WorldWideScience

Sample records for modeling examples kobayashi

  1. The Kobayashi-Maskawa model and CP violation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hara, Yasuo

    1987-01-01

    Some aspects of CP violation are discussed within the context of the Kobayashi-Maskawa model for three generations of quarks. It is also discussed if the recent experimental result on B d -B-bar d mixing by the ARGUS collaboration is compatible with the K-M model for m t ∼ 30 GeV. (author)

  2. Phenomenology of CP violation from the Kobayashi-Maskawa model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, L.L.C.

    1980-01-01

    The CP violation consequences of the K-M model, which Kobayashi, Maskawa introduced in 1977 for the purpose of incorporating CP violation via the complexity in the mixing matrix of the quarks are discussed. Much of the talk is a review of current work on the subject. Some new results on the CP violation effects in exclusive and inclusive decays of bottom, charm and strange particles are also given

  3. What is the value of the neutron electric dipole moment in the Kobayashi-Maskawa model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khriplovich, I.B.; Zhitnitsky, A.R.

    1982-01-01

    A new mechanism is considered due to which the neutron electric dipole moment Dsub(n) aries in the Kobayashi-Maskawa model. This mechanism leads to the estimate Dsub(n) approx. equal to 2 x 10 -32 e cm, by two orders of magnitude larger than the contributions considered previously. (orig.)

  4. Kobayashi-Maskawa type of hard-CP-violation model with three-generation Majorana neutrinos

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheng, H.

    1986-01-01

    Within the framework of the Kobayashi-Maskawa (KM) type of hard CP-violation model with three-generation Majorana neutrinos, we point out that on-shell CP-violation phenomena (i.e., CP-violating effects taking place in on-shell processes), which are characteristic of Majorana neutrinos, can only occur in total-lepton-number-conserving reactions, and are unobservably small. Off-shell CP-nonconserving effects which arise from gauge bosons are undetectable, but those which are mediated by Higgs bosons could be seen in certain rare decays. It is emphasized that CP-odd effects intrinsic to Majorana behavior depend not only on the two CP-violating Majorana phases but also on the KM phase. We then demonstrate why the KM model, which has rich implications in the hadronic sector, leads to no observable CP-violating effects in leptonic processes (except in neutrino oscillations) directly related to the CP-odd KM phase

  5. Effect of an extended Higgs sector on the electric dipole moment of a single quark in the Kobayashi-Maskawa model of CP violation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Escobar, C.O.; Pleites, V.

    1983-01-01

    We argue that the existence of flavor-changing Higgs-boson couplings in an extended Higgs sector, respecting the experimental bounds on such processes, is sufficient to increase by some orders of magnitude the electric dipole moment of a single quark in the Kobayashi-Maskawa model of CP violation

  6. Parametrization of the Kobayashi-Maskawa matrix

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wolfenstein, L.

    1983-01-01

    The quark mixing matrix (Kobayashi-Maskawa matrix) is expanded in powers of a small parameter lambda equal to sintheta/sub c/ = 0.22. The term of order lambda 2 is determined from the recently measured B lifetime. Two remaining parameters, including the CP-nonconservation effects, enter only the term of order lambda 3 and are poorly constrained. A significant reduction in the limit on epsilon'/epsilon possible in an ongoing experiment would tightly constrain the CP-nonconservation parameter and could rule out the hypothesis that the only source of CP nonconservation is the Kobayashi-Maskawa mechanism

  7. Renormalization-group analysis of the Kobayashi-Maskawa matrix

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Babu, K.S.

    1987-01-01

    The one-loop renormalization-group equations for the quark mixing (Kobayashi-Maskawa) matrix V are derived, independent of one's weak interaction basis, in the standard model as well as in its two Higgs and supersymmetric extensions, and their numerical solutions are presented. While the mixing angles vertical strokeV ub vertical stroke, vertical strokeV cb vertical stroke, vertical strokeV td vertical stroke and the phase-invariant measure of CP nonconservation J all vary slowly with momentum, in the standard model they are predicted to increase in clear contrast to the two Higgs and supersymmetric extensions where they decrease with momentum. (orig.)

  8. Fundamental Travel Demand Model Example

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanssen, Joel

    2010-01-01

    Instances of transportation models are abundant and detailed "how to" instruction is available in the form of transportation software help documentation. The purpose of this paper is to look at the fundamental inputs required to build a transportation model by developing an example passenger travel demand model. The example model reduces the scale to a manageable size for the purpose of illustrating the data collection and analysis required before the first step of the model begins. This aspect of the model development would not reasonably be discussed in software help documentation (it is assumed the model developer comes prepared). Recommendations are derived from the example passenger travel demand model to suggest future work regarding the data collection and analysis required for a freight travel demand model.

  9. Some illustrative examples of model uncertainty

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bier, V.M.

    1994-01-01

    In this paper, we first discuss the view of model uncertainty proposed by Apostolakis. We then present several illustrative examples related to model uncertainty, some of which are not well handled by this formalism. Thus, Apostolakis' approach seems to be well suited to describing some types of model uncertainty, but not all. Since a comprehensive approach for characterizing and quantifying model uncertainty is not yet available, it is hoped that the examples presented here will service as a springboard for further discussion

  10. Do flavor conservation and spontaneous CP nonconservation lead to a real Kobayashi-Maskawa matrix?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gronau, M.; Kfir, A.; Ecker, G.; Grimus, W.; Neufeld, H.

    1988-01-01

    We reexamine the implication of flavor conservation in tree-level neutral-Higgs-boson exchange for multi-Higgs-scalar SU(2) x U(1) models of spontaneous CP nonconservation . Contrary to a previous claim, we show that in such models for an arbitrary number of fermion families the quark mixing matrix does not have to be real. However, the complex structure derived for the Kobayashi-Maskawa matrix in the three-family model is shown to be in conflict with experiment

  11. Learning Probabilistic Logic Models from Probabilistic Examples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jianzhong; Muggleton, Stephen; Santos, José

    2008-10-01

    We revisit an application developed originally using abductive Inductive Logic Programming (ILP) for modeling inhibition in metabolic networks. The example data was derived from studies of the effects of toxins on rats using Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) time-trace analysis of their biofluids together with background knowledge representing a subset of the Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG). We now apply two Probabilistic ILP (PILP) approaches - abductive Stochastic Logic Programs (SLPs) and PRogramming In Statistical modeling (PRISM) to the application. Both approaches support abductive learning and probability predictions. Abductive SLPs are a PILP framework that provides possible worlds semantics to SLPs through abduction. Instead of learning logic models from non-probabilistic examples as done in ILP, the PILP approach applied in this paper is based on a general technique for introducing probability labels within a standard scientific experimental setting involving control and treated data. Our results demonstrate that the PILP approach provides a way of learning probabilistic logic models from probabilistic examples, and the PILP models learned from probabilistic examples lead to a significant decrease in error accompanied by improved insight from the learned results compared with the PILP models learned from non-probabilistic examples.

  12. Best Practice Examples of Circular Business Models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guldmann, Eva

    Best practice examples of circular business models are presented in this report. The purpose is to inform and inspire interested readers, in particular companies that aspire to examine the potentials of the circular economy. Circular business models in two different sectors are examined, namely...... the textile and clothing sector as well as the durable goods sector. In order to appreciate the notion of circular business models, the basics of the circular economy are outlined along with three frameworks for categorizing the various types of circular business models. The frameworks take point of departure...... in resource loops, value bases and business model archetypes respectively, and they are applied for analysing and organizing the business models that are presented throughout the report. The investigations in the report show that circular business models are relevant to businesses because they hold...

  13. Model for safety reports including descriptive examples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-12-01

    Several safety reports will be produced in the process of planning and constructing the system for disposal of high-level radioactive waste in Sweden. The present report gives a model, with detailed examples, of how these reports should be organized and what steps they should include. In the near future safety reports will deal with the encapsulation plant and the repository. Later reports will treat operation of the handling systems and the repository

  14. Continuum modeling an approach through practical examples

    CERN Document Server

    Muntean, Adrian

    2015-01-01

    This book develops continuum modeling skills and approaches the topic from three sides: (1) derivation of global integral laws together with the associated local differential equations, (2) design of constitutive laws and (3) modeling boundary processes. The focus of this presentation lies on many practical examples covering aspects such as coupled flow, diffusion and reaction in porous media or microwave heating of a pizza, as well as traffic issues in bacterial colonies and energy harvesting from geothermal wells. The target audience comprises primarily graduate students in pure and applied mathematics as well as working practitioners in engineering who are faced by nonstandard rheological topics like those typically arising in the food industry.

  15. 12 CFR 573.2 - Model privacy form and examples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Model privacy form and examples. 573.2 Section... FINANCIAL INFORMATION § 573.2 Model privacy form and examples. (a) Model privacy form. Use of the model... privacy form is not required. (b) Examples. The examples in this part are not exclusive. Compliance with...

  16. 12 CFR 332.2 - Model privacy form and examples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Model privacy form and examples. 332.2 Section... POLICY PRIVACY OF CONSUMER FINANCIAL INFORMATION § 332.2 Model privacy form and examples. (a) Model... this part, although use of the model privacy form is not required. (b) Examples. The examples in this...

  17. 16 CFR 313.2 - Model privacy form and examples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Model privacy form and examples. 313.2... PRIVACY OF CONSUMER FINANCIAL INFORMATION § 313.2 Model privacy form and examples. (a) Model privacy form..., although use of the model privacy form is not required. (b) Examples. The examples in this part are not...

  18. 12 CFR 716.2 - Model privacy form and examples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Model privacy form and examples. 716.2 Section... PRIVACY OF CONSUMER FINANCIAL INFORMATION § 716.2 Model privacy form and examples. (a) Model privacy form..., although use of the model privacy form is not required. (b) Examples. The examples in this part are not...

  19. 17 CFR 160.2 - Model privacy form and examples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... examples. 160.2 Section 160.2 Commodity and Securities Exchanges COMMODITY FUTURES TRADING COMMISSION PRIVACY OF CONSUMER FINANCIAL INFORMATION § 160.2 Model privacy form and examples. (a) Model privacy form..., although use of the model privacy form is not required. (b) Examples. The examples in this part are not...

  20. 12 CFR 216.2 - Model privacy form and examples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Model privacy form and examples. 216.2 Section... PRIVACY OF CONSUMER FINANCIAL INFORMATION (REGULATION P) § 216.2 Model privacy form and examples. (a... of this part, although use of the model privacy form is not required. (b) Examples. The examples in...

  1. Cabibbo-Kobayashi-Maskawa-favored B decays to a scalar meson and a D meson

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zou, Zhi-Tian; Li, Ying [Yantai University, Department of Physics, Yantai (China); Liu, Xin [Jiangsu Normal University, School of Physics and Electronic Engineering, Xuzhou (China)

    2017-12-15

    In this work, we attempt to study the Cabibbo-Kobayashi-Maskawa-favored B → anti DS (''S'' denoting the scalar meson) decays within the perturbative QCD approach at the leading order and the leading power. Although the light scalar mesons are widely perceived as primarily the four-quark bound states, in practice it is hard for us to make quantitative predictions based on the four-quark picture for light scalars. Hence, we calculate the decays with light scalars in the two-quark model. For the decays with scalar mesons above 1 GeV, we have explored two possible scenarios, depending on whether the light scalars are treated as the lowest lying q anti q states or four-quark particles. In total, we calculated the branching fractions of 72 decay modes, and most of them are in the range 10{sup -4}-10{sup -7}, which are measurable in the on-going LHCb experiment and the forthcoming Belle-II experiment. Moreover, since in the standard model these decays occur only through tree operators and have no CP asymmetries, any deviation will be a signal of new physics beyond the standard model. Despite large uncertainties induced by nonperturbative parameters and corrections of high order and high power, our results and discussions will be useful for the on-going LHCb and the forthcoming Belle-II experiments. (orig.)

  2. System Models and Aging: A Driving Example.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melichar, Joseph F.

    Chronological age is a marker in time but it fails to measure accurately the performance or behavioral characteristics of individuals. This paper models the complexity of aging by using a system model and a human function paradigm. These models help facilitate representation of older adults, integrate research agendas, and enhance remediative…

  3. Some examples of instantons in sigma models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kogan, Ya.I.; Markushevich, D.G.; Morozov, A.Yu.; Ol'shanetskii, M.A.; Perelomov, A.M.; Roslyi, A.A.

    1989-01-01

    The paper considers (supersymmetric) sigma models in which the fields are defined on a Riemann surface of genus p and take values on a Kaehlerian manifold. Some mathematical methods for finding instantons and their zero modes in such sigma models are explained. Only holomorphic instantons are considered

  4. Some examples of instantons in sigma models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kogan, Ya.; Markushevich, D.; Morozov, A.; Ol'shanetskya, M.; Perelomov, A.; Roslij, A.

    1988-01-01

    Instantons on some manifolds of type K3 are described. Zero modes in two-dimensional sigma models on such manifolds are counted. The necessary facts on K3 manifolds are exposed in monographs. Instanton configurations are described

  5. Precision measurements of the Cabibbo-Kobayashi-Maskawa angle $\\gamma$ at LHCb

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2017-01-01

    The Cabibbo-Kobayashi-Maskawa (CKM) angle $\\gamma$ is still the least known angle of the Unitarity Triangle, and is the only one that can be accessed exclusively through tree-level $B$-meson decays. Its precise determination is of crucial importance to identify possible effects beyond the Standard Model in global CKM fits. Powerful constraints on $\\gamma$ are obtained from the analysis of $B^{\\pm} \\to D^{0} K^{\\pm}$ decays, where the $D^{0}$ meson is reconstructed in the $K^+K^-$ and $\\pi^+\\pi^-$ final states; the latest results using the Run-1 (2011 and 2012) and Run-2 (2015 and 2016) LHCb datasets are presented. The measurement of $B^{\\pm} \\to D^{*0}K^{\\pm}$ decays using a novel partial reconstruction method is also presented, where both $D^{*0} \\to D^0\\pi^0$ and $D^{*0} \\to D^0\\gamma$ decays are considered. These world’s best results contribute to the ultimate goal of reaching degree-level precision on $\\gamma$, via the exploitation of all possible decay modes and techniques.&a...

  6. Some examples of instantons in sigma models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kogan, Ya.; Markushevich, D.; Morozov, A.; Ol'shanetskij, M.; Perelomov, A.; Roslyj, A.

    1988-01-01

    Holomorphic instantons of arbitrary generation in manifolds and their boson and fermion zero modes are determined within the scope of the sigma model. General formulae for their quantitative evaluation are presented. Zero modes of spherical and toroidal instantons are discussed in detail

  7. Diagonalization of quark mass matrices and the Cabibbo-Kobayashi-Maskawa matrix

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rasin, A.

    1997-08-01

    I discuss some general aspect of diagonalizing the quark mass matrices and list all possible parametrizations of the Cabibbo-Kobayashi-Maskawa matrix (CKM) in terms of three rotation angles and a phase. I systematically study the relation between the rotations needed to diagonalize the Yukawa matrices and various parametrizations of the CKM. (author). 17 refs, 1 tab

  8. Learning from video modeling examples: Does gender matter?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoogerheide, V.; Loyens, S.M.M.; van Gog, T.

    2016-01-01

    Online learning from video modeling examples, in which a human model demonstrates and explains how to perform a learning task, is an effective instructional method that is increasingly used nowadays. However, model characteristics such as gender tend to differ across videos, and the model-observer

  9. Learning from Video Modeling Examples: Does Gender Matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoogerheide, Vincent; Loyens, Sofie M. M.; van Gog, Tamara

    2016-01-01

    Online learning from video modeling examples, in which a human model demonstrates and explains how to perform a learning task, is an effective instructional method that is increasingly used nowadays. However, model characteristics such as gender tend to differ across videos, and the model-observer similarity hypothesis suggests that such…

  10. Learning from video modeling examples: does gender matter?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    V. Hoogerheide (Vincent); S.M.M. Loyens (Sofie); T.A.J.M. van Gog (Tamara)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractOnline learning from video modeling examples, in which a human model demonstrates and explains how to perform a learning task, is an effective instructional method that is increasingly used nowadays. However, model characteristics such as gender tend to differ across videos, and the

  11. Geometry and analysis on manifolds in memory of professor Shoshichi Kobayashi

    CERN Document Server

    Mabuchi, Toshiki; Maeda, Yoshiaki; Noguchi, Junjiro; Weinstein, Alan

    2015-01-01

    This volume is dedicated to the memory of Shoshichi Kobayashi, and gathers contributions from distinguished researchers working on topics close to his research areas. The book is organized into three parts, with the first part presenting an overview of Professor Shoshichi Kobayashi’s career. This is followed by two expository course lectures (the second part) on recent topics in extremal Kähler metrics and value distribution theory, which will be helpful for graduate students in mathematics interested in new topics in complex geometry and complex analysis. Lastly, the third part of the volume collects authoritative research papers on differential geometry and complex analysis. Professor Shoshichi Kobayashi was a recognized international leader in the areas of differential and complex geometry. He contributed crucial ideas that are still considered fundamental in these fields. The book will be of interest to researchers in the fields of differential geometry, complex geometry, and several complex variables ...

  12. KANIKOSEN (KOBAYASHI TAKIJI “BACAAN LIAR” TAHUN 1920-AN DALAM RENTANG SEJARAH JEPANG

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Reza Rustam

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes a dynamics proletarian literature and its relationship with Kanikosen   novel by Kobayashi Takiji, including; the institution, ideology, production, and figures associated to narration used by Marxism theory posed by the author as one of the Japan "wild literatures" in the 1920s. This paper aims to usher the readers to the narrative of the Japanese proletarian literature and illustrates the Japanese proletarian literary map development. The form of “wildness” obtained by author is a social class conflict in literary texts such as in the Kanikosen   story. Like an empirical reality, text construction, especially characterizations, background, and language style reflecting a dynamics of everyday social life. Intimidation, exploitation, deception, torture, suffering labor on one side and on the other side, the accumulation of profits, accumulating capital individually, and the arbitrariness of employers conducted by the owners of capital, reflected brightly by Kobayashi Takiji.

  13. Standard Model physics

    CERN Multimedia

    Altarelli, Guido

    1999-01-01

    Introduction structure of gauge theories. The QEDand QCD examples. Chiral theories. The electroweak theory. Spontaneous symmetry breaking. The Higgs mechanism Gauge boson and fermion masses. Yukawa coupling. Charges current couplings. The Cabibo-Kobayashi-Maskawa matrix and CP violation. Neutral current couplings. The Glasow-Iliopoulos-Maiani mechanism. Gauge boson and Higgs coupling. Radiative corrections and loops. Cancellation of the chiral anomaly. Limits on the Higgs comparaison. Problems of the Standard Model. Outlook.

  14. Collapse of the random-phase approximation: Examples and counter-examples from the shell model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, Calvin W.; Stetcu, Ionel

    2009-01-01

    The Hartree-Fock approximation to the many-fermion problem can break exact symmetries, and in some cases by changing a parameter in the interaction one can drive the Hartree-Fock minimum from a symmetry-breaking state to a symmetry-conserving state (also referred to as a 'phase transition' in the literature). The order of the transition is important when one applies the random-phase approximation (RPA) to the of the Hartree-Fock wave function: if first order, RPA is stable through the transition, but if second-order, then the RPA amplitudes become large and lead to unphysical results. The latter is known as 'collapse' of the RPA. While the difference between first- and second-order transitions in the RPA was first pointed out by Thouless, we present for the first time nontrivial examples of both first- and second-order transitions in a uniform model, the interacting shell-model, where we can compare to exact numerical results.

  15. Progress in liquid crystal (LC) science and technology in honor of Kobayashi's 80th birthday

    CERN Document Server

    Kwok, Hoi-Sing; Ong, Hiap L

    2013-01-01

    The presence of liquid crystal displays (LCDs) marks the advances in mobile phones and television development over the last few decades. Japanese companies were the first to commercialize passive-matrix TNLCDs and, later on, high-resolution activematrix LCDs.Prof. Shunsuke Kobayashi has made essential contributions to Japan's prominence in LCD development throughout this period. He is well-known not only for his own groundbreaking research, but also for the training of many prominent figures in the display industry, both in Japan and in other countries.This book brings together many prominent

  16. Another method for a global fit of the Cabibbo-Kobayashi-Maskawa matrix

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dita, Petre

    2005-01-01

    Recently we proposed a novel method for doing global fits on the entries of the Cabibbo-Kobayashi-Maskawa matrix. The new used ingredients were a clear relationship between the entries of the CKM matrix and the experimental data, as well as the use of the necessary and sufficient condition the data have to satisfy in order to find a unitary matrix compatible with them. This condition writes as -1 ≤ cosδ ≤1 where δ is the phase that accounts for CP violation. Numerical results are provided for the CKM matrix entries, the mixing angles between generations and all the angles of the standard unitarity triangle. (author)

  17. Tecnomatix Plant Simulation modeling and programming by means of examples

    CERN Document Server

    Bangsow, Steffen

    2015-01-01

    This book systematically introduces the development of simulation models as well as the implementation and evaluation of simulation experiments with Tecnomatix Plant Simulation. It deals with all users of Plant Simulation, who have more complex tasks to handle. It also looks for an easy entry into the program. Particular attention has been paid to introduce the simulation flow language SimTalk and its use in various areas of the simulation. The author demonstrates with over 200 examples how to combine the blocks for simulation models and how to deal with SimTalk for complex control and analys

  18. Thermodynamic modelling of shape memory behaviour: some examples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stalmans, R.; Humbeeck, J. van; Delaey, L.

    1995-01-01

    This paper gives a general view of a recently developed thermodynamic model of the thermoelastic martensitic transformation. Unlike existing empirical, mathematical or thermodynamic models, this generalised thermodynamic model can be used to understand and describe quantitatively the overall thermomechanical behaviour of polycrystalline shape memory alloys. Important points of difference between this and previous thermodynamic models are that the contributions of the stored elastic energy and of the crystal defects are also included. In addition, the mathematical approach and the assumptions in this model are selected in such a way that the calculations yield close approximations of the real behaviour and that the final mathematical equations are relatively simple. Several illustrations indicate that this model, in contrast to other models, can be used to understand the shape memory behaviour of complex cases. As an example of quantitative calculations, it is shown that this modelling can be an effective tool in the ''design'' of multifunctional materials consisting of shape memory elements embedded in matrix materials. (orig.)

  19. Eliciting expert opinion for economic models: an applied example.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leal, José; Wordsworth, Sarah; Legood, Rosa; Blair, Edward

    2007-01-01

    Expert opinion is considered as a legitimate source of information for decision-analytic modeling where required data are unavailable. Our objective was to develop a practical computer-based tool for eliciting expert opinion about the shape of the uncertainty distribution around individual model parameters. We first developed a prepilot survey with departmental colleagues to test a number of alternative approaches to eliciting opinions on the shape of the uncertainty distribution around individual parameters. This information was used to develop a survey instrument for an applied clinical example. This involved eliciting opinions from experts to inform a number of parameters involving Bernoulli processes in an economic model evaluating DNA testing for families with a genetic disease, hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. The experts were cardiologists, clinical geneticists, and laboratory scientists working with cardiomyopathy patient populations and DNA testing. Our initial prepilot work suggested that the more complex elicitation techniques advocated in the literature were difficult to use in practice. In contrast, our approach achieved a reasonable response rate (50%), provided logical answers, and was generally rated as easy to use by respondents. The computer software user interface permitted graphical feedback throughout the elicitation process. The distributions obtained were incorporated into the model, enabling the use of probabilistic sensitivity analysis. There is clearly a gap in the literature between theoretical elicitation techniques and tools that can be used in applied decision-analytic models. The results of this methodological study are potentially valuable for other decision analysts deriving expert opinion.

  20. Dynamical analogy of the Cabibbo-Kobayashi-Maskawa matrices (with CP-violation)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beshtoev, Kh.M.

    1997-01-01

    The dynamical analogy of the Cabibbo-Kobayashi-Maskawa matrices is built, i.e., the phenomenological expansion of the weak interaction theory by the inclusion of four doublets of the charged-vector bosons B ± , C ± , D ± , E ± , leading to transitions between the quark families, and of four doublets of the charged-vector bosons X 1 ± , X 2 ± , X 3 ± , X 4 ± , leading to transitions between the lepton families, is suggested. The bosons E ± , X 4 ± realize CP-violation. This expansion works only at a tree level. An estimation of the boson masses is performed. The quasi-elastic processes proceeding through an exchange of the bosons and the production cross sections are given

  1. Measure of CP nonconservation and its consequence on the structure of the Kobayashi-Maskawa matrix

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamzaoui, C.

    1988-01-01

    By use of unitarity of the Kobayashi-Maskawa matrix, the rephasing-invariant measure δ/sub KM/ of CP nonconservation is evaluated in terms of the modulus squared of four matrix elements, which are taken as the four independent parameters. The striking feature of such a formulation is that the positivity of δ/sub KM/ 2 gives both upper and lower bounds on the matrix elements chemical bondV/sub c//sub d/chemical bond, chemical bondV/sub c//sub s/chemical bond, chemical bondV/sub t//sub d/chemical bond, and chemical bondV/sub t//sub s/chemical bond

  2. A comparison theorem of the Kobayashi metric and the Bergman metric on a class of Reinhardt domains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weiping Yin.

    1990-03-01

    A comparison theorem for the Kobayashi and Bergman metric is given on a class of Reinhardt domains in C n . In the meantime, we obtain a class of complete invariant Kaehler metrics for these domains of the special cases. (author). 5 refs

  3. Kaluza-Klein models: Can we construct a viable example?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eingorn, Maxim; Zhuk, Alexander

    2011-01-01

    In Kaluza-Klein models with toroidal compactification of the extra dimensions, we investigate soliton solutions of Einstein equation. The nonrelativistic gravitational potential of these solitons exactly coincides with the Newtonian one. We obtain the formulas for perihelion shift, deflection of light, time delay of radar echoes and post-Newtonian (PPN) parameters. Using the constraint on PPN parameter γ, we find that the solitonic parameter k should be very big: |k|≥2.3x10 4 . We define a soliton solution which corresponds to a pointlike mass source. In this case the soliton parameter k=2, which is clearly contrary to this restriction. A similar problem with the observations takes place for static spherically symmetric perfect fluid with the dustlike equation of state in all dimensions. The common for both of these models is the same (dustlike) equations of state in our three dimensions and in the extra dimensions. All dimensions are treated at equal footing. This is the crucial point. To be in agreement with observations, it is necessary to break the symmetry (in terms of equations of state) between the external/our and internal spaces. It takes place for black strings which are particular examples of solitons with k→∞. For such k, black strings are in concordance with the observations. Moreover, we show that they are the only solitons which are at the same level of agreement with the observations as in general relativity. Black strings can be treated as perfect fluid with dustlike equation of state p 0 =0 in the external/our space and very specific equation of state p 1 =-(1/2)ε in the internal space. The latter equation is due to negative tension in the extra dimension. We also demonstrate that dimension 3 for the external space is a special one. Only in this case we get the latter equation of state. We show that the black string equations of state satisfy the necessary condition of the internal space stabilization. Therefore, black strings are good

  4. Learning from video modeling examples : Effects of seeing the human model's face

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Gog, Tamara; Verveer, Ilse; Verveer, Lise

    2014-01-01

    Video modeling examples in which a human(-like) model shows learners how to perform a task are increasingly used in education, as they have become very easy to create and distribute in e-learning environments. However, little is known about design guidelines to optimize learning from video modeling

  5. Transition from Model to Proof: Example of Water Treatment Plant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Güler, Gürsel

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to research the prospective mathematics teachers' ability to construct a mathematical model for a real life problem and to prove these models by generalizing them to use in similar situations. The study was conducted with 129 prospective teachers determined on a volunteering basis. The data were obtained with the help of…

  6. The treatment of conceptual model uncertainty in the Nagra programme: a few examples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zuidema, P.; Gautschi, A.; Smith, P.; Vomvoris, S.

    1995-01-01

    In this paper, a few examples are discussed which demonstrate how conceptual model uncertainty is treated within the Nagra programme. These examples cover geometric aspects, small-scale properties of the host rock and direction of the flow paths. Based on the examples, the pragmatic approach adopted in performance assessment is briefly discussed. (author). 3 refs., 7 figs

  7. Epigenetics and epidemiology: models of study and examples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Veldhoven, Karin; Rahman, Shati; Vineis, Paolo

    2014-01-01

    Epidemiological studies have successfully identified several environmental causes of disease, but often these studies are limited by methodological problems (e.g. lack of sensitivity and specificity in exposure assessment; confounding). Proposed approaches to improve observational studies of environmental associations are Mendelian randomization and the meet-in-the-middle (MITM) approach. The latter uses signals from the growing field of -omics as putative intermediate biomarkers in the pathogenetic process that links exposure with disease. The first part of this approach consists in the association between exposure and disease. The next step consists in the study of the relationship between (biomarkers of) exposure and intermediate -omic biomarkers of early effect; thirdly, the relation between the disease outcome and intermediate -omic biomarkers is assessed. We propose that when an association is found in all three steps it is possible that there is a casual association. One of the associations that have been investigated extensively in the recent years but is not completely understood is that between environmental endocrine disruptors and breast cancer. Here we present an example of how the "meet-in-the-middle" approach can be used to address the role of endocrine disruptors, by reviewing the relevant literature.

  8. Modeling structural change in spatial system dynamics: A Daisyworld example.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neuwirth, C; Peck, A; Simonović, S P

    2015-03-01

    System dynamics (SD) is an effective approach for helping reveal the temporal behavior of complex systems. Although there have been recent developments in expanding SD to include systems' spatial dependencies, most applications have been restricted to the simulation of diffusion processes; this is especially true for models on structural change (e.g. LULC modeling). To address this shortcoming, a Python program is proposed to tightly couple SD software to a Geographic Information System (GIS). The approach provides the required capacities for handling bidirectional and synchronized interactions of operations between SD and GIS. In order to illustrate the concept and the techniques proposed for simulating structural changes, a fictitious environment called Daisyworld has been recreated in a spatial system dynamics (SSD) environment. The comparison of spatial and non-spatial simulations emphasizes the importance of considering spatio-temporal feedbacks. Finally, practical applications of structural change models in agriculture and disaster management are proposed.

  9. 12 CFR 40.2 - Model privacy form and examples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 40.2 Banks and Banking COMPTROLLER OF THE CURRENCY, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY PRIVACY OF CONSUMER... privacy form in Appendix A of this part, consistent with the instructions in Appendix A, constitutes compliance with the notice content requirements of §§ 40.6 and 40.7 of this part, although use of the model...

  10. System of systems dependability – Theoretical models and applications examples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bukowski, L.

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this article is to generalise the concept of 'dependability' in a way, that could be applied to all types of systems, especially the system of systems (SoS), operating under both normal and abnormal work conditions. In order to quantitatively assess the dependability we applied service continuity oriented approach. This approach is based on the methodology of service engineering and is closely related to the idea of resilient enterprise as well as to the concept of disruption-tolerant operation. On this basis a framework for evaluation of SoS dependability has been developed in a static as well as dynamic approach. The static model is created as a fuzzy logic-oriented advisory expert system and can be particularly useful at the design stage of SoS. The dynamic model is based on the risk oriented approach, and can be useful both at the design stage and for management of SoS. The integrated model of dependability can also form the basis for a new definition of the dependability engineering, namely as a superior discipline to reliability engineering, safety engineering, security engineering, resilience engineering and risk engineering. - Highlights: • A framework for evaluation of system of systems dependability is presented. • The model is based on the service continuity concept and consists of two parts. • The static part can be created as a fuzzy logic-oriented advisory expert system. • The dynamic, risk oriented part, is related to the concept of throughput chain. • A new definition of dependability engineering is proposed.

  11. Modelling bioaugmentation in unsaturated porous media: The linuron herbicide example

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Owsianiak, Mikolaj; Dechesne, Arnaud; Binning, Philip John

    2010-01-01

    To protect groundwater resources against pesticides, bioaugmentation with microorganisms immobilized in solid carriers has been considered as a soil remediation strategy. We have developed a mathematical model to assess this bioremediation approach to remove the pesticide linuron from soils...... advection, a bead spacing distance of 5 mm at saturated conditions is required to achieve a bioremediation goal of 90% linuron mineralization in 1 year. The gas phase is an important parameter affecting the transport of linuron, however, linuron biodegradation is growth kinetics limited within a broad water...

  12. Exact diagonalization: the Bose-Hubbard model as an example

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, J M; Dong, R X

    2010-01-01

    We take the Bose-Hubbard model to illustrate exact diagonalization techniques in a pedagogical way. We follow the route of first generating all the basis vectors, then setting up the Hamiltonian matrix with respect to this basis and finally using the Lanczos algorithm to solve low lying eigenstates and eigenvalues. Emphasis is placed on how to enumerate all the basis vectors and how to use the hashing trick to set up the Hamiltonian matrix or matrices corresponding to other quantities. Although our route is not necessarily the most efficient one in practice, the techniques and ideas introduced are quite general and may find use in many other problems.

  13. System studies for micro grid design: modeling and simulation examples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosa, Arlei Lucas S. [Federal University of Juiz de Fora (UFJF), MG (Brazil); Ribeiro, Paulo F. [Calvin College, Grand Rapids, MI (United States). Electrical Engineering Dept.

    2009-07-01

    The search for new energy sources to replace or increase the existing power plant of the traditional system leads to changes in concepts of energy generation and consumption. In this context, the concept of Microgrid has been developed and opens the opportunity for local power generation. The Microgrid can operate connected to the existing distribution network, increasing the reliability and safety of the system. Control measures and electronics interface are taken to maintain the network as a single and strong unit to any perturbation. This paper presents the typical system studies required to investigate the performance of a Microgrid operating under different system condition (e.g. interconnected or isolated from the utility grid and under system disturbance). Load flow and electromagnetic transient studies are used for modeling and simulation of a typical Microgrid configuration. (author)

  14. Q Value of the Superallowed Decay of 46V and Its Influence on Vud and the Unitarity of the Cabibbo-Kobayashi-Maskawa Matrix

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Savard, G.; Buchinger, F.; Crawford, J.E.; Gulick, S.; Lee, J.K.P.; Clark, J.A.; Sharma, H.; Sharma, K.S.; Hardy, J.C.; Hecht, A.A.; Levand, A.F.; Scielzo, N.D.; Tanihata, I.; Villari, A.C.C.; Wang, Y.

    2005-01-01

    The masses of the radioactive nuclei 46 V and its decay daughter 46 Ti have been measured with the Canadian Penning Trap on-line Penning trap mass spectrometer to a precision of 1x10 -8 . A Q EC value of 7052.90(40) keV for the superallowed beta decay of 46 V is obtained from the difference of these two masses. With this precise Q value, the Ft value for this decay is determined with improved precision. An investigation of an earlier Q-value measurement for 46 V uncovers a set of 7 measurements that cannot be reconciled with modern data and affects previous evaluations of V ud from superallowed Fermi decays. A new evaluation, adding our new data and removing the discredited subset, yields new values for G V and V ud . When combined with recent results for V us , this yields modified constraints for the unitarity of the Cabibbo-Kobayashi-Maskawa matrix and other extensions of the standard model

  15. Simulations with Elaborated Worked Example Modeling: Beneficial Effects on Schema Acquisition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meier, Debra K.; Reinhard, Karl J.; Carter, David O.; Brooks, David W.

    2008-01-01

    Worked examples have been effective in enhancing learning outcomes, especially with novice learners. Most of this research has been conducted in laboratory settings. This study examined the impact of embedding elaborated worked example modeling in a computer simulation practice activity on learning achievement among 39 undergraduate students…

  16. Example-Based Learning: Effects of Model Expertise in Relation to Student Expertise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boekhout, Paul; van Gog, Tamara; van de Wiel, Margje W. J.; Gerards-Last, Dorien; Geraets, Jacques

    2010-01-01

    Background: Worked examples are very effective for novice learners. They typically present a written-out ideal (didactical) solution for learners to study. Aims: This study used worked examples of patient history taking in physiotherapy that presented a "non"-didactical solution (i.e., based on actual performance). The effects of model expertise…

  17. Simple model for deriving sdg interacting boson model Hamiltonians: 150Nd example

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Devi, Y.D.; Kota, V.K.B.

    1993-01-01

    A simple and yet useful model for deriving sdg interacting boson model (IBM) Hamiltonians is to assume that single-boson energies derive from identical particle (pp and nn) interactions and proton, neutron single-particle energies, and that the two-body matrix elements for bosons derive from pn interaction, with an IBM-2 to IBM-1 projection of the resulting p-n sdg IBM Hamiltonian. The applicability of this model in generating sdg IBM Hamiltonians is demonstrated, using a single-j-shell Otsuka-Arima-Iachello mapping of the quadrupole and hexadecupole operators in proton and neutron spaces separately and constructing a quadrupole-quadrupole plus hexadecupole-hexadecupole Hamiltonian in the analysis of the spectra, B(E2)'s, and E4 strength distribution in the example of 150 Nd

  18. Simple model for deriving sdg interacting boson model Hamiltonians: 150Nd example

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devi, Y. D.; Kota, V. K. B.

    1993-07-01

    A simple and yet useful model for deriving sdg interacting boson model (IBM) Hamiltonians is to assume that single-boson energies derive from identical particle (pp and nn) interactions and proton, neutron single-particle energies, and that the two-body matrix elements for bosons derive from pn interaction, with an IBM-2 to IBM-1 projection of the resulting p-n sdg IBM Hamiltonian. The applicability of this model in generating sdg IBM Hamiltonians is demonstrated, using a single-j-shell Otsuka-Arima-Iachello mapping of the quadrupole and hexadecupole operators in proton and neutron spaces separately and constructing a quadrupole-quadrupole plus hexadecupole-hexadecupole Hamiltonian in the analysis of the spectra, B(E2)'s, and E4 strength distribution in the example of 150Nd.

  19. Showing a model's eye movements in examples does not improve learning of problem-solving tasks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Marlen, Tim; van Wermeskerken, Margot; Jarodzka, Halszka; van Gog, Tamara

    2016-01-01

    Eye movement modeling examples (EMME) are demonstrations of a computer-based task by a human model (e.g., a teacher), with the model's eye movements superimposed on the task to guide learners' attention. EMME have been shown to enhance learning of perceptual classification tasks; however, it is an

  20. Designing Effective Video-Based Modeling Examples Using Gaze and Gesture Cues

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ouwehand, Kim; van Gog, Tamara|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/294304975; Paas, Fred

    2015-01-01

    Research suggests that learners will likely spend a substantial amount of time looking at the model's face when it is visible in a video-based modeling example. Consequently, in this study we hypothesized that learners might not attend timely to the task areas the model is referring to, unless their

  1. Importance of fish behaviour in modelling conservation problems: food limitation as an example

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steven Railsback; Bret Harvey

    2011-01-01

    Simulation experiments using the inSTREAM individual-based brown trout Salmo trutta population model explored the role of individual adaptive behaviour in food limitation, as an example of how behaviour can affect managers’ understanding of conservation problems. The model includes many natural complexities in habitat (spatial and temporal variation in characteristics...

  2. Effects of creating video-based modeling examples on learning and transfer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoogerheide, Vincent; Loyens, Sofie M M; van Gog, Tamara

    2014-01-01

    Two experiments investigated whether acting as a peer model for a video-based modeling example, which entails studying a text with the intention to explain it to others and then actually explaining it on video, would foster learning and transfer. In both experiments, novices were instructed to study

  3. Training Self-Regulated Learning Skills with Video Modeling Examples: Do Task-Selection Skills Transfer?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raaijmakers, Steven F.; Baars, Martine; Schaap, Lydia; Paas, Fred; van Merriënboer, Jeroen; van Gog, Tamara

    2018-01-01

    Self-assessment and task-selection skills are crucial in self-regulated learning situations in which students can choose their own tasks. Prior research suggested that training with video modeling examples, in which another person (the model) demonstrates and explains the cyclical process of problem-solving task performance, self-assessment, and…

  4. Fuzzy interaction modelling for participants in innovation development: approaches and examples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CHERNOV Vladimir

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The article considers the interaction problems of the participants in innovative development at the regional level. Mathematical approaches and formulations for mode lling, such as the interaction on the basis of game approaches and the theory of fuzzy sets, have been proposed. In particular, the interaction model of innovative participants in the region, considered as a fuzzy coalition game, is presented. Its theoretical justification and an example of practical calculations are given. Further, the methodology of interaction modelling is considered , taking into account the motives of the participants in innovative development when forming fuzzy coalitions. An example of the corresponding calculations is also given. Also, the interaction model of "state-regions" in the interpretation of the fuzzy hierarchical game is proposed and described. The features of its solution are described and an example of calculations is presented.

  5. PATH1 self-teaching curriculum: example problems for Pathways-to-Man Model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Helton, J.C.; Finley, N.C.

    1982-10-01

    The Pathways-to-Man Model was developed at Sandia National Laboratories to represent the environmental movement and human uptake of radionuclides. This model is implemented by the computer program PATH1. The purpose of this document is to present a sequence of examples of facilitate use of the model and the computer program which implements it. Each example consists of a brief description of the problem under consideration, a discussion of the data cards required to input the problem to PATH1, and the resultant program output. These examples are intended for use in conjunction with the technical report which describes the model and the computer progam which implements it (NUREG/CR-1636, Vol 1; SAND78-1711). In addition, a sequence of appendices provides the following: a description of a surface hydrologic system used in constructing several of the examples, a discussion of mixed-cell models, and a discussion of selected mathematical topics related to the Pathways Model. A copy of the program PATH1 is included with the report

  6. Example Plant Model for an International Benchmark Study on DI and C PSA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shin, Sung Min; Park, Jinkyun; Jang, Wondea; Kang, Hyun Gook

    2016-01-01

    In this context the risk quantification due to these digitalized safety systems became more important. Although there are many challenges to address about this issue, many countries agreed with the necessity of research on reliability quantification of DI and C system. Based on the agreement of several countries, one of internal research association is planning a benchmark study on this issue by sharing an example digitalized plant model and let each participating member develop its own probabilistic safety assessment (PSA) model of digital I and C systems. Although the DI and C systems are being applied to NPPs, of which modeling method to quantify its reliability still ambiguous. Therefore, an internal research association is planning a benchmark study to address this issue by sharing an example digitalized plant model and let each member develop their own PSA model for DI and C systems

  7. Learning to Recognize Actions From Limited Training Examples Using a Recurrent Spiking Neural Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panda, Priyadarshini; Srinivasa, Narayan

    2018-01-01

    A fundamental challenge in machine learning today is to build a model that can learn from few examples. Here, we describe a reservoir based spiking neural model for learning to recognize actions with a limited number of labeled videos. First, we propose a novel encoding, inspired by how microsaccades influence visual perception, to extract spike information from raw video data while preserving the temporal correlation across different frames. Using this encoding, we show that the reservoir generalizes its rich dynamical activity toward signature action/movements enabling it to learn from few training examples. We evaluate our approach on the UCF-101 dataset. Our experiments demonstrate that our proposed reservoir achieves 81.3/87% Top-1/Top-5 accuracy, respectively, on the 101-class data while requiring just 8 video examples per class for training. Our results establish a new benchmark for action recognition from limited video examples for spiking neural models while yielding competitive accuracy with respect to state-of-the-art non-spiking neural models. PMID:29551962

  8. Learning perceptual aspects of diagnosis in medicine via eye movement modeling examples on patient video cases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jarodzka, Halszka; Balslev, Thomas; Holmqvist, Kenneth; Nyström, Marcus; Scheiter, Katharina; Gerjets, Peter; Eika, Berit

    2010-01-01

    Jarodzka, H., Balslev, T., Holmqvist, K., Nyström, M., Scheiter, K., Gerjets, P., & Eika, B. (2010). Learning perceptual aspects of diagnosis in medicine via eye movement modeling examples on patient video cases. In S. Ohlsson & R. Catrambone (Eds.), Proceedings of the 32nd Annual Conference of the

  9. Learning perceptual aspects of diagnosis in medicine via eye movement modeling examples on patient video cases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jarodzka, Halszka; Balslev, Thomas; Holmqvist, Kenneth; Nyström, Marcus; Scheiter, Katharina; Gerjets, Peter; Eika, Berit

    2010-01-01

    Jarodzka, H., Balslev, T., Holmqvist, K., Nyström, M., Scheiter, K., Gerjets, P., & Eika, B. (2010, August). Learning perceptual aspects of diagnosis in medicine via eye movement modeling examples on patient video cases. Poster presented at the 32nd Annual Conference of the Cognitive Science

  10. Models for mapping potential habitat at landscape scales: an example using northern spotted owls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    William C. McComb; Michael T. McGrath; Thomas A. Spies; David. Vesely

    2002-01-01

    We are assessing the potential for current and alternative policies in the Oregon Coast Range to affect habitat capability for a suite of forest resources. We provide an example of a spatially explicit habitat capability model for northern spotted owls (Strix occidentalis caurina)to illustrate the approach we are taking to assess potential changes...

  11. Challenges of current hydraulic modeling with three examples; Herausforderungen des heutigen wasserbaulichen Versuchswesens mit drei Beispielen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Cesare, Giovanni; Pfister, Michael; Daneshvari, Milad; Bieri, Martin [Ecole Polytechnique Federale de Lausanne (Switzerland). Lab. de Constructions Hydrauliques (EPFL-LCH)

    2012-07-01

    Most technical universities offering courses in civil engineering operate for meanwhile 100 years hydraulic laboratories. They investigate and optimize hydraulic structures related to dams, power plants and flood protection measures using physical modelling. These laboratories are usually fully booked today although this classical engineering approach was often predicted to disappear. The authors describe their experience and the new challenges in physical modelling, illustrated with three examples. (orig.)

  12. Our calibrated model has poor predictive value: An example from the petroleum industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carter, J.N.; Ballester, P.J.; Tavassoli, Z.; King, P.R.

    2006-01-01

    It is often assumed that once a model has been calibrated to measurements then it will have some level of predictive capability, although this may be limited. If the model does not have predictive capability then the assumption is that the model needs to be improved in some way. Using an example from the petroleum industry, we show that cases can exit where calibrated models have limited predictive capability. This occurs even when there is no modelling error present. It is also shown that the introduction of a small modelling error can make it impossible to obtain any models with useful predictive capability. We have been unable to find ways of identifying which calibrated models will have some predictive capacity and those which will not

  13. Our calibrated model has poor predictive value: An example from the petroleum industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carter, J.N. [Department of Earth Science and Engineering, Imperial College, London (United Kingdom)]. E-mail: j.n.carter@ic.ac.uk; Ballester, P.J. [Department of Earth Science and Engineering, Imperial College, London (United Kingdom); Tavassoli, Z. [Department of Earth Science and Engineering, Imperial College, London (United Kingdom); King, P.R. [Department of Earth Science and Engineering, Imperial College, London (United Kingdom)

    2006-10-15

    It is often assumed that once a model has been calibrated to measurements then it will have some level of predictive capability, although this may be limited. If the model does not have predictive capability then the assumption is that the model needs to be improved in some way. Using an example from the petroleum industry, we show that cases can exit where calibrated models have limited predictive capability. This occurs even when there is no modelling error present. It is also shown that the introduction of a small modelling error can make it impossible to obtain any models with useful predictive capability. We have been unable to find ways of identifying which calibrated models will have some predictive capacity and those which will not.

  14. Energy demand modelling: pointing out alternative energy sources. The example of industry in OECD countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Renou, P.

    1992-01-01

    This thesis studies energy demand and alternative energy sources in OECD countries. In the first part, the principle models usually used for energy demand modelling. In the second part, the author studies the flexible functional forms (translog, generalized Leontief, generalized quadratic, Fourier) to obtain an estimation of the production function. In the third part, several examples are given, chosen in seven countries (Usa, Japan, Federal Republic of Germany, France, United Kingdom, Italy, Canada). Energy systems analysis in these countries, can help to choose models and gives informations on alternative energies. 246 refs., 24 figs., 27 tabs

  15. Radiation transport phenomena and modeling. Part A: Codes; Part B: Applications with examples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lorence, L.J. Jr.; Beutler, D.E.

    1997-09-01

    This report contains the notes from the second session of the 1997 IEEE Nuclear and Space Radiation Effects Conference Short Course on Applying Computer Simulation Tools to Radiation Effects Problems. Part A discusses the physical phenomena modeled in radiation transport codes and various types of algorithmic implementations. Part B gives examples of how these codes can be used to design experiments whose results can be easily analyzed and describes how to calculate quantities of interest for electronic devices

  16. Model for safety reports including descriptive examples; Mall foer saekerhetsrapporter med beskrivande exempel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-12-01

    Several safety reports will be produced in the process of planning and constructing the system for disposal of high-level radioactive waste in Sweden. The present report gives a model, with detailed examples, of how these reports should be organized and what steps they should include. In the near future safety reports will deal with the encapsulation plant and the repository. Later reports will treat operation of the handling systems and the repository.

  17. Optimizing Prediction Using Bayesian Model Averaging: Examples Using Large-Scale Educational Assessments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaplan, David; Lee, Chansoon

    2018-01-01

    This article provides a review of Bayesian model averaging as a means of optimizing the predictive performance of common statistical models applied to large-scale educational assessments. The Bayesian framework recognizes that in addition to parameter uncertainty, there is uncertainty in the choice of models themselves. A Bayesian approach to addressing the problem of model uncertainty is the method of Bayesian model averaging. Bayesian model averaging searches the space of possible models for a set of submodels that satisfy certain scientific principles and then averages the coefficients across these submodels weighted by each model's posterior model probability (PMP). Using the weighted coefficients for prediction has been shown to yield optimal predictive performance according to certain scoring rules. We demonstrate the utility of Bayesian model averaging for prediction in education research with three examples: Bayesian regression analysis, Bayesian logistic regression, and a recently developed approach for Bayesian structural equation modeling. In each case, the model-averaged estimates are shown to yield better prediction of the outcome of interest than any submodel based on predictive coverage and the log-score rule. Implications for the design of large-scale assessments when the goal is optimal prediction in a policy context are discussed.

  18. Unified Probabilistic Models for Face Recognition from a Single Example Image per Person

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Pin Liao; Li Shen

    2004-01-01

    This paper presents a new technique of unified probabilistic models for face recognition from only one single example image per person. The unified models, trained on an obtained training set with multiple samples per person, are used to recognize facial images from another disjoint database with a single sample per person. Variations between facial images are modeled as two unified probabilistic models: within-class variations and between-class variations. Gaussian Mixture Models are used to approximate the distributions of the two variations and exploit a classifier combination method to improve the performance. Extensive experimental results on the ORL face database and the authors' database (the ICT-JDL database) including totally 1,750facial images of 350 individuals demonstrate that the proposed technique, compared with traditional eigenface method and some well-known traditional algorithms, is a significantly more effective and robust approach for face recognition.

  19. An example of a diesel generator model with fluctuating engine torque for transient analysis using XTAP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orie Sakamoto

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In remote site power systems with small diesel generators, weak distribution feeders with diesel generators may suffer from voltage and power fluctuations due to misfiring of the engine cylinder. An electromagnetic transient (EMT program named XTAP is considered to be useful to analyze these phenomena. In this study, a new diesel generator model with example fluctuating engine torque has been developed using XTAP for analyses of small power systems with those diesel engines. The configuration and verification results of the developed model are presented in the paper.

  20. Spatial Mixture Modelling for Unobserved Point Processes: Examples in Immunofluorescence Histology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Chunlin; Merl, Daniel; Kepler, Thomas B; West, Mike

    2009-12-04

    We discuss Bayesian modelling and computational methods in analysis of indirectly observed spatial point processes. The context involves noisy measurements on an underlying point process that provide indirect and noisy data on locations of point outcomes. We are interested in problems in which the spatial intensity function may be highly heterogenous, and so is modelled via flexible nonparametric Bayesian mixture models. Analysis aims to estimate the underlying intensity function and the abundance of realized but unobserved points. Our motivating applications involve immunological studies of multiple fluorescent intensity images in sections of lymphatic tissue where the point processes represent geographical configurations of cells. We are interested in estimating intensity functions and cell abundance for each of a series of such data sets to facilitate comparisons of outcomes at different times and with respect to differing experimental conditions. The analysis is heavily computational, utilizing recently introduced MCMC approaches for spatial point process mixtures and extending them to the broader new context here of unobserved outcomes. Further, our example applications are problems in which the individual objects of interest are not simply points, but rather small groups of pixels; this implies a need to work at an aggregate pixel region level and we develop the resulting novel methodology for this. Two examples with with immunofluorescence histology data demonstrate the models and computational methodology.

  1. Assessment of urban thermal stress by UTCI – experimental and modelling studies: an example from Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Błażejczyk, Krzysztof

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents a new approach to the study of the spatial variability of heat stress in urban areas. The Universal Thermal Climate Index UTCI was applied for this purpose. The spatial variability of UTCI at the local scale was studied using examples of urban areas with different sizes and geographical locations. The experimental research on urban heat stress was conducted in Warsaw. The research covers both differences between UTCI in urban to rural areas as well as the variation of heat stress within small residential districts in Warsaw. We found a very large and significant heat stress gradient between downtown Warsaw and rural stations. Spatial variability of UTCI was also observed in microclimate research. A modelling approach was presented based on examples from Warsaw, a city with a population of almost 2 million, as well as examples from several spa towns with populations of up to 40,000 located in various parts of Poland. GIS analysis (ArcGIS for Desktop and IDRISI was applied for this purpose.

  2. Impact of B physics on model building and vice versa: An example

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matias, Joaquim

    2003-01-01

    We motivate that the start-up of the B factories has opened a new precision flavour physics era, with an important effect on model building. Using as an example a left-right model with spontaneous CP violation, we will show how the inclusion of the new experimental data on B physics observables, together with the old observables coming from kaon physics, has significantly widened our capacity to strongly constrain the parameter space up to the point to exclude models. On the contrary, using certain hypotheses, mainly concerning isospin, we discuss how theory may help us to 'test' the data on charged, neutral and mixed B → πK decays once experimental errors will be reduced

  3. Biosphere transport of radionuclides. First modelling by using a selected example

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bundi, A.

    1984-12-01

    The dispersion of radionuclides in the biosphere and their uptake by man via various nutritional pathways is studied using a compartment model. The sample environment is the area of the lower Limmat and Aare valleys. General considerations of the compartmental description of the biosphere are made. The problem of the description of surface features, in particular soil, sediment and water, is studied in detail using the code BIOPATH. This study is intended to be an example of how a model of the biosphere could be constructed. It is shown that this is a reasonable model to calculate the spreading of radionuclides in the biosphere and that it indicates the relative significance of individual compartments, pathways and radionuclides. Calculated values of doses to man, however, should not be used as reference data for safety analyses. (author)

  4. Example models of building trust in supply chains of metalurgical enterprises

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Gajdzik

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The article is an introduction to the notion of building trust in supply chains. Foreign publishers offer many articles connected with trust and some of the most important ones were quoted in this article. In business world there are models based on trust of the companies which are connected with one another and such models are very popular. Trust becomes the key link in the organisation of supply chains. It is one of the basic mechanisms of action co-ordination which provides the correctness of functioning in the whole chain. The growth of importance of trust between the links of the chain is also observed in metallurgy sector. For the purpose of this publication example models of supply chains structures were constructed in which relationships are based on mutual trust with characteristics of the metallurgical sector taken into account.

  5. Examples of testing global identifiability of biological and biomedical models with the DAISY software.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saccomani, Maria Pia; Audoly, Stefania; Bellu, Giuseppina; D'Angiò, Leontina

    2010-04-01

    DAISY (Differential Algebra for Identifiability of SYstems) is a recently developed computer algebra software tool which can be used to automatically check global identifiability of (linear and) nonlinear dynamic models described by differential equations involving polynomial or rational functions. Global identifiability is a fundamental prerequisite for model identification which is important not only for biological or medical systems but also for many physical and engineering systems derived from first principles. Lack of identifiability implies that the parameter estimation techniques may not fail but any obtained numerical estimates will be meaningless. The software does not require understanding of the underlying mathematical principles and can be used by researchers in applied fields with a minimum of mathematical background. We illustrate the DAISY software by checking the a priori global identifiability of two benchmark nonlinear models taken from the literature. The analysis of these two examples includes comparison with other methods and demonstrates how identifiability analysis is simplified by this tool. Thus we illustrate the identifiability analysis of other two examples, by including discussion of some specific aspects related to the role of observability and knowledge of initial conditions in testing identifiability and to the computational complexity of the software. The main focus of this paper is not on the description of the mathematical background of the algorithm, which has been presented elsewhere, but on illustrating its use and on some of its more interesting features. DAISY is available on the web site http://www.dei.unipd.it/ approximately pia/. 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Radioecological modelling of the biosphere as illustrated by the example of the model area Oberbauenstock

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boehringer, J.; Fritschi, M.; Schwanner, I.; Resele, G.

    1986-06-01

    The biosphere model is the final link in the chain of radionuclide transport models used for radiation dose calculations for nuclear waste repositories. The dispersion of radionuclides from a low and intermediate level waste repository in the biosphere and their uptake by man through food pathways is investigated with a compartment model. The relevant biosphere parameters were based on the model site at Oberbauenstock and compiled as a model data set for further use in the biosphere modelling. Nuclide concentrations in the biosphere compartments and foodstuffs as well as annual individual radiation doses are calculated with the computer program BIOSPH. The present report contains a description of the model area and its subdivision into 4 compartments, a compilation of the relevant parameters and the simplifying assumptions that have been made, discussion of mathematical modelling of nuclide transport in the biosphere and of the calculation of the individual radiation doses, a technical description of the computer program BIOSPH and a detailed presentation of the results from the model calculations. (author)

  7. Example of emergency response model evaluation of studies using the Mathew/Adpic models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dickerson, M.H.; Lange, R.

    1986-04-01

    This report summarizes model evaluation studies conducted for the MATHEW/ADPIC transport and diffusion models during the past ten years. These models support the US Department of Energy Atmospheric Release Advisory Capability, an emergency response service for atmospheric releases of nuclear material. Field studies involving tracer releases used in these studies cover a broad range of meteorology, terrain and tracer release heights, the three most important aspects of estimating air concentration values resulting from airborne releases of toxic material. Results of these studies show that these models can estimate air concentration values within a factor of 2 20% to 50% of the time and a factor of 5 40% to 80% of the time. As the meterology and terrain become more complex and the release height of the tracer is increased, the accuracy of the model calculations degrades. This band of uncertainty appears to correctly represent the capability of these models at this time. A method for estimating angular uncertainty in the model calculations is described and used to suggest alternative methods for evaluating emergency response models

  8. Effect of Epistemic Uncertainty Modeling Approach on Decision-Making: Example using Equipment Performance Indicator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dana Kelly; Robert Youngblood

    2012-06-01

    Quantitative risk assessments are an integral part of risk-informed regulation of current and future nuclear plants in the U.S. The Bayesian approach to uncertainty, in which both stochastic and epistemic uncertainties are represented with precise probability distributions, is the standard approach to modeling uncertainties in such quantitative risk assessments. However, there are long-standing criticisms of the Bayesian approach to epistemic uncertainty from many perspectives, and a number of alternative approaches have been proposed. Among these alternatives, the most promising (and most rapidly developing) would appear to be the concept of imprecise probability. In this paper, we employ a performance indicator example to focus the discussion. We first give a short overview of the traditional Bayesian paradigm and review some its controversial aspects, for example, issues with so-called noninformative prior distributions. We then discuss how the imprecise probability approach treats these issues and compare it with two other approaches: sensitivity analysis and hierarchical Bayes modeling. We conclude with some practical implications for risk-informed decision making.

  9. Fuzzy Comprehensive Evaluation of Ecological Risk Based on Cloud Model: Taking Chengchao Iron Mine as Example

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruan, Jinghua; Chen, Yong; Xiao, Xiao; Yong, Gan; Huang, Ranran; Miao, Zuohua

    2018-01-01

    Aimed at the fuzziness and randomness during the evaluation process, this paper constructed a fuzzy comprehensive evaluation method based on cloud model. The evaluation index system was established based on the inherent risk, present level and control situation, which had been proved to be able to convey the main contradictions of ecological risk in mine on the macro level, and be advantageous for comparison among mines. The comment sets and membership functions improved by cloud model could reflect the uniformity of ambiguity and randomness effectively. In addition, the concept of fuzzy entropy was introduced to further characterize the fuzziness of assessments results and the complexities of ecological problems in target mine. A practical example in Chengchao Iron Mine evidenced that, the assessments results can reflect actual situations appropriately and provide a new theoretic guidance for comprehensive ecological risk evaluation of underground iron mine.

  10. River Loire levees hazard studies – CARDigues’ model principles and utilization examples on Blois levees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Durand Eduard

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Along the river Loire, in order to have a homogenous method to do specific risk assessment studies, a new model named CARDigues (for Levee Breach Hazard Calculation was developed in a partnership with DREAL Centre-Val de Loire (owner of levees, Cerema and Irstea. This model enables to approach the probability of failure on every levee sections and to integrate and cross different “stability” parameters such topography and included structures, geology and material geotechnical characteristics, hydraulic loads… and observations of visual inspections or instrumentation results considered as disorders (seepage, burrowing animals, vegetation, pipes, etc.. This model and integrated tool CARDigues enables to check for each levee section, the probability of appearance and rupture of five breaching scenarios initiated by: overflowing, internal erosion, slope instability, external erosion and uplift. It has been recently updated and has been applied on several levee systems by different contractors. The article presents the CARDigues model principles and its recent developments (version V28.00 with examples on river Loire and how it is currently used for a relevant and global levee system diagnosis and assessment. Levee reinforcement or improvement management is also a perspective of applications for this model CARDigues.

  11. An approximate Kalman filter for ocean data assimilation: An example with an idealized Gulf Stream model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukumori, Ichiro; Malanotte-Rizzoli, Paola

    1995-04-01

    A practical method of data assimilation for use with large, nonlinear, ocean general circulation models is explored. A Kaiman filter based on approximations of the state error covariance matrix is presented, employing a reduction of the effective model dimension, the error's asymptotic steady state limit, and a time-invariant linearization of the dynamic model for the error integration. The approximations lead to dramatic computational savings in applying estimation theory to large complex systems. We examine the utility of the approximate filter in assimilating different measurement types using a twin experiment of an idealized Gulf Stream. A nonlinear primitive equation model of an unstable east-west jet is studied with a state dimension exceeding 170,000 elements. Assimilation of various pseudomeasurements are examined, including velocity, density, and volume transport at localized arrays and realistic distributions of satellite altimetry and acoustic tomography observations. Results are compared in terms of their effects on the accuracies of the estimation. The approximate filter is shown to outperform an empirical nudging scheme used in a previous study. The examples demonstrate that useful approximate estimation errors can be computed in a practical manner for general circulation models.

  12. Estimating Parameters in Physical Models through Bayesian Inversion: A Complete Example

    KAUST Repository

    Allmaras, Moritz

    2013-02-07

    All mathematical models of real-world phenomena contain parameters that need to be estimated from measurements, either for realistic predictions or simply to understand the characteristics of the model. Bayesian statistics provides a framework for parameter estimation in which uncertainties about models and measurements are translated into uncertainties in estimates of parameters. This paper provides a simple, step-by-step example-starting from a physical experiment and going through all of the mathematics-to explain the use of Bayesian techniques for estimating the coefficients of gravity and air friction in the equations describing a falling body. In the experiment we dropped an object from a known height and recorded the free fall using a video camera. The video recording was analyzed frame by frame to obtain the distance the body had fallen as a function of time, including measures of uncertainty in our data that we describe as probability densities. We explain the decisions behind the various choices of probability distributions and relate them to observed phenomena. Our measured data are then combined with a mathematical model of a falling body to obtain probability densities on the space of parameters we seek to estimate. We interpret these results and discuss sources of errors in our estimation procedure. © 2013 Society for Industrial and Applied Mathematics.

  13. A model for critical review of literature - with vaginismus as an example.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wijma, Barbro; Engman, Maria; Wijma, Klaas

    2007-03-01

    In this article we present a behavioral model for the critical review of the literature within a certain research field, using vaginismus as an example. We searched the literature for the title word "vaginismus" and analyzed to what extent the articles dealt with the following seven categories: prevention, etiology, maintaining factors, consequences, object of intervention, method of intervention, and method of evaluation. In each category we scrutinized the content of the articles for biological, psychological, social, relational, and gender aspects. Quality requirements of etiological and treatment studies were then added and the results presented in a "quality-adjusted" model. There were 102 articles during 1985-2001, of which 22 were included in the review. Most of the articles deal with supposed predisposing factors of etiology and different aspects of intervention. Only a few articles discuss precipitating factors, maintaining factors, or consequences of the problem. No article had a gender analysis. Only 11 of the articles fulfilled some of the proposed quality criteria. We found the behavioral model with quality requirements useful for classifying and evaluating the literature of vaginismus. The model may also be used as a guide to design methodologically good studies.

  14. Developing Tools to Test the Thermo-Mechanical Models, Examples at Crustal and Upper Mantle Scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Pourhiet, L.; Yamato, P.; Burov, E.; Gurnis, M.

    2005-12-01

    Testing geodynamical model is never an easy task. Depending on the spatio-temporal scale of the model, different testable predictions are needed and no magic reciepe exist. This contribution first presents different methods that have been used to test themo-mechanical modeling results at upper crustal, lithospheric and upper mantle scale using three geodynamical examples : the Gulf of Corinth (Greece), the Western Alps, and the Sierra Nevada. At short spatio-temporal scale (e.g. Gulf of Corinth). The resolution of the numerical models is usually sufficient to catch the timing and kinematics of the faults precisely enough to be tested by tectono-stratigraphic arguments. In active deforming area, microseismicity can be compared to the effective rheology and P and T axes of the focal mechanism can be compared with local orientation of the major component of the stress tensor. At lithospheric scale the resolution of the models doesn't permit anymore to constrain the models by direct observations (i.e. structural data from field or seismic reflection). Instead, synthetic P-T-t path may be computed and compared to natural ones in term of rate of exhumation for ancient orogens. Topography may also help but on continent it mainly depends on erosion laws that are complicated to constrain. Deeper in the mantle, the only available constrain are long wave length topographic data and tomographic "data". The major problem to overcome now at lithospheric and upper mantle scale, is that the so called "data" results actually from inverse models of the real data and that those inverse model are based on synthetic models. Post processing P and S wave velocities is not sufficient to be able to make testable prediction at upper mantle scale. Instead of that, direct wave propagations model must be computed. This allows checking if the differences between two models constitute a testable prediction or not. On longer term, we may be able to use those synthetic models to reduce the residue

  15. It's All a Matter of Perspective: Viewing First-Person Video Modeling Examples Promotes Learning of an Assembly Task

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiorella, Logan; van Gog, Tamara; Hoogerheide, Vincent; Mayer, Richard E.

    2017-01-01

    The present study tests whether presenting video modeling examples from the learner's (first-person) perspective promotes learning of an assembly task, compared to presenting video examples from a third-person perspective. Across 2 experiments conducted in different labs, university students viewed a video showing how to assemble an 8-component…

  16. Theoretical Model of Professional Competence Development in Dual-Specialty Students (On the Example of the "History, Religious Studies" Specialty)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karimova, A. E.; Amanova, A. S.; Sadykova, A. M.; Kuzembaev, N. E.; Makisheva, A. T.; Kurmangazina, G. Zh.; Sakenov, Janat

    2016-01-01

    The article explores the significant problem of developing a theoretical model of professional competence development in dual-specialty students (on the example of the "History, Religious studies" specialty). In order to validate the specifics of the professional competence development in dual-specialty students (on the example of the…

  17. Revisiting an interdisciplinary hydrological modelling project. A socio-hydrology (?) example from the early 2000s

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seidl, Roman; Barthel, Roland

    2016-04-01

    Interdisciplinary scientific and societal knowledge plays an increasingly important role in global change research. Also, in the field of water resources interdisciplinarity as well as cooperation with stakeholders from outside academia have been recognized as important. In this contribution, we revisit an integrated regional modelling system (DANUBIA), which was developed by an interdisciplinary team of researchers and relied on stakeholder participation in the framework of the GLOWA-Danube project from 2001 to 2011 (Mauser and Prasch 2016). As the model was developed before the current increase in literature on participatory modelling and interdisciplinarity, we ask how a socio-hydrology approach would have helped and in what way it would have made the work different. The present contribution firstly presents the interdisciplinary concept of DANUBIA, mainly with focus on the integration of human behaviour in a spatially explicit, process-based numerical modelling system (Roland Barthel, Janisch, Schwarz, Trifkovic, Nickel, Schulz, and Mauser 2008; R. Barthel, Nickel, Meleg, Trifkovic, and Braun 2005). Secondly, we compare the approaches to interdisciplinarity in GLOWA-Danube with concepts and ideas presented by socio-hydrology. Thirdly, we frame DANUBIA and a review of key literature on socio-hydrology in the context of a survey among hydrologists (N = 184). This discussion is used to highlight gaps and opportunities of the socio-hydrology approach. We show that the interdisciplinary aspect of the project and the participatory process of stakeholder integration in DANUBIA were not entirely successful. However, important insights were gained and important lessons were learnt. Against the background of these experiences we feel that in its current state, socio-hydrology is still lacking a plan for knowledge integration. Moreover, we consider necessary that socio-hydrology takes into account the lessons learnt from these earlier examples of knowledge integration

  18. Visual momentum: an example of cognitive models applied to interface design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woods, D.D.

    1982-01-01

    The growth of computer applications has radically changed the nature of the man-machine interface. Through increased automation, the nature of the human's task has shifted from an emphasis on perceptual-motor skills to an emphasis on cognitive activities (e.g., problem solving and decision making). The result is a need to improve the cognitive coupling of person and machine. The goal of this paper is to describe how knowledge from cognitive psychology can be used to provide guidance to display system designers and to solve human performance problems in person-machine systems. The mechanism is to explore one example of a principle of man-machine interaction - visual momentum - that was developed on the basis of a general model of human front-end cognitive processing

  19. Functional Modeling of Perspectives on the Example of Electric Energy Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heussen, Kai

    2009-01-01

    The integration of energy systems is a proven approach to gain higher overall energy efficiency. Invariably, this integration will come with increasing technical complexity through the diversification of energy resources and their functionality. With the integration of more fluctuating renewable ...... which enables a reflection on system integration requirements independent of particular technologies. The results are illustrated on examples related to electric energy systems.......The integration of energy systems is a proven approach to gain higher overall energy efficiency. Invariably, this integration will come with increasing technical complexity through the diversification of energy resources and their functionality. With the integration of more fluctuating renewable...... energies higher system flexibility will also be necessary. One of the challenges ahead is the design of control architecture to enable the flexibility and to handle the diversity. This paper presents an approach to model heterogeneous energy systems and their control on the basis of purpose and functions...

  20. Multistage modeling of protein dynamics with monomeric Myc oncoprotein as an example.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jiaojiao; Dai, Jin; He, Jianfeng; Niemi, Antti J; Ilieva, Nevena

    2017-03-01

    We propose to combine a mean-field approach with all-atom molecular dynamics (MD) into a multistage algorithm that can model protein folding and dynamics over very long time periods yet with atomic-level precision. As an example, we investigate an isolated monomeric Myc oncoprotein that has been implicated in carcinomas including those in colon, breast, and lungs. Under physiological conditions a monomeric Myc is presumed to be an example of intrinsically disordered proteins that pose a serious challenge to existing modeling techniques. We argue that a room-temperature monomeric Myc is in a dynamical state, it oscillates between different conformations that we identify. For this we adopt the Cα backbone of Myc in a crystallographic heteromer as an initial ansatz for the monomeric structure. We construct a multisoliton of the pertinent Landau free energy to describe the Cα profile with ultrahigh precision. We use Glauber dynamics to resolve how the multisoliton responds to repeated increases and decreases in ambient temperature. We confirm that the initial structure is unstable in isolation. We reveal a highly degenerate ground-state landscape, an attractive set towards which Glauber dynamics converges in the limit of vanishing ambient temperature. We analyze the thermal stability of this Glauber attractor using room-temperature molecular dynamics. We identify and scrutinize a particularly stable subset in which the two helical segments of the original multisoliton align in parallel next to each other. During the MD time evolution of a representative structure from this subset, we observe intermittent quasiparticle oscillations along the C-terminal α helix, some of which resemble a translating Davydov's Amide-I soliton. We propose that the presence of oscillatory motion is in line with the expected intrinsically disordered character of Myc.

  1. Coupling SPH and thermochemical models of planets: Methodology and example of a Mars-sized body

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golabek, G. J.; Emsenhuber, A.; Jutzi, M.; Asphaug, E. I.; Gerya, T. V.

    2018-02-01

    Giant impacts have been suggested to explain various characteristics of terrestrial planets and their moons. However, so far in most models only the immediate effects of the collisions have been considered, while the long-term interior evolution of the impacted planets was not studied. Here we present a new approach, combining 3-D shock physics collision calculations with 3-D thermochemical interior evolution models. We apply the combined methods to a demonstration example of a giant impact on a Mars-sized body, using typical collisional parameters from previous studies. While the material parameters (equation of state, rheology model) used in the impact simulations can have some effect on the long-term evolution, we find that the impact angle is the most crucial parameter for the resulting spatial distribution of the newly formed crust. The results indicate that a dichotomous crustal pattern can form after a head-on collision, while this is not the case when considering a more likely grazing collision. Our results underline that end-to-end 3-D calculations of the entire process are required to study in the future the effects of large-scale impacts on the evolution of planetary interiors.

  2. Socio-Hydrology Modelling for an Uncertain Future, with Examples from the USA and Canada (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, D. D.; Gober, P.; Sampson, D. A.; Quay, R.; Kirkwood, C.

    2013-12-01

    Socio-hydrology brings an interest in human values, markets, social organizations and public policy to the traditional emphasis of water science on climate, hydrology, toxicology,and ecology. It also conveys a decision focus in the form of decision support tools, engagement, and new knowledge about the science-policy interface. This paper demonstrates how policy decisions and human behavior can be better integrated into climate and hydrological models to improve their usefulness for support in decision making. Examples from the Southwest USA and Western Canada highlight uncertainties, vulnerabilities, and critical tradeoffs facing water decision makers in the face of rapidly changing environmental and societal conditions. Irreducible uncertainties in downscaled climate and hydrological models limit the usefulness of climate-driven, predict-and-plan methods of water resource planning and management. Thus, it is argued that such methods should be replaced by approaches that use exploratory modelling, scenario planning, and risk assessment in which the emphasis is on managing uncertainty rather than on reducing it.

  3. Statistical modeling of volume of alcohol exposure for epidemiological studies of population health: the US example

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gmel Gerrit

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Alcohol consumption is a major risk factor in the global burden of disease, with overall volume of exposure as the principal underlying dimension. Two main sources of data on volume of alcohol exposure are available: surveys and per capita consumption derived from routine statistics such as taxation. As both sources have significant problems, this paper presents an approach that triangulates information from both sources into disaggregated estimates in line with the overall level of per capita consumption. Methods A modeling approach was applied to the US using data from a large and representative survey, the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions. Different distributions (log-normal, gamma, Weibull were used to model consumption among drinkers in subgroups defined by sex, age, and ethnicity. The gamma distribution was used to shift the fitted distributions in line with the overall volume as derived from per capita estimates. Implications for alcohol-attributable fractions were presented, using liver cirrhosis as an example. Results The triangulation of survey data with aggregated per capita consumption data proved feasible and allowed for modeling of alcohol exposure disaggregated by sex, age, and ethnicity. These models can be used in combination with risk relations for burden of disease calculations. Sensitivity analyses showed that the gamma distribution chosen yielded very similar results in terms of fit and alcohol-attributable mortality as the other tested distributions. Conclusions Modeling alcohol consumption via the gamma distribution was feasible. To further refine this approach, research should focus on the main assumptions underlying the approach to explore differences between volume estimates derived from surveys and per capita consumption figures.

  4. Dynamics of development and dispersal in sessile microbial communities: examples from Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Pseudomonas putida model biofilms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klausen, M.; Gjermansen, Morten; Kreft, J.-U.

    2006-01-01

    Surface-associated microbial communities in many cases display dynamic developmental patterns. Model biofilms formed by Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Pseudomonas putida in laboratory flow-chamber setups represent examples of such behaviour. Dependent on the experimental conditions the bacteria...

  5. Construction of predictive promoter models on the example of antibacterial response of human epithelial cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wingender Edgar

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Binding of a bacteria to a eukaryotic cell triggers a complex network of interactions in and between both cells. P. aeruginosa is a pathogen that causes acute and chronic lung infections by interacting with the pulmonary epithelial cells. We use this example for examining the ways of triggering the response of the eukaryotic cell(s, leading us to a better understanding of the details of the inflammatory process in general. Results Considering a set of genes co-expressed during the antibacterial response of human lung epithelial cells, we constructed a promoter model for the search of additional target genes potentially involved in the same cell response. The model construction is based on the consideration of pair-wise combinations of transcription factor binding sites (TFBS. It has been shown that the antibacterial response of human epithelial cells is triggered by at least two distinct pathways. We therefore supposed that there are two subsets of promoters activated by each of them. Optimally, they should be "complementary" in the sense of appearing in complementary subsets of the (+-training set. We developed the concept of complementary pairs, i.e., two mutually exclusive pairs of TFBS, each of which should be found in one of the two complementary subsets. Conclusions We suggest a simple, but exhaustive method for searching for TFBS pairs which characterize the whole (+-training set, as well as for complementary pairs. Applying this method, we came up with a promoter model of antibacterial response genes that consists of one TFBS pair which should be found in the whole training set and four complementary pairs. We applied this model to screening of 13,000 upstream regions of human genes and identified 430 new target genes which are potentially involved in antibacterial defense mechanisms.

  6. More examples of structure formation in the Lemaitre-Tolman model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krasinski, Andrzej; Hellaby, Charles

    2004-01-01

    In continuing our earlier research, we find the formulas needed to determine the arbitrary functions in the Lemaitre-Tolman (LT) model when the evolution proceeds from a given initial velocity distribution to a final state that is determined either by a density distribution or by a velocity distribution. In each case the initial and final distributions uniquely determine the LT model that evolves between them, and the sign of the energy function is determined by a simple inequality. We also show how the final density profile can be more accurately fitted to observational data than was done in our previous paper. We work out new numerical examples of the evolution: the creation of a galaxy cluster out of different velocity distributions, reflecting the current data on temperature anisotropies of cosmic microwave background, the creation of the same out of different density distributions, and the creation of a void. The void in its present state is surrounded by a nonsingular wall of high density

  7. Bounds on the Cabibbo-Kobayashi-Maskawa matrix elements vertical strokeVtdvertical stroke and vertical strokeVtsvertical stroke from experiments on B0-anti B0 mixings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ali, A.; Eijk, B. van; Have, I. ten

    1987-01-01

    We present a theoretical analysis of the process panti p → μ ± μ ± X, μ ± X', μ + μ - X' due to heavy flavour production and decays, based on perturbative quantum chromodynamics, QCD. We find reasonable agreement for the inclusive rates and distributions between the UA1 measurement and our calculations, with the exception of the dimuon ratio R(±±/+--), which is found typically a factor ≅ 1.8 smaller than the UA1 data. We interpret this excess in terms of B s 0 -anti B s 0 mixing and obtain a lower bound on the mixing probability, ρ s > 0.14. In the standard model this implies a lower bound on the Cabibbo-Kobayashi-Maskawa matrix element vertical strokeV ts vertical stroke given the top quark mass. The lower bound on vertical strokeV ts vertical stroke and the upper bound on vertical strokeV td vertical stroke, obtained from the (upper bound) B d 0 -anti B d 0 mixing probability, ρ d , from e + e - experiments are worked out. (orig.)

  8. Example-Dependent Cost-Sensitive Classification with Applications in Financial Risk Modeling and Marketing Analytics

    OpenAIRE

    Correa Bahnsen, Alejandro

    2015-01-01

    Several real-world binary classification problems are example-dependent cost-sensitive in nature, where the costs due to misclassification vary between examples and not only within classes. However, standard binary classification methods do not take these costs into account, and assume a constant cost of misclassification errors. This approach is not realistic in many real-world applications. For example in credit card fraud detection, failing to detect a fraudulent transaction may have an ec...

  9. Modular Approaches to Earth Science Scientific Computing: 3D Electromagnetic Induction Modeling as an Example

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tandon, K.; Egbert, G.; Siripunvaraporn, W.

    2003-12-01

    We are developing a modular system for three-dimensional inversion of electromagnetic (EM) induction data, using an object oriented programming approach. This approach allows us to modify the individual components of the inversion scheme proposed, and also reuse the components for variety of problems in earth science computing howsoever diverse they might be. In particular, the modularity allows us to (a) change modeling codes independently of inversion algorithm details; (b) experiment with new inversion algorithms; and (c) modify the way prior information is imposed in the inversion to test competing hypothesis and techniques required to solve an earth science problem. Our initial code development is for EM induction equations on a staggered grid, using iterative solution techniques in 3D. An example illustrated here is an experiment with the sensitivity of 3D magnetotelluric inversion to uncertainties in the boundary conditions required for regional induction problems. These boundary conditions should reflect the large-scale geoelectric structure of the study area, which is usually poorly constrained. In general for inversion of MT data, one fixes boundary conditions at the edge of the model domain, and adjusts the earth?s conductivity structure within the modeling domain. Allowing for errors in specification of the open boundary values is simple in principle, but no existing inversion codes that we are aware of have this feature. Adding a feature such as this is straightforward within the context of the modular approach. More generally, a modular approach provides an efficient methodology for setting up earth science computing problems to test various ideas. As a concrete illustration relevant to EM induction problems, we investigate the sensitivity of MT data near San Andreas Fault at Parkfield (California) to uncertainties in the regional geoelectric structure.

  10. Examples of Video to Communicate Scientific Findings to Non-Scientists-Bayesian Ecological Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moorman, M.; Harned, D. A.; Cuffney, T.; Qian, S.

    2011-12-01

    The U.S Geological Survey (USGS) National Water-Quality Assessment Program (NAWQA) provides information about (1) water-quality conditions and how those conditions vary locally, regionally, and nationally, (2) water-quality trends, and (3) factors that affect those conditions. As part of the NAWQA Program, the Effects of Urbanization on Stream Ecosystems (EUSE) study examined the vulnerability and resilience of streams to urbanization. Completion of the EUSE study has resulted in over 20 scientific publications. Video podcasts are being used in addition to these publications to communicate the relevance of these scientific findings to more general audiences such as resource managers, educational groups, public officials, and the general public. An example of one of the podcasts is a film about the results of modeling the effects urbanization on stream ecology. The film describes some of the results of the EUSE ecological modeling effort and the advantages of the Bayesian and multi-level statistical modeling approaches, while relating the science to fly fishing. The complex scientific discussion combined with the lighter, more popular activity of fly fishing leads to an entertaining forum while educating viewers about a complex topic. This approach is intended to represent the scientists as interesting people with diverse interests. Video can be an effective scientific communication tool for presenting scientific findings to a broad audience. The film is available for access from the EUSE website (http://water.usgs.gov/nawqa/urban/html/podcasts.html). Additional films are planned to be released in 2012 on other USGS project results and programs.

  11. Biosphere modeling in waste disposal safety assessments -- An example using the terrestrial-aquatic model of the environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klos, R.A.

    1998-01-01

    Geological disposal of radioactive wastes is intended to provide long-term isolation of potentially harmful radionuclides from the human environment and the biosphere. The long timescales involved pose unique problems for biosphere modeling because there are considerable uncertainties regarding the state of the biosphere into which releases might ultimately occur. The key to representing the biosphere in long-timescale assessments is the flexibility with which those aspects of the biosphere that are of relevance to dose calculations are represented, and this comes from the way in which key biosphere features, events, and processes are represented in model codes. How this is done in contemporary assessments is illustrated by the Terrestrial-Aquatic Model of the Environment (TAME), an advanced biosphere model for waste disposal assessments recently developed in Switzerland. A numerical example of the release of radionuclides from a subterranean source to an inland valley biosphere is used to illustrate how biosphere modeling is carried out and the practical ways in which meaningful quantitative results can be achieved. The results emphasize the potential for accumulation of radionuclides in the biosphere over long timescales and also illustrate the role of parameter values in such modeling

  12. Example-based learning: Effects of model expertise in relation to student expertise

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    T. Boekhout (Teun); T.A.J.M. van Gog (Tamara); M.W.J. van de Wiel (Margje); D. Gerards-Last (Dorien); F. Geraets (Frank)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractBackground. Worked examples are very effective for novice learners. They typically present a written-out ideal (didactical) solution for learners to study. nAims. This study used worked examples of patient history taking in physiotherapy that presented a non-didactical solution (i.e.,

  13. A model for predicting embankment slope failures in clay-rich soils; A Louisiana example

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, S. F.

    2015-12-01

    A model for predicting embankment slope failures in clay-rich soils; A Louisiana example It is well known that smectite-rich soils significantly reduce the stability of slopes. The question is how much smectite in the soil causes slope failures. A study of over 100 sites in north and south Louisiana, USA, compared slopes that failed during a major El Nino winter (heavy rainfall) in 1982-1983 to similar slopes that did not fail. Soils in the slopes were tested for per cent clay, liquid limits, plasticity indices and semi-quantitative clay mineralogy. Slopes with the High Risk for failure (85-90% chance of failure in 8-15 years after construction) contained soils with a liquid limit > 54%, a plasticity index over 29%, and clay contents > 47%. Slopes with an Intermediate Risk (55-50% chance of failure in 8-15 years) contained soils with a liquid limit between 36-54%, plasticity index between 16-19%, and clay content between 32-47%. Slopes with a Low Risk chance of failure (soils with a liquid limit plasticity index soil characteristics before construction. If the soils fall into the Low Risk classification, construct the embankment normally. If the soils fall into the High Risk classification, one will need to use lime stabilization or heat treatments to prevent failures. Soils in the Intermediate Risk class will have to be evaluated on a case by case basis.

  14. Incorporating microbiota data into epidemiologic models: examples from vaginal microbiota research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van de Wijgert, Janneke H; Jespers, Vicky

    2016-05-01

    Next generation sequencing and quantitative polymerase chain reaction technologies are now widely available, and research incorporating these methods is growing exponentially. In the vaginal microbiota (VMB) field, most research to date has been descriptive. The purpose of this article is to provide an overview of different ways in which next generation sequencing and quantitative polymerase chain reaction data can be used to answer clinical epidemiologic research questions using examples from VMB research. We reviewed relevant methodological literature and VMB articles (published between 2008 and 2015) that incorporated these methodologies. VMB data have been analyzed using ecologic methods, methods that compare the presence or relative abundance of individual taxa or community compositions between different groups of women or sampling time points, and methods that first reduce the complexity of the data into a few variables followed by the incorporation of these variables into traditional biostatistical models. To make future VMB research more clinically relevant (such as studying associations between VMB compositions and clinical outcomes and the effects of interventions on the VMB), it is important that these methods are integrated with rigorous epidemiologic methods (such as appropriate study designs, sampling strategies, and adjustment for confounding). Crown Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Examples of New Models Applied in Selected Simulation Systems with Respect to Database

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ignaszak Z.

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The tolerance of damage rule progressively meets the approval in the design casting parts procedures. Therefore, there were appeared the new challenges and expectations for permanent development of process virtualization in the mechanical engineering industry. Virtualization is increasingly developed on the stage of product design and materials technologies optimization. Increasing expectations of design and process engineers regarding the practical effectiveness of applied simulation systems with new proposed up-grades modules is observed. The purpose is to obtain simulation tools allowing the most possible realistic prognosis of the casting structure, including indication, with the highest possible probability, places in the casting that are endangered with the possibility of shrinkage- and gas porosity formation. This 3D map of discontinuities and structure transformed in local mechanical characteristics are used to calculate the local stresses and safety factors. The needs of tolerance of damage and new approach to evaluate the quality of such prognosis must be defined. These problems of validation of new models/modules used to predict the shrinkage- and gas porosity including the chosen structure parameters in the example of AlSi7 alloy are discussed in the paper.

  16. Examples of New Models Applied in Selected Simulation Systems with Respect to Database

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Ignaszak

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The tolerance of damage rule progressively meets the approval in the design casting parts procedures. Therefore, there were appeared thenew challenges and expectations for permanent development of process virtualization in the mechanical engineering industry.Virtualization is increasingly developed on the stage of product design and materials technologies optimization. Increasing expectations of design and process engineers regarding the practical effectiveness of applied simulation systems with new proposed up-grades modules is observed. The purpose is to obtain simulation tools allowing the most possible realistic prognosis of the casting structure, including indication, with the highest possible probability, places in the casting that are endangered with the possibility of shrinkage– and gas porosity formation. This 3D map of discontinuities and structure transformed in local mechanical characteristics are used to calculate the local stresses and safety factors. The needs of tolerance of damage and new approach to evaluate the quality of such prognosis must be defined. These problems of validation of new models/modules used to predict the shrinkage– and gas porosity including the chosen structure parameters in the example of AlSi7 alloy are discussed in the paper.

  17. The Fundamentals of Economic Dynamics and Policy Analyses : Learning through Numerical Examples. Part Ⅳ. Overlapping Generations Model

    OpenAIRE

    Futamura, Hiroshi

    2015-01-01

    An overlapping generations model is an applied dynamic general equilibrium model for which the lifecycle models are employed as main analytical tools. At any point in time, there are overlapping generations consisting of individuals born this year, individuals born last year, individuals born two years ago, and so on. As we saw in the analysis of lifecycle models, each individual makes an optimal consumption-saving plan to maximize lifetime utility over her/his lifecycle. For example, an indi...

  18. A discussion support model for a regional dairy-pasture system with an example from Reunion island

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nidumolu, U.B.; Lubbers, M.T.M.H.; Alary, V.; Lecomte, P.; Keulen, van H.

    2011-01-01

    Reunion Island, situated in the Indian Ocean, presents a unique case study for modelling regional bio-economic parameters of the dairy industry. It is a good example of a closed system for several parameters of the model such as movement of animals, labour, consumption and available land. The

  19. Knowledge discovery in large model datasets in the marine environment: the THREDDS Data Server example

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Bergamasco

    2012-06-01

    specifications for many of the different kinds of data used by the scientific community, such as grids, profiles, time series, swath data. These datatypes are aligned the NetCDF Climate and Forecast (CF Metadata Conventions and with Climate Science Modelling Language (CSML; CF-compliant NetCDF files and GRIB files can be read directly with no modification, while non compliant files can be modified to meet appropriate metadata requirements. Once standardized in the CDM, the TDS makes datasets available through a series of web services such as OPeNDAP or Open Geospatial Consortium Web Coverage Service (WCS, allowing the data users to easily obtain small subsets from large datasets, and to quickly visualize their content by using tools such as GODIVA2 or Integrated Data Viewer (IDV. In addition, an ISO metadata service is available through the TDS that can be harvested by catalogue broker services (e.g. GI-cat to enable distributed search across federated data servers. Example of TDS datasets can be accessed at the CNR-ISMAR Venice site http://tds.ve.ismar.cnr.it:8080/thredds/catalog.html.

  20. ACTRIS aerosol vertical profile data and observations: potentiality and first examples of integrated studies with models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mona, Lucia; Benedetti, Angela; D'Amico, Giuseppe; Myhre, Cathrine Lund; Schulz, Michael; Wandinger, Ulla; Laj, Paolo; Pappalardo, Gelsomina

    2016-04-01

    . The potentiality of the new EARLINET data products and first examples of integrated studies with models will be presented at the conference. Acknowledgments: ACTRIS2 Research Infrastructure Project is funded by the European Union's Horizon 2020 research and innovation programme under the grant agreement n. 654169 and previously under FP7 grant agreement n. 262254.

  1. Marginal and Random Intercepts Models for Longitudinal Binary Data with Examples from Criminology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Jeffrey D.; Loeber, Rolf; Farrington, David P.

    2009-01-01

    Two models for the analysis of longitudinal binary data are discussed: the marginal model and the random intercepts model. In contrast to the linear mixed model (LMM), the two models for binary data are not subsumed under a single hierarchical model. The marginal model provides group-level information whereas the random intercepts model provides…

  2. Attention to the Model's Face When Learning from Video Modeling Examples in Adolescents with and without Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Wermeskerken, Margot; Grimmius, Bianca; van Gog, Tamara

    2018-01-01

    We investigated the effects of seeing the instructor's (i.e., the model's) face in video modeling examples on students' attention and their learning outcomes. Research with university students suggested that the model's face attracts students' attention away from what the model is doing, but this did not hamper learning. We aimed to investigate…

  3. A few examples go a long way: Constructing query models from elaborate query formulations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Balog, K.; Weerkamp, W.; de Rijke, M.; Myaeng, S.-H.; Oard, D.W.; Sebastiani, F.; Chua, T.-S.; Leong, M.-K.

    2008-01-01

    We address a specific enterprise document search scenario, where the information need is expressed in an elaborate manner. In our scenario, information needs are expressed using a short query (of a few keywords) together with examples of key reference pages. Given this setup, we investigate how the

  4. Example book

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Donnat, Ph.; Treimany, C.; Gouedard, C.; Morice, O.

    1998-06-01

    This document presents some examples which were used for debugging the code. It seemed useful to write these examples onto a book to be sure the code would not regret; to give warranties for the code's functionality; to propose some examples to illustrate the possibilities and the limits of Miro. (author)

  5. Volcanic Plume Elevation Model Derived From Landsat 8: examples on Holuhraun (Iceland) and Mount Etna (Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Michele, Marcello; Raucoules, Daniel; Arason, Þórður; Spinetti, Claudia; Corradini, Stefano; Merucci, Luca

    2016-04-01

    The retrieval of both height and velocity of a volcanic plume is an important issue in volcanology. As an example, it is known that large volcanic eruptions can temporarily alter the climate, causing global cooling and shifting precipitation patterns; the ash/gas dispersion in the atmosphere, their impact and lifetime around the globe, greatly depends on the injection altitude. Plume height information is critical for ash dispersion modelling and air traffic security. Furthermore, plume height during explosive volcanism is the primary parameter for estimating mass eruption rate. Knowing the plume altitude is also important to get the correct amount of SO2 concentration from dedicated spaceborne spectrometers. Moreover, the distribution of ash deposits on ground greatly depends on the ash cloud altitude, which has an impact on risk assessment and crisis management. Furthermore, a spatially detailed plume height measure could be used as a hint for gas emission rate estimation and for ash plume volume researches, which both have an impact on climate research, air quality assessment for aviation and finally for the understanding of the volcanic system itself as ash/gas emission rates are related to the state of pressurization of the magmatic chamber. Today, the community mainly relies on ground based measurements but often they can be difficult to collect as by definition volcanic areas are dangerous areas (presence of toxic gases) and can be remotely situated and difficult to access. Satellite remote sensing offers a comprehensive and safe way to estimate plume height. Conventional photogrammetric restitution based on satellite imagery fails in precisely retrieving a plume elevation model as the plume own velocity induces an apparent parallax that adds up to the standard parallax given by the stereoscopic view. Therefore, measurements based on standard satellite photogrammeric restitution do not apply as there is an ambiguity in the measurement of the plume position

  6. The Model-Building Process in Introductory College Geography: An Illustrative Example

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cadwallader, Martin

    1978-01-01

    Illustrates the five elements of conceptual models by developing a model of consumer behavior in choosing among alternative supermarkets. The elements are: identifying the problem, constructing a conceptual model, translating it into a symbolic model, operationalizing the model, and testing. (Author/AV)

  7. Linear spline multilevel models for summarising childhood growth trajectories: A guide to their application using examples from five birth cohorts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howe, Laura D; Tilling, Kate; Matijasevich, Alicia; Petherick, Emily S; Santos, Ana Cristina; Fairley, Lesley; Wright, John; Santos, Iná S; Barros, Aluísio Jd; Martin, Richard M; Kramer, Michael S; Bogdanovich, Natalia; Matush, Lidia; Barros, Henrique; Lawlor, Debbie A

    2016-10-01

    Childhood growth is of interest in medical research concerned with determinants and consequences of variation from healthy growth and development. Linear spline multilevel modelling is a useful approach for deriving individual summary measures of growth, which overcomes several data issues (co-linearity of repeat measures, the requirement for all individuals to be measured at the same ages and bias due to missing data). Here, we outline the application of this methodology to model individual trajectories of length/height and weight, drawing on examples from five cohorts from different generations and different geographical regions with varying levels of economic development. We describe the unique features of the data within each cohort that have implications for the application of linear spline multilevel models, for example, differences in the density and inter-individual variation in measurement occasions, and multiple sources of measurement with varying measurement error. After providing example Stata syntax and a suggested workflow for the implementation of linear spline multilevel models, we conclude with a discussion of the advantages and disadvantages of the linear spline approach compared with other growth modelling methods such as fractional polynomials, more complex spline functions and other non-linear models. © The Author(s) 2013.

  8. [Quality system in cardiology: practical example to develop an organizational model for management certification without bureaucracy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colonna, Paolo; Pasini, Evasio; Pitocchi, Oreste; Bovenzi, Francesco; Sorino, Margherita; de Luca, Italo

    2003-04-01

    It is a difficult task to define practical guidelines and a pragmatic achievement for the new document of the Italian Ministry of Health for structures of the national health system obtaining a quality system according to the ISO 9000 standard. The present article illustrates the different steps to accomplish the quality management in our cardiology department, recently internationally certified, and it gives several practical examples of the path followed in the different sections of the department to obtain the best management of all the Operative Units, identifying customer requests and measuring customer satisfaction.

  9. Atmospheric inverse modeling with known physical bounds: an example from trace gas emissions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. M. Miller

    2014-02-01

    the relative merits of each. This paper investigates the applicability of several approaches to bounded inverse problems. A common method of data transformations is found to unrealistically skew estimates for the examined example application. The method of Lagrange multipliers and two Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC methods yield more realistic and accurate results. In general, the examined MCMC approaches produce the most realistic result but can require substantial computational time. Lagrange multipliers offer an appealing option for large, computationally intensive problems when exact uncertainty bounds are less central to the analysis. A synthetic data inversion of US anthropogenic methane emissions illustrates the strengths and weaknesses of each approach.

  10. Political careers in Belgium: an example of the integrated career model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ine Vanlangenakker

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Several countries have undergone a regionalization in recent years followed by a professionalization of regional politics. This led to research on career patterns in multi-level states, with attention for the relationship between the regional and national level. Stolz (2005 found evidence for four types of career patterns. In this article it is argued that the Belgian regions of Flanders and Wallonia are both examples of the ‘integrated careers’ ideal type since the introduction of directly elected regional parliaments in 1995. Level-hopping data (1995-2010 show that there is one integrated career arena and that there is no dominant direction towards the national level.

  11. Visual Basic, Excel-based fish population modeling tool - The pallid sturgeon example

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moran, Edward H.; Wildhaber, Mark L.; Green, Nicholas S.; Albers, Janice L.

    2016-02-10

    The model presented in this report is a spreadsheet-based model using Visual Basic for Applications within Microsoft Excel (http://dx.doi.org/10.5066/F7057D0Z) prepared in cooperation with the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers and U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service. It uses the same model structure and, initially, parameters as used by Wildhaber and others (2015) for pallid sturgeon. The difference between the model structure used for this report and that used by Wildhaber and others (2015) is that variance is not partitioned. For the model of this report, all variance is applied at the iteration and time-step levels of the model. Wildhaber and others (2015) partition variance into parameter variance (uncertainty about the value of a parameter itself) applied at the iteration level and temporal variance (uncertainty caused by random environmental fluctuations with time) applied at the time-step level. They included implicit individual variance (uncertainty caused by differences between individuals) within the time-step level.The interface developed for the model of this report is designed to allow the user the flexibility to change population model structure and parameter values and uncertainty separately for every component of the model. This flexibility makes the modeling tool potentially applicable to any fish species; however, the flexibility inherent in this modeling tool makes it possible for the user to obtain spurious outputs. The value and reliability of the model outputs are only as good as the model inputs. Using this modeling tool with improper or inaccurate parameter values, or for species for which the structure of the model is inappropriate, could lead to untenable management decisions. By facilitating fish population modeling, this modeling tool allows the user to evaluate a range of management options and implications. The goal of this modeling tool is to be a user-friendly modeling tool for developing fish population models useful to natural resource

  12. Estimating Parameters in Physical Models through Bayesian Inversion: A Complete Example

    KAUST Repository

    Allmaras, Moritz; Bangerth, Wolfgang; Linhart, Jean Marie; Polanco, Javier; Wang, Fang; Wang, Kainan; Webster, Jennifer; Zedler, Sarah

    2013-01-01

    All mathematical models of real-world phenomena contain parameters that need to be estimated from measurements, either for realistic predictions or simply to understand the characteristics of the model. Bayesian statistics provides a framework

  13. Examples of EOS Variables as compared to the UMM-Var Data Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cantrell, Simon; Lynnes, Chris

    2016-01-01

    In effort to provide EOSDIS clients a way to discover and use variable data from different providers, a Unified Metadata Model for Variables is being created. This presentation gives an overview of the model and use cases we are handling.

  14. Regional analyses of labor markets and demography: a model based Norwegian example.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stambol, L S; Stolen, N M; Avitsland, T

    1998-01-01

    The authors discuss the regional REGARD model, developed by Statistics Norway to analyze the regional implications of macroeconomic development of employment, labor force, and unemployment. "In building the model, empirical analyses of regional producer behavior in manufacturing industries have been performed, and the relation between labor market development and regional migration has been investigated. Apart from providing a short description of the REGARD model, this article demonstrates the functioning of the model, and presents some results of an application." excerpt

  15. Testing gradual and speciational models of evolution in extant taxa: the example of ratites

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Laurin, M.; Gussekloo, S.W.S.; Marjanovic, D.; Legendre, L.; Cubo, J.

    2012-01-01

    Ever since Eldredge and Gould proposed their model of punctuated equilibria, evolutionary biologists have debated how often this model is the best description of nature and how important it is compared to the more gradual models of evolution expected from natural selection and the neo-Darwinian

  16. Teachers' Temporary Support and Worked-Out Examples as Elements of Scaffolding in Mathematical Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tropper, Natalie; Leiss, Dominik; Hänze, Martin

    2015-01-01

    Empirical findings show that students have manifold difficulties when dealing with mathematical modeling problems. Accordingly, approaches for supporting students in modeling-based learning environments have to be investigated. In the research presented here, we adopted a scaffolding perspective on teaching modeling with the aim of both providing…

  17. Comparative Analysis of Smart Meters Deployment Business Models on the Example of the Russian Federation Markets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daminov, Ildar; Tarasova, Ekaterina; Andreeva, Tatyana; Avazov, Artur

    2016-02-01

    This paper presents the comparison of smart meter deployment business models to determine the most suitable option providing smart meters deployment. Authors consider 3 main business model of companies: distribution grid company, energy supplier (energosbyt) and metering company. The goal of the article is to compare the business models of power companies from massive smart metering roll out in power system of Russian Federation.

  18. Conceptual and Developmental Analysis of Mental Models: An Example with Complex Change Problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poirier, Louise

    Defining better implicit models of children's actions in a series of situations is of paramount importance to understanding how knowledge is constructed. The objective of this study was to analyze the implicit mental models used by children in complex change problems to understand the stability of the models and their evolution with the child's…

  19. Growth and yield models in Spain: Historical overview, Contemporary Examples and perspectives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bravo, F.; Alvarez-Gonzalez, J. G.; Rio, M. del; Barrio, M.; Bonet, J. a.; Bravo-Oviedo, A.; Calama, R.; Castedo-Dorado, F.; Crecente-Campo, F.; Condes, S.; Dieguez-Aranda, U.; Gonzalez-Martinez, S. C.; Lizarralde, I.; Nanos, N.; Madrigal, A.; Martinez-Millan, F. J.; Montero, G.; Ordonez, C.; Palahi, M.; Pique, M.; Rodriguez, F.; Rodriguez-Soalleiro, R.; Rojo, A.; Ruiz-Peinado, R.; Sanchez-Gonzalez, M.; Trasobares, A.; Vazquez-Pique, J.

    2011-07-01

    In this paper we present a review of forest models developed in Spain in recent years for both timber and non timber production and forest dynamics (regeneration, mortality,..). Models developed are whole stand, size (diameter) class and individual-tree. The models developed to date have been developed using data from permanent plots, experimental sites and the National Forest Inventory. In this paper we show the different sub-models developed so far and the friendly use software. Main perspectives of forest modelling in Spain are presented. (Author) 107 refs.

  20. Importance of ocean circulation in ecological modeling: An example from the North Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skogen, Morten D.; Moll, Andreas

    2005-09-01

    There is an increasing number of ecological models for the North Sea around. Skogen and Moll (2000) [Skogen, M.D., Moll, A. 2000. Interannual variability of the North Sea primary production: comparison from two model studies. Continental Shelf Research 20 (2), 129-151] compared the interannual variability of the North Sea primary production using two state-of-the-art ecological models, NORWECOM and ECOHAM1. Their conclusion was that the two models agreed on an annual mean primary production, its variability and the timing and size of the peak production. On the other hand, there was a low (even negative dependent of area) correlation in the production in different years between the two models. In the present work, these conclusions are brought further. To try to better understand the observed differences between the two models, the two ecological models are run in an identical physical setting. With such a set-up also the interannual variability between the two models is in agreement, and it is concluded that the single most important factor for a reliable modeling of phytoplankton and nutrient distributions and transports within the North Sea is a proper physical model.

  1. Examining speed versus selection in connectivity models using elk migration as an example

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brennan, Angela; Hanks, Ephraim M.; Merkle, Jerod A.; Cole, Eric K.; Dewey, Sarah R.; Courtemanch, Alyson B.; Cross, Paul C.

    2018-01-01

    ContextLandscape resistance is vital to connectivity modeling and frequently derived from resource selection functions (RSFs). RSFs estimate relative probability of use and tend to focus on understanding habitat preferences during slow, routine animal movements (e.g., foraging). Dispersal and migration, however, can produce rarer, faster movements, in which case models of movement speed rather than resource selection may be more realistic for identifying habitats that facilitate connectivity.ObjectiveTo compare two connectivity modeling approaches applied to resistance estimated from models of movement rate and resource selection.MethodsUsing movement data from migrating elk, we evaluated continuous time Markov chain (CTMC) and movement-based RSF models (i.e., step selection functions [SSFs]). We applied circuit theory and shortest random path (SRP) algorithms to CTMC, SSF and null (i.e., flat) resistance surfaces to predict corridors between elk seasonal ranges. We evaluated prediction accuracy by comparing model predictions to empirical elk movements.ResultsAll connectivity models predicted elk movements well, but models applied to CTMC resistance were more accurate than models applied to SSF and null resistance. Circuit theory models were more accurate on average than SRP models.ConclusionsCTMC can be more realistic than SSFs for estimating resistance for fast movements, though SSFs may demonstrate some predictive ability when animals also move slowly through corridors (e.g., stopover use during migration). High null model accuracy suggests seasonal range data may also be critical for predicting direct migration routes. For animals that migrate or disperse across large landscapes, we recommend incorporating CTMC into the connectivity modeling toolkit.

  2. Mindful Self-Hypnosis for Self-Care: An Integrative Model and Illustrative Case Example.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elkins, Gary R; Roberts, R Lynae; Simicich, Lauren

    2018-07-01

    The combination of mindfulness and self-hypnosis could provide a tool that is easily implemented by individuals who want to care for their well-being in times of high stress. Each discipline has been shown to be effective in relieving stress, and integration could further facilitate change while creating a tool that is highly accessible. There are many similarities between the two practices, such as focusing of attention and the emphasis on mind-body connection. However, important distinctions in psychological (e.g., self-monitoring) and neural (e.g., functional connectivity) elements are noted. A theory of how integrated mindful self-hypnosis may create change is presented. An illustrative case example of mindful self-hypnosis practice and a self-hypnosis transcript are provided.

  3. The application of equilibrium models to incidence situations using the example of the exposure pathway human milk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steiner, Martin; Karcher, Klaus; Nosske, Dietmar

    2012-01-01

    The radiation exposure after a short-term release of radioactive substances is often calculated assuming equilibrium conditions. An example is that of the German Incident Calculation Bases for nuclear power plants with pressurized water reactors. Here, the contamination of human milk is calculated using transfer factors. Applying this equilibrium model to incident situations raises the question whether baby's radiation exposure is adequately assessed. This contribution shows that compliance with the relevant dose limits of paragraph 49 of the German Radiation Protection Ordinance is ensured for design basis accidents on the assumption that the hypothetical breastfeeding period starts at the beginning of the activity release. Comparative analyses were performed against the biokinetic models applied by ICRP for radiation protection purposes, taking the reference nuclides 137 Cs, 90 Sr, 131 I, 241 Am and long-lived plutonium isotopes as examples. (orig.)

  4. The application of equilibrium models to incidence situations using the example of the exposure pathway human milk

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steiner, Martin; Karcher, Klaus; Nosske, Dietmar [Bundesamt fuer Strahlenschutz, Oberschleissheim (Germany)

    2012-06-15

    The radiation exposure after a short-term release of radioactive substances is often calculated assuming equilibrium conditions. An example is that of the German Incident Calculation Bases for nuclear power plants with pressurized water reactors. Here, the contamination of human milk is calculated using transfer factors. Applying this equilibrium model to incident situations raises the question whether baby's radiation exposure is adequately assessed. This contribution shows that compliance with the relevant dose limits of paragraph 49 of the German Radiation Protection Ordinance is ensured for design basis accidents on the assumption that the hypothetical breastfeeding period starts at the beginning of the activity release. Comparative analyses were performed against the biokinetic models applied by ICRP for radiation protection purposes, taking the reference nuclides {sup 137}Cs, {sup 90}Sr, {sup 131}I, {sup 241}Am and long-lived plutonium isotopes as examples. (orig.)

  5. Genomic selection models for directional dominance: an example for litter size in pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varona, Luis; Legarra, Andrés; Herring, William; Vitezica, Zulma G

    2018-01-26

    The quantitative genetics theory argues that inbreeding depression and heterosis are founded on the existence of directional dominance. However, most procedures for genomic selection that have included dominance effects assumed prior symmetrical distributions. To address this, two alternatives can be considered: (1) assume the mean of dominance effects different from zero, and (2) use skewed distributions for the regularization of dominance effects. The aim of this study was to compare these approaches using two pig datasets and to confirm the presence of directional dominance. Four alternative models were implemented in two datasets of pig litter size that consisted of 13,449 and 11,581 records from 3631 and 2612 sows genotyped with the Illumina PorcineSNP60 BeadChip. The models evaluated included (1) a model that does not consider directional dominance (Model SN), (2) a model with a covariate b for the average individual homozygosity (Model SC), (3) a model with a parameter λ that reflects asymmetry in the context of skewed Gaussian distributions (Model AN), and (4) a model that includes both b and λ (Model Full). The results of the analysis showed that posterior probabilities of a negative b or a positive λ under Models SC and AN were higher than 0.99, which indicate positive directional dominance. This was confirmed with the predictions of inbreeding depression under Models Full, SC and AN, that were higher than in the SN Model. In spite of differences in posterior estimates of variance components between models, comparison of models based on LogCPO and DIC indicated that Model SC provided the best fit for the two datasets analyzed. Our results confirmed the presence of positive directional dominance for pig litter size and suggested that it should be taken into account when dominance effects are included in genomic evaluation procedures. The consequences of ignoring directional dominance may affect predictions of breeding values and can lead to biased

  6. Theory and Examples of Mathematical Modeling for Fine Weave Pierced Fabric

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ZHOU Yu-bo

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available A mathematical abstraction and three-dimensional modeling method of three-dimensional woven fabric structure was developed for the fine weave pierced fabric, taking parametric continuity splines as the track function of tow. Based on the significant parameters of fine weave pierced fabric measured by MicroCT, eight kinds of the three-dimensional digital models of the fabric structure were established with two kinds of tow sections and four kinds of tow trajectory characteristic functions. There is a good agreement between the three-dimensional digital models and real fabric by comparing their structures and porosities. This mathematical abstraction and three-dimensional modeling method can be applied in micro models for sub unit cell and macro models for macroscopic scale fabrics, with high adaptability.

  7. What role can simulation model predictions play in environmental decisions: carbon dioxide as an example

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Emanuel, W.R.

    1979-01-01

    Frequently, when an environmental issue requiring quantitative analysis surfaces, the development of a model synthesizing all aspects of the problem and applicable at each stage of the decision process is proposed. A more desirable alternative is to generate models specifically designed to meet the requirements of each level in decision making and which can be adapted in response to the changing status of the environmental issue. Various models of the global carbon cycle constructed to predict levels of CO 2 in the atmosphere as a result of man's activities are described to illustrate this point. In summary, the progression of models developed to analyze the global carbon cycle in resolving the CO 2 /climate issue indicates the changing character of models depending on the immediate role they play in environmental decision making. The dominant and successful role served by models in the carbon cycle problem points to the desirability of this flexible approach

  8. Structural-equation models of migration: an example from the Upper Midwest USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cadwallader, M

    1985-01-01

    "To date, most migration models have been specified in terms of a single equation, whereby a set of regional characteristics are used to predict migration rates for various kinds of spatial units. These models are inadequate in at least two respects. First, they omit any causal links between the explanatory variables, thus ignoring indirect effects between these variables and migration. Second, they ignore the possibility of reciprocal causation, or feedback effects, between migration and the explanatory variables...." The author uses data for State Economic Areas to construct a path model and simultaneous-equation model to identify both indirect and feedback effects on migration in the Upper Midwestern United States. "On the basis of the path model, it is suggested that the direct effects of many variables on migration are at least partially offset by the indirect effects, whereas the simultaneous-equation model emphasizes the reciprocal relationship between income and migration." excerpt

  9. Selected examples of practical approaches for the assessment of model reliability - parameter uncertainty analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hofer, E.; Hoffman, F.O.

    1987-02-01

    The uncertainty analysis of model predictions has to discriminate between two fundamentally different types of uncertainty. The presence of stochastic variability (Type 1 uncertainty) necessitates the use of a probabilistic model instead of the much simpler deterministic one. Lack of knowledge (Type 2 uncertainty), however, applies to deterministic as well as to probabilistic model predictions and often dominates over uncertainties of Type 1. The term ''probability'' is interpreted differently in the probabilistic analysis of either type of uncertainty. After these discriminations have been explained the discussion centers on the propagation of parameter uncertainties through the model, the derivation of quantitative uncertainty statements for model predictions and the presentation and interpretation of the results of a Type 2 uncertainty analysis. Various alternative approaches are compared for a very simple deterministic model

  10. Comparative Analysis of Smart Meters Deployment Business Models on the Example of the Russian Federation Markets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daminov Ildar

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the comparison of smart meter deployment business models to determine the most suitable option providing smart meters deployment. Authors consider 3 main business model of companies: distribution grid company, energy supplier (energosbyt and metering company. The goal of the article is to compare the business models of power companies from massive smart metering roll out in power system of Russian Federation.

  11. A Realistic Process Example for MIMO MPC based on Autoregressive Models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huusom, Jakob Kjøbsted; Jørgensen, John Bagterp

    2014-01-01

    for advanced control design develo pment which may be used by non experts in control theory. This paper presents and illustra tes the use of a simple methodology to design an offset-free MPC based on ARX models. Hence a mecha nistic process model is not required. The forced circulation evaporator by Newell...... and Lee is used to illustrate the offset-free MPC based on ARX models for a nonlinear multivariate process ....

  12. Uncertainty modelling and analysis of environmental systems: a river sediment yield example

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Keesman, K.J.; Koskela, J.; Guillaume, J.H.; Norton, J.P.; Croke, B.; Jakeman, A.

    2011-01-01

    Abstract: Throughout the last decades uncertainty analysis has become an essential part of environmental model building (e.g. Beck 1987; Refsgaard et al., 2007). The objective of the paper is to introduce stochastic and setmembership uncertainty modelling concepts, which basically differ in the

  13. Entrepreneural adaptation processes. An industry-geographic working model, illustrated by the example of Saarbergwerke AG

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doerrenbaecher, P.

    1992-01-01

    The study has two goals: Solutions based in industrial geography and chronogeography are to be synthesized in order to develop a model of entrepreneurial adaptation processes. On the basis of this model, the development of Saarbergwerke AG in the first phase of the coal crisis (1957-1962) is reconstructed as an entrepreneurial adaptation process. (orig.) [de

  14. Probabilistic risk models for multiple disturbances: an example of forest insects and wildfires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haiganoush K. Preisler; Alan A. Ager; Jane L. Hayes

    2010-01-01

    Building probabilistic risk models for highly random forest disturbances like wildfire and forest insect outbreaks is a challenging. Modeling the interactions among natural disturbances is even more difficult. In the case of wildfire and forest insects, we looked at the probability of a large fire given an insect outbreak and also the incidence of insect outbreaks...

  15. Examples of mixed-effects modeling with crossed random effects and with binomial data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Quené, H.; van den Bergh, H.

    2008-01-01

    Psycholinguistic data are often analyzed with repeated-measures analyses of variance (ANOVA), but this paper argues that mixed-effects (multilevel) models provide a better alternative method. First, models are discussed in which the two random factors of participants and items are crossed, and not

  16. The Vroom and Yetton Normative Leadership Model Applied to Public School Case Examples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sample, John

    This paper seeks to familiarize school administrators with the Vroom and Yetton Normative Leadership model by presenting its essential components and providing original case studies for its application to school settings. The five decision-making methods of the Vroom and Yetton model, including two "autocratic," two…

  17. Practical examples of modeling choices and their consequences for risk assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Although benchmark dose (BMD) modeling has become the preferred approach to identifying a point of departure (POD) over the No Observed Adverse Effect Level, there remain challenges to its application in human health risk assessment. BMD modeling, as currently implemented by the...

  18. Models for high cell density bioreactors must consider biomass volume fraction: Cell recycle example.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monbouquette, H G

    1987-06-01

    Intrinsic models, which take into account biomass volume fraction, must be formulated for adequate simulation of high-biomass-density fermentations with cell recycle. Through comparison of corresponding intrinsic and non-intrinsic models in dimensionless form, constraints for non-intrinsic model usage in terms of biokinetic and fermenter operating parameters can be identified a priori. Analysis of a simple product-inhibition model indicates that the non-intrinsic approach is suitable only when the attainable biomass volume fraction in the fermentation broth is less than about 0.10. Inappropriate application of a non-intrinsic model can lead to gross errors in calculated substrate and product concentrations, substrate conversion, and volumetric productivity.

  19. Models for high cell density bioreactors must consider biomass volume fraction: cell recycle example

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Monbouquette, H.G.

    1987-06-01

    Intrinsic models, which take into account biomass volume fraction, must be formulated for adequate simulation of high-biomass-density fermentations with cell recycle. Through comparison of corresponding intrinsic and non-intrinsic models in dimensionless form, constraints for non-intrinsic model usage in terms of biokinetic and fermenter operating parameters can be identified a priori. Analysis of a simple product-inhibition model indicates that the non-intrinsic approach is suitable only when the attainable biomass volume fraction in the fermentation broth is less than about 0.10. Inappropriate application of a non-intrinsic model can lead to gross errors in calculated substrate and product concentrations, substrate conversion, and volumetric productivity. (Refs. 14).

  20. Modelling of tracer-kinetic results using xylene isomerization as an example

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bauer, F.J.; Dermietzel, J.; Roesseler, M.; Koch, H.

    1976-01-01

    The analysis of results from differential or/and integral reactor experiments often admits the interpretation of a chemical reaction in several ways. In addition, the use of mathematical methods for the model selection and planning of experiments is rendered more difficult by great confidence intervals of the ascertained model parameters. The application of radioactively labelled molecules results in improving the knowledge of reaction mechanisms as well as the assessment of parameters obtained. This is shown on the basis of modelling the isomerization of xylene. (author)

  1. Examples of modelling IP in AEM data: synthetic and real data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Viezzoli, Andrea; Kaminskiy, Vladislav; Fiandaca, Gianluca

    There have been multiple evidences in the literature in the past several years of what has been referred to as IP effect in the Time Domain Airborne EM data (TDEM). This phenomenon is known to be responsible for incorrect inversion modelling of electrical resistivity, lower interpreted depth...... of investigation and lost information about chargeability of the subsurface as well as about other valuable parameters. Historically there have been many suggestions to account for the IP effect using the Cole-Cole model. In current paper we are showing the possibility to extract IP information from airborne TDEM...... with both high electrical conductivity and in resistive environments. Furthermore, modelling of IP effects allows corrected resistivity models. The Amakinskaya kimberlite pipe results highlight the relevance of chargeability for kimberlite exploration....

  2. Cellular automaton modeling of biological pattern formation characterization, examples, and analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Deutsch, Andreas

    2017-01-01

    This text explores the use of cellular automata in modeling pattern formation in biological systems. It describes several mathematical modeling approaches utilizing cellular automata that can be used to study the dynamics of interacting cell systems both in simulation and in practice. New in this edition are chapters covering cell migration, tissue development, and cancer dynamics, as well as updated references and new research topic suggestions that reflect the rapid development of the field. The book begins with an introduction to pattern-forming principles in biology and the various mathematical modeling techniques that can be used to analyze them. Cellular automaton models are then discussed in detail for different types of cellular processes and interactions, including random movement, cell migration, adhesive cell interaction, alignment and cellular swarming, growth processes, pigment cell pattern formation, tissue development, tumor growth and invasion, and Turing-type patterns and excitable media. In ...

  3. A Risk Assessment Example for Soil Invertebrates Using Spatially Explicit Agent-Based Models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reed, Melissa; Alvarez, Tania; Chelinho, Sonia

    2016-01-01

    Current risk assessment methods for measuring the toxicity of plant protection products (PPPs) on soil invertebrates use standardized laboratory conditions to determine acute effects on mortality and sublethal effects on reproduction. If an unacceptable risk is identified at the lower tier...... population models for ubiquitous soil invertebrates (collembolans and earthworms) as refinement options in current risk assessment. Both are spatially explicit agent-based models (ABMs), incorporating individual and landscape variability. The models were used to provide refined risk assessments for different...... application scenarios of a hypothetical pesticide applied to potato crops (full-field spray onto the soil surface [termed “overall”], in-furrow, and soil-incorporated pesticide applications). In the refined risk assessment, the population models suggest that soil invertebrate populations would likely recover...

  4. A coarse resolution North Atlantic ocean circulation model: an intercomparison study with a paleoceanographic example

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dan Seidov

    Full Text Available Paleoreconstructions suggest that during the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM the North Atlantic circulation was noticeably different from its present state. However, the glacial salt conveyor belt is believed to be similar to the present-day's conveyor, albeit weaker and shallower because of an increased freshwater flux in high-latitudes. We present here the investigation of the conveyor operation based on ocean circulation modelling using two numerical models in parallel. The GFDL primitive equation model and a planetary geostrophic model are employed to address the problem of the paleocirculation modelling in cases of uncertain and sparse data comprising the glacial surface boundary conditions. The role of different simplifications that may be used in the ocean climate studies, including the role of grid resolution, bottom topography, coast-line, etc., versus glacial-interglacial changes of the ocean surface climatology is considered. The LGM reverse conveyor gyre appeared to be the most noticeable feature of the glacial-to-interglacial alteration of the ocean circulation. The reversed upper-ocean conveyor, weaker and subducting 'normal' conveyor in the intermediate depths, and the change of the deep-ocean return flow route are robust signatures of the glacial North Atlantic climate. The results are found to be 'model-independent' and fairly insensitive to all factors other than the onset of the glacial surface conditions.

  5. A coarse resolution North Atlantic ocean circulation model: an intercomparison study with a paleoceanographic example

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Seidov

    1996-02-01

    Full Text Available Paleoreconstructions suggest that during the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM the North Atlantic circulation was noticeably different from its present state. However, the glacial salt conveyor belt is believed to be similar to the present-day's conveyor, albeit weaker and shallower because of an increased freshwater flux in high-latitudes. We present here the investigation of the conveyor operation based on ocean circulation modelling using two numerical models in parallel. The GFDL primitive equation model and a planetary geostrophic model are employed to address the problem of the paleocirculation modelling in cases of uncertain and sparse data comprising the glacial surface boundary conditions. The role of different simplifications that may be used in the ocean climate studies, including the role of grid resolution, bottom topography, coast-line, etc., versus glacial-interglacial changes of the ocean surface climatology is considered. The LGM reverse conveyor gyre appeared to be the most noticeable feature of the glacial-to-interglacial alteration of the ocean circulation. The reversed upper-ocean conveyor, weaker and subducting 'normal' conveyor in the intermediate depths, and the change of the deep-ocean return flow route are robust signatures of the glacial North Atlantic climate. The results are found to be 'model-independent' and fairly insensitive to all factors other than the onset of the glacial surface conditions.

  6. Design based Investigation on Construction of Mathematical Modelling Problems: Example of Financial Content

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melike TURAL SÖNMEZ

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to examine the construction of mathematical modelling problems process in the content of financial literacy. It is also aimed to create design proposals for construction of mathematical modelling problems. A design based research method was used in this study. The participants were three seventh grade students, six finance experts and nine mathematics education experts. Data collection tools were transcription of video and tapes group discussions, presentations and worksheets during mathematical modelling activities, and participant experts’ feedback form about mathematical modelling problems. There were three stages in this study. First stage was application of preliminary study. This stage gave information about convenience of problems to grade level, students’ timing for solution of problems, clarity of problems and students’ background about content. In second stage, finance experts commented on convenience of mathematical modelling problems to financial literacy standards. In third stage, mathematics education experts commented on convenience of problems to students’ grade level, mathematical modelling principles and seventh grade mathematics lesson objectives. They also gave suggestion on progress. The frequency value of theme in feedback forms was calculated and experts’ expressions were given as citation. It was given suggestion about stages and application of the design guide

  7. Predictive power of theoretical modelling of the nuclear mean field: examples of improving predictive capacities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dedes, I.; Dudek, J.

    2018-03-01

    We examine the effects of the parametric correlations on the predictive capacities of the theoretical modelling keeping in mind the nuclear structure applications. The main purpose of this work is to illustrate the method of establishing the presence and determining the form of parametric correlations within a model as well as an algorithm of elimination by substitution (see text) of parametric correlations. We examine the effects of the elimination of the parametric correlations on the stabilisation of the model predictions further and further away from the fitting zone. It follows that the choice of the physics case and the selection of the associated model are of secondary importance in this case. Under these circumstances we give priority to the relative simplicity of the underlying mathematical algorithm, provided the model is realistic. Following such criteria, we focus specifically on an important but relatively simple case of doubly magic spherical nuclei. To profit from the algorithmic simplicity we chose working with the phenomenological spherically symmetric Woods–Saxon mean-field. We employ two variants of the underlying Hamiltonian, the traditional one involving both the central and the spin orbit potential in the Woods–Saxon form and the more advanced version with the self-consistent density-dependent spin–orbit interaction. We compare the effects of eliminating of various types of correlations and discuss the improvement of the quality of predictions (‘predictive power’) under realistic parameter adjustment conditions.

  8. Exxon Nuclear Company WREM-based generic PWR ECCS evaluation model. Appendix C to Volume II. Yankee Rowe example problem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1975-01-01

    Core 12, of the Yankee Rowe (YR), plant is to be licensed with the Exxon Nuclear Co. PWR Evaluation Model. This appendix presents methodology and results of an example calculation for the YR plant using the ENC Evaluation Model. This example problem is for the double-ended guillotine cold leg break with a discharge coefficient of 0.6 assuming loss of one emergency diesel. The NSSS supplier has determined this case to give the highest peak cladding temperature (PCT) for Core 11. The YR example problem was performed to determine the maximum acceptable local peak heating rate (Kw/ft). The blowdown was performed with beginning-of-cycle (BOC) ENC fuel at full power with the hot assembly power corresponding to the design peak rod heating rate of 12.9 Kw/ft. The HOT CHANNEL, TOODEE2, and RELAP4-FLOOD runs were made at several reduced hot assembly radial peaks, holding axial peaking constant, until an acceptable PCT was achieved. This procedure results in a PCT of 1834 0 F at a reduced peak linear heating rate of 10.5 Kw/ft for the ENC fuel at BOC. (auth)

  9. PHARMACOLOGICAL IN VITRO MODELS IN PRE-CLINICAL DRUG TESTING - EXAMPLE OF hSERT TRANSFECTED HUMAN EMBRYONIC KIDNEY CELLS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihajlo Jakovljević

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Preclinical drug testing should be considered an important stage during examinations of its efficiency and safety in any likely indication observed. Purpose of the process is acquisition of substantial amount of particular drug-related data before approaching clinical trials in humans. Historical preclinical testing relied on available testing in microbe cultures and animal models. During recent decades laboratory techniques of human cell lines cultivation have been developed and improved. These provide unique possibility of drug acting mechanism testing in a simplified environment lacking basic homeostatic mechanisms. Some examples of these are measuring drug impact to biochemical transport, signaling or anabolic processes. Humane cell lines of embrional kidney 293 are an example of easy-to-grow and disseminate and quite endurable cell line. This methodological article notices some of the details of HEK293 cells cultivation and breading. We took transfection as an example of in vitro model creation for drug testing. Transfection refers to gene introduction into HEK293 cellular genome in order to achieve membrane expression of coded protein. In our case it would be human serotonin transporter. Article contains description of one particular methodological approach in measuring human serotonin transporter expression. The role and importance of serotonin pump in affective disorders genesis was already widely recognized. Aim of the paper was to emphasize feasibility of cell cultivation and its advantages in comparison with alternative traditional methods.

  10. On the biopsychosocial model: the example of political economic causes of diabetes in the Marshall Islands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamada, S; Palafox, N

    2001-10-01

    Biomedical reductionism, the unwritten theory underlying the practice of medicine, is being supplanted by the biopsychosocial model. The explanatory power of the biopsychosocial model, however, is hampered by an inadequate mechanism to account for the social production of disease. We examine diabetes in the Marshall Islands to explore a conceptual approach that incorporates ecology, history, and political economy into the biopsychosocial model. The use of the Marshall Islands by the United States as testing grounds for nuclear war has led to ecological destruction, population displacement, and economic dependency. The consequence at the biological level has been an epidemic of weight gain, altered metabolism, and diabetes. A political economic perspective reveals that such outcomes are the result of decisions made by those who do not live with these decisions. Such a perspective points the way for social engagement and political work toward justice and health.

  11. [The model of development of science by the example of limnology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menshutkin, V V; Levchenko, V F

    2010-01-01

    Limnology--the science about lakes is the young and relatively closed area of studies; its existence is owing to several hundreds of scientists. The International Society of Limnologists holds its meetings since 1922. We used materials of these meetings to find out the main stages of development of this science; among these stages there were both fast and relatively calm periods. Based on analysis of these data, we constructed a model of development of the science, the same data being used for tuning and verification of the model. We have suggested that the main regularities and of development of limnology can be extrapolated to other sciences. The main "acting person" in the model is population of scientists. Each scientist, with some probability, can propose new ideas as well as use in his elaborations some particular complex of the already accumulated knowledge and ideas. The model also takes into consideration how the scientific information is spreading, specifically some individual peculiarities of model scientists, such as age, experience, communicability. After the model parameters had been chosen in such a way that is described adequately the development of limnology, we performed a series of experiments by changing some of the characteristics and obtained rather unexpected results published preliminary in the short work (Levchenko V. F and Menshutkin V. V. Int. J. Comp. Anticip. Syst., 2008, vol. 22, p. 63-75) and discussed here in the greater detail. It is revealed, that the development of science is passing irregularly and sharply decelerated at low level of scientists communication and absence of scientific schools, and that the age of "scientific youth" of scientist begins usually only after 40 years.

  12. Aerospace Example

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This is a textbook, created example for illustration purposes. The System takes inputs of Pt, Ps, and Alt, and calculates the Mach number using the Rayleigh Pitot...

  13. MODELS OF FATIGUE LIFE CURVES IN FATIGUE LIFE CALCULATIONS OF MACHINE ELEMENTS – EXAMPLES OF RESEARCH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grzegorz SZALA

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available In the paper there was attempted to analyse models of fatigue life curves possible to apply in calculations of fatigue life of machine elements. The analysis was limited to fatigue life curves in stress approach enabling cyclic stresses from the range of low cycle fatigue (LCF, high cycle fatigue (HCF, fatigue limit (FL and giga cycle fatigue (GCF appearing in the loading spectrum at the same time. Chosen models of the analysed fatigue live curves will be illustrated with test results of steel and aluminium alloys.

  14. METHODOLOGY OF THE DRUGS MARKET VOLUME MODELING ON THE EXAMPLE OF HEMOPHILIA A

    OpenAIRE

    N. B. Molchanova

    2015-01-01

    Hemophilia A is a serious genetic disease, which may lead to disability of a patient even in early ages without a required therapy. The only one therapeutic approach is a replacement therapy with drugs of bloodcoagulation factor VIII (FVIII). The modeling of coagulation drugs market volume will allow evaluation of the level of patients’ provision with a necessary therapy. Modeling of a “perfect” market of drugs and its comparison with the real one was the purpose of the study. During the mode...

  15. Selection of asset investment models by hospitals: examination of influencing factors, using Switzerland as an example.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eicher, Bernhard

    2016-10-01

    Hospitals are responsible for a remarkable part of the annual increase in healthcare expenditure. This article examines one of the major cost drivers, the expenditure for investment in hospital assets. The study, conducted in Switzerland, identifies factors that influence hospitals' investment decisions. A suggestion on how to categorize asset investment models is presented based on the life cycle of an asset, and its influencing factors defined based on transaction cost economics. The influence of five factors (human asset specificity, physical asset specificity, uncertainty, bargaining power, and privacy of ownership) on the selection of an asset investment model is examined using a two-step fuzzy-set Qualitative Comparative Analysis. The research shows that outsourcing-oriented asset investment models are particularly favored in the presence of two combinations of influencing factors: First, if technological uncertainty is high and both human asset specificity and bargaining power of a hospital are low. Second, if assets are very specific, technological uncertainty is high and there is a private hospital with low bargaining power, outsourcing-oriented asset investment models are favored too. Using Qualitative Comparative Analysis, it can be demonstrated that investment decisions of hospitals do not depend on isolated influencing factors but on a combination of factors. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  16. Fostering Modeling Competencies: Benefits of Worked Examples, Problems to Be Solved, and Fading Procedures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Große, Cornelia S.

    2015-01-01

    The application of mathematics to real-world problems is moving more and more in the focus of attention of mathematics education; however, many learners experience huge difficulties in relating "pure" mathematics to everyday contents. In order to solve "modeling problems", it is first necessary to find a transition from a…

  17. Control design on the basis of approximate nonlinear models: the inverted pendulum example

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jouffroy, Jerome; Lottin, Jacques

    The main interest of linear models is the wide panel of control structures that are available. This also motivated a large amount of work to extend these structures to nonlinear plants, either by local or exact linearization, or by introducing robustness properties. At the same time other works d...

  18. Eigenvalue based inverse model of beam for structural modification and diagnostics: examples of using

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leszek Majkut

    Full Text Available In the work, in order to solve the inverse problem, i.e. the problem of finding values of the additional quantities (mass, elasticity, the beam inverse model was proposed. Analysis of this model allows finding such a value of additional mass (elasticity as a function of its localization so that the free vibration frequency changes to desirable value. The criteria for choice of the “proper” pair (mass - its position, including the criterion allowing changing the position of the vibration node of the second mode of the free vibrations, were given. Analysis of the influence of uncertainties in the determination of the additional quantity value and its position on the desired free vibration frequency was carried out, too. The proposed beam inverse model can be employing to identification of the beam cracks. In such a case, the input quantity is free vibration frequency measured on the damaged object. Each determined free-vibration frequency allows determining the flexibility curve for the spring modeling crack as a function of its position. The searched parameters of the crack (its depth and position are indicated by the common point of two arbitrary curves. Accuracy of crack parameters determination depends on accuracy (uncertainty of frequency measurement. Only some regions containing the searched crack parameters can be obtained in such a situation.

  19. Weight Loss Self-Efficacy and Modelled Behaviour: Gaining Competence through Example

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulz, Benjamin R.; McDonald, Marvin J.

    2011-01-01

    The Weight Efficacy Life-Style Questionnaire (WEL) and the International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ) assessed self-efficacy and physical activity for 124 volunteers aged 17-61. It was administered before and after participants attended a video modelling workshop. Half of the participants in the treatment and control groups were given…

  20. Adapting the SCOR model to suit the military: A South African example

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Bean, WL

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available of military supply chains, therefore it was decided that supply chain management in conjunction with the SCOR model should be used during a logistics and supply chain improvement project for the South African National Defence Force (SANDF). Three case studies...

  1. Modeling complexity in engineered infrastructure system: Water distribution network as an example

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Fang; Li, Xiang; Li, Ke

    2017-02-01

    The complex topology and adaptive behavior of infrastructure systems are driven by both self-organization of the demand and rigid engineering solutions. Therefore, engineering complex systems requires a method balancing holism and reductionism. To model the growth of water distribution networks, a complex network model was developed following the combination of local optimization rules and engineering considerations. The demand node generation is dynamic and follows the scaling law of urban growth. The proposed model can generate a water distribution network (WDN) similar to reported real-world WDNs on some structural properties. Comparison with different modeling approaches indicates that a realistic demand node distribution and co-evolvement of demand node and network are important for the simulation of real complex networks. The simulation results indicate that the efficiency of water distribution networks is exponentially affected by the urban growth pattern. On the contrary, the improvement of efficiency by engineering optimization is limited and relatively insignificant. The redundancy and robustness, on another aspect, can be significantly improved through engineering methods.

  2. Linear regression techniques for state-space models with application to biomedical/biochemical example

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Khairudin, N.; Keesman, K.J.

    2009-01-01

    In this paper a novel approach to estimate parameters in an LTI continuous-time statespace model is proposed. Essentially, the approach is based on a so-called pqR-decomposition of the numerator and denominator polynomials of the system’s transfer function. This approach allows the physical

  3. DATA FOR ENVIRONMENTAL MODELING (D4EM): BACKGROUND AND EXAMPLE APPLICATIONS OF DATA AUTOMATION

    Science.gov (United States)

    Data is a basic requirement for most modeling applications. Collecting data is expensive and time consuming. High speed internet connections and growing databases of online environmental data go a long way to overcoming issues of data scarcity. Among the obstacles still remaining...

  4. A proton therapy model using discrete difference equations with an example of treating hepatocellular carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodine, Erin N; Monia, K Lars

    2017-08-01

    Proton therapy is a type of radiation therapy used to treat cancer. It provides more localized particle exposure than other types of radiotherapy (e.g., x-ray and electron) thus reducing damage to tissue surrounding a tumor and reducing unwanted side effects. We have developed a novel discrete difference equation model of the spatial and temporal dynamics of cancer and healthy cells before, during, and after the application of a proton therapy treatment course. Specifically, the model simulates the growth and diffusion of the cancer and healthy cells in and surrounding a tumor over one spatial dimension (tissue depth) and the treatment of the tumor with discrete bursts of proton radiation. We demonstrate how to use data from in vitro and clinical studies to parameterize the model. Specifically, we use data from studies of Hepatocellular carcinoma, a common form of liver cancer. Using the parameterized model we compare the ability of different clinically used treatment courses to control the tumor. Our results show that treatment courses which use conformal proton therapy (targeting the tumor from multiple angles) provides better control of the tumor while using lower treatment doses than a non-conformal treatment course, and thus should be recommend for use when feasible.

  5. Mathematic modeling of reactor fuel radiation creep at example of uranium and its alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tarasov, V.A.

    2001-01-01

    The model of a radiation creep is explained within the framework of the mechanism of gliding and climbing dislocations based on the conception of a dislocation as not ideal sink for point radiation defects (PRD). The offered model is efficient for installed concentration PRD, considerably exceeding thermally steady state concentration. The gliding of dislocation are describing as due to moving dislocation kinks in Peierl's relief. The climbing of dislocation are describing as due to moving dislocation jogs. The mathematical model for the computer program simulating the offered model of radiation creep is developed. The complex of the computer programs simulating the radiation creep is developed. The computer simulation researches are conducted and the outcomes of a research of a kinetics of a flexible sliding and climbing dislocation interacting to obstacles of a various type (spherical centre of extension, dislocation prismatic loop and their spatially random distributions) for various installed concentration PRD, external loadings and temperatures are represented. The curves of installed rate of a radiation creep from temperature for uranium and its alloys with small additions of molybdenum (from 0,9 to 1,3 %) are obtained

  6. Implementing a generic method for bias correction in statistical models using random effects, with spatial and population dynamics examples

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorson, James T.; Kristensen, Kasper

    2016-01-01

    Statistical models play an important role in fisheries science when reconciling ecological theory with available data for wild populations or experimental studies. Ecological models increasingly include both fixed and random effects, and are often estimated using maximum likelihood techniques...... configurations of an age-structured population dynamics model. This simulation experiment shows that the epsilon-method and the existing bias-correction method perform equally well in data-rich contexts, but the epsilon-method is slightly less biased in data-poor contexts. We then apply the epsilon......-method to a spatial regression model when estimating an index of population abundance, and compare results with an alternative bias-correction algorithm that involves Markov-chain Monte Carlo sampling. This example shows that the epsilon-method leads to a biologically significant difference in estimates of average...

  7. ESIP's Emerging Provenance and Context Content Standard Use Cases: Developing Examples and Models for Data Stewardship

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramdeen, S.; Hills, D. J.

    2013-12-01

    Earth science data collections range from individual researchers' private collections to large-scale data warehouses, from computer-generated data to field or lab based observations. These collections require stewardship. Fundamentally, stewardship ensures long term preservation and the provision of access to the user community. In particular, stewardship includes capturing appropriate metadata and documentation--and thus the context of the data's creation and any changes they underwent over time --to enable data reuse. But scientists and science data managers must translate these ideas into practice. How does one balance the needs of current and (projected) future stakeholders? In 2011, the Data Stewardship Committee (DSC) of the Federation of Earth Science Information Partners (ESIP) began developing the Provenance and Context Content Standard (PCCS). As an emerging standard, PCCS provides a framework for 'what' must be captured or preserved as opposed to describing only 'how' it should be done. Originally based on the experiences of NASA and NOAA researchers within ESIP, the standard currently provides data managers with content items aligned to eight key categories. While the categories and content items are based on data life cycles of remote sensing missions, they can be generalized to cover a broader set of activities, for example, preservation of physical objects. These categories will include the information needed to ensure the long-term understandability and usability of earth science data products. In addition to the PCCS, the DSC is developing a series of use cases based on the perspectives of the data archiver, data user, and the data consumer that will connect theory and practice. These cases will act as specifications for developing PCCS-based systems. They will also provide for examination of the categories and content items covered in the PCCS to determine if any additions are needed to cover the various use cases, and also provide rationale and

  8. Analytical and computational modelling for wave energy systems: the example of oscillating wave surge converters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dias, Frédéric; Renzi, Emiliano; Gallagher, Sarah; Sarkar, Dripta; Wei, Yanji; Abadie, Thomas; Cummins, Cathal; Rafiee, Ashkan

    2017-08-01

    The development of new wave energy converters has shed light on a number of unanswered questions in fluid mechanics, but has also identified a number of new issues of importance for their future deployment. The main concerns relevant to the practical use of wave energy converters are sustainability, survivability, and maintainability. Of course, it is also necessary to maximize the capture per unit area of the structure as well as to minimize the cost. In this review, we consider some of the questions related to the topics of sustainability, survivability, and maintenance access, with respect to sea conditions, for generic wave energy converters with an emphasis on the oscillating wave surge converter. New analytical models that have been developed are a topic of particular discussion. It is also shown how existing numerical models have been pushed to their limits to provide answers to open questions relating to the operation and characteristics of wave energy converters.

  9. Uncertainty analysis in WWTP model applications: a critical discussion using an example from design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sin, Gürkan; Gernaey, Krist; Neumann, Marc B.

    2009-01-01

    of design performance criteria differs significantly. The implication for the practical applications of uncertainty analysis in the wastewater industry is profound: (i) as the uncertainty analysis results are specific to the framing used, the results must be interpreted within the context of that framing......This study focuses on uncertainty analysis of WWTP models and analyzes the issue of framing and how it affects the interpretation of uncertainty analysis results. As a case study, the prediction of uncertainty involved in model-based design of a wastewater treatment plant is studied. The Monte...... to stoichiometric, biokinetic and influent parameters; (2) uncertainty due to hydraulic behaviour of the plant and mass transfer parameters; (3) uncertainty due to the combination of (1) and (2). The results demonstrate that depending on the way the uncertainty analysis is framed, the estimated uncertainty...

  10. Application of DOI index to analysis of selected examples of resistivity imaging models in Quaternary sediments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Glazer Michał

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Interpretation of resistivity cross sections may be in many cases unreliable due to the presence of artifacts left by the inversion process. One way to avoid erroneous conclusions about geological structure is creation of Depth of Investigation (DOI index maps, which describe durability of prepared model with respect to variable parameters of inversion. To assess the usefulness of this interpretation methodology in resistivity imaging method over quaternary sediments, it has been used to one synthetic data set and three investigation sites. Two of the study areas were placed in the Upper Silesian Industrial District region: Bytom - Karb, Chorzów - Chorzow Stary; and one in the Southern Pomeranian Lake District across Piława River Valley. Basing on the available geological information the results show high utility of DOI index in analysis of received resistivity models, on which areas poorly constrained by data has been designated.

  11. Analytical and computational modelling for wave energy systems: the example of oscillating wave surge converters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dias, Frédéric; Renzi, Emiliano; Gallagher, Sarah; Sarkar, Dripta; Wei, Yanji; Abadie, Thomas; Cummins, Cathal; Rafiee, Ashkan

    2017-01-01

    The development of new wave energy converters has shed light on a number of unanswered questions in fluid mechanics, but has also identified a number of new issues of importance for their future deployment. The main concerns relevant to the practical use of wave energy converters are sustainability, survivability, and maintainability. Of course, it is also necessary to maximize the capture per unit area of the structure as well as to minimize the cost. In this review, we consider some of the questions related to the topics of sustainability, survivability, and maintenance access, with respect to sea conditions, for generic wave energy converters with an emphasis on the oscillating wave surge converter. New analytical models that have been developed are a topic of particular discussion. It is also shown how existing numerical models have been pushed to their limits to provide answers to open questions relating to the operation and characteristics of wave energy converters.

  12. Improving models of democracy: the example of lagged effects of economic development, education, and gender equality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balaev, Mikhail

    2014-07-01

    The author examines how time delayed effects of economic development, education, and gender equality influence political democracy. Literature review shows inadequate understanding of lagged effects, which raises methodological and theoretical issues with the current quantitative studies of democracy. Using country-years as a unit of analysis, the author estimates a series of OLS PCSE models for each predictor with a systematic analysis of the distributions of the lagged effects. The second set of multiple OLS PCSE regressions are estimated including all three independent variables. The results show that economic development, education, and gender have three unique trajectories of the time-delayed effects: Economic development has long-term effects, education produces continuous effects regardless of the timing, and gender equality has the most prominent immediate and short term effects. The results call for the reassessment of model specifications and theoretical setups in the quantitative studies of democracy. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. NOx dispersion modelling around roundabout in a small city, example from Hungary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farkas, Orsolya; Rákai, Anikó; Czáder, Károly; Török, Ákos

    2013-04-01

    The present paper focuses on the modelling of pollutant distribution and dispersion in an urban region that is located in a moderately industrialized town of Hungary, Székesfehérvár, with a population of 100,000. The study area is located close to the city centre, with different housing styles and different building elevations. High-rise buildings with 10 floors to small houses with gardens are found in the modelled area. The roundabout has 5 access roads; three major ones and two minor ones with different geometries and traffic load. The traffic load of the roads was defined by traffic count, while for the meteorological characteristics wind-statistics were created. Additional input parameters were the ground plan and the elevation of buildings. To simulate the airflow and the dispersion of pollutants a Computational Fluid Dynamics code called MISKAM was used. The background concentration was taken from the dataset of a nearby air quality monitoring station. According to vehicle counting the 5 roads of the roundabout have very different loads from 12 vehicles to more than 412 vehicles/hour. Three different grid systems were applied ranging from half million to 5 million cells. The difference in the results related to grid density was also evaluated. Wind speed distribution, wind turbulence and building wake flow patterns were identified by using the model. With the help of the simulation the NOx flow and dispersion of pollutants around the roundabout can be estimated and the critical locations with higher pollution concentration are presented. The results of the modelling can be more generalized and used in the design of the layout, development, traffic-control and environmental aspects of roundabouts located in small urban areas.

  14. Bioclimatic indices based on the menex model example on Banja Luka

    OpenAIRE

    Pecelj Milica

    2013-01-01

    It has long been known that weather and climate have influence on human health and well-being. The human organism is in constant interaction with the environmental conditions. To access the atmospheric impact on humans, different methods in human bioclimatology are created. Most of them are based on human heat balance. In this paper it has been tried to present several bioclimatic indices based on the human heat balance according to the bioclimatic model menex (man-environment exchange)...

  15. METHODOLOGY OF THE DRUGS MARKET VOLUME MODELING ON THE EXAMPLE OF HEMOPHILIA A

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. B. Molchanova

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Hemophilia A is a serious genetic disease, which may lead to disability of a patient even in early ages without a required therapy. The only one therapeutic approach is a replacement therapy with drugs of bloodcoagulation factor VIII (FVIII. The modeling of coagulation drugs market volume will allow evaluation of the level of patients’ provision with a necessary therapy. Modeling of a “perfect” market of drugs and its comparison with the real one was the purpose of the study. During the modeling of market volume we have used the data about the number of hamophilia A patients on the basis of the federal registry, Russian and international morbidity indices, and the data of a real practice about average consumption of drugs of bloodcoagulation factors and data about the drugs prescription according to the standards and protocols of assistance rendering. According to the standards of care delivery, average annual volume of FVIII drugs consumption amounted to 406 325 244 IU for children and 964 578 678 IU for adults, i.e. an average volume of a “perfect” market is equal to 1 370 903 922 IU for all patients. The market volume is 1.8 times bigger than a real volume of FVIII drugs which, according to the data of IMS marketing agency, amounted to 765 000 000 IU in 2013. The modeling conducted has shown that despite a relatively high patients’ coverage there is a potential for almost double growth.

  16. Regional water resources assessments using an uncertain modelling approach: The example of Swaziland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Ndzabandzaba

    2017-04-01

    New hydrological insights for this region: The analysis of hydrological indices highlights the regional variations in hydrological processes and sub-basin response. The adopted modelling approach provides further insight into all of the uncertainties associated with quantifying the available water resources of Swaziland. The study has provided more insight into the spatial variability of the hydrological response and existing development impacts than was previously available. These new insights should provide an improved basis for future water management in Swaziland.

  17. Longitudinal Model Building Using Latent Transition Analysis: An Example Using School Bullying Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ji Hoon Ryoo

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Applications of latent transition analysis (LTA have emerged since the early 1990s, with numerous scientific findings being published in many areas, including social and behavioral sciences, education, and public health. Although LTA is effective as a statistical analytic tool for a person-centered model using longitudinal data, model building in LTA has often been subjective and confusing for applied researchers. To fill this gap in the literature, we review the components of LTA, recommend a framework of fitting LTA, and summarize what acceptable model evaluation tools should be used in practice. The proposed framework of fitting LTA consists of six steps depicted in Figure 1 from step 0 (exploring data to step 5 (fitting distal variables. We also illustrate the framework of fitting LTA with data on concerns about school bullying from a sample of 1,180 students ranging from 5th to 9th grade (mean age = 12.2 years, SD = 1.29 years at Time 1 over three semesters. We identified four groups of students with distinct patterns of bullying concerns, and found that their concerns about bullying decreased and narrowed to specific concerns about rumors, gossip, and social exclusion over time. The data and command (syntax files needed for reproducing the results using SAS PROC LCA and PROC LTA (Version 1.3.2 (2015 and Mplus 7.4 (Muthén and Muthén, 1998–2015 are provided as online supplementary materials.

  18. Entanglement model of homeopathy as an example of generalized entanglement predicted by weak quantum theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walach, H

    2003-08-01

    Homeopathy is scientifically banned, both for lack of consistent empirical findings, but more so for lack of a sound theoretical model to explain its purported effects. This paper makes an attempt to introduce an explanatory idea based on a generalized version of quantum mechanics (QM), the weak quantum theory (WQT). WQT uses the algebraic formalism of QM proper, but drops some restrictions and definitions typical for QM. This results in a general axiomatic framework similar to QM, but more generalized and applicable to all possible systems. Most notably, WQT predicts entanglement, which in QM is known as Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen (EPR) correlatedness within quantum systems. According to WQT, this entanglement is not only tied to quantum systems, but is to be expected whenever a global and a local variable describing a system are complementary. This idea is used here to reconstruct homeopathy as an exemplification of generalized entanglement as predicted by WQT. It transpires that homeopathy uses two instances of generalized entanglement: one between the remedy and the original substance (potentiation principle) and one between the individual symptoms of a patient and the general symptoms of a remedy picture (similarity principle). By bringing these two elements together, double entanglement ensues, which is reminiscent of cryptographic and teleportation applications of entanglement in QM proper. Homeopathy could be a macroscopic analogue to quantum teleportation. This model is exemplified and some predictions are derived, which make it possible to test the model. Copyright 2003 S. Karger GmbH, Freiburg

  19. From theoretical model to practical use: an example of knowledge translation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bjørk, Ida Torunn; Lomborg, Kirsten; Nielsen, Carsten Munch; Brynildsen, Grethe; Frederiksen, Anne-Marie Skovsgaard; Larsen, Karin; Reierson, Inger Åse; Sommer, Irene; Stenholt, Britta

    2013-10-01

    To present a case of knowledge translation in nursing education and practice and discusses mechanisms relevant to bringing knowledge into action. The process of knowledge translation aspires to close the gap between theory and practice. Knowledge translation is a cyclic process involving both the creation and application of knowledge in several phases. The case presented in this paper is the translation of the Model of Practical Skill Performance into education and practice. Advantages and problems with the use of this model and its adaptation and tailoring to local contexts illustrate the cyclic and iterative process of knowledge translation. The cultivation of a three-sided relationship between researchers, educators, and clinical nurses was a major asset in driving the process of knowledge translation. The knowledge translation process gained momentum by replacing passive diffusion strategies with interaction and teamwork between stakeholders. The use of knowledge creates feedback that might have consequences for the refinement and tailoring of that same knowledge itself. With end-users in mind, several heuristics were used by the research group to increase clarity of the model and to tailor the implementation of knowledge to the users. This article illustrates the need for enduring collaboration between stakeholders to promote the process of knowledge translation. Translation of research knowledge into practice is a time-consuming process that is enhanced when appropriate support is given by leaders in the involved facilities. Knowledge translation is a time-consuming and collaborative endeavour. On the basis of our experience we advocate the implementation and use of a conceptual framework for the entire process of knowledge translation. More descriptions of knowledge translation in the nursing discipline are needed to inspire and advise in this process. © 2013 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  20. Thermal effects in quantized fields in the example of the Gross-Neveu model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Englert, B.G.

    1981-01-01

    The Gross-Nerau model is applied to discuss thermal effects in quantized fields in an exemplary way. For this the effective potential for arbitrary temperature is calculated in one-loop approximation, i.e. in lowest order of the 1/N-expansion. It is proved to be convenient to regulate the model dimensionally and to renormalize by subtraction in the momentum dimensionally and to renormalize by subtraction in the momentum space. From the effective potential the temperature dependence of the fermion mass generated by dynamical symmetry breaking is obtained. This result can be reproduced by a manifestly selfconsistent calculation which leads in a natural way to the tadpole equation. The calculation of temperature dependent elastic scattering cross sections rounds the one-loop calculations of and gives hints, in which direction the experimental search for thermal effects could possible be successful. Furthermore the tadpole equation is evaluation in two-loop approximation. Thereby it is shown that only a self-consistent renormalization yields evaluable results while in a perturbative renormalization the dimensional transmutation cannot be performed. Indeed no real improvements of the one-loop results are obtained which is due to the fact that not all contributions of the next 1/N-order are taken into account. (orig.) [de

  1. Hyperspectral water quality retrieval model: taking Malaysia inshore sea area as an example

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Tingwei; Zhang, Jie; Ma, Yi; Li, Jing; Lim, Boonleong; Roslinah, Samad

    2007-11-01

    Remote sensing technique provides the possibility of rapid and synchronous monitoring in a large area of the water quality, which is an important element for the aquatic ecosystem quality assessment of islands and coastal zones, especially for the nearshore and tourism sea area. Tioman Island of Malaysia is regarded as one of ten of the best islands in the world and attracts tourists from all over the world for its clear sea, beautiful seashore and charming scenery. In this paper, on the basis of in situ dataset in the study area, distribution discipline of water quality parameters is analyzed to find that phytoplankton pigment, rather than suspended sediment is the main water quality parameter in the study area; seawater there is clean but not very oligotrophic; seawater spectra contains distinct features. Then water quality hyperspectral retrieval models are developed based on in situ data to calculate the chlorophyll a concentration ([chl-a]), transparency (SD) with satisfactory performance. It's suggested that model precision should be validated further using more in-situ data.

  2. The application of an action system model to destructive behaviour: the examples of arson and terrorism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fritzon, K; Canter, D; Wilton, Z

    2001-01-01

    This article argues that criminal and deviant behaviour can be productively viewed through an action system framework. The idea is developed by considering two forms of destructive behaviour: arson and barricade-hostage terrorist incidents. Two studies are presented. The first study tests the hypothesis that different forms of arson will reflect the four dominant states that an action system can take; integrative, expressive, conservative, and adaptive. A smallest space analysis was performed on 46 variables describing 230 cases of arson and the results identified the four themes of action system functioning. An examination of the personal characteristics of the arsonists also produced four variable groupings and a combined analysis of the four action scales and four characteristics scales also supported the structural hypothesis of the action system model. The second study applied the action system model to the study acts of terrorist barricade-hostage incidents. A smallest space analysis of 44 variables coded from 41 incidents again revealed four distinct forms of activity, which were psychologically similar to the four modes of arson identified in study one. Overall, these two studies provide support for the appropriateness of the action system framework as a way of classifying different forms of deviant behaviour. Copyright 2001 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  3. Development of the financial model for analyses on economic performances of nuclear facilities and examples of its applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mankin, Shuichi; Ueno, Seiichi; Kimura, Shigeru; Yuasa, Tadao.

    1988-10-01

    On the assumption of the commercialization stage of technologies, the analysis on performances in financial operation based on simulation studies is one of important study subjects in the field of the system analysis and economic assessments of nuclear technologies. However, economic assessments on financial performances of such complex industries as nuclear power based on nuclear fuel cycle industries, or as electric utilities composed of hydro, fossil, nuclear power stations are complicated, and the adoption of conventional financial model is insufficient in the case of nuclear technologies which have such special financial process as decommissioning. We, therefore, develop the computer simulation model that can analyze financial performances of nuclear facilities. In this report, the derivation of equations and outlines of the model are explained. Additionally, examples of hypothetical financial simulation studies on a coal-gasoline plant, nuclear waste industries, and analysis on economic perspectives of small size nuclear reactors for electric utilities are indicated. (author)

  4. The application of transportation models in emergency situations: Example of a hypothetical city

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antić Jovana Z.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Emergency situations, where mass evacuation of people is present, are serious problem that is difficult to resolve. Such events have become more frequent in recent years. The transportation network is a key part of the infrastructure when it comes to events with disastrous consequences, because a large population of people must be effectively evacuated from densely populated urban areas. Therefore, requirements during an evacuation process are made in a relatively short period of time, and available capacity of the road network has become the main resource to be efficiently utilized in order to shorten the time required for evacuation. By using transportation model, the paper presents the simulation of the traffic in a situation when there is a need to evacuate large numbers of people, in order to propose measures that could be efficiently used.

  5. Intertwining evidence- and model-based reasoning in physics sensemaking: An example from electrostatics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russ, Rosemary S.; Odden, Tor Ole B.

    2017-12-01

    Our field has long valued the goal of teaching students not just the facts of physics, but also the thinking and reasoning skills of professional physicists. The complexity inherent in scientific reasoning demands that we think carefully about how we conceptualize for ourselves, enact in our classes, and encourage in our students the relationship between the multifaceted practices of professional science. The current study draws on existing research in the philosophy of science and psychology to advocate for intertwining two important aspects of scientific reasoning: using evidence from experimentation and modeling. We present a case from an undergraduate physics course to illustrate how these aspects can be intertwined productively and describe specific ways in which these aspects of reasoning can mutually reinforce one another in student learning. We end by discussing implications for this work for instruction in introductory physics courses and for research on scientific reasoning at the undergraduate level.

  6. Operational tsunami modeling with TsunAWI - Examples for Indonesia and Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rakowsky, Natalja; Androsov, Alexey; Harig, Sven; Immerz, Antonia; Fuchs, Annika; Behrens, Jörn; Danilov, Sergey; Hiller, Wolfgang; Schröter, Jens

    2014-05-01

    The numerical simulation code TsunAWI was developed in the framework of the German-Indonesian Tsunami Early Warning System (GITEWS). The numerical simulation of prototypical tsunami scenarios plays a decisive role in the a priory risk assessment for coastal regions and in the early warning process itself. TsunAWI is based on a finite element discretization, employs unstructured grids with high resolution along the coast, and includes inundation. This contribution gives an overview of the model itself and presents two applications. For GITEWS, the existing scenario database covering 528 epicenters / 3450 scenarios from Sumatra to Bali was extended by 187 epicenters / 1100 scenarios in the Eastern Sunda Arc. Furthermore, about 1100 scenarios for the Western Sunda Arc were recomputed on the new model domain covering the whole Indonesian Seas. These computations would not have been feasible in the beginning of the project. The unstructured computational grid contains 7 million nodes and resolves all coastal regions with 150m, some project regions and the surrounding of tide gauges with 50m, and the deep ocean with 12km edge length. While in the Western Sunda Arc, the large islands of Sumatra and Java shield the Northern Indonesian Archipelago, tsunamis in the Eastern Sunda Arc can propagate to the North. The unstructured grid approach allows TsunAWI to easily simulate the complex propagation patterns with the self-interactions and the reflections at the coastal regions of myriads of islands. For the Hydrographic and Oceanographic Service of the Chilean Navy (SHOA), we calculated a small scenario database of 100 scenarios (sources by Universidad de Chile) to provide data for a lightweight decision support system prototype (built by DLR). This work is part of the initiation project "Multi hazard information and early warning system in cooperation with Chile" and aims at sharing our experience from GITEWS with the Chilean partners.

  7. Thermo-kinetic instabilities in model reactors. Examples in experimental tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavadera, Marco Lubrano; Sorrentino, Giancarlo; Sabia, Pino; de Joannon, Mara; Cavaliere, Antonio; Ragucci, Raffaele

    2017-11-01

    The use of advanced combustion technologies (such as MILD, LTC, etc.) is among the most promising methods to reduce emission of pollutants. For such technologies, working temperatures are enough low to boost the formation of several classes of pollutants, such as NOx and soot. To access this temperature range, a significant dilution as well as preheating of reactants is required. Such conditions are usually achieved by a strong recirculation of exhaust gases that simultaneously dilute and pre-heat the fresh reactants. These peculiar operative conditions also imply strong fuel flexibility, thus allowing the use of low calorific value (LCV) energy carriers with high efficiency. However, the intersection of low combustion temperatures and highly diluted mixtures with intense pre-heating alters the evolution of the combustion process with respect to traditional flames, leading to features such as the susceptibility to oscillations, which are undesirable during combustion. Therefore, an effective use of advanced combustion technologies requires a thorough analysis of the combustion kinetic characteristics in order to identify optimal operating conditions and control strategies with high efficiency and low pollutant emissions. The present work experimentally and numerically characterized the ignition and oxidation processes of methane and propane, highly diluted in nitrogen, at atmospheric pressure, in a Plug Flow Reactor and a Perfectly Stirred Reactor under a wide range of operating conditions involving temperatures, mixture compositions and dilution levels. The attention was focused particularly on the chemistry of oscillatory phenomena and multistage ignitions. The global behavior of these systems can be qualitatively and partially quantitatively modeled using the detailed kinetic models available in the literature. Results suggested that, for diluted conditions and lower adiabatic flame temperatures, the competition among several pathways, i.e. intermediate- and

  8. Linking epigenetic function to electrostatics: The DNMT2 structural model example.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vieira, Gilberto Cavalheiro; Vieira, Gustavo Fioravanti; Sinigaglia, Marialva; Silva Valente, Vera Lúcia da

    2017-01-01

    The amino acid sequence of DNMT2 is very similar to the catalytic domains of bacterial and eukaryotic proteins. However, there is great variability in the region of recognition of the target sequence. While bacterial DNMT2 acts as a DNA methyltransferase, previous studies have indicated low DNA methylation activity in eukaryotic DNMT2, with preference by tRNA methylation. Drosophilids are known as DNMT2-only species and the DNA methylation phenomenon is a not elucidated case yet, as well as the ontogenetic and physiologic importance of DNMT2 for this species group. In addition, more recently study showed that methylation in the genome in Drosophila melanogaster is independent in relation to DNMT2. Despite these findings, Drosophilidae family has more than 4,200 species with great ecological diversity and historical evolution, thus we, therefore, aimed to examine the drosophilids DNMT2 in order to verify its conservation at the physicochemical and structural levels in a functional context. We examined the twenty-six DNMT2 models generated by molecular modelling and five crystallographic structures deposited in the Protein Data Bank (PDB) using different approaches. Our results showed that despite sequence and structural similarity between species close related, we found outstanding differences when they are analyzed in the context of surface distribution of electrostatic properties. The differences found in the electrostatic potentials may be linked with different affinities and processivity of DNMT2 for its different substrates (DNA, RNA or tRNA) and even for interactions with other proteins involved in the epigenetic mechanisms.

  9. The perceptual trap: Experimental and modelling examples of soil moisture, hydraulic conductivity and response units in complex subsurface settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackisch, Conrad; Demand, Dominic; Allroggen, Niklas; Loritz, Ralf; Zehe, Erwin

    2017-04-01

    In order to discuss hypothesis testing in hydrology, the question of the solid foundation of such tests has to be answered. But how certain are we about our measurements of the components of the water balance and the states and dynamics of the complex systems? What implicit assumptions or bias are already embedded in our perception of the processes? How can we find light in the darkness of heterogeneity? We will contribute examples from experimental findings, modelling approaches and landscape analysis to the discussion. Example soil moisture and the soil continuum: The definition of soil moisture as fraction of water in the porous medium assumes locally well-mixed conditions. Moreover, a unique relation of soil water retention presumes instant local thermodynamic equilibrium in the pore water arrangement. We will show findings from soil moisture responses to precipitation events, from irrigation experiments, and from a model study of initial infiltration velocities. The results highlight, that the implicit assumption relating soil moisture state dynamics with actual soil water flow is biased towards the slow end of the actual velocity distribution and rather blind for preferential flow acting in a very small proportion of the pore space. Moreover, we highlight the assumption of a well-defined continuum during the extrapolation of point-scale measurements and why spatially and temporally continuous observation techniques of soil water states are essential for advancing our understanding and development of subsurface process theories. Example hydraulic conductivity: Hydraulic conductivity lies at the heart of hydrological research and modelling. Its values can range across several orders of magnitude at a single site alone. Yet, we often consider it a crisp, effective parameter. We have conducted measurements of soil hydraulic conductivity in the lab and in the field. Moreover, we assessed infiltration capacity and conducted plot-scale irrigation experiments to

  10. Bioclimatic indices based on the menex model example on Banja Luka

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pecelj Milica

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available It has long been known that weather and climate have influence on human health and well-being. The human organism is in constant interaction with the environmental conditions. To access the atmospheric impact on humans, different methods in human bioclimatology are created. Most of them are based on human heat balance. In this paper it has been tried to present several bioclimatic indices based on the human heat balance according to the bioclimatic model menex (man-environment exchange. The aim of this paper is to present bioclimatic conditions in Banja Luka vicinage (Bosnia and Herzegovina and to explore climate-recreation relationship. In the near vicinity of Banja Luka there are three spa centers that are favorable for recreation. For this analysis average available daily weather data for two extreme months (January and July, 1990 were used as well as the average monthly weather values for the period 1961-1990. The data were taken from Banja Luka weather station. As a result, several thermophisiological bioclimatic indices have been obtained. These are heat load in man, physiological strain, subjective temperature, subjective physiological temperature.

  11. Modelling carbon and water flows in terrestrial ecosystems in the boreal zone - examples from Oskarshamn

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karlberg, Louise [Stockholm Environment Institute (SEI), Stockholm (Sweden); Gu stafsson, David; Jansson, Per-Erik [Royal Inst. of Technology, Dept. of Land and Water Resources Engineering, Stockholm (Sweden)

    2007-12-15

    Carbon budgets and mean residence times were estimated in four hypothetical ecosystems. The greatest uncertainties in the estimations lie in the calculation of fluxes to and from the field layer. A parametrisation method based on multiple criteria, synthesising a wide range of empirical knowledge on ecosystem behaviour, proved to be useful both in the estimation of unknown parameters, to demonstrate model sensitivity, and to identify processes where our current knowledge is limited. The parameterizations derived from the study of the hypothetical systems were used to estimate site-specific carbon and water budgets for four ecosystems located within the Oskarshamn study-area. Measured soil respiration was used to calibrate the simulations. An analysis of the simulated carbon fluxes indicated that two of the ecosystems, namely the grassland and the spruce forest, were net sources of carbon dioxide, while the alder and the pine forest were net sinks of CO{sub 2}. In the former case, this was interpreted as a result of recent drainage of the organogenic soils and the concurrent increase in decomposition. The results from the study conformed rather well with results from a previous study on carbon budgets from the Oskarshamn study area.

  12. Modelling carbon and water flows in terrestrial ecosystems in the boreal zone - examples from Oskarshamn

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karlberg, Louise; Gu stafsson, David; Jansson, Per-Erik

    2007-12-01

    Carbon budgets and mean residence times were estimated in four hypothetical ecosystems. The greatest uncertainties in the estimations lie in the calculation of fluxes to and from the field layer. A parametrisation method based on multiple criteria, synthesising a wide range of empirical knowledge on ecosystem behaviour, proved to be useful both in the estimation of unknown parameters, to demonstrate model sensitivity, and to identify processes where our current knowledge is limited. The parameterizations derived from the study of the hypothetical systems were used to estimate site-specific carbon and water budgets for four ecosystems located within the Oskarshamn study-area. Measured soil respiration was used to calibrate the simulations. An analysis of the simulated carbon fluxes indicated that two of the ecosystems, namely the grassland and the spruce forest, were net sources of carbon dioxide, while the alder and the pine forest were net sinks of CO 2 . In the former case, this was interpreted as a result of recent drainage of the organogenic soils and the concurrent increase in decomposition. The results from the study conformed rather well with results from a previous study on carbon budgets from the Oskarshamn study area

  13. A practical implicit finite-difference method: examples from seismic modelling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Yang; Sen, Mrinal K

    2009-01-01

    We derive explicit and new implicit finite-difference formulae for derivatives of arbitrary order with any order of accuracy by the plane wave theory where the finite-difference coefficients are obtained from the Taylor series expansion. The implicit finite-difference formulae are derived from fractional expansion of derivatives which form tridiagonal matrix equations. Our results demonstrate that the accuracy of a (2N + 2)th-order implicit formula is nearly equivalent to that of a (6N + 2)th-order explicit formula for the first-order derivative, and (2N + 2)th-order implicit formula is nearly equivalent to (4N + 2)th-order explicit formula for the second-order derivative. In general, an implicit method is computationally more expensive than an explicit method, due to the requirement of solving large matrix equations. However, the new implicit method only involves solving tridiagonal matrix equations, which is fairly inexpensive. Furthermore, taking advantage of the fact that many repeated calculations of derivatives are performed by the same difference formula, several parts can be precomputed resulting in a fast algorithm. We further demonstrate that a (2N + 2)th-order implicit formulation requires nearly the same memory and computation as a (2N + 4)th-order explicit formulation but attains the accuracy achieved by a (6N + 2)th-order explicit formulation for the first-order derivative and that of a (4N + 2)th-order explicit method for the second-order derivative when additional cost of visiting arrays is not considered. This means that a high-order explicit method may be replaced by an implicit method of the same order resulting in a much improved performance. Our analysis of efficiency and numerical modelling results for acoustic and elastic wave propagation validates the effectiveness and practicality of the implicit finite-difference method

  14. MODELING OF THE BASIC PARAMETERS OF ECONOMIC STABILITY (BY THE EXAMPLE OF JSC “BOGUCHAROVO”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. A. Serebriakova

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Summary. The article describes the author's vision of the process of management of economic stability of the enterprise by means of simulation of the main parameters of its activity and justified the relevance of the theme of the study. Studied theoretical and methodical bases of economic stability of the enterprise in accordance with the Russian development of a market economy, as well as practical recommendations on modeling of the main parameters of the economic sustainability of the organization. Currently, management of economic stability is one of the most important factors of functioning and development of the enterprises in conditions of the global financial crisis. The relevance of this trend is increasing in line with the increasing complexity of economic ties, changing external environment. A comprehensive approach to the development of the most appropriate variants of the mechanism of management of economic sustainability taking into account the experience of developed countries, industry and sector of factors of external environment can become the basis for developing a common long-term economic development strategy of the enterprise. Problems of economic stability of enterprises caused by the fact that normally carried out in a changing environment operational measures allow for a short time to keep the state of the enterprise is stable, but not change the situation radically. That is, they are associated, on the one hand, with a lack of vision of development of the enterprises, with another - the narrowness of the approach applied to the diagnosis of the existing situation and forecasting of changes in external factors.

  15. Defining a conceptual model for the coastal aquifers of Mediterranean islands, an example from Corsica (France)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santoni, Sebastien; Garel, Emilie; Huneau, Frederic

    2016-04-01

    A hydrochemical and isotope study was conducted to identify the flow paths, the recharge areas and the geochemical processes governing the evolution of groundwater in a Mediterranean carbonate coastal aquifer. The study is expected to improve the hydrogeological conceptual model based on environmental tracer investigations tools to characterise and quantify the aquifer system of Bonifacio. The groundwater resource represents the unique drinking water resource of the southern Corsica and the region faces a high pressures over the groundwater resource during the touristic period (2,000,000 tourists per year). A well-documented description of the geology and structure of this basin was the starting point for a detailed hydrogeochemical and isotopic study at the aquifer scale. A hydrochemical (physico-chemical parameters, major ions) and isotope (δ2H, δ18O, 3H) survey of rainwater and groundwater has been carried out monthly during almost two years. A local meteoric water line has been defined and marine, terrestrial and anthropogenic influences on the recharge water hydrochemistry have been described. Preferential recharge during autumn/winter of rainfall is observed and a depletion in the isotopic signature for some groundwater samples suggests a recharge in higher altitude from the surrounding granites. A modification of the input signal during infiltration through the unsaturated zone appears and the groundwater hydrochemistry displays differential variations in time and space, with the presence of inertial water bodies in the lower aquifer mainly. In this context, CFCs (CFC-11, CFC-12, CFC-113) and SF6 were used to evaluate groundwater residence time. CFCs have been relevant despite the presence of a deep unsaturated zone and the computed rate of groundwater renewal is pluriannual to multi-decadal. Natural SF6 was found in granites and has been used as a direct tracer of groundwater origin, highlighting its role in the aquifer lateral recharge. Strontium

  16. The First Example of a Nitrile Hydratase Model Complex that Reversibly Binds Nitriles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shearer, Jason; Jackson, Henry L.; Schweitzer, Dirk; Rittenberg, Durrell K.; Leavy, Tanya M.; Kaminsky, Werner; Scarrow, Robert C.; Kovacs, Julie A.

    2015-01-01

    Nitrile hydratase (NHase) is an iron-containing metalloenzyme that converts nitriles to amides. The mechanism by which this biochemical reaction occurs is unknown. One mechanism that has been proposed involves nucleophilic attack of an Fe-bound nitrile by water (or hydroxide). Reported herein is a five-coordinate model compound ([FeIII(S2Me2N3(Et,Pr))]+) containing Fe(III) in an environment resembling that of NHase, which reversibly binds a variety of nitriles, alcohols, amines, and thiocyanate. XAS shows that five-coordinate [FeIII(S2Me2N3(Et,Pr))]+ reacts with both methanol and acetonitrile to afford a six-coordinate solvent-bound complex. Competitive binding studies demonstrate that MeCN preferentially binds over ROH, suggesting that nitriles would be capable of displacing the H2O coordinated to the iron site of NHase. Thermodynamic parameters were determined for acetonitrile (ΔH = −6.2(±0.2) kcal/mol, ΔS = −29.4(±0.8) eu), benzonitrile (−4.2(±0.6) kcal/mol, ΔS = −18(±3) eu), and pyridine (ΔH = −8(±1) kcal/mol, ΔS = −41(±6) eu) binding to [FeIII(S2Me2N3(Et,Pr))]+ using variable-temperature electronic absorption spectroscopy. Ligand exchange kinetics were examined for acetonitrile, iso-propylnitrile, benzonitrile, and 4-tert-butylpyridine using 13C NMR line-broadening analysis, at a variety of temperatures. Activation parameters for ligand exchange were determined to be ΔH‡ = 7.1(±0.8) kcal/mol, ΔS‡ = −10(±1) eu (acetonitrile), ΔH‡ = 5.4(±0.6) kcal/mol, ΔS‡ = −17(±2) eu (iso-propionitrile), ΔH‡ = 4.9(±0.8) kcal/mol, ΔS‡ = −20(±3) eu (benzonitrile), and ΔH‡ = 4.7(±1.4) kcal/mol ΔS‡ = −18(±2) eu (4-tert-butylpyridine). The thermodynamic parameters for pyridine binding to a related complex, [FeIII(S2Me2N3(Pr,Pr))]+ (ΔH = −5.9(±0.8) kcal/mol, ΔS = −24(±3) eu), are also reported, as well as kinetic parameters for 4-tert-butylpyridine exchange (ΔH‡ = 3.1(±0.8) kcal/mol, ΔS‡)−25(±3) eu

  17. Fitting a defect non-linear model with or without prior, distinguishing nuclear reaction products as an example.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helgesson, P; Sjöstrand, H

    2017-11-01

    Fitting a parametrized function to data is important for many researchers and scientists. If the model is non-linear and/or defect, it is not trivial to do correctly and to include an adequate uncertainty analysis. This work presents how the Levenberg-Marquardt algorithm for non-linear generalized least squares fitting can be used with a prior distribution for the parameters and how it can be combined with Gaussian processes to treat model defects. An example, where three peaks in a histogram are to be distinguished, is carefully studied. In particular, the probability r 1 for a nuclear reaction to end up in one out of two overlapping peaks is studied. Synthetic data are used to investigate effects of linearizations and other assumptions. For perfect Gaussian peaks, it is seen that the estimated parameters are distributed close to the truth with good covariance estimates. This assumes that the method is applied correctly; for example, prior knowledge should be implemented using a prior distribution and not by assuming that some parameters are perfectly known (if they are not). It is also important to update the data covariance matrix using the fit if the uncertainties depend on the expected value of the data (e.g., for Poisson counting statistics or relative uncertainties). If a model defect is added to the peaks, such that their shape is unknown, a fit which assumes perfect Gaussian peaks becomes unable to reproduce the data, and the results for r 1 become biased. It is, however, seen that it is possible to treat the model defect with a Gaussian process with a covariance function tailored for the situation, with hyper-parameters determined by leave-one-out cross validation. The resulting estimates for r 1 are virtually unbiased, and the uncertainty estimates agree very well with the underlying uncertainty.

  18. Fitting a defect non-linear model with or without prior, distinguishing nuclear reaction products as an example

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helgesson, P.; Sjöstrand, H.

    2017-11-01

    Fitting a parametrized function to data is important for many researchers and scientists. If the model is non-linear and/or defect, it is not trivial to do correctly and to include an adequate uncertainty analysis. This work presents how the Levenberg-Marquardt algorithm for non-linear generalized least squares fitting can be used with a prior distribution for the parameters and how it can be combined with Gaussian processes to treat model defects. An example, where three peaks in a histogram are to be distinguished, is carefully studied. In particular, the probability r1 for a nuclear reaction to end up in one out of two overlapping peaks is studied. Synthetic data are used to investigate effects of linearizations and other assumptions. For perfect Gaussian peaks, it is seen that the estimated parameters are distributed close to the truth with good covariance estimates. This assumes that the method is applied correctly; for example, prior knowledge should be implemented using a prior distribution and not by assuming that some parameters are perfectly known (if they are not). It is also important to update the data covariance matrix using the fit if the uncertainties depend on the expected value of the data (e.g., for Poisson counting statistics or relative uncertainties). If a model defect is added to the peaks, such that their shape is unknown, a fit which assumes perfect Gaussian peaks becomes unable to reproduce the data, and the results for r1 become biased. It is, however, seen that it is possible to treat the model defect with a Gaussian process with a covariance function tailored for the situation, with hyper-parameters determined by leave-one-out cross validation. The resulting estimates for r1 are virtually unbiased, and the uncertainty estimates agree very well with the underlying uncertainty.

  19. Calculating Production Rate of each Branch of a Multilateral Well Using Multi-Segment Well Model: Field Example

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed S. Al-Jawad

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Multilateral wells require a sophisticated type of well model to be applied in reservoir simulators to represent them. The model must be able to determine the flow rate of each fluid and the pressure throughout the well. The production rate calculations are very important because they give an indication about some main issues associated with multi-lateral wells such as one branch may produce water or gas before others, no production rate from one branch, and selecting the best location of a new branch for development process easily. This paper states the way to calculate production rate of each branch of a multilateral well-using multi-segment well model. The pressure behaviour of each branch is simulated dependent on knowing its production rate. This model has divided a multi-lateral well into an arbitrary number of segments depending on the required degree of accuracy and run time of the simulator. The model implemented on a field example (multi-lateral well HF-65ML in Halfaya Oil Field/Mishrif formation. The production rate and pressure behaviour of each branch are simulated during the producing interval of the multilateral well. The conclusion is that production rate of the main branch is slightly larger than a lateral branch.

  20. Creating and parameterizing patient-specific deep brain stimulation pathway-activation models using the hyperdirect pathway as an example.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunalan, Kabilar; Chaturvedi, Ashutosh; Howell, Bryan; Duchin, Yuval; Lempka, Scott F; Patriat, Remi; Sapiro, Guillermo; Harel, Noam; McIntyre, Cameron C

    2017-01-01

    Deep brain stimulation (DBS) is an established clinical therapy and computational models have played an important role in advancing the technology. Patient-specific DBS models are now common tools in both academic and industrial research, as well as clinical software systems. However, the exact methodology for creating patient-specific DBS models can vary substantially and important technical details are often missing from published reports. Provide a detailed description of the assembly workflow and parameterization of a patient-specific DBS pathway-activation model (PAM) and predict the response of the hyperdirect pathway to clinical stimulation. Integration of multiple software tools (e.g. COMSOL, MATLAB, FSL, NEURON, Python) enables the creation and visualization of a DBS PAM. An example DBS PAM was developed using 7T magnetic resonance imaging data from a single unilaterally implanted patient with Parkinson's disease (PD). This detailed description implements our best computational practices and most elaborate parameterization steps, as defined from over a decade of technical evolution. Pathway recruitment curves and strength-duration relationships highlight the non-linear response of axons to changes in the DBS parameter settings. Parameterization of patient-specific DBS models can be highly detailed and constrained, thereby providing confidence in the simulation predictions, but at the expense of time demanding technical implementation steps. DBS PAMs represent new tools for investigating possible correlations between brain pathway activation patterns and clinical symptom modulation.

  1. Creating and parameterizing patient-specific deep brain stimulation pathway-activation models using the hyperdirect pathway as an example.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kabilar Gunalan

    Full Text Available Deep brain stimulation (DBS is an established clinical therapy and computational models have played an important role in advancing the technology. Patient-specific DBS models are now common tools in both academic and industrial research, as well as clinical software systems. However, the exact methodology for creating patient-specific DBS models can vary substantially and important technical details are often missing from published reports.Provide a detailed description of the assembly workflow and parameterization of a patient-specific DBS pathway-activation model (PAM and predict the response of the hyperdirect pathway to clinical stimulation.Integration of multiple software tools (e.g. COMSOL, MATLAB, FSL, NEURON, Python enables the creation and visualization of a DBS PAM. An example DBS PAM was developed using 7T magnetic resonance imaging data from a single unilaterally implanted patient with Parkinson's disease (PD. This detailed description implements our best computational practices and most elaborate parameterization steps, as defined from over a decade of technical evolution.Pathway recruitment curves and strength-duration relationships highlight the non-linear response of axons to changes in the DBS parameter settings.Parameterization of patient-specific DBS models can be highly detailed and constrained, thereby providing confidence in the simulation predictions, but at the expense of time demanding technical implementation steps. DBS PAMs represent new tools for investigating possible correlations between brain pathway activation patterns and clinical symptom modulation.

  2. Modelling of road traffic for traffic flow optimization of modern regional center as an example of Odessa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.V. Myronenko

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available At present sharply there is a problem of traffic management especially in big cities. The increase in the number of vehicles, both personal and public, led to congestion of city roads, many hours of traffic jams, difficulty of movement of pedestrians, increase the number of accidents, etc. Aim: The aim of the study is to evaluate the possibility of using simulation models to solve problems of analysis and optimization of traffic flows. To achieve this goal in a simulation environment the data base of the transport network will be developed. Materials and Methods: The problem of analysis and optimization of traffic flow is considered by the example of the city of Odessa (Ukraine, the results and recommendations can be easily adapted for other cities of Ukraine, and for the cities of most countries of the former socialist bloc. Features of transport systems make it impossible to build an adequate analytical model to explore options for the management of the system and its characteristic in different conditions. At the same time simulation modelling as a method to study such objects is a promising for the solution to this problem. As a simulation environment an OmniTRANS package as a universal tool for modeling of discrete, continuous and hybrid systems. Results: With OmniTRANS programs the model of traffic in Odessa was derived and the intensity of the traffic flow. B first approximation the transport network of the central district of the city was considered and built; without calibration and simulation it was developed a database of elements of the transport network and shown how it can be used to solve problems of analysis and optimization of traffic flows. Models constructed from elements of created database, allows you to change the level of detail of the simulated objects and phenomena, thereby obtaining models as macro and micro level.

  3. It’s all a matter of perspective : Viewing first-person video modeling examples promotes learning of an assembly task

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fiorella, Logan; van Gog, T.; Hoogerheide, V.; Mayer, Richard

    2017-01-01

    The present study tests whether presenting video modeling examples from the learner’s (first-person) perspective promotes learning of an assembly task, compared to presenting video examples from a third-person perspective. Across 2 experiments conducted in different labs, university students viewed

  4. Modelling of pathologies of the nervous system by the example of computational and electronic models of elementary nervous systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shumilov, V. N., E-mail: vnshumilov@rambler.ru; Syryamkin, V. I., E-mail: maximus70sir@gmail.com; Syryamkin, M. V., E-mail: maximus70sir@gmail.com [National Research Tomsk State University, 634050, Tomsk, Lenin Avenue, 36 (Russian Federation)

    2015-11-17

    The paper puts forward principles of action of devices operating similarly to the nervous system and the brain of biological systems. We propose an alternative method of studying diseases of the nervous system, which may significantly influence prevention, medical treatment, or at least retardation of development of these diseases. This alternative is to use computational and electronic models of the nervous system. Within this approach, we represent the brain in the form of a huge electrical circuit composed of active units, namely, neuron-like units and connections between them. As a result, we created computational and electronic models of elementary nervous systems, which are based on the principles of functioning of biological nervous systems that we have put forward. Our models demonstrate reactions to external stimuli and their change similarly to the behavior of simplest biological organisms. The models possess the ability of self-training and retraining in real time without human intervention and switching operation/training modes. In our models, training and memorization take place constantly under the influence of stimuli on the organism. Training is without any interruption and switching operation modes. Training and formation of new reflexes occur by means of formation of new connections between excited neurons, between which formation of connections is physically possible. Connections are formed without external influence. They are formed under the influence of local causes. Connections are formed between outputs and inputs of two neurons, when the difference between output and input potentials of excited neurons exceeds a value sufficient to form a new connection. On these grounds, we suggest that the proposed principles truly reflect mechanisms of functioning of biological nervous systems and the brain. In order to confirm the correspondence of the proposed principles to biological nature, we carry out experiments for the study of processes of

  5. Modelling of pathologies of the nervous system by the example of computational and electronic models of elementary nervous systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shumilov, V. N.; Syryamkin, V. I.; Syryamkin, M. V.

    2015-01-01

    The paper puts forward principles of action of devices operating similarly to the nervous system and the brain of biological systems. We propose an alternative method of studying diseases of the nervous system, which may significantly influence prevention, medical treatment, or at least retardation of development of these diseases. This alternative is to use computational and electronic models of the nervous system. Within this approach, we represent the brain in the form of a huge electrical circuit composed of active units, namely, neuron-like units and connections between them. As a result, we created computational and electronic models of elementary nervous systems, which are based on the principles of functioning of biological nervous systems that we have put forward. Our models demonstrate reactions to external stimuli and their change similarly to the behavior of simplest biological organisms. The models possess the ability of self-training and retraining in real time without human intervention and switching operation/training modes. In our models, training and memorization take place constantly under the influence of stimuli on the organism. Training is without any interruption and switching operation modes. Training and formation of new reflexes occur by means of formation of new connections between excited neurons, between which formation of connections is physically possible. Connections are formed without external influence. They are formed under the influence of local causes. Connections are formed between outputs and inputs of two neurons, when the difference between output and input potentials of excited neurons exceeds a value sufficient to form a new connection. On these grounds, we suggest that the proposed principles truly reflect mechanisms of functioning of biological nervous systems and the brain. In order to confirm the correspondence of the proposed principles to biological nature, we carry out experiments for the study of processes of

  6. 3D MRI Modeling of Thin and Spatially Complex Soft Tissue Structures without Shrinkage: Lamprey Myosepta as an Example.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Bradley M; Jia, Guang; Carmichael, Owen; McKlveen, Kevin; Homberger, Dominique G

    2018-05-12

    3D imaging techniques enable the non-destructive analysis and modeling of complex structures. Among these, MRI exhibits good soft tissue contrast, but is currently less commonly used for non-clinical research than x-ray CT, even though the latter requires contrast-staining that shrinks and distorts soft tissues. When the objective is the creation of a realistic and complete 3D model of soft tissue structures, MRI data are more demanding to acquire and visualize and require extensive post-processing because they comprise non-cubic voxels with dimensions that represent a trade-off between tissue contrast and image resolution. Therefore, thin soft tissue structures with complex spatial configurations are not always visible in a single MRI dataset, so that standard segmentation techniques are not sufficient for their complete visualization. By using the example of the thin and spatially complex connective tissue myosepta in lampreys, we developed a workflow protocol for the selection of the appropriate parameters for the acquisition of MRI data and for the visualization and 3D modeling of soft tissue structures. This protocol includes a novel recursive segmentation technique for supplementing missing data in one dataset with data from another dataset to produce realistic and complete 3D models. Such 3D models are needed for the modeling of dynamic processes, such as the biomechanics of fish locomotion. However, our methodology is applicable to the visualization of any thin soft tissue structures with complex spatial configurations, such as fasciae, aponeuroses, and small blood vessels and nerves, for clinical research and the further exploration of tensegrity. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. UNSAT-H Version 3.0: Unsaturated Soil Water and Heat Flow Model Theory, User Manual, and Examples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fayer, M.J.

    2000-01-01

    The UNSAT-H model was developed at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) to assess the water dynamics of arid sites and, in particular, estimate recharge fluxes for scenarios pertinent to waste disposal facilities. During the last 4 years, the UNSAT-H model received support from the Immobilized Waste Program (IWP) of the Hanford Site's River Protection Project. This program is designing and assessing the performance of on-site disposal facilities to receive radioactive wastes that are currently stored in single- and double-shell tanks at the Hanford Site (LMHC 1999). The IWP is interested in estimates of recharge rates for current conditions and long-term scenarios involving the vadose zone disposal of tank wastes. Simulation modeling with UNSAT-H is one of the methods being used to provide those estimates (e.g., Rockhold et al. 1995; Fayer et al. 1999). To achieve the above goals for assessing water dynamics and estimating recharge rates, the UNSAT-H model addresses soil water infiltration, redistribution, evaporation, plant transpiration, deep drainage, and soil heat flow as one-dimensional processes. The UNSAT-H model simulates liquid water flow using Richards' equation (Richards 1931), water vapor diffusion using Fick's law, and sensible heat flow using the Fourier equation. This report documents UNSAT-H .Version 3.0. The report includes the bases for the conceptual model and its numerical implementation, benchmark test cases, example simulations involving layered soils and plants, and the code manual. Version 3.0 is an, enhanced-capability update of UNSAT-H Version 2.0 (Fayer and Jones 1990). New features include hysteresis, an iterative solution of head and temperature, an energy balance check, the modified Picard solution technique, additional hydraulic functions, multiple-year simulation capability, and general enhancements

  8. The standard model and beyond

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marciano, W.J.

    1989-05-01

    In these lectures, my aim is to present a status report on the standard model and some key tests of electroweak unification. Within that context, I also discuss how and where hints of new physics may emerge. To accomplish those goals, I have organized my presentation as follows. I survey the standard model parameters with particular emphasis on the gauge coupling constants and vector boson masses. Examples of new physics appendages are also commented on. In addition, I have included an appendix on dimensional regularization and a simple example which employs that technique. I focus on weak charged current phenomenology. Precision tests of the standard model are described and up-to-date values for the Cabibbo-Kobayashi-Maskawa (CKM) mixing matrix parameters are presented. Constraints implied by those tests for a 4th generation, extra Z' bosons, and compositeness are discussed. An overview of the physics of tau decays is also included. I discuss weak neutral current phenomenology and the extraction of sin 2 θW from experiment. The results presented there are based on a global analysis of all existing data. I have chosen to concentrate that discussion on radiative corrections, the effect of a heavy top quark mass, implications for grand unified theories (GUTS), extra Z' gauge bosons, and atomic parity violation. The potential for further experimental progress is also commented on. Finally, I depart from the narrowest version of the standard model and discuss effects of neutrino masses, mixings, and electromagnetic moments. 32 refs., 3 figs., 5 tabs

  9. Nanotechnology convergence and modeling paradigm of sustainable energy system using polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell as a benchmark example

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chung, Pil Seung; So, Dae Sup; Biegler, Lorenz T.; Jhon, Myung S.

    2012-01-01

    Developments in nanotechnology have led to innovative progress and converging technologies in engineering and science. These demand novel methodologies that enable efficient communications from the nanoscale all the way to decision-making criteria for actual production systems. In this paper, we discuss the convergence of nanotechnology and novel multi-scale modeling paradigms by using the fuel cell system as a benchmark example. This approach includes complex multi-phenomena at different time and length scales along with the introduction of an optimization framework for application-driven nanotechnology research trends. The modeling paradigm introduced here covers the novel holistic integration from atomistic/molecular phenomena to meso/continuum scales. System optimization is also discussed with respect to the reduced order parameters for a coarse-graining procedure in multi-scale model integration as well as system design. The development of a hierarchical multi-scale paradigm consolidates the theoretical analysis and enables large-scale decision-making of process level design, based on first-principles, and therefore promotes the convergence of nanotechnology to sustainable energy technologies.

  10. Nanotechnology convergence and modeling paradigm of sustainable energy system using polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell as a benchmark example

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chung, Pil Seung; So, Dae Sup; Biegler, Lorenz T.; Jhon, Myung S., E-mail: mj3a@andrew.cmu.edu [Carnegie Mellon University, Department of Chemical Engineering (United States)

    2012-08-15

    Developments in nanotechnology have led to innovative progress and converging technologies in engineering and science. These demand novel methodologies that enable efficient communications from the nanoscale all the way to decision-making criteria for actual production systems. In this paper, we discuss the convergence of nanotechnology and novel multi-scale modeling paradigms by using the fuel cell system as a benchmark example. This approach includes complex multi-phenomena at different time and length scales along with the introduction of an optimization framework for application-driven nanotechnology research trends. The modeling paradigm introduced here covers the novel holistic integration from atomistic/molecular phenomena to meso/continuum scales. System optimization is also discussed with respect to the reduced order parameters for a coarse-graining procedure in multi-scale model integration as well as system design. The development of a hierarchical multi-scale paradigm consolidates the theoretical analysis and enables large-scale decision-making of process level design, based on first-principles, and therefore promotes the convergence of nanotechnology to sustainable energy technologies.

  11. Oscillations of neutral K mesons in the theory of dynamical expansion of the weak interaction theory or in the theory of dynamical analogy of the Cabibbo-Kobayashi-Maskawa matrices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beshtoev, Kh.M.

    1998-01-01

    The elements of the theory of dynamical expansion of the weak interaction theory working on the tree level, i.e., the theory of dynamical analogy of Cabibbo-Kobayashi-Maskawa matrices, are given. The equation for mass difference of K 1 0 , K 2 0 mesons or the length of K 0 -, K bar 0 - meson oscillations is calculated. In the framework of this theory the oscillations of K 0 , K 0 mesons which arise at violation of strangeness by B bosons are considered. The general conclusion is: the length of K 0 -, K 0 -meson oscillations is proportional to the mass of B boson (which changes strangeness) in the fourth degree

  12. The geological model calibration - Learnings from integration of reservoir geology and field performance - Example from the upper carboniferous reservoirs of the Southern North Sea

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moscariello, A.; Hoof, T.B. van; Kunakbayeva, G.; Veen, J.H. ten; Belt, F. van den; Twerda, A.; Peters, L.; Davis, P.; Williams, H.

    2013-01-01

    The Geological Model Calibration - Learnings from Integration of Reservoir Geology and Field Performance: example from the Upper Carboniferous Reservoirs of the Southern North Sea. Copyright © (2012) by the European Association of Geoscientists & Engineers All rights reserved.

  13. Example and Non-Example Pada Pembelajaran Matematika

    OpenAIRE

    Yunarto, Wanda Nugroho

    2016-01-01

    Abstrak Example and Non-Example Learning Model merupakan model pembelajaran yang menggunakan gambar sebagai media pembelajaran yang bertujuan mendorong mahasiswa untuk belajar berfikir kritis dengan jalan memecahkan permasalahan-permasalahan yang terkandung dalam contoh-contoh permasalahan/ konsep yang disajikan. Tujuan dari penelitian ini adalah mendapatkan gambaran mengenai bagaimana penerapan model pembelajaran Example and non-Example pada mahasiswa program studi Pendidikan Matematika Univ...

  14. [Correlation coefficient-based classification method of hydrological dependence variability: With auto-regression model as example].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yu Xi; Xie, Ping; Sang, Yan Fang; Wu, Zi Yi

    2018-04-01

    Hydrological process evaluation is temporal dependent. Hydrological time series including dependence components do not meet the data consistency assumption for hydrological computation. Both of those factors cause great difficulty for water researches. Given the existence of hydrological dependence variability, we proposed a correlationcoefficient-based method for significance evaluation of hydrological dependence based on auto-regression model. By calculating the correlation coefficient between the original series and its dependence component and selecting reasonable thresholds of correlation coefficient, this method divided significance degree of dependence into no variability, weak variability, mid variability, strong variability, and drastic variability. By deducing the relationship between correlation coefficient and auto-correlation coefficient in each order of series, we found that the correlation coefficient was mainly determined by the magnitude of auto-correlation coefficient from the 1 order to p order, which clarified the theoretical basis of this method. With the first-order and second-order auto-regression models as examples, the reasonability of the deduced formula was verified through Monte-Carlo experiments to classify the relationship between correlation coefficient and auto-correlation coefficient. This method was used to analyze three observed hydrological time series. The results indicated the coexistence of stochastic and dependence characteristics in hydrological process.

  15. From an animal model to human patients: An example of a translational study on obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eilam, David

    2017-05-01

    The application of similar analyses enables a direct projection from translational research in animals to human studies. Following is an example of how the methodology of a specific animal model of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) was applied to study human patients. Specifically, the quinpirole rat model for OCD was based on analyzing the trajectories of travel among different locales, and scoring the set of acts performed at each locale. Applying this analytic approach in human patients unveiled various aspects of OCD, such as the repetition and addition of acts, incompleteness, and the link between behavior and specific locations. It is also illustrated how the same analytical approach could be applicable to studying other mental disorders. Finally, it is suggested that the development of OCD could be explained by the four-phase sequence of Repetition, Addition, Condensation, and Elimination, as outlined in the study of ontogeny and phylogeny and applied to normal development of behavior. In OCD, this sequence is curtailed, resulting in the abundant repetition and addition of acts. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. A comparison between the example reference biosphere model ERB 2B and a process-based model: simulation of a natural release scenario.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almahayni, T

    2014-12-01

    The BIOMASS methodology was developed with the objective of constructing defensible assessment biospheres for assessing potential radiological impacts of radioactive waste repositories. To this end, a set of Example Reference Biospheres were developed to demonstrate the use of the methodology and to provide an international point of reference. In this paper, the performance of the Example Reference Biosphere model ERB 2B associated with the natural release scenario, discharge of contaminated groundwater to the surface environment, was evaluated by comparing its long-term projections of radionuclide dynamics and distribution in a soil-plant system to those of a process-based, transient advection-dispersion model (AD). The models were parametrised with data characteristic of a typical rainfed winter wheat crop grown on a sandy loam soil under temperate climate conditions. Three safety-relevant radionuclides, (99)Tc, (129)I and (237)Np with different degree of sorption were selected for the study. Although the models were driven by the same hydraulic (soil moisture content and water fluxes) and radiological (Kds) input data, their projections were remarkably different. On one hand, both models were able to capture short and long-term variation in activity concentration in the subsoil compartment. On the other hand, the Reference Biosphere model did not project any radionuclide accumulation in the topsoil and crop compartments. This behaviour would underestimate the radiological exposure under natural release scenarios. The results highlight the potential role deep roots play in soil-to-plant transfer under a natural release scenario where radionuclides are released into the subsoil. When considering the relative activity and root depth profiles within the soil column, much of the radioactivity was taken up into the crop from the subsoil compartment. Further improvements were suggested to address the limitations of the Reference Biosphere model presented in this paper

  17. Analysis of the possibility of applying a condition-based maintenance model on an example of tank weapons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igor J. Epler

    2013-12-01

    maintenance, -      preventive maintenance, -      combined maintenance.   Some developed condition-based maintenance models Condition-based maintenance models can be classified in two groups as: -      models of technical change in the current situation (with a use of condition inspection, -      models of technical change in the situation (with a use of condition diagnostics.   Some developed condition-based maintenance models The  models of condition-based maintenance  include: -      condition-based maintenance model with parameters control, -      condition-based maintenance model with the control of reliability levels.   Condition-based maintenance model with parameters control Condition-based maintenance model with parameters control can be with: -      periodic diagnostic controls (“the constant date”, -      economic setting of the intervals of diagnostic controls, -      continous diagnostic controls.   Condition-based maintenance model with the reliability level control The essence of the condition-based maintenance model with the control of reliability levels is to use resources between two repairs without limitation, with execution of maintenance activities necessary to fix the failure occurred, while the actual reliability level is within the boundaries of the set (permissible norms. If deviations from these norms occur,  the causes of deviations are analysed and measures taken to increase the reliability level of individual components and the system.   The possibilities of the application of the condition-based maintenance model on the example of tank weapons The application of the condition-based maintenance model with parameters control is hard to realize in tank weapons, except for a tank cannon barrel. In this case,  the intensity of the stress in the material on the critical barrel sections can be measured during operation, using electrical extensiometers. Voltage intensity can be used to determine

  18. Modeling complex and multi-component food systems in molecular dynamics simulations on the example of chocolate conching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greiner, Maximilian; Sonnleitner, Bettina; Mailänder, Markus; Briesen, Heiko

    2014-02-01

    Additional benefits of foods are an increasing factor in the consumer's purchase. To produce foods with the properties the consumer demands, understanding the micro- and nanostructure is becoming more important in food research today. We present molecular dynamics (MD) simulations as a tool to study complex and multi-component food systems on the example of chocolate conching. The process of conching is chosen because of the interesting challenges it provides: the components (fats, emulsifiers and carbohydrates) contain diverse functional groups, are naturally fluctuating in their chemical composition, and have a high number of internal degrees of freedom. Further, slow diffusion in the non-aqueous medium is expected. All of these challenges are typical to food systems in general. Simulation results show the suitability of present force fields to correctly model the liquid and crystal density of cocoa butter and sucrose, respectively. Amphiphilic properties of emulsifiers are observed by micelle formation in water. For non-aqueous media, pulling simulations reveal high energy barriers for motion in the viscous cocoa butter. The work for detachment of an emulsifier from the sucrose crystal is calculated and matched with detachment of the head and tail groups separately. Hydrogen bonding is shown to be the dominant interaction between the emulsifier and the crystal surface. Thus, MD simulations are suited to model the interaction between the emulsifier and sugar crystal interface in non-aqueous media, revealing detailed information about the structuring and interactions on a molecular level. With interaction parameters being available for a wide variety of chemical groups, MD simulations are a valuable tool to understand complex and multi-component food systems in general. MD simulations provide a substantial benefit to researchers to verify their hypothesis in dynamic simulations with an atomistic resolution. Rapid rise of computational resources successively

  19. A Comparison of the CHILD and Landlab Computational Landscape Evolution Models and Examples of Best Practices in Numerical Modeling of Surface Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gasparini, N. M.; Hobley, D. E. J.; Tucker, G. E.; Istanbulluoglu, E.; Adams, J. M.; Nudurupati, S. S.; Hutton, E. W. H.

    2014-12-01

    -linear diffusion of material on hillslopes. We also illustrate the steps necessary to couple processes together, for example, detachment-limited fluvial bedrock incision with linear diffusion on hillslopes. Trade-offs exist between the two modeling platforms, and these are primarily in speed and ease-of-use.

  20. Improving the hadron physics of non-Standard-Model decays: example bounds on R-parity violation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daub, J. T.; Dreiner, H. K.; Hanhart, C.; Kubis, B.; Meißner, U.-G.

    2013-01-01

    Using the example of selected decays driven by R-parity-violating supersymmetric operators, we demonstrate how strong final-state interactions can be controlled quantitatively with high precision, thus allowing for a more accurate extraction of effective parameters from data. In our examples we focus on the lepton-flavor-violating decays τ → μπ + π - . InR-parityviolationthesecanariseduetotheproductoftwocouplings. We find bounds that are an order of magnitude stronger than previous ones.

  1. Structural analysis of oligopoly market based on the reflective game model by the example of telecommunication market in Russia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inna A. Biryukova

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective to analyze the possible structures of the oligopoly market distribution by the example of telecommunication industry in terms of the agentsrsquo reflexive behavior. nbsp Methods game theory economicmathematical modeling. Results the article states that one of the first objects in the game theory is an oligopoly market. Based on the analysis of game theory studies it was found that there is a need to achieve information equilibrium in reflexive games of three agents in the oligopoly market. To solve this problem we analyzed all possible representations of the agents leading to the set of games in the Russian telecommunications market for three agents OJSC ldquoMTSrdquo OJSC ldquoMegafonrdquo and OJSC ldquoVympelcomrdquo. Three reflection grades were studied 1 representations of the agent about other agents 2 representations of the agentrsquos perception of other agents about it and 3 representations of the agent about what its competitors think about the first agentrsquos opinion about the other two. As a result the general patterns were revealed of the expressions of conjectural variations in each case it was proved that further detailing of the reflection is not needed. As a result of calculations the models of informational equilibriums of the Russian telecommunication market were constructed for that the averaged values of the demand and cost functions parameters functions of cellular communication operators were taken. It was also revealed that in 2015 the actual telecommunication market in the Russian Federation qualitatively i.e. by the ratio of market shares was close to equilibrium on condition of first rank reflexive behavior for the case when the market leader OJSC ldquoMTSrdquo represents its counterparties ndash OJSC ldquoMegafonrdquo and OJSC ldquoVympelcomrdquo ndash as the driven agents. Scientific novelty the analytical expressions for the information equilibrium parameters issues and profits of the agents aggregate

  2. Multinomial model and zero-inflated gamma model to study time spent on leisure time physical activity: an example of ELSA-Brasil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nobre, Aline Araújo; Carvalho, Marilia Sá; Griep, Rosane Härter; Fonseca, Maria de Jesus Mendes da; Melo, Enirtes Caetano Prates; Santos, Itamar de Souza; Chor, Dora

    2017-08-17

    To compare two methodological approaches: the multinomial model and the zero-inflated gamma model, evaluating the factors associated with the practice and amount of time spent on leisure time physical activity. Data collected from 14,823 baseline participants in the Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil - Estudo Longitudinal de Saúde do Adulto ) have been analysed. Regular leisure time physical activity has been measured using the leisure time physical activity module of the International Physical Activity Questionnaire. The explanatory variables considered were gender, age, education level, and annual per capita family income. The main advantage of the zero-inflated gamma model over the multinomial model is that it estimates mean time (minutes per week) spent on leisure time physical activity. For example, on average, men spent 28 minutes/week longer on leisure time physical activity than women did. The most sedentary groups were young women with low education level and income. The zero-inflated gamma model, which is rarely used in epidemiological studies, can give more appropriate answers in several situations. In our case, we have obtained important information on the main determinants of the duration of leisure time physical activity. This information can help guide efforts towards the most vulnerable groups since physical inactivity is associated with different diseases and even premature death.

  3. Multinomial model and zero-inflated gamma model to study time spent on leisure time physical activity: an example of ELSA-Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aline Araújo Nobre

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To compare two methodological approaches: the multinomial model and the zero-inflated gamma model, evaluating the factors associated with the practice and amount of time spent on leisure time physical activity. METHODS Data collected from 14,823 baseline participants in the Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil – Estudo Longitudinal de Saúde do Adulto have been analysed. Regular leisure time physical activity has been measured using the leisure time physical activity module of the International Physical Activity Questionnaire. The explanatory variables considered were gender, age, education level, and annual per capita family income. RESULTS The main advantage of the zero-inflated gamma model over the multinomial model is that it estimates mean time (minutes per week spent on leisure time physical activity. For example, on average, men spent 28 minutes/week longer on leisure time physical activity than women did. The most sedentary groups were young women with low education level and income CONCLUSIONS The zero-inflated gamma model, which is rarely used in epidemiological studies, can give more appropriate answers in several situations. In our case, we have obtained important information on the main determinants of the duration of leisure time physical activity. This information can help guide efforts towards the most vulnerable groups since physical inactivity is associated with different diseases and even premature death.

  4. [Temporal and spatial heterogeneity analysis of optimal value of sensitive parameters in ecological process model: The BIOME-BGC model as an example.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yi Zhe; Zhang, Ting Long; Liu, Qiu Yu; Li, Ying

    2018-01-01

    The ecological process models are powerful tools for studying terrestrial ecosystem water and carbon cycle at present. However, there are many parameters for these models, and weather the reasonable values of these parameters were taken, have important impact on the models simulation results. In the past, the sensitivity and the optimization of model parameters were analyzed and discussed in many researches. But the temporal and spatial heterogeneity of the optimal parameters is less concerned. In this paper, the BIOME-BGC model was used as an example. In the evergreen broad-leaved forest, deciduous broad-leaved forest and C3 grassland, the sensitive parameters of the model were selected by constructing the sensitivity judgment index with two experimental sites selected under each vegetation type. The objective function was constructed by using the simulated annealing algorithm combined with the flux data to obtain the monthly optimal values of the sensitive parameters at each site. Then we constructed the temporal heterogeneity judgment index, the spatial heterogeneity judgment index and the temporal and spatial heterogeneity judgment index to quantitatively analyze the temporal and spatial heterogeneity of the optimal values of the model sensitive parameters. The results showed that the sensitivity of BIOME-BGC model parameters was different under different vegetation types, but the selected sensitive parameters were mostly consistent. The optimal values of the sensitive parameters of BIOME-BGC model mostly presented time-space heterogeneity to different degrees which varied with vegetation types. The sensitive parameters related to vegetation physiology and ecology had relatively little temporal and spatial heterogeneity while those related to environment and phenology had generally larger temporal and spatial heterogeneity. In addition, the temporal heterogeneity of the optimal values of the model sensitive parameters showed a significant linear correlation

  5. Surface-subsurface flow modeling: an example of large-scale research at the new NEON user facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, H.; McKnight, D. M.

    2009-12-01

    Climate change is predicted to alter surface-subsurface interactions in freshwater ecosystems. These interactions are hypothesized to control nutrient release at diel and seasonal time scales, which may then exert control over epilithic algal growth rates. The mechanisms underlying shifts in complex physical-chemical-biological patterns can be elucidated by long-term observations at sites that span hydrologic and climate gradients across the continent. Development of the National Ecological Observatory Network (NEON) will provide researchers the opportunity to investigate continental-scale patterns by combining investigator-driven measurements with Observatory data. NEON is a national-scale research platform for analyzing and understanding the impacts of climate change, land-use change, and invasive species on ecology. NEON features sensor networks and experiments, linked by advanced cyberinfrastructure to record and archive ecological data for at least 30 years. NEON partitions the United States into 20 ecoclimatic domains. Each domain hosts one fully instrumented Core Aquatic site in a wildland area and one Relocatable site, which aims to capture ecologically significant gradients (e.g. landuse, nitrogen deposition, urbanization). In the current definition of NEON there are 36 Aquatic sites: 30 streams/rivers and 6 ponds/lakes. Each site includes automated, in-situ sensors for groundwater elevation and temperature; stream flow (discharge and stage); pond water elevation; atmospheric chemistry (Tair, barometric pressure, PAR, radiation); and surface water chemistry (DO, Twater, conductivity, pH, turbidity, cDOM, nutrients). Groundwater and surface water sites shall be regularly sampled for selected chemical and isotopic parameters. The hydrologic and geochemical monitoring design provides basic information on water and chemical fluxes in streams and ponds and between groundwater and surface water, which is intended to support investigator-driven modeling studies

  6. Historical analysis and modeling of the forest carbon dynamics using the Carbon Budget Model: an example for the Trento Province (NE, Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pilli R

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Historical analysis and modeling of the forest carbon dynamics using the Carbon Budget Model: an example for the Trento Province (NE, Italy. The Carbon Budget Model (CBM-CFS3 developed by the Canadian Forest Service was applied to data collected by the last Italian National Forest Inventory (INFC for the Trento Province (NE, Italy. CBM was modified and adapted to the different management types (i.e., even-aged high forests, uneven-aged high forests and coppices and silvicultural systems (including clear cuts, single tree selection systems and thinning applied in this province. The aim of this study was to provide an example of down-scaling of this model from a national to a regional scale, providing (i an historical analysis, from 1995 to 2011, and (ii a projection, from 2012 to 2020, of the forest biomass and the carbon stock evolution. The analysis was based on the harvest rate reported by the Italian National Institute of Statistics (from 1995 to 2011, corrected according to the last INFC data and distinguished between timber and fuel woods and between conifers and broadleaves. Since 2012, we applied a constant harvest rate, equal to about 1300 Mm3 yr-1, estimated from the average harvest rate for the period 2006-2011. Model results were consistent with similar data reported in the literature. The average biomass C stock was 90 Mg C ha-1 and the biomass C stock change was 0.97 Mg C ha-1 yr-1 and 0.87 Mg C ha-1 yr-1, for the period 1995 -2011 and 2012-2020, respectively. The C stock cumulated by the timber products since 1995 was 96 Gg C yr-1, i.e., about 28% of the average annual C stock change of the forests, equal to 345 Gg C yr-1. CBM also provided estimates on the evolution of the age class distribution of the even-aged forests and on the C stock of the DOM forest pools (litter, dead wood and soil. This study demonstrates the utility of CBM to provide estimates at a regional or local scale, using not only the data provided by the forest

  7. Potential Geophysical Field Transformations and Combined 3D Modelling for Estimation the Seismic Site Effects on Example of Israel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eppelbaum, Lev; Meirova, Tatiana

    2015-04-01

    , EGU2014-2424, Vienna, Austria, 1-5. Eppelbaum, L.V. and Katz, Y.I., 2014b. First Maps of Mesozoic and Cenozoic Structural-Sedimentation Floors of the Easternmost Mediterranean and their Relationship with the Deep Geophysical-Geological Zonation. Proceed. of the 19th Intern. Congress of Sedimentologists, Geneva, Switzerland, 1-3. Eppelbaum, L.V. and Katz, Yu.I., 2015a. Newly Developed Paleomagnetic Map of the Easternmost Mediterranean Unmasks Geodynamic History of this Region. Central European Jour. of Geosciences, 6, No. 4 (in Press). Eppelbaum, L.V. and Katz, Yu.I., 2015b. Application of Integrated Geological-Geophysical Analysis for Development of Paleomagnetic Maps of the Easternmost Mediterranean. In: (Eppelbaum L., Ed.), New Developments in Paleomagnetism Research, Nova Publisher, NY (in Press). Eppelbaum, L.V. and Khesin, B.E., 2004. Advanced 3-D modelling of gravity field unmasks reserves of a pyrite-polymetallic deposit: A case study from the Greater Caucasus. First Break, 22, No. 11, 53-56. Eppelbaum, L.V., Nikolaev, A.V. and Katz, Y.I., 2014. Space location of the Kiama paleomagnetic hyperzone of inverse polarity in the crust of the eastern Mediterranean. Doklady Earth Sciences (Springer), 457, No. 6, 710-714. Haase, J.S., Park, C.H., Nowack, R.L. and Hill, J.R., 2010. Probabilistic seismic hazard estimates incorporating site effects - An example from Indiana, U.S.A. Environmental and Engineering Geoscience, 16, No. 4, 369-388. Hough, S.E., Borcherdt, R. D., Friberg, P. A., Busby, R., Field, E. and Jacob, K. N., 1990. The role of sediment-induced amplification in the collapse of the Nimitz freeway. Nature, 344, 853-855. Khesin, B.E. Alexeyev, V.V. and Eppelbaum, L.V., 1996. Interpretation of Geophysical Fields in Complicated Environments. Kluwer Academic Publ., Ser.: Advanced Appr. in Geophysics, Dordrecht - London - Boston. Klokočník, J., Kostelecký, J., Eppelbaum, L. and Bezděk, A., 2014. Gravity Disturbances, the Marussi Tensor, Invariants and

  8. On the identifiability and the identification of linear models: examples of application within the frame of the theory of transformation systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delforge, Jacques

    1984-01-01

    In its first part, this research thesis which is the result of studies of the effects of radiations on molecular structures, addresses the search for guiding principles for the elaboration of a model with the best as possible justification (model justification is based on five criteria: rational consistency, refutability, adjustment to experimental data, justification of all model characteristics, uniqueness), recalls the main principles of the theory of transformation systems, and proposes a procedure of model search. The second part addresses mathematical methods. The third part addresses the problem of identifiability of parameters and the fourth part reports examples of model development: study of the effects of gamma irradiation on unicellular algae, study of the effects of radiations on the stem cells of rat gonads. This last part also reports the elaboration of pharmacokinetic model with 21 parameters, and the study of two models of nuclear medicine (assessment of the actual lung volume of hypoxemic patients, study of the methionine brain metabolism)

  9. A systematic approach for re-assembly of crop models: An example to simulate pea growth from wheat growth

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Adam, M.Y.O.; Wery, J.; Leffelaar, P.A.; Ewert, F.; Corbeels, M.; Keulen, van H.

    2013-01-01

    The process of crop modelling to develop operational software requires different skills, from conceptualization of the biophysical system to computer programming, involving three main scientific disciplines: agronomy, mathematics, and software engineering. Model building implies transforming a

  10. Current costing models: are they suitable for allocating health resources? The example of fall injury prevention in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moller, Jerry

    2005-01-01

    The example of fall injury among older people is used to define and illustrate how current Australian systems for allocation of health resources perform for funding emerging public health issues. While the examples are Australian, the allocation and priority setting methods are common in the health sector in all developed western nations. With an ageing population the number of falls injuries in Australia and the cost of treatment will rise dramatically over the next 20-50 years. Current methods of allocating funds within the health system are not well suited to meeting this coming epidemic. The information requirements for cost-benefit and cost-effectiveness measures cannot be met. Marginal approaches to health funding are likely to continue to fund already well-funded treatment or politically driven prevention processes and to miss the opportunity for new prevention initiatives in areas that do not have a high political profile. Fall injury is one of many emerging areas that struggle to make claims for funding because the critical mass of intervention and evidence of its impact is not available. The beneficiaries of allocation failure may be those who treat the disease burden that could have been easily prevented. Changes to allocation mechanisms, data systems and new initiative funding practices are required to ensure that preventative strategies are able to compete on an equal footing with treatment approaches for mainstream health funding.

  11. Continuous-Time Semi-Markov Models in Health Economic Decision Making : An Illustrative Example in Heart Failure Disease Management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cao, Qi; Buskens, Erik; Feenstra, Talitha; Jaarsma, Tiny; Hillege, Hans; Postmus, Douwe

    Continuous-time state transition models may end up having large unwieldy structures when trying to represent all relevant stages of clinical disease processes by means of a standard Markov model. In such situations, a more parsimonious, and therefore easier-to-grasp, model of a patient's disease

  12. Effect of Bayesian Student Modeling on Academic Achievement in Foreign Language Teaching (University Level English Preparatory School Example)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aslan, Burak Galip; Öztürk, Özlem; Inceoglu, Mustafa Murat

    2014-01-01

    Considering the increasing importance of adaptive approaches in CALL systems, this study implemented a machine learning based student modeling middleware with Bayesian networks. The profiling approach of the student modeling system is based on Felder and Silverman's Learning Styles Model and Felder and Soloman's Index of Learning Styles…

  13. What can a numerical landscape evolution model tell us about the evolution of a real landscape? Two examples of modeling a real landscape without recreating it

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gasparini, N. M.; Whipple, K. X.; Willenbring, J.; Crosby, B. T.; Brocard, G. Y.

    2013-12-01

    Numerical landscape evolution models (LEMs) offer us the unique opportunity to watch a landscape evolve under any set of environmental forcings that we can quantify. The possibilities for using LEMs are infinite, but complications arise when trying to model a real landscape. Specifically, numerical models cannot recreate every aspect of a real landscape because exact initial conditions are unknown, there will always be gaps in the known tectonic and climatic history, and the geomorphic transport laws that govern redistribution of mass due to surface processes will always be a simplified representation of the actual process. Yet, even with these constraints, numerical models remain the only tool that offers us the potential to explore a limitless range of evolutionary scenarios, allowing us to, at the very least, identify possible drivers responsible for the morphology of the current landscape, and just as importantly, rule out others. Here we highlight two examples in which we use a numerical model to explore the signature of different forcings on landscape morphology and erosion patterns. In the first landscape, the Northern Bolivian Andes, the relative imprint of rock uplift and precipitation patterns on landscape morphology is widely contested. We use the CHILD LEM to systematically vary climate and tectonics and quantify their fingerprints on channel profiles across a steep mountain front. We find that rock uplift and precipitation patterns in this landscape and others can be teased out by examining channel profiles of variably sized catchments that drain different parts of the topography. In the second landscape, the South Fork Eel River (SFER), northern California, USA, the tectonic history is relatively well known; a wave of rock uplift swept through the watershed from headwaters to outlet, perturbing the landscape and sending a wave of bedrock incision upstream. Nine millennial-scale erosion rates from along the mainstem of the river illustrate a pattern of

  14. Continuous-Time Semi-Markov Models in Health Economic Decision Making: An Illustrative Example in Heart Failure Disease Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Qi; Buskens, Erik; Feenstra, Talitha; Jaarsma, Tiny; Hillege, Hans; Postmus, Douwe

    2016-01-01

    Continuous-time state transition models may end up having large unwieldy structures when trying to represent all relevant stages of clinical disease processes by means of a standard Markov model. In such situations, a more parsimonious, and therefore easier-to-grasp, model of a patient's disease progression can often be obtained by assuming that the future state transitions do not depend only on the present state (Markov assumption) but also on the past through time since entry in the present state. Despite that these so-called semi-Markov models are still relatively straightforward to specify and implement, they are not yet routinely applied in health economic evaluation to assess the cost-effectiveness of alternative interventions. To facilitate a better understanding of this type of model among applied health economic analysts, the first part of this article provides a detailed discussion of what the semi-Markov model entails and how such models can be specified in an intuitive way by adopting an approach called vertical modeling. In the second part of the article, we use this approach to construct a semi-Markov model for assessing the long-term cost-effectiveness of 3 disease management programs for heart failure. Compared with a standard Markov model with the same disease states, our proposed semi-Markov model fitted the observed data much better. When subsequently extrapolating beyond the clinical trial period, these relatively large differences in goodness-of-fit translated into almost a doubling in mean total cost and a 60-d decrease in mean survival time when using the Markov model instead of the semi-Markov model. For the disease process considered in our case study, the semi-Markov model thus provided a sensible balance between model parsimoniousness and computational complexity. © The Author(s) 2015.

  15. Exxon Nuclear WREM-based NJP-BWR ECCS evaluation model and example application to the Oyster Creek Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krysinski, T.L.; Bjornard, T.A.; Steves, L.H.

    1975-01-01

    A proposed integrated ECCS model for non-jet pump boiling water reactors is presented, using the RELAP4-EM/BLOWDOWN and RELAP4-EM/SMALL BREAK portions of the Exxon Nuclear WREM-based Generic PWR Evaluation Model coupled with the ENC NJP-BWR Fuel Heatup Model. The results of the application of the proposed model to Oyster Creek are summarized. The results of the break size sensitivity study using the proposed model for the Oyster Creek Plant are presented. The application of the above results yielded the MAPLHGR curves. Included are a description of the proposed non-jet pump boiling water reaction evaluation model, justification of its conformance with TOCFR50, Appendix K, the adopted Oyster Creek plant model, and results of the analysis and sensitivity studies. (auth)

  16. Knowledge, transparency, and refutability in groundwater models, an example from the Death Valley regional groundwater flow system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Mary C.; Faunt, Claudia C.; Belcher, Wayne; Sweetkind, Donald; Tiedeman, Claire; Kavetski, Dmitri

    2013-01-01

    This work demonstrates how available knowledge can be used to build more transparent and refutable computer models of groundwater systems. The Death Valley regional groundwater flow system, which surrounds a proposed site for a high level nuclear waste repository of the United States of America, and the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS), where nuclear weapons were tested, is used to explore model adequacy, identify parameters important to (and informed by) observations, and identify existing old and potential new observations important to predictions. Model development is pursued using a set of fundamental questions addressed with carefully designed metrics. Critical methods include using a hydrogeologic model, managing model nonlinearity by designing models that are robust while maintaining realism, using error-based weighting to combine disparate types of data, and identifying important and unimportant parameters and observations and optimizing parameter values with computationally frugal schemes. The frugal schemes employed in this study require relatively few (10–1000 s), parallelizable model runs. This is beneficial because models able to approximate the complex site geology defensibly tend to have high computational cost. The issue of model defensibility is particularly important given the contentious political issues involved.

  17. Discussion on geochemical characteristics, mechanism and prospecting model of gluey type sandstone uranium mineralization--taking Redwell uranium deposit as an example

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Jinping

    1998-01-01

    Redwell uranium deposit hosted in the red clastic rock formation, is a typical example of gluey type uranium mineralization, which has not been reported so far in China. Based on the study of geochemical characteristics of Redwell deposit, the author discusses the genetic mechanism of this type deposits, and proposes the prospecting model of 4 in 1 of red bed-fault-oil gas-uranium source

  18. Modelling and predicting of commercial property attendance basing on the estimation of its attraction for consumers (by example of shopping malls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Varvara Sergeyevna Spirina

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective to research and elaborate an economicmathematical model of predicting of commercial property attendance by the example of shopping malls based on the estimation of its attraction for consumers. Methods the methodological and theoretical basis for the work was composed of the rules and techniques of elaborating the qualimetry and matrix mechanisms of complex estimation necessary for the estimation and aggregation of factors influencing the choice of a consumersrsquo group among many alternative property venues. Results two mechanisms are elaborated for the complex estimation of commercial property which is necessary to evaluate their attraction for consumers and to predict attendance. By the example of two large shopping malls in Perm Russia it is shown that using both mechanisms in the economicmathematical model of commercial property attendance increases the accuracy of its predictions compared to the traditional Huff model. The reliability of the results is confirmed by the coincidence of the results of calculation and the actual poll data on the shopping malls attendance. Scientific novelty a multifactor model of commercial property attraction for consumers was elaborated by the example of shopping malls parameters of complex estimation mechanisms are defined namely eight parameters influencing the choice of a shopping mall by consumers. The model differs from the traditional Huff model by the number of factors influencing the choice of a shopping mall by consumers and by the higher accuracy of predicting its attendance. Practical significance the economicmathematical models able to predict commercial property attendance can be used for efficient planning of measures to attract consumers to preserve and develop competitive advantages of commercial property. nbsp

  19. Introducing Geoscience Students to Numerical Modeling of Volcanic Hazards: The example of Tephra2 on VHub.org

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leah M. Courtland

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The Tephra2 numerical model for tephra fallout from explosive volcanic eruptions is specifically designed to enable students to probe ideas in model literacy, including code validation and verification, the role of simplifying assumptions, and the concepts of uncertainty and forecasting. This numerical model is implemented on the VHub.org website, a venture in cyberinfrastructure that brings together volcanological models and educational materials. The VHub.org resource provides students with the ability to explore and execute sophisticated numerical models like Tephra2. We present a strategy for using this model to introduce university students to key concepts in the use and evaluation of Tephra2 for probabilistic forecasting of volcanic hazards. Through this critical examination students are encouraged to develop a deeper understanding of the applicability and limitations of hazard models. Although the model and applications are intended for use in both introductory and advanced geoscience courses, they could easily be adapted to work in other disciplines, such as astronomy, physics, computational methods, data analysis, or computer science.

  20. Using ComBase Predictor and Pathogen Modeling Program as support tools in outbreak investigation: an example from Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Cleide; Hansen, Tina Beck; Andersen, Jens Kirk

    2009-01-01

    of salt to the batter. A deterministic model was constructed in Microsoft Excel using information on the production of the implicated sausage. This model predicted the level of Y. enterocolitica to increase 2.3, 4.2 and 7.8 log-units during fermentation, drying and storage, respectively. At the point...

  1. Setting a good example: supervisors as work-life-friendly role models within the context of boundary management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koch, Anna R; Binnewies, Carmen

    2015-01-01

    This multisource, multilevel study examined the importance of supervisors as work-life-friendly role models for employees' boundary management. Particularly, we tested whether supervisors' work-home segmentation behavior represents work-life-friendly role modeling for their employees. Furthermore, we tested whether work-life-friendly role modeling is positively related to employees' work-home segmentation behavior. Also, we examined whether work-life-friendly role modeling is positively related to employees' well-being in terms of feeling less exhausted and disengaged. In total, 237 employees and their 75 supervisors participated in our study. Results from hierarchical linear models revealed that supervisors who showed more segmentation behavior to separate work and home were more likely perceived as work-life-friendly role models. Employees with work-life-friendly role models were more likely to segment between work and home, and they felt less exhausted and disengaged. One may conclude that supervisors as work-life-friendly role models are highly important for employees' work-home segmentation behavior and gatekeepers to implement a work-life-friendly organizational culture. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved.

  2. A CFBPN Artificial Neural Network Model for Educational Qualitative Data Analyses: Example of Students' Attitudes Based on Kellerts' Typologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yorek, Nurettin; Ugulu, Ilker

    2015-01-01

    In this study, artificial neural networks are suggested as a model that can be "trained" to yield qualitative results out of a huge amount of categorical data. It can be said that this is a new approach applied in educational qualitative data analysis. In this direction, a cascade-forward back-propagation neural network (CFBPN) model was…

  3. The standard model prediction for the electric dipole moment of the electron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoogeveen, F.

    1990-01-01

    The electric dipole moment of the electron is calculated within the standard model with three generations of quarks. Depending on the values of some unknown parameters like the top quark mass and the CP-violating phase δ in the Kobayashi-Maskawa matrix, its value is of the order of magnitude of 2x10 -38 vertical strokeevertical stroke cm. (orig.)

  4. Can dispersion modeling of air pollution be improved by land-use regression? An example from Stockholm, Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korek, Michal; Johansson, Christer; Svensson, Nina; Lind, Tomas; Beelen, Rob; Hoek, Gerard; Pershagen, Göran; Bellander, Tom

    2017-11-01

    Both dispersion modeling (DM) and land-use regression modeling (LUR) are often used for assessment of long-term air pollution exposure in epidemiological studies, but seldom in combination. We developed a hybrid DM-LUR model using 93 biweekly observations of NO x at 31 sites in greater Stockholm (Sweden). The DM was based on spatially resolved topographic, physiographic and emission data, and hourly meteorological data from a diagnostic wind model. Other data were from land use, meteorology and routine monitoring of NO x . We built a linear regression model for NO x , using a stepwise forward selection of covariates. The resulting model predicted observed NO x (R 2 =0.89) better than the DM without covariates (R 2 =0.68, P-interaction <0.001) and with minimal apparent bias. The model included (in descending order of importance) DM, traffic intensity on the nearest street, population (number of inhabitants) within 100 m radius, global radiation (direct sunlight plus diffuse or scattered light) and urban contribution to NO x levels (routine urban NO x , less routine rural NO x ). Our results indicate that there is a potential for improving estimates of air pollutant concentrations based on DM, by incorporating further spatial characteristics of the immediate surroundings, possibly accounting for imperfections in the emission data.

  5. Accounting for Taste Heterogeneity in Purchase Channel Intention Modeling: An Example from Northern California for Book Purchases

    OpenAIRE

    Tang, Wei; Mokhtarian, Patricia L

    2009-01-01

    This study uses latent class modeling (LCM) to explore the effects of channel-specific perceptions, along with other variables, on purchase channel intention. Using data on book purchases collected from an Internet-based survey of two university towns in Northern California, we develop a latent class model with two segments (final N=373). Age turns out to be the only observed determinant of class membership, and in the intention model, the mostly-younger segment is more cost-sensitive and the...

  6. [Following the American example? American models for hospital medicine and research: the case of the Kerckhoff Institute in Bad Nauheim].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timmermann, Carsten

    2010-01-01

    This essay examines how and why American models were applied in the reorganization of West German hospitals and medical research centers in the post-war period. After discussing why American clinical medical centers turned into model institutions over the last century or so, a case study is discussed in some detail: the Kerckhoff Institute for cardiovascular research in Bad Nauheim, since 1951 an institute within the Max Planck Society with its own research clinic (which was unusual for Max Planck Institutes). The history of this institution illustrates which local and specific considerations drove historical actors to embrace American models. German academic and administrative realities, however, imposed tight constraints on the implementation of US institutional models.

  7. Estimation of energy saving thanks to a reduced-model-based approach: Example of bread baking by jet impingement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alamir, M.; Witrant, E.; Della Valle, G.; Rouaud, O.; Josset, Ch.; Boillereaux, L.

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, a reduced order mechanistic model is proposed for the evolution of temperature and humidity during French bread baking. The model parameters are identified using experimental data. The resulting model is then used to estimate the potential energy saving that can be obtained using jet impingement technology when used to increase the heat transfer efficiency. Results show up to 16% potential energy saving under certain assumptions. - Highlights: ► We developed a mechanistic model of heat and mass transfer in bread including different and multiple energy sources. ► An optimal control system permits to track references trajectories with a minimization of energy consuming. ► The methodology is evaluated with jet impingement technique. ► Results show a significant energy saving of about 17% of energy with reasonable actuator variations

  8. Following the American Example? American Models for Hospital Medicine and Research: The Case of the Kerckhoff Institute in Bad Nauheim

    OpenAIRE

    Timmermann, C

    2010-01-01

    This essay examines how and why American models were applied in the reorganization of West German hospitals and medical research centers in the post-war period. After discussing why American clinical medical centers turned into model institutions over the last century or so, a case study is discussed in some detail: the Kerckhoff Institute for cardiovascular research in Bad Nauheim, since 1951 an institute within the Max Planck Society with its own research clinic (which was unusual for Max P...

  9. The Economic Evaluation Model of the Use of the Intangible Resources Potential on the Example of Russian Regions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena V. Mikhalkina

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the problem of assessing the potential use of intangible resources. The relevance of the research is determined by the necessity of innovation-based economy, the growing role of intangible resources (human, social, organizational, intellectual and other kinds of capital in promoting economic development of individual regions and the country as a whole. The paper proposes a verification method of the factors that characterize the potential use of intangible resources, affecting productivity. For a description of dependencies linear regression model was selected, also there was carried out an assessment of its parameters and performed Quality check of model. In the course of a capacity assessment intangible resource model constructing at the regional level was used regression analysis (the choice of indicator system, data collection and analysis, the calculation of the correlation coefficient, the choice of models and numerical estimation of its parameters, quality control model, assessment of the certain factors impact on the basis of the model. Also the factor analysis is used (matrix of factor loadings, and the classification on the basis of the factors selected regions is carried out. The regional clusterization of the intangible resources capacity will allow to make correct management decisions in the future.

  10. Integrating geologic and engineering data into 3-D reservoir models: an example from norman wells field, NWT, Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yose, L.A.

    2004-01-01

    A case study of the Norman Wells field will be presented to highlight the work-flow and data integration steps associated with characterization and modeling of a complex hydrocarbon reservoir. Norman Wells is a Devonian-age carbonate bank ('reef') located in the Northwest Territories of Canada, 60 kilometers south of the Arctic Circle. The reservoir reaches a maximum thickness of 130 meters in the reef interior and thins toward the basin due to depositional pinch outs. Norman Wells is an oil reservoir and is currently under a 5-spot water injection scheme for enhanced oil recovery (EOR). EOR strategies require a detailed understanding of how reservoir flow units, flow barriers and flow baffles are distributed to optimize hydrocarbon sweep and recovery and to minimize water handling. Reservoir models are routinely used by industry to characterize the 3-D distribution of reservoir architecture (stratigraphic layers, depositional facies, faults) and rock properties (porosity. permeability). Reservoir models are validated by matching historical performance data (e.g., reservoir pressures, well production or injection rates). Geologic models are adjusted until they produce a history match, and model adjustments are focused on inputs that have the greatest geologic uncertainty. Flow simulation models are then used to optimize field development strategies and to forecast field performance under different development scenarios. (author)

  11. Splitting turbulence algorithm for mixing parameterization embedded in the ocean climate model. Examples of data assimilation and Prandtl number variations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moshonkin, Sergey; Gusev, Anatoly; Zalesny, Vladimir; Diansky, Nikolay

    2017-04-01

    Series of experiments were performed with a three-dimensional, free surface, sigma coordinate eddy-permitting ocean circulation model for Atlantic (from 30°S) - Arctic and Bering sea domain (0.25 degrees resolution, Institute of Numerical Mathematics Ocean Model or INMOM) using vertical grid refinement in the zone of fully developed turbulence (40 sigma-levels). The model variables are horizontal velocity components, potential temperature, and salinity as well as free surface height. For parameterization of viscosity and diffusivity, the original splitting turbulence algorithm (STA) is used when total evolutionary equations for the turbulence kinetic energy (TKE) and turbulence dissipation frequency (TDF) split into the stages of transport-diffusion and generation-dissipation. For the generation-dissipation stage the analytical solution was obtained for TKE and TDF as functions of the buoyancy and velocity shift frequencies (BF and VSF). The proposed model with STA is similar to the contemporary differential turbulence models, concerning the physical formulations. At the same time, its algorithm has high enough computational efficiency. For mixing simulation in the zone of turbulence decay, the two kind numerical experiments were carried out, as with assimilation of annual mean climatic buoyancy frequency, as with variation of Prandtl number function dependence upon the BF, VSF, TKE and TDF. The CORE-II data for 1948-2009 were used for experiments. Quality of temperature T and salinity S structure simulation is estimated by the comparison of model monthly profiles T and S averaged for 1980-2009, with T and S monthly data from the World Ocean Atlas 2013. Form of coefficients in equations for TKE and TDF on the generation-dissipation stage makes it possible to assimilate annual mean climatic buoyancy frequency in a varying degree that cardinally improves adequacy of model results to climatic data in all analyzed model domain. The numerical experiments with modified

  12. PDE-based geophysical modelling using finite elements: examples from 3D resistivity and 2D magnetotellurics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaa, R.; Gross, L.; du Plessis, J.

    2016-04-01

    We present a general finite-element solver, escript, tailored to solve geophysical forward and inverse modeling problems in terms of partial differential equations (PDEs) with suitable boundary conditions. Escript’s abstract interface allows geoscientists to focus on solving the actual problem without being experts in numerical modeling. General-purpose finite element solvers have found wide use especially in engineering fields and find increasing application in the geophysical disciplines as these offer a single interface to tackle different geophysical problems. These solvers are useful for data interpretation and for research, but can also be a useful tool in educational settings. This paper serves as an introduction into PDE-based modeling with escript where we demonstrate in detail how escript is used to solve two different forward modeling problems from applied geophysics (3D DC resistivity and 2D magnetotellurics). Based on these two different cases, other geophysical modeling work can easily be realized. The escript package is implemented as a Python library and allows the solution of coupled, linear or non-linear, time-dependent PDEs. Parallel execution for both shared and distributed memory architectures is supported and can be used without modifications to the scripts.

  13. PDE-based geophysical modelling using finite elements: examples from 3D resistivity and 2D magnetotellurics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schaa, R; Gross, L; Du Plessis, J

    2016-01-01

    We present a general finite-element solver, escript, tailored to solve geophysical forward and inverse modeling problems in terms of partial differential equations (PDEs) with suitable boundary conditions. Escript’s abstract interface allows geoscientists to focus on solving the actual problem without being experts in numerical modeling. General-purpose finite element solvers have found wide use especially in engineering fields and find increasing application in the geophysical disciplines as these offer a single interface to tackle different geophysical problems. These solvers are useful for data interpretation and for research, but can also be a useful tool in educational settings. This paper serves as an introduction into PDE-based modeling with escript where we demonstrate in detail how escript is used to solve two different forward modeling problems from applied geophysics (3D DC resistivity and 2D magnetotellurics). Based on these two different cases, other geophysical modeling work can easily be realized. The escript package is implemented as a Python library and allows the solution of coupled, linear or non-linear, time-dependent PDEs. Parallel execution for both shared and distributed memory architectures is supported and can be used without modifications to the scripts. (paper)

  14. Dynamic Modeling of Learning in Emerging Energy Industries: The Example of Advanced Biofuels in the United States: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vimmerstedt, Laura J.; Bush, Brian W.; Peterson, Steven O.

    2015-09-03

    This paper (and its supplemental model) presents novel approaches to modeling interactions and related policies among investment, production, and learning in an emerging competitive industry. New biomass-to-biofuels pathways are being developed and commercialized to support goals for U.S. advanced biofuel use, such as those in the Energy Independence and Security Act of 2007. We explore the impact of learning rates and techno-economics in a learning model excerpted from the Biomass Scenario Model (BSM), developed by the U.S. Department of Energy and the National Renewable Energy Laboratory to explore the impact of biofuel policy on the evolution of the biofuels industry. The BSM integrates investment, production, and learning among competing biofuel conversion options that are at different stages of industrial development. We explain the novel methods used to simulate the impact of differing assumptions about mature industry techno-economics and about learning rates while accounting for the different maturity levels of various conversion pathways. A sensitivity study shows that the parameters studied (fixed capital investment, process yield, progress ratios, and pre-commercial investment) exhibit highly interactive effects, and the system, as modeled, tends toward market dominance of a single pathway due to competition and learning dynamics.

  15. Suspended sediment flux modeling with artificial neural network: An example of the Longchuanjiang River in the Upper Yangtze Catchment, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Yun-Mei; Lu, X. X.; Zhou, Yue

    2007-02-01

    Artificial neural network (ANN) was used to model the monthly suspended sediment flux in the Longchuanjiang River, the Upper Yangtze Catchment, China. The suspended sediment flux was related to the average rainfall, temperature, rainfall intensity and water discharge. It is demonstrated that ANN is capable of modeling the monthly suspended sediment flux with fairly good accuracy when proper variables and their lag effect on the suspended sediment flux are used as inputs. Compared with multiple linear regression and power relation models, ANN can generate a better fit under the same data requirement. In addition, ANN can provide more reasonable predictions for extremely high or low values, because of the distributed information processing system and the nonlinear transformation involved. Compared with the ANNs that use the values of the dependent variable at previous time steps as inputs, the ANNs established in this research with only climate variables have an advantage because it can be used to assess hydrological responses to climate change.

  16. Evolving MCDM Applications Using Hybrid Expert-Based ISM and DEMATEL Models: An Example of Sustainable Ecotourism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huan-Ming Chuang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Ecological degradation is an escalating global threat. Increasingly, people are expressing awareness and priority for concerns about environmental problems surrounding them. Environmental protection issues are highlighted. An appropriate information technology tool, the growing popular social network system (virtual community, VC, facilitates public education and engagement with applications for existent problems effectively. Particularly, the exploration of related involvement behavior of VC member engagement is an interesting topic. Nevertheless, member engagement processes comprise interrelated sub-processes that reflect an interactive experience within VCs as well as the value co-creation model. To address the top-focused ecotourism VCs, this study presents an application of a hybrid expert-based ISM model and DEMATEL model based on multi-criteria decision making tools to investigate the complex multidimensional and dynamic nature of member engagement. Our research findings provide insightful managerial implications and suggest that the viral marketing of ecotourism protection is concerned with practitioners and academicians alike.

  17. Modeling prices of wholesale market of electric energy and power by the example of the UPS of the Ural

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mokhov V.G.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The article oversees forecasting model for deviations of the balancing market index and day-ahead market index according to the maximum similarity sample for different levels of approximation in the context of positive and negative time-series value. The model was being tested on the factual data of the Integrated Power system of the Ural, Wholesale market for electricity and power of Russian Federation. Describes the price formation on the day-ahead market and the balancing market index. The necessity to use accurate forecasting methods consumption and prices of electrical energy and power to reduce penalties when the electric power industry entities on the energy exchange. The testing of mathematical models to predict the balancing market index deviations and day-ahead market based on a sample of maximum similarity with certain approximation equations for positive and negative values gave the prediction error of 3.3%.

  18. Evolving MCDM Applications Using Hybrid Expert-Based ISM and DEMATEL Models: An Example of Sustainable Ecotourism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chuang, Huan-Ming

    2013-01-01

    Ecological degradation is an escalating global threat. Increasingly, people are expressing awareness and priority for concerns about environmental problems surrounding them. Environmental protection issues are highlighted. An appropriate information technology tool, the growing popular social network system (virtual community, VC), facilitates public education and engagement with applications for existent problems effectively. Particularly, the exploration of related involvement behavior of VC member engagement is an interesting topic. Nevertheless, member engagement processes comprise interrelated sub-processes that reflect an interactive experience within VCs as well as the value co-creation model. To address the top-focused ecotourism VCs, this study presents an application of a hybrid expert-based ISM model and DEMATEL model based on multi-criteria decision making tools to investigate the complex multidimensional and dynamic nature of member engagement. Our research findings provide insightful managerial implications and suggest that the viral marketing of ecotourism protection is concerned with practitioners and academicians alike. PMID:24453902

  19. Evolving MCDM applications using hybrid expert-based ISM and DEMATEL models: an example of sustainable ecotourism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chuang, Huan-Ming; Lin, Chien-Ku; Chen, Da-Ren; Chen, You-Shyang

    2013-01-01

    Ecological degradation is an escalating global threat. Increasingly, people are expressing awareness and priority for concerns about environmental problems surrounding them. Environmental protection issues are highlighted. An appropriate information technology tool, the growing popular social network system (virtual community, VC), facilitates public education and engagement with applications for existent problems effectively. Particularly, the exploration of related involvement behavior of VC member engagement is an interesting topic. Nevertheless, member engagement processes comprise interrelated sub-processes that reflect an interactive experience within VCs as well as the value co-creation model. To address the top-focused ecotourism VCs, this study presents an application of a hybrid expert-based ISM model and DEMATEL model based on multi-criteria decision making tools to investigate the complex multidimensional and dynamic nature of member engagement. Our research findings provide insightful managerial implications and suggest that the viral marketing of ecotourism protection is concerned with practitioners and academicians alike.

  20. Model-based derivation, analysis and control of unstable microaerobic steady-states--considering Rhodospirillum rubrum as an example.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carius, Lisa; Rumschinski, Philipp; Faulwasser, Timm; Flockerzi, Dietrich; Grammel, Hartmut; Findeisen, Rolf

    2014-04-01

    Microaerobic (oxygen-limited) conditions are critical for inducing many important microbial processes in industrial or environmental applications. At very low oxygen concentrations, however, the process performance often suffers from technical limitations. Available dissolved oxygen measurement techniques are not sensitive enough and thus control techniques, that can reliable handle these conditions, are lacking. Recently, we proposed a microaerobic process control strategy, which overcomes these restrictions and allows to assess different degrees of oxygen limitation in bioreactor batch cultivations. Here, we focus on the design of a control strategy for the automation of oxygen-limited continuous cultures using the microaerobic formation of photosynthetic membranes (PM) in Rhodospirillum rubrum as model phenomenon. We draw upon R. rubrum since the considered phenomenon depends on the optimal availability of mixed-carbon sources, hence on boundary conditions which make the process performance challenging. Empirically assessing these specific microaerobic conditions is scarcely practicable as such a process reacts highly sensitive to changes in the substrate composition and the oxygen availability in the culture broth. Therefore, we propose a model-based process control strategy which allows to stabilize steady-states of cultures grown under these conditions. As designing the appropriate strategy requires a detailed knowledge of the system behavior, we begin by deriving and validating an unstructured process model. This model is used to optimize the experimental conditions, and identify properties of the system which are critical for process performance. The derived model facilitates the good process performance via the proposed optimal control strategy. In summary the presented model-based control strategy allows to access and maintain microaerobic steady-states of interest and to precisely and efficiently transfer the culture from one stable microaerobic steady

  1. Using ComBase Predictor and Pathogen Modeling Program as support tools in outbreak investigation: an example from Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Cleide; Hansen, Tina Beck; Andersen, Jens Kirk

    2009-01-01

    of salt to the batter. A deterministic model was constructed in Microsoft Excel using information on the production of the implicated sausage. This model predicted the level of Y. enterocolitica to increase 2.3, 4.2 and 7.8 log-units during fermentation, drying and storage, respectively. At the point...... of release of the sausage for sale, 1 Y. enterocolitica could have increased to 106 and the sausage could, therefore, not be ruled out as the source of Y. enterocolitica found in two of the outbreak cases....

  2. ECONOMIC MODEL AND TOOLS OF THE AIR PROTECTION MANAGEMENT BASED ON THE EXAMPLE OF A COKING PLANT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danuta Hilse

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Legal-economic models of the air protection management at the Polish industrial plants, which take into account the regulations of the Act on “Environment protection law”, are far from being perfect. It is particularly noticeable in the coking industry where chargeable pollutions are chosen selectively, and unitary rates of emission charges are agreed at random. Tax deductions are not granted either to producers of fuel coke for reduction of pollutants emission in municipal-housing management after replacing coal with fuel coke. The proposed new economic model of the air protection management at coking plants eliminates the existing shortcomings.

  3. A model-based evaluation of Marine Protected Areas: the example of eastern Baltic cod (Gadus morhua callarias L.)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kraus, Gerd; Pelletier, Dominique; Dubreuil, Julien

    2009-01-01

    The eastern Baltic cod stock collapsed as a consequence of climate-driven adverse hydrographic conditions and over fishing and has remained at historically low levels. Spatio-temporal fishing closures [Marine Protected Areas (MPAs)] have been implemented since 1995, to protect and restore......, combining an age-structured population module with a multifleet exploitation module and a management module in a single model environment. The model is parameterized based on (i) the large amount of biological knowledge available for cod and (ii) an analysis of existing spatially disaggregated fishery data...

  4. Simplified fuel cycle tritium inventory model for systems studies -- An illustrative example with an optimized cryopump exhaust system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuan, W.; Ho, S.K.

    1995-01-01

    It is desirable to incorporate safety constraints due to fuel cycle tritium inventories into tokamak reactor design optimization. An optimal scenario to minimize tritium inventories without much degradation of plasma performance can be defined for each tritium processing component. In this work, the computer code TRUFFLES is used exclusively to obtain numerical data for a simplified model to be used for systems studies. As an illustration, the cryopump plasma exhaust subsystem is examined in detail for optimization purposes. This optimization procedure will then be used to further reduce its window of operation and provide constraints on the data used for the simplified tritium inventory model

  5. Knowledge Management in Sustainability Research Projects: Concepts, Effective Models, and Examples in a Multi-Stakeholder Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaiser, David Brian; Köhler, Thomas; Weith, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    This article aims to sketch a conceptual design for an information and knowledge management system in sustainability research projects. The suitable frameworks to implement knowledge transfer models constitute social communities, because the mutual exchange and learning processes among all stakeholders promote key sustainable developments through…

  6. Topic Modeling as a Strategy of Inquiry in Organizational Research: A Tutorial With an Application Example on Organizational Culture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmiedel, Theresa; Müller, Oliver; vom Brocke, Jan

    2018-01-01

    of large textual data sets and increased computational power, text mining has become an attractive method that has the potential to mitigate some of these limitations. Thus, we suggest applying topic modeling, a specific text mining technique, as a new and complementary strategy of inquiry to study...

  7. The Value of Decision Analytical Modeling in Surgical Research: An Example of Laparoscopic Versus Open Distal Pancreatectomy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tax, Casper; Govaert, Paulien H. M.; Stommel, Martijn W. J.; Besselink, Marc G. H.; Gooszen, Hein G.; Rovers, Maroeska M.

    2017-01-01

    To illustrate how decision modeling may identify relevant uncertainty and can preclude or identify areas of future research in surgery. To optimize use of research resources, a tool is needed that assists in identifying relevant uncertainties and the added value of reducing these uncertainties. The

  8. The Sylview graphical interface to the SYLVAN STAND STRUCTURE model with examples from southern bottomland hardwood forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    David R. Larsen; Ian Scott

    2010-01-01

    In the field of forestry, the output of forest growth models provide a wealth of detailed information that can often be difficult to analyze and perceive due to presentation either as plain text summary tables or static stand visualizations. This paper describes the design and implementation of a cross-platform computer application for dynamic and interactive forest...

  9. Using statistical models to explore ensemble uncertainty in climate impact studies: the example of air pollution in Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. E. P. Lemaire

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Because of its sensitivity to unfavorable weather patterns, air pollution is sensitive to climate change so that, in the future, a climate penalty could jeopardize the expected efficiency of air pollution mitigation measures. A common method to assess the impact of climate on air quality consists in implementing chemistry-transport models forced by climate projections. However, the computing cost of such methods requires optimizing ensemble exploration techniques. By using a training data set from a deterministic projection of climate and air quality over Europe, we identified the main meteorological drivers of air quality for eight regions in Europe and developed statistical models that could be used to predict air pollutant concentrations. The evolution of the key climate variables driving either particulate or gaseous pollution allows selecting the members of the EuroCordex ensemble of regional climate projections that should be used in priority for future air quality projections (CanESM2/RCA4; CNRM-CM5-LR/RCA4 and CSIRO-Mk3-6-0/RCA4 and MPI-ESM-LR/CCLM following the EuroCordex terminology. After having tested the validity of the statistical model in predictive mode, we can provide ranges of uncertainty attributed to the spread of the regional climate projection ensemble by the end of the century (2071–2100 for the RCP8.5. In the three regions where the statistical model of the impact of climate change on PM2.5 offers satisfactory performances, we find a climate benefit (a decrease of PM2.5 concentrations under future climate of −1.08 (±0.21, −1.03 (±0.32, −0.83 (±0.14 µg m−3, for respectively Eastern Europe, Mid-Europe and Northern Italy. In the British-Irish Isles, Scandinavia, France, the Iberian Peninsula and the Mediterranean, the statistical model is not considered skillful enough to draw any conclusion for PM2.5. In Eastern Europe, France, the Iberian Peninsula, Mid-Europe and Northern Italy, the statistical model of the

  10. Integration of a modeling task in water policy design - Example of a prospective scenarios approach on an agricultural catchment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreau, P.; Raimbault, T.; Durand, P.; Gascuel-Odoux, C.; Salmon-Monviola, J.; Masson, V.; Cordier, M. O.

    2010-05-01

    To meet the objectives of the Water Framework Directive in terms of nitrate pollution of surface water, numerous mitigation options have been proposed. To support stakeholders' decision prior to the implementation of regulations, scenario analysis by models can be used as a prospective approach. The work developed an extensive virtual experiment design from an initial basic requirement of catchment managers. Specific objectives were (1) to test the ability of a distributed model (TNT2) to simulate hydrology and hydrochemistry on a watershed with a high diversity of production systems, (2) to analyse a large set of scenarios and their effects on water quality and (3) to propose an effective mode of communication between research scientists and catchment managers. The focus of the scenario, in accord with catchment managers' requirement, is put on winter catch crop (CC). 5 conditions of implantation in rotations, 3 CC durations and 2 CC harvest modes were tested. CC is favoured by managers because of its simplicity to implement on fields and its relative low influence on farm strategy. Calibration and validation periods were run from 1998 to 2007 and scenario simulation period from 2007 to 2020. Results have been provided, for each scenario, by compartment (soil, atmosphere, plant uptake, water) but especially in the form of nitrogen mass balance at the catchment scale. The scenarios were ranked by integrating positive and negative effects of each measure. This 3-step-process: translation of a simple stakeholder question into extensive set of scenarios (complexification) - modeling process and data analysis - restitution to catchments' manager into a simple integrative form (simplification), gives an operational tool for decision support. In term of water quality, the best improvements in nitrate concentrations at the outlet reached a decrease of 0.8 mgL-1 compared to a "business as usual" scenario and were achieved by exporting the CC residue, by extending CC

  11. Kuramoto model of coupled oscillators with positive and negative coupling parameters: an example of conformist and contrarian oscillators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Hyunsuk; Strogatz, Steven H

    2011-02-04

    We consider a generalization of the Kuramoto model in which the oscillators are coupled to the mean field with random signs. Oscillators with positive coupling are "conformists"; they are attracted to the mean field and tend to synchronize with it. Oscillators with negative coupling are "contrarians"; they are repelled by the mean field and prefer a phase diametrically opposed to it. The model is simple and exactly solvable, yet some of its behavior is surprising. Along with the stationary states one might have expected (a desynchronized state, and a partially-synchronized state, with conformists and contrarians locked in antiphase), it also displays a traveling wave, in which the mean field oscillates at a frequency different from the population's mean natural frequency.

  12. Absolute earthquake locations using 3-D versus 1-D velocity models below a local seismic network: example from the Pyrenees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theunissen, T.; Chevrot, S.; Sylvander, M.; Monteiller, V.; Calvet, M.; Villaseñor, A.; Benahmed, S.; Pauchet, H.; Grimaud, F.

    2018-03-01

    Local seismic networks are usually designed so that earthquakes are located inside them (primary azimuthal gap 180° and distance to the first station higher than 15 km). Errors on velocity models and accuracy of absolute earthquake locations are assessed based on a reference data set made of active seismic, quarry blasts and passive temporary experiments. Solutions and uncertainties are estimated using the probabilistic approach of the NonLinLoc (NLLoc) software based on Equal Differential Time. Some updates have been added to NLLoc to better focus on the final solution (outlier exclusion, multiscale grid search, S-phases weighting). Errors in the probabilistic approach are defined to take into account errors on velocity models and on arrival times. The seismicity in the final 3-D catalogue is located with a horizontal uncertainty of about 2.0 ± 1.9 km and a vertical uncertainty of about 3.0 ± 2.0 km.

  13. SPSS在数学建模中的应用实例%Application Examples of SPSS in Mathematical Modeling

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周静

    2012-01-01

    为研究某公司生产的牙膏销售量与销售价格、广告投入等之间的关系,利用SPSS18.0进行回归分析,建立牙膏的销售量与其它因素的回归模型,说明SPSS在解决数学建模中预测问题时更具优越性。%In the study of the relationship among sales volume,price and the advertising investment of the toothpaste in a certain company,regression analysis by SPSS18.0 is made and the regression model of the toothpaste sales and other factors is established to make a statement that SPSS has superiority in solving predicted mathematical modeling problems.

  14. The Value of Decision Analytical Modeling in Surgical Research: An Example of Laparoscopic Versus Open Distal Pancreatectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tax, Casper; Govaert, Paulien H M; Stommel, Martijn W J; Besselink, Marc G H; Gooszen, Hein G; Rovers, Maroeska M

    2017-11-02

    To illustrate how decision modeling may identify relevant uncertainty and can preclude or identify areas of future research in surgery. To optimize use of research resources, a tool is needed that assists in identifying relevant uncertainties and the added value of reducing these uncertainties. The clinical pathway for laparoscopic distal pancreatectomy (LDP) versus open (ODP) for nonmalignant lesions was modeled in a decision tree. Cost-effectiveness based on complications, hospital stay, costs, quality of life, and survival was analyzed. The effect of existing uncertainty on the cost-effectiveness was addressed, as well as the expected value of eliminating uncertainties. Based on 29 nonrandomized studies (3.701 patients) the model shows that LDP is more cost-effective compared with ODP. Scenarios in which LDP does not outperform ODP for cost-effectiveness seem unrealistic, e.g., a 30-day mortality rate of 1.79 times higher after LDP as compared with ODP, conversion in 62.2%, surgically repair of incisional hernias in 21% after LDP, or an average 2.3 days longer hospital stay after LDP than after ODP. Taking all uncertainty into account, LDP remained more cost-effective. Minimizing these uncertainties did not change the outcome. The results show how decision analytical modeling can help to identify relevant uncertainty and guide decisions for future research in surgery. Based on the current available evidence, a randomized clinical trial on complications, hospital stay, costs, quality of life, and survival is highly unlikely to change the conclusion that LDP is more cost-effective than ODP.

  15. An example of population-level risk assessments for small mammals using individual-based population models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitt, Walter; Auteri, Domenica; Bastiansen, Finn; Ebeling, Markus; Liu, Chun; Luttik, Robert; Mastitsky, Sergey; Nacci, Diane; Topping, Chris; Wang, Magnus

    2016-01-01

    This article presents a case study demonstrating the application of 3 individual-based, spatially explicit population models (IBMs, also known as agent-based models) in ecological risk assessments to predict long-term effects of a pesticide to populations of small mammals. The 3 IBMs each used a hypothetical fungicide (FungicideX) in different scenarios: spraying in cereals (common vole, Microtus arvalis), spraying in orchards (field vole, Microtus agrestis), and cereal seed treatment (wood mouse, Apodemus sylvaticus). Each scenario used existing model landscapes, which differed greatly in size and structural complexity. The toxicological profile of FungicideX was defined so that the deterministic long-term first tier risk assessment would result in high risk to small mammals, thus providing the opportunity to use the IBMs for risk assessment refinement (i.e., higher tier risk assessment). Despite differing internal model design and scenarios, results indicated in all 3 cases low population sensitivity unless FungicideX was applied at very high (×10) rates. Recovery from local population impacts was generally fast. Only when patch extinctions occured in simulations of intentionally high acute toxic effects, recovery periods, then determined by recolonization, were of any concern. Conclusions include recommendations for the most important input considerations, including the selection of exposure levels, duration of simulations, statistically robust number of replicates, and endpoints to report. However, further investigation and agreement are needed to develop recommendations for landscape attributes such as size, structure, and crop rotation to define appropriate regulatory risk assessment scenarios. Overall, the application of IBMs provides multiple advantages to higher tier ecological risk assessments for small mammals, including consistent and transparent direct links to specific protection goals, and the consideration of more realistic scenarios. © 2015 SETAC.

  16. Anisotropy and magnetostriction as corrections for the Heisenberg model at the example of the molecule {Ni4Mo12}

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brueger, Mirko

    2008-07-01

    In the first part of this thesis the different effects of the molecular magnetism were extensively considered and the possibility of their occurence in {Ni 4 Mo 12 } checked. In the second part of this thesis different models for the description of experimental results were presented. thereby the results of ESR, SQUIO, and high-field pulse measurements on {Ni 4 Mo 12 } are described

  17. First-principles model potentials for lattice-dynamical studies: general methodology and example of application to ferroic perovskite oxides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wojdeł, Jacek C; Hermet, Patrick; Ljungberg, Mathias P; Ghosez, Philippe; Íñiguez, Jorge

    2013-07-31

    We present a scheme to construct model potentials, with parameters computed from first principles, for large-scale lattice-dynamical simulations of materials. We mimic the traditional solid-state approach to the investigation of vibrational spectra, i.e., we start from a suitably chosen reference configuration of the compound and describe its energy as a function of arbitrary atomic distortions by means of a Taylor series. Such a form of the potential-energy surface is general, trivial to formulate for any material, and physically transparent. Further, such models involve clear-cut approximations, their precision can be improved in a systematic fashion, and their simplicity allows for convenient and practical strategies to compute/fit the potential parameters. We illustrate our scheme with two challenging cases in which the model potential is strongly anharmonic, namely, the ferroic perovskite oxides PbTiO3 and SrTiO3. Studying these compounds allows us to better describe the connection between the so-called effective-Hamiltonian method and ours (which may be seen as an extension of the former), and to show the physical insight and predictive power provided by our approach-e.g., we present new results regarding the factors controlling phase-transition temperatures, novel phase transitions under elastic constraints, an improved treatment of thermal expansion, etc.

  18. A method for improving predictive modeling by taking into account lag time: Example of selenium bioaccumulation in a flowing system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beckon, William N., E-mail: William_Beckon@fws.gov

    2016-07-15

    Highlights: • A method for estimating response time in cause-effect relationships is demonstrated. • Predictive modeling is appreciably improved by taking into account this lag time. • Bioaccumulation lag is greater for organisms at higher trophic levels. • This methodology may be widely applicable in disparate disciplines. - Abstract: For bioaccumulative substances, efforts to predict concentrations in organisms at upper trophic levels, based on measurements of environmental exposure, have been confounded by the appreciable but hitherto unknown amount of time it may take for bioaccumulation to occur through various pathways and across several trophic transfers. The study summarized here demonstrates an objective method of estimating this lag time by testing a large array of potential lag times for selenium bioaccumulation, selecting the lag that provides the best regression between environmental exposure (concentration in ambient water) and concentration in the tissue of the target organism. Bioaccumulation lag is generally greater for organisms at higher trophic levels, reaching times of more than a year in piscivorous fish. Predictive modeling of bioaccumulation is improved appreciably by taking into account this lag. More generally, the method demonstrated here may improve the accuracy of predictive modeling in a wide variety of other cause-effect relationships in which lag time is substantial but inadequately known, in disciplines as diverse as climatology (e.g., the effect of greenhouse gases on sea levels) and economics (e.g., the effects of fiscal stimulus on employment).

  19. A Model for Sustainable Development of Child Mental Health Infrastructure in the LMIC World: Vietnam as a Case Example.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, Bahr; Ngo, Victoria Khanh; Dang, Hoang-Minh; Pollack, Amie; Trung, Lam T; Tran, Cong V; Tran, Nam T; Sang, David; Do, Khanh N

    2012-01-01

    Children and adolescents are among the highest need populations in regards to mental health support, especially in low and middle income countries (LMIC). Yet resources in LMIC for prevention and treatment of mental health problems are limited, in particular for children and adolescents. In this paper, we discuss a model for development of child and adolescent mental health (CAMH) resources in LMIC that has guided a ten year initiative focused on development of CAMH treatment and research infrastructure in Vietnam. We first review the need for development of mental health resources for children and adolescents in general, and then in Vietnam. We next present the model that guided our program as it developed, focused on the twin Capacity Development Goals of efficacy and sustainability, and the Capacity Development Targets used to move towards these goals. Finally we discuss our CAMH development initiative in Vietnam, the center of which has been development of a graduate program in clinical psychology at Vietnam National University, linking program activities to this model.

  20. Applied Prevalence Ratio estimation with different Regression models: An example from a cross-national study on substance use research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espelt, Albert; Marí-Dell'Olmo, Marc; Penelo, Eva; Bosque-Prous, Marina

    2016-06-14

    To examine the differences between Prevalence Ratio (PR) and Odds Ratio (OR) in a cross-sectional study and to provide tools to calculate PR using two statistical packages widely used in substance use research (STATA and R). We used cross-sectional data from 41,263 participants of 16 European countries participating in the Survey on Health, Ageing and Retirement in Europe (SHARE). The dependent variable, hazardous drinking, was calculated using the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test - Consumption (AUDIT-C). The main independent variable was gender. Other variables used were: age, educational level and country of residence. PR of hazardous drinking in men with relation to women was estimated using Mantel-Haenszel method, log-binomial regression models and poisson regression models with robust variance. These estimations were compared to the OR calculated using logistic regression models. Prevalence of hazardous drinkers varied among countries. Generally, men have higher prevalence of hazardous drinking than women [PR=1.43 (1.38-1.47)]. Estimated PR was identical independently of the method and the statistical package used. However, OR overestimated PR, depending on the prevalence of hazardous drinking in the country. In cross-sectional studies, where comparisons between countries with differences in the prevalence of the disease or condition are made, it is advisable to use PR instead of OR.

  1. A method for improving predictive modeling by taking into account lag time: Example of selenium bioaccumulation in a flowing system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beckon, William N.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • A method for estimating response time in cause-effect relationships is demonstrated. • Predictive modeling is appreciably improved by taking into account this lag time. • Bioaccumulation lag is greater for organisms at higher trophic levels. • This methodology may be widely applicable in disparate disciplines. - Abstract: For bioaccumulative substances, efforts to predict concentrations in organisms at upper trophic levels, based on measurements of environmental exposure, have been confounded by the appreciable but hitherto unknown amount of time it may take for bioaccumulation to occur through various pathways and across several trophic transfers. The study summarized here demonstrates an objective method of estimating this lag time by testing a large array of potential lag times for selenium bioaccumulation, selecting the lag that provides the best regression between environmental exposure (concentration in ambient water) and concentration in the tissue of the target organism. Bioaccumulation lag is generally greater for organisms at higher trophic levels, reaching times of more than a year in piscivorous fish. Predictive modeling of bioaccumulation is improved appreciably by taking into account this lag. More generally, the method demonstrated here may improve the accuracy of predictive modeling in a wide variety of other cause-effect relationships in which lag time is substantial but inadequately known, in disciplines as diverse as climatology (e.g., the effect of greenhouse gases on sea levels) and economics (e.g., the effects of fiscal stimulus on employment).

  2. Using a food web model to inform the design of river restoration—An example at the Barkley Bear Segment, Methow River, north-central Washington

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benjamin, Joseph R.; Bellmore, J. Ryan; Dombroski, Daniel

    2018-01-29

    With the decline of Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) and steelhead (O. mykiss), habitat restoration actions in freshwater tributaries have been implemented to improve conditions for juveniles. Typically, physical (for example, hydrologic and engineering) based models are used to design restoration alternatives with the assumption that biological responses will be improved with changes to the physical habitat. Biological models rarely are used. Here, we describe simulations of a food web model, the Aquatic Trophic Productivity (ATP) model, to aid in the design of a restoration project in the Methow River, north-central Washington. The ATP model mechanistically links environmental conditions of the stream to the dynamics of river food webs, and can be used to simulate how alternative river restoration designs influence the potential for river reaches to sustain fish production. Four restoration design alternatives were identified that encompassed varying levels of side channel and floodplain reconnection and large wood addition. Our model simulations suggest that design alternatives focused on reconnecting side channels and the adjacent floodplain may provide the greatest increase in fish capacity. These results were robust to a range of discharge and thermal regimes that naturally occur in the Methow River. Our results suggest that biological models, such as the ATP model, can be used during the restoration planning phase to increase the effectiveness of restoration actions. Moreover, the use of multiple modeling efforts, both physical and biological, when evaluating restoration design alternatives provides a better understanding of the potential outcome of restoration actions.

  3. Modeling of solution renewal with the Kindis code: example of R7T7 glass dissolution at 90 deg C

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Advocat, T.; Vernaz, E.; Crovisier, J.L.; Clement, A.; Gerard, F.

    1994-01-01

    The deep underground environment that would correspond to a geological repository is a system open to fluid flow. It is therefore necessary to investigate the effects of solution renewal on the long-term behavior of glass in contact with water. These effects can now be simulated using the new version of the geochemical KINDIS model (thermodynamic and kinetic model). We tested the model at 90 deg C with an SA/V ratio of 400 m -1 at twelve renewal rates of pure water ranging from 200 to 0 vol% per day. With renewal rates between 200 and 0.065 vol% per day, steady-state conditions were obtained in the reaction system: i.e. the glass corrosion rate remained constant as did the concentrations of the dissolved species in solution (although at different values depending on the renewal rate). The ionic strength never exceeded 1 (the validity limit for the DEBYE-HUCKEL law) and long term predictions of the dissolved glass mass, the solution composition and the potential secondary mineral sequence are possible. For simulated renewal rates of less than 0.065 vol% per day (27% per year), the ionic strength rose above 1 (as in a closed system) before steady-state conditions were reached, making it critical to calculate long-term rates; A constant and empirical long-term rate, derived from laboratory measurement, have to be extrapolated. These calculations were based on a first order equation to describe the glass dissolution kinetic. The results obtained with the KINDIS code show discrepancies with some major experimental kinetic data (the long term rate must decrease with the ''glass-water'' reaction progress, under silica saturation conditions). This clearly indicates that a more refine kinetic relation is needed for the glass matrix. (authors). 16 refs., 4 figs., 4 tabs

  4. Using dynamic stochastic modelling to estimate population risk factors in infectious disease: the example of FIV in 15 cat populations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Fouchet

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In natural cat populations, Feline Immunodeficiency Virus (FIV is transmitted through bites between individuals. Factors such as the density of cats within the population or the sex-ratio can have potentially strong effects on the frequency of fight between individuals and hence appear as important population risk factors for FIV. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: To study such population risk factors, we present data on FIV prevalence in 15 cat populations in northeastern France. We investigate five key social factors of cat populations; the density of cats, the sex-ratio, the number of males and the mean age of males and females within the population. We overcome the problem of dependence in the infective status data using sexually-structured dynamic stochastic models. Only the age of males and females had an effect (p = 0.043 and p = 0.02, respectively on the male-to-female transmission rate. Due to multiple tests, it is even likely that these effects are, in reality, not significant. Finally we show that, in our study area, the data can be explained by a very simple model that does not invoke any risk factor. CONCLUSION: Our conclusion is that, in host-parasite systems in general, fluctuations due to stochasticity in the transmission process are naturally very large and may alone explain a larger part of the variability in observed disease prevalence between populations than previously expected. Finally, we determined confidence intervals for the simple model parameters that can be used to further aid in management of the disease.

  5. Can theory be embedded in visual interventions to promote self-management? A proposed model and worked example.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, B; Anderson, A S; Barton, K; McGhee, J

    2012-12-01

    Nurses are increasingly involved in a range of strategies to encourage patient behaviours that improve self-management. If nurses are to be involved in, or indeed lead, the development of such interventions then processes that enhance the likelihood that they will lead to evidence that is both robust and usable in practice are required. Although behavioural interventions have been predominantly based on written text or the spoken word increasing numbers are now drawing on visual media to communicate their message, despite only a growing evidence base to support it. The use of such media in health interventions is likely to increase due to technological advances enabling easier and cheaper production, and an increasing social preference for visual forms of communication. However, the development of such media is often highly pragmatic and developed intuitively rather than with theory and evidence informing their content and form. Such a process may be at best inefficient and at worst potentially harmful. This paper performs two functions. Firstly, it discusses and argues why visual based interventions may be a powerful media for behaviour change; and secondly, it proposes a model, developed from the MRC Framework for the Development and Evaluation of Complex Interventions, to guide the creation of theory informed visual interventions. It employs a case study of the development of an intervention to motivate involvement in a lifestyle intervention among people with increased cardiovascular risk. In doing this we argue for a step-wise model which includes: (1) the identification of a theoretical basis and associated concepts; (2) the development of visual narrative to establish structure; (3) the visual rendering of narrative and concepts; and (4) the assessment of interpretation and impact among the intended patient group. We go on to discuss the theoretical and methodological limitations of the model. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Examples that illustrate sedimentological aspects of the proterozoic placer model on the Kaap-Vaal Craton, Witwatersrand, South Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Minter, W.E.L.

    1981-01-01

    In the fluvial-fan model of Proterozoic placers in South Africa, mid-fan and fanbase environments are illustrated by the Ventersdorp Contact Reef, proximal braided-belt environments by the B Reef, distal braided-belt environments by the Vaal Reef, and deltaiclike environments by sheets, ribbons, and pods at the extremities of the South and Basal Reefs. The nature of distribution of gold and uranium in these various environments has been evaluated and the knowledge successfully applied by the author to the valuation and practical mining of the reefs since 1965

  7. Modeling retrospective attribution of responsibility to hazard-managing institutions: an example involving a food contamination incident.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Branden B; Hallman, William K; Cuite, Cara L

    2015-03-01

    Perceptions of institutions that manage hazards are important because they can affect how the public responds to hazard events. Antecedents of trust judgments have received far more attention than antecedents of attributions of responsibility for hazard events. We build upon a model of retrospective attribution of responsibility to individuals to examine these relationships regarding five classes of institutions that bear responsibility for food safety: producers (e.g., farmers), processors (e.g., packaging firms), watchdogs (e.g., government agencies), sellers (e.g., supermarkets), and preparers (e.g., restaurants). A nationally representative sample of 1,200 American adults completed an Internet-based survey in which a hypothetical scenario involving contamination of diverse foods with Salmonella served as the stimulus event. Perceived competence and good intentions of the institution moderately decreased attributions of responsibility. A stronger factor was whether an institution was deemed (potentially) aware of the contamination and free to act to prevent or mitigate it. Responsibility was rated higher the more aware and free the institution. This initial model for attributions of responsibility to impersonal institutions (as opposed to individual responsibility) merits further development. © 2014 Society for Risk Analysis.

  8. Modeling phytosanitary risk of unintended commodity use: the example of U.S. potato exports to Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fowler, Glenn; Erikson, Lottie; Caton, Barney; Gutierrez, Walter; Griffin, Robert

    2014-09-01

    Diversion of commodities from their intended use to an unintended use, e.g., when commodities intended for consumption are used as seed for planting, is an important issue in agricultural trade that has implications for the establishment of pests and pathogens in an importing country and for the appropriate strength of plant health measures. Consequently, understanding and accurately characterizing the risk of diversion from intended use is highly relevant to policymakers, trading partners, and in trade dispute arbitration. To our knowledge, no risk assessments have ever accounted for the likelihood of diversion from intended use. Here we present an approach to analyzing this risk using diversion of U.S. table stock potatoes to seed for planting by Mexican potato producers as a case study. We use probabilistic pathway models to characterize the movement of white, yellow, and russet potatoes from the United States into Mexico at current and double export volumes. We then model the likelihood of these potatoes being diverted for seed and the subsequent establishment of bacteria, nematode, and virus pests in Mexico. Our approach demonstrates how diversion from intended use can be quantified in one scenario and, in particular, how it can be analyzed to estimate the magnitude of diversion required to produce a high risk of pest establishment. © 2014 Society for Risk Analysis Published 2014. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain for the U.S.A.

  9. Molecular Modeling and Simulation Tools in the Development of Peptide-Based Biosensors for Mycotoxin Detection: Example of Ochratoxin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aby A. Thyparambil

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Mycotoxin contamination of food and feed is now ubiquitous. Exposures to mycotoxin via contact or ingestion can potentially induce adverse health outcomes. Affordable mycotoxin-monitoring systems are highly desired but are limited by (a the reliance on technically challenging and costly molecular recognition by immuno-capture technologies; and (b the lack of predictive tools for directing the optimization of alternative molecular recognition modalities. Our group has been exploring the development of ochratoxin detection and monitoring systems using the peptide NFO4 as the molecular recognition receptor in fluorescence, electrochemical and multimodal biosensors. Using ochratoxin as the model mycotoxin, we share our perspective on addressing the technical challenges involved in biosensor fabrication, namely: (a peptide receptor design; and (b performance evaluation. Subsequently, the scope and utility of molecular modeling and simulation (MMS approaches to address the above challenges are described. Informed and enabled by phage display, the subsequent application of MMS approaches can rationally guide subsequent biomolecular engineering of peptide receptors, including bioconjugation and bioimmobilization approaches to be used in the fabrication of peptide biosensors. MMS approaches thus have the potential to reduce biosensor development cost, extend product life cycle, and facilitate multi-analyte detection of mycotoxins, each of which positively contributes to the overall affordability of mycotoxin biosensor monitoring systems.

  10. Testing Pixel Translation Digital Elevation Models to Reconstruct Slip Histories: An Example from the Agua Blanca Fault, Baja California, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, J.; Wetmore, P. H.; Malservisi, R.; Ferwerda, B. P.; Teran, O.

    2012-12-01

    We use recently collected slip vector and total offset data from the Agua Blanca fault (ABF) to constrain a pixel translation digital elevation model (DEM) to reconstruct the slip history of this fault. This model was constructed using a Perl script that reads a DEM file (Easting, Northing, Elevation) and a configuration file with coordinates that define the boundary of each fault segment. A pixel translation vector is defined as a magnitude of lateral offset in an azimuthal direction. The program translates pixels north of the fault and prints their pre-faulting position to a new DEM file that can be gridded and displayed. This analysis, where multiple DEMs are created with different translation vectors, allows us to identify areas of transtension or transpression while seeing the topographic expression in these areas. The benefit of this technique, in contrast to a simple block model, is that the DEM gives us a valuable graphic which can be used to pose new research questions. We have found that many topographic features correlate across the fault, i.e. valleys and ridges, which likely have implications for the age of the ABF, long term landscape evolution rates, and potentially provide conformation for total slip assessments The ABF of northern Baja California, Mexico is an active, dextral strike slip fault that transfers Pacific-North American plate boundary strain out of the Gulf of California and around the "Big Bend" of the San Andreas Fault. Total displacement on the ABF in the central and eastern parts of the fault is 10 +/- 2 km based on offset Early-Cretaceous features such as terrane boundaries and intrusive bodies (plutons and dike swarms). Where the fault bifurcates to the west, the northern strand (northern Agua Blanca fault or NABF) is constrained to 7 +/- 1 km. We have not yet identified piercing points on the southern strand, the Santo Tomas fault (STF), but displacement is inferred to be ~4 km assuming that the sum of slip on the NABF and STF is

  11. Comparison of Radioecological Processes on Examples of Villages Polluted by 137Cs and 90Sr Appreciated on the Box Model Method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matvjejeva, I.V.; Kutlakhmedov, Yu.O.; Isajenko, V.M.; Krivorot'ko, V.M.

    2006-01-01

    Results of the analysis of 137 Cs radionuclides flows as an example of village Galusia of the Volyn region and in ecosystem of village Kotsubinchiki in Ternopil region polluted by 90 Sr are considered. The analysis is made by the method of box models. The block diagrams of ecosystems were created, and the mathematical models by the method of box models are developed. It has allowed estimating ways of formation doses of an internal irradiation at the expense of products of meal for different groups of population - working people, pensioners and children, and prognosis dynamics of these doses for the next years after Chornobyl NPP accident. It was established, that doses in these villages formed by other ways, depending on radionuclide, pastures structure and levels of their pollution

  12. Some Aspects of Nonlinearity and Self-Organization In Biosystems on Examples of Localized Excitations in the DNA Molecule and Generalized Fisher–KPP Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Shapovalov

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available This review deals with ideas and approaches to nonlinear phenomena, based on different branches of physics and related to biological systems, that focus on how small impacts can significantly change the state of the system at large spatial scales. This problem is very extensive, and it cannot be fully resolved in this paper. Instead, some selected physical effects are briefly reviewed. We consider sine-Gordon solitons and nonlinear Schrodinger solitons in some models of DNA as examples of self-organization at the molecular level, as well as examine features of their formation and dynamics under the influence of external influences. In addition, the formation of patterns in the generalized Fisher–KPP model is viewed as a simple example of self-organization in a system with nonlocal interaction at the cellular level. Symmetries of model equations are employed to analyze the considered nonlinear phenomena. In this context the possible relations between phenomena considered and released activity effect, which is assessed differently in the literature, are discussed.

  13. Assessment of current atomic scale modelling methods for the investigation of nuclear fuels under irradiation: Example of uranium dioxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bertolus, M.; Freyss, M.; Krack, M.; Devanathan, R.

    2015-01-01

    We focus here on the assessment of the description of interatomic interactions in uranium dioxide using, on the one hand, electronic structure methods, in particular in the Density Functional Theory (DFT) framework, and on the other hand, empirical potential methods. These two types of methods are complementary, the former enabling results to be obtained from a minimal amount of input data and further insight into the electronic and magnetic properties to be achieved, while the latter are irreplaceable for studies where a large number of atoms need to be considered. We consider basic properties as well as specific ones, which are important for the description of nuclear fuel under irradiation. These are especially energies, which are the main data passed on to higher scale models. For this exercise, we limit ourselves to uranium dioxide (UO 2 ) because of the extensive amount of studies available on this system. (authors)

  14. Using occupancy models to investigate the prevalence of ectoparasitic vectors on hosts: an example with fleas on prairie dogs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eads, David A.; Biggins, Dean E.; Doherty, Paul F.; Gage, Kenneth L.; Huyvaert, Kathryn P.; Long, Dustin H.; Antolin, Michael F.

    2013-01-01

    Ectoparasites are often difficult to detect in the field. We developed a method that can be used with occupancy models to estimate the prevalence of ectoparasites on hosts, and to investigate factors that influence rates of ectoparasite occupancy while accounting for imperfect detection. We describe the approach using a study of fleas (Siphonaptera) on black-tailed prairie dogs (Cynomys ludovicianus). During each primary occasion (monthly trapping events), we combed a prairie dog three consecutive times to detect fleas (15 s/combing). We used robust design occupancy modeling to evaluate hypotheses for factors that might correlate with the occurrence of fleas on prairie dogs, and factors that might influence the rate at which prairie dogs are colonized by fleas. Our combing method was highly effective; dislodged fleas fell into a tub of water and could not escape, and there was an estimated 99.3% probability of detecting a flea on an occupied host when using three combings. While overall detection was high, the probability of detection was always dogs, flea occupancy was heightened in old/natural colonies of prairie dogs, and on hosts that were in poor condition. Occupancy was initially low in plots with high densities of prairie dogs, but, as the study progressed, the rate of flea colonization increased in plots with high densities of prairie dogs in particular. Our methodology can be used to improve studies of ectoparasites, especially when the probability of detection is low. Moreover, the method can be modified to investigate the co-occurrence of ectoparasite species, and community level factors such as species richness and interspecific interactions.

  15. Magni Reproducibility Example

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2016-01-01

    An example of how to use the magni.reproducibility package for storing metadata along with results from a computational experiment. The example is based on simulating the Mandelbrot set.......An example of how to use the magni.reproducibility package for storing metadata along with results from a computational experiment. The example is based on simulating the Mandelbrot set....

  16. A Collision Risk Model to Predict Avian Fatalities at Wind Facilities: An Example Using Golden Eagles, Aquila chrysaetos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    New, Leslie; Bjerre, Emily; Millsap, Brian; Otto, Mark C; Runge, Michael C

    2015-01-01

    Wind power is a major candidate in the search for clean, renewable energy. Beyond the technical and economic challenges of wind energy development are environmental issues that may restrict its growth. Avian fatalities due to collisions with rotating turbine blades are a leading concern and there is considerable uncertainty surrounding avian collision risk at wind facilities. This uncertainty is not reflected in many models currently used to predict the avian fatalities that would result from proposed wind developments. We introduce a method to predict fatalities at wind facilities, based on pre-construction monitoring. Our method can directly incorporate uncertainty into the estimates of avian fatalities and can be updated if information on the true number of fatalities becomes available from post-construction carcass monitoring. Our model considers only three parameters: hazardous footprint, bird exposure to turbines and collision probability. By using a Bayesian analytical framework we account for uncertainties in these values, which are then reflected in our predictions and can be reduced through subsequent data collection. The simplicity of our approach makes it accessible to ecologists concerned with the impact of wind development, as well as to managers, policy makers and industry interested in its implementation in real-world decision contexts. We demonstrate the utility of our method by predicting golden eagle (Aquila chrysaetos) fatalities at a wind installation in the United States. Using pre-construction data, we predicted 7.48 eagle fatalities year-1 (95% CI: (1.1, 19.81)). The U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service uses the 80th quantile (11.0 eagle fatalities year-1) in their permitting process to ensure there is only a 20% chance a wind facility exceeds the authorized fatalities. Once data were available from two-years of post-construction monitoring, we updated the fatality estimate to 4.8 eagle fatalities year-1 (95% CI: (1.76, 9.4); 80th quantile, 6

  17. Communication in production animal medicine: modelling a complex interaction with the example of dairy herd health medicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kleen Joachim L

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The importance of communication skills in veterinary medicine is increasingly recognised. Appropriate communication skills towards the client are of utmost importance in both companion animal practice and production animal field and consultancy work. The need for building a relationship with the client, alongside developing a structure for the consultation is widely recognised and applies to both types of veterinary practice. Results Veterinary advisory practice in production animal medicine is, however, characterised by a more complex communication on different levels. While the person-orientated communication is a permanent process between veterinarian and client with a rather personal perspective and defines the roles of interaction, the problem-orientated communication deals with emerging difficulties; the objective is to solve an acute health problem. The solution - orientated communication is a form of communication in which both veterinarian and client address longstanding situations or problems with the objective to improve herd health and subsequently productivity performance. All three forms of communication overlap. Conclusions Based on this model, it appears useful for a veterinary practice to offer both a curative and an advisory service, but to keep these two separated when deemed appropriate. In veterinary education, the strategies and techniques necessary for solution orientated communication should be included in the teaching of communication skills.

  18. Communication in production animal medicine: modelling a complex interaction with the example of dairy herd health medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleen, Joachim L; Atkinson, Owen; Noordhuizen, Jos Ptm

    2011-07-20

    The importance of communication skills in veterinary medicine is increasingly recognised. Appropriate communication skills towards the client are of utmost importance in both companion animal practice and production animal field and consultancy work. The need for building a relationship with the client, alongside developing a structure for the consultation is widely recognised and applies to both types of veterinary practice. Veterinary advisory practice in production animal medicine is, however, characterised by a more complex communication on different levels. While the person-orientated communication is a permanent process between veterinarian and client with a rather personal perspective and defines the roles of interaction, the problem-orientated communication deals with emerging difficulties; the objective is to solve an acute health problem. The solution - orientated communication is a form of communication in which both veterinarian and client address longstanding situations or problems with the objective to improve herd health and subsequently productivity performance. All three forms of communication overlap. Based on this model, it appears useful for a veterinary practice to offer both a curative and an advisory service, but to keep these two separated when deemed appropriate. In veterinary education, the strategies and techniques necessary for solution orientated communication should be included in the teaching of communication skills.

  19. A free-knot spline modeling framework for piecewise linear logistic regression in complex samples with body mass index and mortality as an example

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scott W. Keith

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper details the design, evaluation, and implementation of a framework for detecting and modeling nonlinearity between a binary outcome and a continuous predictor variable adjusted for covariates in complex samples. The framework provides familiar-looking parameterizations of output in terms of linear slope coefficients and odds ratios. Estimation methods focus on maximum likelihood optimization of piecewise linear free-knot splines formulated as B-splines. Correctly specifying the optimal number and positions of the knots improves the model, but is marked by computational intensity and numerical instability. Our inference methods utilize both parametric and nonparametric bootstrapping. Unlike other nonlinear modeling packages, this framework is designed to incorporate multistage survey sample designs common to nationally representative datasets. We illustrate the approach and evaluate its performance in specifying the correct number of knots under various conditions with an example using body mass index (BMI; kg/m2 and the complex multi-stage sampling design from the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey to simulate binary mortality outcomes data having realistic nonlinear sample-weighted risk associations with BMI. BMI and mortality data provide a particularly apt example and area of application since BMI is commonly recorded in large health surveys with complex designs, often categorized for modeling, and nonlinearly related to mortality. When complex sample design considerations were ignored, our method was generally similar to or more accurate than two common model selection procedures, Schwarz’s Bayesian Information Criterion (BIC and Akaike’s Information Criterion (AIC, in terms of correctly selecting the correct number of knots. Our approach provided accurate knot selections when complex sampling weights were incorporated, while AIC and BIC were not effective under these conditions.

  20. Exxon Nuclear Company ECCS evaluation of a 2-loop Westinghouse PWR with dry containment using the ENC WREM-II ECCS model. Large break example problem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krajicek, J.E.

    1977-01-01

    This document is presented as a demonstration of the ENC WREM-II ECCS model calculational procedure applied to a Westinghouse 2-loop PWR with a dry containment (R. E. Ginna plant, for example). The hypothesized Loss-of-Coolant Accident (LOCA) investigated was a split break with an area equal to twice the pipe cross-sectional area. The break was assumed to occur in one pump discharge pipe (DECLS break). The analyses involved calculations using the ENC WREM-II model. The following codes were used: RELAP4-EM/ENC26A for blowdown and hot channel analyses, RELAP4-EM FLOOD/ENC26A for core reflood analysis, CONTEMPT LT/22 modified for containment backpressure analysis, and TOODEE2/APR77 for heatup analysis

  1. (How) does sectoral detail affect the robustness of policy insights from energy system models? The refining sector's example

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nicolas, Claire; Saint-Antonin, Valerie; Tchung-Ming, Stephane

    2014-01-01

    In this research, we rekindle an old debate by questioning the impact on mitigating policy evaluation of detailing a sub-sector in a global energy-transportation model. We chose the refining sector because it is a relevant case of a sector for which representation widely differs across models and because it offers a unique set of complex joint production in the energy sector. To investigate whether the level of detail in the description of the refinery impacts optimal mitigation options, we take the example of a long-term, national, linear programming based, energy-transport system model (TIMES based). We found that the refinery description used in the energy system model matters when trying to evaluate energy or climate policy applied to the transportation sector. It impacts the policy costs but also the technology trajectories chosen at the optimum. Essentially, the balance between energy efficiency and carbon intensity of transport may be affected by the accuracy of the description of the pivotal refining sector. Consequently, increasing this sector accuracy level should not only be motivated by the wish to gain wider quantitative insights on potential evolution of the energy system but also by the wish to improve the robustness of the model outcomes. (authors)

  2. MODEL-DRIVEN REVERSE ENGINEERING AND PROGRAM COMPREHENSION: AN EXAMPLE INGENIERÍA REVERSA Y COMPRENSIÓN DE PROGRAMAS DIRIGIDA POR MODELOS: UN EJEMPLO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eugenio G Scalise P

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an example of how Model-Driven Engineering (MDE can be applied to the development of tools for reverse engineering and program comprehension. The tool CodeCrawler was selected as an example; in particular, the polymetric view feature was computed using MDE techniques. To this end, two metamodels were proposed (source and target and meta-level transformations that were used to deduce the information of a polymetric view associated to any software project (source code. The technologies selected to develop the example were those related with the Eclipse Modeling Project, specifically the ATL and the KM3 languages. The approach used in this paper to obtain the implementation can be used to develop all the features of a MDE-oriented software comprehension tool, obtaining a domain-oriented implementation.En este artículo se presenta un ejemplo que describe cómo la Ingeniería Dirigida por Modelos (IDM puede ser aplicada al desarrollo de herramientas para la ingeniería reversa y comprensión de programas. Se seleccionó como caso de estudio la herramienta CodeCrawler, específicamente la funcionalidad denominada polymetric view, desarrollada mediante tecnologías y técnicas de la IDM. Para ello, se emplearon dos metamodelos (entrada y salida y transformaciones a nivel de los metamodelos que permiten generar la información de un polymetric view asociado a un proyecto de software, utilizando la información extraída del código fuente. Las tecnologías utilizadas para el desarrollo del ejemplo, las relacionadas con el Eclipse Modeling Project, específicamente el lenguaje de transformación ATL y el lenguaje KM3. El enfoque seguido para obtener la implementación resultante puede ser utilizado para desarrollar una herramienta de ingeniería reversa y comprensión de software mediante técnicas de la IDM, incorporando el vocabulario del dominio en la implementación.

  3. A Finite Difference, Semi-implicit, Equation-of-State Efficient Algorithm for the Compositional Flow Modeling in the Subsurface: Numerical Examples

    KAUST Repository

    Saavedra, Sebastian

    2012-07-01

    The mathematical model that has been recognized to have the more accurate approximation to the physical laws govern subsurface hydrocarbon flow in reservoirs is the Compositional Model. The features of this model are adequate to describe not only the performance of a multiphase system but also to represent the transport of chemical species in a porous medium. Its importance relies not only on its current relevance to simulate petroleum extraction processes, such as, Primary, Secondary, and Enhanced Oil Recovery Process (EOR) processes but also, in the recent years, carbon dioxide (CO2) sequestration. The purpose of this study is to investigate the subsurface compositional flow under isothermal conditions for several oil well cases. While simultaneously addressing computational implementation finesses to contribute to the efficiency of the algorithm. This study provides the theoretical framework and computational implementation subtleties of an IMplicit Pressure Explicit Composition (IMPEC)-Volume-balance (VB), two-phase, equation-of-state, approach to model isothermal compositional flow based on the finite difference scheme. The developed model neglects capillary effects and diffusion. From the phase equilibrium premise, the model accounts for volumetric performances of the phases, compressibility of the phases, and composition-dependent viscosities. The Equation of State (EoS) employed to approximate the hydrocarbons behaviour is the Peng Robinson Equation of State (PR-EOS). Various numerical examples were simulated. The numerical results captured the complex physics involved, i.e., compositional, gravitational, phase-splitting, viscosity and relative permeability effects. Regarding the numerical scheme, a phase-volumetric-flux estimation eases the calculation of phase velocities by naturally fitting to phase-upstream-upwinding. And contributes to a faster computation and an efficient programming development.

  4. Exploiting Human Resource Requirements to Infer Human Movement Patterns for Use in Modelling Disease Transmission Systems: An Example from Eastern Province, Zambia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon Alderton

    Full Text Available In this research, an agent-based model (ABM was developed to generate human movement routes between homes and water resources in a rural setting, given commonly available geospatial datasets on population distribution, land cover and landscape resources. ABMs are an object-oriented computational approach to modelling a system, focusing on the interactions of autonomous agents, and aiming to assess the impact of these agents and their interactions on the system as a whole. An A* pathfinding algorithm was implemented to produce walking routes, given data on the terrain in the area. A* is an extension of Dijkstra's algorithm with an enhanced time performance through the use of heuristics. In this example, it was possible to impute daily activity movement patterns to the water resource for all villages in a 75 km long study transect across the Luangwa Valley, Zambia, and the simulated human movements were statistically similar to empirical observations on travel times to the water resource (Chi-squared, 95% confidence interval. This indicates that it is possible to produce realistic data regarding human movements without costly measurement as is commonly achieved, for example, through GPS, or retrospective or real-time diaries. The approach is transferable between different geographical locations, and the product can be useful in providing an insight into human movement patterns, and therefore has use in many human exposure-related applications, specifically epidemiological research in rural areas, where spatial heterogeneity in the disease landscape, and space-time proximity of individuals, can play a crucial role in disease spread.

  5. Exploiting Human Resource Requirements to Infer Human Movement Patterns for Use in Modelling Disease Transmission Systems: An Example from Eastern Province, Zambia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alderton, Simon; Noble, Jason; Schaten, Kathrin; Welburn, Susan C; Atkinson, Peter M

    2015-01-01

    In this research, an agent-based model (ABM) was developed to generate human movement routes between homes and water resources in a rural setting, given commonly available geospatial datasets on population distribution, land cover and landscape resources. ABMs are an object-oriented computational approach to modelling a system, focusing on the interactions of autonomous agents, and aiming to assess the impact of these agents and their interactions on the system as a whole. An A* pathfinding algorithm was implemented to produce walking routes, given data on the terrain in the area. A* is an extension of Dijkstra's algorithm with an enhanced time performance through the use of heuristics. In this example, it was possible to impute daily activity movement patterns to the water resource for all villages in a 75 km long study transect across the Luangwa Valley, Zambia, and the simulated human movements were statistically similar to empirical observations on travel times to the water resource (Chi-squared, 95% confidence interval). This indicates that it is possible to produce realistic data regarding human movements without costly measurement as is commonly achieved, for example, through GPS, or retrospective or real-time diaries. The approach is transferable between different geographical locations, and the product can be useful in providing an insight into human movement patterns, and therefore has use in many human exposure-related applications, specifically epidemiological research in rural areas, where spatial heterogeneity in the disease landscape, and space-time proximity of individuals, can play a crucial role in disease spread.

  6. Impacts of Quaternary History on Critical Zone Structure and Processes: Examples and a Conceptual Model From the Intensively Managed Landscapes Critical Zone Observatory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alison M. Anders

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The concept of a critical zone (CZ supporting terrestrial life has fostered groundbreaking interdisciplinary science addressing complex interactions among water, soil, rock, air, and life near Earth's surface. Pioneering work has focused on the CZ in areas with residual soils and steady-state or erosional topography. CZ evolution in these areas is conceptualized as progressive weathering of local bedrock (e.g., in the flow-through reactor model. However, this model is not applicable to areas in which weathering profiles form in transported materials including the formerly glaciated portion of the Central Lowland of North America. We present a new conceptual model of CZ evolution in landscapes impacted by continental glaciation based on investigations at three study sites in the Intensively Managed Landscapes Critical Zone Observatory (IML-CZO The IML-CZO is devoted to the study of CZ processes in a region characterized by thick surficial deposits resulting from multiple continental glaciations, with bedrock at depths of up to 150 m. Here the physical (glacial ice, loess, developing soil profiles and biological (microbes, tundra, forest, prairie components of the CZ vary significantly in time. Moreover, the spatial relationships between mineral components of the CZ record a history of glacial-interglacial cycles and landscape evolution. We present cross-sections from IML-CZO sites to provide specific examples of how environmental change is recorded by the structure of the mineral components of the CZ. We build on these examples to create an idealized model of CZ evolution through a glacial cycle that represents the IML-CZO sites and other areas of low relief that have experienced continental glaciation. In addition, we identify two main characteristics of CZ structure which should be included in a conceptual model of CZ development in the IML-CZO and similar settings: (1 mineral components have diverse origins and transport trajectories including

  7. Impacts of Quaternary History on Critical Zone Structure and Processes: Examples and a Conceptual Model from the Intensively Managed Landscapes Critical Zone Observatory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anders, Alison M.; Bettis, E. Arthur; Grimley, David A.; Stumpf, Andrew J.; Kumar, Praveen

    2018-03-01

    The concept of a critical zone (CZ) supporting terrestrial life has fostered groundbreaking interdisciplinary science addressing complex interactions among water, soil, rock, air and life near Earth’s surface. Pioneering work has focused on the CZ in areas with residual soils and steady-state or erosional topography. CZ evolution in these areas is conceptualized as progressive weathering of local bedrock (e.g. in the flow-through reactor model). However, this model is not applicable to areas in which weathering profiles form in transported materials including the formerly glaciated portion of the Central Lowland of North America. We present a new conceptual model of CZ evolution in landscapes impacted by continental glaciation based on investigations at three study sites in the Intensively Managed Landscapes Critical Zone Observatory (IML-CZO) The IML-CZO is devoted to the study of CZ processes in a region characterized by thick surficial deposits resulting from multiple continental glaciations, with bedrock at depths of up to 150 m. Here the physical (glacial ice, loess, developing soil profiles) and biological (microbes, tundra, forest, prairie) components of the CZ vary significantly in time. Moreover, the spatial relationships between mineral components of the CZ record a history of glacial-interglacial cycles and landscape evolution. We present cross-sections from IML-CZO sites to provide specific examples of how environmental change is recorded by the structure of the mineral components of the CZ. We build on these examples to create an idealized model of CZ evolution through a glacial cycle that represents the IML-CZO sites and other areas of low relief that have experienced continental glaciation. In addition, we identify two main characteristics of CZ structure which should be included in a conceptual model of CZ development in the IML-CZO and similar settings: (1) mineral components have diverse origins and transport trajectories including alteration in

  8. Tevatron Combination of Single-Top-Quark Cross Sections and Determination of the Magnitude of the Cabibbo-Kobayashi-Maskawa Matrix Element V_{tb}.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aaltonen, T; Abazov, V M; Abbott, B; Acharya, B S; Adams, M; Adams, T; Agnew, J P; Alexeev, G D; Alkhazov, G; Alton, A; Amerio, S; Amidei, D; Anastassov, A; Annovi, A; Antos, J; Apollinari, G; Appel, J A; Arisawa, T; Artikov, A; Asaadi, J; Ashmanskas, W; Askew, A; Atkins, S; Auerbach, B; Augsten, K; Aurisano, A; Avila, C; Azfar, F; Badaud, F; Badgett, W; Bae, T; Bagby, L; Baldin, B; Bandurin, D V; Banerjee, S; Barbaro-Galtieri, A; Barberis, E; Baringer, P; Barnes, V E; Barnett, B A; Barria, P; Bartlett, J F; Bartos, P; Bassler, U; Bauce, M; Bazterra, V; Bean, A; Bedeschi, F; Begalli, M; Behari, S; Bellantoni, L; Bellettini, G; Bellinger, J; Benjamin, D; Beretvas, A; Beri, S B; Bernardi, G; Bernhard, R; Bertram, I; Besançon, M; Beuselinck, R; Bhat, P C; Bhatia, S; Bhatnagar, V; Bhatti, A; Bland, K R; Blazey, G; Blessing, S; Bloom, K; Blumenfeld, B; Bocci, A; Bodek, A; Boehnlein, A; Boline, D; Boos, E E; Borissov, G; Bortoletto, D; Borysova, M; Boudreau, J; Boveia, A; Brandt, A; Brandt, O; Brigliadori, L; Brock, R; Bromberg, C; Bross, A; Brown, D; Brucken, E; Bu, X B; Budagov, J; Budd, H S; Buehler, M; Buescher, V; Bunichev, V; Burdin, S; Burkett, K; Busetto, G; Bussey, P; Buszello, C P; Butti, P; Buzatu, A; Calamba, A; Camacho-Pérez, E; Camarda, S; Campanelli, M; Canelli, F; Carls, B; Carlsmith, D; Carosi, R; Carrillo, S; Casal, B; Casarsa, M; Casey, B C K; Castilla-Valdez, H; Castro, A; Catastini, P; Caughron, S; Cauz, D; Cavaliere, V; Cerri, A; Cerrito, L; Chakrabarti, S; Chan, K M; Chandra, A; Chapon, E; Chen, G; Chen, Y C; Chertok, M; Chiarelli, G; Chlachidze, G; Cho, K; Cho, S W; Choi, S; Chokheli, D; Choudhary, B; Cihangir, S; Claes, D; Clark, A; Clarke, C; Clutter, J; Convery, M E; Conway, J; Cooke, M; Cooper, W E; Corbo, M; Corcoran, M; Cordelli, M; Couderc, F; Cousinou, M-C; Cox, C A; Cox, D J; Cremonesi, M; Cruz, D; Cuevas, J; Culbertson, R; Cutts, D; Das, A; d'Ascenzo, N; Datta, M; Davies, G; de Barbaro, P; de Jong, S J; De La Cruz-Burelo, E; Déliot, F; Demina, R; Demortier, L; Deninno, M; Denisov, D; Denisov, S P; D'Errico, M; Desai, S; Deterre, C; DeVaughan, K; Devoto, F; Di Canto, A; Di Ruzza, B; Diehl, H T; Diesburg, M; Ding, P F; Dittmann, J R; Dominguez, A; Donati, S; D'Onofrio, M; Dorigo, M; Driutti, A; Dubey, A; Dudko, L V; Duperrin, A; Dutt, S; Eads, M; Ebina, K; Edgar, R; Edmunds, D; Elagin, A; Ellison, J; Elvira, V D; Enari, Y; Erbacher, R; Errede, S; Esham, B; Evans, H; Evdokimov, A; Evdokimov, V N; Farrington, S; Fauré, A; Feng, L; Ferbel, T; Fernández Ramos, J P; Fiedler, F; Field, R; Filthaut, F; Fisher, W; Fisk, H E; Flanagan, G; Forrest, R; Fortner, M; Fox, H; Franklin, M; Freeman, J C; Frisch, H; Fuess, S; Funakoshi, Y; Galloni, C; Garbincius, P H; Garcia-Bellido, A; García-González, J A; Garfinkel, A F; Garosi, P; Gavrilov, V; Geng, W; Gerber, C E; Gerberich, H; Gerchtein, E; Gershtein, Y; Giagu, S; Giakoumopoulou, V; Gibson, K; Ginsburg, C M; Ginther, G; Giokaris, N; Giromini, P; Glagolev, V; Glenzinski, D; Gogota, O; Gold, M; Goldin, D; Golossanov, A; Golovanov, G; Gomez, G; Gomez-Ceballos, G; Goncharov, M; González López, O; Gorelov, I; Goshaw, A T; Goulianos, K; Gramellini, E; Grannis, P D; Greder, S; Greenlee, H; Grenier, G; Gris, Ph; Grivaz, J-F; Grohsjean, A; Grosso-Pilcher, C; Group, R C; Grünendahl, S; Grünewald, M W; Guillemin, T; Guimaraes da Costa, J; Gutierrez, G; Gutierrez, P; Hahn, S R; Haley, J; Han, J Y; Han, L; Happacher, F; Hara, K; Harder, K; Hare, M; Harel, A; Harr, R F; Harrington-Taber, T; Hatakeyama, K; Hauptman, J M; Hays, C; Hays, J; Head, T; Hebbeker, T; Hedin, D; Hegab, H; Heinrich, J; Heinson, A P; Heintz, U; Hensel, C; Heredia-De La Cruz, I; Herndon, M; Herner, K; Hesketh, G; Hildreth, M D; Hirosky, R; Hoang, T; Hobbs, J D; Hocker, A; Hoeneisen, B; Hogan, J; Hohlfeld, M; Holzbauer, J L; Hong, Z; Hopkins, W; Hou, S; Howley, I; Hubacek, Z; Hughes, R E; Husemann, U; Hussein, M; Huston, J; Hynek, V; Iashvili, I; Ilchenko, Y; Illingworth, R; Introzzi, G; Iori, M; Ito, A S; Ivanov, A; Jabeen, S; Jaffré, M; James, E; Jang, D; Jayasinghe, A; Jayatilaka, B; Jeon, E J; Jeong, M S; Jesik, R; Jiang, P; Jindariani, S; Johns, K; Johnson, E; Johnson, M; Jonckheere, A; Jones, M; Jonsson, P; Joo, K K; Joshi, J; Jun, S Y; Jung, A W; Junk, T R; Juste, A; Kajfasz, E; Kambeitz, M; Kamon, T; Karchin, P E; Karmanov, D; Kasmi, A; Kato, Y; Katsanos, I; Kaur, M; Kehoe, R; Kermiche, S; Ketchum, W; Keung, J; Khalatyan, N; Khanov, A; Kharchilava, A; Kharzheev, Y N; Kilminster, B; Kim, D H; Kim, H S; Kim, J E; Kim, M J; Kim, S H; Kim, S B; Kim, Y J; Kim, Y K; Kimura, N; Kirby, M; Kiselevich, I; Knoepfel, K; Kohli, J M; Kondo, K; Kong, D J; Konigsberg, J; Kotwal, A V; Kozelov, A V; Kraus, J; Kreps, M; Kroll, J; Kruse, M; Kuhr, T; Kumar, A; Kupco, A; Kurata, M; Kurča, T; Kuzmin, V A; Laasanen, A T; Lammel, S; Lammers, S; Lancaster, M; Lannon, K; Latino, G; Lebrun, P; Lee, H S; Lee, H S; Lee, J S; Lee, S W; Lee, W M; Lei, X; Lellouch, J; Leo, S; Leone, S; Lewis, J D; Li, D; Li, H; Li, L; Li, Q Z; Lim, J K; Limosani, A; Lincoln, D; Linnemann, J; Lipaev, V V; Lipeles, E; Lipton, R; Lister, A; Liu, H; Liu, H; Liu, Q; Liu, T; Liu, Y; Lobodenko, A; Lockwitz, S; Loginov, A; Lokajicek, M; Lopes de Sa, R; Lucchesi, D; Lucà, A; Lueck, J; Lujan, P; Lukens, P; Luna-Garcia, R; Lungu, G; Lyon, A L; Lys, J; Lysak, R; Maciel, A K A; Madar, R; Madrak, R; Maestro, P; Magaña-Villalba, R; Malik, S; Malik, S; Malyshev, V L; Manca, G; Manousakis-Katsikakis, A; Mansour, J; Marchese, L; Margaroli, F; Marino, P; Martínez-Ortega, J; Matera, K; Mattson, M E; Mazzacane, A; Mazzanti, P; McCarthy, R; McGivern, C L; McNulty, R; Mehta, A; Mehtala, P; Meijer, M M; Melnitchouk, A; Menezes, D; Mercadante, P G; Merkin, M; Mesropian, C; Meyer, A; Meyer, J; Miao, T; Miconi, F; Mietlicki, D; Mitra, A; Miyake, H; Moed, S; Moggi, N; Mondal, N K; Moon, C S; Moore, R; Morello, M J; Mukherjee, A; Mulhearn, M; Muller, Th; Murat, P; Mussini, M; Nachtman, J; Nagai, Y; Naganoma, J; Nagy, E; Nakano, I; Napier, A; Narain, M; Nayyar, R; Neal, H A; Negret, J P; Nett, J; Neu, C; Neustroev, P; Nguyen, H T; Nigmanov, T; Nodulman, L; Noh, S Y; Norniella, O; Nunnemann, T; Oakes, L; Oh, S H; Oh, Y D; Oksuzian, I; Okusawa, T; Orava, R; Orduna, J; Ortolan, L; Osman, N; Osta, J; Pagliarone, C; Pal, A; Palencia, E; Palni, P; Papadimitriou, V; Parashar, N; Parihar, V; Park, S K; Parker, W; Partridge, R; Parua, N; Patwa, A; Pauletta, G; Paulini, M; Paus, C; Penning, B; Perfilov, M; Peters, Y; Petridis, K; Petrillo, G; Pétroff, P; Phillips, T J; Piacentino, G; Pianori, E; Pilot, J; Pitts, K; Plager, C; Pleier, M-A; Podstavkov, V M; Pondrom, L; Popov, A V; Poprocki, S; Potamianos, K; Pranko, A; Prewitt, M; Price, D; Prokopenko, N; Prokoshin, F; Ptohos, F; Punzi, G; Qian, J; Quadt, A; Quinn, B; Ratoff, P N; Razumov, I; Redondo Fernández, I; Renton, P; Rescigno, M; Rimondi, F; Ripp-Baudot, I; Ristori, L; Rizatdinova, F; Robson, A; Rodriguez, T; Rolli, S; Rominsky, M; Ronzani, M; Roser, R; Rosner, J L; Ross, A; Royon, C; Rubinov, P; Ruchti, R; Ruffini, F; Ruiz, A; Russ, J; Rusu, V; Sajot, G; Sakumoto, W K; Sakurai, Y; Sánchez-Hernández, A; Sanders, M P; Santi, L; Santos, A S; Sato, K; Savage, G; Saveliev, V; Savitskyi, M; Savoy-Navarro, A; Sawyer, L; Scanlon, T; Schamberger, R D; Scheglov, Y; Schellman, H; Schlabach, P; Schmidt, E E; Schwanenberger, C; Schwarz, T; Schwienhorst, R; Scodellaro, L; Scuri, F; Seidel, S; Seiya, Y; Sekaric, J; Semenov, A; Severini, H; Sforza, F; Shabalina, E; Shalhout, S Z; Shary, V; Shaw, S; Shchukin, A A; Shears, T; Shepard, P F; Shimojima, M; Shochet, M; Shreyber-Tecker, I; Simak, V; Simonenko, A; Skubic, P; Slattery, P; Sliwa, K; Smirnov, D; Smith, J R; Snider, F D; Snow, G R; Snow, J; Snyder, S; Söldner-Rembold, S; Song, H; Sonnenschein, L; Sorin, V; Soustruznik, K; St Denis, R; Stancari, M; Stark, J; Stentz, D; Stoyanova, D A; Strauss, M; Strologas, J; Sudo, Y; Sukhanov, A; Suslov, I; Suter, L; Svoisky, P; Takemasa, K; Takeuchi, Y; Tang, J; Tecchio, M; Teng, P K; Thom, J; Thomson, E; Thukral, V; Titov, M; Toback, D; Tokar, S; Tokmenin, V V; Tollefson, K; Tomura, T; Tonelli, D; Torre, S; Torretta, D; Totaro, P; Trovato, M; Tsai, Y-T; Tsybychev, D; Tuchming, B; Tully, C; Ukegawa, F; Uozumi, S; Uvarov, L; Uvarov, S; Uzunyan, S; Van Kooten, R; van Leeuwen, W M; Varelas, N; Varnes, E W; Vasilyev, I A; Vázquez, F; Velev, G; Vellidis, C; Verkheev, A Y; Vernieri, C; Vertogradov, L S; Verzocchi, M; Vesterinen, M; Vidal, M; Vilanova, D; Vilar, R; Vizán, J; Vogel, M; Vokac, P; Volpi, G; Wagner, P; Wahl, H D; Wallny, R; Wang, M H L S; Wang, S M; Warchol, J; Waters, D; Watts, G; Wayne, M; Weichert, J; Welty-Rieger, L; Wester, W C; Whiteson, D; Wicklund, A B; Wilbur, S; Williams, H H; Williams, M R J; Wilson, G W; Wilson, J S; Wilson, P; Winer, B L; Wittich, P; Wobisch, M; Wolbers, S; Wolfe, H; Wood, D R; Wright, T; Wu, X; Wu, Z; Wyatt, T R; Xie, Y; Yamada, R; Yamamoto, K; Yamato, D; Yang, S; Yang, T; Yang, U K; Yang, Y C; Yao, W-M; Yasuda, T; Yatsunenko, Y A; Ye, W; Ye, Z; Yeh, G P; Yi, K; Yin, H; Yip, K; Yoh, J; Yorita, K; Yoshida, T; Youn, S W; Yu, G B; Yu, I; Yu, J M; Zanetti, A M; Zeng, Y; Zennamo, J; Zhao, T G; Zhou, B; Zhou, C; Zhu, J; Zielinski, M; Zieminska, D; Zivkovic, L; Zucchelli, S

    2015-10-09

    We present the final combination of CDF and D0 measurements of cross sections for single-top-quark production in proton-antiproton collisions at a center-of-mass energy of 1.96 TeV. The data correspond to total integrated luminosities of up to 9.7 fb^{-1} per experiment. The t-channel cross section is measured to be σ_{t}=2.25_{-0.31}^{+0.29} pb. We also present the combinations of the two-dimensional measurements of the s- vs t-channel cross section. In addition, we give the combination of the s+t channel cross section measurement resulting in σ_{s+t}=3.30_{-0.40}^{+0.52} pb, without assuming the standard model value for the ratio σ_{s}/σ_{t}. The resulting value of the magnitude of the top-to-bottom quark coupling is |V_{tb}|=1.02_{-0.05}^{+0.06}, corresponding to |V_{tb}|>0.92 at the 95% C.L.

  9. Automating calibration, sensitivity and uncertainty analysis of complex models using the R package Flexible Modeling Environment (FME): SWAT as an example

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Y.; Liu, S.

    2012-01-01

    Parameter optimization and uncertainty issues are a great challenge for the application of large environmental models like the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT), which is a physically-based hydrological model for simulating water and nutrient cycles at the watershed scale. In this study, we present a comprehensive modeling environment for SWAT, including automated calibration, and sensitivity and uncertainty analysis capabilities through integration with the R package Flexible Modeling Environment (FME). To address challenges (e.g., calling the model in R and transferring variables between Fortran and R) in developing such a two-language coupling framework, 1) we converted the Fortran-based SWAT model to an R function (R-SWAT) using the RFortran platform, and alternatively 2) we compiled SWAT as a Dynamic Link Library (DLL). We then wrapped SWAT (via R-SWAT) with FME to perform complex applications including parameter identifiability, inverse modeling, and sensitivity and uncertainty analysis in the R environment. The final R-SWAT-FME framework has the following key functionalities: automatic initialization of R, running Fortran-based SWAT and R commands in parallel, transferring parameters and model output between SWAT and R, and inverse modeling with visualization. To examine this framework and demonstrate how it works, a case study simulating streamflow in the Cedar River Basin in Iowa in the United Sates was used, and we compared it with the built-in auto-calibration tool of SWAT in parameter optimization. Results indicate that both methods performed well and similarly in searching a set of optimal parameters. Nonetheless, the R-SWAT-FME is more attractive due to its instant visualization, and potential to take advantage of other R packages (e.g., inverse modeling and statistical graphics). The methods presented in the paper are readily adaptable to other model applications that require capability for automated calibration, and sensitivity and uncertainty

  10. Reforming Cardiovascular Care in the United States towards High-Quality Care at Lower Cost with Examples from Model Programs in the State of Michigan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alyeshmerni, Daniel; Froehlich, James B; Lewin, Jack; Eagle, Kim A

    2014-07-01

    Despite its status as a world leader in treatment innovation and medical education, a quality chasm exists in American health care. Care fragmentation and poor coordination contribute to expensive care with highly variable quality in the United States. The rising costs of health care since 1990 have had a huge impact on individuals, families, businesses, the federal and state governments, and the national budget deficit. The passage of the Affordable Care Act represents a large shift in how health care is financed and delivered in the United States. The objective of this review is to describe some of the economic and social forces driving health care reform, provide an overview of the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (ACA), and review model cardiovascular quality improvement programs underway in the state of Michigan. As health care reorganization occurs at the federal level, local and regional efforts can serve as models to accelerate improvement toward achieving better population health and better care at lower cost. Model programs in Michigan have achieved this goal in cardiovascular care through the systematic application of evidence-based care, the utilization of regional quality improvement collaboratives, community-based childhood wellness promotion, and medical device-based competitive bidding strategies. These efforts are examples of the direction cardiovascular care delivery will need to move in this era of the Affordable Care Act.

  11. Reforming Cardiovascular Care in the United States towards High-Quality Care at Lower Cost with Examples from Model Programs in the State of Michigan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Alyeshmerni

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Despite its status as a world leader in treatment innovation and medical education, a quality chasm exists in American health care. Care fragmentation and poor coordination contribute to expensive care with highly variable quality in the United States. The rising costs of health care since 1990 have had a huge impact on individuals, families, businesses, the federal and state governments, and the national budget deficit. The passage of the Affordable Care Act represents a large shift in how health care is financed and delivered in the United States. The objective of this review is to describe some of the economic and social forces driving health care reform, provide an overview of the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (ACA, and review model cardiovascular quality improvement programs underway in the state of Michigan. As health care reorganization occurs at the federal level, local and regional efforts can serve as models to accelerate improvement toward achieving better population health and better care at lower cost. Model programs in Michigan have achieved this goal in cardiovascular care through the systematic application of evidence-based care, the utilization of regional quality improvement collaboratives, community-based childhood wellness promotion, and medical device-based competitive bidding strategies. These efforts are examples of the direction cardiovascular care delivery will need to move in this era of the Affordable Care Act.

  12. A fully-stochasticized, age-structured population model for population viability analysis of fish: Lower Missouri River endangered pallid sturgeon example

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wildhaber, Mark L.; Albers, Janice; Green, Nicholas; Moran, Edward H.

    2017-01-01

    We develop a fully-stochasticized, age-structured population model suitable for population viability analysis (PVA) of fish and demonstrate its use with the endangered pallid sturgeon (Scaphirhynchus albus) of the Lower Missouri River as an example. The model incorporates three levels of variance: parameter variance (uncertainty about the value of a parameter itself) applied at the iteration level, temporal variance (uncertainty caused by random environmental fluctuations over time) applied at the time-step level, and implicit individual variance (uncertainty caused by differences between individuals) applied within the time-step level. We found that population dynamics were most sensitive to survival rates, particularly age-2+ survival, and to fecundity-at-length. The inclusion of variance (unpartitioned or partitioned), stocking, or both generally decreased the influence of individual parameters on population growth rate. The partitioning of variance into parameter and temporal components had a strong influence on the importance of individual parameters, uncertainty of model predictions, and quasiextinction risk (i.e., pallid sturgeon population size falling below 50 age-1+ individuals). Our findings show that appropriately applying variance in PVA is important when evaluating the relative importance of parameters, and reinforce the need for better and more precise estimates of crucial life-history parameters for pallid sturgeon.

  13. Review series: Examples of chronic care model: the home-based chronic care model: redesigning home health for high quality care delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suter, Paula; Hennessey, Beth; Florez, Donna; Newton Suter, W

    2011-01-01

    Individuals with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) face significant challenges due to frequent distressing dyspnea and deficits related to activities of daily living. Individuals with COPD are often hospitalized frequently for disease exacerbations, negatively impacting quality of life and healthcare expenditure burden. The home-based chronic care model (HBCCM) was designed to address the needs of patients with chronic diseases. This model facilitates the re-design of chronic care delivery within the home health sector by ensuring patient-centered evidence-based care. This HBCCM foundation is Dr. Edward Wagner s chronic care model and has four additional areas of focus: high touch delivery, theory-based self management, specialist oversight and the use of technology. This article will describe this model in detail and outline how model use for patients with COPD can bring value to stakeholders across the health care continuum.

  14. Setting priorities in health research using the model proposed by the World Health Organization: development of a quantitative methodology using tuberculosis in South Africa as a worked example.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hacking, Damian; Cleary, Susan

    2016-02-09

    Setting priorities is important in health research given the limited resources available for research. Various guidelines exist to assist in the priority setting process; however, priority setting still faces significant challenges such as the clear ranking of identified priorities. The World Health Organization (WHO) proposed a Disability Adjusted Life Year (DALY)-based model to rank priorities by research area (basic, health systems and biomedical) by dividing the DALYs into 'unavertable with existing interventions', 'avertable with improved efficiency' and 'avertable with existing but non-cost-effective interventions', respectively. However, the model has conceptual flaws and no clear methodology for its construction. Therefore, the aim of this paper was to amend the model to address these flaws, and develop a clear methodology by using tuberculosis in South Africa as a worked example. An amended model was constructed to represent total DALYs as the product of DALYs per person and absolute burden of disease. These figures were calculated for all countries from WHO datasets. The lowest figures achieved by any country were assumed to represent 'unavertable with existing interventions' if extrapolated to South Africa. The ratio of 'cost per patient treated' (adjusted for purchasing power and outcome weighted) between South Africa and the best country was used to calculate the 'avertable with improved efficiency section'. Finally, 'avertable with existing but non-cost-effective interventions' was calculated using Disease Control Priorities Project efficacy data, and the ratio between the best intervention and South Africa's current intervention, irrespective of cost. The amended model shows that South Africa has a tuberculosis burden of 1,009,837.3 DALYs; 0.009% of DALYs are unavertable with existing interventions and 96.3% of DALYs could be averted with improvements in efficiency. Of the remaining DALYs, a further 56.9% could be averted with existing but non

  15. THE APPLICATION OF TYPOLOGY METHOD IN HISTORICAL BUILDING INFORMATION MODELLING (HBIM TAKING THE INFORMATION SURVEYING AND MAPPING OF JIAYUGUAN FORTRESS TOWN AS AN EXAMPLE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Y. Li

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available With the promotion of fine degree of the heritage building surveying and mapping, building information modelling technology(BIM begins to be used in surveying and mapping, renovation, recording and research of heritage building, called historical building information modelling(HBIM. The hierarchical frameworks of parametric component library of BIM, belonging to the same type with the same parameters, has the same internal logic with archaeological typology which is more and more popular in the age identification of ancient buildings. Compared with the common materials, 2D drawings and photos, typology with HBIM has two advantages — (1 comprehensive building information both in collection and representation and (2 uniform and reasonable classification criteria This paper will take the information surveying and mapping of Jiayuguan Fortress Town as an example to introduce the field work method of information surveying and mapping based on HBIM technology and the construction of Revit family library.And then in order to prove the feasibility and advantage of HBIM technology used in typology method, this paper will identify the age of Guanghua gate tower, Rouyuan gate tower, Wenchang pavilion and the theater building of Jiayuguan Fortress Town with HBIM technology and typology method.

  16. The Application of Typology Method in Historical Building Information Modelling (hbim) Taking the Information Surveying and Mapping of Jiayuguan Fortress Town as AN Example

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, D. Y.; Li, K.; Wu, C.

    2017-08-01

    With the promotion of fine degree of the heritage building surveying and mapping, building information modelling technology(BIM) begins to be used in surveying and mapping, renovation, recording and research of heritage building, called historical building information modelling(HBIM). The hierarchical frameworks of parametric component library of BIM, belonging to the same type with the same parameters, has the same internal logic with archaeological typology which is more and more popular in the age identification of ancient buildings. Compared with the common materials, 2D drawings and photos, typology with HBIM has two advantages — (1) comprehensive building information both in collection and representation and (2) uniform and reasonable classification criteria This paper will take the information surveying and mapping of Jiayuguan Fortress Town as an example to introduce the field work method of information surveying and mapping based on HBIM technology and the construction of Revit family library.And then in order to prove the feasibility and advantage of HBIM technology used in typology method, this paper will identify the age of Guanghua gate tower, Rouyuan gate tower, Wenchang pavilion and the theater building of Jiayuguan Fortress Town with HBIM technology and typology method.

  17. Using cross-classified multilevel models to disentangle school and neighborhood effects: an example focusing on smoking behaviors among adolescents in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunn, Erin C; Richmond, Tracy K; Milliren, Carly E; Subramanian, S V

    2015-01-01

    Despite much interest in understanding the influence of contexts on health, most research has focused on one context at a time, ignoring the reality that individuals have simultaneous memberships in multiple settings. Using the example of smoking behavior among adolescents in the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health, we applied cross-classified multilevel modeling (CCMM) to examine fixed and random effects for schools and neighborhoods. We compared the CCMM results with those obtained from a traditional multilevel model (MLM) focused on either the school and neighborhood separately. In the MLMs, 5.2% of the variation in smoking was due to differences between neighborhoods (when schools were ignored) and 6.3% of the variation in smoking was due to differences between schools (when neighborhoods were ignored). However in the CCMM examining neighborhood and school variation simultaneously, the neighborhood-level variation was reduced to 0.4%. Results suggest that using MLM, instead of CCMM, could lead to overestimating the importance of certain contexts and could ultimately lead to targeting interventions or policies to the wrong settings. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Using Dynamic Transmission Modeling to Determine Vaccination Coverage Rate Based on 5-Year Economic Burden of Infectious Disease: An Example of Pneumococcal Vaccine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Yu-Wen; Wu, Hsin; Chang, Chee-Jen

    2015-05-01

    Vaccination can reduce the incidence and mortality of an infectious disease and thus increase the years of life and productivity for the entire society. But when determining the vaccination coverage rate, its economic burden is usually not taken into account. This article aimed to use a dynamic transmission modeling (DTM), which is based on a susceptible-infectious-recovered model and is a system of differential equations, to find the optimal vaccination coverage rate based on the economic burden of an infectious disease. Vaccination for pneumococcal diseases was used as an example to demonstrate the main purpose. 23-Valent pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccines (PPV23) and 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccines (PCV13) have shown their cost-effectiveness in elderly and children, respectively. Scenarios analysis of PPV23 to elderly aged 65+ years and of PCV13 to children aged 0 to 4 years was applied to assess the optimal vaccination coverage rate based on the 5-year economic burden. Model parameters were derived from Taiwan's National Health Insurance Research Database, government data, and published literature. Various vaccination coverage rates, the vaccine efficacy, and all epidemiologic parameters were substituted into DTM, and all differential equations were solved in R Statistical Software. If the coverage rate of PPV23 for the elderly and of PCV13 for the children both reach 50%, the economic burden due to pneumococcal disease will be acceptable. This article provided an alternative perspective from the economic burden of diseases to obtain a vaccination coverage rate using the DTM. This will provide valuable information for vaccination policy decision makers. Copyright © 2015 International Society for Pharmacoeconomics and Outcomes Research (ISPOR). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Architectural Modelling of Alternatives for Verification of New Interventions on the Example of the Romanesque Palace at Spiš Castle in Slovakia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregorová, Jana; Kalesný, František; Polomová, Beata; Vojteková, Eva

    2017-10-01

    The article presents the results of the first phase of the research project SK-VEGA 1/0951/16 on using transparent and translucent structures in historical buildings. The team of researchers from the Faculty of Architecture SUT Bratislava introduces possibilities of using lightweight roofs on the model example of a dominant medieval ruin (Romanesque Palace, Spiš Castle, UNESCO site). Architectural 3D-modelling of alternatives gains new methodical importance in conditions, when in real practice only safeguarding conservation approaches are preferred. Research based on design serves as a tool for decision-making on further restoration approaches to a specific cultural heritage object. The selected Romanesque Palace of the Spiš Castle has passed through many structural periods. The interior doesn’t exist and the perimeter walls create a raised landscape landmark. Romanesque, gothic and renaissance periods were identifiable. It would be possible to reconstruct these periods partially hypothetically on the basis of saved archive materials. Inner structures and the roofing of the palace were in individual historical periods changed. Exact frame models of a new roofing were created on the principle of hypothetical reconstruction: from the indication of the medieval form, renaissance form until contemporary new forms respecting the present day horizontal palace’s topping. The aim of the first stage of the research was to present a few architectural alternatives of the roof structure refilling according to the given cultural heritage determinants and structural possibilities. We introduce 12 solutions in graphic and text, which present architectural models of a new roofing, covering the interior by transparent structure based on glass panels and translucent structures based on a textile membrane. We achieve a new space for new functional use of the palace by means of various ways of physical enclosing. On the other side, we work with alternatives of the perimeter wall

  20. Fourth standard model family neutrino at future linear colliders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ciftci, A.K.; Ciftci, R.; Sultansoy, S.

    2005-01-01

    It is known that flavor democracy favors the existence of the fourth standard model (SM) family. In order to give nonzero masses for the first three-family fermions flavor democracy has to be slightly broken. A parametrization for democracy breaking, which gives the correct values for fundamental fermion masses and, at the same time, predicts quark and lepton Cabibbo-Kobayashi-Maskawa (CKM) matrices in a good agreement with the experimental data, is proposed. The pair productions of the fourth SM family Dirac (ν 4 ) and Majorana (N 1 ) neutrinos at future linear colliders with √(s)=500 GeV, 1 TeV, and 3 TeV are considered. The cross section for the process e + e - →ν 4 ν 4 (N 1 N 1 ) and the branching ratios for possible decay modes of the both neutrinos are determined. The decays of the fourth family neutrinos into muon channels (ν 4 (N 1 )→μ ± W ± ) provide cleanest signature at e + e - colliders. Meanwhile, in our parametrization this channel is dominant. W bosons produced in decays of the fourth family neutrinos will be seen in detector as either di-jets or isolated leptons. As an example, we consider the production of 200 GeV mass fourth family neutrinos at √(s)=500 GeV linear colliders by taking into account di-muon plus four jet events as signatures

  1. Naturalness of CP Violation in the Standard Model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gibbons, Gary W.; Gielen, Steffen; Pope, C. N.; Turok, Neil

    2009-01-01

    We construct a natural measure on the space of Cabibbo-Kobayashi-Maskawa matrices in the standard model, assuming the fermion mass matrices are randomly selected from a distribution which incorporates the observed quark mass hierarchy. This measure allows us to assess the likelihood of Jarlskog's CP violation parameter J taking its observed value J≅3x10 -5 . We find that the observed value, while well below the mathematically allowed maximum, is in fact typical once the observed quark masses are assumed

  2. Neutron decay, semileptonic hyperon decay and the Cabibbo model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siebert, H.W.

    1989-01-01

    The decay rates and formfactor ratios of neutron decay and semileptonic hyperon decays are compared in the framework of the Cabibbo model. The results indicate SU(3) symmetry breaking. The Kobayashi-Maskawa matrix element V us determined from these decays is in good agreement with the value determined from K→πeν decays, and with unitarity of the KM-matrix. (orig.)

  3. Geomatic 3d Modeling of a Statue (also) for Structural Analysis and Risk Evaluation: the Example of San Giovannino Martelli in Florence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spangher, A.; Visintini, D.; Tucci, G.; Bonora, V.

    2017-05-01

    This work has been developed among the researches of a PhD thesis in Civil and Environmental Engineering and Architecture of the University of Udine in cooperation with the GECO Laboratory of the University of Florence. It focuses on the interaction between Geomatics and Structural Analysis, both applied to cultural heritage, and expressly to artefacts and structures in stone materials, like the case study of this paper, the marble statue called "San Giovannino Martelli" (Saint John the Baptist) conserved in Florence. At the beginning, some interesting examples of surveying and structural analyses on statues are reported, in order to remind the complementary tasks and requirements of geomatics and structural analysis. Current laser scanning systems can accurately survey the geometry of a statue or any cultural heritage artefact, essential to understand their structural behaviour and resilience capability. Afterwards, following the few Italian regulations in this field, the possible risks of museum goods are described: topics of this part are more familiar for structural engineers as object classification, seismic reactions, damage mechanisms, possible movements (adherent, slipping and oscillation), dynamic domains, anyway necessary steps to evaluate the risk and so to define eventual interventions. The artistic description of the statue, its debated attribution to Donatello or/and to Desiderio da Settignano and its history is later recalled, remembering that the surveying has been done for the idea to 3D print a replica and to place it in the original place. Having used a close range laser scanner, the obtained 3D model has an impressive geometrical Level of Detail (LoD), whose geometric features are explained in the paper, underlying that such extremely detailed mesh is directly given as output from the laser scanner software. The model simplifications by four decimation are therefore explained and also changes to geometry, like shifts on centre of the mass or

  4. GEOMATIC 3D MODELING OF A STATUE (ALSO FOR STRUCTURAL ANALYSIS AND RISK EVALUATION: THE EXAMPLE OF SAN GIOVANNINO MARTELLI IN FLORENCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Spangher

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available This work has been developed among the researches of a PhD thesis in Civil and Environmental Engineering and Architecture of the University of Udine in cooperation with the GECO Laboratory of the University of Florence. It focuses on the interaction between Geomatics and Structural Analysis, both applied to cultural heritage, and expressly to artefacts and structures in stone materials, like the case study of this paper, the marble statue called “San Giovannino Martelli” (Saint John the Baptist conserved in Florence. At the beginning, some interesting examples of surveying and structural analyses on statues are reported, in order to remind the complementary tasks and requirements of geomatics and structural analysis. Current laser scanning systems can accurately survey the geometry of a statue or any cultural heritage artefact, essential to understand their structural behaviour and resilience capability. Afterwards, following the few Italian regulations in this field, the possible risks of museum goods are described: topics of this part are more familiar for structural engineers as object classification, seismic reactions, damage mechanisms, possible movements (adherent, slipping and oscillation, dynamic domains, anyway necessary steps to evaluate the risk and so to define eventual interventions. The artistic description of the statue, its debated attribution to Donatello or/and to Desiderio da Settignano and its history is later recalled, remembering that the surveying has been done for the idea to 3D print a replica and to place it in the original place. Having used a close range laser scanner, the obtained 3D model has an impressive geometrical Level of Detail (LoD, whose geometric features are explained in the paper, underlying that such extremely detailed mesh is directly given as output from the laser scanner software. The model simplifications by four decimation are therefore explained and also changes to geometry, like shifts on

  5. Regression analysis by example

    CERN Document Server

    Chatterjee, Samprit

    2012-01-01

    Praise for the Fourth Edition: ""This book is . . . an excellent source of examples for regression analysis. It has been and still is readily readable and understandable."" -Journal of the American Statistical Association Regression analysis is a conceptually simple method for investigating relationships among variables. Carrying out a successful application of regression analysis, however, requires a balance of theoretical results, empirical rules, and subjective judgment. Regression Analysis by Example, Fifth Edition has been expanded

  6. Debris-flow susceptibility assessment through cellular automata modeling: an example from 15–16 December 1999 disaster at Cervinara and San Martino Valle Caudina (Campania, southern Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Iovine

    2003-01-01

    volume for these new cases has been estimated by considering the actual statistics of the 1999 landslides. Finally, by merging the results of simulations, a deterministic susceptibility zonation of the considered area has been obtained. In this paper, aiming at illustrating the potential for debris-flow hazard analyses of the model SCIDDICA S3–hex, a methodological example of susceptibility zonation of the Vallicelle HR-zone is presented.

  7. Time Series Analysis and Forecasting by Example

    CERN Document Server

    Bisgaard, Soren

    2011-01-01

    An intuition-based approach enables you to master time series analysis with ease Time Series Analysis and Forecasting by Example provides the fundamental techniques in time series analysis using various examples. By introducing necessary theory through examples that showcase the discussed topics, the authors successfully help readers develop an intuitive understanding of seemingly complicated time series models and their implications. The book presents methodologies for time series analysis in a simplified, example-based approach. Using graphics, the authors discuss each presented example in

  8. Standard model parameters and the search for new physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marciano, W.J.

    1988-04-01

    In these lectures, my aim is to present an up-to-date status report on the standard model and some key tests of electroweak unification. Within that context, I also discuss how and where hints of new physics may emerge. To accomplish those goals, I have organized my presentation as follows: I discuss the standard model parameters with particular emphasis on the gauge coupling constants and vector boson masses. Examples of new physics appendages are also briefly commented on. In addition, because these lectures are intended for students and thus somewhat pedagogical, I have included an appendix on dimensional regularization and a simple computational example that employs that technique. Next, I focus on weak charged current phenomenology. Precision tests of the standard model are described and up-to-date values for the Cabibbo-Kobayashi-Maskawa (CKM) mixing matrix parameters are presented. Constraints implied by those tests for a 4th generation, supersymmetry, extra Z/prime/ bosons, and compositeness are also discussed. I discuss weak neutral current phenomenology and the extraction of sin/sup 2/ /theta//sub W/ from experiment. The results presented there are based on a recently completed global analysis of all existing data. I have chosen to concentrate that discussion on radiative corrections, the effect of a heavy top quark mass, and implications for grand unified theories (GUTS). The potential for further experimental progress is also commented on. I depart from the narrowest version of the standard model and discuss effects of neutrino masses and mixings. I have chosen to concentrate on oscillations, the Mikheyev-Smirnov- Wolfenstein (MSW) effect, and electromagnetic properties of neutrinos. On the latter topic, I will describe some recent work on resonant spin-flavor precession. Finally, I conclude with a prospectus on hopes for the future. 76 refs

  9. Code query by example

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaucouleur, Sebastien

    2011-02-01

    We introduce code query by example for customisation of evolvable software products in general and of enterprise resource planning systems (ERPs) in particular. The concept is based on an initial empirical study on practices around ERP systems. We motivate our design choices based on those empirical results, and we show how the proposed solution helps with respect to the infamous upgrade problem: the conflict between the need for customisation and the need for upgrade of ERP systems. We further show how code query by example can be used as a form of lightweight static analysis, to detect automatically potential defects in large software products. Code query by example as a form of lightweight static analysis is particularly interesting in the context of ERP systems: it is often the case that programmers working in this field are not computer science specialists but more of domain experts. Hence, they require a simple language to express custom rules.

  10. FINAS. Example manual. 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iwata, Koji; Tsukimori, Kazuyuki; Ueno, Mutsuo

    2003-12-01

    FINAS is a general purpose structural analysis computer program which was developed by Japan Nuclear Cycle Development Institute for the analysis of static, dynamic and thermal responses of elastic and inelastic structures by the finite element method. This manual contains typical analysis examples that illustrate applications of FINAS to a variety of structural engineering problems. The first part of this manual presents fundamental examples in which numerical solutions by FINAS are compared with some analytical reference solutions, and the second part of this manual presents more complex examples intended for practical application. All the input data images and principal results for each problem are included in this manual for beginners' convenience. All the analyses are performed by using the FINAS Version 13.0. (author)

  11. Projector Method: theory and examples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dahl, E.D.

    1985-01-01

    The Projector Method technique for numerically analyzing lattice gauge theories was developed to take advantage of certain simplifying features of gauge theory models. Starting from a very general notion of what the Projector Method is, the techniques are applied to several model problems. After these examples have traced the development of the actual algorithm from the general principles of the Projector Method, a direct comparison between the Projector and the Euclidean Monte Carlo is made, followed by a discussion of the application to Periodic Quantum Electrodynamics in two and three spatial dimensions. Some methods for improving the efficiency of the Projector in various circumstances are outlined. 10 refs., 7 figs

  12. Agent-based model of fecal microbial transplant effect on bile acid metabolism on suppressing Clostridium difficile infection: an example of agent-based modeling of intestinal bacterial infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peer, Xavier; An, Gary

    2014-10-01

    Agent-based modeling is a computational modeling method that represents system-level behavior as arising from multiple interactions between the multiple components that make up a system. Biological systems are thus readily described using agent-based models (ABMs), as multi-cellular organisms can be viewed as populations of interacting cells, and microbial systems manifest as colonies of individual microbes. Intersections between these two domains underlie an increasing number of pathophysiological processes, and the intestinal tract represents one of the most significant locations for these inter-domain interactions, so much so that it can be considered an internal ecology of varying robustness and function. Intestinal infections represent significant disturbances of this internal ecology, and one of the most clinically relevant intestinal infections is Clostridium difficile infection (CDI). CDI is precipitated by the use of broad-spectrum antibiotics, involves the depletion of commensal microbiota, and alterations in bile acid composition in the intestinal lumen. We present an example ABM of CDI (the C. difficile Infection ABM, or CDIABM) to examine fundamental dynamics of the pathogenesis of CDI and its response to treatment with anti-CDI antibiotics and a newer treatment therapy, fecal microbial transplant. The CDIABM focuses on one specific mechanism of potential CDI suppression: commensal modulation of bile acid composition. Even given its abstraction, the CDIABM reproduces essential dynamics of CDI and its response to therapy, and identifies a paradoxical zone of behavior that provides insight into the role of intestinal nutritional status and the efficacy of anti-CDI therapies. It is hoped that this use case example of the CDIABM can demonstrate the usefulness of both agent-based modeling and the application of abstract functional representation as the biomedical community seeks to address the challenges of increasingly complex diseases with the goal of

  13. Neutrosophic Examples in Physics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fu Yuhua

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Neutrosophy can be widely applied in physics and the like. For example, one of the reasons for 2011 Nobel Prize for physics is "for the discovery of the accelerating expansion of the universe through observations of distant supernovae", but according to neutrosophy, there exist seven or nine states of accelerating expansion and contraction and the neutrosophic state in the universe. Another two examples are "a revision to Gödel's incompleteness theorem by neutrosophy" and "six neutral (neutrosophic fundamental interactions". In addition, the "partial and temporary unified theory so far" is discussed (including "partial and temporary unified electromagnetic theory so far", "partial and temporary unified gravitational theory so far", "partial and temporary unified theory of four fundamental interactions so far", and "partial and temporary unified theory of natural science so far".

  14. Maple by example

    CERN Document Server

    Abell, Martha L

    2005-01-01

    Maple by Example, Third Edition, is a reference/text with CD for beginning and experienced students, professional engineers, and other Maple users. This new edition has been updated to be compatible with the most recent release of the Maple software. Coverage includes built-in Maple commands used in courses and practices that involve calculus, linear algebra, business mathematics, ordinary and partial differential equations, numerical methods, graphics and more. The CD-ROM provides updated Maple input and all text from the book.* Updated coverage of Maple features and functions * Backwards compatible for all versions* New applications from a variety of fields, including biology, physics and engineering* Expanded topics with many additional examples

  15. Examples of plasma horizons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hanni, R.S.

    1975-01-01

    The concept of the plasma horizon, defined as the boundary of the region in which an infinitely thin plasma can be supported against Coulomb attraction by a magnetic field, shows that the argument of selective accretion does not rule out the existence of charged black holes embedded in a conducting plasma. A detailed account of the covariant definition of plasma horizon is given and some examples of plasma horizons are presented. 7 references

  16. Robust Programming by Example

    OpenAIRE

    Bishop , Matt; Elliott , Chip

    2011-01-01

    Part 2: WISE 7; International audience; Robust programming lies at the heart of the type of coding called “secure programming”. Yet it is rarely taught in academia. More commonly, the focus is on how to avoid creating well-known vulnerabilities. While important, that misses the point: a well-structured, robust program should anticipate where problems might arise and compensate for them. This paper discusses one view of robust programming and gives an example of how it may be taught.

  17. The Power of Example

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bülow, Anne Marie

    2013-01-01

    This paper suggests that for negotiation studies, the well-researched role of cognitive closure in decision-making should be supplemented with specific research on what sort of information is seized on as unambiguous, salient and easily processable by negotiators. A study of email negotiation...... is reported that suggests that negotiators seize on concrete examples as building blocks that produce immediate positive feedback and consequent utilization in establishing common ground....

  18. Family and family education model in parish press of Great Poland in 2 Polish Republic: „Tygodnik Parafji Zbąszynskiej” example

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MIROSŁAW PIWOWARCZYK

    2017-10-01

    education, coherent with social teaching of catholic chuch and ideology of nationalist parties. Magazine often published articles on social pedagogy, citizenship, patriotic, religious, moral and family education in “the spirit of catholic and national values”. With great passion magazine propagated catholic model of family, specific rules of family life, patterns of family, education, wife and mother, husband and father, children, ideal of good Polish woman and house wife, ideal of good Polish man, husband and father. Specific roles and tasks were associated with them, obligations of parents towards children were also expressed. Very often articles included advises and canceling on mother-children relationship. There were attempts of creation of positive attitudes of children towards parents based on the use of examples. There were also articles stressing the meaning and significance of shared responsibility and actions of school and home in education towards child benefit. Most of the articles published in had a didactic, ideologist and moralizing character it was a tool for fulfillment of specific goals of “spiritual powers”. Despite that kind of single-tract perspective on educational issues magazine gained a wide popularity and respect within local community of Zbąszyń and its area. Presented attitude remained coherent with politically and morally (religiously educated community and simply mirrored ideas shared by the majority of citizens. There is no doubt tat it played a significant role in construction of specific cultural character of Zbąszyń in the Interwar Period and education of its citizens.

  19. Aristotle's Example: The Rhetorical Induction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benoit, William Lyon

    1980-01-01

    Examines the concept of example in Aristotle's inventional theory. Rejects recent claims that the example reasons from part to part, without a mediating generalization, and then explicates Aristotle's view of the example. (JMF)

  20. Example based style classification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Welnicka, Katarzyna; Bærentzen, Jakob Andreas; Aanæs, Henrik

    2011-01-01

    We address the problem of analysis of families of shapes which can be classified according to two categories: the main one corresponding usually to the coarse shape which we call the function and the more subtle one which we call the style. The style and the function both contribute to the overal...... this similarity should be reflected across different functions. We show the usability of our methods first on the example of a number of chess sets which our method helps sort. Next, we investigate the problem of finding a replacement for a missing tooth given a database of teeth....

  1. Example of feedstock optimization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boustros, E.

    1991-01-01

    An example of feedstock optimization at an olefins plant which has the flexibility to process different kinds of raw materials while maintaining the same product slate, is presented. Product demand and prices, and the number of units in service as well as the required resources to operate these units are considered to be fixed. The plant profitability is a function of feedstock choice, plus constant costs which are the non-volume related costs. The objective is to find a set or combination of feedstocks that could match the client product demands and fall within the unit's design and capacity, while maximizing the financial operating results

  2. Performance Assessment and Translation of Physiologically Based Pharmacokinetic Models From acslX to Berkeley Madonna, MATLAB, and R Language: Oxytetracycline and Gold Nanoparticles As Case Examples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Zhoumeng; Jaberi-Douraki, Majid; He, Chunla; Jin, Shiqiang; Yang, Raymond S H; Fisher, Jeffrey W; Riviere, Jim E

    2017-07-01

    Many physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) models for environmental chemicals, drugs, and nanomaterials have been developed to aid risk and safety assessments using acslX. However, acslX has been rendered sunset since November 2015. Alternative modeling tools and tutorials are needed for future PBPK applications. This forum article aimed to: (1) demonstrate the performance of 4 PBPK modeling software packages (acslX, Berkeley Madonna, MATLAB, and R language) tested using 2 existing models (oxytetracycline and gold nanoparticles); (2) provide a tutorial of PBPK model code conversion from acslX to Berkeley Madonna, MATLAB, and R language; (3) discuss the advantages and disadvantages of each software package in the implementation of PBPK models in toxicology, and (4) share our perspective about future direction in this field. Simulation results of plasma/tissue concentrations/amounts of oxytetracycline and gold from different models were compared visually and statistically with linear regression analyses. Simulation results from the original models were correlated well with results from the recoded models, with time-concentration/amount curves nearly superimposable and determination coefficients of 0.86-1.00. Step-by-step explanations of the recoding of the models in different software programs are provided in the Supplementary Data. In summary, this article presents a tutorial of PBPK model code conversion for a small molecule and a nanoparticle among 4 software packages, and a performance comparison of these software packages in PBPK model implementation. This tutorial helps beginners learn PBPK modeling, provides suggestions for selecting a suitable tool for future projects, and may lead to the transition from acslX to alternative modeling tools. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Toxicology. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  3. Investigation of the photochemical changes of chlorogenic acids induced by ultraviolet light in model systems and in agricultural practice with Stevia rebaudiana cultivation as an example.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karaköse, Hande; Jaiswal, Rakesh; Deshpande, Sagar; Kuhnert, Nikolai

    2015-04-08

    Mono- and diacyl chlorogenic acids undergo photochemical trans-cis isomerization under ultraviolet (UV) irradiation. The photochemical equilibrium composition was established for eight selected derivatives. In contrast to all other dicaffeoylquinic acid derivatives, cynarin (1,3-dicaffeoylquinic acid) undergoes a [2 + 2] photochemical cycloaddition reaction, constituting a first example of Schmidt's law in a natural product family. The relevance of photochemical isomerization in agricultural practice was investigated using 120 samples of Stevia rebaudiana leave samples grown under defined cultivation conditions. Ratios of cis to trans chlorogenic acids were determined in leaf samples and correlated with climatic and harvesting conditions. The data indicate a clear correlation between the formation of cis-caffeoyl derivatives and sunshine hours prior to harvesting and illustrate the relevance of UV exposure to plant material affecting its phytochemical composition.

  4. Study on the Spectral Mixing Model for Mineral Pigments Based on Derivative of Ratio Spectroscopy-Take Vermilion and Stone Yellow for Example

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, H.; Hao, Y.; Liu, X.; Hou, M.; Zhao, X.

    2018-04-01

    Hyperspectral remote sensing is a completely non-invasive technology for measurement of cultural relics, and has been successfully applied in identification and analysis of pigments of Chinese historical paintings. Although the phenomenon of mixing pigments is very usual in Chinese historical paintings, the quantitative analysis of the mixing pigments in the ancient paintings is still unsolved. In this research, we took two typical mineral pigments, vermilion and stone yellow as example, made precisely mixed samples using these two kinds of pigments, and measured their spectra in the laboratory. For the mixing spectra, both fully constrained least square (FCLS) method and derivative of ratio spectroscopy (DRS) were performed. Experimental results showed that the mixing spectra of vermilion and stone yellow had strong nonlinear mixing characteristics, but at some bands linear unmixing could also achieve satisfactory results. DRS using strong linear bands can reach much higher accuracy than that of FCLS using full bands.

  5. Business models and leadership styles in small medical device and bio-science businesses--examples in a region and their implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, D J; Hourd, P C

    2004-01-01

    This paper reviews the leadership styles and business models found in small technologically based businesses operating in the healthcare sector within one of the UK regions, the East Midlands. The most frequently encountered business model strands were 1) mixed economies: that fund development with service income; cross-sectoral product portfolios; and decoupled business portfolios led by a single entrepreneur and 2) scale sensitive "stay small" models including the avoidance of venture capital; "early exit"; and virtual business strands. There was found to be little correlation between leadership style and business model for the small number of businesses surveyed. The avoidance of venture capital is in direct contrast to adjacent regions.

  6. Statistical properties of fluctuations of time series representing appearances of words in nationwide blog data and their applications: An example of modeling fluctuation scalings of nonstationary time series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Hayafumi; Sano, Yukie; Takayasu, Hideki; Takayasu, Misako

    2016-11-01

    To elucidate the nontrivial empirical statistical properties of fluctuations of a typical nonsteady time series representing the appearance of words in blogs, we investigated approximately 3×10^{9} Japanese blog articles over a period of six years and analyze some corresponding mathematical models. First, we introduce a solvable nonsteady extension of the random diffusion model, which can be deduced by modeling the behavior of heterogeneous random bloggers. Next, we deduce theoretical expressions for both the temporal and ensemble fluctuation scalings of this model, and demonstrate that these expressions can reproduce all empirical scalings over eight orders of magnitude. Furthermore, we show that the model can reproduce other statistical properties of time series representing the appearance of words in blogs, such as functional forms of the probability density and correlations in the total number of blogs. As an application, we quantify the abnormality of special nationwide events by measuring the fluctuation scalings of 1771 basic adjectives.

  7. Development of a structure-dependent material model for complex, high-temperature environments and stresses. Example: turbine blades, turbine discs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schubert, F.

    1988-01-01

    For the optimum use of new high-temperature superalloys for turbine discs and blades, it is necessary to develop new design concepts which, on the one hand, permit a quantitative allocation of the structural characteristics to the deformation behaviour and damage mechanisms and, on the other hand, take into account the real course of stress. It is planned to use PM-Udinet 700 as material for turbine discs and IN 738 LC with supplementary tests of IN 100 for turbine blades. For turbine discs, a probabilistic model is developed, for turbine blades, cooled at the interior, first a deterministic model is developed and then a probabilistic model is prepared. The concept for the development of the models is dealt with in detail. The project started in April 1987, therefore only first investigation results can be reported. (orig.) [de

  8. A New Coupled Ocean-Waves-Atmosphere Model Designed for Tropical Storm Studies: Example of Tropical Cyclone Bejisa (2013-2014) in the South-West Indian Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pianezze, J.; Barthe, C.; Bielli, S.; Tulet, P.; Jullien, S.; Cambon, G.; Bousquet, O.; Claeys, M.; Cordier, E.

    2018-03-01

    Ocean-Waves-Atmosphere (OWA) exchanges are not well represented in current Numerical Weather Prediction (NWP) systems, which can lead to large uncertainties in tropical cyclone track and intensity forecasts. In order to explore and better understand the impact of OWA interactions on tropical cyclone modeling, a fully coupled OWA system based on the atmospheric model Meso-NH, the oceanic model CROCO, and the wave model WW3 and called MSWC was designed and applied to the case of tropical cyclone Bejisa (2013-2014). The fully coupled OWA simulation shows good agreement with the literature and available observations. In particular, simulated significant wave height is within 30 cm of measurements made with buoys and altimeters. Short-term (right place (in the eyewall of the tropical cyclone) and with the right size distribution, which is critical for cloud microphysics.

  9. Chlorophyll modulation of mixed layer thermodynamics in a mixed-layer isopycnal general circulation model - An example from Arabian Sea and Equatorial Pacific

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Nakamoto, S.; PrasannaKumar, S.; Oberhuber, J.M.; Saito, H.; Muneyama, K.

    and supported by quasi-steady upwelling. Remotely sensed chlorophyll pigment concentrations from the Coastal Zone Color Scanner (CZCS) are used to investigate the chlorophyll modulation of ocean mixed layer thermodynamics in a bulk mixed-layer model, embedded...

  10. Errors and uncertainties introduced by a regional climate model in climate impact assessments: example of crop yield simulations in West Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramarohetra, Johanna; Pohl, Benjamin; Sultan, Benjamin

    2015-01-01

    The challenge of estimating the potential impacts of climate change has led to an increasing use of dynamical downscaling to produce fine spatial-scale climate projections for impact assessments. In this work, we analyze if and to what extent the bias in the simulated crop yield can be reduced by using the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) regional climate model to downscale ERA-Interim (European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) Re-Analysis) rainfall and radiation data. Then, we evaluate the uncertainties resulting from both the choice of the physical parameterizations of the WRF model and its internal variability. Impact assessments were performed at two sites in Sub-Saharan Africa and by using two crop models to simulate Niger pearl millet and Benin maize yields. We find that the use of the WRF model to downscale ERA-Interim climate data generally reduces the bias in the simulated crop yield, yet this reduction in bias strongly depends on the choices in the model setup. Among the physical parameterizations considered, we show that the choice of the land surface model (LSM) is of primary importance. When there is no coupling with a LSM, or when the LSM is too simplistic, the simulated precipitation and then the simulated yield are null, or respectively very low; therefore, coupling with a LSM is necessary. The convective scheme is the second most influential scheme for yield simulation, followed by the shortwave radiation scheme. The uncertainties related to the internal variability of the WRF model are also significant and reach up to 30% of the simulated yields. These results suggest that regional models need to be used more carefully in order to improve the reliability of impact assessments. (letter)

  11. Solving the problem of building models of crosslinked polymers: an example focussing on validation of the properties of crosslinked epoxy resins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Stephen A; Howlin, Brendan J; Hamerton, Ian; Baidak, Alex; Billaud, Claude; Ward, Steven

    2012-01-01

    The construction of molecular models of crosslinked polymers is an area of some difficulty and considerable interest. We report here a new method of constructing these models and validate the method by modelling three epoxy systems based on the epoxy monomers bisphenol F diglycidyl ether (BFDGE) and triglycidyl-p-amino phenol (TGAP) with the curing agent diamino diphenyl sulphone (DDS). The main emphasis of the work concerns the improvement of the techniques for the molecular simulation of these epoxies and specific attention is paid towards model construction techniques, including automated model building and prediction of glass transition temperatures (T(g)). Typical models comprise some 4200-4600 atoms (ca. 120-130 monomers). In a parallel empirical study, these systems have been cast, cured and analysed by dynamic mechanical thermal analysis (DMTA) to measure T(g). Results for the three epoxy systems yield good agreement with experimental T(g) ranges of 200-220°C, 270-285°C and 285-290°C with corresponding simulated ranges of 210-230°C, 250-300°C, and 250-300°C respectively.

  12. Solving the problem of building models of crosslinked polymers: an example focussing on validation of the properties of crosslinked epoxy resins.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen A Hall

    Full Text Available The construction of molecular models of crosslinked polymers is an area of some difficulty and considerable interest. We report here a new method of constructing these models and validate the method by modelling three epoxy systems based on the epoxy monomers bisphenol F diglycidyl ether (BFDGE and triglycidyl-p-amino phenol (TGAP with the curing agent diamino diphenyl sulphone (DDS. The main emphasis of the work concerns the improvement of the techniques for the molecular simulation of these epoxies and specific attention is paid towards model construction techniques, including automated model building and prediction of glass transition temperatures (T(g. Typical models comprise some 4200-4600 atoms (ca. 120-130 monomers. In a parallel empirical study, these systems have been cast, cured and analysed by dynamic mechanical thermal analysis (DMTA to measure T(g. Results for the three epoxy systems yield good agreement with experimental T(g ranges of 200-220°C, 270-285°C and 285-290°C with corresponding simulated ranges of 210-230°C, 250-300°C, and 250-300°C respectively.

  13. Flash flood hazard assessment through modelling in small semi-arid watersheds. The example of the Beni Mellal watershed in Morocco

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werren, G.; Balin, D.; Reynard, E.; Lane, S. N.

    2012-04-01

    Flood modelling is essential for flood hazard assessment. Modelling becomes a challenge in small, ungauged watersheds prone to flash floods, like the ones draining the town of Beni Mellal (Morocco). Four temporary streams meet in the urban area of Beni Mellal, producing every year sheet floods, harmful to infrastructure and to people. Here, statistical analysis may not give realistic results, but the study of these repeated real flash flood events may provide a better understanding of watershed specific hydrology. This study integrates a larger cooperation project between Switzerland and Morroco, aimed at knowledge transfer in disaster risk reduction, especially through hazard mapping and land-use planning, related to implementation of hazard maps. Hydrologic and hydraulic modelling was carried out to obtain hazard maps. An important point was to find open source data and methods that could still produce a realistic model for the area concerned, in order to provide easy-to-use, cost-effective tools for risk management in developing countries like Morocco, where routine data collection is largely lacking. The data used for modelling is the Web available TRMM 3-Hour 0.25 degree rainfall data provided by the Tropical Rainfall Measurement Mission Project (TRMM). Hydrologic modelling for discharge estimation was undertaken using methods available in the HEC-HMS software provided by the US Army Corps of Engineers® (USACE). Several transfer models were used, so as to choose the best-suited method available. As no model calibration was possible for no measured flow data was available, a one-at-the-time sensitivity analysis was performed on the parameters chosen, in order to detect their influence on the results. But the most important verification method remained field observation, through post-flood field campaigns aimed at mapping water surfaces and depths in the flooded areas, as well as river section monitoring, where rough discharge estimates could be obtained using

  14. Adaptive Blending of Model and Observations for Automated Short-Range Forecasting: Examples from the Vancouver 2010 Olympic and Paralympic Winter Games

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, Monika E.; Isaac, George A.; Gultepe, Ismail; Heckman, Ivan; Reid, Janti

    2014-01-01

    An automated short-range forecasting system, adaptive blending of observations and model (ABOM), was tested in real time during the 2010 Vancouver Olympic and Paralympic Winter Games in British Columbia. Data at 1-min time resolution were available from a newly established, dense network of surface observation stations. Climatological data were not available at these new stations. This, combined with output from new high-resolution numerical models, provided a unique and exciting setting to test nowcasting systems in mountainous terrain during winter weather conditions. The ABOM method blends extrapolations in time of recent local observations with numerical weather predictions (NWP) model predictions to generate short-range point forecasts of surface variables out to 6 h. The relative weights of the model forecast and the observation extrapolation are based on performance over recent history. The average performance of ABOM nowcasts during February and March 2010 was evaluated using standard scores and thresholds important for Olympic events. Significant improvements over the model forecasts alone were obtained for continuous variables such as temperature, relative humidity and wind speed. The small improvements to forecasts of variables such as visibility and ceiling, subject to discontinuous changes, are attributed to the persistence component of ABOM.

  15. Comparison of Four Models of Radiative Heat Transfer Between Flat Surface to Evaluate the Temperature Field Based on Example of the Continuous Casting Mould

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rywotycki M.

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the results of research concerning the influence of radiative heat transfer on the strand and mould interface. The four models for determining the heat transfer boundary conditions within the primary cooling zone for the continuous casting process of steel have been presented. A cast slab - with dimensions of 1280×220 mm - has been analysed. Models describing the heat transfer by radiation have been specified and applied in the numerical calculations. The problem has been solved by applying the finite element method and the self-developed software. The simulation results, along with their analysis, have been presented. The developed models have been verified based on the data obtained from the measurements at the industrial facility.

  16. Cross sections and oscillator strengths for electron-impact excitation of electronic states in polyatomic molecules. Application examples of the BEf- scaling model in optically-allowed transitions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kato, H.; Kawahara, H.; Hoshino, M.

    2009-12-01

    Integral cross sections for optically allowed electronic-state excitations by electron impact, are reviewed for polyatomic molecules by applying the Binary-Encounter-Bethe (BEB) scaling model. Following the context of the present review, the scaling model originally proposed by Yong-Ki Kim to determine electron-impact cross sections for ionization of atoms and molecules is also summarized briefly for its wide range of applications [Electron-Impact Cross Section Database, NIST, Y.-K. Kim]. The present report not only focuses on the need for the cross-section data, but also elucidates the verification of the scaling model in the general application for atoms and molecules. Since this report is for a data base, it is summarized for data base users by citing (copying) the descriptions in the original papers and the references within those papers in the style of a textbook. (author)

  17. Statics learning from engineering examples

    CERN Document Server

    Emri, Igor

    2016-01-01

    This textbook introduces and explains the basic concepts on which statics is based utilizing real engineering examples. The authors emphasize the learning process by showing a real problem, analyzing it, simplifying it, and developing a way to solve it. This feature teaches students intuitive thinking in solving real engineering problems using the fundamentals of Newton’s laws. This book also: · Stresses representation of physical reality in ways that allow students to solve problems and obtain meaningful results · Emphasizes identification of important features of the structure that should be included in a model and which features may be omitted · Facilitates students' understanding and mastery of the "flow of thinking" practiced by professional engineers.

  18. Predicting the oral pharmacokinetic profiles of multiple-unit (pellet) dosage forms using a modeling and simulation approach coupled with biorelevant dissolution testing: case example diclofenac sodium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kambayashi, Atsushi; Blume, Henning; Dressman, Jennifer B

    2014-07-01

    The objective of this research was to characterize the dissolution profile of a poorly soluble drug, diclofenac, from a commercially available multiple-unit enteric coated dosage form, Diclo-Puren® capsules, and to develop a predictive model for its oral pharmacokinetic profile. The paddle method was used to obtain the dissolution profiles of this dosage form in biorelevant media, with the exposure to simulated gastric conditions being varied in order to simulate the gastric emptying behavior of pellets. A modified Noyes-Whitney theory was subsequently fitted to the dissolution data. A physiologically-based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) model for multiple-unit dosage forms was designed using STELLA® software and coupled with the biorelevant dissolution profiles in order to simulate the plasma concentration profiles of diclofenac from Diclo-Puren® capsule in both the fasted and fed state in humans. Gastric emptying kinetics relevant to multiple-units pellets were incorporated into the PBPK model by setting up a virtual patient population to account for physiological variations in emptying kinetics. Using in vitro biorelevant dissolution coupled with in silico PBPK modeling and simulation it was possible to predict the plasma profile of this multiple-unit formulation of diclofenac after oral administration in both the fasted and fed state. This approach might be useful to predict variability in the plasma profiles for other drugs housed in multiple-unit dosage forms. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Methodological comparison of marginal structural model, time-varying Cox regression, and propensity score methods : the example of antidepressant use and the risk of hip fracture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ali, M Sanni; Groenwold, Rolf H H; Belitser, Svetlana V; Souverein, Patrick C; Martín, Elisa; Gatto, Nicolle M; Huerta, Consuelo; Gardarsdottir, Helga; Roes, Kit C B; Hoes, Arno W; de Boer, Antonius; Klungel, Olaf H

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Observational studies including time-varying treatments are prone to confounding. We compared time-varying Cox regression analysis, propensity score (PS) methods, and marginal structural models (MSMs) in a study of antidepressant [selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs)] use and

  20. Developing the Model of "Pedagogical Art Communication" Using Social Phenomenological Analysis: An Introduction to a Research Method and an Example for Its Outcome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofmann, Fabian

    2016-01-01

    Social phenomenological analysis is presented as a research method for museum and art education. After explaining its methodological background, it is shown how this method has been applied in a study of gallery talks or guided tours in art museums: Analyzing the situation by description and interpretation, a model for understanding gallery talks…

  1. Analysis of the implementation of a personalized care model in diabetes mellitus as an example of chronic disease with information and communication technology support.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Martínez, N; Segú, J L; Vázquez-Castro, J; Brosa, M; Bohigas, L; Comellas, M J; Kalfhaus, L

    2017-04-01

    Diabetes mellitus affects 13.8% of the adult population in Spain, representing some 8.2% of total Spanish health spending, which may be reduced by optimizing treatment and disease monitoring. Areas covered: This perspective article aims to evaluate the possible clinical and economic outcomes of implementing a theoretical personalized care model in diabetes supported by information and communications technology in Spain vs. conventional care. Moreover, we assessed the value of emminens® eConecta, a solution designed to support the operational implementation of this model, which enables the connection and participation of patients and health professionals, facilitates patient education, decision-making, access to information, and data analysis. We carried out a review of the available evidence, consultations with experts and a clinical and cost estimation. Expert commentary: The experts consulted considered that the proposed model is consistent with Spanish strategies on chronicity, supports the management of chronicity/diabetes, and may improve the most important aspects of disease management. In the literature, this type of care models improved or provided equal disease control compared with conventional care, potentiated self-management strategies and reduced the high use of resources. Cost estimation showed a reduction of -12% in total direct costs and around -34% in the costs of outpatient visits.

  2. Thermodynamic model for the phase equilibria of gases and brines. Example in the H{sub 2}S-H{sub 2}O-NaCl system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martinez Reyes, Jose; Gonzalez Partida, Eduardo; Tinoco-Michel, Jorge A [Centro de Geociencias, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico Campo de Juriquilla, Qro., Mexico, apartado postal 76230 (Mexico); Perez, Renee J; Heidemann, Robert A [Department of Chemical and Petroleum Engineering, University of Calgary, 2500 University Drive, Calgary Alberta, T2N 1N4 (Canada)

    2008-10-01

    We present a thermodynamic model for the phase equilibria of gases and brines, which couples Henry's Law with the Soave-Redlich-Kwong equation of state to reproduce experimental data. In this communication we focus on the H{sub 2}S H{sub 2}O NaCl system.

  3. The power of example

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liliana Gheorghian, Mariana

    2014-05-01

    beginning of the XXI century" with the participation of several schools in the country in 2009 and 2011. The papers presented were diverse and gave examples of various teaching experiences and scientific information. Topics by the teachers: The impact of tourism on the environment, Tornadoes, Natural science and environmental education in school, Air Pollution and health, Ecological education of children from primary school, The effects of electromagnetic radiation, Formation of an ecological mentality using chemistry, Why should we protect water, Environmental education, Education for the future, SOS Nature, Science in the twenty-first century, etc. Topics by students: Nature- the palace of thermal phenomena, Life depends on heat, Water Mysteries, Global Heating, The Mysterious universe, etc. In March 2013 our school hosted an interesting exchange of ideas on environmental issues between our students and those from Bulgaria, Poland and Turkey, during a symposium of the Comenius multilateral project "Conserving Nature". In order to present the results of protecting nature in their communities, two projects "Citizen" qualified in the Program Civitas in the autumn of 2013. "The Battle" continues both in nature and in classrooms, in order to preserve the environment.

  4. Utility of population models to reduce uncertainty and increase value relevance in ecological risk assessments of pesticides: an example based on acute mortality data for daphnids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanson, Niklas; Stark, John D

    2012-04-01

    Traditionally, ecological risk assessments (ERA) of pesticides have been based on risk ratios, where the predicted concentration of the chemical is compared to the concentration that causes biological effects. The concentration that causes biological effect is mostly determined from laboratory experiments using endpoints on the level of the individual (e.g., mortality and reproduction). However, the protection goals are mostly defined at the population level. To deal with the uncertainty in the necessary extrapolations, safety factors are used. Major disadvantages with this simplified approach is that it is difficult to relate a risk ratio to the environmental protection goals, and that the use of fixed safety factors can result in over- as well as underprotective assessments. To reduce uncertainty and increase value relevance in ERA, it has been argued that population models should be used more frequently. In the present study, we have used matrix population models for 3 daphnid species (Ceriodaphnia dubia, Daphnia magna, and D. pulex) to reduce uncertainty and increase value relevance in the ERA of a pesticide (spinosad). The survival rates in the models were reduced in accordance with data from traditional acute mortality tests. As no data on reproductive effects were available, the conservative assumption that no reproduction occurred during the exposure period was made. The models were used to calculate the minimum population size and the time to recovery. These endpoints can be related to the European Union (EU) protection goals for aquatic ecosystems in the vicinity of agricultural fields, which state that reversible population level effects are acceptable if there is recovery within an acceptable (undefined) time frame. The results of the population models were compared to the acceptable (according to EU documents) toxicity exposure ratio (TER) that was based on the same data. At the acceptable TER, which was based on the most sensitive species (C. dubia

  5. Vector Autoregressive Models and Granger Causality in Time Series Analysis in Nursing Research: Dynamic Changes Among Vital Signs Prior to Cardiorespiratory Instability Events as an Example.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bose, Eliezer; Hravnak, Marilyn; Sereika, Susan M

    Patients undergoing continuous vital sign monitoring (heart rate [HR], respiratory rate [RR], pulse oximetry [SpO2]) in real time display interrelated vital sign changes during situations of physiological stress. Patterns in this physiological cross-talk could portend impending cardiorespiratory instability (CRI). Vector autoregressive (VAR) modeling with Granger causality tests is one of the most flexible ways to elucidate underlying causal mechanisms in time series data. The purpose of this article is to illustrate the development of patient-specific VAR models using vital sign time series data in a sample of acutely ill, monitored, step-down unit patients and determine their Granger causal dynamics prior to onset of an incident CRI. CRI was defined as vital signs beyond stipulated normality thresholds (HR = 40-140/minute, RR = 8-36/minute, SpO2 time segment prior to onset of first CRI was chosen for time series modeling in 20 patients using a six-step procedure: (a) the uniform time series for each vital sign was assessed for stationarity, (b) appropriate lag was determined using a lag-length selection criteria, (c) the VAR model was constructed, (d) residual autocorrelation was assessed with the Lagrange Multiplier test, (e) stability of the VAR system was checked, and (f) Granger causality was evaluated in the final stable model. The primary cause of incident CRI was low SpO2 (60% of cases), followed by out-of-range RR (30%) and HR (10%). Granger causality testing revealed that change in RR caused change in HR (21%; i.e., RR changed before HR changed) more often than change in HR causing change in RR (15%). Similarly, changes in RR caused changes in SpO2 (15%) more often than changes in SpO2 caused changes in RR (9%). For HR and SpO2, changes in HR causing changes in SpO2 and changes in SpO2 causing changes in HR occurred with equal frequency (18%). Within this sample of acutely ill patients who experienced a CRI event, VAR modeling indicated that RR changes

  6. Sensitivity Analysis in Agent-Based Models of Socio-Ecological Systems: An Example in Agricultural Land Conservation for Lake Water Quality Improvement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ligmann-Zielinska, A.; Kramer, D. B.; Spence Cheruvelil, K.; Soranno, P.

    2012-12-01

    Socio-ecological systems are dynamic and nonlinear. To account for this complexity, we employ agent-based models (ABMs) to study macro-scale phenomena resulting from micro-scale interactions among system components. Because ABMs typically have many parameters, it is challenging to identify which parameters contribute to the emerging macro-scale patterns. In this paper, we address the following question: What is the extent of participation in agricultural land conservation programs given heterogeneous landscape, economic, social, and individual decision making criteria in complex lakesheds? To answer this question, we: [1] built an ABM for our model system; [2] simulated land use change resulting from agent decision making, [3] estimated the uncertainty of the model output, decomposed it and apportioned it to each of the parameters in the model. Our model system is a freshwater socio-ecological system - that of farmland and lake water quality within a region containing a large number of lakes and high proportions of agricultural lands. Our study focuses on examining how agricultural land conversion from active to fallow reduces freshwater nutrient loading and improves water quality. Consequently, our ABM is composed of farmer agents who make decisions related to participation in a government-sponsored Conservation Reserve Program (CRP) managed by the Farm Service Agency (FSA). We also include an FSA agent, who selects enrollment offers made by farmers and announces the signup results leading to land use change. The model is executed in a Monte Carlo simulation framework to generate a distribution of maps of fallow lands that are used for calculating nutrient loading to lakes. What follows is a variance-based sensitivity analysis of the results. We compute sensitivity indices for individual parameters and their combinations, allowing for identification of the most influential as well as the insignificant inputs. In the case study, we observe that farmland

  7. Vector Autoregressive (VAR) Models and Granger Causality in Time Series Analysis in Nursing Research: Dynamic Changes Among Vital Signs Prior to Cardiorespiratory Instability Events as an Example

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bose, Eliezer; Hravnak, Marilyn; Sereika, Susan M.

    2016-01-01

    Background Patients undergoing continuous vital sign monitoring (heart rate [HR], respiratory rate [RR], pulse oximetry [SpO2]) in real time display inter-related vital sign changes during situations of physiologic stress. Patterns in this physiological cross-talk could portend impending cardiorespiratory instability (CRI). Vector autoregressive (VAR) modeling with Granger causality tests is one of the most flexible ways to elucidate underlying causal mechanisms in time series data. Purpose The purpose of this article is to illustrate development of patient-specific VAR models using vital sign time series (VSTS) data in a sample of acutely ill, monitored, step-down unit (SDU) patients, and determine their Granger causal dynamics prior to onset of an incident CRI. Approach CRI was defined as vital signs beyond stipulated normality thresholds (HR = 40–140/minute, RR = 8–36/minute, SpO2 < 85%) and persisting for 3 minutes within a 5-minute moving window (60% of the duration of the window). A 6-hour time segment prior to onset of first CRI was chosen for time series modeling in 20 patients using a six-step procedure: (a) the uniform time series for each vital sign was assessed for stationarity; (b) appropriate lag was determined using a lag-length selection criteria; (c) the VAR model was constructed; (d) residual autocorrelation was assessed with the Lagrange Multiplier test; (e) stability of the VAR system was checked; and (f) Granger causality was evaluated in the final stable model. Results The primary cause of incident CRI was low SpO2 (60% of cases), followed by out-of-range RR (30%) and HR (10%). Granger causality testing revealed that change in RR caused change in HR (21%) (i.e., RR changed before HR changed) more often than change in HR causing change in RR (15%). Similarly, changes in RR caused changes in SpO2 (15%) more often than changes in SpO2 caused changes in RR (9%). For HR and SpO2, changes in HR causing changes in SpO2 and changes in SpO2 causing

  8. Ground Motion Prediction Model Using Adaptive Neuro-Fuzzy Inference Systems: An Example Based on the NGA-West 2 Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ameur, Mourad; Derras, Boumédiène; Zendagui, Djawed

    2018-03-01

    Adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference systems (ANFIS) are used here to obtain the robust ground motion prediction model (GMPM). Avoiding a priori functional form, ANFIS provides fully data-driven predictive models. A large subset of the NGA-West2 database is used, including 2335 records from 580 sites and 137 earthquakes. Only shallow earthquakes and recordings corresponding to stations with measured V s30 properties are selected. Three basics input parameters are chosen: the moment magnitude ( Mw), the Joyner-Boore distance ( R JB) and V s30. ANFIS model output is the peak ground acceleration (PGA), peak ground velocity (PGV) and 5% damped pseudo-spectral acceleration (PSA) at periods from 0.01 to 4 s. A procedure similar to the random-effects approach is developed to provide between- and within-event standard deviations. The total standard deviation (SD) varies between [0.303 and 0.360] (log10 units) depending on the period. The ground motion predictions resulting from such simple three explanatory variables ANFIS models are shown to be comparable to the most recent NGA results (e.g., Boore et al., in Earthquake Spectra 30:1057-1085, 2014; Derras et al., in Earthquake Spectra 32:2027-2056, 2016). The main advantage of ANFIS compared to artificial neuronal network (ANN) is its simple and one-off topology: five layers. Our results exhibit a number of physically sound features: magnitude scaling of the distance dependency, near-fault saturation distance increasing with magnitude and amplification on soft soils. The ability to implement ANFIS model using an analytic equation and Excel is demonstrated.

  9. B decays and models for CP violation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    He, X.

    1996-01-01

    The decay modes B to ππ, ψK S , K - D, πK, and ηK are promising channels to study the unitarity triangle of the CP-violating Cabibbo-Kobayashi-Maskawa (CKM) matrix. In this paper I study the consequences of these measurements in the Weinberg model. I show that using the same set of measurements, the following different mechanisms for CP violation can be distinguished: (1) CP is violated in the CKM sector only; (2) CP is violated spontaneously in the Higgs sector only; and (3) CP is violated in both the CKM and Higgs sectors. copyright 1996 The American Physical Society

  10. Reservoir Characterization and CO2 Plume Migration Modeling Based on Bottom-hole Pressure Data: An Example from the AEP Mountaineer Geological Storage Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, Srikanta; Kelley, Mark; Oruganti, YagnaDeepika; Bhattacharya, Indra; Spitznogle, Gary

    2014-05-01

    We present an integrated approach for formation permeability estimation, front tracking, reservoir model calibration, and plume migration modeling based on injection rate and down-hole pressure data from CO2 geologic sequestration projects. The data are taken from the 20 MW CO2 capture and storage project at American Electric Power's Mountaineer Plant in West Virginia, USA. The Mountaineer CO2 injection system consists of two injection wells - one in the Copper Ridge Dolomite formation and one in the Rose Run sandstone formation, and three deep observation wells that were operational between October 2009 and May 2011. Approximately 27000 MT and 10000 MT were injected into the Copper Ridge dolomite formation and Rose Run sandstone formation, respectively. A wealth of pressure and rate data from injection and observation wells is available covering a series of injection and pressure falloff events. The methodology developed and applied for interpreting and integrating the data during reservoir analysis and modeling from the Rose Run formation is the subject of this paper. For the analysis of transient pressure data at the injection and observation wells, the CO2 storage reservoir is conceptualized as a radial composite system, where the inner (invaded) zone consists of both supercritical CO2 and brine, and the outer (uninvaded) zone consists of undisturbed brine. Using established analytical solutions for analyzing fluid injection problems in the petroleum reservoir engineering literature, we show how the late-time pressure derivative response from both injection and observation wells will be identical - reflecting the permeability-thickness product of the undisturbed brine-filled formation. We also show how the expanding CO2 plume affects the "effective" compressibility that can be estimated by history matching injection-falloff data and how this can be used to develop a relationship between the plume radius and "effective" compressibility. This provides a novel non

  11. Estimation of Cs-137 hillslope patterns of Polesje landscapes using geo-information modeling techniques (on example of the Bryansk region)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linnik, Vitaly; Nenko, Kristina; Sokolov, Alexander; Saveliev, Anatoly

    2015-04-01

    In the result of Chernobyl disaster on 26 April 1986 many regions of Ukraine, Belarus and Russia were contaminated by radionuclides. Vast areas of farmlands and woodlands were contaminated in Russia. The deposited radionuclides continue to cause concern about the possible contamination of food (in particular, mushrooms and berries). But the radioactive materials are also an ideal marker for understanding of hillslope processes in natural and seminatural landscapes. Model area chosen for the research (Opolje landscapes located in the central part of the Bryansk region) is characterized by relatively low levels of Cs-137 contamination. It just 4-33 times higher than global fallout which was equal 1,75 kBq/m2 in 1986 . According the results of air gamma survey (grid size: 100 m x100 m), which was done in 1993, it was explicitly to identify that the processes of Cs-137 lateral migration took place due to nearly fourfold increase of Cs-137 in the lower slope in comparison with the surface of the watershed during a seven-year period after Chernobyl accident. Erosion processes which define Cs-137 pattern in the lowest part of hillslope depend upon such parameters as slope, hillslope forms, vegetation, land use and the roads, which intersect a streamline. GIS-modeling of Cs-137 was carried out in SAGA software. The spatial modeling resolution was equal 100x100 m according the air-gamma data. SRTM data was resampled to a grid 100x100 m. Erosion rates were the highest on the slope of southern exposure. There the processes of lateral migration are more intensive and observed within the entire slope. The main contribution in receipt of Cs-137 to floodplain on the northern slopes comes only from the lower part of the slope and gullies and ravines network. We have used geo-information modeling techniques and some kind of interpolation and statistical models to predict or understand forming of Cs-137 spatial patterns and trends in soil erosion. To study the role of some

  12. Evaluation of a landscape evolution model to simulate stream piracies: Insights from multivariable numerical tests using the example of the Meuse basin, France

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benaïchouche, Abed; Stab, Olivier; Tessier, Bruno; Cojan, Isabelle

    2016-01-01

    In landscapes dominated by fluvial erosion, the landscape morphology is closely related to the hydrographic network system. In this paper, we investigate the hydrographic network reorganization caused by a headward piracy mechanism between two drainage basins in France, the Meuse and the Moselle. Several piracies occurred in the Meuse basin during the past one million years, and the basin's current characteristics are favorable to new piracies by the Moselle river network. This study evaluates the consequences over the next several million years of a relative lowering of the Moselle River (and thus of its basin) with respect to the Meuse River. The problem is addressed with a numerical modeling approach (landscape evolution model, hereafter LEM) that requires empirical determinations of parameters and threshold values. Classically, fitting of the parameters is based on analysis of the relationship between the slope and the drainage area and is conducted under the hypothesis of equilibrium. Application of this conventional approach to the capture issue yields incomplete results that have been consolidated by a parametric sensitivity analysis. The LEM equations give a six-dimensional parameter space that was explored with over 15,000 simulations using the landscape evolution model GOLEM. The results demonstrate that stream piracies occur in only four locations in the studied reach near the city of Toul. The locations are mainly controlled by the local topography and are model-independent. Nevertheless, the chronology of the captures depends on two parameters: the river concavity (given by the fluvial advection equation) and the hillslope erosion factor. Thus, the simulations lead to three different scenarios that are explained by a phenomenon of exclusion or a string of events.

  13. Patterns of malaria-related hospital admissions and mortality among Malawian children: an example of spatial modelling of hospital register data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kleinschmidt Immo

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Malaria is a leading cause of hospitalization and in-hospital mortality among children in Africa, yet, few studies have described the spatial distribution of the two outcomes. Here spatial regression models were applied, aimed at quantifying spatial variation and risk factors associated with malaria hospitalization and in-hospital mortality. Methods Paediatric ward register data from Zomba district, Malawi, between 2002 and 2003 were used, as a case study. Two spatial models were developed. The first was a Poisson model applied to analyse hospitalization and minimum mortality rates, with age and sex as covariates. The second was a logistic model applied to individual level data to analyse case-fatality rate, adjusting for individual covariates. Results and conclusion Rates of malaria hospitalization and in-hospital mortality decreased with age. Case fatality rate was associated with distance, age, wet season and increased if the patient was referred to the hospital. Furthermore, death rate was high on first day, followed by relatively low rate as length of hospital stay increased. Both outcomes showed substantial spatial heterogeneity, which may be attributed to the varying determinants of malaria risk, health services availability and accessibility, and health seeking behaviour. The increased risk of mortality of children referred from primary health facilities may imply inadequate care being available at the referring facility, or the referring facility are referring the more severe cases which are expected to have a higher case fatality rate. Improved prognosis as the length of hospital stay increased suggest that appropriate care when available can save lives. Reducing malaria burden may require integrated strategies encompassing availability of adequate care at primary facilities, introducing home or community case management as well as encouraging early referral, and reinforcing interventions to interrupt malaria

  14. The quality process as a management tool for public transport operators. The example of the EFQM Model through the franchise bidding process in the United Kingdom

    OpenAIRE

    Jérémy Piraux

    2008-01-01

    The quality process is a fashionable concept in public transport. Operators try to improve service quality and customer satisfaction, while public authorities impose the implementation of new quality processes in franchise contracts. EFQM differs from other quality models because of its global and integrated approach. In the UK, it has become the reference in the railway franchising process. Keolis, established in the UK for 10 years, developed its own EFQM approach. This study brings methodo...

  15. Implementation of the ICRP 66 respiratory tract model: example of occupational exposure to uranium oxides formed in a new laser enrichment process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ansoborlo, E.; Henge-Napoli, M.H.; Hodgson, A.; Stradling, G.N.; Birchall, A.

    1996-01-01

    A new uranium enrichment facility using laser isotopic separation generates aerosols consisting of U metal + UO 2 : with traces of UPON. Results of lung absorption to blood showed that the U metal + UO 2 transportability was appreciably greater than for other industrial forms of UO 2 . Taking into account the new ICRP human respiratory tract model, the data were used as a basis for assessing the dose coefficient, for the dust sampled at the workplace. (author)

  16. Chlorophyll modulation of mixed layer thermodynamics in a mixed-layer isopycnal General Circulation Model - An example from Arabian Sea and equatorial Pacific

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Nakamoto, S.; PrasannaKumar, S.; Oberhuber, J.M.; Saito, H.; Muneyama, K.; Frouin, R.

    is influenced not only by local vertical mixing but also by horizontal con- vergence of mass and heat, a mixed layer model must consider both full dynamics due to the use of primitive equations and a parameterization for the vertical mass transfer and related... is dynamically determined without such a con- straint. Instantaneous atmospheric elds are inter- polated from the monthly means. Monthly mean climatology of chlorophyll pigment concentrations were obtained from the Coastal Zone Color Scan- ner (CZCS) from...

  17. The global rock art database: developing a rock art reference model for the RADB system using the CIDOC CRM and Australian heritage examples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haubt, R. A.

    2015-08-01

    The Rock Art Database (RADB) is a virtual organisation that aims to build a global rock art community. It brings together rock art enthusiasts and professionals from around the world in one centralized location through the deployed publicly available RADB Management System. This online platform allows users to share, manage and discuss rock art information and offers a new look at rock art data through the use of new technologies in rich media formats. Full access to the growing platform is currently only available for a selected group of users but it already links over 200 rock art projects around the globe. This paper forms a part of the larger Rock Art Database (RADB) project. It discusses the design stage of the RADB System and the development of a conceptual RADB Reference Model (RARM) that is used to inform the design of the Rock Art Database Management System. It examines the success and failure of international and national systems and uses the Australian heritage sector and Australian rock art as a test model to develop a method for the RADB System design. The system aims to help improve rock art management by introducing the CIDOC CRM in conjunction with a rock art specific domain model. It seeks to improve data compatibility and data sharing to help with the integration of a variety of resources to create the global Rock Art Database Management System.

  18. Differentiating simple and composite tectonic landscapes using numerical fault slip modeling with an example from the south central Alborz Mountains, Iran

    KAUST Repository

    Landgraf, A.

    2013-09-01

    The tectonically driven growth of mountains reflects the characteristics of the underlying fault systems and the applied tectonic forces. Over time, fault networks might be relatively static, but stress conditions could change and result in variations in fault slip orientation. Such a tectonic landscape would transition from a “simple” to a “composite” state: the topography of simple landscapes is correlated with a single set of tectonic boundary conditions, while composite landscapes contain inherited topography due to earlier deformation under different boundary conditions. We use fault interaction modeling to compare vertical displacement fields with topographic metrics to differentiate the two types of landscapes. By successively rotating the axis of maximum horizontal stress, we produce a suite of vertical displacement fields for comparison with real landscapes. We apply this model to a transpressional duplex in the south central Alborz Mountains of Iran, where NW oriented compression was superseded by neotectonic NE compression. The consistency between the modeled displacement field and real landforms indicates that the duplex topography is mostly compatible with the modern boundary conditions, but might include a small remnant from the earlier deformation phase. Our approach is applicable for various tectonic settings and represents an approach to identify the changing boundary conditions that produce composite landscapes. It may be particularly useful for identifying changes that occurred in regions where river profiles may no longer record a signal of the change or where the spatial pattern of uplift is complex.

  19. Going beyond the identification of change facilitators to effectively implement a new model of services: lessons learned from a case example in paediatric rehabilitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camden, Chantal; Swaine, Bonnie; Tétreault, Sylvie; Carrière, Monique

    2011-01-01

    To identify facilitators and barriers to service reorganization, how they evolved and interacted to influence change during the implementation of a new service delivery model of paediatric rehabilitation. Over 3 years, different stakeholders responded to SWOT questionnaires (n = 139) and participated in focus groups (n = 19) and telephone interviews (n = 13). A framework based on socio constructivist theories made sense of the data. Facilitators related to the programme's structure (e.g. funding), the actors (e.g. willingness to test the new service model) and the change management process (e.g. participative approach). Some initial facilitators became barriers (e.g. leadership lacked at the end), while other barriers emerged (e.g. lack of tools). Understanding factor interactions requires examining the multiple actors' intentions, actions and consequences and their relations with structural elements. Analysing facilitators and barriers helped better understand the change processes, but this must be followed by concrete actions to successfully implement new paediatric rehabilitation models.

  20. Mathematical models application for mapping soils spatial distribution on the example of the farm from the North of Udmurt Republic of Russia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dokuchaev, P. M.; Meshalkina, J. L.; Yaroslavtsev, A. M.

    2018-01-01

    Comparative analysis of soils geospatial modeling using multinomial logistic regression, decision trees, random forest, regression trees and support vector machines algorithms was conducted. The visual interpretation of the digital maps obtained and their comparison with the existing map, as well as the quantitative assessment of the individual soil groups detection overall accuracy and of the models kappa showed that multiple logistic regression, support vector method, and random forest models application with spatial prediction of the conditional soil groups distribution can be reliably used for mapping of the study area. It has shown the most accurate detection for sod-podzolics soils (Phaeozems Albic) lightly eroded and moderately eroded soils. In second place, according to the mean overall accuracy of the prediction, there are sod-podzolics soils - non-eroded and warp one, as well as sod-gley soils (Umbrisols Gleyic) and alluvial soils (Fluvisols Dystric, Umbric). Heavy eroded sod-podzolics and gray forest soils (Phaeozems Albic) were detected by methods of automatic classification worst of all.

  1. Differentiating simple and composite tectonic landscapes using numerical fault slip modeling with an example from the south central Alborz Mountains, Iran

    KAUST Repository

    Landgraf, A.; Zielke, Olaf; Arrowsmith, J. R.; Ballato, P.; Strecker, M. R.; Schildgen, T. F.; Friedrich, A. M.; Tabatabaei, S. H.

    2013-01-01

    The tectonically driven growth of mountains reflects the characteristics of the underlying fault systems and the applied tectonic forces. Over time, fault networks might be relatively static, but stress conditions could change and result in variations in fault slip orientation. Such a tectonic landscape would transition from a “simple” to a “composite” state: the topography of simple landscapes is correlated with a single set of tectonic boundary conditions, while composite landscapes contain inherited topography due to earlier deformation under different boundary conditions. We use fault interaction modeling to compare vertical displacement fields with topographic metrics to differentiate the two types of landscapes. By successively rotating the axis of maximum horizontal stress, we produce a suite of vertical displacement fields for comparison with real landscapes. We apply this model to a transpressional duplex in the south central Alborz Mountains of Iran, where NW oriented compression was superseded by neotectonic NE compression. The consistency between the modeled displacement field and real landforms indicates that the duplex topography is mostly compatible with the modern boundary conditions, but might include a small remnant from the earlier deformation phase. Our approach is applicable for various tectonic settings and represents an approach to identify the changing boundary conditions that produce composite landscapes. It may be particularly useful for identifying changes that occurred in regions where river profiles may no longer record a signal of the change or where the spatial pattern of uplift is complex.

  2. Controllable Elastohydrodynamics With Examples

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Santos, Ilmar; Haugaard, Martin Asger

    dynamic properties. The actively controlled bearing surface profiles can be generated by attaching any kind of actuator (hydraulic, electromagnetic or piezoelectric) to deformable bushes. In this paper the elastohydrodynamic model is used to investigate static and dynamic properties of a tilting-pad......Due to the development of high performance rotating machinery, growing attention has been paid to the design of new active (mechatronic) devices able to actively control vibrations and improve its dynamic behavior, i.e. magnetic bearings piezoelectric bearing pushers, hydraulic actuator journal...... journal bearing under hybrid elastohydrodynamics (open loop control) as well as controllable radial oil injection (closed loop control). The bearing dynamic coefficients are heavily influenced by the control parameters and pad compliance. Strong synergy between elastohydrodynamics and active control...

  3. Effects of worked examples, example-problem, and problem-example pairs on novices’ learning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Gog, Tamara; Kester, Liesbeth; Paas, Fred

    2010-01-01

    Van Gog, T., Kester, L., & Paas, F. (2011). Effects of worked examples, example-problem, and problem-example pairs on novices’ learning. Contemporary Educational Psychology, 36(3), 212-218. doi:10.1016/j.cedpsych.2010.10.004

  4. Exploring example models of cross-sector, sessional employment of pharmacists to improve medication management and pharmacy support in rural hospitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Amy Cw; Emmerton, Lynne M; Hattingh, Laetitia; La Caze, Adam

    2015-01-01

    Many rural hospitals in Australia are not large enough to sustain employment of a full-time pharmacist, or are unable to recruit or retain a full-time pharmacist. The absence of a pharmacist may result in hospital nurses undertaking medication-related roles outside their scope of practice. A potential solution to address rural hospitals' medication management needs is contracted part-time ('sessional') employment of a local pharmacist external to the hospital ('cross-sector'). The aim of this study was to explore the roles and experiences of pharmacists in their provision of sessional services to rural hospitals with no on-site pharmacist and explore how these roles could potentially address shortfalls in medication management in rural hospitals. A qualitative study was conducted to explore models with pharmacists who had provided sessional services to a rural hospital. A semi-structured interview guide was informed by a literature review, preliminary research and stakeholder consultation. Participants were recruited via advertisement and personal contacts. Consenting pharmacists were interviewed between August 2012 and January 2013 via telephone or Skype for 40-55 minutes. Thirteen pharmacists with previous or ongoing hospital sessional contracts in rural communities across Australia and New Zealand participated. Most commonly, the pharmacists provided weekly services to rural hospitals. All believed the sessional model was a practical solution to increase hospital access to pharmacist-mediated support and to address medication management gaps. Roles perceived to promote quality use of medicines were inpatient consultation services, medicines information/education to hospital staff, assistance with accreditation matters and system reviews, and input into pharmaceutical distribution activities. This study is the first to explore the concept of sessional rural hospital employment undertaken by pharmacists in Australia and New Zealand. Insights from participants

  5. Extending a prototype knowledge and object based image analysis model to coarser spatial resolution imagery: an example from the Missouri River

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strong, Laurence L.

    2012-01-01

    A prototype knowledge- and object-based image analysis model was developed to inventory and map least tern and piping plover habitat on the Missouri River, USA. The model has been used to inventory the state of sandbars annually for 4 segments of the Missouri River since 2006 using QuickBird imagery. Interpretation of the state of sandbars is difficult when images for the segment are acquired at different river stages and different states of vegetation phenology and canopy cover. Concurrent QuickBird and RapidEye images were classified using the model and the spatial correspondence of classes in the land cover and sandbar maps were analysed for the spatial extent of the images and at nest locations for both bird species. Omission and commission errors were low for unvegetated land cover classes used for nesting by both bird species and for land cover types with continuous vegetation cover and water. Errors were larger for land cover classes characterized by a mixture of sand and vegetation. Sandbar classification decisions are made using information on land cover class proportions and disagreement between sandbar classes was resolved using fuzzy membership possibilities. Regression analysis of area for a paired sample of 47 sandbars indicated an average positive bias, 1.15 ha, for RapidEye that did not vary with sandbar size. RapidEye has potential to reduce temporal uncertainty about least tern and piping plover habitat but would not be suitable for mapping sandbar erosion, and characterization of sandbar shapes or vegetation patches at fine spatial resolution.

  6. Extending a prototype knowledge- and object-based image analysis model to coarser spatial resolution imagery: an example from the Missouri River

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strong, Laurence L.

    2012-01-01

    A prototype knowledge- and object-based image analysis model was developed to inventory and map least tern and piping plover habitat on the Missouri River, USA. The model has been used to inventory the state of sandbars annually for 4 segments of the Missouri River since 2006 using QuickBird imagery. Interpretation of the state of sandbars is difficult when images for the segment are acquired at different river stages and different states of vegetation phenology and canopy cover. Concurrent QuickBird and RapidEye images were classified using the model and the spatial correspondence of classes in the land cover and sandbar maps were analysed for the spatial extent of the images and at nest locations for both bird species. Omission and commission errors were low for unvegetated land cover classes used for nesting by both bird species and for land cover types with continuous vegetation cover and water. Errors were larger for land cover classes characterized by a mixture of sand and vegetation. Sandbar classification decisions are made using information on land cover class proportions and disagreement between sandbar classes was resolved using fuzzy membership possibilities. Regression analysis of area for a paired sample of 47 sandbars indicated an average positive bias, 1.15 ha, for RapidEye that did not vary with sandbar size. RapidEye has potential to reduce temporal uncertainty about least tern and piping plover habitat but would not be suitable for mapping sandbar erosion, and characterization of sandbar shapes or vegetation patches at fine spatial resolution.

  7. Are dinucleoside monophosphates relevant models for the study of DNA intrastrand cross-link lesions? The example of g[8-5m]T.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrec, Julian; Dumont, Elise

    2014-07-21

    Oxidatively generated tandem lesions such as G[8-5m]T pose a potent threat to genome integrity. Direct experimental studies of the kinetics and thermodynamics of a specific lesion within DNA are very challenging, mostly due to the variety of products that can be formed in oxidative conditions. Dinucleoside monophosphates (DM) involving only the reactive nucleobases in water represent appealing alternative models on which most physical chemistry and structural techniques can be applied. However, it is not yet clear how relevant these models are. Here, we present QM/MM MD simulations of the cyclization step involved in the formation of G[8-5m]T from the guanine-thymine (GpT) DM in water, with the aim of comparing our results to our previous investigation of the same reaction in DNA ( Garrec , J. , Patel , C. , Rothlisberger , U. , and Dumont , E. ( 2012 ) J. Am. Chem. Soc. 134 , 2111 - 2119 ). We show that, despite the different levels of preorganization of the two systems, the corresponding reactions share many energetic and structural characteristics. The main difference lies in the angle between the G and T bases, which is slightly higher in the transition state (TS) and product of the reaction in water than in the reaction in DNA. This effect is due to the Watson-Crick H-bonds, which are absent in the {GpT+water} system and restrain the relative positioning of the reactive nucleobases in DNA. However, since the lesion is accommodated easily in the DNA macromolecule, the induced energetic penalty is relatively small. The high similarity between the two reactions strongly supports the use of GpT in water as a model of the corresponding reaction in DNA.

  8. Statistical analysis and ANN modeling for predicting hydrological extremes under climate change scenarios: the example of a small Mediterranean agro-watershed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kourgialas, Nektarios N; Dokou, Zoi; Karatzas, George P

    2015-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to create a modeling management tool for the simulation of extreme flow events under current and future climatic conditions. This tool is a combination of different components and can be applied in complex hydrogeological river basins, where frequent flood and drought phenomena occur. The first component is the statistical analysis of the available hydro-meteorological data. Specifically, principal components analysis was performed in order to quantify the importance of the hydro-meteorological parameters that affect the generation of extreme events. The second component is a prediction-forecasting artificial neural network (ANN) model that simulates, accurately and efficiently, river flow on an hourly basis. This model is based on a methodology that attempts to resolve a very difficult problem related to the accurate estimation of extreme flows. For this purpose, the available measurements (5 years of hourly data) were divided in two subsets: one for the dry and one for the wet periods of the hydrological year. This way, two ANNs were created, trained, tested and validated for a complex Mediterranean river basin in Crete, Greece. As part of the second management component a statistical downscaling tool was used for the creation of meteorological data according to the higher and lower emission climate change scenarios A2 and B1. These data are used as input in the ANN for the forecasting of river flow for the next two decades. The final component is the application of a meteorological index on the measured and forecasted precipitation and flow data, in order to assess the severity and duration of extreme events. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Critical multi-level governance issues of integrated modelling: An example of low-water management in the Adour-Garonne basin (France)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazzega, Pierre; Therond, Olivier; Debril, Thomas; March, Hug; Sibertin-Blanc, Christophe; Lardy, Romain; Sant'ana, Daniel

    2014-11-01

    This paper presents the experience gained related to the development of an integrated simulation model of water policy. Within this context, we analyze particular difficulties raised by the inclusion of multi-level governance that assigns the responsibility of individual or collective decision-making to a variety of actors, regarding measures of which the implementation has significant effects toward the sustainability of socio-hydrosystems. Multi-level governance procedures are compared with the potential of model-based impact assessment. Our discussion is illustrated on the basis of the exploitation of the multi-agent platform MAELIA dedicated to the simulation of social, economic and environmental impacts of low-water management in a context of climate and regulatory changes. We focus on three major decision-making processes occurring in the Adour-Garonne basin, France: (i) the participatory development of the Master Scheme for Water Planning and Management (SDAGE) under the auspices of the Water Agency; (ii) the publication of water use restrictions in situations of water scarcity; and (iii) the determination of the abstraction volumes for irrigation and their allocation. The MAELIA platform explicitly takes into account the mode of decision-making when it is framed by a procedure set beforehand, focusing on the actors' participation and on the nature and parameters of the measures to be implemented. It is observed that in some water organizations decision-making follows patterns that can be represented as rule-based actions triggered by thresholds of resource states. When decisions are resulting from individual choice, endowing virtual agents with bounded rationality allows us to reproduce (in silico) their behavior and decisions in a reliable way. However, the negotiation processes taking place during the period of time simulated by the models in arenas of collective choices are not all reproducible. Outcomes of some collective decisions are very little or

  10. Analyzing Economic Attainment Patterns of Foreign Born Latin American Male Immigrants to The United States: an Example Using Hierarchical Linear Modeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David J. Gotcher

    2001-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the research which examines and endeavors to account for variation in the economic attainments of immigrants to the United States from Latin America, through the use of Hierarchical Linear Modeling. When analyzing this variation, researchers typically choose between two competing explanations. Human capital theory contends that variation in economic attainment is a product of different characteristics of individuals. Social capital theory contends that variation in economic attainment is a product of differences in characteristics of the societies from which the workers come. The author's central thesis is that we need not choose between human and social capital theories, that we can rely on both theoretical approaches, that it is an empirical and not a theoretical question how much variation can be explained by one set of factors versus the other. The real problem then is to build an appropriate methodology that allows us to partition the variation in economic attainments, identifying how much is explained by individual and how much by group characteristics. Using a multi-level modeling technique, this research presents such a methodology.

  11. A practical guide to build de-novo assemblies for single tissues of non-model organisms: the example of a Neotropical frog

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santiago Montero-Mendieta

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Whole genome sequencing (WGS is a very valuable resource to understand the evolutionary history of poorly known species. However, in organisms with large genomes, as most amphibians, WGS is still excessively challenging and transcriptome sequencing (RNA-seq represents a cost-effective tool to explore genome-wide variability. Non-model organisms do not usually have a reference genome and the transcriptome must be assembled de-novo. We used RNA-seq to obtain the transcriptomic profile for Oreobates cruralis, a poorly known South American direct-developing frog. In total, 550,871 transcripts were assembled, corresponding to 422,999 putative genes. Of those, we identified 23,500, 37,349, 38,120 and 45,885 genes present in the Pfam, EggNOG, KEGG and GO databases, respectively. Interestingly, our results suggested that genes related to immune system and defense mechanisms are abundant in the transcriptome of O. cruralis. We also present a pipeline to assist with pre-processing, assembling, evaluating and functionally annotating a de-novo transcriptome from RNA-seq data of non-model organisms. Our pipeline guides the inexperienced user in an intuitive way through all the necessary steps to build de-novo transcriptome assemblies using readily available software and is freely available at: https://github.com/biomendi/TRANSCRIPTOME-ASSEMBLY-PIPELINE/wiki.

  12. Multi-technique approach for deriving a VLBI signal extra-path variation model induced by gravity: the example of Medicina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarti, P.; Abbondanza, C.; Negusini, M.; Vittuari, L.

    2009-09-01

    During the measurement sessions gravity might induce significant deformations in large VLBI telescopes. If neglected or mismodelled, these deformations might bias the phase of the incoming signal thus corrupting the estimate of some crucial geodetic parameters (e.g. the height component of VLBI Reference Point). This paper describes a multi-technique approach implemented for measuring and quantifying the gravity-dependent deformations experienced by the 32-m diameter VLBI antenna of Medicina (Northern Italy). Such an approach integrates three different methods: Terrestrial Triangulations and Trilaterations (TTT), Laser Scanning (LS) and a Finite Element Model (FEM) of the antenna. The combination of the observations performed with these methods allows to accurately define an elevation-dependent model of the signal path variation which appears to be, for the Medicina telescope, non negligible. In the range [0,90] deg the signal path increases monotonically by almost 2 cm. The effect of such a variation has not been introduced in actual VLBI analysis yet; nevertheless this is the task we are going to pursue in the very next future.

  13. [An example of self-evaluation of a sense of achievement by students in 6-year pharmacy school with the model core curriculum of pharmaceutical education].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shingaki, Tomoteru; Koyanagi, Jyunichi; Nakamura, Hiroshi; Hirata, Takahiro; Ohta, Atsutane; Akimoto, Masayuki; Shirahata, Akira; Mitsumoto, Atsushi

    2013-01-01

    In March 2012, the first students, finishing the newly introduced 6-year-course of pharmaceutical education, have graduated and gone out into the world. At this point, the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology (MEXT) is going to revise the model core curriculum of pharmaceutical education to be more suited for educating students to achieve their goal of becoming the clinical pharmacist standard defined by the revised School Education Act. Here we report the self-evaluation study based on the survey using questionnaire about a sense of achievement with Visual Analog Scales, regarding the fundamental quality as a pharmacist standard proposed by the Professional Activities Committee in the MEXT. The sample size of survey was about 600 of students studying in the Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences in Josai International University (JIU) and the survey was carried out during the period of March-April in 2012. The study suggested that the majority of graduates were satisfied with the new education system and marked as a well-balanced quality to be a pharmacist standard, after completing the 6-year pharmaceutical education based on "the model core-curriculum". It would be worthwhile to perform this kind of survey continuously to monitor the student's self-evaluation of a sense of achievement to verify the effectiveness of 6-year-course pharmaceutical education based on the newly establishing core curriculum in Japan.

  14. Determination of Solar Irradiation in Urban Areas with an Open Source GIS Model: Application on the Example of the Rožna dolina in Ljubljana, Slovenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alen Mangafić

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The determination of solar irradiation is crucial when planning the installation of solar systems. There are different GIS models for determining solar irradiation, which differ from each other in terms of input data, hardware requirements, performance, reliability and suitability, depending on the specificity of the study area and the nature of the study. Because of their diversity, urban areas pose a greater challenge for the estimation of the potential of the received solar energy. In the article we offered a methodology for determining the irradiation of urban area roofs using the GRASS GIS model r.sun, which makes the computation with high resolution spatial, atmospheric and meteorological data. The used input data is freely available for the entire territory of Slovenia. The proposed methodological approach was tested in the area of the town quarter Rožna dolina with the northern part of Vič. The area is very diverse according to the typology of the built objects, the land cover and altitude differences.

  15. Location-allocation model for external beam radiotherapy as an example of an evidence-based management tool implemented in healthcare sector in Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czerwiński, Adam Michał; Więckowska, Barbara

    2018-02-21

    External beam radiotherapy (EBRT) is one of three key treatment modalities of cancer patients. Its utilisation and outcomes depend on a plethora of variables, one of which is the distance a patient must travel to undergo the treatment. The relation between distance and utilisation is clearly visible in Poland. At the same time no strategic investment plan is observed. This work proposes a method of resolving these two issues. We propose a mixed-integer linear programming model that aims to optimise the distribution of linear accelerators among selected locations in such a way that a patient's journey to the nearest EBRT is as short as possible. The optimisation is done with observance of international guidelines concerning EBRT capacity. With the use of proposed theoretical framework, we develop a national, strategic plan for linear accelerator investments. According to model assumptions decentralisation of EBRT, together with new equipment purchases, is required to ensure optimal access to EBRT. The results were incorporated into Healthcare Needs Maps for Poland. The plan based on the results of this study, implemented by 2025, should deal with the most pressing concerns of Polish EBRT. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Impact of a smoking and alcohol intervention programme on lung and breast cancer incidence in Denmark: An example of dynamic modelling with Prevent

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Soerjomataram, Isabelle; de Vries, Esther; Engholm, Gerda

    2010-01-01

    Prevent v.3.01 to assess the changes in incidence as a result of risk factor changes. Incidence of lung and breast cancer until 2050 was predicted under two scenarios: ideal (total elimination of smoking and reduction of alcohol intake to maximum 1units/d for women) and optimistic (decreasing prevalence......PURPOSE: Among the known risk factors, smoking is clearly related to the incidence of lung cancer and alcohol consumption is to breast cancer. In this manuscript we modelled the potential benefits of reductions in smoking or alcohol prevalence for the burden of these cancers. METHOD: We used...... of risk factors because of a 10% increase in cigarette and alcohol beverage price, repeated every 5years). Danish data from the household surveys, cancer registration and Eurostat were used. RESULTS: Up to 49% less new lung cancer cases can be expected in 2050 if smoking were to be completely eliminated...

  17. Genetical structure of populations of modelling species of terrestrial mollusks in conditions of the urbanized landscape on example Сhondrula tridens Müll (Gastropoda, Pulmonata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduard A Snegin

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available On the basis of the analysis of the morphological and genetical variability revealed by a method of gel-electrophoresis of proteins in PAAG, the state of gene pools of populations of modeling species Сhondrula tridens Müll (threedens snail in conditions of the urbanized forest-steppe landscape of the south of Mid-Russia Upland is investigated. In the majority of the investigated bunches authentic decrease of a level of heterozygosity and the decrease of an allelic diversification caused, both is fixed by natural historical factors, and factors of an anthropogenic parentage. The genetic-automatic processes in populations are considered and vectors of natural selection are defined. Calculation of effective number of researched bunches is spent.

  18. Study on the stress changes due to the regional groundwater exploitation based on a 3-D fully coupled poroelastic model: An example of the North China Plain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, H.; Zhang, H.; Pang, Y. J.; Shi, Y.

    2017-12-01

    With the quick urban development, over-exploitation of groundwater resources becomes more and more intense, which leads to not only widespread groundwater depression cones but also a series of harsh environmental and geological hazards. Among which, the most intuitive phenomenon is the ground subsidence in loose sediments. However, another direct consequence triggered by the groundwater depletion is the substantial crustal deformation and potential modulation of crustal stress underneath the groundwater over-pumping zones. In our previous 3-D viscoelastic finite element model, we found that continuous over-exploitation of groundwater resources in North China Plain during the past 60 years give rise to crustal-scale uplift reaching 4.9cm, with the Coulomb failure stress decreasing by up to 12 kPa, which may inhibit the nucleation of possible big earthquake events. Furthermore, according to the effective pressure principle and lab experiments, the pore pressure may also have changed due to the reduced water level. In order to quantitatively analyze the stress changes due to the regional groundwater exploitation in North China Plain, a three-dimensional fully coupled poroelastic finite element model is developed in this study. The high resolution topography, grounwater level fluctuation, fault parameters and etc, are taken into consideration. Further, the changes of Coulomb Failure Stress, in correspondence to elastic stress and pore pressure changes induced by fluid diffusion are calculated. Meanwhile, the elastic strain energy accumulation in region due to the regional groundwater exploitation is obtained. Finally, we try to analyze the seismic risk of major faults within North China Plain to further discuss the regional seismic activities.

  19. Faults architecture and growth in clay-limestone alternation. Examples in the S-E Basin alternations (France) and numerical modeling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roche, Vincent

    2011-01-01

    The following work has been carried out in the framework of the studies conducted by IRSN in support of its safety evaluation of the geological disposal programme of high and intermediate level, long-lived radioactive waste. Such a disposal is planned to be hosted by the Callovian-Oxfordian indurate clay formation between two limestone formations in eastern Paris basin, France. Hypothetical faults may cross-cut this layered section, decreasing the clay containment ability by creating preferential pathways for radioactive solute towards limestones. This study aims at characterising the fault architecture and the normal fault growth in clay/limestone layered sections. Structural analysis and displacement profiles have been carried out in normal faults crossing several decimetres to metre thick sedimentary alternations in the South-Eastern Basin (France) and petrophysical properties have been determined for each layer. The studied faults are simple fault planes or complex fault zones showing are significantly controlled by the layering. The analysis of the fault characteristics and the results obtained on numerical models enlighten several processes such as fault nucleation, fault restriction, and fault growth through layered section. Some studied faults nucleated in the limestone layers, without using pre-existing fractures such as joints, and according to our numerical analysis, a strong stiffness, a low strength contrast between the limestone and the clay layer, and/or s a greater thickness of the clay layer are conditions which favour nucleation of faults in limestone. The range of mechanical properties leading to the fault nucleation in one layer type or another was investigated using a 3D modelling approach. After its nucleation, the fault propagates within a homogeneous medium with a constant displacement gradient until its vertical propagation is stopped by a restrictor. The evidenced restrictors are limestone-clay interfaces or faults in clays, sub

  20. Importance of selecting archaeomagnetic data for geomagnetic modelling: example of the new Western Europe directional and intensity secular variation curves from 1500 BC to 200 AD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herve, Gwenael; Chauvin, Annick; Lanos, Philippe

    2014-05-01

    At the regional scale, the dispersion between archaeomagnetic data and especially archaeointensities suggests that some of them may be biased. As a consequence, it appears necessary to perform a selection of available data before to compute mean regional secular variation curves or geomagnetic models. However the definition of suitable selection criteria is not obvious and we need to know how to manage "old" data acquired during the 60-70s. The Western Europe directional and intensity data set from 1500 BC to 200 AD allows to discuss these issues. It has recently been enhanced by 39 new archaeodirections and 23 new archaeointensities (Hervé et al., 2013a and 2013b data sets and 5 unpublished data). First, the whole Western Europe data set was selected but the strong dispersion restricted the accuracy and the reliability of the new Western Europe secular variation curves at Paris. The causes of the dispersion appear different between archaeodirections and archaeointensities. In the directional data set, the main problem comes from some age errors in the oldest published data. Since their publication their archaeological dating may have changed of 50 years or more. For intensity data that were acquired much more recently, the dispersion mainly results from the use of unreliable archaeointensity protocols. We propose a weighting approach based on the number of specimens and the use of pTRM-checks, anisotropy and cooling rate corrections. Only 63% of available archaeodirections and 32% of archaeointensities were used to build the new Western Europe secular variation curves from 1500 BC to 200 AD. These curves reveal that selecting the reference data avoids wrong estimations of the shape of the secular variation curves, the secular variation rate, the dating of archaeomagnetic jerks... Finally, it is worth pointing out that current geomagnetic global models take into account almost all the data that we decided to reject. It could partly explain why their predictions at

  1. Innovative Model of Practice-Oriented Training of Employees of the Town-Forming Enterprise in the Mining Region (by the Example of JSC "SUEK-Kuzbass")

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulay, Svetlana; Kayachev, Gennady

    2017-11-01

    The article proposes to improve the system of training of employees of joint-stock company SUEK-Kuzbass in the educational institutions of the Kemerovo region according to the requirements of the company using practice-oriented training technology. The aim of the work is to substantiate the effectiveness of implementing practice-oriented training, identify priority directions and ways of its development. The main objectives of the study are: to identify the main advantages for the company and students; determine the criteria for the success and practical value of applying practice-oriented training for the company; conduct a comparative analysis of the target and practice-oriented model of training for the company. The real needs of the employer through the dual form of training were taking into account. The expansion of positive experience in training engineering personnel in higher education in technology-based training with the involvement of specialists from other regions of the company and expanding training in mining was also included.

  2. Analysis co-regulation model of safety of fishery products in Morocco through the example of “histamine”, “parasites” and “sulphites” dangers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Dahani

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Co-regulation in food safety represents the shared responsibility between food business operators and the competent authority (CA to ensure food safety and to comply with the health requirements of importing countries. The evolution of food regulation on one hand and the quality assurance of the veterinary services of the ONSSA according to the ISO 17020 standard on the other hand, need studying the regulation model adopted at national level. The objective of this work is to analyze the main health risks associated with fishery products from a co-regulatory perspective. The hazards targeted by this study are histamine, parasites and sulfites. The approach is based on structured interviews with fishery products professionals and veterinary inspectors responsible for control and certification. The main hazards are controlled by adopting health control plans (PMS by the professionals within the establishments as well as the official control carried out by the inspecting veterinarians. The PMS implementation can produce conflicting injunctions for the veterinary inspectors of the competent authority.

  3. The Uncertain Role of Biogenic VOC for Boundary-Layer Ozone Concentration: Example Investigation of Emissions from Two Forest Types with a Box Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boris Bonn

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available High levels of air pollution including ground level ozone significantly reduce humans’ life expectancy and cause forest damage and decreased tree growth. The French Vosges and the German Black Forest are regions well-known for having the highest tropospheric ozone concentrations at remote forested sites in Central Europe. This box model study investigates the sensitivity of atmospheric chemistry calculations of derived ozone on differently resolved forest tree composition and volatile organic compound emissions. Representative conditions were chosen for the Upper Rhine area including the Alsatian Vosges/France and the Black Forest/Germany during summer. This study aims to answer the following question: What level of input detail for Alsace and Black Forest tree mixtures is required to accurately simulate ozone formation? While the French forest in Alsace—e.g., in the Vosges—emits isoprene to a substantially higher extent than the forest at the German site, total monoterpene emissions at the two sites are rather similar. However, the individual monoterpene structures, and therefore their reactivity, differs. This causes a higher ozone production rate for Vosges forest mixture conditions than for Black Forest tree mixtures at identical NOx levels, with the difference increasing with temperature. The difference in ozone formation is analyzed in detail and the short-comings of reduced descriptions are discussed. The outcome serves as a to-do-list to allow accurate future ozone predictions influenced by the climate adaptation of forests and the change in forest species composition.

  4. Development and validation of the Brazilian version of the Attitudes to Aging Questionnaire (AAQ: An example of merging classical psychometric theory and the Rasch measurement model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trentini Clarissa M

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Aging has determined a demographic shift in the world, which is considered a major societal achievement, and a challenge. Aging is primarily a subjective experience, shaped by factors such as gender and culture. There is a lack of instruments to assess attitudes to aging adequately. In addition, there is no instrument developed or validated in developing region contexts, so that the particularities of ageing in these areas are not included in the measures available. This paper aims to develop and validate a reliable attitude to aging instrument by combining classical psychometric approach and Rasch analysis. Methods Pilot study and field trial are described in details. Statistical analysis included classic psychometric theory (EFA and CFA and Rasch measurement model. The latter was applied to examine unidimensionality, response scale and item fit. Results Sample was composed of 424 Brazilian old adults, which was compared to an international sample (n = 5238. The final instrument shows excellent psychometric performance (discriminant validity, confirmatory factor analysis and Rasch fit statistics. Rasch analysis indicated that modifications in the response scale and item deletions improved the initial solution derived from the classic approach. Conclusion The combination of classic and modern psychometric theories in a complementary way is fruitful for development and validation of instruments. The construction of a reliable Brazilian Attitudes to Aging Questionnaire is important for assessing cultural specificities of aging in a transcultural perspective and can be applied in international cross-cultural investigations running less risk of cultural bias.

  5. Investigating energy-based pool structure selection in the structure ensemble modeling with experimental distance constraints: The example from a multidomain protein Pub1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Guanhua; Liu, Wei; Bao, Chenglong; Tong, Dudu; Ji, Hui; Shen, Zuowei; Yang, Daiwen; Lu, Lanyuan

    2018-05-01

    The structural variations of multidomain proteins with flexible parts mediate many biological processes, and a structure ensemble can be determined by selecting a weighted combination of representative structures from a simulated structure pool, producing the best fit to experimental constraints such as interatomic distance. In this study, a hybrid structure-based and physics-based atomistic force field with an efficient sampling strategy is adopted to simulate a model di-domain protein against experimental paramagnetic relaxation enhancement (PRE) data that correspond to distance constraints. The molecular dynamics simulations produce a wide range of conformations depicted on a protein energy landscape. Subsequently, a conformational ensemble recovered with low-energy structures and the minimum-size restraint is identified in good agreement with experimental PRE rates, and the result is also supported by chemical shift perturbations and small-angle X-ray scattering data. It is illustrated that the regularizations of energy and ensemble-size prevent an arbitrary interpretation of protein conformations. Moreover, energy is found to serve as a critical control to refine the structure pool and prevent data overfitting, because the absence of energy regularization exposes ensemble construction to the noise from high-energy structures and causes a more ambiguous representation of protein conformations. Finally, we perform structure-ensemble optimizations with a topology-based structure pool, to enhance the understanding on the ensemble results from different sources of pool candidates. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Neural Networks Technique, Lithofacies Classifications and Analysis and Depositional Environment Interpretation for 3-D Reservoir Geological Modeling and Exploration Studies (X Example)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iloghalu, E.; Chin, A.; Ebong, U.

    2003-01-01

    The value of borehole geology in Petroleum Exploration and Production cannot be over-emphasized. Reservoir characterization in mature fields and indeed mature basins requires high-resolution and high precision tools to determine the Stratigraphy and sedimentology of the areas of interest. The aim of reservoir studies is usually to determine the heterogeneity and the internal architecture of the reservoirs and the resulting model is simulated to derive the reservoir engineering properties, which impacts on quality decisions for optimal exploitation of the hydrocarbon in place. The point issues or challenges usually encountered in reservoir studies and management are baffles, barriers to flow, thief zones and other uncertainties that come about due to inadequate understanding of the sedimentology of the reservoirs in question. (Issues like preferential flow direction which significantly impact on secondary recovery and affect the costs). Recent advancements in borehole geology image and dips data helps to effectively itemize these uncertainties, and significantly reduce them to the barrest minimum. This work shows processed and interpreted image and dips data from a field, integrated with other petrophysical data and then incorporated into a field-wide study in the X-field. This was done using the most recent technological advancements in logging tools and in interpretation processes. The achievements include cost saving, higher precision results and reduced time or interpretation

  7. Budget impact model for oncopharmacogenetics from the perspective of mandatory basic health insurance in Switzerland using the example of breast cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Szucs TD

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Thomas D Szucs,1 Kevin P Szillat,2 Eva Blozik3 1University of Basel, Institute of Pharmaceutical Medicine (ECPM, Basel, Switzerland; 2Department of Biology, Institute of Molecular Health Sciences, ETH Zurich, Zürich, Switzerland; 3Department of Health Sciences, Helsana Group, Zürich, Switzerland Abstract: Single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs can severely impact individual drug response and health outcomes in cancer patients. Genetic tests to screen for marker SNPs are available to adjust the drug dose of oncologicals to the patient’s needs. However, it is unclear whether the positive effects outbalance the increased costs or even lead to an overall cost reduction. This very pragmatic analysis used three frequently used oncologicals for the treatment of breast cancer to evaluate whether preemptive pharmacogenetic testing may have a cost-reducing impact on health care spending in the Swiss health care system. Our results indicate that oncopharmacogenetics might help to reduce health care costs (ie, by avoiding adverse drug effects and to increase efficiency of drugs in oncologic patients. Keywords: pharmacogenetics, oncology, budget impact model, Switzerland, health insurance

  8. Historical and future land use effects on N2O and NO emissions using an ensemble modeling approach: Costa Rica's Caribbean lowlands as an example

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reiners, W. A.; Liu, S.; Gerow, K. G.; Keller, M.; Schimel, D. S.

    2002-12-01

    The humid tropical zone is a major source area for N2O and NO emissions to the atmosphere. Local emission rates vary widely with local conditions, particularly land use practices which swiftly change with expanding settlement and changing market conditions. The combination of wide variation in emission rates and rapidly changing land use make regional estimation and future prediction of biogenic trace gas emission particularly difficult. This study estimates contemporary, historical, and future N2O and NO emissions from 0.5 million ha of northeastern Costa Rica, a well-documented region in the wet tropics undergoing rapid agricultural development. Estimates were derived by linking spatially distributed environmental data with an ecosystem simulation model in an ensemble estimation approach that incorporates the variance and covariance of spatially distributed driving variables. Results include measures of variance for regional emissions. The formation and aging of pastures from forest provided most of the past temporal change in N2O and NO flux in this region; future changes will be controlled by the degree of nitrogen fertilizer application and extent of intensively managed croplands.

  9. Impact of a smoking and alcohol intervention programme on lung and breast cancer incidence in Denmark: An example of dynamic modelling with Prevent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soerjomataram, Isabelle; de Vries, Esther; Engholm, Gerda; Paludan-Müller, Georg; Brønnum-Hansen, Henrik; Storm, Hans H; Barendregt, Jan J

    2010-09-01

    Among the known risk factors, smoking is clearly related to the incidence of lung cancer and alcohol consumption is to breast cancer. In this manuscript we modelled the potential benefits of reductions in smoking or alcohol prevalence for the burden of these cancers. We used Prevent v.3.01 to assess the changes in incidence as a result of risk factor changes. Incidence of lung and breast cancer until 2050 was predicted under two scenarios: ideal (total elimination of smoking and reduction of alcohol intake to maximum 1 units/d for women) and optimistic (decreasing prevalence of risk factors because of a 10% increase in cigarette and alcohol beverage price, repeated every 5 years). Danish data from the household surveys, cancer registration and Eurostat were used. Up to 49% less new lung cancer cases can be expected in 2050 if smoking were to be completely eliminated. Five-yearly 10% price increases may prevent 521 new lung cancer cases in 2050 (21% less cases). An intervention that immediately reduces population alcohol consumption to the recommended level (below 12 g/d) may lower breast cancer by 7%, preventing 445 out of the 6060 expected new cases in 2050. Five-yearly 10% price increases in alcoholic beverages achieved a reduction of half as expected by the ideal scenario, i.e. 4% (262) preventable cases in 2050. The future burden of lung and breast cancer could be markedly reduced by intervening in their risk factors. Prevent illustrates the benefit of interventions and may serve as guidance in political decision-making. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. A conceptual hydrodynamic model of a geological discontinuity in hard rock aquifers: Example of a quartz reef in granitic terrain in South India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dewandel, Benoît; Lachassagne, Patrick; Zaidi, Faisal K.; Chandra, Subash

    2011-08-01

    SummaryThe structure and hydrodynamic properties of geological discontinuities and of a deeply weathered granite aquifer near these structures are described on the basis of geological, geophysical and hydrodynamic investigations in two sites of South India located along a 20-40-m-wide quartz reef intruding a weathered Archean biotite granite. One of the two sites also comprises a metre-wide dolerite dyke. Weathering processes appear to be at the origin of fissures development and of a related enhanced local hydraulic conductivity, both in the quartz reef and in the surrounding granite. The weathering profile in the granite (saprolite and fissured layer) is characterized by an abrupt deepening of the weathered layers in the granite near the contact and in the quartz reef itself. Therefore, the weathering profile shows a 'U'-shape geometry with, among others, the verticalization of the granite's fissured layer. The hydraulic conductivity of this verticalized layer is on average 5 × 10 -6 m/s and storativity about 10 -3 (-). The hydraulic conductivity of the fissured quartz is 4-6 × 10 -6 m/s and its storativity about 3-5 × 10 -4 (-). Both media are also characterized by a matrix hydraulic conductivity (10 -7-10 -9 m/s) and by a significant heterogeneity in hydrodynamic properties that generates preferential flow paths along the sub-vertical fissures parallel to the reef axis. A special attention has been paid for characterizing this heterogeneity. The weathering of the dolerite dyke, however, results in a local low hydraulic conductivity, which consequently does not enhance either the thickness of weathered granite layers or its hydraulic conductivity. The obtained results complete the conceptual hydrogeological model developed for weathered granite aquifers in characterizing the relationships between weathering processes and hydrodynamic properties near geological discontinuities.

  11. A new multi-disciplinary model for the assessment and reduction of volcanic risk: the example of the island of Vulcano, Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simicevic, Aleksandra; Bonadonna, Costanza; di Traglia, Federico; Rosi, Mauro

    2010-05-01

    Volcanic eruptions are accompanied by numerous hazards which pose short- and long-term threats to people and property. Recent experiences have shown that successful responses to hazard events correlate strongly with the degree to which proactive policies of risk reduction are already in place before an eruption occurs. Effective proactive risk-reduction strategies require contributions from numerous disciplines. A volcanic eruption is not a hazard, per se, but rather an event capable of producing a variety of hazards (e.g. earthquakes, pyroclastic density currents, lava flows, tephra fall, lahars, landslides, gas release, and tsunamis) that can affect the built environment in a variety of ways, over different time scales and with different degrees of intensity. Our proposed model for the assessment and mitigation of exposure-based volcanic risk is mainly based on the compilation of three types of maps: hazard maps, hazard-specific vulnerability maps and exposure-based risk maps. Hazard maps identify the spatial distribution of individual volcanic hazard and it includes both event analysis and impact analysis. Hazard-specific vulnerability maps represent the systematic evaluation of physical vulnerability of the built environment to a range of volcanic phenomena, i.e. spatial distribution of buildings vulnerable to a given hazard based on the analysis of selected building elements. Buildings are classified on the basis of their major components that are relevant for different volcanic hazards, their strength, their construction materials and are defined taking into account the potential damage that each group of building elements (e.g. walls, roof, load-bearing structure) will suffer under a volcanic hazard. All those factors are enumerated in a checklist and are used for the building survey. Hazard-specific vulnerability maps are then overlapped with hazard maps in order to compile exposure-based risk maps and so quantify the potential damage. Such quantification

  12. Methodological comparison of marginal structural model, time-varying Cox regression, and propensity score methods: the example of antidepressant use and the risk of hip fracture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, M Sanni; Groenwold, Rolf H H; Belitser, Svetlana V; Souverein, Patrick C; Martín, Elisa; Gatto, Nicolle M; Huerta, Consuelo; Gardarsdottir, Helga; Roes, Kit C B; Hoes, Arno W; de Boer, Antonius; Klungel, Olaf H

    2016-03-01

    Observational studies including time-varying treatments are prone to confounding. We compared time-varying Cox regression analysis, propensity score (PS) methods, and marginal structural models (MSMs) in a study of antidepressant [selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs)] use and the risk of hip fracture. A cohort of patients with a first prescription for antidepressants (SSRI or tricyclic antidepressants) was extracted from the Dutch Mondriaan and Spanish Base de datos para la Investigación Farmacoepidemiológica en Atención Primaria (BIFAP) general practice databases for the period 2001-2009. The net (total) effect of SSRI versus no SSRI on the risk of hip fracture was estimated using time-varying Cox regression, stratification and covariate adjustment using the PS, and MSM. In MSM, censoring was accounted for by inverse probability of censoring weights. The crude hazard ratio (HR) of SSRI use versus no SSRI use on hip fracture was 1.75 (95%CI: 1.12, 2.72) in Mondriaan and 2.09 (1.89, 2.32) in BIFAP. After confounding adjustment using time-varying Cox regression, stratification, and covariate adjustment using the PS, HRs increased in Mondriaan [2.59 (1.63, 4.12), 2.64 (1.63, 4.25), and 2.82 (1.63, 4.25), respectively] and decreased in BIFAP [1.56 (1.40, 1.73), 1.54 (1.39, 1.71), and 1.61 (1.45, 1.78), respectively]. MSMs with stabilized weights yielded HR 2.15 (1.30, 3.55) in Mondriaan and 1.63 (1.28, 2.07) in BIFAP when accounting for censoring and 2.13 (1.32, 3.45) in Mondriaan and 1.66 (1.30, 2.12) in BIFAP without accounting for censoring. In this empirical study, differences between the different methods to control for time-dependent confounding were small. The observed differences in treatment effect estimates between the databases are likely attributable to different confounding information in the datasets, illustrating that adequate information on (time-varying) confounding is crucial to prevent bias. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  13. On the Quality of Examples in Introductory Java Textbooks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borstler, Jurgen; Nordstrom, Marie; Paterson, James H.

    2011-01-01

    Example programs play an important role in the teaching and learning of programming. Students as well as teachers rank examples as the most important resources for learning to program. Example programs work as role models and must therefore always be consistent with the principles and rules we are teaching. However, it is difficult to find or…

  14. Rent Seeking: A Textbook Example

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pecorino, Paul

    2007-01-01

    The author argues that the college textbook market provides a clear example of monopoly seeking as described by Tullock (1967, 1980). This behavior is also known as rent seeking. Because this market is important to students, this example of rent seeking will be of particular interest to them. (Contains 24 notes.)

  15. NESSIE: Network Example Source Supporting Innovative Experimentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Alan; Higham, Desmond J.

    We describe a new web-based facility that makes available some realistic examples of complex networks. NESSIE (Network Example Source Supporting Innovative Experimentation) currently contains 12 specific networks from a diverse range of application areas, with a Scottish emphasis. This collection of data sets is designed to be useful for researchers in network science who wish to evaluate new algorithms, concepts and models. The data sets are available to download in two formats (MATLAB's .mat format and .txt files readable by packages such as Pajek), and some basic MATLAB tools for computing summary statistics are also provided.

  16. UML modelling of network warfare examples

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Veerasamy, N

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available ] Affects both civilian and military domains [8] [9] Related to the concepts of infowar, information operations, hacking, hackivism, cyberterrorism and cybotage depending on motivations and techniques [10] Encompasses both technological solutions...]. In addition, Williers as well as Qingbao and Anwar discuss more offensive aspects of information security and Network Warfare like Hacking, Vulnerability Injection, Network Attacks, Denial of Capability, Interception and Blockage [6] [18] [19]. Various...

  17. Example of software configuration management model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roth, P.

    2006-01-01

    Software configuration management is the mechanism used to track and control software changes and may include the following actions: A tracking system should be established for any changes made to the existing software configuration. Requirement of the configuration management system are the following: - Backup the different software configuration; - Record the details (the date, the subject, the filenames, the supporting documents, the tests, ...) of the changes introduced in the new configuration; - Document all the differences between the different versions. Configuration management allows simultaneous exploitation of one specific version and development of the next version. Minor correction can be perform in the current exploitation version

  18. Extended asymptotic functions - some examples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Todorov, T.D.

    1981-01-01

    Several examples of extended asymptotic functions of two variables are given. This type of asymptotic functions has been introduced as an extension of continuous ordinary functions. The presented examples are realizations of some Schwartz distributions delta(x), THETA(x), P(1/xsup(n)) and can be multiplied in the class of the asymptotic functions as opposed to the theory of Schwartz distributions. The examples illustrate the method of construction of extended asymptotic functions similar to the distributions. The set formed by the extended asymptotic functions is also considered. It is shown, that this set is not closed with respect to addition and multiplication

  19. Regional climate model for predicting meteorological and hydrological extremes - the example of the Rhine river catchment area; Regionales Klimamodell zur Vorhersage meteorologischer und hydrologischer Extremereignisse am Beispiel des Rheineinzugsgebietes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Richter, K.G.; Jacob, D.; Ebel, M.; Lenz, C.J.

    2000-07-01

    Although the forecasting of weather extremes has improved during the past few years, there is still a need of improvement in the accurate analysis and forecasting of extreme weather in practice, especially in the case of violent rain and high water events. Direct coupling of the atmospheric circulation model REMO (REgional-MOdell) with the hydrology model LARSIM (Large Area Runoff SImulation Model) can improve the quality of forecasting. The coupling was achieved in several stages. First, the meteorological state variables were calculated using REMO. The calculated output parameters, precipitation, global radiation, temperature, relative moisture, wind and ground level pressure were used as input for the LARSIM model for calculating high water runoff. The high water event of March 1988 was used as an example. [German] Die Vorhersage extremer meteorologischer Wetterphaenomene hat sich im Laufe der letzten Jahre deutlich verbessert. Dennoch besteht bis heute noch ein grosses Defizit an der genaueren Analyse und Vorhersage extremer meteorologischer Ereignisse und ihrer Auswirkung in der Praxis, insbesondere im Hinblick auf Starkregen und Hochwasserereignisse. Durch die direkte Kopplung des atmosphaerischen Zirkulationsmodells REMO (REgional-MOdell) mit dem Hydrologiemodell LARSIM (Large Aera Runoff Simulation Model) kann die Vorhersagequalitaet fuer extreme meteorologische und hydrologische Situationen erhoeht werden. Die Modellkopplung wird stufenweise durchgefuehrt. Bei der hier vorgestellten Einwegekopplung werden zunaechst die meteorologischen Zustandsgroessen mit dem Regionalmodell REMO berechnet. Als berechneter Modelloutput werden die Parameter Niederschlag, Globalstrahlung, Temperatur, relative Feuchte, Wind und Bodendruck an das Hydrologiemodell LARSIM uebergeben und hiermit der Hochwasserabfluss berechnet. Die Vorgehensweise wird im folgenden fuer das Hochwasser Maerz 1988 beschrieben. (orig.)

  20. From Utterance to Example Sentence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristoffersen, Jette Hedegaard

    This poster will address some of the problems on excerption of example sentences for the online dictionary of Danish Sign Language (DTS) from a raw corpus of dialogues and monologues. In the Danish Sign Language Dictionary every meaning is illustrated by one or more sentences showing the sign...... lexicographers. The sentences were excerpted by hand from a raw corpus of dialogues and monologues – given to us by our group of consultants. The poster describes the process from utterance in a corpus in a larger context to an example sentence in a dictionary, where the purpose of having examples sentences...... for use in the dictionary consists of 11 stages in the DTS dictionary project. Special focus will be on the stage in the process where the sentence is judged suitable for dictionary use. A set of guidelines for what makes up a good example sentence has been developed for the DTS dictionary project...

  1. Computer Modeling of Acceleration Effects on Cerebral Oxygen Saturation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-04-01

    a significant physiological threat to etrate the cranium and enter the cerebral cortex. Hongo high-performance aircraft pilots since the development...et al. and Hongo et al. (7,8). blackened out and all that could be seen was the target, The primary focus of this effort was to build a model i.e...O6GInduced.html. 87:402. 12. Tripp LD, Arnold A, Bagian J, et al. Psychophysiological effects 8. Hongo K, Kobayashi S, Okudera H, et al. Noninvasive cerebral of

  2. Introduction: The Power of Example

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Højer, Lars; Bandak, Andreas

    2015-01-01

    It is the contention of this introduction that examples are important prisms through which both reality and anthropological analysis are thought and, equally importantly, reconfigured. The aim of the introduction is to redress the theoretical disregard for exemplification by exploring the persuas....... The introduction further proposes that the example serves to confuse ontological divides, such as the one between theory and ethnography, and also draws attention to the fact that theory is as much suggestive as descriptive....

  3. Economic analysis of energy supply and national economy on the basis of general equilibrium models. Applications of the input-output decomposition analysis and the Computable General Equilibrium models shown by the example of Korea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ko, Jong-Hwan.

    1993-01-01

    Firstly, this study investigaties the causes of sectoral growth and structural changes in the Korean economy. Secondly, it develops the borders of a consistent economic model in order to investigate simultaneously the different impacts of changes in energy and in the domestic economy. This is done any both the Input-Output-Decomposition analysis and a Computable General Equilibrium model (CGE Model). The CGE Model eliminates the disadvantages of the IO Model and allows the investigation of the interdegenerative of the various energy sectors with the economy. The Social Accounting Matrix serves as the data basis of the GCE Model. Simulated experiments have been comet out with the help of the GCE Model, indicating the likely impact of an oil price shock in the economy-sectorally and generally. (orig.) [de

  4. Examples of safety culture practices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    This report has been prepared to illustrate the concepts and principles of safety culture produced in 1991 by the International Safety Advisory Group as 75-INSAG-4. It provides a small selection of examples taken from a worldwide collection of safety performance evaluations (e.g. IAEA safety series, national regulatory inspections, utility audits and a plant assessments). These documented evaluations collectively provide a database of safety performance strengths and weakness, and related safety culture observations. The examples which have been selected for inclusion in this report are those which are considered worthy of special mention and which illustrate a specific attribute of safety culture given in 75-INSAG-4

  5. Planar Quantum Mechanics: an Intriguing Supersymmetric Example

    CERN Document Server

    Veneziano, Gabriele

    2006-01-01

    After setting up a Hamiltonian formulation of planar (matrix) quantum mechanics, we illustrate its effectiveness in a non-trivial supersymmetric example. The numerical and analytical study of two sectors of the model, as a function of 't Hooft's coupling $\\lambda$, reveals both a phase transition at $\\lambda=1$ (disappearence of the mass gap and discontinuous jump in Witten's index) and a new form of strong-weak duality for $\\lambda \\to 1/\\lambda$.

  6. Shaping Discourse and Setting Examples

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Persson, Anders

    2017-01-01

    around an issue. By using Tuomas Forsberg's framework of four different mechanisms of normative power: persuasion, invoking norms, shaping the discourse and the power of example on three important case studies from the conflict (EC/EU's declaratory diplomacy on the need for a just peace in the conflict...

  7. Learning Algebra from Worked Examples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lange, Karin E.; Booth, Julie L.; Newton, Kristie J.

    2014-01-01

    For students to be successful in algebra, they must have a truly conceptual understanding of key algebraic features as well as the procedural skills to complete a problem. One strategy to correct students' misconceptions combines the use of worked example problems in the classroom with student self-explanation. "Self-explanation" is the…

  8. Active Learning with Irrelevant Examples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagstaff, Kiri; Mazzoni, Dominic

    2009-01-01

    An improved active learning method has been devised for training data classifiers. One example of a data classifier is the algorithm used by the United States Postal Service since the 1960s to recognize scans of handwritten digits for processing zip codes. Active learning algorithms enable rapid training with minimal investment of time on the part of human experts to provide training examples consisting of correctly classified (labeled) input data. They function by identifying which examples would be most profitable for a human expert to label. The goal is to maximize classifier accuracy while minimizing the number of examples the expert must label. Although there are several well-established methods for active learning, they may not operate well when irrelevant examples are present in the data set. That is, they may select an item for labeling that the expert simply cannot assign to any of the valid classes. In the context of classifying handwritten digits, the irrelevant items may include stray marks, smudges, and mis-scans. Querying the expert about these items results in wasted time or erroneous labels, if the expert is forced to assign the item to one of the valid classes. In contrast, the new algorithm provides a specific mechanism for avoiding querying the irrelevant items. This algorithm has two components: an active learner (which could be a conventional active learning algorithm) and a relevance classifier. The combination of these components yields a method, denoted Relevance Bias, that enables the active learner to avoid querying irrelevant data so as to increase its learning rate and efficiency when irrelevant items are present. The algorithm collects irrelevant data in a set of rejected examples, then trains the relevance classifier to distinguish between labeled (relevant) training examples and the rejected ones. The active learner combines its ranking of the items with the probability that they are relevant to yield a final decision about which item

  9. Why do we have such difficulty assessing aerosol impacts in Southeast Asia? Examining the representativeness of regional in situ, remote sensing, and modeling data using examples from a recent field trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid, J.; Hyer, E. J.; Lagrosas, N.; Salinas Cortijo, S. V.; Campbell, J. R.; Chew, B.; Cook, J.; Di Girolamo, L.; Kuciauskas, A. P.; Johnson, R. S.; Jonsson, H.; Lynch, P.; Sessions, W.; Simpas, J. B.; Turk, F. J.; Wang, J.

    2012-12-01

    Southeast Asia faces numerous climate change issues, and the interaction between aerosol particles, clouds, and precipitation is thought to impact the environment in this region at both weather and climate scales. Aerosol particles have direct radiative effects, indirect effects through interaction with clouds and precipitation, and also act as a tracer for other processes affecting the carbon cycle or atmospheric chemistry. Southeast Asia also hosts some of the most complex meteorological phenomenon of the world, challenging in situ, remote sensing and modeling systems. Indeed, there is more diversity in satellite based aerosol, fire, cloud, and precipitation products in Southeast Asia than perhaps anywhere else in the world outside of the poles. In addition to serious direct challenges to aerosol observability in Southeast Asia, such as persistent ubiquitous cloud cover, there are also contextual biases (such as for aerosol retrievals the classic clear sky bias). Contextual bias affects the representativeness of nearly all aerosol assessments in Southeast Asia. As part of the 7 Southeast Asian Studies (7SEAS) program, a small intensive study was conducted in Singapore and the Palawan Archipelago in September 2011 to study the flow of biomass burning smoke through the South China/East Sea and into the summertime monsoonal trough. Analysis of field data coupled with multiple satellite and model products allowed us to investigate questions on the representativeness of data and to what extent they capture the 'true' state of the meteorological and aerosol environment. Four specific representativeness issues are presented based on IOP examples: 1) Individual biases in retrievals or model simulations; 2) Sampling biases at short time scales based on product coverage; 3) Temporal and spatial scale biases inherent in large and point based measurements; 4) Contextual biases that develop from the aggregation of data products. Considering all four of these issues we

  10. Example-Based Learning: Effects of Different Types of Examples on Student Performance, Cognitive Load and Self-Efficacy in a Statistical Learning Task

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Xiaoxia

    2017-01-01

    Previous research has indicated the disconnect between example-based research focusing on worked examples (WEs) and that focusing on modeling examples. The purpose of this study was to examine and compare the effect of four different types of examples from the two separate lines of research, including standard WEs, erroneous WEs, expert (masterly)…

  11. Nonlinear time series theory, methods and applications with R examples

    CERN Document Server

    Douc, Randal; Stoffer, David

    2014-01-01

    FOUNDATIONSLinear ModelsStochastic Processes The Covariance World Linear Processes The Multivariate Cases Numerical Examples ExercisesLinear Gaussian State Space Models Model Basics Filtering, Smoothing, and Forecasting Maximum Likelihood Estimation Smoothing Splines and the Kalman Smoother Asymptotic Distribution of the MLE Missing Data Modifications Structural Component Models State-Space Models with Correlated Errors Exercises Beyond Linear ModelsNonlinear Non-Gaussian Data Volterra Series Expansion Cumulants and Higher-Order Spectra Bilinear Models Conditionally Heteroscedastic Models Thre

  12. Generic Example Proving Criteria for All

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yopp, David; Ely, Rob; Johnson­-Leung, Jennifer

    2015-01-01

    We review literature that discusses generic example proving and highlight ambiguities that pervade our research community's discourse about generic example arguments. We distinguish between pedagogical advice for choosing good examples that can serve as generic examples when teaching and advice for developing generic example arguments. We provide…

  13. 12 CFR 222.2 - Examples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Examples. 222.2 Section 222.2 Banks and Banking... (REGULATION V) General Provisions § 222.2 Examples. The examples in this part are not exclusive. Compliance with an example, to the extent applicable, constitutes compliance with this part. Examples in a...

  14. 12 CFR 334.2 - Examples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Examples. 334.2 Section 334.2 Banks and Banking... General Provisions § 334.2 Examples. The examples in this part are not exclusive. Compliance with an example, to the extent applicable, constitutes compliance with this part. Examples in a paragraph...

  15. 12 CFR 571.2 - Examples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Examples. 571.2 Section 571.2 Banks and Banking... Examples. The examples in this part are not exclusive. Compliance with an example, to the extent applicable, constitutes compliance with this part. Examples in a paragraph illustrate only the issue described in the...

  16. 12 CFR 717.2 - Examples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Examples. 717.2 Section 717.2 Banks and Banking... Provisions § 717.2 Examples. The examples in this part are not exclusive. Compliance with an example, to the extent applicable, constitutes compliance with this part. Examples in a paragraph illustrate only the...

  17. Tracers and traceability: implementing the cirrus parameterisation from LACM in the TOMCAT/SLIMCAT chemistry transport model as an example of the application of quality assurance to legacy models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. M. Horseman

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available A new modelling tool for the investigation of large-scale behaviour of cirrus clouds has been developed. This combines two existing models, the TOMCAT/SLIMCAT chemistry transport model (nupdate library version 0.80, script mpc346_l and cirrus parameterisation of Ren and MacKenzie (LACM implementation not versioned. The development process employed a subset of best-practice software engineering and quality assurance processes, selected to be viable for small-scale projects whilst maintaining the same traceability objectives. The application of the software engineering and quality control processes during the development has been shown to be not a great overhead, and their use has been of benefit to the developers as well as the end users of the results. We provide a step-by-step guide to the implementation of traceability tailored to the production of geo-scientific research software, as distinct from commercial and operational software. Our recommendations include: maintaining a living "requirements list"; explicit consideration of unit, integration and acceptance testing; and automated revision/configuration control, including control of analysis tool scripts and programs.

    Initial testing of the resulting model against satellite and in-situ measurements has been promising. The model produces representative results for both spatial distribution of the frequency of occurrence of cirrus ice, and the drying of air as it moves across the tropical tropopause. The model is now ready for more rigorous quantitative testing, but will require the addition of a vertical wind velocity downscaling scheme to better represent extra-tropical continental cirrus.

  18. Challenges in economic modeling of anticancer therapies: an example of modeling the survival benefit of olaparib maintenance therapy for patients with BRCA-mutated platinum-sensitive relapsed ovarian cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hettle, Robert; Posnett, John; Borrill, John

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to describe a four health-state, semi-Markov model structure with health states defined by initiation of subsequent treatment, designed to make best possible use of the data available from a phase 2 clinical trial. The approach is illustrated using data from a sub-group of patients enrolled in a phase 2 clinical trial of olaparib maintenance therapy in patients with platinum-sensitive relapsed ovarian cancer and a BRCA mutation (NCT00753545). A semi-Markov model was developed with four health states: progression-free survival (PFS), first subsequent treatment (FST), second subsequent treatment (SST), and death. Transition probabilities were estimated by fitting survival curves to trial data for time from randomization to FST, time from FST to SST, and time from SST to death. Survival projections generated by the model are broadly consistent with the outcomes observed in the clinical trial. However, limitations of the trial data (small sample size, immaturity of the PFS and overall survival [OS] end-points, and treatment switching) create uncertainty in estimates of survival. The model framework offers a promising approach to evaluating cost-effectiveness of a maintenance therapy for patients with cancer, which may be generalizable to other chronic diseases.

  19. Right-handed quark mixings in minimal left-right symmetric model with general CP violation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Yue; Ji Xiangdong; An Haipeng; Mohapatra, R. N.

    2007-01-01

    We solve systematically for the right-handed quark mixings in the minimal left-right symmetric model which generally has both explicit and spontaneous CP violations. The leading-order result has the same hierarchical structure as the left-handed Cabibbo-Kobayashi-Maskawa mixing, but with additional CP phases originating from a spontaneous CP-violating phase in the Higgs vacuum expectation values. We explore the phenomenology entailed by the new right-handed mixing matrix, particularly the bounds on the mass of W R and the CP phase of the Higgs vacuum expectation values

  20. Application examples of EFPACS series

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsuchiya, Yasunori; Aoki, Makoto; Yamahata, Noboru

    1989-01-01

    This paper introduces some application examples of picture archiving and communications system EFPACS series which achieves efficient management of a volume of image data generated in a hospital, and powerfully support image diagnosis using multi-modality. EFPACS can be applied to various objectives of system installation, and can meet the scale of a hospital and the way of image filing. EFPACS has been installed in a middle-scale hospital for image conference, in a general hospital for long-term archiving of MRI data and for referring in the outpatient clinic, in a dental hospital for dental image processing, and so on. (author)

  1. AN EXAMPLE IN SURFACE AREA*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goffman, Casper

    1969-01-01

    For length and area, a central fact is that the value of the length of a curve or the area of a surface, as given by the Lebesgue theory, is at least as great as that given by the classical formula, whenever the latter has meaning. This is now found not to be valid in higher dimensions. We give an example of a continuous mapping of the unit cube into itself for which the value given by the formula exceeds the three-dimensional Lebesgue area of the corresponding suface. PMID:16591750

  2. ImageSURF MOAB2 Image Example

    OpenAIRE

    O'Mara, Aidan R; Collins, Jessica M; King, Anna E; Vickers, James C; Kirkcaldie, Matthew T K

    2017-01-01

    A set of 2000x2000 confocal fluorescence images of MOAB2-labelled cortex from APPswe/PS1dE9 mouse models of Alzheimer's disease, sparsely annotated pixel labels and reference segmentation examples. Pixels are annotated as signal (red 0xFFFF0000) and background (blue 0xFF0000FF). Images were captured as stitched 12-bit greyscale single-plane images and cropped to size. Image acquisition was performed at 561nm excitation and 615nm emission wavelengths using a Perkin Elmer Ultraview VOX ima...

  3. Misleading Betas: An Educational Example

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chong, James; Halcoussis, Dennis; Phillips, G. Michael

    2012-01-01

    The dual-beta model is a generalization of the CAPM model. In the dual-beta model, separate beta estimates are provided for up-market and down-market days. This paper uses the historical "Anscombe quartet" results which illustrated how very different datasets can produce the same regression coefficients to motivate a discussion of the…

  4. Two examples of non strictly convex large deviations

    OpenAIRE

    De Marco, Stefano; Jacquier, Antoine; Roome, Patrick

    2016-01-01

    We present two examples of a large deviations principle where the rate function is not strictly convex. This is motivated by a model used in mathematical finance (the Heston model), and adds a new item to the zoology of non strictly convex large deviations. For one of these examples, we show that the rate function of the Cramer-type of large deviations coincides with that of the Freidlin-Wentzell when contraction principles are applied.

  5. Alfanet Worked Example: What is Greatness?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    dr. Pierre Gorissen

    2004-01-01

    This document consists of an example of a Learning Design based on the What is Greatness example originally created by James Dalziel from WebMCQ using LAMS. Note: The example has been created in parallel with the actual development of the Alfanet system. So no claims can be made that the example

  6. 12 CFR 41.2 - Examples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... COMPTROLLER OF THE CURRENCY, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY FAIR CREDIT REPORTING General Provisions § 41.2 Examples. The examples in this part are not exclusive. Compliance with an example, to the extent applicable, constitutes compliance with this part. Examples in a paragraph illustrate only the issue described in the...

  7. 16 CFR 680.2 - Examples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Examples. 680.2 Section 680.2 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION THE FAIR CREDIT REPORTING ACT AFFILIATE MARKETING § 680.2 Examples. The examples in this part are not exclusive. Compliance with an example, to the extent applicable, constitutes...

  8. 42 CFR 408.26 - Examples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Examples. 408.26 Section 408.26 Public Health... PREMIUMS FOR SUPPLEMENTARY MEDICAL INSURANCE Amount of Monthly Premiums § 408.26 Examples. Example 1. Mr. J... 10 percent greater than if he had enrolled in his initial enrollment period. Example 2. Mr. V, who...

  9. 17 CFR 248.102 - Examples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Examples. 248.102 Section 248... AND S-AM Regulation S-AM: Limitations on Affiliate Marketing § 248.102 Examples. The examples in this subpart are not exclusive. The examples in this subpart provide guidance concerning the rules' application...

  10. 29 CFR 4022.95 - Examples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 9 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Examples. 4022.95 Section 4022.95 Labor Regulations... IN TERMINATED SINGLE-EMPLOYER PLANS Certain Payments Owed Upon Death § 4022.95 Examples. The following examples show how the rules in §§ 4022.91 through 4022.94 apply. For examples on how these rules...

  11. 29 CFR 4022.104 - Examples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 9 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Examples. 4022.104 Section 4022.104 Labor Regulations... Future Periods After Death § 4022.104 Examples. The following examples show how the rules in §§ 4022.101.... (1) Example 1: where surviving beneficiary predeceases participant. Ellen died before Charlie. As...

  12. B decays and models for CP violation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    He, Xiao Gang

    1995-12-01

    The decay modes B to π π,υK S , K - D, πK and ηK are promising channels to study the unitarity triangle of the CP violating Cabibbo-Kobayashi-Maskawa (CKM) matrix. The consequences of these measurements in the Weinberg model are discussed. It is shown that measurements of CP violation in B decay can be used to distinguish Standard Model from Weinberg model and that the following different mechanisms for CP violation can be distinguished: 1) CP is violated in the CKM sector only; 2) CP is violated spontaneously in the Higgs sector only; and 3) CP is violated in both the CKM and Higgs sectors. 27 refs., 4 figs

  13. Construction Example for Algebra System Using Harmony Search Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FangAn Deng

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The construction example of algebra system is to verify the existence of a complex algebra system, and it is a NP-hard problem. In this paper, to solve this kind of problems, firstly, a mathematical optimization model for construction example of algebra system is established. Secondly, an improved harmony search algorithm based on NGHS algorithm (INGHS is proposed to find as more solutions as possible for the optimization model; in the proposed INGHS algorithm, to achieve the balance between exploration power and exploitation power in the search process, a global best strategy and parameters dynamic adjustment method are present. Finally, nine construction examples of algebra system are used to evaluate the optimization model and performance of INGHS. The experimental results show that the proposed algorithm has strong performance for solving complex construction example problems of algebra system.

  14. Unparticle Example in 2D

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Georgi, Howard; Kats, Yevgeny

    2008-01-01

    We discuss what can be learned about unparticle physics by studying simple quantum field theories in one space and one time dimension. We argue that the exactly soluble 2D theory of a massless fermion coupled to a massive vector boson, the Sommerfield model, is an interesting analog of a Banks-Zaks model, approaching a free theory at high energies and a scale-invariant theory with nontrivial anomalous dimensions at low energies. We construct a toy standard model coupling to the fermions in the Sommerfield model and study how the transition from unparticle behavior at low energies to free particle behavior at high energies manifests itself in interactions with the toy standard model particles

  15. Evaluating OO example programs for CS1

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Börstler, Jürgen; Christensen, Henrik Bærbak; Bennedsen, Jens

    2008-01-01

    Example programs play an important role in learning to program. They work as templates, guidelines, and inspiration for learners when developing their own programs. It is therefore important to provide learners with high quality examples. In this paper, we discuss properties of example programs...... that might affect the teaching and learning of object-oriented programming. Furthermore, we present an evaluation instrument for example programs and report on initial experiences of its application to a selection of examples from popular introductory programming textbooks....

  16. Nuclear transparency: the French example

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phuc Tran Dai

    2016-01-01

    In France nuclear industry is from far the industrial sector that has set the most numerous commissions that allow a dialogue with the public in order to favor transparency. There are 4 local structures of information: -)there are 38 Local Committees of Information (CLI) associated with nuclear facilities, -) the Information Committees (CI) associated with secret nuclear facilities, -) the Follow-up Committees (CSS) for facilities dedicated to the processing of wastes, and the Committees for the prevention of industrial pollution (SPPPI). These committees involve numerous actors: public service, industrialists, supervisory authorities, elected representatives, employee representatives, members of associations and residents living nearby. Since 2000, 10 national public hearings around the 'atom' have been organized by the CNDP (National Commission for Public Consultation). Most actors of the nuclear industry allow residents living nearby to visit their installations, EDF ranks 3 as the company most visited with 400.000 people a year. Following the nuclear example the French chemical industry progressively moves toward more transparency. (A.C.)

  17. Effects of Worked Examples, Example-Problem Pairs, and Problem-Example Pairs Compared to Problem Solving

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Gog, Tamara; Kester, Liesbeth; Paas, Fred

    2010-01-01

    Van Gog, T., Kester, L., & Paas, F. (2010, August). Effects of worked examples, example-problem pairs, and problem-example pairs compared to problem solving. Paper presented at the Biannual EARLI SIG meeting of Instructional design and Learning and instruction with computers, Ulm, Germany.

  18. Examples of algebrae with equal dynamic entropy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Narnhofer, H.

    1988-01-01

    For given dynamical entropy we construct uncountably many examples of corresponding algebras, some of them are quantum K systems, whereas at least one explicit example is not. Consequences for cluster properties are studied. 12 refs. (Author)

  19. Simple Perturbation Example for Quantum Chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodfriend, P. L.

    1985-01-01

    Presents a simple example that illustrates various aspects of the Rayleigh-Schrodinger perturbation theory. The example is a particularly good one because it is straightforward and can be compared with both the exact solution and with experimental data. (JN)

  20. Social engineering attack examples, templates and scenarios

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Mouton, Francois

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available that are representative of real-world examples, whilst still being general enough to encompass several different real-world examples. The proposed social engineering attack templates cover all three types of communication, namely bidirectional communication...

  1. Designing example-critiquing interaction

    OpenAIRE

    Faltings, Boi; Pu, Pearl; Torrens, Marc; Viappiani, Paolo

    2004-01-01

    In many practical scenarios, users are faced with the problem of choosing the most preferred outcome from a large set of possibilities. As people are unable to sift through them manually, decisions support systems are often used to automatically find the optimal solution. A crucial requirement for such a system is to have an accurate model of the user's preferences. Studies have shown that people are usually unable to accurately state their preferences up front, but are greatly helped by seei...

  2. 26 CFR 1.1368-3 - Examples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 11 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Examples. 1.1368-3 Section 1.1368-3 Internal... TAXES Small Business Corporations and Their Shareholders § 1.1368-3 Examples. The principles of §§ 1.1368-1 and 1.1368-2 are illustrated by the examples below. In each example Corporation S is a calendar...

  3. 26 CFR 7.465-5 - Examples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 14 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Examples. 7.465-5 Section 7.465-5 Internal... INCOME TAX REGULATIONS UNDER THE TAX REFORM ACT OF 1976 § 7.465-5 Examples. The provisions of § 7.465-1 and § 7.465-2 may be illustrated by the following examples: Example (1). J and K, as equal partners...

  4. 26 CFR 20.2013-6 - Examples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 14 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Examples. 20.2013-6 Section 20.2013-6 Internal...; ESTATES OF DECEDENTS DYING AFTER AUGUST 16, 1954 Credits Against Tax § 20.2013-6 Examples. The application of §§ 20.2013-1 to 20.2013-5 may be further illustrated by the following examples: Example (1). (a) A...

  5. Energy management. Thermal engineering analyses of complex processes. Bilancing, modelling and optimization using the production of paper as an example; Energiemanagement. Waermetechnische Analyse komplexer Prozesse. Bilanzieren, Modellieren und Optimieren am Beispiel der Papierherstellung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Treppe, Konrad (ed.); Dixit, Onkar; Mollekopf, Norbert [Technische Univ. Dresden (Germany). Lehrstuhl fuer Thermische Verfahrenstechnik; Kuitunen, Stefan [Fraunhofer Institut fuer Verkehrs- und Infrastruktursysteme, Dresden (Germany); Pinnau, Sebastian [Technische Univ. Dresden (Germany). Professur fuer Technische Thermodynamik; Schinke, Lars [Technische Univ. Dresden (Germany). Professur fuer Gebaeudeenergietechnik und Waermeversorgung; Kamischke, Robert

    2013-08-01

    The energy optimization of complex production processes should be continuous and anchored in everyday operation. Since the year 1950, more than 70 % of the energy conservation could be achieved for example by heat recovery in the manufacture of paper. However, with decreasing temperature it is becoming more complex to use the heat from the exhaust air sensibly. The contribution under consideration supports practitioners in the energy management with regard to more efficient production by improving the energy efficiency. Furthermore, facilities can be made more independent from the uncertain market environment. Smart metering as a method of thermal engineering analysis of complex processes is clearly illustrated by practical examples and is an aid in making investment decisions for or against measures to save energy.

  6. Developing a model system for simulation of changes induced by more effective circular flow concepts in industry and energy management. Systems technology and economic modelling aspects shown with the example of the materials flow in the paper industry; Entwicklung eines Modellsystems zur Simulation der energiewirtschaftlichen und strukturellen Veraenderungen einer verstaerkten Kreislaufwirtschaft. Systemtechnische und oekonomische Modellierung am Beispiel des Stoffstroms 'Papier'

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nathani, C.

    2000-02-01

    The impacts of a long-term change from our present industrial society to an economy based on circular flow concepts approaching the characteristics of the concept of sustainable development have to be taken into account in macroeconomic modelling as well, or else there is no appropriate basis for examination and assessment of the effects of various resource management policy options on the economy. One possible methodological approach is to link single, process-oriented models of sectors of the industry with input-output models and macroeconomic models. This study presents an approach using as an example the pulp and paper industry of Germany, covering the period from 1995 until 2020. The results are found to improve the methodological perspective between the process models and the MIS model of the family of IKARUS models and also offer an additional advantage in that they may serve as a data source for other input-output models and macroeconomic modelling. (orig./CB) [German] Diese Einfluesse eines langfristigen Wandels von einer heutigen Industriegesellschaft zu einer Kreislaufwirtschaft mit Merkmalen einer nachhaltigen Entwicklung muessen sich auch in den Strukturen makrooekonomischer Modelle wiederfinden, um die Auswirkungen verschiedener ressourcenpolitischer Optionen auf die Wirtschaft angemessen pruefen zu koennen. Ein methodischer Weg zu dieser Aufgabe ist die Verknuepfung einzelner prozessorientierter Branchenmodelle mit Input-Output-Modellen und makrooekonomischen Modellen. Der vorliegende Bericht will hierzu einen Baustein am Beispiel der Zellstoff- und Papierindustrie fuer die Bundesrepublik Deutschland fuer die Zeitperiode 1995-2020 beitragen. Diese Ergebnisse verbessern nicht nur die methodische Perspektive zwischen den Prozessmodellen und dem MIS-Modell der IKARUS-Modellfamilie, sondern koennen als Erfahrungs- und Datenquelle fuer andere Input-Output-Modelle und makrooekonomische Modelle genutzt werden. (orig.)

  7. 14 CFR Appendix - Example of SIFL Adjustment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Example of SIFL Adjustment Aeronautics and Space OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (AVIATION PROCEEDINGS) POLICY STATEMENTS... taxes for rate purposes. Pt. 399, Subpt. C, Example Example of SIFL Adjustment [Methodology for...

  8. 48 CFR 9.508 - Examples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... CONTRACTOR QUALIFICATIONS Organizational and Consultant Conflicts of Interest 9.508 Examples. The examples in paragraphs (a) through (i) following illustrate situations in which questions concerning organizational... (e.g., fire control, navigation, etc.). In this example, the system is the powerplant, not the...

  9. 26 CFR 1.851-5 - Examples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... two or more issuers which it controls. Example 2. Investment Company V at the close of a particular... controls and which are engaged in related trades or businesses. Example 4. Investment Company Y at the... 26 Internal Revenue 9 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Examples. 1.851-5 Section 1.851-5 Internal...

  10. 48 CFR 225.504 - Evaluation examples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Evaluation examples. 225.504 Section 225.504 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEFENSE ACQUISITION REGULATIONS SYSTEM... 225.504 Evaluation examples. For examples that illustrate the evaluation procedures in 225.502(c)(ii...

  11. 48 CFR 25.504 - Evaluation Examples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Evaluation Examples. 25... PROGRAMS FOREIGN ACQUISITION Evaluating Foreign Offers-Supply Contracts 25.504 Evaluation Examples. The following examples illustrate the application of the evaluation procedures in 25.502 and 25.503. The...

  12. 45 CFR 1170.13 - Illustrative examples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Illustrative examples. 1170.13 Section 1170.13... ASSISTED PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES Discrimination Prohibited § 1170.13 Illustrative examples. (a) The following examples will illustrate the application of the foregoing provisions to some of the activities...

  13. eBay's Business Format: An example of Participatory Democracy ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    eBay's Business Format: An example of Participatory Democracy? ... on it 'not being the traditional auctioneer' hold in light of its business model and the ... from the larger cloud of crimes which can be perpetrated by such a business model.

  14. The Thermodynamics of Internal Combustion Engines: Examples of Insights

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jerald A. Caton

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available A major goal of the development of internal combustion (IC engines continues to be higher performance and efficiencies. A major aspect of achieving higher performance and efficiencies is based on fundamental thermodynamics. Both the first and second laws of thermodynamics provide strategies for and limits to the thermal efficiencies of engines. The current work provides three examples of the insights that thermodynamics provides to the performance and efficiencies of an IC engine. The first example evaluates low heat rejection engine concepts, and, based on thermodynamics, demonstrates the difficulty of this concept for increasing efficiencies. The second example compares and contrasts the thermodynamics associated with external and internal exhaust gas dilution. Finally, the third example starts with a discussion of the Otto cycle analysis and explains why this is an incorrect model for the IC engine. An important thermodynamic property that is responsible for many of the observed effects is specific heat.

  15. SAFEGUARDS ENVELOPE: PREVIOUS WORK AND EXAMPLES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Metcalf, Richard; Bevill, Aaron; Charlton, William; Bean, Robert

    2008-01-01

    The future expansion of nuclear power will require not just electricity production but fuel cycle facilities such as fuel fabrication and reprocessing plants. As large reprocessing facilities are built in various states, they must be built and operated in a manner to minimize the risk of nuclear proliferation. Process monitoring has returned to the spotlight as an added measure that can increase confidence in the safeguards of special nuclear material (SNM). Process monitoring can be demonstrated to lengthen the allowable inventory period by reducing accountancy requirements, and to reduce the false positive indications. The next logical step is the creation of a Safeguards Envelope, a set of operational parameters and models to maximize anomaly detection and inventory period by process monitoring while minimizing operator impact and false positive rates. A brief example of a rudimentary Safeguards Envelope is presented, and shown to detect synthetic diversions overlaying a measured processing plant data set. This demonstration Safeguards Envelope is shown to increase the confidence that no SNM has been diverted with minimal operator impact, even though it is based on an information sparse environment. While the foundation on which a full Safeguards Envelope can be built has been presented in historical demonstrations of process monitoring, several requirements remain yet unfulfilled. Future work will require reprocessing plant transient models, inclusion of 'non-traditional' operating data, and exploration of new methods of identifying subtle events in transient processes

  16. Statistics of Parameter Estimates: A Concrete Example

    KAUST Repository

    Aguilar, Oscar

    2015-01-01

    © 2015 Society for Industrial and Applied Mathematics. Most mathematical models include parameters that need to be determined from measurements. The estimated values of these parameters and their uncertainties depend on assumptions made about noise levels, models, or prior knowledge. But what can we say about the validity of such estimates, and the influence of these assumptions? This paper is concerned with methods to address these questions, and for didactic purposes it is written in the context of a concrete nonlinear parameter estimation problem. We will use the results of a physical experiment conducted by Allmaras et al. at Texas A&M University [M. Allmaras et al., SIAM Rev., 55 (2013), pp. 149-167] to illustrate the importance of validation procedures for statistical parameter estimation. We describe statistical methods and data analysis tools to check the choices of likelihood and prior distributions, and provide examples of how to compare Bayesian results with those obtained by non-Bayesian methods based on different types of assumptions. We explain how different statistical methods can be used in complementary ways to improve the understanding of parameter estimates and their uncertainties.

  17. Neutron electric dipole moment and extension of the standard model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oshimo, Noriyuki

    2001-01-01

    A nonvanishing value for the electric dipole moment (EDM) of the neutron is a prominent signature for CP violation. The EDM induced by the Kobayashi-Maskawa mechanism of the standard model (SM) has a small magnitude and its detection will be very difficult. However, since baryon asymmetry of the universe cannot be accounted for by the SM, there should exist some other source of CP violation, which may generate a large magnitude for the EDM. One of the most hopeful candidates for physics beyond the SM is the supersymmetric standard model, which contains such sources of CP violation. This model suggests that the EDM has a magnitude not much smaller than the present experimental bounds. Progress in measuring the EDM provides very interesting information about extension of the SM. (author)

  18. Natural releases from contaminated groundwater, Example Reference Biosphere 2B

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simon, I. [CIEMAT/PIRA, Avda Complutense 22, 28040 Madrid (Spain)]. E-mail: isc@csn.es; Naito, M. [Nuclear Waste Management Organization of Japan (NUMO), 4-1-23 Shiba, Minato-ku, Tokyo, 108-0014 (Japan); Thorne, M.C. [Mike Thorne and Associates Limited, Abbotsleigh, Kebroyd Mount, Ripponden, Halifax, West Yorkshire HX6 3JA (United Kingdom); Walke, R. [Enviros QuantiSci, Building D5, Culham Science Centre, Culham, Oxfordshire OX14 3DB (United Kingdom)

    2005-07-01

    Safety assessment is a tool which, by means of an iterative procedure, allows the evaluation of the performance of a disposal system and its potential impact on human health and the environment. Radionuclides from a deep geological disposal facility may not reach the surface environment until many tens of thousands of years after closure of the facility. The BIOMASS Programme on BIOsphere Modelling and ASSessment developed Examples of 'Reference Biospheres' to illustrate the use of the methodology and to demonstrate how biosphere models can be developed and justified as being fit for purpose. The practical examples are also intended to be useful in their own right. The Example Reference Biosphere 2B presented here involves the consideration of alternative types of geosphere-biosphere interfaces and calculation of doses to members of hypothetical exposure groups arising from a wide range of exposure pathways within agricultural and semi-natural environments, but without allowing for evolution of the corresponding biosphere system. The example presented can be used as a generic analysis in some situations although it was developed around a relatively specific conceptual model. It should be a useful practical example, but the above numerical results are not intended to be understood as prescribed biosphere 'conversion factors'.

  19. Natural releases from contaminated groundwater, Example Reference Biosphere 2B

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simon, I.; Naito, M.; Thorne, M.C.; Walke, R.

    2005-01-01

    Safety assessment is a tool which, by means of an iterative procedure, allows the evaluation of the performance of a disposal system and its potential impact on human health and the environment. Radionuclides from a deep geological disposal facility may not reach the surface environment until many tens of thousands of years after closure of the facility. The BIOMASS Programme on BIOsphere Modelling and ASSessment developed Examples of 'Reference Biospheres' to illustrate the use of the methodology and to demonstrate how biosphere models can be developed and justified as being fit for purpose. The practical examples are also intended to be useful in their own right. The Example Reference Biosphere 2B presented here involves the consideration of alternative types of geosphere-biosphere interfaces and calculation of doses to members of hypothetical exposure groups arising from a wide range of exposure pathways within agricultural and semi-natural environments, but without allowing for evolution of the corresponding biosphere system. The example presented can be used as a generic analysis in some situations although it was developed around a relatively specific conceptual model. It should be a useful practical example, but the above numerical results are not intended to be understood as prescribed biosphere 'conversion factors'

  20. Miro V4.0: example book

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morice, O.; Ribeyre, X.; Donnat, Ph.; Porcher, Th.; Treimany, C.; Nassiet, D.; Gallice, G.; Rivoire, V.; L'hullier, N.

    2000-01-01

    This manual presents an ensemble of examples related to the use of the Miro code. It can be used for leaning how to perform simulations with Miro. Furthermore the presented examples are used for checking that new routines added in Miro do not perturb the efficiency of the older ones. In that purpose most of the capabilities of Miro are covered by the examples. (authors)