Cronbach coefficients are relatively strong: TW (0.81), CO (0.76), EC (0.70), SC (0.83), JS (0.91), WP (0.85), and WC (0.78). Confirmatory factor analysis was performed for each of these constructs. RESULTS: Path analysis enables to identify statistically significant predictors of two endogenous variables, teamwork and intra-organizational collaboration. Significant amounts of variance in perceived teamwork (R2 = 0.59) and in collaboration (R2 = 0.75) are accounted for by the predictor variables. In the initial model, safety culture is the most important predictor of perceived teamwork, with a β weight of 0.51, and work climate is the most significant predictor of collaboration, with a β weight of 0.84. After eliminating statistically insignificant causal paths and allowing correlated predictors1, the revised model shows that work climate is the only predictor positively influencing both teamwork (β = 0.26) and collaboration (β = 0.88). A relatively weak positive (β = 0.14) but statistically significant relationship exists between teamwork and collaboration when the effects of other predictors are simultaneously controlled. CONCLUSION: Hospital executives who are interested in improving collaboration should assess the work climate to ensure that employees are

  5. Identifying the important factors in simulation models with many factors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bettonvil, B.; Kleijnen, J.P.C.

    1994-01-01

    Simulation models may have many parameters and input variables (together called factors), while only a few factors are really important (parsimony principle). For such models this paper presents an effective and efficient screening technique to identify and estimate those important factors. The

  6. Factors Influencing the Adoption of Minimally Invasive Surgery ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Cost is a major concern for delivery of minimally invasive surgical technologies due to the nature of resources required. It is unclear whether factors extrinsic to technology availability impact on this uptake. Objectives: To establish the influence of institutional, patient and surgeon-related factors in the adoption of ...

  7. Factors influencing medical students in pursuing a career in surgery ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Many factors play a role in the decision of a medical student to pursue a career in surgery. With a decline in numbers of applications into surgical programmes seen globally, the aim of this study was to determine the factors that influence medical students in pursuing a career in surgery. Methods: A descriptive ...

  8. Factors that Influence Students' Decision to Dropout of Online Courses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willging, Pedro A.; Johnson, Scott D.

    2009-01-01

    Although there are many reasons why students dropout of college courses, those reasons may be unique for students who are enrolled in an online program. Issues of isolation, disconnectedness, and technological problems may be factors that influence a student to leave a course. To understand these factors, an online survey was developed to collect…

  9. Factors that influence household and individual clothing expenditure ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    S Blignaut

    Contributing factors are the growth of low-priced apparel ... determine which factors influence household and individual ... explicitly deals with this concept. .... The income elasticity for clothing for the two-parent ..... Nelson (1989) found that mothers with less than a .... fashion consciousness and style preferences should.

  10. Alternative Administrative Certification: Socializing Factors Influencing Program Choice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bickmore, Dana L.; Bickmore, Steven T.; Raines, Sarah

    2013-01-01

    This study used an organizational socialization lens to examine factors influencing participants' decision to pursue the principalship and choice to engage in an alternate administration certification program. Through an analysis of participant focus groups and interviews, factors emerged from the codes that were compared with dimensions of…

  11. Interrelated factors influence of current stock market on pricing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Наталія Петрівна Мацелюх

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Impacts on market prices of securities are generalized. It is found that in the process of price determination and its implementation exist a system of interrelated factors of influence, which are divided into objective and subjective; internal and external; traditional and specific. It is proved that the impact of factors associated with risk pricing in financial assets

  12. The influence of family factors on delinquent adolescents in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was carried out with the aim of finding out the influence of family factors on delinquent adolescents in secondary schools in Edo South Senatorial District of Edo State. This study ascertained the extents to which family factors such as parent child rearing style, family type and parent socio economic background ...

  13. Factors influencing societal response of nanotechnology : an expert stakeholder analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gupta, N.; Fischer, A.R.H.; Lans, van der I.A.; Frewer, L.J.

    2012-01-01

    Nanotechnology can be described as an emerging technology and, as has been the case with other emerging technologies such as genetic modification, different socio-psychological factors will potentially influence societal responses to its development and application. These factors will play an

  14. Socio-economic factors influencing cassava production in Kuje and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study examined socio-economic factors influencing output level of cassava production in Kuje and Abaji Area Councils of Federal Capital Territory, Abuja. The specific objectives were to:identify the socio-economic characteristics of sampled cassava farmers in the study area; determine the socio-economic factors ...

  15. Risk Factors Influencing Smoking Behavior: A Turkish Twin Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Öncel, Sevgi Yurt; Dick, Danielle M.; Maes, Hermine H.; Alıev, Fazil

    2015-01-01

    Aim In this study, we introduce the first twin study in Turkey, focusing on smoking behavior, and laying the foundation to register all twins born in Turkey for research purposes. Using Turkish twins will contribute to our understanding of health problems in the context of cultural differences. Materials and methods We assessed 309 twin pairs (339 males and 279 females) aged between 15 and 45 years living in the Kırıkkale and Ankara regions of Turkey, and administered a health and lifestyle interview that included questions about smoking status and smoking history. We analyzed the data using descriptive statistics, t-tests, chi-square tests, and bivariate and multivariate clustered logistic regression. In addition, we fit bivariate Structural Equation Models (SEM) to determine contributions of latent genetic and environmental factors to smoking outcomes in this sample. Results One hundred seventy-eight participants (28.8%) were identified as smokers, smoking every day for a month or longer, of whom 79.2% were males and 20.8% were females. Mean values for number of cigarettes per day and the Fagerstrom Test of Nicotine Dependence (FTND; Fagerstrom, 1978) score were higher in males than in females, and age of onset was earlier in males. There was a significant positive correlation between the FTND score and number of cigarettes smoked per day, and a significant negative correlation between both variables and age at onset of smoking. Our study showed that gender, presence of a smoking twin in the family, age, alcohol use, marital status, daily sports activities, and feeling moody all played a significant role in smoking behavior among twins. The twin analysis suggested that 79.5% of the liability to FTND was influenced by genetic factors and 20.5% by unique environment, while familial resemblance for smoking initiation was best explained by common environmental factors. Conclusions Marked differences in the prevalence of smoking behavior in men versus women were

  16. Factors influencing lysis time stochasticity in bacteriophage λ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dennehy John J

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Despite identical genotypes and seemingly uniform environments, stochastic gene expression and other dynamic intracellular processes can produce considerable phenotypic diversity within clonal microbes. One trait that provides a good model to explore the molecular basis of stochastic variation is the timing of host lysis by bacteriophage (phage. Results Individual lysis events of thermally-inducible λ lysogens were observed using a temperature-controlled perfusion chamber mounted on an inverted microscope. Both mean lysis time (MLT and its associated standard deviation (SD were estimated. Using the SD as a measure of lysis time stochasticity, we showed that lysogenic cells in controlled environments varied widely in lysis times, and that the level of lysis time stochasticity depended on allelic variation in the holin sequence, late promoter (pR' activity, and host growth rate. In general, the MLT was positively correlated with the SD. Both lower pR' activities and lower host growth rates resulted in larger SDs. Results from premature lysis, induced by adding KCN at different time points after lysogen induction, showed a negative correlation between the timing of KCN addition and lysis time stochasticity. Conclusions Taken together with results published by others, we conclude that a large fraction of λ lysis time stochasticity is the result of random events following the expression and diffusion of the holin protein. Consequently, factors influencing the timing of reaching critical holin concentrations in the cell membrane, such as holin production rate, strongly influence the mean lysis time and the lysis time stochasticity.

  17. Factors influencing Sudanese microfinance intention to adopt mobile banking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anwar Ammar

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Access to financial service has become a key phenomenon for economic development and poverty alleviation .Microfinance is one way of fighting poverty in Sudan, where most citizens are in need of it. However, despite the initial results showing a positive impact of microfinance on the livelihood of low-income people in Sudan, around 8 million of the Sudanese poor people are excluded from microfinance services. One potential remedy for the limited outreach of microfinance in Sudan may lie within enhancing the capacity of microfinance services providers (MFPs in the utilization of modern technology. Recent innovation in providing financial services in a convenient and efficient way is the use of mobile banking (m-banking technology in microfinance. M-banking promises to increase the efficiency and outreach of microfinance services in developing countries. This paper tries to examine the factors that influence the adoption of m-banking by microfinance sector in Sudan. In this respect, hypotheses were developed guided by Unified Theory of Acceptance and Use of Technology (UTAUT and Technology-organization-Environment (TOE models. Primary data were collected from MFPs and microfinance customers in Sudan using questionnaires and interviews. The study contributes to knowledge in terms of methods used by extending aforementioned theories through adding new variables to both models by putting both models in one study to fill the gaps in past studies; via examination of the demand (customers and supply (institutions through modifying them to include new variables related to m-banking in microfinance.

  18. Factors Influencing the Yemeni Customers’ Intention to Adopt Takaful Products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdelghani Echchabi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to examine the Yemeni customers’ intention to adopt Takaful products, and to explore the potential factors that influence their decision. This study applies SEM and one sample t-test to analyse the collected data. The results indicate that among the factors included in this study, only compatibility positively and significantly affects the adoption intention. This is the first study that addresses the adoption of Takaful products in Yemen and the factors that influence it. Furthermore, this study extends the Innovations Diffusion Theory (IDT by applying it to a different setting.

  19. Factors Affecting Choice in A Multi-Stage Model: The Influence of Saliency and Similarity on Retrieval Set and the Implication of Context Effect on Consideration Set

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric Santosa

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available While it is considered a new paradigm in consumer research, the multi-stage model of consumer decision-making remains unclear as to whether brands are easily retrieved. Likewise, the process of consideration, after particular brands are successfully retrieved, is still in question. This study purports to investigate the effects of saliency and similarity on the ease of retrieval. In addition, referring to some studies of context effect, the effects of attraction, compromise, and assimilation are examined to observe whether they contribute to consideration. A within-subject design is employed in this study. Previously, three preliminary studies are arranged to determine the dominants, new entrants, attributes, and other criteria nominated in the experimental study. The results turn out to be supporting the hypotheses.

  20. Factors negatively influencing knowledge sharing in software development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucas T. Khoza

    2017-07-01

    Objective: This study seeks to identify factors that negatively influence knowledge sharing in software development in the developing country context. Method: Expert sampling as a subcategory of purposive sampling was employed to extract information, views and opinions from experts in the field of information and communication technology, more specifically from those who are involved in software development projects. Four Johannesburg-based software developing organisations listed on the Johannesburg Stock Exchange (JSE, South Africa, participated in this research study. Quantitative data were collected using an online questionnaire with closed-ended questions. Results: Findings of this research reveal that job security, motivation, time constraints, physiological factors, communication, resistance to change and rewards are core factors negatively influencing knowledge sharing in software developing organisations. Conclusions: Improved understanding of factors negatively influencing knowledge sharing is expected to assist software developing organisations in closing the gap for software development projects failing to meet the triple constraint of time, cost and scope.

  1. Which factors influence women in the decision to breastfeed?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cândida Canicali Primo

    Full Text Available Objective.Identify the factors that influence women in the decision to breastfeed. Methods. Integrative review. Information was gathered from original articles, case studies, theoretical studies, consensus and systematic reviews published between 2007-2013 in Spanish, Portuguese and English and recovered in the databases MEDLINE and LILACS. The descriptors used in this study were: breastfeeding, maternal behavior, risk factors, lactation and newborn. Results. Were included 30 articles, grouped into five categories. Factors influencing the decision of the breastfeeding woman are a convergence of breastfeeding's advantages, benefits and justifications, family, social and professional support, sociodemographic and clinical characteristics of women, personal experience and family tradition and personal choice. Conclusion. The decision to breastfeed by women is influenced by a convergence of factors. It is essential the role of nursing to encourage women in the decision to initiate and maintain breastfeeding her child.

  2. Factors that influence beverage choices at meal times

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mueller Loose, Simone; Jaeger, S. R.

    2012-01-01

    Beverages are consumed at almost every meal occasion, but knowledge about the factors that influence beverage choice is less than for food choice. The aim of this research was to characterize and quantify factors that influence beverage choices at meal times. Insights into what beverages are chosen...... consumers. Participants (n=164) described 8356 meal occasions in terms of foods and beverages consumed, and the contextual characteristics of the occasion. Beverage choice was explored with random-parameter logit regressions to reveal influences linked to food items eaten, context factors and person factors....... Thereby this study contributed to the food choice kaleidoscope research approach by expressing the degree of context dependency in form of odds ratios and according significance levels. The exploration of co-occurrence of beverages with food items suggests that beverage-meal item combinations can be meal...

  3. An exploration study to detect important factors influencing insurance firms

    OpenAIRE

    Farzaneh Soleimani; Fattaneh Alizadeh Meshkani; Abdullah Naami

    2013-01-01

    The recent trend on competition among insurance firms has increased motivation to look for important factors influencing this industry. In this paper, we present an empirical investigation to find important factors shaping this industry. The proposed study designs a questionnaire in Likert scale and, using principal component analysis, detects important factors on the success of this industry. Cronbach alpha is calculated as 0.849, and Kaiser-Meyer-Olkin and Bartlett's Test are calculated as ...

  4. Factors influencing intentions to use social recommender systems: a social exchange perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Tsung-Sheng; Hsiao, Wei-Hung

    2013-05-01

    This study employs the perspective of social exchange theory and seeks to understand users' intentions to use social recommender systems (SRS) through three psychological factors: trust, shared values, and reputation. We use structural equation modeling to analyze 221 valid questionnaires. The results show that trust has a direct positive influence on the intention to use SRS, followed by shared values, whereas reputation has an indirect influence on SRS use. We further discuss specific recommendations concerning these factors for developing SRS.

  5. Factors influencing the cost of prosthetic joint infection treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peel, T N; Cheng, A C; Lorenzo, Y P; Kong, D C M; Buising, K L; Choong, P F M

    2013-11-01

    Prosthetic joint infection (PJI) is associated with significant costs to the healthcare system. Current literature examines the cost of specific treatment modalities without assessing other cost drivers for PJI. To examine the overall cost of the treatment of PJI and to identify factors associated with management costs. The costs of treatment of prosthetic joint infections were examined in 139 patients across 10 hospitals over a 3-year period (January 2006 to December 2008). Cost calculations included hospitalization costs, surgical costs, hospital-in-the-home costs and antibiotic therapy costs. Negative binomial regression analysis was performed to model factors associated with total cost. The median cost of treating prosthetic joint infection per patient was Australian $34,800 (interquartile range: 20,305, 56,929). The following factors were associated with increased treatment costs: septic revision arthroplasty (67% increase in treatment cost; P = 0.02), hypotension at presentation (70% increase; P = 0.03), polymicrobial infections (41% increase; P = 0.009), surgical treatment with one-stage exchange (100% increase; P = 0.002) or resection arthroplasty (48% increase; P = 0.001) were independently associated with increased treatment costs. Culture-negative prosthetic joint infections were associated with decreased costs (29% decrease in treatment cost; P = 0.047). Treatment failure was associated with 156% increase in treatment costs. This study identifies clinically important factors influencing treatment costs that may be of relevance to policy-makers, particularly in the setting of hospital reimbursement and guiding future research into cost-effective preventive strategies. Copyright © 2013 The Healthcare Infection Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Talking about relations: Factors influencing the production of relational descriptions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana eBaltaretu

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available In a production experiment (Experiment 1 and an acceptability rating one (Experiment 2, we assessed two factors, spatial position and salience, which may influence the production of relational descriptions (such as the ball between the man and the drawer. In Experiment 1, speakers were asked to refer unambiguously to a target object (a ball. In Experiment 1a, we addressed the role of spatial position, more specifically if speakers mention the entity positioned leftmost in the scene as (first relatum. The results showed a preference to start with the left entity, however, only as a trend, which leaves room for other factors that could influence spatial reference. Thus, in the following studies, we varied salience systematically, by making one of the relatum candidates animate (Experiment 1b, and by adding attention capture cues, first subliminally by priming one relatum candidate with a flash (Experiment 1c, then explicitly by using salient colors for objects (Experiment 1d. Results indicate that spatial position played a dominant role. Entities on the left were mentioned more often as (first relatum than those on the right (Experiment 1a, 1b, 1c, 1d. Animacy affected reference production in one out of three studies (in Experiment 1d. When salience was manipulated by priming visual attention or by using salient colors, there were no significant effects (Experiment 1c, 1d. In the acceptability rating study (Experiment 2, participants expressed their preference for specific relata, by ranking descriptions on the basis of how good they thought the descriptions fitted the scene. Results show that participants preferred most the description that had an animate entity as the first mentioned relatum. The relevance of these results for models of reference production is discussed.

  7. The influence of chemical degradation during dietary exposures to fish on biomagnification factors and bioaccumulation factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnot, Jon A; Mackay, Donald

    2018-01-24

    The chemical dietary absorption efficiency (E D ) quantifies the amount of chemical absorbed by an organism relative to the amount of chemical an organism is exposed to following ingestion. In particular, E D can influence the extent of bioaccumulation and biomagnification for hydrophobic chemicals. A new E D model is developed to quantify chemical process rates in the gastrointestinal tract (GIT). The new model is calibrated with critically evaluated measured E D values (n = 250) for 80 hydrophobic persistent chemicals. The new E D model is subsequently used to estimate chemical reaction rate constants (k R ) assumed to occur in the lumen of the GIT from experimental dietary exposure tests (n = 255) for 165 chemicals. The new k R estimates are corroborated with k R estimates for the same chemicals from the same data derived previously by other methods. The roles of k R and the biotransformation rate constant (k B ) on biomagnification factors (BMFs) determined under laboratory test conditions and on BMFs and bioaccumulation factors (BAFs) in the environment are examined with the new model. In this regard, differences in lab and field BMFs are highlighted. Recommendations to address uncertainty in E D and k R data are provided.

  8. Factors influencing investment in commercial pig production on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Following a systematic sampling procedure, 124 households were interviewed to identify variables that influence their decisions on whether or not to invest in commercial pig production. Using a binary logistic regression model the analytical results revealed that the decisions are significantly influenced by gender of ...

  9. Influence diagnostics in meta-regression model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Lei; Zuo, ShanShan; Yu, Dalei; Zhou, Xiaohua

    2017-09-01

    This paper studies the influence diagnostics in meta-regression model including case deletion diagnostic and local influence analysis. We derive the subset deletion formulae for the estimation of regression coefficient and heterogeneity variance and obtain the corresponding influence measures. The DerSimonian and Laird estimation and maximum likelihood estimation methods in meta-regression are considered, respectively, to derive the results. Internal and external residual and leverage measure are defined. The local influence analysis based on case-weights perturbation scheme, responses perturbation scheme, covariate perturbation scheme, and within-variance perturbation scheme are explored. We introduce a method by simultaneous perturbing responses, covariate, and within-variance to obtain the local influence measure, which has an advantage of capable to compare the influence magnitude of influential studies from different perturbations. An example is used to illustrate the proposed methodology. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  10. Evaluating factors that influence egg production at Konsoni Poultry Company

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muje Gjonbalaj

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available The main focus of this research is to evaluate the factors thought to influence the monthly egg production of Konsoni Poultry Company. The linear regression employing different variables of interest is used to predict the future monthly egg production of the largest poultry farm in Kosovo. The general purpose of multiple regressions (the term was first used by Pearson, 1908 is to learn more about the relationship between egg price, local competitors and egg imports as independent or predictor variables (xi and dependent or criterion variable, egg production (y. Y = B0 + B1*X1 + B2*X2 + …Bn*XnThe results of the research come from the observed fluctuations in egg production at Konsoni Poultry Company during the period of 24 months. Many factors that effect egg production are poorly understood from managers of Konsoni Poultry Company. This study examines the statistical results and identifies the relationships between depended and independent variables. The study shows that there is a strong relationships between depend variably (y and independent variables (xi. and low correlations among independent variables The adjusted R2 of the multiple linear regression model is 0.48 which tells us that 48% of variation in egg production are explained by evaluated variables.Konsoni Poultry Company covers 20% of the market share for eggs in Kosovo. In general, multiple regression is used to answer the general question what is the best predictor of Konsoni egg production.

  11. A Parametric Factor Model of the Term Structure of Mortality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haldrup, Niels; Rosenskjold, Carsten Paysen T.

    The prototypical Lee-Carter mortality model is characterized by a single common time factor that loads differently across age groups. In this paper we propose a factor model for the term structure of mortality where multiple factors are designed to influence the age groups differently via...... on the loading functions, the factors are not designed to be orthogonal but can be dependent and can possibly cointegrate when the factors have unit roots. We suggest two estimation procedures similar to the estimation of the dynamic Nelson-Siegel term structure model. First, a two-step nonlinear least squares...... procedure based on cross-section regressions together with a separate model to estimate the dynamics of the factors. Second, we suggest a fully specified model estimated by maximum likelihood via the Kalman filter recursions after the model is put on state space form. We demonstrate the methodology for US...

  12. [Factors influencing research activity of Andalusian nurses and improvement strategies].

    Science.gov (United States)

    López Alonso, Sergio R; Gálvez González, María; Amezcua, Manuel

    2013-04-01

    To identify factors influencing research activity of Andalusian nurses and to find improvement strategies. Qualitative research using SWOT analysis (weaknesses, threats, strengths, opportunities). Nurses were selected deliberately in eight groups according to predetermined criteria. Analysis included categorization and relationship of factors and strategies. 81 participants were included in groups of 7-12 range. 45 categories were identified with 212 factors: 12 weaknesses (50 factors), 10 strengths (44 factors), 12 threats (68 factors) and 11 opportunities (50 factors). In addition, 32 categories were identified with 53 strategies: 14 categories of W-T strategies (42 strategies), 3 categories of S-T strategies (11 strategies), 5 categories of W-O strategies (13 strategies) and 10 categories of S-O strategies (41 strategies). Nurses identified numerous factors, mainly threats. The strategies are focused on W-T but they also suggest many but weak 5-0 strategies due to the low potential of the opportunities and strengths perceived.

  13. A survey on critical factors influencing organizational commitment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamidreza Kheirkhah

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Organizational commitment is an important issue and organization attitude has become an area of study among many researchers in the fields of organizational behavior. In fact, there are many studies on human resource management where the effects of organizational commitment on other issues have been investigated and the purpose of this research is to find critical factors influencing on organizational commitment. Based on an exploration of the literature review and interviews, the proposed study of this paper extracts 24 variables and using factor analysis, we select the most important factors, which are grouped in four categories. The implementation of our factor analysis has revealed Affective commitment, Continuous commitment, Moral commitment and Enduring commitment are the most important factors influencing organizational commitment.

  14. A survey on critical factors influencing agricultural insurance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Valipour

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Agricultural business is a very high-risk job and an increase demand for agricultural products from one side and steady increase in production cost and weather changes, on the other side, have motivated many to use insurance for agricultural products. Insurance plays an important role in influencing crop production and insured satisfaction or farmers. The purpose of this research is to find critical components in agricultural insurance. Based on an exploration of the literature review and interviews, the proposed study of this paper extracts 24 variables and using factor analysis, we select the most important factors, which are grouped in seven categories. The implementation of our factor analysis has revealed uncertainty, moderator, market equilibrium, risky environment, empowering factor, education, training, structural hazards and natural ecosystems as the most important factors influencing agricultural industry.

  15. An empirical survey on factors influencing on packaging dairy products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naser Azad

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Packaging plays an essential role on supplying different materials such as dairy products. The first thing people may look into when they purchase dairy products such as milk, cheese, etc. is associated with the packaging characteristics. This paper attempts to find important factors influencing on packaging dairy products. The study uses factor analysis to detect important factors based on a questionnaire consists of 28 questions in Likert scale, which is distributed among 200 regular employees of Pegah dairy producer. Cronbach alpha, Kaiser-Meyer-Olkin Measure of Sampling adequacy and Bartlett's test of Sphericity approximation Chi-Square are 0.81, 0.679 and 844.475, respectively and they are within acceptable limit. The study has determined five factors including infrastructure, awareness, design and communication as important factors influencing consumers.

  16. FACTORS INFLUENCING BRAND EQUITY OF BALI AS A TOURISM DESTINATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I Ketut Surya Diarta

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Globally, competition among tourism destinations is more stringent in getting foreign tourists, including Bali. One effort to win the competition is increasing destination brand equity through maintaining its influencing factors and gaining tourist positive behavior toward destination. This effort, in long run, will increase and stabilize destination revenue and sustainability. This research aims to analyze factors influencing brand equity of Bali as a tourism destination. This research was conducted in Bali’s five major tourism objects. The 240 foreign tourists were chosen as respondents through convenience sampling technique. Data were analyzed using factor analysis. The results showed that factors that significantly influenced Bali brand equity were: symbolic and experiential benefit factor, direct and indirect destinations attributes, destination reliability and tangibility, assurance and empathy, brand destinations recognition and recall, destinations common psychological attributes, destination common functional attributes, unique functional attributes, behavioral loyalty, destination awareness, and attitudinal loyalty. Given the fluctuative nature of brand equity, Bali needs a consistent effort to maintain or to enhance brand equity of Bali as a tourism destination. Maintaining the dominant factors that influence the strength of brand equity can be used as a basis to develop destination branding strategy to expand market segment,  choose the right target market, and anchoring destination position in world market competition.

  17. Factors That Influence the Practice of Elective Induction of Labor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Jennifer; Low, Lisa Kane

    2012-01-01

    Elective induction of labor has been linked to increased rates of prematurity and rising rates of cesarean birth. The purpose of this investigation was to evaluate current trends in induction of labor scholarship focusing on evidence-based factors that influence the practice of elective induction. A key word search was conducted to identify studies on the practice of elective induction of labor. Analysis of the findings included clustering and identification of recurrent themes among the articles with 3 categories being identified. Under each category, the words/phrases were further clustered until a construct could be named. A total of 49 articles met inclusion criteria: 7 patient, 6 maternity care provider, and 4 organization factors emerged. Only 4 of the articles identified were evidence based. Patient factors were divided into preferences/convenience, communication, fear, pressure/influence, trust, external influences, and technology. Provider factors were then divided into practice preferences/convenience, lack of information, financial incentives, fear, patient desire/demand, and technology. Organization factors were divided into lack of enforcement/accountability, hospital culture, scheduling of staff, and market share issues. Currently, there is limited data-based information focused on factors that influence elective induction of labor. Despite patient and provider convenience/preferences being cited in the literature, the evidence does not support this practice. PMID:22843006

  18. ICT Interventions for Girls: Factors Influencing ICT Career Intentions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Gorbacheva

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Intervention programs aimed at promoting study and work opportunities in the Information and Communications Technology (ICT field to schoolgirls have been encouraged to combat a decline in the interest among girls to study ICT at school. The goal of our study is to investigate the influence of such interventions on schoolgirls’ intentions to choose a career in the ICT field by analysing comprehensive survey data (n = 3577, collected during four interventions in Australia, using the Partial Least Squares method. Our study is also aimed at identifying other factors influencing ICT career intentions. We found that the attitude towards interventions has an indirect influence on ICT career intentions by affecting interest in ICT. Our results also challenge several existing theoretical studies by showing that factors that had previously been suggested as influencers were found to have little or no impact in this study, these being same-sex education and computer usage.

  19. Factors Influencing Poverty Alleviation amongst Microfinance Adopting Households in Zambia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mavhungu Abel Mafukata

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this paper is to investigate the factors having the most influence on the alleviation of poverty amongst the households adopting microfinance in Zambia. Ninety nine (n=99 respondents were randomly and purposively selected from amongst 340 microfinance adopters of the so-called Micro Bankers Trust programme operating a microfinance business in the Makululu Compound of Kabwe, Zambia. Socio-demographic primary data were collected through face-to-face interviews based on a semi-structured questionnaire instrument. The data were entered into an excel spreadsheet for analysis. The descriptive data were thereafter exported and fitted to an empirical model. The descriptive results revealed that the majority of the respondents were married, unemployed, fairly educated younger women from larger-sized poor households who drew their household income mainly from microfinance activities. The majority of the respondents thought microfinance had improved their well-being in some crucial areas. The results of the empirical model found that some respondents were indeed alleviated from poverty through microfinance. Conclusion drawn in this paper is that microfinance does alleviate poverty of the poor.

  20. Factors Influencing Indonesian Internet Users Intention on Buying Books Online

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beatrik Messah

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this research is to discover and analyse factors influencing Indonesian internet users intention on buying books online. Certain factors will be investigated are demographic, features, convenience, web design, and security. This research used questionaires to obtain data from the respondents. After the data collected, SPSS software is used to process the data with using Chi-Square test. The result found that features, convenience, and security factors of online bookstores and level of education, income, and occupation of the Indonesian Internet Users influence the people intention on buying books online. In the other hand, web design of the online bookstores and the age of the Indonesian internet users have no influence on their intention on buying books online.

  1. Influence Of Dilution Factor For Activity Measurement Of 60CO

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hermawan-Candra; Nazaroh; Ermi-Juita

    2003-01-01

    Influence of dilution factor for activity measurement of 60 Co has been studied. The aim of this research is to determine influence between activity measurement result of 60 Co before and after diluted. Measurement were done by using ionization chamber detectors system and gamma spectrometry system with NaI(TI) detector. Discrepancy within three ionization chambers measurements were 0.2% - 2.1% and NaI(Tl) were 3.5% - 6%. (author)

  2. Exploring the Spatial-Temporal Disparities of Urban Land Use Economic Efficiency in China and Its Influencing Factors under Environmental Constraints Based on a Sequential Slacks-Based Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hualin Xie

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Using a sequential slack-based measure (SSBM model, this paper analyzes the spatiotemporal disparities of urban land use economic efficiency (ULUEE under environmental constraints, and its influencing factors in 270 cities across China from 2003–2012. The main results are as follows: (1 The average ULUEE for Chinese cities is only 0.411, and out of the 270 cities, only six cities are always efficient in urban land use in the study period. Most cities have a lot of room to improve the economic output of secondary and tertiary industries, as well as environmental protection work; (2 The eastern region of China enjoys the highest ULUEE, followed by the western and central regions. Super-scale cities show the best performance of all four city scales, followed by large-scale, small-scale and medium-scale cities. Cities with relatively developed economies and less pollutant discharge always have better ULUEE; (3 The results of slack variables analysis show that most cities have problems such as the labor surplus, over-development, excessive pollutant discharge, economic output shortage, and unreasonable use of funds is the most serious one; (4 The regression results of the influencing factors show that improvements of the per capita GDP and land use intensity are helpful to raise ULUEE. The urbanization rate and the proportion of foreign enterprises’ output account for the total output in the secondary and tertiary industries only have the same effect in some regions and city scales. The land management policy and land leasing policy have negative impact on the ULUEE in all the three regions and four city scales; (5 Some targeted policy goals are proposed, including the reduction of surplus labor, and pay more attention to environmental protection. Most importantly, effective implementation of land management policies from the central government, and stopping blind leasing of land to make up the local government’s financial deficit would be very

  3. Factors influencing publication choice: why faculty choose open access.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warlick, Stefanie E; Vaughan, Ktl

    2007-03-09

    In an attempt to identify motivating factors involved in decisions to publish in open access and open archives (OA) journals, individual interviews with biomedical faculty members at the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill (UNC-Chapel Hill) and Duke University, two major research universities, were conducted. The interviews focused on faculty identified as early adopters of OA/free full-text publishing. Searches conducted in PubMed and PubMed Central identified faculty from the two institutions who have published works in OA/free full-text journals. The searches targeted authors with multiple OA citations during a specified 18 month period. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with the most prolific OA authors at each university. Individual interviews attempted to determine whether the authors were aware they published in OA journals, why they chose to publish in OA journals, what factors influenced their publishing decisions, and their general attitude towards OA publishing models. Fourteen interviews were granted and completed. Respondents included a fairly even mix of Assistant, Associate and Full professors. Results indicate that when targeting biomedical faculty at UNC-Chapel Hill and Duke, speed of publication and copyright retention are unlikely motivating factors or incentives for the promotion of OA publishing. In addition, author fees required by some open access journals are unlikely barriers or disincentives. It appears that publication quality is of utmost importance when choosing publication venues in general, while free access and visibility are specifically noted incentives for selection of OA journals. Therefore, free public availability and increased exposure may not be strong enough incentives for authors to choose open access over more traditional and respected subscription based publications, unless the quality issue is also addressed.

  4. Factors influencing consumer behaviour in market vegetables in Yemen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tarish H. Al-Gahaifi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the research is to understand factors influencing consumer behaviour when buying vegetables in Republic of Yemen. Data collection was done by structured questionnaire administered through schools, universities, government offices, and markets from 13 provinces in 5 governorates. Random convenience sampling technique was used. Total sample comprised of 463 completed questionnaires which were used for analysis. The respondents were classified into five categories on the base of their monthly income, age, education, gender, and type of settlement. Authors present the factors that can influence significantly this behaviour, e.g. price, quality, the location of seller, habit, personal relationship between consumer and seller, occasions, discount, sorting, word-mouth, time of purchase, the way of products display, and recommendation of friends and families. From the obtained results, it is obvious that there was high influence on the behaviour of Yemeni consumer when buying vegetables for factors price, occasions, discontent, and time of purchase, while factors habit, display, sorting, and the location of seller suggests medium influence, and the influence was low for word-mouth.

  5. Factors That Were Found to Influence Ghanaian Adolescents’ Eating Habits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia Mawusi Amos

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The study sought to find out whether factors such as parental, peer, and media influences predict Ghanaian adolescent students’ eating habits. A random selection of 150 students from a population of senior high school students in Ghana were asked to complete the Eating Habits Questionnaire for Adolescents. Data were analyzed by the use of bivariate correlation, t test, and multiple regression analytical techniques using SPSS version 16. The findings revealed a significant positive relationship between peer influence and eating habits suggesting that the higher the peer pressure, the more unhealthy the students’ eating habits. Counterintuitively, parental and media influences did not significantly correlate with students’ eating habits. Gender difference in eating habits suggested that girls had more unhealthy eating habits than boys. Finally, multiple regression analysis revealed that peer influence was a better predictor of students’ eating habits than parental and media influences. The findings were discussed and recommendations were given in light of the study’s limitations.

  6. Influence of external action and structural factors on radiation blistering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalin, B.A.; Chernov, I.I.; Fomina, E.P.; Korshunov, S.H.; Polsky, V.I.; Skorov, D.M.; Yakushin, V.L.

    1985-01-01

    A survey of experimental results is presented, pertaining to radiation blistering of a considerable number of materials (stainless steels, alloys with high nickel content, alloys of refractory metals) under helium ion irradiation with energies of 20-100 keV under conditions corresponding to the plasma-wall interaction: bombardment at various angles of incidence and cyclic irradiation in a wide spectrum of ion incidence angles; influence of external action, including thermocyclic; influence of preceding neutron and proton irradiation. It has been shown that external factors have a complex influence on blister parameters and erosion coefficients of materials. A study has been carried out on the influence of aluminium coatings, alloying additions, phase state of material and microstructure on the nature and degree of surface erosion. Complex influence of element and phase composition, as well as microstructural changes during heat treatment and welding on radiation erosion have been established. (orig.)

  7. Robust and Sparse Factor Modelling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Croux, Christophe; Exterkate, Peter

    Factor construction methods are widely used to summarize a large panel of variables by means of a relatively small number of representative factors. We propose a novel factor construction procedure that enjoys the properties of robustness to outliers and of sparsity; that is, having relatively few...... nonzero factor loadings. Compared to the traditional factor construction method, we find that this procedure leads to a favorable forecasting performance in the presence of outliers and to better interpretable factors. We investigate the performance of the method in a Monte Carlo experiment...

  8. Psychosocial factors for influencing healthy aging in adults in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, KyungHun; Lee, YunJung; Gu, JaSung; Oh, Hee; Han, JongHee; Kim, KwuyBun

    2015-03-07

    Healthy aging includes physical, psychological, social, and spiritual well-being in later years. The purpose of this study is to identify the psychosocial factors influencing healthy aging and examining their socio-demographic characteristics. Perceived health status, depression, self-esteem, self-achievement, ego-integrity, participation in leisure activities, and loneliness were identified as influential factors in healthy aging. 171 Korean adults aged between 45 and 77 years-old participated in the study. Self-reporting questionnaires were used, followed by descriptive statistics and multiple regressions as inferential statistical analyses. There were significant differences between participants' general characteristics: age, education, religion, housing, hobby, and economic status. The factors related to healthy aging had positive correlation with perceived health status, self-esteem, self-achievements, and leisure activities, and negative correlation with depression and loneliness. The factors influencing healthy aging were depression, leisure activities, perceived health status, ego integrity, and self-achievements. These factors were able to explain 51.9%. According to the results, depression is the factor with the greatest influence on healthy aging. Perceived health status, ego integrity, self-achievement, self-esteem, participation of leisure activities were also influential on healthy aging as beneficial factors.

  9. The influence of model parameters on catchment-response

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shah, S.M.S.; Gabriel, H.F.; Khan, A.A.

    2002-01-01

    This paper deals with the study of influence of influence of conceptual rainfall-runoff model parameters on catchment response (runoff). A conceptual modified watershed yield model is employed to study the effects of model-parameters on catchment-response, i.e. runoff. The model is calibrated, using manual parameter-fitting approach, also known as trial and error parameter-fitting. In all, there are twenty one (21) parameters that control the functioning of the model. A lumped parametric approach is used. The detailed analysis was performed on Ling River near Kahuta, having catchment area of 56 sq. miles. The model includes physical parameters like GWSM, PETS, PGWRO, etc. fitting coefficients like CINF, CGWS, etc. and initial estimates of the surface-water and groundwater storages i.e. srosp and gwsp. Sensitivity analysis offers a good way, without repetititious computations, the proper weight and consideration that must be taken when each of the influencing factor is evaluated. Sensitivity-analysis was performed to evaluate the influence of model-parameters on runoff. The sensitivity and relative contributions of model parameters influencing catchment-response are studied. (author)

  10. Factors influencing energy efficiency investments in existing Swedish residential buildings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nair, Gireesh; Gustavsson, Leif; Mahapatra, Krushna

    2010-01-01

    We used the data from a survey conducted in 2008 of 3,000 owners of detached houses to analyse the factors that influence the adoption of investment measures to improve the energy efficiency of their buildings. For the majority of Swedish homeowners, it was important to reduce their household energy use, and most of them undertook no-cost measures as compared to investment measures. Personal attributes such as income, education, age and contextual factors, including age of the house, thermal discomfort, past investment, and perceived energy cost, influence homeowners' preference for a particular type of energy efficiency measure. The implications for promoting the implementation of energy efficiency investment measures are discussed.

  11. Factors of influence and changes in the tourism consumer behaviour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fratu, D.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Consumer behaviour is a very important aspect to be studied in every marketing activity, therefore in tourism marketing as well. Defining and identifying the factors that influence consumers help in understanding individual needs and buying processes in their whole complexity. Consumers have changed their behaviour over the last two years due to the instability of the economic environment. The author describes in this article the factors which influence consumer behaviour and also presents how it has changed over the past two years.

  12. Understanding Influence within the Context of Nursing: Development of the Adams Influence Model Using Practice, Research, and Theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Jeffrey M; Natarajan, Sudha

    2016-01-01

    Acquiring influence, and knowing how to use it, is a required competency for nurse leaders, yet the concept of influence and how it works is not well described in the nursing literature. In this article, the authors examine what is known about influence and present an influence model specific to nurse leaders. The Adams Influence Model was developed through an iterative process and is based on a comprehensive review of the influence literature, expert commentary, multiple pilot studies, evaluation of nursing theories, and validation by an external data source. Rather than defining "how to" influence, the model serves as a guide for personal reflection, helping nurse leaders understand and reflect on the influence process and factors, tactics, and strategies they can use when seeking to influence others.

  13. Factors influencing training transfer in nursing profession: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Fang; Bai, Yangjing; Bai, Yangjuan; Ma, Weiguang; Yang, Xiangyu; Li, Jiping

    2018-03-20

    There is a growing recognition that training is not translated into performance and the 'transfer problem' exists in organization training today. Although factors contributing to training transfer have been identified in business and industry, the factors influencing training transfer in nursing profession remain less clear. A qualitative descriptive study was undertaken in two tertiary referral hospitals in China from February 2013 to September 2013. Purposeful sampling of 24 nursing staffs were interviewed about the factors influencing training transfer. Seven themes evolved from the analysis, categorized in 4 main domains, which described the factors influencing training transfer in nursing profession in trainee characteristics, training design, work environment and profession domain. The trainee characteristics domain included attitude and ability. The training design domain included training content and instruction method. The work environment domain included supports as facilitators and opposition as hindrance. The theme pertaining to the profession domain was professional development. Health care managers need to understand the factors influencing training transfer for maximizing the benefits of training. The right beliefs and values about training, the rigorous employee selection for training, the relevance of training content, training instructions facilitating learning and transfer, supports from peer, supervisors and the organization, organizational culture such as change, sharing, learning and support, and professional development are key to successful training transfer. Furthermore, managers should be aware of the opposition from co-workers and find ways to prevent it.

  14. The Factors That Influence Bureaucracy and Professionalism in Schools: A Grounded Theory Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koybasi, Fatma; Ugurlu, Celal Teyyar

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study is to identify the factors that influence the interaction between bureaucracy and professionalism in schools and to develop a model of bureaucracy-professionalism interaction. This is a qualitative study carried out in grounded theory model. The study group consisted of 10 male and 10 female teachers who were working in Sivas…

  15. Sparse and Robust Factor Modelling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C. Croux (Christophe); P. Exterkate (Peter)

    2011-01-01

    textabstractFactor construction methods are widely used to summarize a large panel of variables by means of a relatively small number of representative factors. We propose a novel factor construction procedure that enjoys the properties of robustness to outliers and of sparsity; that is, having

  16. Relative importance of natural and anthropogenic factors influencing karst rocky desertification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Erqi; Zhang, Hongqi

    2017-04-01

    As the most severe ecological issue in southwest China, karst rocky desertification (KRD) has both threatened and constrained regional sustainable development. Comprehensively understanding the relationship between the evolution of KRD and relevant driving data would provide more information to combat KRD in such complex karst environments. Past studies have been limited in quantifying the relative importance of driving factors influencing fine-scale KRD evolution, and have also lacked insight into their interactive impacts. To address these issues, we have used geographical information system techniques and a geographical detector model to explore the spatial consistency of driving factors and their interactions in relation to the evolution of KRD. Changshun County in China was selected as a representative area for the study. Nine relevant driving factors, including both natural and anthropogenic factors, were studied in regard to their relationships with KRD transformation between 2000 and 2010. Our results demonstrate the relative importance of driving data in influencing the improvement and deterioration of KRD. Lithology, soil type and road influence are identified as the leading factors. Interestingly, to our study at least, there is no significant difference between the impacts of natural and anthropogenic factors influencing KRD improvement, and even natural factors have a higher impact on KRD deterioration. Factors were found to enhance the influence of each other for KRD transformation. In particular, the results show a non-linearly enhanced effect between driving factors, which significantly aggravates KRD. New information found in our study helps to effectively control and restore areas afflicted by KRD.

  17. FACTORS INFLUENCING BRAND LOYALTY IN PROFESSIONAL SPORTS FANS

    OpenAIRE

    Yun-Tsan Lin; Chen-Hsien Lin

    2008-01-01

    Many researchers have provided comprehensive definitions for the term of brand loyalty and also examined the factors affecting brand loyalty with many empirical studies. But there is little research focusing on the brand loyalty of professional sports fans. The topic area about factors influencing brand loyalty in professional sports fans was identified because these fans bring significant financial benefits every year and stimulate economic growth in the United States. Although different con...

  18. Factors Influencing Patronage Of Medical Tourism In Metropolitan Lagos Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    Omisore; E.O.; Agbabiaka; H. I.

    2015-01-01

    Since medical tourism attract patient from various origin to seek medical services at different destinations it is paramount to consider the factors that motivate patrons decision on medical tourism. Hence this study assesses the factors influencing patronage of medical tourism in Lagos metropolis Nigeria. Lagos State is situated in the southwestern corner of Nigeria it lies within Latitudes 62N to 64N of the Equator and Longitudes 245E to 420E of the Greenwich meridian. Metropolitan Lagos is...

  19. Factors Influencing Environmental Management Practices Among Hotels in Malaysia

    OpenAIRE

    Zaiton Samdin; Kasimu Abdu Bakori; Hamimah Hassan

    2012-01-01

    This paper attempts to investigate the factors that influence hotel managers- attitudes towards sustainable tourism practices (STP) in Kuala Lumpur and the state of Selangor in Malaysia. The study distributes 104 questionnaires to hotels ranging from one star to five-star categories including budget hotels. Out of this figure, 60 copies of the questionnaires were returned and analyzed. The finding revealed that of all the seven factors investigated, only the variables measuring incentives and...

  20. Factors influencing pricing in the accommodation sector in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Engelina du Plessis

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Price is a significant factor of competitiveness. Price is a complex issue and is determined by a variety of demand and supply factors. These factors also differ from industry to industry. The purpose of this article is to determine the factors that influence pricing in the South African accommodation sector. In order to generate proper data, a survey was conducted at various South African accommodation establishments that were obtained from the databases of the three major associations in the accommodation sector. Two-hundred and forty seven questionnaires completed by managers from accommodation establishments were used in this research. Principal component factor analyses with Varimax rotation in STATISTICA were carried out. These resulted in ten factors, namely environmental qualities, amenities, image, management factor, positioning, quality service factor, infrastructure service factor, location, marketing and product quality factor. The results revealed that the major factors in pricing are service quality, image and product quality. Consequently this article can be used to assist managers in pricing and in obtaining a better competitive position in the industry by revising management structures and marketing campaigns. Keywords and phrases: Tourism industry, price competitiveness, service quality, image, product quality, entrepreneur and factor analysis

  1. Human Factor Modelling in the Risk Assessment of Port Manoeuvers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teresa Abramowicz-Gerigk

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The documentation of human factor influence on the scenario development in maritime accidents compared with expert methods is commonly used as a basis in the process of setting up safety regulations and instructions. The new accidents and near misses show the necessity for further studies in determining the human factor influence on both risk acceptance criteria and development of risk control options for the manoeuvers in restricted waters. The paper presents the model of human error probability proposed for the assessment of ship masters and marine pilots' error decision and its influence on the risk of port manoeuvres.

  2. Factors Influencing the Adoption of and Business Case for Cloud Computing in the Public Sector

    OpenAIRE

    Kuiper, E.; Van Dam, F.; Reiter, A.; Janssen, M.F.W.H.A.

    2014-01-01

    Cloud adoption in the public sector is taking off slowly, which is perceived as a problem. Models of factors influencing cloud adoption are derived for better understanding using literature and results obtained via desk research and surveys by the Cloud for Europe project. We conclude that several factors require further research, such as the culture in countries, climate, legislation, economics and politics, IT staff shortage and feelings of uncertainty, fear and impatience. Adoption factors...

  3. Infrapopliteal Percutaneous Transluminal Balloon Angioplasty: Clinical Results and Influence Factors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, Jang Hyeon; Lee, Seung Jin; Jung, Hye Doo; Lim, Jae Hoon; Chang, Nam Kyu; Yim, Nam Yeol; Kim, Jae Kyu [Dept. of Radiology, Chonnam National University Hospital, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Keun Bae [Dept. of Radiology, Chonnam National University Hospital, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-09-15

    To assess the efficacy of percutaneous transluminal angioplasty (PTA) in patients with infrapopliteal arterial disease, and to determine the influencing factor for prognosis. A total of 55 patients (60 limbs) with infrapopliteal arterial stenosis or occlusion underwent PTA. Atherosclerotic risk factors, clinical symptoms, TransAtlantic Inter-Society Consensus (TASC) classification, and vascular wall calcification were evaluated before PTA. The number of patent infrapopliteal arteries was estimated, and the outcome was evaluated by symptom relief and limb salvage. Technical success was achieved in 53/60 limbs (88.3%) and 81/93 arteries (87.1%), TASC classification (p = 0.038) and vascular calcification (p = 0.002) influenced on technical failure. During follow-up, 26 of 55 limbs (47%) achieved symptom relief and 42/55 limbs (76%) underwent limb salvage. Non-diabetic patients (9/12, 75%) were superior to diabetic patients (17/43, 40%) in terms of symptom relief (p = 0.024). TASC classification and vascular wall calcification influenced on symptom relief and limb salvage. The number of patent infrapopliteal arteries after PTA influenced symptom relief (p < 0.001) and limb amputation (p = 0.003). PTA in patients with chronic critical limb ischemia is worthwhile as a primary treatment. The influence factors should be considered before PTA, and PTA should be performed in as many involved arteries as possible.

  4. Infrapopliteal Percutaneous Transluminal Balloon Angioplasty: Clinical Results and Influence Factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song, Jang Hyeon; Lee, Seung Jin; Jung, Hye Doo; Lim, Jae Hoon; Chang, Nam Kyu; Yim, Nam Yeol; Kim, Jae Kyu; Lee, Keun Bae

    2011-01-01

    To assess the efficacy of percutaneous transluminal angioplasty (PTA) in patients with infrapopliteal arterial disease, and to determine the influencing factor for prognosis. A total of 55 patients (60 limbs) with infrapopliteal arterial stenosis or occlusion underwent PTA. Atherosclerotic risk factors, clinical symptoms, TransAtlantic Inter-Society Consensus (TASC) classification, and vascular wall calcification were evaluated before PTA. The number of patent infrapopliteal arteries was estimated, and the outcome was evaluated by symptom relief and limb salvage. Technical success was achieved in 53/60 limbs (88.3%) and 81/93 arteries (87.1%), TASC classification (p = 0.038) and vascular calcification (p = 0.002) influenced on technical failure. During follow-up, 26 of 55 limbs (47%) achieved symptom relief and 42/55 limbs (76%) underwent limb salvage. Non-diabetic patients (9/12, 75%) were superior to diabetic patients (17/43, 40%) in terms of symptom relief (p = 0.024). TASC classification and vascular wall calcification influenced on symptom relief and limb salvage. The number of patent infrapopliteal arteries after PTA influenced symptom relief (p < 0.001) and limb amputation (p = 0.003). PTA in patients with chronic critical limb ischemia is worthwhile as a primary treatment. The influence factors should be considered before PTA, and PTA should be performed in as many involved arteries as possible.

  5. Modeling and numerical simulations of the influenced Sznajd model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karan, Farshad Salimi Naneh; Srinivasan, Aravinda Ramakrishnan; Chakraborty, Subhadeep

    2017-08-01

    This paper investigates the effects of independent nonconformists or influencers on the behavioral dynamic of a population of agents interacting with each other based on the Sznajd model. The system is modeled on a complete graph using the master equation. The acquired equation has been numerically solved. Accuracy of the mathematical model and its corresponding assumptions have been validated by numerical simulations. Regions of initial magnetization have been found from where the system converges to one of two unique steady-state PDFs, depending on the distribution of influencers. The scaling property and entropy of the stationary system in presence of varying level of influence have been presented and discussed.

  6. Factors Influencing Adjustment to Late-Life Divorce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Keren Brown; DeShane, Michael R.

    Although the rate of divorce among older Americans has increased steadily, little attention has been paid to late life divorce. To describe the role of age and other factors which might influence adjustment to divorce in later life, data from a larger pilot study were used: 81 divorced persons over the age of 60 completed in-depth, structured…

  7. Investigation and control of factors influencing resistance upset butt welding.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kerstens, N.F.H.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this work is to investigate the factors influencing the resistance upset butt welding process to obtain an understanding of the metal behaviour and welding process characteristics, so that new automotive steels can be welded with reduced development time and fewer failures in

  8. Transcriptional factor influence on OTA production and the quelling ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study determined the influence of some transcriptional factors on ochratoxin A production as well as investigates the quelling attributes of some designed siRNA on the OTA producing Aspergillus section Nigri using standard recommended techniques. Results obtained following comparison of the pks gene promoter ...

  9. Factors Influencing Prescribing Practices of Medical Practitioners in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    the currently used drugs, influence of pharmaceutical sales representatives and inadequate training and professional development [2,7]. Other factors include poor communication between health professional and patients regarding the basic information about the use of drugs. Most of the studies done in Tanzania on this ...

  10. Determinant factors influencing efficiency of Fadama Arable crop ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... farm income, output, productivity and farm size and determined factors influencing Fadama farmer's efficiency. The multistage sampling technique was employed in the selection of120 Fadama farmers and their location. One hundred and twenty non-Fadama farmers were drawn using the same technique for comparison.

  11. Analysis of factors influencing adoption of okra production ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Socio-economic factors influencing adoption of okra technology packages in Enugu State, Nigeria was studied and analyzed in 2012. Purposive and multistage random sampling techniques were used in selecting communities, villages and Okra farmers. The sample size was 90 okra farmers (45Awgu and 45 Aninri Okra ...

  12. Factors Influencing Antenatal Care Service Utilization in Hadiya Zone

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Therefore, the objective of this study was to explore factors influencing antenatal care services utilization in Southern Ethiopia. METHODS: A community-based cross sectional study was conducted in Hadiya Zone of Southern Ethiopia from January to February 2009. A multi stage sampling technique was used to select the ...

  13. Factors Influencing Choice of Inguinal Hernia Repair Technique ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Inguinal hernia repair surgery is one of the most frequently performed surgical procedures worldwide. This study sought to highlight factors that may influence decisions concerning inguinal hernia repair techniques. Methods: This descriptive crosssectional study was carried out in September 2014 among ...

  14. Factors Influencing Household Solid Waste Management in Urban ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The main objective of this study was to determine factors that influence household solid waste management practices in urban Nyeri Municipality. Descriptive cross- sectional ... Results from the survey showed that 26.2% of households practiced correct methods of household solid waste management. The percentage of ...

  15. Factors Influencing Utilization of Modern Family Planning Services ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Factors Influencing Utilization of Modern Family Planning Services among Women of Child Bearing Age (15 - 49 years) in the University of Calabar Teaching Hospital, Calabar. ... Using accidental sampling technique, 150 women of childbearing age were selected to constitute the sample. Data were collected using a ...

  16. Pantomime production by people with aphasia. What are influencing factors?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Nispen, Karin; van de Sandt-Koenderman, Mieke; Mol, Elisabeth; Krahmer, Emiel

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The present paper aimed to inform clinical practice on whether people with aphasia (PWA) deploy pantomime techniques similarly to non-brain damaged participants (NBDP) and if not, what factors influence these differences. Method: We compared 38 PWA to 20 NBDP in their use of six

  17. Factors Influencing Transient Poverty Among Agro-Pastoralists in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Factors Influencing Transient Poverty Among Agro-Pastoralists in semi-arid areas of Kenya. ... The number of livelihood sources, education level of the household head, relief food, extension service and distance to the nearest markets were positively related to per capita daily income. A negative relationship was observed ...

  18. Factors Influencing Vitamin A Status of Lactating Mothers in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Factors Influencing Vitamin A Status of Lactating Mothers in Manyara and ... E.L Ndau, D. Walters, D. Wu, N. Saleh, T.C.E. Mosha, S. Horton, H.S. Laswai ... for young mothers, 84.6% for middle age mothers and 86.3% for elderly mothers.

  19. Talking about Relations : Factors Influencing the Production of Relational Descriptions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baltaretu, Adriana-Alexandra; Krahmer, Emiel; van Wijk, Carel; Maes, Alfons

    2016-01-01

    In a production experiment (Experiment 1) and an acceptability rating one (Experiment 2), we assessed two factors, spatial position and salience, which may influence the production of relational descriptions (such as “the ball between the man and the drawer”). In Experiment 1, speakers were asked to

  20. Factors Influencing BI Data Collection Strategies: An Empirical Investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramakrishnan, Thiagarajan

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this dissertation is to examine the external factors that influence an organizations' business intelligence (BI) data collection strategy when mediated by BI attributes. In this dissertation, data warehousing strategies are used as the basis on which to frame the exploration of BI data collection strategies. The attributes include…