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Sample records for modeling ethanol present

  1. Presentation to the Manitoba ethanol advisory panel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    The Manitoba Chambers of Commerce, representing the entire spectrum of businesses from all regions of Manitoba, has long advocated for alternative fuels based on agricultural products. Some of the major questions that must be answered in this debate on the ethanol industry in Manitoba are: (1) What are the benefits of a vibrant ethanol industry? (2) What are the facts about ethanol, and are those facts getting out to the public? (3) and How do we foster a vibrant ethanol industry in Manitoba? This document places the emphasis on the third issue raised. The Manitoba Chambers of Commerce endorses the idea of a mandated blend of ethanol. It also believes that Manitoba should maintain its gasoline tax-gasohol preference. The Manitoba Chambers of Commerce recommends against the government controlling the size and number of ethanol facilities in the province. It also recommends that funding not be afforded to the creation of new programs designed for the specific purpose of providing financial assistance to the ethanol industry. Government awareness campaigns should be limited to issues within the public interest, dealing with environmental and consumer issues and benefits. The government should commit to the enhancement of the vitality of new generation cooperatives (NGCs) in Manitoba. Emphasis by the government should be placed on ensuring that the required infrastructure and partnerships are in place to foster the development and commercialization of innovations in this field. The Manitoba Chambers of Commerce recommended that the provincial government facilitate partnerships through the sponsoring of provincial conferences, while pursuing its partnership efforts with the federal and other provincial governments

  2. Chronobiology of ethanol: animal models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenwasser, Alan M

    2015-06-01

    Clinical and epidemiological observations have revealed that alcohol abuse and alcoholism are associated with widespread disruptions in sleep and other circadian biological rhythms. As with other psychiatric disorders, animal models have been very useful in efforts to better understand the cause and effect relationships underlying the largely correlative human data. This review summarizes the experimental findings indicating bidirectional interactions between alcohol (ethanol) consumption and the circadian timing system, emphasizing behavioral studies conducted in the author's laboratory. Together with convergent evidence from multiple laboratories, the work summarized here establishes that ethanol intake (or administration) alters fundamental properties of the underlying circadian pacemaker. In turn, circadian disruption induced by either environmental or genetic manipulations can alter voluntary ethanol intake. These reciprocal interactions may create a vicious cycle that contributes to the downward spiral of alcohol and drug addiction. In the future, such studies may lead to the development of chronobiologically based interventions to prevent relapse and effectively mitigate some of the societal burden associated with such disorders. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Model Predictive Control for Ethanol Steam Reformers

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Mingming

    2014-01-01

    This thesis firstly proposes a new approach of modelling an ethanol steam reformer (ESR) for producing pure hydrogen. Hydrogen has obvious benefits as an alternative for feeding the proton exchange membrane fuel cells (PEMFCs) to produce electricity. However, an important drawback is that the hydrogen distribution and storage have high cost. So the ESR is regarded as a way to overcome these difficulties. Ethanol is currently considered as a promising energy source under the res...

  4. Quantifying second generation ethanol inhibition: Design of Experiments approach and kinetic model development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneiderman, Steven J; Johnson, Roger W; Menkhaus, Todd J; Gilcrease, Patrick C

    2015-03-01

    While softwoods represent a potential feedstock for second generation ethanol production, compounds present in their hydrolysates can inhibit fermentation. In this study, a novel Design of Experiments (DoE) approach was used to identify significant inhibitory effects on Saccharomyces cerevisiae D5A for the purpose of guiding kinetic model development. Although acetic acid, furfural and 5-hydroxymethyl furfural (HMF) were present at potentially inhibitory levels, initial factorial experiments only identified ethanol as a significant rate inhibitor. It was hypothesized that high ethanol levels masked the effects of other inhibitors, and a subsequent factorial design without ethanol found significant effects for all other compounds. When these non-ethanol effects were accounted for in the kinetic model, R¯(2) was significantly improved over an ethanol-inhibition only model (R¯(2)=0.80 vs. 0.76). In conclusion, when ethanol masking effects are removed, DoE is a valuable tool to identify significant non-ethanol inhibitors and guide kinetic model development. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Theory and modelling of ethanol evaporative losses during batch alcoholic fermentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williams, L.A.

    1983-06-01

    Evaporative loss of ethanol during batch alcoholic fermentation has been modeled, employing modern concepts of kinetics and stoichiometry and the best available phase equilibrium thermodynamic data. Theoretical results demonstrate that loss is proportional to the second power of the sugar concentration utilized and that the logarithm of loss is proportional to reciprocal absolute temperature. Good agreement is demonstrated among the theory, the numerical model, and the literature results. A master correlation for predicting ethanol loss is presented.

  6. Maytenus erythroxylon Reissek (Celastraceae) ethanol extract presents antidiarrheal activity via antimotility and antisecretory mechanisms

    OpenAIRE

    Formiga, Rodrigo de Oliveira; Quirino, Zelma Glebya Maciel; Diniz, Margareth de F?tima Formiga Melo; Marinho, Alexsandro Fernandes; Tavares, Josean Fechine; Batista, Le?nia Maria

    2017-01-01

    AIM To investigate the acute toxicity, phytochemical profile, antidiarrheal activity and mechanisms of action of Maytenus erythroxylon (M. erythroxylon) ethanol extract. METHODS A castor oil-induced diarrhea model was used to evaluate antidiarrheal activity. Intestinal transit and gastric emptying protocols were used to evaluate a possible antimotility effect. KATP channels, nitric oxide, presynaptic ?2-adrenergic and tissue adrenergic receptors were investigated to uncover antimotility mecha...

  7. A layer model of ethanol partitioning into lipid membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nizza, David T; Gawrisch, Klaus

    2009-06-01

    The effect of membrane composition on ethanol partitioning into lipid bilayers was assessed by headspace gas chromatography. A series of model membranes with different compositions have been investigated. Membranes were exposed to a physiological ethanol concentration of 20 mmol/l. The concentration of membranes was 20 wt% which roughly corresponds to values found in tissue. Partitioning depended on the chemical nature of polar groups at the lipid/water interface. Compared to phosphatidylcholine, lipids with headgroups containing phosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylserine, and sphingomyelin showed enhanced partitioning while headgroups containing phosphatidylethanolamine resulted in a lower partition coefficient. The molar partition coefficient was independent of a membrane's hydrophobic volume. This observation is in agreement with our previously published NMR results which showed that ethanol resides almost exclusively within the membrane/water interface. At an ethanol concentration of 20 mmol/l in water, ethanol concentrations at the lipid/water interface are in the range from 30-15 mmol/l, corresponding to one ethanol molecule per 100-200 lipids.

  8. Experimental characterization and modeling of an ethanol steam reformer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mandø, Matthias; Bovo, Mirko; Nielsen, Mads Pagh

    2006-01-01

    This work describes the characterization of an ethanol reforming system for a high temperature PEM fuel cell system. High temperature PEM fuel cells are well suited for operation on reformate gas due to the superior CO tolerance compared with low temperature PEM. Steam reforming of liquid biofuels...... (ethanol, bio-diesel etc.) represents sustainable sources of hydrogen for micro Combined Heat and Power (CHP) production as well as Auxiliary Power Units (APUs). The system was experimentally characterized and theoretically modelled using a 1-dimensional system model implemented in MATLAB...

  9. Study of growth kinetic and modeling of ethanol production by ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    GREGORY

    2011-12-16

    Dec 16, 2011 ... oxygen content, octane number and reduction of CO emission (Cardona et al., 2010). Furthermore, E10 (10% ... networks and chemical reaction (Lee, 2008). On the con- trary, structured kinetic models are ... CO2 evolution rate (Sato and Yoshizawa, 1988). In this study, batch ethanol fermentation of glucose ...

  10. A mouse model of prenatal ethanol exposure using a voluntary drinking paradigm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allan, Andrea M; Chynoweth, Julie; Tyler, Lani A; Caldwell, Kevin K

    2003-12-01

    The incidence of fetal alcohol spectrum disorders is estimated to be as high as 1 in 100 births. Efforts to better understand the basis of prenatal ethanol-induced impairments in brain functioning, and the mechanisms by which ethanol produces these defects, will rely on the use of animal models of fetal alcohol exposure (FAE). Using a saccharin-sweetened alcohol solution, we developed a free-choice, moderate alcohol access model of prenatal alcohol exposure. Stable drinking of a saccharin solution (0.066%) was established in female mice. Ethanol then was added to the saccharin in increasing concentrations (2%, 5%, 10% w/v) every 2 days. Water was always available, and mice consumed standard pellet chow. Control mice drank saccharin solution without ethanol. After a stable baseline of ethanol consumption (14 g/kg/day) was obtained, females were impregnated. Ethanol consumption continued throughout pregnancy and then was decreased to 0% in a step-wise fashion over a period of 6 days after pups were delivered. Characterization of the model included measurements of maternal drinking patterns, blood alcohol levels, food consumption, litter size, pup weight, pup retrieval times for the dams, and effects of FAE on performance in fear-conditioned learning and novelty exploration. Maternal food consumption, maternal care, and litter size and number were all found to be similar for the alcohol-exposed and saccharin control animals. FAE did not alter locomotor activity in an open field but did increase the time spent inspecting a novel object introduced into the open field. FAE mice displayed reduced contextual fear when trained using a delay fear conditioning procedure. The mouse model should be a useful tool in testing hypotheses about the neural mechanisms underlying the learning deficits present in fetal alcohol spectrum disorders. Moreover, a mouse prenatal ethanol model should increase the opportunity to use the power of genetically defined and genetically altered mouse

  11. Percutaneous Salivary Gland Ablation using Ethanol in a Rat Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emma Burch

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Sialorrhea is a common health and psychosocial problem for children with neuromuscular dysfunction secondary to a variety of disorders such as cerebral palsy. Current accepted treatments include the injection of botulinum toxin into the submandibular glands for temporary symptom relief. The purpose of this study is to demonstrate the feasibility of percutaneous ethanol injection for longer lasting salivary gland ablation in an animal model. Material and Methods: Twenty rats were used in this study. In each rat, 98% ethanol was injected into the right submandibular gland under ultrasound guidance. No intervention was performed on the left gland, which served as the control. Ten rats were sacrificed and glands evaluated at three weeks, with the remaining 10 rats sacrificed and evaluated at three months. Unpaired, 1-tailed T-tests were used to analyse the data. Results: Ethanol injections induced a significant and sustained reduction in salivary gland size. Treated glands were 41% smaller by mass than untreated controls in the 10 rats sacrificed at three weeks (P < 0.001. Treated glands were 43% smaller by mass than untreated controls in the 10 rats sacrificed at three months (P < 0.001. Qualitative histologic analysis demonstrated extensive parenchymal damage, inflammation, and fibrosis at both three week and three month time points. Conclusions: Using a rat model, we demonstrated dramatic and sustained submandibular gland damage after percutaneous injection of ethanol.

  12. The effect of ethanol on reversal learning in honey bees (Apis mellifera anatolica): Response inhibition in a social insect model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abramson, Charles I; Craig, David Philip Arthur; Varnon, Christopher A; Wells, Harrington

    2015-05-01

    We investigated the effects of ethanol on reversal learning in honey bees (Apis mellifera anatolica). The rationale behind the present experiment was to determine the species generality of the effect of ethanol on response inhibition. Subjects were originally trained to associate either a cinnamon or lavender odor with a sucrose feeding before a reversal of the conditioned stimuli. We administered 15 μL of ethanol at varying doses (0%, 2.5%, 5%, 10%, or 20%) according to group assignment. Ethanol was either administered 5 min before original discrimination training or 5 min before the stimuli reversal. We analyzed the effects of these three manipulations via a recently developed individual analysis that eschews aggregate assessments in favor of a model that conceptualizes learning as occurring in individual organisms. We measured responding in the presence of conditioned stimuli associated with a sucrose feeding, responding in the presence of conditioned stimuli associated with distilled water, and responding in the presence of the unconditioned stimulus (sucrose). Our analyses revealed the ethanol dose manipulation lowered responding for all three measures at increasingly higher doses, which suggests ethanol served as a general behavioral suppressor. Consistent with previous ethanol reversal literature, we found administering ethanol before the original discrimination phase or before the reversal produced inconsistent patterns of responding at varying ethanol doses. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. A mathematical model for ethanol fermentation from oil palm trunk sap using Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sultana, S.; Jamil, Norazaliza Mohd; Saleh, E. A. M.; Yousuf, A.; Faizal, Che Ku M.

    2017-09-01

    This paper presents a mathematical model and solution strategy of ethanol fermentation for oil palm trunk (OPT) sap by considering the effect of substrate limitation, substrate inhibition product inhibition and cell death. To investigate the effect of cell death rate on the fermentation process we extended and improved the current mathematical model. The kinetic parameters of the model were determined by nonlinear regression using maximum likelihood function. The temporal profiles of sugar, cell and ethanol concentrations were modelled by a set of ordinary differential equations, which were solved numerically by the 4th order Runge-Kutta method. The model was validated by the experimental data and the agreement between the model and experimental results demonstrates that the model is reasonable for prediction of the dynamic behaviour of the fermentation process.

  14. CCL2-ethanol interactions and hippocampal synaptic protein expression in a transgenic mouse model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donna eGruol

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Chronic exposure to ethanol produces a number of detrimental effects on behavior. Neuroadaptive changes in brain structure or function underlie these behavioral changes and may be transient or persistent in nature. Central to the functional changes are alterations in the biology of neuronal and glial cells of the brain. Recent data show that ethanol induces glial cells of the brain to produce elevated levels of neuroimmune factors including CCL2, a key innate immune chemokine. Depending on the conditions of ethanol exposure, the upregulated levels of CCL2 can be transient or persistent and outlast the period of ethanol exposure. Importantly, results indicate that the upregulated levels of CCL2 may lead to CCL2-ethanol interactions that mediate or regulate the effects of ethanol on the brain. Glial cells are in close association with neurons and regulate many neuronal functions. Therefore, effects of ethanol on glial cells may underlie some of the effects of ethanol on neurons. To investigate this possibility, we are studying the effects of chronic ethanol on hippocampal synaptic function in a transgenic mouse model that expresses elevated levels of CCL2 in the brain through enhanced glial expression, a situation know to occur in alcoholics. Both CCL2 and ethanol have been reported to alter synaptic function in the hippocampus. In the current study, we determined if interactions are evident between CCL2 and ethanol at level of hippocampal synaptic proteins. Two ethanol exposure paradigms were used; the first involved ethanol exposure by drinking and the second involved ethanol exposure in a paradigm that combines drinking plus ethanol vapor. The first paradigm does not produce dependence on ethanol, whereas the second paradigm is commonly used to produce ethanol dependence. Results show modest effects of both ethanol exposure paradigms on the level of synaptic proteins in the hippocampus of CCL2 transgenic mice compared with their non

  15. A model-based parametric analysis of a direct ethanol polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andreadis, G.M.; Podias, A.K.M.; Tsiakaras, P.E. [Department of Mechanical and Industrial Engineering, School of Engineering, University of Thessaly, Pedion Areos, 383 34, Volos (Greece)

    2009-10-20

    In the present work, a model-based parametric analysis of the performance of a direct ethanol polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell (DE-PEMFC) is conducted with the purpose to investigate the effect of several parameters on the cell's operation. The analysis is based on a previously validated one-dimensional mathematical model that describes the operation of a DE-PEMFC in steady state. More precisely, the effect of several operational and structural parameters on (i) the ethanol crossover rate from the anode to the cathode side of the cell, (ii) the parasitic current generation (mixed potential formation) and (iii) the total cell performance is investigated. According to the model predictions it was found that the increase of the ethanol feed concentration leads to higher ethanol crossover rates, higher parasitic currents and higher mixed potential values resulting in the decrease of the cell's power density. However there is an optimum ethanol feed concentration (approximately 1.0 mol L{sup -1}) for which the cell power density reaches its highest value. The platinum (Pt) loading of the anode and the cathode catalytic layers affects strongly the cell performance. Higher values of Pt loading of the catalytic layers increase the specific reaction surface area resulting in higher cell power densities. An increase of the anode catalyst loading compared to an equal one of the cathode catalyst loading has greater impact on the cell's power density. Another interesting finding is that increasing the diffusion layers' porosity up to a certain extent, improves the cell power density despite the fact that the parasitic current increases. This is explained by the fact that the reactants' concentrations over the catalysts are increased, leading to lower activation overpotential values, which are the main source of the total cell overpotentials. Moreover, the use of a thicker membrane leads to lower ethanol crossover rate, lower parasitic current and

  16. Model predictive control for ethanol steam reformers with membrane separation

    OpenAIRE

    Serra, Maria; Ocampo-Martínez, Carlos; Li, Mingming; Llorca Piqué, Jordi

    2017-01-01

    © 2017. This manuscript version is made available under the CC-BY-NC-ND 4.0 license http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/ This paper focuses on the dynamic modelling and the predictive control of an ethanol steam reformer (ESR) with Pdsingle bondAg membrane separation stage for the generation of pure hydrogen. Hydrogen purity necessary to feed a proton exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) is required. A non-linear dynamic model of the ESR is developed together with a procedure f...

  17. Pervaporation : membranes and models for the dehydration of ethanol

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spitzen, Johannes Wilhelmus Franciscus

    1988-01-01

    In this thesis the dehydration of ethanol/water mixtures by pervaporation using homogeneous membranes is studied. Both the general transport mechanism as well as the development of highly selective membranes for ethanol/water separation are investigated.

  18. Dynamic modeling and controllability analysis of an ethanol reformer for fuel cell application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia, Vanesa M.; Serra, Maria; Riera, Jordi [Institut de Robotica i Informatica Industrial (CSIC-UPC), Llorens i Artigas 4-6, 08028 Barcelona (Spain); Lopez, Eduardo [Institut de Tecniques Energetiques, Universitat Politecnica de Catalunya, Diagonal 647, ed. ETSEIB, 08028 Barcelona (Spain); Planta Piloto de Ingenieria Quimica (CONICET-UNS), Camino de la Carrindanga km7, 8000 Bahia Blanca (Argentina); Llorca, Jordi [Institut de Tecniques Energetiques, Universitat Politecnica de Catalunya, Diagonal 647, ed. ETSEIB, 08028 Barcelona (Spain)

    2010-09-15

    This work presents a controllability analysis of a low temperature ethanol reformer based on a cobalt catalyst for fuel cell application. The study is based on a non-linear dynamic model of a reformer which operates in three separate stages: ethanol dehydrogenation to acetaldehyde and hydrogen, acetaldehyde steam reforming, and water-gas-shift reaction. The controllability analysis is focused on the rapid dynamics due to mass balances and is based on a linearization of the complex non-linear model of the reformer. RGA, CN and MRI analysis tools are applied to the linear model suggesting that a good performance can be obtained with decentralized control for frequencies up to 0.1 rad s{sup -1}. (author)

  19. Modelling and simulation of a direct ethanol fuel cell considering multistep electrochemical reactions, transport processes and mixed potentials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meyer, Marco [Fraunhofer Institute for Solar Energy Systems ISE, Heidenhofstr. 2, 79110 Freiburg (Germany); Melke, Julia, E-mail: julia.melke@gmail.co [Fraunhofer Institute for Solar Energy Systems ISE, Heidenhofstr. 2, 79110 Freiburg (Germany); Gerteisen, Dietmar [Fraunhofer Institute for Solar Energy Systems ISE, Heidenhofstr. 2, 79110 Freiburg (Germany)

    2011-04-15

    Highlights: A DEFC model considering the mixed potential formation at cathode and anode. The low cell voltage at open circuit is due to the parasitic reaction of ethanol and oxygen. Under load, only the parasitic oxidation of ethanol is significant. Inhibiting the parasitic reactions can approximately double the current density. - Abstract: In this work a one-dimensional mathematical model of a direct ethanol fuel cell (DEFC) is presented. The electrochemical oxidation of ethanol in the catalyst layers is described by several reaction steps leading to surface coverage with adsorbed intermediates (CH{sub 3}CO, CO, CH{sub 3} and OH) and to the final products acetaldehyde, acetic acid and CO{sub 2}. A bifunctional reaction mechanism is assumed for the activation of water on a binary catalyst favouring the further oxidation of adsorbates blocking active catalyst sites. The chemical reactions are highly coupled with the charge and reactant transport. The model accounts for crossover of the reactants through the membrane leading to the phenomenon of cathode and anode mixed potentials due to the parasitic oxidation and reduction of ethanol and oxygen, respectively. Polarisation curves of a DEFC were recorded for various ethanol feed concentrations and were used as reference data for the simulation. Based on one set of model parameters the characteristic of electronic and protonic potential, the relative surface coverage and the parasitic current densities in the catalyst layers were studied.

  20. Starch hydrolysis modeling: application to fuel ethanol production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murthy, Ganti S; Johnston, David B; Rausch, Kent D; Tumbleson, M E; Singh, Vijay

    2011-09-01

    Efficiency of the starch hydrolysis in the dry grind corn process is a determining factor for overall conversion of starch to ethanol. A model, based on a molecular approach, was developed to simulate structure and hydrolysis of starch. Starch structure was modeled based on a cluster model of amylopectin. Enzymatic hydrolysis of amylose and amylopectin was modeled using a Monte Carlo simulation method. The model included the effects of process variables such as temperature, pH, enzyme activity and enzyme dose. Pure starches from wet milled waxy and high-amylose corn hybrids and ground yellow dent corn were hydrolyzed to validate the model. Standard deviations in the model predictions for glucose concentration and DE values after saccharification were less than ± 0.15% (w/v) and ± 0.35%, respectively. Correlation coefficients for model predictions and experimental values were 0.60 and 0.91 for liquefaction and 0.84 and 0.71 for saccharification of amylose and amylopectin, respectively. Model predictions for glucose (R2 = 0.69-0.79) and DP4+ (R2 = 0.8-0.68) were more accurate than the maltotriose and maltose for hydrolysis of high-amylose and waxy corn starch. For yellow dent corn, simulation predictions for glucose were accurate (R2 > 0.73) indicating that the model can be used to predict the glucose concentrations during starch hydrolysis.

  1. Batch extraction modeling of jatropha oil using ethanol and n-hexane

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Drummond, Alessandro Araujo; Martins, Marcio Aredes [Universidade Federal de Vicosa (DEA/UFV), MG (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Agricola], E-mail: aredes@ufv.br; Santos, Karine Tennis dos [Universidade Federal de Vicosa (DEQ/UFV), MG (Brazil). Dept. de Quimica; Carneiro, Angelica Cassia de Oliveira [Universidade Federal de Vicosa (DFT/UFV), MG (Brazil). Dept. de Fitotecnia; Perez, Ronaldo [Universidade Federal de Vicosa (DTA/UFV), MG (Brazil). Dept. de Tecnologia de Alimentos

    2008-07-01

    Jatropha curcas (Linnaeus.) has been considered as a promising alternative for rainfall regimes from 200 to over 1500 mm per annum. The seed and the oil have many applications, such as purgative, in the treatment of skin infections and rheumatism, in the control of insects, mollusks and fungi, for diesel engines lubricants, in soap and paint production, and mainly for biodiesel production. New technologies should be developed to accomplish the oil production in large scale, since the Brazilian Biodiesel Program stimulates the oilseeds productions. In large scale oil production, the oil is obtained using solvent extraction. The solvent widely used for oil extraction is the n-hexane mainly because of its low vaporization temperature and selectivity to the lipidic fraction. However, the use of n-hexane in small capacity plants makes the process expensive because of high operating losses. Alcohols were exhaustively studied at pilot and industrial scales extraction plants. Ethanol is an efficient and advantageous extraction solvent for oilseeds, being an attractive alternative to extraction grade n-hexane. Therefore, the objective of the present work is to model and to compare the extraction kinetics of jatropha oil by using ethanol and n-hexane. Extractions experiments were performed in a batch extractor at 45 deg C using a liquid-to-solvent ratio of 15:1 (mL solvent/g sample). Samples were taken every 15 min, and extraction time was to 2 h. The kinetics of oil extraction data were fitted to the models reported in literature. For n-hexane and ethanol extractions, the fractional residual oil at 120 minutes was 0.314 and 0.0538, respectively. The models reported in literature were suitable to describe the n-hexane extraction, especially the Duggal model. However, those models were not adequate the model the ethanol extraction (author)

  2. Production of ethanol and biomass starting to present lactose in the milk whey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Angeles-Ramirez, K.; Arana-cuenca, A.; Tellez-Jurado, A.

    2009-01-01

    Milk whey is a by-product of the milk industry, a highly polluting waste due to the quantity of COD and BOD that it contains. The contamination caused by milk whey is mostly due to its lactose content. The fermentation of milk whey to ethanol is a possible road to reduce the polluting effect. (Author)

  3. Physiologically based pharmacokinetic modeling of ethyl acetate and ethanol in rodents and humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crowell, S R; Smith, J N; Creim, J A; Faber, W; Teeguarden, J G

    2015-10-01

    A physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) model was developed and applied to a metabolic series approach for the ethyl series (i.e., ethyl acetate, ethanol, acetaldehyde, and acetate). This approach bases toxicity information on dosimetry analyses for metabolically linked compounds using pharmacokinetic data for each compound and toxicity data for parent or individual compounds. In vivo pharmacokinetic studies of ethyl acetate and ethanol were conducted in rats following IV and inhalation exposure. Regardless of route, ethyl acetate was rapidly converted to ethanol. Blood concentrations of ethyl acetate and ethanol following both IV bolus and infusion suggested linear kinetics across blood concentrations from 0.1 to 10 mM ethyl acetate and 0.01-0.8 mM ethanol. Metabolic parameters were optimized and evaluated based on available pharmacokinetic data. The respiratory bioavailability of ethyl acetate and ethanol were estimated from closed chamber inhalation studies and measured ventilation rates. The resulting ethyl series model successfully reproduces blood ethyl acetate and ethanol kinetics following IV administration and inhalation exposure in rats, and blood ethanol kinetics following inhalation exposure to ethanol in humans. The extrapolated human model was used to derive human equivalent concentrations for the occupational setting of 257-2120 ppm ethyl acetate and 72-517 ppm ethyl acetate for continuous exposure, corresponding to rat LOAELs of 350 and 1500 ppm. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Footprint (A Screening Model for Estimating the Area of a Plume Produced from Gasoline Containing Ethanol

    Science.gov (United States)

    FOOTPRINT is a simple and user-friendly screening model to estimate the length and surface area of BTEX plumes in ground water produced from a spill of gasoline that contains ethanol. Ethanol has a potential negative impact on the natural biodegradation of BTEX compounds in groun...

  5. An Economic Model of Brazil’s Ethanol-Sugar Markets and Impacts of Fuel Policies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Drabik, D.; Gorter, de H.; Just, D.R.; Timilsina, G.R.

    2014-01-01

    We develop an economic model of flex plants, export demands and two domestic fuel demand curves: E25, a 25 percent blend of ethanol with gasoline consumed by conventional cars, and E100, ethanol consumed only by flex cars. This allows us to analyze the market impacts of specific policies, namely the

  6. Chronic ethanol exposure inhibits distraction osteogenesis in a mouse model: Role of the TNF signaling axis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wahl, Elizabeth C.; Aronson, James; Liu, Lichu; Liu, Zhendong; Perrien, Daniel S.; Skinner, Robert A.; Badger, Thomas M.; Ronis, Martin J.J.; Lumpkin, Charles K.

    2007-01-01

    Tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) is an inflammatory cytokine that modulates osteoblastogenesis. In addition, the demonstrated inhibitory effects of chronic ethanol exposure on direct bone formation in rats are hypothetically mediated by TNF-α signaling. The effects in mice are unreported. Therefore, we hypothesized that in mice (1) administration of a soluble TNF receptor 1 derivative (sTNF-R1) would protect direct bone formation during chronic ethanol exposure, and (2) administration of recombinant mouse TNF-α (rmTNF-α) to ethanol naive mice would inhibit direct bone formation. We utilized a unique model of limb lengthening (distraction osteogenesis, DO) combined with liquid diets to measure chronic ethanol's effects on direct bone formation. Chronic ethanol exposure resulted in increased marrow TNF, IL-1, and CYP 2E1 RNA levels in ethanol-treated vs. control mice, while no significant weight differences were noted. Systemic administration of sTNF-R1 during DO (8.0 mg/kg/2 days) to chronic ethanol-exposed mice resulted in enhanced direct bone formation as measured radiologically and histologically. Systemic rmTNF-α (10 μg/kg/day) administration decreased direct bone formation measures, while no significant weight differences were noted. We conclude that chronic ethanol-associated inhibition of direct bone formation is mediated to a significant extent by the TNF signaling axis in a mouse model

  7. Modeling the partitioning of BTEX in water-reformulated gasoline systems containing ethanol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heermann, Stephen E.; Powers, Susan E.

    1998-11-01

    The objectives of this research were to quantify the extent of cosolvency for water-gasoline mixtures containing ethanol and to identify appropriate modeling tools for predicting the equilibrium partitioning of BTEX compounds and ethanol between an ethanol-bearing gasoline and water. Batch-equilibrium experiments were performed to measure ethanol and BTEX partitioning between a gasoline and aqueous phase. The experiments incorporated simple binary and multicomponent organic mixtures comprised of as many as eight compounds as well as highly complex commercial gasolines where the composition of the organic phase was not completely defined. At high ethanol volume fractions, the measured partition coefficients displayed an approximate linear relationship when plotted on semi-log scale as a function of ethanol volume fraction. At lower concentrations, however, there was a distinctly different trend which is attributed to a change in solubilization mechanisms at these concentrations. Three mathematical models were compared with or fit to the experimental results. Log-linear and UNIFAC-based models were used in a predictive capacity and were capable of representing the overall increase in partition coefficients as a function of increasing ethanol content in the aqueous phase. However, neither of these predicted the observed two-part curve. A piecewise model comprised of a linear relationship for low ethanol volume fractions and a log-linear model for higher concentrations was fit to data for a surrogate gasoline comprised of eight compounds and was then used to predict BTEX concentrations in the aqueous phase equilibrated with three different commercial gasolines. This model was superior to the UNIFAC predictions, especially at the low aqueous ethanol concentrations.

  8. Short Communication: Is Ethanol-Based Hand Sanitizer Involved in Acute Pancreatitis after Excessive Disinfection?—An Evaluation with the Use of PBPK Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Céline Huynh-Delerme

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available An occupational physician reported to the French Health Products Safety Agency (Afssaps a case of adverse effect of acute pancreatitis (AP in a teaching nurse, after multiple demonstrations with ethanol-based hand sanitizers (EBHSs used in a classroom with defective mechanical ventilation. It was suggested by the occupational physician that the exposure to ethanol may have produced a significant blood ethanol concentration and subsequently the AP. In order to verify if the confinement situation due to defective mechanical ventilation could increase the systemic exposure to ethanol via inhalation route, a physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK modeling was used to predict ethanol blood levels. Under the worst case scenario, the simulation by PBPK modeling showed that the maximum blood ethanol concentration which can be predicted of 5.9 mg/l is of the same order of magnitude to endogenous ethanol concentration (mean = 1.1 mg/L; median = 0.4 mg/L; range = 0–35 mg/L in nondrinker humans (Al-Awadhi et al., 2004. The present study does not support the likelihood that EBHS leads to an increase in systemic ethanol concentration high enough to provoke an acute pancreatitis.

  9. Intermittent ethanol access schedule in rats as a preclinical model of alcohol abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carnicella, Sebastien; Ron, Dorit; Barak, Segev

    2014-01-01

    One of the major challenges in preclinical studies of alcohol abuse and dependence remains the development of paradigms that will elicit high ethanol intake and mimic the progressive transition from low or moderate social drinking to excessive alcohol consumption. Exposure of outbred rats to repeated cycles of free-choice ethanol intake and withdrawal with the use of intermittent access to 20% ethanol in a 2-bottle choice procedure (IA2BC) has been shown to induce a gradual escalation of voluntary ethanol intake and preference, eventually reaching ethanol consumption levels of 5–6 g/kg/24 h, and inducing pharmacologically relevant blood ethanol concentrations (BECs). This procedure has recently been gaining popularity due to its simplicity, high validity, and reliable outcomes. Here we review experimental and methodological data related to IA2BC, and discuss the usefulness and advantages of this procedure as a valuable pre-training method for initiating operant ethanol self-administration of high ethanol intake, as well as conditioned place preference (CPP). Despite some limitations, we provide evidence that IA2BC and related operant procedures provide the possibility to operationalize multiple aspects of alcohol abuse and addiction in a rat model, including transition from social-like drinking to excessive alcohol consumption, binge drinking, alcohol seeking, relapse, and neuroadaptations related to excessive alcohol intake. Hence, IA2BC appears to be a useful and relevant procedure for preclinical evaluation of potential therapeutic approaches against alcohol abuse disorders. PMID:24721195

  10. Modelling and simulation of a pervaporation process using tubular module for production of anhydrous ethanol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hieu, Nguyen Huu

    2017-09-01

    Pervaporation is a potential process for the final step of ethanol biofuel production. In this study, a mathematical model was developed based on the resistance-in-series model and a simulation was carried out using the specialized simulation software COMSOL Multiphysics to describe a tubular type pervaporation module with membranes for the dehydration of ethanol solution. The permeance of membranes, operating conditions, and feed conditions in the simulation were referred from experimental data reported previously in literature. Accordingly, the simulated temperature and density profiles of pure water and ethanol-water mixture were validated based on existing published data.

  11. FOOTPRINT: A Screening Model for Estimating the Area of a Plume Produced From Gasoline Containing Ethanol

    Science.gov (United States)

    FOOTPRINT is a screening model used to estimate the length and surface area of benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylene (BTEX) plumes in groundwater, produced from a gasoline spill that contains ethanol.

  12. Kinetic modeling of Candida shehatae ATCC 22984 on xylose and glucose for ethanol production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuvadetkun, Prawphan; Leksawasdi, Noppol; Boonmee, Mallika

    2017-03-16

    Candida shehatae ATCC 22984, a xylose-fermenting yeast, showed an ability to produce ethanol in both glucose and xylose medium. Maximum ethanol produced by the yeast was 48.8 g/L in xylose and 52.6 g/L in glucose medium with ethanol yields that varied between 0.3 and 0.4 g/g depended on initial sugar concentrations. Xylitol was a coproduct of ethanol production using xylose as substrate, and glycerol was detected in both glucose and xylose media. Kinetic model equations indicated that growth, substrate consumption, and product formation of C. shehatae were governed by substrate limitation and inhibition by ethanol. The model suggested that cell growth was totally inhibited at 40 g/L of ethanol and ethanol production capacity of the yeast was 52 g/L, which were in good agreement with experimental results. The developed model could be used to explain C. shehatae fermentation in glucose and xylose media from 20 to 170 g/L sugar concentrations.

  13. A biochemically structured model for ethanol fermentation by Kluyveromyces marxianus: A batch fermentation and kinetic study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sansonetti, Sascha; Hobley, Timothy John; Calabrò, V.

    2011-01-01

    Anaerobic batch fermentations of ricotta cheese whey (i.e. containing lactose) were performed under different operating conditions. Ethanol concentrations of ca. 22gL−1 were found from whey containing ca. 44gL−1 lactose, which corresponded to up to 95% of the theoretical ethanol yield within 15h....... The experimental data could be explained by means of a simple knowledge-driven biochemically structured model that was built on bioenergetics principles applied to the metabolic pathways through which lactose is converted into major products. Use of the model showed that the observed concentrations of ethanol......, lactose, biomass and glycerol during batch fermentation could be described within a ca. 6% deviation, as could the yield coefficients for biomass and ethanol produced on lactose. The model structure confirmed that the thermodynamics considerations on the stoichiometry of the system constrain the metabolic...

  14. Modeling and numerical simulation of greenhouse gas emissions from a stationary Diesel engine operating with ethanol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bergel, Andre; Viana, Sarah de Resende; Martins, Cristiane Aparecida [Instituto Tecnologica da Aeronautica - ITA, Sao Jose dos Campos, SP (Brazil)], e-mail: cmartins@ita.br; Souza, Francisco Jose de [Universidade Federal de Uberlandia (UFU), MG (Brazil)], e-mail: fjsouza@mecanica.ufu.br

    2010-07-01

    The present work aims at modeling and simulating a stationary, compression ignition motor, operating with ethanol at different levels of EGR. The objective is to quantify the influence of these parameters in the atmospheric pollutant emissions (CO, NO{sub X} and Particulate Matter). Specifications of a diesel engine were used, with compression ratio 19:1, operating with ethanol with a percentile of EGR of 0, 10, 20 and 30%. In the simulation, the combustion model, ECFM-3Z, and the turbulence model k-{zeta}-f were used, besides conditions for the temperatures of the combustion chamber, piston, cylinder head and glow plug. The spray characterization was done through the calculation of the injected fuel mass and parameters like spray angle, droplet size, number of holes, position of the injector and others. For the reduction of the simulation time, the crank angle range of is only 130[CAD], beginning at 30 deg BTDC and concluding at 100 deg ATDC. The assessment of the influence of the different EGR concentrations felt for the analysis of pollutant contained in the end of simulation. A very small delay in the ignition of the fuel injected and the emission of a minor amount of nitrogen oxides were observed in all cases as the EGR level used was increased. (author)

  15. Study of growth kinetic and modeling of ethanol production by ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    There is a growing interest in bioethanol as biofuel since it has the possibility to be the potential substitute for fossil fuels. Ethanol batch fermentation of Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain was carried out in 10 L stirred tank bioreactor for 72 h at 0.075 vvm of aeration and 75 rpm of agitation speed. 85.8% conversion efficiency ...

  16. Fructus mume Ethanol Extract Prevents Inflammation and Normalizes the Septohippocampal Cholinergic System in a Rat Model of Chronic Cerebral Hypoperfusion

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Min-Soo; Bang, Ji Hye; Lee, Jun; Han, Jung-Soo; Kang, Hyung Won; Jeon, Won Kyung

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Fructus mume (F. mume), the unripe fruit of Prunus mume, has long been used in Asian countries to treat cough and chronic diarrhea. We previously reported that F. mume exerts anti-inflammatory effects in a model of chronic cerebral hypoperfusion (CCH), a key etiological factor of vascular dementia (VaD). The present study was performed to investigate the protective effects of an ethanolic extract of F. mume on the inflammatory response and cholinergic dysfunction in a model of CCH in...

  17. Experimental and Modeling Study of the Burning of an Ethanol Droplet in Microgravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazakov, Andrei; Conley, Jordan; Dryer, Frederick L.; Ferkul, Paul (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    The microgravity ethanol droplet combustion experiments were performed aboard the STS-94/MSL-1 Shuttle mission within the Fiber-Supported Droplet Combustion-2 (FSDC-2) program. The burning histories and flame standoffs for pure ethanol and ethanol/water droplets were obtained from the images recorded with two 8 mm videocameras. The obtained results show that average gasification rate is related to the initial droplet size in a manner similar to n-alkanes and methanol and consistent with the results of Hara and Kumagai and the data taken recently in the NASA-Lewis 2.2 s droptower. A transient, moving finite-element chemically reacting flow model applied previously to sphero-symmetric combustion of methanol, methanol/water, n-alkane, and n-alkane binary mixture droplets was adopted for the problem of ethanol droplet combustion. The model includes detailed description of gas-phase reaction chemistry and transport, a simplified description of liquid phase transport, and non-luminous radiative heat transfer. Gas-phase chemistry was described with the detailed reaction mechanism of Norton and Dryer, which consists of 142 reversible elementary reactions of 33 species. Another recently published reaction mechanism of high-temperature ethanol oxidation was also considered. The model predictions were found to compare favorably with the experimental data. The model analysis also indicates that water condensation in the case of ethanol has smaller effect on average droplet gasification rate as compared with previously studied methanol cases. This effect is explained by non-ideal (azeotropic) behavior of binary ethanol-water mixtures. Further analysis of computational results and ethanol droplet radiative extinction behavior will be discussed.

  18. Evaluation of Sustainability of Brazilian Ethanol Production: A model in System Dynamics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arnoldo Jose de Hoyos Guevara

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available System dynamics is an approach to analyze the behavior of complex systems, such as the productive chains, strictly considering the inherent characteristics. This approach is based on mathematical concepts of nonlinear processes developed in mathematics and physics and consolidated in engineering. The concepts inherent in this approach assists in creating a mathematical model that represents a production chain by using computer simulation. Thus, the main objective of this paper is to present the formalization of the dynamic model of assessing the sustainability of Brazilian ethanol production. We analyzed the external environment and the scenarios needed for a deeper understanding of relation of cause and effect, causal loops and diagrams of flows and stocks because of the awareness stage, with regard to understanding the problems involved, according to methodology known as design science.

  19. Modeling Separation Dynamics in a Multi-Tray Bio-Ethanol Distillation Column

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Løhndorf, Petar Durdevic; Pedersen, Simon; Yang, Zhenyu

    2015-01-01

    the product quality and energy consumption in a typical bio-ethanol distillation column is proposed in this paper. The proposed model is derived based on mass and energy balance principles, with an empirical model of the evaporation dynamics of liquids on column trays. The model parameters are identified...

  20. Ethanol inhibits LPS-induced signaling and modulates cytokine production in peritoneal macrophages in vivo in a model for binge drinking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pruett Stephen B

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Previous reports indicate that ethanol, in a binge drinking model in mice, inhibits the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines in vivo. However, the inhibition of signaling through TLR4 has not been investigated in this experimental model in vivo. Considering evidence that signaling can be very different in vitro and in vivo, the present study was conducted to determine if effects of ethanol on TLR4 signaling reported for cells in culture or cells removed from ethanol treated mice and stimulated in culture also occur when ethanol treatment and TLR4 activation occur in vivo. Results Phosphorylated p38, ERK, and c-Jun (nuclear were quantified with kits or by western blot using samples taken 15, 30, and 60 min after stimulation of peritoneal macrophages with lipopolysaccharide in vivo. Effects of ethanol were assessed by administering ethanol by gavage at 6 g/kg 30 min before administration of lipopolysaccharide (LPS. Cytokine concentrations in the samples of peritoneal lavage fluid and in serum were determined at 1, 2, and 6 hr after lipopolysaccharide administration. All of these data were used to measure the area under the concentration vs time curve, which provided an indication of the overall effects of ethanol in this system. Ethanol suppressed production of most pro-inflammatory cytokines to a similar degree as it inhibited key TLR4 signaling events. However, NF-κB (p65 translocation to the nucleus was not inhibited by ethanol. To determine if NF-κB composed of other subunits was inhibited, transgenic mice with a luciferase reporter were used. This revealed a reproducible inhibition of NF-κB activity, which is consistent with the observed inhibition of cytokines whose expression is known to be NF-κB dependent. Conclusion Overall, the effects of ethanol on signalling in vivo were similar to those reported for in vitro exposure to ethanol and/or lipopolysaccharide. However, inhibition of the activation of NF-κB was

  1. Intermittent ethanol access schedule in rats as a preclinical model of alcohol abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carnicella, Sebastien; Ron, Dorit; Barak, Segev

    2014-05-01

    One of the major challenges in preclinical studies of alcohol abuse and dependence remains the development of paradigms that will elicit high ethanol intake and mimic the progressive transition from low or moderate social drinking to excessive alcohol consumption. Exposure of outbred rats to repeated cycles of free-choice ethanol intake and withdrawal with the use of intermittent access to 20% ethanol in a 2-bottle choice procedure (IA2BC) has been shown to induce a gradual escalation of voluntary ethanol intake and preference, eventually reaching ethanol consumption levels of 5-6 g/kg/24 h, and inducing pharmacologically relevant blood ethanol concentrations (BECs). This procedure has recently been gaining popularity due to its simplicity, high validity, and reliable outcomes. Here we review experimental and methodological data related to IA2BC, and discuss the usefulness and advantages of this procedure as a valuable pre-training method for initiating operant ethanol self-administration of high ethanol intake, as well as conditioned place preference (CPP). Despite some limitations, we provide evidence that IA2BC and related operant procedures provide the possibility to operationalize multiple aspects of alcohol abuse and addiction in a rat model, including transition from social-like drinking to excessive alcohol consumption, binge drinking, alcohol seeking, relapse, and neuroadaptations related to excessive alcohol intake. Hence, IA2BC appears to be a useful and relevant procedure for preclinical evaluation of potential therapeutic approaches against alcohol abuse disorders. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Orexin-1 and orexin-2 receptor antagonists reduce ethanol self-administration in high-drinking rodent models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachel Ivy Anderson

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available To examine the role of orexin-1 and orexin-2 receptor activity on ethanol self-administration, compounds that differentially target orexin (OX receptor subtypes were assessed in various self-administration paradigms using high-drinking rodent models. Effects of the OX1 antagonist SB334867, the OX2 antagonist LSN2424100, and the mixed OX1/2 antagonist almorexant (ACT-078573 on home cage ethanol consumption were tested in ethanol-preferring (P rats using a 2-bottle choice procedure. In separate experiments, effects of SB334867, LSN2424100, and almorexant on operant ethanol self-administration were assessed in P rats maintained on a progressive ratio operant schedule of reinforcement. In a third series of experiments, SB334867, LSN2424100, and almorexant were administered to ethanol-preferring C57BL/6J mice to examine effects of OX receptor blockade on ethanol intake in a binge-like drinking (drinking-in-the-dark model. In P rats with chronic home cage free-choice ethanol access, SB334867 and almorexant significantly reduced ethanol intake, but almorexant also reduced water intake, suggesting nonspecific effects on consummatory behavior. In the progressive ratio operant experiments, LSN2424100 and almorexant reduced breakpoints and ethanol consumption in P rats, whereas the almorexant inactive enantiomer and SB334867 did not significantly affect the motivation to consume ethanol. As expected, vehicle-injected mice exhibited binge-like drinking patterns in the drinking-in-the-dark model. All three OX antagonists reduced both ethanol intake and resulting blood ethanol concentrations relative to vehicle-injected controls, but SB334867 and LSN2424100 also reduced sucrose consumption in a different cohort of mice, suggesting nonspecific effects. Collectively, these results contribute to a growing body of evidence indicating that OX1 and OX2 receptor activity influences ethanol self-administration, although the effects may not be selective for ethanol

  3. Numerical modeling on homogeneous charge compression ignition combustion engine fueled by diesel-ethanol blends

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanafi H.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the performance and emission characteristics of HCCI engines fueled with oxygenated fuels (ethanol blend. A modeling study was conducted to investigate the impact of ethanol addition on the performance, combustion and emission characteristics of a Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI engine fueled by diesel. One dimensional simulation was conducted using the renowned commercial software for diesel and its blend fuels with 5% (E5 and 10% ethanol (E10 (in vol. under full load condition at variable engine speed ranging from 1000 to 2750 rpm with 250 rpm increment. The model was then validated with other researcher’s experimental result. Model consists of intake and exhaust systems, cylinder, head, valves and port geometries. Performance tests were conducted for volumetric efficiency, brake engine torque, brake power, brake mean effective pressure, brake specific fuel consumption, and brake thermal efficiency, while exhaust emissions were analyzed for carbon monoxide (CO and unburned hydrocarbons (HC. The results showed that blending diesel with ethanol increases the volumetric efficiency, brake specific fuel consumption and brake thermal efficiency, while it decreases brake engine torque, brake power and brake mean effective pressure. In term of emission characteristics, the CO emissions concentrations in the engine exhaust decrease significantly with ethanol as additive. But for HC emission, its concentration increase when apply in high engine speed. In conclusion, using Ethanol as fuel additive blend with Diesel operating in HCCI shows a good result in term of performance and emission in low speed but not recommended to use in high speed engine. Ethanol-diesel blends need to researched more to make it commercially useable.

  4. Kinetic modeling of simultaneous saccharification and fermentation of corn starch for ethanol production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Białas, Wojciech; Czerniak, Adrian; Szymanowska-Powałowska, Daria

    2014-01-01

    Fuel ethanol production, using a simultaneous saccharification and fermentation process (SSF) of native starch from corn flour, has been performed using Saccharomyces cerevisiae and a granular starch hydrolyzing enzyme. The quantitative effects of mash concentration, enzyme dose and pH were investigated with the use of a Box-Wilson central composite design protocol. Proceeding from results obtained in optimal fermentation conditions, a kinetics model relating the utilization rates of starch and glucose as well as the production rates of ethanol and biomass was tested. Moreover, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was applied to investigate corn starch granule surface after the SFF process. A maximum ethanol concentration of 110.36 g/l was obtained for native corn starch using a mash concentration of 25%, which resulted in ethanol yield of 85.71%. The optimal conditions for the above yield were found with an enzyme dose of 2.05 ml/kg and pH of 5.0. These results indicate that by using a central composite design, it is possible to determine optimal values of the fermentation parameters for maximum ethanol production. The investigated kinetics model can be used to describe SSF process conducted with granular starch hydrolyzing enzymes. The SEM micrographs reveal randomly distributed holes on the surface of granules.

  5. Heterogeneity of p53 dependent genomic responses following ethanol exposure in a developmental mouse model of fetal alcohol spectrum disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mooney, Sandra M.; Middleton, Frank A.

    2017-01-01

    Prenatal ethanol exposure can produce structural and functional deficits in the brain and result in Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder (FASD). In rodent models acute exposure to a high concentration of alcohol causes increased apoptosis in the developing brain. A single causal molecular switch that signals for this increase in apoptosis has yet to be identified. The protein p53 has been suggested to play a pivotal role in enabling cells to engage in pro-apoptotic processes, and thus figures prominently as a hub molecule in the intracellular cascade of responses elicited by alcohol exposure. In the present study we examined the effect of ethanol-induced cellular and molecular responses in primary somatosensory cortex (SI) and hippocampus of 7-day-old wild-type (WT) and p53-knockout (KO) mice. We quantified apoptosis by active caspase-3 immunohistochemistry and ApopTag™ labeling, then determined total RNA expression levels in laminae of SI and hippocampal subregions. Immunohistochemical results confirmed increased incidence of apoptotic cells in both regions in WT and KO mice following ethanol exposure. The lack of p53 was not protective in these brain regions. Molecular analyses revealed a heterogeneous response to ethanol exposure that varied depending on the subregion, and which may go undetected using a global approach. Gene network analyses suggest that the presence or absence of p53 alters neuronal function and synaptic modifications following ethanol exposure, in addition to playing a classic role in cell cycle signaling. Thus, p53 may function in a way that underlies the intellectual and behavioral deficits observed in FASD. PMID:28723918

  6. Use of continuous lactose fermentation for ethanol production by Kluveromyces marxianus for verification and extension of a biochemically structured model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sansonetti, S.; Hobley, Timothy John; Curcio, S.

    2013-01-01

    A biochemically structured model has been developed to describe the continuous fermentation of lactose to ethanol by Kluveromyces marxianus and allowed metabolic coefficients to be determined. Anaerobic lactose-limited chemostat fermentations at different dilution rates (0.02 – 0.35 h-1) were...... performed. Species specific rates of consumption/formation, as well as yield coefficients were determined. Ethanol yield (0.655 C-mol ethanol*C-mol lactose-1) was as high as 98 % of theoretical. The modeling procedure allowed calculation of maintenance coefficients for lactose consumption and ethanol...

  7. Dynamic modeling of a three-stage low-temperature ethanol reformer for fuel cell application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia, Vanesa M.; Serra, Maria [Institut de Robotica i Informatica Industrial (CSIC-UPC), Llorens i Artigas 4-6, 08028 Barcelona (Spain); Lopez, Eduardo; Llorca, Jordi [Institut de Tecniques Energetiques, Universitat Politecnica de Catalunya, Diagonal 647, ed. ETSEIB, 08028 Barcelona (Spain)

    2009-07-01

    A low-temperature ethanol reformer based on a cobalt catalyst for the production of hydrogen has been designed aiming the feed of a fuel cell for an autonomous low-scale power production unit. The reformer comprises three stages: ethanol dehydrogenation to acetaldehyde and hydrogen over SnO{sub 2} followed by acetaldehyde steam reforming over Co(Fe)/ZnO catalyst and water gas shift reaction. Kinetic data have been obtained under different experimental conditions and a dynamic model has been developed for a tubular reformer loaded with catalytic monoliths for the production of the hydrogen required to feed a 1 kW PEMFC. (author)

  8. A study Antiurolithiatic Activity of ethanolic extract of Asparagus racemosus in animal models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jagannath N

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To investigate the Antiurolithiatic Activity of ethanolic extract of Asparagus racemosus in animal models.Materials and Methods: The study includes performing on healthy albino rats of either sex weighing 220 – 270gms and urolithiasis was induced by oral administration of ethylene glycol and ammonium chloride water. The parameters studied are serum analysis for Urea, Creatinine, Calcium and Phosphorus, Body Weight of animals included in the study group and Histopathological Study of kidney for the presences crystals.  Results In our study the Ethanolic extract of Asparagus Racemosus with doses of 800mg/kg and 1600mg/kg per orally to rats showed significant reduction in serum urea, creatinine, calcium and phosphorus levels in urolithiatic rats when compared to the positive control rats (Group II. These results were found to be statistically significant (p<0.05.Conclusion: Ethanol Extract of Asparagus racemosus has a significant antiurolithiatic activity.

  9. Role of Unsaturated Lipid and Ergosterol in Ethanol Tolerance of Model Yeast Biomembranes

    KAUST Repository

    Vanegas, Juan M.

    2012-02-07

    We present a combined atomic force microscopy and fluorescence microscopy study of the behavior of a ternary supported lipid bilayer system containing a saturated lipid (DPPC), an unsaturated lipid (DOPC), and ergosterol in the presence of high ethanol (20 vol %). We find that the fluorescent probe Texas Red DHPE preferentially partitions into the ethanol-induced interdigitated phase, which allows the use of fluorescence imaging to investigate the phase behavior of the system. Atomic force microscopy and fluorescence images of samples with the same lipid mixture show good agreement in sample morphology and area fractions of the observed phases. Using area fractions obtained from fluorescence images over a broad range of compositions, we constructed a phase diagram of the DPPC/DOPC/ergosterol system at 20 vol % ethanol. The phase diagram clearly shows that increasing unsaturated lipid and/or ergosterol protects the membrane by preventing the formation of the interdigitated phase. This result supports the hypothesis that yeast cells increase ergosterol and unsaturated lipid content to prevent interdigitation and maintain an optimal membrane thickness as ethanol concentration increases during anaerobic fermentations. Changes in plasma membrane composition provide an important survival factor for yeast cells to deter ethanol toxicity.

  10. Characterizing model uncertainties in the life cycle of lignocellulose-based ethanol fuels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spatari, Sabrina; MacLean, Heather L

    2010-11-15

    Renewable and low carbon fuel standards being developed at federal and state levels require an estimation of the life cycle carbon intensity (LCCI) of candidate fuels that can substitute for gasoline, such as second generation bioethanol. Estimating the LCCI of such fuels with a high degree of confidence requires the use of probabilistic methods to account for known sources of uncertainty. We construct life cycle models for the bioconversion of agricultural residue (corn stover) and energy crops (switchgrass) and explicitly examine uncertainty using Monte Carlo simulation. Using statistical methods to identify significant model variables from public data sets and Aspen Plus chemical process models,we estimate stochastic life cycle greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions for the two feedstocks combined with two promising fuel conversion technologies. The approach can be generalized to other biofuel systems. Our results show potentially high and uncertain GHG emissions for switchgrass-ethanol due to uncertain CO₂ flux from land use change and N₂O flux from N fertilizer. However, corn stover-ethanol,with its low-in-magnitude, tight-in-spread LCCI distribution, shows considerable promise for reducing life cycle GHG emissions relative to gasoline and corn-ethanol. Coproducts are important for reducing the LCCI of all ethanol fuels we examine.

  11. From Realistic to Simple Models of Associating Fluids. II. Primitive Models of Ammonia, Ethanol and Models of Water Revisited

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vlček, Lukáš; Nezbeda, Ivo

    2004-01-01

    Roč. 102, č. 5 (2004), s. 485-497 ISSN 0026-8976 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA203/02/0764; GA AV ČR IAA4072303; GA AV ČR IAA4072309 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z4072921 Keywords : primitive model * association fluids * ethanol Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 1.406, year: 2004

  12. Effects of ethanol and acetaldehyde on tight junction integrity: in vitro study in a three dimensional intestinal epithelial cell culture model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elhaseen Elamin

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Intestinal barrier dysfunction and translocation of endotoxins are involved in the pathogenesis of alcoholic liver disease. Exposure to ethanol and its metabolite, acetaldehyde at relatively high concentrations have been shown to disrupt intestinal epithelial tight junctions in the conventional two dimensional cell culture models. The present study investigated quantitatively and qualitatively the effects of ethanol at concentrations detected in the blood after moderate ethanol consumption, of its metabolite acetaldehyde and of the combination of both compounds on intestinal barrier function in a three-dimensional cell culture model. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Caco-2 cells were grown in a basement membrane matrix (Matrigel™ to induce spheroid formation and were then exposed to the compounds at the basolateral side. Morphological differentiation of the spheroids was assessed by immunocytochemistry and transmission electron microscopy. The barrier function was assessed by the flux of FITC-labeled dextran from the basal side into the spheroids' luminal compartment using confocal microscopy. Caco-2 cells grown on Matrigel assembled into fully differentiated and polarized spheroids with a central lumen, closely resembling enterocytes in vivo and provide an excellent model to study epithelial barrier functionality. Exposure to ethanol (10-40 mM or acetaldehyde (25-200 µM for 3 h, dose-dependently and additively increased the paracellular permeability and induced redistribution of ZO-1 and occludin without affecting cell viability or tight junction-encoding gene expression. Furthermore, ethanol and acetaldehyde induced lysine residue and microtubules hyperacetylation. CONCLUSIONS: These results indicate that ethanol at concentrations found in the blood after moderate drinking and acetaldehyde, alone and in combination, can increase the intestinal epithelial permeability. The data also point to the involvement of protein hyperacetylation in

  13. Ethanol Concentration Influences the Mechanisms of Wine Tannin Interactions with Poly(L-proline) in Model Wine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McRae, Jacqui M; Ziora, Zyta M; Kassara, Stella; Cooper, Matthew A; Smith, Paul A

    2015-05-06

    Changes in ethanol concentration influence red wine astringency, and yet the effect of ethanol on wine tannin-salivary protein interactions is not well understood. Isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC) was used to measure the binding strength between the model salivary protein, poly(L-proline) (PLP) and a range of wine tannins (tannin fractions from a 3- and a 7-year old Cabernet Sauvignon wine) across different ethanol concentrations (5, 10, 15, and 40% v/v). Tannin-PLP interactions were stronger at 5% ethanol than at 40% ethanol. The mechanism of interaction changed for most tannin samples across the wine-like ethanol range (10-15%) from a combination of hydrophobic and hydrogen binding at 10% ethanol to only hydrogen binding at 15% ethanol. These results indicate that ethanol concentration can influence the mechanisms of wine tannin-protein interactions and that the previously reported decrease in wine astringency with increasing alcohol may, in part, relate to a decrease tannin-protein interaction strength.

  14. Blended-fuel based EDC combustion model and its application in heptane-ethanol fire simulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Changjian Wang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The blended-fuel based eddy-dissipation-concept combustion model was newly developed in the FireFOAM framework, and applied to simulate 30 cm×30 cm heptane-ethanol pool fire. Comparison was made of fire height, centerline temperature against experimental measurements, which shows that they match very well with each other. However, further studies are needed to examine the validation of this model in fire simulations with various scales.

  15. PEM Fuel Cells with Bio-Ethanol Processor Systems A Multidisciplinary Study of Modelling, Simulation, Fault Diagnosis and Advanced Control

    CERN Document Server

    Feroldi, Diego; Outbib, Rachid

    2012-01-01

    An apparently appropriate control scheme for PEM fuel cells may actually lead to an inoperable plant when it is connected to other unit operations in a process with recycle streams and energy integration. PEM Fuel Cells with Bio-Ethanol Processor Systems presents a control system design that provides basic regulation of the hydrogen production process with PEM fuel cells. It then goes on to construct a fault diagnosis system to improve plant safety above this control structure. PEM Fuel Cells with Bio-Ethanol Processor Systems is divided into two parts: the first covers fuel cells and the second discusses plants for hydrogen production from bio-ethanol to feed PEM fuel cells. Both parts give detailed analyses of modeling, simulation, advanced control, and fault diagnosis. They give an extensive, in-depth discussion of the problems that can occur in fuel cell systems and propose a way to control these systems through advanced control algorithms. A significant part of the book is also given over to computer-aid...

  16. The Role of Systems Modeling for Sustainable Development Policy Analysis: the Case of Bio-Ethanol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Albert W. Chan

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available A dynamic systems modeling technique has been developed to assess technologies according to the criterion of sustainability. In a case study, the potential contribution of bio-ethanol toward achieving Canada's commitment to the Kyoto targets for greenhouse gas reductions is analyzed. The analysis concludes that, although bio-ethanol may help reduce greenhouse gas emissions, the technology by itself is insufficient to meet the Kyoto target. Applying the systems modeling approach to analyze sustainability helps highlight those policy issues that warrant more in-depth study. Although the systems model may not provide definitive answers, it raises relevant questions about physical constraints that might be encountered and estimates the extent to which sustainability targets may be met under various scenarios.

  17. Low doses of ethanol markedly potentiate the anti-seizure effect of diazepam in a mouse model of difficult-to-treat focal seizures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, Sabine; Bankstahl, Marion; Gramer, Martina; Hausknecht, Maria; Löscher, Wolfgang

    2014-12-01

    Ethanol is commonly used as a solvent in injectable formulations of poorly water-soluble drugs. The concentrations of ethanol in such formulations are generally considered reasonably safe. It is long known that ethanol can potentiate central effects of sedatives and tranquillizers, particularly the benzodiazepines, most likely as a result of a synergistic interaction at the GABAA receptor. However, whether this occurs at the low systemic doses of ethanol resulting from its use as solvent in parenteral formulations of benzodiazepines is not known. In the present study we evaluated whether a commercial ethanol-containing aqueous solution of diazepam exerts more potent anti-seizure effects than an aqueous solution of diazepam hydrochloride or an aqueous emulsion of this drug in the intrahippocampal kainate model of temporal lobe epilepsy in mice. Spontaneous epileptic seizures in this model are known to be resistant to major antiepileptic drugs. Administration of the ethanol-containing formulation of diazepam caused an almost complete suppression of seizures. This was not seen when the same dose (5 mg/kg) of diazepam was administered as aqueous solution or emulsion, although all three diazepam formulations resulted in similar drug and metabolite concentrations in plasma. Our data demonstrate that ethanol-containing solutions of diazepam are superior to block difficult-to-treat seizures to other formulations of diazepam. To our knowledge, this has not been demonstrated before and, if this finding can be translated to humans, may have important consequences for emergency treatment of acute seizures, series of seizures, and initial treatment of status epilepticus in patients. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Modeling Present and Future River Runoff Using Global Atmospheric Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-10-01

    AD-A265 274 October 1992 TBESIS Modeling Present and Future River Runoff Using Global Atmospheric Models Captain Scott C. Van Blarcum AFIT Student... ATMOSPHERIC MODELS BY SCOTT C. VAN BLARCUM A thesis submitted to the Graduate School-New Brunswick Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey in...03 020 I1UIlU1ll ABSTRACT OF THE THESIS Modeling Present and Future River Runoff Using Global Atmospheric Models by SCOTT C. VAN BLARCUM Thesis

  19. Stochastic molecular model of enzymatic hydrolysis of cellulose for ethanol production

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background During cellulosic ethanol production, cellulose hydrolysis is achieved by synergistic action of cellulase enzyme complex consisting of multiple enzymes with different mode of actions. Enzymatic hydrolysis of cellulose is one of the bottlenecks in the commercialization of the process due to low hydrolysis rates and high cost of enzymes. A robust hydrolysis model that can predict hydrolysis profile under various scenarios can act as an important forecasting tool to improve the hydrolysis process. However, multiple factors affecting hydrolysis: cellulose structure and complex enzyme-substrate interactions during hydrolysis make it diffucult to develop mathematical kinetic models that can simulate hydrolysis in presence of multiple enzymes with high fidelity. In this study, a comprehensive hydrolysis model based on stochastic molecular modeling approch in which each hydrolysis event is translated into a discrete event is presented. The model captures the structural features of cellulose, enzyme properties (mode of actions, synergism, inhibition), and most importantly dynamic morphological changes in the substrate that directly affect the enzyme-substrate interactions during hydrolysis. Results Cellulose was modeled as a group of microfibrils consisting of elementary fibrils bundles, where each elementary fibril was represented as a three dimensional matrix of glucose molecules. Hydrolysis of cellulose was simulated based on Monte Carlo simulation technique. Cellulose hydrolysis results predicted by model simulations agree well with the experimental data from literature. Coefficients of determination for model predictions and experimental values were in the range of 0.75 to 0.96 for Avicel hydrolysis by CBH I action. Model was able to simulate the synergistic action of multiple enzymes during hydrolysis. The model simulations captured the important experimental observations: effect of structural properties, enzyme inhibition and enzyme loadings on the

  20. Numerical investigation of ethanol fuelled HCCI engine using stochastic reactor model. Part 1: Development of a new reduced ethanol oxidation mechanism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maurya, Rakesh Kumar; Akhil, Nekkanti

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Stochastic reactor model used for numerical study of HCCI engine. • New reduced oxidation mechanism with NOx developed (47 species and 272 reactions). • Mechanism predicts cylinder pressure and heat release with sufficient accuracy. • Mechanism was able to capture the trend in NO x emission with sufficient accuracy. - Abstract: Ethanol is considered a potential biofuel for internal combustion engines. In this study, homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI) simulations of ethanol engine experiments were performed using stochastic reactor model (SRM). Detailed ethanol oxidation mechanism is developed by including NO x reaction in existing detailed oxidation mechanism with 57 species and 383 reactions. Detailed ethanol mechanism with NO x used in this study contains 76 species and 495 reactions. This mechanism was reduced by direct relation graph (DRG) method, which was validated with the experimental results. Existing Lu’s 40-species skeletal mechanism with NO formation were also compared with detailed and reduced mechanisms for predicting maximum cylinder pressure, maximum heat release rate and crank angle position of maximum cylinder pressure in HCCI engine. Reduced mechanism developed in this study exhibited the best resemblance with the experimental data. This reduced mechanism was also validated by measured engine cylinder pressure curves and measured ignition delays in constant volume reactors. The results showed that reduced mechanism is capable of predicting HCCI engine performance parameters with sufficient accuracy. Sensitivity analysis was conducted to determine the influential reactions in ethanol oxidation. Results also show that detailed and reduced mechanism was able to predict NO x emission in good agreement with the corresponding experimental data.

  1. Modelling of Ethanol Production from Red Beet Juice by Saccharomyces cerevisiae under Thermal and Acid Stress Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donaji Jiménez-Islas

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In this work the effects of pH and temperature on ethanol production from red beet juice by the strains Saccharomyces cerevisiae ITD00196 and S. cerevisiae ATCC 9763 are studied. Logistic, Pirt, and Luedeking-Piret equations were used to describe quantitatively the microbial growth, substrate consumption, and ethanol production, respectively. The two S. cerevisiae strains used in this study were able to produce ethanol with high yield and volumetric productivity under acid and thermal stress conditions. The equations used to model the fermentation kinetics fit very well with the experimental data, thus establishing that ethanol production was growth associated under the evaluated conditions. The yeast S. cerevisiae ITD00196 had the best fermentative capacity and could be considered as an interesting option to develop bioprocesses for ethanol production.

  2. A genetically optimized kinetic model for ethanol electro-oxidation on Pt-based binary catalysts used in direct ethanol fuel cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Monreal, Juan; García-Salaberri, Pablo A.; Vera, Marcos

    2017-09-01

    A one-dimensional model is proposed for the anode of a liquid-feed direct ethanol fuel cell. The complex kinetics of the ethanol electro-oxidation reaction is described using a multi-step reaction mechanism that considers free and adsorbed intermediate species on Pt-based binary catalysts. The adsorbed species are modeled using coverage factors to account for the blockage of the active reaction sites on the catalyst surface. The reaction rates are described by Butler-Volmer equations that are coupled to a one-dimensional mass transport model, which incorporates the effect of ethanol and acetaldehyde crossover. The proposed kinetic model circumvents the acetaldehyde bottleneck effect observed in previous studies by incorporating CH3CHOHads among the adsorbed intermediates. A multi-objetive genetic algorithm is used to determine the reaction constants using anode polarization and product selectivity data obtained from the literature. By adjusting the reaction constants using the methodology developed here, different catalyst layers could be modeled and their selectivities could be successfully reproduced.

  3. Transient exposure to ethanol during zebrafish embryogenesis results in defects in neuronal differentiation: an alternative model system to study FASD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joya, Xavier; Garcia-Algar, Oscar; Vall, Oriol; Pujades, Cristina

    2014-01-01

    The exposure of the human embryo to ethanol results in a spectrum of disorders involving multiple organ systems, including the impairment of the development of the central nervous system (CNS). In spite of the importance for human health, the molecular basis of prenatal ethanol exposure remains poorly understood, mainly to the difficulty of sample collection. Zebrafish is now emerging as a powerful organism for the modeling and the study of human diseases. In this work, we have assessed the sensitivity of specific subsets of neurons to ethanol exposure during embryogenesis and we have visualized the sensitive embryonic developmental periods for specific neuronal groups by the use of different transgenic zebrafish lines. In order to evaluate the teratogenic effects of acute ethanol exposure, we exposed zebrafish embryos to ethanol in a given time window and analyzed the effects in neurogenesis, neuronal differentiation and brain patterning. Zebrafish larvae exposed to ethanol displayed small eyes and/or a reduction of the body length, phenotypical features similar to the observed in children with prenatal exposure to ethanol. When neuronal populations were analyzed, we observed a clear reduction in the number of differentiated neurons in the spinal cord upon ethanol exposure. There was a decrease in the population of sensory neurons mainly due to a decrease in cell proliferation and subsequent apoptosis during neuronal differentiation, with no effect in motoneuron specification. Our investigation highlights that transient exposure to ethanol during early embryonic development affects neuronal differentiation although does not result in defects in early neurogenesis. These results establish the use of zebrafish embryos as an alternative research model to elucidate the molecular mechanism(s) of ethanol-induced developmental toxicity at very early stages of embryonic development.

  4. Transient exposure to ethanol during zebrafish embryogenesis results in defects in neuronal differentiation: an alternative model system to study FASD.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xavier Joya

    Full Text Available The exposure of the human embryo to ethanol results in a spectrum of disorders involving multiple organ systems, including the impairment of the development of the central nervous system (CNS. In spite of the importance for human health, the molecular basis of prenatal ethanol exposure remains poorly understood, mainly to the difficulty of sample collection. Zebrafish is now emerging as a powerful organism for the modeling and the study of human diseases. In this work, we have assessed the sensitivity of specific subsets of neurons to ethanol exposure during embryogenesis and we have visualized the sensitive embryonic developmental periods for specific neuronal groups by the use of different transgenic zebrafish lines.In order to evaluate the teratogenic effects of acute ethanol exposure, we exposed zebrafish embryos to ethanol in a given time window and analyzed the effects in neurogenesis, neuronal differentiation and brain patterning. Zebrafish larvae exposed to ethanol displayed small eyes and/or a reduction of the body length, phenotypical features similar to the observed in children with prenatal exposure to ethanol. When neuronal populations were analyzed, we observed a clear reduction in the number of differentiated neurons in the spinal cord upon ethanol exposure. There was a decrease in the population of sensory neurons mainly due to a decrease in cell proliferation and subsequent apoptosis during neuronal differentiation, with no effect in motoneuron specification.Our investigation highlights that transient exposure to ethanol during early embryonic development affects neuronal differentiation although does not result in defects in early neurogenesis. These results establish the use of zebrafish embryos as an alternative research model to elucidate the molecular mechanism(s of ethanol-induced developmental toxicity at very early stages of embryonic development.

  5. Fuel ethanol discussion paper

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    In recognition of the potential benefits of ethanol and the merits of encouraging value-added agricultural development, a committee was formed to develop options for the role of the Ontario Ministry of Agriculture and Food in the further development of the ethanol industry in Ontario. A consultation with interested parties produced a discussion paper which begins with an outline of the role of ethanol as an alternative fuel. Ethanol issues which require industry consideration are presented, including the function of ethanol as a gasoline oxygenate or octane enhancer, environmental impacts, energy impacts, agricultural impacts, trade and fiscal implications, and regulation. The ethanol industry and distribution systems in Ontario are then described. The current industry consists of one ethanol plant and over 30 retail stations. The key issue for expanding the industry is the economics of producing ethanol. At present, production of ethanol in the short term depends on tax incentives amounting to 23.2 cents/l. In the longer term, a significant reduction in feedstock costs and a significant improvement in processing technology, or equally significant gasoline price increases, will be needed to create a sustainable ethanol industry that does not need incentives. Possible roles for the Ministry are identified, such as support for ethanol research and development, financial support for construction of ethanol plants, and active encouragement of market demand for ethanol-blended gasolines

  6. Modelling of Two-Stage Anaerobic Treating Wastewater from a Molasses-Based Ethanol Distillery with the IWA Anaerobic Digestion Model No.1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kittikhun Taruyanon

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the application of ADM1 model to simulate the dynamic behaviour of a two-stage anaerobic treatment process treating the wastewater generated from the ethanol distillery process. The laboratory-scale process comprised an anaerobic continuous stirred tank reactor (CSTR and an upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB connecting in series, was used to treat wastewater from the ethanol distillery process. The CSTR and UASB hydraulic retention times (HRT were 12 and 70 hours, respectively. The model was developed based on ADM1 basic structure and implemented with the simulation software AQUASIM. The simulated results were compared with measured data obtained from using the laboratory-scale two-stage anaerobic treatment process to treat wastewater. The sensitivity analysis identified maximum specific uptake rate (km and half-saturation constant (Ks of acetate degrader and sulfate reducing bacteria as the kinetic parameters which highly affected the process behaviour, which were further estimated. The study concluded that the model could predict the dynamic behaviour of a two-stage anaerobic treatment process treating the ethanol distillery process wastewater with varying strength of influents with reasonable accuracy.

  7. Phase equilibrium measurements and modelling of ternary system (carbon dioxide + ethanol + palmitic acid)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosso Comim, Sibele R. [EQA/UFSC, Chemical and Food Engineering Department, Federal University of Santa Catarina, C.P. 476, CEP 88040-900, Florianopolis, SC (Brazil); Franceschi, Elton; Borges, Gustavo R.; Corazza, Marcos L.; Vladimir Oliveira, J. [Department of Food Engineering, URI - Campus de Erechim, Av. Sete de Setembro, 1621, Erechim, RS 99700-000 (Brazil); Ferreira, Sandra R.S., E-mail: sandra@enq.ufsc.b [EQA/UFSC, Chemical and Food Engineering Department, Federal University of Santa Catarina, C.P. 476, CEP 88040-900, Florianopolis, SC (Brazil)

    2010-03-15

    This work reports phase equilibrium measurements for the ternary system (palmitic acid + ethanol + CO{sub 2}). The motivation of this research relies on the fact that palmitic acid is the major compound of several vegetable oils. Besides, equilibrium data for palmitic acid in carbon dioxide using ethanol as co-solvent are scarce in the literature. Phase equilibrium experiments were performed using a high-pressure variable-volume view cell over the temperature range of (303 to 343) K and pressures up to 20 MPa and mole fraction of palmitic acid from 0.0199 to 0.2930. Vapour-liquid and solid-fluid transitions were visually observed for the system studied. The Peng-Robinson equation of state, with the classical van der Waals quadratic mixing rule was employed for thermodynamic modelling of the system investigated with a satisfactory agreement between experimental and calculated values.

  8. Solubility Determination and Modeling and Dissolution Thermodynamic Properties of Raspberry Ketone in Binary Solvent Mixtures of Ethanol and Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shu, Min; Zhu, Liang; Wang, Yan-fei; Yang, Jing; Wang, Liyu; Yang, Libin; Zhao, Xiaoyu; Du, Wei

    2018-01-01

    The solubility and dissolution thermodynamic properties of raspberry ketone in a set of binary solvent mixtures (ethanol + water) with different compositions were experimentally determined by static gravimetrical method in the temperature range of 283.15-313.15 K at 0.10 MPa. The solubility of raspberry ketone in this series of ethanol/water binary solvent mixtures was found to increase with a rise in temperature and the rising mole fraction of ethanol in binary solvent mixtures. The van't Hoff, modified Apelblat and 3D Jouyban-Acree-van't Hoff equations were increasingly applied to correlate the solubility in ethanol/water binary solvent mixtures. The former two models could reach better fitting results with the solubility data, while the 3D model can be comprehensively used to estimate the solubility data in all the ratios of ethanol and water in binary solvent mixtures at random temperature. Furthermore, the changes of dissolution thermodynamic properties of raspberry ketone in experimental ethanol/water solvent mixtures were obtained by van't Hoff equation. For all the above experiments, these dissolution processes of raspberry ketone in experimental ethanol/water binary solvent mixtures were estimated to be endothermic and enthalpy-driven.

  9. Vapor-Liquid Equilibrium of Carbon Dioxide + Ethanol: Experimental Measurements with Acoustic Method and Thermodynamic Modeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Mehl

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Phase behavior of systems composed by supercritical carbon dioxide and ethanol is of great interest, especially in the processes involving supercritical extraction in which ethanol is used as a cosolvent. The development of an apparatus, which is able to perform the measurements of vapor-liquid equilibrium (VLE at high pressure using a combination of the visual and the acoustic methods, was successful and was proven to be suited for determining the isothermal VLE data of this system. The acoustic method, based on the variation of the amplitude of an ultra-sound signal passing through a mixture during a phase transition, was applied to investigate the phase equilibria of the system carbon dioxide + ethanol at temperatures ranging from 298.2 K to 323.2 K and pressures from 3.0 MPa to 9.0 MPa. The VLE data were correlated with Peng-Robinson equation of state combined with two different mixing rules and the SAFT equations of state as well. The compositions calculated with the models are in good agreement with the experimental data for the isotherms evaluated.

  10. Radiolysis study of the oxidation of a vitamin K model compound in ethanolic solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fackir, L.; Jore, D.; Gardes-Albert, M.; Ferradini, C.; Acher, F.; Azerad, R.

    1993-01-01

    It seems that the biological action of vitamin K (with its important role in carboxylating processes) may involve monoelectronic exchanges. Therefore radical mechanisms of a vitamin K model molecule KHp have been studied in ethanolic solution by mean of steady state radiolysis method. The oxidation of KHp by H 3 C-CH(OH)OO . model peroxyl radicals leads to the formation of a 'dimeric' form of vitamin K. The superoxide anions seem not to be reactive towards KHp in the chosen irradiation conditions

  11. Turmeric Extract Rescues Ethanol-Induced Developmental Defect in the Zebrafish Model for Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder (FASD).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muralidharan, Pooja; Connors, Craig T; Mohammed, Arooj S; Sarmah, Swapnalee; Marrs, Kathleen; Marrs, James A; Chism, Grady W

    2017-09-01

    Prenatal ethanol exposure causes the most frequent preventable birth disorder, fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD). The effect of turmeric extracts in rescuing an ethanol-induced developmental defect using zebrafish as a model was determined. Ethanol-induced oxidative stress is one of the major mechanisms underlying FASD. We hypothesize that antioxidant inducing properties of turmeric may alleviate ethanol-induced defects. Curcuminoid content of the turmeric powder extract (5 mg/mL turmeric in ethanol) was determined by UPLC and found to contain Curcumin (124.1 ± 0.2 μg/mL), Desmethoxycurcumin (43.4 ± 0.1 μg/mL), and Bisdemethoxycurcumin (36.6 ± 0.1 μg/mL). Zebrafish embryos were treated with 100 mM (0.6% v/v) ethanol during gastrulation through organogenesis (2 to 48 h postfertilization (hpf)) and supplemented with turmeric extract to obtain total curcuminoid concentrations of 0, 1.16, 1.72, or 2.32 μM. Turmeric supplementation showed significant rescue of the body length at 72 hpf compared to ethanol-treated embryos. The mechanism underlying the rescue remains to be determined. © 2017 Institute of Food Technologists®.

  12. A rodent model of low- to moderate-dose ethanol consumption during pregnancy: patterns of ethanol consumption and effects on fetal and offspring growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Probyn, Megan E; Zanini, Simone; Ward, Leigh C; Bertram, John F; Moritz, Karen M

    2012-01-01

    It is unknown whether low to moderate maternal alcohol consumption adversely affects postnatal health. The aim of the present study was to develop a rodent model of low-moderate-dose prenatal ethanol (EtOH) exposure. Sprague-Dawley rats were fed a liquid diet with or without 6% v/v EtOH throughout gestation and the pattern of dietary consumption determined. Fetal bodyweights and hepatic alcohol-metabolising gene expression were measured on embryonic Day (E) 20 and offspring growth studied until 1 year. At E8 the plasma EtOH concentration was 0.03%. There was little difference in dietary consumption between the two treatment groups. At E20, EtOH-exposed fetuses were significantly lighter than controls and had significantly decreased ADH4 and increased CYP2E1 gene expression. Offspring killed on postnatal Day (PN) 30 did not exhibit any growth deficits. Longitudinal repeated measures of offspring growth demonstrated slower growth in males from EtOH-fed dams between 7 and 12 months of age; a cohort of male pups killed at 8 months of age had a reduced crown-rump length and kidney weight. In conclusion, a liquid diet of 6% v/v EtOH fed to pregnant dams throughout gestation caused a 3-8% reduction in fetal growth and brain sparing, with growth differences observed in male offspring later in life. This model will be useful for future studies on the effects of low-moderate EtOH on the developmental origins of health and disease.

  13. Process development and modeling of fluidized-bed reactor with coimmobilized biocatalyst for fuel ethanol production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, May Yongmei

    This research focuses on two steps of commercial fuel ethanol production processes: the hydrolysis starch process and the fermentation process. The goal of this research is to evaluate the performance of co-immobilized biocatalysts in a fluidized bed reactor with emphasis on economic and engineering aspects and to develop a predictive mathematical model for this system. The productivity of an FBR is higher than productivity of a traditional batch reactor or CSTR. Fluidized beds offer great advantages over packed beds for immobilized cells when small particles are used or when the reactant feed contains suspended solids. Plugging problems, excessive pressure drops (and thus attrition), or crushing risks may be avoided. No mechanical stirring is required as mixing occurs due to the natural turbulence in the fluidized process. Both enzyme and microorganism are immobilized in one catalyst bead which is called co-immobilization. Inside this biocatalyst matrix, starch is hydrolyzed by the enzyme glucoamylase to form glucose and then converted to ethanol and carbon dioxide by microorganisms. Two biocatalysts were evaluated: (1) co-immobilized yeast strain Saccharomyces cerevisiae and glucoamylase. (2) co-immobilized Zymomonas mobilis and glucoamylase. A co-immobilized biocatalyst accomplishes the simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF process). When compared to a two-step process involving separate saccharification and fermentation stages, the SSF process has productivity values twice that given by the pre-saccharified process when the time required for pre-saccharification (15--25 h) was taken into account. The SSF process should also save capital cost. The information about productivity, fermentation yield, concentration profiles along the bed, ethanol inhibition, et al., was obtained from the experimental data. For the yeast system, experimental results showed that: no apparent decrease of productivity occurred after two and half months, the productivity

  14. Hydrological catchment modelling: past, present and future

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses basic issues in hydrological modelling and flood forecasting, ranging from the roles of physically-based and data-driven rainfall runoff models, to the concepts of predictive uncertainty and equifinality and their implications. The evolution of a wide range of hydrological catchment models employing the physically meaningful and data-driven approaches introduces the need for objective test beds or benchmarks to assess the merits of the different models in reconciling the alternative approaches. In addition, the paper analyses uncertainty in models and predictions by clarifying the meaning of uncertainty, by distinguishing between parameter and predictive uncertainty and by demonstrating how the concept of equifinality must be addressed by appropriate and robust inference approaches. Finally, the importance of predictive uncertainty in the decision making process is highlighted together with possible approaches aimed at overcoming the diffidence of end-users.

  15. Drinking typography established by scheduled induction predicts chronic heavy drinking in a monkey model of ethanol self-administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grant, Kathleen A; Leng, Xiaoyan; Green, Heather L; Szeliga, Kendall T; Rogers, Laura S M; Gonzales, Steven W

    2008-10-01

    We have developed an animal model of alcohol self-administration that initially employs schedule-induced polydipsia (SIP) to establish reliable ethanol consumption under open access (22 h/d) conditions with food and water concurrently available. SIP is an adjunctive behavior that is generated by constraining access to an important commodity (e.g., flavored food). The induction schedule and ethanol polydipsia generated under these conditions affords the opportunity to investigate the development of drinking typologies that lead to chronic, excessive alcohol consumption. Adult male cynomolgus monkeys (Macaca fascicularis) were induced to drink water and 4% (w/v in water) ethanol by a Fixed-Time 300 seconds (FT-300 seconds) schedule of banana-flavored pellet delivery. The FT-300 seconds schedule was in effect for 120 consecutive sessions, with daily induction doses increasing from 0.0 to 0.5 g/kg to 1.0 g/kg to 1.5 g/kg every 30 days. Following induction, the monkeys were allowed concurrent access to 4% (w/v) ethanol and water for 22 h/day for 12 months. Drinking typographies during the induction of drinking 1.5 g/kg ethanol emerged that were highly predictive of the daily ethanol intake over the next 12 months. Specifically, the frequency in which monkeys ingested 1.5 g/kg ethanol without a 5-minute lapse in drinking (defined as a bout of drinking) during induction strongly predicted (correlation 0.91) subsequent ethanol intake over the next 12 months of open access to ethanol. Blood ethanol during induction were highly correlated with intake and with drinking typography and ranged from 100 to 160 mg% when the monkeys drank their 1.5 g/kg dose in a single bout. Forty percent of the population became heavy drinkers (mean daily intakes >3.0 g/kg for 12 months) characterized by frequent "spree" drinking (intakes >4.0 g/kg/d). This model of ethanol self-administration identifies early alcohol drinking typographies (gulping the equivalent of 6 drinks) that evolve into

  16. MECHANISTIC KINETIC MODELS FOR STEAM REFORMING OF CONCENTRATED CRUDE ETHANOL ON NI/AL2O3 CATALYST

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. A. OLAFADEHAN

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Mechanistic kinetic models were postulated for the catalytic steam reforming of concentrated crude ethanol on a Ni-based commercial catalyst at atmosphere pressure in the temperature range of 673-863 K, and at different catalyst weight to the crude ethanol molar flow rate ratio (in the range 0.9645-9.6451 kg catalyst h/kg mole crude ethanol in a stainless steel packed bed tubular microreactor. The models were based on Langmuir-Hinshelwood-Hougen-Watson (LHHW and Eley-Rideal (ER mechanisms. The optimization routine of Nelder-Mead simplex algorithm was used to estimate the inherent kinetic parameters in the proposed models. The selection of the best kinetic model amongst the rival kinetic models was based on physicochemical, statistical and thermodynamic scrutinies. The rate determining step for the steam reforming of concentrated crude ethanol on Ni/Al2O3 catalyst was found to be surface reaction between chemisorbed CH3O and O when hydrogen and oxygen were adsorbed as monomolecular species on the catalyst surface. Excellent agreement was obtained between the experimental rate of reaction and conversion of crude ethanol, and the simulated results, with ADD% being ±0.46.

  17. Molecular modeling study of lithium isotopic separation by crown-ethers in ethanol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dehez, F.

    2002-01-01

    The isotopic separation of lithium ion isotopes is studied at the CEA in Pierrelatte using a liquid chromatography technique. Exchange systems are composed by crown-ethers grafted on silica (12C4, 15C5, B15C5, DB15C5, 18C6, B18C6). Lithium is introduced as a salt melted in ethanol. This work concerns the theoretical study of lithium isotopic exchange reactions with those systems. After a brief presentation of isotope separation techniques and isotopic effects (Chap.I), we describe the methods of theoretical chemistry used in this work (Chap. II). In chapter III, we test AM1 and PM3 semi-empirical methods for the treatment of Li + /crown-ether species. Then, we calculate isotopic separation factors via ab initio and semi-empirical calculations for the exchange reactions in vacuum. The different crown-ethers are considered with and without graftings arms. Studies of exchange reactions in ethanol are presented in chapter IV. First, each species of the reaction are solvated by a few ethanol molecules. Isotopic separation factors calculated show a large effect of the solvent on the exchange reaction. The effect of the grafting arm has been investigated using hybrid quantum mechanics/molecular mechanics (QM/MM) molecular dynamics for species with the 12C4. Trajectories have been generated successively with 7 Li and 6 Li. Atomic velocity autocorrelation functions have allowed the access to vibrational frequencies necessary to calculate isotopic separation factors. The last chapter is devoted to methodological developments made during this Ph.D. We propose an approach to treat long range electrostatic interactions in hybrid QM/MM method, relying on a lattice summation technique. (author) [fr

  18. Modeling the effect of ethanol vapor on the germination time of Penicillium chrysogenum

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dantigny, P.; Tchobanov, I.; Bensoussan, M.; Zwietering, M.H.

    2005-01-01

    The influence of ethanol vapor on germination of Penicillium chrysogenum was determined on yeast nitrogen base plus glucose agar medium at 25°C. Ethanol vapors were generated by 0 to 6% (wt/wt) ethanol solutions at the bottom of hermetically closed petri dishes. The logistic equation was used to

  19. Use of net present value analysis to evaluate a publicly funded biomass-to-ethanol research, development, and demonstration program and valuate expected private sector participation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinman, N D; Yancey, M A

    1998-01-01

    One of the functions of government is to invest tax dollars in programs, projects, and properties that will result in greater public benefit than would have resulted from leaving the tax dollars in the private sector or using them to pay off the public debt. This paper describes the use of Net Present Value (NPV) as an approach to analyze and select investment opportunities for government money in public research, development, and demonstration (RD&D) programs and to evaluate potential private sector participation in the programs. This approach is then applied to a specific biomass-to-ethanol opportunity in California.

  20. EFFECTS OF LUDARTIN AND LEUKOMISIN ON THE ACUTE HYPERLIPIDEMIA MODEL INDUCED BY ETHANOL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Ratkin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: study sesquiterpene lactones ludartin and leukomisin lipid-lowering properties on the model of acute hyperlipidemia induced by ethanol in rats.Material and methods. Rats during 7 days injected into the stomach ludartin and leukomisin in a dose 10 mg/kg or reference drug nicotinic acid in a dose 25 mg/kg. Hyperlipidemia caused by single introduc-tion of ethanol into the stomach in a dose 5 g/kg. In blood serum of tail vein measured the triacylgly-cerols, total cholesterol, high density and low density lipoproteins cholesterol, also the level of free fatty acids. Calculated the ratio of high density lipoproteins cholesterol to the amount of low density lipopro-teins cholesterol and the index of atherogenicity.Results. A single dose of ethanol increased serum level of triacylglycerols in 1.9 times, free fatty acids – in 3.2 times, low density lipoproteins – on 44% in comparison with the intact animals indices. It shows the development of acute hyperlipidemia. Serum total cholesterol, high density lipoproteins cholesterol and the index of atherogenicity were not changed. Course introduction of sesquiterpene lactones ludartin and leukomisin against the background of acute hyperlipidemia was accompanied by a decrease in the serum of triacylglycerols levels respectively by 37.5% and 49.5%. Nicotinic acid lowered the content of triacylglycerols by 42.4%. Ludartin, leukomisin and nicotinic acid reduced the increased level of free fatty acids in the blood serum by 63.4%, 41.6% and 67.9%. Ludartin, leukomisin and nicotinic acid de-creased by 15.8%, 20.3% and 17.2% of total cholesterol in the blood serum. In acute hyperlipidemia ludartin and leukomisin reduced low density lipoproteins cholesterol by 23.8% and 14.8%, respectively, nicotinic acid – by 15.7%. Both of sesquiterpene lactone and nicotinic acid did not modify the content of high density lipoproteins cholesterol. When introduction ludartin and nicotinic acid ratio of high density

  1. EFFECTS OF GROSSHEMIN AND GROSSMISIN ON THE ACUTE HYPERLIPIDEMIA MODEL INDUCED BY ETHANOL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Ratkin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: study sesquiterpene lactones grosshemin and grossmisin lipid-lowering properties on the model of acute hyperlipidemia induced by ethanol in rats.Materials and methods. Rats during 7 days injected into the stomach grosshemin and grossmisin in a dose 10 mg/kg or reference drug nicotinic acid in a dose 25 mg/kg. Hyperlipidemia caused by single introduction of ethanol into the stomach in a dose 5 g/kg. In blood serum of tail vein measured the triacylglycerols, total cholesterol, high density and low density lipoproteins cholesterol, also the level of free fatty acids. Calculated the ratio of high density lipoproteins cholesterol to the amount of low density lipoproteins cholesterol and the index of atherogenicity.Results. A single dose of ethanol increased serum level of triacylglycerols in 1.9 times, free fatty acids – in 3.2 times, low density lipoproteins – on 44% in comparison with the intact animals indices. It shows the development of acute hyperlipidemia. Serum total cholesterol, high density lipoproteins cholesterol and the index of atherogenicity were not changed. Course sesquiterpene lactones grosshemin and grossmisin introduction against the background of acute hyperlipidemia was accompanied by a decrease in the serum of triacylglycerols levels respectively by 19.8% and 34.1%. Nicotinic acid lowered the content of triacylglycerols by 42.4%. Grosshemin and nicotinic acid reduced the increased level of free fatty acids in the blood serum by 60.7–67.9%. Grossmisin and nicotinic acid decreased by 14.6–17.2% of total cholesterol in the blood serum. In acute hyperlipidemia grosshemin and grossmisin reduced low density lipoproteins cholesterol by 17.6% and 20%, respectively, nicotinic acid – by 15.7%. Both of sesquiterpene lactone and nicotinic acid did not modify the content of high density lipoproteins cholesterol. When introduction grosshemin, grossmisin and nicotinic acid ratio of high density lipoproteins cholesterol to

  2. Ethanol dehydration

    OpenAIRE

    Ana María Uyazán; Iván Dario Gil; J L Aguilar; Gerardo Rodríguez Niño; Luis Alfonso Caicedo

    2004-01-01

    This review outlines ethanol dehydration processes and their most important characteristics. It also deals with the main operating variables and some criteria used in designing the separation scheme. A differentiation is made between processes involving liquid steam balance in separation operations and those doing it by screening the difference in molecule size. The last part presents a comparison between the three main industrial processes, stressing their stengths and weaknesses from the op...

  3. Ethanol dehydration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana María Uyazán

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available This review outlines ethanol dehydration processes and their most important characteristics. It also deals with the main operating variables and some criteria used in designing the separation scheme. A differentiation is made between processes involving liquid steam balance in separation operations and those doing it by screening the difference in molecule size. The last part presents a comparison between the three main industrial processes, stressing their stengths and weaknesses from the operational, energy consumption and industrial services points of view.

  4. Model for Presenting Resources in Scholar's Portal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feeney, Mary; Newby, Jill

    2005-01-01

    Presenting electronic resources to users through a federated search engine introduces unique opportunities and challenges to libraries. This article reports on the decision-making tools and processes used for selecting collections of electronic resources by a project team at the University of Arizona (UA) Libraries for the Association of Research…

  5. Alcohol dehydrogenase AdhA plays a role in ethanol tolerance in model cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vidal, Rebeca

    2017-04-01

    The protein AdhA from the cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803 (hereafter Synechocystis) has been previously reported to show alcohol dehydrogenase activity towards ethanol and both NAD and NADP. This protein is currently being used in genetically modified strains of Synechocystis capable of synthesizing ethanol showing the highest ethanol productivities. In the present work, mutant strains of Synechocystis lacking AdhA have been constructed and tested for tolerance to ethanol. The lack of AdhA in the wild-type strain reduces survival to externally added ethanol at lethal concentration of 4% (v/v). On the other hand, the lack of AdhA in an ethanologenic strain diminishes tolerance of cells to internally produced ethanol. It is also shown that light-activated heterotrophic growth (LAHG) of the wild-type strain is impaired in the mutant strain lacking AdhA (∆adhA strain). Photoautotrophic, mixotrophic, and photoheterotrophic growth are not affected in the mutant strain. Based on phenotypic characterization of ∆adhA mutants, the possible physiological function of AdhA in Synechocystis is discussed.

  6. Mapping the Physiological Response of Oenococcus oeni to Ethanol Stress Using an Extended Genome-Scale Metabolic Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela Contreras

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The effect of ethanol on the metabolism of Oenococcus oeni, the bacterium responsible for the malolactic fermentation (MLF of wine, is still scarcely understood. Here, we characterized the global metabolic response in O. oeni PSU-1 to increasing ethanol contents, ranging from 0 to 12% (v/v. We first optimized a wine-like, defined culture medium, MaxOeno, to allow sufficient bacterial growth to be able to quantitate different metabolites in batch cultures of O. oeni. Then, taking advantage of the recently reconstructed genome-scale metabolic model iSM454 for O. oeni PSU-1 and the resulting experimental data, we determined the redistribution of intracellular metabolic fluxes, under the different ethanol conditions. Four growth phases were clearly identified during the batch cultivation of O. oeni PSU-1 strain, according to the temporal consumption of malic and citric acids, sugar and amino acids uptake, and biosynthesis rates of metabolic products – biomass, erythritol, mannitol and acetic acid, among others. We showed that, under increasing ethanol conditions, O. oeni favors anabolic reactions related with cell maintenance, as the requirements of NAD(P+ and ATP increased with ethanol content. Specifically, cultures containing 9 and 12% ethanol required 10 and 17 times more NGAM (non-growth associated maintenance ATP during phase I, respectively, than cultures without ethanol. MLF and citric acid consumption are vital at high ethanol concentrations, as they are the main source for proton extrusion, allowing higher ATP production by F0F1-ATPase, the main route of ATP synthesis under these conditions. Mannitol and erythritol synthesis are the main sources of NAD(P+, countervailing for 51–57% of its usage, as predicted by the model. Finally, cysteine shows the fastest specific consumption rate among the amino acids, confirming its key role for bacterial survival under ethanol stress. As a whole, this study provides a global insight into how

  7. Mapping the Physiological Response ofOenococcus oenito Ethanol Stress Using an Extended Genome-Scale Metabolic Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Contreras, Angela; Ribbeck, Magdalena; Gutiérrez, Guillermo D; Cañon, Pablo M; Mendoza, Sebastián N; Agosin, Eduardo

    2018-01-01

    The effect of ethanol on the metabolism of Oenococcus oeni , the bacterium responsible for the malolactic fermentation (MLF) of wine, is still scarcely understood. Here, we characterized the global metabolic response in O. oeni PSU-1 to increasing ethanol contents, ranging from 0 to 12% (v/v). We first optimized a wine-like, defined culture medium, MaxOeno, to allow sufficient bacterial growth to be able to quantitate different metabolites in batch cultures of O. oeni . Then, taking advantage of the recently reconstructed genome-scale metabolic model iSM454 for O. oeni PSU-1 and the resulting experimental data, we determined the redistribution of intracellular metabolic fluxes, under the different ethanol conditions. Four growth phases were clearly identified during the batch cultivation of O. oeni PSU-1 strain, according to the temporal consumption of malic and citric acids, sugar and amino acids uptake, and biosynthesis rates of metabolic products - biomass, erythritol, mannitol and acetic acid, among others. We showed that, under increasing ethanol conditions, O. oeni favors anabolic reactions related with cell maintenance, as the requirements of NAD(P) + and ATP increased with ethanol content. Specifically, cultures containing 9 and 12% ethanol required 10 and 17 times more NGAM (non-growth associated maintenance ATP) during phase I, respectively, than cultures without ethanol. MLF and citric acid consumption are vital at high ethanol concentrations, as they are the main source for proton extrusion, allowing higher ATP production by F 0 F 1 -ATPase, the main route of ATP synthesis under these conditions. Mannitol and erythritol synthesis are the main sources of NAD(P) + , countervailing for 51-57% of its usage, as predicted by the model. Finally, cysteine shows the fastest specific consumption rate among the amino acids, confirming its key role for bacterial survival under ethanol stress. As a whole, this study provides a global insight into how ethanol content

  8. Phase partitioning modeling of ethanol, isopropanol, and methanol with BTEX compounds in water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kenneth Y

    2008-07-01

    This study investigates the equilibrium phase partitioning behavior of ethanol, isopropanol, and methanol in a two-phase liquid-liquid system consisting of water and an individual BTEX (Benzene, Toluene, Ethylbenzene, and Xylenes) compound. A previously developed computer program is enhanced to generate ternary phase diagrams for analysis of each three-component cosolvent-nonaqueous phase liquid (NAPL)-water mixture combination. The required activity coefficients are estimated using the UNIFAC (Universal Quasichemical Functional group Activity Coefficient) model. The UNIFAC-derived ternary phase diagrams generally show good agreement against published experimental data, and similar phase partitioning behavior is observed for every BTEX compound in the presence of the same cosolvent. Furthermore, a set of laboratory experiments is conducted to determine the maximum single-phase water content for every mixture combination considered in this study where the volume composition of the cosolvent and the NAPL components is a blend of 85% alcohol and 15% BTEX compound. Comparison of experimentally-derived maximum single-phase water contents against UNIFAC-derived results shows good agreement for mixtures containing ethanol and methanol, but relatively poor agreement for mixtures containing isopropanol.

  9. Phase partitioning modeling of ethanol, isopropanol, and methanol with BTEX compounds in water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Kenneth Y. [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of Massachusetts Lowell, 1 University Avenue, Lowell, MA 01854 (United States)], E-mail: kenneth_lee@uml.edu

    2008-07-15

    This study investigates the equilibrium phase partitioning behavior of ethanol, isopropanol, and methanol in a two-phase liquid-liquid system consisting of water and an individual BTEX (Benzene, Toluene, Ethylbenzene, and Xylenes) compound. A previously developed computer program is enhanced to generate ternary phase diagrams for analysis of each three-component cosolvent-nonaqueous phase liquid (NAPL)-water mixture combination. The required activity coefficients are estimated using the UNIFAC (Universal Quasichemical Functional group Activity Coefficient) model. The UNIFAC-derived ternary phase diagrams generally show good agreement against published experimental data, and similar phase partitioning behavior is observed for every BTEX compound in the presence of the same cosolvent. Furthermore, a set of laboratory experiments is conducted to determine the maximum single-phase water content for every mixture combination considered in this study where the volume composition of the cosolvent and the NAPL components is a blend of 85% alcohol and 15% BTEX compound. Comparison of experimentally-derived maximum single-phase water contents against UNIFAC-derived results shows good agreement for mixtures containing ethanol and methanol, but relatively poor agreement for mixtures containing isopropanol. - As a high-alcohol content fuel blend migrates through the subsurface and encounters water, phase partitioning of the mixture plays a critical role in the distribution and spreading of the pollutants.

  10. Antimalarial properties of Artemisia vulgaris L. ethanolic leaf extract in a Plasmodium berghei murine malaria model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bamunuarachchi, Gayan S; Ratnasooriya, Wanigasekara D; Premakumara, Sirimal; Udagama, Preethi V

    2013-12-01

    Artemisinin isolated from Artemisia annua is the most potent antimalarial drug against chloroquine-resistant Plasmodium falciparum malaria. Artemisia vulgaris, an invasive weed, is the only Artemisia species available in Sri Lanka. A pilot study was undertaken to investigate the antiparasitic activity of an A. vulgaris ethanolic leaf extract (AVELE) in a P. berghei ANKA murine malaria model that elicits pathogenesis similar to falciparum malaria. A 4-day suppressive and the curative assays determined the antiparasitic activity of AVELE using four doses (250, 500, 750 and 1000 mg/kg), Coartem® as the positive control and 5% ethanol as the negative control in male ICR mice infected with P. berghei. The 500, 750 and 1000 mg/kg doses of AVELE significantly (p ≤ 0.01) inhibited parasitaemia by 79.3, 79.6 and 87.3% respectively, in the 4-day suppressive assay, but not in the curative assay. Chronic administration of the high dose of AVELE ruled out overt signs of toxicity and stress as well as hepatotoxicity, renotoxicity and haematotoxicity. The oral administration of a crude ethonolic leaf extract of A. vulgaris is non-toxic and possesses potent antimalarial properties in terms of antiparasitic activity.

  11. Pharmacological studies of ethanolic extracts of Maytenus rigida Mart (Celastraceae in animal models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanda Lucia dos Santos

    Full Text Available The crude ethanol extract (EEOH of the bark of Maytenus rigida Mart (Celastraceae a plant used in Brazil herbal traditional medicine, was tested for anti-inflammatory, antiulcer and antidiarrhoeal activities in animal models. No acute toxicological sign was observed in animals treated with the highest dose (5000 mg/kg, p.o. or 2000 mg/kg i.p. of EEOH. The extract doses of 250, 500 or 750 mg/kg revealed a significant inhibitory effect (P < 0,01 in carrageenin-induced rat paw oedema and exhibited ulcer-protective properties against ethanol-induced ulceration in rats. An anti-diarrhoeal activity (P < 0.01 was also observed in castor-oil-induced diarrhoeal in mice. The intestinal transit was significantly (P < 0.01 reduced, however the pretreatment did not reduce the weight of intestinal contents. These results support the popular applications of Maytenus rigida for the treatment of inflammation, ulcer and diarrhoea in Brazil herbal traditional medicine.

  12. Characterization of an alcoholic hepatic steatosis model induced by ethanol and high-fat diet in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Eduardo Alves de Souza

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Alcoholic liver disease is characterized by a wide spectrum of liver damage, which increases when ethanol is associated with high-fat diets (HFD. This work aimed to establish a model of alcoholic hepatic steatosis (AHS by using a combination of 10% ethanol and sunflower seeds as the source of HFD. Male rats received water or 10% ethanol and regular chow diet and/or HFD, which consisted of sunflower seeds. The food consumption, liquid intake and body weight of the rats were monitored for 30 days. After this period, blood was collected for biochemical evaluation, and liver samples were collected for histological, mitochondrial enzyme activity and oxidative stress analyses. Our results indicated that the combination of 10% ethanol and HFD induced micro- and macrosteatosis and hepatocyte tumefaction, decreased the levels of reduced glutathione and glutathione S-transferase activity and increased the level of lipoperoxidation and superoxide dismutase activity. The mitochondrial oxidation of NADH and succinate were partially inhibited. Complexes I and II were the main inhibition sites. Hepatic steatosis was successfully induced after 4 weeks of the diet, and the liver function was modified. The combination of 10% ethanol and sunflower seeds as an HFD produced an inexpensive model to study AHS in rats.

  13. Experimental, kinetic and numerical modeling of hydrogen production by catalytic reforming of crude ethanol over a commercial catalyst in packed bed tubular reactor and packed bed membrane reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aboudheir, Ahmed; Akande, Abayomi; Idem, Raphael

    2006-01-01

    reactor. The model was based on the coupling of mass, momentum and energy balance equations as well as our new kinetic model developed for this process.The simulation results for crude ethanol conversion were found to be in accordance with the experimental data obtained at various operating conditions. In addition, the predicted variations of the concentration and temperature profiles for our process. In the radial direction indicate that the assumption of plug flow and isothermal behaviour is justified within certain kinetics operating conditions. However, even within these operating conditions, our results have proven that the axial dispersion terms in the balance equations (mass, momentum and energy) cannot be neglected, especially in the hypothetical industrial case presented in this work for the reforming of crude ethanol. In addition, in the experimental study of the application of a porous membrane reactor for the crude ethanol reforming process conducted to compare with that for the packed bed tubular reactor, it was found that the membrane reactor outperformed the packed bed tubular reactor in terms of crude ethanol conversion and hydrogen production. This is due to the function of the membrane reactor to shift the thermodynamic equilibrium in favour of the conversion of crude ethanol to hydrogen according to Le Catelier-Braun's law.(Author)

  14. Cost evaluation of cellulase enzyme for industrial-scale cellulosic ethanol production based on rigorous Aspen Plus modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Gang; Zhang, Jian; Bao, Jie

    2016-01-01

    Cost reduction on cellulase enzyme usage has been the central effort in the commercialization of fuel ethanol production from lignocellulose biomass. Therefore, establishing an accurate evaluation method on cellulase enzyme cost is crucially important to support the health development of the future biorefinery industry. Currently, the cellulase cost evaluation methods were complicated and various controversial or even conflict results were presented. To give a reliable evaluation on this important topic, a rigorous analysis based on the Aspen Plus flowsheet simulation in the commercial scale ethanol plant was proposed in this study. The minimum ethanol selling price (MESP) was used as the indicator to show the impacts of varying enzyme supply modes, enzyme prices, process parameters, as well as enzyme loading on the enzyme cost. The results reveal that the enzyme cost drives the cellulosic ethanol price below the minimum profit point when the enzyme is purchased from the current industrial enzyme market. An innovative production of cellulase enzyme such as on-site enzyme production should be explored and tested in the industrial scale to yield an economically sound enzyme supply for the future cellulosic ethanol production.

  15. [Effect of ethanol extract from Matbuhi Aftimun on blood lipide level in rat hyperilpldemla model].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islam, Rabigul; Mamat, Yultuz; Rapkat, Haximjan

    2010-07-01

    To investigate the acute toxicity, lipid reducing effect and mechanism of action of ethanol extracts of Matbuhi Aftimun (E-MA), a classic prescription of Uighur medicine, on hyperlipidemia rat model. The LD50 or maximum tolerance of rats to E-MA was determined by simplified probit method. Hyperlipidemia rat model was established in SD rats by feeding high lipid emulsion, then E-MA at different dosages (0.80 g/kg, 1.60 g/kg and 3.20 g/kg) was given orally to them. The effects of E-MA on model rats' serum lipids, including total cholesterol (TC), low density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C), high density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C), triglyceride (TG), were observed. And its effects on malondialdehydec (MDA) content, superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-PX), total lipase, including lipoprotein lipase (LPL) and hepato-lipase (HL) activities in the liver homogenate were assayed. The maximum tolerance of rats to E-MA was 64 g (crude drug)/kg. Compared with the hyperlipidemia model rat, the blood TC level was lower (P 0.05), also on the levels of SOD, GSH-PX and total lipase in the liver homogenate (P > 0.05). E-MA shows a serum TC reducing effect on hyperlipidemia rat model with low toxicity in mice.

  16. Modeling and analysing storage systems in agricultural biomass supply chain for cellulosic ethanol production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ebadian, Mahmood; Sowlati, Taraneh; Sokhansanj, Shahab; Townley-Smith, Lawrence; Stumborg, Mark

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► Studied the agricultural biomass supply chain for cellulosic ethanol production. ► Evaluated the impact of storage systems on different supply chain actors. ► Developed a combined simulation/optimization model to evaluate storage systems. ► Compared two satellite storage systems with roadside storage in terms of costs and emitted CO 2 . ► SS would lead to a more cost-efficient supply chain compared to roadside storage. -- Abstract: In this paper, a combined simulation/optimization model is developed to better understand and evaluate the impact of the storage systems on the costs incurred by each actor in the agricultural biomass supply chain including farmers, hauling contractors and the cellulosic ethanol plant. The optimization model prescribes the optimum number and location of farms and storages. It also determines the supply radius, the number of farms required to secure the annual supply of biomass and also the assignment of farms to storage locations. Given the specific design of the supply chain determined by the optimization model, the simulation model determines the number of required machines for each operation, their daily working schedule and utilization rates, along with the capacities of storages. To evaluate the impact of the storage systems on the delivered costs, three storage systems are molded and compared: roadside storage (RS) system and two satellite storage (SS) systems including SS with fixed hauling distance (SF) and SS with variable hauling distance (SV). In all storage systems, it is assumed the loading equipment is dedicated to storage locations. The obtained results from a real case study provide detailed cost figures for each storage system since the developed model analyses the supply chain on an hourly basis and considers time-dependence and stochasticity of the supply chain. Comparison of the storage systems shows SV would outperform SF and RS by reducing the total delivered cost by 8% and 6%, respectively

  17. Rodent Models of Alcoholic Liver Disease: Role of Binge Ethanol Administration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shubha Ghosh Dastidar

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Both chronic and acute (binge alcohol drinking are important health and economic concerns worldwide and prominent risk factors for the development of alcoholic liver disease (ALD. There are no FDA-approved medications to prevent or to treat any stage of ALD. Therefore, discovery of novel therapeutic strategies remains a critical need for patients with ALD. Relevant experimental animal models that simulate human drinking patterns and mimic the spectrum and severity of alcohol-induced liver pathology in humans are critical to our ability to identify new mechanisms and therapeutic targets. There are several animal models currently in use, including the most widely utilized chronic ad libitum ethanol (EtOH feeding (Lieber–DeCarli liquid diet model, chronic intragastric EtOH administration (Tsukamoto–French model, and chronic-plus-binge EtOH challenge (Bin Gao—National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism (NIAAA model. This review provides an overview of recent advances in rodent models of binge EtOH administration which help to recapitulate different features and etiologies of progressive ALD. These models include EtOH binge alone, and EtOH binge coupled with chronic EtOH intake, a high fat diet, or endotoxin challenge. We analyze the strengths, limitations, and translational relevance of these models, as well as summarize the liver injury outcomes and mechanistic insights. We further discuss the application(s of binge EtOH models in examining alcohol-induced multi-organ pathology, sex- and age-related differences, as well as circadian rhythm disruption.

  18. Ethanol Basics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2015-01-30

    Ethanol is a widely-used, domestically-produced renewable fuel made from corn and other plant materials. More than 96% of gasoline sold in the United States contains ethanol. Learn more about this alternative fuel in the Ethanol Basics Fact Sheet, produced by the U.S. Department of Energy's Clean Cities program.

  19. A Swine Model of Percutaneous Intracoronary Ethanol Induced Acute Myocardial Infarction and Ischemic Mitral Regurgitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Weiwei; McIver, Bryant V; Kalra, Kanika; Sarin, Eric L; Schmarkey, Susan; Duggan, Michael; Thourani, Vinod H; Guyton, Robert A; Padala, Muralidhar

    2017-08-01

    Ischemic mitral regurgitation (IMR) is a frequent complication after a myocardial infarction (MI), which doubles mortality. Transcatheter mitral repairs are emerging as alternative treatment options to open heart surgery for IMR, but animal models to test them are lacking. We report a percutaneous swine model of IMR. Seventeen swine were randomized to (group 1, n = 12) MI causing IMR, and (group 2, n = 5) controls. In group 1, MI was induced via percutaneous ethanol injection into the obtuse marginal branches of the left circumflex artery, resulting in ST elevating myocardial infarction. Nine animals were survived to 8-10 weeks with weekly echocardiograms and three swine were survived to 16-20 weeks with MRI at termination. In group 1 animals, average IMR fraction at termination was 26.6 ± 2.3% in the echo group, and 24.51 ± 0.41% in the MRI group. None of the animals in group 2 had IMR. Left ventricular dysfunction and significant dilatation were evident in group 1 animals, compared to the controls. In conclusion, a reproducible model of IMR is reported for use in pre-clinical testing of new mitral technologies.

  20. Modelling of the growth/no growth interface of Wallemia sebi and Eurotium herbariorum as a function of pH, aw and ethanol concentration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deschuyffeleer, N; Vermeulen, A; Daelman, J; Castelein, E; Eeckhout, M; Devlieghere, F

    2015-01-02

    High sugar products (sugar content > 50%) are generally considered to be stable against all forms of microbial spoilage during a prolonged shelf life of several months. However, one specific subgroup of micro-organisms, the xerophilic moulds, can develop quite fast on the surface of food products with a reduced water activity (sebi and Eurotium herbariorum in a sugar rich broth. Growth/no growth models are predictive models that are designed to give a prediction about the probability of growth of a spoilage micro-organism under a specific set of environmental conditions. In this research, a water activity between 0.75 and 0.90, a pH between 5.0 and 6.2, an ethanol concentration between 0% and 5% (g EtOH/g H2O) and their interactions were tested. The inoculated media were stored at 22 °C (± 1 °C) during a prolonged test period (up to 120 days). The obtained models were also validated in a chocolate-based food product (ganache). The resulting growth/no growth models show that the growth of W. sebi and E. herbariorum can be inhibited for a prolonged time (> 3 months) if an ethanol concentration of 5% on the water phase is present in the food product, irrespective of water activity values between 0.89 and 0.755. The necessary amount of ethanol for shorter shelf lives can be calculated with the models that were built. Although the models have not been validated thoroughly in actual food products, the preliminary results that were obtained by testing the model on a ganache indicated that the models are capable of delivering safe predictions. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Present status of composite models in particle physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Terazawa, Hidezumi.

    1986-03-01

    The present status of composite models in particle physics is reviewed with emphasis on the minimal composite model. The subjects to discuss include 1) minimal composite model, 2) generations, 3) mass spectrum and 4) Miyazawa's SUSY and Nambu's SUSY. (author)

  2. “Jello® Shots” and Cocktails as Ethanol Vehicles: Parametric Studies with High- and Low-Saccharin-Consuming Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nancy K. Dess

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Naïve humans and rats voluntarily consume little ethanol at concentrations above ~6% due to its aversive flavor. Developing procedures that boost intake of ethanol or ethanol-paired flavors facilitates research on neural mechanisms of ethanol-associated behaviors and helps identify variables that modulate ethanol intake outside of the lab. The present study explored the impact on consumption of ethanol and ethanol-paired flavors of nutritionally significant parametric variations: ethanol vehicle (gelatin or solution, with or without polycose; ethanol concentration (4% or 10%; and feeding status (chow deprived or ad lib. during flavor conditioning and flavor preference testing. Individual differences were modeled by testing rats of lines selectively bred for high (HiS or low (LoS saccharin intake. A previously reported preference for ethanol-paired flavors was replicated when ethanol had been drunk during conditioning. However, indifference or aversion to ethanol-paired flavors generally obtained when ethanol had been eaten in gelatin during conditioning, regardless of ethanol concentration, feeding status, or caloric value of the vehicle. Modest sex and line variations occurred. Engaging different behavioral systems when eating gelatin, rather than drinking solution, may account for these findings. Implications for parameter selection in future neurobiological research and for understanding conditions that influence ethanol intake outside of the lab are discussed.

  3. Phase behaviour and thermodynamic modelling for the system (grape seed oil + carbon dioxide + ethanol) at high pressures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dalmolin, Irede; Rigo, Aline A.; Corazza, Marcos L.; Ndiaye, Papa M.; Meireles, M. Angela A.; Batista, Eduardo A.C.; Oliveira, J. Vladimir

    2014-01-01

    This short communication reports phase equilibrium data (cloud points), employing the synthetic static method, for the system {grape seed oil (GSO) + carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) + ethanol} up to T = 343.15 K and 22.53 MPa. Experimental results were modelled using the Peng-Robinson equation of state with the classical van der Waals quadratic mixing rule (PR-vdW2). It is shown that the thermodynamic model is able to represent satisfactorily the phase behaviour of the system investigated

  4. Effect of heat/pressure on cyanidin-3-glucoside ethanol model solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Corrales, M; Lindauer, R; Butz, P; Tauscher, B

    2008-01-01

    The stability of cyanidin-3-glucoside (Cy3gl) in 50% ethanol model solutions under heat/pressure treatments was investigated. Cy3gl was rapidly degraded when solutions were subjected to a heat/pressure treatment. The higher the pressure and the temperature used, the higher the degradation. Moreover, the degradation was increased according to increasing holding times. Parallel to the degradation of Cy3gl several hydrolytic products were formed and identified by LC-DAD/ESI-MS. The degradation of Cy3gl was well fitted to a first order reaction (R=0.99). This study pointed out the rate of susceptibility of Cy3gl in model solutions to degrade when exposed to a heat/pressure treatment and the trigger effect of high hydrostatic pressure to hydrolyse Cy3gl. By contrast, the degradation of anthocyanins in a food matrix (red grape extract solutions) was negligible after a heat/pressure process at 600MPa, 70 deg. C during 1h (P >0.05)

  5. Market penetration of ethanol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szulczyk, Kenneth R.; McCarl, Bruce A.; Cornforth, Gerald

    2010-01-01

    This research examines in detail the technology and economics of substituting ethanol for gasoline. This endeavor examines three issues. First, the benefits of ethanol/gasoline blends are examined, and then the technical problems of large-scale implementation of ethanol. Second, ethanol production possibilities are examined in detail from a variety of feedstocks and technologies. The feedstocks are the starch/sugar crops and crop residues, while the technologies are corn wet mill, dry grind, and lignocellulosic fermentation. Examining in detail the production possibilities allows the researchers to identity the extent of technological change, production costs, byproducts, and GHG emissions. Finally, a U.S. agricultural model, FASOMGHG, is updated which predicts the market penetration of ethanol given technological progress, variety of technologies and feedstocks, market interactions, energy prices, and GHG prices. FASOMGHG has several interesting results. First, gasoline prices have a small expansionary impact on the U.S. ethanol industry. Both agricultural producers' income and cost both increase with higher energy prices. If wholesale gasoline is $4 per gallon, the predicted ethanol market penetration attains 53% of U.S. gasoline consumption in 2030. Second, the corn wet mill remains an important industry for ethanol production, because this industry also produces corn oil, which could be converted to biodiesel. Third, GHG prices expand the ethanol industry. However, the GHG price expands the corn wet mill, but has an ambiguous impact on lignocellulosic ethanol. Feedstocks for lignocellulosic fermentation can also be burned with coal to generate electricity. Both industries are quite GHG efficient. Finally, U.S. government subsidies on biofuels have an expansionary impact on ethanol production, but may only increase market penetration by an additional 1% in 2030, which is approximately 6 billion gallons. (author)

  6. Multi-zone modeling of combustion and emissions formation in DI diesel engine operating on ethanol-diesel fuel blends

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rakopoulos, C.D.; Antonopoulos, K.A.; Rakopoulos, D.C.; Hountalas, D.T.

    2008-01-01

    A multi-zone model for calculation of the closed cycle of a direct injection (DI) diesel engine is applied for the interesting case of its operation with ethanol-diesel fuel blends, the ethanol (bio-fuel) being considered recently as a promising extender to petroleum distillates. Although there are many experimental studies, there is an apparent scarcity of theoretical models scrutinizing the formation mechanisms of combustion generated emissions when using bio-fuels. This is a two dimensional, multi-zone model with the issuing fuel jets divided into several discrete volumes, called 'zones', formed along and across the direction of the fuel injection. The model follows each zone, with its own time history, as the spray penetrates into the swirling air environment of the combustion chamber. Droplet evaporation and jet mixing models are used to determine the amount of fuel and entrained air in each zone available for combustion. The mass, energy and state equations are applied in each zone to provide local temperatures and cylinder pressure histories. The concentrations of the various constituents are calculated by adopting a chemical equilibrium scheme for the C-H-O-N system of eleven species considered, together with chemical rate equations for calculation of nitric oxide (NO) and a model for net soot formation. The results from the computer program, implementing the analysis, for the in cylinder pressure, exhaust NO concentration and soot density compare well with the corresponding measurements from an experimental investigation conducted on a fully automated test bed, standard 'Hydra', DI diesel engine located at the authors' laboratory, which is operated with ethanol-diesel fuel blends containing 5%, 10% and 15% (by vol.) ethanol. Iso-contour plots of equivalence ratio, temperature, NO and soot inside the cylinder at various instants of time, when using these ethanol-diesel fuel blends against the diesel fuel (baseline fuel), shed light on the mechanisms

  7. Estimation of interaction energy and contact stiffness in atomic-scale sliding on a model sodium chloride surface in ethanol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agmon, Liron; Shahar, Itai; Yosufov, Danny; Pimentel, Carlos; Pina, Carlos M; Gnecco, Enrico; Berkovich, Ronen

    2018-03-16

    Friction force microscopy (FFM) in aqueous environments has recently proven to be a very effective method for lattice-resolution imaging of crystal surfaces. Here we demonstrate the use of ethanol for similar measurements on water-soluble materials. Lattice resolved frictional stick-slip traces of a cleaved NaCl(100) surface submerged in ethanol are compared with previous obtained FFM results in ultrahigh vacuum (UHV). We use the Prandtl-Tomlinson framework to estimate the amplitude of the corrugation potential and the contact stiffness. The surface potential amplitude scales with the applied normal loads are in good agreement with data obtained for NaCl measured under UHV conditions, but demonstrates deviations from the ideal periodic potential given by the Prandtl-Tomlinson model. An additional finding is that the use of ethanol allows us to explore higher load ranges without detectable evidence of surface wear. The contact stiffness does not vary significantly with the normal load up to 38 nN, while above it a sudden increase by almost one order of magnitude was observed. Comparing this to previous results suggests that considerable atom rearrangements may occur in the contact region, although the (100) surface structure is preserved by ethanol-assisted diffusion of Na and Cl ions.

  8. Modelling the effect of ethanol on growth rate of food spoilage moulds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dantigny, P.; Guilmart, A.; Radoi, F.; Bensoussan, M.; Zwietering, M.H.

    2005-01-01

    The effect of ethanol (E) on the radial growth rate (¿) of food spoilage moulds (Aspergillus candidus, Aspergillus flavus, Aspergillus niger, Cladosporium cladosporioides, Eurotium herbariorum, Mucor circinelloides, Mucor racemosus, Paecilomyces variotii, Penicillium chrysogenum, Penicillium

  9. Modelling ethanol production from cellulose: separate hydrolysis and fermentation versus simultaneous saccharification and fermentation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Drissen, R.E.T.; Maas, R.H.W.; Tramper, J.; Beeftink, H.H.

    2009-01-01

    In ethanol production from cellulose, enzymatic hydrolysis, and fermentative conversion may be performed sequentially (separate hydrolysis and fermentation, SHF) or in a single reaction vessel (simultaneous saccharification and fermentation, SSF). Opting for either is essentially a trade-off between

  10. A framework for model-based optimization of bioprocesses under uncertainty: Lignocellulosic ethanol production case

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morales Rodriguez, Ricardo; Meyer, Anne S.; Gernaey, Krist

    2012-01-01

    .), hydrolysis (inhibition constant for xylose on conversion of cellulose and cellobiose, etc) and co-fermentation (ethanol yield on xylose, inhibition constant on microbial growth, etc.), are the most significant sources of uncertainties affecting the unit production cost of ethanol with a standard deviation...... metrics via uncertainty analysis. Finally, stochastic programming is applied to drive the process development efforts forward subject to these uncertainties. The framework is evaluated on four different process configurations for cellulosic ethanol production including Simultaneous Saccharification and Co...... of up to 0.13 USD/gal-ethanol. Further stochastic optimization demonstrated the options for further reduction of the production costs with different processing configurations, reaching a reduction of up to 28% in the production cost in the SHCF configuration compared to the base case operation. Further...

  11. Kinetic Modeling of Ethanol Batch Fermentation by Escherichia Coli FBWHR Using Hot-Water Sugar Maple Wood Extract Hydrolyzate as Substrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Wang

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available A recombinant strain of Escherichia coli FBWHR was used for ethanol fermentation from hot-water sugar maple wood extract hydrolyzate in batch experiments. Kinetic studies of cell growth, sugar utilization and ethanol production were investigated at different initial total sugar concentrations of wood extract hydrolyzate. The highest ethanol concentration of 24.05 g/L was obtained using an initial total sugar concentration of 70.30 g/L. Unstructured models were developed to describe cell growth, sugar utilization and ethanol production and validated by comparing the predictions of model and experimental data. The results from this study could be expected to provide insights into the process performance, optimize the process and aid in the design of processes for large-scale production of ethanol fermentation from woody biomass.

  12. Presentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Vicente

    2013-06-01

    effectivities more than a number of fixed essential characteristics. Luiz Artur Ferrareto (UFRGS, undertaking a theoretical proposal for categorizing radio content in four different levels of planning (segment, form, programming and content itself tries to “compare and contrast the practices of Brazilian commercial broadcasting companies to those used on the radio in the United States, a reference market for our national entrepreneurs”. Madalena Oliveira (University of Minho focuses on the current stage of communication researches in Portugal reflecting on the challenges for studying a culture based on listening in times of looking. Marko Ala-Fossi, (University of Tampere beginning with the statement that “radio evolution greatly depends not only on the cultural context of a country but also on the whole social, political, economic development of societies” gives us a projection on radio development around the world for the next decades. Closing the dossier, Rafael Duarte Oliveira Venancio (UFU assuming radio as language by definition and not as a device understands it as a section and an operating model in such language as it intersects the world. Another six articles, not enrolled in the dossier, round the edition off. Fernando de Tacca debates the category of “photocine” recurring to three recent Spanish productions. Gustavo Souza investigates the possibility of identifying a point of view in documentary movies while establishing a debate that joins the materialities of image and sound with the subjectivity resulting from interpretation. Vinicius Bandeira develops on the special duplicity present in the movies between what is and what is not subsumed by the camera. Neide Jallageas proposes the study of visual communication design from the first modelings, attempting especially to the radical propositions from the early XXth century avant-garde movement. Gilson Schwartz debates on the impact from the distribution of videogames as hegemonic cultural practice in

  13. Fructus mume Ethanol Extract Prevents Inflammation and Normalizes the Septohippocampal Cholinergic System in a Rat Model of Chronic Cerebral Hypoperfusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Min-Soo; Bang, Ji Hye; Lee, Jun; Han, Jung-Soo; Kang, Hyung Won; Jeon, Won Kyung

    2016-02-01

    Fructus mume (F. mume), the unripe fruit of Prunus mume, has long been used in Asian countries to treat cough and chronic diarrhea. We previously reported that F. mume exerts anti-inflammatory effects in a model of chronic cerebral hypoperfusion (CCH), a key etiological factor of vascular dementia (VaD). The present study was performed to investigate the protective effects of an ethanolic extract of F. mume on the inflammatory response and cholinergic dysfunction in a model of CCH induced by bilateral common carotid artery occlusion (BCCAo) in Wistar rats. Rats were assigned to three treatment groups: sham plus vehicle, BCCAo plus vehicle, and BCCAo plus F. mume extract (200 mg/kg). F. mume was administered by oral gavage from days 21 to 42 following BCCAo. Glial cell numbers were measured in the white matter and hippocampus. The hippocampal expressions of proinflammatory cytokines, angiotensin-II (Ang-II), receptor for advanced glycation end products (RAGE), and mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPKs) were also evaluated. Choline acetyltransferase (ChAT) levels in the hippocampus and basal forebrain were examined. Rats with BCCAo showed an increase in the number of glial cells and levels of proinflammatory cytokines, Ang-II, RAGE, and MAPKs, all of which were significantly attenuated by F. mume treatment. F. mume administration also restored ChAT expression in the basal forebrain and hippocampus following chronic BCCAo. These results suggest that F. mume is a potentially valuable drug or nutraceutical for the treatment of VaD.

  14. Ethanol and isopropanol in concentrations present in hand sanitizers sharply reduce excystation of Giardia and Entamoeba and eliminate oral infectivity of Giardia cysts in gerbils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatterjee, Aparajita; Bandini, Giulia; Motari, Edwin; Samuelson, John

    2015-11-01

    Enteric protozoan parasites, which are spread by the fecal-oral route, are important causes of diarrhea (Giardia duodenalis) and amebic dysentery (Entamoeba histolytica). Cyst walls of Giardia and Entamoeba have a single layer composed of fibrils of β-1,3-linked GalNAc and β-1,4-linked GlcNAc (chitin), respectively. The goal here was to determine whether hand sanitizers that contain ethanol or isopropanol as the active microbicide might reduce transmission of these parasites. We found that treatment with these alcohols with or without drying in a rotary evaporator (to model rapid evaporation of sanitizers on hands) kills 85 to 100% of cysts of G. duodenalis and 90 to 100% of cysts of Entamoeba invadens (a nonpathogenic model for E. histolytica), as shown by nuclear labeling with propidium iodide and failure to excyst in vitro. Alcohols with or without drying collapsed the cyst walls of Giardia but did not collapse the cyst walls of Entamoeba. To validate the in vitro results, we showed that treatment with alcohols eliminated oral infection of gerbils by 1,000 G. duodenalis cysts, while a commercial hand sanitizer (Purell) killed E. invadens cysts that were directly applied to the hands. These results suggest that expanded use of alcohol-based hand sanitizers might reduce the transmission of Giardia and Entamoeba. Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  15. Hepatic alcohol dehydrogenase deficiency induces pancreatic injury in chronic ethanol feeding model of deer mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amer, Samir M; Bhopale, Kamlesh K; Kakumanu, Ramu D; Popov, Vsevolod L; Rampy, Bill A; El-Mehallawi, Inas H; Ashmawy, Magdy M; Shakeel Ansari, G A; Kaphalia, Bhupendra S

    2018-02-01

    The single most common cause of chronic pancreatitis (CP, a serious inflammatory disease) is chronic alcohol abuse, which impairs hepatic alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH, a major ethanol oxidizing enzyme). Previously, we found ~5 fold greater fatty acid ethyl esters (FAEEs), and injury in the pancreas of hepatic ADH deficient (ADH - ) vs. hepatic normal ADH (ADH + ) deer mice fed 3.5g% ethanol via liquid diet daily for two months. Therefore, progression of ethanol-induced pancreatic injury was determined in ADH - deer mice fed ethanol for four months to delineate the mechanism and metabolic basis of alcoholic chronic pancreatitis (ACP). In addition to a substantially increased blood alcohol concentration and plasma FAEEs, significant degenerative changes, including atrophy and loss of acinar cells in some areas, ultrastructural changes evident by such features as swelling and disintegration of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) cisternae and ER stress were observed in the pancreas of ethanol-fed ADH - deer mice vs. ADH + deer mice. These changes are consistent with noted increases in pancreatic injury markers (plasma lipase, pancreatic trypsinogen activation peptide, FAEE synthase and cathepsin B) in ethanol-fed ADH - deer mice. Most importantly, an increased levels of pancreatic glucose regulated protein (GRP) 78 (a prominent ER stress marker) were found to be closely associated with increased phosphorylated eukaryotic initiation factor (eIF) 2α signaling molecule in PKR-like ER kinase branch of unfolded protein response (UPR) as compared to X box binding protein 1S and activating transcription factor (ATF)6 - 50kDa protein of inositol requiring enzyme 1α and ATF6 branches of UPR, respectively, in ethanol-fed ADH - vs. ADH + deer mice. These results along with findings on plasma FAEEs, and pancreatic histology and injury markers suggest a metabolic basis of ethanol-induced pancreatic injury, and provide new avenues to understand metabolic basis and molecular mechanism of ACP

  16. Pulp and paper from oil palm fronds: Wavelet neural networks modeling of soda-ethanol pulping

    OpenAIRE

    Zarita Zainuddin; Wan Rosli Wan Daud; Pauline Ong; Amran Shafie

    2012-01-01

    Wavelet neural networks (WNNs) were used to investigate the influence of operational variables in the soda-ethanol pulping of oil palm fronds (viz. NaOH concentration (10-30%), ethanol concentration (15-75%), cooking temperature (150-190 ºC), and time (60-180 min)) on the resulting pulp and paper properties (viz. screened yield, kappa number, tensile index, and tear index). Performance assessments demonstrated the predictive capability of WNNs, in that the experimental results of the dependen...

  17. Mathematical modeling of continuous ethanol fermentation in a membrane bioreactor by pervaporation compared to conventional system: Genetic algorithm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esfahanian, Mehri; Shokuhi Rad, Ali; Khoshhal, Saeed; Najafpour, Ghasem; Asghari, Behnam

    2016-07-01

    In this paper, genetic algorithm was used to investigate mathematical modeling of ethanol fermentation in a continuous conventional bioreactor (CCBR) and a continuous membrane bioreactor (CMBR) by ethanol permselective polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) membrane. A lab scale CMBR with medium glucose concentration of 100gL(-1) and Saccharomyces cerevisiae microorganism was designed and fabricated. At dilution rate of 0.14h(-1), maximum specific cell growth rate and productivity of 0.27h(-1) and 6.49gL(-1)h(-1) were respectively found in CMBR. However, at very high dilution rate, the performance of CMBR was quite similar to conventional fermentation on account of insufficient incubation time. In both systems, genetic algorithm modeling of cell growth, ethanol production and glucose concentration were conducted based on Monod and Moser kinetic models during each retention time at unsteady condition. The results showed that Moser kinetic model was more satisfactory and desirable than Monod model. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Antidepressant, anxiolytic and anti-nociceptive activities of ethanol extract of Steudnera colocasiifolia K. Koch leaves in mice model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Shah Hafez Kabir

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To estimate the antidepressant, anxiolytic and antinociceptive activities of ethanol extract of Steudnera colocasiifolia K. Koch (S. colocasiifolia leaves. Methods: Swiss albino mice treated with 1% Tween solution, standard drugs and ethanol extract of S. colocasiifolia, respectively, were subjected to the neurological and antinociceptive investigations. The tail suspension test and forced swimming test were used for testing antidepressant activity, where the parameter is the measurement of immobility time. Anxiolytic activity was evaluated by hole board model. Anti-nociceptive potential of the extract was also screened for centrally acting analgesic activity by using formalin induced licking response model and acetic acid induced writhing test was used for testing peripheral analgesic action. Results: Ethanol extract of S. colocasiifolia significantly decreased the period of immobility in both tested models (tail suspension and forced swimming models of antidepressant activity. In the hole board model, there was a dose dependant (at 100 and 200 mg/kg and a significant increase in the number of head dipping by comparing with control (1% Tween solution (P < 0.05 and P < 0.001. In formalin induced licking model, a significant inhibition of pain compared to standard diclofenac sodium was observed (P < 0.05 and P < 0.001. In acetic acid induced test, there was a significant reduction of writhing response and pain in mice treated with leaves extract of S. colocasiifolia at 200 mg/kg body weight (P < 0.05 and P < 0.001. Conclusions: The results proofed the prospective antidepressant, anxiolytic and antinociceptive activities of ethanol extract of S. colocasiifolia leaves.

  19. Updates to the Corn Ethanol Pathway and Development of an Integrated Corn and Corn Stover Ethanol Pathway in the GREET™ Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Zhichao [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States). Energy Systems Division; Dunn, Jennifer B. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States). Energy Systems Division; Wang, Michael Q. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States). Energy Systems Division

    2014-09-01

    Corn ethanol, a first-generation biofuel, is the predominant biofuel in the United States. In 2013, the total U.S. ethanol fuel production was 13.3 billion gallons, over 95% of which was produced from corn (RFA, 2014). The 2013 total renewable fuel mandate was 16.6 billion gallons according to the Energy Independence and Security Act (EISA) (U.S. Congress, 2007). Furthermore, until 2020, corn ethanol will make up a large portion of the renewable fuel volume mandated by Renewable Fuels Standard (RFS2). For the GREET1_2014 release, the corn ethanol pathway was subject to updates reflecting changes in corn agriculture and at corn ethanol plants. In the latter case, we especially focused on the incorporation of corn oil as a corn ethanol plant co-product. Section 2 covers these updates. In addition, GREET now includes options to integrate corn grain and corn stover ethanol production on the field and at the biorefinery. These changes are the focus of Section 3.

  20. Anticancer Efficacy of Cordyceps militaris Ethanol Extract in a Xenografted Leukemia Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jae Gwang Park

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Cordyceps militaris is used widely as a traditional medicine in East Asia. Although a few studies have attempted to elucidate the anticancer activities of C. militaris, the precise mechanism of C. militaris therapeutic effects is not fully understood. We examined the anticancer activities of C. militaris ethanolic extract (Cm-EE and its cellular and molecular mechanisms. For this purpose, a xenograft mouse model bearing murine T cell lymphoma (RMA cell-derived cancers was established to investigate in vivo anticancer mechanisms. MTT [3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide] assay, immunoblotting analysis, and flow cytometric assay were employed to check in vitro cytotoxicity, molecular targets, and proapoptotic action of Cm-EE. Interestingly, cancer sizes and mass were reduced in a C. militaris-administered group. Levels of the phosphorylated forms of p85 and AKT were clearly decreased in the group administered with Cm-EE. This result indicated that levels of phosphoglycogen synthase kinase 3β (p-GSK3β and cleaved caspase-3 were increased with orally administered Cm-EE. In addition, Cm-EE directly inhibited the viability of cultured RMA cells and C6 glioma cells. The number of proapoptotic cells was significantly increased in a Cm-EE treated group compared with a control group. Our results suggested that C. militaris might be able to inhibit cancer growth through regulation of p85/AKT-dependent or GSK3β-related caspase-3-dependent apoptosis.

  1. Prooxidant activity of norbixin in model of acute gastric ulcer induced by ethanol in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rovani, B T; de Freitas, R B; Augusti, P R; Araldi, I C; Somacal, S; Quatrin, A; Emanuelli, T; da Rocha, M P; Bauermann, L de Freitas

    2016-07-01

    Free radicals and oxidative stress play a central role in gastric injuries caused by ethanol (EtOH). Antioxidant strategies to counteract EtOH toxicity are highly desirable. Norbixin (NBIX) is a carotenoid with antioxidant potential largely used in the food industry. This study evaluated the NBIX effects in a model of gastric ulcer induced by EtOH in rats. Male Wistar rats received NBIX doses of 0, 10, and 25 mg/kg by gavage 1 h after EtOH administration (0 or 75% solution, 1 mL/200 g of animal). The animals were euthanized 1 h after the NBIX administration, and their stomachs were removed for macroscopic and histopathological analyses, quantification of nonprotein sulfhydryl (NPSH) groups, lipid peroxidation (LPO) levels, and catalase (CAT) activity determination. NBIX increased LPO in gastric mucosa and caused CAT inhibition and NPSH depletion in EtOH-treated animals. Results showed that NBIX did not protect gastric tissue against EtOH damage, and this could be associated to a prooxidant effect. © The Author(s) 2015.

  2. Presentations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-01-01

    The presented materials consist of presentations of international workshop which held in Warsaw from 4 to 5 October 2007. Main subject of the meeting was progress in manufacturing as well as research program development for neutron detector which is planned to be placed at GANIL laboratory and will be used in nuclear spectroscopy research

  3. Intermediate temperature heat release in an HCCI engine fueled by ethanol/n-heptane mixtures: An experimental and modeling study

    KAUST Repository

    Vuilleumier, David

    2014-03-01

    This study examines intermediate temperature heat release (ITHR) in homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI) engines using blends of ethanol and n-heptane. Experiments were performed over the range of 0-50% n-heptane liquid volume fractions, at equivalence ratios 0.4 and 0.5, and intake pressures from 1.4bar to 2.2bar. ITHR was induced in the mixtures containing predominantly ethanol through the addition of small amounts of n-heptane. After a critical threshold, additional n-heptane content yielded low temperature heat release (LTHR). A method for quantifying the amount of heat released during ITHR was developed by examining the second derivative of heat release, and this method was then used to identify trends in the engine data. The combustion process inside the engine was modeled using a single-zone HCCI model, and good qualitative agreement of pre-ignition pressure rise and heat release rate was found between experimental and modeling results using a detailed n-heptane/ethanol chemical kinetic model. The simulation results were used to identify the dominant reaction pathways contributing to ITHR, as well as to verify the chemical basis behind the quantification of the amount of ITHR in the experimental analysis. The dominant reaction pathways contributing to ITHR were found to be H-atom abstraction from n-heptane by OH and the addition of fuel radicals to O2. © 2013 The Combustion Institute.

  4. NAAG Peptidase Inhibitors Act via mGluR3: Animal Models of Memory, Alzheimer's, and Ethanol Intoxication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olszewski, Rafal T; Janczura, Karolina J; Bzdega, Tomasz; Der, Elise K; Venzor, Faustino; O'Rourke, Brennen; Hark, Timothy J; Craddock, Kirsten E; Balasubramanian, Shankar; Moussa, Charbel; Neale, Joseph H

    2017-09-01

    Glutamate carboxypeptidase II (GCPII) inactivates the peptide neurotransmitter N-acetylaspartylglutamate (NAAG) following synaptic release. Inhibitors of GCPII increase extracellular NAAG levels and are efficacious in animal models of clinical disorders via NAAG activation of a group II metabotropic glutamate receptor. mGluR2 and mGluR3 knock-out (ko) mice were used to test the hypothesis that mGluR3 mediates the activity of GCPII inhibitors ZJ43 and 2-PMPA in animal models of memory and memory loss. Short- (1.5 h) and long- (24 h) term novel object recognition tests were used to assess memory. Treatment with ZJ43 or 2-PMPA prior to acquisition trials increased long-term memory in mGluR2, but not mGluR3, ko mice. Nine month-old triple transgenic Alzheimer's disease model mice exhibited impaired short-term novel object recognition memory that was rescued by treatment with a NAAG peptidase inhibitor. NAAG peptidase inhibitors and the group II mGluR agonist, LY354740, reversed the short-term memory deficit induced by acute ethanol administration in wild type mice. 2-PMPA also moderated the effect of ethanol on short-term memory in mGluR2 ko mice but failed to do so in mGluR3 ko mice. LY354740 and ZJ43 blocked ethanol-induced motor activation. Both GCPII inhibitors and LY354740 also significantly moderated the loss of motor coordination induced by 2.1 g/kg ethanol treatment. These data support the conclusion that inhibitors of glutamate carboxypeptidase II are efficacious in object recognition models of normal memory and memory deficits via an mGluR3 mediated process, actions that could have widespread clinical applications.

  5. Heat Pump Water Heater Modeling in EnergyPlus (Presentation)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilson, E.; Christensen, C.

    2012-03-01

    This presentation summarizes NREL's development of a HPWH model for use in hourly building energy simulation programs, such as BEopt; this presentation was given at the Building America Stakeholder meeting on March 1, 2012, in Austin, Texas.

  6. Antipsoriatic activity of ethanolic extract of Woodfordia fruticosa (L.) Kurz flowers in a novel in vivo screening model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srivastava, Amit Kumar; Nagar, Hemant Kumar; Chandel, Harinarayan Singh; Ranawat, Mahendra Singh

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the antipsoriatic activity of ethanolic extract of Woodfordia fruticosa flowers (EEWF) using a novel in vivo screening model. For induction of psoriasis, 0.1 ml of prepared complete Freund's adjuvant (CFA) and formaldehyde mixture (1:10 ratio) was topically applied for 7 days on the dorsum surface of the skin of Swiss albino mice. Psoriasis severity index (PSI) was evaluated by phenotypic (redness, erythema, and scales) and histological features (epidermal thickness). Therapeutic effect of 0.05% and 0.1% (w/w) ointments of EEWF was evaluated after the induction of psoriasis. Ointments of EEWF flowers were applied once daily for 3 weeks, and antipsoriatic activity was evaluated by scoring the PSI and histological examination. We observed the phenotypic and histological features and found a progressive reduction ( P < 0.05) in the severity of psoriatic lesions (redness, erythema, and scales) from day 7 to 21 st day and decreased epidermal thickness in animals treated with 0.05% and 0.1% (w/w) ointments of EEWF. The results showed that 0.05% and 0.1% (w/w) ointments of EEWF have dose-dependent beneficial effects in CFA and formaldehyde-induced psoriasis. The present investigation revealed that W. fruticosa flowers possess potent antipsoriatic activity and can be used for psoriasis treatment.

  7. An improved kinetic model for the acetone-butanol-ethanol pathway of Clostridium acetobutylicum and model-based perturbation analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background Comprehensive kinetic models of microbial metabolism can enhance the understanding of system dynamics and regulatory mechanisms, which is helpful in optimizing microbial production of industrial chemicals. Clostridium acetobutylicum produces solvents (acetone-butanol–ethanol, ABE) through the ABE pathway. To systematically assess the potential of increased production of solvents, kinetic modeling has been applied to analyze the dynamics of this pathway and make predictive simulations. Up to date, only one kinetic model for C. acetobutylicum supported by experiment has been reported as far as we know. But this model did not integrate the metabolic regulatory effects of transcriptional control and other complex factors. It also left out the information of some key intermediates (e.g. butyryl-phosphate). Results We have developed an improved kinetic model featured with the incorporation of butyryl-phosphate, inclusion of net effects of complex metabolic regulations, and quantification of endogenous enzyme activity variations caused by these regulations. The simulation results of our model are more consistent with published experimental data than the previous model, especially in terms of reflecting the kinetics of butyryl-phosphate and butyrate. Through parameter perturbation analysis, it was found that butyrate kinase has large and positive influence on butanol production while CoA transferase has negative effect on butanol production, suggesting that butyrate kinase has more efficiency in converting butyrate to butanol than CoA transferase. Conclusions Our improved kinetic model of the ABE process has more capacity in approaching real circumstances, providing much more insight in the regulatory mechanisms and potential key points for optimization of solvent productions. Moreover, the modeling strategy can be extended to other biological processes. PMID:21689471

  8. Presentations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-01-01

    The PARIS meeting held in Cracow, Poland from 14 to 15 May 2007. The main subjects discussed during this meeting were the status of international project dedicated to gamma spectroscopy research. The scientific research program includes investigations of giant dipole resonance, probe of hot nuclei induced in heavy reactions, Jacobi shape transitions, isospin mixing and nuclear multifragmentation. The mentioned programme needs Rand D development such as new scintillations materials as lanthanum chlorides and bromides as well as new photo detection sensors as avalanche photodiodes - such subjects are also subjects of discussion. Additionally results of computerized simulations of scintillation detectors properties by means of GEANT- 4 code are presented

  9. Process Design of Wastewater Treatment for the NREL Cellulosic Ethanol Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steinwinder, T.; Gill, E.; Gerhardt, M.

    2011-09-01

    This report describes a preliminary process design for treating the wastewater from NREL's cellulosic ethanol production process to quality levels required for recycle. In this report Brown and Caldwell report on three main tasks: 1) characterization of the effluent from NREL's ammonia-conditioned hydrolyzate fermentation process; 2) development of the wastewater treatment process design; and 3) development of a capital and operational cost estimate for the treatment concept option. This wastewater treatment design was incorporated into NREL's cellulosic ethanol process design update published in May 2011 (NREL/TP-5100-47764).

  10. Building models for marketing decisions : Past, present and future

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leeflang, PSH; Wittink, DR

    We review five eras of model building in marketing, with special emphasis on the fourth and the fifth eras, the present and the future. At many firms managers now routinely use model-based results for marketing decisions. Given an increasing number of successful applications, the demand for models

  11. Building models for marketing decisions : past, present and future

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leeflang, P.S.H.; Wittink, Dick R.

    2000-01-01

    We review five eras of model building in marketing, with special emphasis on the fourth and the fifth eras, the present and the future. At many firms managers now routinely use model-based results for marketing decisions. Given an increasing number of successful applications, the demand for models

  12. Recovering alternative presentation models of a web page with VAQUITA

    OpenAIRE

    Bouillon, Laurent; Vanderdonckt, Jean; Souchon, Nathalie

    2002-01-01

    VAQUITA allows developers to reverse engineer a presentation model of a web page according to multiple reverse engineering options. The alternative models offered by these options not only widen the spectrum of possible presentation models but also encourage developers in exploring multiple reverse engineering strategies. The options provide filtering capabilities in a static analysis of HTML code that are targeted either at multiple widgets simultaneously or at single widgets ...

  13. Removal of Atmospheric Ethanol by Wet Deposition: A Global Flux Estimate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felix, J. D. D.; Willey, J. D.; Avery, B.; Thomas, R.; Mullaugh, K.; Kieber, R. J.; Mead, R. N.; Helms, J. R.; Campos, L.; Shimizu, M. S.; Guibbina, F.

    2017-12-01

    Global ethanol fuel consumption has increased exponentially over the last two decades and the US plans to double annual renewable fuel production in the next five years as required by the renewable fuel standard. Regardless of the technology or feedstock used to produce the renewable fuel, the primary end product will be ethanol. Increasing ethanol fuel consumption will have an impact on the oxidizing capacity of the atmosphere and increase atmospheric concentrations of the secondary pollutant peroxyacetyl nitrate as well a variety of VOCs with relatively high ozone reactivities (e.g. ethanol, formaldehyde, acetaldehyde). Despite these documented effects of ethanol emissions on atmospheric chemistry, current global atmospheric ethanol budget models have large uncertainties in the magnitude of ethanol sources and sinks. The presented work investigates the global wet deposition sink by providing the first estimate of the global wet deposition flux of ethanol (2.4 ± 1.6 Tg/yr) based on empirical wet deposition data (219 samples collected at 12 locations). This suggests the wet deposition sink removes between 6 and 17% of atmospheric ethanol annually. Concentrations of ethanol in marine wet deposition (25 ± 6 nM) were an order of magnitude less than in the majority of terrestrial deposition (345 ± 280 nM). Terrestrial deposition collected in locations impacted by high local sources of biofuel usage and locations downwind from ethanol distilleries were an order of magnitude higher in ethanol concentration (3090 ± 448 nM) compared to deposition collected in terrestrial locations not impacted by these sources. These results indicate that wet deposition of ethanol is heavily influenced by local sources and ethanol emission impacts on air quality may be more significant in highly populated areas. As established and developing countries continue to rapidly increase ethanol fuel consumption and subsequent emissions, understanding the magnitude of all ethanol sources and

  14. Cytoprotective Effect of American Ginseng in a Rat Ethanol Gastric Ulcer Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chi-Chang Huang

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Panax quinquefolium L. (American Ginseng, AG is one of the most popular herbal medicines in the World. We aimed to investigate whether chronic (28-day supplementation with AG could protect against ethanol-induced ulcer in gastric tissue. Furthermore, we investigated the possible molecular mechanisms leading to AG-mediated gastric mucosal protection. We randomized 32 male Wistar rats into four groups for treatment (n = 8 per group: supplementation with water (vehicle and low-dose (AG-1X, medium-dose (AG-2X and high-dose (AG-5X AG at 0, 250, 500, and 1250 mg/kg, respectively. In the first experiment, animals were fed vehicle or AG treatments for 4 weeks. At day 29, 75% ethanol was given orally to each animal at 10 mL/kg to induce gastric ulceration for 2 h. In a second experiment, animals were pretreated orally with each treatment for 1 hr before a single oral administration of ethanol (70%, 10 mL/kg. Trend analysis revealed that AG treatments inhibited ethanol-induced gastric mucosal damage. AG supplementation dose-dependently decreased the pro-inflammatory levels of interleukin 1β and cyclooxygenase 2 and the expression of pro-apoptotic proteins tBid, cytochrome C, and caspases-9 and -3 and increased the levels of anti-apoptotic proteins Bcl-2, Bcl-xL and p-Bad. AG could have pharmacological potential for treating gastric ulcer.

  15. Modeling of present and Eemian stable water isotopes in precipitation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sjolte, Jesper

    interglacial. Present day boundary conditions were used except for the insolation and the SST patterns. The modeled summer temperatures for the Northern Hemisphere were found to match proxy data well, with the large summer insolation anomalies causing warmer summers than for present day. The peak summer......The subject of this thesis is the modeling of the isotopic temperature proxies d18O, dD and deuterium excess in precipitation. Two modeling studies were carried out, one using the regional climate model, and one using a global climate model. In the regional study the model was run for the period...... 1959 to 2001 using meteorological data and a domain including Greenland and the surrounding North Atlantic. The model was found to reproduce the observed seasonal variability of temperature and precipitation well. In comparison with ice core data from Greenland and observations from coastal stations...

  16. Isobaric VLE of the mixture {1,8-cineole + ethanol}. EOS analysis and COSMO-RS modeling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Torcal, Marcos; Langa, Elisa; Pardo, Juan I.; Mainar, Ana M.; Urieta, José S.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Isobaric VLE for mixture {1,8-cineole + ethanol} at (33.33, 66.66 and 101.33) kPa. • VLE data were correlated by means of Wilson, NRTL and UNIQUAC models. • The mixture shows positive deviations from Raoult law. • Peng–Robinson and SAFT EOS and COSMO-RS model predict quite well dew points. • Predictions of COSMO-RS model are better than those of Peng–Robinson and SAFT EOS. - Abstract: The isobaric (vapor + liquid) equilibrium (VLE) at pressures of (33.33, 66.66 and 101.33) kPa is reported for the mixture {1,8-cineole (1,3,3-trimethyl-2-oxabicycle[2,2,2]octane) + ethanol} in the entire composition range. VLE data were correlated by means of three activity coefficient models (Wilson, NRTL and UNIQUAC) and they were found to be thermodynamically consistent. The mixture exhibits positive deviations from Raoult’s law. Peng–Robinson and SAFT equations of state (EOS) were used first to predict (interaction parameter, k ij , equal to zero), then to correlate (by adjusting the interaction parameter) the VLE. COSMO-RS model has been also used to predict VLE of the mixture. Both EOS and COSMO-RS model show deviations in the prediction of bubble points but reproduce quite well the dew points. COSMO-RS provides the best predictions.

  17. Greenhouse gases in the corn-to-fuel ethanol pathway.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, M. Q.

    1998-06-18

    Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) has applied its Greenhouse gas, Regulated Emissions and Energy in Transportation (GREET) full-fuel-cycle analysis model to examine greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions of corn-feedstock ethanol, given present and near-future production technology and practice. On the basis of updated information appropriate to corn farming and processing operations in the four principal corn- and ethanol-producing states (Illinois, Iowa, Minnesota, and Nebraska), the model was used to estimate energy requirements and GHG emissions of corn farming; the manufacture, transportation to farms, and field application of fertilizer and pesticide; transportation of harvested corn to ethanol plants; nitrous oxide emissions from cultivated cornfields; ethanol production in current average and future technology wet and dry mills; and operation of cars and light trucks using ethanol fuels. For all cases examined on the basis of mass emissions per travel mile, the corn-to-ethanol fuel cycle for Midwest-produced ethanol used in both E85 and E10 blends with gasoline outperforms conventional (current) and reformulated (future) gasoline with respect to energy use and GHG production. Also, GHG reductions (but not energy use) appear surprisingly sensitive to the value chosen for combined soil and leached N-fertilizer conversion to nitrous oxide. Co-product energy-use attribution remains the single key factor in estimating ethanol's relative benefits because this value can range from 0 to 50%, depending on the attribution method chosen.

  18. Low ethanol consumption increases insulin sensitivity in Wistar rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.T. Furuya

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Several human studies suggest that light-to-moderate alcohol consumption is associated with enhanced insulin sensitivity, but these studies are not free of conflicting results. To determine if ethanol-enhanced insulin sensitivity could be demonstrated in an animal model, male Wistar rats were fed a standard chow diet and received drinking water without (control or with different ethanol concentrations (0.5, 1.5, 3, 4.5 and 7%, v/v for 4 weeks ad libitum. Then, an intravenous insulin tolerance test (IVITT was performed to determine insulin sensitivity. Among the ethanol groups, only the 3% ethanol group showed an increase in insulin sensitivity based on the increase of the plasma glucose disappearance rate in the IVITT (30%, P<0.05. In addition, an intravenous glucose tolerance test (IVGTT was performed in control and 3% ethanol animals. Insulin sensitivity was confirmed in 3% ethanol rats based on the reduction of insulin secretion in the IVGTT (35%, P<0.05, despite the same glucose profile. Additionally, the 3% ethanol treatment did not impair body weight gain or plasma aspartate aminotransferase and alanine aminotransferase activities. Thus, the present study established that 3% ethanol in the drinking water for 4 weeks in normal rats is a model of increased insulin sensitivity, which can be used for further investigations of the mechanisms involved.

  19. Greenhouse gases in the corn-to-fuel ethanol pathway

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, M. Q.

    1998-01-01

    Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) has applied its Greenhouse gas, Regulated Emissions and Energy in Transportation (GREET) full-fuel-cycle analysis model to examine greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions of corn-feedstock ethanol, given present and near-future production technology and practice. On the basis of updated information appropriate to corn farming and processing operations in the four principal corn- and ethanol-producing states (Illinois, Iowa, Minnesota, and Nebraska), the model was used to estimate energy requirements and GHG emissions of corn farming; the manufacture, transportation to farms, and field application of fertilizer and pesticide; transportation of harvested corn to ethanol plants; nitrous oxide emissions from cultivated cornfields; ethanol production in current average and future technology wet and dry mills; and operation of cars and light trucks using ethanol fuels. For all cases examined on the basis of mass emissions per travel mile, the corn-to-ethanol fuel cycle for Midwest-produced ethanol used in both E85 and E10 blends with gasoline outperforms conventional (current) and reformulated (future) gasoline with respect to energy use and GHG production. Also, GHG reductions (but not energy use) appear surprisingly sensitive to the value chosen for combined soil and leached N-fertilizer conversion to nitrous oxide. Co-product energy-use attribution remains the single key factor in estimating ethanol's relative benefits because this value can range from 0 to 50%, depending on the attribution method chosen

  20. Phase equilibrium measurements and thermodynamic modelling for the system (CO2 + ethyl palmitate + ethanol) at high pressures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaschi, Priscilla S.; Mafra, Marcos R.; Ndiaye, Papa M.; Corazza, Marcos L.

    2013-01-01

    Graphical abstract: Ethyl palmitate and biodiesel comparison in a pressure–composition diagram for the systems (CO 2 + ethyl palmitate + biodiesel), at different temperatures. Highlights: ► We measured VLE, LLE, and VLLE for the system (CO 2 + ethyl palmitate + ethanol). ► The saturation pressures were obtained using a variable-volume view cell. ► Phase envelope of (CO 2 + ethyl palmitate) is different that (CO 2 + soybean oil biodiesel). ► The experimental data were modeled using PR-vdW2 and PR–WS equations of state. - Abstract: This work reports phase equilibrium measurements for the binary {CO 2 (1) + ethyl palmitate(2)} and ternary {CO 2 (1) + ethyl palmitate(2) + ethanol(3)} systems at high pressures. There is currently great interest in biodiesel production processes involving supercritical and/or pressurized solvents, such as non-catalytic supercritical biodiesel production and enzyme-catalysed biodiesel production. Also, supercritical CO 2 can offer an interesting alternative for glycerol separation in the biodiesel purification step in a water-free process. In this context, the main goal of this work was to investigate the phase behaviour of binary and ternary systems involving CO 2 , a pure constituent of biodiesel ethyl palmitate and ethanol. Experiments were carried out in a high-pressure variable-volume view cell with operating temperatures ranging from (303.15 to 353.15) K and pressures up to 21 MPa. The CO 2 mole fraction ranged from 0.5033 to 0.9913 for the binary {CO 2 (1) + ethyl palmitate(2)} system and from 0.4436 to 0.9712 for ternary system {CO 2 (1) + ethyl palmitate(2) + ethanol(3)} system with ethyl ester to ethanol molar ratios of (1:6), (1:3), and (1:1). For the systems investigated, vapour–liquid (VL), liquid–liquid (LL) and vapour–liquid–liquid (VLL) phase transitions were observed. The experimental data sets were successfully modeled using the Peng–Robinson equation of state with the classical van der Waals

  1. Solubility determination and thermodynamic models for dehydroepiandrosterone acetate in mixed solvents of (ethyl acetate + methanol), (ethyl acetate + ethanol) and (ethyl acetate + isopropanol)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheng, Chao; Cong, Yang; Du, Cunbin; Wang, Jian; Yao, Ganbing; Zhao, Hongkun

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Solubilities of dehydroepiandrosterone acetate in mixed solvents were determined. • The measured solubility data were correlated with three thermodynamic models. • The standard dissolution enthalpies of dehydroepiandrosterone acetate were calculated. - Abstract: The solubility of dehydroepiandrosterone acetate in binary solvent mixtures of (ethyl acetate + methanol), (ethyl acetate + ethanol) and (ethyl acetate + isopropanol) was determined experimentally by using an isothermal dissolution equilibrium method within the temperature range from (273.15 to 313.15) K under atmosphere pressure (101.1 kPa). The solubility of dehydroepiandrosterone acetate increases with increasing temperature and mass fraction of ethyl acetate in each binary system. At the same temperature and mass fraction of ethyl acetate, the solubility of dehydroepiandrosterone acetate was greater in (ethyl acetate + isopropanol) than in the other two mixed solvents. The measured solubility values were correlated with the Jouyban-Acree model, van’t Hoff-Jouyban-Acree model, and modified Apelblat-Jouyban-Acree model. The Jouyban-Acree model was proven to give better representation for the experimental solubility, which provided the lowest relative average deviation and root-mean-square deviation (0.49 × 10 −2 and 0.97 × 10 −4 for ethyl acetate + methanol, 0.44 × 10 −2 and 0.82 × 10 −4 for ethyl acetate + ethanol, and 0.92 × 10 −2 and 3.05 × 10 −4 for ethyl acetate + isopropanol, respectively). Based on the solubility values obtained, the standard dissolution enthalpies for the dissolution process were computed. The dissolution process of dehydroepiandrosterone acetate in these mixed solvents was endothermic. The experimental solubility and the equations presented in the present work can be employed as essential data and models in the practical process for production and purification of dehydroepiandrosterone acetate.

  2. Anti-Ulcerogenic Properties of Lycium chinense Mill Extracts against Ethanol-Induced Acute Gastric Lesion in Animal Models and Its Active Constituents

    OpenAIRE

    Olatunji, Opeyemi; Chen, Hongxia; Zhou, Yifeng

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to explore the gastroprotective properties of the aerial part of Lycium chinense Mill (LCA) against ethanol-induced gastric mucosa lesions in mice models. Administration of LCA at doses of 50, 100, 200 and 400 mg/kg body weight prior to ethanol consumption dose dependently inhibited gastric ulcers. The gastric mucosal injury was analyzed by gastric juice acidity, glutathione (GSH), superoxide dismutase (SOD), malondialdehyde (MDA), myeloperoxidase (MPO) activit...

  3. Teacher-Scientist Partnerships: Past, Present, and Future Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, S. M.

    2017-12-01

    Past and present models of teacher-scientist partnerships will be illustrated with examples cultivated from direct experience. Future models will be proposed, informed by this experience, as well as current STEM reform and policy iniitiatives and evidence-based education research.

  4. The Ethanolic Stem-Bark Extract ofAntrocaryon micrasterInhibits Carrageenan-Induced Pleurisy and Pedal Oedema in Murine Models of Inflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Essel, Leslie B; Obiri, David D; Osafo, Newman; Antwi, Aaron O; Duduyemi, Babatunde M

    2017-01-01

    We investigated the antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects of a 70% v/v ethanol extract of the stem bark of Antrocaryon micraster on murine models of carrageenan-induced pleurisy and paw oedema. Rat pleural fluid was analysed for volume, protein content, and leucocytes, while lung histology was assessed for damage. Lung tissue homogenates were assayed for glutathione (GSH), superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), malondialdehyde (MDA), and myeloperoxidase (MPO). Phytochemical analysis was carried out on the stem bark. Acute toxicity studies were conducted in rats. In the pleurisy model the extract (30-300 mg/kg) significantly reduced the volume and amount of proteins and leucocytes in the exudate and also protected against lung injury. Tissue level of GSH and SOD and CAT expression were increased while MDA level and MPO activity were reduced. The peak and total oedema responses were significantly suppressed when given both preemptively and curatively in the mice paw oedema test. Saponins, alkaloids, triterpenoids, and tannins were present in the stem bark. A. micraster extract exhibited no apparent acute toxicity. We conclude that the ethanolic stem-bark extract of A. micraster has antioxidant action and exhibits significant anti-inflammatory activity through suppression of pleurisy and paw oedema induced with carrageenan.

  5. Present-day heat flow model of Mars

    OpenAIRE

    Parro, Laura M.; Jim?nez-D?az, Alberto; Mansilla, Federico; Ruiz, Javier

    2017-01-01

    Until the acquisition of in-situ measurements, the study of the present-day heat flow of Mars must rely on indirect methods, mainly based on the relation between the thermal state of the lithosphere and its mechanical strength, or on theoretical models of internal evolution. Here, we present a first-order global model for the present-day surface heat flow for Mars, based on the radiogenic heat production of the crust and mantle, on scaling of heat flow variations arising from crustal thicknes...

  6. Thermodynamic analysis of ethanol reforming for hydrogen production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun, Shaohui; Yan, Wei; Sun, Peiqin; Chen, Junwu

    2012-01-01

    This work presents the simulated equilibrium compositions of ethanol steam reforming (SR), partial oxidation (POX) and auto-thermal reforming (ATR) at a large temperature range, steam-to-ethanol and oxygen-to-ethanol molar ratios. The simulation work shows that the moles of hydrogen yield per mole ethanol are of this order: SR > ATR > POX. The results are compared with other simulation works and fitted models, which show that all the simulation results obtained with different methods agree well with each other. And the fitted models are in highly consistency with very small deviations. Moreover, the thermal-neutral point in corresponding to temperature, steam-to-ethanol and oxygen-to-ethanol mole ratios of ethanol ATR is estimated. The result shows that with the increasing of oxygen-to-ethanol mole ratio, the T-N point moves to higher temperatures; with the increasing of steam-to-ethanol mole ratio, the T-N point moves to lower temperatures. Furthermore, the energy exchanges of the reforming process and the whole process and the thermal efficiencies are also analyzed in the present work and that the energy demands and generated in the whole process are greater than the reforming process can be obtained. Finally, the optimum reaction conditions are selected. -- Highlights: ► The equilibrium compositions simulated by different researchers with different methods are compared. ► The simulation results are fitted with polynomials for convenient reference. ► The energy balance and thermal efficiencies are analyzed. ► The optimum reaction conditions of ethanol POX, SR and ATR for hydrogen production are selected.

  7. Comparative experimental and modeling studies of the viscosity behavior of ethanol+C7 hydrocarbon mixtures versus pressure and temperature

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zeberg-Mikkelsen, Claus Kjær; Watson, G.; Baylaucq, A.

    2006-01-01

    The viscosity of the binary system ethanol+n-heptane has been measured with a falling-body viscometer for seven compositions as well as for the pure compounds in the temperature range 293.15-353.15 K and up to 100 MPa with an experimental uncertainty of +/- 2%. At 0.1 MPa, the viscosity has been...... viscosity models with a physical and theoretical background. The evaluated models are based on the hard-sphere scheme, the concepts of the free-volume and the friction theory, and a model derived from molecular dynamics. In addition to these models, the simple compositional models by Grunberg...... measured with a classical capillary viscometer (Ubbelohde) with an uncertainty of +/- 1%. A total of 208 experimental datapoints are reported. The viscosity behavior of this binary system is interpreted as the results of changes in the free volume, and the breaking or weakening of hydrogen bonds...

  8. LIQUID-LIQUID EQUILIBRIUM FOR TERNARY SYSTEMS CONTAINING ETHYLIC BIODIESEL + ANHYDROUS ETHANOL + REFINED VEGETABLE OIL (SUNFLOWER OIL, CANOLA OIL AND PALM OIL: EXPERIMENTAL DATA AND THERMODYNAMIC MODELING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. P. V. B. Dias

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available AbstractPhase equilibria of the reaction components are essential data for the design and process operations of biodiesel production. Despite their importance for the production of ethylic biodiesel, the reaction mixture, reactant (oil and ethanol and the product (fatty acid ethyl esters up to now have received less attention than the corresponding systems formed during the separation and purification phases of biodiesel production using ethanol. In this work, new experimental measurements were performed for the liquid-liquid equilibrium (LLE of the system containing vegetable oil (sunflower oil and canola oil + ethylic biodiesel of refined vegetable oil + anhydrous ethanol at 303.15 and at 323.15 K and the system containing refined palm oil + ethylic biodiesel of refined palm oil + ethanol at 318.15 K. The experimental data were successfully correlated by the nonrandom two-liquid (NRTL model; the average deviations between calculated and experimental data were smaller than 1.00%.

  9. Ameliorating effects of Mango (Mangifera indica L.) fruit on plasma ethanol level in a mouse model assessed with 1H-NMR based metabolic profiling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, So-Hyun; K. Cho, Somi; Min, Tae-Sun; Kim, Yujin; Yang, Seung-Ok; Kim, Hee-Su; Hyun, Sun-Hee; Kim, Hana; Kim, Young-Suk; Choi, Hyung-Kyoon

    2011-01-01

    The ameliorating effects of Mango (Mangifera indica L.) flesh and peel samples on plasma ethanol level were investigated using a mouse model. Mango fruit samples remarkably decreased mouse plasma ethanol levels and increased the activities of alcohol dehydrogenase and acetaldehyde dehydrogenase. The 1H-NMR-based metabolomic technique was employed to investigate the differences in metabolic profiles of mango fruits, and mouse plasma samples fed with mango fruit samples. The partial least squares-discriminate analysis of 1H-NMR spectral data of mouse plasma demonstrated that there were clear separations among plasma samples from mice fed with buffer, mango flesh and peel. A loading plot demonstrated that metabolites from mango fruit, such as fructose and aspartate, might stimulate alcohol degradation enzymes. This study suggests that mango flesh and peel could be used as resources for functional foods intended to decrease plasma ethanol level after ethanol uptake. PMID:21562641

  10. Estimating the potential of energy saving and carbon emission mitigation of cassava-based fuel ethanol using life cycle assessment coupled with a biogeochemical process model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Dong; Hao, Mengmeng; Fu, Jingying; Tian, Guangjin; Ding, Fangyu

    2017-09-14

    Global warming and increasing concentration of atmospheric greenhouse gas (GHG) have prompted considerable interest in the potential role of energy plant biomass. Cassava-based fuel ethanol is one of the most important bioenergy and has attracted much attention in both developed and developing countries. However, the development of cassava-based fuel ethanol is still faced with many uncertainties, including raw material supply, net energy potential, and carbon emission mitigation potential. Thus, an accurate estimation of these issues is urgently needed. This study provides an approach to estimate energy saving and carbon emission mitigation potentials of cassava-based fuel ethanol through LCA (life cycle assessment) coupled with a biogeochemical process model-GEPIC (GIS-based environmental policy integrated climate) model. The results indicate that the total potential of cassava yield on marginal land in China is 52.51 million t; the energy ratio value varies from 0.07 to 1.44, and the net energy surplus of cassava-based fuel ethanol in China is 92,920.58 million MJ. The total carbon emission mitigation from cassava-based fuel ethanol in China is 4593.89 million kgC. Guangxi, Guangdong, and Fujian are identified as target regions for large-scale development of cassava-based fuel ethanol industry. These results can provide an operational approach and fundamental data for scientific research and energy planning.

  11. A polymethoxy flavonoids-rich Citrus aurantium extract ameliorates ethanol-induced liver injury through modulation of AMPK and Nrf2-related signals in a binge drinking mouse model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Bong-Keun; Kim, Tae-Won; Lee, Dong-Ryung; Jung, Woon-Ha; Lim, Jong-Hwan; Jung, Ju-Young; Yang, Seung Hwan; Suh, Joo-Won

    2015-10-01

    Nobiletin and tangeretin are polymethoxy flavonoids (PMFs), found in rich quantities in the peel of citrus fruits. In the present study, we assessed the biological effect of the PMFs on liver damage using a mouse model of binge drinking. First, we extracted PMFs from the peels of Citrus aurantium to make Citrus aurantium extract (CAE). Male C57BL/6 mice were orally treated with silymarin and CAE (50, 100, and 200 mg/kg) for 3 days prior to ethanol (5 g/kg, total of 3 doses) oral gavage. Liver injury was observed in the ethanol alone group, as evidenced by increases in serum hepatic enzymes and histopathologic alteration, as well as by hepatic oxidative status disruption. CAE improved serum marker and hepatic structure and restored oxidative status by enhancing antioxidant enzyme levels and by reducing lipid peroxidation levels. In addition, CAE evidently suppressed inflammation and apoptosis in the livers of mice administered with ethanol, by 85% (tumor necrosis factor-α) and 44% compared to the control group, respectively. Furthermore, CAE activated lipid metabolism related signals and enhanced phosphorylation of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) and nuclear factor E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) with several cytoprotective proteins including heme oxygenase-1, NAD(P)H quinone oxidoreductase 1, and γ-glutamylcysteine synthetase. Taken together, the present study demonstrated that, CAE possesses antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and antiapoptotic activity against ethanol-induced liver injury. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  12. Presenting an Evaluation Model for the Cancer Registry Software.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moghaddasi, Hamid; Asadi, Farkhondeh; Rabiei, Reza; Rahimi, Farough; Shahbodaghi, Reihaneh

    2017-12-01

    As cancer is increasingly growing, cancer registry is of great importance as the main core of cancer control programs, and many different software has been designed for this purpose. Therefore, establishing a comprehensive evaluation model is essential to evaluate and compare a wide range of such software. In this study, the criteria of the cancer registry software have been determined by studying the documents and two functional software of this field. The evaluation tool was a checklist and in order to validate the model, this checklist was presented to experts in the form of a questionnaire. To analyze the results of validation, an agreed coefficient of %75 was determined in order to apply changes. Finally, when the model was approved, the final version of the evaluation model for the cancer registry software was presented. The evaluation model of this study contains tool and method of evaluation. The evaluation tool is a checklist including the general and specific criteria of the cancer registry software along with their sub-criteria. The evaluation method of this study was chosen as a criteria-based evaluation method based on the findings. The model of this study encompasses various dimensions of cancer registry software and a proper method for evaluating it. The strong point of this evaluation model is the separation between general criteria and the specific ones, while trying to fulfill the comprehensiveness of the criteria. Since this model has been validated, it can be used as a standard to evaluate the cancer registry software.

  13. Conversion of bioprocess ethanol to industrial chemical products - Applications of process models for energy-economic assessments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohatgi, Naresh K.; Ingham, John D.

    1992-01-01

    An assessment approach for accurate evaluation of bioprocesses for large-scale production of industrial chemicals is presented. Detailed energy-economic assessments of a potential esterification process were performed, where ethanol vapor in the presence of water from a bioreactor is catalytically converted to ethyl acetate. Results show that such processes are likely to become more competitive as the cost of substrates decreases relative to petrolium costs. A commercial ASPEN process simulation provided a reasonably consistent comparison with energy economics calculated using JPL developed software. Detailed evaluations of the sensitivity of production cost to material costs and annual production rates are discussed.

  14. Presenting a Model for Setting in Narrative Fiction Illustration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hajar Salimi Namin

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The present research aims at presenting a model for evaluating and enhancing training the setting in illustration for narrative fictions for undergraduate students of graphic design who are weak in setting. The research utilized expert’s opinions through a survey. The designed model was submitted to eight experts, and their opinions were used to have the model adjusted and improved. Used as research instruments were notes, materials in text books, papers, and related websites, as well as questionnaires. Results indicated that, for evaluating and enhancing the level of training the setting in illustration for narrative fiction to students, one needs to extract sub-indexes of setting. Moreover, definition and recognition of the model of setting helps undergraduate students of graphic design enhance the level of setting in their works skill by recognizing details of setting. Accordingly, it is recommended to design training packages to enhance these sub-indexes and hence improve the setting for narrative fiction illustration.

  15. Operant ethanol self-administration in ethanol dependent mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez, Marcelo F; Becker, Howard C

    2014-05-01

    While rats have been predominantly used to study operant ethanol self-administration behavior in the context of dependence, several studies have employed operant conditioning procedures to examine changes in ethanol self-administration behavior as a function of chronic ethanol exposure and withdrawal experience in mice. This review highlights some of the advantages of using operant conditioning procedures for examining the motivational effects of ethanol in animals with a history of dependence. As reported in rats, studies using various operant conditioning procedures in mice have demonstrated significant escalation of ethanol self-administration behavior in mice rendered dependent via forced chronic ethanol exposure in comparison to nondependent mice. This paper also presents a summary of these findings, as well as suggestions for future studies. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Numerical modelling of present and future hydrology at Laxemar- Simpevarp

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sassner, Mona; Sabel, Ulrika (DHI Sverige AB (Sweden)); Bosson, Emma; Berglund, Sten (Svensk Kaernbraenslehantering AB (Sweden))

    2011-04-15

    The Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Company (SKB) has performed site investigations at two potential sites for a final repository for spent nuclear fuel. This report presents results of water flow modelling of the Laxemar area. The modelling reported in this document is focused on the near-surface groundwater, i.e. groundwater in Quaternary deposits and shallow rock, and surface water systems, and was performed using the MIKE SHE tool. The main objective of the modelling was to provide input to the radionuclide transport and dose calculations that were carried out as a part of the comparison between the Laxemar and Forsmark sites

  17. Mathematical modeling of the ethanol fermentation of cashew apple juice by a flocculent yeast: the effect of initial substrate concentration and temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinheiro, Álvaro Daniel Teles; da Silva Pereira, Andréa; Barros, Emanuel Meneses; Antonini, Sandra Regina Ceccato; Cartaxo, Samuel Jorge Marques; Rocha, Maria Valderez Ponte; Gonçalves, Luciana Rocha B

    2017-08-01

    In this work, the effect of initial sugar concentration and temperature on the production of ethanol by Saccharomyces cerevisiae CCA008, a flocculent yeast, using cashew apple juice in a 1L-bioreactor was studied. The experimental results were used to develop a kinetic model relating biomass, ethanol production and total reducing sugar consumption. Monod, Andrews, Levenspiel and Ghose and Tyagi models were investigated to represent the specific growth rate without inhibition, with inhibition by substrate and with inhibition by product, respectively. Model validation was performed using a new set of experimental data obtained at 34 °C and using 100 g L -1 of initial substrate concentration. The model proposed by Ghose and Tyagi was able to accurately describe the dynamics of ethanol production by S. cerevisiae CCA008 growing on cashew apple juice, containing an initial reducing sugar concentration ranging from 70 to 170 g L -1 and temperature, from 26 to 42 °C. The model optimization was also accomplished based on the following parameters: percentage volume of ethanol per volume of solution (%V ethanol /V solution ), efficiency and reaction productivity. The optimal operational conditions were determined using response surface graphs constructed with simulated data, reaching an efficiency and a productivity of 93.5% and 5.45 g L -1  h -1 , respectively.

  18. Macro-System Model Project #AN011 (Presentation)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruth, M. F.; Diakov, V.; Sa, T. J.; Goldsby, M.

    2010-06-08

    A review of the Macro-System Model for hydrogen production pathways analysis, including objectives, accomplishments, collaborations, and future work. Presented at the 2010 U.S. Department of Energy Hydrogen Program and Vehicle Technologies Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting, June 7-11, 2010, in Washington, DC.

  19. Estimating the potential of energy saving and carbon emission mitigation of cassava-based fuel ethanol using life cycle assessment coupled with a biogeochemical process model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Dong; Hao, Mengmeng; Fu, Jingying; Tian, Guangjin; Ding, Fangyu

    2017-09-01

    Global warming and increasing concentration of atmospheric greenhouse gas (GHG) have prompted considerable interest in the potential role of energy plant biomass. Cassava-based fuel ethanol is one of the most important bioenergy and has attracted much attention in both developed and developing countries. However, the development of cassava-based fuel ethanol is still faced with many uncertainties, including raw material supply, net energy potential, and carbon emission mitigation potential. Thus, an accurate estimation of these issues is urgently needed. This study provides an approach to estimate energy saving and carbon emission mitigation potentials of cassava-based fuel ethanol through LCA (life cycle assessment) coupled with a biogeochemical process model—GEPIC (GIS-based environmental policy integrated climate) model. The results indicate that the total potential of cassava yield on marginal land in China is 52.51 million t; the energy ratio value varies from 0.07 to 1.44, and the net energy surplus of cassava-based fuel ethanol in China is 92,920.58 million MJ. The total carbon emission mitigation from cassava-based fuel ethanol in China is 4593.89 million kgC. Guangxi, Guangdong, and Fujian are identified as target regions for large-scale development of cassava-based fuel ethanol industry. These results can provide an operational approach and fundamental data for scientific research and energy planning.

  20. Modelling Extraction of White Tea Polyphenols: The Influence of Temperature and Ethanol Concentration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Peiró

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The optimization of the extraction of natural antioxidants from white tea has fostered intensive research. This study has investigated the effects of ethanol-water mixtures, temperature and time on the extraction of polyphenols and antioxidant components from white tea. The response surface methodology was applied to identify the best extraction conditions. The best conditions to maximize the extraction of total polyphenols were: ethanol, 50%, for 47.5 min. Although the yield of polyphenols was optimal at 65 °C, the maximum antioxidant capacity was achieved with an extraction temperature of 90 °C. This study has identified the optimal conditions for the extraction of tea liquor with the best antioxidant properties. Epigallocatechin gallate, epicatechin gallate, epigallocatechin and epicatechin were extracted from white tea at concentrations up to 29.6 ± 10.6, 5.40 ± 2.09, 5.04 ± 0.20 and 2.48 ± 1.10 mg/100 g.

  1. Predictive Models of Li-ion Battery Lifetime (Presentation)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, K.; Wood, E.; Santhanagopalan, S.; Kim, G.; Shi, Y.; Pesaran, A.

    2014-09-01

    Predictive models of Li-ion battery reliability must consider a multiplicity of electrochemical, thermal and mechanical degradation modes experienced by batteries in application environments. Complicating matters, Li-ion batteries can experience several path dependent degradation trajectories dependent on storage and cycling history of the application environment. Rates of degradation are controlled by factors such as temperature history, electrochemical operating window, and charge/discharge rate. Lacking accurate models and tests, lifetime uncertainty must be absorbed by overdesign and warranty costs. Degradation models are needed that predict lifetime more accurately and with less test data. Models should also provide engineering feedback for next generation battery designs. This presentation reviews both multi-dimensional physical models and simpler, lumped surrogate models of battery electrochemical and mechanical degradation. Models are compared with cell- and pack-level aging data from commercial Li-ion chemistries. The analysis elucidates the relative importance of electrochemical and mechanical stress-induced degradation mechanisms in real-world operating environments. Opportunities for extending the lifetime of commercial battery systems are explored.

  2. Statistical Model of the 2001 Czech Census for Interactive Presentation

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Grim, Jiří; Hora, Jan; Boček, Pavel; Somol, Petr; Pudil, Pavel

    Vol. 26, č. 4 (2010), s. 1-23 ISSN 0282-423X R&D Projects: GA ČR GA102/07/1594; GA MŠk 1M0572 Grant - others:GA MŠk(CZ) 2C06019 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10750506 Keywords : Interactive statistical model * census data presentation * distribution mixtures * data modeling * EM algorithm * incomplete data * data reproduction accuracy * data mining Subject RIV: BB - Applied Statistics, Operational Research Impact factor: 0.492, year: 2010 http://library.utia.cas.cz/separaty/2010/RO/grim-0350513.pdf

  3. Antinociceptive and Anti-Inflammatory Activities of the Ethanol Extract of Annona muricata L. Leaves in Animal Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Sousa, Orlando Vieira; Vieira, Glauciemar Del-Vechio; de Jesus R. G. de Pinho, José; Yamamoto, Célia Hitomi; Alves, Maria Silvana

    2010-01-01

    Antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory activities of the ethanol extract from Annona muricata L. leaves were investigated in animal models. The extract delivered per oral route (p.o.) reduced the number of abdominal contortions by 14.42% (at a dose of 200 mg/kg) and 41.41% (400 mg/kg). Doses of 200 and 400 mg/kg (p.o) inhibited both phases of the time paw licking: first phase (23.67% and 45.02%) and the second phase (30.09% and 50.02%), respectively. The extract (p.o.) increased the reaction time on a hot plate at doses of 200 (30.77% and 37.04%) and 400 mg/kg (82.61% and 96.30%) after 60 and 90 minutes of treatment, respectively. The paw edema was reduced by the ethanol extract (p.o.) at doses of 200 (23.16% and 29.33%) and 400 mg/kg (29.50% and 37.33%) after 3 to 4 h of application of carrageenan, respectively. Doses of 200 and 400 mg/kg (p.o.), administered 4 h before the carrageenan injection, reduced the exudate volume (29.25 and 45.74%) and leukocyte migration (18.19 and 27.95%) significantly. These results suggest that A. muricata can be an active source of substances with antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory activities. PMID:20559502

  4. Antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory activities of the ethanol extract of Annona muricata L. leaves in animal models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Sousa, Orlando Vieira; Vieira, Glauciemar Del-Vechio; de Jesus R G de Pinho, José; Yamamoto, Célia Hitomi; Alves, Maria Silvana

    2010-05-06

    Antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory activities of the ethanol extract from Annona muricata L. leaves were investigated in animal models. The extract delivered per oral route (p.o.) reduced the number of abdominal contortions by 14.42% (at a dose of 200 mg/kg) and 41.41% (400 mg/kg). Doses of 200 and 400 mg/kg (p.o) inhibited both phases of the time paw licking: first phase (23.67% and 45.02%) and the second phase (30.09% and 50.02%), respectively. The extract (p.o.) increased the reaction time on a hot plate at doses of 200 (30.77% and 37.04%) and 400 mg/kg (82.61% and 96.30%) after 60 and 90 minutes of treatment, respectively. The paw edema was reduced by the ethanol extract (p.o.) at doses of 200 (23.16% and 29.33%) and 400 mg/kg (29.50% and 37.33%) after 3 to 4 h of application of carrageenan, respectively. Doses of 200 and 400 mg/kg (p.o.), administered 4 h before the carrageenan injection, reduced the exudate volume (29.25 and 45.74%) and leukocyte migration (18.19 and 27.95%) significantly. These results suggest that A. muricata can be an active source of substances with antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory activities.

  5. Antinociceptive and Anti-Inflammatory Activities of the Ethanol Extract of Annona muricata L. Leaves in Animal Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orlando Vieira de Sousa

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory activities of the ethanol extract from Annonamuricata L. leaves were investigated in animal models. The extract delivered per oral route (p.o. reduced the number of abdominal contortions by 14.42% (at a dose of 200 mg/kg and 41.41% (400 mg/kg. Doses of 200 and 400 mg/kg (p.o inhibited both phases of the time paw licking: firstphase (23.67% and 45.02% and the secondphase (30.09% and 50.02%, respectively. The extract (p.o. increased the reaction time on a hot plate at doses of 200 (30.77% and 37.04% and 400 mg/kg (82.61% and 96.30% after 60 and 90 minutes of treatment, respectively. The paw edema was reduced by the ethanol extract (p.o. at doses of 200 (23.16% and 29.33% and 400 mg/kg (29.50% and 37.33% after 3 to 4 h of application of carrageenan, respectively. Doses of 200 and 400 mg/kg (p.o., administered 4 h before the carrageenan injection, reduced the exudate volume (29.25 and 45.74% and leukocyte migration (18.19 and 27.95% significantly. These results suggest that A. muricata can be an active source of substances with antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory activities.

  6. High-resolution techno-ecological modelling of a bioenergy landscape to identify climate mitigation opportunities in cellulosic ethanol production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Field, John L.; Evans, Samuel G.; Marx, Ernie; Easter, Mark; Adler, Paul R.; Dinh, Thai; Willson, Bryan; Paustian, Keith

    2018-02-01

    Although dedicated energy crops will probably be an important feedstock for future cellulosic bioenergy production, it is unknown how they can best be integrated into existing agricultural systems. Here we use the DayCent ecosystem model to simulate various scenarios for growing switchgrass in the heterogeneous landscape that surrounds a commercial-scale cellulosic ethanol biorefinery in southwestern Kansas, and quantify the associated fuel production costs and lifecycle greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. We show that the GHG footprint of ethanol production can be reduced by up to 22 g of CO2 equivalent per megajoule (CO2e MJ-1) through careful optimization of the soils cultivated and corresponding fertilizer application rates (the US Renewable Fuel Standard requires a 56 gCO2e MJ-1 lifecycle emissions reduction for `cellulosic' biofuels compared with conventional gasoline). This improved climate performance is realizable at modest additional costs, less than the current value of low-carbon fuel incentives. We also demonstrate that existing subsidized switchgrass plantings within this landscape probably achieve suboptimal GHG mitigation, as would landscape designs that strictly minimize the biomass collection radius or target certain marginal lands.

  7. Presenting results of software model checker via debugging interface

    OpenAIRE

    Kohan, Tomáš

    2012-01-01

    Title: Presenting results of software model checker via debugging interface Author: Tomáš Kohan Department: Department of Software Engineering Supervisor of the master thesis: RNDr. Ondřej Šerý, Ph.D., Department of Distributed and Dependable Systems Abstract: This thesis is devoted to design and implementation of the new debugging interface of the Java PathFinder application. As a suitable inte- face container was selected the Eclipse development environment. The created interface should vis...

  8. Nuclear model developments in FLUKA for present and future applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cerutti Francesco

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The FLUKAS code [1–3] is used in research laboratories all around the world for challenging applications spanning a very wide range of energies, projectiles and targets. FLUKAS is also extensively used for in hadrontherapy research studies and clinical planning systems. In this paper some of the recent developments in the FLUKAS nuclear physics models of relevance for very different application fields including medical physics are presented. A few examples are shown demonstrating the effectiveness of the upgraded code.

  9. Nuclear model developments in FLUKA for present and future applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerutti, Francesco; Empl, Anton; Fedynitch, Anatoli; Ferrari, Alfredo; Ruben, GarciaAlia; Sala, Paola R.; Smirnov, George; Vlachoudis, Vasilis

    2017-09-01

    The FLUKAS code [1-3] is used in research laboratories all around the world for challenging applications spanning a very wide range of energies, projectiles and targets. FLUKAS is also extensively used for in hadrontherapy research studies and clinical planning systems. In this paper some of the recent developments in the FLUKAS nuclear physics models of relevance for very different application fields including medical physics are presented. A few examples are shown demonstrating the effectiveness of the upgraded code.

  10. Analgesic effects of an ethanol extract of the fruits of Xylopia aethiopica (Dunal A. Rich (Annonaceae and the major constituent, xylopic acid in murine models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric Woode

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Fruit extracts of Xylopia aethiopica are used traditionally in the management of pain disorders including rheumatism, headache, colic pain, and neuralgia. Little pharmacological data exists in scientific literature of the effect of the fruit extract and its major diterpene, xylopic acid, on pain. The present study evaluated the analgesic properties of the ethanol extract of X. aethiopica (XAE and xylopic acid (XA, in murine models. Materials and Methods: XAE and XA were assessed in chemical (acetic acid-induced abdominal writhing and formalin tests, thermal (Tail-flick and Hargreaves thermal hyperalgesia tests, and mechanical (Randall-Selitto paw pressure test pain models. Results: XAE and XA exhibited significant analgesic activity in all the pain models used. XAE (30-300 mg kg -1 , p.o. and XA (10-100 mg kg -1 , p.o. inhibited acetic acid-induced visceral nociception, formalin- induced paw pain (both neurogenic and inflammatory, thermal pain as well as carrageenan-induced mechanical and thermal hyperalgesia in animals. Morphine (1-10 mg kg -1 , i.p. and diclofenac (1-10 mg kg -1 , i.p., used as controls, exhibited similar anti-nociceptive activities. XAE and XA did not induce tolerance to their respective anti-nociceptive effects in the formalin test after chronic administration. Morphine tolerance did not also cross-generalize to the analgesic effects of XAE or XA. Conclusions: These findings establish the analgesic properties of the ethanol fruit extract of X. aethiopica and its major diterpene, xylopic acid.

  11. Minocycline reduces ethanol drinking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agrawal, R G; Hewetson, A; George, C M; Syapin, P J; Bergeson, S E

    2011-06-01

    Alcoholism is a disease characterized by continued alcohol consumption despite recurring negative consequences. Thus, medications that reduce the drive to consume alcohol can be beneficial in treating alcoholism. The neurobiological systems that regulate alcohol consumption are complex and not fully understood. Currently, medications are available to treat alcoholism that act either by causing accumulation of a toxic metabolite of ethanol, or by targeting specific transmitter receptors. The purpose of our study was to investigate a new potential therapeutic pathway, neuroimmune interactions, for effects on ethanol consumption. We hypothesized that neuroimmune activity of brain glia may have a role in drinking. We utilized minocycline, a second generation tetracycline antibiotic that has immune modulatory actions, to test our hypothesis because it is known to suppress microglia, and to a lesser extent astroglia, activity following many types of insults to the brain. Treatment with 50mg/kg minocycline significantly reduced ethanol intake in male and female C57Bl/6J mice using a free choice voluntary drinking model. Saline injections did not alter ethanol intake. Minocycline had little effect on water intake or body weight change. The underlying mechanism whereby minocycline reduced ethanol intake requires further study. The results suggest that drugs that alter neuroimmune pathways may represent a new approach to developing additional therapies to treat alcoholism. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Effect of ionic liquid 1-methylimidazolium chloride on the vapour liquid equilibrium of water, methanol, ethanol, and {water + ethanol} mixture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shen Chong; Li Xuemei; Lu Yingzhou; Li Chunxi

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → Vapour pressure data for three binary systems and a ternary system were measured. → Water, ethanol, methanol, and 1-methylimidazolium chloride were studied. → The vapour pressure data can be well correlated by the NRTL model. → The isobaric (vapour + liquid) equilibria were predicted by the NRTL model. → The salt effect of ILs on the VLE of {water + ethanol} mixture was investigated. - Abstract: Measurements of vapour pressure data were conducted using a quasi-static ebulliometer for systems containing water, methanol, ethanol, and a mixture of {water + ethanol} in the presence of an ionic liquid (IL), namely, 1-methylimidazolium chloride ([MIm]Cl), wherein the IL-content ranged from w 2 = (0.10 to 0.50). The vapour pressure data of IL-containing binary systems were correlated by the NRTL model with an overall average absolute relative deviation (AARD) of 0.0103, and the resulting binary parameters were used to predict the vapour pressures of a ternary system {water + ethanol + [MIm]Cl} with an AARD less than 0.0077. Further, the isobaric vapour liquid equilibria (VLE) for the ternary system {water + ethanol + IL} with IL-content of w 3 = (0.10, 0.30, and 0.50) for [MIm]Cl and x 3 = 0.15 for [MIm]Cl, [C 4 MIm]Cl, and [C 6 MIm]Cl were predicted at 101.3 kPa, respectively. It is indicated that [MIm]Cl presents the strongest ability to enhance the relative volatility of ethanol to water in the mixture of {water + ethanol} than that of [C 4 MIm]Cl and [C 6 MIm]Cl, which is consistent with the cationic sizes and hence the ionic hydration ability. Therefore, distillation separation of the azeotrope of {water + ethanol} can be sufficiently facilitated by the addition of [MIm]Cl at a specified content.

  13. Modeling and Experimental Validation of a Volumetric Expander Suitable for Waste Heat Recovery from an Automotive Internal Combustion Engine Using an Organic Rankine Cycle with Ethanol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Galindo

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Waste heat recovery (WHR in exhaust gas flow of automotive engines has proved to be a useful path to increase the overall efficiency of internal combustion engines (ICE. Recovery potentials of up to 7% are shown in several works in the literature. However, most of them are theoretical estimations. Some present results from prototypes fed by steady flows generated in an auxiliary gas tank and not with actual engine exhaust gases. This paper deals with the modeling and experimental validation of an organic Rankine cycle (ORC with a swash-plate expander integrated in a 2 L turbocharged petrol engine using ethanol as working fluid. A global simulation model of the ORC was developed with a maximum difference of 5%, validated with experimental results. Considering the swash-plate as the main limiting factor, an additional specific submodel was implemented to model the physical phenomena in this element. This model allows simulating the fluid dynamic behavior of the swash-plate expander using a 0D model (Amesim. Differences up to 10.5% between tests and model results were found.

  14. HIGH ETHANOL DOSE DURING EARLY ADOLESCENCE INDUCES LOCOMOTOR ACTIVATION AND INCREASES SUBSEQUENT ETHANOL INTAKE DURING LATE ADOLESCENCE

    OpenAIRE

    Acevedo, María Belén; Molina, Juan Carlos; Nizhnikov, Michael E.; Spear, Norman E.; Pautassi, Ricardo Marcos

    2010-01-01

    Adolescent initiation of ethanol consumption is associated with subsequent heightened probability of ethanol-use disorders. The present study examined the relationship between motivational sensitivity to ethanol initiation in adolescent rats and later ethanol intake. Experiment 1 determined that ethanol induces locomotor activation shortly after administration but not if tested at a later post-administration interval. In Experiment 2, adolescents were assessed for ethanol-induced locomotor ac...

  15. Determination and thermodynamic modelling for 2-methyl-6-nitroaniline solubility in binary solvent mixtures of ethyl acetate + (methanol, ethanol, n-propanol and isopropanol)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cong, Yang; Du, Cunbin; Wang, Jian; Zhao, Hongkun

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Solubility of 2-methyl-6-nitroaniline in four binary mixed solvents were determined. • Solubility data were correlated and calculated by six models. • The standard dissolution enthalpy for the dissolution processes were computed. - Abstract: The solubility of 2-methyl-6-nitroaniline in binary mixed solvents of (ethyl acetate + methanol), (ethyl acetate + ethanol), (ethyl acetate + n-propanol) and (ethyl acetate + isopropanol) was determined experimentally by using the isothermal dissolution method within the temperature range from (278.15–313.15) K under atmosphere pressure. The solubility of 2-methyl-6-nitroaniline increased with increasing temperature and mass fraction of ethyl acetate in each binary system. At the same temperature and mass fraction of ethyl acetate, the mole fraction solubility of 2-methyl-6-nitroaniline was greater in (ethyl acetate + n-propanol) than in the other three mixed solvents. The achieved solubility values were correlated by employing Jouyban-Acree model, van’t Hoff-Jouyban-Acree model, Apelblat-Jouyban-Acree model, Ma model, Sun model and CNIBS/R-K model. The values of relative average deviations (RAD) and root-mean-square deviations (RMSD) were no greater than 1.79% and 20.56 × 10 −4 for the six models. In general, the Jouyban-Acree model proved to provide better representation of the experimental solubility. Furthermore, the dissolution enthalpies of the dissolution process were calculated. Positive values of dissolution enthalpy showed that the dissolution process of 2-methyl-6-nitroaniline in these mixed solvents was endothermic. The experimental solubility results and models presented in the present work are essential in the practical process for production and purification of 2-methyl-6-nitroaniline.

  16. Modeling population exposures to silver nanoparticles present in consumer products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Royce, Steven G.; Mukherjee, Dwaipayan; Cai, Ting; Xu, Shu S.; Alexander, Jocelyn A.; Mi, Zhongyuan; Calderon, Leonardo; Mainelis, Gediminas; Lee, KiBum; Lioy, Paul J.; Tetley, Teresa D.; Chung, Kian Fan; Zhang, Junfeng; Georgopoulos, Panos G.

    2014-11-01

    Exposures of the general population to manufactured nanoparticles (MNPs) are expected to keep rising due to increasing use of MNPs in common consumer products (PEN 2014). The present study focuses on characterizing ambient and indoor population exposures to silver MNPs (nAg). For situations where detailed, case-specific exposure-related data are not available, as in the present study, a novel tiered modeling system, Prioritization/Ranking of Toxic Exposures with GIS (geographic information system) Extension (PRoTEGE), has been developed: it employs a product life cycle analysis (LCA) approach coupled with basic human life stage analysis (LSA) to characterize potential exposures to chemicals of current and emerging concern. The PRoTEGE system has been implemented for ambient and indoor environments, utilizing available MNP production, usage, and properties databases, along with laboratory measurements of potential personal exposures from consumer spray products containing nAg. Modeling of environmental and microenvironmental levels of MNPs employs probabilistic material flow analysis combined with product LCA to account for releases during manufacturing, transport, usage, disposal, etc. Human exposure and dose characterization further employ screening microenvironmental modeling and intake fraction methods combined with LSA for potentially exposed populations, to assess differences associated with gender, age, and demographics. Population distributions of intakes, estimated using the PRoTEGE framework, are consistent with published individual-based intake estimates, demonstrating that PRoTEGE is capable of capturing realistic exposure scenarios for the US population. Distributions of intakes are also used to calculate biologically relevant population distributions of uptakes and target tissue doses through human airway dosimetry modeling that takes into account product MNP size distributions and age-relevant physiological parameters.

  17. An in vivo and in vitro investigation of the effect of Aloe vera gel ethanolic extract using animal model with diabetic foot ulcer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohan Daburkar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To examine the preventive effect of Aloe vera gel ethanolic extract using diabetic foot ulcer (DFUs protocol in Wistar rats. Materials and Methods: Male Wistar rats were divided into untreated control (Group I, untreated DFUs (Group II, DFUs treated with A. vera gel ethanolic extract (Group III, DFUs treated with topical A. vera gel (Group IV, DFUs treated with A. vera gel ethanolic extract and topical A. vera gel (Group V. The rats in the treatment groups were daily administered the A. vera gel and ethanolic extract for 9 days. Fasting blood glucose levels and percentage of wound ulcer contraction were measured on day 3, 6, and 9. Statistical Analysis used: The results are expressed as a mean ± Standard Error Mean (SEM. Data were analyzed using one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA after Newman-Keuls test. P < 0.05 were considered statistically significant in all cases. Results: Oral administration of A. vera gel ethanolic extract at a dose of 300 mg/kg body weight per day to diabetic rats for a period of 9 days resulted in a significant reduction in fasting blood glucose and a significant improvement in plasma insulin. Topical application of A. vera gel at a dose 30 mg/kg body weight per day to streptozotocin (STZ-induced diabetic rats for a period of 9 days resulted in no change in blood glucose and plasma insulin. Oral administration as well as topical application of A. vera gel ethanolic extract and gel significantly reduced the blood glucose, improved the plasma insulin, and significantly increased DNA and glycosaminoglycans (GAGs to improve the wound ulcer healing as well as the breaking strength on day 9. Conclusions: Present findings provide a scientific rationale for the use of A. vera gel ethanolic extract, and showed that the gel attenuated the diabetic foot wound in rats.

  18. Kinetic analysis and modeling of oleate and ethanol stimulated uranium (VI) bio-reduction in contaminated sediments under sulfate reduction conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Fan; Wu Weimin; Parker, Jack C.; Mehlhorn, Tonia; Kelly, Shelly D.; Kemner, Kenneth M.; Zhang, Gengxin; Schadt, Christopher; Brooks, Scott C.; Criddle, Craig S.; Watson, David B.; Jardine, Philip M.

    2010-01-01

    Microcosm tests with uranium contaminated sediments were performed to explore the feasibility of using oleate as a slow-release electron donor for U(VI) reduction in comparison to ethanol. Oleate degradation proceeded more slowly than ethanol with acetate produced as an intermediate for both electron donors under a range of initial sulfate concentrations. A kinetic microbial reduction model was developed and implemented to describe and compare the reduction of sulfate and U(VI) with oleate or ethanol. The reaction path model considers detailed oleate/ethanol degradation and the production and consumption of intermediates, acetate and hydrogen. Although significant assumptions are made, the model tracked the major trend of sulfate and U(VI) reduction and describes the successive production and consumption of acetate, concurrent with microbial reduction of aqueous sulfate and U(VI) species. The model results imply that the overall rate of U(VI) bioreduction is influenced by both the degradation rate of organic substrates and consumption rate of intermediate products.

  19. Kinetic analysis and modeling of oleate and ethanol stimulated uranium (VI) bio-reduction in contaminated sediments under sulfate reduction conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang Fan, E-mail: zhangfan@itpcas.ac.cn [Key Laboratory of Tibetan Environment Changes and Land Surface Processes, Institute of Tibetan Plateau Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, P.O. Box 2871, Beijing 100085 (China); Wu Weimin [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305 (United States); Parker, Jack C. [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN 37996 (United States); Mehlhorn, Tonia [Environmental Sciences Division, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN 37831 (United States); Kelly, Shelly D.; Kemner, Kenneth M. [Biosciences Division, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL 60439 (United States); Zhang, Gengxin [Key Laboratory of Tibetan Environment Changes and Land Surface Processes, Institute of Tibetan Plateau Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, P.O. Box 2871, Beijing 100085 (China); Schadt, Christopher; Brooks, Scott C. [Environmental Sciences Division, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN 37831 (United States); Criddle, Craig S. [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305 (United States); Watson, David B. [Environmental Sciences Division, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN 37831 (United States); Jardine, Philip M. [Biosystems Engineering and Soil Science Department, University of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN 37996 (United States)

    2010-11-15

    Microcosm tests with uranium contaminated sediments were performed to explore the feasibility of using oleate as a slow-release electron donor for U(VI) reduction in comparison to ethanol. Oleate degradation proceeded more slowly than ethanol with acetate produced as an intermediate for both electron donors under a range of initial sulfate concentrations. A kinetic microbial reduction model was developed and implemented to describe and compare the reduction of sulfate and U(VI) with oleate or ethanol. The reaction path model considers detailed oleate/ethanol degradation and the production and consumption of intermediates, acetate and hydrogen. Although significant assumptions are made, the model tracked the major trend of sulfate and U(VI) reduction and describes the successive production and consumption of acetate, concurrent with microbial reduction of aqueous sulfate and U(VI) species. The model results imply that the overall rate of U(VI) bioreduction is influenced by both the degradation rate of organic substrates and consumption rate of intermediate products.

  20. Dynamic model of temperature impact on cell viability and major product formation during fed-batch and continuous ethanolic fermentation in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amillastre, Emilie; Aceves-Lara, César-Arturo; Uribelarrea, Jean-Louis; Alfenore, Sandrine; Guillouet, Stéphane E

    2012-08-01

    The impact of the temperature on an industrial yeast strain was investigated in very high ethanol performance fermentation fed-batch process within the range of 30-47 °C. As previously observed with a lab strain, decoupling between growth and glycerol formation occurred at temperature of 36 °C and higher. A dynamic model was proposed to describe the impact of the temperature on the total and viable biomass, ethanol and glycerol production. The model validation was implemented with experimental data sets from independent cultures under different temperatures, temperature variation profiles and cultivation modes. The proposed model fitted accurately the dynamic evolutions for products and biomass concentrations over a wide range of temperature profiles. R2 values were above 0.96 for ethanol and glycerol in most experiments. The best results were obtained at 37 °C in fed-batch and chemostat cultures. This dynamic model could be further used for optimizing and monitoring the ethanol fermentation at larger scale. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Use of novel inhalation kinetic studies to refine physiologically-based-pharmacokinetic models for ethanol in non-pregnant and pregnant rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ethanol (EtOH) exposure induces a variety of concentration-dependent neurological and developmental effects in the rat. Physiologically-based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) models have been used to predict the inhalation exposure concentrations necessary to produce blood EtOH concentrat...

  2. Ethanol at Low Concentration Attenuates Diabetes Induced Lung Injury in Rats Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun-Feng Hu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available To observe the changes of lung injury when diabetic rats were treated with low concentration of ethanol (EtOH and analyze the related mechanisms, male Sprague-Dawley (SD rats were divided into control, diabetic (DM, and EtOH+DM groups. Diabetic rat was mimicked by injection of streptozotocin intraperitoneally. Fasting blood glucose (FBG level, lung weight (LW, body weight (BW, and LW/BW were measured. The changes of lung tissue and Type II alveolar cell were detected. Pulmonary malondialdehyde (MDA content and superoxide dismutase (SOD activity were measured; meanwhile, ALDH2 mRNA and protein expressions were detected by RT-PCR and western blotting, respectively. Compared with control group, in DM group, SOD activity was decreased; FBG level, LW/BW, MDA content, ALDH2 mRNA, and protein expressions were decreased. Compared with DM group, in EtOH+DM group, SOD activity, ALDH2 mRNA, and protein expressions were increased; LW/BW and MDA content were decreased. The structures of lung tissue and lamellar bodies were collapsed in DM group; the injury was attenuated in EtOH+DM group. Our findings suggested that, in diabetic rat, pulmonary ALDH2 expression was decreased accompanying lung injury. EtOH at low concentration decreased diabetes induced lung injury through activating ALDH2 expression.

  3. Effects of Thymus vulgaris ethanolic extract on chronic toxoplasmosis in a mouse model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eraky, Maysa Ahmad; El-Fakahany, Amany Farouk; El-Sayed, Nagwa Mostafa; Abou-Ouf, Eman Abdel-Rahman; Yaseen, Doaa Ibrahim

    2016-07-01

    The current work was undertaken to investigate the potential effectiveness of Thymus vulgaris ethanolic extract (TVE) against Toxoplasma gondii infection in chronic experimental toxoplasmosis. To evaluate prophylactic effects, mice received 500 mg/kg TVE for 5 days before they were infected by an avirulent Me49 T. gondii strain. To investigate the therapeutic effects of the extract postinfection, daily treatment with TVE was initiated at 6 weeks postinfection and continued for 10 days. The following groups of animals were used as controls: uninfected/non-treated, infected/non-treated, and infected/treated with a combination of pyrimethamine and sulfadiazine. Brain cyst count and histopathological changes using H&E and Feulgen stains were used to evaluate the efficacy of TVE. The mean number of brain cysts was significantly decreased by 24 % in mice treated prophylactically with TVE. TVE also significantly reduced the mean number of brain cysts when administered to animals already chronically infected with T. gondii. The effect of TVE was comparable to that of treatment with a mixture of sulfadiazine and pyrimethamine (46 and 51 % reduction, respectively). Moreover, considerable amelioration of the pathological lesions in the brain and retina was observed. The results demonstrate the potential efficacy of T. vulgaris as a new natural therapeutic and prophylactic agent for use in the treatment of chronic toxoplasmosis.

  4. Gastroprotective actions of Taraxacum coreanum Nakai water extracts in ethanol-induced rat models of acute and chronic gastritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Hye Jeong; Kim, Min Jung; Kwon, Dae Young; Kang, Eun Seon; Kang, Suna; Park, Sunmin

    2017-08-17

    Taraxacum coreanum Nakai has been traditionally used for treating inflammatory diseases including gastrointestinal diseases. We studied whether water extracts of Taraxacum coreanum Nakai (TCN) had a protective effect on acute and chronic gastritis induced by ethanol/HCl in an animal model of gastritis and its mechanism was also explored. In the acute study, rats were orally administered 0.15g/mL dextrin (normal-control), 0.15g/mL dextrin (control), 0.05g/mL TCN (TCN-L), 0.15g/mL TCN (TCN-H), or 0.01g/mL omeprazole (orally; positive-control), followed by oral administration of 1mL of 60% ethanol plus 150mM HCl (inducer). In the chronic study, rats were administered 10% diluted inducer in drinking water, and 0.6% dextrin, 0.2% or 0.6% TCN, and 0.05% omeprazole were administered in chow for 4 weeks. Acid content, gastric structure, oxidative stress, and markers of inflammation in the stomach tissue were measured at the end of experiment. Acute and chronic ethanol/HCl administration caused the inner layer of the stomach to redden, hemorrhage, and edema in the control group; TCN-H reduced these symptoms more effectively than did the omeprazole positive-control. Acid production and total acidity in the stomach increased in the control group, which was markedly suppressed by omeprazole. TCN also reduced the acid production and acidity, but not to the same degree as omeprazole. H-E and PAS staining revealed that in the inner layer of the stomach, cellular structure was disrupted, with an increased nuclear size and thickness, disarrangement, and decreased mucin in the control group. TCN prevented the cellular disruption in the inner layer, and TCN-H was more effective than the positive-control. This was associated with oxidative stress and inflammation. TCN dose-dependently reduced the infiltration of mast cells and TNF-α expression in the inner layer of the stomach, and decreased lipid peroxides by increasing superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase expression. TCN

  5. High ethanol tolerance of the thermophilic anaerobic ethanol producer Thermoanaerobacter BG1L1

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Georgieva, Tania I.; Mikkelsen, Marie Just; Ahring, Birgitte Kiær

    2007-01-01

    to exogenously added ethanol was studied in a continuous immobilized reactor system at a growth temperature of 70 degrees C. Ethanol tolerance was evaluated based on inhibition of fermentative performance e.g.. inhibition of substrate conversion. At the highest ethanol concentration tested (8.3% v/v), the strain...... was able to convert 42% of the xylose initially present, indicating that this ethanol concentration is not the upper limit tolerated by the strain. Long-term strain adaptation to high ethanol concentrations (6 - 8.3%) resulted in an improvement of xylose conversion by 25% at an ethanol concentration of 5......The low ethanol tolerance of thermophilic anaerobic bacteria, generally less than 2% (v/v) ethanol, is one of the main limiting factors for their potential use for second generation fuel ethanol production. In this work, the tolerance of thermophilic anaerobic bacterium Thermoanaerobacter BG 1L1...

  6. Mechanistic insights on ethanol dehydrogenation on Pd-Au model catalysts: a combined experimental and DFT study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, E J; Li, H; Yu, Wen-Yueh; Mullen, G M; Henkelman, G; Mullins, C Buddie

    2017-11-22

    In this study, we have combined ultra-high vacuum (UHV) experiments and density functional theory (DFT) calculations to investigate ethanol (EtOH) dehydrogenation on Pd-Au model catalysts. Using EtOH reactive molecular beam scattering (RMBS), EtOH temperature-programmed desorption (TPD), and DFT calculations, we show how different Pd ensemble sizes on Au(111) can affect the mechanism for EtOH dehydrogenation and H 2 production. The Au(111) surface with an initial coverage of 2 monolayers of Pd (2 ML Pd-Au) had the highest H 2 yield. However, the 1 ML Pd-Au catalyst showed the highest selectivity and stability, yielding appreciable amounts of only H 2 and acetaldehyde. Arrhenius plots of H 2 production confirm that the mechanisms for EtOH dehydrogenation differed between 1 and 2 ML Pd-Au, supporting the perceived difference in selectivity between the two surfaces. DFT calculations support this difference in mechanism, showing a dependence of the initial dehydrogenation selectivity of EtOH on the size of Pd ensemble. DFT binding energies and EtOH TPD confirm that EtOH has increasing surface affinity with increasing Pd ensemble size and Pd coverage, indicating that surfaces with more Pd are more likely to induce an EtOH reaction instead of desorb. Our theoretical results show that the synergistic influence of atomic ensemble and electronic effects on Pd/Au(111) can lead to different H 2 association energies and EtOH dehydrogenation capacities at different Pd ensembles. These results provide mechanistic insights into ethanol's dehydrogenation interactions with different sites on the Pd-Au surface and can potentially aid in bimetallic catalyst design for applications such as fuel cells.

  7. Experimental Evaluation of Ethanolic Extract of Carapa guianensis L. Leaf for Its Wound Healing Activity Using Three Wound Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Shivananda Nayak

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The leaves of Carapa guianensis have been used to treat ulcers, skin parasites, and skin problems. The ethanolic extract of C. guianensis leaf was evaluated for its antibacterial and wound healing activity using excision, incision and dead space wound models in rats. The animals were randomly divided into two groups (n = 6 in all the models. In the excision wound model test group animals were treated topically with the leaf extract (250 mg kg−1 body weight whereas, control animals were treated with petroleum jelly. In the incision and dead space wound models, the test group animals were treated with extract (250 mg kg−1 day−1 orally by mixing in drinking water and the control group animals were maintained with plain drinking water. Healing was assessed by the rate of wound contraction, period of epithelialization, skin breaking strength, granulation tissue weight and hydoxyproline content. On Day 15 extract-treated animals exhibited 100% reduction in the wound area when compared to controls (95% with significant decrease in the epithelialization period. The extract failed to demonstrate antibacterial activity. Skin breaking strength (P < .001, wet (P < .002 and dry (P < .02 granulation tissue and hydroxyproline content (P < .03 were significantly higher in extract treated animals. The increased rate of wound contraction, skin breaking strength and hydroxyproline content supports potential application of C. guianensis in wound healing.

  8. Lifecycle optimized ethanol-gasoline blends for turbocharged engines

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Bo

    2016-08-16

    This study presents a lifecycle (well-to-wheel) analysis to determine the CO2 emissions associated with ethanol blended gasoline in optimized turbocharged engines. This study provides a more accurate assessment on the best-achievable CO2 emission of ethanol blended gasoline mixtures in future engines. The optimal fuel blend (lowest CO2 emitting fuel) is identified. A range of gasoline fuels is studied, containing different ethanol volume percentages (E0–E40), research octane numbers (RON, 92–105), and octane sensitivities (8.5–15.5). Sugarcane-based and cellulosic ethanol-blended gasolines are shown to be effective in reducing lifecycle CO2 emission, while corn-based ethanol is not as effective. A refinery simulation of production emission was utilized, and combined with vehicle fuel consumption modeling to determine the lifecycle CO2 emissions associated with ethanol-blended gasoline in turbocharged engines. The critical parameters studied, and related to blended fuel lifecycle CO2 emissions, are ethanol content, research octane number, and octane sensitivity. The lowest-emitting blended fuel had an ethanol content of 32 vol%, RON of 105, and octane sensitivity of 15.5; resulting in a CO2 reduction of 7.1%, compared to the reference gasoline fuel and engine technology. The advantage of ethanol addition is greatest on a per unit basis at low concentrations. Finally, this study shows that engine-downsizing technology can yield an additional CO2 reduction of up to 25.5% in a two-stage downsized turbocharged engine burning the optimum sugarcane-based fuel blend. The social cost savings in the USA, from the CO2 reduction, is estimated to be as much as $187 billion/year. © 2016 Elsevier Ltd

  9. The analysis of hippocampus neuronal density (CA1 and CA3 after Ocimum sanctum ethanolic extract treatment on the young adulthood and middle age rat model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dwi Liliek Kusindarta

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Aim: This study aimed to assess the changes in neuronal density in CA1 and CA3 regions in the hippocampus of young adulthood and middle age rat model after feeding by Ocimum sanctum ethanolic extract. Materials and Methods: In this research, 30 male Wistar rats consist of young to middle-aged rats were divided into three groups (3, 6, and 9 months old and treated with a different dosage of O. sanctum ethanolic extract (0, 50, and 100 mg/kg b.w. for 45 days. Furthermore, cresyl violet staining was performed to analyze hippocampus formation mainly in CA1 and CA3 area. The concentrations of acetylcholine (Ach in brain tissues were analyzed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Results: In our in vivo models using rat model, we found that the administration of O. sanctum ethanolic extract with a dosage of 100 mg/kg b.w. for 45 days induced the density of pyramidal cells significantly in CA1 and CA3 of the hippocampus. These results were supported by an increase of Ach concentrations on the brain tissue. Conclusion: The administration of O. sanctum ethanolic extract may promote the density of the pyramidal cells in the CA1 and CA3 mediated by the up-regulated concentration of Ach.

  10. Methodology for geometric modelling. Presentation and administration of site descriptive models; Metodik foer geometrisk modellering. Presentation och administration av platsbeskrivande modeller

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Munier, Raymond [Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Co., Stockholm (Sweden); Hermanson, Jan [Golder Associates (Sweden)

    2001-03-01

    This report presents a methodology to construct, visualise and present geoscientific descriptive models based on data from the site investigations, which the SKB currently performs, to build an underground nuclear waste disposal facility in Sweden. It is designed for interaction with SICADA (SKB:s site characterisation database) and RVS (SKB:s Rock Visualisation System). However, the concepts of the methodology are general and can be used with other tools capable of handling 3D geometries and parameters. The descriptive model is intended to be an instrument where site investigation data from all disciplines are put together to form a comprehensive visual interpretation of the studied rock mass. The methodology has four main components: 1. Construction of a geometrical model of the interpreted main structures at the site. 2. Description of the geoscientific characteristics of the structures. 3. Description and geometrical implementation of the geometric uncertainties in the interpreted model structures. 4. Quality system for the handling of the geometrical model, its associated database and some aspects of the technical auditing. The geometrical model forms a basis for understanding the main elements and structures of the investigated site. Once the interpreted geometries are in place in the model, the system allows for adding descriptive and quantitative data to each modelled object through a system of intuitive menus. The associated database allows each geometrical object a complete quantitative description of all geoscientific disciplines, variabilities, uncertainties in interpretation and full version history. The complete geometrical model and its associated database of object descriptions are to be recorded in a central quality system. Official, new and old versions of the model are administered centrally in order to have complete quality assurance of each step in the interpretation process. The descriptive model is a cornerstone in the understanding of the

  11. The Synoptic View as a Model for Poster Presentations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhodes, D. D.; Arrowsmith, J. R.

    2004-12-01

    Originally referencing the first three chapters of the New Testament, the term "synoptic" has come to mean "a general view of the whole, or of the principal parts of a thing." Large format posters provide an opportunity to present research in synoptic form, rather than as an arrangement of PowerPoint slides and text. In synoptic views, data, analyses, and linkages are presented en masse with the graphical design used as a guide to the linkages. Conclusions about the meanings of the information are largely left to the viewers as they study the information and seek relationships-a natural activity for scientists. Numerous formats produce synoptic views of geoscientific information. Each imposes order on the information through spatial, temporal, or causal connections and provide context for multiple variables. Maps are the most common synoptic presentations. Additional map-sheet information, such as stratigraphic columns and cross sections, gain meaning from and contribute meaning to the areal view. Two and three-dimensional models, including flow charts and organizational diagrams offer a means of portraying complex interactions. Time lines and spatial line (e.g., latitude, depth, distance) diagrams, especially those with additional axes to plot related variables, show temporal or spatial trends, progress, or fluctuation. Some organizational schemes are specific to the sciences. The periodic table is a synoptic portrayal of the elements that designates their chemical behavior by their positions. As an illustration of phenomena, the well designed synoptic poster provides a multi-scale perspective that slices across time, space, or other parameters to expose the significant behaviors of the given system. Bruce Railsback's (2003) reorganization of the periodic table to emphasize the charged species most common in geologic processes is an outstanding example of synoptic design. Edward Tufte's works on graphical style and visual explanations are also excellent guides to

  12. A Parabolic Model Presentation of Solar Radiation Data at a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ife, Nigeria has been analysed and simple parabolic models established for predicting them. The models appear in the form of parabolic equations with three parameters. The necessary physical interpretations of the model parameters, their ...

  13. Synaptotoxicity of chronic low-dose pre- and post-natal ethanol exposure: A new animal model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walewski, J.L.

    1992-01-01

    Chronic Low-dose Pre- and Post-natal Ethanol exposure (CLPPEE) is the most frequent cause of teratogenically induced mental deficiency in the Western world. Although the Fetal Alcohol Syndrome (FAAS) is associated with high levels of alcohol consumption, the relative teratogenic risk of moderate ethanol consumption is not well defined. CLPPEE may affect some processes involved in synapse formation, affecting the proper development and maturation of the nervous system. Ethanol was admixed (3 v/v%) with high-protein liquid diet (Bio-Serve) as the only nutrient source. The controls received an isocaloric sucrose liquid diet mixture. Ethanol treatment began on day 8 of pregnancy. 3 v/v% ethanol did not significantly reduce the body weights or diet consumption of dams, nor the gross growth of ethanol-exposed pups. Standard neuromuscular twitch preparations in vivo, utilizing the sciatic nerve-gastrocnemius muscle, were done on 1, 2, 3 and 7 week old pups. The physiologic functional tests of nursing pups (1-3 weeks), indicated that the ethanol-treated pups had abnormal responses to indirect stimulation. The deficit was determined to be pre-synaptic. The ethanol-exposed at these ages demonstrated abnormal responses to presynaptic challenge. Histochemical staining revealed motor nerve terminal morphology. In 2 and 3 week ethanol-treated pups, the number of nerve terminal branches, and endplate lengths were significantly reduced. Reversibility was examined by allowing the pups to mature while receiving only standard rat chow and water. Tests were repeated at 7 weeks of age. The responses of the ethanol-exposed to pharmacologic challenge, and motor nerve terminal morphology were still significantly different in the young adult animals. CLPPEE, at doses sub-threshold for FAS, affects the normal development of the skeletal neuromuscular system, with long-lasting effects on motor nerve terminal function and morphology.

  14. PRESENT STATUS OF RESEARCH IN DEBRIS FLOW MODELING.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Cheng-lung

    1985-01-01

    A viable rheological model should consist of both a time-independent part and a time-dependent part. A generalized viscoplastic fluid model that has both parts as well as two major rheological properties (i. e. , the normal stress effect and soil yield criteria) is shown to be sufficiently accurate, yet practical, for general use in debris flow modeling. Other rheological models, such as the Bingham plastic fluid model and the so-called Coulomb-viscous model, are compared in terms of the generalized viscoplastic fluid model.

  15. Modeling of present and Eemian stable water isotopes in precipitation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sjolte, Jesper

    The subject of this thesis is the modeling of the isotopic temperature proxies d18O, dD and deuterium excess in precipitation. Two modeling studies were carried out, one using the regional climate model, and one using a global climate model. In the regional study the model was run for the period...... the modeled isotopes do not agree with ice core data. The discrepancy between the model output and the ice core data is attributed to the boundary conditions, where changes in ice sheets and vegetation have not been accounted for....

  16. Cellulosic ethanol

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindedam, Jane; Bruun, Sander; Jørgensen, Henning

    2010-01-01

    Background Variations in sugar yield due to genotypic qualities of feedstock are largely undescribed for pilot-scale ethanol processing. Our objectives were to compare glucose and xylose yield (conversion and total sugar yield) from straw of five winter wheat cultivars at three enzyme loadings (2...... yields than coarse particles. The amount of coarse particles from the cultivar with lowest sugar yield was negatively correlated with sugar conversion. Conclusions We conclude that genetic differences in sugar yield and response to enzyme loading exist for wheat straw at pilot scale, depending...

  17. Investigating wound healing, tyrosinase inhibitory and antioxidant activities of the ethanol extracts of Salvia cryptantha and Salvia cyanescens using in vivo and in vitro experimental models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Süntar, Ipek; Akkol, Esra Küpeli; Senol, Fatma Sezer; Keles, Hikmet; Orhan, Ilkay Erdogan

    2011-04-26

    Salvia L. species are widely used against wounds and skin infections in Turkish folk medicine. The aim of the present study is to evaluate wound healing activity of the ethanol (EtOH) extracts of Salvia cryptantha and Salvia cyanescens. For the assessment of wound healing activity linear incision and circular excision wound models were employed on rats and mice. The wound healing effect was comparatively evaluated with the standard skin ointment Madecassol(®). Inhibition of tyrosinase, a key enzyme in skin aging, was achieved using ELISA microplate reader. Antioxidant activity was evaluated by 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and superoxide radical scavenger effect, ferrous ion-chelating ability, and ferric-reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) tests. The EtOH extract of Salvia cryptantha treated groups of animals showed 56.5% contraction, whereas the reference drug Madecassol(®) showed 100% contraction. On the other hand, the same extract on linear incision wound model demonstrated a significant increase (33.2%) in wound tensile strength as compared to other groups. The results of histopathological examination maintained the upshot of linear incision and circular excision wound models as well. These findings specify that Salvia cryptantha for wound healing activity can be appealed further phytochemical estimation for spotting its active components. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. OpenDolphin: presentation models for compelling user interfaces

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2014-01-01

    Shared applications run on the server. They still need a display, though, be it on the web or on the desktop. OpenDolphin introduces a shared presentation model to clearly differentiate between "what" to display and "how" to display. The "what" is managed on the server and is independent of the UI technology whereas the "how" can fully exploit the UI capabilities like the ubiquity of the web or the power of the desktop in terms of interactivity, animations, effects, 3D worlds, and local devices. If you run a server-centric architecture and still seek to provide the best possible user experience, then this talk is for you. About the speaker Dierk König (JavaOne Rock Star) works as a fellow for Canoo Engineering AG, Basel, Switzerland. He is a committer to many open-source projects including OpenDolphin, Groovy, Grails, GPars and GroovyFX. He is lead author of the "Groovy in Action" book, which is among ...

  19. Ethanol-Induced Neurodegeneration and Glial Activation in the Developing Brain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariko Saito

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Ethanol induces neurodegeneration in the developing brain, which may partially explain the long-lasting adverse effects of prenatal ethanol exposure in fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD. While animal models of FASD show that ethanol-induced neurodegeneration is associated with glial activation, the relationship between glial activation and neurodegeneration has not been clarified. This review focuses on the roles of activated microglia and astrocytes in neurodegeneration triggered by ethanol in rodents during the early postnatal period (equivalent to the third trimester of human pregnancy. Previous literature indicates that acute binge-like ethanol exposure in postnatal day 7 (P7 mice induces apoptotic neurodegeneration, transient activation of microglia resulting in phagocytosis of degenerating neurons, and a prolonged increase in glial fibrillary acidic protein-positive astrocytes. In our present study, systemic administration of a moderate dose of lipopolysaccharides, which causes glial activation, attenuates ethanol-induced neurodegeneration. These studies suggest that activation of microglia and astrocytes by acute ethanol in the neonatal brain may provide neuroprotection. However, repeated or chronic ethanol can induce significant proinflammatory glial reaction and neurotoxicity. Further studies are necessary to elucidate whether acute or sustained glial activation caused by ethanol exposure in the developing brain can affect long-lasting cellular and behavioral abnormalities observed in the adult brain.

  20. Making sense to modelers: Presenting UML class model differences in prose

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Störrle, Harald

    2013-01-01

    Understanding the difference between two models, such as different versions of a design, can be difficult. It is a commonly held belief in the model differencing community that the best way of presenting a model difference is by using graph or tree-based visualizations. We disagree and present an...... by a controlled experiment that tests three alternatives to presenting model differences. Our findings support our claim that the approach presented here is superior to EMF Compare.......Understanding the difference between two models, such as different versions of a design, can be difficult. It is a commonly held belief in the model differencing community that the best way of presenting a model difference is by using graph or tree-based visualizations. We disagree and present...... an alternative approach where sets of low-level model differences are abstracted into high-level model differences that lend themselves to being presented textually. This format is informed by an explorative survey to elicit the change descriptions modelers use themselves. Our approach is validated...

  1. [Regulatory effect of Tripterygium wilfordii polycoride (TWP) towards TLR4/MyD88 independent pathway in TNBS/ethanol ulcerative colitis (UC) rat model].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Dan-Ping; Zhou, Yi-Jun; Sun, Pei-Na; Cao, Jun-Min; Zhang, Chun-Li; Dai, Qun

    2016-03-01

    In order to study the regulatory effect of Tripterygium wilfordii polycoride (TWP) towards TLR4/MyD88 independent pathway in TNBS/ethanol ulcerative colitis (UC) rat model, TNBS/ethanol enema was adopted to build TNBS/ethanol UC rat model. After the successful modeling procedure, 90 male Wistar rats are were divided into 6 groups, including namely normal group, model group, TWP low, middle, high dose groups (3, 6, 12 mg•kg⁻¹)and azathioprine (AZA) group (6 g•kg⁻¹), with 15 rats in each group. All rats in each group were administrated with corresponding medicines for 14 days. After 14 days of administration, corresponding colon tissues were taken for general and microscopic evaluation. Western blotting analysis and RT-PCR were adopted to test the mRNA and protein expressions of TLR4/MyD88 independent pathway-related molecules, namely TLR4, TRAM, TRIF, NF-κB and IFN-γ. The results showed that DAI, general and microscopic evaluations all indicated that TNBS/ethanol UC rat model was successful. TWP can improve UC-related clinical manifestation and heal colonic mucosa, which was equal to AZA. RT-PCR and WB results showed that the expression of TLR4/MyD88 independent pathway-related molecules in model group were significantly superior to that in normal group at either mRNA or protein level (PUC rat model, TLR4/MyD88 independent pathway took part in regulating inflammation. TWP exerted its anti-inflammation effect by inhibiting the expression of TLR4/MyD88 independent pathway in a dose-dependent manner. Copyright© by the Chinese Pharmaceutical Association.

  2. Present status of the VMI and related models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scharff-Goldhaber, G.

    1980-05-01

    This article traces the evolution of the Variable Moment of Inertia model in its relation to the shell model, the Bohr-Mottelson model and the Interacting Boson Model. The discovery of a new type of spectrum, that of pseudomagic nuclei (isobars of doubly magic nuclei) is reported, and an explanation for their dynamics is suggested. The type of rotational motion underlying the ground state band of an e-e nucleus is shown to depend on whether the minimum number of valence nucleon pairs of one kind (neutrons or protons) is less than or equal to 2 or > 2. In the former case the alpha-dumbbell model holds; in the latter the two-fluid model

  3. Renewable corn-ethanol and energy security

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eaves, James

    2007-01-01

    Though corn-ethanol is promoted as renewable, models of the production process assume fossil fuel inputs. Moreover, ethanol is promoted as a means of increasing energy security, but there is little discussion of the dependability of its supply. This study investigates the sensibility of promoting corn-ethanol as an automobile fuel, assuming a fully renewable production process. We then use historical data to estimate the supply risk of ethanol relative to imported petroleum. We find that devoting 100% of US corn to ethanol would displace 3.5% of gasoline consumption and the annual supply of the ethanol would be inherently more risky than that of imported oil. Finally, because large temperature increases can simultaneously increase fuel demand and the cost of growing corn, the supply responses of ethanol producers to temperature-induced demand shocks would likely be weaker than those of gasoline producers. (author)

  4. Study of ameliorating effects of ethanolic extract of Centella asiatica on learning and memory deficit in animal models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doknark, Saowalak; Mingmalairak, Salin; Vattanajun, Anusara; Tantisira, Boonyong; Tantisira, Mayuree H

    2014-02-01

    The present study investigated the effect of Centella asiatica ethanolic extract (CE) on learning and memoly imnpairment induced by either transient bilateral common carotid arteries occlusion (T2 VO) or an intraperitoneal injection of scopolamine in mice. CE (100, 300, 1000 or 1500 mg/kg, p.o.) were administered to learning and memory impaired mice once daily for 8 consecutive days. Learning and memory performance were evaluated by Morris water maze (MWM) and step-down passive avoidance (PA) test. Changes in malondialdehyde (MDA) levels in the brain were determined by lipid peroxidation assay. T2 VO mice exhibited learning and memory impairment in the MWM and PA tests. Treatment with CE ameliorated the learning and memory impairment of T2VO mice. Furthermore, CE significantly reduced MDA level in the brain of T2VO mice. On the other hand, administration of CE did not attenuate learning and memory impairment induced by scopolamine in mice. The present study demonstrated ameliorating effect of CE on learning and memory impairment in T2VO mice. Furthermore, it is likely that the positive effect of CE observed could be, at least partly, accounted by its antioxidative property. Thus, CE might be beneficial for memory impairment in which oxidative stress is an underlying cause.

  5. Beer Is Less Harmful for the Liver than Plain Ethanol: Studies in Male Mice Using a Binge-Drinking Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landmann, Marianne; Wagnerberger, Sabine; Kanuri, Giridhar; Ziegenhardt, Doreen; Bergheim, Ina

    2015-09-01

    Mechanisms involved in the less damaging effects of beer in comparison to hard spirits have not yet been fully understood. The aim of the study was to determine if the effect of beer intake on the liver differs from that of plain ethanol and if so to determine mechanisms involved. Male C57BL/6J mice received either ethanol, beer (ethanol content: 6 g/kg body weight) or iso-caloric maltodextrin solution. Markers of steatosis, lipogenesis, activation of the toll-like receptor-4 signaling cascade and lipid export in liver and tight junction proteins in duodenum were measured 6 and 12 h after acute ethanol or beer intake. Alcohol ingestion resulted in a significant increase of hepatic triglyceride accumulation 6 and 12 h after ingestion, respectively, being markedly lower in mice fed beer. Expression of sterol regulatory element-binding protein-1c mRNA was significantly lower 12 h after alcohol or beer exposure, while fatty acid synthase mRNA expression was induced in livers of ethanol-fed mice and to a lesser extent in mice fed beer 6 h after acute alcohol ingestion. Protein levels of tight junction proteins in the small intestine were similar between groups while expression of myeloid differentiation primary response gene 88 in livers was significantly induced in ethanol- but not in beer-fed mice. Concentrations of 4-hydroxynonenal protein adducts and inducible nitric oxide synthase protein were also only induced in livers of mice fed ethanol. Protein levels of apolipoprotein B were induced in livers of beer-fed mice only. Our data suggest that beer is less harmful on the development of acute alcohol-induced liver damage than plain ethanol in male mice. © The Author 2015. Medical Council on Alcohol and Oxford University Press. All rights reserved.

  6. Forced swim stress increases ethanol consumption in C57BL/6J mice with a history of chronic intermittent ethanol exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Rachel I; Lopez, Marcelo F; Becker, Howard C

    2016-06-01

    Stress exposure has been identified as one risk factor for alcohol abuse that may facilitate the transition from social or regulated alcohol use to the development of alcohol dependence. Additionally, stress is a common trigger for relapse and subsequent loss of control of drinking in alcohol-dependent individuals. The present study was designed to characterize effects of repeated forced swim stress (FSS) on ethanol consumption in three rodent drinking models that engender high levels of ethanol consumption. Adult male C57BL/6J mice were exposed to 10-min FSS 4 h prior to each drinking session in three different models of high ethanol consumption: chronic intermittent ethanol (CIE) drinking (a model of dependence-like drinking), drinking-in-the-dark (DID; a model of binge-like drinking), and intermittent vs. continuous access (a model of escalated drinking). In the CIE drinking paradigm, daily FSS facilitated the escalation of ethanol intake that is typically seen in CIE-exposed mice without altering ethanol consumption in control mice exposed to FSS. FSS prior to drinking sessions did not alter ethanol consumption in the DID or intermittent access paradigms, whereas stressed mice in the continuous access procedure consumed less ethanol than their nonstressed counterparts. The CIE drinking paradigm may provide a helpful preclinical model of stress-induced transition to ethanol dependence that can be used to (1) identify underlying neural mechanisms that facilitate this transition and (2) evaluate the therapeutic potential of various pharmacological agents hypothesized to alleviate stress-induced drinking.

  7. Past and present of sediment and carbon biogeochemical cycling models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. T. Mackenzie

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The global carbon cycle is part of the much more extensive sedimentary cycle that involves large masses of carbon in the Earth's inner and outer spheres. Studies of the carbon cycle generally followed a progression in knowledge of the natural biological, then chemical, and finally geological processes involved, culminating in a more or less integrated picture of the biogeochemical carbon cycle by the 1920s. However, knowledge of the ocean's carbon cycle behavior has only within the last few decades progressed to a stage where meaningful discussion of carbon processes on an annual to millennial time scale can take place. In geologically older and pre-industrial time, the ocean was generally a net source of CO2 emissions to the atmosphere owing to the mineralization of land-derived organic matter in addition to that produced in situ and to the process of CaCO3 precipitation. Due to rising atmospheric CO2 concentrations because of fossil fuel combustion and land use changes, the direction of the air-sea CO2 flux has reversed, leading to the ocean as a whole being a net sink of anthropogenic CO2. The present thickness of the surface ocean layer, where part of the anthropogenic CO2 emissions are stored, is estimated as of the order of a few hundred meters. The oceanic coastal zone net air-sea CO2 exchange flux has also probably changed during industrial time. Model projections indicate that in pre-industrial times, the coastal zone may have been net heterotrophic, releasing CO2 to the atmosphere from the imbalance between gross photosynthesis and total respiration. This, coupled with extensive CaCO3 precipitation in coastal zone environments, led to a net flux of CO2 out of the system. During industrial time the coastal zone ocean has tended to reverse its trophic status toward a non-steady state situation of net autotrophy, resulting in net uptake of anthropogenic CO2 and storage of carbon in the coastal ocean, despite the significant calcification

  8. Feasibility of ethanol production from coffee husks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gouvea, B M; Torres, C; Franca, A S; Oliveira, L S; Oliveira, E S

    2009-09-01

    The objective of this work was to evaluate the feasibility of ethanol production by fermentation of coffee husks by Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Batch fermentation studies were performed employing whole and ground coffee husks, and aqueous extract from ground coffee husks. It was observed that fermentation yield decreased with an increase in yeast concentration. The best results were obtained for the following conditions: whole coffee husks, 3 g yeast/l substrate, temperature of 30 degrees C. Under these conditions ethanol production was 8.49 +/- 0.29 g/100 g dry basis (13.6 +/- 0.5 g ethanol/l), a satisfactory value in comparison to literature data for other residues such as corn stalks, barley straw and hydrolyzed wheat stillage (5-11 g ethanol/l). Such results indicate that coffee husks present excellent potential for residue-based ethanol production.

  9. Modeling of Soybean under Present and Future Climates in Mozambique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel António Dina Talacuece

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to calibrate and validate the generic crop model (CROPGRO-Soybean and estimate the soybean yield, considering simulations with different sowing times for the current period (1990–2013 and future climate scenario (2014–2030. The database used came from observed data, nine climate models of CORDEX (Coordinated Regional climate Downscaling Experiment-Africa framework and MERRA (Modern Era Retrospective-Analysis for Research and Applications reanalysis. The calibration and validation data for the model were acquired in field experiments, carried out in the 2009/2010 and 2010/2011 growing seasons in the experimental area of the International Institute of Tropical Agriculture (IITA in Angónia, Mozambique. The yield of two soybean cultivars: Tgx 1740-2F and Tgx 1908-8F was evaluated in the experiments and modeled for two distinct CO2 concentrations. Our model simulation results indicate that the fertilization effect leads to yield gains for both cultivars, ranging from 11.4% (Tgx 1908-8F to 15% (Tgx 1740-2Fm when compared to the performance of those cultivars under current CO2 atmospheric concentration. Moreover, our results show that MERRA, the RegCM4 (Regional Climatic Model version 4 and CNRM-CM5 (Centre National de Recherches Météorologiques – Climatic Model version 5 models provided more accurate estimates of yield, while others models underestimate yield as compared to observations, a fact that was demonstrated to be related to the model’s capability of reproducing the precipitation and the surface radiation amount.

  10. Model-based optimization and scale-up of multi-feed simultaneous saccharification and co-fermentation of steam pre-treated lignocellulose enables high gravity ethanol production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ruifei; Unrean, Pornkamol; Franzén, Carl Johan

    2016-01-01

    High content of water-insoluble solids (WIS) is required for simultaneous saccharification and co-fermentation (SSCF) operations to reach the high ethanol concentrations that meet the techno-economic requirements of industrial-scale production. The fundamental challenges of such processes are related to the high viscosity and inhibitor contents of the medium. Poor mass transfer and inhibition of the yeast lead to decreased ethanol yield, titre and productivity. In the present work, high-solid SSCF of pre-treated wheat straw was carried out by multi-feed SSCF which is a fed-batch process with additions of substrate, enzymes and cells, integrated with yeast propagation and adaptation on the pre-treatment liquor. The combined feeding strategies were systematically compared and optimized using experiments and simulations. For high-solid SSCF process of SO2-catalyzed steam pre-treated wheat straw, the boosted solubilisation of WIS achieved by having all enzyme loaded at the beginning of the process is crucial for increased rates of both enzymatic hydrolysis and SSCF. A kinetic model was adapted to simulate the release of sugars during separate hydrolysis as well as during SSCF. Feeding of solid substrate to reach the instantaneous WIS content of 13 % (w/w) was carried out when 60 % of the cellulose was hydrolysed, according to simulation results. With this approach, accumulated WIS additions reached more than 20 % (w/w) without encountering mixing problems in a standard bioreactor. Feeding fresh cells to the SSCF reactor maintained the fermentation activity, which otherwise ceased when the ethanol concentration reached 40-45 g L(-1). In lab scale, the optimized multi-feed SSCF produced 57 g L(-1) ethanol in 72 h. The process was reproducible and resulted in 52 g L(-1) ethanol in 10 m(3) scale at the SP Biorefinery Demo Plant. SSCF of WIS content up to 22 % (w/w) is reproducible and scalable with the multi-feed SSCF configuration and model-aided process

  11. Neuroprotective effect of pretreatment with Lavandula officinalis ethanolic extract on blood-brain barrier permeability in a rat stroke model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabiei, Zahra; Rafieian-Kopaei, Mahmoud

    2014-09-01

    To evaluate the protective effect of Lavandula officinalis (L. officinalis) extract against blood-brain barrier (BBB) permeability and its possible mechanisms in an experimental model of stroke. Focal cerebral ischemia was induced by the transient occlusion of the middle cerebral artery for 1 h in rats. Lavender extract (100, 200 mg/kg i.p.) was injected for 20 consecutive days. BBB permeability and oxidative stress biomarkers were evaluated using standard methods. The results of this study showed that L. officinalis ethanolic extract significantly reduced the BBB permeability in experimental groups when compared with ischemia group. The lavender extract significantly reduced malondialdehyde levels of plasma and brain tissue in intact group when compared with control group. L. officinalis extract reduced blood brain barrier permeability and alleviated neurological function in rats, and the mechanism may be related to augmentation in endogenous antioxidant defense and inhibition of oxidative stress in the rat brain. Copyright © 2014 Hainan Medical College. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Effects of ethanolic extract of leaves of Lafoensia pacari A. St.-Hil., Lythraceae (pacari, in pain and inflammation models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heloisa Alves Guimarães

    Full Text Available Lafoensia pacari A. St.-Hil., Lythraceae, popularly known as pacari, is a Cerrado's native specimen; the stem bark extract is used in folk for pain and inflammation, also showing sedating activity. This study aimed to evaluate the analgesic and anti inflammatory activities of ethanol extract from pacari leaves (EEPL. These activities were verified in mice. The previous treatment with EEPL 1.0 g/kg showed antinociceptive activity both in the acetic acid-induced writing test and in the formalin-induced model of pain, and in neurogenic and inflammatory phases as well. In the croton oil-induced ear edema, the pre-treatments with EEPL reduced the edema in a dose-dependent manner. Also in the carrageenan-induced peritonitis, the two major doses tested (2.0 and 1.5 g/kg p.o. were able to reduce the leukocyte migration in a dose-dependent manner. The Central Nervous System tests showed that the extract does not elicit uncoordinated motricity, hypnosis or sedating effects. The results showed that EEPL maintains the analgesic and anti-inflammatory effects of the stem bark of pacari, being the collect of leaves more favorable to the preservation of this Cerrado's native specimen.

  13. The Ethanol Extract of Osmanthus fragrans Flowers Reduces Oxidative Stress and Allergic Airway Inflammation in an Animal Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chien-Ya Hung

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The Osmanthus fragrans flower, a popular herb in Eastern countries, contains several antioxidant compounds. Ben Cao Gang Mu, traditional Chinese medical literature, describes the usefulness of these flowers for phlegm and stasis reduction, arrest of dysentery with blood in the bowel, and stomachache and diarrhea treatment. However, modern evidence regarding the therapeutic efficacy of these flowers is limited. This study was aimed at assessing the antioxidative effects of the ethanol extract of O. fragrans flowers (OFE in vivo and evaluating its antioxidant maintenance and therapeutic effect on an allergic airway inflammation in mice. After OFE’s oral administration to mice, the values obtained in the oxygen radical absorbance capacity assay as well as the glutathione concentration in the lungs and spleens of mice increased while thiobarbituric acid reactive substances decreased significantly, indicating OFE’s significant in vivo antioxidant activity. OFE was also therapeutically efficacious in a mouse model of ovalbumin-induced allergic airway inflammation. Orally administered OFE suppressed ovalbumin-specific IgE production and inflammatory cell infiltration in the lung. Moreover, the antioxidative state of the mice improved. Thus, our findings confirm the ability of the O. fragrans flowers to reduce phlegm and suggest that OFE may be useful as an antiallergic agent.

  14. Bonissone CIDU Presentation: Design of Local Fuzzy Models

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — After reviewing key background concepts in fuzzy systems and evolutionary computing, we will focus on the use of local fuzzy models, which are related to both kernel...

  15. Percutaneous ultrasound-guided ablation of BW7756-hepatoma using ethanol or acetic acid in a rat model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Galeotti Tommaso

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To compare tumor necrosis in hepatoma induced in rats by a single percutaneous injection of ethanol (PEI or acetic acid (PAI. Methods BW7756 hepatomas of 1 mm3 were implanted in the liver of 40 male healthy rats. After 14 days, the 36 surviving rats were treated, in a single session, by ultrasound-guided injection of 300 μl of 95% ethanol (n = 17 or 100 μl of 50% acetic acid (n = 19. They were sacrificed 14 days after treatment and explanted tumoral livers were examined. The same PAI procedure was repeated on 13 additional rats to exclude a suspected occurrence of technical failures during the experiment, due to a surprisingly high rate of deaths within 30 minutes after PAI. Results Four rats died within four days after tumor implantation; after PEI, 1/17 (6% died, whereas after PAI 9/19 (47% died. The remaining 26 rats, after 14 days post-percutaneous ablation, were sacrificed. Gross and microscopic examinations showed that the hepatoma's nodules treated with PEI had 45.3 ± 19.4% tumor necrosis compared to 49 ± 23.3% (P = NS for those treated with PAI. Complete tumor necrosis was not found in any animal. Peritoneal invasion was present in 4/16 (25% and 2/10 (20% rats treated with PEI or PAI, respectively (P = NS. Autopsy was performed in the 5 additional rats that died within 30 minutes after PAI. Conclusion Our results show that there is no significant difference in the percentage of tumor necrosis between two local ablation methods in spite of the different dosages used. However, mortality in the PAI-treated group was greater than in PEI-treated group, presumably due to greater acetic acid systemic diffusion and its metabolic side effects. In human subjects, HCC occurs in the setting of cirrhosis, where the non-tumoral tissue is firmer than the tumor structure, with consequent reduction of drug diffusion. This could be the reason why some human studies have concluded similar or even better safety and efficacy with PAI

  16. From Ethanol to Salsolinol: Role of Ethanol Metabolites in the Effects of Ethanol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandra T. Peana

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In spite of the global reputation of ethanol as the psychopharmacologically active ingredient of alcoholic drinks, the neurobiological basis of the central effects of ethanol still presents some dark sides due to a number of unanswered questions related to both its precise mechanism of action and its metabolism. Accordingly, ethanol represents the interesting example of a compound whose actions cannot be explained as simply due to the involvement of a single receptor/neurotransmitter, a scenario further complicated by the robust evidence that two main metabolites, acetaldehyde and salsolinol, exert many effects similar to those of their parent compound. The present review recapitulates, in a perspective manner, the major and most recent advances that in the last decades boosted a significant growth in the understanding on the role of ethanol metabolism, in particular, in the neurobiological basis of its central effects.

  17. Catalase inhibition in the Arcuate nucleus blocks ethanol effects on the locomotor activity of rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchis-Segura, Carles; Correa, Mercé; Miquel, Marta; Aragon, Carlos M G

    2005-03-07

    Previous studies have demonstrated that there is a bidirectional modulation of ethanol-induced locomotion produced by drugs that regulate brain catalase activity. In the present study we have assessed the effect in rats of intraperitoneal, intraventricular or intracraneal administration of the catalase inhibitor sodium azide in the locomotor changes observed after ethanol (1 g/kg) administration. Our results show that sodium azide prevents the effects of ethanol in rats locomotion not only when sodium azide was systemically administered but also when it was intraventricularly injected, then confirming that the interaction between catalase and ethanol takes place in Central Nervous System (CNS). Even more interestingly, the same results were observed when sodium azide administration was restricted to the hypothalamic Arcuate nucleus (ARC), a brain region which has one of the highest levels of expression of catalase. Therefore, the results of the present study not only confirm a role for brain catalase in the mediation of ethanol-induced locomotor changes in rodents but also point to the ARC as a major neuroanatomical location for this interaction. These results are in agreement with our reports showing that ethanol-induced locomotor changes are clearly dependent of the ARC integrity and, especially of the POMc-synthesising neurons of this nucleus. According to these data we propose a model in which ethanol oxidation via catalase could produce acetaldehyde into the ARC and to promote a release of beta-endorphins that would activate opioid receptors to produce locomotion and other ethanol-induced neurobehavioural changes.

  18. A history of alternative reinforcement reduces stimulus generalization of ethanol-seeking in a rat recovery model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ginsburg, Brett C.; Lamb, R. J.

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND Longer periods of recovery reduce the likelihood of relapse, which may be due to a reduced ability of various stimuli to occasion alcohol or drug seeking. However, this hypothesis remains largely uninvestigated. METHODS Here we assessed the ability of intermediate stimuli to occasion responding for ethanol in rats trained to discriminate an 8kHz tone signaling a food fixed-ratio (FR) of 5 and an ethanol FR5, from a 16kHz tone signaling a food FR150 and ethanol FR5. In the presence of the 8kHz tone responding for food predominates, and in the presence of the 16 kHz tone, responding for ethanol predominates. RESULTS In the context of alternation between these conditions, varying the tone from 8 to 16kHz produces a graded increase in ethanol (versus food) responding, consistent with a stimulus generalization function. A recent history of responding under food-predominant choice conditions, either during the test session or in the four sessions that precede it shifts the generalization function downwards. Extending this history to nine sessions shifts the curve further downwards. The stimulus generalization function was similar in a separate group, trained with different relative ratios for food and ethanol, but with similar behavioral allocation under each discriminative stimulus. Finally, withholding access to food and ethanol for 4 or 16 sessions did not affect the stimulus generalization gradient. CONCLUSION These results suggest that longer histories of reinforced alternative behavior might reduce the likelihood of relapse by decreasing the control exerted over alcohol- or drug-seeking by stimuli similar to those that previously occasioned alcohol- or drug-seeking. PMID:23122598

  19. Volumetric properties of (peg 400 + water) and (peg 400 + ethanol) mixtures at several temperatures and correlation with the jouyban-acree model

    OpenAIRE

    Rodríguez, Gerson A.; Holguín, Andrés R.; Martínez, Fleming; Khoubnasabjafari, Maryam; Jouyban, Abolghasem

    2012-01-01

    Molar volumes and excess molar volumes were investigated from density values for (PEG 400 + water) and (PEG 400 + ethanol) binary mixtures at temperatures from 283.15 K to 313.15 K. Both systems exhibit negative excess volumes probably due to increased interactions like hydrogen bonding and/or large differences in molar volumes of components. Volume thermal expansion coefficients were also calculated for binary mixtures and pure solvents. The Jouyban-Acree model was used for density and molar...

  20. Estimating net present value variability for deterministic models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Groenendaal, W.J.H.

    1995-01-01

    For decision makers the variability in the net present value (NPV) of an investment project is an indication of the project's risk. So-called risk analysis is one way to estimate this variability. However, risk analysis requires knowledge about the stochastic character of the inputs. For large,

  1. Life-cycle assessment of straw use in bio-ethanol production: A case study based on biophysical modelling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gabrielle, Benoit; Gagnaire, Nathalie

    2008-01-01

    Cereal straw, a by-product in the production of agricultural crops, is considered as a potentially large source of energy supply with an estimated value of 47 x 10 18 J worldwide. However, there is some debate regarding the actual amounts of straw which could be removed from arable soils without jeopardizing their quality, as well as the potential trade-offs in the overall straw-to-energy chain compared to the use of fossil energy sources. Here, we used a deterministic model of C and N dynamics in soil-crop systems to simulate the effect of straw removal under various sets of soil, climate and crop management conditions in northeastern France. Model results in terms of nitrate leaching, soil C variations, nitrous oxide and ammonia emissions were subsequently inputted into the life-cycle assessment (LCA) of a particular bio-energy chain in which straw was used to generate heat and power in a plant producing bio-ethanol from wheat grains. Straw removal had little influence on simulated environmental emissions in the field, and straw incorporation in soil resulted in a sequestration of only 5-10% of its C in the long term (30 years). The LCA concluded to significant benefits of straw use for energy in terms of global warming and use of non-renewable energy. Only the eutrophication and atmospheric acidification impact categories were slightly unfavourable to straw use in some cases, with a difference of 8% at most relative to straw incorporation. These results based on a novel methodology thereby confirm the environmental benefits of substituting fossil energy with straw. (author)

  2. Surviving the present: Modeling tools for organizational change

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pangaro, P. (Pangaro Inc., Washington, DC (United States))

    1992-01-01

    The nuclear industry, like the rest of modern American business, is beset by a confluence of economic, technological, competitive, regulatory, and political pressures. For better or worse, business schools and management consultants have leapt to the rescue, offering the most modern conveniences that they can purvey. Recent advances in the study of organizations have led to new tools for their analysis, revision, and repair. There are two complementary tools that do not impose values or injunctions in themselves. One, called the organization modeler, captures the hierarchy of purposes that organizations and their subparts carry out. Any deficiency or pathology is quickly illuminated, and requirements for repair are made clear. The second, called THOUGHTSTICKER, is used to capture the semantic content of the conversations that occur across the interactions of parts of an organization. The distinctions and vocabulary in the language of an organization, and the relations within that domain, are elicited from the participants so that all three are available for debate and refinement. The product of the applications of these modeling tools is not the resulting models but rather the enhancement of the organization as a consequence of the process of constructing them.

  3. Surviving the present: Modeling tools for organizational change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pangaro, P.

    1992-01-01

    The nuclear industry, like the rest of modern American business, is beset by a confluence of economic, technological, competitive, regulatory, and political pressures. For better or worse, business schools and management consultants have leapt to the rescue, offering the most modern conveniences that they can purvey. Recent advances in the study of organizations have led to new tools for their analysis, revision, and repair. There are two complementary tools that do not impose values or injunctions in themselves. One, called the organization modeler, captures the hierarchy of purposes that organizations and their subparts carry out. Any deficiency or pathology is quickly illuminated, and requirements for repair are made clear. The second, called THOUGHTSTICKER, is used to capture the semantic content of the conversations that occur across the interactions of parts of an organization. The distinctions and vocabulary in the language of an organization, and the relations within that domain, are elicited from the participants so that all three are available for debate and refinement. The product of the applications of these modeling tools is not the resulting models but rather the enhancement of the organization as a consequence of the process of constructing them

  4. Minimal Z' models present bounds and early LHC reach

    CERN Document Server

    Salvioni, Ennio; Zwirner, Fabio

    2009-01-01

    We consider `minimal' Z' models, whose phenomenology is controlled by only three parameters beyond the Standard Model ones: the Z' mass and two effective coupling constants. They encompass many popular models motivated by grand unification, as well as many arising in other theoretical contexts. This parameterization takes also into account both mass and kinetic mixing effects, which we show to be sizable in some cases. After discussing the interplay between the bounds from electroweak precision tests and recent direct searches at the Tevatron, we extend our analysis to estimate the early LHC discovery potential. We consider a center-of-mass energy from 7 towards 10 TeV and an integrated luminosity from 50 to several hundred pb^-1, taking all existing bounds into account. We find that the LHC will start exploring virgin land in parameter space for M_Z' around 700 GeV, with lower masses still excluded by the Tevatron and higher masses still excluded by electroweak precision tests. Increasing the energy up to 10...

  5. Integrative modelling of pH-dependent enzyme activity and transcriptomic regulation of the acetone–butanol–ethanol fermentation of Clostridium acetobutylicum in continuous culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millat, Thomas; Janssen, Holger; Bahl, Hubert; Fischer, Ralf-Jörg; Wolkenhauer, Olaf

    2013-01-01

    Summary In a continuous culture under phosphate limitation the metabolism of Clostridium acetobutylicum depends on the external pH level. By comparing seven steady-state conditions between pH 5.7 and pH 4.5 we show that the switch from acidogenesis to solventogenesis occurs between pH 5.3 and pH 5.0 with an intermediate state at pH 5.1. Here, an integrative study is presented investigating how a changing external pH level affects the clostridial acetone–butanol–ethanol (ABE) fermentation pathway. This is of particular interest as the biotechnological production of n-butanol as biofuel has recently returned into the focus of industrial applications. One prerequisite is the furthering of the knowledge of the factors determining the solvent production and their integrative regulations. We have mathematically analysed the influence of pH-dependent specific enzyme activities of branch points of the metabolism on the product formation. This kinetic regulation was compared with transcriptomic regulation regarding gene transcription and the proteomic profile. Furthermore, both regulatory mechanisms were combined yielding a detailed projection of their individual and joint effects on the product formation. The resulting model represents an important platform for future developments of industrial butanol production based on C. acetobutylicum. PMID:23332010

  6. Influence of spatially dependent, modeled soil carbon emission factors on life-cycle greenhouse gas emissions of corn and cellulosic ethanol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qin, Zhangcai [Energy Systems Division, Argonne National Laboratory, 9700 South Cass Avenue Argonne IL 60439 USA; Dunn, Jennifer B. [Energy Systems Division, Argonne National Laboratory, 9700 South Cass Avenue Argonne IL 60439 USA; Kwon, Hoyoung [Environment and Production Technology Division, International Food Policy Research Institute, 2033 K St. NW Washington DC 20006 USA; Mueller, Steffen [Energy Resources Center, University of Illinois at Chicago, 1309 South Halsted Street Chicago IL 60607 USA; Wander, Michelle M. [Department of Natural Resources and Environmental Sciences, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, 1102 South Goodwin Avenue Urbana IL 61801 USA

    2016-03-03

    Converting land to biofuel feedstock production incurs changes in soil organic carbon (SOC) that can influence biofuel life-cycle greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. Estimates of these land use change (LUC) and life-cycle GHG emissions affect biofuels’ attractiveness and eligibility under a number of renewable fuel policies in the U.S. and abroad. Modeling was used to refine the spatial resolution and depth-extent of domestic estimates of SOC change for land (cropland, cropland pasture, grasslands, and forests) conversion scenarios to biofuel crops (corn, corn stover, switchgrass, Miscanthus, poplar, and willow). In most regions, conversions from cropland and cropland pasture to biofuel crops led to neutral or small levels of SOC sequestration, while conversion of grassland and forest generally caused net SOC loss. Results of SOC change were incorporated into the Greenhouse Gases, Regulated Emissions, and Energy use in Transportation (GREET) model to assess their influence on life-cycle GHG emissions for the biofuels considered. Total LUC GHG emissions (g CO2eq MJ-1) were 2.1–9.3 for corn, -0.7 for corn stover, -3.4–12.9 for switchgrass, and -20.1–-6.2 for Miscanthus; these varied with SOC modeling assumptions applied. Extending soil depth from 30 to 100cm affected spatially-explicit SOC change and overall LUC GHG emissions; however the influence on LUC GHG emissions estimates were less significant in corn and corn stover than cellulosic feedstocks. Total life-cycle GHG emissions (g CO2eq MJ-1, 100cm) were estimated to be 59–66 for corn ethanol, 14 for stover ethanol, 18-26 for switchgrass ethanol, and -0.6–-7 for Miscanthus ethanol.

  7. Potential of greenhouse gas emission reduction in Thai road transport by ethanol bus technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chollacoop, Nuwong; Saisirirat, Peerawat; Sukkasi, Sittha; Tongroon, Manida; Fukuda, Tuenjai; Fukuda, Atsushi; Nivitchanyong, Siriluck

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► Energy demand modeling in Thai road transportation sector was developed. ► Such model was used to assess environment impact by ethanol bus technology (ED95). ► Ethanol bus technology (ED95) shows beneficial impacts to Thailand. ► Increase in ethanol demand and decrease in GHG emission in Thailand by ethanol bus. ► Ethanol bus (ED95) has been successfully demonstrated in Thailand. -- Abstract: Over decades, Thailand energy consumption has been concentrated in three main sectors, namely manufacturing, power and transportation. Energy consumption in transportation sector has also been dominated by road transport due to limited coverage by rail and water transportation. Hence, road transport has been a major contributor for greenhouse gas emission in Thailand over recent years. Along with global warming concern throughout the world, Thailand has taken various adaptation and mitigation measures, especially the strong policy push to use carbon–neutral biofuel in transportation sector due to Thailand competitive advantage in agriculture sector. National Renewable Energy Plan (2008–2022) has set challenging targets of 9 and 4.5 million liters/day of ethanol and biodiesel consumption by 2022, respectively. Various blends of ethanol in gasoline (10%, 20% and 85%) and biodiesel in diesel (up to 5%) have been commercially available. However, since current consumption of diesel is twice as much of gasoline, ethanol blend in gasoline would widen the imbalance consumption of gasoline and diesel. The present study however offers an insight into a possibility to use ethanol as diesel substitute. A case study of ethanol bus technology was investigated by recourse to energy demand modeling. Necessary data, such as a number of vehicles (NVs) for various vehicle types, vehicle kilometer of travel (VKT) and fuel economy (FE) were collected, with reasonable assumptions made for those unavailable data, to construct predicative energy demand model. Scenario

  8. Failure to Find Ethanol-Induced Conditioned Taste Aversion in Honey Bees (Apis mellifera L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varnon, Christopher A; Dinges, Christopher W; Black, Tim E; Wells, Harrington; Abramson, Charles I

    2018-04-24

    Conditioned taste aversion (CTA) learning is a highly specialized form of conditioning found across taxa that leads to avoidance of an initially neutral stimulus, such as taste or odor, that is associated with, but is not the cause of, a detrimental health condition. The present study examines if honey bees (Apis mellifera L.) develop ethanol-induced CTA. Restrained bees were first administered a sucrose solution that was cinnamon scented, lavender scented, or unscented, and contained either 0%, 2.5%, 5%, 10%, or 20% ethanol. Then, 30 minutes later, we used a proboscis extension response (PER) conditioning procedure where the bees were taught to associate either cinnamon odor, lavender odor, or an air-puff with repeated sucrose feedings. For some bees, the odor of the previously consumed ethanol solution was the same as the odor associated with sucrose in the conditioning procedure. If bees are able to learn ethanol-induced CTA, they should show an immediate low level of response to odors previously associated with ethanol. We found that bees did not develop CTA despite the substantial inhibitory and aversive effects ethanol has on behavior. Instead, bees receiving a conditioning odor that was previously associated with ethanol showed an immediate high level of response. While this demonstrates bees are capable of one-trial learning common to CTA experiments, this high level of response is the opposite of what would occur if the bees developed a CTA. Responding on subsequent trials also showed a general inhibitory effect of ethanol. Finally, we found that consumption of cinnamon extract reduced the effects of ethanol. The honey bee's lack of learned avoidance to ethanol mirrors that seen in human alcoholism. These findings demonstrate the usefulness of honey bees as an insect model for ethanol consumption. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  9. Agricultural sector impacts of making ethanol from grain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hertzmark, D.; Ray, D.; Parvin, G.

    1980-03-01

    This report presents the results of a model of the effects on the agricultural sector of producing ethanol from corn in the United States between 1979 and 1983. The model is aggregated at the national level, and results are given for all of the major food and feed crops, ethanol joint products, farm income, government payment, and agricultural exports. A stochastic simulation was performed to ascertain the impacts of yield and demand variations on aggregate performance figures. Results indicate minimal impacts on the agricultural sector for production levels of less than 1 billion gallons of ethanol per year. For higher production levels, corn prices will rise sharply, the agricultural sector will be more vulnerable to variations in yields and demands, and joint-product values will fall. Possibilities for ameliorating such effects are discussed, and such concepts as net energy and the biomass refinery are explored.

  10. Study of analgesic activity of ethanol extract of Phlogacanthus thyrsiflorus on experimental animal models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Apurba Mukherjee

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to evaluate the central and peripheral analgesic action of Phlogacanthus thyrsiflorus in experimental animal models. The extract was prepared by percolation method and acute oral toxicity testing was performed as per OECD guidelines. Analgesic activity was assessed by tail flick method (for central action and glacial acetic acid-induced writhing test (for peripheral action. Leaves extract (500 mg/kg, p.o. and aspirin (100 mg/kg showed significant peripheral analgesic activity (p<0.05. Leaves extract (500 mg/kg, p.o. and pethidine (50 mg/kg, i.p. also showed significant central analgesic activity (p<0.05. Naloxone (1 mg/kg, s.c. was used to find the mechanism of central analgesic action. Some partial agonistic activity for the opioid receptors seems to be probable mechanism of action.

  11. Anti-Ulcerogenic Properties of Lycium chinense Mill Extracts against Ethanol-Induced Acute Gastric Lesion in Animal Models and Its Active Constituents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Opeyemi J. Olatunji

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to explore the gastroprotective properties of the aerial part of Lycium chinense Mill (LCA against ethanol-induced gastric mucosa lesions in mice models. Administration of LCA at doses of 50, 100, 200 and 400 mg/kg body weight prior to ethanol consumption dose dependently inhibited gastric ulcers. The gastric mucosal injury was analyzed by gastric juice acidity, glutathione (GSH, superoxide dismutase (SOD, malondialdehyde (MDA, myeloperoxidase (MPO activities. Furthermore, the levels of the inflammatory mediators, tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α, interleukin-6 (IL-6 and interleukin-1β (IL-1β in serum were also analyzed using ELISA. Pathological changes were also observed with the aid of hematoxylin-eosin (HE staining. Our results indicated that LCA significantly reduced the levels of MPO, MDA and increased SOD and GSH activities. Furthermore, LCA also significantly inhibited the levels of TNF-α, IL-6, and IL-1β in the serum of ulcerated mice in a dose dependent manner. Immunohistological analysis indicated that LCA also significantly attenuated the overexpression of nuclear factor-κB in pretreated mice models. This findings suggests Lycium chinense Mill possesses gastroprotective properties against ethanol-induced gastric injury and could be a possible therapeutic intervention in the treatment and management of gastric ulcers.

  12. Anti-Ulcerogenic Properties of Lycium chinense Mill Extracts against Ethanol-Induced Acute Gastric Lesion in Animal Models and Its Active Constituents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olatunji, Opeyemi J; Chen, Hongxia; Zhou, Yifeng

    2015-12-16

    The objective of this study was to explore the gastroprotective properties of the aerial part of Lycium chinense Mill (LCA) against ethanol-induced gastric mucosa lesions in mice models. Administration of LCA at doses of 50, 100, 200 and 400 mg/kg body weight prior to ethanol consumption dose dependently inhibited gastric ulcers. The gastric mucosal injury was analyzed by gastric juice acidity, glutathione (GSH), superoxide dismutase (SOD), malondialdehyde (MDA), myeloperoxidase (MPO) activities. Furthermore, the levels of the inflammatory mediators, tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin-6 (IL-6) and interleukin-1β (IL-1β) in serum were also analyzed using ELISA. Pathological changes were also observed with the aid of hematoxylin-eosin (HE) staining. Our results indicated that LCA significantly reduced the levels of MPO, MDA and increased SOD and GSH activities. Furthermore, LCA also significantly inhibited the levels of TNF-α, IL-6, and IL-1β in the serum of ulcerated mice in a dose dependent manner. Immunohistological analysis indicated that LCA also significantly attenuated the overexpression of nuclear factor-κB in pretreated mice models. This findings suggests Lycium chinense Mill possesses gastroprotective properties against ethanol-induced gastric injury and could be a possible therapeutic intervention in the treatment and management of gastric ulcers.

  13. Stress-Induced Enhancement of Ethanol Intake in C57BL/6J Mice with a History of Chronic Ethanol Exposure: Involvement of Kappa Opioid Receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Rachel I; Lopez, Marcelo F; Becker, Howard C

    2016-01-01

    Our laboratory has previously demonstrated that daily forced swim stress (FSS) prior to ethanol drinking sessions facilitates enhanced ethanol consumption in mice with a history of chronic intermittent ethanol (CIE) vapor exposure without altering ethanol intake in air-exposed controls. Because both stress and chronic ethanol exposure have been shown to activate the dynorphin/kappa opioid receptor (KOR) system, the present study was designed to explore a potential role for KORs in modulating stress effects on ethanol consumption in the CIE model of dependence and relapse drinking. After stable baseline ethanol intake was established in adult male C57BL/6J mice, subjects received chronic intermittent exposure (16 h/day × 4 days/week) to ethanol vapor (CIE group) or air (CTL group). Weekly cycles of inhalation exposure were alternated with 5-day limited access drinking tests (1 h access to 15% ethanol). Experiment 1 compared effects of daily FSS and KOR activation on ethanol consumption. CIE and CTL mice were either exposed to FSS (10 min), the KOR agonist U50,488 (5 mg/kg), or a vehicle injection (non-stressed condition) prior to each daily drinking session during test weeks. FSS selectively increased drinking in CIE mice. U50,488 mimicked this effect in CIE mice, but also increased drinking in CTL mice. Experiment 2 assessed effects of KOR blockade on stress-induced drinking in CIE and CTL mice. Stressed and non-stressed mice were administered the short-acting KOR antagonist LY2444296 (0 or 5 mg/kg) 30 min prior to each drinking session during test weeks. FSS selectively increased ethanol consumption in CIE mice, an effect that was abolished by LY2444296 pretreatment. In Experiment 3, CIE and CTL mice were administered one of four doses of U50,488 (0, 1.25, 2.5, 5.0 mg/kg) 1 h prior to each daily drinking test (in lieu of FSS). All doses of U50,488 increased ethanol consumption in both CIE and CTL mice. The U50,488-induced increase in drinking was blocked by LY

  14. Computer modeling study of ethanol and aldheyde reactivities in Rio de Janeiro urban air

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, Eduardo M.; Arbilla, Graciela

    An empirical kinetic modeling approach was used in order to simulate ozone, formaldehyde and acetaldehyde concentrations for an urban downtown area with high vehicular traffic. A base case was designed using experimental data for December 1999 in Presidente Vargas Avenue, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. The simulated ozone peak was obtained at 3:15 PM (23.00 ppb) in good agreement with experimental results. Calculated acetaldehyde and formaldehyde concentrations peaked at 21-24 and 14-17 ppb, respectively, between 11:00 AM and 13:00 PM, depending on the effective solar flux. Tagged species were used to discriminate between primary and secondary compounds and to follow the reaction paths of individual species. Computational results show that the primary contribution to acetaldehyde and formaldehyde concentrations is higher in the early morning and reaches a maximum, which approximately coincides with the peak automobile traffic. The secondary contribution increases during the morning and reaches a maximum in the early afternoon. As a consequence, total acetaldehyde and formaldehyde levels peak after the primary pollutants' maximum, obtained in the early morning, and before the secondary pollutants' maximum as previously noted in experimental determinations. The simulations also confirm the experimental evidence that the high acetaldehyde/formaldehyde ratios are due to the use of alcohol-based fuels.

  15. Protective effect of tetrahydrocoptisine against ethanol-induced gastric ulcer in mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Weifeng, E-mail: liwf@mail.xjtu.edu.cn; Huang, Huimin; Niu, Xiaofeng, E-mail: niuxf@mail.xjtu.edu.cn; Fan, Ting; Mu, Qingli; Li, Huani

    2013-10-01

    Excessive alcohol consumption can lead to gastric ulcer and the present work was aimed to examine the protective effect of tetrahydrocoptisine (THC) in the model of ethanol-induced gastric ulcer in mice. Fasted mice treated with ethanol 75% (0.5 ml/100 g) were pre-treated with THC (10 or 20 mg/kg, ip), cimetidine (100 mg/kg, ip) or saline in different experimental sets for a period of 3 days, and animals were euthanized 4 h after ethanol ingestion. Gross and microscopic lesions, immunological and biochemical parameters were taken into consideration. The results showed that ethanol induced gastric damage, improving nitric oxide (NO) level, increased pro-inflammatory cytokine (TNF-α and IL-6) levels and myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity, as well as the expression of nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) in the ethanol group. Pretreatment of THC at doses of 10 and 20 mg/kg bodyweight significantly attenuated the gastric lesions as compared to the ethanol group. These results suggest that the gastroprotective activity of THC is attributed to reducing NO production and adjusting the pro-inflammatory cytokine, inhibited neutrophil accumulation and NF-κB expression. - Highlights: • THC decreased ethanol-induced pro-inflammatory cytokine release. • THC inhibited the production of NO in serum and gastric tissue. • THC reduced NF-κB expression and MPO accumulation in ethanol-induced gastric tissue.

  16. MODELS OF STATE REFORMS IN AGRICULTURE: PAST AND PRESENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    А Г Киселев

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The article outlines social and economic consequences of collectivization to compare this state policy with the changes in agriculture in the 1990s, and to estimate chances of the Russian agriculture to overcome the current crisis. The article is based on archive data on collectivization and on the program developed by the Academy of High Ecotechnologies. The authors believe that at the time of collectivization, it was a way to optimize agriculture: largely due to collectivization, though with all its losses and ‘extremes’, the soviet agriculture was partially industrialized and provided the country with food in the hardest years of the Great Patriotic War and in the post-war period, thus ensuring the food security of the Soviet state. The ‘emergency’ model of the so-called ‘return to civilization’ that was adopted under the reforms of the 1990s aimed at turning the collective farmer into an individual farmer or a rural wageworker, but such a social ‘migration’ strategy imposed ‘from above’ deformed the rural social stratum and determined serious economic problems. Today the authors consider the neo-collective farms as a promising perspec-tive. They also support the program developed by the Academy of High Ecotechnologies for intensification of agricultural production on the basis of progressive domestic and foreign technologies, which will allow to increase the agricultural production in the next three to five years by several times. In particular, for more effective use of agricultural technologies and processing industries, the program suggests develop-ing the enlarged organizational-economic structures - ‘agropromkhozes’.

  17. System identification to characterize human use of ethanol based on generative point-process models of video games with ethanol rewards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozil, Ipek; Plawecki, Martin H; Doerschuk, Peter C; O'Connor, Sean J

    2011-01-01

    The influence of family history and genetics on the risk for the development of abuse or dependence is a major theme in alcoholism research. Recent research have used endophenotypes and behavioral paradigms to help detect further genetic contributions to this disease. Electronic tasks, essentially video games, which provide alcohol as a reward in controlled environments and with specified exposures have been developed to explore some of the behavioral and subjective characteristics of individuals with or at risk for alcohol substance use disorders. A generative model (containing parameters with unknown values) of a simple game involving a progressive work paradigm is described along with the associated point process signal processing that allows system identification of the model. The system is demonstrated on human subject data. The same human subject completing the task under different circumstances, e.g., with larger and smaller alcohol reward values, is assigned different parameter values. Potential meanings of the different parameter values are described.

  18. ETHANOL-INDUCED LOCOMOTOR ACTIVITY IN ADOLESCENT RATS AND THE RELATIONSHIP WITH ETHANOL-INDUCED CONDITIONED PLACE PREFERENCE AND CONDITIONED TASTE AVERSION

    OpenAIRE

    Acevedo, María Belén; Nizhnikov, Michael E.; Spear, Norman E.; Molina, Juan C.; Pautassi, Ricardo Marcos

    2012-01-01

    Adolescent rats exhibit ethanol-induced locomotor activity (LMA), which is considered an index of ethanol’s motivational properties likely to predict ethanol self-administration, but few studies have reported or correlated ethanol-induced LMA with conditioned place preference by ethanol at this age. The present study assessed age-related differences in ethanol’s motor stimulating effects and analysed the association between ethanol-induced LMA and conventional measures of ethanol-induced rein...

  19. Wine ethanol C-14 as a tracer for fossil fuel CO2 emissions in Europe : Measurements and model comparison

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Palstra, Sanne W. L.; Karstens, Ute; Streurman, Harm-Jan; Meijer, Harro A. J.

    2008-01-01

    C-14 (radiocarbon) in atmospheric CO2 is the most direct tracer for the presence of fossil-fuel-derived CO2 (CO2-ff). We demonstrate the C-14 measurement of wine ethanol as a way to determine the relative regional atmospheric CO2-ff concentration compared to a background site ("regional CO2-ff

  20. Micro1-opioid antagonist naloxonazine alters ethanol discrimination and consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mhatre, Molina; Holloway, Frank

    2003-02-01

    The endogenous opioid system is implicated in excessive ethanol-drinking behavior. However, the role of individual opioid receptor subtypes in the mechanism underlying excessive ethanol-drinking behavior is not yet well understood. Therefore, we investigated the ability of a selective micro1-opioid antagonist, naloxonazine, to modulate ethanol-drinking behavior and ethanol discrimination in a rat model with the use of ethanol self-administration and drug discrimination paradigms. The effects of naloxonazine (0.001-10 mg/kg) on ethanol intake were examined in Sprague-Dawley rats under conditions of limited access to 10% (wt./vol.) ethanol and ad libitum access to food and water. Pretreatment with high doses of naloxonazine (1-10 mg/kg) significantly reduced ethanol consumption. When the effects of naloxonazine on food intake in free-feeding male rats were examined, naloxonazine (1.8-10 mg/kg) significantly suppressed 24-h food intake. Another group of rats was trained to discriminate ethanol (1.25 g/kg, i.p.) from saline on a fixed-ratio schedule (FR 10), and ethanol dose-response tests were conducted once rats had acquired ethanol-saline discrimination. Injections were given 15 min before ethanol dose-response tests were conducted, and after characterization of the ethanol dose-response curve, the effects of naloxonazine on ethanol discrimination were assessed by administering naloxonazine (0.001-10 mg/kg, i.p.) 15 min before ethanol administration. Treatment with naloxonazine (0.001-1.8 mg/kg, i.p.) before the ED(100) dose of ethanol partially antagonized the discriminative stimulus of ethanol without having any effect on the response rate. The results support the suggestion of involvement of micro1-opioid receptors in the discriminative effects of ethanol and ethanol-drinking behavior.

  1. Social consequences of ethanol: Impact of age, stress, and prior history of ethanol exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varlinskaya, Elena I; Spear, Linda P

    2015-09-01

    The adolescent period is associated with high significance of interactions with peers, high frequency of stressful situations, and high rates of alcohol use. At least two desired effects of alcohol that may contribute to heavy and problematic drinking during adolescence are its abilities to both facilitate interactions with peers and to alleviate anxiety, perhaps especially anxiety seen in social contexts. Ethanol-induced social facilitation can be seen using a simple model of adolescence in the rat, with normal adolescents, but not their more mature counterparts, demonstrating this ethanol-related social facilitation. Prior repeated stress induces expression of ethanol-induced social facilitation in adults and further enhances socially facilitating effects of ethanol among adolescent rats. In contrast, under normal circumstances, adolescent rats are less sensitive than adults to the social inhibition induced by higher ethanol doses and are insensitive to the socially anxiolytic effects of ethanol. Sensitivity to the socially anxiolytic effects of ethanol can be modified by prior stress or ethanol exposure at both ages. Shortly following repeated restraint or ethanol exposure, adolescents exhibit social anxiety-like behavior, indexed by reduced social preference, and enhanced sensitivity to the socially anxiolytic effects of ethanol, indexed through ethanol-associated reinstatement of social preference in these adolescents. Repeated restraint, but not repeated ethanol, induces similar effects in adults as well, eliciting social anxiety-like behavior and increasing their sensitivity to the socially anxiolytic effects of acute ethanol; the stressor also decreases sensitivity of adults to ethanol-induced social inhibition. The persisting consequences of early adolescent ethanol exposure differ from its immediate consequences, with males exposed early in adolescence, but not females or those exposed later in adolescence, showing social anxiety-like behavior when tested

  2. High-Octane Mid-Level Ethanol Blend Market Assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, Caley [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Newes, Emily [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Brooker, Aaron [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); McCormick, Robert [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Peterson, Steve [Lexidyne, LLC, Colorado Springs, CO (United States); Leiby, Paul [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Martinez, Rocio Uria [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Oladosu, Gbadebo [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Brown, Maxwell L. [Colorado School of Mines, Golden, CO (United States)

    2015-12-01

    policies--to curtail these barriers. These curtailment strategies are grouped into scenarios that are then modeled to investigate their feasibility and explore the dynamics involved in HOF deployment. This report does not advocate for or against incentives or policies, but presents simulations of their effects.

  3. Energy and greenhouse gas emission effects of corn and cellulosic ethanol with technology improvements and land use changes.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, M.; Han, J.; Haq, Z; Tyner, .W.; Wu, M.; Elgowainy, A. (Energy Systems)

    2011-05-01

    Use of ethanol as a transportation fuel in the United States has grown from 76 dam{sup 3} in 1980 to over 40.1 hm{sup 3} in 2009 - and virtually all of it has been produced from corn. It has been debated whether using corn ethanol results in any energy and greenhouse gas benefits. This issue has been especially critical in the past several years, when indirect effects, such as indirect land use changes, associated with U.S. corn ethanol production are considered in evaluation. In the past three years, modeling of direct and indirect land use changes related to the production of corn ethanol has advanced significantly. Meanwhile, technology improvements in key stages of the ethanol life cycle (such as corn farming and ethanol production) have been made. With updated simulation results of direct and indirect land use changes and observed technology improvements in the past several years, we conducted a life-cycle analysis of ethanol and show that at present and in the near future, using corn ethanol reduces greenhouse gas emission by more than 20%, relative to those of petroleum gasoline. On the other hand, second-generation ethanol could achieve much higher reductions in greenhouse gas emissions. In a broader sense, sound evaluation of U.S. biofuel policies should account for both unanticipated consequences and technology potentials. We maintain that the usefulness of such evaluations is to provide insight into how to prevent unanticipated consequences and how to promote efficient technologies with policy intervention.

  4. Energy and greenhouse gas emission effects of corn and cellulosic ethanol with technology improvements and land use changes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Michael Q.; Han, Jeongwoo; Haq, Zia; Tyner, Wallace E.; Wu, May; Elgowainy, Amgad

    2011-01-01

    Use of ethanol as a transportation fuel in the United States has grown from 76 dam 3 in 1980 to over 40.1 hm 3 in 2009 - and virtually all of it has been produced from corn. It has been debated whether using corn ethanol results in any energy and greenhouse gas benefits. This issue has been especially critical in the past several years, when indirect effects, such as indirect land use changes, associated with U.S. corn ethanol production are considered in evaluation. In the past three years, modeling of direct and indirect land use changes related to the production of corn ethanol has advanced significantly. Meanwhile, technology improvements in key stages of the ethanol life cycle (such as corn farming and ethanol production) have been made. With updated simulation results of direct and indirect land use changes and observed technology improvements in the past several years, we conducted a life-cycle analysis of ethanol and show that at present and in the near future, using corn ethanol reduces greenhouse gas emission by more than 20%, relative to those of petroleum gasoline. On the other hand, second-generation ethanol could achieve much higher reductions in greenhouse gas emissions. In a broader sense, sound evaluation of U.S. biofuel policies should account for both unanticipated consequences and technology potentials. We maintain that the usefulness of such evaluations is to provide insight into how to prevent unanticipated consequences and how to promote efficient technologies with policy intervention.

  5. TOXICOLOGICAL STUDIES AND CYTOTOXIC ACTIVITY OF ETHANOL AND ETHYL ACETATE EXTRACTS OF TECOMARIA CAPENSIS LEAVES

    OpenAIRE

    E. Tamil Jothi; G. Vimala Devi; Ch. Vamsi Anil Krishna; V. Suba

    2013-01-01

    In the present study ethyl acetate and ethanol extracts of leaves of Tecomaria capensis was screened for cytotoxic activity. The cytotoxic activity was performed by two models. One was short term cytotoxicity and another was long term cytotoxicity. In short term cytotoxicity assay Dalton’s lymphoma ascites (DLA) and Ehrlich ascites carcinoma (EAC) cell lines were used and for long term L929 cell lines (Lungs fibroblast) were used. In both methods ethyl acetate and ethanol extracts showed prot...

  6. Strategic design and investment capacity planning of the ethanol supply chain under price uncertainty

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dal-Mas, Matteo; Giarola, Sara; Zamboni, Andrea; Bezzo, Fabrizio

    2011-01-01

    Fossil fuel depletion and the increase of greenhouse gases emissions has been pushing the search for alternative fuels for automotive transport. The European Union has identified biofuel technology as one option for reducing its dependence on imported energy. Ethanol is a promising biofuel, but great uncertainty on the business profitability has recently determined a slowdown in the industry expansion. In particular, geographical plant location, biomass price fluctuation and fuel demand variability severely constrain the economic viability of new ethanol facilities. In this work a dynamic, spatially explicit and multi-echelon Mixed Integer Linear Program (MILP) modeling framework is presented to help decision-makers and potential investors assessing economic performances and risk on investment of the entire biomass-based ethanol supply chain. A case study concerning the corn-to-ethanol production supply chain in Northern Italy is used to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed modeling approach. The mathematical pattern addresses the issue of optimizing the ethanol supply network over a ten years' time period under uncertainty on biomass production cost and product selling price. The model allows optimizing economic performances and minimize financial risk on investment by identifying the best network topology in terms of biomass cultivation site locations, ethanol production plant capacities, location and transport logistics. -- Highlights: →A dynamic spatially explicit Mixed Integer Linear Program (MILP) of the entire corn-based ethanol supply chain is proposed. →Uncertainty on corn price and ethanol selling price is taken into account. →The model allows assessing and optimizing the supply chain economic performance and risk on investment. →A case study concerning the corn-to-ethanol production in Northern Italy demonstrates the effectiveness of the approach.

  7. Wood ethanol and synthetic natural gas pathways

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-11-30

    This report provided details of updates to the wood ethanol pathway recently added to the GHGenius model, an analytical tool used to analyze emissions from conventional and alternative fuel combustion processes. The pathway contains data developed by the United States Department of Energy. A number of co-products were added to the wood and agricultural residue pathways, including furfural, xylitol, lignin, and glycerol. New chemical inputs included nitrogen gas, ammonia, enzymes and yeast. Biological ethanol pathways were reviewed, and separate inputs for wood, agricultural residues, corn ethanol, and wheat ethanol were added. The model was updated to reflect current research conducted on the gasification of wood and the upgrading of the gas to produce pipeline quality natural gas. New process developments in producing pipeline quality gas from coal were also added. The ability to model enzyme consumption was added to all ethanol pathways. 25 refs., 41 tabs., 8 figs.

  8. TLR4 response mediates ethanol-induced neurodevelopment alterations in a model of fetal alcohol spectrum disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pascual, María; Montesinos, Jorge; Montagud-Romero, Sandra; Forteza, Jerónimo; Rodríguez-Arias, Marta; Miñarro, José; Guerri, Consuelo

    2017-07-24

    Inflammation during brain development participates in the pathogenesis of early brain injury and cognitive dysfunctions. Prenatal ethanol exposure affects the developing brain and causes neural impairment, cognitive and behavioral effects, collectively known as fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD). Our previous studies demonstrate that ethanol activates the innate immune response and TLR4 receptor and causes neuroinflammation, brain damage, and cognitive defects in the developmental brain stage of adolescents. We hypothesize that by activating the TLR4 response, maternal alcohol consumption during pregnancy triggers the release of cytokines and chemokines in both the maternal sera and brains of fetuses/offspring, which impairs brain ontogeny and causes cognitive dysfunction. WT and TLR4-KO female mice treated with or without 10% ethanol in the drinking water during gestation and lactation were used. Cytokine/chemokine levels were determined by ELISA in the amniotic fluid, maternal serum, and cerebral cortex, as well as in the offspring cerebral cortex. Microglial and neuronal markers (evaluated by western blotting), myelin proteins (immunohistochemical and western blotting) and synaptic parameters (western blotting and electron microscopy) were assessed in the cortices of the WT and TLR4-KO pups on PND 0, 20, and 66. Behavioral tests (elevated plus maze and passive avoidance) were performed in the WT and TLR4-KO mice on PND 66 exposed or not to ethanol. We show that alcohol intake during gestation and lactation increases the levels of several cytokines/chemokines (IL-1β, IL-17, MIP-1α, and fractalkine) in the maternal sera, amniotic fluid, and brains of fetuses and offspring. The upregulation of cytokines/chemokines is associated with an increase in activated microglia markers (CD11b and MHC-II), and with a reduction in some synaptic (synaptotagmin, synapsin IIa) and myelin (MBP, PLP) proteins in the brains of offspring on days 0, 20, and 66 (long-term effects

  9. Phylogeny in defining model plants for lignocellulosic ethanol production: a comparative study of Brachypodium distachyon, wheat, maize, and Miscanthus x giganteus leaf and stem biomass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meineke, Till; Manisseri, Chithra; Voigt, Christian A

    2014-01-01

    The production of ethanol from pretreated plant biomass during fermentation is a strategy to mitigate climate change by substituting fossil fuels. However, biomass conversion is mainly limited by the recalcitrant nature of the plant cell wall. To overcome recalcitrance, the optimization of the plant cell wall for subsequent processing is a promising approach. Based on their phylogenetic proximity to existing and emerging energy crops, model plants have been proposed to study bioenergy-related cell wall biochemistry. One example is Brachypodium distachyon, which has been considered as a general model plant for cell wall analysis in grasses. To test whether relative phylogenetic proximity would be sufficient to qualify as a model plant not only for cell wall composition but also for the complete process leading to bioethanol production, we compared the processing of leaf and stem biomass from the C3 grasses B. distachyon and Triticum aestivum (wheat) with the C4 grasses Zea mays (maize) and Miscanthus x giganteus, a perennial energy crop. Lambda scanning with a confocal laser-scanning microscope allowed a rapid qualitative analysis of biomass saccharification. A maximum of 108-117 mg ethanol·g(-1) dry biomass was yielded from thermo-chemically and enzymatically pretreated stem biomass of the tested plant species. Principal component analysis revealed that a relatively strong correlation between similarities in lignocellulosic ethanol production and phylogenetic relation was only given for stem and leaf biomass of the two tested C4 grasses. Our results suggest that suitability of B. distachyon as a model plant for biomass conversion of energy crops has to be specifically tested based on applied processing parameters and biomass tissue type.

  10. Phylogeny in Defining Model Plants for Lignocellulosic Ethanol Production: A Comparative Study of Brachypodium distachyon, Wheat, Maize, and Miscanthus x giganteus Leaf and Stem Biomass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meineke, Till; Manisseri, Chithra; Voigt, Christian A.

    2014-01-01

    The production of ethanol from pretreated plant biomass during fermentation is a strategy to mitigate climate change by substituting fossil fuels. However, biomass conversion is mainly limited by the recalcitrant nature of the plant cell wall. To overcome recalcitrance, the optimization of the plant cell wall for subsequent processing is a promising approach. Based on their phylogenetic proximity to existing and emerging energy crops, model plants have been proposed to study bioenergy-related cell wall biochemistry. One example is Brachypodium distachyon, which has been considered as a general model plant for cell wall analysis in grasses. To test whether relative phylogenetic proximity would be sufficient to qualify as a model plant not only for cell wall composition but also for the complete process leading to bioethanol production, we compared the processing of leaf and stem biomass from the C3 grasses B. distachyon and Triticum aestivum (wheat) with the C4 grasses Zea mays (maize) and Miscanthus x giganteus, a perennial energy crop. Lambda scanning with a confocal laser-scanning microscope allowed a rapid qualitative analysis of biomass saccharification. A maximum of 108–117 mg ethanol·g−1 dry biomass was yielded from thermo-chemically and enzymatically pretreated stem biomass of the tested plant species. Principal component analysis revealed that a relatively strong correlation between similarities in lignocellulosic ethanol production and phylogenetic relation was only given for stem and leaf biomass of the two tested C4 grasses. Our results suggest that suitability of B. distachyon as a model plant for biomass conversion of energy crops has to be specifically tested based on applied processing parameters and biomass tissue type. PMID:25133818

  11. Ethanol demand in Brazil: Regional approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freitas, Luciano Charlita de; Kaneko, Shinji

    2011-01-01

    Successive studies attempting to clarify national aspects of ethanol demand have assisted policy makers and producers in defining strategies, but little information is available on the dynamic of regional ethanol markets. This study aims to analyze the characteristics of ethanol demand at the regional level taking into account the peculiarities of the developed center-south and the developing north-northeast regions. Regional ethanol demand is evaluated based on a set of market variables that include ethanol price, consumer's income, vehicle stock and prices of substitute fuels; i.e., gasoline and natural gas. A panel cointegration analysis with monthly observations from January 2003 to April 2010 is employed to estimate the long-run demand elasticity. The results reveal that the demand for ethanol in Brazil differs between regions. While in the center-south region the price elasticity for both ethanol and alternative fuels is high, consumption in the north-northeast is more sensitive to changes in the stock of the ethanol-powered fleet and income. These, among other evidences, suggest that the pattern of ethanol demand in the center-south region most closely resembles that in developed nations, while the pattern of demand in the north-northeast most closely resembles that in developing nations. - Research highlights: → Article consists of a first insight on regional demand for ethanol in Brazil. → It proposes a model with multiple fuels, i.e., hydrous ethanol, gasohol and natural gas. → Results evidence that figures for regional demand for ethanol differ amongst regions and with values reported for national demand. → Elasticities for the center-south keep similarities to patterns for fuel demand in developed nations while coefficients for the north-northeast are aligned to patterns on developing countries.

  12. Proteomic Profiling of Liver and Plasma in Chronic Ethanol Feeding Model of Hepatic Alcohol Dehydrogenase-Deficient Deer Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhopale, Kamlesh K; Amer, Samir M; Kaphalia, Lata; Soman, Kizhake V; Wiktorowicz, John E; Shakeel Ansari, Ghulam A; Kaphalia, Bhupendra S

    2017-10-01

    Chronic alcohol abuse, a major risk factor for such diseases as hepatitis and cirrhosis, impairs hepatic alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH; key ethanol [EtOH]-metabolizing enzyme). Therefore, differentially altered hepatic and plasma proteomes were identified in chronic EtOH feeding model of hepatic ADH-deficient (ADH - ) deer mice to understand the metabolic basis of alcoholic liver disease (ALD). ADH - deer mice were fed 3.5 g% EtOH via Lieber-DeCarli liquid diet daily for 3 months and histology of the liver assessed. Liver and plasma proteins were separated by 2-dimensional gel electrophoresis. The proteins differentially expressed were identified by matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry. Histology of the liver showed panlobular steatosis and infiltration of T lymphocytes. Using the criteria of ≥1.5 for fold change (p-value ≤0.05) with expectation value (E ≤10 -3 ) and protein score (≥64), 18 proteins in the livers and 5 in the plasma of EtOH-fed mice were differentially expressed and identified. Prolyl 4-hydroxylase, cytochrome b-5, endo A cytokeratin, ATP synthase, heat-shock 70 kD proteins, enoyl CoA hydratase, stress-70 protein, peroxiredoxin 1, and ornithine carbamoyl transferase were up-regulated in the livers. However, carbonic anhydrase 3, mitochondrial ATP synthase, aldolase 2, actin γ, laminin receptor, and carbamoyl phosphate synthase were down-regulated. Contrary to the increased expression of creatine kinase M-type, a decreased expression of serine protease inhibitor A3A precursor, sulfated glycoprotein-2 (clusterin), and apolipoprotein E isoforms were found in the plasma of EtOH group. Chronic EtOH feeding in ADH - deer mice causes steatosis and infiltration of T lymphocytes in the livers along with increased expression of proteins involved in endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress, fibrosis, fatty acid β oxidation and biogenesis, and decreased expression of proteins involved in ATP synthesis, carbohydrate

  13. Ethanol consumption modifies the body turnover of cadmium: a study in a rat model of human exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brzóska, Malgorzata M; Galażyn-Sidorczuk, Malgorzata; Dzwilewska, Ilona

    2013-08-01

    Ethanol (Et) abusers may also be exposed to excessive amounts of cadmium (Cd). Thus, the study was aimed at estimating the influence of Et on the body turnover of Cd in a rat model reflecting excessive alcohol consumption in humans chronically exposed to moderate and relatively high levels of this metal. For this purpose, Cd apparent absorption, retention in the body and concentration in the blood, stomach, duodenum, liver, kidney, spleen, brain, heart, testis and femur as well as its fecal and urinary excretion in the rats exposed to 5 and 50mg Cd l(-1) (in drinking water; for 16 weeks from the fifth week of the animal's life) and/or Et (5 g kg(-1) b.w. per 24 h, by oral gavage; for 12 weeks from the ninth week of life) were estimated. Moreover, the duodenal, liver and kidney pool of the nonmetallothionein (Mt)-bound Cd was evaluated. The administration of Et during the exposure to 5 or 50mg Cd l(-1) increased Cd accumulation in the gastrointestinal tract and its urinary excretion, and decreased Cd concentration in the blood, femur and numerous soft tissues (including liver and kidney) as well as the total pool of this metal in internal organs. Et modified or not the pool of the non-Mt-bound Cd, depending on the level of treatment with this metal. The results show that excessive Et consumption during Cd exposure may decrease the body burden of this metal, at least partly, by its lower absorption and increased urinary excretion. Based on this study, it can be concluded that Cd concentration in the blood and tissues of alcohol abusers chronically exposed to moderate and relatively high levels of this metal may be lower, whereas its urinary excretion is higher than in their nondrinking counterparts. However, since Et is toxic itself, the decreased body burden of Cd owing to alcohol consumption does not allow for the conclusion that the risk of health damage may be lower at co-exposure to these xenobiotics. In a further study, it will be investigated how the Et

  14. Verification Techniques for Parameter Selection and Bayesian Model Calibration Presented for an HIV Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wentworth, Mami Tonoe

    Uncertainty quantification plays an important role when making predictive estimates of model responses. In this context, uncertainty quantification is defined as quantifying and reducing uncertainties, and the objective is to quantify uncertainties in parameter, model and measurements, and propagate the uncertainties through the model, so that one can make a predictive estimate with quantified uncertainties. Two of the aspects of uncertainty quantification that must be performed prior to propagating uncertainties are model calibration and parameter selection. There are several efficient techniques for these processes; however, the accuracy of these methods are often not verified. This is the motivation for our work, and in this dissertation, we present and illustrate verification frameworks for model calibration and parameter selection in the context of biological and physical models. First, HIV models, developed and improved by [2, 3, 8], describe the viral infection dynamics of an HIV disease. These are also used to make predictive estimates of viral loads and T-cell counts and to construct an optimal control for drug therapy. Estimating input parameters is an essential step prior to uncertainty quantification. However, not all the parameters are identifiable, implying that they cannot be uniquely determined by the observations. These unidentifiable parameters can be partially removed by performing parameter selection, a process in which parameters that have minimal impacts on the model response are determined. We provide verification techniques for Bayesian model calibration and parameter selection for an HIV model. As an example of a physical model, we employ a heat model with experimental measurements presented in [10]. A steady-state heat model represents a prototypical behavior for heat conduction and diffusion process involved in a thermal-hydraulic model, which is a part of nuclear reactor models. We employ this simple heat model to illustrate verification

  15. Thermal behavior and kinetics assessment of ethanol/gasoline blends during combustion by thermogravimetric analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    3, CEP 12.516-410 Guaratinguetá, SP (Brazil); U.T.P. – Universidad Tecnológica de Pereira, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Pereira, Risaralda (Colombia))" data-affiliation=" (UNESP – Univ Estadual Paulista, Campus of Guaratinguetá, Department of Energy, Laboratory of Combustion and Carbon Capture LC3, CEP 12.516-410 Guaratinguetá, SP (Brazil); U.T.P. – Universidad Tecnológica de Pereira, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Pereira, Risaralda (Colombia))" >Rios Quiroga, Luis Carlos; 3, CEP 12.516-410 Guaratinguetá, SP (Brazil))" data-affiliation=" (UNESP – Univ Estadual Paulista, Campus of Guaratinguetá, Department of Energy, Laboratory of Combustion and Carbon Capture LC3, CEP 12.516-410 Guaratinguetá, SP (Brazil))" >Balestieri, José 3, CEP 12.516-410 Guaratinguetá, SP (Brazil))" data-affiliation=" (UNESP – Univ Estadual Paulista, Campus of Guaratinguetá, Department of Energy, Laboratory of Combustion and Carbon Capture LC3, CEP 12.516-410 Guaratinguetá, SP (Brazil))" >Antonio Perrella; 3, CEP 12.516-410 Guaratinguetá, SP (Brazil))" data-affiliation=" (UNESP – Univ Estadual Paulista, Campus of Guaratinguetá, Department of Energy, Laboratory of Combustion and Carbon Capture LC3, CEP 12.516-410 Guaratinguetá, SP (Brazil))" >Ávila, Ivonete

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Kinetic parameters of thermal decomposition events were obtained. • Thermal analysis was used as a tool for understanding combustion processes. • Blends would be classified using thermogravimetric analysis technics. • Synergistic effect of ethanol mixed with gasoline was studied and defined. • Relative error and activation energy values were used to analyze the synergy. - Abstract: The use of ethanol as a fuel or as an additive blended with gasoline is very important for most countries, which aim to reduce the heavy dependence on fossil fuels and mitigate greenhouse gases emission. An increased use of ethanol-gasoline blends has placed great relevance on acquiring knowledge about their physical and chemical properties. Thus, knowledge of such properties favors a better understanding of the effect of the percentage of ethanol/gasoline blends on engine performance. Thence, the present study has established a correlation between activation energy and synergetic effects, obtained by a thermal analysis, and ethanol content in gasoline for different blends in order to use this technique as a tool to classify these blends in the process in order to obtain useful energy in spark ignition engines. For such a purpose, a kinetic study has been conducted through a simultaneous thermal analysis system – TGA (thermogravimetry analysis) and DTA (differential thermal analysis) by following the methodology of non-isothermal tests. Thermogravimetric tests were performed and fuel activation energies for gasoline, ethanol, and percentages of 5, 10, 15, 20, 25, 30, 50, and 75% (%v) ethanol mixed with gasoline, which was achieved by the model free kinetics. The analysis results suggest that the theoretical curves characteristics of the thermal decomposition of ethanol-gasoline blends are rather different due to their ethanol content. Furthermore, it was observed significant interactions and synergistic effects, especially regarding those with low ethanol

  16. Ethanol Basics (Fact Sheet)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2015-01-01

    Ethanol is a widely-used, domestically-produced renewable fuel made from corn and other plant materials. More than 96% of gasoline sold in the United States contains ethanol. Learn more about this alternative fuel in the Ethanol Basics Fact Sheet, produced by the U.S. Department of Energy's Clean Cities program.

  17. A modified indirect mathematical model for evaluation of ethanol production efficiency in industrial-scale continuous fermentation processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canseco Grellet, M A; Castagnaro, A; Dantur, K I; De Boeck, G; Ahmed, P M; Cárdenas, G J; Welin, B; Ruiz, R M

    2016-10-01

    To calculate fermentation efficiency in a continuous ethanol production process, we aimed to develop a robust mathematical method based on the analysis of metabolic by-product formation. This method is in contrast to the traditional way of calculating ethanol fermentation efficiency, where the ratio between the ethanol produced and the sugar consumed is expressed as a percentage of the theoretical conversion yield. Comparison between the two methods, at industrial scale and in sensitivity studies, showed that the indirect method was more robust and gave slightly higher fermentation efficiency values, although fermentation efficiency of the industrial process was found to be low (~75%). The traditional calculation method is simpler than the indirect method as it only requires a few chemical determinations in samples collected. However, a minor error in any measured parameter will have an important impact on the calculated efficiency. In contrast, the indirect method of calculation requires a greater number of determinations but is much more robust since an error in any parameter will only have a minor effect on the fermentation efficiency value. The application of the indirect calculation methodology in order to evaluate the real situation of the process and to reach an optimum fermentation yield for an industrial-scale ethanol production is recommended. Once a high fermentation yield has been reached the traditional method should be used to maintain the control of the process. Upon detection of lower yields in an optimized process the indirect method should be employed as it permits a more accurate diagnosis of causes of yield losses in order to correct the problem rapidly. The low fermentation efficiency obtained in this study shows an urgent need for industrial process optimization where the indirect calculation methodology will be an important tool to determine process losses. © 2016 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  18. Characterization of ethanol concentrations at ultraviolet wavelength ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper presents the measurement of optical absorption spectrum for different concentrations of ethanol at ultraviolet wavelength. Ethanol absorption spectrum was measured using portable spectroscopy setup from Avantes. It consists of Balanced Deuterium Halogen light source and spectrometer. The light source can ...

  19. Selection and characterisation of high ethanol tolerant ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    15% ethanol tolerance. High level ethanol tolerant Saccharomyces yeast, Orc 6, was investigated for its potential application in ethanologenic fermentations. Data presented in this study revealed that Orc 6 yeast isolate tolerated osmotic stress above 12% (w/v) sorbitol and 15% (w/v) sucrose equivalent of osmotic pressure ...

  20. A blending rule for octane numbers of PRFs and TPRFs with ethanol

    KAUST Repository

    AlRamadan, Abdullah S.

    2016-04-12

    Ethanol is widely used as an octane booster in commercial gasoline fuels. Its oxygenated nature aids in reducing harmful emissions such as nitric oxides (NOx), soot and unburned hydrocarbons (HC). However, the non-linear octane response of ethanol blending with gasoline fuels is not completely understood because of the unknown intermolecular interactions in such blends. In general, when ethanol is blended with gasoline, the Research Octane Number (RON) and the Motor Octane Number (MON) non-linearly increase (synergistic) or decrease (antagonistic), and the non-linearity depends on the composition of the base gasoline. The complexity of commercial gasoline, comprising of hundreds of different components, makes it challenging to understand ethanol-gasoline synergistic/antagonistic blending effects. Understanding ethanol blending effects with simpler gasoline surrogates blends may enable a better understanding of ethanol blending with complex multi-component gasoline fuels. This study presents a blending rule to predict the octane numbers (ON) of ethanol/primary reference fuel (PRF; mixtures of iso-octane and n-heptane) and ethanol/toluene primary reference fuel (TPRF; mixtures of toluene, iso-octane and n-heptane) mixtures using the data available in literature and new data. The ON of ethanol blends with PRF-40, -50, and -60 were measured and compared with those from literature. Additional experimental data were collected to validate the developed model for ethanol blends of three different TPRFs having the same RON but different MON (i.e., different toluene contents). The three tested TPRF mixtures have octane ratings of RON 60.0/MON 58.0 (toluene 10.2 vol%), RON 60.0/MON 56.3 (toluene 19.8 vol%), and RON 60.0/MON 53.2 (toluene 40.2 vol%). The octane prediction model consists of linear and non-linear by mole regions. The transition point between the linear and non-linear regions is a function of the RON and MON of the base PRF and TPRF mixture. The non-linear by

  1. The Effects of Presentation Format for Behavior Modeling of Interpersonal Skills in Online Instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doo, Min Young

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify the most effective model presentation format in behavior modeling to teach interpersonal skills in online learning environments. Four model presentation formats were compared; video, pictures plus audio, audio only, and text-script only. The effects of the model presentation were investigated in terms of…

  2. Antiulcerogenic Activity of Ethanolic Leaf Extract of Croton ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The antiulcer activity of the ethanolic extract of the crude leaf extract was investigated against indomethacin, ethanol and histamine – induced ulcer models in rats. The crude leaf extract of Croton zambesicus (200 – 600mg/kg) significantly (p<0.001) inhibited ulcers produced by the ulcerogens used; indomethacin, ethanol ...

  3. Adsorption of Water and Ethanol in MFI-Type Zeolites

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Ke

    2012-06-12

    Water and ethanol vapor adsorption phenomena are investigated systematically on a series of MFI-type zeolites: silicalite-1 samples synthesized via both alkaline (OH -) and fluoride (F -) routes, and ZSM-5 samples with different Si/Al ratios as well as different charge-balancing cations. Full isotherms (0.05-0.95 activity) over the range 25-55 °C are presented, and the lowest total water uptake ever reported in the literature is shown for silicalite-1 made via a fluoride-mediated route wherein internal silanol defects are significantly reduced. At a water activity level of 0.95 (35 °C), the total water uptake by silicalite-1 (F -) was found to be 0.263 mmol/g, which was only 12.6%, 9.8%, and 3.3% of the capacity for silicalite-1 (OH -), H-ZSM-5 (Si/Al:140), and H-ZSM-5 (Si/Al:15), respectively, under the same conditions. While water adsorption shows distinct isotherms for different MFI-type zeolites due to the difference in the concentration, distribution, and types of hydrophilic sites, the ethanol adsorption isotherms present relatively comparable results because of the overall organophilic nature of the zeolite framework. Due to the dramatic differences in the sorption behavior with the different sorbate-sorbent pairs, different models are applied to correlate and analyze the sorption isotherms. An adsorption potential theory was used to fit the water adsorption isotherms on all MFI-type zeolite adsorbents studied. The Langmuir model and Sircar\\'s model are applied to describe ethanol adsorption on silicalite-1 and ZSM-5 samples, respectively. An ideal ethanol/water adsorption selectivity (α) was estimated for the fluoride-mediated silicalite-1. At 35 °C, α was estimated to be 36 for a 5 mol % ethanol solution in water increasing to 53 at an ethanol concentration of 1 mol %. The adsorption data demonstrate that silicalite-1 made via the fluoride-mediated route is a promising candidate for ethanol extraction from dilute ethanol-water solutions. © 2012

  4. Quantum mechanics/molecular mechanics modeling of photoelectron spectra: the carbon 1s core-electron binding energies of ethanol-water solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Löytynoja, T; Niskanen, J; Jänkälä, K; Vahtras, O; Rinkevicius, Z; Ågren, H

    2014-11-20

    Using ethanol-water solutions as illustration, we demonstrate the capability of the hybrid quantum mechanics/molecular mechanics (QM/MM) paradigm to simulate core photoelectron spectroscopy: the binding energies and the chemical shifts. An integrated approach with QM/MM binding energy calculations coupled to preceding molecular dynamics sampling is adopted to generate binding energies averaged over the solute-solvent configurations available at a particular temperature and pressure and thus allowing for a statistical assessment with confidence levels for the final binding energies. The results are analyzed in terms of the contributions in the molecular mechanics model-electrostatic, polarization, and van der Waals-with atom or bond granulation of the corresponding MM charge and polarizability force-fields. The role of extramolecular charge transfer screening of the core-hole and explicit hydrogen bonding is studied by extending the QM core to cover the first solvation shell. The results are compared to those obtained from pure electrostatic and polarizable continuum models. Particularly, the dependence of the carbon 1s binding energies with respect to the ethanol concentration is studied. Our results indicate that QM/MM can be used as an all-encompassing model to study photoelectron binding energies and chemical shifts in solvent environments.

  5. Ethanol production method and system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, M.J.; Rathke, J.W.

    1983-05-26

    Ethanol is selectively produced from the reaction of methanol with carbon monoxide and hydrogen in the presence of a transition metal carbonyl catalyst. Methanol serves as a solvent and may be accompanied by a less volatile co-solvent. The solution includes the transition metal carbonyl catalysts and a basic metal salt such as an alkali metal or alkaline earth metal formate, carbonate or bicarbonate. A gas containing a high carbon monoxide to hydrogen ratio, as is present in a typical gasifer product, is contacted with the solution for the preferential production of ethanol with minimal water as a byproduct. Fractionation of the reaction solution provides substantially pure ethanol product and allows return of the catalysts for reuse.

  6. Catalytic conversion of sugarcane bagasse to cellulosic ethanol: TiO2 coupled nanocellulose as an effective hydrolysis enhancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jabasingh, S Anuradha; Lalith, D; Prabhu, M Arun; Yimam, Abubekker; Zewdu, Taye

    2016-01-20

    The present study deals with the production of cellulosic ethanol from bagasse using the synthesized TiO2 coupled nanocellulose (NC-TiO2) as catalyst. Aspergillus nidulans AJSU04 cellulase was used for the hydrolysis of bagasse. NC-TiO2 at various concentrations was added to bagasse in order to enhance the yield of reducing sugars. Complex interaction between cellulase, bagasse, NC-TiO2 and the reaction environment is thoroughly studied. A mathematical model was developed to describe the hydrolysis reaction. Ethanol production from enzymatically hydrolyzed sugarcane bagasse catalyzed with NC-TiO2 was carried out using Saccharomyces cerevisiae ATCC 20602. The glucose release rates and ethanol concentrations were determined. Ethanol produced was found to be strongly dependent on pretreatment given, hydrolysis and fermentation conditions. The study confirmed the promising accessibility of NC-TiO2, for enhanced glucose production rates and improved ethanol yield. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Inhibition of potassium currents is involved in antiarrhythmic effect of moderate ethanol on atrial fibrillation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Baode; Li, Chenxing; Sun, Junyi; Wang, Xinghui; Liu, Xinling; Yang, Chun; Chen, Lina; Zhou, Jun; Hu, Hao

    2017-05-01

    Excessive consumption of alcohol is a well-established risk factor of atrial fibrillation (AF). However, the effects of moderate alcohol drinking remain to be elucidated. This study was designed to determine the effects of moderate ethanol ingestion on atrial fibrillation and the electrophysiological mechanisms. In acetylcholine-induced canine and mouse AF models, the moderate ethanol prevented the generation and persistence of AF through prolonging the latent period of AF and shortening the duration of AF. The action potential duration (APD) was remarkably prolonged under the concentration range of 12.5-50.0mM ethanol in guinea pig atrial myocytes. Ultra-rapid delayed rectified potassium currents (I Kv1.5 ) were markedly inhibited by 12.5-50.0mM ethanol in a concentration-dependent manner. Ethanol with 50.0mM could inhibit rapid delayed rectifier potassium currents (I hERG ). Ethanol under 6.25-50.0mM did not affect on inward rectifier potassium currents (I Kir2.1 ). Collectively, the present study provided an evidence that moderate ethanol intake can prolong the APD of atrial myocytes by inhibition of I Kv1.5 and I hERG , which contributed to preventing the development and duration of AF. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Derived thermodynamic properties for the (ethanol + decane) and (carbon dioxide + ethanol + decane) systems at high pressures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zamora-López, Héctor S.; Galicia-Luna, Luis A.; Elizalde-Solis, Octavio; Hernández-Rosales, Irma P.; Méndez-Lango, Edgar

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Experimental density data are reported for (ethanol + decane) and (ethanol + decane + CO 2 ) mixtures. ► Compressed liquid densities were measured in a vibrating tube densimeter from (313 to 363) K. ► Excess molar volumes for (ethanol + decane) mixtures are positive. ► The presence of carbon dioxide in the (ethanol + decane) mixture causes negative excess molar volumes. - Abstract: Volumetric properties for the binary (ethanol + decane) and ternary (ethanol + decane + carbon dioxide) systems are reported from (313 to 363) K and pressures up to 20 MPa. Compressed liquid densities of both systems were measured in a vibrating tube densimeter at different compositions. Binary mixtures {x 1 ethanol + (1-x 1 ) decane} were prepared at x 1 = 0.0937, 0.1011, 0.2507, 0.4963, 0.7526, 0.9014. Compositions for the ternary system were prepared by varying the ethanol/decane relation and trying to keep constant the presence of carbon dioxide at about 0.2 mole fraction. These were {x 1 ethanol + x 2 decane + (1-x 1 -x 2 ) carbon dioxide} x 1 = 0.0657, 0.1986, 0.4087, 0.6042, 0.7109. Density results were correlated using an empirical model with five parameters. Deviations between experimental and calculated values agree and are within the experimental uncertainty. Isobaric expansivity, isothermal compressibility, thermal pressure coefficient, and internal pressure have been calculated for both binary and ternary systems using the empirical model.

  9. Environmental aspects of ethanol derived from no-tilled corn grain: nonrenewable energy consumption and greenhouse gas emissions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Seungdo; Dale, Bruce E.

    2005-01-01

    Nonrenewable energy consumption and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions associated with ethanol (a liquid fuel) derived from corn grain produced in selected counties in Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Michigan, Minnesota, Ohio, and Wisconsin are presented. Corn is cultivated under no-tillage practice (without plowing). The system boundaries include corn production, ethanol production, and the end use of ethanol as a fuel in a midsize passenger car. The environmental burdens in multi-output biorefinery processes (e.g., corn dry milling and wet milling) are allocated to the ethanol product and its various coproducts by the system expansion allocation approach. The nonrenewable energy requirement for producing 1 kg of ethanol is approximately 13.4-21.5 MJ (based on lower heating value), depending on corn milling technologies employed. Thus, the net energy value of ethanol is positive; the energy consumed in ethanol production is less than the energy content of the ethanol (26.8 MJ kg -1 ). In the GHG emissions analysis, nitrous oxide (N 2 O) emissions from soil and soil organic carbon levels under corn cultivation in each county are estimated by the DAYCENT model. Carbon sequestration rates range from 377 to 681 kg C ha -1 year -1 and N 2 O emissions from soil are 0.5-2.8 kg N ha -1 year -1 under no-till conditions. The GHG emissions assigned to 1 kg of ethanol are 260-922 g CO 2 eq. under no-tillage. Using ethanol (E85) fuel in a midsize passenger vehicle can reduce GHG emissions by 41-61% km -1 driven, compared to gasoline-fueled vehicles. Using ethanol as a vehicle fuel, therefore, has the potential to reduce nonrenewable energy consumption and GHG emissions

  10. Potential feedstock sources for ethanol production in Florida

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rahmani, Mohammad [Univ. of Florida, Gainesville, FL (United States); Hodges, Alan [Univ. of Florida, Gainesville, FL (United States)

    2015-10-01

    This study presents information on the potential feedstock sources that may be used for ethanol production in Florida. Several potential feedstocks for fuel ethanol production in Florida are discussed, such as, sugarcane, corn, citrus byproducts and sweet sorghum. Other probable impacts need to be analyzed for sugarcane to ethanol production as alternative uses of sugarcane may affect the quantity of sugar production in Florida. While citrus molasses is converted to ethanol as an established process, the cost of ethanol is higher, and the total amount of citrus molasses per year is insignificant. Sorghum cultivars have the potential for ethanol production. However, the agricultural practices for growing sweet sorghum for ethanol have not been established, and the conversion process must be tested and developed at a more expanded level. So far, only corn shipped from other states to Florida has been considered for ethanol production on a commercial scale. The economic feasibility of each of these crops requires further data and technical analysis.

  11. Report of the PRI biofuel-ethanol; Rapport du PRI biocarburant-ethanol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2004-07-01

    This evaluation report presents three research programs in the framework of the physiological behavior of the yeast ''Saccharomyces cerevisiae'', with high ethanol content. These studies should allowed to select an efficient yeast for the ethanol production. The first study concerns the development of an enzymatic process for the hydrolysis and the fermentation. The second study deals with the molecular and dynamical bases for the yeast metabolic engineering for the ethanol fuel production. The third research concerns the optimization of performance of microbial production processes of ethanol. (A.L.B.)

  12. Beyond commonplace biofuels: Social aspects of ethanol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ribeiro, Barbara Esteves

    2013-01-01

    Biofuels policies and projects may lead to environmental, economic and social impacts. A number of studies point out the need to deliver comprehensive sustainability assessments regarding biofuels, with some presenting analytical frameworks that claim to be exhaustive. However, what is often found in the literature is an overexploitation of environmental and economic concerns, by contrast to a limited appraisal of the social aspects of biofuels. Building on a systematic review of the peer-reviewed literature, this paper discusses the social constraints and strengths of ethanol, with regard to the product's lifecycle stages and the actors involved. Its objective is to contribute to the development of social frameworks to be used in assessing the impact of ethanol. Main findings indicate that ethanol developments can increase the levels of social vulnerability, although there is little evidence in the literature regarding the positive and negative social impacts of 1st-generation ethanol and potential impacts of cellulosic ethanol. Further work is needed on the formulation of social criteria and indicators for a comprehensive sustainability assessment of this biofuel. Policy makers need to internalise the social dimension of ethanol in decision-making to prevent public opposition and irreversible social costs in the future. - Highlights: ► The literature lacks evidence on the social impacts of ethanol. ► Further work is needed on social criteria and indicators for assessment. ► Ethanol developments can increase the levels of social vulnerability. ► Decision-making should internalise the social dimension of biofuels sustainability

  13. The combination of atorvastatin and ethanol is not more hepatotoxic to rats than the administration of each drug alone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.T. Ito

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Animal studies and premarketing clinical trials have revealed hepatotoxicity of statins, primarily minor elevations in serum alanine aminotransferase levels. The combined chronic use of medicines and eventual ethanol abuse are common and may present a synergistic action regarding liver injury. Our objective was to study the effect of the chronic use of atorvastatin associated with acute ethanol administration on the liver in a rat model. One group of rats was treated daily for 5 days a week for 2 months with 0.8 mg/kg atorvastatin by gavage. At the end of the treatment the livers were perfused with 72 mM ethanol for 60 min. Control groups (at least 4 animals in each group consisted of a group of 2-month-old male Wistar EPM-1 rats exposed to 10% ethanol (v/v ad libitum replacing water for 2 months, followed by perfusion of the liver with 61 nM atorvastatin for 60 min, and a group of animals without chronic ethanol treatment whose livers were perfused with atorvastatin and/or ethanol. The combination of atorvastatin with ethanol did not increase the release of injury marker enzymes (alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, and lactic dehydrogenase from the liver and no change in liver function markers (bromosulfophthalein clearance, and oxygen consumption was observed. Our results suggest that the combination of atorvastatin with ethanol is not more hepatotoxic than the separate use of each substance.

  14. Ethanol exposure disrupts extraembryonic microtubule cytoskeleton and embryonic blastomere cell adhesion, producing epiboly and gastrulation defects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Swapnalee Sarmah

    2013-08-01

    Fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD occurs when pregnant mothers consume alcohol, causing embryonic ethanol exposure and characteristic birth defects that include craniofacial, neural and cardiac defects. Gastrulation is a particularly sensitive developmental stage for teratogen exposure, and zebrafish is an outstanding model to study gastrulation and FASD. Epiboly (spreading blastomere cells over the yolk cell, prechordal plate migration and convergence/extension cell movements are sensitive to early ethanol exposure. Here, experiments are presented that characterize mechanisms of ethanol toxicity on epiboly and gastrulation. Epiboly mechanisms include blastomere radial intercalation cell movements and yolk cell microtubule cytoskeleton pulling the embryo to the vegetal pole. Both of these processes were disrupted by ethanol exposure. Ethanol effects on cell migration also indicated that cell adhesion was affected, which was confirmed by cell aggregation assays. E-cadherin cell adhesion molecule expression was not affected by ethanol exposure, but E-cadherin distribution, which controls epiboly and gastrulation, was changed. E-cadherin was redistributed into cytoplasmic aggregates in blastomeres and dramatically redistributed in the extraembryonic yolk cell. Gene expression microarray analysis was used to identify potential causative factors for early development defects, and expression of the cell adhesion molecule protocadherin-18a (pcdh18a, which controls epiboly, was significantly reduced in ethanol exposed embryos. Injecting pcdh18a synthetic mRNA in ethanol treated embryos partially rescued epiboly cell movements, including enveloping layer cell shape changes. Together, data show that epiboly and gastrulation defects induced by ethanol are multifactorial, and include yolk cell (extraembryonic tissue microtubule cytoskeleton disruption and blastomere adhesion defects, in part caused by reduced pcdh18a expression.

  15. Viability and application of ethanol production coupled with solar cooling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Americano da Costa, Marcus V.; Pasamontes, Manuel; Normey-Rico, Julio E.; Guzmán, José L.; Berenguel, Manuel

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► Two types of clean energy were analized together: bioethanol and solar. ► The ethanol fermentation process was modeled. ► An advanced control was implemented in the unit model. ► A real plant of solar energy was operated. ► The experiments were performed using the Hardware in the Loop technique. -- Abstract: This work presents a combined optimization system to use solar energy as support for the ethanol industry. Solar radiation is used to produce energy in order to assist the cooling systems in the fermentation process. The experiments have been performed following a hardware in the loop technique by mixing the solar cooling plant in the Centro de Investigación de Energía Solar (CIESOL) located at the University of Almería (Spain), and a simulator of ethanol fermentation processes in Brazilian factories. The results are analyzed in detail to show the main advantages (important increment in ethanol production and use of clean energies) compared to the mode of operation of the current factories in Brazil.

  16. Rational optimization of culture conditions for the most efficient ethanol production in Scheffersomyces stipitis using design of experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unrean, Pornkamol; Nguyen, Nhung H A

    2012-01-01

    Optimization of culture parameters for achieving the most efficient ethanol fermentation is challenging due to multiple variables involved. Here we presented a rationalized methodology for multi-variables optimization through the design of experiments DoE approach. Three critical parameters, pH, temperature, and agitation speed, affecting ethanol fermentation in S. stipitis was investigated. A predictive model showed that agitation speed significantly affected ethanol synthesis. Reducing pH and temperature also improved ethanol production. The model identified the optimum culture conditions for the most efficient ethanol production with the yield and productivity of 0.46 g/g and 0.28 g/l h, respectively, which is consistent with experimental observation. The results also indicated the scalability of the model from shake flask to bioreactor. Thus, DoE is a promising tool permitting the rapid establishment of culture conditions for the most efficient ethanol fermentation in S. stipitis. The approach could be useful to reduce process development time in lignocellulosic ethanol industry. Copyright © 2012 American Institute of Chemical Engineers (AIChE).

  17. A study of antimicrobial activity, acute toxicity and cytoprotective effect of a polyherbal extract in a rat ethanol-HCl gastric ulcer model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haule Emmanuel E

    2012-10-01

    . Both the individual plant extracts and the mixed extracts of 5 plants exhibited weak to moderate antibacterial activity against four G-ve bacteria. Despite Ozoroa insignis being toxic to mice at doses above 1000 mg/kg body wt, the other plant extracts and the combined extract of the 5 plants were tolerated by mice up to 5000 mg/kg body wt. The brine shrimp test results showed the same pattern of toxicity with Ozoroa insignis being the most toxic (LC50 = 10.63 μg/ml. Phytochemical tests showed that the combined extract of the five plants contained tannins, saponins, steroids, cardiac glycosides, flavonoids and terpenoids. Flavonoids, tannins and terpenoids are known to have antioxidant activity. Conclusion The combined extract of the five plants exhibited a dose-dependent protective activity in the rat ethanol-HCl gastric ulcer model. The extracts also exhibited weak antibacterial activity against four Gram negative bacteria and low acute toxicity in mice and brine shrimps. Although the results support claims by traditional healers who use a decoction of the five plants for treatment of peptic ulcers, more models of gastric ulceration and proper animal toxicity studies are needed to validate possible clinical use of the polyherbal extract. It is also evident that the doses of the crude extracts showing protection of the gastric mucosa are too large for realistic translation to direct clinical application, but further studies using bioassay guided fractionation are important to either identify more practical fractions or active compound/s.

  18. A study of antimicrobial activity, acute toxicity and cytoprotective effect of a polyherbal extract in a rat ethanol-HCl gastric ulcer model

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    plant extracts and the mixed extracts of 5 plants exhibited weak to moderate antibacterial activity against four G-ve bacteria. Despite Ozoroa insignis being toxic to mice at doses above 1000 mg/kg body wt, the other plant extracts and the combined extract of the 5 plants were tolerated by mice up to 5000 mg/kg body wt. The brine shrimp test results showed the same pattern of toxicity with Ozoroa insignis being the most toxic (LC50 = 10.63 μg/ml). Phytochemical tests showed that the combined extract of the five plants contained tannins, saponins, steroids, cardiac glycosides, flavonoids and terpenoids. Flavonoids, tannins and terpenoids are known to have antioxidant activity. Conclusion The combined extract of the five plants exhibited a dose-dependent protective activity in the rat ethanol-HCl gastric ulcer model. The extracts also exhibited weak antibacterial activity against four Gram negative bacteria and low acute toxicity in mice and brine shrimps. Although the results support claims by traditional healers who use a decoction of the five plants for treatment of peptic ulcers, more models of gastric ulceration and proper animal toxicity studies are needed to validate possible clinical use of the polyherbal extract. It is also evident that the doses of the crude extracts showing protection of the gastric mucosa are too large for realistic translation to direct clinical application, but further studies using bioassay guided fractionation are important to either identify more practical fractions or active compound/s. PMID:23031266

  19. Chronic ethanol consumption impairs learning and memory after cessation of ethanol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farr, Susan A; Scherrer, Jeffrey F; Banks, William A; Flood, James F; Morley, John E

    2005-06-01

    Acute consumption of ethanol results in reversible changes in learning and memory whereas chronic ethanol consumption of six or more months produces permanent deficits and neural damage in rodents. The goal of the current paper was determine whether shorter durations of chronic ethanol ingestion in mice would produce long-term deficits in learning and memory after the cessation of ethanol. We first examined the effects of four and eight weeks of 20% ethanol followed by a three week withdrawal period on learning and memory in mice. We determined that three weeks after eight, but not four, weeks of 20% ethanol consumption resulted in deficits in learning and long-term memory (seven days) in T-maze footshock avoidance and Greek Cross brightness discrimination, step-down passive avoidance and shuttlebox active avoidance. Short-term memory (1 hr) was not affected. The deficit was not related to changes in thiamine status, caloric intake, or nonmnemonic factors, such as, activity or footshock sensitivity. Lastly, we examined if the mice recovered after longer durations of withdrawal. After eight weeks of ethanol, we compared mice after three and 12 weeks of withdrawal. Mice that had been off ethanol for both three and 12 weeks were impaired in T-maze footshock avoidance compared to the controls. The current results indicate that a duration of ethanol consumption as short as eight weeks produces deficits in learning and memory that are present 12 weeks after withdrawal.

  20. Nonrenewable energy cost of corn-ethanol in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Q.; Chen, G.Q.

    2012-01-01

    Nonrenewable energy cost is accounted for the believed renewable biofuel of corn-ethanol in China. By a process-based energy analysis, nonrenewable energy cost in the corn-ethanol production process incorporating agricultural crop production, industrial conversion and wastewater treatment is conservatively estimated as 1.70 times that of the ethanol energy produced, corresponding to a negative energy return in contrast to the positive ones previously reported. Nonrenewable energy cost associated with wastewater treatment usually ignored in previous researches is shown important in the energy balance. Denoting the heavy nonrenewability of the produced corn-ethanol, the calculated nonrenewable energy cost would rise to 3.64 folds when part of the nonrenewable energy cost associated with water consumption, transportation and environmental remediation is included. Due to the coal dominated nonrenewable energy structure in China, corn-ethanol processes in China are mostly a conversion of coal to ethanol. Validations and discussions are also presented to reveal policy implications against corn based ethanol as an alternative energy in long term energy security planning. - Highlights: ► Nonrenewable energy (NE) cost is conservatively accounted for corn-ethanol in China. ► Corn cultivation, ethanol conversion and wastewater treatment are included. ► NE cost is estimated as 1.70 times that of the ethanol energy produced. ► Corn-ethanol processes in China are mostly a conversion of coal to ethanol.

  1. Alterations of rat corticostriatal synaptic plasticity after chronic ethanol exposure and withdrawal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Jian Xun; Li, Jing; Zhou, Rong; Zhang, Xiao Hu; Ge, Yin Bing; Ru Yuan, Xiao

    2006-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of chronic ethanol exposure (CEE) and withdrawal on corticostriatal plasticity in rats. We established an animal model of alcoholism using the method of Turchan et al. (1999). A synaptic model of long-term memory (long-term depression, LTD) was used as an index and the striatum, which is related to habit learning, was selected as a target region in the present study. The effects of CEE and withdrawal on the LTD were studied in striatal slices of ethanol-dependent rats using the extracellular recording method. A stable LTD can be induced after high-frequency stimulation (HFS) in the slices of control rats. Chronic ethanol exposure and withdrawal suppressed the induction of corticostriatal LTD to different extents, with the strongest suppressive effects on LTD occurring in the slices of rats exposed to ethanol for 10 days and in those withdrawn from ethanol for 1 day. Notably, 3 days of withdrawal resulted in the shift of corticostriatal synaptic plasticity from LTD to long-term potentiation, and the peak latencies of the population spikes were obviously shortened compared with those of control rats. After 7 days of withdrawal, ethanol's effects tended to disappear. These results suggest that the alterations of corticostriatal synaptic plasticity produced by CEE and withdrawal may play a prominent role in alcohol abuse and alcoholism.

  2. The effect of the parasitic current on the direct ethanol PEM fuel cell operation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andreadis, G.M.; Podias, A.K.M.; Tsiakaras, P.E. [Department of Mechanical and Industrial Engineering, School of Engineering, University of Thessaly, Pedion Areos, 383 34 Volos (Greece)

    2008-07-01

    In the present work the effect of the parasitic or leakage current, I{sub p}, which is the result of the ethanol crossover through the polymer electrolyte membrane (PEM) from the anode to the cathode side of the cell, on both the cathode activation overpotential and the fuel cell operation is investigated. A one-dimensional (1-D), isothermal mathematical model is developed in order to describe the operation of a direct ethanol PEM fuel cell (DE-PEMFC) in steady state. The equations used describe the mass transport of both ethanol and humidified oxygen at the anode and the cathode compartment of the cell respectively. The mathematical model is validated against experimental data and a relatively good agreement between the model predictions and the experimental results is found. The direct correlation that exists between the ethanol crossover rate and the parasitic current formation is graphically depicted. Moreover, when the parasitic current is enabled and disabled, the calculation of the cathode activation overpotential shows that the mixed overpotential for a DE-PEMFC poses a serious problem hindering the fuel cell operation. According to the model results, the parasitic current is greater at low current density values due to the greater amounts of the crossovered ethanol. Finally, the effect of both the oxygen feed concentration and the parasitic current formation on the fuel cell operation is also presented and discussed. (author)

  3. Ethanol production by recombinant and natural xylose-utilising yeasts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eliasson, Anna

    2000-07-01

    The xylose-fermenting capacity of recombinant Saccharomyces cerevisiae carrying XYL1 and XYL2 from Pichia stipitis, which encode xylose reductase (XR) and xylitol dehydrogenase (XDH), respectively, is poor due to high xylitol formation. Whereas, P. stipitis exhibits high ethanol yield on xylose, the tolerance towards inhibitors in the lignocellulosic hydrolysate is low. A recombinant strain possessing the advantageous characteristics of both S. cerevisiae and P. stipitis would constitute a biocatalyst capable of efficient ethanol production from lignocellulosic hydrolysate. In the work presented in this thesis, factors influencing xylose fermentation in recombinant S. cerevisiae and in the natural xylose-fermenting yeast P. stipitis have been identified and investigated. Anaerobic xylulose fermentation was compared in strains of Zygosaccharomyces and S. cerevisiae, mutants and wild-type strains to identify host strain background and genetic modifications beneficial for xylose fermentation. The greatest positive effect was found for over-expression of the gene XKS1 for the pentose phosphate pathway (PPP) enzyme xylulokinase (XK), which increased the ethanol yield by almost 85%. The Zygosaccharomyces strains tested formed large amounts of polyols, making them unsuitable as host strains. The XR/XDH/XK ratio was found to determine whether carbon accumulated in a xylitol pool or was further utilised for ethanol production in recombinant xylose-utilising S. cerevisiae. Simulations, based on a kinetic model, and anaerobic xylose cultivation experiments implied that a 1:{>=}10:{>=}4 relation was optimal in minimising xylitol formation. Ethanol formation increased with decreasing XR/XDH ratio, whereas xylitol formation decreased and XK overexpression was necessary for adequate ethanol formation. Based on the knowledge of optimal enzyme ratios, a stable, xylose-utilising strain, S. cerevisiae TMB 3001, was constructed by chromosomal integration of the XYL1 and XYL2 genes

  4. Assessment of Ethanol Trends on the ISS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, Jay; Carter, Layne; Kayatin, Matthew; Gazda, Daniel; McCoy, Torin; Limero, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) Environmental Control and Life Support System (ECLSS) provides a working environment for six crewmembers through atmosphere revitalization and water recovery systems. In the last year, elevated ethanol levels have presented a unique challenge for the ISS ECLSS. Ethanol is monitored on the ISS by the Air Quality Monitor (AQM). The source of this increase is currently unknown. This paper documents the credible sources for the increased ethanol concentration, the monitoring provided by the AQM, and the impact on the atmosphere revitalization and water recovery systems.

  5. Exogenous Nucleotides Antagonize the Developmental Toxicity of Ethanol In Vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jie Zhao

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to assess whether nucleotides supplementation in vitro could suppress ethanol-induced developmental toxicity in mouse. The models of whole embryo culture (WEC and midbrain (MB cell micromass culture were used in this study. In WEC system, exposure to 4.0 mg/mL ethanol for 48 h yielded various developmental malformations of the mice embryos. Nucleotides supplementation (0.16, 0.80, 4.00, 20.00, and 100.00 mg/L improved the growth parameters to some extent, and the protective effects peaked at 4.00 mg/L. In MB cell micromass culture system, exposure to 4.0 mg/mL ethanol for 5 days resulted in suppression of proliferation and differentiation. Supplementation of nucleotides (0.16, 0.80, 4.00, 20.00, and 100.00 mg/L showed some protective effects, which peaked at 4.00 mg/L, too. The present research indicated that nucleotides supplementation might be of some benefit in the prevention of ethanol-induced birth defects; however, appropriate dosage requires attention.

  6. Denatured ethanol release into gasoline residuals, Part 1: Source behaviour

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freitas, Juliana G.; Barker, James F.

    2013-05-01

    With the increasing use of ethanol in fuels, it is important to evaluate its fate when released into the environment. While ethanol is less toxic than other organic compounds present in fuels, one of the concerns is the impact ethanol might have on the fate of gasoline hydrocarbons in groundwater. One possible concern is the spill of denatured ethanol (E95: ethanol containing 5% denaturants, usually hydrocarbons) in sites with pre-existing gasoline contamination. In that scenario, ethanol is expected to increase the mobility of the NAPL phase by acting as a cosolvent and decreasing interfacial tension. To evaluate the E95 behaviour and its impacts on pre-existing gasoline, a field test was performed at the CFB-Borden aquifer. Initially gasoline contamination was created releasing 200 L of E10 (gasoline with 10% ethanol) into the unsaturated zone. One year later, 184 L of E95 was released on top of the gasoline contamination. The site was monitored using soil cores, multilevel wells and one glass access tube. At the end of the test, the source zone was excavated and the compounds remaining were quantified. E95 ethanol accumulated and remained within the capillary fringe and unsaturated zone for more than 200 days, despite ~ 1 m oscillations in the water table. The gasoline mobility increased and it was redistributed in the source zone. Gasoline NAPL saturations in the soil increased two fold in the source zone. However, water table oscillations caused a separation between the NAPL and ethanol: NAPL was smeared and remained in deeper positions while ethanol moved upwards following the water table rise. Similarly, the E95 denaturants that initially were within the ethanol-rich phase became separated from ethanol after the water table oscillation, remaining below the ethanol rich zone. The separation between ethanol and hydrocarbons in the source after water table oscillation indicates that ethanol's impact on hydrocarbon residuals is likely limited to early times.

  7. ANTIBACTERIAL AND BIOCHEMICAL EFFECTS OF ETHANOL LEAF EXTRACT OF SENNA HIRSUTA MILL USING ANIMAL MODEL-MICE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fred Coolborn Akharaiyi

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available This study was carried out to investigate the in-vitro and in-vivo antibacterial and biochemical activities of 50, 100 and 200mg.mL-1 concentrations of ethanol leaf extract of Senna hirsuta (hairy senna against seven human pathogenic bacteria species namely: Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Staphylococcus aureus, Enterococcus faecium, Bacillus cereus and Salmonella typhi. The in-vitro bioassay revealed the leaf extracts of valuable antibacterial activity where zones of inhibition ranging from 12.1mm to 39.1mm were observed on the test bacteria species. Among the test bacteria, K. pneumoniae was the most inhibited and S. typhi the least inhibited. On mice infection with the bacteria species for three days, decrease in weight of mice was observed. The in-vivo therapeutic use of the extracts in mice infected with the bacteria pathogens resulted to weight gain of the mice and other physiological changes that indicated health improvement of the mice and was also of hepatoprotective potential. The in-vivo antioxidant assay exhibited satisfactory therapeutic effects where improvement in aspartate aminotransferase (AST, alanine aminotransferase (ALT, and alkaline phosphatase (ALP status of mice was observed on comparing results of the positive and negative controls.

  8. A binomial random sum of present value models in investment analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Βουδούρη, Αγγελική; Ντζιαχρήστος, Ευάγγελος

    1997-01-01

    Stochastic present value models have been widely adopted in financial theory and practice and play a very important role in capital budgeting and profit planning. The purpose of this paper is to introduce a binomial random sum of stochastic present value models and offer an application in investment analysis.

  9. Optimization of the octane response of gasoline/ethanol blends

    KAUST Repository

    Badra, Jihad

    2017-07-04

    The octane responses of gasoline/ethanol mixtures are not well understood because of the unidentified intermolecular interactions in such blends. In general, when ethanol is blended with gasoline, the Research Octane Number (RON) and the Motor Octane Number (MON) non-linearly increase or decrease, and the non-linearity is determined by the composition of the base gasoline and the amount of added ethanol. The complexity of commercial gasolines, comprising of hundreds of different components, makes it challenging to understand ethanol-gasoline synergistic/antagonistic blending effects. Understanding ethanol blending effects with simpler gasoline surrogates is critical to acquire knowledge about ethanol blending with complex multi-component gasoline fuels. In this study, the octane numbers (ON) of ethanol blends with five relevant gasoline surrogate molecules were measured. The molecules investigated in this study include: n-pentane, iso-pentane, 1,2,4-trimethylbenzene, cyclopentane and 1-hexene. These new measurements along with the available data of n-heptane, iso-octane, toluene, various primary reference fuels (PRF) and toluene primary reference fuels (TPRF) with ethanol are used to develop a blending rule for the octane response (RON and MON) of multi-component blends with ethanol. In addition, new ON data are collected for six Fuels for Advanced Combustion Engine (FACE) with ethanol. The relatively simple volume based model successfully predicts the octane numbers (ON) of the various ethanol/PRF and ethanol/TPRF blends with the majority of predictions being within the ASTM D2699 (RON) and D2700 (MON) reproducibility limits. The model is also successfully validated against the ON of the FACE gasolines blended with ethanol with the majority of predictions being within the reproducibility limits. Finally, insights into the possible causes of the synergistic and antagonistic effects of different molecules with ethanol are provided.

  10. Recurring ethanol exposure induces disinhibited courtship in Drosophila.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyun-Gwan Lee

    Full Text Available Alcohol has a strong causal relationship with sexual arousal and disinhibited sexual behavior in humans; however, the physiological support for this notion is largely lacking and thus a suitable animal model to address this issue is instrumental. We investigated the effect of ethanol on sexual behavior in Drosophila. Wild-type males typically court females but not males; however, upon daily administration of ethanol, they exhibited active intermale courtship, which represents a novel type of behavioral disinhibition. The ethanol-treated males also developed behavioral sensitization, a form of plasticity associated with addiction, since their intermale courtship activity was progressively increased with additional ethanol experience. We identified three components crucial for the ethanol-induced courtship disinhibition: the transcription factor regulating male sex behavior Fruitless, the ABC guanine/tryptophan transporter White and the neuromodulator dopamine. fruitless mutant males normally display conspicuous intermale courtship; however, their courtship activity was not enhanced under ethanol. Likewise, white males showed negligible ethanol-induced intermale courtship, which was not only reinstated but also augmented by transgenic White expression. Moreover, inhibition of dopamine neurotransmission during ethanol exposure dramatically decreased ethanol-induced intermale courtship. Chronic ethanol exposure also affected a male's sexual behavior toward females: it enhanced sexual arousal but reduced sexual performance. These findings provide novel insights into the physiological effects of ethanol on sexual behavior and behavioral plasticity.

  11. Conceptual design of heterogeneous azeotropic distillation process for ethanol dehydration using 1-butanol as entrainer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paritta Prayoonyong

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The synthesis of a heterogeneous azeotropic distillation process for ethanol dehydration using 1-butanol as entrainer is presented. The residue curve map of the ethanol/water/1-butanol mixture is computationally generated using non-random twoliquid thermodynamic model. It is found that 1-butanol leads to a residue curve map topological structure different from that generated by typical entrainers used in ethanol dehydration. Synthesised by residue curve map analysis, the distillation flowsheet for ethanol dehydration by 1-butanol comprises a double-feed column integrated with an overhead decanter and a simple column. The double-feed column is used to recover water as the top product, whereas the simple column is used for recovering ethanol and 1-butanol. The separation feasibility and the economically near-optimal designs of distillation columns in the flowsheet are evaluated and identified by using the boundary value design method. The distillation flowsheet using 1-butanol is compared with the conventional process using benzene as entrainer. Based on their total annualised costs, the ethanol dehydration process using 1-butanol is less economically attractive than the process using benzene. However, 1-butanol is less toxic than benzene.

  12. Caenorhabditis elegans battling starvation stress: low levels of ethanol prolong lifespan in L1 larvae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paola V Castro

    Full Text Available The nematode Caenorhabditis elegans arrests development at the first larval stage if food is not present upon hatching. Larvae in this stage provide an excellent model for studying stress responses during development. We found that supplementing starved larvae with ethanol markedly extends their lifespan within this L1 diapause. The effects of ethanol-induced lifespan extension can be observed when the ethanol is added to the medium at any time between 0 and 10 days after hatching. The lowest ethanol concentration that extended lifespan was 1 mM (0.005%; higher concentrations to 68 mM (0.4% did not result in increased survival. In spite of their extended survival, larvae did not progress to the L2 stage. Supplementing starved cultures with n-propanol and n-butanol also extended lifespan, but methanol and isopropanol had no measurable effect. Mass spectrometry analysis of nematode fatty acids and amino acids revealed that L1 larvae can incorporate atoms from ethanol into both types of molecules. Based on these data, we suggest that ethanol supplementation may extend the lifespan of L1 larvae by either serving as a carbon and energy source and/or by inducing a stress response.

  13. Ethanol mediated enhancement in bacterial transformation

    OpenAIRE

    Sharma,Arun Dev; Singh,Jaspreet; Gill,Prabhjot Kaur

    2007-01-01

    In molecular biology, transformation using E. coli as a host plays a key role in synthesizing gene libraries. The present study demonstrated a new ethanol-based method for transformation of plasmid DNA to E. coli. Ethanol at 10% concentration (v/v) showed best results. Further, as compared with traditional CaCl2 method, the transformation rate, using protocol outlined in this study, was very high, suggesting amenable for further applications.

  14. [Cardiovascular depression and intravascular hemolysis secondary to ethanol injection for arteriovenous malformation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Mei-Hua; Su, Li-Xin; Qiu, Lin

    2016-08-01

    Ethanol is the only liquid embolization agent which can cure arteriovenous malformation. Complications of ethanol embolization are not rare including local tissue injury, intravascular hemolysis and cardiovascular depression even collapse, etc. This report presented a case of long time cardiovascular depression and intravascular hemolysis secondary to ethanol embolotherapy of right ear. In order to avoid the fatal complications that are associated with ethanol sclerotherapy, anesthesiologists should consider the use of continuously invasive hemodynamic monitoring while surgeons should carefully choose the dose of ethanol.

  15. Sugar-Based Ethanol Biorefinery: Ethanol, Succinic Acid and By-Product Production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Donal F. Day

    2009-03-31

    The work conducted in this project is an extension of the developments itemized in DE-FG-36-04GO14236. This program is designed to help the development of a biorefinery based around a raw sugar mill, which in Louisiana is an underutilized asset. Some technical questions were answered regarding the addition of a biomass to ethanol facility to existing sugar mills. The focus of this work is on developing technology to produce ethanol and valuable by-products from bagasse. Three major areas are addressed, feedstock storage, potential by-products and the technology for producing ethanol from dilute ammonia pre-treated bagasse. Sugar mills normally store bagasse in a simple pile. During the off season there is a natural degradation of the bagasse, due to the composting action of microorganisms in the pile. This has serious implications if bagasse must be stored to operate a bagasse/biorefinery for a 300+ day operating cycle. Deterioration of the fermentables in bagasse was found to be 6.5% per month, on pile storage. This indicates that long term storage of adequate amounts of bagasse for year-round operation is probably not feasible. Lignin from pretreatment seemed to offer a potential source of valuable by-products. Although a wide range of phenolic compounds were present in the effluent from dilute ammonia pretreatment, the concentrations of each (except for benzoic acid) were too low to consider for extraction. The cellulosic hydrolysis system was modified to produce commercially recoverable quantities of cellobiose, which has a small but growing market in the food process industries. A spin-off of this led to the production of a specific oligosaccharide which appears to have both medical and commercial implications as a fungal growth inhibitor. An alternate use of sugars produced from biomass hydrolysis would be to produce succinic acid as a chemical feedstock for other conversions. An organism was developed which can do this bioconversion, but the economics of

  16. Activation of ALDH2 with Low Concentration of Ethanol Attenuates Myocardial Ischemia/Reperfusion Injury in Diabetes Rat Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pin-Fang Kang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to observe the change of mitochondrial aldehyde dehydrogenase 2 (ALDH2 when diabetes mellitus (DM rat heart was subjected to ischemia/reperfusion (I/R intervention and analyze its underlying mechanisms. DM rat hearts were subjected to 30 min regional ischemia and 120 min reperfusion in vitro and pretreated with ALDH2 activator ethanol (EtOH; cardiomyocyte in high glucose (HG condition was pretreated with ALDH2 activator Alda-1. In control I/R group, myocardial tissue structure collapse appeared. Compared with control I/R group, left ventricular parameters, SOD activity, the level of Bcl-2/Bax mRNA, ALDH2 mRNA, and protein expressions were decreased and LDH and MDA contents were increased, meanwhile the aggravation of myocardial structure injury in DM I/R group. When DM I/R rats were pretreated with EtOH, left ventricular parameters, SOD, Bcl-2/Bax, and ALDH2 expression were increased; LDH, MDA, and myocardial structure injury were attenuated. Compared with DM + EtOH I/R group, cyanamide (ALDH2 nonspecific blocker, atractyloside (mitoPTP opener, and wortmannin (PI3K inhibitor groups all decreased left ventricular parameters, SOD, Bcl-2/Bax, and ALDH2 and increased LDH, MDA, and myocardial injury. When cardiomyocyte was under HG condition, CCK-8 activity and ALDH2 protein expression were decreased. Alda-1 increased CCK-8 and ALDH2. Our findings suggested enhanced ALDH2 expression in diabetic I/R rats played the cardioprotective role, maybe through activating PI3K and inhibiting mitoPTP opening.

  17. Observational constraints on the global atmospheric budget of ethanol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Naik

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Energy security and climate change concerns have led to the promotion of biomass-derived ethanol, an oxygenated volatile organic compound (OVOC, as a substitute for fossil fuels. Although ethanol is ubiquitous in the troposphere, our knowledge of its current atmospheric budget and distribution is limited. Here, for the first time we use a global chemical transport model in conjunction with atmospheric observations to place constraints on the ethanol budget, noting that additional measurements of ethanol (and its precursors are still needed to enhance confidence in our estimated budget. Global sources of ethanol in the model include 5.0 Tg yr−1 from industrial sources and biofuels, 9.2 Tg yr−1 from terrestrial plants, ~0.5 Tg yr−1 from biomass burning, and 0.05 Tg yr−1 from atmospheric reactions of the ethyl peroxy radical (C2H5O2 with itself and with the methyl peroxy radical (CH3O2. The resulting atmospheric lifetime of ethanol in the model is 2.8 days. Gas-phase oxidation by the hydroxyl radical (OH is the primary global sink of ethanol in the model (65%, followed by dry deposition (25%, and wet deposition (10%. Over continental areas, ethanol concentrations predominantly reflect direct anthropogenic and biogenic emission sources. Uncertainty in the biogenic ethanol emissions, estimated at a factor of three, may contribute to the 50% model underestimate of observations in the North American boundary layer. Current levels of ethanol measured in remote regions are an order of magnitude larger than those in the model, suggesting a major gap in understanding. Stronger constraints on the budget and distribution of ethanol and OVOCs are a critical step towards assessing the impacts of increasing the use of ethanol as a fuel.

  18. Competitiveness of Brazilian Sugarcane Ethanol Compared to US Corn Ethanol

    OpenAIRE

    Crago, Christine Lasco; Khanna, Madhu; Barton, Jason; Giuliani, Eduardo; Amaral, Weber

    2010-01-01

    Corn ethanol produced in the US and sugarcane ethanol produced in Brazil are the world’s leading sources of biofuel. Current US biofuel policies create both incentives and constraints for the import of ethanol from Brazil, and together with the competitiveness and greenhouse gas intensity of sugarcane ethanol compared to corn ethanol will determine the extent of these imports. This study analyzes the supply-side determinants of this competitiveness and compares the greenhouse gas intensity of...

  19. Biomass Supply Chain and Conversion Economics of Cellulosic Ethanol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez, Ronalds W.

    2011-12-01

    and supply chain models specifically for biomass to bioenergy production. The study suggest that this species can be profitably managed for biomass production with rotation length of 11 to 12 years and with a stand tree density of 1,200 trees per acre. Optimum rotation length is greatly affected by seedlings costs and biomass productivity. In the fourth study, a evaluation of seven different feedstocks (loblolly pine, natural mixed hardwood, Eucalyptus, switchgrass, miscanthus, corn stover and sweet sorghum) is made in terms of supply chain, biomass delivered costs, dollar per ton of carbohydrate and dollar per million BTU delivered to a biorefinery. Forest feedstocks present better advantages in terms of a well established supply chain, year round supply and no need for biomass storage. In the same context biomass delivered costs, as well as cost to delivered one ton of carbohydrate and one million BTU is lower in forest feedstocks. In the fifth study, conversion costs, profitability and sensitivity analysis for a novel pretreatment process, green liquor, are modeled for ethanol production with loblolly pine, natural mixed hardwood and Eucalyptus as feedstocks, evaluated in two investment scenarios: green field and repurposing of an old kraft pulp mill. Better financial returns are perceived in the natural hardwood - repurposing scenario, mainly due to lower CAPEX and lower enzyme charge and cost. In the sixth study, conversion cost, CAPEX, ethanol yield and profitability for the thermochemical process (indirect gasification and production of mixed alcohol) is simulated for loblolly pine, natural hardwood, eucalyptus, corn stover and switchgrass. Higher ethanol yield with forest feedstock (due to higher content of %C and %H) result in better economic performance, when compare to agriculture biomass. This research indicates that forest feedstock outperform agriculture biomass in terms of delivered costs, supply chain, ethanol yield and process profitability. Loblolly

  20. Synthesis of nanoparticles using ethanol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jia Xu

    2017-01-24

    The present disclosure relates to methods for producing nanoparticles. The nanoparticles may be made using ethanol as the solvent and the reductant to fabricate noble-metal nanoparticles with a narrow particle size distributions, and to coat a thin metal shell on other metal cores. With or without carbon supports, particle size is controlled by fine-tuning the reduction power of ethanol, by adjusting the temperature, and by adding an alkaline solution during syntheses. The thickness of the added or coated metal shell can be varied easily from sub-monolayer to multiple layers in a seed-mediated growth process. The entire synthesis of designed core-shell catalysts can be completed using metal salts as the precursors with more than 98% yield; and, substantially no cleaning processes are necessary apart from simple rinsing. Accordingly, this method is considered to be a "green" chemistry method.

  1. Fetal Exposure to Moderate Ethanol Doses: Heightened Operant Responsiveness elicited by Ethanol-Related Reinforcers

    Science.gov (United States)

    March, Samanta M.; Abate, Paula; Spear, Norman E.; Molina, Juan Carlos

    2011-01-01

    Background Prenatal exposure to moderate ethanol doses during late gestation modifies postnatal ethanol palatability and ingestion. The use of Pavlovian associative procedures, has indicated that these prenatal experiences broaden the range of ethanol doses capable of supporting appetitive conditioning. Recently, a novel operant technique aimed at analyzing neonatal predisposition to gain access to ethanol has been developed. Experiment 1 tested the operant conditioning technique for developing rats described by Arias et al. (2007) and Bordner et al. (2008). In Experiment 2 we analyzed changes in the disposition to gain access to ethanol as a result of moderate prenatal exposure to the drug. Methods In Experiment 1 newborn pups were intraorally cannulated and placed in a supine position that allowed access to a touch-sensitive sensor. Paired pups received an intraoral administration of a given reinforcer (milk or quinine) contingent upon physical contact with the sensor. Yoked controls received similar reinforcers only when Paired pups activated the circuit. In Experiment 2, natural reinforcers (water or milk) as well as ethanol (3% or 6 % v/v) or an ethanol-related reinforcer (sucrose compounded with quinine) were tested. In this Experiment pups had been exposed to water or ethanol (1 or 2 g/kg) during gestational days 17–20. Results Experiment 1 confirmed previous results showing that 1-day-old pups rapidly learn an operant task to gain access to milk, but not to gain access to a bitter tastant. Experiment 2 showed that water and milk were highly reinforcing across prenatal treatments. Furthermore, general activity during training was not affected by prenatal exposure to ethanol. Most importantly, prenatal ethanol exposure facilitated conditioning when the reinforcer was 3% v/v ethanol or a psychophysical equivalent of ethanol’s gustatory properties (sucrose-quinine). Conclusions The present results suggest that late prenatal experience with ethanol changes

  2. Effect of the Ethanol Injection Moment During Compression Stroke on the Combustion of Ethanol - Diesel Dual Direct Injection Engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Yu; Zhou, Liying; Huang, Haomin; Xu, Mingfei; Guo, Mei; Chen, Xin

    2018-01-01

    A set of GDI system is installed on a F188 single-cylinder, air-cooled and direct injection diesel engine, which is used for ethanol injection, with the injection time controlled by the crank angle signal collected by AVL angle encoder. The injection of ethanol amounts to half of the thermal equivalent of an original diesel fuel. A 3D combustion model is established for the ethanol - diesel dual direct injection engine. Diesel was injected from the original fuel injection system, with a fuel supply advance angle of 20°CA. The ethanol was injected into the cylinder during compression process. Diesel injection began after the completion of ethanol injection. Ethanol injection starting point of 240°CA, 260°CA, 280°CA, 300°CA and 319.4°CA were simulated and analyzed. Due to the different timing of ethanol injection, the ignition of the ethanol mixture when diesel fires, results in non-uniform ignition distribution and flame propagation rate, since the distribution and concentration gradients of the ethanol mixture in the cylinder are different, thus affecting the combustion process. The results show that, when ethanol is injected at 319.4°CA, the combustion heat release rate and the pressure rise rate during the initial stage are the highest. Also, the maximum combustion pressure, with a relatively advance phase, is the highest. In case of later initial ethanol injection, the average temperature in the cylinder during the initial combustion period will have a faster rise. In case of initial injection at 319.4°CA, the average temperature in the cylinder is the highest, followed by 240°CA ethanol injection. In the post-combustion stage, the earlier ethanol injection will result in higher average temperature in the cylinder and more complete fuel combustion. The injection of ethanol at 319.4°CA produces earlier and highest NOX emissions.

  3. Mappings from models presenting topological mass mechanisms to purely topological models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amaral, R.L.P.G.; Costa, J.V.; Bouffon, L.O.; Lemes, V.E.R.

    2004-01-01

    We discuss a class of mappings between the fields of the Cremmer-Sherk and pure BF model in 4D. These mappings are established both with an interactive procedure as well as with an exact mapping procedure. Related equivalencies in 5D and 3D are discussed. (author)

  4. Mappings From Models Presenting Topological Mass Mechanisms to Purely Topological Models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amaral, R.L.P.G.; Costa, J.V.; Ventura, O.S.; Bouffon, L.O.; Lemes, V.E.R.

    2004-01-01

    We discuss a class of mappings between the fields of the Cremmer-Sherk and pure BF model in 4D. These mappings are established both with an iterative procedure as well as with an exact mapping procedure. Related equivalences in 5D and 3D are discussed

  5. In vivo Wound Healing Activity of 70% Ethanol Leaf Extract of

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Becium grandiflorum Lam. (Lamiaceae)is used as a traditional medicine against malaria, “Mich” and for treatment of spider bite that culminates in wound. The present study evaluated the potential wound healing activity of the crude extract of B. grandiflorum using rodent wound models. Hydroalcoholic (70% ethanol) leaf ...

  6. Proceedings of the international symposium on alcohol fuel technology: methanol and ethanol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1978-07-01

    The papers presented dealt with the following topics: international situation and economic and political aspects, use of alcohol fuels as automotive fuels, production of methanol and methyl fuels, production of ethanol, methanol application and modeling, alcohol fuel optimization, and environmental considerations. Each paper was prepared for introduction into the EDB data base. (JSR)

  7. Estimating Heat and Mass Transfer Processes in Green Roof Systems: Current Modeling Capabilities and Limitations (Presentation)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tabares Velasco, P. C.

    2011-04-01

    This presentation discusses estimating heat and mass transfer processes in green roof systems: current modeling capabilities and limitations. Green roofs are 'specialized roofing systems that support vegetation growth on rooftops.'

  8. Lithium-Ion Battery Safety Study Using Multi-Physics Internal Short-Circuit Model (Presentation)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, G-.H.; Smith, K.; Pesaran, A.

    2009-06-01

    This presentation outlines NREL's multi-physics simulation study to characterize an internal short by linking and integrating electrochemical cell, electro-thermal, and abuse reaction kinetics models.

  9. A Prognostic Model for Development of Profound Shock among Children Presenting with Dengue Shock Syndrome.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Phung Khanh Lam

    Full Text Available To identify risk factors and develop a prediction model for the development of profound and recurrent shock amongst children presenting with dengue shock syndrome (DSS.We analyzed data from a prospective cohort of children with DSS recruited at the Paediatric Intensive Care Unit of the Hospital for Tropical Disease in Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam. The primary endpoint was "profound DSS", defined as ≥2 recurrent shock episodes (for subjects presenting in compensated shock, or ≥1 recurrent shock episodes (for subjects presenting initially with decompensated/hypotensive shock, and/or requirement for inotropic support. Recurrent shock was evaluated as a secondary endpoint. Risk factors were pre-defined clinical and laboratory variables collected at the time of presentation with shock. Prognostic model development was based on logistic regression and compared to several alternative approaches.The analysis population included 1207 children of whom 222 (18% progressed to "profound DSS" and 433 (36% had recurrent shock. Independent risk factors for both endpoints included younger age, earlier presentation, higher pulse rate, higher temperature, higher haematocrit and, for females, worse hemodynamic status at presentation. The final prognostic model for "profound DSS" showed acceptable discrimination (AUC=0.69 for internal validation and calibration and is presented as a simple score-chart.Several risk factors for development of profound or recurrent shock among children presenting with DSS were identified. The score-chart derived from the prognostic models should improve triage and management of children presenting with DSS in dengue-endemic areas.

  10. Process simulation of ethanol production from biomass gasification and syngas fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pardo-Planas, Oscar; Atiyeh, Hasan K; Phillips, John R; Aichele, Clint P; Mohammad, Sayeed

    2017-12-01

    The hybrid gasification-syngas fermentation platform can produce more bioethanol utilizing all biomass components compared to the biochemical conversion technology. Syngas fermentation operates at mild temperatures and pressures and avoids using expensive pretreatment processes and enzymes. This study presents a new process simulation model developed with Aspen Plus® of a biorefinery based on a hybrid conversion technology for the production of anhydrous ethanol using 1200tons per day (wb) of switchgrass. The simulation model consists of three modules: gasification, fermentation, and product recovery. The results revealed a potential production of about 36.5million gallons of anhydrous ethanol per year. Sensitivity analyses were also performed to investigate the effects of gasification and fermentation parameters that are keys for the development of an efficient process in terms of energy conservation and ethanol production. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Antiulcer and antioxidant activity of ethanolic extract of Passiflora foetida L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sathish, R.; Sahu, Alok; Natarajan, K.

    2011-01-01

    Passiflora foetida L. (Passifloraceae), a widely growing perennial climber, has been used in traditional medicine for treating many ailments. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the effects of ethanolic extract of P. foetida (EEPF) whole plant on gastric ulcer. The antiulcer effects of EEPF at 100 and 200 mg/kg doses were evaluated on ethanol and aspirin-induced gastric ulcer models. The antioxidant parameters and histological changes in gastric tissue of ulcer rats were also determined in both the models. P. foetida treatment significantly (P < 0.01) reduced the ulcer index and significantly (P < 0.01) increased the gastric pH of both ethanol and aspirin-induced ulcer rats. P. foetida showed significant (P < 0.01) reduction in lipid peroxidation and increase in reduced glutathione levels. The observations confirm that EEPF whole plant has antiulcer and antioxidant activities. PMID:21713043

  12. Competitiveness of Brazilian sugarcane ethanol compared to US corn ethanol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crago, Christine L.; Khanna, Madhu; Barton, Jason; Giuliani, Eduardo; Amaral, Weber

    2010-01-01

    Corn ethanol produced in the US and sugarcane ethanol produced in Brazil are the world's leading sources of biofuel. Current US biofuel policies create both incentives and constraints for the import of ethanol from Brazil and together with the cost competitiveness and greenhouse gas intensity of sugarcane ethanol compared to corn ethanol will determine the extent of these imports. This study analyzes the supply-side determinants of cost competitiveness and compares the greenhouse gas intensity of corn ethanol and sugarcane ethanol delivered to US ports. We find that while the cost of sugarcane ethanol production in Brazil is lower than that of corn ethanol in the US, the inclusion of transportation costs for the former and co-product credits for the latter changes their relative competitiveness. We also find that the relative cost of ethanol in the US and Brazil is highly sensitive to the prevailing exchange rate and prices of feedstocks. At an exchange rate of US1=R2.15 the cost of corn ethanol is 15% lower than the delivered cost of sugarcane ethanol at a US port. Sugarcane ethanol has lower GHG emissions than corn ethanol but a price of over $113 per ton of CO 2 is needed to affect competitiveness. (author)

  13. Competitiveness of Brazilian sugarcane ethanol compared to US corn ethanol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crago, Christine L. [Energy Biosciences Institute, 1115 IGB Bldg., 1206 W Gregory Drive, Urbana, IL (United States); Khanna, Madhu [Department of Agricultural and Consumer Economics, 301A Mumford Hall, 1301 W Gregory Drive, Urbana, IL (United States); Barton, Jason [Faculty of Land and Food Systems, University of British Columbia, 2357 Main Mall, Vancouver, BC (Canada); Giuliani, Eduardo [Venture Partners do Brasil, Rua Iguatemi 354 82, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Amaral, Weber [Av. Padua Dias 11 - CP 9, Forest Sciences Departament - ESALQ, University of Sao Paulo, 13148-900, Piracicaba, SP (Brazil)

    2010-11-15

    Corn ethanol produced in the US and sugarcane ethanol produced in Brazil are the world's leading sources of biofuel. Current US biofuel policies create both incentives and constraints for the import of ethanol from Brazil and together with the cost competitiveness and greenhouse gas intensity of sugarcane ethanol compared to corn ethanol will determine the extent of these imports. This study analyzes the supply-side determinants of cost competitiveness and compares the greenhouse gas intensity of corn ethanol and sugarcane ethanol delivered to US ports. We find that while the cost of sugarcane ethanol production in Brazil is lower than that of corn ethanol in the US, the inclusion of transportation costs for the former and co-product credits for the latter changes their relative competitiveness. We also find that the relative cost of ethanol in the US and Brazil is highly sensitive to the prevailing exchange rate and prices of feedstocks. At an exchange rate of US1=R2.15 the cost of corn ethanol is 15% lower than the delivered cost of sugarcane ethanol at a US port. Sugarcane ethanol has lower GHG emissions than corn ethanol but a price of over $113 per ton of CO{sub 2} is needed to affect competitiveness. (author)

  14. Incubation of ethanol reinstatement depends on test conditions and how ethanol consumption is reduced

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ginsburg, Brett C.; Lamb, R. J.

    2015-01-01

    In reinstatement studies (a common preclinical procedure for studying relapse), incubation occurs (longer abstinence periods result in more responding). This finding is discordant with the clinical literature. Identifying determinants of incubation could aid in interpreting reinstatement and identifying processes involved in relapse. Reinstated responding was examined in rats trained to respond for ethanol and food under a multiple concurrent schedule (Component 1: ethanol FR5, food FR150; Component 2: ethanol FR5, food FR5–alternating across the 30-min session). Ethanol consumption was then reduced for 1 or 16 sessions either by suspending training (rats remained in home cage) or by providing alternative reinforcement (only Component 2 stimuli and contingencies were presented throughout the session). In the next session, stimuli associated with Component 1 were presented and responses recorded but ethanol and food were never delivered. Two test conditions were studied: fixed-ratio completion either produced ethanol- or food-associated stimuli (signaled) or had no programmed consequence (unsignaled). Incubation of ethanol responding was observed only after suspended training during signaled test sessions. Incubation of food responding was also observed after suspended training. These results are most consistent with incubation resulting from a degradation of feedback functions limiting extinction responding, rather than an increased motivation. PMID:25595114

  15. Comparative experimental and modeling studies of the viscosity behavior of ethanol+C7 hydrocarbon mixtures versus pressure and temperature

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zeberg-Mikkelsen, Claus Kjær; Watson, G.; Baylaucq, A.

    2006-01-01

    measured with a classical capillary viscometer (Ubbelohde) with an uncertainty of +/- 1%. A total of 208 experimental datapoints are reported. The viscosity behavior of this binary system is interpreted as the results of changes in the free volume, and the breaking or weakening of hydrogen bonds...... viscosity models with a physical and theoretical background. The evaluated models are based on the hard-sphere scheme, the concepts of the free-volume and the friction theory, and a model derived from molecular dynamics. In addition to these models, the simple compositional models by Grunberg...

  16. Managing Multiple Mandates: A System of Systems Model to Analyze Strategies for Producing Cellulosic Ethanol and Reducing Riverine Nitrate Loads in the Upper Mississippi River Basin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Housh, Mashor; Yaeger, Mary A; Cai, Ximing; McIsaac, Gregory F; Khanna, Madhu; Sivapalan, Murugesu; Ouyang, Yanfeng; Al-Qadi, Imad; Jain, Atul K

    2015-10-06

    Implementing public policies often involves navigating an array of choices that have economic and environmental consequences that are difficult to quantify due to the complexity of multiple system interactions. Implementing the mandate for cellulosic biofuel production in the Renewable Fuel Standard (RFS) and reducing hypoxia in the northern Gulf of Mexico by reducing riverine nitrate-N loads represent two such cases that overlap in the Mississippi River Basin. To quantify the consequences of these interactions, a system of systems (SoS) model was developed that incorporates interdependencies among the various subsystems, including biofuel refineries, transportation, agriculture, water resources and crop/ethanol markets. The model allows examination of the impact of imposing riverine nitrate-N load limits on the biofuel production system as a whole, including land use change and infrastructure needs. The synergies of crop choice (first versus second generation biofuel crops), infrastructure development, and environmental impacts (streamflow and nitrate-N load) were analyzed to determine the complementarities and trade-offs between environmental protection and biofuel development objectives. For example, the results show that meeting the cellulosic biofuel target in the RFS using Miscanthus x giganteus reduces system profits by 8% and reduces nitrate-N loads by 12% compared to the scenario without a mandate. However, greater water consumption by Miscanthus is likely to reduce streamflow with potentially adverse environmental consequences that need to be considered in future decision making.

  17. Process Design and Economics for Biochemical Conversion of Lignocellulosic Biomass to Ethanol: Dilute-Acid Pretreatment and Enzymatic Hydrolysis of Corn Stover

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Humbird, D.; Davis, R.; Tao, L.; Kinchin, C.; Hsu, D.; Aden, A.; Schoen, P.; Lukas, J.; Olthof, B.; Worley, M.; Sexton, D.; Dudgeon, D.

    2011-03-01

    This report describes one potential biochemical ethanol conversion process, conceptually based upon core conversion and process integration research at NREL. The overarching process design converts corn stover to ethanol by dilute-acid pretreatment, enzymatic saccharification, and co-fermentation. Building on design reports published in 2002 and 1999, NREL, together with the subcontractor Harris Group Inc., performed a complete review of the process design and economic model for the biomass-to-ethanol process. This update reflects NREL's current vision of the biochemical ethanol process and includes the latest research in the conversion areas (pretreatment, conditioning, saccharification, and fermentation), optimizations in product recovery, and our latest understanding of the ethanol plant's back end (wastewater and utilities). The conceptual design presented here reports ethanol production economics as determined by 2012 conversion targets and 'nth-plant' project costs and financing. For the biorefinery described here, processing 2,205 dry ton/day at 76% theoretical ethanol yield (79 gal/dry ton), the ethanol selling price is $2.15/gal in 2007$.

  18. Sustainability of grape-ethanol energy chain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ester Foppa Pedretti

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work is to evaluate the sustainability, in terms of greenhouse gases emission saving, of a new potential bio-ethanol production chain in comparison with the most common ones. The innovation consists of producing bio-ethanol from different types of no-food grapes, while usually bio-ethanol is obtained from matrices taken away from crop for food destination: sugar cane, corn, wheat, sugar beet. In the past, breeding programs were conducted with the aim of improving grapevine characteristics, a large number of hybrid vine varieties were produced and are nowadays present in the Viticulture Research Centre (CRA-VIT Germplasm Collection. Some of them are potentially interesting for bio-energy production because of their high production of sugar, good resistance to diseases, and ability to grow in marginal lands. Life cycle assessment (LCA of grape ethanol energy chain was performed following two different methods: i using the spreadsheet BioGrace, developed within the Intelligent Energy Europe program to support and to ease the Renewable Energy Directive 2009/28/EC implementation; ii using a dedicated LCA software. Emissions were expressed in CO2 equivalent (CO2eq. These two tools gave very similar results. The overall emissions impact of ethanol production from grapes on average is about 33 g CO2eq MJ–1 of ethanol if prunings are used for steam production and 53 g CO2eq MJ–1 of ethanol if methane is used. The comparison with other bio-energy chains points out that the production of ethanol using grapes represents an intermediate situation in terms of general emissions among the different production chains. The results showed that the sustainability limits provided by the normative are respected to this day. On the contrary, from 2017 this production will be sustainable only if the transformation processes will be performed using renewable sources of energy.

  19. Ethanol from lignocellulosic biomasses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ricci, E.; Viola, E.; Zimbardi, F.; Braccio, G.; Cuna, D.

    2001-01-01

    In this report are presented results achieved on the process optimisation of bioethanol production from wheat straw, carried out within the ENEA's project of biomass exploitation for renewable energy. The process consists of three main steps: 1) biomass pretreatment by means of steam explosion; 2) enzymatic hydrolysis of the cellulose fraction; 3) fermentation of glucose. To perform the hydrolysis step, two commercial enzymatic mixtures have been employed, mainly composed by β-glucosidase (cellobiase), endo-glucanase and exo-glucanase. The ethanologenic yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae has been used to ferment the glucose in he hydrolyzates. Hydrolysis yield of 97% has been obtained with steam exploded wheat straw treated at 220 0 C for 3 minutes and an enzyme to substrate ratio of 4%. It has been pointed out the necessity of washing with water the pretreated what straw, in order to remove the biomass degradation products, which have shown an inhibition effect on the yeast. At the best process conditions, a fermentation yield of 95% has been achieved. In the Simultaneous Saccharification and Fermentation process, a global conversion of 92% has been obtained, which corresponds to the production of about 170 grams of ethanol per kilogram of exploded straw [it

  20. Catalase increases ethanol oxidation through the purine catabolism in rat liver.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villalobos-García, Daniel; Hernández-Muñoz, Rolando

    2017-08-01

    Hepatic ethanol oxidation increases according to its concentration and is raised to near-saturation levels of alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH); therefore, re-oxidation of NADH becomes rate limiting in ethanol metabolism by the liver. Adenosine is able to increase liver ethanol oxidation in both in vivo and in vitro conditions; the enhancement being related with the capacity of the nucleoside to accelerate the transport of cytoplasmic reducing equivalents to mitochondria, by modifying the subcellular distribution of the malate-aspartate shuttle components. In the present study, we explored the putative effects of adenosine and other purines on liver ethanol oxidation mediated by non-ADH pathways. Using the model of high precision-cut rat liver slices, a pronounced increase of ethanol oxidation was found in liver slices incubated with various intermediates of the purine degradation pathway, from adenosine to uric acid (175-230%, over controls). Of these, urate had the strongest (230%), whereas xanthine had the less pronounced effect (178% over controls). The enhancement was not abolished by 4-methylpyrazole, indicating that the effect was independent of alcohol dehydrogenase. Conversely, aminotriazole, a catalase inhibitor, completely abolished the effect, pointing out that this enhanced ethanol oxidation is mediated by catalase activity. It is concluded that the H 2 O 2 needed for catalase activity is derived from the oxidation of (hypo)xanthine by xanthine oxidase and the oxidation of urate by uricase. The present and previous data led us to propose that, depending on the metabolic conditions, adenosine might be able to stimulate the metabolism of ethanol through different pathways. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. An overview of exposure to ethanol-containing substances and ethanol intoxication in children based on three illustrated cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kam Lun Hon

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Alcohol addiction and intoxication are major health problems worldwide. Acute alcohol intoxication is well reported in adults and adolescents but less frequently reported in children of younger ages. We report three anonymized cases of pediatric ethanol exposure and illustrate the different mechanisms of intoxication. In all cases, a focused history is the key to prompt diagnosis and timely management. Physicians should be aware of this potential poison in children presented with acute confusional or encephalopathic state. In contrast, neonates with ethanol intoxication may present with nonspecific gastrointestinal symptomatology. Urgent exclusion of sepsis, electrolyte imbalance, drug intoxication, and surgical abdominal condition is critical. Using these illustrated cases, we performed a narrative literature review on issues of exposure to ethanol-containing substances and ethanol intoxication in children. In conclusion, a high level of suspicion and interrogation on ethanol or substance use are essential particularly in the lactating mother for an accurate and timely diagnosis of ethanol intoxication to be made.

  2. Present status of theories and data analyses of mathematical models for carcinogenesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kai, Michiaki; Kawaguchi, Isao

    2007-01-01

    Reviewed are the basic mathematical models (hazard functions), present trend of the model studies and that for radiation carcinogenesis. Hazard functions of carcinogenesis are described for multi-stage model and 2-event model related with cell dynamics. At present, the age distribution of cancer mortality is analyzed, relationship between mutation and carcinogenesis is discussed, and models for colorectal carcinogenesis are presented. As for radiation carcinogenesis, models of Armitage-Doll and of generalized MVK (Moolgavkar, Venson, Knudson, 1971-1990) by 2-stage clonal expansion have been applied to analysis of carcinogenesis in A-bomb survivors, workers in uranium mine (Rn exposure) and smoking doctors in UK and other cases, of which characteristics are discussed. In analyses of A-bomb survivors, models above are applied to solid tumors and leukemia to see the effect, if any, of stage, age of exposure, time progression etc. In miners and smokers, stages of the initiation, promotion and progression in carcinogenesis are discussed on the analyses. Others contain the analyses of workers in Canadian atomic power plant, and of patients who underwent the radiation therapy. Model analysis can help to understand the carcinogenic process in a quantitative aspect rather than to describe the process. (R.T.)

  3. Intrinsic properties of larval zebrafish neurons in ethanol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikeda, Hiromi; Delargy, Alison H; Yokogawa, Tohei; Urban, Jason M; Burgess, Harold A; Ono, Fumihito

    2013-01-01

    The behavioral effects of ethanol have been studied in multiple animal models including zebrafish. Locomotion of zebrafish larvae is resistant to high concentrations of ethanol in bath solution. This resistance has been attributed to a lower systemic concentration of ethanol in zebrafish when compared with bath solution, although the mechanism to maintain such a steep gradient is unclear. Here we examined whether the intrinsic properties of neurons play roles in this resistance. In order to minimize the contribution of metabolism and diffusional barriers, larvae were hemisected and the anterior half immersed in a range of ethanol concentrations thereby ensuring the free access of bath ethanol to the brain. The response to vibrational stimuli of three types of reticulospinal neurons: Mauthner neurons, vestibulospinal neurons, and MiD3 neurons were examined using an intracellular calcium indicator. The intracellular [Ca(2+)] response in MiD3 neurons decreased in 100 mM ethanol, while Mauthner neurons and vestibulospinal neurons required >300 mM ethanol to elicit similar effects. The ethanol effect in Mauthner neurons was reversible following removal of ethanol. Interestingly, activities of MiD3 neurons displayed spontaneous recovery in 300 mM ethanol, suggestive of acute tolerance. Finally, we examined with mechanical vibration the startle response of free-swimming larvae in 300 mM ethanol. Ethanol treatment abolished long latency startle responses, suggesting a functional change in neural processing. These data support the hypothesis that individual neurons in larval zebrafish brains have distinct patterns of response to ethanol dictated by specific molecular targets.

  4. Intrinsic properties of larval zebrafish neurons in ethanol.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiromi Ikeda

    Full Text Available The behavioral effects of ethanol have been studied in multiple animal models including zebrafish. Locomotion of zebrafish larvae is resistant to high concentrations of ethanol in bath solution. This resistance has been attributed to a lower systemic concentration of ethanol in zebrafish when compared with bath solution, although the mechanism to maintain such a steep gradient is unclear. Here we examined whether the intrinsic properties of neurons play roles in this resistance. In order to minimize the contribution of metabolism and diffusional barriers, larvae were hemisected and the anterior half immersed in a range of ethanol concentrations thereby ensuring the free access of bath ethanol to the brain. The response to vibrational stimuli of three types of reticulospinal neurons: Mauthner neurons, vestibulospinal neurons, and MiD3 neurons were examined using an intracellular calcium indicator. The intracellular [Ca(2+] response in MiD3 neurons decreased in 100 mM ethanol, while Mauthner neurons and vestibulospinal neurons required >300 mM ethanol to elicit similar effects. The ethanol effect in Mauthner neurons was reversible following removal of ethanol. Interestingly, activities of MiD3 neurons displayed spontaneous recovery in 300 mM ethanol, suggestive of acute tolerance. Finally, we examined with mechanical vibration the startle response of free-swimming larvae in 300 mM ethanol. Ethanol treatment abolished long latency startle responses, suggesting a functional change in neural processing. These data support the hypothesis that individual neurons in larval zebrafish brains have distinct patterns of response to ethanol dictated by specific molecular targets.

  5. Advanced Models and Controls for Prediction and Extension of Battery Lifetime (Presentation)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, K.; Wood, E.; Santhanagopalan, S.; Kim, G.; Pesaran, A.

    2014-02-01

    Predictive models of capacity and power fade must consider a multiplicity of degradation modes experienced by Li-ion batteries in the automotive environment. Lacking accurate models and tests, lifetime uncertainty must presently be absorbed by overdesign and excess warranty costs. To reduce these costs and extend life, degradation models are under development that predict lifetime more accurately and with less test data. The lifetime models provide engineering feedback for cell, pack and system designs and are being incorporated into real-time control strategies.

  6. Spatial and temporal aspects of grain accumulation costs for ethanol production: An Australian case study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderton, Nikki; Kingwell, Ross

    2008-01-01

    Ethanol production is increasingly commonplace in many grain-producing regions. This paper uses the grain-producing region of south-western Australia to illustrate spatial and temporal aspects of grain accumulation costs for ethanol production. Specifically, this study examines how price variability of various wheat grades, combined with spatial and temporal variability in production of those grades, affects the costs of grain accumulation. These costs are the main components of an ethanol plant's operating costs so lessening these costs can offer a comparative advantage for a plant owner. Logistics models based on mathematical programming are constructed for a range of plant sizes and locations for ethanol production. Modelling results identify low-cost sites that generate cost savings, in present value terms, of between 5 and 7.5 per cent, depending on plant size, over the 9-year study period. At all locations, small to medium-sized plants offer advantages of lower and less variable costs of grain accumulation. Yet, all locations and all plant sizes are characterised by marked volatility in the cost of grain accumulation. The profitability of ethanol production based on wheat in this region of Australia is particularly exposed to any prolonged period of high grain prices relative to petroleum prices, given current biofuel-policy settings in Australia. (author)

  7. LIQUID-LIQUID EQUILIBRIUM FOR TERNARY SYSTEMS CONTAINING ETHYLIC BIODIESEL + ANHYDROUS ETHANOL + REFINED VEGETABLE OIL (SUNFLOWER OIL, CANOLA OIL AND PALM OIL): EXPERIMENTAL DATA AND THERMODYNAMIC MODELING

    OpenAIRE

    Dias, T. P. V. B.; Mielke Neto, P.; Ansolin, M.; Follegatti-Romero, L. A.; Batista, E. A. C.; Meirelles, A. J. A.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Phase equilibria of the reaction components are essential data for the design and process operations of biodiesel production. Despite their importance for the production of ethylic biodiesel, the reaction mixture, reactant (oil and ethanol) and the product (fatty acid ethyl esters) up to now have received less attention than the corresponding systems formed during the separation and purification phases of biodiesel production using ethanol. In this work, new experimental measurements...

  8. LIQUID-LIQUID EQUILIBRIUM FOR TERNARY SYSTEMS CONTAINING ETHYLIC BIODIESEL + ANHYDROUS ETHANOL + REFINED VEGETABLE OIL (SUNFLOWER OIL, CANOLA OIL AND PALM OIL): EXPERIMENTAL DATA AND THERMODYNAMIC MODELING

    OpenAIRE

    T. P. V. B. Dias; P. Mielke Neto; L. A. Follegatti-Romero; E. A. C. Batista; A. J. A. Meirelles

    2015-01-01

    AbstractPhase equilibria of the reaction components are essential data for the design and process operations of biodiesel production. Despite their importance for the production of ethylic biodiesel, the reaction mixture, reactant (oil and ethanol) and the product (fatty acid ethyl esters) up to now have received less attention than the corresponding systems formed during the separation and purification phases of biodiesel production using ethanol. In this work, new experimental measurements ...

  9. An Economic Analysis of Corn-based Ethanol Production

    OpenAIRE

    Koo, Won W.; Taylor, Richard D.

    2008-01-01

    A global multi-commodity simulation model was developed to estimate the impact of changes in ethanol production on the U.S. corn industry. Increased ethanol production under the Energy Acts of 2005 and 2007 resulted in a significant increase in the price of corn. However, for corn-based ethanol production, the break-even price of corn is approximately $4.52 per bushel with a federal subsidy of $0.51 per gallon of pure ethanol and $2.50 gasoline. With a corn price of $4.52, the economically de...

  10. Lesions of the lateral habenula increase voluntary ethanol consumption and operant self-administration, block yohimbine-induced reinstatement of ethanol seeking, and attenuate ethanol-induced conditioned taste aversion.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew K Haack

    Full Text Available The lateral habenula (LHb plays an important role in learning driven by negative outcomes. Many drugs of abuse, including ethanol, have dose-dependent aversive effects that act to limit intake of the drug. However, the role of the LHb in regulating ethanol intake is unknown. In the present study, we compared voluntary ethanol consumption and self-administration, yohimbine-induced reinstatement of ethanol seeking, and ethanol-induced conditioned taste aversion in rats with sham or LHb lesions. In rats given home cage access to 20% ethanol in an intermittent access two bottle choice paradigm, lesioned animals escalated their voluntary ethanol consumption more rapidly than sham-lesioned control animals and maintained higher stable rates of voluntary ethanol intake. Similarly, lesioned animals exhibited higher rates of responding for ethanol in operant self-administration sessions. In addition, LHb lesion blocked yohimbine-induced reinstatement of ethanol seeking after extinction. Finally, LHb lesion significantly attenuated an ethanol-induced conditioned taste aversion. Our results demonstrate an important role for the LHb in multiple facets of ethanol-directed behavior, and further suggest that the LHb may contribute to ethanol-directed behaviors by mediating learning driven by the aversive effects of the drug.

  11. Ethanol fuels in Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trindade, S.C.

    1993-01-01

    The largest alternative transportation fuels program in the world today is Brazil's Proalcool Program. About 6.0 million metric tons of oil equivalent (MTOE) of ethanol, derived mainly from sugar cane, were consumed as transportation fuels in 1991 (equivalent to 127,000 barrels of crude oil per day). Total primary energy consumed by the Brazilian economy in 1991 was 184.1 million MTOE, and approximately 4.3 million vehicles -- about one third of the total vehicle fleet or about 40 percent of the total car population -- run on hydrous or open-quotes neatclose quotes ethanol at the azeotropic composition (96 percent ethanol, 4 percent water, by volume). Additional transportation fuels available in the country are diesel and gasoline, the latter of which is defined by three grades. Gasoline A (regular, leaded gas)d has virtually been replaced by gasoline C, a blend of gasoline and up to 22 percent anhydrous ethanol by volume, and gasoline B (premium gasoline) has been discontinued as a result of neat ethanol market penetration

  12. High-pressure pyrolysis and oxidation of ethanol

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hashemi, Hamid; Christensen, Jakob M.; Glarborg, Peter

    2018-01-01

    The pyrolysis and oxidation of ethanol has been investigated at temperatures of 600–900 K, a pressure of 50 bar and residence times of 4.3–6.8 s in a laminar flow reactor. The experiments, conducted with mixtures highly diluted in nitrogen, covered fuel-air equivalence ratios (Φ) of 0.1, 1.0, 43......, and ∞ . Ethanol pyrolysis was observed at temperatures above 850 K. The onset temperature of ethanol oxidation occurred at 700–725 K over a wide range of stoichiometries. A considerable yield of aldehydes was detected at intermediate temperatures. A detailed chemical kinetic model was developed and evaluated...... against the present data as well as ignition delay times and flame speed measurements from literature. The model predicted the onset of fuel conversion and the composition of products from the flow reactor experiments fairly well. It also predicted well ignition delays above 900 K whereas it overpredicted...

  13. Ethanolic extract of Astragali radix and Salviae radix prohibits oxidative brain injury by psycho-emotional stress in whisker removal rat model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyeong-Geug Kim

    Full Text Available Myelophil, an ethanolic extract of Astragali Radix and Salviae Radix, has been clinically used to treat chronic fatigue and stress related disorders in South Korea. In this study, we investigated the protective effects of Myelophil on a whisker removal-induced psycho-emotional stress model. SD rats were subjected to whisker removal after oral administration of Myelophil or ascorbic acid for consecutive 4 days. Whisker removal considerably increased total reactive oxygen species in serum levels as well as cerebral cortex and hippocampal regions in brain tissues. Lipidperoxidation levels were also increased in the cerebral cortex, hippocampus regions, and brain tissue injuries as shown in histopathology and immunohistochemistry. However, Myelophil significantly ameliorated these alterations, and depletion of glutathione contents in both cerebral cortex and hippocampus regions respectively. Serum levels of corticosterone and adrenaline were notably altered after whisker removal stress, whereas these abnormalities were significantly normalized by pre-treatment with Myelophil. The NF-κB was notably activated in both cerebral cortex and hippocampus after whisker removal stress, while it was efficiently blocked by pre-treatment with Myelophil. Myelophil also significantly normalizes alterations of tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin (IL-1β, IL-6 and interferon-γ in both gene expressions and protein levels. These results suggest that Myelophil has protective effects on brain damages in psycho-emotional stress, and the underlying mechanisms involve regulation of inflammatory proteins, especially NF-κB modulation.

  14. Anti-inflammatory Activity of Ethanol Extract of Beluntas Leaves (Pluchea indica L. on Complete Freund's Adjuvant-induced Inflammatory Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reza Setiawan Sudirman

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available A research about anti-inflammatory effect of Beluntas leaves extract on CFA (Complete Freund’s Adjuvant induced inflammatory model has been conducted. The objective of this research was to determine the effect of Beluntas leaves extract in alleviating CFA-induced paw edema in mice (Mus musculus. The number of mice used was 15 and was divided into 5 groups. Group I was treated with NaCMC. Group II, III, and IV were given suspension of Beluntas leaves extract 100 mg/Kg, 300 mg/Kg, and 500 mg/Kg BW, respectively. Group V was a positive control treated with suspension of diclofenac sodium 0.1 ml/10 g orally. The determination of anti-inflammatory potency was based on the average time needed to ameliorate the edema volume. The shortest  time period of edema reduction was produced by diclofenac sodium (within 9.33 days, then followed by Beluntas leaves extract with the concentration of 300 mg/Kg (within 12 days, 500 mg/Kg (within 14.33 days, and 100 mg/Kg (within 17.67 days, consecutively. These results are significantly different compared to negative control group which did not reduce the edema volume during 18 days of observation. In conclusion, ethanol extract of Beluntas leaves has an effective anti-inflamatory effect.

  15. The oral case presentation: toward a performance-based rhetorical model for teaching and learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Mei Yuit

    2015-01-01

    The oral case presentation is an important communicative activity in the teaching and assessment of students. Despite its importance, not much attention has been paid to providing support for teachers to teach this difficult task to medical students who are novices to this form of communication. As a formalized piece of talk that takes a regularized form and used for a specific communicative goal, the case presentation is regarded as a rhetorical activity and awareness of its rhetorical and linguistic characteristics should be given due consideration in teaching. This paper reviews practitioners' and the limited research literature that relates to expectations of medical educators about what makes a good case presentation, and explains the rhetorical aspect of the activity. It is found there is currently a lack of a comprehensive model of the case presentation that projects the rhetorical and linguistic skills needed to produce and deliver a good presentation. Attempts to describe the structure of the case presentation have used predominantly opinion-based methodologies. In this paper, I argue for a performance-based model that would not only allow a description of the rhetorical structure of the oral case presentation, but also enable a systematic examination of the tacit genre knowledge that differentiates the expert from the novice. Such a model will be a useful resource for medical educators to provide more structured feedback and teaching support to medical students in learning this important genre.

  16. The oral case presentation: toward a performance-based rhetorical model for teaching and learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mei Yuit Chan

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The oral case presentation is an important communicative activity in the teaching and assessment of students. Despite its importance, not much attention has been paid to providing support for teachers to teach this difficult task to medical students who are novices to this form of communication. As a formalized piece of talk that takes a regularized form and used for a specific communicative goal, the case presentation is regarded as a rhetorical activity and awareness of its rhetorical and linguistic characteristics should be given due consideration in teaching. This paper reviews practitioners’ and the limited research literature that relates to expectations of medical educators about what makes a good case presentation, and explains the rhetorical aspect of the activity. It is found there is currently a lack of a comprehensive model of the case presentation that projects the rhetorical and linguistic skills needed to produce and deliver a good presentation. Attempts to describe the structure of the case presentation have used predominantly opinion-based methodologies. In this paper, I argue for a performance-based model that would not only allow a description of the rhetorical structure of the oral case presentation, but also enable a systematic examination of the tacit genre knowledge that differentiates the expert from the novice. Such a model will be a useful resource for medical educators to provide more structured feedback and teaching support to medical students in learning this important genre.

  17. The oral case presentation: toward a performance-based rhetorical model for teaching and learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Mei Yuit

    2015-01-01

    The oral case presentation is an important communicative activity in the teaching and assessment of students. Despite its importance, not much attention has been paid to providing support for teachers to teach this difficult task to medical students who are novices to this form of communication. As a formalized piece of talk that takes a regularized form and used for a specific communicative goal, the case presentation is regarded as a rhetorical activity and awareness of its rhetorical and linguistic characteristics should be given due consideration in teaching. This paper reviews practitioners’ and the limited research literature that relates to expectations of medical educators about what makes a good case presentation, and explains the rhetorical aspect of the activity. It is found there is currently a lack of a comprehensive model of the case presentation that projects the rhetorical and linguistic skills needed to produce and deliver a good presentation. Attempts to describe the structure of the case presentation have used predominantly opinion-based methodologies. In this paper, I argue for a performance-based model that would not only allow a description of the rhetorical structure of the oral case presentation, but also enable a systematic examination of the tacit genre knowledge that differentiates the expert from the novice. Such a model will be a useful resource for medical educators to provide more structured feedback and teaching support to medical students in learning this important genre. PMID:26194482

  18. Evaluation of a novel periodontal risk assessment model in patients presenting for dental care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandra, R Viswa

    2007-01-01

    The present study was designed to develop a new periodontal risk assessment model based on the periodontal risk assessment (PRA) model by Lang and Tonetti, and to evaluate the risk assessment capability of the proposed model. Twenty-six patients diagnosed with chronic periodontitis were selected randomly and a thorough examination and charting of the periodontal status was performed. An intra-oral periapical radiograph of the area with the deepest probing depth was also taken. The following parameters were recorded: percentage of sites with BOP, number of sites with pocket depths > or = 5mm, number of teeth lost, bone loss/age ratio, attachment loss/age ratio, diabetic and smoking status, dental status, other systemic factors and risk determinants. Using Microsoft Excel, the parameters were plotted on the radar chart as per the original and the proposed model. Of the cases identified by the original model, 42.3% were high-risk cases and 30.8% of the cases were low-risk cases. In the proposed model, 46.2% of high-risk cases and 46.2% of low-risk cases were identified. Only 7.7% of the cases identified with the new model were moderate-risk cases. Statistical analysis demonstrated that there was no significant difference between the risk scores of the two models. The results suggest that risk assessment by this model does not vary significantly as compared to the original model, and both are equally adept at detecting potential risk groups.

  19. Importance of stability study of continuous systems for ethanol production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paz Astudillo, Isabel Cristina; Cardona Alzate, Carlos Ariel

    2011-01-10

    Fuel ethanol industry presents different problems during bioreactors operation. One of them is the unexpected variation in the output ethanol concentration from the bioreactor or a drastic fall in the productivity. In this paper, a compilation of concepts and relevant results of several experimental and theoretical studies about dynamic behavior of fermentation systems for bioethanol production with Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Zymomonas mobilis is done with the purpose of understanding the stability phenomena that could affect the productivity of industries producing fuel ethanol. It is shown that the design of high scale biochemical processes for fuel ethanol production must be done based on stability studies. © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Ethanol mediated As(III) adsorption onto Zn-loaded pinecone biochar: Experimental investigation, modeling, and optimization using hybrid artificial neural network-genetic algorithm approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zafar, Mohd; Van Vinh, N; Behera, Shishir Kumar; Park, Hung-Suck

    2017-04-01

    Organic matters (OMs) and their oxidization products often influence the fate and transport of heavy metals in the subsurface aqueous systems through interaction with the mineral surfaces. This study investigates the ethanol (EtOH)-mediated As(III) adsorption onto Zn-loaded pinecone (PC) biochar through batch experiments conducted under Box-Behnken design. The effect of EtOH on As(III) adsorption mechanism was quantitatively elucidated by fitting the experimental data using artificial neural network and quadratic modeling approaches. The quadratic model could describe the limiting nature of EtOH and pH on As(III) adsorption, whereas neural network revealed the stronger influence of EtOH (64.5%) followed by pH (20.75%) and As(III) concentration (14.75%) on the adsorption phenomena. Besides, the interaction among process variables indicated that EtOH enhances As(III) adsorption over a pH range of 2 to 7, possibly due to facilitation of ligand-metal(Zn) binding complexation mechanism. Eventually, hybrid response surface model-genetic algorithm (RSM-GA) approach predicted a better optimal solution than RSM, i.e., the adsorptive removal of As(III) (10.47μg/g) is facilitated at 30.22mg C/L of EtOH with initial As(III) concentration of 196.77μg/L at pH5.8. The implication of this investigation might help in understanding the application of biochar for removal of various As(III) species in the presence of OM. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  1. Nucleic acid molecules conferring enhanced ethanol tolerance and microorganisms having enhanced tolerance to ethanol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Steven; Guss, Adam; Yang, Shihui; Karpinets, Tatiana; Lynd, Lee; Shao, Xiongjun

    2014-01-14

    The present invention provides isolated nucleic acid molecules which encode a mutant acetaldehyde-CoA/alcohol dehydrogenase or mutant alcohol dehydrogenase and confer enhanced tolerance to ethanol. The invention also provides related expression vectors, genetically engineered microorganisms having enhanced tolerance to ethanol, as well as methods of making and using such genetically modified microorganisms for production of biofuels based on fermentation of biomass materials.

  2. Modelling of present and future hydrology and solute transport at Forsmark. SR-Site Biosphere

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bosson, Emma (Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Co., Stocholm (Sweden)); Sassner, Mona; Sabel, Ulrika; Gustafsson, Lars-Goeran (DHI Sverige AB (Sweden))

    2010-10-15

    Radioactive waste from nuclear power plants in Sweden is managed by the Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Co, SKB. SKB has performed site investigations at two different locations in Sweden, referred to as the Forsmark and Laxemar-Simpevarp areas, with the objective of siting a final repository for high-level radioactive waste. In 2009 a decision was made to focus on the Forsmark site. This decision was based on a large amount of empirical evidence suggesting Forsmark to be more suitable for a geological repository /SKB 2010b/. This report presents model results of numerical flow and transport modelling of surface water and near-surface groundwater at the Forsmark site for present and future conditions. Both temperate and periglacial climates have been simulated. Also different locations of the shoreline have been applied to the model, as well as different models of vegetation and Quaternary deposits. The modelling was performed using the modelling tool MIKE SHE and was based on the SDM-Site Forsmark MIKE SHE model (presented by Bosson et al. in SKB report R-08-09). The present work is a part of the biosphere modelling performed for the SR-Site safety assessment. The Forsmark area has a flat, small-scale topography. The study area is almost entirely below 20 m.a.s.l. (metres above sea level). There is a strong correlation between the topography of the ground surface and the ground water level in the Quaternary deposits (QD); thus, the surface water divides and the groundwater divides for the QD can be assumed to coincide. No major water courses flow through the catchment. Small brooks, which often dry out in the summer, connect the different sub-catchments with each other. The main lakes in the area, Lake Bolundsfjaerden, Lake Fiskarfjaerden, Lake Gaellsbotraesket and Lake Eckarfjaerden, all have sizes of less than one km2. The lakes are in general shallow. Approximately 70% of the catchment areas are covered by forest. Agricultural land is only present in

  3. Mean field theory of nuclei and shell model. Present status and future outlook

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakada, Hitoshi

    2003-01-01

    Many of the recent topics of the nuclear structure are concerned on the problems of unstable nuclei. It has been revealed experimentally that the nuclear halos and the neutron skins as well as the cluster structures or the molecule-like structures can be present in the unstable nuclei, and the magic numbers well established in the stable nuclei disappear occasionally while new ones appear. The shell model based on the mean field approximation has been successfully applied to stable nuclei to explain the nuclear structure as the finite many body system quantitatively and it is considered as the standard model at present. If the unstable nuclei will be understood on the same model basis or not is a matter related to fundamental principle of nuclear structure theories. In this lecture, the fundamental concept and the framework of the theory of nuclear structure based on the mean field theory and the shell model are presented to make clear the problems and to suggest directions for future researches. At first fundamental properties of nuclei are described under the subtitles: saturation and magic numbers, nuclear force and effective interactions, nuclear matter, and LS splitting. Then the mean field theory is presented under subtitles: the potential model, the mean field theory, Hartree-Fock approximation for nuclear matter, density dependent force, semiclassical mean field theory, mean field theory and symmetry, Skyrme interaction and density functional, density matrix expansion, finite range interactions, effective masses, and motion of center of mass. The subsequent section is devoted to the shell model with the subtitles: beyond the mean field approximation, core polarization, effective interaction of shell model, one-particle wave function, nuclear deformation and shell model, and shell model of cross shell. Finally structure of unstable nuclei is discussed with the subtitles: general remark on the study of unstable nuclear structure, asymptotic behavior of wave

  4. Models construction for acetone-butanol-ethanol fermentations with acetate/butyrate consecutively feeding by graph theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhigang; Shi, Zhongping; Li, Xin

    2014-05-01

    Several fermentations with consecutively feeding of acetate/butyrate were conducted in a 7 L fermentor and the results indicated that exogenous acetate/butyrate enhanced solvents productivities by 47.1% and 39.2% respectively, and changed butyrate/acetate ratios greatly. Then extracellular butyrate/acetate ratios were utilized for calculation of acids rates and the results revealed that acetate and butyrate formation pathways were almost blocked by corresponding acids feeding. In addition, models for acetate/butyrate feeding fermentations were constructed by graph theory based on calculation results and relevant reports. Solvents concentrations and butanol/acetone ratios of these fermentations were also calculated and the results of models calculation matched fermentation data accurately which demonstrated that models were constructed in a reasonable way. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Utilizing past and present mouse systems to engineer more relevant pancreatic cancer models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeCant, Brian T; Principe, Daniel R; Guerra, Carmen; Pasca di Magliano, Marina; Grippo, Paul J

    2014-01-01

    The study of pancreatic cancer has prompted the development of numerous mouse models that aim to recapitulate the phenotypic and mechanistic features of this deadly malignancy. This review accomplishes two tasks. First, it provides an overview of the models that have been used as representations of both the neoplastic and carcinoma phenotypes. Second, it presents new modeling schemes that ultimately will serve to more faithfully capture the temporal and spatial progression of the human disease, providing platforms for improved understanding of the role of non-epithelial compartments in disease etiology as well as evaluating therapeutic approaches.

  6. Utilizing Past and Present Mouse Systems to Engineer More Relevant Pancreatic Cancer Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian T DeCant

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The study of pancreatic cancer has prompted the development of numerous mouse models that aim to recapitulate the phenotypic and mechanistic features of this deadly malignancy. This review accomplishes two tasks. First, it provides an overview of the models that have been used as representations of both the neoplastic and carcinoma phenotypes. Second, it presents new modeling schemes that ultimately will serve to more faithfully capture the temporal and spatial progression of the human disease, providing platforms for improved understanding of the role of non-epithelial compartments in disease etiology as well as evaluating therapeutic approaches.

  7. [DESCRIPTION AND PRESENTATION OF THE RESULTS OF ELECTROENCEPHALOGRAM PROCESSING USING AN INFORMATION MODEL].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myznikov, I L; Nabokov, N L; Rogovanov, D Yu; Khankevich, Yu R

    2016-01-01

    The paper proposes to apply the informational modeling of correlation matrix developed by I.L. Myznikov in early 1990s in neurophysiological investigations, such as electroencephalogram recording and analysis, coherence description of signals from electrodes on the head surface. The authors demonstrate information models built using the data from studies of inert gas inhalation by healthy human subjects. In the opinion of the authors, information models provide an opportunity to describe physiological processes with a high level of generalization. The procedure of presenting the EEG results holds great promise for the broad application.

  8. Binge Ethanol and MDMA Combination Exacerbates Toxic Cardiac Effects by Inducing Cellular Stress.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier Navarro-Zaragoza

    Full Text Available Binge drinking is a common pattern of ethanol consumption among young people. Binge drinkers are especially susceptible to brain damage when other substances are co-administered, in particular 3,4 methylendioxymethamphetamine (MDMA. The aim of the present work was to study the mechanisms implicated in the adaptive changes observed after administration of these drugs of abuse. So, we have evaluated the cardiac sympathetic activity and the expression and activation of heat shock protein 27 (HSP27, after voluntary binge ethanol consumption, alone and in combination with MDMA. Both parameters are markers of stressful situations and they could be modified inducing several alterations in different systems. Adolescent mice received MDMA, ethanol or both (ethanol plus MDMA. Drinking in the dark (DID procedure was used as a model of binge. Noradrenaline (NA turnover, tyrosine hydroxylase (TH, TH phosphorylated at serine 31 and HSP27 expression and its phosphorylation at serine 82 were evaluated in adolescent mice 48 h, 72 h, and 7 days after treatments in the left ventricle. NA and normetanephrine (NMN were determined by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC; TH and HSP27 expression and phosphorylation were measured by quantitative blot immunollabeling using specific antibodies. Ethanol and MDMA co-administration increased NA turnover and TH expression and phosphorylation versus the consumption of each one of these drugs. In parallel with the described modifications in the cardiac sympathetic activity, our results showed that binge ethanol+MDMA exposure is associated with an increase in HSP27 expression and phosphorylation in the left ventricle, supporting the idea that the combination of both drugs exacerbates the cellular stress induced by ethanol or MDMA alone.

  9. Binge Ethanol and MDMA Combination Exacerbates Toxic Cardiac Effects by Inducing Cellular Stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarro-Zaragoza, Javier; Ros-Simó, Clara; Milanés, María-Victoria; Valverde, Olga; Laorden, María-Luisa

    2015-01-01

    Binge drinking is a common pattern of ethanol consumption among young people. Binge drinkers are especially susceptible to brain damage when other substances are co-administered, in particular 3,4 methylendioxymethamphetamine (MDMA). The aim of the present work was to study the mechanisms implicated in the adaptive changes observed after administration of these drugs of abuse. So, we have evaluated the cardiac sympathetic activity and the expression and activation of heat shock protein 27 (HSP27), after voluntary binge ethanol consumption, alone and in combination with MDMA. Both parameters are markers of stressful situations and they could be modified inducing several alterations in different systems. Adolescent mice received MDMA, ethanol or both (ethanol plus MDMA). Drinking in the dark (DID) procedure was used as a model of binge. Noradrenaline (NA) turnover, tyrosine hydroxylase (TH), TH phosphorylated at serine 31 and HSP27 expression and its phosphorylation at serine 82 were evaluated in adolescent mice 48 h, 72 h, and 7 days after treatments in the left ventricle. NA and normetanephrine (NMN) were determined by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC); TH and HSP27 expression and phosphorylation were measured by quantitative blot immunollabeling using specific antibodies. Ethanol and MDMA co-administration increased NA turnover and TH expression and phosphorylation versus the consumption of each one of these drugs. In parallel with the described modifications in the cardiac sympathetic activity, our results showed that binge ethanol+MDMA exposure is associated with an increase in HSP27 expression and phosphorylation in the left ventricle, supporting the idea that the combination of both drugs exacerbates the cellular stress induced by ethanol or MDMA alone. PMID:26509576

  10. Alcohol dose dumping: The influence of ethanol on hot-melt extruded pellets comprising solid lipids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jedinger, N; Schrank, S; Mohr, S; Feichtinger, A; Khinast, J; Roblegg, E

    2015-05-01

    The objective of the present study was to investigate interactions between alcohol and hot-melt extruded pellets and the resulting drug release behavior. The pellets were composed of vegetable calcium stearate as matrix carrier and paracetamol or codeine phosphate as model drugs. Two solid lipids (Compritol® and Precirol®) were incorporated into the matrix to form robust/compact pellets. The drug release characteristics were a strong function of the API solubility, the addition of solid lipids, the dissolution media composition (i.e., alcohol concentration) and correspondingly, the pellet wettability. Pellets comprising paracetamol, which is highly soluble in ethanol, showed alcohol dose dumping regardless of the matrix composition. The wettability increased with increasing ethanol concentrations due to higher paracetamol solubilities yielding increased dissolution rates. For pellets containing codeine phosphate, which has a lower solubility in ethanol than in acidic media, the wettability was a function of the matrix composition. Dose dumping occurred for formulations comprising solid lipids as they showed increased wettabilities with increasing ethanol concentrations. In contrast, pellets comprising calcium stearate as single matrix component showed robustness in alcoholic media due to wettabilities that were not affected by the addition of ethanol. The results clearly indicate that the physico-chemical properties of the drug and the matrix systems are crucial for the design of ethanol-resistant dosage forms. Moreover, hydrophobic calcium stearate can be considered a suitable matrix system that minimizes the risk of ethanol-induced dose dumping for certain API's. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Genesis and evolution of the Skyrme model from 1954 to the present

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanyuk, V.I.

    1994-01-01

    Not widely known facts on the genesis of the Skyrme model are presented in a historical survey, based on Skyrme's earliest papers and on his own published remembrance. We consider the evolution of Skyrme's model description of nuclear matter from the ''Mesonic Fluid'' model up to its final version, known as the baryon model. We pay special tribute to some well-known ideas in contemporary particle physics which one can find in Skyrme's earlier papers, such as: Nuclear Democracy, the Solitonic Mechanism, the Nonlinear Realization of Chiral Symmetry, Topological Charges, Fermi-Bose Transmutation, etc. It is curious to note in the final version of the Skyrme model gleams of Kelvin's ''Vortex Atoms'' theory. In conclusion we make a brief analysis of the validity of Skyrme's conjectures in view of recent results and pinpoint some questions which still remain. (author). 93 refs, 4 figs

  12. South polar permanent CO2 ice cap presentation in the Global Mars Multiscale Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fazel-Rastgar, Farahnaz

    2018-02-01

    The atmospheric influence caused by the Martian permanent south CO2 ice cap is examined to improve the Global Mars Multiscale Model (GM3) to see if it can significantly improve the representation of south polar meteorology. However, the seasonal carbon dioxide ice in the polar regions is presented in the surface ice simulation by the Global Mars Multiscale Model but the model does not produce a permanent south CO2 ice cap, and the physics code must modify to capture the realistic physical such as ice process detail; probably makes a bias in terms of total CO2 ice and meteorological processes in the model aside from ice formation. The permanent south CO2 ice cap in the model can significantly improve the representation of south polar meteorology for example in predicted surface temperatures, surface pressures, horizontal and zonal winds over the south cap and possible initiation of dust storms at south polar region during the southern summer period.

  13. CLIMBER-2: a climate system model of intermediate complexity. Pt. 1. Model description and performance for present climate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petoukhov, V.; Ganopolski, A.; Brovkin, V.; Claussen, M.; Eliseev, A.; Kubatzki, C.; Rahmstorf, S.

    1998-02-01

    A 2.5-dimensional climate system model of intermediate complexity CLIMBER-2 and its performance for present climate conditions are presented. The model consists of modules describing atmosphere, ocean, sea ice, land surface processes, terrestrial vegetation cover, and global carbon cycle. The modules interact (on-line) through the fluxes of momentum, energy, water and carbon. The model has a coarse spatial resolution, allowing nevertheless to capture the major features of the Earth`s geography. The model describes temporal variability of the system on seasonal and longer time scales. Due to the fact that the model does not employ any type of flux adjustment and has fast turnaround time, it can be used for study of climates significantly different from the present one and allows to perform long-term (multimillennia) simulations. The constraints for coupling the atmosphere and ocean without flux adjustment are discussed. The results of a model validation against present climate data show that the model successfully describes the seasonal variability of a large set of characteristics of the climate system, including radiative balance, temperature, precipitation, ocean circulation and cryosphere. (orig.) 62 refs.

  14. Evaluation of the Antinociceptive Effect of the Ethanolic Extract of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Materials and Methods: Antinociceptive activity of ethanol pomegranate extract was examined using three models of pain: the writhing test, the hot tail flick test and the plantar test. The ethanolic extract of pomegranate was administered by oral gavages in doses of (100,150 and 200mg/kg, p.o (orally)), for all the tests and ...

  15. Antiulcerogenic Activity of Ethanolic Leaf Extract of Croton ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The antiulcer activity of the ethanolic extract of the crude leaf extract was investigated against indomethacin, ethanol and histamine – induced ulcer models in rats. The crude leaf extract of Croton ... plant among the Ibibio tribe of Niger Delta. Key Word: Croton zambesicus, antiulcer, gastroprotective, stomach, medicinal plant ...

  16. A model for time-dependent cosmological constant and its consistency with the present Friedmann universe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Novello, M [Centro Brasileiro de Pesquisas Fisicas, Rua Dr Xavier Sigaud 150, Urca 22290-180 Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Barcelos-Neto, J [Instituto de Fisica, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Salim, J M [Centro Brasileiro de Pesquisas Fisicas, Rua Dr Xavier Sigaud 150, Urca 22290-180 Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2002-06-07

    We use a model where the cosmological term can be related to the chiral gauge anomaly of a possible quantum scenario of the initial evolution of the universe. We show that this term is compatible with the Friedmann behaviour of the present universe.

  17. Implementing Adaptability in the Standard Reference Model for Intelligent Multimedia Presentation Systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L. Rutledge (Lloyd); L. Hardman (Lynda); J.R. van Ossenbruggen (Jacco); D.C.A. Bulterman (Dick)

    1998-01-01

    textabstractThis paper discusses the implementation of adaptability in environments that are based on the Standard Reference Model for Intelligent Multimedia Presentation Systems. This adaptability is explored in the context of style sheets, which are represented in such formats as DSSSL. The use of

  18. Mobile Applications in Cell Biology Present New Approaches for Cell Modelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Oliveira, Mayara Lustosa; Galembeck, Eduardo

    2016-01-01

    Cell biology apps were surveyed in order to identify whether there are new approaches for modelling cells allowed by the new technologies implemented in tablets and smartphones. A total of 97 apps were identified in 3 stores surveyed (Apple, Google Play and Amazon), they are presented as: education 48.4%, games 26.8% and medicine 15.4%. The apps…

  19. Development and Analysis of a Swept Blade Aeroelastic Model for a Small Wind Turbine (Presentation)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Preus, R.; Damiani, R.; Lee, S.; Larwood, S.

    2014-06-01

    As part of the U.S. Department-of-Energy-funded Competitiveness Improvement Project, the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) developed new capabilities for aeroelastic modeling of precurved and preswept blades for small wind turbines. This presentation covers the quest for optimized rotors, computer-aided engineering tools, a case study, and summary of the results.

  20. Recovery of ethanol from municipal solid waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ackerson, M.D.; Clausen, E.C.; Gaddy, J.L.

    1992-01-01

    Methods for disposal of MSW that reduce the potential for groundwater or air pollution will be essential in the near future. Seventy percent of MSW consists of paper, food waste, yard waste, wood and textiles. These lignocellulosic components may be hydrolyzed to sugars with mineral acids, and the sugars may be subsequently fermented to ethanol or other industrial chemicals. This chapter presents data on the hydrolysis of the lignocellulosic fraction of MSW with concentrated HC1 and the fermentation of the sugars to ethanol. Yields, kinetics, and rates are presented and discussed. Design and economic projections for a commercial facility to produce 20 MM gallons of ethanol per year are developed. Novel concepts to enhance the economics are discussed

  1. Modelo de armadilha etanólica de interceptação de voo para captura de escolitíneos (Curculionidae: Scolytinae Ethanolic model of flight interception trap to capture scolytine (Curculionidae: Scolytinae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Augusto Bolson Murari

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available

    Este estudo teve por objetivo desenvolver um modelo alternativo de armadilha etanólica de interceptação de insetos voadores, visando à redução dos custos relacionados aos levantamentos de insetos da subfamília Scolytinae (Curculionidae, realizados em ecossistemas florestais. O modelo de armadilha, denominado de PET-SM, foi confeccionado com materiais recicláveis: prato plástico, garrafa de polietileno (PET de dois litros, garrafa PET de 600 mL, e mangueira com álcool 96° GL empregado como atrativo. Em comparação a outros modelos utilizados para monitoramento de Scolytinae, o modelo PET-SM mostrou-se eficiente na captura, apresentando um maior número de espécies coletadas e oferecendo um menor custo de confecção.

     

    doi: 10.4336/2012.pfb.32.69.115

    This study aimed to develop an alternative model of trap for interception with ethanol for flying insects, in order to reduce the costs related to surveys of insects of the subfamily Scolytinae (Curculionidae, conducted in forest ecosystems. The model of trap, called PET-SM, was manufactured with recyclable materials: plastic plate, polyethylene (PET bottle of two liters, PET bottle of 600 mL, and a hose with alcohol 96 GL used as attractive. Compared to other models used to monitor Scolytinae, the PET-SM model proved to be effective for capture, presenting a greater number of species and offering a lower cost of manufacture.

     

    doi: 10.4336/2012.pfb.32.69.115

  2. Effects of Fuel Ethanol Use on Fuel-Cycle Energy and Greenhouse Gas Emissions; TOPICAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    C. Saricks; D. Santini; M. Wang

    1999-01-01

    We estimated the effects on per-vehicle-mile fuel-cycle petroleum use, greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, and energy use of using ethanol blended with gasoline in a mid-size passenger car, compared with the effects of using gasoline in the same car. Our analysis includes petroleum use, energy use, and emissions associated with chemicals manufacturing, farming of corn and biomass, ethanol production, and ethanol combustion for ethanol; and petroleum use, energy use, and emissions associated with petroleum recovery, petroleum refining, and gasoline combustion for gasoline. For corn-based ethanol, the key factors in determining energy and emissions impacts include energy and chemical usage intensity of corn farming, energy intensity of the ethanol plant, and the method used to estimate energy and emissions credits for co-products of corn ethanol. The key factors in determining the impacts of cellulosic ethanol are energy and chemical usage intensity of biomass farming, ethanol yield per dry ton of biomass, and electricity credits in cellulosic ethanol plants. The results of our fuel-cycle analysis for fuel ethanol are listed below. Note that, in the first half of this summary, the reductions cited are per-vehicle-mile traveled using the specified ethanol/gasoline blend instead of conventional (not reformulated) gasoline. The second half of the summary presents estimated changes per gallon of ethanol used in ethanol blends. GHG emissions are global warming potential (GWP)-weighted, carbon dioxide (CO2)-equivalent emissions of CO2, methane (CH4), and nitrous oxide (N2O)

  3. Effects of Fuel Ethanol Use on Fuel-Cycle Energy and Greenhouse Gas Emissions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    C. Saricks; D. Santini; M. Wang

    1999-01-01

    We estimated the effects on per-vehicle-mile fuel-cycle petroleum use, greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, and energy use of using ethanol blended with gasoline in a mid-size passenger car, compared with the effects of using gasoline in the same car. Our analysis includes petroleum use, energy use, and emissions associated with chemicals manufacturing, farming of corn and biomass, ethanol production, and ethanol combustion for ethanol; and petroleum use, energy use, and emissions associated with petroleum recovery, petroleum refining, and gasoline combustion for gasoline. For corn-based ethanol, the key factors in determining energy and emissions impacts include energy and chemical usage intensity of corn farming, energy intensity of the ethanol plant, and the method used to estimate energy and emissions credits for co-products of corn ethanol. The key factors in determining the impacts of cellulosic ethanol are energy and chemical usage intensity of biomass farming, ethanol yield per dry ton of biomass, and electricity credits in cellulosic ethanol plants. The results of our fuel-cycle analysis for fuel ethanol are listed below. Note that, in the first half of this summary, the reductions cited are per-vehicle-mile traveled using the specified ethanol/gasoline blend instead of conventional (not reformulated) gasoline. The second half of the summary presents estimated changes per gallon of ethanol used in ethanol blends. GHG emissions are global warming potential (GWP)-weighted, carbon dioxide (CO2)-equivalent emissions of CO2, methane (CH4), and nitrous oxide (N2O)

  4. The Health Impacts of Ethanol Blend Petrol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosemary Wood

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available A measurement program designed to evaluate health impacts or benefits of using ethanol blend petrol examined exhaust and evaporative emissions from 21 vehicles representative of the current Australian light duty petrol (gasoline vehicle fleet using a composite urban emissions drive cycle. The fuels used were unleaded petrol (ULP, ULP blended with either 5% ethanol (E5 or 10% ethanol (E10. The resulting data were combined with inventory data for Sydney to determine the expected fleet emissions for different uptakes of ethanol blended fuel. Fleet ethanol compatibility was estimated to be 60% for 2006, and for the air quality modelling it was assumed that in 2011 over 95% of the fleet would be ethanol compatible. Secondary organic aerosol (SOA formation from ULP, E5 and E10 emissions was studied under controlled conditions by the use of a smog chamber. This was combined with meteorological data from Sydney for February 2004 and the emission data (both measured and inventory data to model pollutant concentrations in Sydney’s airshed for 2006 and 2011. These concentrations were combined with the population distribution to evaluate population exposure to the pollutant. There is a health benefit to the Sydney population arising from a move from ULP to ethanol blends in spark-ignition vehicles. Potential health cost savings for Urban Australia (Sydney, Melbourne, Brisbane and Perth are estimated to be A$39 million (in 2007 dollars for a 50% uptake (by ethanol compatible vehicles of E10 in 2006 and $42 million per annum for a 100% take up of E10 in 2011. Over 97% of the estimated health savings are due to reduced emissions of PM2.5 and consequent reduced impacts on mortality and morbidity (e.g., asthma, cardiovascular disease. Despite more petrol-driven vehicles predicted for 2011, the quantified health impact differential between ULP and ethanol fuelled vehicles drops from 2006 to 2011. This is because modern petrol vehicles, with lower emissions than

  5. Conditioned effects of ethanol on the immune system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gano, Anny; Pautassi, Ricardo Marcos; Doremus-Fitzwater, Tamara L; Deak, Terrence

    2017-04-01

    Several studies indicate that the immune system can be subjected to classical conditioning. Acute ethanol intoxication significantly modulates several pro-inflammatory cytokines (e.g. interleukins-1 and 6 [IL-1β and IL-6, respectively] and tumor necrosis factor alpha [TNFα])) in several brain areas, including amygdala (AMG), paraventricular nucleus (PVN), and hippocampus (HPC). It is unknown, however, whether cues associated with ethanol can elicit conditioned alterations in cytokine expression. The present study analyzed, in male Sprague-Dawley rats, whether ethanol-induced changes in the central cytokine response may be amenable to conditioning. In Experiments 1 and 2, the rats were given one or two pairings between a distinctive odor (conditional stimulus, CS) and the post-absorptive effects of a high (3.0 or 4.0 g/kg, Experiments 1 and 2, respectively) ethanol dose. Neither of these experiments revealed conditioning of IL-6, IL-1β, or TNFα, as measured via mRNA levels. Yet, re-exposure to the lemon-odor CS in Experiment 1 significantly increased C-Fos levels in the PVN. In Experiment 3, the rats were given four pairings between an odor CS and a moderate ethanol dose (2.0 g/kg), delivered intraperitoneally (i.p.) or intragastrically (i.g.). Re-exposure to the odor CS significantly increased IL-6 levels in HPC and AMG, an effect only evident in paired rats administered ethanol i.p. Overall, this study suggests that ethanol exposure can regulate the levels of IL-6 at HPC and AMG via classical conditioning mechanisms. These ethanol-induced, conditioned alterations in cytokine levels may ultimately affect the intake and motivational effects of ethanol. Impact statement This study examines, across three experiments, whether odor cues associated with ethanol exposure can condition changes in cytokine expression. The analysis of ethanol-induced conditioning of immune responses is a novel niche that can help understand the transition from social drinking to

  6. Implications of increased ethanol production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-06-01

    The implications of increased ethanol production in Canada, assuming a 10% market penetration of a 10% ethanol/gasoline blend, are evaluated. Issues considered in the analysis include the provision of new markets for agricultural products, environmental sustainability, energy security, contribution to global warming, potential government cost (subsidies), alternative options to ethanol, energy efficiency, impacts on soil and water of ethanol crop production, and acceptance by fuel marketers. An economic analysis confirms that ethanol production from a stand-alone plant is not economic at current energy values. However, integration of ethanol production with a feedlot lowers the break-even price of ethanol by about 35 cents/l, and even further reductions could be achieved as technology to utilize lignocellulosic feedstock is commercialized. Ethanol production could have a positive impact on farm income, increasing cash receipts to grain farmers up to $53 million. The environmental impact of ethanol production from grain would be similar to that from crop production in general. Some concerns about ethanol/gasoline blends from the fuel industry have been reduced as those blends are now becoming recommended in some automotive warranties. However, the concerns of the larger fuel distributors are a serious constraint on an expansion of ethanol use. The economics of ethanol use could be improved by extending the federal excise tax exemption now available for pure alcohol fuels to the alcohol portion of alcohol/gasoline blends. 9 refs., 10 tabs

  7. Modeling Ethanol Decomposition on Transition Metals: A Combined Application of Scaling and Bronsted-Evans-Polanyi Relations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ferrin, P.; Simonetti, D.; Kandoi, S.

    2009-01-01

    calculations necessary to describe trends in activity and selectivity across metal and alloy surfaces, thus extending the reach of DFT to more complex systems. In-this work, the well-known family of Bronsted-Evans-Polanyi (BEP) correlations, connecting minima with maxima in the potential energy surface...... on a subset of these surfaces are calculated. Experiments on supported catalysts verify that this simple model is reasonably accurate in describing reactivity trends across metals, suggesting that the combination of BEP and scaling relations may substantially reduce the cost of DFT calculations required...

  8. Activity of Cinnamomum zeylanicum essential oil and ethanolic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The antibacterial effects of Cinnamon (Cinnamomum zeylanicum) essential oil and ethanolic extract against extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL)-producing Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa strains were studied in the present study. The essential oil and ethanolic fraction of C. zeylanicum showed ...

  9. Protective effect of the leaves of Vitex negundo against ethanol ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The present study investigated the effect of the various fractions of hydromethanolic extract of the leaves of Vitex negundo (Verbenaceae) against ethanol-induced cerebral oxidative stress in rats. Cerebral oxidative stress was induced by the administration of 20% ethanol (5 ml/100g bw) for a period of 28 days.

  10. Production of ethanol from tuberous plant (sweet potato) using ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Furthermore, out of the three nitrogen sources (yeast extract, peptone and ammonium sulphate) tested for ethanol production, peptone at a concentration of 1.5 g/L was found to be best (7.93%). From the present ... Keywords: Sweet potato starch, ethanol, liquefaction, saccharification, Saccharomyces cerevisiae MTCC-170

  11. Nucleus Accumbens MC4-R Stimulation Reduces Food and Ethanol Intake in Adult Rats Regardless of Binge-Like Ethanol Exposure during Adolescence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisca Carvajal

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The melanocortin (MC system regulates feeding and ethanol consumption. Recent evidence shows that melanocortin 4 receptor (MC4-R stimulation within the nucleus accumbens (NAc elicits anorectic responses and reduces ethanol consumption and ethanol palatability in adult rats. Ethanol exposure during adolescence causes long-lasting changes in neural pathways critically involved in neurobehavioral responses to ethanol. In this regard, binge-like ethanol exposure during adolescence reduces basal alpha-melanocyte-stimulating hormone (α-MSH and alters the levels of agouti-related peptide (AgRP in hypothalamic and limbic areas. Given the protective role of MC against excessive ethanol consumption, disturbances in the MC system induced by binge-like ethanol exposure during adolescence might contribute to excessive ethanol consumption during adulthood. In the present study, we evaluated whether binge-like ethanol exposure during adolescence leads to elevated ethanol intake and/or eating disturbance during adulthood. Toward that aim, Sprague-Dawley rats were treated with ethanol (3 g/kg i.p.; BEP group or saline (SP group for 14 days (PND 25 to PND 38. On PND73, all the groups were given access to 20% ethanol on an intermittent schedule. Our results showed that adult rats given intermittent access (IAE to 20% ethanol achieved high spontaneous ethanol intake that was not significantly enhanced by binge-like ethanol pretreatment during adolescence. However, BEP group exhibited an increase in food intake without a parallel increase in body weight (BW relative to SP group suggesting caloric efficiency disturbance. Additionally, we evaluated whether binge-like ethanol exposure during adolescence alters the expected reduction in feeding and ethanol consumption following NAc shell administration of a selective MC4-R agonist in adult rats showing high rates of ethanol consumption. For that, animals in each pretreatment condition (SP and BEP were divided into

  12. Anti-inflammatory action of ethanolic extract and clerodane diterpenes from Casearia sylvestris

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elaise G. Pierri

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The present study aimed to investigate the anti-inflammatory activity of ethanolic extract from Casearia sylvestris Sw., Salicaceae, leaves and to identify the compounds responsible for this activity. The ethanolic extract from C. sylvestris leaves was fractionated by solid phase extraction and the chemical composition of extract and fractions were assessed by chromatographic techniques. Casearin-like clerodane diterpenes were quantified in ethanolic extract (27.4%, w/w and in fraction 2 of solid phase extraction (50.6%, w/w. Carrageenan-induced paw edema and carrageenan-induced pleurisy assays (rats were used to evaluate anti-inflammatory activity of ethanolic extract, its fractions and clerodane diterpenes from C. sylvestris – caseargrewiin F and casearin B. The ethanolic extract was tested in the rat paw edema model and the doses tested (10 and 100 mg/kg had no effect. In the pleurisy model, the extract doses of 300 and 500 mg/kg showed inhibitory effect. The fraction 2 of solid phase extraction (10 mg/kg, caseargrewiin F and casearin B (0.5 mg/kg showed a significant reduction (p < 0.05 of the carrageenan-induced paw edema in rats compared to indomethacin. Gastric ulcers were not observed in animals treated with samples from C. sylvestris. In conclusion, the ethanolic extract from C. sylvestris, its enriched fraction of clerodane diterpenes, casearin B and caseargrewiin F exhibited anti-inflammatory activity on in vivo models in rats. Casearin-like clerodane diterpenes may be considered active chemical markers for C. sylvestris leaves. On the other hand, these diterpenes are promising compounds in the development of new drugs with anti-inflammatory action without gastric side effects.

  13. Thermophilic, lignocellulolytic bacteria for ethanol production: current state and perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Tinghong; Yao, Shuo

    2011-10-01

    Lignocellulosic biomass contains a variety of carbohydrates, and their conversion into ethanol by fermentation requires an efficient microbial platform to achieve high yield, productivity, and final titer of ethanol. In recent years, growing attention has been devoted to the development of cellulolytic and saccharolytic thermophilic bacteria for lignocellulosic ethanol production because of their unique properties. First of all, thermophilic bacteria possess unique cellulolytic and hemicellulolytic systems and are considered as potential sources of highly active and thermostable enzymes for efficient biomass hydrolysis. Secondly, thermophilic bacteria ferment a broad range of carbohydrates into ethanol, and some of them display potential for ethanologenic fermentation at high yield. Thirdly, the establishment of the genetic tools for thermophilic bacteria has allowed metabolic engineering, in particular with emphasis on improving ethanol yield, and this facilitates their employment for ethanol production. Finally, different processes for second-generation ethanol production based on thermophilic bacteria have been proposed with the aim to achieve cost-competitive processes. However, thermophilic bacteria exhibit an inherent low tolerance to ethanol and inhibitors in the pretreated biomass, and this is at present the greatest barrier to their industrial application. Further improvement of the properties of thermophilic bacteria, together with the optimization production processes, is equally important for achieving a realistic industrial ethanol production.

  14. Improvement of solar ethanol distillation using ultrasonic waves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaruwat Jareanjit

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available This report presents a study on the use of ultrasonic waves in solar ethanol distillation to investigate the performance of ultrasonic waves at a frequency of 30 kHz and at 100 Watts that were installed in the inlet area of a 10-litre distillation tank. Based on the non-continuous distillation process (batch distillation, the experiment demonstrated that using ultrasonic waves in solar ethanol distillation caused the average concentration of hourly distilled ethanol to be higher than that of a normal system (solar ethanol distillation without ultrasonic wave at the same or higher distillation rate and hourly distillation volume. The ultrasonic wave was able to enhance the separation of ethanol from the solution (water-ethanol mixture through solar distillation. The amount of pure ethanol product from each distilled batch was clearly larger than the amount of product obtained from a normal system when the initial concentration of ethanol was lower than 50%v/v (% by volume, where an average of approximately 40% and 20% are obtained for an initial ethanol concentration of 10%v/v and 30%v/v, respectively. Furthermore, the distillation rate varied based on the solar radiation value.

  15. An Ethanol Vapor Chamber System for Small Animals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jie; Jiang, Lihong; Du, Hongying; Mason, Graeme F.

    2012-01-01

    Ethanol vapor chambers have been utilized widely in alcohol research since their introduction in 1971, and implementations of these systems are now available commercially. Here, we present a modification of the chamber that can be built at lower cost and greater simplicity of operation. The six-chamber system for rats has multiple air pumps. Ethanol vapor levels are adjusted with the air flow rate, ethanol drip rate, and dilution with room air, without a heater or fans. Ethanol vapor concentrations are measured with a breathalyzer, using room air to dilute the vapor chamber output into the range of the breathalyzer. Multiple pumps provide backup to ensure animal survival in the case of failure of the primary air pump. Tests in animals demonstrated comfortable and stable elevation of blood ethanol, with tight control of the ethanol vapor concentrations and the ability to select from a broad range of levels. The ethanol vapor measurement was rapid and efficient. The parts cost was a few thousand U.S. dollars. This vapor chamber system features low cost, ease of use, and convenient and inexpensive measurement of ethanol vapor concentrations. The lack of a heater and electrical components that could come into contact with ethanol in our case facilitated institutional approval. PMID:22575431

  16. Sorghum to Ethanol Research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dahlberg, Jeffrey A. [Univ. of California, Parlier, CA (United States). Kearney Research and Extension Center; Wolfrum, Edward J. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States). Process and Analytical Engineering Group

    2010-09-28

    The development of a robust source of renewable transportation fuel will require a large amount of biomass feedstocks. It is generally accepted that in addition to agricultural and forestry residues, we will need crops grown specifically for subsequent conversion into fuels. There has been a lot of research on several of these so-called "dedicated bioenergy crops" including switchgrass, miscanthus, sugarcane, and poplar. It is likely that all of these crops will end up playing a role as feedstocks, depending on local environmental and market conditions. Many different types of sorghum have been grown to produce syrup, grain, and animal feed for many years. It has several features that may make it as compelling as other crops mentioned above as a renewable, sustainable biomass feedstock; however, very little work has been done to investigate sorghum as a dedicated bioenergy crop. The goal of this project was to investigate the feasibility of using sorghum biomass to produce ethanol. The work performed included a detailed examination of the agronomics and composition of a large number of sorghum varieties, laboratory experiments to convert sorghum to ethanol, and economic and life-cycle analyses of the sorghum-to-ethanol process. This work showed that sorghum has a very wide range of composition, which depended on the specific sorghum cultivar as well as the growing conditions. The results of laboratory- and pilot-scale experiments indicated that a typical high-biomass sorghum variety performed very similarly to corn stover during the multi-step process required to convert biomass feedstocks to ethanol; yields of ethanol for sorghum were very similar to the corn stover used as a control in these experiments. Based on multi-year agronomic data and theoretical ethanol production, sorghum can achieve more than 1,300 gallons of ethanol per acre given the correct genetics and environment. In summary, sorghum may be a compelling dedicated bioenergy crop that could help

  17. An Indirect Route for Ethanol Production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eggeman, T.; Verser, D.; Weber, E.

    2005-04-29

    The ZeaChem indirect method is a radically new approach to producing fuel ethanol from renewable resources. Sugar and syngas processing platforms are combined in a novel way that allows all fractions of biomass feedstocks (e.g. carbohydrates, lignins, etc.) to contribute their energy directly into the ethanol product via fermentation and hydrogen based chemical process technologies. The goals of this project were: (1) Collect engineering data necessary for scale-up of the indirect route for ethanol production, and (2) Produce process and economic models to guide the development effort. Both goals were successfully accomplished. The projected economics of the Base Case developed in this work are comparable to today's corn based ethanol technology. Sensitivity analysis shows that significant improvements in economics for the indirect route would result if a biomass feedstock rather that starch hydrolyzate were used as the carbohydrate source. The energy ratio, defined as the ratio of green energy produced divided by the amount of fossil energy consumed, is projected to be 3.11 to 12.32 for the indirect route depending upon the details of implementation. Conventional technology has an energy ratio of 1.34, thus the indirect route will have a significant environmental advantage over today's technology. Energy savings of 7.48 trillion Btu/yr will result when 100 MMgal/yr (neat) of ethanol capacity via the indirect route is placed on-line by the year 2010.

  18. Efficacy of MR imaging for real-time monitoring of percutaneous ethanol injection in the experimental in vivo model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anzai, Y.; Lufkin, R.B.; Castro, D.J.; Jabour, B.A.; Hirchowiz, S.; Hanafee, W.N.

    1991-01-01

    This paper reports that percutaneous alcohol injection is a valuable technique that can cause focal necrosis in deep tumors. This technique has been used for treatment of small hepatic tumors with US guidance. However, inhomogeneous distribution of the injected alcohol and difficulties in identifying the tumor after previous treatments cause incomplete necrosis. In this study, an experimental model was developed to demonstrate the feasibility and sensitivity of MR imaging as a monitoring technique. A 23-gauge MR-compatible needle was placed into the thigh muscle of the rabbit and 1-3 mL sterile absolute alcohol (98%) was injected slowly (within 1-2 minutes). MR imaging was performed before alcohol injection and continued during as well as after injection. A T2-weighted fast spin-echo technique was used. Animals were killed after MR examination, and the alcohol-injected lesions were processed for pathologic examination

  19. Process Design and Economics for Conversion of Lignocellulosic Biomass to Ethanol: Thermochemical Pathway by Indirect Gasification and Mixed Alcohol Synthesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dutta, A.; Talmadge, M.; Hensley, J.; Worley, M.; Dudgeon, D.; Barton, D.; Groendijk, P.; Ferrari, D.; Stears, B.; Searcy, E. M.; Wright, C. T.; Hess, J. R.

    2011-05-01

    This design report describes an up-to-date benchmark thermochemical conversion process that incorporates the latest research from NREL and other sources. Building on a design report published in 2007, NREL and its subcontractor Harris Group Inc. performed a complete review of the process design and economic model for a biomass-to-ethanol process via indirect gasification. The conceptual design presented herein considers the economics of ethanol production, assuming the achievement of internal research targets for 2012 and nth-plant costs and financing. The design features a processing capacity of 2,205 U.S. tons (2,000 metric tonnes) of dry biomass per day and an ethanol yield of 83.8 gallons per dry U.S. ton of feedstock. The ethanol selling price corresponding to this design is $2.05 per gallon in 2007 dollars, assuming a 30-year plant life and 40% equity financing with a 10% internal rate of return and the remaining 60% debt financed at 8% interest. This ethanol selling price corresponds to a gasoline equivalent price of $3.11 per gallon based on the relative volumetric energy contents of ethanol and gasoline.

  20. Neuropharmacological and genotoxic evaluation of ethanol extract from Erythrina falcata leaves, a plant used in Brazilian folk medicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simone A. Dias

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to determine neurobehavioral and genotoxic activities of ethanol extract of Erythrina falcata Benth., Fabaceae, leaves on rats. Animals were treated with ethanol extract of E. falcata (100, 300 or 500 mg/kg; i.p. and the open field and elevated plus-maze tasks were used as behavioral models to investigate a possible effect on the locomotor and exploratory activity and anxiety, respectively. Genotoxic effect was investigated using the Comet assay. Ethanol extract of E. falcata leaves decreased the number of crossings and rearings in the open field task and increased the latency to start locomotion, though it was not able to affect habituation to apparatus measured 24h after the first session. Behavioral parameters in the plus-maze test were not affected by E. falcata. Ethanol extract did not increase damage index and damage frequency in blood or brain, indicating no genotoxic effect. The results suggest that ethanol extract of E. falcata leaves was able to affect locomotion, exploration, and motivation of animals without anxiolytic/anxiogenic effect, indicating a possible depressant action on the central nervous system. Furthermore, the lack of DNA damage in brain is an indicative that ethanol extract of E. falcata leaves may not induce neurotoxic effects.

  1. Neuropharmacological and genotoxic evaluation of ethanol extract from Erythrina falcata leaves, a plant used in Brazilian folk medicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simone A. Dias

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to determine neurobehavioral and genotoxic activities of ethanol extract of Erythrina falcata Benth., Fabaceae, leaves on rats. Animals were treated with ethanol extract of E. falcata (100, 300 or 500 mg/kg; i.p. and the open field and elevated plus-maze tasks were used as behavioral models to investigate a possible effect on the locomotor and exploratory activity and anxiety, respectively. Genotoxic effect was investigated using the Comet assay. Ethanol extract of E. falcata leaves decreased the number of crossings and rearings in the open field task and increased the latency to start locomotion, though it was not able to affect habituation to apparatus measured 24h after the first session. Behavioral parameters in the plus-maze test were not affected by E. falcata. Ethanol extract did not increase damage index and damage frequency in blood or brain, indicating no genotoxic effect. The results suggest that ethanol extract of E. falcata leaves was able to affect locomotion, exploration, and motivation of animals without anxiolytic/anxiogenic effect, indicating a possible depressant action on the central nervous system. Furthermore, the lack of DNA damage in brain is an indicative that ethanol extract of E. falcata leaves may not induce neurotoxic effects.

  2. Presentation on the Modeling and Educational Demonstrations Laboratory Curriculum Materials Center (MEDL-CMC): A Working Model and Progress Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glesener, G. B.; Vican, L.

    2015-12-01

    Physical analog models and demonstrations can be effective educational tools for helping instructors teach abstract concepts in the Earth, planetary, and space sciences. Reducing the learning challenges for students using physical analog models and demonstrations, however, can often increase instructors' workload and budget because the cost and time needed to produce and maintain such curriculum materials is substantial. First, this presentation describes a working model for the Modeling and Educational Demonstrations Laboratory Curriculum Materials Center (MEDL-CMC) to support instructors' use of physical analog models and demonstrations in the science classroom. The working model is based on a combination of instructional resource models developed by the Association of College & Research Libraries and by the Physics Instructional Resource Association. The MEDL-CMC aims to make the curriculum materials available for all science courses and outreach programs within the institution where the MEDL-CMC resides. The sustainability and value of the MEDL-CMC comes from its ability to provide and maintain a variety of physical analog models and demonstrations in a wide range of science disciplines. Second, the presentation then reports on the development, progress, and future of the MEDL-CMC at the University of California Los Angeles (UCLA). Development of the UCLA MEDL-CMC was funded by a grant from UCLA's Office of Instructional Development and is supported by the Department of Earth, Planetary, and Space Sciences. Other UCLA science departments have recently shown interest in the UCLA MEDL-CMC services, and therefore, preparations are currently underway to increase our capacity for providing interdepartmental service. The presentation concludes with recommendations and suggestions for other institutions that wish to start their own MEDL-CMC in order to increase educational effectiveness and decrease instructor workload. We welcome an interuniversity collaboration to

  3. The Economics of Brazil's Ethanol-Sugar Markets, Mandates, and Tax Exemptions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Drabik, D.; Gorter, de H.; Just, D.R.; Timilsina, G.R.

    2015-01-01

    Sugarcane in Brazil is processed into sugar and/or ethanol, often in flex plants that can switch between the two products. We develop an economic model of flex plants, export demands, and two domestic fuel demand curves for a blend of ethanol with gasoline consumed by conventional cars, and ethanol

  4. Model and Simulation of a Tunable Birefringent Fiber Using Capillaries Filled with Liquid Ethanol for Magnetic Quasiphase Matching In-Fiber Isolator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clint Zeringue

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available A technique to tune a magnetic quasi-phase matching in-fiber isolator through the application of stress induced by two mutually orthogonal capillary tubes filled with liquid ethanol is investigated numerically. The results show that it is possible to “tune” the birefringence in these fibers over a limited range depending on the temperature at which the ethanol is loaded into the capillaries. Over this tuning range, the thermal sensitivity of the birefringence is an order-of-magnitude lower than conventional fibers, making this technique well suited for magnetic quasi-phase matching.

  5. Ethanol embolization of auricular arteriovenous malformations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fan Xindong; Zheng Lianzhou; Yi Hongying; Su Lixin; Zheng Jiawei

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To present the authors' initial experience of treating auricular arteriovenous malformations(AVMs) with ethanol embolization and to assess the clinical effectiveness of this therapeutic method. Methods: Twenty-two patients with AVMs were enrolled in this study. Through local puncturing or super-selective catheterization the absolute ethanol,or diluted alcohol (based on the pattern of the AVMs), was manually injected into the abnormal vascular plexus of the auricular lesion. The clinical results were estimated with physical examination or angiography at intervals of 3-4 month, and telephone questionnaire was made at monthly intervals for all patients. Results: Thirty-eight ethanol embolization procedures were performed, the amount of ethanol used during the procedure ranged from 4 ml to 65 ml. After the treatment the clinical symptoms were improved, which were manifested as healing of the ulceration, stop of bleeding, disappearing or alleviation of tinnitus. Angiographic examination showed that the abnormal vascular lesion was completely vanished in 9 cases, decreased by 50%-75% in 8 cases and decreased less than 50% in remaining 5 cases. The common complications included irreversible local necrosis and vesiculation. Conclusion: For the treatment of auricular AVMs ethanol embolization is an effective and safe method,which might become the therapy of first choice. (authors)

  6. KioskAR: An Augmented Reality Game as a New Business Model to Present Artworks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoones A. Sekhavat

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the architecture of KioskAR, which is a pervasive game implemented using augmented reality (AR. This game introduces a new business model that makes it possible for players to present their artworks in virtual kiosks using augmented reality, while they are having fun playing the game. In addition to competition between the players in the game, this game requires social interaction between players to earn more points. A user study is conducted to evaluate the sense of presence and the usability of the application. The results of experiments show that KioskAR can achieve a high level of usability as well as sense of presence.

  7. 3D instantaneous dynamics modeling of present-day Aegean subduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glerum, Anne; Spakman, Wim; van Hinsbergen, Douwe; Pranger, Casper

    2017-04-01

    To study the sensitivity of surface observables to subduction and mantle flow, i.e. the coupling of crustal tectonics and the underlying mantle dynamics, we have developed 3D numerical models of the instantaneous crust-mantle dynamics of the eastern Mediterranean. These models comprise both a realistic crust-lithosphere system and the underlying mantle. The focus for this presentation lies on the regional crustal flow response to the present-day Aegean subduction system. Our curved model domain measures 40°x40°x2900km with the Aegean subduction system taken as the geographic center. Model set-ups are based on geological and geophysical data of the eastern Mediterranean. We first create a 3D synthetic geometry of the crust-lithosphere system in a stand-alone program, including the present-day configuration of the plates in the region and crust and lithosphere thickness variations abstracted from Moho and LAB maps (Faccenna et al., 2014, Carafa et al., 2015). In addition we construct the geometry of the Aegean slab from a seismic tomography model (UU-P07; Amaru, 2007) and earthquake hypocenters (NCEDC, 2014). Geometries are then imported into the finite element code ASPECT (Kronbichler et al., 2012) using specially designed plugins. The mantle initial temperature conditions can include deviations from an adiabatic profile obtained from conversion of the UU-P07 seismic velocity anomalies to temperature anomalies using a depth-dependent scaling (Karato, 2008). We model compressible mantle flow for which material properties are obtained from thermodynamics P-T lookup-tables (Perple_X, Connolly, 2009) in combination with nonlinear viscoplastic rheology laws. Sublithospheric flow through the lateral model boundaries is left free via open boundary conditions (Chertova et al., 2012), while plate motion is prescribed at the model sides in terms of relative as well as absolute plate motion velocities (e.g. Doubrovine et al., 2012). So far, we used a free-slip surface, but

  8. Softening and elution of monomers in ethanol

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Benetti, Ana Raquel; Asmussen, Erik; Munksgaard, E Christian

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of light-curing protocol on softening and elution of monomers in ethanol as measured on a model polymer. It was a further aim to correlate the measured values with previously reported data on degree of conversion and glass transition...

  9. Rewiring Lactococcus lactis for Ethanol Production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Solem, Christian; Dehli, Tore Ibsen; Jensen, Peter Ruhdal

    2013-01-01

    to redirect the metabolism of LAB model organism Lactococcus lactis toward ethanol production. Codon-optimized Zymomonas mobilis pyruvate decarboxylase (PDC) was introduced and expressed from synthetic promoters in different strain backgrounds. In the wild-type L. lactis strain MG1363 growing on glucose, only...

  10. Temperature trends during the Present and Last Interglacial periods - a multi-model-data comparison

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakker, P.; Masson-Delmotte, V.; Martrat, B.; Charbit, S.; Renssen, H.; Gröger, M.; Krebs-Kanzow, U.; Lohmann, G.; Lunt, D. J.; Pfeiffer, M.; Phipps, S. J.; Prange, M.; Ritz, S. P.; Schulz, M.; Stenni, B.; Stone, E. J.; Varma, V.

    2014-09-01

    Though primarily driven by insolation changes associated with well-known variations in Earth's astronomical parameters, the response of the climate system during interglacials includes a diversity of feedbacks involving the atmosphere, ocean, sea ice, vegetation and land ice. A thorough multi-model-data comparison is essential to assess the ability of climate models to resolve interglacial temperature trends and to help in understanding the recorded climatic signal and the underlying climate dynamics. We present the first multi-model-data comparison of transient millennial-scale temperature changes through two intervals of the Present Interglacial (PIG; 8-1.2 ka) and the Last Interglacial (LIG; 123-116.2 ka) periods. We include temperature trends simulated by 9 different climate models, alkenone-based temperature reconstructions from 117 globally distributed locations (about 45% of them within the LIG) and 12 ice-core-based temperature trends from Greenland and Antarctica (50% of them within the LIG). The definitions of these specific interglacial intervals enable a consistent inter-comparison of the two intervals because both are characterised by minor changes in atmospheric greenhouse gas concentrations and more importantly by insolation trends that show clear similarities. Our analysis shows that in general the reconstructed PIG and LIG Northern Hemisphere mid-to-high latitude cooling compares well with multi-model, mean-temperature trends for the warmest months and that these cooling trends reflect a linear response to the warmest-month insolation decrease over the interglacial intervals. The most notable exception is the strong LIG cooling trend reconstructed from Greenland ice cores that is not simulated by any of the models. A striking model-data mismatch is found for both the PIG and the LIG over large parts of the mid-to-high latitudes of the Southern Hemisphere where the data depicts negative temperature trends that are not in agreement with near zero

  11. Behavioral Neurophysiology of Ethanol

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Janak, Patricia

    2002-01-01

    .... Alcohol consumption by humans can be modeled in the rat using operant behavioral procedures in which an arbitrary response, such as a lever press, is reinforced by the presentation of small amounts...

  12. The radiation performance standard. A presentation model for ionizing radiation in the living environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schaap, L.E.J.J.; Bosmans, G.; Van der Graaf, E.R.; Hendriks, Ch.F.

    1998-01-01

    By means of the so-called radiation performance standard (SPN, abbreviated in Dutch) the total radioactivity from building constructions which contributes to the indoor radiation dose can be calculated. The SPN is implemented with related boundary values and is part of the Building Decree ('Bouwbesluit') in the Netherlands. The model, presented in this book, forms the basis of a new Dutch radiation protection standard, to be published by the Dutch Institute for Standardization NEN (formerly NNI). 14 refs

  13. Modeling nonstationary extreme wave heights in present and future climates of Greek Seas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Panagiota Galiatsatou

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study the generalized extreme value (GEV distribution function was used to assess nonstationarity in annual maximum wave heights for selected locations in the Greek Seas, both in the present and future climates. The available significant wave height data were divided into groups corresponding to the present period (1951–2000, a first future period (2001–2050, and a second future period (2051–2100. For each time period, the parameters of the GEV distribution were specified as functions of time-varying covariates and estimated using the conditional density network (CDN. For each location and selected time period, a total number of 29 linear and nonlinear models were fitted to the wave data, for a given combination of covariates. The covariates used in the GEV-CDN models consisted of wind fields resulting from the Regional Climate Model version 3 (RegCM3 developed by the International Center for Theoretical Physics (ICTP with a spatial resolution of 10 km × 10 km, after being processed using principal component analysis (PCA. The results obtained from the best fitted models in the present and future periods for each location were compared, revealing different patterns of relationships between wind components and extreme wave height quantiles in different parts of the Greek Seas and different periods. The analysis demonstrates an increase of extreme wave heights in the first future period as compared with the present period, causing a significant threat to Greek coastal areas in the North Aegean Sea and the Ionian Sea.

  14. Present state of global wetland extent and wetland methane modelling: methodology of a model inter-comparison project (WETCHIMP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Wania

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The Wetland and Wetland CH4 Intercomparison of Models Project (WETCHIMP was created to evaluate our present ability to simulate large-scale wetland characteristics and corresponding methane (CH4 emissions. A multi-model comparison is essential to evaluate the key uncertainties in the mechanisms and parameters leading to methane emissions. Ten modelling groups joined WETCHIMP to run eight global and two regional models with a common experimental protocol using the same climate and atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2 forcing datasets. We reported the main conclusions from the intercomparison effort in a companion paper (Melton et al., 2013. Here we provide technical details for the six experiments, which included an equilibrium, a transient, and an optimized run plus three sensitivity experiments (temperature, precipitation, and atmospheric CO2 concentration. The diversity of approaches used by the models is summarized through a series of conceptual figures, and is used to evaluate the wide range of wetland extent and CH4 fluxes predicted by the models in the equilibrium run. We discuss relationships among the various approaches and patterns in consistencies of these model predictions. Within this group of models, there are three broad classes of methods used to estimate wetland extent: prescribed based on wetland distribution maps, prognostic relationships between hydrological states based on satellite observations, and explicit hydrological mass balances. A larger variety of approaches was used to estimate the net CH4 fluxes from wetland systems. Even though modelling of wetland extent and CH4 emissions has progressed significantly over recent decades, large uncertainties still exist when estimating CH4 emissions: there is little consensus on model structure or complexity due to knowledge gaps, different aims of the models, and the range of temporal and spatial resolutions of the models.

  15. Roles for the endocannabinoid system in ethanol-motivated behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henderson-Redmond, Angela N; Guindon, Josée; Morgan, Daniel J

    2016-02-04

    Alcohol use disorder represents a significant human health problem that leads to substantial loss of human life and financial cost to society. Currently available treatment options do not adequately address this human health problem, and thus, additional therapies are desperately needed. The endocannabinoid system has been shown, using animal models, to modulate ethanol-motivated behavior, and it has also been demonstrated that chronic ethanol exposure can have potentially long-lasting effects on the endocannabinoid system. For example, chronic exposure to ethanol, in either cell culture or preclinical rodent models, causes an increase in endocannabinoid levels that results in down-regulation of the cannabinoid receptor 1 (CB1) and uncoupling of this receptor from downstream G protein signaling pathways. Using positron emission tomography (PET), similar down-regulation of CB1 has been noted in multiple regions of the brain in human alcoholic patients. In rodents, treatment with the CB1 inverse agonist SR141716A (Rimonabant), or genetic deletion of CB1 leads to a reduction in voluntary ethanol drinking, ethanol-stimulated dopamine release in the nucleus accumbens, operant self-administration of ethanol, sensitization to the locomotor effects of ethanol, and reinstatement/relapse of ethanol-motivated behavior. Although the clinical utility of Rimonabant or other antagonists/inverse agonists for CB1 is limited due to negative neuropsychiatric side effects, negative allosteric modulators of CB1 and inhibitors of endocannabinoid catabolism represent therapeutic targets worthy of additional examination. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Presenting Knowledge Management Implementation Model with Fuzzy Approach in Information Technology Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahra Razmi

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available With the progress of modern sciences and more competitive becoming environment in the technology era, knowledge management is being counted as one of the most important stable competitive advantages of technology oriented organizations. This matter is of higher importance in high technology organizations, especially those active in information technology field due to their unique identity. This way, knowledge management has been already shifted to one of the most important priorities of such organizations that in case of not identifying, applying, recording and creating that knowledge, the organization is inevitable to pay fortunesto revive the knowledge gone. The purpose of this research is presenting a comprehensive knowledge management implementation model in information technology industry. Therefore, the measures of the suggested research’s model were identified by studying identical researches and projects done in knowledge management and information technology sector and also through consultation with the experts. This way, a questionnaire was designed in two parts and distributed among experts in the understudied organizations. The research’s data were analyzed through T Test and Binomial Test through fuzzy approach due to the constraints presented by the Lickert scale. The research findings demonstrate that the stages of knowledge management implementation model in information technology sector include knowledge evaluation, knowledge leverage, knowledge planning, knowledge culture, knowledge strategies, knowledge management processes, suitable knowledge infrastructures, knowledge organization and knowledge presentation. There also exist actions in each stage that effect successful implementation of the mentioned stages.

  17. Method and system for ethanol production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feder, H.M.; Chen, M.J.

    1980-05-21

    A transition metal carbonyl and a tertiary amine are employed as a homogeneous catalytic system in methanol or a less volatile solvent to react methanol with carbon monoxide and hydrogen gas producing ethanol and carbon dioxide. The gas contains a high carbon monoxide to hydrogen ratio as is present in a typical gasifier product. The reaction has potential for anhydrous ethanol production as carbon dioxide rather than water is produced. The only other significant by-product is methane. Selected transition metal carbonyls include those of iron, ruthenium and possibly manganese and osmium. Selected amines include trimethylamine, N-Methylpyrrolidine, 24-diazabicyclooctane, dimethyneopentylamine and 2-pryidinol.

  18. Method and system for ethanol production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feder, Harold M.; Chen, Michael J.

    1981-01-01

    A transition metal carbonyl and a tertiary amine are employed as a homogeneous catalytic system in methanol or a less volatile solvent to react methanol with carbon monoxide and hydrogen gas producing ethanol and carbon dioxide. The gas contains a high carbon monoxide to hydrogen ratio as is present in a typical gasifier product. The reaction has potential for anhydrous ethanol production as carbon dioxide rather than water is produced. The only other significant by product is methane. Selected transition metal carbonyls include those of iron, ruthenium and possibly manganese and osmium. Selected amines include trimethylamine, N-Methylpyrrolidine, 24-diazabicyclooctane, dimethyneopentylamine and 2-pryidinol.

  19. Production of Hydrogen from Bio-ethanol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fabrice Giroudiere; Christophe Boyer; Stephane His; Robert Sanger; Kishore Doshi; Jijun Xu

    2006-01-01

    IFP and HyRadix are collaborating in the development of a new hydrogen production system from liquid feedstock such as bio-ethanol. Reducing greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions along with high hydrogen yield are the key objectives. Market application of the system will be hydrogen refueling stations as well as medium scale hydrogen consumers including the electronics, metals processing, and oils hydrogenation industries. The conversion of bio-ethanol to hydrogen will be performed within a co-developed process including an auto-thermal reformer working under pressure. The technology will produce high-purity hydrogen with ultralow CO content. The catalytic auto-thermal reforming technology combines the exothermic and endothermic reaction and leads to a highly efficient heat integration. The development strategy to reach a high hydrogen yield target with the bio-ethanol hydrogen generator is presented. (authors)

  20. A review of the evidence linking adult attachment theory and chronic pain: presenting a conceptual model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meredith, Pamela; Ownsworth, Tamara; Strong, Jenny

    2008-03-01

    It is now well established that pain is a multidimensional phenomenon, affected by a gamut of psychosocial and biological variables. According to diathesis-stress models of chronic pain, some individuals are more vulnerable to developing disability following acute pain because they possess particular psychosocial vulnerabilities which interact with physical pathology to impact negatively upon outcome. Attachment theory, a theory of social and personality development, has been proposed as a comprehensive developmental model of pain, implicating individual adult attachment pattern in the ontogenesis and maintenance of chronic pain. The present paper reviews and critically appraises studies which link adult attachment theory with chronic pain. Together, these papers offer support for the role of insecure attachment as a diathesis (or vulnerability) for problematic adjustment to pain. The Attachment-Diathesis Model of Chronic Pain developed from this body of literature, combines adult attachment theory with the diathesis-stress approach to chronic pain. The evidence presented in this review, and the associated model, advances our understanding of the developmental origins of chronic pain conditions, with potential application in guiding early pain intervention and prevention efforts, as well as tailoring interventions to suit specific patient needs.

  1. Thermodynamic analysis of fuels in gas phase: ethanol, gasoline and ethanol - gasoline predicted by DFT method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neto, A F G; Lopes, F S; Carvalho, E V; Huda, M N; Neto, A M J C; Machado, N T

    2015-10-01

    This paper presents a theoretical study using density functional theory to calculate thermodynamics properties of major molecules compounds at gas phase of fuels like gasoline, ethanol, and gasoline-ethanol mixture in thermal equilibrium on temperature range up to 1500 K. We simulated a composition of gasoline mixture with ethanol for a thorough study of thermal energy, enthalpy, Gibbs free energy, entropy, heat capacity at constant pressure with respect to temperature in order to study the influence caused by ethanol as an additive to gasoline. We used semi-empirical computational methods as well in order to know the efficiency of other methods to simulate fuels through this methodology. In addition, the ethanol influence through the changes in percentage fractions of chemical energy released in combustion reaction and the variations on thermal properties for autoignition temperatures of fuels was analyzed. We verified how ethanol reduces the chemical energy released by gasoline combustion and how at low temperatures the gas phase fuels in thermal equilibrium have similar thermodynamic behavior. Theoretical results were compared with experimental data, when available, and showed agreement. Graphical Abstract Thermodynamic analysis of fuels in gas phase.

  2. KCNQ channels show conserved ethanol block and function in ethanol behaviour.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonia Cavaliere

    Full Text Available In humans, KCNQ2/3 channels form an M-current that regulates neuronal excitability, with mutations in these channels causing benign neonatal familial convulsions. The M-current is important in mechanisms of neural plasticity underlying associative memory and in the response to ethanol, with KCNQ controlling the release of dopamine after ethanol exposure. We show that dKCNQ is broadly expressed in the nervous system, with targeted reduction in neuronal KCNQ increasing neural excitability and KCNQ overexpression decreasing excitability and calcium signalling, consistent with KCNQ regulating the resting membrane potential and neural release as in mammalian neurons. We show that the single KCNQ channel in Drosophila (dKCNQ has similar electrophysiological properties to neuronal KCNQ2/3, including conserved acute sensitivity to ethanol block, with the fly channel (IC(50 = 19.8 mM being more sensitive than its mammalian ortholog (IC(50 = 42.1 mM. This suggests that the role of KCNQ in alcohol behaviour can be determined for the first time by using Drosophila. We present evidence that loss of KCNQ function in Drosophila increased sensitivity and tolerance to the sedative effects of ethanol. Acute activation of dopaminergic neurons by heat-activated TRP channel or KCNQ-RNAi expression produced ethanol hypersensitivity, suggesting that both act via a common mechanism involving membrane depolarisation and increased dopamine signalling leading to ethanol sedation.

  3. Alligator Rivers Analogue project. Geochemical modelling of present-day groundwaters. Final Report - Volume 12

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sverjensky, D. A.

    1992-01-01

    The main purpose of this report is to summarize geochemical modeling studies of the present-day Koongarra groundwaters. Information on the present-day geochemistry and geochemical processes at Koongarra forms a basis for a present-day analogue for nuclear waste migration. The present-day analogue is built on studies of the mineralogy and petrology of the Koongarra deposit, and chemical analyses of present-day groundwaters from the deposit. The overall approach taken in the present study has been to carry out a series of aqueous speciation and state of saturation calculations, including chemical mass transfer calculations, to address the possible control over the chemistry of the present-day for the groundwaters at Koongarra. The most important implication of the present study for the migration of radionuclides is the strong role played by the water-rock interactions, both above and below the water table, influencing the overall chemical evolution of the groundwaters. Thus, the results show that the chemical evolution of waters is strongly controlled by the initial availability of CO 2 and the mineral assemblage encountered, which together determine the major element evolution of the waters by controlling the pH. The relative rates of evolution of the pH and the oxidation state of the groundwaters are also critical to the mobility of uranium. The shallow Koongarra waters are sufficiently oxidising that they can dissolve and transport uranium even under acidic conditions. Under the more reducing condition of the deep groundwaters, is the pH level that permits uranium transport as carbonate complexes. However, if the oxidation state decreases to much lower levels, it would be expected that uranium become immobile. All the speciation and state of saturation calculations carried out in the present study are available from the author, on request

  4. Adolescent ethanol experience alters immediate and long-term behavioral responses to ethanol odor in observer and demonstrator rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eade Amber M

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The social transmission of food preference paradigm centers on the finding that observers obtain dietary information through olfactory cues on the breath of a demonstrator peer that has ingested a novel substance. This phenomenon plays a role in ethanol acceptability. Historically, studies using this technique have focused on observer animals in order to study the social transmission process. With respect to ethanol, studies of acute intoxication have shown that the pharmacologic properties of ethanol and hematogenic olfaction can influence the subsequent ethanol odor-mediated responses of the intoxicated animals. These acute studies, however, demonstrate odor aversion. The present study compared the effect of adolescent ethanol exposure, via the social transmission paradigm, on the behavioral response to ethanol odor in both observer and demonstrator animals in adolescence (postnatal day (P 37 and the persistence of these effects into adulthood (P90. Methods Beginning on P29, naïve rats received four ethanol or water exposures: one every 48 hours through either direct intragastric infusion or social interaction with an infused peer. The reflexive sniffing response of observers and demonstrators to ethanol odor was tested at P37 or P90 using whole-body plethysmography. Results The behavioral response of adolescent ethanol observers and demonstrators significantly differed between themselves and from their respective water controls. Ethanol and water observers both displayed a greater response to ethanol odor than their respective demonstrator counterparts. Compared to controls, both modes of ethanol exposure produced similar magnitudes of enhancement. At P90, both forms of exposure displayed similar responses to ethanol odor and similar magnitudes of enhancement. Only demonstrators displayed equivalent enhanced responses in both sexes. Conclusion In contrast to previous studies showing odor aversion following acute ethanol

  5. Present-day heat flow and seismicity of Mars as predicted from convective thermal evolution models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plesa, A.-C.; Tosi, N.; Knapmeyer, M.; Grott, M.; Breuer, D.; Golombek, M.; Wieczorek, M.; Spohn, T.

    2017-09-01

    The InSight (Interior exploration using Seismic Investigations, Geodesy and Heat Transport) Discovery class mission, to be launched in 2018, will perform a comprehensive geophysical investigation of Mars using a seismometer and a heat flow probe as well as precision tracking. The seismic and heat flow data are ultimately important to constrain the present-day interior structure and heat budget of the planet, and, in turn, offer constraints on its thermal and chemical evolution. As the InSight lander will perform its measurements at a single location, in the Elysium Planitia region, numerical simulations of the dynamics of the interior can greatly help to interpret the data in a global context. In this study we present 3D numerical thermal evolution models of Mars and focus on the present-day state. Furthermore, we compare our results with available estimates of elastic lithosphere thickness and seismicity.

  6. Presenting the Students' Academic Achievement Causal Model based on Goal Orientation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasiri, Ebrahim; Pour-Safar, Ali; Taheri, Mahdokht; Sedighi Pashaky, Abdullah; Asadi Louyeh, Ataollah

    2017-10-01

    Several factors play a role in academic achievement, individual's excellence and capability to do actions and tasks that the learner is in charge of in learning areas. The main goal of this study was to present academic achievement causal model based on the dimensions of goal orientation and learning approaches among the students of Medical Science and Dentistry courses in Guilan University of Medical Sciences in 2013. This study is based on a cross-sectional model. The participants included 175 first and second students of the Medical and Dentistry schools in Guilan University of Medical Sciences selected by random cluster sampling [121 persons (69%) Medical Basic Science students and 54 (30.9%) Dentistry students]. The measurement tool included the Goal Orientation Scale of Bouffard and Study Process Questionnaire of Biggs) and the students' Grade Point Average. The study data were analyzed using Pearson correlation coefficient and structural equations modeling. SPSS 14 and Amos were used to analyze the data. The results indicated a significant relationship between goal orientation and learning strategies (P<0.05). In addition, the results revealed that a significant relationship exists between learning strategies[Deep Learning (r=0.37, P<0.05), Surface Learning (r=-0.21,P<0.05)], and academic achievement.The suggested model of research is fitted to the data of the research. Results showed that the students' academic achievement model fits with experimental data, so it can be used in learning principles which lead to students' achievement in learning.

  7. Quercus suber range dynamics by ecological niche modelling: from the Last Interglacial to present time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vessella, Federico; Simeone, Marco Cosimo; Schirone, Bartolomeo

    2015-07-01

    Ecological Niche Modelling (ENM) is widely used to depict species potential occurrence according to environmental variables under different climatic scenarios. We tested the ENM approach to infer past range dynamics of cork oak, a keystone species of the Mediterranean Biome, from 130 ka to the present time. Hindcasting implications would deal with a better species risk assessment and conservation management for the future. We modelled present and past occurrence of cork oak using seven ENM algorithms, starting from 63,733 spatially unique presence points at 30 arc-second resolution. Fourteen environmental variables were used and four time slices were considered (Last Interglacial, Last Glacial Maximum, mid-Holocene and present time). A threshold-independent evaluation of the goodness-of-fit of the models was evaluated by means of ROC curve and fossil or historical evidences were used to validate the results. Four weighted average maps depicted the dynamics of area suitability for cork oak in the last 130 ka. The derived species autoecology allowed its long-term occurrence in the Mediterranean without striking range reduction or shifting. Fossil and historical post-processing validation support the modelled past spatial extension and a neglected species presence at Levantine until the recent time. Despite the severe climatic oscillation since the Last Glacial Maximum, cork oak potential distribution area experienced limited range changes, confirming its strong link with the Mediterranean Basin. The ecological amplitude of Quercus suber could be therefore adopted as a reference to trace the Mediterranean bioclimate area. A better knowledge of the past events of Mediterranean vegetation, a wider range of study species and environmental determinants are essential to inform us about its current state, its sensitivity to human impact and the potential responses to future changes.

  8. Extended UNIQUAC Model for Correlation and Prediction of Vapor-Liquid-Liquid-Solid Equilibria in Aqueous Salt Systems Containing Non-Electrolytes. Part B. Alcohol (Ethanol, Propanols, Butanols) - Water-salt systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Kaj; Iliuta, Maria Cornelia; Rasmussen, Peter

    2004-01-01

    , and liquid-liquid equilibrium data for solvent mixtures and for mixed solvent-electrolyte systems. The application of this model to represent the vapor-liquid-liquid-solid equilibria in aqueous systems containing various non-electrolytes (ethanol, 1-propanol, 2-propanol, 1-butanol, 2- butanol, 2-methyl I-propanol......, 2-methyl 2-propanol) and various ions (Na+, K+, NH4+, Cl-, NO3, SO42-, SO32-, HSO3-, CO32-, and HCO3-) shows the capability of the model to accurately represent the phase behavior of these kinds of systems. (C) 2004 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved....

  9. Present and Future of Dengue Fever in Nepal: Mapping Climatic Suitability by Ecological Niche Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acharya, Bipin Kumar; Cao, Chunxiang; Xu, Min; Khanal, Laxman; Naeem, Shahid; Pandit, Shreejana

    2018-01-23

    Both the number of cases of dengue fever and the areas of outbreaks within Nepal have increased significantly in recent years. Further expansion and range shift is expected in the future due to global climate change and other associated factors. However, due to limited spatially-explicit research in Nepal, there is poor understanding about the present spatial distribution patterns of dengue risk areas and the potential range shift due to future climate change. In this context, it is crucial to assess and map dengue fever risk areas in Nepal. Here, we used reported dengue cases and a set of bioclimatic variables on the MaxEnt ecological niche modeling approach to model the climatic niche and map present and future (2050s and 2070s) climatically suitable areas under different representative concentration pathways (RCP2.6, RCP6.0 and RCP8.5). Simulation-based estimates suggest that climatically suitable areas for dengue fever are presently distributed throughout the lowland Tarai from east to west and in river valleys at lower elevations. Under the different climate change scenarios, these areas will be slightly shifted towards higher elevation with varied magnitude and spatial patterns. Population exposed to climatically suitable areas of dengue fever in Nepal is anticipated to further increase in both 2050s and 2070s on all the assumed emission scenarios. These findings could be instrumental to plan and execute the strategic interventions for controlling dengue fever in Nepal.

  10. Past, Present, and Future Anthropogenic Emissions over Asia: a Regional Air Quality Modeling Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woo, Jung-Hun; Jung, Bujeon; Choi, Ki-Chul; Seo, Ji-Hyun; Kim, Tae Hyung; Park, Rokjin J.; Youn, Daeok; Jeong, Jaein; Moon, Byung-Kwon; Yeh, Sang-Wook

    2010-05-01

    Climate change will also affect future regional air quality which has potential human health, ecosystem, and economic implications. To analyze the impacts of climate change on Asian air quality, the NIER (National Institute of Environmental Research, Korea) integrated modeling framework was developed based on global-to-regional climate and atmospheric chemistry models. In this study, we developed emission inventories for the modeling framework for 1980~2100 with an emphasis on Asia emissions. Two emission processing systems which have functions of emission projection, spatial/temporal allocation, and chemical speciation have been also developed in support of atmospheric chemistry models including GEOS-Chem and Models-3/CMAQ. Asia-based emission estimates, projection factors, temporal allocation parameters were combined to improve regional modeling capability of past, present and future air quality over Asia. The global CO emissions show a 23% decrease from the years 1980 to 2000. For the future CO (from year 2000 to 2100), the A2 scenario shows a 95% increase due to the B40 (Residential-Biofuel) sector of Western Africa, Eastern Africa and East Asia and the F51 (Transport Road-Fossil fuel) sector of Middle East, USA and South Asia. The B1 scenario, however, shows a 79% decrease of emissions due to B40 and F51 sectors of East Asia, South Asia and USA for the same period. In many cases, Asian emissions play important roles for global emission increase or decrease depending on the IPCC scenarios considered. The regional ozone forming potential will be changed due to different VOC/NOx emission ratio changes in the future. More similarities and differences of Asian emission characteristics, in comparison with its global counterpart, are investigated.

  11. Xylose fermentation to ethanol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McMillan, J.D.

    1993-01-01

    The past several years have seen tremendous progress in the understanding of xylose metabolism and in the identification, characterization, and development of strains with improved xylose fermentation characteristics. A survey of the numerous microorganisms capable of directly fermenting xylose to ethanol indicates that wild-type yeast and recombinant bacteria offer the best overall performance in terms of high yield, final ethanol concentration, and volumetric productivity. The best performing bacteria, yeast, and fungi can achieve yields greater than 0.4 g/g and final ethanol concentrations approaching 5%. Productivities remain low for most yeast and particularly for fungi, but volumetric productivities exceeding 1.0 g/L-h have been reported for xylose-fermenting bacteria. In terms of wild-type microorganisms, strains of the yeast Pichia stipitis show the most promise in the short term for direct high-yield fermentation of xylose without byproduct formation. Of the recombinant xylose-fermenting microorganisms developed, recombinant E. coli ATTC 11303 (pLOI297) exhibits the most favorable performance characteristics reported to date.

  12. Steam reforming of ethanol

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trane-Restrup, Rasmus; Dahl, Søren; Jensen, Anker Degn

    2013-01-01

    on Ni-based catalysts during SR of ethanol were investigated in a flow reactor. Four different supports for Ni were tested and Ce0.6Zr0.4O2 showed the highest activity, but also suffered from severe carbon deposition at 600 °C or below. Operation at 600 °C or above were needed for full conversion......Steam reforming (SR) of oxygenated species like bio-oil or ethanol can be used to produce hydrogen or synthesis gas from renewable resources. However, deactivation due to carbon deposition is a major challenge for these processes. In this study, different strategies to minimize carbon deposition...... of ethanol over the most active catalysts at the applied conditions. At these temperatures the offgas composition was close to the thermodynamical equilibrium. Operation at high temperatures, 700 °C and 750 °C, gave the lowest carbon deposition corresponding to 30–60 ppm of the carbon in the feed ending...

  13. Innovative inexpensive ethanol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mackek, S.

    1991-01-01

    New Energy Company of Indiana which produces 70 million gallons of ethanol per year, avoids the headaches often associated with organic by-products by creating an efficient and profitable sideline business. This paper reports that stretching across 55 acres in South Bend, Ind., New Energy's plant is the largest in the U.S. built specifically for fuel alcohol. The $186-million complex is a dramatic advance in the art of producing ethanol and its co-products. As the demand grows in the coming years for fuel alcohol-proven as an octane booster and a clean-burning alternative fuel. New Energy looks forward to increase production and profits. At the company's six-year-old plant, fuel alcohol is made from 26 million bushels a year of No. 2 yellow dent corn. Left at the bottom of the first column, after the alcohol has been boiled off, is stillage that contains more than 90% of the corn's protein and fat content, and virtually all of its vitamins and minerals, along with the yeast used to make the ethanol. While technically a waste product of the fuel alcohol process, this material's quantity and organic content not only make it difficult and costly to dispose, but its nutritional quality makes it an excellent candidate to be further processed into animal feed

  14. The Relationship between Spiritual Health and other Dimensions of Health: Presentation of a Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akram Heidari

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Attitudes to humankind will have different effects on health service delivery. Health might used to be intended to provide physical health in the past; today, however, many researchers and clinicians consider the concept health to be beyond physical health. In support of this claim, it is enough to indicate that the bio-psycho-social model has for years been held by scientific communities to be a fully admitted model. However, the missing ring in this model, as suggested by many, is the spiritual health. In recent years, the relationship between spirituality and clinical interventions with a comprehensive focus on health has been under increasing scrutiny. Although different models have been presented for investigation of the relationship between spiritual health and other dimensions, the fundamental challenge in this regard is the actual place of spiritual health compared with other dimensions. In this article, attempts are made to address the position and weight of spiritual health from the Islam’s point of view.

  15. Cellulosic ethanol is ready to go

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burke, M. [SunOpta BioProcess Group, Brampton, ON (Canada)

    2006-07-01

    A corporate overview of the SunOpta organization was presented. The organization includes three divisions, notably organic food, industrial minerals, and a bioprocess group. It is a Canadian organization that has experienced over 60 per cent growth per year since 1999. The presentation provided a history of the bioprocess group from 1973 to 2003. The presentation also illustrated the biomass process from wood, straw or corn stover to cellulosic ethanol and acetone and butanol. Several images were presented. The production of xylitol from oat hulls and birch and from ryegrass straw to linerboard was also illustrated. Last, the presentation illustrated the biomass production of cellulose, hemicellulose and lignin extraction as well as the ammonia pretreatment of cellulosics. The presentation also listed several current and future developments such as an expansion plan and implementation of cellulosic ethanol. Economic success was defined as requiring proximity to market; high percentage concentration to distillation; and co-located within existing infrastructure. figs.

  16. Hydrological Modeling in Northern Tunisia with Regional Climate Model Outputs: Performance Evaluation and Bias-Correction in Present Climate Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asma Foughali

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This work aims to evaluate the performance of a hydrological balance model in a watershed located in northern Tunisia (wadi Sejnane, 378 km2 in present climate conditions using input variables provided by four regional climate models. A modified version (MBBH of the lumped and single layer surface model BBH (Bucket with Bottom Hole model, in which pedo-transfer parameters estimated using watershed physiographic characteristics are introduced is adopted to simulate the water balance components. Only two parameters representing respectively the water retention capacity of the soil and the vegetation resistance to evapotranspiration are calibrated using rainfall-runoff data. The evaluation criterions for the MBBH model calibration are: relative bias, mean square error and the ratio of mean actual evapotranspiration to mean potential evapotranspiration. Daily air temperature, rainfall and runoff observations are available from 1960 to 1984. The period 1960–1971 is selected for calibration while the period 1972–1984 is chosen for validation. Air temperature and precipitation series are provided by four regional climate models (DMI, ARP, SMH and ICT from the European program ENSEMBLES, forced by two global climate models (GCM: ECHAM and ARPEGE. The regional climate model outputs (precipitation and air temperature are compared to the observations in terms of statistical distribution. The analysis was performed at the seasonal scale for precipitation. We found out that RCM precipitation must be corrected before being introduced as MBBH inputs. Thus, a non-parametric quantile-quantile bias correction method together with a dry day correction is employed. Finally, simulated runoff generated using corrected precipitation from the regional climate model SMH is found the most acceptable by comparison with runoff simulated using observed precipitation data, to reproduce the temporal variability of mean monthly runoff. The SMH model is the most accurate to

  17. Antroquinonol from ethanolic extract of mycelium of Antrodia cinnamomea protects hepatic cells from ethanol-induced oxidative stress through Nrf-2 activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, K J Senthil; Chu, Fang-Hua; Hsieh, Han-Wen; Liao, Jiunn-Wang; Li, Wen-Hsiung; Lin, Johnson Chin-Chung; Shaw, Jei-Fu; Wang, Sheng-Yang

    2011-06-14

    In recent years, the medicinal mushroom Antrodia cinnamomea, known as "niu-chang chih" has received much attention with regard to its possible health benefits; especially its hepatoprotective effects against various drugs, toxins, and alcohol induced liver diseases. However, the molecular mechanism underlying this protective effect of Antrodia cinnamomea and its active compound antroquinonol was poorly understood. In the present study we evaluated to understand the hepatoprotective efficacy of antroquinonol and ethanolic extracts of mycelia of Antrodia cinnamomea (EMAC) in vitro and in vivo. The protective mechanism of antroquinonol and EMAC against ethanol-induced oxidative stress was investigated in cultured human hepatoma HepG2 cells and ICR mice model, respectively. HepG2 cells were pretreated with antroquinonol (1-20μM) and oxidative stress was induced by ethanol (100mM). Meanwhile, male ICR mice were pretreated with EMAC for 10 days and hepatotoxicity was generated by the addition of ethanol (5g/kg). Hepatic enzymes, cytokines and chemokines were determined using commercially available assay kits. Western blotting and real-time PCR were subjected to analyze HO-1 and Nr-2 expression. EMSA was performed to monitor Nrf-2 ARE binding activity. Possible changes in hepatic lesion were observed using histopathological analysis. Antroquinonol pretreatment significantly inhibited ethanol-induced AST, ALT, ROS, NO, MDA production and GSH depletion in HepG2 cells. Western blot and RT-PCR analysis showed that antroquinonol enhanced Nrf-2 activation and its downstream antioxidant gene HO-1 via MAPK pathway. This mechanism was then confirmed in vivo in an acute ethanol intoxicated mouse model: serum ALT and AST production, hepatocellular lipid peroxidation and GSH depletion was prevented by EMAC in a dose-dependent manner. EMAC significantly enhanced HO-1 and Nrf-2 activation via MAPKs consistent with in vitro studies. Ethanol-induced hepatic swelling and hydropic

  18. Design and creating model and interactive presentation of GEM for Microcosm Exhibition

    CERN Document Server

    Lakdee, Natthaphop

    2017-01-01

    GEM or Gas Electron Multiplier is the newer and easier way to amplify electron signal than conventional CSS. It was first created by Fabio Sauli at CERN in 1997 and was developed to get better efficiency over time. Right now, it was brought to use in many detector stations at CERN. To make GEM more publicly known, one of the ways is show in Microcosm Exhibition which is always visited by people from around the world everyday, so my main project as summer student is to design and create the model and interactive presentation which make GEM interesting and easy to understand by ordinary people.

  19. Beyond the standard Higgs at the LHC. Present constraints on little Higgs models and future prospects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tonini, Marco

    2014-11-01

    This thesis discusses the consistency of different Little Higgs models with the collected collider data as of the summer of 2013. Moreover, future prospects for possible discoveries and mass measurement methods of new physics signals at the foreseen LHC run II with increased center-of-mass energy are presented. Little Higgs models belong to a class of extensions of the Standard Higgs model, predicting a strong interaction regime at a compositeness scale Λ=4πf approximate global symmetry spontaneously broken at the scale f. A natural hierarchy between the compositeness and the electroweak scale is introduced by the Collective Symmetry Breaking mechanism: one-loop diagrams generating the Higgs mass term are forced to be at most logarithmically sensitive to Λ. A naturally light Higgs boson can thus be accommodated, consistently with a perturbative theory until a scale of order 10 TeV. We have probed the parameter space of three prominent examples of Little Higgs models, namely the Simplest Little Higgs model, the Littlest Higgs model, and the Littlest Higgs model with T-parity, against electroweak precision observables and the collected LHC data concerning both Higgs properties and direct searches for new particles, with √(s)=7,8 TeV and up to 25 fb -1 of integrated luminosity. Lower bounds on the scale f are set, within a certain degree of confidence level, which allow to draw conclusions on the ''naturalness'' of the different models. Optimisations of the existing direct searches setups, assuming a Little Higgs signal, as well as dedicated mass measurement methods designed for the foreseen LHC runs with √(s)=13,14 TeV are thoroughly discussed and proposed in this thesis. Special attention will be dedicated to final states including either a large or negligible fraction of missing transverse momentum. In particular, we will propose a dedicated collider search tailored for the discovery and mass measurement of a top partner, exploiting jet

  20. BRCAPRO 6.0 Model Validation in Male Patients Presenting for BRCA Testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitri, Zahi I; Jackson, Michelle; Garby, Carolyn; Song, Juhee; Giordano, Sharon H; Hortobágyi, Gabriel N; Singletary, Claire N; Hashmi, S Shahrukh; Arun, Banu K; Litton, Jennifer K

    2015-06-01

    BRCAPRO is a risk assessment model to estimate the risk of carrying a BRCA mutation. BRCA mutation carriers are at higher risk of developing breast, ovarian, pancreatic, and prostate cancer. BRCAPRO was developed for women and found to be superior to other risk assessment models. The present study evaluated the validity of BRCAPRO at predicting the risk of male patients carrying a BRCA mutation. A total of 146 men who presented for genetic counseling and testing from February1997 to September 2011, and their test results were included in the present study. BRCAPRO risk assessment for all patients was calculated using the BRCAPRO clinical CancerGene assessment software. The mean age at presentation was 57 years. Of the 146 patients, 48 had breast cancer, 18 had pancreatic cancer, 39 had prostate cancer, 27 had other primary cancers, and 37 had no cancer. Fifty patients (34%) tested positive for a BRCA mutation (22 BRCA1, 27 BRCA2, and 1 BRCA1 and BRCA2). The mean BRCAPRO score for all patients was 24.96%. The BRCAPRO score was significantly higher for patients who tested positive for a BRCA mutation (46.19% vs. 13.9%, p BRCA mutation. At a cutoff point of 30.02%, the sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, and negative predictive value were 0.74, 0.81, 0.67, and 0.86, respectively. BRCAPRO appears to be a valid risk assessment tool for determining the risk of carrying a BRCA mutation in men. Men carrying genetic mutations in the BRCA gene have a greater risk than the general population of developing certain types of cancer, including breast, pancreatic, and prostate cancer. BRCAPRO is a risk assessment model that predicts the risk of carrying a BRCA mutation. The present study aimed at validating BRCAPRO for use with men seen for genetic counseling, whether affected by cancer or not. The data available for 146 patients revealed that BRCAPRO was effective at identifying patients at risk of BRCA mutation. These findings could help in identifying a subset

  1. Optimization of fuel ethanol recovery systems using molecular sieves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scheller, W.A.

    1989-01-01

    The use of molecular sieves for the dehydration of rectified fuel ethanol requires only about 58% of the energy required by azeotropic distillation, the usual commercial process. Recently molecular sieve prices have become low enough that their use can be economically competitive with azeotropic distillation. This paper contains results of mass and energy balances to determine the water content of the rectified ethanol (6.15 weight percent) that will result in the minimum energy requirement for producing anhydrous ethanol with the molecular sieve process and byproduct distillers soluble syrup from fermented corn mash containing 7.23 weight percent ethanol. In this paper results of economic evaluations to determine the water content of the rectified ethanol (7.58 weight percent) which results in a minimum investment and operating cost are presented

  2. Presenting the students’ academic achievement causal model based on goal orientation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EBRAHIM NASIRI

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Several factors play a role in academic achievement, individual’s excellence and capability to do actions and tasks that the learner is in charge of in learning areas. The main goal of this study was to present academic achievement causal model based on the dimensions of goal orientation and learning approaches among the students of Medical Science and Dentistry courses in Guilan University of Medical Sciences in 2013. Methods: This study is based on a cross-sectional model. The participants included 175 first and second year students of the Medical and Dentistry schools in Guilan University of Medical Sciences selected by random cluster sampling [121 persons (69% Medical Basic Science students and 54 (30.9% Dentistry students]. The measurement tool included the Goal Orientation Scale of Bouffard and Study Process Questionnaire of Biggs and the students’ Grade Point Average. The study data were analyzed using Pearson correlation coefficient and structural equations modeling. SPSS 14 and Amos were used to analyze the data. Results: The results indicated a significant relationship between goal orientation and learning strategies (P<0.05. In addition, the results revealed that a significant relationship exists between learning strategies [Deep Learning (r=0.37, P<0.05, Surface Learning (r=-0.21, P<0.05], and academic achievement. The suggested model of research is fitted to the data of the research. Conclusion: Results showed that the students’ academic achievement model fits with experimental data, so it can be used in learning principles which lead to students’ achievement in learning.

  3. Presenting a conceptual model of data collection to manage the groundwater quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nourbakhsh Zahra

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available A conceptual model was proposed in the present study, which highlighted important independent and dependent variables in order to managing the groundwater quality. Furthermore, the methods of selection of variable and collection of related data were explained. The study was carried out in the Tajan Plain, north of Iran; 50 drinking wells were considered as sampling points. In this model the Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP was proposed to select the indicator water quality parameters. According to expert opinions and characteristics of the study area ten factors were chosen as variables influencing the quality of groundwater (land use types, lithology units, geology units, distance of wells to the outlet, distance to the residential areas, direction toward the residential areas, depth of the groundwater table, the type of aquifer, transmissivity and population. Geographic Information System (AecGIS 9.3 was used to manage the spatial-based variables and the data of non-spatial-based variables were obtained from relevant references. A database, which contains all collected data related to groundwater quality management in the studied area, was created as the output of the model. The output of this conceptual model can be used as an input for quantitative and mathematical models. Results show that 6 parameters (sulphate, iron, nitrate, electrical conductivity, calcium, and total dissolved solids (TDS were the best indicators for groundwater quality analysis in the area. More than 50% of the wells were drilled in the depth of groundwater table about 5 meters, in this low depth pollutants can load into the wells and also 78% of the wells are located within 5 km from the urban area; it can be concluded from this result that the intensive urban activities could affect groundwater quality.

  4. Use of Optical Oxygen Sensors in Non-Destructively Determining the Levels of Oxygen Present in Combined Vacuum and Modified Atmosphere Packaged Pre-Cooked Convenience-Style Foods and the Use of Ethanol Emitters to Extend Product Shelf-Life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hempel, Andreas W.; Papkovsky, Dmitri B.; Kerry, Joseph P.

    2013-01-01

    O2 sensors were used to non-destructively monitor O2 levels in commercially packed pre-cooked, convenience modified atmosphere packaging (MAP) foods. A substantial level of O2 (>15%) was present in packs resulting in a shorter than expected shelf-life, where the primary spoilage mechanism was found to be mould. Various combinations of vacuum (0–0.6 MPa) and gas flush (0.02–0.03 MPa) (30% CO2/70% N2) settings were assessed as treatments that result in the desired shelf-life (28 days). This was achieved using the combined treatment of vacuum 0.35 MPa and gas flush 0.02 MPa which resulted in a reduction of 6%–9% O2 in all three samples (battered sausages (BS), bacon slices (BA), and meat and potato pies (PP)). Reduced O2 levels reflect the microbial quality of products, which has been successfully reduced. Duplicate samples of all product packs were produced using ethanol emitters (EE) to see if shelf-life could be further extended. Results showed a further improvement in shelf-life to 35 days. Sensory analysis showed that ethanol flavour and aroma was not perceived by panellists in two of the three products assessed. This study demonstrates how smart packaging technologies, both intelligent and active, can be used to assist in the modification of conventional packaging systems in order to enhance product quality and safety and through the extension of product shelf-life. PMID:28239134

  5. Ethanol fuel modification for highway vehicle use. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-01-01

    A number of problems that might occur if ethanol were used as a blending stock or replacement for gasoline in present cars are identified and characterized as to the probability of occurrence. The severity of their consequences is contrasted to those found with methanol in a previous contract study. Possibilities for correcting several problems are reported. Some problems are responsive to fuel modifications but others require or are better dealt with by modification of vehicles and the bulk fuel distribution system. In general, problems with ethanol in blends with gasoline were found to be less severe than those with methanol. Phase separation on exposure to water appears to be the major problem with ethanol/gasoline blends. Another potentially serious problem with blends is the illict recovery of ethanol for beverage usage, or bootlegging, which might be discouraged by the use of select denaturants. Ethanol blends have somewhat greater tendency to vapor lock than base gasoline but less than methanol blends. Gasoline engines would require modification to operate on fuels consisting mostly of ethanol. If such modifications were made, cold starting would still be a major problem, more difficult with ethanol than methanol. Startability can be provided by adding gasoline or light hydrocarbons. Addition of gasoline also reduces the explosibility of ethanol vapor and furthermore acts as denaturant.

  6. Aqueous Ethanol Ignition and Engine Studies, Phase I

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-01

    Our objectives were to design a micro-dilution tunnel for monitoring engine emissions, measure ignition temperature and heat release from ethanol-water-air mixtures on platinum, and initiate a computational fluid dynamics model of a catalytic igniter...

  7. Silver sub-nanoclusters electrocatalyze ethanol oxidation and provide protection against ethanol toxicity in cultured mammalian cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selva, Javier; Martínez, Susana E; Buceta, David; Rodríguez-Vázquez, María J; Blanco, M Carmen; López-Quintela, M Arturo; Egea, Gustavo

    2010-05-26

    Silver atomic quantum clusters (AgAQCs), with two or three silver atoms, show electrocatalytic activities that are not found in nanoparticles or in bulk silver. AgAQCs supported on glassy carbon electrodes oxidize ethanol and other alcohols in macroscopic electrochemical cells in acidic and basic media. This electrocatalysis occurs at very low potentials (from approximately +200 mV vs RHE), at physiological pH, and at ethanol concentrations that are found in alcoholic patients. When mammalian cells are co-exposed to ethanol and AgAQCs, alcohol-induced alterations such as rounded cell morphology, disorganization of the actin cytoskeleton, and activation of caspase-3 are all prevented. This cytoprotective effect of AgAQCs is also observed in primary cultures of newborn rat astrocytes exposed to ethanol, which is a cellular model of fetal alcohol syndrome. AgAQCs oxidize ethanol from the culture medium only when ethanol and AgAQCs are added to cells simultaneously, which suggests that cytoprotection by AgAQCs is provided by the ethanol electro-oxidation mediated by the combined action of AgAQCs and cells. Overall, these findings not only show that AgAQCs are efficient electrocatalysts at physiological pH and prevent ethanol toxicity in cultured mammalian cells, but also suggest that AgAQCs could be used to modify redox reactions and in this way promote or inhibit biological reactions.

  8. Geographical Information System Model for Potential Mines Data Management Presentation in Kabupaten Gorontalo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roviana, D.; Tajuddin, A.; Edi, S.

    2017-03-01

    Mining potential in Indonesian is very abundant, ranging from Sabang to Marauke. Kabupaten Gorontalo is one of many places in Indonesia that have different types of minerals and natural resources that can be found in every district. The abundant of mining potential must be balanced with good management and ease of getting information by investors. The current issue is, (1) ways of presenting data/information about potential mines area is still manually (the maps that already capture from satellite image, then printed and attached to information board in the office) it caused the difficulties of getting information; (2) the high cost of maps printing; (3) the difficulties of regency leader (bupati) to obtain information for strategic decision making about mining potential. The goal of this research is to build a model of Geographical Information System that could provide data management of potential mines, so that the investors could easily get information according to their needs. To achieve that goal Research and Development method is used. The result of this research, is a model of Geographical Information System that implemented in an application to presenting data management of mines.

  9. Parametric Modeling of Urban Landscape: Decoding the Brasilia of Lucio Costa from Modernism to Present Days

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Clara Moura

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the case study of the Pilot-Plan of Brasilia, important example of modernist urban design protected as human heritage. Discusses a methodological process to promote visualization of maximum envelops of urban volumes, organized in a set of rules and scripts which structures urban parameters in a logic of volume constructions. Applies City Engine - ESRI facilities to construct and visualize the urban rules. It has the goal to promote characterization, analysis, proposals and simulation of urban parameters in order to support decision making in land use transformation. The research deals with the difficulties of management urban pressure of transformation and the maintenance of urban cultural heritage. The methodology defends the change from authorial urban design to the decoding of collective values and goals. The 3D modeling and dynamic visualization promotes the composition of the whole, which means to work in a relative mode, and not in an absolute sense. Although it had been developed for a particular case study, the protected historical area of Brasilia, it presents methodological processes of how to structure rules of three-dimensional modeling to simulate the maximum constructive authorized by planning legislation (maximum envelopes, so that it can be reapplied in any other situation of definition of parameters in urban master plans and in laws for land use and occupation.

  10. Modelling the eutrophication of the Seine Bight (France) under historical, present and future riverine nutrient loading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cugier, P.; Billen, G.; Guillaud, J. F.; Garnier, J.; Ménesguen, A.

    2005-03-01

    of human activity in the watershed are simulated by the two models, including a reconstitution of the 'pristine' state, a historical state corresponding to the situation at the end of the 18th century, as well as several scenarios corresponding to the present situation with alternative policies of wastewater nitrogen and/or phosphorus treatment.

  11. Multi-nutrient, multi-group model of present and future oceanic phytoplankton communities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Litchman

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Phytoplankton community composition profoundly affects patterns of nutrient cycling and the dynamics of marine food webs; therefore predicting present and future phytoplankton community structure is crucial to understand how ocean ecosystems respond to physical forcing and nutrient limitations. We develop a mechanistic model of phytoplankton communities that includes multiple taxonomic groups (diatoms, coccolithophores and prasinophytes, nutrients (nitrate, ammonium, phosphate, silicate and iron, light, and a generalist zooplankton grazer. Each taxonomic group was parameterized based on an extensive literature survey. We test the model at two contrasting sites in the modern ocean, the North Atlantic (North Atlantic Bloom Experiment, NABE and subarctic North Pacific (ocean station Papa, OSP. The model successfully predicts general patterns of community composition and succession at both sites: In the North Atlantic, the model predicts a spring diatom bloom, followed by coccolithophore and prasinophyte blooms later in the season. In the North Pacific, the model reproduces the low chlorophyll community dominated by prasinophytes and coccolithophores, with low total biomass variability and high nutrient concentrations throughout the year. Sensitivity analysis revealed that the identity of the most sensitive parameters and the range of acceptable parameters differed between the two sites. We then use the model to predict community reorganization under different global change scenarios: a later onset and extended duration of stratification, with shallower mixed layer depths due to increased greenhouse gas concentrations; increase in deep water nitrogen; decrease in deep water phosphorus and increase or decrease in iron concentration. To estimate uncertainty in our predictions, we used a Monte Carlo sampling of the parameter space where future scenarios were run using parameter combinations that produced acceptable modern day outcomes and the

  12. Three-dimensional instantaneous dynamics modeling of present-day Aegean subduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glerum, Anne; Thieulot, Cedric; Pranger, Casper; van Hinsbergen, Douwe; Fraters, Menno; Spakman, Wim

    2015-04-01

    The Aegean region (Eastern Mediterranean) is exemplary of the interaction between crustal tectonics, plate motion, subduction and mantle flow: African subduction underneath the region has been continuous for at least the last 100 My, leading to about 2100-2500 km of subducted lithosphere residing in the mantle (van Hinsbergen et al., 2005). During this subduction, decoupled upper continental and oceanic crust accreted into a wedge of stacked nappes. In turn, these nappes have been significantly extended, predominantly during the last 25 My, due to the retreat of the African slab relative to Eurasia (van Hinsbergen and Schmid, 2012). As a first step to better understanding the coupling of the tectonic evolution of the crust and the underlying mantle dynamics, we are developing 3-D numerical models of the instantaneous dynamics of the present-day Aegean subduction system using the finite element code ASPECT (Kronbichler et al., 2012). The instantaneous models are set up with initial slab geometries derived from tomography and realistic plate boundary configurations and incorporate the major crustal weak zones of the overriding plate. Our modeling results in predictions of flow fields and stress, strain rate and rotation rate fields for the present-day tectonic setting of the Aegean region. By comparing our various model predictions to the widely available observations, such as focal mechanisms, GPS velocities and seismic anisotropy, we aim at an improved understanding of how mantle flow, subduction morphology and possibly slab segmentation, as well as the rheological behavior of the overriding plate, control present-day tectonic deformation. We expect to show preliminary results of this comparison. Kronbichler, M., Heister, T. and Bangerth, W. (2012), High Accuracy Mantle Convection Simulation through Modern Numerical Methods, Geophysical Journal International, 191, 12-29. Van Hinsbergen, D. J. J., Hafkenscheid, E., Spakman, W., Meulenkamp, J. E. and Wortel, R. (2005

  13. Dissociable effects of ethanol consumption during the light and dark phase in adolescent and adult Wistar rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Brendan M; Walker, Jennifer L; Ehlers, Cindy L

    2008-03-01

    In adolescence, high levels of drinking over short episodes (binge drinking) is commonly seen in a proportion of the population. Because adolescence is an important neurodevelopmental period, the effects of binge drinking on brain and behavior has become a significant health concern. However, robust animal models of binge drinking in rats are still being developed and therefore further efforts are needed to optimize paradigms for inducing maximal self-administration of alcohol. In the present experiment, 1-h limited-access self-administration sessions were instituted to model excessive drinking behavior in adolescent and adult Wistar rats. In addition to age, the involvement of sex and phase within the light/dark cycle (i.e., drinking in the light or dark) on sweetened 5% ethanol intake were also evaluated over 14 limited-access sessions using a between-groups design. The results of the experiment showed that over 14 limited-access sessions, sweetened ethanol intake (g/kg) was significantly higher for adolescents compared to adults. Females were also found to drink more sweetened ethanol as compared to males. Additionally, drinking in the light produced a robust increase in sweetened ethanol intake (g/kg) in adolescents, as compared to adults during the light phase and as compared to both adolescent and adult rats drinking in the dark. Furthermore, the increase in ethanol consumption observed in adolescents drinking during the light phase was dissociable from sweetened solution intake patterns. These results identify that age, sex, and time of day all significantly influence consumption of sweetened ethanol in Wistar rats. Knowledge of these parameters should be useful for future experiments attempting to evaluate the effects of self-administered ethanol exposure in adult and adolescent rats.

  14. Central reinforcing effects of ethanol are blocked by catalase inhibition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nizhnikov, Michael E; Molina, Juan C; Spear, Norman E

    2007-11-01

    Recent studies have systematically indicated that newborn rats are highly sensitive to ethanol's positive reinforcing effects. Central administrations of ethanol (25-200mg %) associated with an olfactory conditioned stimulus (CS) promote subsequent conditioned approach to the CS as evaluated through the newborn's response to a surrogate nipple scented with the CS. It has been shown that ethanol's first metabolite, acetaldehyde, exerts significant reinforcing effects in the central nervous system. A significant amount of acetaldehyde is derived from ethanol metabolism via the catalase system. In newborn rats, catalase levels are particularly high in several brain structures. The present study tested the effect of catalase inhibition on central ethanol reinforcement. In the first experiment, pups experienced lemon odor either paired or unpaired with intracisternal (IC) administrations of 100mg% ethanol. Half of the animals corresponding to each learning condition were pretreated with IC administrations of either physiological saline or a catalase inhibitor (sodium-azide). Catalase inhibition completely suppressed ethanol reinforcement in paired groups without affecting responsiveness to the CS during conditioning or responding by unpaired control groups. A second experiment tested whether these effects were specific to ethanol reinforcement or due instead to general impairment in learning and expression capabilities. Central administration of an endogenous kappa opioid receptor agonist (dynorphin A-13) was used as an alternative source of reinforcement. Inhibition of the catalase system had no effect on the reinforcing properties of dynorphin. The present results support the hypothesis that ethanol metabolism regulated by the catalase system plays a critical role in determination of ethanol reinforcement in newborn rats.

  15. Battery Ownership Model: A Tool for Evaluating the Economics of Electrified Vehicles and Related Infrastructure (Presentation)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O' Keefe, M.; Brooker, A.; Johnson, C.; Mendelsohn, M.; Neubauer, J.; Pesaran, A.

    2010-11-01

    This presentation uses a vehicle simulator and economics model called the Battery Ownership Model to examine the levelized cost per mile of conventional (CV) and hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs) in comparison with the cost to operate an electric vehicle (EV) under a service provider business model. The service provider is assumed to provide EV infrastructure such as charge points and swap stations to allow an EV with a 100-mile range to operate with driving profiles equivalent to CVs and HEVs. Battery cost, fuel price forecast, battery life, and other variables are examined to determine under what scenarios the levelized cost of an EV with a service provider can approach that of a CV. Scenarios in both the United States as an average and Hawaii are examined. The levelized cost of operating an EV with a service provider under average U.S. conditions is approximately twice the cost of operating a small CV. If battery cost and life can be improved, in this study the cost of an EV drops to under 1.5 times the cost of a CV for U.S. average conditions. In Hawaii, the same EV is only slightly more expensive to operate than a CV.

  16. A model presented for classification ECG signals base on Case-Based Reasoning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elaheh Sayari

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Early detection of heart diseases/abnormalities can prolong life and enhance the quality of living through appropriate treatment; thus classifying cardiac signals will be helped to immediate diagnosing of heart beat type in cardiac patients. The present paper utilizes the case base reasoning (CBR for classification of ECG signals. Four types of ECG beats (normal beat, congestive heart failure beat, ventricular tachyarrhythmia beat and atrial fibrillation beat obtained from the PhysioBank database was classified by the proposed CBR model. The main purpose of this article is classifying heart signals and diagnosing the type of heart beat in cardiac patients that in proposed CBR (Case Base Reasoning system, Training and testing data for diagnosing and classifying types of heart beat have been used. The evaluation results from the model are shown that the proposed model has high accuracy in classifying heart signals and helps to clinical decisions for diagnosing the type of heart beat in cardiac patients which indeed has high impact on diagnosing the type of heart beat aided computer.

  17. Ethanol production in a postmortem urine sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antonides, Heather; Marinetti, Laureen

    2011-09-01

    Significant ethanol production in a urine sample is not a common phenomenon that occurs in postmortem volatile anaylsis. Here, a 66-year-old female decedent with a history of renal failure and diabetes originally presented at the hospital as "acting funny". After expiring at the hospital, the toxicology section received both hospital and postmortem samples for analysis. Initially, only hospital blood and urine were analyzed for volatiles. The hospital blood was only positive for acetone. As a second matrix confirmation, the autopsy urine was also analyzed and found to be positive for acetone and ethanol. Upon initial examination, the urine sample had an ethanol value of 0.10 g%, which continued to increase to a peak concentration of 0.28 g%. This case study focuses on the production of ethanol in a urine sample that was analyzed over a three-month period. Also presented is a vitreous humor metabolic panel that contains glucose, creatinine, and urea nitrogen data for this case.

  18. Anticonvulsant activity of the ethanolic extract of Punica granatum L. seed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehrzadi, Saeed; Sadr, Samir; Hosseinzadeh, Azam; Gholamine, Babak; Shahbazi, Ali; FallahHuseini, Hasan; Ghaznavi, Habib

    2015-06-01

    Various morphological parts of pomegranate (Punica granatum L.) have extensively been used in the folk medicine to treat an array of human ailments. The aim of the present study is to demonstrate the anticonvulsant potential of the ethanolic extract of P. granatum L. seed in chemoconvulsant-induced seizures in mice. The anticonvulsant activity of the ethanolic extract was investigated in strychnine (STR)-induced and pentylenetetrazole (PTZ)-induced seizure models in mice. Diazepam was used as reference anticonvulsant drug. Ethanolic extract (150, 300, and 600 mg/kg per os, p.o.), diazepam (1 mg/kg intraperitoneally, i.p.), and distilled water (10 ml/kg, i.p.) were administered before induction of seizures by PTZ (60 mg/kg, i.p.) or STR (2.5 mg/kg, i.p.). The latent time before the onset of convulsions, the duration of convulsions, the percentage of seizure protection, and mortality rate were recorded. The seed ethanolic extract did not show any toxicity and did not protect the animals against seizures but demonstrated a significant increase in seizure latency at 300 and 600 mg/kg in both STR and PTZ seizure models (P < 0.001). It also showed a significant reduction in seizure duration at 300 mg/kg (P < 0.05) and 600 mg/kg (P < 0.001) in the STR seizure model and 600 mg/kg (P < 0.01) in the PTZ seizure model compared with the control group. Ethanol extract has dose-dependent anticonvulsant activity against STR- and PTZ-induced seizures. This activity might be due to its saponins, flavonoids, triterpenes, and alkaloids ingredients.

  19. Internal energy selection in vacuum ultraviolet photoionization of ethanol and ethanol dimers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodi, Andras

    2013-10-01

    Internal energy selected ethanol monomer and ethanol dimer ions were prepared by threshold photoionization of a supersonic molecular beam seeded with ethanol. The dissociative photoionization processes of the monomer, the lowest-energy CH3-loss channel of the dimer, and the fragmentation of larger clusters were found to be disjunct from the ionization onset to about 12 eV, which made it possible to determine the 0 K appearance energy of C-C bond breaking in the H-donor unit of the ethanol dimer cation as 9.719 ± 0.004 eV. This reaction energy is used together with ab initio calculations in a thermochemical cycle to determine the binding energy change from the neutral ethanol dimer to a protonated ethanol-formaldehyde adduct. The cycle also shows general agreement between experiment, theory, and previously published enthalpies of formation. The role of the initial ionization site, or rather the initial photoion state, is also discussed based on the dimer breakdown diagram and excited state calculations. There is no evidence for isolated state behavior, and the ethanol dimer dissociative photoionization processes appear to be governed by statistical theory and the ground electronic state of the ion. In the monomer breakdown diagram, the smoothly changing branching ratio between H and CH3 loss is at odds with rate theory predictions, and shows that none of the currently employed few-parameter rate models, appropriate for experimental rate curve fitting, yields a correct description for this process in the experimental energy range.

  20. A model study of present-day Hall-effect circulators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Placke, B. [RWTH Aachen University, Institute for Quantum Information, Aachen (Germany); Bosco, S. [RWTH Aachen University, Institute for Quantum Information, Aachen (Germany); Juelich-Aachen Research Alliance (JARA), Fundamentals of Future Information Technologiesh, Juelich (Germany); DiVincenzo, D.P. [RWTH Aachen University, Institute for Quantum Information, Aachen (Germany); Juelich-Aachen Research Alliance (JARA), Fundamentals of Future Information Technologiesh, Juelich (Germany); Peter Gruenberg Institute, Theoretical Nanoelectronics, Forschungszentrum Juelich, Juelich (Germany)

    2017-12-15

    Stimulated by the recent implementation of a three-port Hall-effect microwave circulator of Mahoney et al. (MEA), we present model studies of the performance of this device. Our calculations are based on the capacitive-coupling model of Viola and DiVincenzo (VD). Based on conductance data from a typical Hall-bar device obtained from a two-dimensional electron gas (2DEG) in a magnetic field, we numerically solve the coupled field-circuit equations to calculate the expected performance of the circulator, as determined by the S parameters of the device when coupled to 50Ω ports, as a function of frequency and magnetic field. Above magnetic fields of 1.5 T, for which a typical 2DEG enters the quantum Hall regime (corresponding to a Landau-level filling fraction ν of 20), the Hall angle θ{sub H} = tan{sup -1} σ{sub xy}/σ{sub xx} always remains close to 90 , and the S parameters are close to the analytic predictions of VD for θ{sub H} = π/2. As anticipated by VD, MEA find the device to have rather high (kΩ) impedance, and thus to be extremely mismatched to 50Ω, requiring the use of impedance matching. We incorporate the lumped matching circuits of MEA in our modeling and confirm that they can produce excellent circulation, although confined to a very small bandwidth. We predict that this bandwidth is significantly improved by working at lower magnetic field when the Landau index is high, e.g. ν = 20, and the impedance mismatch is correspondingly less extreme. Our modeling also confirms the observation of MEA that parasitic port-to-port capacitance can produce very interesting countercirculation effects. (orig.)

  1. Neuropeptide Y Administration into the Amygdala Suppresses Ethanol Drinking in Alcohol-Preferring (P) Rats Following Multiple Deprivations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilpin, Nicholas W.; Stewart, Robert B.; Badia-Elder, Nancy E.

    2008-01-01

    The present experiment examines the effects of NPY administered into the amygdala on ethanol drinking by alcohol-preferring P rats following long-term continuous ethanol access, with and without multiple periods of imposed ethanol abstinence. P rats had access to 15% (v/v) ethanol and water for 11 weeks followed by 2 weeks of ethanol abstinence, re-exposure to ethanol for 2 weeks, 2 more weeks of ethanol abstinence, and a final ethanol re-exposure. Immediately prior to the second ethanol re-exposure, 4 groups of rats received bilateral infusions NPY (0.25, 0.5, 1.0 μg) or artificial cerebrospinal fluid (aCSF) into the amygdala. Two additional groups were given uninterrupted ethanol access and were infused with a single NPY dose (1.0 μg) or aCSF. The highest NPY dose (1.0 μg) suppressed ethanol intake for 24 hrs in rats with a history of ethanol abstinence (i.e. deprivation) periods, but had no effect in rats with a history of continuous ethanol access. Water and food intakes were not altered. These results suggest that the amygdala mediates the suppressive effects of centrally administered NPY on ethanol drinking, and that NPY may block relapse-like drinking by opposing the anxiogenic effects of ethanol abstinence. PMID:18499241

  2. Modelling economic losses of historic and present-day high-impact winter storms in Switzerland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welker, Christoph; Martius, Olivia; Stucki, Peter; Bresch, David; Dierer, Silke; Brönnimann, Stefan

    2015-04-01

    simulate the wind field and related economic impact of both historic and present-day high-impact winter storms in Switzerland since end of the 19th century. Our technique involves the dynamical downscaling of the 20CR to 3 km horizontal resolution using the numerical Weather Research and Forecasting model and the subsequent loss simulation using an open-source impact model. This impact model estimates, for modern economic and social conditions, storm-related economic losses at municipality level, and thus allows a numerical simulation of the impact from both historic and present-day severe winter storms in Switzerland on a relatively fine spatial scale. In this study, we apply the modelling chain to a storm sample of almost 90 high-impact winter storms in Switzerland since 1871, and we are thus able to make a statement of the typical wind and loss patterns of hazardous windstorms in Switzerland. To evaluate our modelling chain, we compare simulated storm losses with insurance loss data for the present-day windstorms "Lothar" and "Joachim" in December 1999 and December 2011, respectively. Our study further includes a range of sensitivity experiments and a discussion of the main sources of uncertainty.

  3. Antihypertensive potential of the aqueous extract which combine leaf of Persea americana Mill. (Lauraceae), stems and leaf of Cymbopogon citratus (D.C) Stapf. (Poaceae), fruits of Citrus medical L. (Rutaceae) as well as honey in ethanol and sucrose experimental model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dzeufiet, Paul Désiré Djomeni; Mogueo, Amélie; Bilanda, Danielle Claude; Aboubakar, Bibi-Farouck Oumarou; Tédong, Léonard; Dimo, Théophile; Kamtchouing, Pierre

    2014-12-17

    The present study was designed to evaluate the effects of the aqueous extract obtained from the mixture of fresh leaf of Persea americana, stems and fresh leaf of Cymbopogon citratus, fruits of Citrus medica and honey on ethanol and sucrose induced hypertension in rats. Rats were divided into eight groups of 6 rats each and daily treated for 5 weeks. The control group received distilled water (1 mL/kg) while rats of groups 2, 3 and 4 received ethanol 40 degrees (3 g/kg/day), 10% sucrose as drinking water and the two substances respectively. The remaining groups received in addition to sucrose and ethanol, the aqueous extract (50, 100 and 150 mg/kg) or nifedipine (10 mg/kg) respectively. Many parameters including hemodynamic, biochemical and histopathological were assessed at the end of the study. The concomitant consumption of ethanol and sucrose significantly (p cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol, triglycerides, atherogenic index, glucose, proteins, AST, ALT, creatinin, potassium, sodium and albumin increased while the HDL-cholesterol decreased under ethanol and sucrose feeding. Chronic ethanol and sucrose intake significantly decreased the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) as well as the contents of reduced glutathione (GSH) and nitrites whereas elevated the malondialdehyde (MDA) levels. Histological analysis revealed among other vascular congestion, inflammation, tubular clarification and thickening of the vessel wall in rats treated with alcohol and sucrose. Administration of the aqueous extract or nifedipine prevented the hemodynamic, biochemical, oxidative and histological impairments induced chronic ethanol and sucrose consumption. Current results suggest that the aqueous extract used in this study possess antihypertensive activity against ethanol and sucrose induced hypertension in rats by the improvement of biochemical and oxidative status, and by protecting liver, kidney and vascular endothelium against damages induced by chronic

  4. Energy, carbon dioxide and water use implications of hydrous ethanol production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saffy, Howard A.; Northrop, William F.; Kittelson, David B.; Boies, Adam M.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • We use a chemical refinery model and exergy analysis to determine the impact of hydrous ethanol. • The process is 70% efficient with 86% of the losses from fermentation, steam generation and drying. • We found that producing 86 wt% ethanol is optimal for thermal energy consumption. • Hydrous ethanol production can reduce energy costs and emissions by ∼8%. • Hydrous ethanol reduces water use by decreasing evaporation in cooling towers. - Abstract: Sub-azeotropic hydrous ethanol has been demonstrated as an effective diesel fuel replacement when used in dual-fuel compression ignition engines. Previous studies have also suggested that hydrous ethanol may be more efficient to produce from corn than anhydrous ethanol. In this study, we investigate corn ethanol production from a dry-mill, natural gas-fired corn ethanol refinery, producing ethanol with a range of ethanol concentrations from 58 wt% to 100 wt% to determine the effect on energy use, water consumption and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions in the refining stage of the corn ethanol lifecycle. A second law (exergy) analysis of anhydrous ethanol refining revealed the overall process to be 70% efficient, whereby 86% of the exergy losses could be accounted for by three processes: fermentation (34%), steam generation (29%) and distiller’s grains and solubles drying (23%). We found that producing 86 wt% ethanol is optimal as thermal energy consumption decreases by a maximum of 10% (from 7.7 MJ/L to 6.9 MJ/L). These savings have the potential to reduce energy costs by approximately 8% ($0.34/L) and reduce refinery emissions by 8% (2 g CO 2 e/MJ). Production of hydrous ethanol reduced refinery water use due to decreased evaporative losses in the cooling towers, leading to water savings of between 3% and 6% at 86 wt% ethanol.

  5. The changing radiative forcing of fires: global model estimates for past, present and future

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. S. Ward

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Fires are a global phenomenon that impact climate and biogeochemical cycles, and interact with the biosphere, atmosphere and cryosphere. These impacts occur on a range of temporal and spatial scales and are difficult to quantify globally based solely on observations. Here we assess the role of fires in the climate system using model estimates of radiative forcing (RF from global fires in pre-industrial, present day, and future time periods. Fire emissions of trace gases and aerosols are derived from Community Land Model simulations and then used in a series of Community Atmosphere Model simulations with representative emissions from the years 1850, 2000, and 2100. Additional simulations are carried out with fire emissions from the Global Fire Emission Database for a present-day comparison. These results are compared against the results of simulations with no fire emissions to compute the contribution from fires. We consider the impacts of fire on greenhouse gas concentrations, aerosol effects (including aerosol effects on biogeochemical cycles, and land and snow surface albedo. Overall, we estimate that pre-industrial fires were responsible for a RF of −1 W m−2 with respect to a pre-industrial climate without fires. The largest magnitude pre-industrial forcing from fires was the indirect aerosol effect on clouds (−1.6 W m−2. This was balanced in part by an increase in carbon dioxide concentrations due to fires (+0.83 W m−2. The RF of fires increases by 0.5 W m−2 from 1850 to 2000 and 0.2 W m−2 from 1850 to 2100 in the model representation from a combination of changes in fire activity and changes in the background environment in which fires occur, especially increases and decreases in the anthropogenic aerosol burden. Thus, fires play an important role in both the natural equilibrium climate and the climate perturbed by anthropogenic activity and need to be considered in future

  6. The Potency of Ethanolic Extract of Sauropus androgynus (L.) Merr Leaves as Therapeutic herbal of Rats (Rattus norvegicus) Peptic Ulcer Model Induced by Aspirin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roosdiana, A.; Yudandi, S. A.; Erika, A.

    2018-01-01

    Peptic ulcer is an erosion of the mucosa gaster and duodenum. Aspirin can increase the activity of ROS in duodenum leading to be oxidative stress condition, followed by the increase expression of TNF-α and changes in the duodenum histopathology. Ethanolic extract from Sauropus androgynus (L.) Merr leaves contains flavonoid compound that act as antioxidants. The research aimed to study the therapeutic effect of Sauropus androgynus (L.) Merr leaves towards the expression of TNF-α and the duodenum histopathology. The study used five groups: the negative control group, the positive control group (peptic ulcer), and three therapeutic groups. Peptic ulcer induced by aspirin 200 mg/kg BW given orally once a day for five days. The therapeutic group (dose 16.2 mg/200 g BW, 32.4 mg/200 g BW, 48.6 mg/200 g BW) administrated orally once a day for fourteen days. Expression of TNF-α were analyzed by ANOVA followed by Tukey test (α=5%) and histopathology description of duodenum were analyzed descriptive qualitative. The result showed that treatment of the ethanolic extract from Sauropus androgynus (L.) Merr leaves at dose 48.6 mg/200 g BW was the effective dosage. The conclusion of this research indicate that ethanolic extract from Sauropus androgynus (L.) Merr leaves can be used as alternative therapy peptic ulcer towards decrease the expression of TNF-α and repair duodenum histopathology such as structure of epithelial duodenum, vile and decrease of inflammatory cell and vascular vasodilatation

  7. Geometric modelling of channel present in reservoir petroleum using Bezier splines; Modelagem da geometria de paleocanais presentes em reservatorios petroliferos usando splines de Bezier

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Araujo, Carlos Eduardo S. [Universidade Federal de Campina Grande, PB (Brazil). Programa de Recursos Humanos 25 da ANP]. E-mail: carlos@dme.ufcg.edu.br; Silva, Rosana M. da [Universidade Federal de Campina Grande, PB (Brazil). Dept. de Matematica e Estatistica]. E-mail: rosana@dme.ufcg.edu.br

    2004-07-01

    This work presents an implementation of a synthetic model of a channel found in oil reservoir. The generation these models is one of the steps to the characterization and simulation of the equal probable three-dimensional geological scenery. O implemented model was obtained from fitting techniques of geometric modeling of curves and surfaces to the geological parameters (width, thickness, sinuosity and preferential direction) that defines the form to be modeled. The parameter sinuosity is related with the parameter wave length and the local amplitude of the channel, the parameter preferential direction indicates the way of the flow and the declivity of the channel. The modeling technique used to represent the surface of the channel is the sweeping technique, the consist in effectuate a translation operation from a curve along a guide curve. The guide curve, in our implementation, was generated by the interpolation of points obtained form sampled values or simulated of the parameter sinuosity, using the cubic splines of Bezier technique. A semi-ellipse, determinate by the parameter width and thickness, representing a transversal section of the channel, is the transferred curve through the guide curve, generating the channel surface. (author)

  8. Investigating the Effective Factors on Entering into International Markets by Presenting the Local Islamic Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sayyed Mohammad Ali Alamolhodaei

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The internationalization of small and medium size businesses is regarded as one of the most leading general policies in many of the world’s countries. The reason is that it is often the small and medium size companies which have a vital role in industrial innovation and gain profit for their societies through economic development. This research has investigated and identified the effective factors (organizational factors and business etiquette in Islam on entering into international markets by presenting local Islamic model in the companies of incubator of Science and Technology Park. The statistical population of the research includes the existing companies of Incubator of Mashhad Science and Technology Park. The statistical sample was investigated through simple random sampling from managers of active companies in export in Science and Technology Park. AMOS and SPSS software were applied for data analysis to identify the effects among variables survey research methodology and questionnaire tools were used.

  9. Energy efficiency and potentials of cassava fuel ethanol in Guangxi region of China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dai Du; Hu Zhiyuan; Pu Gengqiang; Li He; Wang Chengtao

    2006-01-01

    The Guangxi Zhuang autonomous region has plentiful cassava resources, which is an ideal feedstock for fuel ethanol production. The Guangxi government intends to promote cassava fuel ethanol as a substitute for gasoline. The purpose of this study was to quantify the energy efficiency and potentials of a cassava fuel ethanol project in the Guangxi region based on a 100 thousand ton fuel ethanol demonstration plant at Qinzhou of Guangxi. The net energy value (NEV) and net renewable energy value (NREV) are presented to assess the energy and renewable energy efficiency of the cassava fuel ethanol system during its life cycle. The cassava fuel ethanol system was divided into five subsystems including the cassava plantation/treatment, ethanol conversion, denaturing, refueling and transportation. All the energy and energy related materials inputs to each subsystem were estimated at the primary energy level. The total energy inputs were allocated between the fuel ethanol and its coproducts with market value and replacement value methods. Available lands for a cassava plantation were investigated and estimated. The results showed that the cassava fuel ethanol system was energy and renewable energy efficient as indicated by positive NEV and NREV values that were 7.475 MJ/L and 7.881 MJ/L, respectively. Cassava fuel ethanol production helps to convert the non-liquid fuel into fuel ethanol that can be used for transportation. Through fuel ethanol production, one Joule of petroleum fuel, plus other forms of energy inputs such as coal, can produce 9.8 J of fuel ethanol. Cassava fuel ethanol can substitute for gasoline and reduce oil imports. With the cassava output in 2003, it can substitute for 166.107 million liters of gasoline. With the cassava output potential, it can substitute for 618.162 million liters of gasoline. Cassava fuel ethanol is more energy efficient than gasoline, diesel fuel and corn fuel ethanol but less efficient than biodiesel

  10. Role of phosphodiesterase-4 on ethanol elicited locomotion and narcosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baliño, Pablo; Ledesma, Juan Carlos; Aragon, Carlos M G

    2016-02-01

    The cAMP signaling pathway has emerged as an important modulator of the pharmacological effects of ethanol. In this respect, the cAMP-dependent protein kinase has been shown to play an important role in the modulation of several ethanol-induced behavioral actions. Cellular levels of cAMP are maintained by the activity of adenylyl cyclases and phosphodiesterases. In the present work we have focused on ascertaining the role of PDE4 in mediating the neurobehavioral effects of ethanol. For this purpose, we have used the selective PDE4 inhibitor Ro 20-1724. This compound has been proven to enhance cellular cAMP response by PDE4 blockade and can be administered systemically. Swiss mice were injected intraperitoneally (i.p.) with Ro 20-1724 (0-5 mg/kg; i.p.) at different time intervals before ethanol (0-4 g/kg; i.p.) administration. Immediately after the ethanol injection, locomotor activity, loss of righting reflex, PKA footprint and enzymatic activity were assessed. Pretreatment with Ro 20-1724 increased ethanol-induced locomotor stimulation in a dose-dependent manner. Doses that increased locomotor stimulation did not modify basal locomotion or the suppression of motor activity produced by high doses of this alcohol. Ro 20-1724 did not alter the locomotor activation produced by amphetamine or cocaine. The time of loss of righting reflex evoked by ethanol was increased after pretreatment with Ro 20-1724. This effect was selective for the narcotic effects of ethanol since Ro 20-1724 did not affect pentobarbital-induced narcotic effects. Moreover, Ro 20-1724 administration increased the PKA footprint and enzymatic activity response elicited by ethanol. These data provide further evidence of the key role of the cAMP signaling pathway in the central effects of ethanol. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Buddleja thyrsoides Lam. crude extract presents antinociceptive effect on an arthritic pain model in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fialho, Maria Fernanda Pessano; Brusco, Indiara; da Silva Brum, Evelyne; Piana, Mariana; Boligon, Aline Augusti; Trevisan, Gabriela; Oliveira, Sara Marchesan

    2017-08-17

    Arthritis is a chronic inflammatory disease which reduces the life quality of affected individuals. Therapeutic tools used for treating inflammatory pain are associated with several undesirable effects. Buddleja thyrsoides Lam., known as 'Barbasco' or 'Cambara', is mostly used in several disorders and possesses antirheumatic, anti-inflammatory, and analgesic properties. Here, we investigated the antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory effects of the B. thyrsoides crude extract applied orally and topically in acute pain models and an arthritic pain model induced by complete Freund's adjuvant (CFA) paw injection in male mice (25-30 g). The high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) of the B. thyrsoides extract crude revealed the presence of the lupeol, stigmasterol, and β-sitosterol. The stability study of the B. thyrsoides gel did not show relevant changes at low temperatures. The oral treatment with the B. thrysoides extract prevented the capsaicin-induced spontaneous nociception and the acetic acid-induced abdominal writhing, but did not alter the thermal threshold in the tail immersion test. The B. thyrsoides antinociceptive effect was not reversed by naloxone in the capsaicin test. The B. thyrsoides oral or topical treatment reversed the CFA-induced mechanical allodynia and thermal hyperalgesia with maximum inhibition ( I max ) of 69 ± 6 and 68 ± 5% as well as 78 ± 15 and 87 ± 12%, respectively. Moreover, the topical but not oral treatment inhibited the CFA-induced cell infiltration, but did not reduce the paw edema significantly. The oral treatment with B. thyrsoides did not cause adverse effects. These findings suggest that the oral or topical treatment with B. thyrsoides presents antinociceptive actions in an arthritic pain model without causing adverse effects. © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Portland Press Limited on behalf of the Biochemical Society.

  12. NEUROPEPTIDE Y (NPY) SUPPRESSES ETHANOL DRINKING IN ETHANOL-ABSTINENT, BUT NOT NON-ETHANOL-ABSTINENT, WISTAR RATS

    OpenAIRE

    Gilpin, N.W.; Stewart, R.B.; Badia-Elder, N.E.

    2008-01-01

    In outbred rats, increases in brain neuropeptide Y (NPY) activity suppress ethanol consumption in a variety of access conditions, but only following a history of ethanol dependence. NPY reliably suppresses ethanol drinking in alcohol-preferring (P) rats and this effect is augmented following a period of ethanol abstinence. The purpose of this experiment was to examine the effects of NPY on 2-bottle choice ethanol drinking and feeding in Wistar rats that had undergone chronic ethanol vapor exp...

  13. Simulation of Aldehyde Emissions from an Ethanol Fueled Spark Ignition Engine and Comparison with FTIR Measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zaránte, Paola Helena Barros; Sodre, Jose Ricardo

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents a mathematical model that calculates aldehyde emissions in the exhaust of a spark ignition engine fueled with ethanol. The numerical model for aldehyde emissions was developed using FORTRAN software, with the input data obtained from a dedicated engine cycle simulation software, AVL BOOST. The model calculates formaldehyde and acetaldehyde emissions, formed from the partial oxidation of methane, ethane and unburned ethanol. The calculated values were compared with experimental data obtained by Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR). The experiments were performed with a mid-size sedan powered by a 1.4-liter spark ignition engine on a chassis dynamometer. In general, the results demonstrate that the concentrations of aldehydes and the source elements increased with engine speed and exhaust gas temperature. A reasonable agreement between simulated and measured values was achieved. (paper)

  14. Measuring solubility of carbon dioxide in aqueous blends of N-methyldiethanolamine and 2-((2-aminoethyl)amino)ethanol at low CO2 loadings and modelling by electrolyte SAFT-HR EoS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Najafloo, Azam; Zoghi, Ali T.; Feyzi, Farzaneh

    2015-01-01

    Graphical abstract: CO 2 loading at various partial pressures of CO 2 in aqueous 5.370 mol/kg (MDEA + AEEA) mixture at T = 343.15 K and at the molar ratio of AEEA/MDEA = 0.12500: ♦, 0.10000: ■ and 0.05000:▴, 0.00000: ●. Lines are used only to join the experimental data points. Source of data: this work. - Highlights: • Solubility data for carbon dioxide in aqueous (MDEA + AEEA) solutions is obtained. • Mole ratio AEEA/MDEA = 0.12500, 0.10000 and 0.05000 at constant amine concentration. • The data are at T = (313.15, 328.15, 343.15 and 358.15) K and P = (7.3 to 386.6) kPa. • Electrolyte SAFT-HR EoS was used to model the quaternary solution. • The AAD% of the EoS for calculation of the total pressure = 7.74. - Abstract: In this work, new solubility values for CO 2 absorption in aqueous solutions of N-methyldiethanolamine (MDEA) in the presence of different mole ratios of 2-((2-aminoethyl)amino)ethanol (AEEA) at low pressures are obtained. The total molar amine concentration of all the solutions has been fixed equal to 3.360 mol · L −1 (5.370 mol amine · kg −1 water). The mole ratio of AEEA/MDEA was set to 0.12500, 0.10000 and 0.05000. The experimental total pressure varied from (7.3 to 386.6) kPa and the experimental temperature was set to (313.15, 328.15, 343.15 and 358.15) K. The electrolyte SAFT-HR (eSAFT-HR) equation of state (EoS) (Najafloo et al., 2014) has been successfully applied to model the solubility of CO 2 in aqueous mixtures of AEEA and MDEA. The overall average absolute relative per cent deviation (AAD%) in calculating the total pressure as a function of CO 2 loading is 7.74 for (AEEA + MDEA + CO 2 + H 2 O) quaternary system at the four values of temperature. To verify the predictive ability of the model, the eSAFT-HR EoS was extrapolated to the Zoghi and Feyzi (2013) solubility results of the same quaternary system that were obtained at higher pressures or higher CO 2 loadings at the same temperatures. The AAD of the present

  15. A water balance model for Saxonian catchments - present state and projections up to 2100

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winkler, Peter; Hauffe, Corina; Baldy, Agnes; Schwarze, Robert

    2014-05-01

    The impact of climate change on the regional water balance regime may have severe consequences for agriculture, forestry and water resources management. In this respect the following questions arise: Will extensive irrigation be necessary on Saxonian crop land in future? Which are the necessary adaptions in water resources management? Are new agricultural and forestry concepts necessary? Therefore, the project KliWES aims at modelling the present water balance regime for whole Saxonia (with the exception of the mining regions and the Elbe-corridor which is largely governed by flood events). Moreover, the effects of climate projections from the WetReg model (CEC) on the water balance regime have been investigated. The calibration strategy relies on splitting up the measured discharges into the major water balance components (evaporation, surface flow, subsurface flow and percolation) by a geometrical analysis of the hydrograph (DIFGA, Schwarze et al.). Thereafter, the water balance software ArcEGMO (Pfützner et al.) has been calibrated on these water balance components. Calibration parameters include correction factors for soil macroporosity, evapo-transpiration and the distribution factor between fast and slow groundwater components. Geological and Soil data have been drawn from official databases (LfULG). Subareas where no continuous gauge data are available have been parametrised by a regionalisation procedure relying on correlations between parameters and physical properties of the subareas considered. Possibilities and limitations of such a regionalisation procedure have been pointed out. Focal point of the present study is an investigation of water balance components in different spatial and temporal resolutions. The Results of the model for the climate projections show drastic increase of evaporation and decrease of groundwater recharge especially in the north-eastern parts of Saxonia (Lausitz). Here, this problem is worsened by the predominantly sandy soils

  16. Grain ethanol as a petroleum substitute: a perspective

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alston, T.G.

    1980-04-01

    Present tax exemptions for gasohol are more than sufficient to move ethanol into the gasoline market in a number of states. The principal near-term response to this profit opportunity, production of ethanol from feed grains, matches a limited biomass resource to an enormous market. This report estimates upper-bound prices for feed grains resulting from gasohol tax exemptions and concludes that grain price increases could be substantial. As shown else-where by Alston and Asbury, industrial uses constitute a more economical market for grain ethanol, one in which the product is now competitive with ethanol derived from petroleum and natural gas liquids. Without tax exemptions for gasohol, grain ethanol would now be displacing petroleum in the industrial market at a net economic gain, rather than in the fuel market at a net economic loss. The present analysis indicates that this industrial market for ethanol could grow significantly, principally by use of grain ethanol as an intermediate in production of chemicals now derived from petroleum and natural gas.

  17. Effect of a black cumin (Nigella sativa ethanol extract on placental angiotensin II type 1-receptor autoantibody (AT1-AA serum levels and endothelin-1 (ET-1 expression in a preeclampsia mouse model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Humaira Rahma, Sp.OG

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Preeclampsia affects 3%–8% of all pregnancies. Thymoquinone is the primary compound in black cumin (Nigella sativa and may have potential therapeutic effects in preeclampsia. This research analyses the effects of a black cumin seed ethanol extract on angiotensin II type 1-receptor autoantibody (AT1-AA serum levels and the expression of the endothelin-1 (ET-1 in the placenta in preeclampsia mouse model. Methods: The research design utilizes a post-test only experimental model on a control group design with 6 mice groups (negative control; positive control; and 500, 1000, 1500, and 2000 mg/kg body weight/day. Result: The results showed a decrease in serum AT1-AA levels and ET-1 expression in the placenta by increased doses of black cumin with an optimal dose of 1000 mg/kg/day. Conclusions: Black cumin seed ethanol extract reduces AT1-AA serum levels and represses ET-1 expression in the placenta in a preeclampsia mouse model. Keywords: Angiotensin II type 1-receptor autoantibody (AT1-AA, Antioxidant, Black cumin, Endothelin-1 (ET-1 placenta, Preeclampsia, Pregnancy

  18. Bio-Ethanol Production from Poultry Manure

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    john

    ethanol. Fuel ethanol is known as bio-ethanol, since it is produced from plant materials by biological processes. Bioethanol is mainly produced by fermentation of sugar containing crops like corn, maize, wheat, sugar cane, sugar beet, potatoes, ...

  19. Improved ethanol yield and reduced minimum ethanol selling price (MESP by modifying low severity dilute acid pretreatment with deacetylation and mechanical refining: 2 Techno-economic analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tao Ling

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Our companion paper discussed the yield benefits achieved by integrating deacetylation, mechanical refining, and washing with low acid and low temperature pretreatment. To evaluate the impact of the modified process on the economic feasibility, a techno-economic analysis (TEA was performed based on the experimental data presented in the companion paper. Results The cost benefits of dilute acid pretreatment technology combined with the process alternatives of deacetylation, mechanical refining, and pretreated solids washing were evaluated using cost benefit analysis within a conceptual modeling framework. Control cases were pretreated at much lower acid loadings and temperatures than used those in the NREL 2011 design case, resulting in much lower annual ethanol production. Therefore, the minimum ethanol selling prices (MESP of the control cases were $0.41-$0.77 higher than the $2.15/gallon MESP of the design case. This increment is highly dependent on the carbohydrate content in the corn stover. However, if pretreatment was employed with either deacetylation or mechanical refining, the MESPs were reduced by $0.23-$0.30/gallon. Combing both steps could lower the MESP further by $0.44 ~ $0.54. Washing of the pretreated solids could also greatly improve the final ethanol yields. However, the large capital cost of the solid–liquid separation unit negatively influences the process economics. Finally, sensitivity analysis was performed to study the effect of the cost of the pretreatment reactor and the energy input for mechanical refining. A 50% cost reduction in the pretreatment reactor cost reduced the MESP of the entire conversion process by $0.11-$0.14/gallon, while a 10-fold increase in energy input for mechanical refining will increase the MESP by $0.07/gallon. Conclusion Deacetylation and mechanical refining process options combined with low acid, low severity pretreatments show improvements in ethanol yields and

  20. Impacts of facility size and location decisions on ethanol production cost

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kocoloski, Matt; Michael Griffin, W.; Scott Matthews, H.

    2011-01-01

    Cellulosic ethanol has been identified as a promising alternative to fossil fuels to provide energy for the transportation sector. One of the obstacles cellulosic ethanol must overcome in order to contribute to transportation energy demand is the infrastructure required to produce and distribute the fuel. Given a nascent cellulosic ethanol industry, locating cellulosic ethanol refineries and creating the accompanying infrastructure is essentially a greenfield problem that may benefit greatly from quantitative analysis. This study models cellulosic ethanol infrastructure investment using a mixed integer program (MIP) that locates ethanol refineries and connects these refineries to the biomass supplies and ethanol demands in a way that minimizes the total cost. For the single- and multi-state regions examined in this study, larger facilities can decrease ethanol costs by $0.20-0.30 per gallon, and placing these facilities in locations that minimize feedstock and product transportation costs can decrease ethanol costs by up to $0.25 per gallon compared to uninformed placement that could result from influences such as local subsidies to encourage economic development. To best benefit society, policies should allow for incentives that encourage these low-cost production scenarios and avoid politically motivated siting of plants. - Research highlights: → Mixed-integer programming can be used to model ethanol infrastructure investment. → Large cellulosic ethanol facilities can decrease production cost by $0.20/gallon. → Optimized facility placement can save $0.25/gallon.

  1. Effects of ethanol on CYP2E1 levels and related oxidative stress using a standard balanced diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azzalis, Ligia A; Fonseca, Fernando L A; Simon, Karin A; Schindler, Fernanda; Giavarotti, Leandro; Monteiro, Hugo P; Videla, Luis A; Junqueira, Virgínia B C

    2012-07-01

    Expression of cytochrome P4502E1 (CYP2E1) is very much influenced by nutritional factors, especially carbohydrate consumption, and various results concerning the expression of CYP2E1 were obtained with a low-carbohydrate diet. This study describes the effects of ethanol treatment on CYP2E1 levels and its relationship with oxidative stress using a balanced standard diet to avoid low or high carbohydrate consumption. Rats were fed for 1, 2, 3, or 4 weeks a commercial diet plus an ethanol-sucrose solution. The results have shown that ethanol administration was associated with CYP2E1 induction and stabilization without related oxidative stress. Our findings suggest that experimental models with a low-carbohydrate/high-fat diet produce some undesirable CYP2E1 changes that are not present when a balanced standard diet is given.

  2. Reactions of ethanol on Ru

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sturm, Jacobus Marinus; Liu, Feng; Lee, Christopher James; Bijkerk, Frederik

    2012-01-01

    The adsorption and reactions of ethanol on Ru(0001) were studied with temperatureprogrammed desorption (TPD) and reflection-absorption infrared spectroscopy (RAIRS). Ethanol was found to adsorb intact onto Ru(0001) below 100 K. Heating to 250 K resulted in formation of ethoxy groups, which undergo

  3. Ethanol from mixed waste paper

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kerstetter, J.D.; Lyons, J.K.

    1991-01-01

    The technology, markets, and economics for converting mixed waste paper to ethanol in Washington were assessed. The status of enzymatic and acid hydrolysis projects were reviewed. The market for ethanol blended fuels in Washington shows room for expansion. The economics for a hypothetical plant using enzymatic hydrolysis were shown to be profitable

  4. Presenting Numerical Modelling of Explosive Volcanic Eruption to a General Public

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demaria, C.; Todesco, M.; Neri, A.; Blasi, G.

    2001-12-01

    Numerical modeling of explosive volcanic eruptions has been widely applied, during the last decades, to study pyroclastic flows dispersion along volcano's flanks and to evaluate their impact on urban areas. Results from these transient multi-phase and multi-component simulations are often reproduced in form of computer animations, representing the spatial and temporal evolution of relevant flow variables (such as temperature, or particle concentration). Despite being a sophisticated, technical tool to analyze and share modeling results within the scientific community, these animations truly look like colorful cartoons showing an erupting volcano and are especially suited to be shown to a general public. Thanks to their particular appeal, and to the large interest usually risen by exploding volcanoes, these animations have been presented several times on television and magazines and are currently displayed in a permanent exposition, at the Vesuvius Observatory in Naples. This work represents an effort to produce an accompanying tool for these animations, capable of explaining to a large audience the scientific meaning of what can otherwise look as a graphical exercise. Dealing with research aimed at the study of dangerous, explosive volcanoes, improving the general understanding of these scientific results plays an important role as far as risk perception is concerned. An educated population has better chances to follow an appropriate behavior, i.e.: one that could lead, on the long period, to a reduction of the potential risk. In this sense, a correct divulgation of scientific results, while improving the confidence of the population in the scientific community, should belong to the strategies adopted to mitigate volcanic risk. Due to the relevance of the long term final goal of such divulgation experiment, this work represents an interdisciplinary effort, combining scientific expertise and specific competence from the modern communication science and risk

  5. Nonlinear modeling of ferroelectric-ferromagnetic composites based on condensed and finite element approaches (Presentation Video)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ricoeur, Andreas; Lange, Stephan; Avakian, Artjom

    2015-04-01

    Magnetoelectric (ME) coupling is an inherent property of only a few crystals exhibiting very low coupling coefficients at low temperatures. On the other hand, these materials are desirable due to many promising applications, e.g. as efficient data storage devices or medical or geophysical sensors. Efficient coupling of magnetic and electric fields in materials can only be achieved in composite structures. Here, ferromagnetic (FM) and ferroelectric (FE) phases are combined e.g. including FM particles in a FE matrix or embedding fibers of the one phase into a matrix of the other. The ME coupling is then accomplished indirectly via strain fields exploiting magnetostrictive and piezoelectric effects. This requires a poling of the composite, where the structure is exposed to both large magnetic and electric fields. The efficiency of ME coupling will strongly depend on the poling process. Besides the alignment of local polarization and magnetization, it is going along with cracking, also being decisive for the coupling properties. Nonlinear ferroelectric and ferromagnetic constitutive equations have been developed and implemented within the framework of a multifield, two-scale FE approach. The models are microphysically motivated, accounting for domain and Bloch wall motions. A second, so called condensed approach is presented which doesn't require the implementation of a spatial discretisation scheme, however still considering grain interactions and residual stresses. A micromechanically motivated continuum damage model is established to simulate degradation processes. The goal of the simulation tools is to predict the different constitutive behaviors, ME coupling properties and lifetime of smart magnetoelectric devices.

  6. Interpretation of Quantitative Structure-Activity Relationship Models: Past, Present, and Future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polishchuk, Pavel

    2017-11-27

    This paper is an overview of the most significant and impactful interpretation approaches of quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR) models, their development, and application. The evolution of the interpretation paradigm from "model → descriptors → (structure)" to "model → structure" is indicated. The latter makes all models interpretable regardless of machine learning methods or descriptors used for modeling. This opens wide prospects for application of corresponding interpretation approaches to retrieve structure-property relationships captured by any models. Issues of separate approaches are discussed as well as general issues and prospects of QSAR model interpretation.

  7. Ethanol metabolism, oxidative stress, and endoplasmic reticulum stress responses in the lungs of hepatic alcohol dehydrogenase deficient deer mice after chronic ethanol feeding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaphalia, Lata; Boroumand, Nahal; Hyunsu, Ju; Kaphalia, Bhupendra S.; Calhoun, William J.

    2014-01-01

    Consumption and over-consumption of alcoholic beverages are well-recognized contributors to a variety of pulmonary disorders, even in the absence of intoxication. The mechanisms by which alcohol (ethanol) may produce disease include oxidative stress and prolonged endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress. Many aspects of these processes remain incompletely understood due to a lack of a suitable animal model. Chronic alcohol over-consumption reduces hepatic alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH), the principal canonical metabolic pathway of ethanol oxidation. We therefore modeled this situation using hepatic ADH-deficient deer mice fed 3.5% ethanol daily for 3 months. Blood ethanol concentration was 180 mg% in ethanol fed mice, compared to < 1.0% in the controls. Acetaldehyde (oxidative metabolite of ethanol) was minimally, but significantly increased in ethanol-fed vs. pair-fed control mice. Total fatty acid ethyl esters (FAEEs, nonoxidative metabolites of ethanol) were 47.6 μg/g in the lungs of ethanol-fed mice as compared to 1.5 μg/g in pair-fed controls. Histological and immunohistological evaluation showed perivascular and peribronchiolar lymphocytic infiltration, and significant oxidative injury, in the lungs of ethanol-fed mice compared to pair-fed controls. Several fold increases for cytochrome P450 2E1, caspase 8 and caspase 3 found in the lungs of ethanol-fed mice as compared to pair-fed controls suggest role of oxidative stress in ethanol-induced lung injury. ER stress and unfolded protein response signaling were also significantly increased in the lungs of ethanol-fed mice. Surprisingly, no significant activation of inositol-requiring enzyme-1α and spliced XBP1 was observed indicating a lack of activation of corrective mechanisms to reinstate ER homeostasis. The data suggest that oxidative stress and prolonged ER stress, coupled with formation and accumulation of cytotoxic FAEEs may contribute to the pathogenesis of alcoholic lung disease. - Highlights: • Chronic

  8. Ethanol metabolism, oxidative stress, and endoplasmic reticulum stress responses in the lungs of hepatic alcohol dehydrogenase deficient deer mice after chronic ethanol feeding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaphalia, Lata [Department of Internal Medicine, The University of Texas Medical Branch, Galveston, TX 775555 (United States); Boroumand, Nahal [Department of Pathology, The University of Texas Medical Branch, Galveston, TX 775555 (United States); Hyunsu, Ju [Department of Preventive Medicine and Community Health, The University of Texas Medical Branch, Galveston, TX 775555 (United States); Kaphalia, Bhupendra S., E-mail: bkaphali@utmb.edu [Department of Pathology, The University of Texas Medical Branch, Galveston, TX 775555 (United States); Calhoun, William J. [Department of Internal Medicine, The University of Texas Medical Branch, Galveston, TX 775555 (United States)

    2014-06-01

    Consumption and over-consumption of alcoholic beverages are well-recognized contributors to a variety of pulmonary disorders, even in the absence of intoxication. The mechanisms by which alcohol (ethanol) may produce disease include oxidative stress and prolonged endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress. Many aspects of these processes remain incompletely understood due to a lack of a suitable animal model. Chronic alcohol over-consumption reduces hepatic alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH), the principal canonical metabolic pathway of ethanol oxidation. We therefore modeled this situation using hepatic ADH-deficient deer mice fed 3.5% ethanol daily for 3 months. Blood ethanol concentration was 180 mg% in ethanol fed mice, compared to < 1.0% in the controls. Acetaldehyde (oxidative metabolite of ethanol) was minimally, but significantly increased in ethanol-fed vs. pair-fed control mice. Total fatty acid ethyl esters (FAEEs, nonoxidative metabolites of ethanol) were 47.6 μg/g in the lungs of ethanol-fed mice as compared to 1.5 μg/g in pair-fed controls. Histological and immunohistological evaluation showed perivascular and peribronchiolar lymphocytic infiltration, and significant oxidative injury, in the lungs of ethanol-fed mice compared to pair-fed controls. Several fold increases for cytochrome P450 2E1, caspase 8 and caspase 3 found in the lungs of ethanol-fed mice as compared to pair-fed controls suggest role of oxidative stress in ethanol-induced lung injury. ER stress and unfolded protein response signaling were also significantly increased in the lungs of ethanol-fed mice. Surprisingly, no significant activation of inositol-requiring enzyme-1α and spliced XBP1 was observed indicating a lack of activation of corrective mechanisms to reinstate ER homeostasis. The data suggest that oxidative stress and prolonged ER stress, coupled with formation and accumulation of cytotoxic FAEEs may contribute to the pathogenesis of alcoholic lung disease. - Highlights: • Chronic

  9. Enzymatical hydrolysis of food waste and ethanol production from the hydrolysate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yan, Shoubao; Yao, Jianming [Key Laboratory of Ion Beam Bio-engineering of Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei 230031 (China); Li, Jun; Chen, Xiangsong; Wu, Jingyong; Wang, Pingchao; Ye, Jianfeng [Hefei Research Center of Ion Beam Engineering and Technology, Hefei 230088 (China)

    2011-04-15

    The aim of present paper was to investigate the prospect for the use of food waste, an important municipal waste, as a potential substrate to generate hydrolysates for fuel ethanol production. The critical variables that affected reducing sugar production from food waste were identified by Plackett-Burman design (glucoamylase loud, time, temperature and pH) and further optimized by using a four factor central composite design of response surface methodology. According to the results of response surface analysis, the optimum conditions for reducing sugar production were determined to be glucoamylase loud of 142.2 u/g, saccharification pH of 4.82, enzyme reaction temperature of 55 C, enzyme reaction time of 2.48 h. Reducing sugar production (164.8 g/L) in the optimized condition was in good agreement with the value predicted by the quadratic model (164.3 g/L), thereby confirming its validity. Furthermore, the obtained liquid phase of food waste hydrolysate was utilized for production of ethanol by using Saccharomyces cerevisiae H058 fermentation. In order to develop an economical process for transforming food waste hydrolysates to ethanol, non-sterilized and sterilized processes were compared in the experiments. The result shows non-sterilized fermentation without undergoing heat treatment was better due to the unspoiled nutrients inside. These results helped to find the effective strategies to utilize food waste for ethanol production. (author)

  10. Effect of Artemisia annua L. leaves essential oil and ethanol extract on behavioral assays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabio F. Perazzo

    Full Text Available Artemisia annua has been used as a traditional plant for the treatment of malaria and fever in China because of the presence of its active compound, artemisinin. The present study evaluated the central activity of the essential oil and the crude ethanol extract of A. annua L. in animals as a part of a psychopharmacological screening of this plant. The extract was prepared in ethanol (AEE and the essential oil (AEO obtained by hydrodistillation, both with fresh leaves. Induced immobility, the forced swimming test (FST and the open-field test (OFT are well-known animal models to study drug-induced depression. The administration of A. annua essential oil or crude ethanol extract increased the immobility time in the FST and decreased other activities (ambulation, exploration, rearing and grooming in the OFT in animals. Both AEO and AEE prolonged pentobarbital-induced sleep as well, but the essential oil had a marked effect. Observing these results, it is possible to suggest that A. annua crude ethanol extract and essential oil could act as depressors on the Central Nervous System (CNS.

  11. Involvement of brain catalase activity in the acquisition of ethanol-induced conditioned place preference.

    Science.gov