Extended lactation in dairy cows
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Sorensen, Annette; Muir, D. Donald; Knight, Christopher Harold
2008-01-01
Twelve spring-calving and twelve winter-calving cows were managed for extended lactation cycles of 18-months duration, with the former group then completing a second extended lactation. Half of the cows were fed according to standard management practice for the herd; the other half received...... of the lactation, protein and fat percentages increasing and lactose percentage decreasing, irrespective of treatment. The quality of the milk for processing into cheese, fermented products, heat-treated products and cream liqueurs was assessed by calculation of casein number (casein protein as a proportion...... of total protein). Processing quality declined across the course of lactation in those groups that showed poor persistency but not in those that maintained a persistent lactation. Milk hygienic quality (somatic cell counts) showed parallel changes. Body condition score increased during the course...
Extended lactation in dairy cows
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Sorensen, Annette; Muir, D. Donald; Knight, Christopher Harold
2008-01-01
of total protein). Processing quality declined across the course of lactation in those groups that showed poor persistency but not in those that maintained a persistent lactation. Milk hygienic quality (somatic cell counts) showed parallel changes. Body condition score increased during the course...
Douhard, F; Tichit, M; Amer, P R; Friggens, N C
2014-11-01
Although most of the genetic progress in production efficiency is achieved through selection at a global scale, locally, farm managers can also influence the selection process to better match genotypes and their varying herd environment. This study focused on the influence of a particular management decision--the use of extended lactation (EL) in dairy goat production systems--as it affects the survival and reproduction rates at the herd level, which may then shape different long-term selection responses. The objective was to understand and quantify the influences of EL and variability in achieved intake level on the responses to selection for production, reproduction, and longevity. An animal model of resource allocation between life functions was applied to the dairy goat. It predicts the trajectory of change in the herd genetic composition as affected by the feeding level and the selection pressure applied by the manager. During 40 yr, goats were selected for milk yield, reproduction, and, with a different selection weight for age (WAGE), for longevity. Under varying achieved intake levels, increasing WAGE improved the survival rate but a nonlinear effect was observed for the average milk yield and BCS. When moderately increasing WAGE from 0, resources were reallocated from lactation towards body reserves and survival, which led to a trade-off at the herd level between improving survival and BCS and increasing milk yield. When further increasing WAGE, old females became systematically preferred regardless of their reproductive status and the proportion of EL in the herd increased. Females undergoing EL had reduced energetic costs of reproduction, which improved their probability of survival. Across generations, an increased herd incidence of EL led to a relaxation of the selection pressure on the resource allocation to body reserves, which is normally imposed by the manager's priority to achieve successful reproduction at each mating. As selection for longevity
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Lehmann, Jesper Overgård; Mogensen, Lisbeth; Kristensen, Troels
2014-01-01
The concept of extended lactation is a break with the tradition of getting one calf per cow per year that should improve cow health, increase productivity and reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emission per kg milk produced in high-yield organic dairy herds. These effects are achieved through fewer...... calvings per year and hence a production of fewer replacement heifers, which, in combination with fewer days dry per cow per year, will reduce the annual herd requirement for feed. Total herd feed use is a major determinant of GHG emission at farm gate. However, these effects also rely on the assumption...... of an unchanged milk production per feeding day (days lactating plus days dry) when changing from lactations of traditional length to extended lactations. Thus, milk yield per feeding day becomes a primary determinant of the success of using extended lactations at farm level. Cows undergoing an extended lactation...
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Jesus Mellado; Edgar Sepulveda; Jose E Garcia; Alvaro Rodriguez; Maria A De Santiago; Francisco G Veliz; Miguel Mellado
2014-01-01
Nineteen multiparous barren Holstein cows were subjected to an induction of lactation protocol for 21 d administering estradiol cypionate (2 mg kg-1 of body weight (BW) d-1, on day 1 to 14), progesterone (0.10 mg kg-1 of BW, on day 1 to 7), lfumethasone (0.03 mg kg-1 of BW, on day 18 to 20) and recombinant bovine somatotropin (rbST;500 mg per cow, on day 1, 6, 16 and 21). At the end of lactation and with a minimum of a 2-mon dry period, the same cows were again hormonally induced into lactation. Cows in both lactations were not artiifcially inseminated, they were milked 3 times daily and received rbST throughout lactation. Mean accumulated milk yield at 305 d in milk (DIM) did not differ between the ifrst and second induced lactations ((9 710 ±1 728) vs. (9 309±2 150) kg;mean±SD). Total milk yield ((12 707±3 406) vs. (12 306±4 218) kg;mean±SD) and lactation length ((405±100) vs. (410±91) d;mean±SD) were not different between the ifrst and second induced lactations. In a second study, 15 empirical models including exponential, power law, yield-density, sigmoidal and miscellaneous models were compared for their suitability by modeling 12-mon (n=334), 18-mon (n=164) and 29-mon (n=22) lactation cycles of Holsteins cows induced into lactation and treated with rbST throughout the lactation. Hoerl (Y=ab1/xxc), Wood (Y=axb exp(cx)) and Dhanoa (Y=ax(bc)exp(cx)) models were equally suitable to describe 12-mon lactations. An exponential model with ifve parameters (Y=exp(a+bx+cd2+e/x)) showed the best ift for milk yield for 18-mon lactations. The rational model (Y=a+bx/1+cx+dx2) was found to produce the closest ift for 29-mon lactations. It was concluded that, with the protocol used in the present study, multiparous cows respond favorably to a second cycle of induced lactation, with milk yield similar to that experienced during the ifrst cycle. Thus, dairy producers might be able to lengthen the productive life of infertile high producing cows with a renewal of
Brax, Philippe; Tamanini, Nicola
2016-05-01
We extend the chameleon models by considering scalar-fluid theories where the coupling between matter and the scalar field can be represented by a quadratic effective potential with density-dependent minimum and mass. In this context, we study the effects of the scalar field on Solar System tests of gravity and show that models passing these stringent constraints can still induce large modifications of Newton's law on galactic scales. On these scales we analyze models which could lead to a percent deviation of Newton's law outside the virial radius. We then model the dark matter halo as a Navarro-Frenk-White profile and explicitly find that the fifth force can give large contributions around the galactic core in a particular model where the scalar field mass is constant and the minimum of its potential varies linearly with the matter density. At cosmological distances, we find that this model does not alter the growth of large scale structures and therefore would be best tested on galactic scales, where interesting signatures might arise in the galaxy rotation curves.
Extending reference assembly models
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Church, Deanna M.; Schneider, Valerie A.; Steinberg, Karyn Meltz
2015-01-01
The human genome reference assembly is crucial for aligning and analyzing sequence data, and for genome annotation, among other roles. However, the models and analysis assumptions that underlie the current assembly need revising to fully represent human sequence diversity. Improved analysis tools...
Extending reference assembly models
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Church, Deanna M.; Schneider, Valerie A.; Steinberg, Karyn Meltz;
2015-01-01
The human genome reference assembly is crucial for aligning and analyzing sequence data, and for genome annotation, among other roles. However, the models and analysis assumptions that underlie the current assembly need revising to fully represent human sequence diversity. Improved analysis tools...
Oliver, S P; Gillespie, B E; Headrick, S J; Moorehead, H; Lunn, P; Dowlen, H H; Johnson, D L; Lamar, K C; Chester, S T; Moseley, W M
2004-08-01
Little research has focused on treatment of cows with subclinical mastitis during lactation. Ceftiofur is a new broad-spectrum, third-generation cephalosporin antibiotic for veterinary use that inhibits bacterial cell wall synthesis by interfering with enzymes essential for peptidoglycan synthesis. Ceftiofur should be effective against a wide range of contagious and environmental mastitis pathogens. Objectives of the present study were to evaluate the efficacy of ceftiofur for treatment of subclinical mastitis in lactating dairy cows, and to determine if extended therapy regimens enhanced efficacy of ceftiofur. Holstein and Jersey dairy cows (n = 88) from 3 dairy research herds were used. Cows were enrolled in the study based on milk somatic cell counts >400,000/mL and isolation of the same mastitis pathogen in 2 samples obtained 1 wk apart. Cows with one or more intramammary infections (IMI) were blocked by parity and DIM and allocated randomly to 1 of 3 different ceftiofur treatment regimens: 2-d (n = 49 IMI), 5-d (n = 41 IMI), and 8-d (n = 38 IMI) treatment regimens. For all groups, 125 mg of ceftiofur hydrochloride was administered via intramammary infusion. Eighteen cows with 38 IMI were included as an untreated negative control group. A bacteriological cure was defined as a treated infected mammary quarter that was bacteriologically negative for the presence of previously identified bacteria at 14 and 28 d after the last treatment. Efficacy of ceftiofur therapy against all subclinical IMI was 38.8, 53.7, and 65.8% for the 2-, 5-, and 8-d ceftiofur treatment regimens, respectively. Four of 38 (10.5%) IMI in control cows were cured spontaneously without treatment. All 3 ceftiofur treatment regimens were significantly better than the negative control, and the 8-d extended ceftiofur treatment regimen treatment group was significantly better than the standard 2-d treatment group. Pathogen groups had significantly different cure rates from one another. The cure
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Gaillard, Charlotte; Vestergaard, Mogens; Weisbjerg, Martin Riis
2015-01-01
energy diet after LW nadir compared with a standard diet throughout lactation. The objective of the present study was to examine how such an individualized feeding strategy affects plasma indicators of energy status. It was hypothesized that an energy-enriched diet until LW nadir will reduce the severity......, the HD-LD cows had higher glucose and lower beta-hydroxybutyrate and non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA) concentrations than the LD-LD cows. After the shift until 36 weeks after calving, plasma NEFA was higher in HD-LD than LD-LD cows. Insulin and insulin-like growth factor-1 were not affected...
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Gaillard, Charlotte; Friggens, N.C.; Taghipoor, M.
2016-01-01
% primiparous cows. The cows were divided into 2 feeding strategies: half of the cows received a high-energy density diet (HD) in early lactation followed by a lower-energy density diet (LD; strategy HD-LD). The change in diet was defined individually after 42 d of lactation, and when the live weight (LW) gain...... of the cow was ≥0 based on a 5-d average. The other half of the cows were fed the LD diet during the entire lactation (strategy LD-LD). Both groups received 3 kg of concentrates per day during milking. Weekly milk composition (fat, protein, lactose, and somatic cells), daily milk production, daily feed...... and treatment effects using a linear mixed-effects model. The HD-LD and LD-LD cows had a similar length of lactation (461 ± 7 d). The HD diet reduced the intensity of the mobilization period and increased the milk production of the multiparous cows in early lactation compared with the cows fed the LD diet...
Extended UML with Role Modeling
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
无
2001-01-01
UML is widely accepted and applied by the international softwareindus try. UML is a powerful language for Object-oriented modeling, designing, and i m plementing software systems, but its Use-Case method for requirement analysis a n d modeling software patterns has some explicit drawbacks. For more complete UML, this paper proposes the Role Use-Case modeling and its glyphs, and provides an instance of requirement analysis using Role Use-Case method. Uses the Role Mode l to modeling software pattern at knowledge level. This paper also extends the UM L Meta Model and accentuates “RM before UML's class Modeling”.
Gaillard, C; Vestergaard, M; Weisbjerg, M R; Sehested, J
2016-04-01
In early lactation, most of the dairy cows are in negative energy balance; the extent and duration depend in part on the feeding strategy. Previous studies showed an increased lactation milk yield by use of a live weight (LW) adjusted feeding strategy with a high energy diet before and a reduced energy diet after LW nadir compared with a standard diet throughout lactation. The objective of the present study was to examine how such an individualized feeding strategy affects plasma indicators of energy status. It was hypothesized that an energy-enriched diet until LW nadir will reduce the severity of the negative energy balance, and that the reduction in diet energy concentration from LW nadir will extend the negative energy balance period further. Sixty-two Holstein cows (30% first parity) were managed for 16 months extended lactation and randomly allocated to one of two feeding strategies at calving. Two partially mixed rations were used, one with a high energy density (HD) and a 50 : 50 forage : concentrate ratio, and one with a lower energy density (LD, control diet) and a 60 : 40 forage : concentrate ratio. Half of the cows were offered the HD diet until they reached at least 42 days in milk and a LW gain⩾0 kg/day based on a 5-days LW average, and were then shifted to the LD diet (strategy HD-LD). The other half of the cows were offered the LD diet throughout lactation (control strategy LD-LD). Weekly blood samples were drawn for analysis of plasma metabolites and hormones. Before the shift in diet, the HD-LD cows had higher glucose and lower beta-hydroxybutyrate and non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA) concentrations than the LD-LD cows. After the shift until 36 weeks after calving, plasma NEFA was higher in HD-LD than LD-LD cows. Insulin and insulin-like growth factor-1 were not affected by the feeding strategy. To conclude, in early lactation, the energy-enriched diet reduced the negative energy balance. Plasma NEFA was higher in HD-LD than LD-LD cows from
Dicyanometallates as Model Extended Frameworks
2016-01-01
We report the structures of eight new dicyanometallate frameworks containing molecular extra-framework cations. These systems include a number of hybrid inorganic–organic analogues of conventional ceramics, such as Ruddlesden–Popper phases and perovskites. The structure types adopted are rationalized in the broader context of all known dicyanometallate framework structures. We show that the structural diversity of this family can be understood in terms of (i) the charge and coordination preferences of the particular metal cation acting as framework node, and (ii) the size, shape, and extent of incorporation of extra-framework cations. In this way, we suggest that dicyanometallates form a particularly attractive model family of extended frameworks in which to explore the interplay between molecular degrees of freedom, framework topology, and supramolecular interactions. PMID:27057759
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
James L. Ehrlich
2013-03-01
Full Text Available Genetic selection programs have driven development of most lactation models, to estimate the magnitude of animals’ productive capacity from sampled milk production data. There has been less attention to management and research applications, where it may also be important to quantify the shape of lactation curves, and predict future daily milk production for incomplete lactations since residuals between predicted and actual daily production can be used to quantify the response to an intervention. A model may decrease the confounding effects of lactation stage, parity, breed, and possibly other factors depending on how the model is constructed and used, thus increasing the power of statistical analyses. Models with a mechanistic derivation may allow direct inference about biology from fitted production data. The MilkBot® lactation model is derived from abstract suppositions about growth of udder capacity. This permits inference about shape of the lactation curve directly from parameter values, but not direct conclusions about physiology. Individual parameters relate to the overall scale of the lactation, the ramp, or rate of growth around parturition, decay describing the senescence of productive capacity (inversely related to persistence, and the relatively insignificant time offset between calving and the physiological start of milk secretion. A proprietary algorithm was used to fit monthly test data from two parity groups in 21 randomly selected herds, and results displayed in box-and-whisker charts and Z-test tables. Fitted curves are constrained by the MilkBot® equation to a single peak that blends into an exponential decline in late lactation. This is seen as an abstraction of productive capacity, with actual daily production higher or lower due to random error plus short-term environmental effects. The four MilkBot® parameters, and metrics calculated directly from them including fitting error, peak milk and cumulative production, can
5-Dimensional Extended Space Model
Tsipenyuk, D. Yu.; Andreev, V. A.
2006-01-01
We put forward an idea that physical phenomena have to be treated in 5-dimensional space where the fifth coordinate is the interval S. Thus, we considered the (1+4) extended space G(T;X,Y,Z,S). In addition to Lorentz transformations (T;X), (T;Y), (T;Z) which are in (1+3)-dimensional Minkowski space, in the proposed (1+4)d extended space two other types of transformations exist in planes (T,S); (X,S), (Y,S), (Z,S) that converts massive particles into massless and vice versa. We also consider e...
Extending models for two-dimensional constraints
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Forchhammer, Søren
2009-01-01
Random fields in two dimensions may be specified on 2 times 2 elements such that the probabilities of finite configurations and the entropy may be calculated explicitly. The Pickard random field is one example where probability of a new (non-boundary) element is conditioned on three previous...... elements. To extend the concept we consider extending such a field such that a vector or block of elements is conditioned on a larger set of previous elements. Given a stationary model defined on 2 times 2 elements, iterative scaling is used to define the extended model. The extended model may be used...
Local Treatment with Lactate Prevents Intestinal Inflammation in the TNBS-Induced Colitis Model
Iraporda, Carolina; Romanin, David E.; Bengoa, Ana A.; Errea, Agustina J.; Cayet, Delphine; Foligné, Benoit; Sirard, Jean-Claude; Garrote, Graciela L.; Abraham, Analía G.; Rumbo, Martín
2016-01-01
Lactate has long been considered as a metabolic by-product of cells. Recently, this view has been changed by the observation that lactate can act as a signaling molecule and regulates critical functions of the immune system. We previously identified lactate as the component responsible for the modulation of innate immune epithelial response of fermented milk supernatants in vitro. We have also shown that lactate downregulates proinflammatory responses of macrophages and dendritic cells. So far, in vivo effects of lactate on intestinal inflammation have not been reported. We evaluated the effect of intrarectal administration of lactate in a murine model of colitis induced by 2,4,6-trinitrobenzenesulfonic acid (TNBS). The increase in lactate concentration in colon promoted protective effects against TNBS-induced colitis preventing histopathological damage, as well as bacterial translocation and rise of IL-6 levels in serum. Using intestinal epithelial reporter cells, we found that flagellin treatment induced reporter gene expression, which was abrogated by lactate treatment as well as by glycolysis inhibitors. Furthermore, lactate treatment modulated glucose uptake, indicating that high levels of extracellular lactate can impair metabolic reprograming induced by proinflammatory activation. These results suggest that lactate could be a potential beneficial microbiota metabolite and may constitute an overlooked effector with modulatory properties. PMID:28082985
Satpathy, Preseela; Biernacki, Piotr; Uhlenhut, Frank; Cypionka, Heribert; Steinigeweg, Sven
2016-12-05
The Anaerobic Digestion Model No. 1 (ADM1) was extended to include lactate, a crucial metabolic product during sugar fermentation. This study tests the validity of the modified ADM1 model in improving the predictions of a standard biogas reactor. This reactor was prepared in the laboratory with simple organic substrates with an intention to represent an 'average biogas plant'. Kinetic parameters were determined from a lactic acid enriched steady-state reactor. The parameters were adjusted further in order to acquire satisfying simulation results systematically with the batch experiments and then against the standard biogas reactor. Arresting methanogenesis revealed that lactate degradation occurred majorly via acetate followed by propionate, and a non-negligible proportion of butyrate too was found, which were further updated in the model. The modified ADM1 provided a successful correlation with the experimental results for the batch and continuous experiments. We justified that inclusion of lactate in the model resulted in optimized simulation for both biogas and methane content in the standard biogas reactor.
An Extended Analysis of Requirements Traceability Model
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Jiang Dandong(蒋丹东); Zhang Shensheng; Chen Lu
2004-01-01
A new extended meta model of traceability is presented. Then, a formalized fine-grained model of traceability is described. Some major issues about this model, including trace units, requirements and relations within the model, are further analyzed. Finally, a case study that comes from a key project of 863 Program is given.
Characterising and modelling extended conducted electromagnetic emission
CSIR Research Space (South Africa)
Grobler, Inus
2013-06-01
Full Text Available -1 2013 IEEE Energy Conversion Congress and Exposition Asia (ECCE Downunder), Melbourne, Australia, 3-6 June 2013 Characterising and Modelling Extended Conducted Electromagnetic Emission I Grobler1 and MN Gitau2 Department of Electrical...
An Extended Chiral SU(3) Quark Model
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
ZHANG Zong-Ye; YU You-Wen; WANG Ping; DAI Lian-Rong
2003-01-01
The chiral SU(3) quark model is extended by including the vector meson exchanges to describe the short range interactions. The phase shifts of NN scattering are studied in this model. Compared with the results of the chiral SU(3) quark model in which only the pseudo-scalar and scalar chiralfields are considered, the phase shifts of 1 So wave are obviously improved.
Evaluation of a mechanistic lactation model using cow, goat and sheep data
Dijkstra, J.; Lopez, S.; Bannink, A.; Dhanoa, M.S.; Kebreab, E.; Odongo, N.E.; Fathi Nasri, M.H.; Behera, U.K.; Hernandez-Ferrer, D.; France, J.
2010-01-01
A mechanistic lactation model, based on a theory of mammary cell proliferation and cell death, was studied and compared to the equation of Wood (1967). Lactation curves of British Holstein Friesian cows (176 curves), Spanish Churra sheep (40 curves) and Spanish Murciano–Granadina goats (30 curves)
Evaluation of a mechanistic lactation model using cow, goat and sheep data
Dijkstra, J.; Lopez, S.; Bannink, A.; Dhanoa, M.S.; Kebreab, E.; Odongo, N.E.; Fathi Nasri, M.H.; Behera, U.K.; Hernandez-Ferrer, D.; France, J.
2010-01-01
A mechanistic lactation model, based on a theory of mammary cell proliferation and cell death, was studied and compared to the equation of Wood (1967). Lactation curves of British Holstein Friesian cows (176 curves), Spanish Churra sheep (40 curves) and Spanish Murciano–Granadina goats (30 curves) w
Integrable extended van der Waals model
Giglio, Francesco; Landolfi, Giulio; Moro, Antonio
2016-10-01
Inspired by the recent developments in the study of the thermodynamics of van der Waals fluids via the theory of nonlinear conservation laws and the description of phase transitions in terms of classical (dissipative) shock waves, we propose a novel approach to the construction of multi-parameter generalisations of the van der Waals model. The theory of integrable nonlinear conservation laws still represents the inspiring framework. Starting from a macroscopic approach, a four parameter family of integrable extended van der Waals models is indeed constructed in such a way that the equation of state is a solution to an integrable nonlinear conservation law linearisable by a Cole-Hopf transformation. This family is further specified by the request that, in regime of high temperature, far from the critical region, the extended model reproduces asymptotically the standard van der Waals equation of state. We provide a detailed comparison of our extended model with two notable empirical models such as Peng-Robinson and Soave's modification of the Redlich-Kwong equations of state. We show that our extended van der Waals equation of state is compatible with both empirical models for a suitable choice of the free parameters and can be viewed as a master interpolating equation. The present approach also suggests that further generalisations can be obtained by including the class of dispersive and viscous-dispersive nonlinear conservation laws and could lead to a new type of thermodynamic phase transitions associated to nonclassical and dispersive shock waves.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Gaillard, Charlotte; Kristensen, Troels; Sehested, Jakob
2015-01-01
malkningsfrekvens eller tilskudsfodring. Køerne reagerer dog individuelt på forlænget laktation, og det kan være relevant tilsvarende at se på muligheden for at tilpasse deres fodring individuelt. Målet med REPROLAC/WP3-projektet er at undersøge samspillet mellem en individuel fodringsstrategi og en laktation hos...
Exploring Social Structures in Extended Team Model
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Zahedi, Mansooreh; Ali Babar, Muhammad
2013-01-01
Extended Team Model (ETM) as a type of offshore outsourcing is increasingly becoming popular mode of Global Software Development (GSD). There is little knowledge about the social structures in ETM and their impact on collaboration. Within a large interdisciplinary project to develop the next gene...
Assessing change with the extended logistic model.
Cristante, Francesca; Robusto, Egidio
2007-11-01
The purpose of this article is to define a method for the assessment of change. A reinterpretation of the extended logistic model is proposed. The extended logistic model for the assessment of change (ELMAC) allows the definition of a time parameter which is supposed to identify whether change occurs during a period of time, given a specific event or phenomenon. The assessment of a trend of change through time, on the basis of the time parameter which is estimated at different successive occasions during a period of time, is also considered. In addition, a dispersion parameter is calculated which identifies whether change is consistent at each time point. The issue of independence is taken into account both in relation to the time parameter and the dispersion parameter. An application of the ELMAC in a learning process is presented. The interpretation of the model parameters and the model fit statistics is consistent with expectations.
An Extended Colored Zee-Babu Model
Nomura, Takaaki
2016-01-01
We study the extended colored Zee-Babu model introducing a vector-like quark and singlet scalar. The active neutrino mass matrix and muon anomalous magnetic moment are analyzed, which can be fitted to experimental data satisfying the constraints from flavor changing neutral current. Then we discuss signature of our model via vector-like quark production. In addition, the diphoton excess can be explained with the contribution from vector-like quark
Extended Higgs sectors in radiative neutrino models
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Oleg Antipin
2017-05-01
Full Text Available Testable Higgs partners may be sought within the extensions of the SM Higgs sector aimed at generating neutrino masses at the loop level. We study a viability of extended Higgs sectors for two selected models of radiative neutrino masses: a one-loop mass model, providing the Higgs partner within a real triplet scalar representation, and a three-loop mass model, providing it within its two-Higgs-doublet sector. The Higgs sector in the one-loop model may remain stable and perturbative up to the Planck scale, whereas the three-loop model calls for a UV completion around 106 GeV. Additional vector-like lepton and exotic scalar fields, which are required to close one- and three-loop neutrino-mass diagrams, play a decisive role for the testability of the respective models. We constrain the parameter space of these models using LHC bounds on diboson resonances.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
J. C. Angeles-Hernandez
2013-08-01
Full Text Available The objective of this study was to compare the goodness of fit of four lactation curve models: Wood’s Gamma model (WD, Wilmink (WL, and Pollott’s multiplicative two (POL2 and three parameters (POL3 and to determine the environmental factors affecting the complete lactation curve of F1 dairy sheep under organic management. A total of 5,382 weekly milk yields records from 150 ewes, under organic management were used. Residual mean square (RMS, determination coefficients (R2, and correlation (r analysis were used as an indicator of goodness of fit for each model. WL model best fitted the lactation curves as indicated by the lower RMS values (0.019, followed by WD (0.023, POL2 (0.025 and POL3 (0.029. The four models provided total milk yield (TMY estimations that were highly correlated (0.93 to 0.97 with observed TMY (89.9 kg. The four models under estimated peak yield (PY, whereas POL2 and POL3 gave nearer peak time lactation estimations. Ewes lambing in autumn had higher TMY and showed a typical curve shape. Higher TMY were recorded in second and third lambing. Season of lambing, number of lambing and type of lambing had a great influenced over TMY shaping the complete lactation curve of F1 dairy sheep. In general terms WL model showed the best fit to the F1 dairy sheep lactation curve under organic management.
Angeles-Hernandez, J. C.; Albarran-Portillo, B.; Gomez Gonzalez, A. V.; Pescador Salas, N.; Gonzalez-Ronquillo, M.
2013-01-01
The objective of this study was to compare the goodness of fit of four lactation curve models: Wood’s Gamma model (WD), Wilmink (WL), and Pollott’s multiplicative two (POL2) and three parameters (POL3) and to determine the environmental factors affecting the complete lactation curve of F1 dairy sheep under organic management. A total of 5,382 weekly milk yields records from 150 ewes, under organic management were used. Residual mean square (RMS), determination coefficients (R2), and correlation (r) analysis were used as an indicator of goodness of fit for each model. WL model best fitted the lactation curves as indicated by the lower RMS values (0.019), followed by WD (0.023), POL2 (0.025) and POL3 (0.029). The four models provided total milk yield (TMY) estimations that were highly correlated (0.93 to 0.97) with observed TMY (89.9 kg). The four models under estimated peak yield (PY), whereas POL2 and POL3 gave nearer peak time lactation estimations. Ewes lambing in autumn had higher TMY and showed a typical curve shape. Higher TMY were recorded in second and third lambing. Season of lambing, number of lambing and type of lambing had a great influenced over TMY shaping the complete lactation curve of F1 dairy sheep. In general terms WL model showed the best fit to the F1 dairy sheep lactation curve under organic management. PMID:25049892
Gorden, P J; van der List, M; Lehman, F D; Lantz, R K; Constable, P D
2013-07-01
The objective of this study was to determine the elimination kinetics of extended therapy with intramammary (IMM) cephapirin in lactating dairy cattle. Eight healthy Holstein-Friesian cows were administered cephapirin (200mg) into all 4 mammary glands every 24 h after milking. Cows were milked 3 times per day and concentrations of cephapirin and desacetyl cephapirin were determined in bucket milk using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. Milk concentration-time data after the last of the 8 IMM infusions were fitted using compartment and noncompartmental models. The maximum cephapirin concentration was 128±57 µg/mL (mean ± SD), the elimination rate constant from the central compartment was 0.278±0.046 (h(-1)), clearance was 0.053±0.023 L/h, the half time for elimination was 2.55±0.40 h, and the mean residence time was 2.65±0.79 h. The cephapirin concentration was below the approved tolerance in all cows by 96 h after the last infusion, which is the labeled withholding time for the preparation used. Extended therapy for 8 d provided milk cephapirin concentrations above the minimum inhibitory concentration for common gram-positive mastitis pathogens (0.1 to 1.0 µg/mL) for the duration of therapy and for an additional 16 to 32 h after the end of treatment. Our findings suggest that this IMM cephapirin sodium formulation, which is labeled for 2 doses 12 h apart, could be administered at a 24-h interval for up to 8 d in cows milked 3 times per day, with no significant effect on residue levels by 96 h after the last treatment. Longer withdrawal times would be prudent for cows with low milk production.
Neutrino Anomalies in an Extended Zee Model
Joshipura, A S; Joshipura, Anjan S.; Rindani, Saurabh D.
1999-01-01
We discuss an extended SU(2)X U(1) model which naturally leads to mass scales and mixing angles relevant for understanding both the solar and atmospheric neutrino anomalies. No right-handed neutrinos are introduced in the model.The model uses a softly broken L_e-L_{\\mu}-L_{\\tau} symmetry. Neutrino masses arise only at the loop level. The one-loop neutrino masses which arise as in the Zee model solve the atmospheric neutrino anomaly while breaking of L_e-L_{\\mu}-L_{\\tau} generates at two-loop order a mass splitting needed for the vacuum solution of the solar neutrino problem. A somewhat different model is possible which accommodates the large-angle MSW resolution of the solar neutrino problem.
Hossein-Zadeh, Navid Ghavi
2016-08-01
The aim of this study was to compare seven non-linear mathematical models (Brody, Wood, Dhanoa, Sikka, Nelder, Rook and Dijkstra) to examine their efficiency in describing the lactation curves for milk fat to protein ratio (FPR) in Iranian buffaloes. Data were 43 818 test-day records for FPR from the first three lactations of Iranian buffaloes which were collected on 523 dairy herds in the period from 1996 to 2012 by the Animal Breeding Center of Iran. Each model was fitted to monthly FPR records of buffaloes using the non-linear mixed model procedure (PROC NLMIXED) in SAS and the parameters were estimated. The models were tested for goodness of fit using Akaike's information criterion (AIC), Bayesian information criterion (BIC) and log maximum likelihood (-2 Log L). The Nelder and Sikka mixed models provided the best fit of lactation curve for FPR in the first and second lactations of Iranian buffaloes, respectively. However, Wood, Dhanoa and Sikka mixed models provided the best fit of lactation curve for FPR in the third parity buffaloes. Evaluation of first, second and third lactation features showed that all models, except for Dijkstra model in the third lactation, under-predicted test time at which daily FPR was minimum. On the other hand, minimum FPR was over-predicted by all equations. Evaluation of the different models used in this study indicated that non-linear mixed models were sufficient for fitting test-day FPR records of Iranian buffaloes.
Action principles for extended magnetohydrodynamic models
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Keramidas Charidakos, I.; Lingam, M.; Morrison, P. J.; White, R. L. [Institute for Fusion Studies and Department of Physics, The University of Texas at Austin, Austin, Texas 78712 (United States); Wurm, A. [Department of Physical and Biological Sciences, Western New England University, Springfield, Massachusetts 01119 (United States)
2014-09-15
The general, non-dissipative, two-fluid model in plasma physics is Hamiltonian, but this property is sometimes lost or obscured in the process of deriving simplified (or reduced) two-fluid or one-fluid models from the two-fluid equations of motion. To ensure that the reduced models are Hamiltonian, we start with the general two-fluid action functional, and make all the approximations, changes of variables, and expansions directly within the action context. The resulting equations are then mapped to the Eulerian fluid variables using a novel nonlocal Lagrange-Euler map. Using this method, we recover Lüst's general two-fluid model, extended magnetohydrodynamic (MHD), Hall MHD, and electron MHD from a unified framework. The variational formulation allows us to use Noether's theorem to derive conserved quantities for each symmetry of the action.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Van den Borne, B. H. P.; Hisham Beshara Halasa, Tariq; Van Schaik, G.;
2010-01-01
of Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus uberis, Streptococcus dysgalactiae, and Escherichia coli during lactation and the dry period in a 100-cow dairy herd during 1 quota year. Input parameters on cure were obtained from recent Dutch field data. The costs of clinical IMI, subclinical IMI, and intervention were....... Changing the probability of cure resulted in a nonlinear change in the cumulative incidence of IMI cases and associated costs. Lactational treatment was able to prevent IMI epidemics in dairy herds at high transmission rates of Strep. uberis, Strep. dysgalactiae, and E. coli. Lactational treatment did......This study determined the direct and indirect epidemiologic and economic effects of lactational treatment of new bovine subclinical intramammary infections (IMI) caused by contagious pathogens using an existing bioeconomic model. The dynamic and stochastic model simulated the dynamics...
Bignardi, Annaiza Braga; El Faro, Lenira; Pereira, Rodrigo Junqueira; Ayres, Denise Rocha; Machado, Paulo Fernando; de Albuquerque, Lucia Galvão; Santana, Mário Luiz
2015-10-01
Reaction norm models have been widely used to study genotype by environment interaction (G × E) in animal breeding. The objective of this study was to describe environmental sensitivity across first lactation in Brazilian Holstein cows using a reaction norm approach. A total of 50,168 individual monthly test day (TD) milk yields (10 test days) from 7476 complete first lactations of Holstein cattle were analyzed. The statistical models for all traits (10 TDs and for 305-day milk yield) included the fixed effects of contemporary group, age of cow (linear and quadratic effects), and days in milk (linear effect), except for 305-day milk yield. A hierarchical reaction norm model (HRNM) based on the unknown covariate was used. The present study showed the presence of G × E in milk yield across first lactation of Holstein cows. The variation in the heritability estimates implies differences in the response to selection depending on the environment where the animals of this population are evaluated. In the average environment, the heritabilities for all traits were rather similar, in range from 0.02 to 0.63. The scaling effect of G × E predominated throughout most of lactation. Particularly during the first 2 months of lactation, G × E caused reranking of breeding values. It is therefore important to include the environmental sensitivity of animals according to the phase of lactation in the genetic evaluations of Holstein cattle in tropical environments.
Differential Poisson Sigma Models with Extended Supersymmetry
Arias, Cesar; Torres-Gomez, Alexander
2016-01-01
The induced two-dimensional topological N=1 supersymmetric sigma model on a differential Poisson manifold M presented in arXiv:1503.05625 is shown to be a special case of the induced Poisson sigma model on the bi-graded supermanifold T[0,1]M. The bi-degree comprises the standard N-valued target space degree, corresponding to the form degree on the worldsheet, and an additional Z-valued fermion number, corresponding to the degree in the differential graded algebra of forms on M. The N=1 supersymmetry stems from the compatibility between the (extended) differential Poisson bracket and the de Rham differential on M. The latter is mapped to a nilpotent vector field Q of bi-degree (0,1) on T*[1,0](T[0,1]M), and the covariant Hamiltonian action is Q-exact. New extended supersymmetries arise as inner derivatives along special bosonic Killing vectors on M that induce Killing supervector fields of bi-degree (0,-1) on T*[1,0](T[0,1]M).
Extending a context model for microphone forensics
Kraetzer, Christian; Qian, Kun; Dittmann, Jana
2012-03-01
In this paper, we extend an existing context model for statistical pattern recognition based microphone forensics by: first, generating a generalized model for this process and second, using this general model to construct a complex new application scenario model for microphone forensic investigations on the detection of playback recordings (a.k.a. replays, re-recordings, double-recordings). Thereby, we build the theoretical basis for answering the question whether an audio recording was made to record a playback or natural sound. The results of our investigations on the research question of playback detection imply that it is possible with our approach on our evaluation set of six microphones. If the recorded sound is not modified prior to playback, we achieve in our tests 89.00% positive indications on the correct two microphones involved. If the sound is post-processed (here, by normalization) this figure decreases (in our normalization example to 36.00%, while another 50.67% of the tests still indicate two microphones, of which one has actually not been involved in the recording and playback recording process).
Homology modelling and docking analysis of L-lactate dehydrogenase from Streptococcus thermopilus
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Vukić Vladimir R.
2016-01-01
Full Text Available The aim of this research was to create a three-dimensional model of L-lactate dehydrogenase from the main yoghurt starter culture - Streptococcus thermopilus, to analyse its structural features and investigate substrate binding in the active site. NCBI BlastP was used against the Protein Data Bank database in order to identify the template for construction of homology models. Multiple sequence alignment was performed using the program MUSCULE within the UGENE 1.11.3 program. Homology models were constructed using the program Modeller v. 9.17. The obtained 3D model was verified by Ramachandran plots. Molecular docking simulations were performed using the program Surflex-Dock. The highest sequence similarity was observed with L-lactate dehydrogenase from Lactobacillus casei subsp. casei, with 69% identity. Therefore, its structure (PDB ID: 2ZQY:A was selected as a modelling template for homology modelling. Active residues are by sequence similarity predicted: S. thermophilus - HIS181 and S. aureus - HIS179. Binding energy of pyruvate to L-lactate dehydrogenase of S. thermopilus was - 7.874 kcal/mol. Pyruvate in L-lactate dehydrogenase of S. thermopilus makes H bonds with catalytic HIS181 (1.9 Å, as well as with THR235 (3.6 Å. Although our results indicate similar position of substrates between L-lactate dehydrogenase of S. thermopilus and S. aureus, differences in substrate distances and binding energy values could influence the reaction rate. Based on these results, the L-lactate dehydrogenase model proposed here could be used as a guide for further research, such as transition states of the reaction through molecular dynamics. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. III 46009
Yang, S T; Tang, I C; Okos, M R
1988-09-05
Fermentation kinetics of Clostridium formicoaceticum grown on lactate at pH 7.0 and 35 degrees C was studied. Acetate was the only fermentation product and its production was growth associated. The growth of this bacterium was insensitive to the lactate concentrations studied, but was inhibited by acetic acid. A Monod-type expression with product inhibition similar to the noncompetitive inhibition of enzyme kinetics was used to model the batch fermentation. An integrated equation was developed and used to help estimating the kinetic parameters in the model. This mathematical model can be used to simulate the homoacetic fermentation of lactate by C. formicoaceticum at pH 7.0 and 35 degrees C.
Center for Extended Magnetohydrodynamic Modeling Cooperative Agreement
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Carl R. Sovinec
2008-02-15
The Center for Extended Magnetohydrodynamic Modeling (CEMM) is developing computer simulation models for predicting the behavior of magnetically confined plasmas. Over the first phase of support from the Department of Energy’s Scientific Discovery through Advanced Computing (SciDAC) initiative, the focus has been on macroscopic dynamics that alter the confinement properties of magnetic field configurations. The ultimate objective is to provide computational capabilities to predict plasma behavior—not unlike computational weather prediction—to optimize performance and to increase the reliability of magnetic confinement for fusion energy. Numerical modeling aids theoretical research by solving complicated mathematical models of plasma behavior including strong nonlinear effects and the influences of geometrical shaping of actual experiments. The numerical modeling itself remains an area of active research, due to challenges associated with simulating multiple temporal and spatial scales. The research summarized in this report spans computational and physical topics associated with state of the art simulation of magnetized plasmas. The tasks performed for this grant are categorized according to whether they are primarily computational, algorithmic, or application-oriented in nature. All involve the development and use of the Non-Ideal Magnetohydrodynamics with Rotation, Open Discussion (NIMROD) code, which is described at http://nimrodteam.org. With respect to computation, we have tested and refined methods for solving the large algebraic systems of equations that result from our numerical approximations of the physical model. Collaboration with the Terascale Optimal PDE Solvers (TOPS) SciDAC center led us to the SuperLU_DIST software library [http://crd.lbl.gov/~xiaoye/SuperLU/] for solving large sparse matrices using direct methods on parallel computers. Switching to this solver library boosted NIMROD’s performance by a factor of five in typical large
Fit of different linear models to the lactation curve of Italian water buffalo
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
N.P.P. Macciotta
2010-01-01
Full Text Available Mathematical modelling of lactation curve by suitable functions of time, widely used in the dairy cattle industry, can represent also for buffaloes a fundamental tool for management and breeding decision, where average curves are considered, and for genetic evaluation by random regression models, where individual patterns are fitted.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Jordan T. Newington
2013-01-01
Full Text Available The conventional view of central nervous system (CNS metabolism is based on the assumption that glucose is the main fuel source for active neurons and is processed in an oxidative manner. However, since the early 1990s research has challenged the idea that the energy needs of nerve cells are met exclusively by glucose and oxidative metabolism. This alternative view of glucose utilization contends that astrocytes metabolize glucose to lactate, which is then released and taken up by nearby neurons and used as a fuel source, commonly known as the astrocyte-neuron lactate shuttle (ANLS model. Once thought of as a waste metabolite, lactate has emerged as a central player in the maintenance of neuronal function and long-term memory. Decreased neuronal metabolism has traditionally been viewed as a hallmark feature of Alzheimer's disease (AD. However, a more complex picture of CNS metabolism is emerging that may provide valuable insight into the pathophysiological changes that occur during AD and other neurodegenerative diseases. This review will examine the ANLS model and present recent evidence highlighting the critical role that lactate plays in neuronal survival and memory. Moreover, the role of glucose and lactate metabolism in AD will be re-evaluated from the perspective of the ANLS.
Else, Paul L
2013-02-01
Lactation is a process associated with mammals, yet a number of birds feed their newly hatched young on secretions analogous to the milk of mammals. These secretions are produced from various sections (crop organ, oesophageal lining and proventriculus) of the upper digestive tract and possess similar levels of fat and protein, as well as added carotenoids, antibodies and, in the case of pigeons and doves, epidermal growth factor. Parental care in avian species has been proposed to originate from dinosaurs. This study examines the possibility that some dinosaurs used secretory feeding to increase the rate of growth of their young, estimated to be similar to that of present day birds and mammals. Dinosaur 'lactation' could also have facilitated immune responses as well as extending parental protection as a result of feeding newly hatched young in nest environments. While the arguments for dinosaur lactation are somewhat generic, a case study for lactation in herbivorous site-nesting dinosaurs is presented. It is proposes that secretory feeding could have been used to bridge the gap between hatching and establishment of the normal diet in some dinosaurs.
The mathematical modeling of the lactation curve for dairy traits of the donkey (Equus asinus).
Bordonaro, S; Dimauro, C; Criscione, A; Marletta, D; Macciotta, N P P
2013-06-01
In recent years, an increase in the number of donkeys farmed in Italy as a consequence of the growing demand for donkey milk for direct consumption has been observed. Some research has been carried out on jenny milk composition and on its nutritional properties, whereas milk production features are scarcely described for this species. In this work, the lactation curve shape of donkeys for milk yield and composition was investigated. A total of 453 test-day records for milk yield, fat and protein percentage, and somatic cell count of 62 lactations measured on 46 multiparous jennies of the Ragusano breed were considered. Effects of herd, age, and foaling season were assessed by using a mixed model analysis. Average and individual lactation curves were fitted using the Wood incomplete gamma function, the Cappio-Borlino modified gamma, and a third-order Legendre orthogonal polynomial model. Donkeys foaling between 6- and 10-yr-old had the highest test-day milk yield (about 1.85 kg/d). Donkeys foaling in winter and autumn had a higher daily milk yield compared with those foaling in summer and spring. Less defined results were obtained for composition traits. The general pattern of the donkey lactation curve is similar to the standard shape reported for the main dairy ruminant species, with a peak yield occurring at about 5 wk from parturition. Younger jennies tended to have lower production peaks and higher lactation persistency. Similarly to what is reported for dairy cattle, a large variability in individual patterns has been observed. No differences in goodness of fit have been observed between the models in the case of average lactation curves, whereas orthogonal polynomials were more efficient in fitting individual patterns.
Taylor, Kate; Appuhamy, J.A.D.R.N.; Dijkstra, J.; Kebreab, E.
2016-01-01
The aim of this study was to develop and evaluate mathematical models that predict mineral excretion, particularly calcium (Ca), magnesium (Mg) and selenium (Se), from lactating dairy cows. Mineral excretion can be affected by several dietary factors. A deficiency in Ca or Mg application to pasture,
To address the pharmacokinetics of PFOA during gestation and lactation, a biologically supported dynamic model was developed. A two compartment system linked via placental blood flow described gestation, while milk production linked the dam to a pup litter compartment during lact...
Swinkels, J.M.; Hogeveen, H.; Zadoks, R.N.
2005-01-01
linical Staphylococcus aureus mastitis is rarely treated during lactation because it is widely believed to be uneconomical, although there are no economic studies that support this view. Partial budgeting was used to develop a deterministic simulation model to estimate the net cost or benefit of ant
Modeling Electrolyte Solutions with the extended universal quasichemical (UNIQUAC) Model
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Thomsen, Kaj
2005-01-01
The extended universal quasichemical (UNIQUAC) model is a thermodynamic model for solutions containing electrolytes and non-electrolytes. The model is a gibbs excess function consisting of a Debye-Hückel term and a standard UNIQUAC term. The model only requires binary, ion specific interaction...... parameters. A unique choice of standard states makes the model able to reproduce solid-liquid, vapor-liquid, and liquid-liquid phase equilibria as well as thermal properties of electrolyte solutions using one set of parameters....
Modeling Electrolyte Solutions with the extended universal quasichemical (UNIQUAC) Model
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Thomsen, Kaj
2005-01-01
The extended universal quasichemical (UNIQUAC) model is a thermodynamic model for solutions containing electrolytes and non-electrolytes. The model is a gibbs excess function consisting of a Debye-Hückel term and a standard UNIQUAC term. The model only requires binary, ion specific interaction...... parameters. A unique choice of standard states makes the model able to reproduce solid-liquid, vapor-liquid, and liquid-liquid phase equilibria as well as thermal properties of electrolyte solutions using one set of parameters....
Tensor Models: extending the matrix models structures and methods
Dartois, Stephane
2016-01-01
In this text we review a few structural properties of matrix models that should at least partly generalize to random tensor models. We review some aspects of the loop equations for matrix models and their algebraic counterpart for tensor models. Despite the generic title of this review, we, in particular, invoke the Topological Recursion. We explain its appearance in matrix models. Then we state that a family of tensor models provides a natural example which satisfies a version of the most general form of the topological recursion, named the blobbed topological recursion. We discuss the difficulties of extending the technical solutions existing for matrix models to tensor models. Some proofs are not published yet but will be given in a coming paper, the rest of the results are well known in the literature.
A physiologically based pharmacokinetic model for lactational transfer of Na-131I
Turner, Anita Loretta
The excretion of radionuclides in human breast milk after administration of radiopharmaceuticals is a concern as a radiation risk to nursing infants. It is not uncommon to administer radiopharmaceuticals to lactating patients due to emergency nuclear medicine investigations such as thyroid complications, kidney failure, and pulmonary embolism. There is a need to quantify the amount of radioactivity translocated into breast milk in cases of ingestion by a breast-fed infant. A physiologically based pharmacokinetic model (PBPK) and a modified International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) model have been developed to predict iodine concentrations in breast milk after ingestion of radioiodine by the mother. In the PBPK model, all compartments are interconnected by blood flow and represent real anatomic tissue regions in the body. All parameters involved are measurable values with physiological or physiochemical meaning such as tissue masses, blood flow rates, partition coefficients and cardiac output. However, some of the parameters such as the partition coefficients and metabolic constants are not available for iodine and had to be inferred from other information. The structure of the PBPK model for the mother consists of the following tissue compartments: gastrointestinal tract, blood, kidney, thyroid, milk, and other tissues. With the exception of the milk compartment, the model for the nursing infant is structured similarly to the mother. The ICRP model describing iodine metabolism in a standard 70-kg man was modified to represent iodine metabolism in a lactating woman and nursing infant. The parameters involved in this model are transfer rates and biological half-lives which are based on experimental observations. The results of the PBPK model and the modified ICRP model describing the lactational transfer of iodine were compared. When administering 1 mCi of Na131I to the lactating mother, the concentration reaches a maximum of 0.1 mCi/liter in 24
An Extended Enterprise Modeling Approach to Enterprise-based Integration
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
无
2002-01-01
The paradigm of extended enterprise is the core competency focused. An extended enterprise expands its scope from bounding a single enterprise to including additional processes performed by other enterprises. The integration of processes is enterprise based. This paper proposes a recursive enterprises interconnected chain model for the extended enterprise, and presents an enterprise-based integration framework for the extended enterprise. The case study is based on a motorcycle group corporation.
Application of different models to the lactation curve of unimproved ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
m. merih
estimated using the Cubic model was very close to total milk yield calculated by the ... This has made the Wood model the most widely used function for the description .... study region is best in May with respect to grazing capacity. ... summer months in dairy cattle and for those cows beginning at low milk yields and reaching ...
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Prado Rubio, Oscar Andres; Jørgensen, Sten Bay; Jonsson, Gunnar Eigil
2011-01-01
The competitive ion transport through anion exchange membranes under current load conditions, referred to as the electro-enhanced dialysis process, is modeled and investigated through simulations. A dynamic model has been developed for simultaneous transport of multiple ions based on the Nernst......–Plank equation. This model accounts for the convective transport of the dissociated and undissociated species in the module channels, and the diffusion and migration across the boundary layers and membranes. The potential static flux enhancement is evaluated and compared to Donnan dialysis operation for lactate...... recovery, where lactate fluxes were increased up to 230%. The effect of the imposed current on the concentration profiles is analyzed. Furthermore, the current saturation condition is investigated for the proposed electro-enhanced dialysis system. Thus, the operating window for current density and inlet...
Adediran, S A; Ratkowsky, D A; Donaghy, D J; Malau-Aduli, A E O
2012-09-01
Fourteen lactation models were fitted to average and individual cow lactation data from pasture-based dairy systems in the Australian states of Victoria and Tasmania. The models included a new "log-quadratic" model, and a major objective was to evaluate and compare the performance of this model with the other models. Nine empirical and 5 mechanistic models were first fitted to average test-day milk yield of Holstein-Friesian dairy cows using the nonlinear procedure in SAS. Two additional semiparametric models were fitted using a linear model in ASReml. To investigate the influence of days to first test-day and the number of test-days, 5 of the best-fitting models were then fitted to individual cow lactation data. Model goodness of fit was evaluated using criteria such as the residual mean square, the distribution of residuals, the correlation between actual and predicted values, and the Wald-Wolfowitz runs test. Goodness of fit was similar in all but one of the models in terms of fitting average lactation but they differed in their ability to predict individual lactations. In particular, the widely used incomplete gamma model most displayed this failing. The new log-quadratic model was robust in fitting average and individual lactations, and was less affected by sampled data and more parsimonious in having only 3 parameters, each of which lends itself to biological interpretation.
Pretto, D; Vallas, M; Pärna, E; Tänavots, A; Kiiman, H; Kaart, T
2014-12-01
Genetic parameters of milk rennet coagulation time (RCT) and curd firmness (a30) among the first 3 lactations in Holstein cows were estimated. The data set included 39,960 test-day records from 5,216 Estonian Holstein cows (the progeny of 306 sires), which were recorded from April 2005 to May 2010 in 98 herds across the country. A multiple-lactation random regression animal model was used. Individual milk samples from each cow were collected during routine milk recording. These samples were analyzed for milk composition and coagulation traits with intervals of 2 to 3 mo in each lactation (7 to 305 DIM) and from first to third lactation. Mean heritabilities were 0.36, 0.32, and 0.28 for log-transformed RCT [ln(RCT)] and 0.47, 0.40, and 0.62 for a30 for parities 1, 2, and 3, respectively. Mean repeatabilities for ln(RCT) were 0.53, 0.55, and 0.56, but 0.59, 0.61, and 0.68 for a30 for parities 1, 2 and 3, respectively. Mean genetic correlations between ln(RCT) and a30 were -0.19, -0.14, and 0.02 for parities 1, 2, and 3, respectively. Mean genetic correlations were 0.91, 0.79, and 0.99 for ln(RCT), and 0.95, 0.94, and 0.94 for a30 between parities 1 and 2, 1 and 3, and 2 and 3, respectively. Due to these high genetic correlations, we concluded that for a proper genetic evaluation of milk coagulation properties it is sufficient to record RCT and a30 only in the first lactation. Copyright © 2014 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Extending Model Checking to Object Process Validation
Rein, van H.
2002-01-01
Object-oriented techniques allow the gathering and modelling of system requirements in terms of an application area. The expression of data and process models at that level is a great asset in communication with non-technical people in that area, but it does not necessarily lead to consistent models
Multiphase model for transformation induced plasticity. Extended Leblond's model
Weisz-Patrault, Daniel
2017-09-01
Transformation induced plasticity (TRIP) classically refers to plastic strains observed during phase transitions that occur under mechanical loads (that can be lower than the yield stress). A theoretical approach based on homogenization is proposed to deal with multiphase changes and to extend the validity of the well known and widely used model proposed by Leblond (1989). The approach is similar, but several product phases are considered instead of one and several assumptions have been released. Thus, besides the generalization for several phases, one can mention three main improvements in the calculation of the local equivalent plastic strain: the deviatoric part of the phase transformation is taken into account, both parent and product phases are elastic-plastic with linear isotropic hardening and the applied stress is considered. Results show that classical issues of singularities arising in the Leblond's model (corrected by ad hoc numerical functions or thresholding) are solved in this contribution excepted when the applied equivalent stress reaches the yield stress. Indeed, in this situation the parent phase is entirely plastic as soon as the phase transformation begins and the same singularity as in the Leblond's model arises. A physical explanation of the cutoff function is introduced in order to regularize the singularity. Furthermore, experiments extracted from the literature dealing with multiphase transitions and multiaxial loads are compared with the original Leblond's model and the proposed extended version. For the extended version, very good agreement is observed without any fitting procedures (i.e., material parameters are extracted from other dedicated experiments) and for the original version results are more qualitative.
Silva, F G; Torres, R A; Silva, L P; Ventura, H T; Silva, F F; Carneiro, A P S; Nascimento, M; Rodrigues, M T
2014-12-19
Random regression models have been used in evaluating test-day milk yield, providing accurate estimates of genetic values in animals. However, herd evaluation with only information from the first lactation may not be the best option from an economic perspective. Other factors should be taken into account, particularly other lactations. Our objective in this study was to analyze the genetic divergence between the first four lactations of Alpine goats. The RENPED software was used to perform descriptive statistics, check for errors in pedigree, recode the data, and for Pearson's and Spearman's correlations. The WOMBAT software was used to estimate the variance components and predict the breeding values. The CALC software was adopted to calculate the percentage of coincidence between the ranking of the animals and the animals kept in common at each lactation evaluation. The results show that selection using only the first lactation in small herds with a low degree of technology can be employed as a palliative measure, in view of the difficulty in evaluating all lactations. However, the selection of breeding goats and the production of catalogues should not be based only on the first lactation, because the results demonstrate inversions in the classification of the best breeders when other lactations are analyzed.
An Extended SISa Model for Sentiment Contagion
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Zhifeng Liu
2014-01-01
Full Text Available One of the main differences between sentiment and infectious diseases is that the former one has two opposite infectious states: positive (optimistic and negative (pessimistic, while the latter one has not. In this paper, based on the SISa model, we consider this issue and propose a new model of sentiment contagion called the SOSa-SPSa model. The results of both numerical and agent-based simulations show that our model could explain the process of sentiment contagion better than that of Hill et al. (2010. Further analysis shows that both the numbers of optimistic and pessimistic individuals will increase with the probability of spontaneity or contagion and decrease with the probability of recovery. Potential applications of this model in financial market have also been discussed.
Satpathy, Preseela; Biernacki, Piotr; Cypionka, Heribert; Steinigeweg, Sven
2016-12-05
A modified Anaerobic Digestion Model No. 1 (ADM1xp) including lactate was applied to a full-scale biogas plant. This model considers monosaccharides to degrade through lactic acid, which further degrades majorly into acetate followed by propionate and butyrate. Experimental data were derived from the previous works in the same laboratory, and the proposed parameters were validated against batch experiments. After successful validation, the biogas plant bearing a fermenter size of 7 dam(3) and operated with food waste and cattle manure was simulated. The biogas production and methane content were reliably simulated, and a good fit could be obtained against the experimental data with an average difference of less than 1%. When compared to the original ADM1 model, the performance of the lactate-incorporated model was found to be improved. Inclusion of lactate as a parameter in the ADM1xp model is recommended for an increased sensitivity and enhanced prediction principally for systems dealing with high carbohydrate and lactate loads.
A Novel Biped Pattern Generator Based on Extended ZMP and Extended Cart-table Model
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Guangbin Sun
2015-07-01
Full Text Available This paper focuses on planning patterns for biped walking on complex terrains. Two problems are solved: ZMP (zero moment point cannot be used on uneven terrain, and the conventional cart-table model does not allow vertical CM (centre of mass motion. For the ZMP definition problem, we propose the extended ZMP (EZMP concept as an extension of ZMP to uneven terrains. It can be used to judge dynamic balance on universal terrains. We achieve a deeper insight into the connection and difference between ZMP and EZMP by adding different constraints. For the model problem, we extend the cart-table model by using a dynamic constraint instead of constant height constraint, which results in a mathematically symmetric set of three equations. In this way, the vertical motion is enabled and the resultant equations are still linear. Based on the extended ZMP concept and extended cart-table model, a biped pattern generator using triple preview controllers is constructed and implemented simultaneously to three dimensions. Using the proposed pattern generator, the Atlas robot is simulated. The simulation results show the robot can walk stably on rather complex terrains by accurately tracking extended ZMP.
Extended Linear Models with Gaussian Priors
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Quinonero, Joaquin
2002-01-01
on the parameters. The Relevance Vector Machine, introduced by Tipping, is a particular case of such a model. I give the detailed derivations of the expectation-maximisation (EM) algorithm used in the training. These derivations are not found in the literature, and might be helpful for newcomers....
Extending Social Cognition Models of Health Behaviour
Abraham, Charles; Sheeran, Paschal; Henderson, Marion
2011-01-01
A cross-sectional study assessed the extent to which indices of social structure, including family socio-economic status (SES), social deprivation, gender and educational/lifestyle aspirations correlated with adolescent condom use and added to the predictive utility of a theory of planned behaviour model. Analyses of survey data from 824 sexually…
Extending Social Cognition Models of Health Behaviour
Abraham, Charles; Sheeran, Paschal; Henderson, Marion
2011-01-01
A cross-sectional study assessed the extent to which indices of social structure, including family socio-economic status (SES), social deprivation, gender and educational/lifestyle aspirations correlated with adolescent condom use and added to the predictive utility of a theory of planned behaviour model. Analyses of survey data from 824 sexually…
Extended Weyl Invariance in a Bimetric Model
Hassan, S F; von Strauss, Mikael
2015-01-01
We revisit a particular ghost-free bimetric model which is related to both partial masslessness as well conformal gravity. Its equations of motion can be recast in the form of a perturbative series in derivatives which exhibits a remarkable amount of structure. In a perturbative (but fully nonlinear) analysis, we demonstrate that the equations are invariant under scalar gauge transformations up to six orders in derivatives, the lowest-order term being a local Weyl scaling of the metrics. More specifically, we develop a procedure for constructing terms in the gauge transformations order by order in the perturbative framework. This allows us to derive sufficient conditions for the existence of a gauge symmetry at the nonlinear level. It is explicitly demonstrated that these conditions are satisfied at the first relevant order and, consequently, the equations are gauge invariant up to six orders in derivatives. We furthermore show that the model propagates six instead of seven degrees of freedom not only around ...
Extending and Refining the Propaganda Model
Sparks, Colin
2007-01-01
The ‘propaganda model’ of news production in capitalist democracies elaborated by Edward S. Herman and Noam Chomsky in 1988 was met with initial hostile criticism and then more or less complete neglect. In the last five years, there has been a renewal of interest, although opinion remains seriously divided. This article adopts a sympathetic stance towards the main ideas of the model, but suggests that there are a number of ways in which in its classical iteration it is insufficiently sensitiv...
Macroeconomic model of national economy development (extended
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
M. Diaconova
1997-08-01
Full Text Available The macroeconomic model offered in this paper describes complex functioning of national economy and can be used for forecasting of possible directions of its development depending on various economic policies. It is the extension of [2] and adaptation of [3]. With the purpose of determination of state policies influence in the field of taxes and exchange rate national economy is considered within the framework of three sectors: government, private and external world.
Extending Ansoff’s Strategic Diagnosis Model
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Daniel Kipley
2012-01-01
Full Text Available Given the complex and disruptive open-ended dynamics in the current dynamic global environment, senior management recognizes the need for a formalized, consistent, and comprehensive framework to analyze the firm’s strategic posture. Modern assessment tools, such as H. Igor Ansoff’s seminal contributions to strategic diagnosis, primarily focused on identifying and enhancing the firm’s strategic performance potential through the analysis of the industry’s environmental turbulence level relative to the firm’s aggressiveness and responsiveness of capability. Other epistemic modeling techniques envisage Porter’s generic strategic positions, Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities, Threats (SWOT, and Resource-Based View as useful methodologies to aid in the planning process. All are complex and involve multiple managerial perspectives. Over the last two decades, attempts have been made to comprehensively classify the firm’s future competitive position. Most of these proposals utilized matrices to depict the position, such as the Boston Consulting Group, point positioning, and dispersed positioning. The GE/McKinsey later enhanced this typology by expanding to 3 × 3, contributing to management’s deeper understanding of the firm’s position. Both types of assessments, Ansoff’s strategic diagnosis and positional matrices, are invaluable strategic tools for firms. However, it could be argued that these positional analyses singularly reflect a blind spot in modeling the firm’s future strategic performance potential, as neither considers the interactions of the other. This article is conceptual and takes a different approach from earlier methodologies. Although conceptual, the article aims to present a robust model combining Ansoff’s strategic diagnosis with elements of the performance matrices to provide the management with an enriched capability to evaluate the firm’s current and future performance position.
An Examination of Extended a-Rescaling Model
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
YAN Zhan-Yuan; DUAN Chun-Gui; HE Zhen-Min
2001-01-01
The extended x-rescaling model can explain the quark's nuclear effect very well. Weather it can also explain the gluon's nuclear effect should be investigated further. Associated J/ψ and γ production with large PT is a very clean channel to probe the gluon distribution in proton or nucleus. In this paper, using the extended x-rescaling model, the PT distribution of the nuclear effect factors of p + Fe → J/Ψ + γ+ X process is calculated and discussed. Comparing our theoretical results with the future experimental data, the extended x-rescaling model can be examined.``
Extending the prevalent consumer loyalty modelling
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Olsen, Svein Ottar; Tudoran, Ana Alina; Brunsø, Karen
2013-01-01
Purpose: This study addresses the role of habit strength in explaining loyalty behaviour. Design/methodology/approach: The study uses 2063 consumers’ data from a survey in Denmark and Spain, and multigroup structural equation modelling to analyse the data. The paper describes an approach employing...... the psychological meanings of the habit construct, such as automaticity, lack of awareness or very little conscious deliberation. Findings: The findings suggest that when habits start to develop and gain strength, less planning is involved, and that the loyalty behaviour sequence mainly occurs guided...... literature by providing an extension of the prevalent consumer loyalty theorizing by integrating the concept of habit strength and by generating new knowledge concerning the conscious/strategic and unconscious/automatic nature of consumer loyalty. The study derives managerial implications on how...
Extended Quark Potential Model From Random Phase Approximation
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
DENGWei－Zhen; CHENXiao－Lin; 等
2002-01-01
The quark potential model is extended to include the sea quark excitation using the random phase approximation.The effective quark interaction preserves the important QCD properties-chiral symmetry and confinement simultaneously.A primary qualitative analysis shows that the π meson as a well-known typical Goldstone boson and the other mesons made up of valence qq quark pair such as the ρ meson can also be described in this extended quark potential model.
Extended Quark Potential Model from Random Phase Approximation
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
DENG Wei-Zhen; CHEN Xiao-Lin; LU Da-Hai; YANG Li-Ming
2002-01-01
The quark potential model is extended to include the sea quark excitation using the random phase approx-imation. The effective quark interaction preserves the important QCD properties - chiral symmetry and confinementsimultaneously. A primary qualitative analysis shows that the π meson as a well-known typical Goldstone boson andthe other mesons made up of valence qq quark pair such as the ρ meson can also be described in this extended quarkpotential model.
Extended Goldstone-boson-exchange constituent quark model
Wagenbrunn, R F; Plessas, W; Varga, K
2000-01-01
We discuss an updated version of the Goldstone-boson-exchange chiral quark model extended to include in addition to pseudoscalar meson exchanges also vector and scalar meson exchanges. The latter ingredients are viewed as effective parametrizations of multiple Goldstone-boson exchanges in baryons. The extended model allows for an accurate description of all light and strange baryon spectra and at the same time produces the right properties for deducing baryon-baryon interactions.
Emond, C; DeVito, M; Warner, M; Eskenazi, B; Mocarelli, P; Birnbaum, L S
2016-01-01
On July 10, 1976, an explosion at a chemical plant in Seveso, Italy, released up to 30kg of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD)-the most potent dioxin congener. Twenty years later, the Seveso Women's Health Study (SWHS) initiated a follow-up assessment of a cohort of female Seveso residents. Researchers collected serial blood, measured for TCDD levels, and recorded information about the women's medical history after the explosion. The study's aims were to: 1) modify the human PBPK model for TCDD (Emond et al. 2004; Emond et al. 2005; NCEA-USEPA, 2010) to include repetitive gestation and lactation; 2) simulate TCDD blood concentrations during different life stages including pregnancy and lactation, under different exposure scenarios; and 3) use this PBPK model to compare the influence of gestation and lactation on elimination of TCDD. After optimization of the model, it was assessed using data from the SWHS cohort. The 23 women in Subcohort A, were 4-39years old and in Subcohort B, the 18 women were 3-17years old when the explosion occurred. The model accurately predicted the blood concentrations during the 20years post-exposure, including periods of pregnancy and lactation. The model was also used to analyze the contribution of gestation and lactation to the mother's elimination of TCDD. The results suggest that gestation and lactation do not significantly impact TCDD blood elimination. Future efforts will focus on using additional data to evaluate the PBPK model and improving the mathematical descriptions of lactation and multiple gestations.
Canaza-Cayo, Ali William; Lopes, Paulo Sávio; da Silva, Marcos Vinicius Gualberto Barbosa; de Almeida Torres, Robledo; Martins, Marta Fonseca; Arbex, Wagner Antonio; Cobuci, Jaime Araujo
2015-10-01
A total of 32,817 test-day milk yield (TDMY) records of the first lactation of 4,056 Girolando cows daughters of 276 sires, collected from 118 herds between 2000 and 2011 were utilized to estimate the genetic parameters for TDMY via random regression models (RRM) using Legendre's polynomial functions whose orders varied from 3 to 5. In addition, nine measures of persistency in milk yield (PSi) and the genetic trend of 305-day milk yield (305MY) were evaluated. The fit quality criteria used indicated RRM employing the Legendre's polynomial of orders 3 and 5 for fitting the genetic additive and permanent environment effects, respectively, as the best model. The heritability and genetic correlation for TDMY throughout the lactation, obtained with the best model, varied from 0.18 to 0.23 and from -0.03 to 1.00, respectively. The heritability and genetic correlation for persistency and 305MY varied from 0.10 to 0.33 and from -0.98 to 1.00, respectively. The use of PS7 would be the most suitable option for the evaluation of Girolando cattle. The estimated breeding values for 305MY of sires and cows showed significant and positive genetic trends. Thus, the use of selection indices would be indicated in the genetic evaluation of Girolando cattle for both traits.
An extended car-following model at signalized intersections
Yu, Shaowei; Shi, Zhongke
2014-08-01
To simulate car-following behaviors better when the traffic light is red, three successive car-following data at a signalized intersection of Jinan in China were collected by using a new proposed data acquisition method and then analyzed to select input variables of the extended car-following model. An extended car-following model considering two leading cars' accelerations was proposed, calibrated and verified with field data obtained on the basis of the full velocity difference model and then a comparative model used for comparative research was also proposed and calibrated in the light of the GM model. The results indicate that the extended car-following model could fit measured data well, and that the fitting precision of the extended model is prior to the comparative model, whose mean absolute error is reduced by 22.83%. Finally a theoretical car-following model considering multiple leading cars' accelerations was put forward which has potential applicable to vehicle automation system and vehicle safety early warning system, and then the linear stability analysis and numerical simulations were conducted to analyze some observed physical features existing in the realistic traffic.
Decaying Domain Walls in an Extended Gravity Model and Cosmology
Shiraishi, Kiyoshi
2013-01-01
We investigate cosmological consequences of an extended gravity model which belongs to the same class studied by Accetta and Steinhardt in an extended inflationary scenario. But we do not worry about inflation in our model; instead, we focus on a topological object formed during cosmological phase transitions. Although domain walls appear during first-order phase transitions such as QCD transition, they decay at the end of the phase transition. Therefore the "domain wall problem" does not exist in the suitable range of pameters and, on the contrary, the "fragments" of walls may become seeds of dark matter. A possible connection to "oscillating universe" model offered by Morikawa et al. is also discussed.
Phenomenological study of extended seesaw model for light sterile neutrino
Nath, Newton; Goswami, Srubabati; Gupta, Shivani
2016-01-01
We study the zero textures of the Yukawa matrices in the minimal extended type-I seesaw (MES) model which can give rise to $\\sim$ eV scale sterile neutrinos. In this model, three right handed neutrinos and one extra singlet $S$ are added to generate a light sterile neutrino. The light neutrino mass matrix for the active neutrinos, $ m_{\
Extended Hubbard models for ultracold atoms in optical lattices
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Juergensen, Ole
2015-06-05
In this thesis, the phase diagrams and dynamics of various extended Hubbard models for ultracold atoms in optical lattices are studied. Hubbard models are the primary description for many interacting particles in periodic potentials with the paramount example of the electrons in solids. The very same models describe the behavior of ultracold quantum gases trapped in the periodic potentials generated by interfering beams of laser light. These optical lattices provide an unprecedented access to the fundamentals of the many-particle physics that govern the properties of solid-state materials. They can be used to simulate solid-state systems and validate the approximations and simplifications made in theoretical models. This thesis revisits the numerous approximations underlying the standard Hubbard models with special regard to optical lattice experiments. The incorporation of the interaction between particles on adjacent lattice sites leads to extended Hubbard models. Offsite interactions have a strong influence on the phase boundaries and can give rise to novel correlated quantum phases. The extended models are studied with the numerical methods of exact diagonalization and time evolution, a cluster Gutzwiller approximation, as well as with the strong-coupling expansion approach. In total, this thesis demonstrates the high relevance of beyond-Hubbard processes for ultracold atoms in optical lattices. Extended Hubbard models can be employed to tackle unexplained problems of solid-state physics as well as enter previously inaccessible regimes.
A biologically-based dose response (BBDR) model for the hypothalamic-pituitary thyroid (HPT) axis in the lactating rat and nursing pup was developed to describe the perturbations caused by iodide deficiency on the 1-IPT axis. Model calibrations, carried out by adjusting key model...
A biologically-based dose response (BBDR) model for the hypothalamic-pituitary thyroid (BPT) axis in the lactating rat and nursing pup was developed to describe the perturbations caused by iodide deficiency on the HPT axis. Model calibrations, carried out by adjusting key model p...
Lin, Zhoumeng; Cuneo, Matthew; Rowe, Joan D; Li, Mengjie; Tell, Lisa A; Allison, Shayna; Carlson, Jan; Riviere, Jim E; Gehring, Ronette
2016-11-18
Extra-label use of tulathromycin in lactating goats is common and may cause violative residues in milk. The objective of this study was to develop a nonlinear mixed-effects pharmacokinetic (NLME-PK) model to estimate tulathromycin depletion in plasma and milk of lactating goats. Eight lactating goats received two subcutaneous injections of 2.5 mg/kg tulathromycin 7 days apart; blood and milk samples were analyzed for concentrations of tulathromycin and the common fragment of tulathromycin (i.e., the marker residue CP-60,300), respectively, using liquid chromatography mass spectrometry. Based on these new data and related literature data, a NLME-PK compartmental model with first-order absorption and elimination was used to model plasma concentrations and cumulative excreted amount in milk. Monte Carlo simulations with 100 replicates were performed to predict the time when the upper limit of the 95% confidence interval of milk concentrations was below the tolerance. All animals were healthy throughout the study with normal appetite and milk production levels, and with mild-moderate injection-site reactions that diminished by the end of the study. The measured data showed that milk concentrations of the marker residue of tulathromycin were below the limit of detection (LOD = 1.8 ng/ml) 39 days after the second injection. A 2-compartment model with milk as an excretory compartment best described tulathromycin plasma and CP-60,300 milk pharmacokinetic data. The model-predicted data correlated with the measured data very well. The NLME-PK model estimated that tulathromycin plasma concentrations were below LOD (1.2 ng/ml) 43 days after a single injection, and 62 days after the second injection with a 95% confidence. These estimated times are much longer than the current meat withdrawal time recommendation of 18 days for tulathromycin in non-lactating cattle. The results suggest that twice subcutaneous injections of 2.5 mg/kg tulathromycin are a clinically
Creating a Generic Extended Enterprise Management Model using GERAM
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Larsen, Lars Bjørn; Kaas-Pedersen, Carsten; Vesterager, Johan
1998-01-01
The two main themes of the Globeman21 (Global Manufacturing in the 21st century) project are product life cycle management and extended enterprise management. This article focus on the later of these subjects and an illustration of the concept is given together with a discussion of the concept...... management model. By working with GERAM in relation to extended enterprise management it has been found that it provides a useful background for organising knowledge, experience and the activities within the project...... of virtual enterprises. Through the introduction of GERAM (Generalised Enterprise Reference Architecture and Methodology) an initial version of a basic framework for extended enterprise management is introduced. This basic framework is the first step towards the creation of a generic extended enterprise...
Extending the Relational Model to Deal with Probabilistic Data
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
MA Zongmin; ZHANG W. J; MA W. Y.
2000-01-01
According to the soundness and completeness of information in databases, the expressive form and the semantics of incomplete information are discussed in this paper. On the basis of the discussion, the current studies on incomplete data in relational databases are reviewed. In order to represent stochastic uncertainty in most general sense in the real world, probabilistic data are introduced into relational databases. An extended relational data model is presented to express and manipulate probabilistic data and the operations in relational algebra based on the extended model are defined in this paper.
Extending product modeling methods for integrated product development
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Bonev, Martin; Wörösch, Michael; Hauksdóttir, Dagný
2013-01-01
Despite great efforts within the modeling domain, the majority of methods often address the uncommon design situation of an original product development. However, studies illustrate that development tasks are predominantly related to redesigning, improving, and extending already existing products....... Updated design requirements have then to be made explicit and mapped against the existing product architecture. In this paper, existing methods are adapted and extended through linking updated requirements to suitable product models. By combining several established modeling techniques, such as the DSM...... and PVM methods, in a presented Product Requirement Development model some of the individual drawbacks of each method could be overcome. Based on the UML standard, the model enables the representation of complex hierarchical relationships in a generic product model. At the same time it uses matrix...
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Mahdi Shariati, Mohammad; Su, Guosheng; Madsen, Per
2007-01-01
means of each environment. It has been shown that this method results in poor inferences and that a more satisfactory alternative is to infer environmental effects jointly with the other parameters of the model. Such a reaction norm model with unknown covariates and heterogeneous residual variances...... across herds was fitted to milk, protein, and fat yield of first-lactation Danish Holstein cows to investigate the presence of GxE. Data included 188,502 first test-day records from 299 herds and 3,775 herd-years in a time period ranging from 1991 to 2003. Variance components and breeding values were...... estimated with a Bayesian approach implemented using Markov chain Monte Carlo. The posterior distribution of the variance of genetic slopes was markedly shifted away from zero for all traits under study, supporting the presence of GxE. The ratio of the genetic slope variance to the genetic level variance...
Crompton, L.A.; France, J.; Reynolds, C.K.; Mills, J.A.N.; Hanigan, M.D.; Ellis, J.L.; Bannink, A.; Bequette, B.J.; Dijkstra, J.
2014-01-01
An isotope dilution model for partitioning phenylalanine and tyrosine uptake by the mammary gland of the lactating dairy cow is constructed and solved in the steady state. The model contains four intracellular and four extracellular pools and conservation of mass principles is applied to generate th
A Design for Composing and Extending Vehicle Models
Madden, Michael M.; Neuhaus, Jason R.
2003-01-01
The Systems Development Branch (SDB) at NASA Langley Research Center (LaRC) creates simulation software products for research. Each product consists of an aircraft model with experiment extensions. SDB treats its aircraft models as reusable components, upon which experiments can be built. SDB has evolved aircraft model design with the following goals: 1. Avoid polluting the aircraft model with experiment code. 2. Discourage the copy and tailor method of reuse. The current evolution of that architecture accomplishes these goals by reducing experiment creation to extend and compose. The architecture mechanizes the operational concerns of the model's subsystems and encapsulates them in an interface inherited by all subsystems. Generic operational code exercises the subsystems through the shared interface. An experiment is thus defined by the collection of subsystems that it creates ("compose"). Teams can modify the aircraft subsystems for the experiment using inheritance and polymorphism to create variants ("extend").
Extended Range Hydrological Predictions: Uncertainty Associated with Model Parametrization
Joseph, J.; Ghosh, S.; Sahai, A. K.
2016-12-01
The better understanding of various atmospheric processes has led to improved predictions of meteorological conditions at various temporal scale, ranging from short term which cover a period up to 2 days to long term covering a period of more than 10 days. Accurate prediction of hydrological variables can be done using these predicted meteorological conditions, which would be helpful in proper management of water resources. Extended range hydrological simulation includes the prediction of hydrological variables for a period more than 10 days. The main sources of uncertainty in hydrological predictions include the uncertainty in the initial conditions, meteorological forcing and model parametrization. In the present study, the Extended Range Prediction developed for India for monsoon by Indian Institute of Tropical Meteorology (IITM), Pune is used as meteorological forcing for the Variable Infiltration Capacity (VIC) model. Sensitive hydrological parameters, as derived from literature, along with a few vegetation parameters are assumed to be uncertain and 1000 random values are generated given their prescribed ranges. Uncertainty bands are generated by performing Monte-Carlo Simulations (MCS) for the generated sets of parameters and observed meteorological forcings. The basins with minimum human intervention, within the Indian Peninsular region, are identified and validation of results are carried out using the observed gauge discharge. Further, the uncertainty bands are generated for the extended range hydrological predictions by performing MCS for the same set of parameters and extended range meteorological predictions. The results demonstrate the uncertainty associated with the model parametrisation for the extended range hydrological simulations. Keywords: Extended Range Prediction, Variable Infiltration Capacity model, Monte Carlo Simulation.
Extended propagation model for interfacial crack in composite material structure
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
闫相桥; 冯希金
2002-01-01
An interfacial crack is a common damage in a composite material structure . An extended propaga-tion model has been established for an interfacial crack to study the dependence of crack growth on the relativesizes of energy release rates at left and right crack tips and the properties of interfacial material characterize thegrowth of interfacial crack better.
Extended FEM modeling of crack paths near inclusions
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Nielsen, Chris Valentin; Legarth, Brian Nyvang; Niordson, Christian Frithiof
2012-01-01
The extended FEM is applied to model crack growth near inclusions. A procedure to handle different propagation rates at different crack tips is presented. The examples considered investigate uniform tension as well as equibiaxial tension under plane strain conditions. A parameter study analyzes...
The Extended Parallel Process Model: Illuminating the Gaps in Research
Popova, Lucy
2012-01-01
This article examines constructs, propositions, and assumptions of the extended parallel process model (EPPM). Review of the EPPM literature reveals that its theoretical concepts are thoroughly developed, but the theory lacks consistency in operational definitions of some of its constructs. Out of the 12 propositions of the EPPM, a few have not…
Parameter Estimation of the Extended Vasiček Model
Rujivan, Sanae
2010-01-01
In this paper, an estimate of the drift and diffusion parameters of the extended Vasiček model is presented. The estimate is based on the method of maximum likelihood. We derive a closed-form expansion for the transition (probability) density of the extended Vasiček process and use the expansion to construct an approximate log-likelihood function of a discretely sampled data of the process. Approximate maximum likelihood estimators (AMLEs) of the parameters are obtained by maximizing the appr...
Layered Workflow Process Model Based on Extended Synchronizer
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Gang Ni
2014-07-01
Full Text Available The layered workflow process model provide a modeling approach and analysis for the key process with Petri Net. It not only describes the relation between the process of business flow and transition nodes clearly, but also limits the rapid increase in the scale of libraries, transition and directed arcs. This paper studies the process like reservation and complaint handling information management system, especially for the multi-mergence and discriminator patterns which can not be directly modeled with existing synchronizers. Petri Net is adopted to provide formalization description for the workflow patterns and the relation between Arcs and weight class are also analyzed. We use the number of in and out arcs to generalize the workflow into three synchronous modes: fully synchronous mode, competition synchronous mode and asynchronous mode. The types and parameters for synchronization are added to extend the modeling ability of the synchronizers and the synchronous distance is also expanded. The extended synchronizers have the ability to terminate branches automatically or activate the next link many times, besides the ability of original synchronizers. By the analyses on cases of the key business, it is verified that the original synchronizers can not model directly, while the extended synchronizers based on Petri Net can provide modeling for multi-mergence and discriminator modes.
Creating a Generic Extended Enterprise Management Model using GERAM
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Larsen, Lars Bjørn; Kaas-Pedersen, Carsten; Vesterager, Johan
1998-01-01
The two main themes of the Globeman21 (Global Manufacturing in the 21st century) project are product life cycle management and extended enterprise management. This article focus on the later of these subjects and an illustration of the concept is given together with a discussion of the concept of...... management model. By working with GERAM in relation to extended enterprise management it has been found that it provides a useful background for organising knowledge, experience and the activities within the project......The two main themes of the Globeman21 (Global Manufacturing in the 21st century) project are product life cycle management and extended enterprise management. This article focus on the later of these subjects and an illustration of the concept is given together with a discussion of the concept...... of virtual enterprises. Through the introduction of GERAM (Generalised Enterprise Reference Architecture and Methodology) an initial version of a basic framework for extended enterprise management is introduced. This basic framework is the first step towards the creation of a generic extended enterprise...
Ferreira, Abílio G T; Henrique, Douglas S; Vieira, Ricardo A M; Maeda, Emilyn M; Valotto, Altair A
2015-03-01
The objective of this study was to evaluate four mathematical models with regards to their fit to lactation curves of Holstein cows from herds raised in the southwestern region of the state of Parana, Brazil. Initially, 42,281 milk production records from 2005 to 2011 were obtained from "Associação Paranaense de Criadores de Bovinos da Raça Holandesa (APCBRH)". Data lacking dates of drying and total milk production at 305 days of lactation were excluded, resulting in a remaining 15,142 records corresponding to 2,441 Holstein cows. Data were sorted according to the parity order (ranging from one to six), and within each parity order the animals were divided into quartiles (Q25%, Q50%, Q75% and Q100%) corresponding to 305-day lactation yield. Within each parity order, for each quartile, four mathematical models were adjusted, two of which were predominantly empirical (Brody and Wood) whereas the other two presented more mechanistic characteristics (models Dijkstra and Pollott). The quality of fit was evaluated by the corrected Akaike information criterion. The Wood model showed the best fit in almost all evaluated situations and, therefore, may be considered as the most suitable model to describe, at least empirically, the lactation curves of Holstein cows raised in Southwestern Parana.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Abílio G.T. Ferreira
2015-03-01
Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate four mathematical models with regards to their fit to lactation curves of Holstein cows from herds raised in the southwestern region of the state of Parana, Brazil. Initially, 42,281 milk production records from 2005 to 2011 were obtained from "Associação Paranaense de Criadores de Bovinos da Raça Holandesa (APCBRH". Data lacking dates of drying and total milk production at 305 days of lactation were excluded, resulting in a remaining 15,142 records corresponding to 2,441 Holstein cows. Data were sorted according to the parity order (ranging from one to six, and within each parity order the animals were divided into quartiles (Q25%, Q50%, Q75% and Q100% corresponding to 305-day lactation yield. Within each parity order, for each quartile, four mathematical models were adjusted, two of which were predominantly empirical (Brody and Wood whereas the other two presented more mechanistic characteristics (models Dijkstra and Pollott. The quality of fit was evaluated by the corrected Akaike information criterion. The Wood model showed the best fit in almost all evaluated situations and, therefore, may be considered as the most suitable model to describe, at least empirically, the lactation curves of Holstein cows raised in Southwestern Parana.
Center for Extended Magnetohydrodynamics Modeling - Final Technical Report
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Parker, Scott [Univ. of Colorado, Boulder, CO (United States)
2016-02-14
This project funding supported approximately 74 percent of a Ph.D. graduate student, not including costs of travel and supplies. We had a highly successful research project including the development of a second-order implicit electromagnetic kinetic ion hybrid model [Cheng 2013, Sturdevant 2016], direct comparisons with the extended MHD NIMROD code and kinetic simulation [Schnack 2013], modeling of slab tearing modes using the fully kinetic ion hybrid model and finally, modeling global tearing modes in cylindrical geometry using gyrokinetic simulation [Chen 2015, Chen 2016]. We developed an electromagnetic second-order implicit kinetic ion fluid electron hybrid model [Cheng 2013]. As a first step, we assumed isothermal electrons, but have included drift-kinetic electrons in similar models [Chen 2011]. We used this simulation to study the nonlinear evolution of the tearing mode in slab geometry, including nonlinear evolution and saturation [Cheng 2013]. Later, we compared this model directly to extended MHD calculations using the NIMROD code [Schnack 2013]. In this study, we investigated the ion-temperature-gradient instability with an extended MHD code for the first time and got reasonable agreement with the kinetic calculation in terms of linear frequency, growth rate and mode structure. We then extended this model to include orbit averaging and sub-cycling of the ions and compared directly to gyrokinetic theory [Sturdevant 2016]. This work was highlighted in an Invited Talk at the International Conference on the Numerical Simulation of Plasmas in 2015. The orbit averaging sub-cycling multi-scale algorithm is amenable to hybrid architectures with GPUS or math co-processors. Additionally, our participation in the Center for Extend Magnetohydrodynamics motivated our research on developing the capability for gyrokinetic simulation to model a global tearing mode. We did this in cylindrical geometry where the results could be benchmarked with existing eigenmode
Cost estimation of heifer mastitis in early lactation by stochastic modelling
Huijps, K.; Vliegher, de S.; Lam, C.; Hogeveen, H.
2009-01-01
Heifer mastitis, reflected by an elevated somatic cell count (SCC) in early lactation (SCCel), results in a decreased milk production, a higher risk for subclinical and clinical mastitis during lactation, and an elevated culling hazard. The aims of this study were to calculate the costs of heifer ma
The extended RBAC model based on grid computing
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
CHEN Jian-gang; WANG Ru-chuan; WANG Hai-yan
2006-01-01
This article proposes the extended role-based access control (RBAC) model for solving dynamic and multidomain problems in grid computing, The formulated description of the model has been provided. The introduction of context and the mapping relations of context-to-role and context-to-permission help the model adapt to dynamic property in grid environment.The multidomain role inheritance relation by the authorization agent service realizes the multidomain authorization amongst the autonomy domain. A function has been proposed for solving the role inheritance conflict during the establishment of the multidomain role inheritance relation.
Constructing Multidatabase Collections Using Extended ODMG Object Model
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Adrian Skehill Mark Roantree
1999-11-01
Full Text Available Collections are an important feature in database systems. They provide us with the ability to group objects of interest together, and then to manipulate them in the required fashion. The OASIS project is focused on the construction a multidatabase prototype which uses the ODMG model and a canonical model. As part of this work we have extended the base model to provide a more powerful collection mechanism, and to permit the construction of a federated collection, a collection of heterogenous objects taken from distributed data sources
Extended hard-sphere model and collisions of cohesive particles.
Kosinski, Pawel; Hoffmann, Alex C
2011-09-01
In two earlier papers the present authors modified a standard hard-sphere particle-wall and particle-particle collision model to account for the presence of adhesive or cohesive interaction between the colliding particles: the problem is of importance for modeling particle-fluid flow using the Lagrangian approach. This technique, which involves a direct numerical simulation of such flows, is gaining increasing popularity for simulating, e.g., dust transport, flows of nanofluids and grains in planetary rings. The main objective of the previous papers was to formally extend the impulse-based hard-sphere model, while suggestions for quantifications of the adhesive or cohesive interaction were made. This present paper gives an improved quantification of the adhesive and cohesive interactions for use in the extended hard-sphere model for cases where the surfaces of the colliding bodies are "dry," e.g., there is no liquid-bridge formation between the colliding bodies. This quantification is based on the Johnson-Kendall-Roberts (JKR) analysis of collision dynamics but includes, in addition, dissipative forces using a soft-sphere modeling technique. In this way the cohesive impulse, required for the hard-sphere model, is calculated together with other parameters, namely the collision duration and the restitution coefficient. Finally a dimensional analysis technique is applied to fit an analytical expression to the results for the cohesive impulse that can be used in the extended hard-sphere model. At the end of the paper we show some simulation results in order to illustrate the model.
Giordano, J O; Thomas, M J; Catucuamba, G; Curler, M D; Wijma, R; Stangaferro, M L; Masello, M
2016-01-01
The specific objective of this study was to determine if increasing the interval between the Presynch and Ovsynch portion of the Presynch-Ovsynch protocol (Presynch: PGF2α-14 d-PGF2α and Ovsynch: GnRH-7 d-PGF2α-56 h-GnRH-16-20 h-timed artificial insemination) from 12 to 14 d would reduce the fertility of lactating dairy cows not detected in estrus after Presynch that receive timed artificial insemination (TAI). Cows from 4 commercial dairy farms (n=3,165) were blocked by parity (primiparous vs. multiparous) and randomly assigned to a 12 (PSOv14-12; n=1,566) or 14 d (PSOv14-14; n=1,599) interval between the second PGF2α (PGF) injection of Presynch (P2) and the beginning of Ovsynch. Cows detected in estrus any time between P2 and the day of the TAI were inseminated (AIED group). From a subgroup of cows (177 and 150 in PSOv14-12 and PSOv14-14, respectively), ovarian parameters and ovulation were evaluated through determination of concentrations of progesterone (P4) in blood and transrectal ultrasonography at the time of the first GnRH (GnRH1) and the PGF injection of Ovsynch. Overall, 52.8% (n=1,671) of the cows were AIED, whereas 47.2% (n=1,494) received TAI. For cows that received TAI, pregnancies per artificial insemination 39 d after artificial insemination were similar for PSOv14-12 (36.3%) and PSOv14-14 (36.0%) but were greater for primiparous (41.5%) than multiparous cows (33.6%). Pregnancy loss from 39 to 105 d after artificial insemination was similar for PSOv14-12 (4.8%) and PSOv14-14 (8.6%), for primiparous (6.4%) and multiparous cows (7.0%), but a tendency for a treatment by parity interaction was observed. Both treatments had a similar proportion of cows with a follicle ≥ 10 mm and similar follicle size at GnRH1; however, the ovulatory response to GnRH was greater for PSOv14-12 (62.2%) than PSOv14-14 (46.4%). A greater proportion of cows with a functional corpus luteum (75.3 vs. 65.6%) and greater concentrations of P4 (3.9 vs. 3.3 ng/mL) at GnRH1 in
Negativity in the Extended Hubbard Model under External Magnetic Field
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
YANG Zhen; NING Wen-Qiang
2008-01-01
We exactly calculate the negativity,a measurement of entanglement,in the two-site extended Hubbard model with external magnetic field.Its behaviour at different temperatures is presented.The negativity reduces with the increasing temperature or with the increasing uniform external magnetic field.It is also found that a non-uniform external magnetic field can be used to modulate or to increase the negativity.
The one-dimensional extended Bose-Hubbard model
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Ramesh V Pai; Rahul Pandit
2003-10-01
We use the finite-size, density-matrix-renormalization-group (DMRG) method to obtain the zero-temperature phase diagram of the one-dimensional, extended Bose-Hubbard model, for mean boson density ρ = 1, in the - plane ( and are respectively, onsite and nearest-neighbour repulsive interactions between bosons). The phase diagram includes superfluid (SF), bosonic-Mott-insulator (MI), and mass-density-wave (MDW) phases. We determine the natures of the quantum phase transitions between these phases.
Extended gauge models at e+e- colliders
Djouadi, Abdelhak
1995-01-01
We summarize the potential of high--energy \\ee linear colliders for discovering, and in case of discovery, for studying the signals of extended gauge models. We will mainly focus on the virtual signals of new neutral gauge bosons and on the production of new heavy leptons. [Invited talk given at the Workshop on Physics and Experiments with Linear Colliders, Morioka-Appi, Japan, September 8-12 1995.
Model Calibration of Exciter and PSS Using Extended Kalman Filter
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kalsi, Karanjit; Du, Pengwei; Huang, Zhenyu
2012-07-26
Power system modeling and controls continue to become more complex with the advent of smart grid technologies and large-scale deployment of renewable energy resources. As demonstrated in recent studies, inaccurate system models could lead to large-scale blackouts, thereby motivating the need for model calibration. Current methods of model calibration rely on manual tuning based on engineering experience, are time consuming and could yield inaccurate parameter estimates. In this paper, the Extended Kalman Filter (EKF) is used as a tool to calibrate exciter and Power System Stabilizer (PSS) models of a particular type of machine in the Western Electricity Coordinating Council (WECC). The EKF-based parameter estimation is a recursive prediction-correction process which uses the mismatch between simulation and measurement to adjust the model parameters at every time step. Numerical simulations using actual field test data demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed approach in calibrating the parameters.
Extended superconformal symmetry, Freudenthal triple systems and gauged WZW models
Günaydin, M
1995-01-01
We review the construction of extended ( N=2 and N=4 ) superconformal algebras over triple systems and the gauged WZW models invariant under them. The N=2 superconformal algebras (SCA) realized over Freudenthal triple systems (FTS) admit extension to ``maximal'' N=4 SCA's with SU(2)XSU(2)XU(1) symmetry. A detailed study of the construction and classification of N=2 and N=4 SCA's over Freudenthal triple systems is given. We conclude with a study and classification of gauged WZW models with N=4 superconformal symmetry.
Extended cox regression model: The choice of timefunction
Isik, Hatice; Tutkun, Nihal Ata; Karasoy, Durdu
2017-07-01
Cox regression model (CRM), which takes into account the effect of censored observations, is one the most applicative and usedmodels in survival analysis to evaluate the effects of covariates. Proportional hazard (PH), requires a constant hazard ratio over time, is the assumptionofCRM. Using extended CRM provides the test of including a time dependent covariate to assess the PH assumption or an alternative model in case of nonproportional hazards. In this study, the different types of real data sets are used to choose the time function and the differences between time functions are analyzed and discussed.
An Extended Hierarchical Trusted Model for Wireless Sensor Networks
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
DU Ruiying; XU Mingdi; ZHANG Huanguo
2006-01-01
Cryptography and authentication are traditional approach for providing network security. However, they are not sufficient for solving the problems which malicious nodes compromise whole wireless sensor network leading to invalid data transmission and wasting resource by using vicious behaviors. This paper puts forward an extended hierarchical trusted architecture for wireless sensor network, and establishes trusted congregations by three-tier framework. The method combines statistics, economics with encrypt mechanism for developing two trusted models which evaluate cluster head nodes and common sensor nodes respectively. The models form logical trusted-link from command node to common sensor nodes and guarantees the network can run in secure and reliable circumstance.
Extending the Clapper-Yule model to rough printing supports.
Hébert, Mathieu; Hersch, Roger David
2005-09-01
The Clapper-Yule model is the only classical spectral reflection model for halftone prints that takes explicitly into account both the multiple internal reflections between the print-air interface and the paper substrate and the lateral propagation of light within the paper bulk. However, the Clapper-Yule model assumes a planar interface and does not take into account the roughness of the print surface. In order to extend the Clapper-Yule model to rough printing supports (e.g., matte coated papers or calendered papers), we model the print surface as a set of randomly oriented microfacets. The influence of the shadowing effect is evaluated and incorporated into the model. By integrating over all incident angles and facet orientations, we are able to express the internal reflectance of the rough interface as a function of the rms facet slope. By considering also the rough interface transmittances both for the incident light and for the emerging light, we obtain a generalization of the Clapper-Yule model for rough interfaces. The comparison between the classical Clapper-Yule model and the model extended to rough surfaces shows that the influence of the surface roughness on the predicted reflectance factor is small. For high-quality papers such as coated and calendered papers, as well as for low-quality papers such as newsprint or copy papers, the influence of surface roughness is negligible, and the classical Clapper-Yule model can be used to predict the halftone-print reflectance factors. The influence of roughness becomes significant only for very rough and thick nondiffusing coatings.
The mathematical description of lactation curves in dairy cattle
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Giuseppe Pulina
2011-10-01
Full Text Available This review gives an overview of the mathematical modelling of lactation curves in dairy cattle. Over the last ninety years, the development of this field of study has followed the main requirements of the dairy cattle industry. Non-linear parametric functions have represented the preferred tools for modelling average curves of homogeneous groups of animals, with the main aim of predicting yields for management purposes. The increased availability of records per individual lactations and the genetic evaluation based on test day records has shifted the interest of modellers towards more flexible and general linear functions, as polynomials or splines. Thus the main interest of modelling is no longer the reconstruction of the general pattern of the phenomenon but the fitting of individual deviations from an average curve. Other specific approaches based on the modelling of the correlation structure of test day records within lactation, such as mixed linear models or principal component analysis, have been used to test the statistical significance of fixed effects in dairy experiments or to create new variables expressing main lactation curve traits. The adequacy of a model is not an absolute requisite, because it has to be assessed according to the specific purpose it is used for. Occurrence of extended lactations and of new productive and functional traits to be described and the increase of records coming from automatic milking systems likely will represent some of the future challenges for the mathematical modelling of the lactation curve in dairy cattle.
Parameter Estimation of the Extended Vasiček Model
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Sanae RUJIVAN
2010-01-01
Full Text Available In this paper, an estimate of the drift and diffusion parameters of the extended Vasiček model is presented. The estimate is based on the method of maximum likelihood. We derive a closed-form expansion for the transition (probability density of the extended Vasiček process and use the expansion to construct an approximate log-likelihood function of a discretely sampled data of the process. Approximate maximum likelihood estimators (AMLEs of the parameters are obtained by maximizing the approximate log-likelihood function. The convergence of the AMLEs to the true maximum likelihood estimators is obtained by increasing the number of terms in the expansions with a small time step size.
Wave speeds in the macroscopic extended model for ultrarelativistic gases
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Borghero, F., E-mail: borghero@unica.it [Dip. Matematica e Informatica, Università di Cagliari, Via Ospedale 72, 09124 Cagliari (Italy); Demontis, F., E-mail: fdemontis@unica.it [Dip. Matematica, Università di Cagliari, Viale Merello 92, 09123 Cagliari (Italy); Pennisi, S., E-mail: spennisi@unica.it [Dip. Matematica, Università di Cagliari, Via Ospedale 72, 09124 Cagliari (Italy)
2013-11-15
Equations determining wave speeds for a model of ultrarelativistic gases are investigated. This model is already present in literature; it deals with an arbitrary number of moments and it was proposed in the context of exact macroscopic approaches in Extended Thermodynamics. We find these results: the whole system for the determination of the wave speeds can be divided into independent subsystems which are expressed by linear combinations, through scalar coefficients, of tensors all of the same order; some wave speeds, but not all of them, are expressed by square roots of rational numbers; finally, we prove that these wave speeds for the macroscopic model are the same of those furnished by the kinetic model.
Wave speeds in the macroscopic extended model for ultrarelativistic gases
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Borghero, F., E-mail: borghero@unica.it [Dip. Matematica e Informatica, Università di Cagliari, Via Ospedale 72, 09124 Cagliari (Italy); Demontis, F., E-mail: fdemontis@unica.it [Dip. Matematica, Università di Cagliari, Viale Merello 92, 09123 Cagliari (Italy); Pennisi, S., E-mail: spennisi@unica.it [Dip. Matematica, Università di Cagliari, Via Ospedale 72, 09124 Cagliari (Italy)
2013-11-15
Equations determining wave speeds for a model of ultrarelativistic gases are investigated. This model is already present in literature; it deals with an arbitrary number of moments and it was proposed in the context of exact macroscopic approaches in Extended Thermodynamics. We find these results: the whole system for the determination of the wave speeds can be divided into independent subsystems which are expressed by linear combinations, through scalar coefficients, of tensors all of the same order; some wave speeds, but not all of them, are expressed by square roots of rational numbers; finally, we prove that these wave speeds for the macroscopic model are the same of those furnished by the kinetic model.
General Friction Model Extended by the Effect of Strain Hardening
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Nielsen, Chris V.; Martins, Paulo A.F.; Bay, Niels
2016-01-01
An extension to the general friction model proposed by Wanheim and Bay [1] to include the effect of strain hardening is proposed. The friction model relates the friction stress to the fraction of real contact area by a friction factor under steady state sliding. The original model for the real co...... of friction in metal forming, where the material generally strain hardens. The extension of the model to cover strain hardening materials is validated by comparison to previously published experimental data.......An extension to the general friction model proposed by Wanheim and Bay [1] to include the effect of strain hardening is proposed. The friction model relates the friction stress to the fraction of real contact area by a friction factor under steady state sliding. The original model for the real......-ideally plastic material, and secondly, to extend the solution by the influence of material strain hardening. This corresponds to adding a new variable and, therefore, a new axis to the general friction model. The resulting model is presented in a combined function suitable for e.g. finite element modeling...
A Design and Implementation of the Extended Andorra Model
Lopes, Ricardo; Silva, Fernando
2011-01-01
Logic programming provides a high-level view of programming, giving implementers a vast latitude into what techniques to explore to achieve the best performance for logic programs. Towards obtaining maximum performance, one of the holy grails of logic programming has been to design computational models that could be executed efficiently and that would allow both for a reduction of the search space and for exploiting all the available parallelism in the application. These goals have motivated the design of the Extended Andorra Model, a model where goals that do not constrain non-deterministic goals can execute first. In this work we present and evaluate the Basic design for Extended Andorra Model (BEAM), a system that builds upon David H. D. Warren's original EAM with Implicit Control. We provide a complete description and implementation of the BEAM System as a set of rewrite and control rules. We present the major data structures and execution algorithms that are required for efficient execution, and evaluate...
OSeMOSYS Energy Modeling Using an Extended UTOPIA Model
Lavigne, Denis
2017-01-01
The OSeMOSYS project offers open-access energy modeling to a wide audience. Its relative simplicity makes it appealing for academic research and governmental organizations to study the impacts of policy decisions on an energy system in the context of possibly severe greenhouse gases emissions limitations. OSeMOSYS is a tool that enhances the…
Extended Neural Metastability in an Embodied Model of Sensorimotor Coupling
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Miguel Aguilera
2016-09-01
Full Text Available The hypothesis that brain organization is based on mechanisms of metastable synchronization in neural assemblies has been popularized during the last decades of neuroscientific research. Nevertheless, the role of body and environment for understanding the functioning of metastable assemblies is frequently dismissed. The main goal of this paper is to investigate the contribution of sensorimotor coupling to neural and behavioural metastability using a minimal computational model of plastic neural ensembles embedded in a robotic agent in a behavioural preference task. Our hypothesis is that, under some conditions, the metastability of the system is not restricted to the brain but extends to the system composed by the interaction of brain, body and environment. We test this idea, comparing an agent in continuous interaction with its environment in a task demanding behavioural flexibility with an equivalent model from the point of view of 'internalist neuroscience'. A statistical characterization of our model and tools from information theory allows us to show how (1 the bidirectional coupling between agent and environment brings the system closer to a regime of criticality and triggers the emergence of additional metastable states which are not found in the brain in isolation but extended to the whole system of sensorimotor interaction, (2 the synaptic plasticity of the agent is fundamental to sustain open structures in the neural controller of the agent flexibly engaging and disengaging different behavioural patterns that sustain sensorimotor metastable states, and (3 these extended metastable states emerge when the agent generates an asymmetrical circular loop of causal interaction with its environment, in which the agent responds to variability of the environment at fast timescales while acting over the environment at slow timescales, suggesting the constitution of the agent as an autonomous entity actively modulating its sensorimotor coupling
Extended Neural Metastability in an Embodied Model of Sensorimotor Coupling
Aguilera, Miguel; Bedia, Manuel G.; Barandiaran, Xabier E.
2016-01-01
The hypothesis that brain organization is based on mechanisms of metastable synchronization in neural assemblies has been popularized during the last decades of neuroscientific research. Nevertheless, the role of body and environment for understanding the functioning of metastable assemblies is frequently dismissed. The main goal of this paper is to investigate the contribution of sensorimotor coupling to neural and behavioral metastability using a minimal computational model of plastic neural ensembles embedded in a robotic agent in a behavioral preference task. Our hypothesis is that, under some conditions, the metastability of the system is not restricted to the brain but extends to the system composed by the interaction of brain, body and environment. We test this idea, comparing an agent in continuous interaction with its environment in a task demanding behavioral flexibility with an equivalent model from the point of view of “internalist neuroscience.” A statistical characterization of our model and tools from information theory allow us to show how (1) the bidirectional coupling between agent and environment brings the system closer to a regime of criticality and triggers the emergence of additional metastable states which are not found in the brain in isolation but extended to the whole system of sensorimotor interaction, (2) the synaptic plasticity of the agent is fundamental to sustain open structures in the neural controller of the agent flexibly engaging and disengaging different behavioral patterns that sustain sensorimotor metastable states, and (3) these extended metastable states emerge when the agent generates an asymmetrical circular loop of causal interaction with its environment, in which the agent responds to variability of the environment at fast timescales while acting over the environment at slow timescales, suggesting the constitution of the agent as an autonomous entity actively modulating its sensorimotor coupling with the world. We
Extending the transdiagnostic model of attachment and psychopathology
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Tsachi eEin-Dor
2016-03-01
Full Text Available Research has suggested that high levels of attachment insecurities that are formed through interactions with significant others are associated with a general vulnerability to mental disorders. In the present paper, we extend Ein-Dor and Doron's (2015 transdiagnostic model linking attachment orientations with internalizing and externalizing symptoms, to include thought disorder spectrum symptoms. Specifically, we speculate on the processes that mediate the linkage between attachment insecurities and psychosis and obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD symptoms, and indicate the different contexts that might set a trajectory of one individual to one set of symptoms while another individual to a different set of symptoms.
Extended Bayesian Information Criteria for Gaussian Graphical Models
Foygel, Rina
2010-01-01
Gaussian graphical models with sparsity in the inverse covariance matrix are of significant interest in many modern applications. For the problem of recovering the graphical structure, information criteria provide useful optimization objectives for algorithms searching through sets of graphs or for selection of tuning parameters of other methods such as the graphical lasso, which is a likelihood penalization technique. In this paper we establish the consistency of an extended Bayesian information criterion for Gaussian graphical models in a scenario where both the number of variables p and the sample size n grow. Compared to earlier work on the regression case, our treatment allows for growth in the number of non-zero parameters in the true model, which is necessary in order to cover connected graphs. We demonstrate the performance of this criterion on simulated data when used in conjunction with the graphical lasso, and verify that the criterion indeed performs better than either cross-validation or the ordi...
Extended Nonnegative Tensor Factorisation Models for Musical Sound Source Separation
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Derry FitzGerald
2008-01-01
Full Text Available Recently, shift-invariant tensor factorisation algorithms have been proposed for the purposes of sound source separation of pitched musical instruments. However, in practice, existing algorithms require the use of log-frequency spectrograms to allow shift invariance in frequency which causes problems when attempting to resynthesise the separated sources. Further, it is difficult to impose harmonicity constraints on the recovered basis functions. This paper proposes a new additive synthesis-based approach which allows the use of linear-frequency spectrograms as well as imposing strict harmonic constraints, resulting in an improved model. Further, these additional constraints allow the addition of a source filter model to the factorisation framework, and an extended model which is capable of separating mixtures of pitched and percussive instruments simultaneously.
An Extended Clustering Algorithm for Statistical Language Models
Ueberla, J P
1994-01-01
Statistical language models frequently suffer from a lack of training data. This problem can be alleviated by clustering, because it reduces the number of free parameters that need to be trained. However, clustered models have the following drawback: if there is ``enough'' data to train an unclustered model, then the clustered variant may perform worse. On currently used language modeling corpora, e.g. the Wall Street Journal corpus, how do the performances of a clustered and an unclustered model compare? While trying to address this question, we develop the following two ideas. First, to get a clustering algorithm with potentially high performance, an existing algorithm is extended to deal with higher order N-grams. Second, to make it possible to cluster large amounts of training data more efficiently, a heuristic to speed up the algorithm is presented. The resulting clustering algorithm can be used to cluster trigrams on the Wall Street Journal corpus and the language models it produces can compete with exi...
Conformal standard model with an extended scalar sector
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Latosiński, Adam [Max-Planck-Institut für Gravitationsphysik (Albert-Einstein-Institut),Mühlenberg 1, D-14476 Potsdam (Germany); Lewandowski, Adrian; Meissner, Krzysztof A. [Faculty of Physics, University of Warsaw,Pasteura 5, 02-093 Warsaw (Poland); Nicolai, Hermann [Max-Planck-Institut für Gravitationsphysik (Albert-Einstein-Institut),Mühlenberg 1, D-14476 Potsdam (Germany)
2015-10-26
We present an extended version of the Conformal Standard Model (characterized by the absence of any new intermediate scales between the electroweak scale and the Planck scale) with an enlarged scalar sector coupling to right-chiral neutrinos. The scalar potential and the Yukawa couplings involving only right-chiral neutrinos are invariant under a new global symmetry SU(3){sub N} that complements the standard U(1){sub B−L} symmetry, and is broken explicitly only by the Yukawa interaction, of order O(10{sup −6}), coupling right-chiral neutrinos and the electroweak lepton doublets. We point out four main advantages of this enlargement, namely: (1) the economy of the (non-supersymmetric) Standard Model, and thus its observational success, is preserved; (2) thanks to the enlarged scalar sector the RG improved one-loop effective potential is everywhere positive with a stable global minimum, thereby avoiding the notorious instability of the Standard Model vacuum; (3) the pseudo-Goldstone bosons resulting from spontaneous breaking of the SU(3){sub N} symmetry are natural Dark Matter candidates with calculable small masses and couplings; and (4) the Majorana Yukawa coupling matrix acquires a form naturally adapted to leptogenesis. The model is made perturbatively consistent up to the Planck scale by imposing the vanishing of quadratic divergences at the Planck scale (‘softly broken conformal symmetry’). Observable consequences of the model occur mainly via the mixing of the new scalars and the standard model Higgs boson.
Applying the Extended Parallel Process Model to workplace safety messages.
Basil, Michael; Basil, Debra; Deshpande, Sameer; Lavack, Anne M
2013-01-01
The extended parallel process model (EPPM) proposes fear appeals are most effective when they combine threat and efficacy. Three studies conducted in the workplace safety context examine the use of various EPPM factors and their effects, especially multiplicative effects. Study 1 was a content analysis examining the use of EPPM factors in actual workplace safety messages. Study 2 experimentally tested these messages with 212 construction trainees. Study 3 replicated this experiment with 1,802 men across four English-speaking countries-Australia, Canada, the United Kingdom, and the United States. The results of these three studies (1) demonstrate the inconsistent use of EPPM components in real-world work safety communications, (2) support the necessity of self-efficacy for the effective use of threat, (3) show a multiplicative effect where communication effectiveness is maximized when all model components are present (severity, susceptibility, and efficacy), and (4) validate these findings with gory appeals across four English-speaking countries.
Modeling the heterogeneous intestinal absorption of propiverine extended-release.
Weiss, Michael; Sermsappasuk, Pakawadee; Siegmund, Werner
2015-08-30
Propiverine is a widely used antimuscarinic drug with bioavailability that is limited by intestinal first-pass extraction. To study the apparent heterogeneity in intestinal first-pass extraction, we performed a population analysis of oral concentration-time data measured after administration of an extended-release formulation of propiverine in ten healthy subjects. Using an inverse Gaussian function as input model, the assumption that the systemically available fraction increases as a sigmoidal function of time considerably improved the fit. The step-like increase in this fraction at time t=3.7h predicted by the model suggests that propiverine is predominantly absorbed in colon. A nearly perfect correlation was found between the estimates of bioavailability and mean dissolution time. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Extended Holstein polaron model for charge transfer in dry DNA
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Liu Tao; Wang Yi; Wang Ke-Lin
2007-01-01
The variational method is applied to the study of charge transfer in dry DNA by using an extended Holstein small polaron model in two cases: the site-dependent finite-chain discrete case and the site-independent continuous one. The treatments in the two cases are proven to be consistent in theory and calculation. Discrete and continuous treatments of Holstein model both can yield a nonlinear equation to describe the charge migration in an actual long-range DNA chain.Our theoretical results of binding energy Eb, probability amplitude of charge carrier φ and the relation between energy and charge-lattice coupling strength are in accordance with the available experimental results and recent theoretical calculations.
Gutzwiller study of extended Hubbard models with fixed boson densities
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kimura, Takashi [Department of Information Sciences, Kanagawa University, 2946 Tsuchiya, Hiratsuka, Kanagawa 259-1293 (Japan)
2011-12-15
We studied all possible ground states, including supersolid (SS) phases and phase separations of hard-core- and soft-core-extended Bose-Hubbard models with fixed boson densities by using the Gutzwiller variational wave function and the linear programming method. We found that the phase diagram of the soft-core model depends strongly on its transfer integral. Furthermore, for a large transfer integral, we showed that an SS phase can be the ground state even below or at half filling against the phase separation. We also found that the density difference between nearest-neighbor sites, which indicates the density order of the SS phase, depends strongly on the boson density and transfer integral.
Extended Group Contribution Model for Polyfunctional Phase Equilibria
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Abildskov, Jens
-liquid equilibria from data on binary mixtures, composed of structurally simple molecules with a single functional group. More complex is the situation with mixtures composed of structurally more complicated molecules or molecules with more than one functional group. The UNIFAC method is extended to handle...... polyfunctional group situations, based on additional information on molecular structure. The extension involves the addition of second-order correction terms to the existing equation. In this way the current first-order formulation is retained. The second-order concept is developed for mixture properties based....... In chapter 4 parameters are estimated for the first-order UNIFAC model, based on which parameters are estimated for one of the second-order models described in chapter 3. The parameter estimation is based on measured binary data on around 4000 systems, covering 11 C-, H- and O-containing functional groups...
Neitzel, Anne-Christin; Stamer, Eckhard; Junge, Wolfgang; Thaller, Georg
2015-05-01
Laboratory somatic cell count (LSCC) records are usually recorded monthly and provide an important information source for breeding and herd management. Daily milk viscosity detection in composite milking (expressed as drain time) with an automated on-line California Mastitis Test (CMT) could serve immediately as an early predictor of udder diseases and might be used as a selection criterion to improve udder health. The aim of the present study was to clarify the relationship between the well-established LSCS and the new trait,'drain time', and to estimate their correlations to important production traits. Data were recorded on the dairy research farm Karkendamm in Germany. Viscosity sensors were installed on every fourth milking stall in the rotary parlour to measure daily drain time records. Weekly LSCC and milk composition data were available. Two data sets were created containing records of 187,692 milkings from 320 cows (D1) and 25,887 drain time records from 311 cows (D2). Different fixed effect models, describing the log-transformed drain time (logDT), were fitted to achieve applicable models for further analysis. Lactation curves were modelled with standard parametric functions (Ali and Schaeffer, Legendre polynomials of second and third degree) of days in milk (DIM). Random regression models were further applied to estimate the correlations between cow effects between logDT and LSCS with further important production traits. LogDT and LSCS were strongest correlated in mid-lactation (r = 0.78). Correlations between logDT and production traits were low to medium. Highest correlations were reached in late lactation between logDT and milk yield (r = -0.31), between logDT and protein content (r = 0.30) and in early as well as in late lactation between logDT and lactose content (r = -0.28). The results of the present study show that the drain time could be used as a new trait for daily mastitis control.
Analysis of the phase structure in extended Higgs models
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Seniuch, M.
2006-07-07
We study the generation of the baryon asymmetry in the context of electroweak baryogenesis in two different extensions of the Standard Model. First, we consider an effective theory, in which the Standard Model is augmented by an additional dimension-six Higgs operator. The effects of new physics beyond a cut-off scale are parameterized by this operator. The second model is the two-Higgs-doublet model, whose particle spectrum is extended by two further neutral and two charged heavy Higgs bosons. In both cases we focus on the properties of the electroweak phase transition, especially on its strength and the profile of the nucleating bubbles. After reviewing some general aspects of the electroweak phase transition and baryogenesis we derive the respective thermal effective potentials to one-loop order. We systematically study the parameter spaces, using numerical methods, and compute the strength of the phase transition and the wall thickness as a function of the Higgs masses. We find a strong first order transition for a light Higgs state with a mass up to about 200 GeV. In case of the dimension-six model the cut-off scale has to stay between 500 and 850 GeV, in the two-Higgs-doublet model one needs at least one heavy Higgs mass of 300 GeV. The wall thickness varies for both theories in the range roughly from two to fifteen, in units of the inverse critical temperature. We also estimate the size of the electron and neutron electric dipole moments, since new sources of CP violation give rise to them. In wide ranges of the parameter space we are not in conflict with the experimental bounds. Finally the baryon asymmetry, which is predicted by these models, is related to the Higgs mass and the other appropriate input parameters. In both models the measured baryon asymmetry can be achieved for natural values of the model parameters. (orig.)
Extended nonlinear feedback model for describing episodes of high inflation
Szybisz, Martín A.; Szybisz, Leszek
2017-01-01
An extension of the nonlinear feedback (NLF) formalism to describe regimes of hyper- and high-inflation in economy is proposed in the present work. In the NLF model the consumer price index (CPI) exhibits a finite time singularity of the type 1 /(tc - t) (1 - β) / β, with β > 0, predicting a blow up of the economy at a critical time tc. However, this model fails in determining tc in the case of weak hyperinflation regimes like, e.g., that occurred in Israel. To overcome this trouble, the NLF model is extended by introducing a parameter γ, which multiplies all terms with past growth rate index (GRI). In this novel approach the solution for CPI is also analytic being proportional to the Gaussian hypergeometric function 2F1(1 / β , 1 / β , 1 + 1 / β ; z) , where z is a function of β, γ, and tc. For z → 1 this hypergeometric function diverges leading to a finite time singularity, from which a value of tc can be determined. This singularity is also present in GRI. It is shown that the interplay between parameters β and γ may produce phenomena of multiple equilibria. An analysis of the severe hyperinflation occurred in Hungary proves that the novel model is robust. When this model is used for examining data of Israel a reasonable tc is got. High-inflation regimes in Mexico and Iceland, which exhibit weaker inflations than that of Israel, are also successfully described.
Extended Nambu models: Their relation to gauge theories
Escobar, C. A.; Urrutia, L. F.
2017-05-01
Yang-Mills theories supplemented by an additional coordinate constraint, which is solved and substituted in the original Lagrangian, provide examples of the so-called Nambu models, in the case where such constraints arise from spontaneous Lorentz symmetry breaking. Some explicit calculations have shown that, after additional conditions are imposed, Nambu models are capable of reproducing the original gauge theories, thus making Lorentz violation unobservable and allowing the interpretation of the corresponding massless gauge bosons as the Goldstone bosons arising from the spontaneous symmetry breaking. A natural question posed by this approach in the realm of gauge theories is to determine under which conditions the recovery of an arbitrary gauge theory from the corresponding Nambu model, defined by a general constraint over the coordinates, becomes possible. We refer to these theories as extended Nambu models (ENM) and emphasize the fact that the defining coordinate constraint is not treated as a standard gauge fixing term. At this level, the mechanism for generating the constraint is irrelevant and the case of spontaneous Lorentz symmetry breaking is taken only as a motivation, which naturally bring this problem under consideration. Using a nonperturbative Hamiltonian analysis we prove that the ENM yields the original gauge theory after we demand current conservation for all time, together with the imposition of the Gauss laws constraints as initial conditions upon the dynamics of the ENM. The Nambu models yielding electrodynamics, Yang-Mills theories and linearized gravity are particular examples of our general approach.
Streamflow Data Assimilation in SWAT Model Using Extended Kalman Filter
Sun, L.; Nistor, I.; Seidou, O.
2014-12-01
Although Extended Kalman Filter (EKF) is regarded as the de facto method for the application of Kalman Filter in non-linear system, it's application to complex distributed hydrological models faces a lot of challenges. Ensemble Kalman Filter (EnKF) is often preferred because it avoids the calculation of the linearization Jacobian Matrix and the propagation of estimation error covariance. EnKF is however difficult to apply to large models because of the huge computation demand needed for parallel propagation of ensemble members. This paper deals with the application of EKF in stream flow prediction using the SWAT model in the watershed of Senegal River, West Africa. In the Jacobian Matrix calculation, SWAT is regarded as a black box model and the derivatives are calculated in the form of differential equations. The state vector is the combination of runoff, soil, shallow aquifer and deep aquifer water contents. As an initial attempt, only stream flow observations are assimilated. Despite the fact that EKF is a sub-optimal filter, the coupling of EKF significantly improves the estimation of daily streamflow. The results of SWAT+EKF are also compared to those of a simpler quasi linear streamflow prediction model where both state and parameters are updated with the EKF.
Extended duration local anesthetic agent in a rat paw model.
Ickowicz, D E; Golovanevski, L; Domb, A J; Weiniger, C F
2014-07-01
Encapsulated local anesthetics extend postoperative analgesic effect following site-directed nerve injection; potentially reducing postoperative complications. Our study aim was to investigate efficacy of our improved extended duration formulation - 15% bupivacaine in poly(DL-lactic acid co castor oil) 3:7 synthesized by ring opening polymerization. In vitro, around 70% of bupivacaine was released from the p(DLLA-CO) 3:7 after 10 days. A single injection of the optimal formulation of 15% bupivacaine-polymer or plain (0.5%) bupivacaine (control), was injected via a 22G needle beside the sciatic nerve of Sprague-Dawley rats under anesthesia; followed (in some animals) by a 1cm longitudinal incision through the skin and fascia of the paw area. Behavioral tests for sensory and motor block assessment were done using Hargreave's hot plate score, von Frey filaments and rearing count. The 15% bupivacaine formulation significantly prolonged sensory block duration up to at least 48 h. Following surgery, motor block was observed for 48 h following administration of bupivacaine-polymer formulation and rearing was reduced (returning to baseline after 48 h). No significant differences in mechanical nociceptive response were observed. The optimized bupivacaine-polymer formulation prolonged duration of local anesthesia effect in our animal model up to at least 48 h.
Evaluation of solids, nitrogen, and phosphorus excretion models for lactating dairy cows.
Hollmann, M; Knowlton, K F; Hanigan, M D
2008-03-01
Monitoring or accurately predicting manure quantities and nutrient concentrations is important for dairy farms facing strict environmental regulations. The objectives of this project were to determine the daily out-flow of manure nutrients from a free-stall barn using mass balance and to compare results with published excretion models. The project was conducted at the free-stall facility housing the lactating cow herd of the Virginia Tech Dairy Center in 2005. The herd consisted of 142 (+/-8.9) Holstein and Jersey cows with a mean body weight of 568 (+/-6.2) kg and average milk yield of 29.8 (+/-1.7) kg/d with 3.18% (+/-0.07) true protein and 3.81% (+/-0.13) milk fat on 18 sampling days. The intakes of dry matter (DM), N, and P were estimated from the formulated ration. Daily consumption averaged 21.7 (+/-0.27) kg of DM with 17.7% (+/-0.26) crude protein and 0.46% (+/-0.03) P. Approximately 110 (+/- 27.9) kg/d of sawdust was used as bedding; its contribution to manure flow was subtracted. The alleys in the free-stall barn were flushed every 6 h with recycled wastewater, and the slurry was collected. On 18 sampling days the volumes and constituents of the flushwater and the flushed manure were determined for a 6-h flush cycle and extrapolated to daily values. Net daily flow of solids and nutrients in manure were calculated as the differences between masses in flushed slurry and flushwater. Nitrogen and P excretion were also calculated from dietary inputs and milk output. The flow was compared with the American Society of Agricultural Engineers' (ASAE) standards. Each cow produced 5.80 kg/d of total solids (remainder after drying at 105 degrees C). The ASAE standard predicted DM (remainder after drying at 60 degrees C) excretion of 8.02 to 8.53 kg/d per cow. Recovery of P amounted to 74.8 g/d per cow. Overall, 102% of intake P was recovered; 75.1% in the manure outflow and 26.9% in milk. About 285 g/d and 148 g/d of N per cow were recaptured in manure and milk
A multifluid model extended for strong temperature nonequilibrium
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Chang, Chong [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)
2016-08-08
We present a multifluid model in which the material temperature is strongly affected by the degree of segregation of each material. In order to track temperatures of segregated form and mixed form of the same material, they are defined as different materials with their own energy. This extension makes it necessary to extend multifluid models to the case in which each form is defined as a separate material. Statistical variations associated with the morphology of the mixture have to be simplified. Simplifications introduced include combining all molecularly mixed species into a single composite material, which is treated as another segregated material. Relative motion within the composite material, diffusion, is represented by material velocity of each component in the composite material. Compression work, momentum and energy exchange, virtual mass forces, and dissipation of the unresolved kinetic energy have been generalized to the heterogeneous mixture in temperature nonequilibrium. The present model can be further simplified by combining all mixed forms of materials into a composite material. Molecular diffusion in this case is modeled by the Stefan-Maxwell equations.
How Stueckelberg Extends the Standard Model and the MSSM
Körs, B; Kors, Boris; Nath, Pran
2005-01-01
Abelian vector bosons can get massive through the Stueckelberg mechanism without spontaneous symmetry breaking via condensation of Higgs scalar fields. This appears very naturally in models derived from string theory and supergravity. The simplest scenarios of this type consist of extensions of the Standard Model (SM) or the minimal supersymmetric standard model (MSSM) by an extra U(1)_X gauge group with Stueckelberg type couplings. For the SM, the physical spectrum is extended by a massive neutral gauge boson Z' only, while the extension of the MSSM contains a CP-even neutral scalar and two extra neutralinos. The new gauge boson Z' can be very light compared to other models with U(1)' extensions. Among the new features of the Stueckelberg extension of the MSSM, the most striking is the possibility of a new lightest supersymmetric particle (LSP) chi_{St}^0 which is mostly composed of Stueckelberg fermions. In this scenario the LSP of the MSSM chi_1^0 is unstable and decays into chi_{St}^0. Such decays alter t...
"Let's Move" campaign: applying the extended parallel process model.
Batchelder, Alicia; Matusitz, Jonathan
2014-01-01
This article examines Michelle Obama's health campaign, "Let's Move," through the lens of the extended parallel process model (EPPM). "Let's Move" aims to reduce the childhood obesity epidemic in the United States. Developed by Kim Witte, EPPM rests on the premise that people's attitudes can be changed when fear is exploited as a factor of persuasion. Fear appeals work best (a) when a person feels a concern about the issue or situation, and (b) when he or she believes to have the capability of dealing with that issue or situation. Overall, the analysis found that "Let's Move" is based on past health campaigns that have been successful. An important element of the campaign is the use of fear appeals (as it is postulated by EPPM). For example, part of the campaign's strategies is to explain the severity of the diseases associated with obesity. By looking at the steps of EPPM, readers can also understand the strengths and weaknesses of "Let's Move."
Postcorrection and mathematical model of life in Extended Everett's Concept
Mensky, Michael B
2007-01-01
Extended Everett's Concept (EEC) recently developed by the author to explain the phenomenon of consciousness is considered. A mathematical model is proposed for the principal feature of consciousness assumed in EEC, namely its ability (in the state of sleep, trance or meditation, when the explicit consciousness is disabled) to obtain information from all alternative classical realities (Everett's worlds) and select the favorable realities. To represent this ability, a mathematical operation called postcorrection is introduced, which corrects the present state to guarantee certain characteristics of the future state. Evolution of living matter is thus determined by goals (first of all by the goal of survival) as well as by causes. The resulting theory, in a way symmetrical in time direction, follows from a sort of antropic principle. Possible criteria for postcorrection and corresponding phenomena in the sphere of life are classified. Both individual and collective criteria of survival are considered as well a...
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Amy S Biddle
Full Text Available Laminitis is a chronic, crippling disease triggered by the sudden influx of dietary starch. Starch reaches the hindgut resulting in enrichment of lactic acid bacteria, lactate accumulation, and acidification of the gut contents. Bacterial products enter the bloodstream and precipitate systemic inflammation. Hindgut lactate levels are normally low because specific bacterial groups convert lactate to short chain fatty acids. Why this mechanism fails when lactate levels rapidly rise, and why some hindgut communities can recover is unknown. Fecal samples from three adult horses eating identical diets provided bacterial communities for this in vitro study. Triplicate microcosms of fecal slurries were enriched with lactate and/or starch. Metabolic products (short chain fatty acids, headspace gases, and hydrogen sulfide were measured and microbial community compositions determined using Illumina 16S rRNA sequencing over 12-hour intervals. We report that patterns of change in short chain fatty acid levels and pH in our in vitro system are similar to those seen in in vivo laminitis induction models. Community differences between microcosms with disparate abilities to clear excess lactate suggest profiles conferring resistance of starch-induction conditions. Where lactate levels recover following starch induction conditions, propionate and acetate levels rise correspondingly and taxa related to Megasphaeraelsdenii reach levels exceeding 70% relative abundance. In lactate and control cultures, taxa related to Veillonellamontpellierensis are enriched as lactate levels fall. Understanding these community differences and factors promoting the growth of specific lactate utilizing taxa may be useful to prevent acidosis under starch-induction conditions.
DCC&U: An Extended Digital Curation Lifecycle Model
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Panos Constantopoulos
2009-06-01
Full Text Available Normal 0 The proliferation of Web, database and social networking technologies has enabled us to produce, publish and exchange digital assets at an enormous rate. This vast amount of information that is either digitized or born-digital needs to be collected, organized and preserved in a way that ensures that our digital assets and the information they carry remain available for future use. Digital curation has emerged as a new inter-disciplinary practice that seeks to set guidelines for disciplined management of information. In this paper we review two recent models for digital curation introduced by the Digital Curation Centre (DCC and the Digital Curation Unit (DCU of the Athena Research Centre. We then propose a fusion of the two models that highlights the need to extend the digital curation lifecycle by adding (a provisions for the registration of usage experience, (b a stage for knowledge enhancement and (c controlled vocabularies used by convention to denote concepts, properties and relations. The objective of the proposed extensions is twofold: (i to provide a more complete lifecycle model for the digital curation domain; and (ii to provide a stimulus for a broader discussion on the research agenda.
New extended standard model, dark matters and relativity theory
Hwang, Jae-Kwang
2016-03-01
Three-dimensional quantized space model is newly introduced as the extended standard model. Four three-dimensional quantized spaces with total 12 dimensions are used to explain the universes including ours. Electric (EC), lepton (LC) and color (CC) charges are defined to be the charges of the x1x2x3, x4x5x6 and x7x8x9 warped spaces, respectively. Then, the lepton is the xi(EC) - xj(LC) correlated state which makes 3x3 = 9 leptons and the quark is the xi(EC) - xj(LC) - xk(CC) correlated state which makes 3x3x3 = 27 quarks. The new three bastons with the xi(EC) state are proposed as the dark matters seen in the x1x2x3 space, too. The matter universe question, three generations of the leptons and quarks, dark matter and dark energy, hadronization, the big bang, quantum entanglement, quantum mechanics and general relativity are briefly discussed in terms of this new model. The details can be found in the article titled as ``journey into the universe; three-dimensional quantized spaces, elementary particles and quantum mechanics at https://www.researchgate.net/profile/J_Hwang2''.
Lin, Zhoumeng; Cuneo, Matthew; Rowe, Joan D.; Li, Mengjie; Tell, Lisa A; Allison, Shayna; Carlson, Jan; Riviere, Jim E.; Gehring, Ronette
2016-01-01
Background Extra-label use of tulathromycin in lactating goats is common and may cause violative residues in milk. The objective of this study was to develop a nonlinear mixed-effects pharmacokinetic (NLME-PK) model to estimate tulathromycin depletion in plasma and milk of lactating goats. Eight lactating goats received two subcutaneous injections of 2.5 mg/kg tulathromycin 7 days apart; blood and milk samples were analyzed for concentrations of tulathromycin and the common fragment of tulath...
Baryon-Baryon Interactions ---Nijmegen Extended-Soft-Core Models---
Rijken, T. A.; Nagels, M. M.; Yamamoto, Y.
We review the Nijmegen extended-soft-core (ESC) models for the baryon-baryon (BB) interactions of the SU(3) flavor-octet of baryons (N, Lambda, Sigma, and Xi). The interactions are basically studied from the meson-exchange point of view, in the spirit of the Yukawa-approach to the nuclear force problem [H. Yukawa, ``On the interaction of Elementary Particles I'', Proceedings of the Physico-Mathematical Society of Japan 17 (1935), 48], using generalized soft-core Yukawa-functions. These interactions are supplemented with (i) multiple-gluon-exchange, and (ii) structural effects due to the quark-core of the baryons. We present in some detail the most recent extended-soft-core model, henceforth referred to as ESC08, which is the most complete, sophisticated, and successful interaction-model. Furthermore, we discuss briefly its predecessor the ESC04-model [Th. A. Rijken and Y. Yamamoto, Phys. Rev. C 73 (2006), 044007; Th. A. Rijken and Y. Yamamoto, Ph ys. Rev. C 73 (2006), 044008; Th. A. Rijken and Y. Yamamoto, nucl-th/0608074]. For the soft-core one-boson-exchange (OBE) models we refer to the literature [Th. A. Rijken, in Proceedings of the International Conference on Few-Body Problems in Nuclear and Particle Physics, Quebec, 1974, ed. R. J. Slobodrian, B. Cuec and R. Ramavataram (Presses Universitè Laval, Quebec, 1975), p. 136; Th. A. Rijken, Ph. D. thesis, University of Nijmegen, 1975; M. M. Nagels, Th. A. Rijken and J. J. de Swart, Phys. Rev. D 17 (1978), 768; P. M. M. Maessen, Th. A. Rijken and J. J. de Swart, Phys. Rev. C 40 (1989), 2226; Th. A. Rijken, V. G. J. Stoks and Y. Yamamoto, Phys. Rev. C 59 (1999), 21; V. G. J. Stoks and Th. A. Rijken, Phys. Rev. C 59 (1999), 3009]. All ingredients of these latter models are also part of ESC08, and so a description of ESC08 comprises all models so far in principle. The extended-soft-core (ESC) interactions consist of local- and non-local-potentials due to (i) one-boson-exchanges (OBE), which are the members of nonets of
Extended MHD Modeling of Tearing-Driven Magnetic Relaxation
Sauppe, Joshua
2016-10-01
Driven plasma pinch configurations are characterized by the gradual accumulation and episodic release of free energy in discrete relaxation events. The hallmark of this relaxation in a reversed-field pinch (RFP) plasma is flattening of the parallel current density profile effected by a fluctuation-induced dynamo emf in Ohm's law. Nonlinear two-fluid modeling of macroscopic RFP dynamics has shown appreciable coupling of magnetic relaxation and the evolution of plasma flow. Accurate modeling of RFP dynamics requires the Hall effect in Ohm's law as well as first order ion finite Larmor radius (FLR) effects, represented by the Braginskii ion gyroviscous stress tensor. New results find that the Hall dynamo effect from / ne can counter the MHD effect from - in some of the relaxation events. The MHD effect dominates these events and relaxes the current profile toward the Taylor state, but the opposition of the two dynamos generates plasma flow in the direction of equilibrium current density, consistent with experimental measurements. Detailed experimental measurements of the MHD and Hall emf terms are compared to these extended MHD predictions. Tracking the evolution of magnetic energy, helicity, and hybrid helicity during relaxation identifies the most important contributions in single-fluid and two-fluid models. Magnetic helicity is well conserved relative to the magnetic energy during relaxation. The hybrid helicity is dominated by magnetic helicity in realistic low-beta pinch conditions and is also well conserved. Differences of less than 1 % between magnetic helicity and hybrid helicity are observed with two-fluid modeling and result from cross helicity evolution through ion FLR effects, which have not been included in contemporary relaxation theories. The kinetic energy driven by relaxation in the computations is dominated by velocity components perpendicular to the magnetic field, an effect that had not been predicted. Work performed at University of Wisconsin
Low-energy limit of the extended Linear Sigma Model
Divotgey, Florian; Giacosa, Francesco; Rischke, Dirk H
2016-01-01
The extended Linear Sigma Model (eLSM) is an effective hadronic model based on the linear realization of chiral symmetry $SU(N_f)_L \\times SU(N_f)_R$, with (pseudo)scalar and (axial-)vector mesons as degrees of freedom. In this paper, we study the low-energy limit of the eLSM for $N_f=2$ flavors by integrating out all fields except for the pions, the (pseudo-)Nambu--Goldstone bosons of chiral symmetry breaking. We only keep terms entering at tree level and up to fourth order in powers of derivatives of the pion fields. Up to this order, there are four low-energy coupling constants in the resulting low-energy effective action. We show that the latter is formally identical to Chiral Perturbation Theory (ChPT), after choosing a representative for the coset space generated by chiral symmetry breaking and expanding up to fourth order in powers of derivatives of the pion fields. Two of the low-energy coupling constants of the eLSM are uniquely determined by a fit to hadron masses and decay widths. We find that thei...
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Lukacova, Slavka; Sørensen, Brita; Alsner, Jan
2008-01-01
Aim. To investigate the direct relationship between tumour hypoxia and lactate dehydrogenase (Ldh) levels in serum and tumour in two different pre-clinical murine models. Materials and methods. Experiments were performed in CDF1 or C3H/Km mice implanted with a C3H mammary carcinoma and SCCVII...... carcinoma bearing mice. Reoxygenation for 4 or 24 hours had no additional effect on Ldh activity in any of the models. Discussion. Serum Ldh activity can be a marker for tumour burden in certain types of cancer. The relationship between serum and tumour Ldh and tumour hypoxia has not been confirmed. However...
Unaltered lactate and glucose transporter levels in the MPTP mouse model of Parkinson's disease
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Puchades, Maja; Sogn, Carl Johan; Maehlen, Jan
2013-01-01
BACKGROUND: Metabolic impairment contributes to development of Parkinson's disease (PD). Mitochondrial dysfunction is involved in degeneration of nigral dopamine neurons. Also, in PD there are alterations in glucose metabolism in nigro-striatal pathways, and increased cerebral lactate levels have...... of MCT1, MCT2 and GLUT1 is not changed following dopaminergic neurodegeneration. This is in contrast to findings in other neurodegenerative disease, such as mesial temporal lobe epilepsy, where there are large alterations in MCT levels....
Polarons in semiconducting polymers: Study within an extended Holstein model
Meisel, K. D.; Vocks, H.; Bobbert, P. A.
2005-05-01
We present a study of electron- (hole-) phonon interaction and polaron formation in semiconducting polymers within an extended Holstein model. A minimization of the lowest electronic state of this Hamiltonian with respect to lattice degrees of freedom yields the polaronic ground state. Input parameters of this Hamiltonian are obtained from ab initio calculations based on the density-functional theory. We calculate optical phonon modes and the coupling constants of these modes to the highest occupied and lowest unoccupied molecular orbital bands, respectively. For the studied polymers [polythiophene, poly(phenylenevinylene), poly(para-phenylene)] the polaron binding energy, its size, and the lattice deformation as a function of conjugation length have been determined. Self-trapped polarons are found for long conjugation lengths. Energies of prominent PPV modes involved in polaron formation agree with infrared spectra. The polaron binding energies we find are much smaller than the width of the energy disorder in polymeric systems of practical importance, thus self-trapping effects can be ignored in practice.
Progressive Impairment of Lactate-based Gluconeogenesis in the Huntington's Disease Mouse Model R6/2
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Nielsen, Signe Marie Borch; Hasholt, Lis; Nørremølle, Anne;
2015-01-01
Huntington's disease (HD) is a neurodegenerative illness, where selective neuronal loss in the brain caused by expression of mutant huntingtin protein leads to motor dysfunction and cognitive decline in addition to peripheral metabolic changes. In this study we confirm our previous observation...... of impairment of lactate-based hepatic gluconeogenesis in the transgenic HD mouse model R6/2 and determine that the defect manifests very early and progresses in severity with disease development, indicating a potential to explore this defect in a biomarker context. Moreover, R6/2 animals displayed lower blood...
Roy, Jean-Philippe; DesCôteaux, Luc; DuTremblay, Denis; Beaudry, Francis; Elsener, Johanne
2009-12-01
This study determined the efficacy of a 5-day extended therapy with cephapirin sodium in dairy cows chronically infected with Staphylococcus aureus. Chronically infected cows selected from 14 dairy herds in the St-Hyacinthe region, Québec were randomly allocated to a group of 31 cows treated for 5 consecutive days with 200 mg of cephapirin per quarter BID or a group of 30 untreated control cows. Bacteriological cure was determined by 3 negative bacterial cultures at 10, 24, and 31 days after treatment. The cow cure rates were 25.8% (8/31) in the treated cows and 3.3% (1/30) in the control group (P = 0.013). The quarter cure rates at first sampling post-treatment were 77.6% (38/49) and 18% (9/50) in the treated and the control groups, respectively (P < 0.0001). A 5-day extended therapy with cephapirin is effective in treating cows chronically infected with S. aureus.
Emergent lattices with geometrical frustration in doped extended Hubbard models
Kaneko, Ryui; Tocchio, Luca F.; Valentí, Roser; Gros, Claudius
2016-11-01
Spontaneous charge ordering occurring in correlated systems may be considered as a possible route to generate effective lattice structures with unconventional couplings. For this purpose we investigate the phase diagram of doped extended Hubbard models on two lattices: (i) the honeycomb lattice with on-site U and nearest-neighbor V Coulomb interactions at 3 /4 filling (n =3 /2 ) and (ii) the triangular lattice with on-site U , nearest-neighbor V , and next-nearest-neighbor V' Coulomb interactions at 3 /8 filling (n =3 /4 ). We consider various approaches including mean-field approximations, perturbation theory, and variational Monte Carlo. For the honeycomb case (i), charge order induces an effective triangular lattice at large values of U /t and V /t , where t is the nearest-neighbor hopping integral. The nearest-neighbor spin exchange interactions on this effective triangular lattice are antiferromagnetic in most of the phase diagram, while they become ferromagnetic when U is much larger than V . At U /t ˜(V/t ) 3 , ferromagnetic and antiferromagnetic exchange interactions nearly cancel out, leading to a system with four-spin ring-exchange interactions. On the other hand, for the triangular case (ii) at large U and finite V', we find no charge order for small V , an effective kagome lattice for intermediate V , and one-dimensional charge order for large V . These results indicate that Coulomb interactions induce [case (i)] or enhance [case(ii)] emergent geometrical frustration of the spin degrees of freedom in the system, by forming charge order.
Guo, Z; Lund, M S; Madsen, P; Korsgaard, I; Jensen, J
2002-06-01
The objectives of this study were to test for heterogeneity of genetic and environmental variance among completed and extended records from different lactations or different days in milk (DIM) and to build a model that accounts for this heterogeneity. A total of 147,457 305-d milk yield records from Danish Jersey cows calving between 1984 and early 1999 from two regions of Denmark were used in this study. Results showed that DIM and parity influenced parameters estimated from an animal model with repeated records. Therefore, the data were analyzed using random-regression models that allow the covariance between measurements to change gradually with DIM and parity. Random regressions were fitted for additive genetic effects and permanent environmental effects using second- or third-order normalized Legendre polynomials for DIM and parity. Variances of random-regression coefficients associated with all orders of the polynomials were significant. Based on these parameter estimates, a covariance function (CF) was defined. The CF showed that the heritability decreases over parities, but within each parity heritability increases with DIM, whereas variance of permanent environmental effects increases over parities and decreases with DIM. Generally, genetic correlations were higher between records with similar DIM and parity. The results indicate that there are problems with the extension procedure used to predict 305-d milk yields. Using the covariance functions estimated in this study, breeding values could be predicted that take into account the covariance structure between records from different parities and different DIM.
Modeling of heavy metal salt solubility using the Extended UNIQUAC model
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Iliuta, Maria Cornelia; Thomsen, Kaj; Rasmussen, Peter
2002-01-01
Solid-liquid equilibria in complex aqueous systems involving a heavy metal cation (Mn2+, Fe2+, Co2+, Ni2+, Cu2+, or Zn2+) and one or more ions for which Extended UNIQUAC parameters have been published previously are modeled using the Extended UNIQUAC model. Model parameters are determined...... on the basis of a data bank with more than 4, 000 experimental data points for binary and ternary aqueous systems. The parameters are generally valid in the temperature range from the freezing point to the boiling point of the respective solutions....
Thermodynamic modelling of acid gas removal from natural gas using the Extended UNIQUAC model
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Sadegh, Negar; Stenby, Erling Halfdan; Thomsen, Kaj
2017-01-01
Thermodynamics of natural gas sweetening process needs to be known for proper design of natural gas treating plants. Absorption with aqueous N-Methyldiethanolamine is currently the most commonly used process for removal of acid gas (CO2 and H2S) impurities from natural gas. Model parameters...... for the Extended UNIQUAC model have already been determined by the same authors to calculate single acid gas solubility in aqueous MDEA. In this study, the model is further extended to estimate solubility of CO2 and H2S and their mixture in aqueous MDEA at high pressures with methane as a makeup gas....
Glynn, Danielle J; Hutchinson, Mark R; Ingman, Wendy V
2014-05-01
Lactation mastitis is a debilitating inflammatory breast disease in postpartum women. Disease severity is associated with markers of inflammation rather than bacterial load, suggesting that immune-signaling pathways activated in the host are important in the disease pathology. The role of the innate pattern recognition receptor toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) in progression and resolution of mastitislike disease was investigated in a mouse model. Lipopolysaccharide in Matrigel (10 μg/10 μl) was administered into the teat canal of lactating Tlr4 null mutant and wild-type mice to induce a localized area of inflammation. Mastitis induction resulted in a marked influx of RB6-positive neutrophils and F4/80-positive macrophages, which was higher in Tlr4(-/-) mice compared to wild-type mice. Tlr4 null mutation resulted in an altered immune-signaling fingerprint following induction of mastitis, with attenuated serum cytokines, including CXCL1, CCL2, interleukin 1 beta, and tumor necrosis factor alpha compared to wild-type mice. In both genotypes, the localized area of inflammation had resolved after 7 days, and milk protein was evident. However, the mammary glands of wild-type mice exhibited reduced capacity for milk production, with decreased percent area populated with glandular epithelium and decreased abundance of nuclear phosphorylated signal transducer and activator of transcription 5 compared to Tlr4 null mice. This study demonstrates that inflammatory pathways activated in the host are critically important in mastitis disease progression and suggests that lactation insufficiency associated with mastitis may be a consequence of TLR4-mediated inflammation, rather than the bacterial infection itself.
Ringer's lactate improves liver recovery in a murine model of acetaminophen toxicity
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Yang Runkuan
2011-11-01
Full Text Available Abstract Background Acetaminophen (APAP overdose induces massive hepatocyte necrosis. Liver regeneration is a vital process for survival after a toxic insult. Since hepatocytes are mostly in a quiescent state (G0, the regeneration process requires the priming of hepatocytes by cytokines such as TNF-α and IL-6. Ringer's lactate solution (RLS has been shown to increase serum TNF-α and IL-6 in patients and experimental animals; in addition, RLS also provides lactate, which can be used as an alternative metabolic fuel to meet the higher energy demand by liver regeneration. Therefore, we tested whether RLS therapy improves liver recovery after APAP overdose. Methods C57BL/6 male mice were intraperitoneally injected with a single dose of APAP (300 mg/kg dissolved in 1 mL sterile saline. Following 2 hrs of APAP challenge, the mice were given 1 mL RLS or Saline treatment every 12 hours for a total of 72 hours. Results 72 hrs after APAP challenge, compared to saline-treated group, RLS treatment significantly lowered serum transaminases (ALT/AST and improved liver recovery seen in histopathology. This beneficial effect was associated with increased hepatic tissue TNF-α concentration, enhanced hepatic NF-κB DNA binding and increased expression of cell cycle protein cyclin D1, three important factors in liver regeneration. Conclusion RLS improves liver recovery from APAP hepatotoxicity.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Jørgensen, Peter Løchte
Extended Nelson-Siegel models are widely used by e.g. practitioners and central banks to estimate current term structures of riskless zero-coupon interest rates, whereas other models such as the extended Vasicek model (a.k.a. the Hull-White model) are popular for pricing interest rate derivatives....... This paper establishes theoretical consistency between these two types of models by showing how to specify the extended Vasicek model such that its implied initial term structure curve precisely matches a given extended Nelson-Siegel specification. That is, we show how to reconcile the two classes of models...
Lahutte-Auboin, Marion; Guillevin, Rémy; Françoise, Jean-Pierre; Vallée, Jean-Noël; Costalat, Robert
2013-03-01
WHO II low grade glioma evolves inevitably to anaplastic transformation. Magnetic resonance imaging is a good non-invasive way to watch it, by hemodynamic and metabolic modifications, thanks to multinuclear spectroscopy (1)H/(31)P. In this work we study a multi-scale minimal model of hemodynamics and metabolism applied to the study of gliomas. This mathematical analysis leads us to a fast-slow system. The control of the position of the stationary point brings to the concept of domain of viability. Starting from this system, the equations bring to light the parameters that push glioma cells out of their domain of viability. Four fundamental factors are highlighted. The first two are cerebral blood flow and the rate of lactate transport through monocarboxylate transporters, which must be reduced in order to push glioma out of its domain of viability. Another factor is the intra arterial lactate, which must be increased. The last factor is pH, indeed a decrease of intra cellular pH could interfere with glioma growth. These reflections suggest that these four parameters could lead to new therapeutic strategies for the management of low grade gliomas.
Mills, J.A.N.; Dijkstra, J.; Bannink, A.; Cammell, S.B.; Kebreab, E.; France, J.
2001-01-01
Dietary intervention to reduce methane emissions from lactating dairy cattle is both environmentally and nutritionally desirable due to the importance of methane as a causative agent in global warming and as a significant loss of feed energy. Reliable prediction systems for methane production over a
The effect of lactation length on greenhouse gas emissions from the national dairy herd.
Wall, E; Coffey, M P; Pollott, G E
2012-11-01
Many governments have signed up to greenhouse gas emission (GHGE) reduction programmes under their national climate change obligations. Recently, it has been suggested that the use of extended lactations in dairy herds could result in reduced GHGE. Dairy GHGE were modelled on a national basis and the model was used to compare emissions from lactations of three different lengths (305, 370 and 440 days), and a current 'base' scenario on the basis of maintaining current milk production levels. In addition to comparing GHGE from the average 'National Herd' under these scenarios, results were used to investigate how accounting for lactations of different lengths might alter the estimation of emissions calculated from the National Inventory methodology currently recommended by Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. Data for the three lactation length scenarios were derived from nationally recorded dairy performance information and used in the GHGE model. Long lactations required fewer milking cows and replacements to maintain current milk yield levels than short ones, but GHGEs were found to rise from 1214 t of CO2 equivalent (CE)/farm per year for lactations of 305 days to 1371 t CE/farm per year for 440-day lactations. This apparent anomaly can be explained by the less efficient milk production (kg milk produced per kg cow weight) found in later lactation, a more pronounced effect in longer lactations. The sensitivity of the model to changes in replacement rate, persistency and level of milk yield was investigated. Changes in the replacement rate from 25% to 20% and in persistency by −10% to +20% resulted in very small changes in GHGE. Differences in GHGE due to the level of milk yield were much more dramatic with animals in the top 10% for yield, producing about 25% less GHGE/year than the average animal. National Inventory results were investigated using a more realistic spread of lactation lengths than recommended for such calculations using emissions
Extending the Compensatory Model of Second Language Reading
McNeil, Levi
2012-01-01
Bernhardt (2005) proposed a compensatory model of second language reading. This model predicted that 50% of second language (L2) reading scores are attributed to second language knowledge and first-language (L1) reading ability. In this model, these two factors compensate for deficiencies in each other. Although this model explains a significant…
Roberts, M S; Anissimov, Y G
1999-08-01
The conventional convection-dispersion (also called axial dispersion) model is widely used to interrelate hepatic availability (F) and clearance (Cl) with the morphology and physiology of the liver and to predict effects such as changes in liver blood flow on F and Cl. An extended form of the convection-dispersion model has been developed to adequately describe the outflow concentration-time profiles for vascular markers at both short and long times after bolus injections into perfused livers. The model, based on flux concentration and a convolution of catheters and large vessels, assumes that solute elimination in hepatocytes follows either fast distribution into or radial diffusion in hepatocytes. The model includes a secondary vascular compartment, postulated to be interconnecting sinusoids. Analysis of the mean hepatic transit time (MTT) and normalized variance (CV2) of solutes with extraction showed that the discrepancy between the predictions of MTT and CV2 for the extended and unweighted conventional convection-dispersion models decreases as hepatic extraction increases. A correspondence of more than 95% in F and Cl exists for all solute extractions. In addition, the analysis showed that the outflow concentration-time profiles for both the extended and conventional models are essentially identical irrespective of the magnitude of rate constants representing permeability, volume, and clearance parameters, providing that there is significant hepatic extraction. In conclusion, the application of a newly developed extended convection-dispersion model has shown that the unweighted conventional convection-dispersion model can be used to describe the disposition of extracted solutes and, in particular, to estimate hepatic availability and clearance in both experimental and clinical situations.
Practice models and roles of physician extenders in dermatologic surgery.
Tierney, Emily P; Hanke, C William; Kimball, Alexa Boer
2011-05-01
The prevalence of physician extenders (PEs) has increased significantly in dermatologic surgery over the last decade. An analysis was performed of the staff in dermatologic surgery practices, roles of PEs, and level of supervision. Mohs fellowship-trained (MMSFT) dermatologic surgeons were more likely to employ registered nurses (n=85, 73.9%) than non-fellowship-trained (NMMSFT) surgeons (n=65, 50.0%, pdermatology patients, but NMMSFT surgeons were twice as likely as MMSFT surgeons to have their PEs involved in performing or assisting with cosmetic procedures. MMSFT surgeons (38.5%) were twice as likely to have direct supervision of their PEs as NMMSFT surgeons (16.1%, p=.01). PEs are highly prevalent in dermatologic surgery practices and are playing direct roles in the delivery of dermatologic care. Promoting patient safety through appropriate extender supervision and reporting of patient outcomes are highly needed as this sector of the dermatologic surgery workforce continues to expand. © 2011 by the American Society for Dermatologic Surgery, Inc.
Doorenbos, J; Martín-Tereso, J; Dijkstra, J; van Laar, H
2017-07-01
Aggregating rumen degradation characteristics of different carbohydrate components into the term modeled rapidly degradable carbohydrates (mRDC) can simplify diet formulation by accounting for differences in rate and extent of carbohydrate degradation within and between feedstuffs. This study sought to evaluate responses of lactating dairy cows to diets formulated with increasing levels of mRDC, keeping the supply of other nutrients as constant as possible. The mRDC content of feedstuffs was calculated based on a simple rumen model including soluble, washable, and nonwashable but potentially degradable fractions, as well as the fractional degradation and passage rates, of sugar, starch, neutral detergent fiber, and other carbohydrates. The mRDC term effectively represents the total amount of carbohydrates degraded in the rumen within 2 h after ingestion. Fifty-two lactating Holstein cows (of which 4 were rumen fistulated) were assigned to 4 treatments in a 4 × 4 Latin square design. Treatments were fed as a total mixed ration consisting of 25.4% corn silage, 23.1% grass silage, 11.6% grass hay, and 39.9% concentrate on a dry matter basis. Differences in mRDC were created by exchanging nonforage neutral detergent fiber-rich ingredients (mainly sugar beet pulp) with starch-rich ingredients (mainly wheat) and by exchanging corn (slowly degradable starch) with wheat (rapidly degradable starch) in the concentrate, resulting in 4 treatments that varied in dietary mRDC level of 167, 181, 194, or 208 g/kg of dry matter. Level of mRDC did not affect dry matter intake. Fat- and protein-corrected milk production and milk fat and lactose yield were greatest at 181 mRDC and decreased with further increases in mRDC. Milk protein yield and concentration increased with increasing mRDC level. Mean rumen pH and diurnal variation in ruminal pH did not differ between treatments. Total daily meal time and number of visits per meal were smaller at 181 and 194 mRDC. Despite milk
Silvestre, A M; Petim-Batista, F; Colaço, J
2006-05-01
Daily milk yield over the course of the lactation follows a curvilinear pattern, so a suitable function is required to model this curve. In this study, 7 functions (Wood, Wilmink, Ali and Schaeffer, cubic splines, and 3 Legendre polynomials) were used to model the lactation curve at the phenotypic level, using both daily observations and data from commonly used recording schemes. The number of observations per lactation varied from 4 to 11. Several criteria based on the analysis of the real error were used to compare models. The performance of models showed few discrepancies in the comparison criteria when daily or 4-weekly (with first test at days in milk 8) data by lactation were used. The performance of the Wood, Wilmink, and Ali and Schaeffer models were highly affected by the reduction of the sample dimension. The results of this work support the idea that the performance of these models depends on the sample properties but also shows considerable variation within the sampling groups.
Modelling and analysis of Markov reward automata (extended version)
Guck, Dennis; Timmer, Mark; Hatefi, Hassan; Ruijters, Enno; Stoelinga, Mariëlle
2014-01-01
Costs and rewards are important ingredients for cyberphysical systems, modelling critical aspects like energy consumption, task completion, repair costs, and memory usage. This paper introduces Markov reward automata, an extension of Markov automata that allows the modelling of systems incorporating
Cameron, Lindsey; Rutland, Adam; Brown, Rupert; Douch, Rebecca
2006-01-01
The present research evaluated an intervention, derived from the "extended contact hypothesis," which aimed to change children's intergroup attitudes toward refugees. The study (n=253) tested 3 models of extended contact among 5- to 11-year-old children: dual identity, common ingroup identity, and decategorization. Children read friendship stories based upon these models featuring in- and outgroup members. Outgroup attitudes were significantly more positive in the extended contact conditions,...
Muon anomalous magnetic moment in string inspired extended family models
Kephart, T W
2002-01-01
We propose a standard model minimal extension with two lepton weak SU(2) doublets and a scalar singlet to explain the deviation of the measured anomalous magnetic moment of the muon from the standard model expectation. This scheme can be naturally motivated in string inspired models such as E_6 and AdS/CFT.
Extending enterprise architecture modelling with business goals and requirements
Engelsman, Wilco; Quartel, Dick; Jonkers, Henk; Sinderen, van Marten
2011-01-01
The methods for enterprise architecture (EA), such as The Open Group Architecture Framework, acknowledge the importance of requirements modelling in the development of EAs. Modelling support is needed to specify, document, communicate and reason about goals and requirements. The current modelling te
An extended dual search space model of scientific discovery learning
Joolingen, van Wouter R.; Jong, de Ton
1997-01-01
This article describes a theory of scientific discovery learning which is an extension of Klahr and Dunbar''s model of Scientific Discovery as Dual Search (SDDS) model. We present a model capable of describing and understanding scientific discovery learning in complex domains in terms of the SDDS fr
Faraway, Julian J
2005-01-01
Linear models are central to the practice of statistics and form the foundation of a vast range of statistical methodologies. Julian J. Faraway''s critically acclaimed Linear Models with R examined regression and analysis of variance, demonstrated the different methods available, and showed in which situations each one applies. Following in those footsteps, Extending the Linear Model with R surveys the techniques that grow from the regression model, presenting three extensions to that framework: generalized linear models (GLMs), mixed effect models, and nonparametric regression models. The author''s treatment is thoroughly modern and covers topics that include GLM diagnostics, generalized linear mixed models, trees, and even the use of neural networks in statistics. To demonstrate the interplay of theory and practice, throughout the book the author weaves the use of the R software environment to analyze the data of real examples, providing all of the R commands necessary to reproduce the analyses. All of the ...
A cosmological dust model with extended f({chi}) gravity
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Carranza, D.A.; Mendoza, S.; Torres, L.A. [Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Instituto de Astronomia, AP 70-264, Distrito Federal (Mexico)
2013-01-15
Introducing a fundamental constant of nature with dimensions of acceleration into the theory of gravity makes it possible to extend gravity in a very consistent manner. At the non-relativistic level a MOND-like theory with a modification in the force sector is obtained, which is the limit of a very general metric relativistic theory of gravity. Since the mass and length scales involved in the dynamics of the whole universe require small accelerations of the order of Milgrom's acceleration constant a{sub 0}, it turns out that the relativistic theory of gravity can be used to explain the expansion of the universe. In this work it is explained how to use that relativistic theory of gravity in such a way that the overall large-scale dynamics of the universe can be treated in a pure metric approach without the need to introduce dark matter and/or dark energy components. (orig.)
Bhattacharjee, Tanmoy; Maru, Girish; Ingle, Arvind; Krishna, C. Murali
2013-04-01
Raman spectroscopy (RS) has been extensively explored as an alternative diagnostic tool for breast cancer. This can be attributed to its sensitivity to malignancy-associated biochemical changes. However, biochemical changes due to nonmalignant conditions like benign lesions, inflammatory diseases, aging, menstrual cycle, pregnancy, and lactation may act as confounding factors in diagnosis of breast cancer. Therefore, in this study, the efficacy of RS to classify pregnancy and lactation-associated changes as well as its effect on breast tumor diagnosis was evaluated. Since such studies are difficult in human subjects, a mouse model was used. Spectra were recorded transcutaneously from the breast region of six Swiss bare mice postmating, during pregnancy, and during lactation. Data were analyzed using multivariate statistical tool Principal Component-Linear Discriminant Analysis. Results suggest that RS can differentiate breasts of pregnant/lactating mice from those of normal mice, the classification efficiencies being 100%, 60%, and 88% for normal, pregnant, and lactating mice, respectively. Frank breast tumors could be classified with 97.5% efficiency, suggesting that these physiological changes do not affect the ability of RS to detect breast tumors.
Extending enterprise architecture modelling with business goals and requirements
Engelsman, Wilco; Quartel, Dick; Jonkers, Henk; van Sinderen, Marten
2011-02-01
The methods for enterprise architecture (EA), such as The Open Group Architecture Framework, acknowledge the importance of requirements modelling in the development of EAs. Modelling support is needed to specify, document, communicate and reason about goals and requirements. The current modelling techniques for EA focus on the products, services, processes and applications of an enterprise. In addition, techniques may be provided to describe structured requirements lists and use cases. Little support is available however for modelling the underlying motivation of EAs in terms of stakeholder concerns and the high-level goals that address these concerns. This article describes a language that supports the modelling of this motivation. The definition of the language is based on existing work on high-level goal and requirements modelling and is aligned with an existing standard for enterprise modelling: the ArchiMate language. Furthermore, the article illustrates how EA can benefit from analysis techniques from the requirements engineering domain.
Faculty's Acceptance of Computer Based Technology: Cross-Validation of an Extended Model
Ahmad, Tunku Badariah Tunku; Madarsha, Kamal Basha; Zainuddin, Ahmad Marzuki; Ismail, Nik Ahmad Hisham; Nordin, Mohamad Sahari
2010-01-01
The first aim of the present study is to validate an extended technology acceptance model (TAME) on the data derived from the faculty members of a university in an ongoing, computer mediated work setting. The study extended the original TAM model by including an intrinsic motivation component--computer self efficacy. In so doing, the study…
Extending the generalized Chaplygin gas model by using geometrothermodynamics
Aviles, Alejandro; Campuzano, Lorena; Quevedo, Hernando
2012-01-01
We use the formalism of geometrothermodynamics (GTD) to derive fundamental thermodynamic equations that are used to construct general relativistic cosmological models. In particular, we show that the simplest possible fundamental equation, which corresponds in GTD to a system with no internal thermodynamic interaction, describes the different fluids of the standard model of cosmology. In addition, a particular fundamental equation with internal thermodynamic interaction is shown to generate a new cosmological model that correctly describes the dark sector of the Universe and contains as a special case the generalized Chaplygin gas model.
Efficient Modelling and Generation of Markov Automata (extended version)
Timmer, Mark; Katoen, Joost-Pieter; Pol, van de Jaco; Stoelinga, Mariëlle
2012-01-01
This paper introduces a framework for the efficient modelling and generation of Markov automata. It consists of (1) the data-rich process-algebraic language MAPA, allowing concise modelling of systems with nondeterminism, probability and Markovian timing; (2) a restricted form of the language, the M
Hyperstate matrix models : extending demographic state spaces to higher dimensions
Roth, G.; Caswell, H.
2016-01-01
1. Demographic models describe population dynamics in terms of the movement of individuals among states (e.g. size, age, developmental stage, parity, frailty, physiological condition). Matrix population models originally classified individuals by a single characteristic. This was enlarged to two cha
Hazard identification by extended multilevel flow modelling with function roles
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Wu, Jing; Zhang, Laibin; Jørgensen, Sten Bay
2014-01-01
HAZOP studies are widely accepted in chemical and petroleum industries as the method for conducting process hazard analysis related to design, maintenance and operation of th e systems. In this paper, a HAZOP reasoning method based on function-oriented modelling, multilevel flow modelling (MFM) i...
Extended master equation models for molecular communication networks
Chou, Chun Tung
2012-01-01
We consider molecular communication networks consisting of transmitters and receivers distributed in a fluidic medium. In such networks, a transmitter sends one or more signalling molecules, which are diffused over the medium, to the receiver to realise the communication. In order to be able to engineer synthetic molecular communication networks, mathematical models for these networks are required. This paper proposes a new stochastic model for molecular communication networks called reaction-diffusion master equation with exogenous input (RDMEX). The key idea behind RDMEX is to model the transmitters as time sequences specify the emission patterns of signalling molecules, while diffusion in the medium and chemical reactions at the receivers are modelled as Markov processes using master equation. An advantage of RDMEX is that it can readily be used to model molecular communication networks with multiple transmitters and receivers. For the case where the reaction kinetics at the receivers is linear, we show ho...
Crompton, L A; France, J; Reynolds, C K; Mills, J A N; Hanigan, M D; Ellis, J L; Bannink, A; Bequette, B J; Dijkstra, J
2014-10-21
An isotope dilution model for partitioning phenylalanine and tyrosine uptake by the mammary gland of the lactating dairy cow is constructed and solved in the steady state. The model contains four intracellular and four extracellular pools and conservation of mass principles are applied to generate the fundamental equations describing the behaviour of the system. The experimental measurements required for model solution are milk secretion and plasma flow rate across the gland in combination with phenylalanine and tyrosine concentrations and plateau isotopic enrichments in arterial and venous plasma and free and protein bound milk during a constant infusion of [1-(13)C]phenylalanine and [2,3,5,6-(2)H]tyrosine tracer. If assumptions are made, model solution enables determination of steady state flows for phenylalanine and tyrosine inflow to the gland, outflow from it and bypass, and flows representing the synthesis and degradation of constitutive protein and phenylalanine hydroxylation. The model is effective in providing information about the fates of phenylalanine and tyrosine in the mammary gland and could be used as part of a more complex system describing amino acid metabolism in the whole ruminant.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Faramarzi, Leila; Kontogeorgis, Georgios; Thomsen, Kaj
2009-01-01
The extended UNIQUAC model [K. Thomsen, R Rasmussen, Chem. Eng. Sci. 54 (1999) 1787-1802] was applied to the thermodynamic representation of carbon dioxide absorption in aqueous monoethanolamine (MEA), methyldiethanolamine (MDEA) and varied strength mixtures of the two alkanolamines (MEA-MDEA). F......The extended UNIQUAC model [K. Thomsen, R Rasmussen, Chem. Eng. Sci. 54 (1999) 1787-1802] was applied to the thermodynamic representation of carbon dioxide absorption in aqueous monoethanolamine (MEA), methyldiethanolamine (MDEA) and varied strength mixtures of the two alkanolamines (MEA......) are included in the parameter estimation process. The previously unavailable standard state properties of the alkanolamine ions appearing in this work, i.e. MEA protonate, MEA carbamate and MDEA protonate are determined. The concentration of the species in both MEA and MDEA solutions containing CO2...
Extended master equation models for molecular communication networks.
Chou, Chun Tung
2013-06-01
We consider molecular communication networks consisting of transmitters and receivers distributed in a fluidic medium. In such networks, a transmitter sends one or more signaling molecules, which are diffused over the medium, to the receiver to realize the communication. In order to be able to engineer synthetic molecular communication networks, mathematical models for these networks are required. This paper proposes a new stochastic model for molecular communication networks called reaction-diffusion master equation with exogenous input (RDMEX). The key idea behind RDMEX is to model the transmitters as time series of signaling molecule counts, while diffusion in the medium and chemical reactions at the receivers are modeled as Markov processes using master equation. An advantage of RDMEX is that it can readily be used to model molecular communication networks with multiple transmitters and receivers. For the case where the reaction kinetics at the receivers is linear, we show how RDMEX can be used to determine the mean and covariance of the receiver output signals, and derive closed-form expressions for the mean receiver output signal of the RDMEX model. These closed-form expressions reveal that the output signal of a receiver can be affected by the presence of other receivers. Numerical examples are provided to demonstrate the properties of the model.
Extending the Modelling Framework for Gas-Particle Systems
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Rosendahl, Lasse Aistrup
, with very good results. Single particle combustion has been tested using a number of different particle combustion models applied to coal and straw particles. Comparing the results of these calculations to measurements on straw burnout, the results indicate that for straw, existing heterogeneous combustion...... models perform well, and may be used in high temperature ranges. Finally, the particle tracking and combustion model is applied to an existing coal and straw co- fuelled burner. The results indicate that again, the straw follows very different trajectories than the coal particles, and also that burnout...
Internet enabled modelling of extended manufacturing enterprises using the process based techniques
Cheng, K; Popov, Y
2004-01-01
The paper presents the preliminary results of an ongoing research project on Internet enabled process-based modelling of extended manufacturing enterprises. It is proposed to apply the Open System Architecture for CIM (CIMOSA) modelling framework alongside with object-oriented Petri Net models of enterprise processes and object-oriented techniques for extended enterprises modelling. The main features of the proposed approach are described and some components discussed. Elementary examples of ...
Modern elementary particle physics explaining and extending the standard model
Kane, Gordon
2017-01-01
This book is written for students and scientists wanting to learn about the Standard Model of particle physics. Only an introductory course knowledge about quantum theory is needed. The text provides a pedagogical description of the theory, and incorporates the recent Higgs boson and top quark discoveries. With its clear and engaging style, this new edition retains its essential simplicity. Long and detailed calculations are replaced by simple approximate ones. It includes introductions to accelerators, colliders, and detectors, and several main experimental tests of the Standard Model are explained. Descriptions of some well-motivated extensions of the Standard Model prepare the reader for new developments. It emphasizes the concepts of gauge theories and Higgs physics, electroweak unification and symmetry breaking, and how force strengths vary with energy, providing a solid foundation for those working in the field, and for those who simply want to learn about the Standard Model.
An extended multi-zone combustion model for PCI simulation
Kodavasal, Janardhan; Keum, SeungHwan; Babajimopoulos, Aristotelis
2011-12-01
Novel combustion modes are becoming an important area of research with emission regulations more stringent than ever before, and with fuel economy being assigned greater importance every day. Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) and Premixed Compression Ignition (PCI) modes in particular promise better fuel economy and lower emissions in internal combustion engines. Multi-zone combustion models have been popular in modelling HCCI combustion. In this work, an improved multi-zone model is suggested for PCI combustion modelling. A new zoning scheme is suggested based on incorporating the internal energy of formation into an earlier conventional HCCI multi-zone approach, which considers a two-dimensional reaction space defined by equivalence ratio and temperature. It is shown that the added dimension improves zoning by creating more representative zones, and thus reducing errors compared to the conventional zoning approach, when applied to PCI simulation.
Overwinding in a stochastic model of an extended polymer
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Bernido, Christopher C. [Research Center for Theoretical Physics, Central Visayan Institute Foundation, Jagna, Bohol 6308 (Philippines)], E-mail: cbernido@mozcom.com; Carpio-Bernido, M. Victoria [Research Center for Theoretical Physics, Central Visayan Institute Foundation, Jagna, Bohol 6308 (Philippines)
2007-09-10
We evaluate explicit expressions of length-dependent winding configuration probabilities for a biopolymer. The stochastic model incorporates several experimentally observed features. In particular, it exhibits overwinding under stretching forces until a critical length of the polymer is reached.
Extended Rasch Modeling: The eRm Package for the Application of IRT Models in R
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Patrick Mair
2007-02-01
Full Text Available Item response theory models (IRT are increasingly becoming established in social science research, particularly in the analysis of performance or attitudinal data in psychology, education, medicine, marketing and other fields where testing is relevant. We propose the R package eRm (extended Rasch modeling for computing Rasch models and several extensions. A main characteristic of some IRT models, the Rasch model being the most prominent, concerns the separation of two kinds of parameters, one that describes qualities of the subject under investigation, and the other relates to qualities of the situation under which the response of a subject is observed. Using conditional maximum likelihood (CML estimation both types of parameters may be estimated independently from each other. IRT models are well suited to cope with dichotomous and polytomous responses, where the response categories may be unordered as well as ordered. The incorporation of linear structures allows for modeling the effects of covariates and enables the analysis of repeated categorical measurements. The eRm package fits the following models: the Rasch model, the rating scale model (RSM, and the partial credit model (PCM as well as linear reparameterizations through covariate structures like the linear logistic test model (LLTM, the linear rating scale model (LRSM, and the linear partial credit model (LPCM. We use an unitary, efficient CML approach to estimate the item parameters and their standard errors. Graphical and numeric tools for assessing goodness-of-fit are provided.
Improved Nucleon Properties in the Extended Quark Sigma Model
Abu-Shady, M
2013-01-01
The quark sigma model describes the quarks interacting via exchange the pions and sigma meson fields. A new version of mesonic potential is suggested in the frame of some aspects of the quantum chromodynamics (QCD). The field equations have been solved in the mean-field approximation for the hedgehog baryon state. The obtained results are compared with previous works and other models. We conclude that the suggested mesonic potential successfully calculates nucleon properties.
Extended model of restricted beam for FSO links
Poliak, Juraj; Wilfert, Otakar
2012-10-01
Modern wireless optical communication systems in many aspects overcome wire or radio communications. Their advantages are license-free operation and broad bandwidth that they offer. The medium in free-space optical (FSO) links is the atmosphere. Operation of outdoor FSO links struggles with many atmospheric phenomena that deteriorate phase and amplitude of the transmitted optical beam. This beam originates in the transmitter and is affected by its individual parts, especially by the lens socket and the transmitter aperture, where attenuation and diffraction effects take place. Both of these phenomena unfavourable influence the beam and cause degradation of link availability, or its total malfunction. Therefore, both of these phenomena should be modelled and simulated, so that one can judge the link function prior to the realization of the system. Not only the link availability and reliability are concerned, but also economic aspects. In addition, the transmitted beam is not, generally speaking, circularly symmetrical, what makes the link simulation more difficult. In a comprehensive model, it is necessary to take into account the ellipticity of the beam that is restricted by circularly symmetrical aperture where then the attenuation and diffraction occur. General model is too computationally extensive; therefore simplification of the calculations by means of analytical and numerical approaches will be discussed. Presented model is not only simulated using computer, but also experimentally proven. One can then deduce the ability of the model to describe the reality and to estimate how far can one go with approximations, i.e. limitations of the model are discussed.
Stability analysis of traffic flow with extended CACC control models
Ya-Zhou, Zheng; Rong-Jun, Cheng; Siu-Ming, Lo; Hong-Xia, Ge
2016-06-01
To further investigate car-following behaviors in the cooperative adaptive cruise control (CACC) strategy, a comprehensive control system which can handle three traffic conditions to guarantee driving efficiency and safety is designed by using three CACC models. In this control system, some vital comprehensive information, such as multiple preceding cars’ speed differences and headway, variable safety distance (VSD) and time-delay effect on the traffic current and the jamming transition have been investigated via analytical or numerical methods. Local and string stability criterion for the velocity control (VC) model and gap control (GC) model are derived via linear stability theory. Numerical simulations are conducted to study the performance of the simulated traffic flow. The simulation results show that the VC model and GC model can improve driving efficiency and suppress traffic congestion. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 71571107 and 11302110). The Scientific Research Fund of Zhejiang Province, China (Grant Nos. LY15A020007, LY15E080013, and LY16G010003). The Natural Science Foundation of Ningbo City (Grant Nos. 2014A610030 and 2015A610299), the Fund from the Government of the Hong Kong Administrative Region, China (Grant No. CityU11209614), and the K C Wong Magna Fund in Ningbo University, China.
Extending the LCDM model through shear-free anisotropies
Pereira, Thiago S
2016-01-01
If the spacetime metric has anisotropic spatial curvature, one can afford to expand the universe isotropically, provided that the energy-momentum tensor satisfy a certain con- straint. This leads to the so-called shear-free metrics, which have the interesting property of violating the cosmological principle while still preserving the isotropy of the cosmic mi- crowave background (CMB) radiation. In this work we show that shear-free cosmologies correspond to an attractor solution in the space of models with anisotropic spatial curva- ture. Through a rigorous definition of linear perturbation theory in these spacetimes, we show that shear-free models represent a viable alternative to describe the large-scale evo- lution of the universe, leading, in particular, to a kinematically equivalent Sachs-Wolfe effect. Alternatively, we discuss some specific signatures that shear-free models would imprint on the temperature spectrum of CMB.
An extended model for electron spin polarization in photosynthetic bacteria
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Morris, A.L.; Norris, J.R. (Argonne National Lab., IL (USA) Chicago Univ., IL (USA). Dept. of Chemistry); Thurnauer, M.C. (Argonne National Lab., IL (USA))
1990-01-01
We have developed a general model for electron spin polarization which includes contributions from both CIDEP (chemically induced dynamic electron polarization) and CRP (correlated radical polarization). In this paper, we apply this model to sequential electron transfer in photosynthetic bacteria. Our model calculates the density matrix for the P{sup +}I{sup {minus}} radical pair and transfers the polarization as it develops to the P{sup +}Q{sup {minus}} radical pair. We illustrate several possible cases. One case is equivalent to CIDEP; no interactions are included on the secondary radical pair, P{sup +}Q{sup {minus}}. Another approximates CRPP by either increasing the transfer rate from P{sup +}I{sup {minus}} to P{sup +}Q{sup {minus}} or restricting interactions to the secondary radical pair, P{sup +}Q{sup {minus}}. Others allow interactions on both the primary and secondary radical pairs with various transfer rates. 15 refs., 4 figs.
Extending the dimensionality of flatland with attribute view probabilistic models
Neufeld, Eric; Bickis, Mikelis; Grant, Kevin
2008-01-01
In much of Bertin's Semiology of Graphics, marks representing individuals are arranged on paper according to their various attributes (components). Paper and computer monitors can conveniently map two attributes to width and height, and can map other attributes into nonspatial dimensions such as texture, or colour. Good visualizations exploit the human perceptual apparatus so that key relationships are quickly detected as interesting patterns. Graphical models take a somewhat dual approach with respect to the original information. Components, rather than individuals, are represented as marks. Links between marks represent conceptually simple, easily computable, and typically probabilistic relationships of possibly varying strength, and the viewer studies the diagram to discover deeper relationships. Although visually annotated graphical models have been around for almost a century, they have not been widely used. We argue that they have the potential to represent multivariate data as generically as pie charts represent univariate data. The present work suggests a semiology for graphical models, and discusses the consequences for information visualization.
Elementary particles, dark matter candidate and new extended standard model
Hwang, Jaekwang
2017-01-01
Elementary particle decays and reactions are discussed in terms of the three-dimensional quantized space model beyond the standard model. Three generations of the leptons and quarks correspond to the lepton charges. Three heavy leptons and three heavy quarks are introduced. And the bastons (new particles) are proposed as the possible candidate of the dark matters. Dark matter force, weak force and strong force are explained consistently. Possible rest masses of the new particles are, tentatively, proposed for the experimental searches. For more details, see the conference paper at https://www.researchgate.net/publication/308723916.
Extending MBI Model using ITIL and COBIT Processes
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Sona Karkoskova
2015-10-01
Full Text Available Most organizations today operate in a highly complex and competitive business environment and need to be able to react to rapidly changing market conditions. IT management frameworks are widely used to provide effective support for business objectives through aligning IT with business and optimizing the use of IT resources. In this paper we analyze three IT management frameworks (ITIL, COBIT and MBI with the objective to identify the relationships between these frameworks, and mapping ITIL and COBIT processes to MBI tasks. As a result of this analysis we propose extensions to the MBI model to incorporate IT Performance Management and a Capability Maturity Model.
Extended nonlinear feedback model for describing episodes of high inflation
Szybisz, M A; Szybisz, L.
2016-01-01
An extension of the nonlinear feedback (NLF) formalism to describe regimes of hyper- and high-inflation in economy is proposed in the present work. In the NLF model the consumer price index (CPI) exhibits a finite time singularity of the type $1/(t_c -t)^{(1- \\beta)/\\beta}$, with $\\beta>0$, predicting a blow up of the economy at a critical time $t_c$. However, this model fails in determining $t_c$ in the case of weak hyperinflation regimes like, e.g., that occurred in Israel. To overcome this...
Incommensurate Antiferromagnetism in the Extended t-J Model
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
LIANG Ying; MA Tian-Xing; FENG Shi-Ping; CHEN Wei-Yeu
2002-01-01
The effect of the extra second neighbor hopping t' on the incommensurate spin correlation in the t-J modelin the underdoped regime is studied within the fermion-spin theory. It is shown that although the extra second neighborhopping t' is systematically accompanied with the increasing of the weight of the incommensurate peaks in the dynamicalspin structure factor, for the physical reasonable small value of t' the qualitative behavior of the incommensurate spincorrelation in the t-t'-J model is the same as in the case of t-J model.
Extending radiative transfer models by use of Bayes rule. [in atmospheric science
Whitney, C.
1977-01-01
This paper presents a procedure that extends some existing radiative transfer modeling techniques to problems in atmospheric science where curvature and layering of the medium and dynamic range and angular resolution of the signal are important. Example problems include twilight and limb scan simulations. Techniques that are extended include successive orders of scattering, matrix operator, doubling, Gauss-Seidel iteration, discrete ordinates and spherical harmonics. The procedure for extending them is based on Bayes' rule from probability theory.
An extended topological model for binary phosphate glasses
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Hermansen, Christian; Rodrigues, B.P.; Wondraczek, L.
2014-01-01
the model reduces to classical constraint counting. The constraints on the modifying cations are linear constraints to first neighbor NBOs, and all angular constraints are broken as expected for ionic bonding. For small modifying cations, such as Li+, the linear constraints are almost fully intact...
Experimental validation of extended NO and soot model for advanced HD diesel engine combustion
Seykens, X.L.J.; Baert, R.S.G.; Somers, L.M.T.; Willems, F.P.T.
2009-01-01
A computationally efficient engine model is developed based on an extended NO emission model and state-of-the-art soot model. The model predicts exhaust NO and soot emission for both conventional and advanced, high-EGR (up to 50%), heavy-duty DI diesel combustion. Modeling activities have aimed at l
Extending UML-RT for Control System Modeling
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Qimin Gao
2004-01-01
Full Text Available There is a growing interest in adopting object technologies for the development of real-time control systems. Several commercial tools, currently available, provide object-oriented modeling and design support for real-time control systems. While these products provide many useful facilities, such as visualization tools and automatic code generation, they are all weak in addressing the central characteristic of real-time control systems design, i.e., providing support for a designer to reason about timeliness properties. We believe an approach that integrates the advancements in both object modeling and design methods and real-time scheduling theory is the key to successful use of object technology for real-time software. Surprisingly several past approaches to integrate the two either restrict the object models, or do not allow sophisticated schedulability analysis techniques. This study shows how schedulability analysis can be integrated with UML for Real-Time (UML-RT to deal with timing properties in real time control systems. More specifically, we develop the schedulability and feasibility analysis modeling for the external messages that may suffer release jitter due to being dispatched by a tick driven scheduler in real-time control system and we also develop the scheduliablity modeling for sporadic activities, where messages arrive sporadically then execute periodically for some bounded time. This method can be used to cope with timing constraints in realistic and complex real-time control systems. Using this method, a designer can quickly evaluate the impact of various implementation decisions on schedulability. In conjunction with automatic code generation, we believe that this will greatly streamline the design and development of real-time control systems software.
Modeling of carbon dioxide absorption by aqueous ammonia solutions using the Extended UNIQUAC model
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Darde, Victor Camille Alfred; van Well, Willy J. M.; Stenby, Erling Halfdan
2010-01-01
and the concentration range up to 80 molal ammonia. In this work, the validity of this model was extended up to 150°C and the accuracy improved by increasing the number of experimental data points from 2000 to more than 3500. These experimental data consisting of vapor-liquid equilibrium data in various concentration...... ranges, enthalpy change from partial evaporation measurements, speciation data, heat capacity, enthalpy of solution and enthalpy of dilution data have been used to refit 43 model parameters and standard state properties. Henry’s law constant correlations have been used for extrapolating standard state...
Searches for Neutral Higgs Bosons in Extended Models
Abdallah, J; Adam, W; Adzic, P; Albrecht, T; Alderweireld, T; Alemany-Fernandez, R; Allmendinger, T; Allport, P P; Amaldi, Ugo; Amapane, N; Amato, S; Anashkin, E; Andreazza, A; Andringa, S; Anjos, N; Antilogus, P; Apel, W D; Arnoud, Y; Ask, S; Åsman, B; Augustin, J E; Augustinus, A; Baillon, Paul; Ballestrero, A; Bambade, P; Barbier, R; Bardin, Dimitri Yuri; Barker, G J; Baroncelli, A; Battaglia, Marco; Baubillier, M; Becks, K H; Begalli, M; Behrmann, A; Ben-Haim, E; Benekos, N C; Benvenuti, Alberto C; Bérat, C; Berggren, M; Berntzon, L; Bertrand, D; Besançon, M; Besson, N; Bloch, D; Blom, M; Bluj, M; Bonesini, M; Boonekamp, M; Booth, P S L; Borisov, G; Botner, O; Bouquet, B; Bowcock, T J V; Boyko, I; Bracko, M; Brenner, R; Brodet, E; Brückman, P; Brunet, J M; Bugge, L; Buschmann, P; Calvi, M; Camporesi, T; Canale, V; Carena, F; Castro, N; Cavallo, F R; Chapkin, M M; Charpentier, P; Checchia, P; Chierici, R; Shlyapnikov, P; Chudoba, J; Chung, S U; Cieslik, K; Collins, P; Contri, R; Cosme, G; Cossutti, F; Costa, M J; Crennell, D J; Cuevas-Maestro, J; D'Hondt, J; Dalmau, J; Da Silva, T; Da Silva, W; Della Ricca, G; De Angelis, A; de Boer, Wim; De Clercq, C; De Lotto, B; De Maria, N; De Min, A; De Paula, L S; Di Ciaccio, L; Di Simone, A; Doroba, K; Drees, J; Dris, M; Eigen, G; Ekelöf, T J C; Ellert, M; Elsing, M; Espirito-Santo, M C; Fanourakis, G K; Fassouliotis, D; Feindt, M; Fernández, J; Ferrer, A; Ferro, F; Flagmeyer, U; Föth, H; Fokitis, E; Fulda-Quenzer, F; Fuster, J A; Gandelman, M; García, C; Gavillet, P; Gazis, E N; Gokieli, R; Golob, B; Gómez-Ceballos, G; Gonçalves, P; Graziani, E; Grosdidier, G; Grzelak, K; Guy, J; Haag, C; Hallgren, A; Hamacher, K; Hamilton, K; Haug, S; Hauler, F; Hedberg, V; Hennecke, M; Herr, H; Hoffman, J; Holmgren, S O; Holt, P J; Houlden, M A; Hultqvist, K; Jackson, J N; Jarlskog, G; Jarry, P; Jeans, D; Johansson, E K; Johansson, P D; Jonsson, P; Joram, C; Jungermann, L; Kapusta, F; Katsanevas, S; Katsoufis, E C; Kernel, G; Kersevan, B P; Kerzel, U; Kiiskinen, A P; King, B T; Kjaer, N J; Kluit, P; Kokkinias, P; Kourkoumelis, C; Kuznetsov, O; Krumshtein, Z; Kucharczyk, M; Lamsa, J; Leder, G; Ledroit, F; Leinonen, L; Leitner, R; Lemonne, J; Lepeltier, V; Lesiak, T; Liebig, W; Liko, D; Lipniacka, A; Lopes, J H; López, J M; Loukas, D; Lutz, P; Lyons, L; MacNaughton, J; Malek, A; Maltezos, S; Mandl, F; Marco, J; Marco, R; Maréchal, B; Margoni, M; Marin, J C; Mariotti, C; Markou, A; Martínez-Rivero, C; Masik, J; Mastroyiannopoulos, N; Matorras, F; Matteuzzi, C; Mazzucato, F; Mazzucato, M; McNulty, R; Meroni, C; Migliore, E; Mitaroff, W A; Mjörnmark, U; Moa, T; Moch, M; Mönig, K; Monge, R; Montenegro, J; Moraes, D; Moreno, S; Morettini, P; Müller, U; Münich, K; Mulders, M; Mundim, L; Murray, W; Muryn, B; Myatt, G; Myklebust, T; Nassiakou, M; Navarria, Francesco Luigi; Nawrocki, K; Nicolaidou, R; Nikolenko, M; Oblakowska-Mucha, A; Obraztsov, V F; Olshevskii, A G; Onofre, A; Orava, R; Österberg, K; Ouraou, A; Oyanguren, A; Paganoni, M; Paiano, S; Palacios, J P; Palka, H; Papadopoulou, T D; Pape, L; Parkes, C; Parodi, F; Parzefall, U; Passeri, A; Passon, O; Peralta, L; Perepelitsa, V F; Perrotta, A; Petrolini, A; Piedra, J; Pieri, L; Pierre, F; Pimenta, M; Piotto, E; Podobnik, T; Poireau, V; Pol, M E; Polok, G; Pozdnyakov, V; Pukhaeva, N; Pullia, A; Rames, J; Read, A; Rebecchi, P; Rehn, J; Reid, D; Reinhardt, R; Renton, P B; Richard, F; Rídky, J; Rivero, M; Rodríguez, D; Romero, A; Ronchese, P; Roudeau, P; Rovelli, T; Ruhlmann-Kleider, V; Ryabtchikov, D; Sadovskii, A; Salmi, L; Salt, J; Sander, C; Savoy-Navarro, A; Schwickerath, U; Segar, A; Sekulin, R L; Siebel, M; Sissakian, A N; Smadja, G; Smirnova, O G; Sokolov, A; Sopczak, A; Sosnowski, R; Spassoff, Tz; Stanitzki, M; Stocchi, A; Strauss, J; Stugu, B; Szczekowski, M; Szeptycka, M; Szumlak, T; Tabarelli de Fatis, T; Taffard, A C; Tegenfeldt, F; Timmermans, J; Tkatchev, L G; Tobin, M; Todorovova, S; Tomé, B; Tonazzo, A; Tortosa, P; Travnicek, P; Treille, D; Tristram, G; Trochimczuk, M; Troncon, C; Turluer, M L; Tyapkin, I A; Tyapkin, P; Tzamarias, S; Uvarov, V; Valenti, G; van Dam, P; Van Eldik, J; Van Lysebetten, A; Van Remortel, N; Van Vulpen, I; Vegni, G; Veloso, F; Venus, W; Verdier, P; Verzi, V; Vilanova, D; Vitale, L; Vrba, V; Wahlen, H; Washbrook, A J; Weiser, C; Wicke, D; Wickens, J; Wilkinson, G; Winter, M; Witek, M; Yushchenko, O P; Zalewska-Bak, A; Zalewski, P; Zavrtanik, D; Zhuravlov, V; Zimin, N I; Zintchenko, A; Zupan, M
2004-01-01
Searches for neutral Higgs bosons produced at LEP in association with Z bosons, in pairs and in the Yukawa process are presented in this paper. Higgs boson decays into b quarks, tau leptons, or other Higgs bosons are considered, giving rise to four-b, four-b+jets, six-b and four-tau final states, as well as mixed modes with b quarks and tau leptons. The whole mass domain kinematically accessible at LEP in these topologies is searched. The analysed data set covers both the LEP1 and LEP2 energy ranges and exploits most of the luminosity recorded by the DELPHI experiment. No convincing evidence for a signal is found, and results are presented in the form of mass-dependent upper bounds on coupling factors (in units of model-independent reference cross-sections) for all processes, allowing interpretation of the data in a large class of models.
An extended topological model for binary phosphate glasses
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Hermansen, Christian [Section of Chemistry, Aalborg University, 9220 Aalborg (Denmark); Rodrigues, Bruno P.; Wondraczek, Lothar [Otto Schott Institute of Materials Research, University of Jena, 07743 Jena (Germany); Yue, Yuanzheng, E-mail: yy@bio.aau.dk [Section of Chemistry, Aalborg University, 9220 Aalborg (Denmark); State Key Laboratory of Silicate Materials for Architecture, Wuhan University of Technology, Wuhan 430070 (China)
2014-12-28
We present a topological model for binary phosphate glasses that builds on the previously introduced concepts of the modifying ion sub-network and the strength of modifier constraints. The validity of the model is confirmed by the correct prediction of T{sub g}(x) for covalent polyphosphoric acids where the model reduces to classical constraint counting. The constraints on the modifying cations are linear constraints to first neighbor non-bridging oxygens, and all angular constraints are broken as expected for ionic bonding. For small modifying cations, such as Li{sup +}, the linear constraints are almost fully intact, but for larger ions, a significant fraction is broken. By accounting for the fraction of intact modifying ion related constraints, q{sub γ}, the T{sub g}(x) of alkali phosphate glasses is predicted. By examining alkali, alkaline earth, and rare earth metaphosphate glasses, we find that the effective number of intact constraints per modifying cation is linearly related to the charge-to-distance ratio of the modifying cation to oxygen.
Non-leptonic decays in an extended chiral quark model
Eeg, J O
2012-01-01
We consider the color suppressed (nonfactorizable) amplitude for the decay mode $\\bar{B_{d}^0} \\rightarrow \\pi^0 \\pi^{0} $. We treat the $b$-quark in the heavy quark limit and the energetic light ($u,d,s$) quarks within a variant of Large Energy Effective Theory combined with an extension of chiral quark models. Our calculated amplitude for $\\bar{B_{d}^0} \\rightarrow \\pi^0 \\pi^{0} $ is suppressed by a factor of order $\\Lambda_{QCD}/m_b$ with respect to the factorized amplitude, as it should according to QCD-factorization. Further, for reasonable values of the (model dependent) gluon condensate and the constituent quark mass, the calculated nonfactorizable amplitude for $\\bar{B_{d}^0} \\rightarrow \\pi^0 \\pi^{0} $ can easily accomodate the experimental value. Unfortunately, the color suppressed amplitude is very sensitive to the values of these model dependent parameters. Therefore fine-tuning is necessary in order to obtain an amplitude compatible with the experimental result for $\\bar{B_{d}^0} \\rightarrow \\pi^...
Korver, S.; Renkema, J.A.
1979-01-01
The economic optimal rate of culling for milk production during the first lactation was studied with an extended version of a model presented by Renkema and Stelwagen (1979). Four culling policies were compared. The usual moderate culling procedure was the most profitable, the policy with no cullin
Extended soft-wall model for the QCD phase diagram
Zöllner, Rico; Kampfer, Burkhard
2016-01-01
The soft-wall model, emerging as bottom-up holographic scenario anchored in the AdS/CFT correspondence, displays the disappearance of normalisable modes referring to vector mesons at a temperature $T_{\\dis}$ depending on the chemical potential $\\mu$, $T_{\\dis}(\\mu)$. We explore options for making $T_{\\dis}(\\mu)$ consistent with the freeze-out curve $T_{\\rm f.o.}(\\mu)$ from relativistic heavy-ion collisions and the cross-over curve $T_{\\rm c}(\\mu)$ from QCD at small values of $\\mu$.
Baba, Toshimi; Gotoh, Yusaku; Yamaguchi, Satoshi; Nakagawa, Satoshi; Abe, Hayato; Masuda, Yutaka; Kawahara, Takayoshi
2017-08-01
This study aimed to evaluate a validation reliability of single-step genomic best linear unbiased prediction (ssGBLUP) with a multiple-lactation random regression test-day model and investigate an effect of adding genotyped cows on the reliability. Two data sets for test-day records from the first three lactations were used: full data from February 1975 to December 2015 (60 850 534 records from 2 853 810 cows) and reduced data cut off in 2011 (53 091 066 records from 2 502 307 cows). We used marker genotypes of 4480 bulls and 608 cows. Genomic enhanced breeding values (GEBV) of 305-day milk yield in all the lactations were estimated for at least 535 young bulls using two marker data sets: bull genotypes only and both bulls and cows genotypes. The realized reliability (R(2) ) from linear regression analysis was used as an indicator of validation reliability. Using only genotyped bulls, R(2) was ranged from 0.41 to 0.46 and it was always higher than parent averages. The very similar R(2) were observed when genotyped cows were added. An application of ssGBLUP to a multiple-lactation random regression model is feasible and adding a limited number of genotyped cows has no significant effect on reliability of GEBV for genotyped bulls. © 2016 Japanese Society of Animal Science.
Jones, Valerie M.; Rensink, Arend; Brinksma, Hendrik
2005-01-01
Mobile health systems can extend the enterprise computing system of the healthcare provider by bringing services to the patient any time and anywhere. We propose a model-driven design and development methodology for the development of the m-health components in such extended enterprise computing
The Extended Perturbation Method: New Insights on the New Keynesian Model
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Andreasen, Martin Møller; Kronborg, Anders Farver
bound on inflation as implied by Calvo pricing. In contrast, extended perturbation generates stable dynamics as it enforces this bound. Extended perturbation also adds to existing evidence on downward nominal wage rigidities in the New Keynesian model, as we only find support for this friction when...
Jones, Val; Rensink, Arend; Brinksma, Ed
2005-01-01
Mobile health systems can extend the enterprise computing system of the healthcare provider by bringing services to the patient any time and anywhere. We propose a model-driven design and development methodology for the development of the m-health components in such extended enterprise computing sys
Chang, Chi-Cheng; Yan, Chi-Fang; Tseng, Ju-Shih
2012-01-01
Since convenience is one of the features for mobile learning, does it affect attitude and intention of using mobile technology? The technology acceptance model (TAM), proposed by David (1989), was extended with perceived convenience in the present study. With regard to English language mobile learning, the variables in the extended TAM and its…
Floquet topological semimetal phases of an extended kicked Harper model
Bomantara, Raditya Weda; Raghava, Gudapati Naresh; Zhou, Longwen; Gong, Jiangbin
2016-02-01
Recent discoveries on topological characterization of gapless systems have attracted interest in both theoretical studies and experimental realizations. Examples of such gapless topological phases are Weyl semimetals, which exhibit three-dimensional (3D) Dirac cones (Weyl points), and nodal line semimetals, which are characterized by line nodes (two bands touching along a line). Inspired by our previous discoveries that the kicked Harper model exhibits many fascinating features of Floquet topological phases, in this paper we consider a generalization of the model, where two additional periodic system parameters are introduced into the Hamiltonian to serve as artificial dimensions, so as to simulate a 3 D periodically driven system. We observe that by increasing the hopping strength and the kicking strength of the system, many new Floquet band touching points at Floquet quasienergies 0 and π will start to appear. Some of them are Weyl points, while the others form line nodes in the parameter space. By taking open boundary conditions along the physical dimension, edge states analogous to Fermi arcs in static Weyl semimetal systems are observed. Finally, by designing an adiabatic pumping scheme, the chirality of the Floquet-band Weyl points and the π Berry phase around Floquet-band line nodes can be manifested.
An extended Cellular Potts Model analyzing a wound healing assay.
Scianna, Marco
2015-07-01
A suitable Cellular Potts Model is developed to reproduce and analyze an in vitro wound-healing assay. The proposed approach is able both to quantify the invasive capacity of the overall cell population and to evaluate selected determinants of single cell movement (velocity, directional movement, and final displacement). In this respect, the present CPM allows us to capture differences and correlations in the migratory behavior of cells initially located at different distances from the wound edge. In the case of an undifferentiated extracellular matrix, the model then predicts that a maximal healing can be obtained by a chemically induced increment of cell elasticity and not by a chemically induced downregulation of intercellular adhesive contacts. Moreover, in the case of two-component substrates (formed by a mesh of collagenous-like threads and by a homogeneous medium), CPM simulations show that both fiber number and cell-fiber adhesiveness influence cell speed and wound closure rate in a biphasic fashion. On the contrary, the topology of the fibrous network affects the healing process by mediating the productive directional cell movement. The paper, also equipped with comments on the computational cost of the CPM algorithm, ends with a throughout discussion of the pertinent experimental and theoretical literature. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Extended models of nonlinear waves in liquid with gas bubbles
Kudryashov, Nikolay A
2016-01-01
In this work we generalize the models for nonlinear waves in a gas--liquid mixture taking into account an interphase heat transfer, a surface tension and a weak liquid compressibility simultaneously at the derivation of the equations for nonlinear waves. We also take into consideration high order terms with respect to the small parameter. Two new nonlinear differential equations are derived for long weakly nonlinear waves in a liquid with gas bubbles by the reductive perturbation method considering both high order terms with respect to the small parameter and the above mentioned physical properties. One of these equations is the perturbation of the Burgers equation and corresponds to main influence of dissipation on nonlinear waves propagation. The other equation is the perturbation of the Burgers--Korteweg--de Vries equation and corresponds to main influence of dispersion on nonlinear waves propagation.
Abelian cosmic string in the extended Starobinsky model of gravity
Graça, J P Morais
2016-01-01
We analyze numerically the behaviour of the solutions corresponding to an Abelian cosmic string taking into account an extension of the Starobinsky model, where the action of general relativity is replaced by $f(R) = R - 2\\Lambda + \\eta R^2 + \\rho R^m$, with $m > 2$. As an interesting result, we find that the angular deficit which characterizes the cosmic string decreases as the parameters $\\eta$ and $\\rho$ increase. We also find that the cosmic horizon due to the presence of a cosmological constant is affected in such a way that it can grows or shrinks, depending on the vacuum expectation value of the scalar field and on the value of the cosmological constant
EXTENDE MODEL OF COMPETITIVITY THROUG APPLICATION OF NEW APPROACH DIRECTIVES
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Slavko Arsovski
2009-03-01
Full Text Available The basic subject of this work is the model of new approach impact on quality and safety products, and competency of our companies. This work represents real hypothesis on the basis of expert's experiences, in regard to that the infrastructure with using new approach directives wasn't examined until now, it isn't known which product or industry of Serbia is related to directives of the new approach and CE mark, and it is not known which are effects of the use of the CE mark. This work should indicate existing quality reserves and product's safety, the level of possible competency improvement and increasing the profit by discharging new approach directive requires.
Al-Husari, Maymona; Murdoch, Craig; Webb, Steven D
2014-10-01
Some tumours are known to exhibit an extracellular pH that is more acidic than the intracellular, creating a 'reversed pH gradient' across the cell membrane and this has been shown to affect their invasive and metastatic potential. Tumour hypoxia also plays an important role in tumour development and has been directly linked to both tumour morphology and aggressiveness. In this paper, we present a hybrid mathematical model of intracellular pH regulation that examines the effect of oxygen and pH on tumour growth and morphology. In particular, we investigate the impact of pH regulatory mechanisms on the cellular pH gradient and tumour morphology. Analysis of the model shows that: low activity of the Na+/H+ exchanger or a high rate of anaerobic glycolysis can give rise to a "fingering" tumour morphology; and a high activity of the lactate/H+ symporter can result in a reversed transmembrane pH gradient across a large portion of the tumour mass. Also, the reversed pH gradient is spatially heterogeneous within the tumour, with a normal pH gradient observed within an intermediate growth layer within the spheroid. We also include a fractal dimension analysis of the simulated tumour contours, in which we compare the fractal dimensions of the simulated tumour surfaces with those found experimentally via photomicrographs.
Panel data models extended to spatial error autocorrelation or a spatially lagged dependent variable
Elhorst, J. Paul
2001-01-01
This paper surveys panel data models extended to spatial error autocorrelation or a spatially lagged dependent variable. In particular, it focuses on the specification and estimation of four panel data models commonly used in applied research: the fixed effects model, the random effects model, the
Extended Mixed-Efects Item Response Models with the MH-RM Algorithm
Chalmers, R. Philip
2015-01-01
A mixed-effects item response theory (IRT) model is presented as a logical extension of the generalized linear mixed-effects modeling approach to formulating explanatory IRT models. Fixed and random coefficients in the extended model are estimated using a Metropolis-Hastings Robbins-Monro (MH-RM) stochastic imputation algorithm to accommodate for…
CML based estimation of extended Rasch models with the eRm package in R
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
PATRICK MAIR
2007-03-01
Full Text Available This paper presents an open source tool for computing extended Rasch models. It is realized in R (R Development Core Team, 2006 and available as package eRm. In addition to ordinary Rasch models extended models such as linear logistic test models, (linear rating scale models and (linear partial credit models can be estimated. A striking feature of this package is the implementation of conditional maximum likelihood estimation techniques which relate directly to Rasch's original concept of specific objectivity. The mathematical and epistemological benefits of this estimation method are discussed. Moreover, the capabilities of the eRm routine with respect to structural item response designs are demonstrated.
Vacuum stability in extended standard model with leptoquark
Bandyopadhyay, Priyotosh
2016-01-01
We investigate the standard model (SM) with extension of a charged scalar having fractional electromagnetic charge of $-1/3$ unit and with lepton and baryon number violating couplings at tree level. Without directly taking part in the electro-weak (EW) symmetry breaking this scalar can affect stability of the EW vacuum via loop effects. The impact of such a scalar i.e., leptoquark on the perturbativity of SM dimensionless couplings as well as on new physics couplings has been studied at two-loop order. The vacuum stability of the Higgs potential is checked using one-loop renormalization group (RG) improved effective potential approach with two-loop beta function for all the couplings. From the stability analysis various bounds are drawn on parameter space by identifying the region corresponding to metastability and stability of the EW vacuum. Later we also address Higgs mass fine-tuning issue via Veltman condition and the presence of such scalar increases the scale up to which the theory can be considered as ...
National Research Council Canada - National Science Library
Huong, Audrey; Ngu, Xavier
2014-01-01
This work presents the use of extended Modified Lambert Beer (MLB) model for accurate and continuous monitoring of percent blood carboxyhemoglobin (COHb) (SCO) and oxyhemoglobin (OxyHb) saturation (SO2...
Extended sigma-model in nontrivially deformed field-antifield formalism
Batalin, Igor A
2015-01-01
We propose an action for the extended sigma - models in the most general setting of the kinetic term allowed in the nontrivially deformed field - antifield formalism. We show that the classical motion equations do naturally take their desired canonical form.
National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Estimation of aerodynamic models for the control of damaged aircraft using an innovative differential vortex lattice method tightly coupled with an extended Kalman...
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
PANG Hou-Rong; PING Jia-Lun; WANG Fan; ZHAO En-Guang
2004-01-01
Promising high strangeness dibaryons are studied by the extended quark delocalization and color screening model. It is shown that besides H particle and di-Ω, there might be other dibaryon candidates worth to be searched experimentally such as NΩ.
Modelling volatile fatty acid dynamics and rumen function in lactating cows
Bannink, A.
2007-01-01
Mathematical models are developed to quantity and integrate the various processes involved with rumen fermentation. Three extant mechanistic models of rumen fermentation were studied (Baldwin et al., Danfær and Dijkstra et al.), each with a truly dynamic representation but different conceptual appro
Off-site interaction effect in the Extended Hubbard Model with SCRPA method
Harir, S.; Bennai, M.; Boughaleb, Y.
2009-01-01
The Self Consistent Random Phase Approximation (SCRPA) and a Direct Analytical (DA) method are proposed to solve the Extended Hubbard Model in 1D. We have considered an Extended Hubbard Model (EHM) including on-site and off-site interactions for closed chains in one dimension with periodic boundary conditions. The comparison of the SCRPA results with ones obtained by a Direct Analytical approach shows that the SCRPA treats the problem of these closed chains with a rigorous manner. The analysi...
Extended ARMA models for estimating price developments on day-ahead electricity markets
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Swider, Derk J. [Institute of Energy Economics and the Rational Use of Energy, University of Stuttgart, Hessbruehlstr. 49a, 70565 Stuttgart (Germany); Weber, Christoph [University of Duisburg-Essen, Universitaetsstr. 12, 45117 Essen (Germany)
2007-04-15
In this paper extended models for estimating price developments on electricity markets are presented. The models consider deviations from the normality hypothesis of the prices. Based on an ARMA model combination with GARCH, Gaussian-mixture and switching-regime approaches are comparatively discussed. The comparison is based on historic electricity prices of the spot and two reserve markets in Germany. It is shown that the proposed extended models lead to significantly improved representations of the considered stochastic price processes. It is inferred that these models may be preferred for estimating price developments on electricity markets. (author)
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Lukacova, Slavka; Sørensen, Brita; Alsner, Jan;
2008-01-01
Aim. To investigate the direct relationship between tumour hypoxia and lactate dehydrogenase (Ldh) levels in serum and tumour in two different pre-clinical murine models. Materials and methods. Experiments were performed in CDF1 or C3H/Km mice implanted with a C3H mammary carcinoma and SCCVII...... squamous cell carcinoma, respectively. Low oxygen breathing for 1-72 h was used to increase tumour hypoxia. Ldh activity was measured in the serum and tumour cytosole with a colorimetric method. Tumour Ldha mRNA levels were assessed with RT-PCR. Results. The serum Ldh in non-tumour bearing CDF1 mice and C3......H/km mice was 10.5+/-2 U/ml and 12+/-2 U/ml, respectively. For C3H mammary carcinoma bearing mice, a positive correlation between tumour volume and tumour and serum Ldh was found. Tumour Ldh in SCCVII carcinomas also increased with increasing tumour volume, but no volume dependence of serum Ldh...
MILES extended : Stellar population synthesis models from the optical to the infrared
Rock, B.; Vazdekis, A.; Ricciardelli, E.; Peletier, R. F.; Knapen, J. H.; Falcon-Barroso, J.
2016-01-01
We present the first single-burst stellar population models, which covers the optical and the infrared wavelength range between 3500 and 50 000 angstrom and which are exclusively based on empirical stellar spectra. To obtain these joint models, we combined the extended MILES models in the optical wi
... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003471.htm Lactate dehydrogenase test To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) is a protein that helps produce energy ...
Xie, Han; Hanai, Jun-ichi; Ren, Jian-Guo; Kats, Lev; Burgess, Kerri; Bhargava, Parul; Signoretti, Sabina; Billiard, Julia; Duffy, Kevin J.; Grant, Aaron; Wang, Xiaoen; Lorkiewicz, Pawel K.; Schatzman, Sabrina; Bousamra, Michael; Lane, Andrew N.; Higashi, Richard M.; Fan, Teresa W.M.; Pandolfi, Pier Paolo; Sukhatme, Vikas P.; Seth, Pankaj
2014-01-01
Summary The lactate dehydrogenase-A (LDH-A) enzyme catalyzes the inter-conversion of pyruvate and lactate, is upregulated in human cancers and is associated with aggressive tumor outcomes. Here we use a novel inducible murine model and demonstrate that inactivation of LDH-A in mouse models of NSCLC driven by oncogenic K-RAS or EGFR leads to decreased tumorigenesis and disease regression in established tumors. We also show that abrogation of LDH-A results in reprogramming of pyruvate metabolism, with decreased lactic fermentation in vitro, in vivo, and ex vivo. This was accompanied by re-activation of mitochondrial function in vitro but not in vivo or ex vivo. Finally, using a specific small molecule LDH-A inhibitor, we demonstrated that LDH-A is essential for cancer initiating cell survival and proliferation. Thus, LDH-A can be a viable therapeutic target for NSCLC including cancer stem cell-dependent drug resistant tumors. PMID:24726384
Dorbath, Felix; Nagel, Björn; Gollnick, Volker
2011-01-01
This paper introduces the concept of the ELWIS model generator for Finite Element models of aircraft wing structures. The physical modelling of the structure is extended beyond the wing primary structures, to increase the level of accuracy for aircraft which diverge from existing configurations. Also the impact of novel high lift technologies on structural masses can be captured already in the early stages of design by using the ELWIS models. The ELWIS model generator is able to c...
A Bayesian Reformulation of the Extended Drift-Diffusion Model in Perceptual Decision Making
Fard, Pouyan R.; Park, Hame; Warkentin, Andrej; Kiebel, Stefan J.; Bitzer, Sebastian
2017-01-01
Perceptual decision making can be described as a process of accumulating evidence to a bound which has been formalized within drift-diffusion models (DDMs). Recently, an equivalent Bayesian model has been proposed. In contrast to standard DDMs, this Bayesian model directly links information in the stimulus to the decision process. Here, we extend this Bayesian model further and allow inter-trial variability of two parameters following the extended version of the DDM. We derive parameter distributions for the Bayesian model and show that they lead to predictions that are qualitatively equivalent to those made by the extended drift-diffusion model (eDDM). Further, we demonstrate the usefulness of the extended Bayesian model (eBM) for the analysis of concrete behavioral data. Specifically, using Bayesian model selection, we find evidence that including additional inter-trial parameter variability provides for a better model, when the model is constrained by trial-wise stimulus features. This result is remarkable because it was derived using just 200 trials per condition, which is typically thought to be insufficient for identifying variability parameters in DDMs. In sum, we present a Bayesian analysis, which provides for a novel and promising analysis of perceptual decision making experiments. PMID:28553219
A Bayesian Reformulation of the Extended Drift-Diffusion Model in Perceptual Decision Making
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Pouyan R. Fard
2017-05-01
Full Text Available Perceptual decision making can be described as a process of accumulating evidence to a bound which has been formalized within drift-diffusion models (DDMs. Recently, an equivalent Bayesian model has been proposed. In contrast to standard DDMs, this Bayesian model directly links information in the stimulus to the decision process. Here, we extend this Bayesian model further and allow inter-trial variability of two parameters following the extended version of the DDM. We derive parameter distributions for the Bayesian model and show that they lead to predictions that are qualitatively equivalent to those made by the extended drift-diffusion model (eDDM. Further, we demonstrate the usefulness of the extended Bayesian model (eBM for the analysis of concrete behavioral data. Specifically, using Bayesian model selection, we find evidence that including additional inter-trial parameter variability provides for a better model, when the model is constrained by trial-wise stimulus features. This result is remarkable because it was derived using just 200 trials per condition, which is typically thought to be insufficient for identifying variability parameters in DDMs. In sum, we present a Bayesian analysis, which provides for a novel and promising analysis of perceptual decision making experiments.
Developing a workplace breast feeding support model for employed lactating mothers.
Yimyam, Susanha; Hanpa, Wasana
2014-06-01
Resuming work is often considered an obstacle for continued breast feeding. The objectives of this participatory action research study were to develop a breast feeding support model in the workplace and to compare breast feeding rates before and after implementation of the breast feeding support campaign. Twenty-four women participated before the implementation of the breast feeding support campaign, whereas 31 women participated after the campaign. Data were collected by interviewing employed women about their breast feeding practices within six months post partum. Additional data were collected through interviews with the workplace administrator and head of work sections as well as observation of the breast feeding support campaigns. Qualitative data were analysed using thematic analysis, whereas quantitative data were analysed using descriptive statistics and χ(2) test. The workplace breast feeding support model was developed based on the concept of Mother-Friendly Workplace Initiatives by the World Alliance for Breastfeeding Action (WABA) and the Thai government׳s promotion of a workplace breast feeding corner. Within this model, a committee for breast feeding support was created for working with the research team to develop breast feeding activities and media for breast feeding education and breast feeding support campaigns in the workplace. Breast feeding rates at six months after implementation of the breast feeding support campaign were significantly higher than rates before, both for exclusive breast feeding and any breast feeding at levels .004 and .033, respectively. These results suggest that breast feeding should be encouraged in every workplace depending on context. Individual advice and help for employed mothers should be provided from pregnancy through weaning in the postpartum period. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Singh, Ajay; Singh, Avtar; Singh, Manvendra; Prakash, Ved; Ambhore, G. S.; Sahoo, S. K.; Dash, Soumya
2016-01-01
A single trait linear mixed random regression test-day model was applied for the first time for analyzing the first lactation monthly test-day milk yield records in Karan Fries cattle. The test-day milk yield data was modeled using a random regression model (RRM) considering different order of Legendre polynomial for the additive genetic effect (4th order) and the permanent environmental effect (5th order). Data pertaining to 1,583 lactation records spread over a period of 30 years were recorded and analyzed in the study. The variance component, heritability and genetic correlations among test-day milk yields were estimated using RRM. RRM heritability estimates of test-day milk yield varied from 0.11 to 0.22 in different test-day records. The estimates of genetic correlations between different test-day milk yields ranged 0.01 (test-day 1 [TD-1] and TD-11) to 0.99 (TD-4 and TD-5). The magnitudes of genetic correlations between test-day milk yields decreased as the interval between test-days increased and adjacent test-day had higher correlations. Additive genetic and permanent environment variances were higher for test-day milk yields at both ends of lactation. The residual variance was observed to be lower than the permanent environment variance for all the test-day milk yields. PMID:26954137
Zhang, Lei; Zeng, Zhi; Ji, Qiang
2011-09-01
Chain graph (CG) is a hybrid probabilistic graphical model (PGM) capable of modeling heterogeneous relationships among random variables. So far, however, its application in image and video analysis is very limited due to lack of principled learning and inference methods for a CG of general topology. To overcome this limitation, we introduce methods to extend the conventional chain-like CG model to CG model with more general topology and the associated methods for learning and inference in such a general CG model. Specifically, we propose techniques to systematically construct a generally structured CG, to parameterize this model, to derive its joint probability distribution, to perform joint parameter learning, and to perform probabilistic inference in this model. To demonstrate the utility of such an extended CG, we apply it to two challenging image and video analysis problems: human activity recognition and image segmentation. The experimental results show improved performance of the extended CG model over the conventional directed or undirected PGMs. This study demonstrates the promise of the extended CG for effective modeling and inference of complex real-world problems.
Dhakal, K; Tiezzi, F; Clay, J S; Maltecca, C
2015-04-01
Health disorders in dairy cows have a substantial effect on the profitability of a dairy enterprise because of loss in milk sales, culling of unhealthy cows, and replacement costs. Complex relationships exist between health disorders and production traits. Understanding the causal structures among these traits may help us disentangle these complex relationships. The principal objective of this study was to use producer-recorded data to explore phenotypic and genetic relationships among reproductive and metabolic health disorders and production traits in first-lactation US Holsteins. A total of 77,004 first-lactation daughters' records of 2,183 sires were analyzed using recursive models. Health data contained information on reproductive health disorders [retained placenta (RP); metritis (METR)] and metabolic health disorders [ketosis (KETO); displaced abomasum (DA)]. Production traits included mean milk yield (MY) from early lactation (mean MY from 6 to 60 d in milk and from 61 to 120 d in milk), peak milk yield (PMY), day in milk of peak milk yield (PeakD), and lactation persistency (LP). Three different sets of traits were analyzed in which recursive effects from each health disorder on culling, recursive effects of one health disorder on another health disorder and on MY, and recursive effects of each health disorder on production traits, including PeakD, PMY, and LP, were assumed. Different recursive Gaussian-threshold and threshold models were implemented in a Bayesian framework. Estimates of the structural coefficients obtained between health disorders and culling were positive; on the liability scale, the structural coefficients ranged from 0.929 to 1.590, confirming that the presence of a health disorder increased culling. Positive recursive effects of RP to METR (0.117) and of KETO to DA (0.122) were estimated, whereas recursive effects from health disorders to production traits were negligible in all cases. Heritability estimates of health disorders ranged
Nucleon Properties at Finite Temperature in the Extended Quark-Sigma Model
Abu-Shady, M
2014-01-01
Hadron properties are studied at hot medium using the quark sigma model. The quark sigma model is extended to include eighth-order of mesonic interactions based on some aspects of quantum chromodynamic (QCD) theory. The extended effective potential tends to the original effective potential when the coupling between the higher order mesonic interactions equal to zero. The field equations have been solved in the mean-field approximation by using the extended iteration method. We found that the nucleon mass increases with increasing temperature and the magnetic moments of proton and neutron increase with increasing temperature. A comparison is presented with recent previous works and other models. We conclude that higher-order mesonic interactions play an important role in changing the behavior of nucleon properties at finite temperature. In addition, the deconfinement phase transition is satisfied in the present model.
Advancing the extended parallel process model through the inclusion of response cost measures.
Rintamaki, Lance S; Yang, Z Janet
2014-01-01
This study advances the Extended Parallel Process Model through the inclusion of response cost measures, which are drawbacks associated with a proposed response to a health threat. A sample of 502 college students completed a questionnaire on perceptions regarding sexually transmitted infections and condom use after reading information from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention on the health risks of sexually transmitted infections and the utility of latex condoms in preventing sexually transmitted infection transmission. The questionnaire included standard Extended Parallel Process Model assessments of perceived threat and efficacy, as well as questions pertaining to response costs associated with condom use. Results from hierarchical ordinary least squares regression demonstrated how the addition of response cost measures improved the predictive power of the Extended Parallel Process Model, supporting the inclusion of this variable in the model.
△△ Dibaryon Structure in Extended Chiral SU(3) Quark Model
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
DAI Lian-Rong
2005-01-01
@@ The structure of △△ dibaryon is studied in the extended chiral SU(3) quark model in which vector meson exchanges are included. The effect of the vector meson fields is very similar to that of the one-gluon exchange (OGE) interaction. Both in the chiral SU(3) quark model and in the extended chiral SU(3) quark model, the resultant mass of the △△ dibaryon is lower than the threshold of the △△ channel but higher than that of the△Nπ channel.
Extending the Real-Time Maude Semantics of Ptolemy to Hierarchical DE Models
Bae, Kyungmin; 10.4204/EPTCS.36.3
2010-01-01
This paper extends our Real-Time Maude formalization of the semantics of flat Ptolemy II discrete-event (DE) models to hierarchical models, including modal models. This is a challenging task that requires combining synchronous fixed-point computations with hierarchical structure. The synthesis of a Real-Time Maude verification model from a Ptolemy II DE model, and the formal verification of the synthesized model in Real-Time Maude, have been integrated into Ptolemy II, enabling a model-engineering process that combines the convenience of Ptolemy II DE modeling and simulation with formal verification in Real-Time Maude.
A Quasi-Nonmetric Method for Multidimensional Scaling via an Extended Euclidean Model.
Winsberg, Suzanne; Carroll, J. Douglas
1989-01-01
An Extended Two-Way Euclidean Multidimensional Scaling (MDS) model that assumes both common and specific dimensions is described and contrasted with the "standard" (Two-Way) MDS model. Illustrations with both artificial and real data on the judged similarity of nations are provided. (TJH)
3D Printed Molecules and Extended Solid Models for Teaching Symmetry and Point Groups
Scalfani, Vincent F.; Vaid, Thomas P.
2014-01-01
Tangible models help students and researchers visualize chemical structures in three dimensions (3D). 3D printing offers a unique and straightforward approach to fabricate plastic 3D models of molecules and extended solids. In this article, we prepared a series of digital 3D design files of molecular structures that will be useful for teaching…
A kinetic type extended model for dense gases and macromolecular fluids
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
M. Cristina Carrisi
2005-05-01
Full Text Available Extended thermodynamics is an important theory which is appreciated from mathematicians and physicists. Following its ideas and considering the macroscopic approach with suggestions from the kinetic one, we find in this paper, the solution of an interesting model: the model for dense gases and macromolecular fluids.
3D Printed Molecules and Extended Solid Models for Teaching Symmetry and Point Groups
Scalfani, Vincent F.; Vaid, Thomas P.
2014-01-01
Tangible models help students and researchers visualize chemical structures in three dimensions (3D). 3D printing offers a unique and straightforward approach to fabricate plastic 3D models of molecules and extended solids. In this article, we prepared a series of digital 3D design files of molecular structures that will be useful for teaching…
Klein, Daniel; Zezula, Ivan
The extended growth curve model is discussed in this paper. There are two versions of the model studied in the literature, which differ in the way how the column spaces of the design matrices are nested. The nesting is applied either to the between-individual or to the within-individual design
Determining the inventory impact of extended-shelf-life platelets with a network simulation model.
Blake, John T
2017-09-06
The regulatory shelf life for platelets (PLTs) in many jurisdictions is 5 days. PLT shelf life can be extended to 7 days with an enhanced bacterial detection algorithm. Enhanced testing, however, comes at a cost, which may be offset by reductions in wastage due to longer shelf life. This article describes a method for estimating systemwide reductions in PLT outdates after PLT shelf life is extended. A simulation was used to evaluate the impact of an extended PLT shelf life within a national blood network. A network model of the Canadian Blood Services PLT supply chain was built and validated. PLT shelf life was extended from 5 days to 6, 7, and 8 days and runs were completed to determine the impact on outdates. Results suggest that, in general, a 16.3% reduction in PLT wastage can be expected with each additional day that PLT shelf life is extended. Both suppliers and hospitals will experience fewer outdating units, but wastage will decrease at a faster rate at hospitals. No effect was seen by blood group, but there was some evidence that supplier site characteristics influences both the number of units wasted and the site's ability to benefit from extended-shelf-life PLTs. Extended-shelf-life PLTs will reduce wastage within a blood supply chain. At 7 days, an improvement of 38% reduction in wastage can be expected with outdates being equally distributed between suppliers and hospital customers. © 2017 AABB.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
A. Jayanegara
2014-10-01
Full Text Available Dairy cows often do not receive adequate nutrient supply during their lactation period. This condition caneven be worse if the environmental temperature is not in comfortable range which may occur especially intropical regions. The present research was aimed to simulate the effect of supplementary feeding on nutrientbalance of lactating dairy cow at contrasting temperature regimes using Cornell Net Carbohydrate andProtein System (CNCPS model. Treatments consisted of feeds (R1: Pennisetum purpureum, R2: P.purpureum + concentrate (60:40, R3: P. purpureum + Gliricidia sepium + Leucaena leucocephala(60:20:20, R4: P. purpureum + concentrate + G. sepium + L. leucocephala (60:20:10:10 and environmentaltemperatures (T1: 20 oC, T2: 30 oC. The dairy cow inputs in CNCPS were Holstein breed, body weight of500 kg, feed intake of 15 kg (dry matter basis per day and produced milk 15 kg/day. Based on the CNCPSmodel, there were negative balances of metabolisable energy (ME and metabolisable protein (MP if alactating dairy cow fed only by P. purpureum. The ME balance was worse at higher temperature, while theMP balance was remain unchanged. Addition of concentrate mixture (R2 fulfilled the ME and MPrequirements as well as other nutrients. Addition of leguminous tree leaves (R3 and R4 improved thenutritional status of the lactating cow model compared to R1, but did not better than R2. It was concludedthat supplementary feeding is necessary for improving the nutrient balance of lactating dairy cow, especiallywhen the cow is maintained under uncomfortable environmental temperature.
Extended hierarchy equation of motion for the spin-boson model.
Tang, Zhoufei; Ouyang, Xiaolong; Gong, Zhihao; Wang, Haobin; Wu, Jianlan
2015-12-14
An extended hierarchy equation of motion (HEOM) is proposed and applied to study the dynamics of the spin-boson model. In this approach, a complete set of orthonormal functions are used to expand an arbitrary bath correlation function. As a result, a complete dynamic basis set is constructed by including the system reduced density matrix and auxiliary fields composed of these expansion functions, where the extended HEOM is derived for the time derivative of each element. The reliability of the extended HEOM is demonstrated by comparison with the stochastic Hamiltonian approach under room-temperature classical ohmic and sub-ohmic noises and the multilayer multiconfiguration time-dependent Hartree theory under zero-temperature quantum ohmic noise. Upon increasing the order in the hierarchical expansion, the result obtained from the extended HOEM systematically converges to the numerically exact answer.
Roy, Kunal; Ghosh, Gopinath
2008-11-01
In this communication, we have developed quantitative predictive models using human lethal concentration values of 26 organic compounds including some pharmaceuticals with extended topochemical atom (ETA) indices applying different chemometric tools and compared the extended topochemical atom models with the models developed from non-extended topochemical atom ones. Extended topochemical atom descriptors were also tried in combination with non-extended topochemical atom descriptors to develop better predictive models. The use of extended topochemical atom descriptors along with non-extended topochemical atom ones improved equation statistics and cross-validation quality. The best model with sound statistical quality was developed from partial least squares regression using extended topochemical atom descriptors in combination non-extended topochemical atom ones. Finally, to check true predictability of the ETA parameters, the data set was divided into training (n = 19) and test (n = 7) sets. Partial least squares and genetic partial least squares models were developed from the training set using extended topochemical atom indices and the models were validated using the test set. The extended topochemical atom models developed from different statistical tools suggest that the toxicity increases with bulk, chloro functionality, presence of electronegative atoms within a chain or ring and unsaturation, and decreases with hydroxy functionality and branching. The results suggest that the extended topochemical atom descriptors are sufficiently rich in chemical information to encode the structural features for QSAR/QSPR/QSTR modeling.
An Extended Ontology Model and Ontology Checking Based on Description Logics
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
王洪伟; 蒋馥; 吴家春
2004-01-01
Ontology is defined as an explicit specification of a conceptualization. In this paper, an extended ontology model was constructed using description logics, which is a 5-tuples including term set, individual set, term definition set, instantiation assertion set and term restriction set. Based on the extended model, the issue on ontology checking was studied with the conclusion that the four kinds of term checking, including term satisfiability checking, term subsumption checking, term equivalence checking and term disjointness checking, can be reduced to the satisfiability checking, and satisfiability checking can be transformed into instantiation consistence checking.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Redding, Laurel E.; Sohn, Michael D.; McKone, Thomas E.; Wang, Shu-Li; Hsieh, Dennis P. H.; Yang, Raymond S. H.
2008-03-01
We developed a physiologically based pharmacokinetic model of PCB 153 in women, and predict its transfer via lactation to infants. The model is the first human, population-scale lactational model for PCB 153. Data in the literature provided estimates for model development and for performance assessment. Physiological parameters were taken from a cohort in Taiwan and from reference values in the literature. We estimated partition coefficients based on chemical structure and the lipid content in various body tissues. Using exposure data in Japan, we predicted acquired body burden of PCB 153 at an average childbearing age of 25 years and compare predictions to measurements from studies in multiple countries. Forward-model predictions agree well with human biomonitoring measurements, as represented by summary statistics and uncertainty estimates. The model successfully describes the range of possible PCB 153 dispositions in maternal milk, suggesting a promising option for back estimating doses for various populations. One example of reverse dosimetry modeling was attempted using our PBPK model for possible exposure scenarios in Canadian Inuits who had the highest level of PCB 153 in their milk in the world.
Tarhini, Ali; Elyas, Tariq; Akour, Mohammad Ali; Al-Salti, Zahran
2016-01-01
The main aim of this paper is to develop an amalgamated conceptual model of technology acceptance that explains how individual, social, cultural and organizational factors affect the students' acceptance and usage behaviour of the Web-based learning systems. More specifically, the proposed model extends the Technology Acceptance Model (TAM) to…
Contraception during lactation.
Badraoui, M H; Hefnawi, F; Bahgat, R; Fawzi, G; El Gaali, O; Ismail, H; Hegab, M
1982-01-01
Seven hundred and seventy-two lactating mothers were studied from delivery for 1 year to select the best contraceptive method (oral drug, injected drug, or IUD) which did not affect lactation. Ten groups of mothers were studied, including 234 control subjects. The injectable progestational contraceptives caused an improvement in the amount of milk and its protein concentration, whereas the IUCDs did not influence the lactation pattern. Sulpiride was an ineffective contraceptive but a potent lactation stimulant. The side effects of each method (effects on milk yield, protein content and prolactin concentrations) were also noted; it was concluded that IUCDs are the ideal contraceptive method during lactation, with the use of a lactation stimulant when indicated.
Saab, Rim; Tausch, Nicole; Spears, Russell; Cheung, Wing-Yee
2015-01-01
We examined predictors of collective action among bystander group members in solidarity with a disadvantaged group by extending the dual pathway model of collective action, which proposes one efficacy-based and one emotion-based path to collective action (Van Zomeren, Spears, Fischer, & Leach, 2004)
Stall Recovery in a Centrifuge-Based Flight Simulator With an Extended Aerodynamic Model
Ledegang, W.D.; Groen, E.L.
2015-01-01
We investigated the performance of 12 airline pilots in recovering from an asymmetrical stall in a flight simulator featuring an extended aerodynamic model of a transport-category aircraft, and a centrifuge-based motion platform capable of generating enhanced buffet motion and g-cueing. All pilots h
New phases in an extended Hubbard model explicitly including atomic polarizabilities
Brink, van de J.; Meinders, M.B.J.; Lorenzana, J.; Eder, R.; Sawatzky, G.A.
1996-01-01
We consider the influence of a nearest-neighbor Coulomb interaction in an extended Hubbard model and introduce a new interaction term which simulates atomic polarizabilities. This has the effect of screening the on-site Coulomb interaction for charged excitations, unlike a neighbor Coulomb interacti
Extended sigma-model in nontrivially deformed field-antifield formalism
Batalin, Igor A.; Lavrov, Peter M.
2015-08-01
We propose an action for the extended sigma-models in the most general setting of the kinetic term allowed in the nontrivially deformed field-antifield formalism. We show that the classical motion equations do naturally take their desired canonical form.
Nucleon-Nucleon Phase Shifts in the Extended Quark-Delocalization Colour-Screening Model
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
LU Xi-Feng; PING Jia-Lun; WANG Fan
2003-01-01
An alternative method is applied to the study of nucleon-nucleon scattering phase shifts within the framework of the extended quark demoralization colour-screening model, in which the one-pion exchange with short-range cutoff is included.
Invariance of an Extended Technology Acceptance Model Across Gender and Age Group
Ahmad, Tunku Badariah Tunku; Madarsha, Kamal Basha; Zainuddin, Ahmad Marzuki; Ismail, Nik Ahmad Hisham; Khairani, Ahmad Zamri; Nordin, Mohamad Sahari
2011-01-01
In this study, we examined the likelihood of a TAME (extended technology acceptance model), in which the interrelationships among computer self-efficacy, perceived usefulness, intention to use and self-reported use of computer-mediated technology were tested. In addition, the gender- and age-invariant of its causal structure were evaluated. The…
Low-lying Photoexcited States of a One-Dimensional Ionic Extended Hubbard Model
Yokoi, Kota; Maeshima, Nobuya; Hino, Ken-ichi
2017-10-01
We investigate the properties of low-lying photoexcited states of a one-dimensional (1D) ionic extended Hubbard model at half-filling. Numerical analysis by using the full and Lanczos diagonalization methods shows that, in the ionic phase, there exist low-lying photoexcited states below the charge transfer gap. As a result of comparison with numerical data for the 1D antiferromagnetic (AF) Heisenberg model, it was found that, for a small alternating potential Δ, these low-lying photoexcited states are spin excitations, which is consistent with a previous analytical study [Katsura et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 103, 177402 (2009)]. As Δ increases, the spectral intensity of the 1D ionic extended Hubbard model rapidly deviates from that of the 1D AF Heisenberg model and it is clarified that this deviation is due to the neutral-ionic domain wall, an elementary excitation near the neutral-ionic transition point.
Stability analysis of the extended ADI-FDTD technique including lumped models
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
CHEN ZhiHui; CHU QingXin
2008-01-01
The numerical stability of the extended alternating-direction-implicit-finite-difference-time-domain (ADI-FDTD) method including lumped models is analyzed.Three common lumped models are investigated:resistor,capacitor,and inductor,and three different formulations for each model are analyzed:the explicit,semi-implicit and implicit schemes.Analysis results show that the extended ADI-FDTD algorithm is not unconditionally stable in the explicit scheme case,and the stability criterion depends on the value of lumped models,but in the semi-implicit and implicit cases,the algorithm is stable.Finally,two simple microstrip circuits including lumped elements are simulated to demonstrate validity of the theoretical results.
Hydro-mechanical modeling of impermeable discontinuity in rock by extended finite element method
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
郑安兴; 罗先启
2015-01-01
The extended finite element method(XFEM) is a numerical method for modeling discontinuities within the classical finite element framework. The computation mesh in XFEM is independent of the discontinuities, such that remeshing for moving discontinuities can be overcome. The extended finite element method is presented for hydro-mechanical modeling of impermeable discontinuities in rock. The governing equation of XFEM for hydraulic fracture modeling is derived by the virtual work principle of the fracture problem considering the water pressure on crack surface. The coupling relationship between water pressure gradient on crack surface and fracture opening width is obtained by semi-analytical and semi-numerical method. This method simplifies coupling analysis iteration and improves computational precision. Finally, the efficiency of the proposed method for modeling hydraulic fracture problems is verified by two examples and the advantages of the XFEM for hydraulic fracturing analysis are displayed.
Applying TAM in B2C E-Commerce Research: An Extended Model
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
QIU Lingyun; LI Dong
2008-01-01
As one of the most widely accepted adoption models in information systems research, the technology acceptance model (TAM) focuses exclusively on cognition-oriented constructs such as perceived usefulness and perceived ease of use. This perspective may have limited the explanatory power of TAM when it is utilized in studying consumers' adoption intentions of online shopping. Based on the contrasts between e-commerce systems and traditional workplace information systems as well as empirical findings from a variety of recent e-commerce research works, this paper analyzes an extended model which integrates three additional constructs: trust, social presence, and perceived enjoyment. The interrelationship between these constructs is also explained. Empirical validations of this extended model are expected in future research.
Inheritance Optimization of Extend Case Transfer Model of Interoganization Workflows Management
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
无
2006-01-01
Extend case transfer architecture inter-organization workflow management fits the needs of Collaboration commerce. However, during the third step of extend case transfer architecture, modifications of private workflows might cause some fatal problems, such as dead locks, live locks and dead tasks. These problems could change the soundness and efficiency of overall work flow. This paper presents a Petri net based approach to protect the inheritance of public work flows in private domains, and discusses an implementation of our collaboration commerce workflow model.
Scattering resonances and two-particle bound states of the extended Hubbard model
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Valiente, M; Petrosyan, D [Institute of Electronic Structure and Laser, FORTH, 71110 Heraklion, Crete (Greece)
2009-06-28
We present a complete derivation of two-particle states of the one-dimensional extended Bose-Hubbard model involving attractive or repulsive on-site and nearest-neighbour interactions. We find that this system possesses scattering resonances and two families of energy-dependent interaction-bound states which are not present in the Hubbard model with the on-site interaction alone. (fast track communication)
2011-01-01
Modeling phase is fundamental both in the analysis process of a dynamic system and the design of a control system. If this phase is in-line is even more critical and the only information of the system comes from input/output data. Some adaptation algorithms for fuzzy system based on extended Kalman filter are presented in this paper, which allows obtaining accurate models without renounce the computational efficiency that characterizes the Kalman filter, and allows ...
A Local Search Modeling for Constrained Optimum Paths Problems (Extended Abstract
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Quang Dung Pham
2009-10-01
Full Text Available Constrained Optimum Path (COP problems appear in many real-life applications, especially on communication networks. Some of these problems have been considered and solved by specific techniques which are usually difficult to extend. In this paper, we introduce a novel local search modeling for solving some COPs by local search. The modeling features the compositionality, modularity, reuse and strengthens the benefits of Constrained-Based Local Search. We also apply the modeling to the edge-disjoint paths problem (EDP. We show that side constraints can easily be added in the model. Computational results show the significance of the approach.
Observed light yield of scintillation pixels: Extending the two-ray model
Kantorski, Igor; Jurkowski, Jacek; Drozdowski, Winicjusz
2016-09-01
In this paper we propose an extended, two dimensional model describing the propagation of scintillation photons inside a cuboid crystal until they reach a PMT window. In the simplest approach the model considers two main reasons for light losses: standard absorption obeying the classical Lambert-Beer law and non-ideal reflectivity of the "mummy" covering formed by several layers of Teflon tape wrapping the sample. Results of the model calculations are juxtaposed with experimental data as well as with predictions of an earlier, one dimensional model.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Jeong, Cheol-Ho
2011-01-01
Room surfaces have been extensively modeled as locally reacting in room acoustic predictions although such modeling could yield significant errors under certain conditions. Therefore, this study aims to propose a guideline for adopting the local reaction assumption by comparing predicted random...... incidence acoustical characteristics of typical building elements made of porous materials assuming extended and local reaction. For each surface reaction, five well-established wave propagation models, the Delany-Bazley, Miki, Beranek, Allard-Champoux, and Biot model, are employed. Effects of the flow...
Extending the Standard Model Effective Field Theory with the Complete Set of Dimension-7 Operators
Lehman, Landon
2014-01-01
We present a complete list of the independent dimension-7 operators that are constructed using the Standard Model degrees of freedom and are invariant under the Standard Model gauge group. This list contains only 20 independent operators; far fewer than the 63 operators available at dimension 6. All of these dimension-7 operators contain fermions and violate lepton number, and 7 of the 20 violate baryon number as well. This result extends the Standard Model Effective Field Theory (SMEFT) and allows a more detailed exploration of the structure and properties of possible deformations from the Standard Model Lagrangian.
Extending the standard model effective field theory with the complete set of dimension-7 operators
Lehman, Landon
2014-12-01
We present a complete list of the independent dimension-7 operators that are constructed using the standard model degrees of freedom and are invariant under the standard model gauge group. This list contains only 20 independent operators, far fewer than the 63 operators available at dimension 6. All of these dimension-7 operators contain fermions and violate lepton number, and 7 of the 20 violate baryon number as well. This result extends the standard model effective field theory and allows a more detailed exploration of the structure and properties of possible deformations from the standard model Lagrangian.
Modeling and Extended State Observer Based Dynamic Surface Control for Cold Rolling Mill System
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Xu Li
2016-01-01
Full Text Available The modeling and control problems are investigated for cold rolling mill system. Firstly, we establish a monitor automatic gauge control (MAGC model for a practical cold rolling mill system. The new model is with mismatched uncertainties. Then, an extended state observer (ESO is developed to estimate uncertainties. In the general high-order systems, the ESO is also used to estimate states. By dynamic surface control method, we design the controller to guarantee stabilization of the cold rolling mill system. Furthermore, we extend proposed method to general high-order systems, in which we analyze the difference from cold rolling mill system. Finally, simulation results for MAGC system are presented to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed control strategy.
Marriage of Electromagnetism and Gravity in an Extended Space Model and Astrophysical Phenomena
Andreev, V. A.; Tsipenyuk, D. Yu.
2013-09-01
The generalization of Einstein's special theory of relativity (SRT) is proposed. In this model the possibility of unification of scalar gravity and electromagnetism into a single unified field is considered. Formally, the generalization of the SRT is that instead of (1+3)-dimensional Minkowski space the (1+4)-dimensional extension G is considered. As a fifth additional coordinate the interval S is used. This value is saved under the usual Lorentz transformations in Minkowski space M, but it changes when the transformations in the extended space G are used. We call this model the extended space model (ESM). From a physical point of view our expansion means that processes in which the rest mass of the particles changes are acceptable now. If the rest mass of a particle does not change and the physical quantities do not depend on an additional variable S, then the electromagnetic and gravitational fields exist independently of each other. But if the rest mass is variable and there is a dependence on S, then these two fields are combined into a single unified field. In the extended space model a photon can have a nonzero mass and this mass can be either positive or negative. The gravitational effects such as the speed of escape, gravitational red shift and detection of light can be analyzed in the frame of the extended space model. In this model all these gravitational effects can be found algebraically by the rotations in the (1+4) dimensional space. Now it becomes possible to predict some future results of visible size of supermassive objects in our Universe due to new stage of experimental astronomy development in the RadioAstron Project and analyze phenomena is an explosion of the star V838 Mon.
Models of population-based analyses for data collected from large extended families.
Wang, Wenyu; Lee, Elisa T; Howard, Barbara V; Fabsitz, Richard R; Devereux, Richard B; MacCluer, Jean W; Laston, Sandra; Comuzzie, Anthony G; Shara, Nawar M; Welty, Thomas K
2010-12-01
Large studies of extended families usually collect valuable phenotypic data that may have scientific value for purposes other than testing genetic hypotheses if the families were not selected in a biased manner. These purposes include assessing population-based associations of diseases with risk factors/covariates and estimating population characteristics such as disease prevalence and incidence. Relatedness among participants however, violates the traditional assumption of independent observations in these classic analyses. The commonly used adjustment method for relatedness in population-based analyses is to use marginal models, in which clusters (families) are assumed to be independent (unrelated) with a simple and identical covariance (family) structure such as those called independent, exchangeable and unstructured covariance structures. However, using these simple covariance structures may not be optimally appropriate for outcomes collected from large extended families, and may under- or over-estimate the variances of estimators and thus lead to uncertainty in inferences. Moreover, the assumption that families are unrelated with an identical family structure in a marginal model may not be satisfied for family studies with large extended families. The aim of this paper is to propose models incorporating marginal models approaches with a covariance structure for assessing population-based associations of diseases with their risk factors/covariates and estimating population characteristics for epidemiological studies while adjusting for the complicated relatedness among outcomes (continuous/categorical, normally/non-normally distributed) collected from large extended families. We also discuss theoretical issues of the proposed models and show that the proposed models and covariance structure are appropriate for and capable of achieving the aim.
Schreurs, V.V.A.M.
2010-01-01
This review aims to integrate the present state of knowledge on lactate metabolism in human and mammalian physiology as far as it could be subject to nutritional interventions. An integrated view on the nutritional, metabolic and physiological aspects of lactic acid and lactates might open a perspec
Modeling protein tandem mass spectrometry data with an extended linear regression strategy.
Liu, Han; Bonner, Anthony J; Emili, Andrew
2004-01-01
Tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) has emerged as a cornerstone of proteomics owing in part to robust spectral interpretation algorithm. The intensity patterns presented in mass spectra are useful information for identification of peptides and proteins. However, widely used algorithms can not predicate the peak intensity patterns exactly. We have developed a systematic analytical approach based on a family of extended regression models, which permits routine, large scale protein expression profile modeling. By proving an important technical result that the regression coefficient vector is just the eigenvector corresponding to the least eigenvalue of a space transformed version of the original data, this extended regression problem can be reduced to a SVD decomposition problem, thus gain the robustness and efficiency. To evaluate the performance of our model, from 60,960 spectra, we chose 2,859 with high confidence, non redundant matches as training data, based on this specific problem, we derived some measurements of goodness of fit to show that our modeling method is reasonable. The issues of overfitting and underfitting are also discussed. This extended regression strategy therefore offers an effective and efficient framework for in-depth investigation of complex mammalian proteomes.
Model-Based Engine Control Architecture with an Extended Kalman Filter
Csank, Jeffrey T.; Connolly, Joseph W.
2016-01-01
This paper discusses the design and implementation of an extended Kalman filter (EKF) for model-based engine control (MBEC). Previously proposed MBEC architectures feature an optimal tuner Kalman Filter (OTKF) to produce estimates of both unmeasured engine parameters and estimates for the health of the engine. The success of this approach relies on the accuracy of the linear model and the ability of the optimal tuner to update its tuner estimates based on only a few sensors. Advances in computer processing are making it possible to replace the piece-wise linear model, developed off-line, with an on-board nonlinear model running in real-time. This will reduce the estimation errors associated with the linearization process, and is typically referred to as an extended Kalman filter. The nonlinear extended Kalman filter approach is applied to the Commercial Modular Aero-Propulsion System Simulation 40,000 (C-MAPSS40k) and compared to the previously proposed MBEC architecture. The results show that the EKF reduces the estimation error, especially during transient operation.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Bynaum, R.V.; Free, S.J.; Moore, R.C.
1999-01-15
The organic ligands acetate, lactate, oxalate and EDTA have been identified as components of wastes targeted for disposal in the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) located in Southeastern New Mexico. The presence of these ligands is of concern because complexation of the actinides with the ligands may increase dissolved actinide concentrations and impact chemical retardation during transport. The current work considers the complexation of Am(III), Th (IV), Np(V), and U(W) with two of the organic ligands, acetate and lactate, in NaCl media from dilute through high concentration. A thermodynamic model for actinide complexation with the organic ligands has been developed based on the Pitzer activity coefficient formalism and the Harvie-Moller-Weare, Felmy-Weare database for describing brine evaporite systems. The model was parameterized using first apparent stability constant data from the literature. Because of complexation of other metal ions (Fe, Mg, Ni, Pb, etc.) present in the WIPP disposal room with the organic ligands, preliminary results from model calculations indicate the organic ligands do not significantly increase dissolved actinide concentrations.
Statistical model of stress corrosion cracking based on extended form of Dirichlet energy
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Harry Yosh
2013-12-01
The mechanism of stress corrosion cracking (SCC) has been discussed for decades. Here I propose a model of SCC reflecting the feature of fracture in brittle manner based on the variational principle under approximately supposed thermal equilibrium. In that model the functionals are expressed with extended forms of Dirichlet energy, and Dirichlet principle is applied to them to solve the variational problem that represents SCC and normal extension on pipe surface. Based on the model and the maximum entropy principle, the statistical nature of SCC colony is discussed and it is indicated that the crack has discrete energy and length under ideal isotropy of materials and thermal equilibrium.
Extending the 4I Organizational Learning Model: Information Sources, Foraging Processes and Tools
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Tracy A. Jenkin
2013-08-01
Full Text Available The continued importance of organizational learning has recently led to several calls for further developing the theory. This article addresses these calls by extending Crossan, Lane and White’s (1999 4I model to include a fifth process, information foraging, and a fourth level, the tool. The resulting 5I organizational learning model can be generalized to a number of learning contexts, especially those that involve understanding and making sense of data and information. Given the need for organizations to both innovate and increase productivity, and the volumes of data and information that are available to support both, the 5I model addresses an important organizational issue.
Numerical modeling of concrete hydraulic fracturing with extended finite element method
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
REN QingWen; DONG YuWen; YU TianTang
2009-01-01
The extended finite element method (XFEM) is a new numerical method for modeling discontinuity.Research about numerical modeling for concrete hydraulic fracturing by XFEM is explored. By building the virtual work principle of the fracture problem considering water pressure on the crack surface, the governing equations of XFEM for hydraulic fracture modeling are derived. Implementation of the XFEM for hydraulic fracturing is presented. Finally, the method is verified by two examples and the advan-tages of the XFEM for hydraulic fracturing analysis are displayed.
Numerical modeling of concrete hydraulic fracturing with extended finite element method
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
无
2009-01-01
The extended finite element method (XFEM) is a new numerical method for modeling discontinuity. Research about numerical modeling for concrete hydraulic fracturing by XFEM is explored. By building the virtual work principle of the fracture problem considering water pressure on the crack surface, the governing equations of XFEM for hydraulic fracture modeling are derived. Implementation of the XFEM for hydraulic fracturing is presented. Finally, the method is verified by two examples and the advan- tages of the XFEM for hydraulic fracturing analysis are displayed.
A method of designing smartphone interface based on the extended user's mental model
Zhao, Wei; Li, Fengmin; Bian, Jiali; Pan, Juchen; Song, Song
2017-01-01
The user's mental model is the core guiding theory of product design, especially practical products. The essence of practical product is a tool which is used by users to meet their needs. Then, the most important feature of a tool is usability. The design method based on the user's mental model provides a series of practical and feasible theoretical guidance for improving the usability of the product according to the user's awareness of things. In this paper, we propose a method of designing smartphone interface based on the extended user's mental model according to further research on user groups. This approach achieves personalized customization of smartphone application interface and enhance application using efficiency.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Lin, Zhoumeng [Department of Physiology and Pharmacology, College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Georgia, Athens, GA 30602 (United States); Interdisciplinary Toxicology Program, University of Georgia, Athens, GA 30602 (United States); Fisher, Jeffrey W. [Division of Biochemical Toxicology, National Center for Toxicological Research, Food and Drug Administration, Jefferson, AR 72079 (United States); Wang, Ran [Center for Environmental Health Sciences, Department of Basic Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine, Mississippi State University, Mississippi State, MS 39762 (United States); Institute of Food Safety, Jiangsu Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Nanjing 210014 (China); Ross, Matthew K. [Center for Environmental Health Sciences, Department of Basic Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine, Mississippi State University, Mississippi State, MS 39762 (United States); Filipov, Nikolay M., E-mail: filipov@uga.edu [Department of Physiology and Pharmacology, College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Georgia, Athens, GA 30602 (United States); Interdisciplinary Toxicology Program, University of Georgia, Athens, GA 30602 (United States)
2013-11-15
Atrazine (ATR) is a widely used chlorotriazine herbicide, a ubiquitous environmental contaminant, and a potential developmental toxicant. To quantitatively evaluate placental/lactational transfer and fetal/neonatal tissue dosimetry of ATR and its major metabolites, physiologically based pharmacokinetic models were developed for rat dams, fetuses and neonates. These models were calibrated using pharmacokinetic data from rat dams repeatedly exposed (oral gavage; 5 mg/kg) to ATR followed by model evaluation against other available rat data. Model simulations corresponded well to the majority of available experimental data and suggest that: (1) the fetus is exposed to both ATR and its major metabolite didealkylatrazine (DACT) at levels similar to maternal plasma levels, (2) the neonate is exposed mostly to DACT at levels two-thirds lower than maternal plasma or fetal levels, while lactational exposure to ATR is minimal, and (3) gestational carryover of DACT greatly affects its neonatal dosimetry up until mid-lactation. To test the model's cross-species extrapolation capability, a pharmacokinetic study was conducted with pregnant C57BL/6 mice exposed (oral gavage; 5 mg/kg) to ATR from gestational day 12 to 18. By using mouse-specific parameters, the model predictions fitted well with the measured data, including placental ATR/DACT levels. However, fetal concentrations of DACT were overestimated by the model (10-fold). This overestimation suggests that only around 10% of the DACT that reaches the fetus is tissue-bound. These rodent models could be used in fetal/neonatal tissue dosimetry predictions to help design/interpret early life toxicity/pharmacokinetic studies with ATR and as a foundation for scaling to humans. - Highlights: • We developed PBPK models for atrazine in rat dams, fetuses, and neonates. • We conducted pharmacokinetic (PK) study with atrazine in pregnant mice. • Model predictions were in good agreement with experimental rat and mouse PK data
Murthy, D N Prabhakar
2014-01-01
Serving to unify the existing literature on extended warranties, maintenance service contracts and lease contracts, this book also presents a unique perspective on the topic focussed on cost analysis and decision-making from the perspectives of the parties involved. Using a game theoretic approach together with mathematical modelling, results are presented in an integrated manner with key topics that require further research highlighted in order to serve as a starting point for researchers (engineers and statisticians) who are interested in doing further work in these areas. Designed to assist practitioners (managers, engineers, applied statisticians) who are involved with extended warranties, maintenance service contracts and lease contracts, the book provides them with the models and techniques needed for proper cost analysis and effective decision-making. The book is also suitable for use as a reference text in industrial engineering, applied statistics, operations research and management.
Nonuniform phases in the 't Hooft extended Nambu--Jona-Lasinio Model
Moreira, J; Osipov, A A; Blin, A H
2015-01-01
The phase diagram of cold dense quark matter is studied using the 't Hooft extended Nambu--Jona-Lasinio Model applied to the light quark sector with a finite current mass for the strange quark (up and down are considered in the chiral limit). By relaxing the traditional uniformity assumptions and considering a modulated light quark condensate background we investigate the possible existence of non-uniform phases in this region of the phase diagram. The effects of changes in the coupling strengths of the model are studied and it is shown that the inclusion of flavour mixing combined with the finite current mass of the strange quark catalyses the appearance of the non-uniform phases, extending the domain for their existence.
Kink antikink density wave of an extended car-following model in a cooperative driving system
Yu, Lei; Shi, Zhongke; Zhou, Bingchang
2008-12-01
We propose an extended optimal velocity model applicable to cooperative driving control system by considering the headway of arbitrary number of cars that precede and the relative velocity. The stability condition of the extended model is obtained by using the linear stability theory. The modified Korteweg-de Vries (mKdV) equation is derived to describe the traffic behavior near the critical point by applying the nonlinear analysis. Thus the traffic jams can be described by the kink-antikink density wave which is the solution of the mKdV equation. The simulation results confirm the analytical results and show that the traffic jams are suppressed more efficiently with considering not only the headway of more vehicles ahead but also the relative velocity.
GDF11 administration does not extend lifespan in a mouse model of premature aging
Freitas-Rodríguez, Sandra; Rodríguez, Francisco; Folgueras, Alicia R.
2016-01-01
GDF11 has recently emerged as a powerful anti-aging candidate, found in young blood, capable of rejuvenating a number of aged tissues, such as heart, skeletal muscle and brain. However, recent reports have shown contradictory data questioning its capacity to reverse age-related tissue dysfunction. The availability of a mouse model of accelerated aging, which shares most of the features occurring in physiological aging, gives us an excellent opportunity to test in vivo therapies aimed at extending lifespan both in pathological and normal aging. On this basis, we wondered whether the proposed anti-aging functions of GDF11 would have an overall effect on longevity. We first confirmed the existence of a reduction in GDF11/8 levels in our mouse model of accelerated aging compared with wild-type littermates. However, we show herein that GDF11 daily administration does not extend lifespan of premature-aged mice. PMID:27507054
The Kronig-Penney model extended to arbitrary potentials via numerical matrix mechanics
Pavelich, R. L.; Marsiglio, F.
2015-09-01
The Kronig-Penney model is a common starting point for studying the quantum mechanics of electrons in a confining periodic potential. This model uses a square-well potential; the energies and eigenstates can be obtained analytically for a single well, and then Bloch's theorem allows one to extend these solutions to the periodically repeating potential. In this work, we describe how to obtain simple numerical solutions for the eigenvalues and eigenstates for any confining one-dimensional potential within a unit cell and then extend this procedure, with virtually no extra effort, to the case of arbitrary periodically repeating potentials. In this way, one can study the band structure effects that arise from differently shaped potentials. One of these effects is the electron-hole mass asymmetry; more realistic unit cell potentials generally give rise to higher electron-hole mass asymmetries.
Two-Region Extended Archie's Law Model for Soil Air Permeability and Gas Diffusivity
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Hamamoto, Shoichiro; Møldrup, Per; Kawamoto, Ken
2011-01-01
The air permeability (ka) and soil gas diffusion coefficients (Dp) are controlling factors for gas transport and fate in variably saturated soils. We developed a unified model for ka and Dp based on the classical Archie's law, extended by: (i) allowing for two-region gas transport behavior...... for structured soils, with the natural field moisture condition (set at −100 cm H2O matric potential [pF 2]) as the reference (spliced) point between the large-pore (drained pore diameter ≥30 μm at pF ≤ 2) and the small-pore (subsequently drained pores 2) regions, and (ii) including a percolation...... threshold, set as 10% of the total porosity for structureless porous media or 10% of the porosity in the large-pore region for structured soils. The resulting extended Archie's law with reference point (EXAR) models for ka and Dp were fitted to the measured data. For both structureless and structured porous...
Crossover and thermodynamic representation in the extended η model for fractal growth
Nagatani, Takashi; Stanley, H. Eugene
1990-10-01
The η model for the dielectric breakdown is extended to the case where double power laws apply. It is shown that a crossover phenomenon between the diffusion-limited aggregation (DLA) fractal and the η fractal occurs in the extended η model. Through the use of the dimensional analysis, a dimensionless parameter is found to govern the crossover. It is shown that when η1 the inverse crossover from the η fractal to the DLA fractal appears. It is also shown that the crossover radius is controlled by changing the applied field. The global flow diagram in the two-parameter space is obtained by using a two-parameter position-space renormalization-group approach. The crossover exponent and the crossover radius are calculated. The crossover phenomenon is described in terms of a thermodynamic representation of the two-phase equilibrium.
Nonuniform phases in the ’t Hooft extended Nambu–Jona-Lasinio model
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Moreira, J.; Hiller, B.; Blin, A. H. [Centro de Física Computacional, Departamento de Física da Universidade de Coimbra, 3004-516 Coimbra (Portugal); Osipov, A. A. [Centro de Física Computacional, Departamento de Física da Universidade de Coimbra, 3004-516 Coimbra (Portugal); on leave from Dzhelepov Laboratory of Nuclear Problems, JINR 141980 Dubna (Russian Federation)
2016-01-22
The phase diagram of cold dense quark matter is studied using the ’t Hooft extended Nambu-Jona–Lasinio Model applied to the light quark sector with a finite current mass for the strange quark (up and down are considered in the chiral limit). By relaxing the traditional uniformity assumptions and considering a modulated light quark condensate background we investigate the possible existence of non-uniform phases in this region of the phase diagram. The effects of changes in the coupling strengths of the model are studied and it is shown that the inclusion of flavour mixing combined with the finite current mass of the strange quark catalyses the appearance of the non-uniform phases, extending the domain for their existence.
The Water-Induced Linear Reduction Gas Diffusivity Model Extended to Three Pore Regions
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Chamindu, T. K. K. Deepagoda; de Jonge, Lis Wollesen; Kawamoto, Ken
2015-01-01
. Characterization of soil functional pore structure is an essential prerequisite to understand key gas transport processes in variably saturated soils in relation to soil ecosystems, climate, and environmental services. In this study, the water-induced linear reduction (WLR) soil gas diffusivity model originally......An existing gas diffusivity model developed originally for sieved, repacked soils was extended to characterize gas diffusion in differently structured soils and functional pore networks. A gas diffusivity-derived pore connectivity index was used as a measure of soil structure development...... developed for sieved, repacked soil was extended to two simple, linear regions to characterize gas diffusion and functional pore-network structure also in intact, structured soil systems. Based on the measurements in soils with markedly different pore regions, we showed that the two linear regions can...
A New Software Reliability Framework——An Extended Cleanroom Model
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
无
2001-01-01
Cleanroom software engineering has been proven effective in improving software development quality while at the same time increasing reliability. To adapt to large software system development, the paper presents an extended the Cleanroom model, which integrates object-oriented method based on stimulus history, reversed engineering idea, automatic testing and reliability assessment into software development. The paper discusses the architecture and realizing technology of ECM.
A modeling method of semiconductor fabrication flows with extended knowledge hybrid Petri nets
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Zhou Binghai; Jiang Shuyu; Wang Shijin; Wu bin
2008-01-01
A modeling method of extended knowledge hybrid Petri nets (EKHPNs), incorporating object-oriented methods into hybrid Petri nets (HPNs), was presented and used for the representation and modeling of semiconductor wafer fabrication flows. To model the discrete and continuous parts of a complex semiconductor wafer fabrication flow, the HPNs were introduced into the EKHPNs. Object-oriented methods were combined into the EKHPNs for coping with the complexity of the fabrication flow. Knowledge annotations were introduced to solve input and output conflicts of the EKHPNs.Finally, to demonstrate the validity of the EKHPN method, a real semiconductor wafer fabrication case was used to illustrate the modeling procedure. The modeling results indicate that the proposed method can be used to model a complex semiconductor wafer fabrication flow expediently.
Soneson, Joshua E
2017-04-01
Wide-angle parabolic models are commonly used in geophysics and underwater acoustics but have seen little application in medical ultrasound. Here, a wide-angle model for continuous-wave high-intensity ultrasound beams is derived, which approximates the diffraction process more accurately than the commonly used Khokhlov-Zabolotskaya-Kuznetsov (KZK) equation without increasing implementation complexity or computing time. A method for preventing the high spatial frequencies often present in source boundary conditions from corrupting the solution is presented. Simulations of shallowly focused axisymmetric beams using both the wide-angle and standard parabolic models are compared to assess the accuracy with which they model diffraction effects. The wide-angle model proposed here offers improved focusing accuracy and less error throughout the computational domain than the standard parabolic model, offering a facile method for extending the utility of existing KZK codes.
Micro-Doppler Effect of Extended Streamlined Targets Based on Sliding Scattering Centre Model
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Bo Tang
2016-06-01
Full Text Available The scattering center of extended streamlined targets can slide when the direction of radiation is changed. The sliding scattering center has influence on the micro-Doppler effect of micro-motion of the extended streamlined target. This paper focused on the micro-Doppler of the extended streamlined target for the bistatic radar. Based on the analysis, the analytical expressions of the micro-Doppler of coning motion with sliding scattering center model were given for bistatic radar. And the results were validated by the simulated results of the scattering field based on the full-wave method of the electromagnetic computation. The results showed that the sliding of the scattering center can make the micro-Doppler be less and distorted, and the influence of the sliding is different for two different types of the sliding scattering centers: sliding on the surface and sliding on the bottom circle. The analytical expressions of the micro-Doppler are helpful to analyze the time-frequency presentations (TFR of the coning motion of the extended streamlined target and to estimate the parameters of the target.
Energetics of slope flows: linear and weakly nonlinear solutions of the extended Prandtl model
Güttler, Ivan; Marinović, Ivana; Večenaj, Željko; Grisogono, Branko
2016-07-01
The Prandtl model succinctly combines the 1D stationary boundary-layer dynamics and thermodynamics of simple anabatic and katabatic flows over uniformly inclined surfaces. It assumes a balance between the along-the-slope buoyancy component and adiabatic warming/cooling, and the turbulent mixing of momentum and heat. In this study, energetics of the Prandtl model is addressed in terms of the total energy (TE) concept. Furthermore, since the authors recently developed a weakly nonlinear version of the Prandtl model, the TE approach is also exercised on this extended model version, which includes an additional nonlinear term in the thermodynamic equation. Hence, interplay among diffusion, dissipation and temperature-wind interaction of the mean slope flow is further explored. The TE of the nonlinear Prandtl model is assessed in an ensemble of solutions where the Prandtl number, the slope angle and the nonlinearity parameter are perturbed. It is shown that nonlinear effects have the lowest impact on variability in the ensemble of solutions of the weakly nonlinear Prandtl model when compared to the other two governing parameters. The general behavior of the nonlinear solution is similar to the linear solution, except that the maximum of the along-the-slope wind speed in the nonlinear solution reduces for larger slopes. Also, the dominance of PE near the sloped surface, and the elevated maximum of KE in the linear and nonlinear energetics of the extended Prandtl model are found in the PASTEX-94 measurements. The corresponding level where KE>PE most likely marks the bottom of the sublayer subject to shear-driven instabilities. Finally, possible limitations of the weakly nonlinear solutions of the extended Prandtl model are raised. In linear solutions, the local storage of TE term is zero, reflecting the stationarity of solutions by definition. However, in nonlinear solutions, the diffusion, dissipation and interaction terms (where the height of the maximum interaction is
Orientation measurement based on magnetic inductance by the extended distributed multi-pole model.
Wu, Fang; Moon, Seung Ki; Son, Hungsun
2014-06-27
This paper presents a novel method to calculate magnetic inductance with a fast-computing magnetic field model referred to as the extended distributed multi-pole (eDMP) model. The concept of mutual inductance has been widely applied for position/orientation tracking systems and applications, yet it is still challenging due to the high demands in robust modeling and efficient computation in real-time applications. Recently, numerical methods have been utilized in design and analysis of magnetic fields, but this often requires heavy computation and its accuracy relies on geometric modeling and meshing that limit its usage. On the other hand, an analytical method provides simple and fast-computing solutions but is also flawed due to its difficulties in handling realistic and complex geometries such as complicated designs and boundary conditions, etc. In this paper, the extended distributed multi-pole model (eDMP) is developed to characterize a time-varying magnetic field based on an existing DMP model analyzing static magnetic fields. The method has been further exploited to compute the mutual inductance between coils at arbitrary locations and orientations. Simulation and experimental results of various configurations of the coils are presented. Comparison with the previously published data shows not only good performance in accuracy, but also effectiveness in computation.
Extended intrinsic mean spin tensor for turbulence modelling in non-inertial frame of reference
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
HUANG Yu-ning; MA Hui-yang
2008-01-01
We investigate the role of extended intrinsic mean spin tensor introduced in this work for turbulence modelling in a non-inertial frame of reference.It is described by the Euclidean group of transformations and,in particular,its significance and importance in the approach of the algebraic Reynolds stress modelling,such as in a nonlinear K-εmodel.To this end and for illustration of the effect of extended intrinsic spin tensor on turbulence modelling,we examine several recently developed nonlinear K-ε models and compare their performance in predicting the homogeneous turbulent shear flow in a rotating frame of reference with LES data.Our results and analysis indicate that,only if the deficiencies of these models and the like be well understood and properly corrected,may in the near future,more sophisticated nonlinear K-ε models be 0eveloped to better predict complex turbulent flows in a non-inertial frame of reference.
Laser-Plasma Modeling Using PERSEUS Extended-MHD Simulation Code for HED Plasmas
Hamlin, Nathaniel; Seyler, Charles
2016-10-01
We discuss the use of the PERSEUS extended-MHD simulation code for high-energy-density (HED) plasmas in modeling laser-plasma interactions in relativistic and nonrelativistic regimes. By formulating the fluid equations as a relaxation system in which the current is semi-implicitly time-advanced using the Generalized Ohm's Law, PERSEUS enables modeling of two-fluid phenomena in dense plasmas without the need to resolve the smallest electron length and time scales. For relativistic and nonrelativistic laser-target interactions, we have validated a cycle-averaged absorption (CAA) laser driver model against the direct approach of driving the electromagnetic fields. The CAA model refers to driving the radiation energy and flux rather than the fields, and using hyperbolic radiative transport, coupled to the plasma equations via energy source terms, to model absorption and propagation of the radiation. CAA has the advantage of not requiring adequate grid resolution of each laser wavelength, so that the system can span many wavelengths without requiring prohibitive CPU time. For several laser-target problems, we compare existing MHD results to extended-MHD results generated using PERSEUS with the CAA model, and examine effects arising from Hall physics. This work is supported by the National Nuclear Security Administration stewardship sciences academic program under Department of Energy cooperative agreements DE-FOA-0001153 and DE-NA0001836.
Modeled Arctic sea ice evolution through 2300 in CMIP5 extended RCPs
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
P. J. Hezel
2014-07-01
Full Text Available Almost all global climate models and Earth system models that participated in the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project 5 (CMIP5 show strong declines in Arctic sea ice extent and volume under the highest forcing scenario of the representative concentration pathways (RCPs through 2100, including a transition from perennial to seasonal ice cover. Extended RCP simulations through 2300 were completed for a~subset of models, and here we examine the time evolution of Arctic sea ice in these simulations. In RCP2.6, the summer Arctic sea ice extent increases compared to its minimum following the peak radiative forcing in 2044 in all nine models. RCP4.5 demonstrates continued summer Arctic sea ice decline after the forcing stabilizes due to continued warming on longer timescales. Based on the analysis of these two scenarios, we suggest that Arctic summer sea ice extent could begin to recover if and when radiative forcing from greenhouse gas concentrations were to decrease. In RCP8.5 the Arctic Ocean reaches annually ice-free conditions in seven of nine models. The ensemble of simulations completed under the extended RCPs provide insight into the global temperature increase at which sea ice disappears in the Arctic and the reversibility of declines in seasonal sea ice extent.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ma, Jie; Wang, Bo [State Key Laboratory of Advanced Special Steel, Shanghai University, Shanghai 200072 (China); Shanghai Engineering Technology Research Center of Special Casting, Shanghai 201605 (China); Zhao, Shunli [Research Institute, Baoshan Iron & Steel Co., Ltd, Shanghai 201900 (China); Wu, Guangxin [State Key Laboratory of Advanced Special Steel, Shanghai University, Shanghai 200072 (China); Shanghai Engineering Technology Research Center of Special Casting, Shanghai 201605 (China); Zhang, Jieyu, E-mail: zjy6162@staff.shu.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Advanced Special Steel, Shanghai University, Shanghai 200072 (China); Shanghai Engineering Technology Research Center of Special Casting, Shanghai 201605 (China); Yang, Zhiliang [State Key Laboratory of Advanced Special Steel, Shanghai University, Shanghai 200072 (China); Shanghai Engineering Technology Research Center of Special Casting, Shanghai 201605 (China)
2016-05-25
We have extended the dendritic growth model first proposed by Boettinger, Coriell and Trivedi (here termed EBCT) for microstructure simulations of rapidly solidified non-dilute alloys. The temperature-dependent distribution coefficient, obtained from calculations of phase equilibria, and the continuous growth model (CGM) were adopted in the present EBCT model to describe the solute trapping behaviors. The temperature dependence of the physical properties, which were not used in previous dendritic growth models, were also considered in the present EBCT model. These extensions allow the present EBCT model to be used for microstructure simulations of non-dilute alloys. The comparison of the present EBCT model with the BCT model proves that the considerations of the distribution coefficient and physical properties are necessary for microstructure simulations, especially for small particles with high undercoolings. Finally, the EBCT model was incorporated into the cellular automaton-finite element (CAFE) model to simulate microstructures of gas-atomized ASP30 high speed steel particles that were then compared with experimental results. Both the simulated and experimental results reveal that a columnar dendritic microstructure preferentially forms in small particles and an equiaxed microstructure forms otherwise. The applications of the present EBCT model provide a convenient way to predict the microstructure of non-dilute alloys. - Highlights: • A dendritic growth model was developed considering non-equilibrium distribution coefficient. • The physical properties with temperature dependence were considered in the extended model. • The extended model can be used to non-dilute alloys and the extensions are necessary in small particles. • Microstructure of ASP30 steel was investigated using the present model and verified by experiment.
Yang, Shan-Shan; Pang, Ji-Wei; Guo, Wan-Qian; Yang, Xiao-Yin; Wu, Zhong-Yang; Ren, Nan-Qi; Zhao, Zhi-Qing
2017-05-01
This paper presents the results of an extended ASM2 model for the modeling and calibration of the role of extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) in phosphorus (P) removal in an anaerobic-aerobic process. In this extended ASM2 model, two new components, the bound EPS (XEPS) and the soluble EPS (SEPS), are introduced. Compared with the ASM2, 7.71, 8.53, and 9.28% decreases in polyphosphate (polyP) were observed in the extended ASM2 in three sequencing batch reactors feeding with different COD/P ratios, indicating that 7.71-9.28% of P in the liquid was adsorbed by EPS. Sensitive analysis indicated that, five parameters were the significant influential parameters and had been chosen for further model calibration by using the least square method to simulate by MATLAB. This extended ASM2 has been successfully established to simulate the output variables and provides a useful reference for the mathematic simulations of the role of EPS in biological phosphorus removal process. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
Teo, Timothy
2016-01-01
The aim of this study is to examine the factors that influenced the use of Facebook among university students. Using an extended technology acceptance model (TAM) with emotional attachment (EA) as an external variable, a sample of 498 students from a public-funded Thailand university were surveyed on their responses to five variables hypothesized…
Optimising and extending the geometrical modeller of a physics simulation framework
Urban, P
1998-01-01
The design of highly complex particle detectors used in High Energy Physics involves both CAD systems and physics simulation packages like Geant4. Geant4 is able to exchange detector geometries with CAD systems, conforming to the Standard for the Exchange of Product Model Data (STEP); Boundary Representation (B-Rep) models are transferred. Particle tracking is performed in these models, requiring efficient and accurate intersection computations from the geometrical modeller. The results of extending and optimising the modeller of Geant4 form the contents of this thesis. Swept surfaces: surfaces of linear extrusion and surfaces of revolution have been implemented. The problem of classifying points on surfaces bounded by curves as being inside or outside has been solved. These tasks necessitated the extension and optimisation of code related to curves and lead to a re-design of this code. Emphasis was put on efficiency and on dealing with numerical errors. The results will be integrated into the upcoming beta t...
Robbins, Joshua; Voth, Thomas E.
2007-12-01
The eXtended Finite Element Method (X-FEM) is a finite-element based discretization technique developed originally to model dynamic crack propagation [1]. Since that time the method has been used for modeling physics ranging from static meso-scale material failure to dendrite growth. Here we adapt the recent advances of Vitali and Benson [2] and Song et al. [3] to model dynamic loading of a polycrystalline material. We use demonstration problems to examine the method's efficacy for modeling the dynamic response of polycrystalline materials at the meso-scale. Specifically, we use the X-FEM to model grain boundaries. This approach allows us to i) eliminate ad-hoc mixture rules for multi-material elements and ii) avoid explicitly meshing grain boundaries.
Hamada, Kosuke; Kaneko, Tatsuya; Miyakoshi, Shohei; Ohta, Yukinori
2017-07-01
We comparatively study the excitonic insulator state in the extended Falicov-Kimball model (EFKM, a spinless two-band model) on the two-dimensional square lattice using the variational cluster approximation (VCA) and the cluster dynamical impurity approximation (CDIA). In the latter, the particle-bath sites are included in the reference cluster to take into account the particle-number fluctuations in the correlation sites. We thus calculate the particle-number distribution, order parameter, ground-state phase diagram, anomalous Green's function, and pair coherence length, thereby demonstrating the usefulness of the CDIA in the discussion of the excitonic condensation in the EFKM.
Luminosity variation in the extended one-zone RR Lyrae model
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Pricopi D.
2005-01-01
Full Text Available The Stellingwerf one-zone stellar model is extended by assuming, a slow and uniform rotation that leads to a very small oblateness of the star. The matter in the core-surrounding shell is supposed to consists of a mixture of ideal gas and radiation. This one-zone stellar pulsation model is proposed as a tool to investigate the factors affecting luminosity variations of pulsating stars. Linear and nonlinear analyses of the resulting equations are described. The results are in very good agreement with the observed RR Lyrae light curves. .
Doping driven metal-insulator transitions and charge orderings in the extended Hubbard model
Kapcia, K J; Capone, M; Amaricci, A
2016-01-01
We perform a thorough study of an extended Hubbard model featuring local and nearest-neighbor Coulomb repulsion. Using dynamical mean-field theory we investigated the zero temperature phase-diagram of this model as a function of the chemical doping. The interplay between local and non-local interaction drives a variety of phase-transitions connecting two distinct charge-ordered insulators, i.e., half-filled and quarter-filled, a charge-ordered metal and a Mott insulating phase. We characterize these transitions and the relative stability of the solutions and we show that the two interactions conspire to stabilize the quarter-filled charge ordered phase.
Characteristics of QCD phase transitions in an extended Skyrme model on S$^{3}$
Kim, J H; Lee, H K; Kim, Joon Ha; Yee, Sooman; Lee, Hyun Kyu
1994-01-01
We study the characteristics of the QCD phase transitions in dense hadronic matter using the Skyrme model constructed on S^3. We find numerically the localized solutions on S^3 using the extended Skyrme model which implements correctly the scale symmetry of QCD. The transition from the localized phase to the delocalized phase is found to be of first order at the critical radius of the hypersphere, L_c. The chiral restoration and the gluon decondensation also take place at the same critical size.
The Stability Analysis for an Extended Car Following Model Based on Control Theory
Ge, Hong-Xia; Meng, Xiang-Pei; Zhu, Ke-Qiang; Cheng, Rong-Jun
2014-08-01
A new method is proposed to study the stability of the car-following model considering traffic interruption probability. The stability condition for the extended car-following model is obtained by using the Lyapunov function and the condition for no traffic jam is also given based on the control theory. Numerical simulations are conducted to demonstrate and verify the analytical results. Moreover, numerical simulations show that the traffic interruption probability has an influence on driving behavior and confirm the effectiveness of the method on the stability of traffic flow.
Standard model extended by a heavy singlet: Linear vs. nonlinear EFT
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
G. Buchalla
2017-04-01
Full Text Available We consider the Standard Model extended by a heavy scalar singlet in different regions of parameter space and construct the appropriate low-energy effective field theories up to first nontrivial order. This top-down exercise in effective field theory is meant primarily to illustrate with a simple example the systematics of the linear and nonlinear electroweak effective Lagrangians and to clarify the relation between them. We discuss power-counting aspects and the transition between both effective theories on the basis of the model, confirming in all cases the rules and procedures derived in previous works from a bottom-up approach.
Standard model extended by a heavy singlet: Linear vs. nonlinear EFT
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Buchalla, G., E-mail: gerhard.buchalla@lmu.de; Catà, O.; Celis, A.; Krause, C.
2017-04-15
We consider the Standard Model extended by a heavy scalar singlet in different regions of parameter space and construct the appropriate low-energy effective field theories up to first nontrivial order. This top-down exercise in effective field theory is meant primarily to illustrate with a simple example the systematics of the linear and nonlinear electroweak effective Lagrangians and to clarify the relation between them. We discuss power-counting aspects and the transition between both effective theories on the basis of the model, confirming in all cases the rules and procedures derived in previous works from a bottom-up approach.
Lactate oxidation at the mitochondria: a lactate-malate-aspartate shuttle at work
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Daniel A Kane
2014-11-01
Full Text Available Lactate, the conjugate base of lactic acid occurring in aqueous biological fluids, has been derided as a dead-end waste product of anaerobic metabolism. Catalyzed by the near-equilibrium enzyme lactate dehydrogenase (LDH, the reduction of pyruvate to lactate is thought to serve to regenerate the NAD+ necessary for continued glycolytic flux. Reaction kinetics for LDH imply that lactate oxidation is rarely favored in the tissues of its own production. However, a substantial body of research directly contradicts any notion that LDH invariably operates unidirectionally in vivo. In the current Perspective, a model is forwarded in which the continuous formation and oxidation of lactate serves as a mitochondrial electron shuttle, whereby lactate generated in the cytosol of the cell is oxidized at the mitochondria of the same cell. From this perspective, an intracellular lactate shuttle operates much like the malate-aspartate shuttle; it is also proposed that the two shuttles are necessarily interconnected. Among the requisite features of such a model, significant compartmentalization of LDH, much like the creatine kinase of the PCr shuttle, would facilitate net cellular lactate oxidation under a variety of conditions.
Validating and extending the three process model of alertness in airline operations.
Ingre, Michael; Van Leeuwen, Wessel; Klemets, Tomas; Ullvetter, Christer; Hough, Stephen; Kecklund, Göran; Karlsson, David; Åkerstedt, Torbjörn
2014-01-01
Sleepiness and fatigue are important risk factors in the transport sector and bio-mathematical sleepiness, sleep and fatigue modeling is increasingly becoming a valuable tool for assessing safety of work schedules and rosters in Fatigue Risk Management Systems (FRMS). The present study sought to validate the inner workings of one such model, Three Process Model (TPM), on aircrews and extend the model with functions to model jetlag and to directly assess the risk of any sleepiness level in any shift schedule or roster with and without knowledge of sleep timings. We collected sleep and sleepiness data from 136 aircrews in a real life situation by means of an application running on a handheld touch screen computer device (iPhone, iPod or iPad) and used the TPM to predict sleepiness with varying level of complexity of model equations and data. The results based on multilevel linear and non-linear mixed effects models showed that the TPM predictions correlated with observed ratings of sleepiness, but explorative analyses suggest that the default model can be improved and reduced to include only two-processes (S+C), with adjusted phases of the circadian process based on a single question of circadian type. We also extended the model with a function to model jetlag acclimatization and with estimates of individual differences including reference limits accounting for 50%, 75% and 90% of the population as well as functions for predicting the probability of any level of sleepiness for ecological assessment of absolute and relative risk of sleepiness in shift systems for safety applications.
Validating and extending the three process model of alertness in airline operations.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Michael Ingre
Full Text Available Sleepiness and fatigue are important risk factors in the transport sector and bio-mathematical sleepiness, sleep and fatigue modeling is increasingly becoming a valuable tool for assessing safety of work schedules and rosters in Fatigue Risk Management Systems (FRMS. The present study sought to validate the inner workings of one such model, Three Process Model (TPM, on aircrews and extend the model with functions to model jetlag and to directly assess the risk of any sleepiness level in any shift schedule or roster with and without knowledge of sleep timings. We collected sleep and sleepiness data from 136 aircrews in a real life situation by means of an application running on a handheld touch screen computer device (iPhone, iPod or iPad and used the TPM to predict sleepiness with varying level of complexity of model equations and data. The results based on multilevel linear and non-linear mixed effects models showed that the TPM predictions correlated with observed ratings of sleepiness, but explorative analyses suggest that the default model can be improved and reduced to include only two-processes (S+C, with adjusted phases of the circadian process based on a single question of circadian type. We also extended the model with a function to model jetlag acclimatization and with estimates of individual differences including reference limits accounting for 50%, 75% and 90% of the population as well as functions for predicting the probability of any level of sleepiness for ecological assessment of absolute and relative risk of sleepiness in shift systems for safety applications.
Schmettow, Martin; Schnittker, Raphaela; Schraagen, Jan Maarten
2017-03-21
This paper proposes and demonstrates an extended protocol for usability validation testing of medical devices. A review of currently used methods for the usability evaluation of medical devices revealed two main shortcomings. Firstly, the lack of methods to closely trace the interaction sequences and derive performance measures. Secondly, a prevailing focus on cross-sectional validation studies, ignoring the issues of learnability and training. The U.S. Federal Drug and Food Administration's recent proposal for a validation testing protocol for medical devices is then extended to address these shortcomings: (1) a novel process measure 'normative path deviations' is introduced that is useful for both quantitative and qualitative usability studies and (2) a longitudinal, completely within-subject study design is presented that assesses learnability, training effects and allows analysis of diversity of users. A reference regression model is introduced to analyze data from this and similar studies, drawing upon generalized linear mixed-effects models and a Bayesian estimation approach. The extended protocol is implemented and demonstrated in a study comparing a novel syringe infusion pump prototype to an existing design with a sample of 25 healthcare professionals. Strong performance differences between designs were observed with a variety of usability measures, as well as varying training-on-the-job effects. We discuss our findings with regard to validation testing guidelines, reflect on the extensions and discuss the perspectives they add to the validation process.
Song, Rui; Lei, Chengmin; Han, Kai; Chen, Zilun; Pu, Dongsheng; Hou, Jing
2017-05-01
Supercontinuum generation directly from a nonlinear fiber amplifier, especially from a nonlinear ytterbium-doped fiber amplifier, attracts more and more attention due to its all-fiber structure, high optical to optical conversion efficiency, and high power output potential. However, the modeling of supercontinuum generation from a nonlinear fiber amplifier has been rarely reported. In this paper, the modeling of a tapered Ytterbium-doped fiber amplifier for visible extended to infrared supercontinuum generation is proposed based on the combination of the laser rate equations and the generalized nonlinear Schrödinger equation. Ytterbium-doped fiber amplifier generally can not generate visible extended supercontinuum due to its pumping wavelength and zero-dispersion wavelength. However, appropriate tapering and four-wave mixing makes the visible extended supercontinuum generation from an ytterbium-doped fiber amplifier possible. Tapering makes the zero-dispersion wavelength of the ytterbium-doped fiber shift to the short wavelength and minimizes the dispersion matching. Four-wave mixing plays an important role in the visible spectrum generation. The influence of pulse width and pump power on the supercontinuum generation is calculated and analyzed. The simulation results imply that it is promising and possible to fabricate a visible-to-infrared supercontinuum with low pump power and flat spectrum by using the tapered ytterbium-doped fiber amplifier scheme as long as the related parameters are well-selected.
Chen, W; Desai, D; Good, D; Crison, J; Timmins, P; Paruchuri, S; Wang, J; Ha, K
2016-08-01
A computational fluid dynamic (CFD) model was developed to predict metformin release from a hydroxypropylmethylcellulose (HPMC) matrix-based extended-release formulation that took into consideration the physical and chemical properties of the drug substance, composition, as well as size and shape of the tablet. New high dose strength (1000 mg) tablet geometry was selected based on the surface area/volume (SA/V) approach advocated by Lapidus/Lordi/Reynold to obtain the desired equivalent metformin release kinetics. Maintaining a similar SA/V ratio across all extended-release metformin hydrochloride (Met XR) tablet strengths that had different geometries provided similar simulations of dissolution behavior. Experimental dissolution profiles of three lots of high-strength tablets agreed with the simulated release kinetics. Additionally, a pharmacokinetic absorption model was developed using GastroPlus™ software and known physicochemical, pharmacokinetic, and in vitro dissolution properties of metformin to predict the clinical exposure of the new high strength (1000 mg) tablet prior to conducting a human clinical bioequivalence study. In vitro metformin release kinetics were utilized in the absorption model to predict exposures in humans for new 1000-mg Met XR tablets, and the absorption model correctly projected equivalent in vivo exposure across all dose strengths. A clinical bioequivalence study was pursued based on the combined modeling results and demonstrated equivalent exposure as predicted by the simulations.
Robbins, Joshua; Voth, Thomas
2007-06-01
The eXtended Finite Element Method (X-FEM) is a finite element based discretization technique developed originally to model dynamic crack propagation [1]. Since that time the method has been used for modeling physics ranging from static mesoscale material failure to dendrite growth. Here we adapt the recent advances of Benson et al. [2] and Belytchko et al. [3] to model shock loading of polycrystalline material. Through several demonstration problems we evaluate the method for modeling the shock response of polycrystalline materials at the mesoscale. Specifically, we use the X-FEM to model grain boundaries. This approach allows us to i) eliminate ad-hoc mixture rules for multi-material elements and ii) avoid explicitly meshing grain boundaries. ([1] N. Moes, J. Dolbow, J and T. Belytschko, 1999,``A finite element method for crack growth without remeshing,'' International Journal for Numerical Methods in Engineering, 46, 131-150. [2] E. Vitali, and D. J. Benson, 2006, ``An extended finite element formulation for contact in multi-material arbitrary Lagrangian-Eulerian calculations,'' International Journal for Numerical Methods in Engineering, 67, 1420-1444. [3] J-H Song, P. M. A. Areias and T. Belytschko, 2006, ``A method for dynamic crack and shear band propagation with phantom nodes,'' International Journal for Numerical Methods in Engineering, 67, 868-893.)
Shestakova, T P
2013-01-01
We construct Hamiltonian dynamics of the generalized spherically symmetric gravitational model in extended phase space. We start from the Faddeev - Popov effective action with gauge-fixing and ghost terms, making use of gauge conditions in differential form. It enables us to introduce missing velocities into the Lagrangian and then construct a Hamiltonian function according a usual rule which is applied for systems without constraints. The main feature of Hamiltonian dynamics in extended phase space is that it can be proved to be completely equivalent to Lagrangian dynamics derived from the effective action. The sets of Lagrangian and Hamiltonian equations are not gauge invariant in general. We demonstrate that solutions to the obtained equations include those of the gauge invariant Einstein equations, and also discuss a possible role of gauge-noninvariant terms. Then, we find a BRST invariant form of the effective action by adding terms not affecting Lagrangian equations. After all, we construct the BRST cha...
DiNuzzo, Mauro; Mangia, Silvia; Maraviglia, Bruno; Giove, Federico
2010-12-01
In this article, we examined theoretically the role of human cerebral glycogen in buffering the metabolic requirement of a 360-second brain stimulation, expanding our previous modeling study of neurometabolic coupling. We found that glycogen synthesis and degradation affects the relative amount of glucose taken up by neurons versus astrocytes. Under conditions of 175:115 mmol/L (∼1.5:1) neuronal versus astrocytic activation-induced Na(+) influx ratio, ∼12% of astrocytic glycogen is mobilized. This results in the rapid increase of intracellular glucose-6-phosphate level on stimulation and nearly 40% mean decrease of glucose flow through hexokinase (HK) in astrocytes via product inhibition. The suppression of astrocytic glucose phosphorylation, in turn, favors the channeling of glucose from interstitium to nearby activated neurons, without a critical effect on the concurrent intercellular lactate trafficking. Under conditions of increased neuronal versus astrocytic activation-induced Na(+) influx ratio to 190:65 mmol/L (∼3:1), glycogen is not significantly degraded and blood glucose is primarily taken up by neurons. These results support a role for astrocytic glycogen in preserving extracellular glucose for neuronal utilization, rather than providing lactate to neurons as is commonly accepted by the current 'thinking paradigm'. This might be critical in subcellular domains during functional conditions associated with fast energetic demands.
... are pregnant, plan to become pregnant, or are breastfeeding. If you become pregnant while using ammonium lactate, call your doctor.plan to avoid unnecessary or prolonged exposure to natural or artificial sunlight to the affected skin area and to ...
Extending comprehensive models of the Earth's magnetic field with Orsted and CHAMP data
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Sabaka, T.J.; Olsen, Nils; Purucker, M.E.
2004-01-01
A new model of the quiet-time, near-Earth magnetic field has been derived using a comprehensive approach, which includes not only POGO and Magsat satellite data, but also data from the Orsted and CHAMP satellites. The resulting model shows great improvement over its predecessors in terms...... of completeness of sources, time span and noise reduction in parameters. With its well separated fields and extended time domain of 1960 to mid-2002, the model is able to detect the known sequence of geomagnetic jerks within this frame and gives evidence for an event of interest around 1997. Because all sources...... are coestimated in a comprehensive approach, intriguing north-south features typically filtered out with other methods are being discovered in the lithospheric representation of the model, such as the S Atlantic spreading ridge and Andean subduction zone lineations. In addition, this lithospheric field exhibits...
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
JIN Zhi-jian; WANG Feng-hua; ZHU Zi-shu
2007-01-01
Electric arc furnaces (EAFs) represent one of the most disturbing loads in the subtransmission or transmission electric power systems. Therefore, it is necessary to build a practical model to descript the behavior of EAF in the simulation of power system for power quality issues. This paper deals with the modeling of EAF based on the combination of extended Kalman filter to identify the parameter of arc current and the power balance equation to obtain the dynamic, multi-valued u-i characteristics of EAF load. The whole EAF systems are simulated by means of power system blockset in Matlab to validate the proposed EAF model. This model can also be used to assess the impact of the new plant or highly varying nonlinear loads that exhibit chaos in power systems.
Low-dose rapamycin extends lifespan in a mouse model of mtDNA depletion syndrome.
Siegmund, Stephanie; Yang, Hua; Sharma, Rohit; Javors, Martin; Skinner, Owen; Mootha, Vamsi; Hirano, Michio; Schon, Eric A
2017-09-01
Mitochondrial disorders affecting oxidative phosphorylation (OxPhos) are caused by mutations in both the nuclear and mitochondrial genomes. One promising candidate for treatment is the drug rapamycin, which has been shown to extend lifespan in multiple animal models, and which was previously shown to ameliorate mitochondrial disease in a knock-out mouse model lacking a nuclear-encoded gene specifying an OxPhos structural subunit (Ndufs4). In that model, relatively high-dose intraperitoneal rapamycin extended lifespan and improved markers of neurological disease, via an unknown mechanism. Here, we administered low-dose oral rapamycin to a knock-in (KI) mouse model of authentic mtDNA disease, specifically, progressive mtDNA depletion syndrome, resulting from a mutation in the mitochondrial nucleotide salvage enzyme thymidine kinase 2 (TK2). Importantly, low-dose oral rapamycin was sufficient to extend Tk2KI/KI mouse lifespan significantly, and did so in the absence of detectable improvements in mitochondrial dysfunction. We found no evidence that rapamycin increased survival by acting through canonical pathways, including mitochondrial autophagy. However, transcriptomics and metabolomics analyses uncovered systemic metabolic changes pointing to a potential "rapamycin metabolic signature." These changes also implied that rapamycin may have enabled the Tk2KI/KI mice to utilize alternative energy reserves, and possibly triggered indirect signaling events that modified mortality through developmental reprogramming. From a therapeutic standpoint, our results support the possibility that low-dose rapamycin, while not targeting the underlying mtDNA defect, could represent a crucial therapy for the treatment of mtDNA-driven, and some nuclear DNA-driven, mitochondrial diseases. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press.
Renormalization group running of fermion observables in an extended non-supersymmetric SO(10) model
Meloni, Davide; Ohlsson, Tommy; Riad, Stella
2017-03-01
We investigate the renormalization group evolution of fermion masses, mixings and quartic scalar Higgs self-couplings in an extended non-supersymmetric SO(10) model, where the Higgs sector contains the 10 H, 120 H, and 126 H representations. The group SO(10) is spontaneously broken at the GUT scale to the Pati-Salam group and subsequently to the Standard Model (SM) at an intermediate scale M I. We explicitly take into account the effects of the change of gauge groups in the evolution. In particular, we derive the renormalization group equations for the different Yukawa couplings. We find that the computed physical fermion observables can be successfully matched to the experimental measured values at the electroweak scale. Using the same Yukawa couplings at the GUT scale, the measured values of the fermion observables cannot be reproduced with a SM-like evolution, leading to differences in the numerical values up to around 80%. Furthermore, a similar evolution can be performed for a minimal SO(10) model, where the Higgs sector consists of the 10 H and 126 H representations only, showing an equally good potential to describe the low-energy fermion observables. Finally, for both the extended and the minimal SO(10) models, we present predictions for the three Dirac and Majorana CP-violating phases as well as three effective neutrino mass parameters.
An Extended Expectation-Confirmation Model for Mobile Nursing Information System Continuance.
Hsieh, Pi-Jung; Lai, Hui-Min; Ma, Chen-Chung; Alexander, Judith W; Lin, Memg-Yi
2016-11-01
Nursing is critical in health care systems and comprises the planning, execution, and documentation of nursing care. To better manage health care information during patient care, the use of a mobile nursing information system (MNIS) provides more time to care for inpatients by reducing time-consuming and redundant paperwork. The purpose of this study was to extend the expectation-confirmation model and explore the roles of nursing professional competency (skill in use), habit (customary use), satisfaction (with use), and frequency of prior use in the context of MNIS continuance usage. We randomly chose 3 hospitals from among 14 hospitals in Taiwan that had indicated they used an MNIS. We conducted a field survey of nurses who had experience using the MNIS. We used a valid sample of 90 nurses to test the research model, using structural equation modeling with the partial least squares method. The results show that habit and frequency of prior use had a significant impact on MNIS continuance usage. Satisfaction and frequency of prior use had a significant impact on habit. Nurses' professional competence is crucial to perceived usefulness and, thus, is relevant in the context of MNIS continuance usage. When habit weakens over time, the continuance intention predicts continuance usage. This study showed that the extended expectation-confirmation model effectively predicts nurses' MNIS continuance usage and provides implications. Academics and practitioners should understand how nurses' habits form and how they affect continued MNIS use. Understanding the antecedents of habits can help nursing managers identify and manipulate habit formation.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Fadare Oluwaseun Gbenga
2013-12-01
Full Text Available This paper examines various constructs of an extended TAM, Technology Acceptance Model, that are theoretically influencing the adoption and acceptability of mobile learning among 3G enabled mobile users. Mobile learning activity- based, used for this study were drawn from behaviourist and “learning and teaching support” educational paradigms. An online and manual survey instruments were used to gather data. The structural equation modelling techniques were then employed to explain the adoption processes of hypothesized research model. A theoretical model ETAM is developed based on TAM. Our result proved that psychometric constructs of TAM can be extended and that ETAM is well suited, and of good pedagogical tool in understanding mobile learning among 3G enabled handheld devices in southwest part of Nigeria. Cognitive constructs, attitude toward m-learning, self-efficacy play significant roles in influencing behavioural intention for mobile learning, of which self-efficacy is the most importance construct. Implications of results and directions for future research are discussed.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Wenjun Huang
2017-01-01
Full Text Available Mechanical extending limit in horizontal drilling means the maximum horizontal extending length of a horizontal well under certain ground and down-hole mechanical constraint conditions. Around this concept, the constrained optimization model of mechanical extending limits is built and simplified analytical results for pick-up and slack-off operations are deduced. The horizontal extending limits for kinds of tubular strings under different drilling parameters are calculated and drawn. To improve extending limits, an optimal design model of drill strings is built and applied to a case study. The results indicate that horizontal extending limits are underestimated a lot when the effects of friction force on critical helical buckling loads are neglected. Horizontal extending limits firstly increase and tend to stable values with vertical depths. Horizontal extending limits increase faster but finally become smaller with the increase of horizontal pushing forces for tubular strings of smaller modulus-weight ratio. Sliding slack-off is the main limit operation and high axial friction is the main constraint factor constraining horizontal extending limits. A sophisticated installation of multiple tubular strings can greatly inhibit helical buckling and increase horizontal extending limits. The optimal design model is called only once to obtain design results, which greatly increases the calculation efficiency.
An Extended Model Driven Framework for End-to-End Consistent Model Transformation
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Mr. G. Ramesh
2016-08-01
Full Text Available Model Driven Development (MDD results in quick transformation from models to corresponding systems. Forward engineering features of modelling tools can help in generating source code from models. To build a robust system it is important to have consistency checking in the design models and the same between design model and the transformed implementation. Our framework named as Extensible Real Time Software Design Inconsistency Checker (XRTSDIC proposed in our previous papers supports consistency checking in design models. This paper focuses on automatic model transformation. An algorithm and defined transformation rules for model transformation from UML class diagram to ERD and SQL are being proposed. The model transformation bestows many advantages such as reducing cost of development, improving quality, enhancing productivity and leveraging customer satisfaction. Proposed framework has been enhanced to ensure that the transformed implementations conform to their model counterparts besides checking end-to-end consistency.
Nucleon scattering on actinides using a dispersive optical model with extended couplings
SoukhovitskiÄ©, E. Sh.; Capote, R.; Quesada, J. M.; Chiba, S.; Martyanov, D. S.
2016-12-01
The Tamura coupling model [Rev. Mod. Phys. 37, 679 (1965), 10.1103/RevModPhys.37.679] has been extended to consider the coupling of additional low-lying rotational bands to the ground-state band. Rotational bands are built on vibrational bandheads (even-even targets) or single-particle bandheads (odd-A targets) including both axial and nonaxial deformations. These additional excitations are introduced as a perturbation to the underlying axially symmetric rigid-rotor structure of the ground-state rotational band. Coupling matrix elements of the generalized optical model are derived for extended multiband transitions in even-even and odd-A nuclei. Isospin symmetric formulation of the optical model is employed. A coupled-channels optical-model potential (OMP) containing a dispersive contribution is used to fit simultaneously all available optical experimental databases including neutron strength functions for nucleon scattering on 232Th,233,235,238U, and 239Pu nuclei. Quasielastic (p ,n ) scattering data on 232Th and 238U to the isobaric analog states of the target nucleus are also used to constrain the isovector part of the optical potential. Lane consistent OMP is derived for all actinides if corresponding multiband coupling schemes are defined. For even-even (odd-A ) actinides almost all low-lying collective levels below 1 MeV (0.5 MeV) of excitation energy are coupled. OMP parameters show a smooth energy dependence and energy-independent geometry. A phenomenological optical-model potential that couples multiple bands in odd-A actinides is published for a first time. Calculations using the derived OMP potential reproduce measured total cross-section differences between several actinide pairs within experimental uncertainty for incident neutron energies from 50 keV up to 150 MeV. The importance of extended coupling is studied. Multiband coupling is stronger in even-even targets owing to the collective nature of the coupling; the impact of extended coupling on
MILES extended: Stellar population synthesis models from the optical to the infrared
Röck, B.; Vazdekis, A.; Ricciardelli, E.; Peletier, R. F.; Knapen, J. H.; Falcón-Barroso, J.
2016-05-01
We present the first single-burst stellar population models, which covers the optical and the infrared wavelength range between 3500 and 50 000 Å and which are exclusively based on empirical stellar spectra. To obtain these joint models, we combined the extended MILES models in the optical with our new infrared models that are based on the IRTF (Infrared Telescope Facility) library. The latter are available only for a limited range in terms of both age and metallicity. Our combined single-burst stellar population models were calculated for ages larger than 1 Gyr, for metallicities between [ Fe / H ] = - 0.40 and 0.26, for initial mass functions of various types and slopes, and on the basis of two different sets of isochrones. They are available to the scientific community on the MILES web page. We checked the internal consistency of our models and compared their colour predictions to those of other models that are available in the literature. Optical and near infrared colours that are measured from our models are found to reproduce the colours well that were observed for various samples of early-type galaxies. Our models will enable a detailed analysis of the stellar populations of observed galaxies.
A 3-Factor Model Relating Communication to Risk Mitigation of Extended Information System Failover
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Athanasios Podaras
2015-06-01
Full Text Available This paper aims to analyse the relation between timely and effective communication and risk mitigation of late recovery after an unexpected information system outage in enterprises. An unforeseen information system failure in modern enterprise units, may result to significant operational and financial damage. In such a critical incident, effective communication between the team leaders and the recovery team involved, can minimize or even eliminate this negative impact. An extended information system outage can be perceived as a time deviation from the Maximum Accepted Outage (ΜΑΟ timeframe, proposed by the business continuity management, according to the value of which dependent business functions may be interrupted without any serious effects to the company. The paper examines the relation between 3 basic factors and the efficient communication between team members. The factors are: timely information distribution, staff availability and network availability. Through the current paper, the author proposes a risk analysis model, based on the Composite Risk Index theory of Risk Management, which can significantly diminish the possibility of an extended information system outage, as well as calculate the extended time required to recover a system when the aforementioned factors emerge in their worst form. The precise calculation of recovery time can be achieved via the execution of business continuity tests which include scenarios, according to which an unexpected system outage coexists with delayed information distribution as well as low staff and network availability.
Evaluation of the Extended CBD Model: A Case Study using IMS Application
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M. Rizwan Jameel Qureshi
2013-06-01
Full Text Available A large number of projects failed because of concentrating on developing new software. The Main drawbacks of new software development are more costly, and need maintenance. Reuse is solution of these problems that caused the widespread usage of object oriented (OO development. Object oriented development is the backbone of component-based development (CBD. CBD facilitates reuse of the existing components (by customizing with the new ones. Main advantages of reusable components are more reliable, saved time and reduced cost. CBD approach is different from traditional/new software development. Several models have been proposed for traditional software development such as Waterfall, Rapid Application Development (RAD, Evolutionary, Rational Unified Process (RUP and agile. Whereas the popular CBD models, for customized development, are V, Y, Umbrella and W. Almost all software development companies, both the new software and customized software have to be developed. Therefore majority of the software development companies face problem to select and implement an appropriate process model for the both kinds of developments. To address this problem, the existing RUP and CBD models do work to some extent but the authors intend to propose an extended CBD model that it equally offers its benefits for new and customized developments. The experimental data is taken from a case study to develop IP Multimedia Sub System (IMS-based examination application using iPhone to evaluate the proposed model. The results provide evidence that the extended CBD model can be equally beneficial for the development of both new and customization components for IMS-based applications.
Marriage of Electromagnetism and Gravity in Extended Space Model and Astrophysical Phenomena
Andreev, V A
2013-01-01
The generalization of Einstein's special theory of relativity (SRT) is proposed. In this model the possibility of unification of scalar gravity and electromagnetism into a single united field is considered. Formally, the generalization of the SRT is that instead of (1+3)-dimensional Minkowski space the (1+4)-dimensional extension G is considered. As a fifth additional coordinate the interval S is used. This value is saved under the usual Lorentz transformations in Minkowski space M, but it changes when the transformations in the extended space G are used. We call this model the extended space model (ESM). From a physical point of view our expansion means that processes in which the rest mass of the particles changes are acceptable now. If the rest mass of a particle does not change and the physical quantities do not depend on an additional variable S, then the electromagnetic and gravitational fields exist independently of each other. But if the rest mass is variable and there is a dependence on S, then these...
Ab initio derivation of multi-orbital extended Hubbard model for molecular crystals
Tsuchiizu, Masahisa; Omori, Yukiko; Suzumura, Yoshikazu; Bonnet, Marie-Laure; Robert, Vincent
2012-01-01
From configuration interaction (CI) ab initio calculations, we derive an effective two-orbital extended Hubbard model based on the gerade (g) and ungerade (u) molecular orbitals (MOs) of the charge-transfer molecular conductor (TTM-TTP)I3 and the single-component molecular conductor [Au(tmdt)2]. First, by focusing on the isolated molecule, we determine the parameters for the model Hamiltonian so as to reproduce the CI Hamiltonian matrix. Next, we extend the analysis to two neighboring molecule pairs in the crystal and we perform similar calculations to evaluate the inter-molecular interactions. From the resulting tight-binding parameters, we analyze the band structure to confirm that two bands overlap and mix in together, supporting the multi-band feature. Furthermore, using a fragment decomposition, we derive the effective model based on the fragment MOs and show that the staking TTM-TTP molecules can be described by the zig-zag two-leg ladder with the inter-molecular transfer integral being larger than the intra-fragment transfer integral within the molecule. The inter-site interactions between the fragments follow a Coulomb law, supporting the fragment decomposition strategy.
Integrable, molecular-type solutions of the extended Skyrme-Faddeev model
Sawado, Nobuyuki
2013-01-01
We construct molecular type vortex solutions in the integrable sector of the extended Skyrme-Faddeev (ESF) model.The solutions are a holomorphic type which satisfies the zero curvature condition.For some constrained values of the coupling constants, special vortex solutions exist.For other values, special forms of the potential are employed for the stability of the molecular type solution.The solutions satisfy the zero curvature condition, and then they necessarily have an infinite number of conserved current. We numerically check their existence in terms of the simulated annealing method.
Falicov-Kimball model extended by pair hopping of d-electrons
Ghosh, N. K.; Mukherjee, P.
2016-05-01
The effect of the pair hopping of d-electrons has been examined in an exact diagonalization techniqueon a four-site square cluster using extended Falicov-Kimball model. This hopping interaction shifts the critical f-level energy (Ec) at which valence transition occurs. Sharp peaks are observed in the specific heat curves and pair hopping decreases the peak height indicating a reduction in the number of density of states. Antiferromagnetic ordering as well as Curie-like behavior has been observed in the spin susceptibility (χ) characteristics.
Falicov-Kimball model extended by pair hopping of d-electrons
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ghosh, N. K., E-mail: nkg@klyuniv.ac.in; Mukherjee, P., E-mail: piulim2008@gmail.com [Department of Physics, University of Kalyani, Kalyani-741235, West Bengal (India)
2016-05-06
The effect of the pair hopping of d-electrons has been examined in an exact diagonalization techniqueon a four-site square cluster using extended Falicov-Kimball model. This hopping interaction shifts the critical f-level energy (E{sub c}) at which valence transition occurs. Sharp peaks are observed in the specific heat curves and pair hopping decreases the peak height indicating a reduction in the number of density of states. Antiferromagnetic ordering as well as Curie-like behavior has been observed in the spin susceptibility (χ) characteristics.
Golosov, D. I.
2013-03-01
We consider a spinless extended Falicov--Kimball model at half-filling, for the case of opposite-parity bands. Within the Hartree--Fock approach, we calculate the excitation energies in the chiral phase, which is a possible mean-field solution in the presence of a hybridisation. It is shown that the chiral phase is unstable. We then briefly review the accumulated results on stability and degeneracies of the excitonic insulator phase. Based on these, we conclude that the presence of both hybridisation and narrow-band hopping is required for electronic ferroelectricity.
Pasta phases in neutron star studied with extended relativistic mean field models
Gupta, Neha
2013-01-01
To explain several properties of finite nuclei, infinite matter, and neutron stars in a unified way within the relativistic mean field models, it is important to extend them either with higher order couplings or with density-dependent couplings. These extensions are known to have strong impact in the high-density regime. Here we explore their role on the equation of state at densities lower than the saturation density of finite nuclei which govern the phase transitions associated with pasta structures in the crust of neutron stars.
Critical phenomena of nuclear matter in the extended Zimanyi-Moszkowski model
Miyazaki, K
2005-01-01
We have studied the thermodynamics of warm nuclear matter below the saturation density in the extended Zimanyi-Moszkowski model. The EOS behaves like van der Waals one and shows the liquid-gas phase transition as the other microscopic EOSs. It predicts the critical temperature T_{C}=16.36MeV that agrees well with its empirical value. We have further calculated the phase coexistence curve and obtained the critical exponents beta=0.34 and gamma=1.22, which also agree with their universal values and empirical values derived in the recent experimental efforts.
Ground states of bilayered and extended t-J-U models
Voo, Khee-Kyun
2015-09-01
The ground states of bilayered and extended t-J-U models are investigated with renormalized mean field theory. The trial wave functions are Gutzwiller projected Hartree-Fock states, and the site double occupancies are variational parameters. It is found that a spontaneous interlayer phase separation (PS) may arise in bilayers. In electron-hole doping asymmetric systems, the propensity for PS is stronger in electron doped bands. Via a PS, superconductivity can survive to lower doping densities, and antiferromagnetism in electron doped systems may survive to higher doping densities. The result is related to the superconducting cuprates.
Many-site coherence revivals in the extended Bose-Hubbard model and the Gutzwiller approximation
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Fischer, Uwe R.; Xiong Bo [Seoul National University, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Center for Theoretical Physics, 151-747 Seoul (Korea, Republic of)
2011-12-15
We investigate the collapse and revival of first-order coherence in deep optical lattices when long-range interactions are turned on and find that the first few revival peaks are strongly attenuated already for moderate values of the nearest-neighbor interaction coupling. It is shown that the conventionally employed Gutzwiller wave function, with only on-site number dependence of the variational amplitudes, leads to incorrect predictions for the collapse and revival oscillations within the extended Bose-Hubbard model. We provide a modified variant of the Gutzwiller ansatz, reproducing the analytically calculated time dependence of first-order coherence in the limit of zero tunneling.
Chiral spin liquid in the extended Heisenberg model on the Kagome lattice
Hu, Wenjun; Zhu, Wei; Zhang, Yi; Gong, Shoushu; Becca, Federico; Sheng, Dongning; Donna Sheng Team
2015-03-01
We investigate the extended Heisenberg model on the Kagome lattice by using Gutzwiller projected fermionic states and the variational Monte Carlo technique. In particular, when both second- and third-neighbor super-exchanges are considered, we find that a gapped spin liquid described by non-trivial magnetic fluxes and long-range chiral-chiral correlations is energetically favored compared to the gapless U(1) Dirac state. Furthermore, the topological Chern number, obtained by integrating the Berry curvature, and the degeneracy of the ground state, by constructing linearly independent states, lead us to identify this flux state as the chiral spin liquid with C = 1 / 2 fractionalized Chern number.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Cuta, Judith M. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Suffield, Sarah R. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Fort, James A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Adkins, Harold E. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)
2013-08-15
The work reported here is an investigation of the sensitivity of component temperatures of a storage system, including fuel cladding temperatures, in response to age-related changes that could degrade the design-basis thermal behavior of the system. The purpose of these sensitivity studies is to provide a realistic example of how changes in the physical properties or configuration of the storage system components can affect temperatures and temperature distributions. The magnitudes of these sensitivities can provide guidance for identifying appropriate modeling assumptions for thermal evaluations extending long term storage out beyond 50, 100, 200, and 300 years.
White, Ronald J.; Leonard, Joel I.; Srinivasan, R. Srini; Charles, John B.
1991-01-01
The purpose of NASA's Extended Duration Orbiter program is a gradual extension of the capabilities of the Space Shuttle Orbiter beyond its current 7-10 day limit on mission duration, as warranted by deepening understanding of the long-term physiological effects of weightlessness. Attention is being given to the cardiovascular problem of orthostatic tolerance loss due to its adverse effects on crew performance and health during reentry and initial readaptation to earth gravity. An account is given of the results of the application of proven mathematical models of circulatory and cardiovascular systems under microgravity conditions.
Extended Parker-Sochacki method for Michaelis-Menten enzymatic reaction model.
Abdelrazik, Ismail M; Elkaranshawy, Hesham A
2016-03-01
In this article, a new approach--namely, the extended Parker-Sochacki method (EPSM)--is presented for solving the Michaelis-Menten nonlinear enzymatic reaction model. The Parker-Sochacki method (PSM) is combined with a new resummation method called the Sumudu-Padé resummation method to obtain approximate analytical solutions for the model. The obtained solutions by the proposed approach are compared with the solutions of PSM and the Runge-Kutta numerical method (RKM). The comparison proves the practicality, efficiency, and correctness of the presented approach. It serves as a basis for solving other nonlinear biochemical reaction models in the future. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Extended kinetic model of real-time polymerase chain reaction process
Fedorov, A. A.; Sochivko, D. G.; Varlamov, D. A.; Kurochkin, V. E.
2016-11-01
Real-time polymerase chain reaction (real-time PCR) is the main molecular genetic method used for qualitative and quantitative analysis of specific nucleic acid sequences in many areas of biomedical research. Theoretical study of pCr models allows to estimate the influence of various reaction components and parameters, and to determine the unknown parameter values by approximating the experimental real-time PCR curves. An extended kinetic model of real-time PCR is presented. The model takes into account the enzyme activity based on Michaelis-Menten kinetics, the hybridization of complementary DNA fragments, the presence of a fluorescent probe used for detection of the reaction products, and the temperature dependence of primers and probe hybridization.
Existence of the critical endpoint in the vector meson extended linear sigma model
Kovács, Peter; Wolf, György
2016-01-01
The chiral phase transition of the strongly interacting matter is investigated at nonzero temperature and baryon chemical potential mu_B within an extended (2+1) flavor Polyakov constituent quark-meson model which incorporates the effect of the vector and axial vector mesons. The effect of the fermionic vacuum and thermal fluctuations computed from the grand potential of the model is taken into account in the curvature masses of the scalar and pseudoscalar mesons. The parameters of the model are determined by comparing masses and tree-level decay widths with experimental values in a chi^2-minimization procedure which selects between various possible assignments of scalar nonet states to physical particles. We examine the restoration of the chiral symmetry by monitoring the temperature evolution of condensates and the chiral partners' masses and of the mixing angles for the pseudoscalar eta-eta' and the corresponding scalar complex. We calculate the pressure and various thermodynamical observables derived from...
Relativistic modeling capabilities in PERSEUS extended MHD simulation code for HED plasmas
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Hamlin, Nathaniel D., E-mail: nh322@cornell.edu [438 Rhodes Hall, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY, 14853 (United States); Seyler, Charles E., E-mail: ces7@cornell.edu [Cornell University, Ithaca, NY, 14853 (United States)
2014-12-15
We discuss the incorporation of relativistic modeling capabilities into the PERSEUS extended MHD simulation code for high-energy-density (HED) plasmas, and present the latest hybrid X-pinch simulation results. The use of fully relativistic equations enables the model to remain self-consistent in simulations of such relativistic phenomena as X-pinches and laser-plasma interactions. By suitable formulation of the relativistic generalized Ohm’s law as an evolution equation, we have reduced the recovery of primitive variables, a major technical challenge in relativistic codes, to a straightforward algebraic computation. Our code recovers expected results in the non-relativistic limit, and reveals new physics in the modeling of electron beam acceleration following an X-pinch. Through the use of a relaxation scheme, relativistic PERSEUS is able to handle nine orders of magnitude in density variation, making it the first fluid code, to our knowledge, that can simulate relativistic HED plasmas.
An extended two-dimensional mathematical model of vertical ring furnaces
Peter, S.; Charette, A.; Bui, R. T.; Tomsett, A.; Potocnik, V.
1996-04-01
An extended two-dimensional (2-D+) mathematical model of vertical anode baking furnaces has been developed. The work was motivated by the fact that a previous 2-D model was unable to predict the nonuniform baking in the transverse direction, i.e., perpendicular to the longitudinal axis of the furnace. The modeling strategy based on dividing each section in four zones (underlid, pit, underpit, head wall and fire shaft zones) and introducing two symmetry planes in the exterior pits is explained. The basic heat-transfer relations used are also detailed. Selected results shown include draught and oxygen concentration profiles in the flue, gas and anode temperature distributions and fuel consumption in the back fire ramp. Simulation and experimental results are compared.
Noguera, C; Goniakowski, J
2013-08-28
Relying on Frenkel Kontorova (FK) models of diatomic chains of increasing levels of complexity, this study presents an overall view of the diversity of structural effects that a compound (oxide) chain supported on a metal may display and helps assigning them to precise microscopic mechanisms. At each stage, the models are solved numerically, in order to provide phase diagrams as a function of chain-substrate interaction and misfit. Analytic derivations of transition lines are also provided within the continuum approximation. Their predictions are shown to quantitatively account for the numerical results, thus showing the validity of the continuum approximation in the misfit range under consideration. The present study thus extends our knowledge of the FK model by specifically focusing on diatomic chains and brings new information on a potentially interesting system which experimentalists just start being able to synthesize--oxide chains on metal substrates.
EXTENDING THE DEEP PACKET INSPECTION MODEL TO THE GCC/MENA REGION
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Alfred H. Miller
2013-12-01
Full Text Available This study seeks to explore extending the technology acceptance model (DPAM from a 2011 quantitative study—Modeling Intention to Use Deep Packet Inspection Technology in the United Arab Emirates, to the cyber security practitioner community of the Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC and greater Middle East North Africa (MENA Region. Analysis of regression between independent variable model factors of computer self efficacy, attitude toward ICT, perceived usefulness of ecommerce, intention to use ecommerce, societal trust and Internet filtration toward the dependent variable intention to use deep packet inspection, to determine parsimony, using confirmatory factor analysis (CFA, multinomial regression to assess correlation of independent and dependent variables, and assessment of the cross-suitability of DPAM across the MENA/GCC states through a MANOVA assessment. A qualitative component of the instrument enables collection of data about specific hardware and software deployed for deep packet inspection and cyber security systems.
MILES extended: Stellar population synthesis models from the optical to the infrared
Röck, B; Ricciardelli, E; Peletier, R F; Knapen, J H; Falcon-Barroso, J
2016-01-01
We present the first single-burst stellar population models which covers the optical and the infrared wavelength range between 3500 and 50000 Angstrom and which are exclusively based on empirical stellar spectra. To obtain these joint models, we combined the extended MILES models in the optical with our new infrared models that are based on the IRTF (Infrared Telescope Facility) library. The latter are available only for a limited range in terms of both age and metallicity. Our combined single-burst stellar population models were calculated for ages larger than 1 Gyr, for metallicities between [Fe/H] = -0.40 and 0.26, for initial mass functions of various types and slopes, and on the basis of two different sets of isochrones. They are available to the scientific community on the MILES web page. We checked the internal consistency of our models and compared their colour predictions to those of other models that are available in the literature. Optical and near infrared colours that are measured from our models...
In vitro 3-D model based on extending time of culture for studying chronological epidermis aging.
Dos Santos, Morgan; Metral, Elodie; Boher, Aurélie; Rousselle, Patricia; Thepot, Amélie; Damour, Odile
2015-09-01
Skin aging is a complex phenomenon in which several mechanisms operate simultaneously. Among them, intrinsic aging is a time-dependent process, which leads to gradual skin changes affecting its structure and function such as thinning down of both epidermal and dermal compartments and a flattening and fragility of the dermo-epidermal junction. Today, several approaches have been proposed for the generation of aged skin in vitro, including skin explants from aged donors and three-dimensional skin equivalent treated by aging-inducing chemical compounds or engineered with human cells isolated from aged donors. The aim of this study was to develop and validate a new in vitro model of aging based on skin equivalent demonstrating the same phenotypic changes that were observed in chronological aging. By using prolonged culture as a proxy for cellular aging, we extended to 120 days the culture time of a skin equivalent model based on collagen-glycosaminoglycan-chitosan porous polymer and engineered with human skin cells from photo-protected sites of young donors. Morphological, immunohistological and ultrastructural analysis at different time points of the culture allowed characterizing the phenotypic changes observed in our model in comparison to samples of non photo-exposed normal human skin from different ages. We firstly confirmed that long-term cultured skin equivalents are still morphologically consistent and functionally active even after 120 days of culture. However, similar to in vivo chronological skin aging a significant decrease of the epidermis thickness as well as the number of keratinocyte expressing proliferation marker Ki67 are observed in extended culture time skin equivalent. Epidermal differentiation markers loricrin, filaggrin, involucrin and transglutaminase, also strongly decreased. Ultrastructural analysis of basement membrane showed typical features of aged skin such as duplication of lamina densa and alterations of hemidesmosomes. Moreover, the
Inhibition of endogenous lactate turnover with lactate infusion in humans
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Searle, G.L.; Feingold, K.R.; Hsu, F.S.; Clark, O.H.; Gertz, E.W.; Stanley, W.C. (Veterans Administration Medical Center, San Francisco, CA (USA))
1989-11-01
The extent to which lactate infusion may inhibit endogenous lactate production, though previously considered, has never been critically assessed. To examine this proposition, single injection tracer methodology (U-{sup 14}C Lactate) has been used for the estimation of lactate kinetics in 12 human subjects under basal conditions and with the infusion of sodium lactate. The basal rate of lactate turnover was measured on a day before the study with lactate infusion, and averaged 63.7 + 5.5 mg/kg/h. Six of these individuals received a stable lactate infusion at an approximate rate of 160 mg/kg/h, while the remaining six individuals were infused at the approximate rate of 100 mg/kg/h. It has been found that stable lactate infused at rates approximating 160 mg/kg/h consistently produced a complete inhibition of endogenous lactate production. Infusion of lactate at 100 mg/kg/h caused a lesser and more variable inhibition of endogenous lactate production (12% to 64%). In conclusion, lactate infusion significantly inhibits endogenous lactate production.
An Extended Non-Lane-Based Optimal Velocity Model with Dynamic Collaboration
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Zhipeng Li
2013-01-01
Full Text Available Incorporating the effects of the lane width in traffic, in this paper, we propose a dynamical model based on the strategy of three-vehicle cooperation driving. We obtain the smoother acceleration distribution in the new model through considering the dynamic collaboration with the nearest preceding vehicle and the nearest following vehicle. It is proved that the stability of the new model is greatly improved compared to the early non-lane-based car following model by using the linear stability theory. We find that when the parameter of lateral separation distance is identified, the amplitude of traffic congestion decreases with increasing the strength of dynamic collaboration in the simulation experiments. In addition, we apply the new extended model to simulate the motions of cars starting from a traffic signal and the dissipating of the traffic congestion; it is found that our new model can predict realistic delay time and kinematic wave speed and obtained a faster dissipation speed of traffic congestion than the traffic flow model without considering the dynamic collaboration.
Wan, Rui; Durlach, Nathaniel I; Colburn, H Steven
2010-12-01
An extended version of the equalization-cancellation (EC) model of binaural processing is described and applied to speech intelligibility tasks in the presence of multiple maskers. The model incorporates time-varying jitters, both in time and amplitude, and implements the equalization and cancellation operations in each frequency band independently. The model is consistent with the original EC model in predicting tone-detection performance for a large set of configurations. When the model is applied to speech, the speech intelligibility index is used to predict speech intelligibility performance in a variety of conditions. Specific conditions addressed include different types of maskers, different numbers of maskers, and different spatial locations of maskers. Model predictions are compared with empirical measurements reported by Hawley et al. [J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 115, 833-843 (2004)] and by Marrone et al. [J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 124, 1146-1158 (2008)]. The model succeeds in predicting speech intelligibility performance when maskers are speech-shaped noise or broadband-modulated speech-shaped noise but fails when the maskers are speech or reversed speech.
Pairwise Interaction Extended Point Particle (PIEP) Model for a Random Array of Spheres
Akiki, Georges; Jackson, Thomas; Balachandar, Sivaramakrishnan; CenterCompressible Multiphase Turbulence Team
2016-11-01
This study investigates a flow past random array of spherical particles. The understanding of the governing forces within these arrays is crucial for obtaining accurate models used in particle-laden simulations. These models have to faithfully reflect the sub-grid interactions between the particles and the continuous phase. The models being used today assumes an average force on all particles within the array based on the mean volume fraction and Reynolds number. Here, we develop a model which can compute the drag and lateral forces on each particle by accounting for the precise location of few surrounding neighbors. A pairwise interaction is assumed where the perturbation flow induced by each neighbor is considered separately, then the effect of all neighbors are linearly superposed to obtain the total perturbation. Faxén correction is used to quantify the force perturbation due to the presence of the neighbors. The single neighbor perturbations are mapped in the vicinity of a reference sphere and stored as libraries. We test the Pairwise Interaction Extended Point-Particle (PIEP) model for random arrays at two different volume fractions of ϕ = 0 . 1 and 0.21 and Reynolds number in the range 16 DNS performed using immersed boundary method. We observe the PIEP model prediction to correlate much better with the DNS results than the classical mean drag model prediction.
Extended Cann Model for Behavioral Modeling of Envelope Tracking Power Amplifiers
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Tafuri, Felice Francesco; Larsen, Torben
2013-01-01
This paper deals with behavioral modeling of power amplifiers (PAs) for envelope tracking (ET) applications. In such a scenario, the power supply modulation brings in several additional challenges for the system design and, similarly, it becomes more difficult to obtain an accurate and general PA...... by the ET operation. The model performance is tested modeling data-sets acquired from an ET test bench including a commercial RFMD PA and an envelope modulator designed using a commercial IC from TI....
Akman, Ibrahim; Turhan, Cigdem
2017-01-01
This study aims to explore the users' behaviour and acceptance of social media for learning in higher educational institutions with the help of the extended Technology Acceptance Model (TAM). TAM has been extended to investigate how ethical and security awareness of users affect the actual usage of social learning applications. For this purpose, a…
SPCA2 regulates Orai1 trafficking and store independent Ca2+ entry in a model of lactation.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Brandie M Cross
Full Text Available An unconventional interaction between SPCA2, an isoform of the Golgi secretory pathway Ca(2+-ATPase, and the Ca(2+ influx channel Orai1, has previously been shown to contribute to elevated Ca(2+ influx in breast cancer derived cells. In order to investigate the physiological role of this interaction, we examined expression and localization of SPCA2 and Orai1 in mouse lactating mammary glands. We observed co-induction and co-immunoprecipitation of both proteins, and isoform-specific differences in the localization of SPCA1 and SPCA2. Three-dimensional cultures of normal mouse mammary epithelial cells were established using lactogenic hormones and basement membrane. The mammospheres displayed elevated Ca(2+ influx by store independent mechanisms, consistent with upregulation of both SPCA2 and Orai1. Knockdown of either SPCA2 or Orai1 severely depleted Ca(2+ influx and interfered with mammosphere differentiation. We show that SPCA2 is required for plasma membrane trafficking of Orai1 in mouse mammary epithelial cells and that this function can be replaced, at least in part, by a membrane-anchored C-terminal domain of SPCA2. These findings clearly show that SPCA2 and Orai1 function together to regulate Store-independent Ca(2+ entry (SICE, which mediates the massive basolateral Ca(2+ influx into mammary epithelia to support the large calcium transport requirements for milk secretion.
Hefnawi, F I
1982-01-01
Preservation and promotion of breastfeeding in Islamic countries could be increased by stressing the religious importance of this practice as prescribed in Islamic religious teachings. The child's right to be breastfed is affirmed by the Quaran, the source of Islamic law and morality. Quranic verse 2:233 recommends a 2 year period of lactation. According to Islam a nursing mother is entitled to receive compensation from the father for nursing the child. The father, though, has the option to engage a paid or unpaid wet-nurse for the child, in which case the mother looses her right to be paid for nursing even is she volunteered to breastfeed. The mother's right to nurse a child without compensation is prior to a father's right to engage a wet-nurse. In another Islamic source the moral importance of breastfeeding is stressed. The mother receives the reward of a good deed for every single drop she gives her child. Islamic precepts on lactation influenced Arabian medicine. Avicenna's view that children should be breastfed for 2 years was approvingly quoted by European physicians in the 17th century. Major Arabian medical texts contain chapters on lactation, on tests for quality of breast milk, and on diets and drugs for improving lactation. Research at Al-Azhar University is directed toward finding a contraceptive that will not inhabit lactation and will not affect the quality of breast milk.
Extended numerical modeling of impurity neoclassical transport in tokamak edge plasmas
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Inoue, H.; Yamoto, S.; Hatayama, A. [Graduate School of Science and Technology, Keio University, Hiyoshi, Yokohama (Japan); Homma, Y. [Graduate School of Science and Technology, Keio University, Hiyoshi, Yokohama (Japan); Research Fellow of Japan Society for the Promotion of Science, Tokyo (Japan)
2016-08-15
Understanding of impurity transport in tokamaks is an important issue in order to reduce the impurity contamination in fusion core plasmas. Recently, a new kinetic numerical scheme of impurity classical/neoclassical transport has been developed. This numerical scheme makes it possible to include classical self-diffusion (CL SD), classical inward pinch (CL IWP), and classical temperature screening effect (CL TSE) of impurity ions. However, impurity neoclassical transport has been modeled only in the case where background plasmas are in the Pfirsch-Schluter (PS) regime. The purpose of this study is to extend our previous model to wider range of collisionality regimes, i.e., not only the PS regime, but also the plateau regime. As in the previous study, a kinetic model with Binary Collision Monte-Carlo Model (BMC) has been adopted. We focus on the modeling of the neoclassical self-diffusion (NC SD) and the neoclassical inward pinch (NC IWP). In order to simulate the neoclassical transport with the BCM, velocity distribution of background plasma ions has been modeled as a deformed Maxwell distribution which includes plasma density gradient. Some test simulations have been done. As for NC SD of impurity ions, our scheme reproduces the dependence on the collisionality parameter in wide range of collisionality regime. As for NC IWP, in cases where test impurity ions and background ions are in the PS and plateau regimes, parameter dependences have been reproduced. (copyright 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)
An extended computational model of the circulatory system for designing ventricular assist devices.
Hsu, Po-Lin; Cheng, Sean J; Saumarez, Richard C; Dawes, William N; McMahon, Richard A
2008-01-01
An extended computational model of the circulatory system has been developed to predict blood flow in the presence of ventricular assist devices (VADs). A novel VAD, placed in the descending aorta, intended to offload the left ventricle (LV) and augment renal perfusion is being studied. For this application, a better understanding of the global hemodynamic response of the VAD, in essence an electrically driven pump, and the cardiovascular system is necessary. To meet this need, a model has been established as a nonlinear, lumped-parameter electrical analog, and simulated results under different states [healthy, congestive heart failure (CHF), and postinsertion of VAD] are presented. The systemic circulation is separated into five compartments and the descending aorta is composed of three components to accurately yield the system response of each section before and after the insertion of the VAD. Delays in valve closing time and blood inertia in the aorta were introduced to deliver a more realistic model. Pump governing equations and optimization are based on fundamental theories of turbomachines and can serve as a practical initial design point for rotary blood pumps. The model's results closely mimic established parameters for the circulatory system and confirm the feasibility of the intra-aortic VAD concept. This computational model can be linked with models of the pump motor to provide a valuable tool for innovative VAD design.
Solitons, kinks and extended hadron model based on the generalized sine-Gordon theory
Blas, H
2007-01-01
The solitons and kinks of the generalized $sl(3, \\IC)$ sine-Gordon (GSG) model are explicitly obtained through the hybrid of the Hirota and dressing methods in which the {\\sl tau} functions play an important role. The various properties are investigated, such as the potential vacuum structure, the soliton and kink solutions, and the soliton masses formulae. As a reduced submodel we obtain the double sine-Gordon model. Moreover, we provide the algebraic construction of the $sl(3, \\IC)$ affine Toda model coupled to matter (Dirac spinor) (ATM) and through a gauge fixing procedure we obtain the classical version of the generalized $sl(3, \\IC)$ sine-Gordon model (cGSG) which completely decouples from the Dirac spinors. In the spinor sector we are left with Dirac fields coupled to cGSG fields. Based on the equivalence between the U(1) vector and topological currents it is shown the confinement of the spinors inside the solitons and kinks of the cGSG model providing an extended hadron model for "quark" confinement.
Solitons, kinks and extended hadron model based on the generalized sine-Gordon theory
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Blas, Harold [Departamentos de Matematica e Fisica - ICET, Universidade Federal de Mato Grosso, Av. Fernando Correa, s/n, Coxipo, 78060-900, Cuiaba - MT (Brazil); Carrion, Hector L. [Instituto de Fisica, Universidade de Sao Paulo, Caixa Postal 66318, 05315-970, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)
2007-01-15
The solitons and kinks of the generalized sl(3,C) sine-Gordon (GSG) model are explicitly obtained through the hybrid of the Hirota and dressing methods in which the tau functions play an important role. The various properties are investigated, such as the potential vacuum structure, the soliton and kink solutions, and the soliton masses formulae. As a reduced submodel we obtain the double sine-Gordon model. Moreover, we provide the algebraic construction of the sl(3,C) affine Toda model coupled to matter (Dirac spinor) (ATM) and through a gauge fixing procedure we obtain the classical version of the generalized sl(3,C) sine-Gordon model (cGSG) which completely decouples from the Dirac spinors. In the spinor sector we are left with Dirac fields coupled to cGSG fields. Based on the equivalence between the U(1) vector and topological currents it is shown the confinement of the spinors inside the solitons and kinks of the cGSG model providing an extended hadron model for 'quark' confinement.
Extending Semi-numeric Reionisation Models to the First Stars and Galaxies
Koh, Daegene
2016-01-01
Semi-numeric methods have made it possible to efficiently model the epoch of reionisation (EoR). While most implementations involve a reduction to a simple three-parameter model, we introduce a new mass-dependent ionising efficiency parameter that folds in physical parameters that are constrained by the latest numerical simulations. This new parameterization enables the effective modeling of a broad range of host halo masses containing ionising sources, extending from the smallest Population III host halos with $M \\sim 10^6 M_\\odot$, which are often ignored, to the rarest cosmic peaks with $M \\sim 10^{12} M_\\odot$ during EoR. We compare the resulting ionising histories with a typical three-parameter model and also compare with the latest constraints from the Planck mission. Our model results in a optical depth due to Thomson scattering, $\\tau_{\\mathrm{e}}$ = 0.057, that is consistent with Planck. The largest difference in our model is shown in the resulting bubble size distributions which peak at lower charac...
Extending NGOMSL Model for Human-Humanoid Robot Interaction in the Soccer Robotics Domain
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Rajesh Elara Mohan
2008-01-01
Full Text Available In the field of human-computer interaction, the Natural Goals, Operators, Methods, and Selection rules Language (NGOMSL model is one of the most popular methods for modelling knowledge and cognitive processes for rapid usability evaluation. The NGOMSL model is a description of the knowledge that a user must possess to operate the system represented as elementary actions for effective usability evaluations. In the last few years, mobile robots have been exhibiting a stronger presence in commercial markets and very little work has been done with NGOMSL modelling for usability evaluations in the human-robot interaction discipline. This paper focuses on extending the NGOMSL model for usability evaluation of human-humanoid robot interaction in the soccer robotics domain. The NGOMSL modelled human-humanoid interaction design of Robo-Erectus Junior was evaluated and the results of the experiments showed that the interaction design was able to find faults in an average time of 23.84 s. Also, the interaction design was able to detect the fault within the 60 s in 100% of the cases. The Evaluated Interaction design was adopted by our Robo-Erectus Junior version of humanoid robots in the RoboCup 2007 humanoid soccer league.
Water polarization induced by thermal gradients: the extended simple point charge model (SPC/E).
Armstrong, J A; Bresme, F
2013-07-07
We investigate the non-equilibrium response of extended simple point charge (SPC/E) water to thermal gradients. Using non-equilibrium molecular dynamics simulations, we show that SPC/E water features the thermo-polarization orientation effect, namely, water becomes polarized as a response to a thermal gradient. The polarization field increases linearly with the thermal gradient, in agreement with predictions of non-equilibrium thermodynamics theory. This observation confirms the generality of the thermo-polarization effect, first reported using the Modified Central Force Model (MCFM), and shows this physical effect is present irrespective of the water model details, in particular, dipole moment magnitude and model flexibility. The magnitude of the effect is the same for both models, although the sign of the electrostatic field is reversed in going from the MCFM to the SPC/E model. We further analyze the impact that the molecular geometry and mass distribution has on the magnitude of the polarization. Our results indicate that the thermo-polarization effect should be observed in a wide range of polar fluids, including fluids where hydrogen bonding is not present. Using various molecular models, we show that the polarization of these fluids under appropriate thermodynamic conditions can be of the same order or stronger than in water.
Extended unified SEM approach for modeling event-related fMRI data.
Gates, Kathleen M; Molenaar, Peter C M; Hillary, Frank G; Slobounov, Semyon
2011-01-15
There has been increasing emphasis in fMRI research on the examination of how regions covary in a distributed neural network. Event-related data designs present a unique challenge to modeling how couplings among regions change in the presence of experimental manipulations. The present paper presents the extended unified SEM (euSEM), a novel approach for acquiring effective connectivity maps with event-related data. The euSEM adds to the unified SEM, which models both lagged and contemporaneous effects, by estimating the direct effects that experimental manipulations have on blood-oxygen-level dependent activity as well as the modulating effects the manipulations have on couplings among regions. Monte Carlos simulations included in this paper offer support for the model's ability to recover covariance patterns used to estimate data. Next, we apply the model to empirical data to demonstrate feasibility. Finally, the results of the empirical data are compared to those found using dynamic causal modeling. The euSEM provides a flexible approach for modeling event-related data as it may be employed in an exploratory, partially exploratory, or entirely confirmatory manner.
Kuang, Hua; Xu, Zhi-Peng; Li, Xing-Li; Lo, Siu-Ming
2017-04-01
In this paper, an extended car-following model is proposed to simulate traffic flow by considering average headway of preceding vehicles group in intelligent transportation systems environment. The stability condition of this model is obtained by using the linear stability analysis. The phase diagram can be divided into three regions classified as the stable, the metastable and the unstable ones. The theoretical result shows that the average headway plays an important role in improving the stabilization of traffic system. The mKdV equation near the critical point is derived to describe the evolution properties of traffic density waves by applying the reductive perturbation method. Furthermore, through the simulation of space-time evolution of the vehicle headway, it is shown that the traffic jam can be suppressed efficiently with taking into account the average headway effect, and the analytical result is consistent with the simulation one.
Interactive Web service choice-making based on extended QoS model
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
无
2006-01-01
Quality of Service (QoS) is a key factor in Web service advertising, choosing and runtime monitoring. Web service QoS is multi-faceted, fuzzy and dynamic. Current researches focus on implementation level performance assurance, ignoring domain specific or application level metrics which are also very important to service users. Industry Web service standards lack QoS expression. The support for QoS based service choice-making is very limited. We proposed an extended Web service QoS model based on configurable fuzzy synthetic evaluation system. Web service QoS is evaluated dynamically according to the service context. A QoS requirement description model is also given for service QoS requirement definition. An interactive Web service choice-making process is described, which takes QoS as a key factor when choosing from functionally equivalent services.
Decays of open charmed mesons in the extended Linear Sigma Model
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Eshraim Walaa I.
2014-01-01
Full Text Available We enlarge the so-called extended linear Sigma model (eLSM by including the charm quark according to the global U(4r × U(4l chiral symmetry. In the eLSM, besides scalar and pseudoscalar mesons, also vector and axial-vector mesons are present. Almost all the parameters of the model were fixed in a previous study of mesons below 2 GeV. In the extension to the four-flavor case, only three additional parameters (all of them related to the bare mass of the charm quark appear.We compute the (OZI dominant strong decays of open charmed mesons. The results are compatible with the experimental data, although the theoretical uncertainties are still large.
An extended car-following model with consideration of speed guidance at intersections
Zhao, Jing; Li, Peng
2016-11-01
The main motivation of this paper is to analyze the influences of speed guidance strategies on the driving behaviors under four different traffic signalized conditions and to investigate an extended car-following model to explore how the speed guidance affects two different vehicle types that are intelligent vehicles and traditional vehicles during the phase-change periods. The numerical results show that the proposed model can qualitatively describe the impacts of the speed guidance strategies on vehicle's movement trail including the acceleration strategy, smooth braking strategy, and deceleration strategy. Moreover, the benefits of the speed guidance could be enhanced by lengthening the guiding space range, expanding permitted guiding speed range, and increasing the percentage of the intelligent vehicles.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Yu Hsing
2009-12-01
Full Text Available Extending the open-economy loanable funds model, this paper finds that more government deficit as a percentage of GDP does not lead to a higher government bond yield. In addition, a higher real Treasury bill rate, a higher expected inflation rate, a higher EU government bond yield, or an expected depreciation of the euro against the U.S. dollar would increase Slovenia’s long-term interest rate. The negative coefficient of the percentage change in real GDP is insignificant at the10% level. Applying the standard closed-economy or open-economy loanable funds model without including the world interest rate and the expected exchange rate, we find similar conclusions except that the positive coefficient of the ratio of the net capital inflow to GDP has a wrong sign and is insignificant at the 10% level.
Spin-spin interaction effect in 2D Extended Hubbard Model
Zouhair, A.; Harir, S.; Bennai, M.; Boughaleb, Y.
2014-09-01
Using an exact diagonlization for finite square lattice and taking into account the periodic boundary conditions in the two directions, we study the spin-spin interaction effect on some local electronic properties for antiferromagnetic correlated electrons system. We have considered an Extended Hubbard Model (EHM) including on-site coulomb interaction energy U and spin-spin interaction term J. The diagonlization of this 2D EHM model allows us to study J effect on some local properties for finite square lattice. The analysis of the obtained results shows that the introduction of spin-spin interaction induces a supplementary conductivity for antiferromagnetic correlated electrons system, even in the strong on-site interaction regime.
An extended optimal velocity difference model in a cooperative driving system
Cao, Jinliang; Shi, Zhongke; Zhou, Jie
2015-10-01
An extended optimal velocity (OV) difference model is proposed in a cooperative driving system by considering multiple OV differences. The stability condition of the proposed model is obtained by applying the linear stability theory. The results show that the increase in number of cars that precede and their OV differences lead to the more stable traffic flow. The Burgers, Korteweg-de Vries (KdV) and modified Korteweg-de Vries (mKdV) equations are derived to describe the density waves in the stable, metastable and unstable regions, respectively. To verify these theoretical results, the numerical simulation is carried out. The theoretical and numerical results show that the stabilization of traffic flow is enhanced by considering multiple OV differences. The traffic jams can be suppressed by taking more information of cars ahead.
Critical phenomena of strange hadronic matter in the extended Zimanyi-Moszkowski model
Miyazaki, K
2005-01-01
We have studied the liquid-gas phase transition of warm strange hadronic matter (SHM) in the extended Zimanyi-Moszkowski model. We implement the Nijmegen soft-core potential model NSC97f of hyperon-hyperon interactions in terms of the (hidden) strange mesons. The saturation properties of pure Lambda and Xi matter by the potential essentially determine the dependence of the critical temperature on the strangeness fraction of SHM. We treat the liquid-gas phase transition of SHM as the first-order one and employ Maxwell construction so as to calculate the phase coexistence curves. The derived critical exponents beta \\simeq 1/3 and gamma=1.22 are almost independent of the strangeness fraction of SHM and almost agree with the empirical values derived from the recent multifragmentation reactions. Consequently, we have confirmed the universality of the critical phenomena in the liquid-gas phase transition of hadronic system.
Ground states of bilayered and extended t-J-U models
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Voo, Khee-Kyun, E-mail: kkvoo@mail.oit.edu.tw
2015-09-04
The ground states of bilayered and extended t-J-U models are investigated with renormalized mean field theory. The trial wave functions are Gutzwiller projected Hartree–Fock states, and the site double occupancies are variational parameters. It is found that a spontaneous interlayer phase separation (PS) may arise in bilayers. In electron–hole doping asymmetric systems, the propensity for PS is stronger in electron doped bands. Via a PS, superconductivity can survive to lower doping densities, and antiferromagnetism in electron doped systems may survive to higher doping densities. The result is related to the superconducting cuprates. - Highlights: • Ground states in doped bilayered t-J-U models are studied. • Variational wave functions are Gutzwiller projected wave functions. • Site double occupancies are variational parameters. • Spontaneous interlayer phase separation may occur in bilayers. • Stronger tendency toward phase separation in electron doped bilayers.
Extending the GTAP data base and model to cover domestic support issues using EU as example
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Urban, Kirsten; Jensen, Hans Grinsted; Brockmeier, Martina
The EU Single Farm Payment (SFP) is currently distributed in proportion to primary factor shares in version 8 of the GTAP database. In this paper, we investigate whether this way of modeling the EU SFP makes a difference in analyzing agricultural policy reforms. To do so, we create alternative...... PSE tables. We provide a detailed overview supplemented with assumptions of payment allocation, shock calculations and in particular, the Altertax procedure to update value flows and price equations extended in the GTAP model. Subsequently, we illustrate the impact of those assumptions by simulating...... that the effect on welfare and the trade balance decreases with an increasing degree of decoupling. This experiment shows that the allocation of the SFP can have strong impacts on simulation results....
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Stroe, Ana-Irina; Swierczynski, Maciej Jozef; Stroe, Daniel Ioan
2015-01-01
Lithium-ion (Li-ion) batteries are found nowadays not only in portable/consumer electronics but also in more power demanding applications, such as stationary renewable energy storage, automotive and back-up power supply, because of their superior characteristics in comparison to other energy...... storage technologies. Nevertheless, prior to be used in any of the aforementioned application, a Li-ion battery cell must be intensively characterized and its behavior needs to be understood. This can be realized by performing extended laboratory characterization tests and developing Li-ion battery...... performance models. Furthermore, accurate performance models are necessary in order to analyze the behavior of the battery cell under different mission profiles, by simulation; thus, avoiding time and cost demanding real life tests. This paper presents the development and the parametrization of a performance...
Basak, Ecem; Gumussoy, Cigdem Altin; Calisir, Fethi
2015-01-01
This study aims at identifying the factors affecting the intention to use personal digital assistant (PDA) technology among physicians in Turkey using an extended Technology Acceptance Model (TAM). A structural equation-modeling approach was used to identify the variables that significantly affect the intention to use PDA technology. The data were collected from 339 physicians in Turkey. Results indicated that 71% of the physicians' intention to use PDA technology is explained by perceived usefulness and perceived ease of use. On comparing both, the perceived ease of use has the strongest effect, whereas the effect of perceived enjoyment on behavioral intention to use is found to be insignificant. This study concludes with the recommendations for managers and possible future research.
2D edge plasma modeling extended up to the main chamber
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Dekeyser, W., E-mail: wouter.dekeyser@mech.kuleuven.be [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, Celestijnenlaan 300A, 3001 Leuven (Belgium); Baelmans, M. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, Celestijnenlaan 300A, 3001 Leuven (Belgium); Reiter, D.; Boerner, P.; Kotov, V. [Institut fuer Plasmaphysik, Forschungszentrum Juelich GmbH, EURATOM-Association, Trilateral Euregio Cluster, D-52425 Juelich (Germany)
2011-08-01
Far SOL plasma flow, and hence main chamber recycling and plasma surface interaction, are today still only very poorly described by current 2D fluid edge codes, such as B2, UEDGE or EDGE2D, due to a common technical limitation. We have extended the B2 plasma fluid solver in the current ITER version of B2-EIRENE (SOLPS4.3) to allow plasma solutions to be obtained up to the 'real vessel wall', at least on the basis of ad hoc far SOL transport models. We apply here the kinetic Monte Carlo Code EIRENE on such plasma solutions to study effects of this model refinement on main chamber fluxes and sputtering, for an ITER configuration. We show that main chamber sputtering may be significantly modified both due to thermalization of CX neutrals in the far SOL and poloidally highly asymmetric plasma wall contact, as compared to hitherto applied teleportation of particle fluxes across this domain.
[Bone loss in lactating women and post-pregnancy osteoporosis].
Hirata, Go; Chaki, Osamu
2011-09-01
Measurement of the bone mineral density have shown that lactating women had 1 to 3% decrease in bone mineral density. Post pregnancy osteoporosis is rare condition that causes fragile fracture mostly in vertebrae. The bone loss in lactating women is caused by calcium loss, decrease in estrogen level, and increase in PTHrP (parathyroid hormone related protein) level. Some data have shown that extended lactation and amenorrhea had an association with the degree of bone loss. Mostly, the bone loss of the lactating women recovers to the baseline level, soon after the weaning, and there is no long term effect. Post pregnancy osteoporosis should be concerned, when we see a lactating woman with fragile fracture of the vertebrae.
Ricken, T; Werner, D; Holzhütter, H G; König, M; Dahmen, U; Dirsch, O
2015-06-01
This study focuses on a two-scale, continuum multicomponent model for the description of blood perfusion and cell metabolism in the liver. The model accounts for a spatial and time depending hydro-diffusion-advection-reaction description. We consider a solid-phase (tissue) containing glycogen and a fluid-phase (blood) containing glucose as well as lactate. The five-component model is enhanced by a two-scale approach including a macroscale (sinusoidal level) and a microscale (cell level). The perfusion on the macroscale within the lobules is described by a homogenized multiphasic approach based on the theory of porous media (mixture theory combined with the concept of volume fraction). On macro level, we recall the basic mixture model, the governing equations as well as the constitutive framework including the solid (tissue) stress, blood pressure and solutes chemical potential. In view of the transport phenomena, we discuss the blood flow including transverse isotropic permeability, as well as the transport of solute concentrations including diffusion and advection. The continuum multicomponent model on the macroscale finally leads to a coupled system of partial differential equations (PDE). In contrast, the hepatic metabolism on the microscale (cell level) was modeled via a coupled system of ordinary differential equations (ODE). Again, we recall the constitutive relations for cell metabolism level. A finite element implementation of this framework is used to provide an illustrative example, describing the spatial and time-depending perfusion-metabolism processes in liver lobules that integrates perfusion and metabolism of the liver.
Neural Network and Regression Soft Model Extended for PAX-300 Aircraft Engine
Patnaik, Surya N.; Hopkins, Dale A.
2002-01-01
In fiscal year 2001, the neural network and regression capabilities of NASA Glenn Research Center's COMETBOARDS design optimization testbed were extended to generate approximate models for the PAX-300 aircraft engine. The analytical model of the engine is defined through nine variables: the fan efficiency factor, the low pressure of the compressor, the high pressure of the compressor, the high pressure of the turbine, the low pressure of the turbine, the operating pressure, and three critical temperatures (T(sub 4), T(sub vane), and T(sub metal)). Numerical Propulsion System Simulation (NPSS) calculations of the specific fuel consumption (TSFC), as a function of the variables can become time consuming, and numerical instabilities can occur during these design calculations. "Soft" models can alleviate both deficiencies. These approximate models are generated from a set of high-fidelity input-output pairs obtained from the NPSS code and a design of the experiment strategy. A neural network and a regression model with 45 weight factors were trained for the input/output pairs. Then, the trained models were validated through a comparison with the original NPSS code. Comparisons of TSFC versus the operating pressure and of TSFC versus the three temperatures (T(sub 4), T(sub vane), and T(sub metal)) are depicted in the figures. The overall performance was satisfactory for both the regression and the neural network model. The regression model required fewer calculations than the neural network model, and it produced marginally superior results. Training the approximate methods is time consuming. Once trained, the approximate methods generated the solution with only a trivial computational effort, reducing the solution time from hours to less than a minute.
DEVELOPMENT OF A NOVEL ENTERIC COATED EXTENDED RELEASE PELLETS USING MODEL NSAID FLURBIPROFEN
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
V. Abhinetri, Mohd. Abdul Hadi*, A. Srinivasa Rao and Sravani V.
2013-02-01
Full Text Available The aim of this study was to develop a pH responsive enteric coated extended release pellets containing a model drug flurbiprofen, a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug used for rheumatoid arthritis. The drug loaded pellets were prepared by using extrusion/ spheronization method. Core pellets were coated with polymer Eudragit RS30D in a coating pan to achieve a sustainable release for 12 hours. A ph responsive barrier coat of Eudragit L 100-55 was employed in a coating pan for abstaining release in acidic media. The drug excipient mixtures were subjected to pre-formulation studies. The pellets were subjected to physicochemical studies, in-vitro drug release, Kinetic studies and stability studies. FTIR studies shown there was no interaction between drug and polymers. The physicochemical properties of pellets were found within the limits. The drug release from the optimized formulations was extended for a period of 12 hrs i.e. first 2 hrs no drug release was observed and gradually drug release was increased up to 12 hrs. From the above results, achievement of site specific release to lower part of gastrointestinal tract might be due to Eudragit L 100-55 stability in acidic pH. The prepared pellets apart from fulfilling all official and other specifications, exhibited good extended release of Flurbiprofen. The optimized formulations were subjected to stability studies and shown there were no significant changes in drug content, physicochemical parameters and release pattern. In conclusion, development of Eudragit RS30D-Eudragit L 100-55 was novel and good approach to achieve the site specific release of drug to colon.
Sun, Xiaodian; Jin, Li; Xiong, Momiao
2008-01-01
It is system dynamics that determines the function of cells, tissues and organisms. To develop mathematical models and estimate their parameters are an essential issue for studying dynamic behaviors of biological systems which include metabolic networks, genetic regulatory networks and signal transduction pathways, under perturbation of external stimuli. In general, biological dynamic systems are partially observed. Therefore, a natural way to model dynamic biological systems is to employ nonlinear state-space equations. Although statistical methods for parameter estimation of linear models in biological dynamic systems have been developed intensively in the recent years, the estimation of both states and parameters of nonlinear dynamic systems remains a challenging task. In this report, we apply extended Kalman Filter (EKF) to the estimation of both states and parameters of nonlinear state-space models. To evaluate the performance of the EKF for parameter estimation, we apply the EKF to a simulation dataset and two real datasets: JAK-STAT signal transduction pathway and Ras/Raf/MEK/ERK signaling transduction pathways datasets. The preliminary results show that EKF can accurately estimate the parameters and predict states in nonlinear state-space equations for modeling dynamic biochemical networks.
Extended Statistical Thermal Model and Rapidity Spectra of Hadrons at 200 GeV/A
Uddin, Saeed; Shabir, Jan; Mir, M Farooq
2009-01-01
We use the extended statistical thermal model to describe various hadron rapidity spectra at the highest RHIC energy (200 GeV/A). The model assumes the formation of hot and dense regions moving along the beam axis with increasing rapidities, yFB. It has been earlier shown that this model can explain the net proton flow i.e. p minus pbar, ratio pbar/p and the pion rapidity spectra. In this paper we have attempted to show that in addition to these quantities, this model can also successfully describe the individual rapidity spectra of protons, antiprotons, Kaons, antiKaons, pions, the ratios lambdabar/lambda and cascadebar/cascade. The experimental data set on p, pbar, K, Kbar and Pion provided by BRAHMS collaboration at the highest energy of Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider, sqrt(SNN) = 200 GeV are used. The theoretical results fit quite well with mid-rapidity data (for y < 1) of the lambdabar/lambda and the cascadebar/cascade ratios available (from STAR). We have used single set of model parameters includin...
RGM study of the NN interaction in an extended quark model
Fujiwara, Y.; Hecht, K. T.
1987-02-01
The extended quark model study of the NN interaction, in which the ( q overlineq) excitations inherent in the quark-gluon interaction are explicitly incorporated into the model space, is completed with the inclusion of the ( q overlineq) ( q overlineq) excitations generated by RPA-type terms of the color Breit interaction. The new coupling kernels connecting the dominant (3q)-(3q) components of the NN system to the (3 q)-(3 q)( q overlineq)( q overlineq) components lead to potentials with the characteristics of conventional σ and δ meson exchange potentials and furnish the additional medium-range attraction needed to bind the deuteron. The full model is subjected to a quantitative test through a solution of the RGM equations in a coupled channel formalism. With one improvement of the model, to yield an Nπ tensor force with OPEP strength and long-range characteristics, this model leads to a prediction of the low-energy NN scattering data and deuteron bound state characteristics which is in semiquantitative agreement with the experimental data and is free of parameter adjustments.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Tian Ge
2009-11-01
Full Text Available Two main approaches in exploring causal relationships in biological systems using time-series data are the application of Dynamic Causal model (DCM and Granger Causal model (GCM. These have been extensively applied to brain imaging data and are also readily applicable to a wide range of temporal changes involving genes, proteins or metabolic pathways. However, these two approaches have always been considered to be radically different from each other and therefore used independently. Here we present a novel approach which is an extension of Granger Causal model and also shares the features of the bilinear approximation of Dynamic Causal model. We have first tested the efficacy of the extended GCM by applying it extensively in toy models in both time and frequency domains and then applied it to local field potential recording data collected from in vivo multi-electrode array experiments. We demonstrate face discrimination learning-induced changes in inter- and intra-hemispheric connectivity and in the hemispheric predominance of theta and gamma frequency oscillations in sheep inferotemporal cortex. The results provide the first evidence for connectivity changes between and within left and right inferotemporal cortexes as a result of face recognition learning.
Dissecting jets and missing energy searches using n-body extended simplified models
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Cohen, Timothy [Institute of Theoretical Science, University of Oregon, Eugene, OR 97403 (United States); Dolan, Matthew J. [ARC Centre of Excellence for Particle Physics at the Terascale,School of Physics, University of Melbourne, 3010 (Australia); Hedri, Sonia El [Institut fur Physik (THEP) Johannes Gutenberg-Universitat,D-55099, Mainz (Germany); Hirschauer, James; Tran, Nhan; Whitbeck, Andrew [Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory, Batavia, IL 60510 (United States)
2016-08-04
Simplified Models are a useful way to characterize new physics scenarios for the LHC. Particle decays are often represented using non-renormalizable operators that involve the minimal number of fields required by symmetries. Generalizing to a wider class of decay operators allows one to model a variety of final states. This approach, which we dub the n-body extension of Simplified Models, provides a unifying treatment of the signal phase space resulting from a variety of signals. In this paper, we present the first application of this framework in the context of multijet plus missing energy searches. The main result of this work is a global performance study with the goal of identifying which set of observables yields the best discriminating power against the largest Standard Model backgrounds for a wide range of signal jet multiplicities. Our analysis compares combinations of one, two and three variables, placing emphasis on the enhanced sensitivity gain resulting from non-trivial correlations. Utilizing boosted decision trees, we compare and classify the performance of missing energy, energy scale and energy structure observables. We demonstrate that including an observable from each of these three classes is required to achieve optimal performance. This work additionally serves to establish the utility of n-body extended Simplified Models as a diagnostic for unpacking the relative merits of different search strategies, thereby motivating their application to new physics signatures beyond jets and missing energy.
Analysis to the entangled states from an extended Chaplygin gas model
Meng, X H; Ren, J; Meng, Xin He; Hu, Ming Guang; Ren, Jie
2006-01-01
With considerations of the recently released WMAP year three and supernova legacy survey (SNLS) data set analysis that favors models similar to the $% \\Lambda CDM$ model by possibly mild fluctuations around the vacuum energy or the cosmological constant, we extend the original Chaplygin Gas model (ECG) via modifying the Chaplygin Gas equation of state by two parameters to describe an entangled mixture state from an available matter and the rest component (which can take the cosmological constant or dark energy as in the current cosmic stage, or `curvature-like' term, or radiation component in the early epoch, as various phases) coexistence. At low redshifts, the connection of the ECG model and the Born-infeld field is set up. As paradigms, we use the data coming from the recently released SNLS for the first year and also the famous 157 type Ia supernova (Ia SNe) gold dataset to constrain the model parameters. The restricted results demonstrate clearly how large the entangled degree or the ratio between the en...
Liao, F; Huang, Z.
2015-01-01
Open Access funded by Engineering and Physical Sciences Research Council under a Creative Commons license. A robust finite element procedure for modelling the localised fracture of reinforced concrete beams at elevated temperatures is developed. In this model a reinforced concrete beam is represented as an assembly of 4-node quadrilateral plain concrete, 3-node main reinforcing steel bar, and 2-node bond-link elements. The concrete element is subdivided into layers for considering the temp...
Lactate-a suicide mode or survival kit
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
无
2001-01-01
lactate concentration in such sta tes might not be a deleterious event but rather an adaptive response, as in th e case of hypoxia. The pathway of lactate metabolism and its regulation has long been known and it s role as carbon shuttle has been extended to all organs and to energy or redox shuttling. Indeed, lactate must be viewed as a key metabolic intermediate betwee n cells or organs for energy metabolism. Erythrocytes, anaerobic cells, produce ATP by the non-oxidative glycolytic pathway with lactate release while liver which produces ATP from β-oxidation, uses this energy to synthesize glucose fr o m lactate. Hence, by recycling the carbons between lactate and glucose, the liv er actually “respire” for the erythrocyte mass. Since almost all cells can be e ither lactate producers or consumers in view of the whole-body energy economy. In the situation of chronic hypoxia, plasma lactate is increased and this is s upposed to be due to an increased peripheral lactate production. An experiment that has been undertaken on liver lactate metabolism with hypothesis that in vivo would lead to an enhanced liver lactate uptake (since recycling gluc ose- lactate was supposed to be increased), surprisingly showed that a very clear inh ibition was located at the phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase whose transcription was depressed by hypoxia. Hence, the net result of hypoxia on lactate metaboli sm is an increase in the steady state of lactate of blood lactate concentratio n due to the inhibition of liver lactate metabolism and the question arises of the metabolic meaning of such increase in lactate. The increase in lactate might be viewed as a key metabolic event permitting to modify the cell metabolism according to the new condition of hypoxia. In norm oxic condition the concentration of lactate, release by red blood cells is low and it is mainly recycled via liver gluconeogenesis. In peripheral tissues, su ch as muscle or heart, the main substrate is the glucose which is
Stuparu, Dana; Bachmann, Daniel; Bogaard, Tom; Twigt, Daniel; Verkade, Jan; de Bruijn, Karin; de Leeuw, Annemargreet
2017-04-01
Flood forecasts, warning and emergency response are important components in flood risk management. Most flood forecasting systems use models to translate weather predictions to forecasted discharges or water levels. However, this information is often not sufficient for real time decisions. A sound understanding of the reliability of embankments and flood dynamics is needed to react timely and reduce the negative effects of the flood. Where are the weak points in the dike system? When, how much and where the water will flow? When and where is the greatest impact expected? Model-based flood impact forecasting tries to answer these questions by adding new dimensions to the existing forecasting systems by providing forecasted information about: (a) the dike strength during the event (reliability), (b) the flood extent in case of an overflow or a dike failure (flood spread) and (c) the assets at risk (impacts). This work presents three study-cases in which such a set-up is applied. Special features are highlighted. Forecasting of dike strength. The first study-case focusses on the forecast of dike strength in the Netherlands for the river Rhine branches Waal, Nederrijn and IJssel. A so-called reliability transformation is used to translate the predicted water levels at selected dike sections into failure probabilities during a flood event. The reliability of a dike section is defined by fragility curves - a summary of the dike strength conditional to the water level. The reliability information enhances the emergency management and inspections of embankments. Ensemble forecasting. The second study-case shows the setup of a flood impact forecasting system in Dumfries, Scotland. The existing forecasting system is extended with a 2D flood spreading model in combination with the Delft-FIAT impact model. Ensemble forecasts are used to make use of the uncertainty in the precipitation forecasts, which is useful to quantify the certainty of a forecasted flood event. From global
Quark matter at high density based on an extended confined isospin-density-dependent mass model
Qauli, A. I.; Sulaksono, A.
2016-01-01
We investigate the effect of the inclusion of relativistic Coulomb terms in a confined-isospin-density-dependent-mass (CIDDM) model of strange quark matter (SQM). We found that if we include the Coulomb term in scalar density form, the SQM equation of state (EOS) at high densities is stiffer but if we include the Coulomb term in vector density form it is softer than that of the standard CIDDM model. We also investigate systematically the role of each term of the extended CIDDM model. Compared with what was reported by Chu and Chen [Astrophys. J. 780, 135 (2014)], we found the stiffness of SQM EOS is controlled by the interplay among the oscillator harmonic, isospin asymmetry and Coulomb contributions depending on the parameter's range of these terms. We have found that the absolute stable condition of SQM and the mass of 2 M⊙ pulsars can constrain the parameter of oscillator harmonic κ1≈0.53 in the case the Coulomb term is excluded. If the Coulomb term is included, for the models with their parameters are consistent with SQM absolute stability condition, the 2.0 M⊙ constraint more prefers the maximum mass prediction of the model with the scalar Coulomb term than that of the model with the vector Coulomb term. On the contrary, the high densities EOS predicted by the model with the vector Coulomb is more compatible with the recent perturbative quantum chromodynamics result [1] than that predicted by the model with the scalar Coulomb. Furthermore, we also observed the quark composition in a very high density region depends quite sensitively on the kind of Coulomb term used.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Borui Li
2014-04-01
Full Text Available Traditional object tracking technology usually regards the target as a point source object. However, this approximation is no longer appropriate for tracking extended objects such as large targets and closely spaced group objects. Bayesian extended object tracking (EOT using a random symmetrical positive definite (SPD matrix is a very effective method to jointly estimate the kinematic state and physical extension of the target. The key issue in the application of this random matrix-based EOT approach is to model the physical extension and measurement noise accurately. Model parameter adaptive approaches for both extension dynamic and measurement noise are proposed in this study based on the properties of the SPD matrix to improve the performance of extension estimation. An interacting multi-model algorithm based on model parameter adaptive filter using random matrix is also presented. Simulation results demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed adaptive approaches and multi-model algorithm. The estimation performance of physical extension is better than the other algorithms, especially when the target maneuvers. The kinematic state estimation error is lower than the others as well.
3D simulations of disc-winds extending radially self-similar MHD models
Stute, Matthias; Vlahakis, Nektarios; Tsinganos, Kanaris; Mignone, Andrea; Massaglia, Silvano
2014-01-01
Disc-winds originating from the inner parts of accretion discs are considered as the basic component of magnetically collimated outflows. The only available analytical MHD solutions to describe disc-driven jets are those characterized by the symmetry of radial self-similarity. However, radially self-similar MHD jet models, in general, have three geometrical shortcomings, (i) a singularity at the jet axis, (ii) the necessary assumption of axisymmetry, and (iii) the non-existence of an intrinsic radial scale, i.e. the jets formally extend to radial infinity. Hence, numerical simulations are necessary to extend the analytical solutions towards the axis, by solving the full three-dimensional equations of MHD and impose a termination radius at finite radial distance. We focus here on studying the effects of relaxing the (ii) assumption of axisymmetry, i.e. of performing full 3D numerical simulations of a disc-wind crossing all magnetohydrodynamic critical surfaces. We compare the results of these runs with previou...
Charge ordering and phase separation in the infinite dimensional extended Hubbard model
Tong, Ning-Hua; Shen, Shun-Qing; Bulla, Ralf
2004-08-01
We study the extended Hubbard model with both on-site (U) and nearest neighbor (V) Coulomb repulsion using the exact diagonalization method within the dynamical mean field theory. For a fixed U (U=2.0) , the T-n phase diagrams are obtained for V=1.4 and V=1.2 , at which the ground state of n=1/2 system is charge-ordered and charge-disordered, respectively. In both cases, robust charge order is found at finite temperature and in an extended filling regime around n=1/2 . The order parameter changes nonmonotonously with temperature. For V=1.4 , phase separation between charge-ordered and charge-disordered phases is observed in the low temperature and n<0.5 regime. It is described by an “S”-shaped structure of the n-μ curve. For V=1.2 , the ground state is charge-disordered, and a reentrant charge-ordering transition is observed for 0.42
Cosmological models in modified gravity theories with extended nonminimal derivative couplings
Harko, Tiberiu; Lobo, Francisco S. N.; Saridakis, Emmanuel N.; Tsoukalas, Minas
2017-02-01
We construct gravitational modifications that go beyond Horndeski, namely theories with extended nonminimal derivative couplings, in which the coefficient functions depend not only on the scalar field but also on its kinetic energy. Such theories prove to be ghost-free in a cosmological background. We investigate the early-time cosmology and show that a de Sitter inflationary phase can be realized as a pure result of the novel gravitational couplings. Additionally, we study the late-time evolution, where we obtain an effective dark energy sector which arises from the scalar field and its extended couplings to gravity. We extract various cosmological observables and analyze their behavior at small redshifts for three choices of potentials, namely for the exponential, the power-law, and the Higgs potentials. We show that the Universe passes from deceleration to acceleration in the recent cosmological past, while the effective dark energy equation-of-state parameter tends to the cosmological-constant value at present. Finally, the effective dark energy can be phantomlike, although the scalar field is canonical, which is an advantage of the model.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Sadegh, Negar; Stenby, Erling Halfdan; Thomsen, Kaj
2015-01-01
Aqueous MDEA is the most commonly used solvent for H2S removal from natural gas. A reliable thermodynamic model is required for the proper design of natural gas sweetening processes. In this study, a rigorous thermodynamic model is developed to represent properties of the H2S-MDEA-H2O ternary......-180°C, H2S partial pressure of 0.0033-8329.71kPa, MDEA mass% of 0-50 and loading range of 0-2.17....
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Zhao, Haihua [Idaho National Laboratory; Zhang, Hongbin [Idaho National Laboratory; Zou, Ling [Idaho National Laboratory; Martineau, Richard Charles [Idaho National Laboratory
2015-03-01
The reactor core isolation cooling (RCIC) system in a boiling water reactor (BWR) provides makeup cooling water to the reactor pressure vessel (RPV) when the main steam lines are isolated and the normal supply of water to the reactor vessel is lost. The RCIC system operates independently of AC power, service air, or external cooling water systems. The only required external energy source is from the battery to maintain the logic circuits to control the opening and/or closure of valves in the RCIC systems in order to control the RPV water level by shutting down the RCIC pump to avoid overfilling the RPV and flooding the steam line to the RCIC turbine. It is generally considered in almost all the existing station black-out accidents (SBO) analyses that loss of the DC power would result in overfilling the steam line and allowing liquid water to flow into the RCIC turbine, where it is assumed that the turbine would then be disabled. This behavior, however, was not observed in the Fukushima Daiichi accidents, where the Unit 2 RCIC functioned without DC power for nearly three days. Therefore, more detailed mechanistic models for RCIC system components are needed to understand the extended SBO for BWRs. As part of the effort to develop the next generation reactor system safety analysis code RELAP-7, we have developed a strongly coupled RCIC system model, which consists of a turbine model, a pump model, a check valve model, a wet well model, and their coupling models. Unlike the traditional SBO simulations where mass flow rates are typically given in the input file through time dependent functions, the real mass flow rates through the turbine and the pump loops in our model are dynamically calculated according to conservation laws and turbine/pump operation curves. A simplified SBO demonstration RELAP-7 model with this RCIC model has been successfully developed. The demonstration model includes the major components for the primary system of a BWR, as well as the safety
Non-uniform phases in a three-flavour 't Hooft extended Nambu-Jona--Lasinio model
Moreira, J; Broniowski, W; Osipov, A A; Blin, A H
2014-01-01
The possible existence of non-uniform phases in cold dense quark matter in the light quark sector ($u$, $d$ and $s$) is addressed using the Nambu-Jona--Lasinio Model extended to include flavour-mixing 't Hooft determinant. The effect of changes in the coupling strengths of the model is discussed. It is seen that the inclusion of the strange sector catalyses the appearance of these non-uniform phases extending the domain for their appearance.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
István Zachar
Full Text Available The simulation of complex biochemical systems, consisting of intertwined subsystems, is a challenging task in computational biology. The complex biochemical organization of the cell is effectively modeled by the minimal cell model called chemoton, proposed by Gánti. Since the chemoton is a system consisting of a large but fixed number of interacting molecular species, it can effectively be implemented in a process algebra-based language such as the BlenX programming language. The stochastic model behaves comparably to previous continuous deterministic models of the chemoton. Additionally to the well-known chemoton, we also implemented an extended version with two competing template cycles. The new insight from our study is that the coupling of reactions in the chemoton ensures that these templates coexist providing an alternative solution to Eigen's paradox. Our technical innovation involves the introduction of a two-state switch to control cell growth and division, thus providing an example for hybrid methods in BlenX. Further developments to the BlenX language are suggested in the Appendix.
Radiative Symmetry Breaking in the Supersymmetric Minimal B-L Extended Standard Model
Burell, Zachary
2016-01-01
The Standard Model (SM) of particle physics is a precise model of electroweak interactions, however there is growing tension between the SM and observations (neutrino oscillations, dark matter, dark energy, baryogenesis, among others). There is no reason to expect the validity of the ad hoc SM to remain intact at energy scales above a few TeV, thus a more fundamental theory will almost certainly be required. Motivated by these considerations, we investigate a Supersymmetric version of a natural extension of the SM, the $U(1)_{B-L}$ model, that is obtained by gauging the accidental B-L symmetry that exists in the ordinary SM. The Supersymmetric $U(1)_{B-L}$ extended SM can resolve the neutrino mass problem, the dark matter problem, the hierarchy problem, and provides a mechanism for establishing the observed baryon asymmetry of the Universe. When we include quantum corrections to the Higgs potential of the model, we find that Radiative $B-L$ symmetry breaking occurs through the interplay between large Majorana...
Extended NJL Model for light and heavy mesons without $q-\\overline{q}$ thresholds
Ebert, D; Reinhardt, H
1996-01-01
We consider the NJL model as an effective quark theory to describe the interaction which is responsible for the quark flavor dynamics at intermediate energies. In addition to the usual ultraviolet cut-off which is necessary since the model is non-renormalizable, we also introduce an infrared cut-off which drops off the unknown confinement part of the quark interaction, which is believed to be less important for the flavor dynamics. The infrared cut-off eliminates all q-qbar thresholds, which plague the application of the usual NJL model beyond low-energy pion physics. We apply this two-cut-off prescription to the extended NJL model with chiral and heavy quark symmetries proposed recently by us. We find a satisfactoring description even of the heavy mesons with spin/parity J/P = (0+, 1+). Furthermore, the shape-parameters of the Isgur-Wise function are studied as a function of the residual heavy meson mass.
Extended Pi-Sigma tilde orbital model for CO adsorption on Pt and Ru
Mion, Thomas; Dimakis, Nicholas; Alamgir, Faisal; Jaye, Cherno; Fischer, Daniel; McGinn, Paul; Cooper, James; Greenbaum, Steve; Smotkin, Eugene
2011-03-01
Several discrepencies between the predicted Blyholder-type adsobtion models and experimental, as well as DFT calculated infared spectra have been addressed for atop CO on Pt in contrast to Ru. This model correlates increased Near Edge X-Ray Absorbtion Fine Structure intensity as the result of a sub-eV downshift from CO on Ru compared to CO on Pt thereby forming a weaker C-O bond. The model accounts for the hybrid orbitals electron transfer between the CO - metal bonds while taking in to consideration the orbital polarization within the CO itself. The charge redistribution of the s-tilde orbitals and reduced charge donation from CO to the surface results in a weaker internal CO bond upon Ru relative to Pt. The extended Pi-Sigma model explains why atop C-O stretching frequencies do not correlate with carbon p-type vacancies. Calculations done on the High Performance Computing Cluster at UT-Pan American. NEXAFS was done on U7A NIST/DOW beamline at Brookheaven National Synchrotron Light Source with funding from the Army Research Office.
An extended model for ultrasonic-based enhanced oil recovery with experimental validation.
Mohsin, Mohammed; Meribout, Mahmoud
2015-03-01
This paper suggests a new ultrasonic-based enhanced oil recovery (EOR) model for application in oil field reservoirs. The model is modular and consists of an acoustic module and a heat transfer module, where the heat distribution is updated when the temperature rise exceeds 1 °C. The model also considers the main EOR parameters which includes both the geophysical (i.e., porosity, permeability, temperature rise, and fluid viscosity) and acoustical (e.g., acoustic penetration and pressure distribution in various fluids and mediums) properties of the wells. Extended experiments were performed using powerful ultrasonic waves which were applied for different kind of oils & oil saturated core samples. The corresponding results showed a good matching with those obtained from simulations, validating the suggested model to some extent. Hence, a good recovery rate of around 88.2% of original oil in place (OOIP) was obtained after 30 min of continuous generation of ultrasonic waves. This leads to consider the ultrasonic-based EOR as another tangible solution for EOR. This claim is supported further by considering several injection wells where the simulation results indicate that with four (4) injection wells; the recovery rate may increase up-to 96.7% of OOIP. This leads to claim the high potential of ultrasonic-based EOR as compared to the conventional methods. Following this study, the paper also proposes a large scale ultrasonic-based EOR hardware system for installation in oil fields.
Examining Mechanisms Underlying Fear-Control in the Extended Parallel Process Model.
Quick, Brian L; LaVoie, Nicole R; Reynolds-Tylus, Tobias; Martinez-Gonzalez, Andrea; Skurka, Chris
2017-01-17
This investigation sought to advance the extended parallel process model in important ways by testing associations among the strengths of efficacy and threat appeals with fear as well as two outcomes of fear-control processing, psychological reactance and message minimization. Within the context of print ads admonishing against noise-induced hearing loss (NIHL) and the fictitious Trepidosis virus, partial support was found for the additive model with no support for the multiplicative model. High efficacy appeals mitigated freedom threat perceptions across both contexts. Fear was positively associated with both freedom threat perceptions within the NIHL context and favorable attitudes for both NIHL and Trepidosis virus contexts. In line with psychological reactance theory, a freedom threat was positively associated with psychological reactance. Reactance, in turn, was positively associated with message minimization. The models supported reactance preceding message minimization across both message contexts. Both the theoretical and practical implications are discussed with an emphasis on future research opportunities within the fear-appeal literature.
Modelling waste stabilisation ponds with an extended version of ASM3.
Gehring, T; Silva, J D; Kehl, O; Castilhos, A B; Costa, R H R; Uhlenhut, F; Alex, J; Horn, H; Wichern, M
2010-01-01
In this paper an extended version of IWA's Activated Sludge Model No 3 (ASM3) was developed to simulate processes in waste stabilisation ponds (WSP). The model modifications included the integration of algae biomass and gas transfer processes for oxygen, carbon dioxide and ammonia depending on wind velocity and a simple ionic equilibrium. The model was applied to a pilot-scale WSP system operated in the city of Florianópolis (Brazil). The system was used to treat leachate from a municipal waste landfill. Mean influent concentrations to the facultative pond of 1,456 g(COD)/m(3) and 505 g(NH4-N)/m(3) were measured. Experimental results indicated an ammonia nitrogen removal of 89.5% with negligible rates of nitrification but intensive ammonia stripping to the atmosphere. Measured data was used in the simulations to consider the impact of wind velocity on oxygen input of 11.1 to 14.4 g(O2)/(m(2) d) and sun radiation on photosynthesis. Good results for pH and ammonia removal were achieved with mean stripping rates of 18.2 and 4.5 g(N)/(m(2) d) for the facultative and maturation pond respectively. Based on measured chlorophyll a concentrations and depending on light intensity and TSS concentration it was possible to model algae concentrations.
Quark Matter at High Density based on Extended Confined-isospin-density-dependent-mass Model
Qauli, A I
2016-01-01
We investigate the effect of the inclusion of relativistic Coulomb terms in a confined-isospin-density-dependent-mass (CIDDM) model of strange quark matter (SQM). We found that if we include Coulomb term in scalar density form, SQM equation of state (EOS) at high densities is stiffer but if we include Coulomb term in vector density form is softer than that of standard CIDDM model. We also investigate systematically the role of each term of the extended CIDDM model. Compared with what was reported in Ref.~\\cite {ref:isospin}, we found the stiffness of SQM EOS is controlled by the interplay among the the oscillator harmonic, isospin asymmetry and Coulomb contributions depending on the parameter's range of these terms. We have found that the absolute stable condition of SQM and the mass of 2 $M_\\odot$ pulsars can constrain the parameter of oscillator harmonic $\\kappa_1$ $\\approx 0.53$ in the case Coulomb term excluded. If the Coulomb term is included, for the models with their parameters are consistent with SQM ...
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Audrey Huong
2014-05-01
Full Text Available This work presents the use of extended Modified Lambert Beer (MLB model for accurate and continuous monitoring of percent blood carboxyhemoglobin (COHb (SCO and oxyhemoglobin (OxyHb saturation (SO2 via a fitting procedure. This quantification technique is based on the absorption characteristics of hemoglobin derivatives in the wavelength range of 520–600 nm to give the best estimates of the required parameters. A comparison of the performance of the developed model and MLB law is made using attenuation data from Monte Carlo simulations for a two-layered skin model. The results revealed a lower mean absolute error of 0.4% in the values estimated by the developed model as compared to 10% that is given by the MLB law. This study showed that the discussed approach is able to provide consistent and accurate measurement of blood SO2 and SCO across different skin pigmentations suggesting that it may potentially be used as an alternative means for clinical diagnosis of carbon monoxide (CO poisoning.
Ferrnion Mass Hierarchies in Singlet-Extended Minimal-Supersymmetric-Standard-Model Quivers
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Salah Eddine Ennadifi; Adil Belhaj; El Hassan Saidi
2011-01-01
In the context of type-ⅡA orientifold compactifications,we discuss the fermion masses in a two-singlet-extended minimal-supersymmetric-standard-model four-stack quiver with U(3) × Sp(1) × U(1) × U(1) gauge symmetry.The corresponding effective superpotential exhibits hierarchical coupling term scales giving a partial solution to the fermion masses problem.Using the known data with upper bound neutrino masses mvτ ＜～ 2 eV,we estimate the relevant scales for the model.It has been shown that important particle physics can be realized in type-Ⅱ superstring models by using the mechanism of intersecting D-branes in orientifold compactifications.[1-6] In such compactifications,the gauge groups arise from stacks of D-branes that fill four-dimensional spacetime and wrap the three-cycles in the internal Calabi-Yau threefold.However,matter fields arise at the intersection of two different D-brane stacks in internal space and their multiplicity is given by the topological intersection numbers of the respective three-cycles.Their interactions are subject to restrictions of additional global U(1)'s exhibited by orientifold compactifications.[7-10] Stringy effects have a crucial role in this regard,as they give corrections to the superpotential by inducing the missing couplings relevant for fermion masses.This method provides an acceptable effective low energy description reproducing the standard model or some extensions.[11,12]%In the context of type-IIA orientifold compactifications, we discuss the fermion masses in a two-singlet-extended minimal-supersymmetric-standard-model four-stack quiver with U(3)×Sp(1)×U(1)×U(1) gauge symmetry. The corresponding effective superpotential exhibits hierarchical coupling term scales giving a partial solution to the fermion masses problem. Using the known data with upper bound neutrino masses mvτ≤2 eV, we estimate the relevant scales for the model.
An extended gene protein/products Boolean network model including post-transcriptional regulation.
Benso, Alfredo; Di Carlo, Stefano; Politano, Gianfranco; Savino, Alessandro; Vasciaveo, Alessandro
2014-05-07
Networks Biology allows the study of complex interactions between biological systems using formal, well structured, and computationally friendly models. Several different network models can be created, depending on the type of interactions that need to be investigated. Gene Regulatory Networks (GRN) are an effective model commonly used to study the complex regulatory mechanisms of a cell. Unfortunately, given their intrinsic complexity and non discrete nature, the computational study of realistic-sized complex GRNs requires some abstractions. Boolean Networks (BNs), for example, are a reliable model that can be used to represent networks where the possible state of a node is a boolean value (0 or 1). Despite this strong simplification, BNs have been used to study both structural and dynamic properties of real as well as randomly generated GRNs. In this paper we show how it is possible to include the post-transcriptional regulation mechanism (a key process mediated by small non-coding RNA molecules like the miRNAs) into the BN model of a GRN. The enhanced BN model is implemented in a software toolkit (EBNT) that allows to analyze boolean GRNs from both a structural and a dynamic point of view. The open-source toolkit is compatible with available visualization tools like Cytoscape and allows to run detailed analysis of the network topology as well as of its attractors, trajectories, and state-space. In the paper, a small GRN built around the mTOR gene is used to demonstrate the main capabilities of the toolkit. The extended model proposed in this paper opens new opportunities in the study of gene regulation. Several of the successful researches done with the support of BN to understand high-level characteristics of regulatory networks, can now be improved to better understand the role of post-transcriptional regulation for example as a network-wide noise-reduction or stabilization mechanisms.
An extended gene protein/products boolean network model including post-transcriptional regulation
2014-01-01
Background Networks Biology allows the study of complex interactions between biological systems using formal, well structured, and computationally friendly models. Several different network models can be created, depending on the type of interactions that need to be investigated. Gene Regulatory Networks (GRN) are an effective model commonly used to study the complex regulatory mechanisms of a cell. Unfortunately, given their intrinsic complexity and non discrete nature, the computational study of realistic-sized complex GRNs requires some abstractions. Boolean Networks (BNs), for example, are a reliable model that can be used to represent networks where the possible state of a node is a boolean value (0 or 1). Despite this strong simplification, BNs have been used to study both structural and dynamic properties of real as well as randomly generated GRNs. Results In this paper we show how it is possible to include the post-transcriptional regulation mechanism (a key process mediated by small non-coding RNA molecules like the miRNAs) into the BN model of a GRN. The enhanced BN model is implemented in a software toolkit (EBNT) that allows to analyze boolean GRNs from both a structural and a dynamic point of view. The open-source toolkit is compatible with available visualization tools like Cytoscape and allows to run detailed analysis of the network topology as well as of its attractors, trajectories, and state-space. In the paper, a small GRN built around the mTOR gene is used to demonstrate the main capabilities of the toolkit. Conclusions The extended model proposed in this paper opens new opportunities in the study of gene regulation. Several of the successful researches done with the support of BN to understand high-level characteristics of regulatory networks, can now be improved to better understand the role of post-transcriptional regulation for example as a network-wide noise-reduction or stabilization mechanisms. PMID:25080304
Extended Kinship in the United States: Competing Models and the Case of La Familia Chicana.
Sena-Rivera, Jaime
1979-01-01
Extended kinship among Chicanos is explored through intensive open-ended interviews with four cases of three generations of Mexican-descent families. "La familia chicana" is posited as a modified extended or kin-integrated family extending over time and space from Mexico at the turn of the century to present day industrial America. (Author)
Extended Kinship in the United States: Competing Models and the Case of La Familia Chicana.
Sena-Rivera, Jaime
1979-01-01
Extended kinship among Chicanos is explored through intensive open-ended interviews with four cases of three generations of Mexican-descent families. "La familia chicana" is posited as a modified extended or kin-integrated family extending over time and space from Mexico at the turn of the century to present day industrial America. (Author)
Ruppel, Erin K
2016-01-01
Information scanning, or attention to information via incidental or routine exposure or browsing, is relatively less understood than information seeking. To (a) provide a more theoretical understanding of information scanning and (b) extend existing information seeking theory to information scanning, the current study used data from the National Cancer Institute's Health Information National Trends Survey to examine cancer information scanning using the comprehensive model of information seeking (CMIS). Consistent with the CMIS, health-related factors were associated with the information-carrier factor of trust, and health-related factors and trust were associated with attention to information sources. Some of these associations differed between entertainment-oriented sources, information-oriented sources, and the Internet. The current findings provide a clearer picture of information scanning and suggest future avenues of research and practice using the CMIS.
Process simulation of CO2 capture with aqueous ammonia using the Extended UNIQUAC model
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Darde, Victor Camille Alfred; Maribo-Mogensen, Bjørn; van Well, Willy J.M.
2012-01-01
The use of aqueous ammonia is a promising option to capture carbon dioxide from power plants thanks to the potential low heat requirement during the carbon dioxide desorption compared to monoethanolamine (MEA) based process. The patented Chilled Ammonia Process developed by Alstom absorbs carbon...... of the process is necessary.In this work, the performance of the carbon dioxide capture process using aqueous ammonia has been analyzed by process simulation. The Extended UNIQUAC thermodynamic model available for the CO2–NH3–H2O system has been implemented in the commercial simulator Aspen Plus®1 by using...... to be in the same range as the values reported recently for advanced amine processes. Assuming that cold cooling water is available, the electricity consumption remains limited. Hence the Chilled Ammonia Process is a promising option for post combustion carbon dioxide capture....
Strong decays of N~*(1535) in an extended chiral quark model
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
无
2009-01-01
The strong decays of the N*(1535) resonance are investigated in an extended chiral quark model by including the low-lying qqqqq components in addition to the qqq component.The results show that these five-quark components in N*(1535) contribute significantly to the N*(1535)→ Nπ and N*(1535) → Nη decays.The contributions to the Nη decay come from both the lowest energy and the next-to-lowest energy five-quarks components,while the contributions to the Nπ decay come from only the latter one.Taking these contributions into account,the description for the strong decays of N*(1535) is improved,especially for the puzzling large ratio of the decays to Nη and Nπ.
Pradhan, S.; Taraphder, A.
2016-10-01
A spinless, extended Falicov-Kimball model in the presence of a perpendicular magnetic field is investigated employing a self-consistent mean-field theory in two dimensions. In the presence of the field the excitonic average Δ = is modified: the exciton responds in subtle different ways for different values of the magnetic flux. We examine the effects of Coulomb interaction and hybridization between the localized and itinerant electrons on the excitonic average, for rational values of the applied magnetic field. The excitonic average is found to get enhanced exponentially with the Coulomb interaction while it saturates at large hybridization. The orbital magnetic field suppresses the excitonic average in general, though a strong commensurability effect of the magnetic flux on the behaviour of the excitonic order parameter is observed.
A Relevance-Extended Multi-dimensional Model for a Data Warehouse Contextualized with Documents
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Perez, Juan Manuel; Pedersen, Torben Bach; Berlanga, Rafael
2005-01-01
Current data warehouse and OLAP technologies can be applied to analyze the structured data that companies store in their databases. The circumstances that describe the context associated with these data can be found in other internal and external sources of documents. In this paper we propose...... to combine the traditional corporate data warehouse with a document warehouse, resulting in a contextualized warehouse. Thus, contextualized warehouses keep a historical record of the facts and their contexts as described by the documents. In this framework, the user selects an analysis context which...... with the documents that explain their circumstances. In this work we extend an existing multi-dimensional data model and algebra for representing the R-cubes....
Phase structure of hadronic and Polyakov-loop extended NJL model at finite isospin density
Cavagnoli, Rafael; Providência, Constança
2013-01-01
It is believed that there exists a rich phase structure of quantum chromodynamics (QCD) at finite temperature and baryon density, namely, the deconfinement process from hadron gas to quark-gluon plasma, the transition from chiral symmetry breaking phase to the symmetry restoration phase, and the color superconductivity at low temperature and high baryon density. In the present work we study the hadron-quark phase transition by investigating the binodal surface and extending it to finite temperature in order to mimic the QCD phase diagram. In order to obtain these conditions we use different models for the two possible phases, namely the quark and hadron phases. The phase separation boundary (binodal) is determined by the Gibbs criteria for phase equilibrium. The boundaries of the mixed phase and the related critical points for symmetric and asymmetric matter are obtained. Isospin effects appear to be rather significant. The critical endpoint (CEP) and the phase structure are also studied in the Polyakov-loop ...
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
H.J. F. El-Sofany
2008-01-01
Full Text Available In this study we have studied the problem of how to extend the concepts of Functional Dependency (FD and normalization in relational databases to include the eXtensible Markup Language (XML model. We shown that, like relational databases, XML documents may contain redundant information and this redundancy may cause update anomalies. Furthermore, such problems are caused by certain functional dependencies among paths in the document. Our goal is to find a way for converting an arbitrary XML Schema to a well-designed one, that avoids these problems. We introduced new definitions of FD and normal forms of XML Schema (X-1NF, X-2NF, X-3NF and X-BCNF. We shown that our normal forms are necessary and sufficient to ensure all conforming XML documents have no redundancies.
Extended Generalized-K (EGK): A New Simple and General Model for Composite Fading Channels
Yilmaz, Ferkan
2010-01-01
In this paper, we introduce a generalized composite fading distribution (termed extended generalized-K (EGK)) to model the envelope and the power of the received signal in millimeter wave (60 GHz or above) and free-space optical channels. We obtain the first and the second-order statistics of the received signal envelope characterized by the EGK composite fading distribution. In particular, expressions for probability density function, cumulative distribution function, level crossing rate and average fade duration, and fractional moments are derived. In addition performance measures such as amount of fading, average bit error probability, outage probability, average capacity, and outage capacity are offered in closed-form. Selected numerical and computer simulation examples validate the accuracy of the presented mathematical analysis.
Feynman-Weinberg Quantum Gravity and the Extended Standard Model as a Theory of Everything
Tipler, Frank J
2005-01-01
I argue that the (extended) Standard Model (SM) of particle physics and the renormalizable Feynman-Weinberg theory of quantum gravity comprise a theory of everything. I show that imposing the appropriate cosmological boundary conditions make the theory finite. The infinities that are normally renormalized away and the series divergence infinities are both eliminated by the same mechanism. Furthermore, this theory can resolve the horizon, flatness, and isotropy problems of cosmology. Joint mathematical consistency naturally yields a scale-free, Gaussian, adiabatic perturbation spectrum, and more matter than antimatter. I show that mathematical consistency of the theory requires the universe to begin at an initial singularity with a pure $SU(2)_L$ gauge field. I show that quantum mechanics requires this field to have a Planckian spectrum whatever its temperature. If this field has managed to survive thermalization to the present day, then it would be the CMBR. If so, then we would have a natural explanation for...
Zhou, Kejin; Nguyen, Liem H.; Miller, Jason B.; Yan, Yunfeng; Kos, Petra; Xiong, Hu; Li, Lin; Hao, Jing; Minnig, Jonathan T.; Siegwart, Daniel J.
2016-01-01
RNA-based cancer therapies are hindered by the lack of delivery vehicles that avoid cancer-induced organ dysfunction, which exacerbates carrier toxicity. We address this issue by reporting modular degradable dendrimers that achieve the required combination of high potency to tumors and low hepatotoxicity to provide a pronounced survival benefit in an aggressive genetic cancer model. More than 1,500 dendrimers were synthesized using sequential, orthogonal reactions where ester degradability was systematically integrated with chemically diversified cores, peripheries, and generations. A lead dendrimer, 5A2-SC8, provided a broad therapeutic window: identified as potent [EC50 75 mg/kg dendrimer repeated dosing). Delivery of let-7g microRNA (miRNA) mimic inhibited tumor growth and dramatically extended survival. Efficacy stemmed from a combination of a small RNA with the dendrimer’s own negligible toxicity, therefore illuminating an underappreciated complication in treating cancer with RNA-based drugs. PMID:26729861
Off-site interaction effect in the Extended Hubbard Model with the SCRPA method
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Harir, S [Laboratoire de Physique de la Matiere Condensee, Faculte des Sciences Ben M' Sik, Universite Hassan II-Mohammedia Casablanca (Morocco); Bennai, M [Laboratoire de Physique de la Matiere Condensee, Faculte des Sciences Ben M' Sik, Universite Hassan II-Mohammedia Casablanca (Morocco); Boughaleb, Y [Laboratoire de Physique de la Matiere Condensee, Faculte des Sciences Ben M' Sik, Universite Hassan II-Mohammedia Casablanca (Morocco)
2007-10-15
The self consistent random phase approximation (SCRPA) and a direct analytical (DA) method are proposed to solve the Extended Hubbard Model (EHM) in one dimension (1D). We have considered an EHM including on-site and off-site interactions for closed chains in 1D with periodic boundary conditions. The comparison of the SCRPA results with the ones obtained by a DA approach shows that the SCRPA treats the problem of these closed chains in a rigorous manner. The analysis of the nearest-neighbour repulsion effect on the dynamics of our closed chains shows that this repulsive interaction between the electrons of the neighbouring atoms induces supplementary conductivity, since, the SCRPA energygap vanishes when these closed chains are governed by a strong repulsive on-site interaction and intermediate nearest-neighbour repulsion.
Off-site interaction effect in the Extended Hubbard Model with the SCRPA method
Harir, S.; Bennai, M.; Boughaleb, Y.
2007-10-01
The self consistent random phase approximation (SCRPA) and a direct analytical (DA) method are proposed to solve the Extended Hubbard Model (EHM) in one dimension (1D). We have considered an EHM including on-site and off-site interactions for closed chains in 1D with periodic boundary conditions. The comparison of the SCRPA results with the ones obtained by a DA approach shows that the SCRPA treats the problem of these closed chains in a rigorous manner. The analysis of the nearest-neighbour repulsion effect on the dynamics of our closed chains shows that this repulsive interaction between the electrons of the neighbouring atoms induces supplementary conductivity, since, the SCRPA energygap vanishes when these closed chains are governed by a strong repulsive on-site interaction and intermediate nearest-neighbour repulsion.
Extending the Lunar Mapping and Modeling Portal - New Capabilities and New Worlds
Day, B.; Law, E.; Arevalo, E.; Bui, B.; Chang, G.; Dodge, K.; Kim, R.; Malhotra, S.; Sadaqathullah, S.; Schmidt, G.; Bailey, B.
2015-01-01
NASA's Lunar Mapping and Modeling Portal (LMMP) provides a web-based Portal and a suite of interactive visualization and analysis tools to enable mission planners, lunar scientists, and engineers to access mapped lunar data products from past and current lunar missions (http://lmmp.nasa.gov). During the past year, the capabilities and data served by LMMP have been significantly expanded. New interfaces are providing improved ways to access and visualize data. At the request of NASA's Science Mission Directorate, LMMP's technology and capabilities are now being extended to additional planetary bodies. New portals for Vesta and Mars are the first of these new products to be released. This presentation will provide an overview of LMMP, Vesta Trek, and Mars Trek, demonstrate their uses and capabilities, highlight new features, and preview coming enhancements.
An extended car-following model based on intelligent transportation system application
Ge, H. X.; Dai, S. Q.; Dong, L. Y.
2006-06-01
The jams in the congested traffic reveal various density waves. Some of them are described by the nonlinear wave equations: the Korteweg-de-Vries (KdV) equation, the Burgers equation and the modified KdV equation. An extended car following model are proposed in previous work, and the kink-antikink solution has been obtained from the mKdV equation. We continue to derive the KdV equation near the neutral stability line by applying the reductive perturbation method. The traffic jam could be thus described by the soliton solution, and the analysis result is consistent with the previous one. From the numerical simulations results, the soliton waves are found, and traffic jam is suppressed efficiently as encounter big disturbances.
Critical phenomena of asymmetric nuclear matter in the extended Zimanyi-Moszkowski model
Miyazaki, K
2005-01-01
We have studied the liquid-gas phase transition of warm asymmetric nuclear matter in the extended Zimanyi-Moszkowski model. The three sets of the isovector-meson coupling constants are used. It is found that the critical temperature depends only on the difference of the symmetry energy but not on the differences of each isovector coupling constant. We treat the asymmetric nuclear matter as one-component system and employ the Maxwell construction so as to calculate the liquid-gas phase coexistence curve. The derived critical exponents depend on neither the symmetry energy nor the asymmetry of the system. Their values beta=0.33 and gamma=1.21 agree with the empirical values derived from the recent multifragmentation reactions. Consequently, we have confirmed the universality of the critical phenomena in the liquid-gas phase transition of nuclear matter.
University staff adoption of iPads: An empirical study using an extended TAM model
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Michael Steven Lane
2014-11-01
Full Text Available This research examined key factors influencing adoption of iPads by university staff. An online survey collected quantitative data to test hypothesised relationships in an extended TAM model. The findings show that university staff consider iPads easy to use and useful, with a high level of compatibility with their work. Social status had no influence on their attitude to using an iPad. However older university staff and university staff with no previous experience in using a similar technology such as an iPhone or smartphone found iPads less easy to use. Furthermore, a lack of formal end user ICT support impacted negatively on the use of iPads.
Singlet exciton condensation and bond-order-wave phase in the extended Hubbard model
Hafez-Torbati, Mohsen; Uhrig, Götz S.
2017-09-01
The competition of interactions implies the compensation of standard mechanisms, which leads to the emergence of exotic phases between conventional phases. The extended Hubbard model (EHM) is a fundamental example for the competition of the local Hubbard interaction and the nearest-neighbor density-density interaction, which at half-filling and in one dimension leads to a bond-order wave (BOW) between a charge-density wave (CDW) and a quasi-long-range order Mott insulator. We study the full momentum-resolved excitation spectrum of the one-dimensional EHM in the CDW phase, and we clarify the relation between different elementary energy gaps. We show that the CDW-to-BOW transition is driven by the softening of a singlet exciton at momentum π . The BOW is realized as the condensate of this singlet exciton.
EVALUATION OF E-MAIL USAGE BY EXTENDED TECHNOLOGY ACCEPTANCE MODEL
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Savaş Mutlu
2013-01-01
Full Text Available This study is performed to evaluate E-mail usage by Extended Technology Acceptance Model (TAM2 and to test the moderation effects of Espoused National Cultural Values between Subjective Norm (SN and E-mail usage Behavioral Intention (BI/Perceived Usefulness (PU. Survey was conducted in Adana Branches of an important Turkish State-Run Bank including 151 participants who have E-mail access for work purposes. As the results of the study; PU and Perceived Ease Of Use (PEOU have positive effects on BI, PEOU and SN both effect PU, Femininity (F shows positive moderating effect on the relationship between SN and PU as well as the relation between SN and BI, Collectivism (C shows positive moderation effect between SN and PU, moderation effect of SN on PU is higher for people who have higher tolerance to uncertainty.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Cang Shi-Jian; Chen Zeng-Qiang; Wu Wen-Juan
2009-01-01
This paper presents a non-autonomous hyper-chaotic system, which is formed by adding a periodic driving signal to a four-dimensional chaotic model extended from the Lorenz system. The resulting non-autonomous hyper-chaotic system can display any dynamic behaviour among the periodic orbits, intermittency, chaos and hyper-chaos by controlling the frequency of the periodic signal. The phenomenon has been well demonstrated by numerical simulations, bifurcation analysis and electronic circuit realization. Moreover, the system is concrete evidence for the presence of Pomeau-Manneville Type-Ⅰ intermittency and crisis-induced intermittency. The emergence of a different type of intermittency is similarly subjected to the frequency of periodic forcing. By statistical analysis, power scaling laws consisting in different intermittency are obtained for the lifetime in the laminar state between burst states.
Quantum critical phase and Lifshitz transition in an extended periodic Anderson model.
Laad, M S; Koley, S; Taraphder, A
2012-06-13
We study the quantum phase transition in f-electron systems as a quantum Lifshitz transition driven by selective-Mott localization in a realistic extended Anderson lattice model. Using dynamical mean-field theory (DMFT), we find that a quantum critical phase with anomalous ω/T scaling separates a heavy Landau-Fermi liquid from ordered phase(s). This non-Fermi liquid state arises from a lattice orthogonality catastrophe originating from orbital-selective Mott localization. Fermi surface reconstruction occurs via the interplay between and penetration of the Green function zeros to the poles, leading to violation of Luttinger's theorem in the strange metal. We show how this naturally leads to scale-invariant responses in transport. Thus, our work represents a specific DMFT realization of the hidden-FL and FL* theories, and holds promise for the study of 'strange' metal phases in quantum matter.
Neglect of lactation stage leads to naive assessment of residual feed intake in dairy cattle.
Li, B; Berglund, B; Fikse, W F; Lassen, J; Lidauer, M H; Mäntysaari, P; Løvendahl, P
2017-09-06
Residual feed intake (RFI) is a candidate trait for feed efficiency in dairy cattle. We investigated the influence of lactation stage on the effect of energy sinks in defining RFI and the genetic parameters for RFI across lactation stages for primiparous dairy cattle. Our analysis included 747 primiparous Holstein cows, each with recordings on dry matter intake (DMI), milk yield, milk composition, and body weight (BW) over 44 lactation weeks. For each individual cow, energy-corrected milk (ECM), metabolic BW (MBW), and change in BW (ΔBW) were calculated in each week of lactation and were taken as energy sinks when defining RFI. Two RFI models were considered in the analyses; RFI model [1] was a 1-step RFI model with constant partial regression coefficients of DMI on energy sinks (ECM, MBW, and ΔBW) over lactation. In RFI model [2], data from 44 lactation weeks were divided into 11 consecutive lactation periods of 4 wk in length. The RFI model [2] was identical to model [1] except that period-specific partial regressions of DMI on ECM, MBW, and ΔBW in each lactation period were allowed across lactation. We estimated genetic parameters for RFI across lactation by both models using a random regression method. Using RFI model [2], we estimated the period-specific effects of ECM, MBW, and ΔBW on DMI in all lactation periods. Based on results from RFI model [2], the partial regression coefficients of DMI on ECM, MBW, and ΔBW differed across lactation in RFI. Constant partial regression coefficients of DMI on energy sinks over lactation was not always sufficient to account for the effects across lactation and tended to give roughly average information from all period-specific effects. Heritability for RFI over 44 lactation weeks ranged from 0.10 to 0.29 in model [1] and from 0.10 to 0.23 in model [2]. Genetic variance and heritability estimates for RFI from model [2] tended to be slightly lower and more stable across lactation than those from model [1]. In both
Learners’ Attitudes Towards Extended-Blended Learning Experience Based on the S2P Learning Model
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Salah Eddine BAHJI
2015-10-01
Full Text Available Within the Moroccan context, the Higher Education Institutions have realized the importance of the integration of information technologies into the formal learning curriculum. However, the risks of demotivation remain large in tertiary education, even with the support of these new technologies. It is therefore essential to ensure consistently the maintenance of the learners’ motivation, which must start from the design phase by adopting real motivational strategies. Blended Learning addresses the issue of the quality of teaching and learning offering then some answers to learners’ motivation issue. So, we try to extend of the dimensions of Blended Learning to an “Extended Blended Learning (Ex-BL”, according to the S2P Model Learning designed as an integration model, arguing that knowledge and learning tools are nowadays available everywhere. This integration of educational resources takes into consideration various components: Face-to-face/online learning, Text-based Learning/Game-based Learning/Media-based Learning, Gamification, and Open Educational Resources. This paper investigates the learner perceptions of this instructional design. This includes their perceptions of learning effectiveness and its impact on their motivation during the learning experience. This investigation focused on two main points: the “Observation of learners’ behavior”, especially during online activities, as a way to gauge the degree of motivation and engagement; and the “Evaluation of the learning experience” through a survey covering the appreciation of the instructional design; the degree of satisfaction; the students’ motivation; the online platform; the extension of Ex-BL elements and their impact on learners’ motivation.
Excitation function of elastic $pp$ scattering from a unitarily extended Bialas-Bzdak model
Nemes, F.; Csanád, M.
2015-01-01
The Bialas-Bzdak model of elastic proton-proton scattering assumes a purely imaginary forward scattering amplitude, which consequently vanishes at the diffractive minima. We extended the model to arbitrarily large real parts in a way that constraints from unitarity are satisfied. The resulting model is able to describe elastic $pp$ scattering not only at the lower ISR energies but also at $\\sqrt{s}=$7~TeV in a statistically acceptable manner, both in the diffractive cone and in the region of the first diffractive minimum. The total cross-section as well as the differential cross-section of elastic proton-proton scattering is predicted for the future LHC energies of $\\sqrt{s}=$13, 14, 15~TeV and also to 28~TeV. A non-trivial, significantly non-exponential feature of the differential cross-section of elastic proton-proton scattering is analyzed and the excitation function of the non-exponential behavior is predicted. The excitation function of the shadow profiles is discussed and related to saturation at small ...
Testing and Evaluation for Web Usability Based on Extended Markov Chain Model
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
MAO Cheng-ying; LU Yan-sheng
2004-01-01
As the increasing popularity and complexity of Web applications and the emergence of their new characteristics, the testing and maintenance of large, complex Web applications are becoming more complex and difficult.Web applications generally contain lots of pages and are used by enormous users.Statistical testing is an effective way of ensuring their quality.Web usage can be accurately described by Markov chain which has been proved to be an ideal model for software statistical testing.The results of unit testing can be utilized in the latter stages, which is an important strategy for bottom-to-top integration testing, and the other improvement of extended Markov chain model (EMM) is to present the error type vector which is treated as a part of page node.This paper also proposes the algorithm for generating test cases of usage paths.Finally, optional usage reliability evaluation methods and an incremental usability regression testing model for testing and evaluation are presented.
de la Cruz-Dombriz, Álvaro; Luongo, Orlando; Reverberi, Lorenzo
2016-01-01
The onset of dark energy domination depends on the particular gravitational theory driving the cosmic evolution. Model independent techniques are crucial to test both the present $\\Lambda$CDM cosmological paradigm and alternative theories, making the least possible number of assumptions about the Universe. In this paper we investigate whether cosmography is able to distinguish between different gravitational theories, by determining bounds on model parameters for three different extensions of General Relativity, i.e. $k-$essence, $F(T)$ and $f(R)$ theories. We expand each class of theories in powers of redshift $z$ around the present time, making no additional assumptions. This procedure is an extension of previous work and can be seen as the most general approach for testing extended theories of gravity with cosmography. In the case of $F(T)$ and $f(R)$ theories, we show that some assumptions on model parameters often made in previous works are superfluous or unjustified. We use data from the Union2.1 SN cat...
Excitation function of elastic $pp$ scattering from a unitarily extended Bialas-Bzdak model
Nemes, F; Csanád, M
2014-01-01
The Bialas-Bzdak model of elastic proton-proton scattering assumes a purely imaginary forward scattering amplitude, which consequently vanishes at the diffractive minima. We extended the model to arbitrarily large real parts in a way that constraints from unitarity are satisfied. The resulting model is able to describe elastic $pp$ scattering not only at the lower ISR energies but also at $\\sqrt{s}=$7 TeV in a statistically acceptable manner, both in the diffractive cone and in the region of the first diffractive minimum. The total cross-section as well as the differential cross-section of elastic proton-proton scattering is predicted for the future LHC energies of $\\sqrt{s}=$8, 13, 14, 15 TeV and also to 28 TeV. A non-trivial, significantly non-exponential feature of the differential cross-section of elastic proton-proton scattering is analyzed and the excitation function of the non-exponential behavior is predicted. The excitation function of the shadow profiles is discussed and related to saturation at sma...
Failure analysis of AZ31 magnesium alloy sheets based on the extended GTN damage model
Wang, Rui-ze; Chen, Zhang-hua; Li, Yu-jie; Dong, Chao-fang
2013-12-01
Based on the Gurson-Tvergaard-Needleman (GTN) model and Hill's quadratic anisotropic yield criterion, a combined experimental-numerical study on fracture initiation in the process of thermal stamping of Mg alloy AZ31 sheets was carried out. The aim is to predict the formability of thermal stamping of the Mg alloy sheets at different temperatures. The presented theoretical framework was implemented into a VUMAT subroutine for ABAQUS/EXPLICIT. Internal damage evolution due to void growth and coalescence developed at different temperatures in the Mg alloy sheets was observed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Moreover, the thermal effects on the void growth, coalescence, and fracture behavior of the Mg alloy sheets were analyzed by the extended GTN model and forming limit diagrams (FLD). Parameters employed in the GTN model were determined from tensile tests and numerical iterative computation. The distribution of major and minor principal strains in the specimens was determined from the numerical results. Therefore, the corresponding forming limit diagrams at different stress levels and temperatures were drawn. The comparison between the predicted forming limits and the experimental data shows a good agreement.
Failure analysis of AZ31 magnesium alloy sheets based on the extended GTN damage model
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Rui-ze Wang; Zhang-hua Chen; Yu-jie Li; Chao-fang Dong
2013-01-01
Based on the Gurson-Tvergaard-Needleman (GTN) model and Hill’s quadratic anisotropic yield criterion, a combined experimental-numerical study on fracture initiation in the process of thermal stamping of Mg alloy AZ31 sheets was carried out. The aim is to predict the formability of thermal stamping of the Mg alloy sheets at diff erent temperatures. The presented theoretical framework was implemented into a VUMAT subroutine for ABAQUS/EXPLICIT. Internal damage evolution due to void growth and coalescence developed at diff erent temperatures in the Mg alloy sheets was observed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Moreover, the thermal eff ects on the void growth, coalescence, and fracture behavior of the Mg alloy sheets were analyzed by the extended GTN model and forming limit diagrams (FLD). Parameters employed in the GTN model were determined from tensile tests and numerical iterative computation. The distribution of major and minor principal strains in the specimens was determined from the numerical results. Therefore, the corresponding forming limit diagrams at diff erent stress levels and temperatures were drawn. The comparison between the predicted forming limits and the experimental data shows a good agreement.
Application of the Extended Health Control Belief Model to Predict Hepatitis A and B Vaccinations.
Reynolds, Grace L; Nguyen, Hannah H; Singh-Carlson, Savitri; Fisher, Dennis G; Odell, Anne; Xandre, Pamela
2016-09-01
Adult vaccination compliance rates vary according to sample and type of vaccine administered (influenza, pneumococcal). This study looked at vaccination of a community sample of low-income, minority adults. Nurses offered free vaccination for hepatitis A and B in the form of the combined Twinrix vaccine to adults on a walk-in basis. In addition to dosing information, participants completed the Risk Behavior Assessment, the Coping Strategies Indicator and the Cardiovascular Risk Assessment. Skaff's extended Health Belief Model was used as the theoretical framework. Count regression was used to model receipt of one, two, or three doses. The majority of participants were male with a mean age of 40 years. The distribution of doses was: 173 individuals (27.6%) received one dose only, 261 (41.7%) received two doses, and 191 (30.5%) received three doses of vaccine. The multivariate count regression model including being male, having previously been told by a health care provider that one has syphilis, having severe negative emotions, and perceived social support were associated with participants' receiving fewer doses of hepatitis vaccine. A greater problem-solving score was associated with a higher number of vaccine doses received. Despite free vaccinations offered in an easily accessible community setting, the majority of participants failed to complete the hepatitis vaccine series. More effort is needed to get adult men to participate in hepatitis vaccination clinics. Additional research is necessary to understand barriers other than cost to adults receiving vaccination. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
A Bioinspired Neural Model Based Extended Kalman Filter for Robot SLAM
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Jianjun Ni
2014-01-01
Full Text Available Robot simultaneous localization and mapping (SLAM problem is a very important and challenging issue in the robotic field. The main tasks of SLAM include how to reduce the localization error and the estimated error of the landmarks and improve the robustness and accuracy of the algorithms. The extended Kalman filter (EKF based method is one of the most popular methods for SLAM. However, the accuracy of the EKF based SLAM algorithm will be reduced when the noise model is inaccurate. To solve this problem, a novel bioinspired neural model based SLAM approach is proposed in this paper. In the proposed approach, an adaptive EKF based SLAM structure is proposed, and a bioinspired neural model is used to adjust the weights of system noise and observation noise adaptively, which can guarantee the stability of the filter and the accuracy of the SLAM algorithm. The proposed approach can deal with the SLAM problem in various situations, for example, the noise is in abnormal conditions. Finally, some simulation experiments are carried out to validate and demonstrate the efficiency of the proposed approach.
Quantum correlation and quantum phase transition in the one-dimensional extended Ising model
Zhang, Xi-Zheng; Guo, Jin-Liang
2017-09-01
Quantum phase transitions can be understood in terms of Landau's symmetry-breaking theory. Following the discovery of the quantum Hall effect, a new kind of quantum phase can be classified according to topological rather than local order parameters. Both phases coexist for a class of exactly solvable quantum Ising models, for which the ground state energy density corresponds to a loop in a two-dimensional auxiliary space. Motivated by this we study quantum correlations, measured by entanglement and quantum discord, and critical behavior seen in the one-dimensional extended Ising model with short-range interaction. We show that the quantum discord exhibits distinctive behaviors when the system experiences different topological quantum phases denoted by different topological numbers. Quantum discords capability to detect a topological quantum phase transition is more reliable than that of entanglement at both zero and finite temperatures. In addition, by analyzing the divergent behaviors of quantum discord at the critical points, we find that the quantum phase transitions driven by different parameters of the model can also display distinctive critical behaviors, which provides a scheme to detect the topological quantum phase transition in practice.
Trojan Wave Packets in the Quantum Cavity within the Extended Jaynes-Cummings Model
Kalinski, Matt
2016-05-01
Some time ago we have developed the theory of the Trojan Wave Packets (TWP) in the classical strong Circularly Polarized electromagnetic field in terms of the Mathieu generating functions. We have discovered that by the proper partitioning of the Coulomb spectrum i.e. by considering the deviation from the circularity and the vertical tilt of the undressed states as the new quantum numbers we can reduce the problem to the problem of several non-interacting quantum pendula for the Stark-Zeeman field dressed states. The TWP in the infinite physical space however turned out to be weakly unstable due to the spontaneous emission. Here we develop the theory in which the TWP is truly eternal when the electromagnetic interactions are considered quantum and the field is confined by the perfect quantum cavity boundary conditions. First we extend the Jaynes-Cummings (JC) model from the two to the infinite number of levels interacting with the one or two perfectly resonant quantum modes of the electromagnetic field. Similarly the model of JC and our previous pendular model the dressed electron-field eigenstates are constructed within the weakly interacting manifolds. Superpositions of those states are possible with the quantum electron density moving on the circular trajectories.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Xi Wu
2008-01-01
Full Text Available A mathematical model of a cracked rotor and an asymmetric rotor with two disks representing a turbine and a generator is utilized to study the vibrations due to imbalance and side load. Nonlinearities typically related with a “breathing” crack are included using a Mayes steering function. Numerical simulations demonstrate how the variations of rotor parameters affect the vibration response and the effect of coupling between torsional and lateral modes. Bode, spectrum, and orbit plots are used to show the differences between the vibration signatures associated with cracked shafts versus asymmetric shafts. Results show how nonlinear lateral-torsional coupling shifts the resonance peaks in the torsional vibration response for cracked shafts and asymmetric rotors. The resonance peaks shift depending on the ratio of the lateral-to-torsional natural frequencies with the peak responses occurring at noninteger values of the lateral natural frequency. When the general nonlinear models used in this study are constrained to reduce to linear torsional vibration, the peak responses occur at commonly reported integer ratios. Full spectrum analyses of the X and Y vibrations reveal distinct vibration characteristics of both cracked and asymmetric rotors including reverse vibration components. Critical speeds and vibration orders predicted using the models presented herein include and extend diagnostic indicators commonly reported.
Blind Hyperspectral Unmixing Using an Extended Linear Mixing Model to Address Spectral Variability.
Drumetz, Lucas; Veganzones, Miguel-Angel; Henrot, Simon; Phlypo, Ronald; Chanussot, Jocelyn; Jutten, Christian
2016-08-01
Spectral unmixing is one of the main research topics in hyperspectral imaging. It can be formulated as a source separation problem, whose goal is to recover the spectral signatures of the materials present in the observed scene (called endmembers) as well as their relative proportions (called fractional abundances), and this for every pixel in the image. A linear mixture model (LMM) is often used for its simplicity and ease of use, but it implicitly assumes that a single spectrum can be completely representative of a material. However, in many scenarios, this assumption does not hold, since many factors, such as illumination conditions and intrinsic variability of the endmembers, induce modifications on the spectral signatures of the materials. In this paper, we propose an algorithm to unmix hyperspectral data using a recently proposed extended LMM. The proposed approach allows a pixelwise spatially coherent local variation of the endmembers, leading to scaled versions of reference endmembers. We also show that the classic nonnegative least squares, as well as other approaches to tackle spectral variability can be interpreted in the framework of this model. The results of the proposed algorithm on two different synthetic datasets, including one simulating the effect of topography on the measured reflectance through physical modelling, and on two real data sets, show that the proposed technique outperforms other methods aimed at addressing spectral variability, and can provide an accurate estimation of endmember variability along the scene because of the scaling factors estimation.
Szczęsna, Agnieszka; Pruszowski, Przemysław
2016-01-01
Inertial orientation tracking is still an area of active research, especially in the context of out-door, real-time, human motion capture. Existing systems either propose loosely coupled tracking approaches where each segment is considered independently, taking the resulting drawbacks into account, or tightly coupled solutions that are limited to a fixed chain with few segments. Such solutions have no flexibility to change the skeleton structure, are dedicated to a specific set of joints, and have high computational complexity. This paper describes the proposal of a new model-based extended quaternion Kalman filter that allows for estimation of orientation based on outputs from the inertial measurements unit sensors. The filter considers interdependencies resulting from the construction of the kinematic chain so that the orientation estimation is more accurate. The proposed solution is a universal filter that does not predetermine the degree of freedom at the connections between segments of the model. To validation the motion of 3-segments single link pendulum captured by optical motion capture system is used. The next step in the research will be to use this method for inertial motion capture with a human skeleton model.
A Footprint Family extended MRIO model to support Europe's transition to a One Planet Economy.
Galli, Alessandro; Weinzettel, Jan; Cranston, Gemma; Ercin, Ertug
2013-09-01
Currently, the European economy is using nearly three times the ecological assets that are locally available. This situation cannot be sustained indefinitely. Tools are needed that can help reverse the unsustainable trend. In 2010, an EC funded One Planet Economy Network: Europe (OPEN:EU) project was launched to develop the evidence and innovative practical tools that will allow policy-makers and civil society to identify policy interventions to transform Europe into a One Planet Economy, by 2050. Building on the premise that no indicator alone is able to comprehensively monitor (progress towards) sustainability, the project has drawn on the Ecological, Carbon and Water Footprints to define a Footprint Family suite of indicators, to track human pressure on the planet. An environmentally-extended multi-regional input-output (MRIO) model has then been developed to group the Footprint Family under a common framework and combine the indicators in the family with national economic accounts and trade statistics. Although unable to monitor the full spectrum of human pressures, once grouped within the MRIO model, the Footprint Family is able to assess the appropriation of ecological assets, GHG emissions as well as freshwater consumption and pollution associated with consumption of specific products and services within a specified country. Using MRIO models within the context of Footprint analyses also enables the Footprint Family to take into account full production chains with technologies specific to country of origin.
Extending temperature sum models to simulate onset of birch flowering on the regional scale
Klein, Christian; Biernath, Christian; Priesack, Eckart
2015-04-01
temperatures remain constant for a wide range of annual average temperatures given in Bavaria whereas in the cases of the wild type birch plants the optimum base temperatures vary between the regions. Preliminary simulation results show that it is possible to extend temperature sum models in the case of birches. It is possible to estimate the base temperatures by the knowledge of the site or region specific climate conditions without the need of further calibration.
Acid-mediated tumour cell invasion: a discrete modelling approach using the extended Potts model.
Al-Husari, Maymona; Webb, Steven D
2013-08-01
Acidic extracellular pH has been shown to play a crucial part in the invasive and metastatic cascade of some tumours. In this study, we examine the effect of extracellular acidity on tumour invasion focusing, in particular, on cellular adhesion, proteolytic enzyme activity and cellular proliferation. Our numerical simulations using a cellular Potts model show that, under acidic extracellular pH, changes in cell-matrix adhesion strength has a comparable effect on tumour invasiveness as the increase in proteolytic enzyme activity. We also show that tumour cells cultured under physiological pH tend to be large and the tumours develop a "diffuse" morphology compared to those cultured at acidic pH, which display protruding "fingers" at the advancing front. A key model prediction is the observation that the main effect on invasion from culturing cells at low extracellular pH stems from changes in the intercellular and cell-matrix adhesion strengths and proteolytic enzyme secretion rate. However, we show that the effects of proteolysis needs to be significant as low to moderate changes only has nominal effects on cell invasiveness. We find that the low pH e effects on cell size and proliferation rate have much lower influence on cell invasiveness.
Extended QoS modelling based on multi-application environment in network on chip
Saadaoui, Abdelkader; Nasri, Salem
2015-01-01
Until now, there is no standard method of the quality of service (QoS) measurement and fewer techniques have been used to provide its definition. Therefore, researchers are looking for a projection of QoS on quantifiable space, since it is qualitative, subjective and not measurable. However, a few tentatives have studied QoS parameter estimation. Many applications in network on chip (NoC) present variable QoS parameters such as packet loss rate (PLR), end-to-end delay (EED) and throughput (Thp). However, there are a few papers that have developed different methods to modelise QoS in NoC. Their QoS presentation does not provide a multi-application parameter arbiter. Independently of the approach used, an important challenge associated with QoS provision is the development of an efficient and flexible way to monitor QoS. The originality of our approach is based on a proposition of a QoS-intellectual property module in NoC architecture to improve network performances. We implement an extended approach of QoS metrics modelling for NoC on multi-parameter and multi-application environment. The QoS metrics model is based on QoS parameters such as PLR, EED and Thp for different applications. To validate this work, a dynamic routing simulation for 4 × 4 mesh NoC behaviour under three different applications, namely transmission control protocol, variable bit rate and constant bit rate, is considered. To achieve an ideal network behaviour, load balancing on NoC with multiple concurrent applications is improved using QoS metrics measurement based on dynamic routing. The results have shown that extended QoS modelling approach is easy and cheap to implement in hardware-software quantifiable representation. Thus, implementing a quantifiable representation of QoS can be used to provide a NoC services arbiter. QoS arbiter interacts with other routers to ensure flit flow and QoS modelling to provide a QoS value.
An extended secondary organic aerosol formation model: effect of oxidation aging and implications
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
F. Yu
2010-08-01
Full Text Available The widely used 2-product secondary organic aerosol (SOA formation model has been extended in this study to consider the volatility changes of secondary organic gases (SOGs arising from the aging process. In addition to semi-volatile SOG (SV-SOG and medium-volatile SOG (MV-SOG, we add a third component representing low-volatile SOG (LV-SOG and design a scheme to transfer MV-SOG to SV-SOG and SV-SOG to LV-SOG associated with oxidation aging. This extended SOA formation model has been implemented in a global aerosol model (GEOS-Chem and the co-condensation of H_{2}SO_{4} and LV-SOG on pre-existing particles is explicitly simulated. We show that, over many parts of the continents, LV-SOG concentrations are generally a factor of ~2–20 higher than those of H_{2}SO_{4} and LV-SOG condensation significantly enhances particle growth rates. Comparisons of the simulated and observed evolution of particle size distributions in a boreal forest site (Hyytiälä, Finland clearly show that LV-SOG condensation is critical in order to bring the simulations closer to the observations. With the new SOA formation scheme, annual mean SOA mass increases by a fact of 2–10 in many parts of the boundary layer and reaches above 1 μg m^{−3} in most parts of the main continents. As a result of enhanced surface area and reduced nucleation rates, the new scheme generally decreases the concentration of condensation nuclei larger than 10 nm (CN10 by 3–30% in the lower boundary layer, which slightly improves agreement between simulated annual mean CN10 values and those observed in 21 surface sites around the globe. SOG oxidation aging and LV-SOG condensation substantially increases the concentration of cloud condensation nuclei at a water supersaturation ratio of 0.2%, ranging from ~3–10% over a large fraction of oceans to ~10–100% over major continents. Our study highlights the importance for global aerosol models to
Lactate storm marks cerebral metabolism following brain trauma.
Lama, Sanju; Auer, Roland N; Tyson, Randy; Gallagher, Clare N; Tomanek, Boguslaw; Sutherland, Garnette R
2014-07-18
Brain metabolism is thought to be maintained by neuronal-glial metabolic coupling. Glia take up glutamate from the synaptic cleft for conversion into glutamine, triggering glial glycolysis and lactate production. This lactate is shuttled into neurons and further metabolized. The origin and role of lactate in severe traumatic brain injury (TBI) remains controversial. Using a modified weight drop model of severe TBI and magnetic resonance (MR) spectroscopy with infusion of (13)C-labeled glucose, lactate, and acetate, the present study investigated the possibility that neuronal-glial metabolism is uncoupled following severe TBI. Histopathology of the model showed severe brain injury with subarachnoid and hemorrhage together with glial cell activation and positive staining for Tau at 90 min post-trauma. High resolution MR spectroscopy of brain metabolites revealed significant labeling of lactate at C-3 and C-2 irrespective of the infused substrates. Increased (13)C-labeled lactate in all study groups in the absence of ischemia implied activated astrocytic glycolysis and production of lactate with failure of neuronal uptake (i.e. a loss of glial sensing for glutamate). The early increase in extracellular lactate in severe TBI with the injured neurons rendered unable to pick it up probably contributes to a rapid progression toward irreversible injury and pan-necrosis. Hence, a method to detect and scavenge the excess extracellular lactate on site or early following severe TBI may be a potential primary therapeutic measure.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
2015-01-01
In this work the Benchmark Simulation Model No.2 is extended with processes for nitrous oxide production and for side-stream partial nitritation/Anammox (PN/A) treatment. For these extensions the Activated Sludge Model for Greenhouse gases No.1 was used to describe the main waterline, whereas...... the Complete Autotrophic Nitrogen Removal (CANR) model was used to describe the side-stream (PN/A) treatment. Comprehensive simulations were performed to assess the extended model. Steady-state simulation results revealed the following: (i) the implementation of a continuous CANR side-stream reactor has...... increased the total nitrogen removal by 10%; (ii) reduced the aeration demand by 16% compared to the base case, and (iii) the activity of ammonia-oxidizing bacteria is most influencing nitrous oxide emissions. The extended model provides a simulation platform to generate, test and compare novel control...
de la Cruz-Dombriz, Álvaro; Dunsby, Peter K. S.; Luongo, Orlando; Reverberi, Lorenzo
2016-12-01
The onset of dark energy domination depends on the particular gravitational theory driving the cosmic evolution. Model independent techniques are crucial to test the both the present ΛCDM cosmological paradigm and alternative theories, making the least possible number of assumptions about the Universe. In this paper we investigate whether cosmography is able to distinguish between different gravitational theories, by determining bounds on model parameters for three different extensions of General Relativity, namely quintessence, F(𝒯) and f(R) gravitational theories. We expand each class of theories in powers of redshift z around the present time, making no additional assumptions. This procedure is an extension of previous work and can be seen as the most general approach for testing extended theories of gravity through the use of cosmography. In the case of F(𝒯) and f(R) theories, we show that some assumptions on model parameters often made in previous works are superfluous or even unjustified. We use data from the Union 2.1 supernovae catalogue, baryonic acoustic oscillation data and H(z) differential age compilations, which probe cosmology on different scales of the cosmological evolution. We perform a Monte Carlo analysis using a Metropolis-Hastings algorithm with a Gelman-Rubin convergence criterion, reporting 1-σ and 2-σ confidence levels. To do so, we perform two distinct fits, assuming only data within z < 1 first and then without limitations in redshift. We obtain the corresponding numerical intervals in which coefficients span, and find that the data is compatible the ΛCDM limit of all three theories at the 1-σ level, while still compatible with quite a large portion of parameter space. We compare our results to the truncated ΛCDM paradigm, demonstrating that our bounds divert from the expectations of previous works, showing that the permitted regions of coefficients are significantly modified and in general widened with respect to
Study of a 30-M Boom For Solar Sail-Craft: Model Extendibility and Control Strategy
Keel, Leehyun
2005-01-01
Space travel propelled by solar sails is motivated by the fact that the momentum exchange that occurs when photons are reflected and/or absorbed by a large solar sail generates a small but constant acceleration. This acceleration can induce a constant thrust in very large sails that is sufficient to maintain a polar observing satellite in a constant position relative to the Sun or Earth. For long distance propulsion, square sails (with side length greater than 150 meters) can reach Jupiter in two years and Pluto in less than ten years. Converting such design concepts to real-world systems will require accurate analytical models and model parameters. This requires extensive structural dynamics tests. However, the low mass and high flexibility of large and light weight structures such as solar sails makes them unsuitable for ground testing. As a result, validating analytical models is an extremely difficult problem. On the other hand, a fundamental question can be asked. That is whether an analytical model that represents a small-scale version of a solar-sail boom can be extended to much larger versions of the same boom. To answer this question, we considered a long deployable boom that will be used to support the solar sails of the sail-craft. The length of fully deployed booms of the actual solar sail-craft will exceed 100 meters. However, the test-bed we used in our study is a 30 meter retractable boom at MSFC. We first develop analytical models based on Lagrange s equations and the standard Euler-Bernoulli beam. Then the response of the models will be compared with test data of the 30 meter boom at various deployed lengths. For this stage of study, our analysis was limited to experimental data obtained at 12ft and 18ft deployment lengths. The comparison results are positive but speculative. To observe properly validate the analytic model, experiments at longer deployment lengths, up to the full 30 meter, have been requested. We expect the study to answer the
Mechanics of extended continua: modeling and simulation of elastic microstretch materials
Kirchner, N.; Steinmann, P.
2007-09-01
The investigation of microstretch and micromorphic continua (which are prominent examples of so-called extended continua) dates back to Eringens pioneering works in the mid 1960, cf. (Eringen in Mechanics of micromorphic materials. Springer, Berlin Heidelberg New York, pp 131-138, 1966; Eringen in Int J Eng Sci 8:819-828; Eringen in Microcontinuum field theories. Springer, Berlin Heidelberg New York, 1999). Here, we re-derive the governing equations of microstretch continua in a variational setting, providing a natural framework within which numerical implementations of the model equations by means of the finite element method can be obtained straightforwardly. In the application of Dirichlets principle, the postulation of an appropriate form of the Helmholtz free energy turns out to be crucial to the derivation of the balance laws and constitutive relations for microstretch continua. At present, the material parameters involved in the free energy have been assigned fixed values throughout all numerical simulations—this simplification is addressed in detail as the influence of those parameters must not be underestimated. Since only few numerical results demonstrating elastic microstretch material behavior in engineering applications are available, the focus is here on the presentation of numerical results for simple twodimensional test specimens subjected to a plane strain condition and uniaxial tension. Confidence in the simulations for microstretch materials is gained by showing that they exhibit a “downward-compatibility” to Cosserat continuum formulation: by switching off all stretch-related effects, the governing set of equations reduces to the one used for polar materials. Further, certain material parameters can be chosen to act as penalty parameters, forcing stretch-related contributions to an almost negligible range in a full microstretch model so that numerical results obtained for a polar model can be obtained as a limiting case from the full
St Hilaire, Melissa A; Rüger, Melanie; Fratelli, Federico; Hull, Joseph T; Phillips, Andrew J K; Lockley, Steven W
2017-01-01
Intraindividual night-to-night sleep duration is often insufficient and variable. Here we report the effects of such chronic variable sleep deficiency on neurobehavioral performance and the ability of state-of-the-art models to predict these changes. Eight healthy males (mean age ± SD: 23.9 ± 2.4 years) studied at our inpatient intensive physiologic monitoring unit completed an 11-day protocol with a baseline 10-hour sleep opportunity and three cycles of two 3-hour time-in-bed (TIB) and one 10-hour TIB sleep opportunities. Participants received one of three polychromatic white light interventions (200 lux 4100K, 200 or 400 lux 17000K) for 3.5 hours on the morning following the second 3-hour TIB opportunity each cycle. Neurocognitive performance was assessed using the psychomotor vigilance test (PVT) administered every 1-2 hours. PVT data were compared to predictions of five group-average mathematical models that incorporate chronic sleep loss functions. While PVT performance deteriorated cumulatively following each cycle of two 3-hour sleep opportunities, and improved following each 10-hour sleep opportunity, performance declined cumulatively throughout the protocol at a more accelerated rate than predicted by state-of-the-art group-average mathematical models. Subjective sleepiness did not reflect performance. The light interventions had minimal effect. Despite apparent recovery following each extended sleep opportunity, residual performance impairment remained and deteriorated rapidly when rechallenged with subsequent sleep loss. None of the group-average models were capable of predicting both the build-up in impairment and recovery profile of performance observed at the group or individual level, raising concerns regarding their use in real-world settings to predict performance and improve safety.
Order, Criticality, and Excitations in the Extended Falicov-Kimball Model
Ejima, S.; Kaneko, T.; Ohta, Y.; Fehske, H.
2014-01-01
Using exact numerical techniques, we investigate the nature of excitonic (electron-hole) bound states and the development of exciton coherence in the one-dimensional half-filled extended Falicov-Kimball model. The ground-state phase diagram of the model exhibits, besides band-insulator and staggered orbital ordered phases, an excitonic insulator (EI) with power-law correlations. The criticality of the EI state shows up in the von Neumann entropy. The anomalous spectral function and condensation amplitude provide the binding energy and coherence length of the electron-hole pairs which, on their part, point towards a Coulomb interaction driven crossover from BCS-like electron-hole pairing fluctuations to tightly bound excitons. We show that while a mass imbalance between electrons and holes does not affect the location of the BCS-BEC crossover regime, it favors staggered orbital ordering to the disadvantage of the EI. Within the Bose-Einstein condensation (BEC) regime, the quasiparticle dispersion develops a flat valence-band top, in accord with the experimental finding for Ta2NiSe5.
The neutralino sector in the U(1)-extended supersymmetric standard model
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Choi, S.Y. [Chonbuk National Univ., Jeonju (Korea). Dept. of Physics and RIPC]|[Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany); Haber, H.E. [California Univ., Santa Cruz, CA (United States). SCIPP; Kalinowski, J. [Warsaw Univ. (Poland). Inst. of Theoretical Physics; Zerwas, P.M. [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany)]|[California Univ., Santa Cruz, CA (United States). SCIPP
2006-12-15
Motivated by grand unified theories and string theories we analyze the general structure of the neutralino sector in the USSM, an extension of the Minimal Supersymmetric Standard Model that involves a broken extra U(1) gauge symmetry. This supersymmetric U(1)-extended model includes an Abelian gauge superfield and a Higgs singlet superfield in addition to the standard gauge and Higgs superfields of the MSSM. The interactions between the MSSM fields and the new fields are in general weak and the mixing is small, so that the coupling of the two subsystems can be treated perturbatively. As a result, the mass spectrum and mixing matrix in the neutralino sector can be analyzed analytically and the structure of this 6-state system is under good theoretical control. We describe the decay modes of the new states and the impact of this extension on decays of the original MSSM neutralinos, including radiative transitions in cross-over zones. Production channels in cascade decays at the LHC and pair production at e{sup +}e{sup -} colliders are also discussed. (orig.)
Excitonic Phase Transition in the Extended Three-Dimensional Falicov-Kimball Model
Apinyan, V.; Kopeć, T. K.
2014-07-01
We study the excitonic phase transition in a system of the conduction band electrons and valence band holes described by the three-dimensional (3D) extended Falicov-Kimball (EFKM) model with the tunable Coulomb interaction between both species. By lowering the temperature, the electron-hole system may become unstable with respect to the formation of the excitons, i.e, electron-hole pairs at temperature , exhibiting a gap in the particle excitation spectrum. To this end we implement the functional integral formulation of the EFKM, where the Coulomb interaction term is expressed in terms of U(1) phase variables conjugate to the local particle number, providing a useful representation of strongly correlated system. The effective action formalism allows us to formulate a problem in the phase-only action in the form of the quantum rotor model and to obtain analytical formulas for the critical lines and other quantities of physical interest like charge gap, chemical potential and the correlation length.
Development of Extended Period Pressure-Dependent Demand Water Distribution Models
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Judi, David R. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Mcpherson, Timothy N. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)
2015-03-20
Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) has used modeling and simulation of water distribution systems for N-1 contingency analyses to assess criticality of water system assets. Critical components considered in these analyses include pumps, tanks, and supply sources, in addition to critical pipes or aqueducts. A contingency represents the complete removal of the asset from system operation. For each contingency, an extended period simulation (EPS) is run using EPANET. An EPS simulates water system behavior over a time period, typically at least 24 hours. It assesses the ability of a system to respond and recover from asset disruption through distributed storage in tanks throughout the system. Contingencies of concern are identified as those in which some portion of the water system has unmet delivery requirements. A delivery requirement is defined as an aggregation of water demands within a service area, similar to an electric power demand. The metric used to identify areas of unmet delivery requirement in these studies is a pressure threshold of 15 pounds per square inch (psi). This pressure threshold is used because it is below the required pressure for fire protection. Any location in the model with pressure that drops below this threshold at any time during an EPS is considered to have unmet service requirements and is used to determine cascading consequences. The outage area for a contingency is the aggregation of all service areas with a pressure below the threshold at any time during the EPS.
The Neutralino Sector in the U(1)-Extended Supersymmetric Standard Model
Choi, S Y; Kalinowski, Jan; Zerwas, P M
2006-01-01
Motivated by grand unified theories and string theories we analyze the general structure of the neutralino sector in the USSM, an extension of the Minimal Supersymmetric Standard Model that involves a broken extra U(1) gauge symmetry. This supersymmetric U(1)-extended model includes an Abelian gauge superfield and a Higgs singlet superfield in addition to the standard gauge and Higgs superfields of the MSSM. The interactions between the MSSM fields and the new fields are in general weak and the mixing is small, so that the coupling of the two subsystems can be treated perturbatively. As a result, the mass spectrum and mixing matrix in the neutralino sector can be analyzed analytically and the structure of this 6-state system is under good theoretical control. We describe the decay modes of the new states and the impact of this extension on decays of the original MSSM neutralinos, including radiative transitions in cross-over zones. Production channels in cascade decays at the LHC and pair production at $e^+e^...
The neutralino sector in the U(1)-extended supersymmetric Standard Model
Choi, S. Y.; Haber, H. E.; Kalinowski, J.; Zerwas, P. M.
2007-08-01
Motivated by grand unified theories and string theories we analyze the general structure of the neutralino sector in the USSM, an extension of the minimal supersymmetric Standard Model that involves a broken extra U(1) gauge symmetry. This supersymmetric U(1)-extended model includes an Abelian gauge superfield and a Higgs singlet superfield in addition to the standard gauge and Higgs superfields of the MSSM. The interactions between the MSSM fields and the new fields are in general weak and the mixing is small, so that the coupling of the two subsystems can be treated perturbatively. As a result, the mass spectrum and mixing matrix in the neutralino sector can be analyzed analytically and the structure of this 6-state system is under good theoretical control. We describe the decay modes of the new states and the impact of this extension on decays of the original MSSM neutralinos, including radiative transitions in cross-over zones. Production channels in cascade decays at the LHC and pair production at ee colliders are also discussed.
Added Mass Effect and an Extended Unsteady Blade ElementModel of Insect Hovering
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Xingyao Yan; Shanan Zhu; Zhongdi Su; Hongjun Zhang
2011-01-01
During the insect flight,the force peak at the start of each stroke contributes a lot to the total aerodynamic force.Yet how this force is generated is still controversial.Two current explanations to this are wake capture and Added Mass Effect (AME)mechanisms.To study the AME,we present an extended unsteady blade element model which takes both the added mass of fluid and rotational effect of the wing into account.Simulation results show a high force peak at the start of each stroke and are quite similar to the measured forces on the physical wing model.We found that although the Added Mass Force (AMF) of the medium contributes a lot to this force peak,the wake capture effect further augments this force and may play a more important role in delayed mode.Furthermore,we also found that there might be an unknown mechanism which may augment the AME during acceleration period at the start of each stroke,and diminish the AME during deceleration at the end of each stroke.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Suzhi Xiao
2016-04-01
Full Text Available In order to acquire an accurate three-dimensional (3D measurement, the traditional fringe projection technique applies complex and laborious procedures to compensate for the errors that exist in the vision system. However, the error sources in the vision system are very complex, such as lens distortion, lens defocus, and fringe pattern nonsinusoidality. Some errors cannot even be explained or rendered with clear expressions and are difficult to compensate directly as a result. In this paper, an approach is proposed that avoids the complex and laborious compensation procedure for error sources but still promises accurate 3D measurement. It is realized by the mathematical model extension technique. The parameters of the extended mathematical model for the ’phase to 3D coordinates transformation’ are derived using the least-squares parameter estimation algorithm. In addition, a phase-coding method based on a frequency analysis is proposed for the absolute phase map retrieval to spatially isolated objects. The results demonstrate the validity and the accuracy of the proposed flexible fringe projection vision system on spatially continuous and discontinuous objects for 3D measurement.
Continuous data assimilation for the three-dimensional Brinkman–Forchheimer-extended Darcy model
Markowich, Peter A.
2016-03-09
In this paper we introduce and analyze an algorithm for continuous data assimilation for a three-dimensional Brinkman-Forchheimer-extended Darcy (3D BFeD) model of porous media. This model is believed to be accurate when the flow velocity is too large for Darcy\\'s law to be valid, and additionally the porosity is not too small. The algorithm is inspired by ideas developed for designing finite-parameters feedback control for dissipative systems. It aims to obtain improved estimates of the state of the physical system by incorporating deterministic or noisy measurements and observations. Specifically, the algorithm involves a feedback control that nudges the large scales of the approximate solution toward those of the reference solution associated with the spatial measurements. In the first part of the paper, we present a few results of existence and uniqueness of weak and strong solutions of the 3D BFeD system. The second part is devoted to the convergence analysis of the data assimilation algorithm. © 2016 IOP Publishing Ltd & London Mathematical Society.
Kim, Taeho; Park, Hwangseo
2015-07-01
The logarithm of 1-octanol/water partition coefficient (LogP) is one of the most important molecular design parameters in drug discovery. Assuming that LogP can be calculated from the difference between the solvation free energy of a molecule in water and that in 1-octanol, we propose a method for predicting the molecular LogP values based on the extended solvent-contact model. To obtain the molecular solvation free energy data for the two solvents, a proper potential energy function was defined for each solvent with respect to atomic distributions and three kinds of atomic parameters. Total 205 atomic parameters were optimized with the standard genetic algorithm using the training set consisting of 139 organic molecules with varying shapes and functional groups. The LogP values estimated with the two optimized solvation free energy functions compared reasonably well with the experimental results with the associated squared correlation coefficient and root mean square error of 0.824 and 0.697, respectively. Besides the prediction accuracy, the present method has the merit in practical applications because molecular LogP values can be computed straightforwardly from the simple potential energy functions without the need to calculate various molecular descriptors. The methods for enhancing the accuracy of the present prediction model are also discussed.
Continuous data assimilation for the three-dimensional Brinkman-Forchheimer-extended Darcy model
Markowich, Peter A; Trabelsi, Saber
2015-01-01
In this paper we introduce and analyze an algorithm for continuous data assimilation for a three-dimensional Brinkman-Forchheimer-extended Darcy (3D BFeD) model of porous media. This model is believed to be accurate when the flow velocity is too large for Darcy's law to be valid, and additionally the porosity is not too small. The algorithm is inspired by ideas developed for designing finite-parameters feedback control for dissipative systems. It aims to obtaining improved estimates of the state of the physical system by incorporating deterministic or noisy measurements and observations. Specifically, the algorithm involves a feedback control that nudges the large scales of the approximate solution toward those of the reference solution associated with the spatial measurements. In the first part of the paper, we present few results of existence and uniqueness of weak and strong solutions of the 3D BFeD system. The second part is devoted to the setting and convergence analysis of the data assimilation algorith...
Extended density-matrix model applied to silicon-based terahertz quantum cascade lasers
Dinh, T. V.; Valavanis, A.; Lever, L. J. M.; Ikonić, Z.; Kelsall, R. W.
2012-06-01
Silicon-based terahertz quantum cascade lasers (QCLs) offer potential advantages over existing III-V devices. Although coherent electron transport effects are known to be important in QCLs, they have never been considered in Si-based device designs. We describe a density-matrix transport model that is designed to be more general than those in previous studies and to require less a priori knowledge of electronic band structure, allowing its use in semiautomated design procedures. The basis of the model includes all states involved in interperiod transport, and our steady-state solution extends beyond the rotating-wave approximation by including dc and counterpropagating terms. We simulate the potential performance of bound-to-continuum Ge/SiGe QCLs and find that devices with 4-5-nm-thick barriers give the highest simulated optical gain. We also examine the effects of interdiffusion between Ge and SiGe layers; we show that if it is taken into account in the design, interdiffusion lengths of up to 1.5 nm do not significantly affect the simulated device performance.
Plastin-3 extends survival and reduces severity in mouse models of spinal muscular atrophy
Kaifer, Kevin A.; Osman, Erkan Y.; Glascock, Jacqueline J.; Arnold, Laura L.; Cornelison, D.D.W.; Lorson, Christian L.
2017-01-01
Spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) is a leading genetic cause of infantile death and is caused by the loss of survival motor neuron-1 (SMN1). Importantly, a nearly identical gene is present called SMN2; however, the majority of SMN2-derived transcripts are alternatively spliced and encode a truncated, dysfunctional protein. Recently, several compounds designed to increase SMN protein have entered clinical trials, including antisense oligonucleotides (ASOs), traditional small molecules, and gene therapy. Expanding beyond SMN-centric therapeutics is important, as it is likely that the breadth of the patient spectrum and the inherent complexity of the disease will be difficult to address with a single therapeutic strategy. Several SMN-independent pathways that could impinge upon the SMA phenotype have been examined with varied success. To identify disease-modifying pathways that could serve as stand-alone therapeutic targets or could be used in combination with an SMN-inducing compound, we investigated adeno-associated virus–mediated (AAV-mediated) gene therapy using plastin-3 (PLS3). Here, we report that AAV9-PLS3 extends survival in an intermediate model of SMA mice as well as in a pharmacologically induced model of SMA using a splice-switching ASO that increases SMN production. PLS3 coadministration improves the phenotype beyond the ASO, demonstrating the potential utility of combinatorial therapeutics in SMA that target SMN-independent and SMN-dependent pathways. PMID:28289706
Saab, Rim; Tausch, Nicole; Spears, Russell; Cheung, Wing-Yee
2015-09-01
We examined predictors of collective action among bystander group members in solidarity with a disadvantaged group by extending the dual pathway model of collective action, which proposes one efficacy-based and one emotion-based path to collective action (Van Zomeren, Spears, Fischer, & Leach, 2004). Based on two proposed functions of social identity performance (Klein, Spears, & Reicher, 2007), we distinguished between the efficacy of collective action at consolidating the identity of a protest movement and its efficacy at achieving social change (political efficacy). We expected identity consolidation efficacy to positively predict collective action tendencies directly and indirectly via political efficacy. We also expected collective action tendencies to be positively predicted by moral outrage and by sympathy in response to disadvantaged outgroup's suffering. These hypotheses were supported in two surveys examining intentions to protest for Palestine in Britain (Study 1), and intentions to attend the June 4th vigil in Hong Kong to commemorate the Tiananmen massacre among a sample of Hong Kong citizens (Study 2). The contributions of these findings to research on the dual pathway model of collective action and the different functions of collective action are discussed.
Supernova Equation of State with an extended SU(3) Quark-Meson Model
Beisitzer, Thomas; Schaffner-Bielich, Juergen
2014-01-01
The quark-meson model is investigated for the two- and three-flavor case extended by contributions of vector mesons under conditions encountered in core-collapse supernova matter. Typical temperature ranges, densities and electron fractions, as found in core-collapse supernova simulations, are studied by implementing charge neutrality and local beta-equilibrium with respect to weak interactions. Within this framework, we analyze the resulting phase diagram and equation of state (EoS) and investigate the impact of undetermined parameters of the model. The EoS turns out to be relatively independent on the entropy per baryon but there are significant changes when going from the two-flavor to the three-flavor case due to the nontrivial contribution from the strange quarks which stay massive even at high densities. While an increasing vector meson coupling constant leads to a substantial stiffening of the EoS, we find that the impact of changing the scalar meson mass is equally strong and results in a softening of...
Extended Kalman Doppler tracking and model determination for multi-sensor short-range radar
Mittermaier, Thomas J.; Siart, Uwe; Eibert, Thomas F.; Bonerz, Stefan
2016-09-01
A tracking solution for collision avoidance in industrial machine tools based on short-range millimeter-wave radar Doppler observations is presented. At the core of the tracking algorithm there is an Extended Kalman Filter (EKF) that provides dynamic estimation and localization in real-time. The underlying sensor platform consists of several homodyne continuous wave (CW) radar modules. Based on In-phase-Quadrature (IQ) processing and down-conversion, they provide only Doppler shift information about the observed target. Localization with Doppler shift estimates is a nonlinear problem that needs to be linearized before the linear KF can be applied. The accuracy of state estimation depends highly on the introduced linearization errors, the initialization and the models that represent the true physics as well as the stochastic properties. The important issue of filter consistency is addressed and an initialization procedure based on data fitting and maximum likelihood estimation is suggested. Models for both, measurement and process noise are developed. Tracking results from typical three-dimensional courses of movement at short distances in front of a multi-sensor radar platform are presented.
Robust Supersolidity in the V1- V2 Extended Bose-Hubbard Model
Greene, Nicole; Pixley, Jedediah
2016-05-01
Motivated by ultra-cold atomic gases with long-range interactions in an optical lattice we study the effects of the next-nearest neighbor interaction on the extended Bose-Hubbard model on a square lattice. Using the variational Gutzwiller approach with a four-site unit cell we determine the ground state phase diagrams as a function of the model parameters. We focus on the interplay of each interaction between the nearest neighbor (V1) , the next-nearest neighbor (V2) , and the onsite repulsion (U). We find various super-solid phases that can be described by one of the ordering wave-vectors (π, 0), (0, π) , and (π, π) . In the limits V1, V2 U we find phases reminiscent of the limit V2 = 0 but with a richer super solid structure. For V1
Numerical Modelling of Extended Leak-Off Test with a Pre-Existing Fracture
Lavrov, A.; Larsen, I.; Bauer, A.
2016-04-01
Extended leak-off test (XLOT) is one of the few techniques available for stress measurements in oil and gas wells. Interpretation of the test is often difficult since the results depend on a multitude of factors, including the presence of natural or drilling-induced fractures in the near-well area. Coupled numerical modelling of XLOT has been performed to investigate the pressure behaviour during the flowback phase as well as the effect of a pre-existing fracture on the test results in a low-permeability formation. Essential features of XLOT known from field measurements are captured by the model, including the saw-tooth shape of the pressure vs injected volume curve, and the change of slope in the pressure vs time curve during flowback used by operators as an indicator of the bottomhole pressure reaching the minimum in situ stress. Simulations with a pre-existing fracture running from the borehole wall in the radial direction have revealed that the results of XLOT are quite sensitive to the orientation of the pre-existing fracture. In particular, the fracture initiation pressure and the formation breakdown pressure increase steadily with decreasing angle between the fracture and the minimum in situ stress. Our findings seem to invalidate the use of the fracture initiation pressure and the formation breakdown pressure for stress measurements or rock strength evaluation purposes.
Itoyama, Hiroshi
2015-01-01
This is a semi-pedagogical review of a medium size on the exact determination of and the role played by the low energy effective prepotential ${\\cal F}$ in QFT with (broken) extended supersymmetry, which began with the work of Seiberg and Witten in 1994. While paying an attention to an overall view of this subject lasting long over the two decades, we probe several corners marked in the three major stages of the developments, emphasizing uses of the deformation theory on the attendant Riemann surface as well as its close relation to matrix models. Examples picked here in different contexts tell us that the effective prepotential is to be identified as the suitably defined free energy $F$ of a matrix model: ${\\cal F} = F$. To be submitted to PTEP as an invited review article and based in part on the talk delivered by one of the authors (H.I.) in the workshop held at Shizuoka University, Shizuoka, Japan, on December 5, 2014.