Sample records for modeling efforts assume

  1. Incorporating Responsiveness to Marketing Efforts When Modeling Brand Choice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D. Fok (Dennis); Ph.H.B.F. Franses (Philip Hans); R. Paap (Richard)


    textabstractIn this paper we put forward a brand choice model which incorporates responsiveness to marketing efforts as a form of structural heterogeneity. We introduce two latent segments of households. The households in the first segment are assumed to respond to marketing efforts while households

  2. Neutronic modeling for a Gas-cooled Fast Reactor assuming coated fuel particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Golfier, H.; Buiron, C.; Poinot, B.; Pothet, J. F.; Salavy, E.; Studer


    The modeling of gas cooled fast reactor (GCFR) with the SAPHYR system and in particular APOLLO2 code assuming coated fuel particles, was investigated. It aims to estimate the APOLLO2 code accuracy, solving the neutron transport equation in range of fast neutron reactors. A two level PIJ/SN APOLLO2 scheme is proposed in which the first level is devoted to the self-shielding and the leakage calculation on a cell configuration. The efficiency of a new treatment of adsorption and scattering rates in the self-shielding module of the multigroup transport code APOLLO2 has been evaluated. The results show that two-level scheme provides promising results with 172-group cross section libraries, which confirm the APOLLO2 scheme as a tool for reactor designs. (authors)

  3. Mass transport in fracture media: impact of the random function model assumed for fractures conductivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Capilla, J. E.; Rodrigo, J.; Gomez Hernandez, J. J.


    Characterizing the uncertainty of flow and mass transport models requires the definition of stochastic models to describe hydrodynamic parameters. Porosity and hydraulic conductivity (K) are two of these parameters that exhibit a high degree of spatial variability. K is usually the parameter whose variability influence to a more extended degree solutes movement. In fracture media, it is critical to properly characterize K in the most altered zones where flow and solutes migration tends to be concentrated. However, K measurements use to be scarce and sparse. This fact calls to consider stochastic models that allow quantifying the uncertainty of flow and mass transport predictions. This paper presents a convective transport problem solved in a 3D block of fractured crystalline rock. the case study is defined based on data from a real geological formation. As the scarcity of K data in fractures does not allow supporting classical multi Gaussian assumptions for K in fractures, the non multi Gaussian hypothesis has been explored, comparing mass transport results for alternative Gaussian and non-Gaussian assumptions. The latter hypothesis allows reproducing high spatial connectivity for extreme values of K. This feature is present in nature, might lead to reproduce faster solute pathways, and therefore should be modeled in order to obtain reasonably safe prediction of contaminants migration in a geological formation. The results obtained for the two alternative hypotheses show a remarkable impact of the K random function model in solutes movement. (Author) 9 refs

  4. Sensitivity of Attitude Determination on the Model Assumed for ISAR Radar Mappings (United States)

    Lemmens, S.; Krag, H.


    Inverse synthetic aperture radars (ISAR) are valuable instrumentations for assessing the state of a large object in low Earth orbit. The images generated by these radars can reach a sufficient quality to be used during launch support or contingency operations, e.g. for confirming the deployment of structures, determining the structural integrity, or analysing the dynamic behaviour of an object. However, the direct interpretation of ISAR images can be a demanding task due to the nature of the range-Doppler space in which these images are produced. Recently, a tool has been developed by the European Space Agency's Space Debris Office to generate radar mappings of a target in orbit. Such mappings are a 3D-model based simulation of how an ideal ISAR image would be generated by a ground based radar under given processing conditions. These radar mappings can be used to support a data interpretation process. E.g. by processing predefined attitude scenarios during an observation sequence and comparing them with actual observations, one can detect non-nominal behaviour. Vice versa, one can also estimate the attitude states of the target by fitting the radar mappings to the observations. It has been demonstrated for the latter use case that a coarse approximation of the target through an 3D-model is already sufficient to derive the attitude information from the generated mappings. The level of detail required for the 3D-model is determined by the process of generating ISAR images, which is based on the theory of scattering bodies. Therefore, a complex surface can return an intrinsically noisy ISAR image. E.g. when many instruments on a satellite are visible to the observer, the ISAR image can suffer from multipath reflections. In this paper, we will further analyse the sensitivity of the attitude fitting algorithms to variations in the dimensions and the level of detail of the underlying 3D model. Moreover, we investigate the ability to estimate the orientations of different


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)


    Full Text Available The search of optimal variants for composite repair patches allows to increase the service life of a damaged air- plane structure. To sensibly choose the way of repair, it is necessary to have a computational complex to predict the stress- strain condition of "structure-adhesive-patch" system and to take into account the damage growth considering the material properties change. The variant of the computational complex based on inclusion method is proposed.For calculation purposes the repair bonded joint is divided into two areas: a metal plate with patch-shaped hole and a "patch-adhesive layer-skin" composite plate (inclusion.Calculation stages:Evaluation of the patch influence to the skin stress-strain condition, stress distribution between skin and patch in the case of no damage. Calculation of the stress-strain condition is performed separately for the skin with hole and for the inclusion; solutions are coupled based on strain compatibility.Definition of the damage growth parameters at new stress-strain condition due to bonded patch existence. Skincrack stress intensity factors are found to identify the crack growth velocity. Patch is modelled as a set of "springs" bridging the crack.Degradation analysis of elasticity properties for the patch material.Repair effectiveness is evaluated with respect to crack growth velocity reduction in the initial material in compari- son with the case of the patch absence.Calculation example for the crack repair effectiveness depending on number of loading cycles for the 7075-T6 aluminum skin is given. Repair patches are carbon-epoxy, glass-epoxy and boron-epoxy material systems with quasi- isotropic layup and GLARE hybrid metal-polymeric material.The analysis shows the high effectiveness of the carbon-epoxy patch. Due to low stiffness, the glass-epoxy patchdemonstrates the least effectiveness. GLARE patch containing the fiberglass plies oriented across the crack has the same effectiveness as the carbon and

  6. Some consequences of assuming simple patterns for the treatment effect over time in a linear mixed model. (United States)

    Bamia, Christina; White, Ian R; Kenward, Michael G


    Linear mixed models are often used for the analysis of data from clinical trials with repeated quantitative outcomes. This paper considers linear mixed models where a particular form is assumed for the treatment effect, in particular constant over time or proportional to time. For simplicity, we assume no baseline covariates and complete post-baseline measures, and we model arbitrary mean responses for the control group at each time. For the variance-covariance matrix, we consider an unstructured model, a random intercepts model and a random intercepts and slopes model. We show that the treatment effect estimator can be expressed as a weighted average of the observed time-specific treatment effects, with weights depending on the covariance structure and the magnitude of the estimated variance components. For an assumed constant treatment effect, under the random intercepts model, all weights are equal, but in the random intercepts and slopes and the unstructured models, we show that some weights can be negative: thus, the estimated treatment effect can be negative, even if all time-specific treatment effects are positive. Our results suggest that particular models for the treatment effect combined with particular covariance structures may result in estimated treatment effects of unexpected magnitude and/or direction. Methods are illustrated using a Parkinson's disease trial. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  7. The null distribution of the heterogeneity lod score does depend on the assumed genetic model for the trait. (United States)

    Huang, J; Vieland, V J


    It is well known that the asymptotic null distribution of the homogeneity lod score (LOD) does not depend on the genetic model specified in the analysis. When appropriately rescaled, the LOD is asymptotically distributed as 0.5 chi(2)(0) + 0.5 chi(2)(1), regardless of the assumed trait model. However, because locus heterogeneity is a common phenomenon, the heterogeneity lod score (HLOD), rather than the LOD itself, is often used in gene mapping studies. We show here that, in contrast with the LOD, the asymptotic null distribution of the HLOD does depend upon the genetic model assumed in the analysis. In affected sib pair (ASP) data, this distribution can be worked out explicitly as (0.5 - c)chi(2)(0) + 0.5chi(2)(1) + cchi(2)(2), where c depends on the assumed trait model. E.g., for a simple dominant model (HLOD/D), c is a function of the disease allele frequency p: for p = 0.01, c = 0.0006; while for p = 0.1, c = 0.059. For a simple recessive model (HLOD/R), c = 0.098 independently of p. This latter (recessive) distribution turns out to be the same as the asymptotic distribution of the MLS statistic under the possible triangle constraint, which is asymptotically equivalent to the HLOD/R. The null distribution of the HLOD/D is close to that of the LOD, because the weight c on the chi(2)(2) component is small. These results mean that the cutoff value for a test of size alpha will tend to be smaller for the HLOD/D than the HLOD/R. For example, the alpha = 0.0001 cutoff (on the lod scale) for the HLOD/D with p = 0.05 is 3.01, while for the LOD it is 3.00, and for the HLOD/R it is 3.27. For general pedigrees, explicit analytical expression of the null HLOD distribution does not appear possible, but it will still depend on the assumed genetic model. Copyright 2001 S. Karger AG, Basel

  8. Phase field modeling of brittle fracture for enhanced assumed strain shells at large deformations: formulation and finite element implementation (United States)

    Reinoso, J.; Paggi, M.; Linder, C.


    Fracture of technological thin-walled components can notably limit the performance of their corresponding engineering systems. With the aim of achieving reliable fracture predictions of thin structures, this work presents a new phase field model of brittle fracture for large deformation analysis of shells relying on a mixed enhanced assumed strain (EAS) formulation. The kinematic description of the shell body is constructed according to the solid shell concept. This enables the use of fully three-dimensional constitutive models for the material. The proposed phase field formulation integrates the use of the (EAS) method to alleviate locking pathologies, especially Poisson thickness and volumetric locking. This technique is further combined with the assumed natural strain method to efficiently derive a locking-free solid shell element. On the computational side, a fully coupled monolithic framework is consistently formulated. Specific details regarding the corresponding finite element formulation and the main aspects associated with its implementation in the general purpose packages FEAP and ABAQUS are addressed. Finally, the applicability of the current strategy is demonstrated through several numerical examples involving different loading conditions, and including linear and nonlinear hyperelastic constitutive models.

  9. Importance of the habitat choice behavior assumed when modeling the effects of food and temperature on fish populations (United States)

    Wildhaber, Mark L.; Lamberson, Peter J.


    Various mechanisms of habitat choice in fishes based on food and/or temperature have been proposed: optimal foraging for food alone; behavioral thermoregulation for temperature alone; and behavioral energetics and discounted matching for food and temperature combined. Along with development of habitat choice mechanisms, there has been a major push to develop and apply to fish populations individual-based models that incorporate various forms of these mechanisms. However, it is not known how the wide variation in observed and hypothesized mechanisms of fish habitat choice could alter fish population predictions (e.g. growth, size distributions, etc.). We used spatially explicit, individual-based modeling to compare predicted fish populations using different submodels of patch choice behavior under various food and temperature distributions. We compared predicted growth, temperature experience, food consumption, and final spatial distribution using the different models. Our results demonstrated that the habitat choice mechanism assumed in fish population modeling simulations was critical to predictions of fish distribution and growth rates. Hence, resource managers who use modeling results to predict fish population trends should be very aware of and understand the underlying patch choice mechanisms used in their models to assure that those mechanisms correctly represent the fish populations being modeled.

  10. Mathematical models assuming selective recruitment fitted to data for driver mortality and seat belt use in Japan. (United States)

    Nakahara, Shinji; Kawamura, Takashi; Ichikawa, Masao; Wakai, Susumu


    Previous research has indicated that unbelted drivers are at higher risk of involvement in fatal crashes than belted drivers, suggesting selective recruitment that high-risk drivers are unlikely to become belt users. However, how the risk of involvement in fatal crashes among unbelted drivers varies according to the level of seat belt use among general drivers has yet to be clearly quantified. We, therefore, developed mathematical models describing the risk of fatal crashes in relation to seat belt use among the general public, and explored how these models fitted to changes in driver mortality and changes in observed seat belt use using Japanese data. Mortality data between 1979 and 1994 were obtained from vital statistics, and mortality data in the daytime and nighttime between 1980 and 2001 and belt use data between 1979 and 2001 were obtained from the National Police Agency. Regardless of the data set analyzed, exponential models, assuming that high-risk drivers would gradually become belt users in order of increasing risk as seat belt use among general motorists reached high levels, showed the best fit. Our models provide an insight into behavioral changes among high-risk drivers and support the selective recruitment hypothesis.

  11. Efforts and models of education for parents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Niels Rosendal


    Artiklen omfatter en gennemgang af modeller for forældreuddannelse, der fortrinsvis anvendes i Danmark. Artiklen indlejrer modellerne i nogle bredere blikke på uddannelsessystemet og den aktuelle diskurs om ansvarliggørelse af forældre.   Udgivelsesdato: Marts 2010...

  12. How to use COSMIC Functional Size in Effort Estimation Models?


    Gencel, Cigdem


    Although Functional Size Measurement (FSM) methods have become widely used by the software organizations, the functional size based effort estimation still needs further investigation. Most of the studies on effort estimation consider total functional size of the software as the primary input to estimation models and they mostly focus on identifying the project parameters which might have a significant effect on the size-effort relationship. This study brings suggestions on how to use COSMIC ...

  13. Efforts - Final technical report on task 4. Physical modelling calidation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreasen, Jan Lasson; Olsson, David Dam; Christensen, T. W.

    The present report is documentation for the work carried out in Task 4 at DTU Physical modelling-validation on the Brite/Euram project No. BE96-3340, contract No. BRPR-CT97-0398, with the title Enhanced Framework for forging design using reliable three-dimensional simulation (EFFORTS). The report...

  14. Linking effort and fishing mortality in a mixed fisheries model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thøgersen, Thomas Talund; Hoff, Ayoe; Frost, Hans Staby


    Since the implementation of the Common Fisheries Policy of the European Union in 1983, the management of EU fisheries has been enormously challenging. The abundance of many fish stocks has declined because too much fishing capacity has been utilised on healthy fish stocks. Today, this decline...... in fish stocks has led to overcapacity in many fisheries, leading to incentives for overfishing. Recent research has shown that the allocation of effort among fleets can play an important role in mitigating overfishing when the targeting covers a range of species (multi-species—i.e., so-called mixed...... fisheries), while simultaneously optimising the overall economic performance of the fleets. The so-called FcubEcon model, in particular, has elucidated both the biologically and economically optimal method for allocating catches—and thus effort—between fishing fleets, while ensuring that the quotas...

  15. Characterization of infiltration rates from landfills: supporting groundwater modeling efforts. (United States)

    Moo-Young, Horace; Johnson, Barnes; Johnson, Ann; Carson, David; Lew, Christine; Liu, Salley; Hancocks, Katherine


    The purpose of this paper is to review the literature to characterize infiltration rates from landfill liners to support groundwater modeling efforts. The focus of this investigation was on collecting studies that describe the performance of liners 'as installed' or 'as operated'. This document reviews the state of the science and practice on the infiltration rate through compacted clay liner (CCL) for 149 sites and geosynthetic clay liner (GCL) for 1 site. In addition, it reviews the leakage rate through geomembrane (GM) liners and composite liners for 259 sites. For compacted clay liners (CCL), there was limited information on infiltration rates (i.e., only 9 sites reported infiltration rates.), thus, it was difficult to develop a national distribution. The field hydraulic conductivities for natural clay liners range from 1 x 10(-9) cm s(-1) to 1 x 10(-4) cm s(-1), with an average of 6.5 x 10(-8) cm s(-1). There was limited information on geosynthetic clay liner. For composite lined and geomembrane systems, the leak detection system flow rates were utilized. The average monthly flow rate for composite liners ranged from 0-32 lphd for geomembrane and GCL systems to 0 to 1410 lphd for geomembrane and CCL systems. The increased infiltration for the geomembrane and CCL system may be attributed to consolidation water from the clay.

  16. Colloids and Radionuclide Transport: A Field, Experimental and Modeling Effort (United States)

    Zhao, P.; Zavarin, M.; Sylwester, E. E.; Allen, P. G.; Williams, R. W.; Kersting, A. B.


    Natural inorganic colloids (colloid-facilitated transport to the transport of low-solubility actinides, such as Pu, is still not well understood. In an effort to better understand the dominant geochemical mechanisms that control Pu transport, we have performed a series of sorption/desorption experiments using mineral colloids. We focused on natural colloidal minerals present in water samples collected from both saturated and vadose zone waters at the Nevada Test Site. These minerals include zeolites, clays, silica, Mn-oxides, Fe-oxides, and calcite. X-ray absorption fine-structure spectroscopy ( both XANES and EXAFS) was performed in order to characterize the speciation of sorbed plutonium. The XANES spectra show that only Pu(IV) was detected (within experimental error) on these mineral surfaces when the starting Pu oxidation state was +5, indicating that Pu(V) was reduced to Pu(IV) during sorption. The EXAFS detected Pu-M and Pu-C interactions (where M=Fe, Mn, or Si) indicating Pu(IV) surface complexation along with carbonate ternary complex formation on most of the minerals tested. Although the plutonium sorption as Pu(IV) species is mineral independent, the actual sorption paths are different for different minerals. The sorption rates were compared to the rates of plutonium disproportionation under similar conditions. The batch sorption/desorption experiments of Pu(IV) and Pu(V) onto colloidal zeolite (clinoptilolite, colloids particle size 171 ñ 25 nm) were conducted in synthetic groundwater (similar to J-13, Yucca Mountain standard) with a pH range from 4 to 10 and initial plutonium concentration of 10-9 M. The results show that Pu(IV) sorption takes place within an hour, while the rates of Pu(V) sorption onto the colloids is much slower and mineral dependent. The kinetic results from the batch sorption/desorption experiments, coupled with redox kinetics of plutonium in solution will be used in geochemical modeling of Pu surface complexation to colloids and

  17. Hybrid discrete choice models: Gained insights versus increasing effort

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mariel, Petr; Meyerhoff, Jürgen


    Hybrid choice models expand the standard models in discrete choice modelling by incorporating psychological factors as latent variables. They could therefore provide further insights into choice processes and underlying taste heterogeneity but the costs of estimating these models often significantly increase. This paper aims at comparing the results from a hybrid choice model and a classical random parameter logit. Point of departure for this analysis is whether researchers and practitioners should add hybrid choice models to their suite of models routinely estimated. Our comparison reveals, in line with the few prior studies, that hybrid models gain in efficiency by the inclusion of additional information. The use of one of the two proposed approaches, however, depends on the objective of the analysis. If disentangling preference heterogeneity is most important, hybrid model seems to be preferable. If the focus is on predictive power, a standard random parameter logit model might be the better choice. Finally, we give recommendations for an adequate use of hybrid choice models based on known principles of elementary scientific inference. - Highlights: • The paper compares performance of a Hybrid Choice Model (HCM) and a classical Random Parameter Logit (RPL) model. • The HCM indeed provides insights regarding preference heterogeneity not gained from the RPL. • The RPL has similar predictive power as the HCM in our data. • The costs of estimating HCM seem to be justified when learning more on taste heterogeneity is a major study objective.

  18. Hybrid discrete choice models: Gained insights versus increasing effort

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mariel, Petr, E-mail: [UPV/EHU, Economía Aplicada III, Avda. Lehendakari Aguire, 83, 48015 Bilbao (Spain); Meyerhoff, Jürgen [Institute for Landscape Architecture and Environmental Planning, Technical University of Berlin, D-10623 Berlin, Germany and The Kiel Institute for the World Economy, Duesternbrooker Weg 120, 24105 Kiel (Germany)


    Hybrid choice models expand the standard models in discrete choice modelling by incorporating psychological factors as latent variables. They could therefore provide further insights into choice processes and underlying taste heterogeneity but the costs of estimating these models often significantly increase. This paper aims at comparing the results from a hybrid choice model and a classical random parameter logit. Point of departure for this analysis is whether researchers and practitioners should add hybrid choice models to their suite of models routinely estimated. Our comparison reveals, in line with the few prior studies, that hybrid models gain in efficiency by the inclusion of additional information. The use of one of the two proposed approaches, however, depends on the objective of the analysis. If disentangling preference heterogeneity is most important, hybrid model seems to be preferable. If the focus is on predictive power, a standard random parameter logit model might be the better choice. Finally, we give recommendations for an adequate use of hybrid choice models based on known principles of elementary scientific inference. - Highlights: • The paper compares performance of a Hybrid Choice Model (HCM) and a classical Random Parameter Logit (RPL) model. • The HCM indeed provides insights regarding preference heterogeneity not gained from the RPL. • The RPL has similar predictive power as the HCM in our data. • The costs of estimating HCM seem to be justified when learning more on taste heterogeneity is a major study objective.

  19. Hybrid discrete choice models: Gained insights versus increasing effort. (United States)

    Mariel, Petr; Meyerhoff, Jürgen


    Hybrid choice models expand the standard models in discrete choice modelling by incorporating psychological factors as latent variables. They could therefore provide further insights into choice processes and underlying taste heterogeneity but the costs of estimating these models often significantly increase. This paper aims at comparing the results from a hybrid choice model and a classical random parameter logit. Point of departure for this analysis is whether researchers and practitioners should add hybrid choice models to their suite of models routinely estimated. Our comparison reveals, in line with the few prior studies, that hybrid models gain in efficiency by the inclusion of additional information. The use of one of the two proposed approaches, however, depends on the objective of the analysis. If disentangling preference heterogeneity is most important, hybrid model seems to be preferable. If the focus is on predictive power, a standard random parameter logit model might be the better choice. Finally, we give recommendations for an adequate use of hybrid choice models based on known principles of elementary scientific inference. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Effects of composite casein and beta-lactoglobulin genotypes on renneting properties and composition of bovine milk by assuming an animal model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available The effects of kappa-beta-casein genotypes and b-lactoglobulin genotypes on the renneting properties and composition of milk were estimated for 174 and 155 milk samples of 59 Finnish Ayrshire and 55 Finnish Friesian cows, respectively. As well as the random additive genetic and permanent environmental effects of a cow, the model included the fixed effects for parity, lactation stage, season, kappa-beta-casein genotypes and b-lactoglobulin genotypes. Favourable renneting properties were associated with kappa-beta-casein genotypes ABA 1 A 2 , ABA 1 A 1 and AAA 1 A 2 in the Finnish Ayrshire, and with ABA 2 B, AAA 1 A 3 , AAA 2 A 3 , ABA 1 A 2 and ABA 2 A 2 in the Finnish Friesian. The favourable effect of these genotypes on curd firming time and on firmness of the curd was partly due to their association with a high kappa-casein concentration in the milk. The effect of the kappa-casein E allele on renneting properties was unfavourable compared with that of the kappa-casein B allele, and possibly with that of the A allele. The beta-lactoglobulin genotypes had no effect on renneting properties but they had a clear effect on the protein composition of milk. The beta-lactoglobulin AA genotype was associated with a high whey protein % and beta-lactoglobulin concentration and the BB genotype with a high casein % and casein number.;

  1. Nuclear Hybrid Energy Systems FY16 Modeling Efforts at ORNL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cetiner, Sacit M. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Greenwood, Michael Scott [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Harrison, Thomas J. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Qualls, A. L. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Guler Yigitoglu, Askin [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Fugate, David W. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)


    A nuclear hybrid system uses a nuclear reactor as the basic power generation unit. The power generated by the nuclear reactor is utilized by one or more power customers as either thermal power, electrical power, or both. In general, a nuclear hybrid system will couple the nuclear reactor to at least one thermal power user in addition to the power conversion system. The definition and architecture of a particular nuclear hybrid system is flexible depending on local markets needs and opportunities. For example, locations in need of potable water may be best served by coupling a desalination plant to the nuclear system. Similarly, an area near oil refineries may have a need for emission-free hydrogen production. A nuclear hybrid system expands the nuclear power plant from its more familiar central power station role by diversifying its immediately and directly connected customer base. The definition, design, analysis, and optimization work currently performed with respect to the nuclear hybrid systems represents the work of three national laboratories. Idaho National Laboratory (INL) is the lead lab working with Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) and Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Each laboratory is providing modeling and simulation expertise for the integration of the hybrid system.

  2. Systematic Identification of Stakeholders for Engagement with Systems Modeling Efforts in the Snohomish Basin, Washington, USA (United States)

    Even as stakeholder engagement in systems dynamic modeling efforts is increasingly promoted, the mechanisms for identifying which stakeholders should be included are rarely documented. Accordingly, for an Environmental Protection Agency’s Triple Value Simulation (3VS) mode...

  3. Adaptive effort investment in cognitive and physical tasks: a neurocomputational model. (United States)

    Verguts, Tom; Vassena, Eliana; Silvetti, Massimo


    Despite its importance in everyday life, the computational nature of effort investment remains poorly understood. We propose an effort model obtained from optimality considerations, and a neurocomputational approximation to the optimal model. Both are couched in the framework of reinforcement learning. It is shown that choosing when or when not to exert effort can be adaptively learned, depending on rewards, costs, and task difficulty. In the neurocomputational model, the limbic loop comprising anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) and ventral striatum in the basal ganglia allocates effort to cortical stimulus-action pathways whenever this is valuable. We demonstrate that the model approximates optimality. Next, we consider two hallmark effects from the cognitive control literature, namely proportion congruency and sequential congruency effects. It is shown that the model exerts both proactive and reactive cognitive control. Then, we simulate two physical effort tasks. In line with empirical work, impairing the model's dopaminergic pathway leads to apathetic behavior. Thus, we conceptually unify the exertion of cognitive and physical effort, studied across a variety of literatures (e.g., motivation and cognitive control) and animal species.

  4. Adaptive Effort Investment in Cognitive and Physical Tasks: A Neurocomputational Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tom eVerguts


    Full Text Available Despite its importance in everyday life, the computational nature of effort investment remains poorly understood. We propose an effort model obtained from optimality considerations, and a neurocomputational approximation to the optimal model. Both are couched in the framework of reinforcement learning. It is shown that choosing when or when not to exert effort can be adaptively learned, depending on rewards, costs, and task difficulty. In the neurocomputational model, the limbic loop comprising anterior cingulate cortex and ventral striatum in the basal ganglia allocates effort to cortical stimulus-action pathways whenever this is valuable. We demonstrate that the model approximates optimality. Next, we consider two hallmark effects from the cognitive control literature, namely proportion congruency and sequential congruency effects. It is shown that the model exerts both proactive and reactive cognitive control. Then, we simulate two physical effort tasks. In line with empirical work, impairing the model’s dopaminergic pathway leads to apathetic behavior. Thus, we conceptually unify the exertion of cognitive and physical effort, studied across a variety of literatures (e.g., motivation and cognitive control and animal species.

  5. Empirical Study of Homogeneous and Heterogeneous Ensemble Models for Software Development Effort Estimation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmoud O. Elish


    Full Text Available Accurate estimation of software development effort is essential for effective management and control of software development projects. Many software effort estimation methods have been proposed in the literature including computational intelligence models. However, none of the existing models proved to be suitable under all circumstances; that is, their performance varies from one dataset to another. The goal of an ensemble model is to manage each of its individual models’ strengths and weaknesses automatically, leading to the best possible decision being taken overall. In this paper, we have developed different homogeneous and heterogeneous ensembles of optimized hybrid computational intelligence models for software development effort estimation. Different linear and nonlinear combiners have been used to combine the base hybrid learners. We have conducted an empirical study to evaluate and compare the performance of these ensembles using five popular datasets. The results confirm that individual models are not reliable as their performance is inconsistent and unstable across different datasets. Although none of the ensemble models was consistently the best, many of them were frequently among the best models for each dataset. The homogeneous ensemble of support vector regression (SVR, with the nonlinear combiner adaptive neurofuzzy inference systems-subtractive clustering (ANFIS-SC, was the best model when considering the average rank of each model across the five datasets.

  6. Effort dynamics in a fisheries bioeconomic model: A vessel level approach through Game Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gorka Merino


    Full Text Available Red shrimp, Aristeus antennatus (Risso, 1816 is one of the most important resources for the bottom-trawl fleets in the northwestern Mediterranean, in terms of both landings and economic value. A simple bioeconomic model introducing Game Theory for the prediction of effort dynamics at vessel level is proposed. The game is performed by the twelve vessels exploiting red shrimp in Blanes. Within the game, two solutions are performed: non-cooperation and cooperation. The first is proposed as a realistic method for the prediction of individual effort strategies and the second is used to illustrate the potential profitability of the analysed fishery. The effort strategy for each vessel is the number of fishing days per year and their objective is profit maximisation, individual profits for the non-cooperative solution and total profits for the cooperative one. In the present analysis, strategic conflicts arise from the differences between vessels in technical efficiency (catchability coefficient and economic efficiency (defined here. The ten-year and 1000-iteration stochastic simulations performed for the two effort solutions show that the best strategy from both an economic and a conservationist perspective is homogeneous effort cooperation. However, the results under non-cooperation are more similar to the observed data on effort strategies and landings.

  7. A Covariance Structure Model Test of Antecedents of Adolescent Alcohol Misuse and a Prevention Effort. (United States)

    Dielman, T. E.; And Others


    Questionnaires were administered to 4,157 junior high school students to determine levels of alcohol misuse, exposure to peer use and misuse of alcohol, susceptibility to peer pressure, internal health locus of control, and self-esteem. Conceptual model of antecendents of adolescent alcohol misuse and effectiveness of a prevention effort was…

  8. Commonalities in WEPP and WEPS and efforts towards a single erosion process model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visser, S.M.; Flanagan, D.C.


    Since the late 1980's, the Agricultural Research Service (ARS) of the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) has been developing process-based erosion models to predict water erosion and wind erosion. During much of that time, the development efforts of the Water Erosion Prediction Project

  9. A simple model for constant storage modulus of poly (lactic acid)/poly (ethylene oxide)/carbon nanotubes nanocomposites at low frequencies assuming the properties of interphase regions and networks. (United States)

    Zare, Yasser; Rhim, Sungsoo; Garmabi, Hamid; Rhee, Kyong Yop


    The networks of nanoparticles in nanocomposites cause solid-like behavior demonstrating a constant storage modulus at low frequencies. This study examines the storage modulus of poly (lactic acid)/poly (ethylene oxide)/carbon nanotubes (CNT) nanocomposites. The experimental data of the storage modulus in the plateau regions are obtained by a frequency sweep test. In addition, a simple model is developed to predict the constant storage modulus assuming the properties of the interphase regions and the CNT networks. The model calculations are compared with the experimental results, and the parametric analyses are applied to validate the predictability of the developed model. The calculations properly agree with the experimental data at all polymer and CNT concentrations. Moreover, all parameters acceptably modulate the constant storage modulus. The percentage of the networked CNT, the modulus of networks, and the thickness and modulus of the interphase regions directly govern the storage modulus of nanocomposites. The outputs reveal the important roles of the interphase properties in the storage modulus. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Integrating multiple distribution models to guide conservation efforts of an endangered toad (United States)

    Treglia, Michael L.; Fisher, Robert N.; Fitzgerald, Lee A.


    Species distribution models are used for numerous purposes such as predicting changes in species’ ranges and identifying biodiversity hotspots. Although implications of distribution models for conservation are often implicit, few studies use these tools explicitly to inform conservation efforts. Herein, we illustrate how multiple distribution models developed using distinct sets of environmental variables can be integrated to aid in identification sites for use in conservation. We focus on the endangered arroyo toad (Anaxyrus californicus), which relies on open, sandy streams and surrounding floodplains in southern California, USA, and northern Baja California, Mexico. Declines of the species are largely attributed to habitat degradation associated with vegetation encroachment, invasive predators, and altered hydrologic regimes. We had three main goals: 1) develop a model of potential habitat for arroyo toads, based on long-term environmental variables and all available locality data; 2) develop a model of the species’ current habitat by incorporating recent remotely-sensed variables and only using recent locality data; and 3) integrate results of both models to identify sites that may be employed in conservation efforts. We used a machine learning technique, Random Forests, to develop the models, focused on riparian zones in southern California. We identified 14.37% and 10.50% of our study area as potential and current habitat for the arroyo toad, respectively. Generally, inclusion of remotely-sensed variables reduced modeled suitability of sites, thus many areas modeled as potential habitat were not modeled as current habitat. We propose such sites could be made suitable for arroyo toads through active management, increasing current habitat by up to 67.02%. Our general approach can be employed to guide conservation efforts of virtually any species with sufficient data necessary to develop appropriate distribution models.

  11. The Effect of the Demand Control and Effort Reward Imbalance Models on the Academic Burnout of Korean Adolescents (United States)

    Lee, Jayoung; Puig, Ana; Lee, Sang Min


    The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of the Demand Control Model (DCM) and the Effort Reward Imbalance Model (ERIM) on academic burnout for Korean students. Specifically, this study identified the effects of the predictor variables based on DCM and ERIM (i.e., demand, control, effort, reward, Demand Control Ratio, Effort Reward…

  12. Fundamental Drop Dynamics and Mass Transfer Experiments to Support Solvent Extraction Modeling Efforts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Christensen, Kristi; Rutledge, Veronica; Garn, Troy


    In support of the Nuclear Energy Advanced Modeling Simulation Safeguards and Separations (NEAMS SafeSep) program, the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) worked in collaboration with Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) to further a modeling effort designed to predict mass transfer behavior for selected metal species between individual dispersed drops and a continuous phase in a two phase liquid-liquid extraction (LLE) system. The purpose of the model is to understand the fundamental processes of mass transfer that occur at the drop interface. This fundamental understanding can be extended to support modeling of larger LLE equipment such as mixer settlers, pulse columns, and centrifugal contactors. The work performed at the INL involved gathering the necessary experimental data to support the modeling effort. A custom experimental apparatus was designed and built for performing drop contact experiments to measure mass transfer coefficients as a function of contact time. A high speed digital camera was used in conjunction with the apparatus to measure size, shape, and velocity of the drops. In addition to drop data, the physical properties of the experimental fluids were measured to be used as input data for the model. Physical properties measurements included density, viscosity, surface tension and interfacial tension. Additionally, self diffusion coefficients for the selected metal species in each experimental solution were measured, and the distribution coefficient for the metal partitioning between phases was determined. At the completion of this work, the INL has determined the mass transfer coefficient and a velocity profile for drops rising by buoyancy through a continuous medium under a specific set of experimental conditions. Additionally, a complete set of experimentally determined fluid properties has been obtained. All data will be provided to LANL to support the modeling effort.

  13. Evaluation of Arroyo Channel Restoration Efforts using Hydrological Modeling: Rancho San Bernardino, Sonora, MX (United States)

    Jemison, N. E.; DeLong, S.; Henderson, W. M.; Adams, J.


    In the drylands of the southwestern U.S. and northwestern Mexico, historical river channel incision (arroyo cutting) has led to the destruction of riparian ecological systems and cieñega wetlands in many locations. Along Silver Creek on the Arizona-Sonora border, the Cuenca Los Ojos Foundation has been installing rock gabions and concrete and earthen berms with a goal of slowing flash floods, raising groundwater levels, and refilling arroyo channels with sediment in an area that changed from a broad, perennially wet cieñega to a narrow sand- and gravel-dominated arroyo channel with an average depth of ~6 m. The engineering efforts hope to restore desert wetlands, regrow riparian vegetation, and promote sediment deposition along the arroyo floor. Hydrological modeling allows us to predict how rare flood events interact with the restoration efforts and may guide future approaches to dryland ecological restoration. This modeling is complemented by detailed topographic surveying and use of streamflow sensors to monitor hydrological processes in the restoration project. We evaluate the inundation associated with model 10-, 50-, 100-, 500-, and 1,000-year floods through the study area using FLO-2D and HEC-RAS modeling environments in order to evaluate the possibility of returning surface inundation to the former cieñega surface. According to HEC-RAS model predictions, given current channel configuration, it would require a 500-year flood to overtop the channel banks and reinundate the cieñega (now terrace) surface, though the 100-year flood may lead to limited terrace surface inundation. Based on our models, 10-year floods were ~2 m from overtopping the arroyo walls, 50-year floods came ~1.5 m from overtopping the arroyos, 100-year floods were ~1.2 m from overtopping, and 500- and 1,000-year floods at least partially inundated the cieñega surface. The current topography of Silver Creek does not allow for frequent flooding of the former cieñega; model predictions

  14. Tumour control probability derived from dose distribution in homogeneous and heterogeneous models: assuming similar pharmacokinetics, 125Sn–177Lu is superior to 90Y–177Lu in peptide receptor radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walrand, Stephan; Hanin, François-Xavier; Pauwels, Stanislas; Jamar, François


    Clinical trials on 177 Lu– 90 Y therapy used empirical activity ratios. Radionuclides (RN) with larger beta maximal range could favourably replace 90 Y. Our aim is to provide RN dose-deposition kernels and to compare the tumour control probability (TCP) of RN combinations. Dose kernels were derived by integration of the mono-energetic beta-ray dose distributions (computed using Monte Carlo) weighted by their respective beta spectrum. Nine homogeneous spherical tumours (1–25 mm in diameter) and four spherical tumours including a lattice of cold, but alive, spheres (1, 3, 5, 7 mm in diameter) were modelled. The TCP for 93 Y, 90 Y and 125 Sn in combination with 177 Lu in variable proportions (that kept constant the renal cortex biological effective dose) were derived by 3D dose kernel convolution. For a mean tumour-absorbed dose of 180 Gy, 2 mm homogeneous tumours and tumours including 3 mm diameter cold alive spheres were both well controlled (TCP > 0.9) using a 75–25% combination of 177 Lu and 90 Y activity. However, 125 Sn– 177 Lu achieved a significantly better result by controlling 1 mm-homogeneous tumour simultaneously with tumours including 5 mm diameter cold alive spheres. Clinical trials using RN combinations should use RN proportions tuned to the patient dosimetry. 125 Sn production and its coupling to somatostatin analogue appear feasible. Assuming similar pharmacokinetics 125 Sn is the best RN for combination with 177 Lu in peptide receptor radiotherapy justifying pharmacokinetics studies in rodent of 125 Sn-labelled somatostatin analogues. (paper)

  15. Quantitative Analysis of the Security of Software-Defined Network Controller Using Threat/Effort Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zehui Wu


    Full Text Available SDN-based controller, which is responsible for the configuration and management of the network, is the core of Software-Defined Networks. Current methods, which focus on the secure mechanism, use qualitative analysis to estimate the security of controllers, leading to inaccurate results frequently. In this paper, we employ a quantitative approach to overcome the above shortage. Under the analysis of the controller threat model we give the formal model results of the APIs, the protocol interfaces, and the data items of controller and further provide our Threat/Effort quantitative calculation model. With the help of Threat/Effort model, we are able to compare not only the security of different versions of the same kind controller but also different kinds of controllers and provide a basis for controller selection and secure development. We evaluated our approach in four widely used SDN-based controllers which are POX, OpenDaylight, Floodlight, and Ryu. The test, which shows the similarity outcomes with the traditional qualitative analysis, demonstrates that with our approach we are able to get the specific security values of different controllers and presents more accurate results.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available Artificial Bee Colony inspired by the foraging behaviour of honey bees is a novel meta-heuristic optimization algorithm in the community of swarm intelligence algorithms. Nevertheless, it is still insufficient in the speed of convergence and the quality of solutions. This paper proposes an approach in order to tackle these downsides by combining the positive aspects of TeachingLearning based optimization and Artificial Bee Colony. The performance of the proposed method is assessed on the software effort estimation problem, which is the complex and important issue in the project management. Software developers often carry out the software estimation in the early stages of the software development life cycle to derive the required cost and schedule for a project. There are a large number of methods for effort estimation in which COCOMO II is one of the most widely used models. However, this model has some restricts because its parameters have not been optimized yet. In this work, therefore, we will present the approach to overcome this limitation of COCOMO II model. The experiments have been conducted on NASA software project dataset and the obtained results indicated that the improvement of parameters provided better estimation capabilities compared to the original COCOMO II model.

  17. Modeling Impact and Cost-Effectiveness of Increased Efforts to Attract Voluntary Medical Male Circumcision Clients Ages 20-29 in Zimbabwe.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katharine Kripke

    Full Text Available Zimbabwe aims to increase circumcision coverage to 80% among 13- to 29-year-olds. However, implementation data suggest that high coverage among men ages 20 and older may not be achievable without efforts specifically targeted to these men, incurring additional costs per circumcision. Scale-up scenarios were created based on trends in implementation data in Zimbabwe, and the cost-effectiveness of increasing efforts to recruit clients ages 20-29 was examined.Zimbabwe voluntary medical male circumcision (VMMC program data were used to project trends in male circumcision coverage by age into the future. The projection informed a base scenario in which, by 2018, the country achieves 80% circumcision coverage among males ages 10-19 and lower levels of coverage among men above age 20. The Zimbabwe DMPPT 2.0 model was used to project costs and impacts, assuming a US$109 VMMC unit cost in the base scenario and a 3% discount rate. Two other scenarios assumed that the program could increase coverage among clients ages 20-29 with a corresponding increase in unit cost for these age groups.When circumcision coverage among men ages 20-29 is increased compared with a base scenario reflecting current implementation trends, fewer VMMCs are required to avert one infection. If more than 50% additional effort (reflected as multiplying the unit cost by >1.5 is required to double the increase in coverage among this age group compared with the base scenario, the cost per HIV infection averted is higher than in the base scenario.Although increased investment in recruiting VMMC clients ages 20-29 may lead to greater overall impact if recruitment efforts are successful, it may also lead to lower cost-effectiveness, depending on the cost of increasing recruitment. Programs should measure the relationship between increased effort and increased ability to attract this age group.

  18. Simulation and modeling efforts to support decision making in healthcare supply chain management. (United States)

    AbuKhousa, Eman; Al-Jaroodi, Jameela; Lazarova-Molnar, Sanja; Mohamed, Nader


    Recently, most healthcare organizations focus their attention on reducing the cost of their supply chain management (SCM) by improving the decision making pertaining processes' efficiencies. The availability of products through healthcare SCM is often a matter of life or death to the patient; therefore, trial and error approaches are not an option in this environment. Simulation and modeling (SM) has been presented as an alternative approach for supply chain managers in healthcare organizations to test solutions and to support decision making processes associated with various SCM problems. This paper presents and analyzes past SM efforts to support decision making in healthcare SCM and identifies the key challenges associated with healthcare SCM modeling. We also present and discuss emerging technologies to meet these challenges.

  19. Simulation and Modeling Efforts to Support Decision Making in Healthcare Supply Chain Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eman AbuKhousa


    Full Text Available Recently, most healthcare organizations focus their attention on reducing the cost of their supply chain management (SCM by improving the decision making pertaining processes’ efficiencies. The availability of products through healthcare SCM is often a matter of life or death to the patient; therefore, trial and error approaches are not an option in this environment. Simulation and modeling (SM has been presented as an alternative approach for supply chain managers in healthcare organizations to test solutions and to support decision making processes associated with various SCM problems. This paper presents and analyzes past SM efforts to support decision making in healthcare SCM and identifies the key challenges associated with healthcare SCM modeling. We also present and discuss emerging technologies to meet these challenges.

  20. Competition for marine space: modelling the Baltic Sea fisheries and effort displacement under spatial restrictions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bastardie, Francois; Nielsen, J. Rasmus; Eigaard, Ole Ritzau


    to fishery and from vessel to vessel. The impact assessment of new spatial plans involving fisheries should be based on quantitative bioeconomic analyses that take into account individual vessel decisions, and trade-offs in cross-sector conflicting interests.Weuse a vessel-oriented decision-support tool (the...... DISPLACE model) to combine stochastic variations in spatial fishing activities with harvested resource dynamics in scenario projections. The assessment computes economic and stock status indicators by modelling the activity of Danish, Swedish, and German vessels (.12 m) in the international western Baltic...... Sea commercial fishery, together with the underlying size-based distribution dynamics of the main fishery resources of sprat, herring, and cod. The outcomes of alternative scenarios for spatial effort displacement are exemplified by evaluating the fishers’s abilities to adapt to spatial plans under...

  1. Modeling Efforts to Aid in the Determination of Process Enrichment Levels for Identifying Potential Material Diversion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guenther, C F; Elayat, H A; O'Connell, W J


    Efforts have been under way at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) to develop detailed analytical models that simulate enrichment and conversion facilities for the purpose of aiding in the detection of material diversion as part of an overall safeguards strategy. These models could be used to confirm proper accountability of the nuclear materials at facilities worldwide. Operation of an enrichment process for manufacturing commercial reactor fuel presents proliferation concerns including both diversion and the potential for further enrichment to make weapons grade material. While inspections of foreign reprocessing facilities by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) are meant to ensure that such diversion is not occurring, it must be verified that such diversion is not taking place through both examination of the facility and taking specific measurements such as the radiation fields outside of various process lines. Our current effort is developing algorithms that would be incorporated into the current process models that would provide both neutron and gamma radiation fields outside any process line for the purpose of to determining the most effective locations for placing in-plant monitoring equipment. These algorithms, while providing dose and spectral information, could also be designed to provide detector responses that could be physically measured at various points on the process line. Such information could be used to optimize detector locations in support of real-time on-site monitoring to determine the enrichment levels within a process stream. The results of parametric analyses to establish expected variations for several different process streams and configurations are presented. Based upon these results, the capability of a sodium iodide (NaI(Tl)), high-purity germanium (HPGe), or neutron detection system is being investigated from the standpoint of their viability in quantitatively measuring and discerning the enrichment and potential


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Pauline


    Full Text Available The Authors have proposed a model that first captures the fundamentals of software metrics in the phase 1 consisting of three primitive primary software engineering metrics; they are person-months (PM, function-points (FP, and lines of code (LOC. The phase 2 consists of the proposed function point which is obtained by grouping the adjustment factors to simplify the process of adjustment and to ensure more consistency in the adjustments. In the proposed method fuzzy logic is used for quantifying the quality of requirements and is added as one of the adjustment factor, thus a fuzzy based approach for the Enhanced General System Characteristics to Estimate Effort of the Software Projects using productivity has been obtained. The phase 3 takes the calculated function point from our work and is given as input to the static single variable model (i.e. to the Intermediate COCOMO and COCOMO II for cost estimation. The Authors have tailored the cost factors in intermediate COCOMO and both; cost and scale factors are tailored in COCOMO II to suite to the individual development environment, which is very important for the accuracy of the cost estimates. The software performance indicators are project duration, schedule predictability, requirements completion ratio and post-release defect density, are also measured for the software projects in my work. A comparative study for effort, performance measurement and cost estimation of the software project is done between the existing model and the authors proposed work. Thus our work analyzes the interaction¬al process through which the estimation tasks were collectively accomplished.

  3. A Pilot Study to Compare Programming Effort for Two Parallel Programming Models (PREPRINT)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hochstein, Lorin; Basili, Victor R; Vishkin, Uzi; Gilbert, John


    CONTEXT: Writing software for the current generation of parallel systems requires significant programmer effort, and the community is seeking alternatives that reduce effort while still achieving good performance. OBJECTIVE...

  4. Linking sociological with physiological data: the model of effort-reward imbalance at work. (United States)

    Siegrist, J; Klein, D; Voigt, K H


    While socio-epidemiologic studies documented impressive associations of indicators of chronic psychosocial stress with cardiovascular (c.v.) disease evidence on patho-physiologic processes is still limited. In this regard, the concept of heightened c.v. and hormonal reactivity (RE) to mental stress was proposed and explored. While this concept is a static one we suggest a more dynamic two-stage model of RE where recurrent high responsiveness (stage 1) in the long run results in attenuated, reduced maximal RE due to functional adaptation (stage 2). We present results of an indirect test of this hypothesis in a group of 68 healthy middle-aged men undergoing a modified Stroop Test: in men suffering from high chronic work stress in terms of effort-reward imbalance significantly reduced RE in heart rate, adrenaline and cortisol was found after adjusting for relevant confounders. In conclusion, results underscore the potential of linking sociological with physiological data in stress research.

  5. A Collaborative Effort Between Caribbean States for Tsunami Numerical Modeling: Case Study CaribeWave15 (United States)

    Chacón-Barrantes, Silvia; López-Venegas, Alberto; Sánchez-Escobar, Rónald; Luque-Vergara, Néstor


    Historical records have shown that tsunami have affected the Caribbean region in the past. However infrequent, recent studies have demonstrated that they pose a latent hazard for countries within this basin. The Hazard Assessment Working Group of the ICG/CARIBE-EWS (Intergovernmental Coordination Group of the Early Warning System for Tsunamis and Other Coastal Threats for the Caribbean Sea and Adjacent Regions) of IOC/UNESCO has a modeling subgroup, which seeks to develop a modeling platform to assess the effects of possible tsunami sources within the basin. The CaribeWave tsunami exercise is carried out annually in the Caribbean region to increase awareness and test tsunami preparedness of countries within the basin. In this study we present results of tsunami inundation using the CaribeWave15 exercise scenario for four selected locations within the Caribbean basin (Colombia, Costa Rica, Panamá and Puerto Rico), performed by tsunami modeling researchers from those selected countries. The purpose of this study was to provide the states with additional results for the exercise. The results obtained here were compared to co-seismic deformation and tsunami heights within the basin (energy plots) provided for the exercise to assess the performance of the decision support tools distributed by PTWC (Pacific Tsunami Warning Center), the tsunami service provider for the Caribbean basin. However, comparison of coastal tsunami heights was not possible, due to inconsistencies between the provided fault parameters and the modeling results within the provided exercise products. Still, the modeling performed here allowed to analyze tsunami characteristics at the mentioned states from sources within the North Panamá Deformed Belt. The occurrence of a tsunami in the Caribbean may affect several countries because a great variety of them share coastal zones in this basin. Therefore, collaborative efforts similar to the one presented in this study, particularly between neighboring

  6. Index of Effort: An Analytical Model for Evaluating and Re-Directing Student Recruitment Activities for a Local Community College. (United States)

    Landini, Albert J.

    This index of effort is proposed as a means by which those in charge of student recruitment activities at community colleges can be sure that their efforts are being directed toward all of the appropriate population. The index is an analytical model based on the concept of socio-economic profiles, using small area 1970 census data, and is the…

  7. Prediction Model for Object Oriented Software Development Effort Estimation Using One Hidden Layer Feed Forward Neural Network with Genetic Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chandra Shekhar Yadav


    Full Text Available The budget computation for software development is affected by the prediction of software development effort and schedule. Software development effort and schedule can be predicted precisely on the basis of past software project data sets. In this paper, a model for object-oriented software development effort estimation using one hidden layer feed forward neural network (OHFNN has been developed. The model has been further optimized with the help of genetic algorithm by taking weight vector obtained from OHFNN as initial population for the genetic algorithm. Convergence has been obtained by minimizing the sum of squared errors of each input vector and optimal weight vector has been determined to predict the software development effort. The model has been empirically validated on the PROMISE software engineering repository dataset. Performance of the model is more accurate than the well-established constructive cost model (COCOMO.

  8. Habitat models to assist plant protection efforts in Shenandoah National Park, Virginia, USA (United States)

    Van Manen, F.T.; Young, J.A.; Thatcher, C.A.; Cass, W.B.; Ulrey, C.


    During 2002, the National Park Service initiated a demonstration project to develop science-based law enforcement strategies for the protection of at-risk natural resources, including American ginseng (Panax quinquefolius L.), bloodroot (Sanguinaria canadensis L.), and black cohosh (Cimicifuga racemosa (L.) Nutt. [syn. Actaea racemosa L.]). Harvest pressure on these species is increasing because of the growing herbal remedy market. We developed habitat models for Shenandoah National Park and the northern portion of the Blue Ridge Parkway to determine the distribution of favorable habitats of these three plant species and to demonstrate the use of that information to support plant protection activities. We compiled locations for the three plant species to delineate favorable habitats with a geographic information system (GIS). We mapped potential habitat quality for each species by calculating a multivariate statistic, Mahalanobis distance, based on GIS layers that characterized the topography, land cover, and geology of the plant locations (10-m resolution). We tested model performance with an independent dataset of plant locations, which indicated a significant relationship between Mahalanobis distance values and species occurrence. We also generated null models by examining the distribution of the Mahalanobis distance values had plants been distributed randomly. For all species, the habitat models performed markedly better than their respective null models. We used our models to direct field searches to the most favorable habitats, resulting in a sizeable number of new plant locations (82 ginseng, 73 bloodroot, and 139 black cohosh locations). The odds of finding new plant locations based on the habitat models were 4.5 (black cohosh) to 12.3 (American ginseng) times greater than random searches; thus, the habitat models can be used to improve the efficiency of plant protection efforts, (e.g., marking of plants, law enforcement activities). The field searches also

  9. Modeling the Movement of Homicide by Type to Inform Public Health Prevention Efforts. (United States)

    Zeoli, April M; Grady, Sue; Pizarro, Jesenia M; Melde, Chris


    We modeled the spatiotemporal movement of hotspot clusters of homicide by motive in Newark, New Jersey, to investigate whether different homicide types have different patterns of clustering and movement. We obtained homicide data from the Newark Police Department Homicide Unit's investigative files from 1997 through 2007 (n = 560). We geocoded the address at which each homicide victim was found and recorded the date of and the motive for the homicide. We used cluster detection software to model the spatiotemporal movement of statistically significant homicide clusters by motive, using census tract and month of occurrence as the spatial and temporal units of analysis. Gang-motivated homicides showed evidence of clustering and diffusion through Newark. Additionally, gang-motivated homicide clusters overlapped to a degree with revenge and drug-motivated homicide clusters. Escalating dispute and nonintimate familial homicides clustered; however, there was no evidence of diffusion. Intimate partner and robbery homicides did not cluster. By tracking how homicide types diffuse through communities and determining which places have ongoing or emerging homicide problems by type, we can better inform the deployment of prevention and intervention efforts.

  10. Effects of fishing effort allocation scenarios on energy efficiency and profitability: an individual-based model applied to Danish fisheries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bastardie, Francois; Nielsen, J. Rasmus; Andersen, Bo Sølgaard


    Global concerns about CO2 emissions, national CO2 quotas, and rising fuel prices are incentives for the commercial fishing fleet industry to change their fishing practices and reduce fuel consumption, which constitutes a significant part of fishing costs. Vessel-based fuel consumption, energy...... against three alternative effort allocation scenarios for the assumed fishermen's adaptation to these factors: (A) preferring nearby fishing grounds rather than distant grounds with potentially larger catches and higher values, (B) shifting to other fisheries targeting resources located closer...... engine specifications, and fish and fuel prices. The outcomes of scenarios A and B indicate a trade-off between fuel savings and energy efficiency improvements when effort is displaced closer to the harbour compared to reductions in total landing amounts and profit. Scenario C indicates that historic...

  11. Examination of a Process Model of Adolescent Smoking Self-Change Efforts in Relation to Gender (United States)

    MacPherson, Laura; Myers, Mark G.


    Little information describes how adolescents change their smoking behavior. This study investigated the role of gender in the relationship of motivation and cognitive variables with adolescent smoking self-change efforts. Self-report and semi-structured interview data from a prospective study of smoking self-change efforts were examined among 98…


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Şenol Şen


    Full Text Available This research examined the relations among students’ learning strategies (elaboration, organization, critical thinking and metacognitive learning strategies, self-efficacy beliefs, and effort regulation. The Motivated Strategies for Learning Questionnaire (MSLQ was used to measure students’ learning strategies, self-efficacy beliefs, and effort regulation. A total of 227 high school students participated in the research. Confirmatory factor analysis and path analysis were performed to examine the relations among the variables of the research. Results revealed that students’ metacognitive learning strategies and self-efficacy beliefs statistically and significantly predicted their effort regulation. In addition, the students’ self-efficacy beliefs directly affected deep cognitive learning strategies and effort regulation but indirectly affected metacognitive learning strategies. Furthermore, 88.6 % of the variance in effort regulation was explained by metacognitive learning strategies and self-efficacy beliefs.

  13. Economic effort management in multispecies fisheries: the FcubEcon model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoff, Ayoe; Frost, Hans; Ulrich, Clara


    allocation between fleets should not be based on biological considerations alone, but also on the economic behaviour of fishers, because fisheries management has a significant impact on human behaviour as well as on ecosystem development. The FcubEcon management framework for effort allocation between fleets......-harvest potential and fish-stock-preservation considerations. Effort allocation between fleets should not be based on biological considerations alone, but also on the economic behaviour of fishers, because fisheries management has a significant impact on human behaviour as well as on ecosystem development. The Fcub...... in the development of management tools based on fleets, fisheries, and areas, rather than on unit fish stocks. A natural consequence of this has been to consider effort rather than quota management, a final effort decision being based on fleet-harvest potential and fish-stock-preservation considerations. Effort...

  14. Upending the social ecological model to guide health promotion efforts toward policy and environmental change. (United States)

    Golden, Shelley D; McLeroy, Kenneth R; Green, Lawrence W; Earp, Jo Anne L; Lieberman, Lisa D


    Efforts to change policies and the environments in which people live, work, and play have gained increasing attention over the past several decades. Yet health promotion frameworks that illustrate the complex processes that produce health-enhancing structural changes are limited. Building on the experiences of health educators, community activists, and community-based researchers described in this supplement and elsewhere, as well as several political, social, and behavioral science theories, we propose a new framework to organize our thinking about producing policy, environmental, and other structural changes. We build on the social ecological model, a framework widely employed in public health research and practice, by turning it inside out, placing health-related and other social policies and environments at the center, and conceptualizing the ways in which individuals, their social networks, and organized groups produce a community context that fosters healthy policy and environmental development. We conclude by describing how health promotion practitioners and researchers can foster structural change by (1) conveying the health and social relevance of policy and environmental change initiatives, (2) building partnerships to support them, and (3) promoting more equitable distributions of the resources necessary for people to meet their daily needs, control their lives, and freely participate in the public sphere. © 2015 Society for Public Health Education.

  15. Evaluation of an ARPS-based canopy flow modeling system for use in future operational smoke prediction efforts (United States)

    M. T. Kiefer; S. Zhong; W. E. Heilman; J. J. Charney; X. Bian


    Efforts to develop a canopy flow modeling system based on the Advanced Regional Prediction System (ARPS) model are discussed. The standard version of ARPS is modified to account for the effect of drag forces on mean and turbulent flow through a vegetation canopy, via production and sink terms in the momentum and subgrid-scale turbulent kinetic energy (TKE) equations....

  16. Evaluation of the Diagnostic Accuracy of a Typhoid IgM Flow Assay for the Diagnosis of Typhoid Fever in Cambodian Children Using a Bayesian Latent Class Model Assuming an Imperfect Gold Standard (United States)

    Moore, Catrin E.; Pan-Ngum, Wirichada; Wijedoru, Lalith P. M.; Sona, Soeng; Nga, Tran Vu Thieu; Duy, Pham Thanh; Vinh, Phat Voong; Chheng, Kheng; Kumar, Varun; Emary, Kate; Carter, Michael; White, Lisa; Baker, Stephen; Day, Nicholas P. J.; Parry, Christopher M.


    Rapid diagnostic tests are needed for typhoid fever (TF) diagnosis in febrile children in endemic areas. Five hundred children admitted to the hospital in Cambodia between 2009 and 2010 with documented fever (≥ 38°C) were investigated using blood cultures (BCs), Salmonella Typhi/Paratyphi A real-time polymerase chain reactions (PCRs), and a Typhoid immunoglobulin M flow assay (IgMFA). Test performance was determined by conventional methods and Bayesian latent class modeling. There were 32 cases of TF (10 BC- and PCR-positive cases, 14 BC-positive and PCR-negative cases, and 8 BC-negative and PCR-positive cases). IgMFA sensitivity was 59.4% (95% confidence interval = 41–76), and specificity was 97.8% (95% confidence interval = 96–99). The model estimate sensitivity for BC was 81.0% (95% credible interval = 54–99). The model estimate sensitivity for PCR was 37.8% (95% credible interval = 26–55), with a specificity of 98.2% (95% credible interval = 97–99). The model estimate sensitivity for IgMFA (≥ 2+) was 77.9% (95% credible interval = 58–90), with a specificity of 97.5% (95% credible interval = 95–100). The model estimates of IgMFA sensitivity and specificity were comparable with BCs and better than estimates using conventional analysis. PMID:24218407

  17. DISPLACE: a dynamic, individual-based model for spatial fishing planning and effort displacement: Integrating underlying fish population models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bastardie, Francois; Nielsen, J. Rasmus; Miethe, Tanja

    or to the alteration of individual fishing patterns. We demonstrate that integrating the spatial activity of vessels and local fish stock abundance dynamics allow for interactions and more realistic predictions of fishermen behaviour, revenues and stock abundance......We previously developed a spatially explicit, individual-based model (IBM) evaluating the bio-economic efficiency of fishing vessel movements between regions according to the catching and targeting of different species based on the most recent high resolution spatial fishery data. The main purpose...... was to test the effects of alternative fishing effort allocation scenarios related to fuel consumption, energy efficiency (value per litre of fuel), sustainable fish stock harvesting, and profitability of the fisheries. The assumption here was constant underlying resource availability. Now, an advanced...

  18. One State's Systems Change Efforts to Reduce Child Care Expulsion: Taking the Pyramid Model to Scale (United States)

    Vinh, Megan; Strain, Phil; Davidon, Sarah; Smith, Barbara J.


    This article describes the efforts funded by the state of Colorado to address unacceptably high rates of expulsion from child care. Based on the results of a 2006 survey, the state of Colorado launched two complementary policy initiatives in 2009 to impact expulsion rates and to improve the use of evidence-based practices related to challenging…

  19. Bodily Effort Enhances Learning and Metacognition: Investigating the Relation Between Physical Effort and Cognition Using Dual-Process Models of Embodiment. (United States)

    Skulmowski, Alexander; Rey, Günter Daniel


    Recent embodiment research revealed that cognitive processes can be influenced by bodily cues. Some of these cues were found to elicit disparate effects on cognition. For instance, weight sensations can inhibit problem-solving performance, but were shown to increase judgments regarding recall probability (judgments of learning; JOLs) in memory tasks. We investigated the effects of physical effort on learning and metacognition by conducting two studies in which we varied whether a backpack was worn or not while 20 nouns were to be learned. Participants entered a JOL for each word and completed a recall test. Experiment 1 ( N = 18) revealed that exerting physical effort by wearing a backpack led to higher JOLs for easy nouns, without a notable effect on difficult nouns. Participants who wore a backpack reached higher recall scores. Therefore, physical effort may act as a form of desirable difficulty during learning. In Experiment 2 ( N = 30), the influence of physical effort on JOL s and learning disappeared when more difficult nouns were to be learned, implying that a high cognitive load may diminish bodily effects. These findings suggest that physical effort mainly influences superficial modes of thought and raise doubts concerning the explanatory power of metaphor-centered accounts of embodiment for higher-level cognition.

  20. 2D and 3D Modeling Efforts in Fuel Film Cooling of Liquid Rocket Engines (Conference Paper with Briefing Charts) (United States)


    Conference Paper with Briefing Charts 3. DATES COVERED (From - To) 17 November 2016 – 12 January 2017 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE 2D and 3D Modeling ...98) Prescribed by ANSI Std. 239.18 2D and 3D Modeling Efforts in Fuel Film Cooling of Liquid Rocket Engines Kevin C. Brown∗, Edward B. Coy†, and...wide. As a consequence, the 3D simulations may better model the experimental setup used, but are perhaps not representative of the long circumferential

  1. Generalization of color-difference formulas for any illuminant and any observer by assuming perfect color constancy in a color-vision model based on the OSA-UCS system. (United States)

    Oleari, Claudio; Melgosa, Manuel; Huertas, Rafael


    The most widely used color-difference formulas are based on color-difference data obtained under D65 illumination or similar and for a 10° visual field; i.e., these formulas hold true for the CIE 1964 observer adapted to D65 illuminant. This work considers the psychometric color-vision model based on the Optical Society of America-Uniform Color Scales (OSA-UCS) system previously published by the first author [J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 21, 677 (2004); Color Res. Appl. 30, 31 (2005)] with the additional hypothesis that complete illuminant adaptation with perfect color constancy exists in the visual evaluation of color differences. In this way a computational procedure is defined for color conversion between different illuminant adaptations, which is an alternative to the current chromatic adaptation transforms. This color conversion allows the passage between different observers, e.g., CIE 1964 and CIE 1931. An application of this color conversion is here made in the color-difference evaluation for any observer and in any illuminant adaptation: these transformations convert tristimulus values related to any observer and illuminant adaptation to those related to the observer and illuminant adaptation of the definition of the color-difference formulas, i.e., to the CIE 1964 observer adapted to the D65 illuminant, and then the known color-difference formulas can be applied. The adaptations to the illuminants A, C, F11, D50, Planckian and daylight at any color temperature and for CIE 1931 and CIE 1964 observers are considered as examples, and all the corresponding transformations are given for practical use.

  2. Health Promotion Efforts as Predictors of Physical Activity in Schools: An Application of the Diffusion of Innovations Model (United States)

    Glowacki, Elizabeth M.; Centeio, Erin E.; Van Dongen, Daniel J.; Carson, Russell L.; Castelli, Darla M.


    Background: Implementing a comprehensive school physical activity program (CSPAP) effectively addresses public health issues by providing opportunities for physical activity (PA). Grounded in the Diffusion of Innovations model, the purpose of this study was to identify how health promotion efforts facilitate opportunities for PA. Methods: Physical…

  3. Inverse problem for a physiologically structured population model with variable-effort harvesting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrusyak Ruslan V.


    Full Text Available We consider the inverse problem of determining how the physiological structure of a harvested population evolves in time, and of finding the time-dependent effort to be expended in harvesting, so that the weighted integral of the density, which may be, for example, the total number of individuals or the total biomass, has prescribed dynamics. We give conditions for the existence of a unique, global, weak solution to the problem. Our investigation is carried out using the method of characteristics and a generalization of the Banach fixed-point theorem.

  4. Examining roles pharmacists assume in disasters: a content analytic approach. (United States)

    Ford, Heath; Dallas, Cham E; Harris, Curt


    Numerous practice reports recommend roles pharmacists may adopt during disasters. This study examines the peer-reviewed literature for factors that explain the roles pharmacists assume in disasters and the differences in roles and disasters when stratified by time. Quantitative content analysis was used to gather data consisting of words and phrases from peer-reviewed pharmacy literature regarding pharmacists' roles in disasters. Negative binomial regression and Kruskal-Wallis nonparametric models were applied to the data. Pharmacists' roles in disasters have not changed significantly since the 1960s. Pharmaceutical supply remains their preferred role, while patient management and response integration roles decrease in context of common, geographically widespread disasters. Policy coordination roles, however, significantly increase in nuclear terrorism planning. Pharmacists' adoption of nonpharmaceutical supply roles may represent a problem of accepting a paradigm shift in nontraditional roles. Possible shortages of personnel in future disasters may change the pharmacists' approach to disaster management.

  5. Markov Modeling of Component Fault Growth Over A Derived Domain of Feasible Output Control Effort Modifications (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This paper introduces a novel Markov process formulation of stochastic fault growth modeling, in order to facilitate the development and analysis of...

  6. The European Integrated Tokamak Modelling (ITM) effort: achievements and first physics results

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    G.L. Falchetto,; Coster, D.; Coelho, R.; Scott, B. D.; Figini, L.; Kalupin, D.; Nardon, E.; Nowak, S.; L.L. Alves,; Artaud, J. F.; Basiuk, V.; João P.S. Bizarro,; C. Boulbe,; Dinklage, A.; Farina, D.; B. Faugeras,; Ferreira, J.; Figueiredo, A.; Huynh, P.; Imbeaux, F.; Ivanova-Stanik, I.; Jonsson, T.; H.-J. Klingshirn,; Konz, C.; Kus, A.; Marushchenko, N. B.; Pereverzev, G.; M. Owsiak,; Poli, E.; Peysson, Y.; R. Reimer,; Signoret, J.; Sauter, O.; Stankiewicz, R.; Strand, P.; Voitsekhovitch, I.; Westerhof, E.; T. Zok,; Zwingmann, W.; ITM-TF contributors,; ASDEX Upgrade team,; JET-EFDA Contributors,


    A selection of achievements and first physics results are presented of the European Integrated Tokamak Modelling Task Force (EFDA ITM-TF) simulation framework, which aims to provide a standardized platform and an integrated modelling suite of validated numerical codes for the simulation and

  7. Artificial Neural Networks for Reducing Computational Effort in Active Truncated Model Testing of Mooring Lines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Niels Hørbye; Voie, Per Erlend Torbergsen; Høgsberg, Jan Becker


    is by active truncated models. In these models only the very top part of the system is represented by a physical model whereas the behavior of the part below the truncation is calculated by numerical models and accounted for in the physical model by active actuators applying relevant forces to the physical...... orders of magnitude faster than conventional numerical methods. The AAN ability to learn and predict the nonlinear relation between a given input and the corresponding output makes the hybrid method tailor made for the active actuators used in the truncated experiments. All the ANN training can be done...... prior to the experiment and with a properly trained ANN it is no problem to obtain accurate simulations much faster than real time-without any need for large computational capacity. The present study demonstrates how this hybrid method can be applied to the active truncated experiments yielding a system...

  8. LMDzT-INCA dust forecast model developments and associated validation efforts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schulz, M; Cozic, A; Szopa, S


    The nudged atmosphere global climate model LMDzT-INCA is used to forecast global dust fields. Evaluation is undertaken in retrospective for the forecast results of the year 2006. For this purpose AERONET/Photons sites in Northern Africa and on the Arabian Peninsula are chosen where aerosol optical depth is dominated by dust. Despite its coarse resolution, the model captures 48% of the day to day dust variability near Dakar on the initial day of the forecast. On weekly and monthly scale the model captures respectively 62% and 68% of the variability. Correlation coefficients between daily AOD values observed and modelled at Dakar decrease from 0.69 for the initial forecast day to 0.59 and 0.41 respectively for two days ahead and five days ahead. If one requests that the model should be able to issue a warning for an exceedance of aerosol optical depth of 0.5 and issue no warning in the other cases, then the model was wrong in 29% of the cases for day 0, 32% for day 2 and 35% for day 5. A reanalysis run with archived ECMWF winds is only slightly better (r=0.71) but was in error in 25% of the cases. Both the improved simulation of the monthly versus daily variability and the deterioration of the forecast with time can be explained by model failure to simulate the exact timing of a dust event.

  9. Evaluation of Thin Plate Hydrodynamic Stability through a Combined Numerical Modeling and Experimental Effort

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tentner, A. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Bojanowski, C. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Feldman, E. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Wilson, E. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Solbrekken, G [Univ. of Missouri, Columbia, MO (United States); Jesse, C. [Univ. of Missouri, Columbia, MO (United States); Kennedy, J. [Univ. of Missouri, Columbia, MO (United States); Rivers, J. [Univ. of Missouri, Columbia, MO (United States); Schnieders, G. [Univ. of Missouri, Columbia, MO (United States)


    An experimental and computational effort was undertaken in order to evaluate the capability of the fluid-structure interaction (FSI) simulation tools to describe the deflection of a Missouri University Research Reactor (MURR) fuel element plate redesigned for conversion to lowenriched uranium (LEU) fuel due to hydrodynamic forces. Experiments involving both flat plates and curved plates were conducted in a water flow test loop located at the University of Missouri (MU), at conditions and geometries that can be related to the MURR LEU fuel element. A wider channel gap on one side of the test plate, and a narrower on the other represent the differences that could be encountered in a MURR element due to allowed fabrication variability. The difference in the channel gaps leads to a pressure differential across the plate, leading to plate deflection. The induced plate deflection the pressure difference induces in the plate was measured at specified locations using a laser measurement technique. High fidelity 3-D simulations of the experiments were performed at MU using the computational fluid dynamics code STAR-CCM+ coupled with the structural mechanics code ABAQUS. Independent simulations of the experiments were performed at Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) using the STAR-CCM+ code and its built-in structural mechanics solver. The simulation results obtained at MU and ANL were compared with the corresponding measured plate deflections.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Apriyanto Gaguk


    Full Text Available This study aims to reconstruct the performance assessment model on Pension Fund by modifying Baldrige Assessment method that is adjusted to the conditions in Dana Pensiun A (Pension Fund A in order to realize Good Pension Fund Governance. This study design uses case study analysis. The research sites were conducted in Dana Pensiun A. The informants in the study included the employer, supervisory board, pension fund management, active and passive pension fund participant as well as financial services authority elements as the regulator. The result of this research is a construction of a comprehensive and profound retirement performance assessment model with attention to aspects of growth and fair distribution. The model includes the parameters of leadership, strategic planning, stakeholders focus, measurement, analysis, and knowledge management, workforce focus, standard operational procedure focus, result, just and fair distribution of wealth and power.

  11. A New Software Reliability Growth Model: Multigeneration Faults and a Power-Law Testing-Effort Function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fan Li


    Full Text Available Software reliability growth models (SRGMs based on a nonhomogeneous Poisson process (NHPP are widely used to describe the stochastic failure behavior and assess the reliability of software systems. For these models, the testing-effort effect and the fault interdependency play significant roles. Considering a power-law function of testing effort and the interdependency of multigeneration faults, we propose a modified SRGM to reconsider the reliability of open source software (OSS systems and then to validate the model’s performance using several real-world data. Our empirical experiments show that the model well fits the failure data and presents a high-level prediction capability. We also formally examine the optimal policy of software release, considering both the testing cost and the reliability requirement. By conducting sensitivity analysis, we find that if the testing-effort effect or the fault interdependency was ignored, the best time to release software would be seriously delayed and more resources would be misplaced in testing the software.

  12. MCNP6 and DRiFT modeling efforts for the NEUANCE/DANCE detector array

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pinilla, Maria Isabel [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)


    This report seeks to study and benchmark code predictions against experimental data; determine parameters to match MCNP-simulated detector response functions to experimental stilbene measurements; add stilbene processing capabilities to DRiFT; and improve NEUANCE detector array modeling and analysis using new MCNP6 and DRiFT features.

  13. Dynamic material flow modeling: an effort to calibrate and validate aluminum stocks and flows in Austria. (United States)

    Buchner, Hanno; Laner, David; Rechberger, Helmut; Fellner, Johann


    A calibrated and validated dynamic material flow model of Austrian aluminum (Al) stocks and flows between 1964 and 2012 was developed. Calibration and extensive plausibility testing was performed to illustrate how the quality of dynamic material flow analysis can be improved on the basis of the consideration of independent bottom-up estimates. According to the model, total Austrian in-use Al stocks reached a level of 360 kg/capita in 2012, with buildings (45%) and transport applications (32%) being the major in-use stocks. Old scrap generation (including export of end-of-life vehicles) amounted to 12.5 kg/capita in 2012, still being on the increase, while Al final demand has remained rather constant at around 25 kg/capita in the past few years. The application of global sensitivity analysis showed that only small parts of the total variance of old scrap generation could be explained by the variation of single parameters, emphasizing the need for comprehensive sensitivity analysis tools accounting for interaction between parameters and time-delay effects in dynamic material flow models. Overall, it was possible to generate a detailed understanding of the evolution of Al stocks and flows in Austria, including plausibility evaluations of the results. Such models constitute a reliable basis for evaluating future recycling potentials, in particular with respect to application-specific qualities of current and future national Al scrap generation and utilization.

  14. Ideals, activities, dissonance, and processing: a conceptual model to guide educators' efforts to stimulate student reflection. (United States)

    Thompson, Britta M; Teal, Cayla R; Rogers, John C; Paterniti, Debora A; Haidet, Paul


    Medical schools are increasingly incorporating opportunities for reflection into their curricula. However, little is known about the cognitive and/or emotional processes that occur when learners participate in activities designed to promote reflection. The purpose of this study was to identify and elucidate those processes. In 2008, the authors analyzed qualitative data from focus groups that were originally conducted to evaluate an educational activity designed to promote reflection. These data afforded the opportunity to explore the processes of reflection in detail. Transcripts (94 pages, single-spaced) from four focus groups were analyzed using a narrative framework. The authors spent approximately 40 hours in group and 240 hours in individual coding activities. The authors developed a conceptual model of five major elements in students' reflective processes: the educational activity, the presence or absence of cognitive or emotional dissonance, and two methods of processing dissonance (preservation or reconciliation). The model also incorporates the relationship between the student's internal ideal of what a doctor is or does and the student's perception of the teacher's ideal of what a doctor is or does. The model further identifies points at which educators may be able to influence the processes of reflection and the development of professional ideals. Students' cognitive and emotional processes have important effects on the success of educational activities intended to stimulate reflection. Although additional research is needed, this model-which incorporates ideals, activities, dissonance, and processing-can guide educators as they plan and implement such activities.

  15. A coupled modelling effort to study the fate of contaminated sediments downstream of the Coles Hill deposit, Virginia, USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. F. Castro-Bolinaga


    Full Text Available This paper presents the preliminary results of a coupled modelling effort to study the fate of tailings (radioactive waste-by product downstream of the Coles Hill uranium deposit located in Virginia, USA. The implementation of the overall modelling process includes a one-dimensional hydraulic model to qualitatively characterize the sediment transport process under severe flooding conditions downstream of the potential mining site, a two-dimensional ANSYS Fluent model to simulate the release of tailings from a containment cell located partially above the local ground surface into the nearby streams, and a one-dimensional finite-volume sediment transport model to examine the propagation of a tailings sediment pulse in the river network located downstream. The findings of this investigation aim to assist in estimating the potential impacts that tailings would have if they were transported into rivers and reservoirs located downstream of the Coles Hill deposit that serve as municipal drinking water supplies.

  16. Controls over Ocean Mesopelagic Interior Carbon Storage (COMICS: fieldwork, synthesis and modelling efforts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard John Sanders


    Full Text Available The ocean’s biological carbon pump plays a central role in regulating atmospheric CO2 levels. In particular, the depth at which sinking organic carbon is broken down and respired in the mesopelagic zone is critical, with deeper remineralisation resulting in greater carbon storage. Until recently, however, a balanced budget of the supply and consumption of organic carbon in the mesopelagic had not been constructed in any region of the ocean, and the processes controlling organic carbon turnover are still poorly understood. Large-scale data syntheses suggest that a wide range of factors can influence remineralisation depth including upper-ocean ecological interactions, and interior dissolved oxygen concentration and temperature. However these analyses do not provide a mechanistic understanding of remineralisation, which increases the challenge of appropriately modelling the mesopelagic carbon dynamics. In light of this, the UK Natural Environment Research Council has funded a programme with this mechanistic understanding as its aim, drawing targeted fieldwork right through to implementation of a new parameterisation for mesopelagic remineralisation within an IPCC class global biogeochemical model. The Controls over Ocean Mesopelagic Interior Carbon Storage (COMICS programme will deliver new insights into the processes of carbon cycling in the mesopelagic zone and how these influence ocean carbon storage. Here we outline the programme’s rationale, its goals, planned fieldwork and modelling activities, with the aim of stimulating international collaboration.

  17. Combined observational and modeling efforts of aerosol-cloud-precipitation interactions over Southeast Asia (United States)

    Loftus, Adrian; Tsay, Si-Chee; Nguyen, Xuan Anh


    Low-level stratocumulus (Sc) clouds cover more of the Earth's surface than any other cloud type rendering them critical for Earth's energy balance, primarily via reflection of solar radiation, as well as their role in the global hydrological cycle. Stratocumuli are particularly sensitive to changes in aerosol loading on both microphysical and macrophysical scales, yet the complex feedbacks involved in aerosol-cloud-precipitation interactions remain poorly understood. Moreover, research on these clouds has largely been confined to marine environments, with far fewer studies over land where major sources of anthropogenic aerosols exist. The aerosol burden over Southeast Asia (SEA) in boreal spring, attributed to biomass burning (BB), exhibits highly consistent spatiotemporal distribution patterns, with major variability due to changes in aerosol loading mediated by processes ranging from large-scale climate factors to diurnal meteorological events. Downwind from source regions, the transported BB aerosols often overlap with low-level Sc cloud decks associated with the development of the region's pre-monsoon system, providing a unique, natural laboratory for further exploring their complex micro- and macro-scale relationships. Compared to other locations worldwide, studies of springtime biomass-burning aerosols and the predominately Sc cloud systems over SEA and their ensuing interactions are underrepresented in scientific literature. Measurements of aerosol and cloud properties, whether ground-based or from satellites, generally lack information on microphysical processes; thus cloud-resolving models are often employed to simulate the underlying physical processes in aerosol-cloud-precipitation interactions. The Goddard Cumulus Ensemble (GCE) cloud model has recently been enhanced with a triple-moment (3M) bulk microphysics scheme as well as the Regional Atmospheric Modeling System (RAMS) version 6 aerosol module. Because the aerosol burden not only affects cloud

  18. Exploring Spatiotemporal Trends in Commercial Fishing Effort of an Abalone Fishing Zone: A GIS-Based Hotspot Model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Ali Jalali

    Full Text Available Assessing patterns of fisheries activity at a scale related to resource exploitation has received particular attention in recent times. However, acquiring data about the distribution and spatiotemporal allocation of catch and fishing effort in small scale benthic fisheries remains challenging. Here, we used GIS-based spatio-statistical models to investigate the footprint of commercial diving events on blacklip abalone (Haliotis rubra stocks along the south-west coast of Victoria, Australia from 2008 to 2011. Using abalone catch data matched with GPS location we found catch per unit of fishing effort (CPUE was not uniformly spatially and temporally distributed across the study area. Spatial autocorrelation and hotspot analysis revealed significant spatiotemporal clusters of CPUE (with distance thresholds of 100's of meters among years, indicating the presence of CPUE hotspots focused on specific reefs. Cumulative hotspot maps indicated that certain reef complexes were consistently targeted across years but with varying intensity, however often a relatively small proportion of the full reef extent was targeted. Integrating CPUE with remotely-sensed light detection and ranging (LiDAR derived bathymetry data using generalized additive mixed model corroborated that fishing pressure primarily coincided with shallow, rugose and complex components of reef structures. This study demonstrates that a geospatial approach is efficient in detecting patterns and trends in commercial fishing effort and its association with seafloor characteristics.

  19. Community effort endorsing multiscale modelling, multiscale data science and multiscale computing for systems medicine. (United States)

    Zanin, Massimiliano; Chorbev, Ivan; Stres, Blaz; Stalidzans, Egils; Vera, Julio; Tieri, Paolo; Castiglione, Filippo; Groen, Derek; Zheng, Huiru; Baumbach, Jan; Schmid, Johannes A; Basilio, José; Klimek, Peter; Debeljak, Nataša; Rozman, Damjana; Schmidt, Harald H H W


    Systems medicine holds many promises, but has so far provided only a limited number of proofs of principle. To address this road block, possible barriers and challenges of translating systems medicine into clinical practice need to be identified and addressed. The members of the European Cooperation in Science and Technology (COST) Action CA15120 Open Multiscale Systems Medicine (OpenMultiMed) wish to engage the scientific community of systems medicine and multiscale modelling, data science and computing, to provide their feedback in a structured manner. This will result in follow-up white papers and open access resources to accelerate the clinical translation of systems medicine. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press.

  20. Evaluating the equation-of-state models of nitrogen in the dissociation regime: an experimental effort (United States)

    Li, Jiangtao; Chen, Qifeng; Fu, Zhijian; Gu, Yunjun; Zheng, Jun; Li, Chengjun


    A number of experiments were designed so that pre-compressed nitrogen (20 MPa) was shock-compressed reverberatively into a regime where molecular dissociation is expected to influence significantly the equation-of-state and transport properties. The equation of state of nitrogen after each compression process was probed by a joint diagnostics of multichannel optical pyrometer (MCOP) and Doppler pin system (DPS). The equation of state data thereby obtained span a pressure-density range of about 0.02-130 GPa and 0.22-5.9 g/cc. Furthermore, based on the uncertainties of the measurements, a Monte Carlo method was employed to evaluate the probability distribution of the thermodynamic state after each compression. According to Monte Carlo results, a number of equation-of-state models or calculations for nitrogen in the dissociation regime were assessed.

  1. How Afghanistan Can Assume Ownership for the Ongoing Conflict

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Horn, Sr, John M


    In view of United States global commitments and larger Global War on Terror (GWOT) strategy, the ultimate security goal in Afghanistan must be for the Afghans to assume ownership of the counterinsurgency struggle...

  2. Applying the effort-reward imbalance model to household and family work: a population-based study of German mothers. (United States)

    Sperlich, Stefanie; Peter, Richard; Geyer, Siegfried


    This paper reports on results of a newly developed questionnaire for the assessment of effort-reward imbalance (ERI) in unpaid household and family work. Using a cross-sectional population-based survey of German mothers (n = 3129) the dimensional structure of the theoretical ERI model was validated by means of Confirmatory Factor Analysis (CFA). Analyses of Variance were computed to examine relationships between ERI and social factors and health outcomes. CFA revealed good psychometric properties indicating that the subscale 'effort' is based on one latent factor and the subscale 'reward' is composed of four dimensions: 'intrinsic value of family and household work', 'societal esteem', 'recognition from the partner', and 'affection from the child(ren)'. About 19.3% of mothers perceived lack of reciprocity and 23.8% showed high rates of overcommitment in terms of inability to withdraw from household and family obligations. Socially disadvantaged mothers were at higher risk of ERI, in particular with respect to the perception of low societal esteem. Gender inequality in the division of household and family work and work-family conflict accounted most for ERI in household and family work. Analogous to ERI in paid work we could demonstrate that ERI affects self-rated health, somatic complaints, mental health and, to some extent, hypertension. The newly developed questionnaire demonstrates satisfied validity and promising results for extending the ERI model to household and family work.

  3. Applying the effort-reward imbalance model to household and family work: a population-based study of German mothers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sperlich Stefanie


    Full Text Available Abstract Background This paper reports on results of a newly developed questionnaire for the assessment of effort-reward imbalance (ERI in unpaid household and family work. Methods: Using a cross-sectional population-based survey of German mothers (n = 3129 the dimensional structure of the theoretical ERI model was validated by means of Confirmatory Factor Analysis (CFA. Analyses of Variance were computed to examine relationships between ERI and social factors and health outcomes. Results CFA revealed good psychometric properties indicating that the subscale 'effort' is based on one latent factor and the subscale 'reward' is composed of four dimensions: 'intrinsic value of family and household work', 'societal esteem', 'recognition from the partner', and 'affection from the child(ren'. About 19.3% of mothers perceived lack of reciprocity and 23.8% showed high rates of overcommitment in terms of inability to withdraw from household and family obligations. Socially disadvantaged mothers were at higher risk of ERI, in particular with respect to the perception of low societal esteem. Gender inequality in the division of household and family work and work-family conflict accounted most for ERI in household and family work. Analogous to ERI in paid work we could demonstrate that ERI affects self-rated health, somatic complaints, mental health and, to some extent, hypertension. Conclusions The newly developed questionnaire demonstrates satisfied validity and promising results for extending the ERI model to household and family work.

  4. Model recommendations meet management reality: implementation and evaluation of a network-informed vaccination effort for endangered Hawaiian monk seals (United States)

    Barbieri, Michelle M.; Murphy, Samantha; Baker, Jason D.; Harting, Albert L.; Craft, Meggan E.; Littnan, Charles L.


    Where disease threatens endangered wildlife populations, substantial resources are required for management actions such as vaccination. While network models provide a promising tool for identifying key spreaders and prioritizing efforts to maximize efficiency, population-scale vaccination remains rare, providing few opportunities to evaluate performance of model-informed strategies under realistic scenarios. Because the endangered Hawaiian monk seal could be heavily impacted by disease threats such as morbillivirus, we implemented a prophylactic vaccination programme. We used contact networks to prioritize vaccinating animals with high contact rates. We used dynamic network models to simulate morbillivirus outbreaks under real and idealized vaccination scenarios. We then evaluated the efficacy of model recommendations in this real-world vaccination project. We found that deviating from the model recommendations decreased the efficiency; requiring 44% more vaccinations to achieve a given decrease in outbreak size. However, we gained protection more quickly by vaccinating available animals rather than waiting to encounter priority seals. This work demonstrates the value of network models, but also makes trade-offs clear. If vaccines were limited but time was ample, vaccinating only priority animals would maximize herd protection. However, where time is the limiting factor, vaccinating additional lower-priority animals could more quickly protect the population. PMID:29321294

  5. Overview of past, ongoing and future efforts of the integrated modeling of global change for Northern Eurasia (United States)

    Monier, Erwan; Kicklighter, David; Sokolov, Andrei; Zhuang, Qianlai; Melillo, Jerry; Reilly, John


    Northern Eurasia is both a major player in the global carbon budget (it includes roughly 70% of the Earth's boreal forest and more than two-thirds of the Earth's permafrost) and a region that has experienced dramatic climate change (increase in temperature, growing season length, floods and droughts) over the past century. Northern Eurasia has also undergone significant land-use change, both driven by human activity (including deforestation, expansion of agricultural lands and urbanization) and natural disturbances (such as wildfires and insect outbreaks). These large environmental and socioeconomic impacts have major implications for the carbon cycle in the region. Northern Eurasia is made up of a diverse set of ecosystems that range from tundra to forests, with significant areas of croplands and pastures as well as deserts, with major urban areas. As such, it represents a complex system with substantial challenges for the modeling community. In this presentation, we provide an overview of past, ongoing and possible future efforts of the integrated modeling of global change for Northern Eurasia. We review the variety of existing modeling approaches to investigate specific components of Earth system dynamics in the region. While there are a limited number of studies that try to integrate various aspects of the Earth system (through scale, teleconnections or processes), we point out that there are few systematic analyses of the various feedbacks within the Earth system (between components, regions or scale). As a result, there is a lack of knowledge of the relative importance of such feedbacks, and it is unclear how policy relevant current studies are that fail to account for these feedbacks. We review the role of Earth system models, and their advantages/limitations compared to detailed single component models. We further introduce the human activity system (global trade, economic models, demographic model and so on), the need for coupled human/earth system models

  6. Short-term dispersal of Fukushima-derived radionuclides off Japan: modeling efforts and model-data intercomparison

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. I. Rypina


    Full Text Available The Great East Japan Earthquake and tsunami that caused a loss of power at the Fukushima nuclear power plants (FNPP resulted in emission of radioactive isotopes into the atmosphere and the ocean. In June of 2011, an international survey measuring a variety of radionuclide isotopes, including 137Cs, was conducted in surface and subsurface waters off Japan. This paper presents the results of numerical simulations specifically aimed at interpreting these observations and investigating the spread of Fukushima-derived radionuclides off the coast of Japan and into the greater Pacific Ocean. Together, the simulations and observations allow us to study the dominant mechanisms governing this process, and to estimate the total amount of radionuclides in discharged coolant waters and atmospheric airborne radionuclide fallout. The numerical simulations are based on two different ocean circulation models, one inferred from AVISO altimetry and NCEP/NCAR reanalysis wind stress, and the second generated numerically by the NCOM model. Our simulations determine that > 95% of 137Cs remaining in the water within ~600 km of Fukushima, Japan in mid-June 2011 was due to the direct oceanic discharge. The estimated strength of the oceanic source is 16.2 ± 1.6 PBq, based on minimizing the model-data mismatch. We cannot make an accurate estimate for the atmospheric source strength since most of the fallout cesium had left the survey area by mid-June. The model explained several key features of the observed 137Cs distribution. First, the absence of 137Cs at the southernmost stations is attributed to the Kuroshio Current acting as a transport barrier against the southward progression of 137Cs. Second, the largest 137Cs concentrations were associated with a semi-permanent eddy that entrained 137Cs-rich waters, collecting and stirring them around the eddy perimeter. Finally, the intermediate 137Cs concentrations at the westernmost stations are attributed to younger, and

  7. Parenting and the Development of Effortful Control from Early Childhood to Early Adolescence: A Transactional Developmental Model (United States)

    Capaldi, Deborah M.; Kerr, David C. R.; Bertrand, Maria; Pears, Katherine C.; Owen, Lee


    Poor effortful control is a key temperamental factor underlying behavioral problems. The bidirectional association of child effortful control with both positive parenting and negative discipline was examined from ages approximately 3 to 13–14 years, involving 5 time points, and using data from parents and children in the Oregon Youth Study-Three Generational Study (N = 318 children from 150 families). Based on a dynamic developmental systems approach, it was hypothesized that there would be concurrent associations between parenting and child effortful control and bidirectional effects across time from each aspect of parenting to effortful control and from effortful control to each aspect of parenting. It was also hypothesized that associations would be more robust in early childhood, from ages 3 to 7 years, and would diminish as indicated by significantly weaker effects at the older ages, 11–12 to 13–14 years. Longitudinal feedback or mediated effects were also tested. Findings supported (a) stability in each construct over multiple developmental periods; (b) concurrent associations, which were significantly weaker at the older ages; (c) bidirectional effects, consistent with the interpretation that at younger ages children’s effortful control influenced parenting, whereas at older child ages, parenting influenced effortful control; and (d) a transactional effect, such that maternal parenting in late childhood was a mechanism explaining children’s development of effortful control from midchildhood to early adolescence. PMID:27427809

  8. Technology Transfer Center to Assume Patenting and Licensing Responsibilities | Poster (United States)

    The NCI Technology Transfer Center (TTC) is undergoing a reorganization that will bring patenting and licensing responsibilities to the Shady Grove and Frederick offices by October 2015. The reorganization is a result of an effort begun in 2014 by NIH to improve the organizational structure of technology transfer at NIH to meet the rapid rate of change within science, technology, and industry, and to better align the science and laboratory goals with the licensing and patenting process.

  9. Beyond an assumed mother–child symbiosis in nutritional guidelines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Annemette; Michaelsen, Kim F.; Holm, Lotte


    of the child and the interest and focus of the mother. The aim of this qualitative study was to explore mothers’ concerns and feeding practices in the context of everyday life. A total of 45 mothers with children either seven months old or 13 months old participated. The results showed that the need to find......Researchers question the implications of the way in which “motherhood” is constructed in public health discourse. Current nutritional guidelines for Danish parents of young children are part of this discourse. They are shaped by an assumed symbiotic relationship between the nutritional needs...... practical solutions for the whole family in a busy everyday life, to socialise the child into the family and society at large, and to create personal relief from the strain small children put on time and energy all served as socially acceptable reasons for knowingly departing from nutritional...

  10. Prospects for carbon capture and sequestration technologies assuming their technological learning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Riahi, Keywan; Rubin, Edward S.; Schrattenholzer, Leo


    This paper analyzes potentials of carbon capture and sequestration technologies (CCS) in a set of long-term energy-economic-environmental scenarios based on alternative assumptions for technological progress of CCS. In order to get a reasonable guide to future technological progress in managing CO 2 emissions, we review past experience in controlling sulfur dioxide emissions (SO 2 ) from power plants. By doing so, we quantify a 'learning curve' for CCS, which describes the relationship between the improvement of costs due to accumulation of experience in CCS construction. We incorporate the learning curve into the energy modeling framework MESSAGE-MACRO and develop greenhouse gas emissions scenarios of economic, demographic, and energy demand development, where alternative policy cases lead to the stabilization of atmospheric CO 2 concentrations at 550 parts per million by volume (ppmv) by the end of the 21st century. Due to the assumed technological learning, costs of the emissions reduction for CCS drop rapidly and in parallel with the massive introduction of CCS on the global scale. Compared to scenarios based on static cost assumptions for CCS, the contribution of carbon sequestration is about 50 percent higher in the case of learning resulting in cumulative sequestration of CO 2 ranging from 150 to 250 billion (10 9 ) tons carbon during the 21st century. The results illustrate that carbon capture and sequestration is one of the obvious priority candidates for long-term technology policies and enhanced R and D efforts to hedge against the risk associated with high environmental impacts of climate change

  11. On the importance of controlling for effort in analysis of count survey data: Modeling population change from Christmas Bird Count data (United States)

    Link, W.A.; Sauer, J.R.; Helbig, Andreas J.; Flade, Martin


    Count survey data are commonly used for estimating temporal and spatial patterns of population change. Since count surveys are not censuses, counts can be influenced by 'nuisance factors' related to the probability of detecting animals but unrelated to the actual population size. The effects of systematic changes in these factors can be confounded with patterns of population change. Thus, valid analysis of count survey data requires the identification of nuisance factors and flexible models for their effects. We illustrate using data from the Christmas Bird Count (CBC), a midwinter survey of bird populations in North America. CBC survey effort has substantially increased in recent years, suggesting that unadjusted counts may overstate population growth (or understate declines). We describe a flexible family of models for the effect of effort, that includes models in which increasing effort leads to diminishing returns in terms of the number of birds counted.

  12. Efforts to Address the Aging Academic Workforce: Assessing Progress through a Three-Stage Model of Institutional Change (United States)

    Kaskie, Brian; Walker, Mark; Andersson, Matthew


    The aging of the academic workforce is becoming more relevant to policy discussions in higher education. Yet there has been no formal, large-scale analysis of institutional efforts to develop policies and programs for aging employees. We fielded a representative survey of human resource specialists at 187 colleges and universities across the…

  13. Trajectory Simulation of Meteors Assuming Mass Loss and Fragmentation (United States)

    Allen, Gary A., Jr.; Prabhu, Dinesh K.; Saunders, David A


    Program used to simulate atmospheric flight trajectories of entry capsules [1] Includes models of atmospheres of different planetary destinations - Earth, Mars, Venus, Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, Titan, ... Solves 3-­-degrees of freedom (3DoF) equations for a single body treated as a point mass. Also supports 6-DoF trajectory simula4on and Monte Carlo analyses. Uses Fehlberg-­-Runge-­-Kuna (4th-5th order) time integraion with automaic step size control. Includes rotating spheroidal planet with gravitational field having a J2 harmonic. Includes a variety of engineering aerodynamic and heat flux models. Capable of specifying events - heatshield jettison, parachute deployment, etc. - at predefined altitudes or Mach number. Has material thermal response models of typical aerospace materials integrated.

  14. A proposal for a coordinated effort for the determination of brainwide neuroanatomical connectivity in model organisms at a mesoscopic scale.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jason W Bohland


    Full Text Available In this era of complete genomes, our knowledge of neuroanatomical circuitry remains surprisingly sparse. Such knowledge is critical, however, for both basic and clinical research into brain function. Here we advocate for a concerted effort to fill this gap, through systematic, experimental mapping of neural circuits at a mesoscopic scale of resolution suitable for comprehensive, brainwide coverage, using injections of tracers or viral vectors. We detail the scientific and medical rationale and briefly review existing knowledge and experimental techniques. We define a set of desiderata, including brainwide coverage; validated and extensible experimental techniques suitable for standardization and automation; centralized, open-access data repository; compatibility with existing resources; and tractability with current informatics technology. We discuss a hypothetical but tractable plan for mouse, additional efforts for the macaque, and technique development for human. We estimate that the mouse connectivity project could be completed within five years with a comparatively modest budget.

  15. Operation TOMODACHI: A Model for American Disaster Response Efforts and the Collective use of Military Forces Abroad (United States)


    Gen Burton Field (Yokota AB, Japan), March 2011 2 Knight, Bill, Colonel, 374 AW/CV, et. al ., “Operation TOMODACHI, MAF Response to Japan’s Nuclear...was best described by the 459th Airlift Squadron Commander, Lt Col Eugene “Gene” Capone during an interview after the completion of mapping efforts...12 Capone , Eugene, Lt Col, 459 AS/CC, personal interview with Dr. John Treiber, transcribed by Dr. John Treiber

  16. Is Polar Amplification Deeper and Stronger than Dynamicists Assume? (United States)

    Scheff, J.; Maroon, E.


    In the CMIP multi-model mean under strong future warming, Arctic amplification is confined to the lower troposphere, so that the meridional gradient of warming reverses around 500 mb and the upper troposphere is characterized by strong "tropical amplification" in which warming weakens with increasing latitude. This model-derived pattern of warming maxima in the upper-level tropics and lower-level Arctic has become a canonical assumption driving theories of the large-scale circulation response to climate change. Yet, several lines of evidence and reasoning suggest that Arctic amplification may in fact extend through the entire depth of the troposphere, and/or may be stronger than commonly modeled. These include satellite Microwave Sounding Unit (MSU) temperature trends as a function of latitude and vertical level, the recent discovery that the extratropical negative cloud phase feedback in models is largely spurious, and the very strong polar amplification observed in past warm and lukewarm climates. Such a warming pattern, with deep, dominant Arctic amplification, would have very different implications for the circulation than a canonical CMIP-like warming: instead of slightly shifting poleward and strengthening, eddies, jets and cells might shift equatorward and considerably weaken. Indeed, surface winds have been mysteriously weakening ("stilling") at almost all stations over the last half-century or so, there has been no poleward shift in northern hemisphere circulation metrics, and past warm climates' subtropics were apparently quite wet (and their global ocean circulations were weak.) To explore these possibilities more deeply, we examine the y-z structure of warming and circulation changes across a much broader range of models, scenarios and time periods than the CMIP future mean, and use an MSU simulator to compare them to the satellite warming record. Specifically, we examine whether the use of historical (rather than future) forcing, AMIP (rather than CMIP

  17. Ethnicity, Effort, Self-Efficacy, Worry, and Statistics Achievement in Malaysia: A Construct Validation of the State-Trait Motivation Model (United States)

    Awang-Hashim, Rosa; O'Neil, Harold F., Jr.; Hocevar, Dennis


    The relations between motivational constructs, effort, self-efficacy and worry, and statistics achievement were investigated in a sample of 360 undergraduates in Malaysia. Both trait (cross-situational) and state (task-specific) measures of each construct were used to test a mediational trait (r) state (r) performance (TSP) model. As hypothesized,…

  18. Applying a Theory-Driven Framework to Guide Quality Improvement Efforts in Nursing Homes: The LOCK Model. (United States)

    Mills, Whitney L; Pimentel, Camilla B; Palmer, Jennifer A; Snow, A Lynn; Wewiorski, Nancy J; Allen, Rebecca S; Hartmann, Christine W


    Implementing quality improvement (QI) programs in nursing homes continues to encounter significant challenges, despite recognized need. QI approaches provide nursing home staff with opportunities to collaborate on developing and testing strategies for improving care delivery. We present a theory-driven and user-friendly adaptable framework and facilitation package to overcome existing challenges and guide QI efforts in nursing homes. The framework is grounded in the foundational concepts of strengths-based learning, observation, relationship-based teams, efficiency, and organizational learning. We adapted these concepts to QI in the nursing home setting, creating the "LOCK" framework. The LOCK framework is currently being disseminated across the Veterans Health Administration. The LOCK framework has five tenets: (a) Look for the bright spots, (b) Observe, (c) Collaborate in huddles, (d) Keep it bite-sized, and (e) facilitation. Each tenet is described. We also present a case study documenting how a fictional nursing home can implement the LOCK framework as part of a QI effort to improve engagement between staff and residents. The case study describes sample observations, processes, and outcomes. We also discuss practical applications for nursing home staff, the adaptability of LOCK for different QI projects, the specific role of facilitation, and lessons learned. The proposed framework complements national efforts to improve quality of care and quality of life for nursing home residents and may be valuable across long-term care settings and QI project types. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America 2017. This work is written by (a) US Government employee(s) and is in the public domain in the US.

  19. Assuming too much? Participatory water resource governance in South Africa. (United States)

    Brown, Julia


    This paper argues that participation in natural resource management, which is often coupled with moves for more local ownership of decision making, is based on three sets of assumptions: about the role of the state, the universality of application of such approaches and the transformatory potential of institutional reform. The validity of these assumptions requires investigation in view of the rapid institutionalisation and scaling-up of participatory approaches, particularly in developing country contexts. Post-apartheid South Africa is widely recognised as a pioneer of participatory and devolutionary approaches, particularly in the field of water resources. It is 12 years since the promulgation of the forward-thinking 1998 National Water Act, and thus an opportune moment to reflect on South Africa's experiences of participatory governance. Drawing on empirical research covering the establishment of the first Catchment Management Agency, and the transformation of existing Irrigation Boards into more inclusive Water User Associations in the Inkomati Water Management Area, it emerges that there may be fundamental weaknesses in the participatory model and underlying assumptions, and indeed such approaches may actually reinforce inequitable outcomes: the legacy of long-established institutional frameworks and powerful actors therein continues to exert influence in post-apartheid South Africa, and has the potential to subvert the democratic and redistributive potential of the water reforms. It is argued that a reassessment of the role of the state is necessary: where there is extreme heterogeneity in challenging catchments more, rather than less, state intervention may be required to uphold the interests of marginalised groups and effect redistribution.

  20. A Stage-Structured Prey-Predator Fishery Model In The Presence Of Toxicity With Taxation As A Control Parameter of Harvesting Effort

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sumit Kaur Bhatia


    Full Text Available In this paper we have considered stage-structured fishery model in the presence of toxicity, which is diminishing due to the current excessive use of fishing efforts resulting in devastating consequences. The purpose of this study is to propose a bio-economic mathematical model by introducing taxes to the profit per unit biomass of the harvested fish of each species with the intention of controlling fishing efforts in the presence of toxicity. We obtained both boundary and interior equilibrium points along with the conditions ensuring their validity. Local stability for the interior equilibrium point has been found by the trace-determinant criterion and global stability has been analyzed through a suitable Lyapunov function. We have also obtained the optimal harvesting policy with the help of Pontryagin's maximum principle. Lastly, numerical simulation with the help of MATLAB have been done and thus, the results of the formulated model have been established.

  1. A community effort towards a knowledge-base and mathematical model of the human pathogen Salmonella Typhimurium LT2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thiele, Ines; Hyduke, Daniel R.; Steeb, Benjamin; Fankam, Guy; Allen, Douglas K.; Bazzani, Susanna; Charusanti, Pep; Chen, Feng-Chi; Fleming, Ronan MT; Hsiung, Chao A.; De Keersmaecker, Sigrid CJ; Liao, Yu-Chieh; Marchal, Kathleen; Mo, Monica L.; Özdemir, Emre; Raghunathan, Anu; Reed, Jennifer L.; Shin, Sook-Il; Sigurbjörnsdóttir, Sara; Steinmann, Jonas; Sudarsan, Suresh; Swainston, Neil; Thijs, Inge M.; Zengler, Karsten; Palsson, Bernhard O.; Adkins, Joshua N.; Bumann, Dirk


    Metabolic reconstructions (MRs) are common denominators in systems biology and represent biochemical, genetic, and genomic (BiGG) knowledge-bases for target organisms by capturing currently available information in a consistent, structured manner. Salmonella enterica subspecies I serovar Typhimurium is a human pathogen, causes various diseases and its increasing antibiotic resistance poses a public health problem. Here, we describe a community-driven effort, in which more than 20 experts in S. Typhimurium biology and systems biology collaborated to reconcile and expand the S. Typhimurium BiGG knowledge-base. The consensus MR was obtained starting from two independently developed MRs for S. Typhimurium. Key results of this reconstruction jamboree include i) development and implementation of a community-based workflow for MR annotation and reconciliation; ii) incorporation of thermodynamic information; and iii) use of the consensus MR to identify potential multi-target drug therapy approaches. Finally, taken together, with the growing number of parallel MRs a structured, community-driven approach will be necessary to maximize quality while increasing adoption of MRs in experimental design and interpretation.

  2. [Psychosocial stress and disease risks in occupational life. Results of international studies on the demand-control and the effort-reward imbalance models]. (United States)

    Siegrist, J; Dragano, N


    Given the far-reaching changes of modern working life, psychosocial stress at work has received increased attention. Its influence on stress-related disease risks is analysed with the help of standardised measurements based on theoretical models. Two such models have gained special prominence in recent years, the demand-control model and the effort-reward imbalance model. The former model places its emphasis on a distinct combination of job characteristics, whereas the latter model's focus is on the imbalance between efforts spent and rewards received in turn. The predictive power of these models with respect to coronary or cardiovascular disease and depression was tested in a number of prospective epidemiological investigations. In summary, twofold elevated disease risks are observed. Effects on cardiovascular disease are particularly pronounced among men, whereas no gender differences are observed for depression. Additional evidence derived from experimental and ambulatory monitoring studies supplements this body of findings. Current scientific evidence justifies an increased awareness and assessment of these newly discovered occupational risks, in particular by occupational health professionals. Moreover, structural and interpersonal measures of stress prevention and health promotion at work are warranted, with special emphasis on gender differences.

  3. Using the DayCent Ecosystem Model to Predict Methane Emissions from Wetland Rice Production in Support for Mitigation Efforts (United States)

    Ogle, S. M.; Parton, W. J.; Cheng, K.; Pan, G.


    Wetland rice production is a major source of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions to the atmosphere, and rice production is predicted to increase dramatically in the future due to expected growth in human populations. Mitigating GHG emissions from future rice production is possible with best management practices for water management, residue management and organic amendments. Policy initiatives and programs that promote practices to reduce GHG emissions from rice production will likely need robust methods for quantifying emission reductions. Frameworks based on process-based model provide one alternative for estimating emissions reductions. The advantages of this approach are that the models are relatively inexpensive to apply, incorporate a variety of management and environmental drivers influencing emissions, and can be used to predict future emissions for planning purposes. The disadvantages are that the models can be challenging to parameterize and evaluate, and require a relatively large amount of data. The DayCent ecosystem model simulates plant and soil processes, and is an example of a model that could be used to quantify emission reductions for reporting mitigation activities associated with rice production systems. DayCent estimates methane emissions, which is the major source of GHG emissions from wetland rice, but also estimates nitrous oxide emissions and soil organic C stock changes. DayCent has been evaluated using data from China, explaining 83% of the variation in methane emissions from 72 experimental rice fields. In addition, DayCent has been applied regionally in the United States to estimate methane, nitrous oxide emissions, and soil C stock changes, in compliance with the guidelines for reporting GHG emissions to the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change. Given the cost of alternatives, process-based models such as DayCent may offer the best way forward for estimating GHG emissions from rice production, and with quantification of uncertainty

  4. Modeling the effects of promotional efforts on aggregate pharmaceutical demand : What we know and challenges for the future

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wieringa, J.E.; Osinga, E.C.; Conde, E.R.; Leeflang, P.S.H.; Stern, P.; Ding, M.; Eliashberg, J.; Stremersch, S.


    Pharmaceutical marketing is becoming an important area of research in its own right, as evidenced by the steady increase in relevant papers published in the major marketing journals in recent years. These papers utilize different modeling techniques and types of data. In this chapter we focus on

  5. Betting on change: Tenet deal with Vanguard shows it's primed to try ACO effort, new payment model. (United States)

    Kutscher, Beth


    Tenet Healthcare Corp.'s acquisition of Vanguard Health Systems is a sign the investor-owned chain is willing to take a chance on alternative payment models such as accountable care organizations. There's no certainty that ACOs will deliver the improvements on quality or cost savings, but Vanguard Vice Chairman Keith Pitts, left, says his system's Pioneer ACO in Detroit has already achieved some cost savings.

  6. CFD Modelling and Experimental Testing of Thermal Calcination of Kaolinite Rich Clay Particles - An Effort towards Green Concrete

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gebremariam, Abraham Teklay

    processes in a calciner and develop a useful tool that can aid in design of a smart clay calcination technology, which makes the major objective of this study. In this thesis, a numerical approach is mainly used to investigate the flash calcination of clay particles. A transient one-dimensional particle...... are crucial not only to maximize the yield of the desired product but also minimize the energy consumption during operation. Thus, the experimentally validated calcination model and simulation results can aid in an improved understanding of clay calcination process and also new conceptual design......Cement industry is one of the major industrial emitters of greenhouse gases, generating 5-7% of the total anthropogenic CO2 emissions. Consequently, use of supplementary cementitious materials (SCM) to replace part of the CO2-intensive cement clinker is an attractive way to mitigate CO2 emissions...


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Intan Kurnia Sari


    Full Text Available The purpose of this research is to improve students' learning outcomes in mathematics learning through Contextual Teaching and Learning (CTL model with Cuisenaire Rods media in grade IV Dukuh 03 Salatiga Elementary School semester II year 2015/2016. This research was conducted to help teachers who still used conventional methods and had not yet maximized learning media in the classroom. This research is a classroom action research that consists of two cycles. Each cycle consists of four phases: planning, implementation, observation, and reflection. The subjects of this study were 26 students. Data collection techniques used in this study were observation, testing, and documentation. The instruments used were test items, the student activity and teacher observation sheet. Data analysis was performed by using a comparative descriptive analysis by comparing the results of pre-cycle, the first cycle, and the second cycle. The indicator of success in this study was that 75% students reaching the score of ≥ 64. The research showed an increase in the value of the average grade from 61.77 in the pre-cycle to 78 in the first cycle and up to 85 in the second cycle. The number of students who passed the study increased from 11 students (42.31% in the pre-cycle to 20 students (76.92% in the first cycle and up to 24 students (92.31% in the second cycle, so it can be concluded that the application of Contextual Teaching and Learning (CTL model using Cuisenaire Rods media can improve students' learning outcomes in mathematics in the area of adding and subtracting fractions with the same denominator and with different denominators.

  8. Bayesian Analysis for Risk Assessment of Selected Medical Events in Support of the Integrated Medical Model Effort (United States)

    Gilkey, Kelly M.; Myers, Jerry G.; McRae, Michael P.; Griffin, Elise A.; Kallrui, Aditya S.


    The Exploration Medical Capability project is creating a catalog of risk assessments using the Integrated Medical Model (IMM). The IMM is a software-based system intended to assist mission planners in preparing for spaceflight missions by helping them to make informed decisions about medical preparations and supplies needed for combating and treating various medical events using Probabilistic Risk Assessment. The objective is to use statistical analyses to inform the IMM decision tool with estimated probabilities of medical events occurring during an exploration mission. Because data regarding astronaut health are limited, Bayesian statistical analysis is used. Bayesian inference combines prior knowledge, such as data from the general U.S. population, the U.S. Submarine Force, or the analog astronaut population located at the NASA Johnson Space Center, with observed data for the medical condition of interest. The posterior results reflect the best evidence for specific medical events occurring in flight. Bayes theorem provides a formal mechanism for combining available observed data with data from similar studies to support the quantification process. The IMM team performed Bayesian updates on the following medical events: angina, appendicitis, atrial fibrillation, atrial flutter, dental abscess, dental caries, dental periodontal disease, gallstone disease, herpes zoster, renal stones, seizure, and stroke.

  9. Glass Property Models and Constraints for Estimating the Glass to be Produced at Hanford by Implementing Current Advanced Glass Formulation Efforts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vienna, John D. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Kim, Dong-Sang [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Skorski, Daniel C. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Matyas, Josef [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)


    Recent glass formulation and melter testing data have suggested that significant increases in waste loading in HLW and LAW glasses are possible over current system planning estimates. The data (although limited in some cases) were evaluated to determine a set of constraints and models that could be used to estimate the maximum loading of specific waste compositions in glass. It is recommended that these models and constraints be used to estimate the likely HLW and LAW glass volumes that would result if the current glass formulation studies are successfully completed. It is recognized that some of the models are preliminary in nature and will change in the coming years. Plus the models do not currently address the prediction uncertainties that would be needed before they could be used in plant operations. The models and constraints are only meant to give an indication of rough glass volumes and are not intended to be used in plant operation or waste form qualification activities. A current research program is in place to develop the data, models, and uncertainty descriptions for that purpose. A fundamental tenet underlying the research reported in this document is to try to be less conservative than previous studies when developing constraints for estimating the glass to be produced by implementing current advanced glass formulation efforts. The less conservative approach documented herein should allow for the estimate of glass masses that may be realized if the current efforts in advanced glass formulations are completed over the coming years and are as successful as early indications suggest they may be. Because of this approach there is an unquantifiable uncertainty in the ultimate glass volume projections due to model prediction uncertainties that has to be considered along with other system uncertainties such as waste compositions and amounts to be immobilized, split factors between LAW and HLW, etc.

  10. Errors resulting from assuming opaque Lambertian clouds in TOMS ozone retrieval

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, X.; Newchurch, M.J.; Loughman, R.; Bhartia, P.K.


    Accurate remote sensing retrieval of atmospheric constituents over cloudy areas is very challenging because of insufficient knowledge of cloud parameters. Cloud treatments are highly idealized in most retrieval algorithms. Using a radiative transfer model treating clouds as scattering media, we investigate the effects of assuming opaque Lambertian clouds and employing a Partial Cloud Model (PCM) on Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) ozone retrievals, especially for tropical high-reflectivity clouds. Assuming angularly independent cloud reflection is good because the Ozone Retrieval Errors (OREs) are within 1.5% of the total ozone (i.e., within TOMS retrieval precision) when Cloud Optical Depth (COD)≥20. Because of Intra-Cloud Ozone Absorption ENhancement (ICOAEN), assuming opaque clouds can introduce large OREs even for optically thick clouds. For a water cloud of COD 40 spanning 2-12 km with 20.8 Dobson Unit (DU) ozone homogeneously distributed in the cloud, the ORE is 17.8 DU in the nadir view. The ICOAEN effect depends greatly on solar zenith angle, view zenith angle, and intra-cloud ozone amount and distribution. The TOMS PCM is good because negative errors from the cloud fraction being underestimated partly cancel other positive errors. At COD≤5, the TOMS algorithm retrieves approximately the correct total ozone because of compensating errors. With increasing COD up to 20-40, the overall positive ORE increases and is finally dominated by the ICOAEN effect. The ICOAEN effect is typically 5-13 DU on average over the Atlantic and Africa and 1-7 DU over the Pacific for tropical high-altitude (cloud top pressure ≤300 hPa) and high-reflectivity (reflectivity ≥ 80%) clouds. Knowledge of TOMS ozone retrieval errors has important implications for remote sensing of ozone/trace gases from other satellite instruments

  11. 49 CFR 568.7 - Requirements for manufacturers who assume legal responsibility for a vehicle. (United States)


    ... MANUFACTURED IN TWO OR MORE STAGES § 568.7 Requirements for manufacturers who assume legal responsibility for a vehicle. (a) If an incomplete vehicle manufacturer assumes legal responsibility for all duties and... 49 CFR 567.5(f). (b) If an intermediate manufacturer of a vehicle assumes legal responsibility for...

  12. Finite element model approach of a cylindrical lithium ion battery cell with a focus on minimization of the computational effort and short circuit prediction (United States)

    Raffler, Marco; Sevarin, Alessio; Ellersdorfer, Christian; Heindl, Simon F.; Breitfuss, Christoph; Sinz, Wolfgang


    In this research, a parameterized beam-element-based mechanical modeling approach for cylindrical lithium ion batteries is developed. With the goal to use the cell model in entire vehicle crash simulations, focus of development is on minimizing the computational effort whilst simultaneously obtaining accurate mechanical behavior. The cylindrical cell shape is approximated by radial beams connected to each other in circumferential and longitudinal directions. The discrete beam formulation is used to define an anisotropic material behavior. An 18650 lithium ion cell model constructed in LS-Dyna is used to show the high degree of parameterization of the approach. A criterion which considers the positive pole deformation and the radial deformation of the cell is developed for short circuit prediction during simulation. An abuse testing program, consisting of radial crush, axial crush, and penetration is performed to evaluate the mechanical properties and internal short circuit behavior of a commercially available 18650 lithium cell. Additional 3-point-bending tests are performed to verify the approach objectively. By reducing the number of strength-related elements to 1600, a fast and accurate cell model can be created. Compared to typical cell models in technical literature, simulation time of a single cell load case can be reduced by approx. 90%.

  13. Associations of Extrinsic and Intrinsic Components of Work Stress with Health: A Systematic Review of Evidence on the Effort-Reward Imbalance Model. (United States)

    Siegrist, Johannes; Li, Jian


    Mainstream psychological stress theory claims that it is important to include information on people's ways of coping with work stress when assessing the impact of stressful psychosocial work environments on health. Yet, some widely used respective theoretical models focus exclusively on extrinsic factors. The model of effort-reward imbalance (ERI) differs from them as it explicitly combines information on extrinsic and intrinsic factors in studying workers' health. As a growing number of studies used the ERI model in recent past, we conducted a systematic review of available evidence, with a special focus on the distinct contribution of its intrinsic component, the coping pattern "over-commitment", towards explaining health. Moreover, we explore whether the interaction of intrinsic and extrinsic components exceeds the size of effects on health attributable to single components. Results based on 51 reports document an independent explanatory role of "over-commitment" in explaining workers' health in a majority of studies. However, support in favour of the interaction hypothesis is limited and requires further exploration. In conclusion, the findings of this review support the usefulness of a work stress model that combines extrinsic and intrinsic components in terms of scientific explanation and of designing more comprehensive worksite stress prevention programs.

  14. Elastic-plastic and creep analyses by assumed stress finite elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pian, T.H.H.; Spilker, R.L.; Lee, S.W.


    A formulation is presented of incremental finite element solutions for both initial stress and initial strain problems based on modified complementary energy principle with relaxed inter-element continuity requirement. The corresponding finite element model is the assumed stress hybrid model which has stress parameters in the interior of each element and displacements at the individual nodes as unknowns. The formulation includes an important consideration that the states of stress and strain and the beginning of each increment may not satisfy the equilibrium and compatibility equations. These imbalance and mismatch conditions all lead to correction terms for the equivalent nodal forces of the matrix equations. The initial stress method is applied to elastic-plastic analysis of structures. In this case the stress parameters for the individual elements can be eliminated resulting to a system of equations with only nodal displacements as unknowns. Two different complementary energy principles can be formulated, in one of which the equilibrium of the final state of stress is maintained while in the other the equilibrium of the stress increments is maintained. Each of these two different formulations can be combined with different iterative schemes to be used at each incremental steps of the elastic-plastic analysis. It is also indicated clearly that for the initial stress method the state of stress at the beginning of each increments is in general, not in equilibrium and an imbalance correction is needed. Results of a comprehensive evaluation of various solution procedures by the initial stress method using the assumed stress hybrid elements are presented. The example used is the static response of a thick wall cylinder of elastic-perfectly plastic material under internal pressure. Solid of revolution elements with rectangular cross sections are used

  15. Modelling efforts needed to advance herpes simplex virus (HSV) vaccine development: Key findings from the World Health Organization Consultation on HSV Vaccine Impact Modelling. (United States)

    Gottlieb, Sami L; Giersing, Birgitte; Boily, Marie-Claude; Chesson, Harrell; Looker, Katharine J; Schiffer, Joshua; Spicknall, Ian; Hutubessy, Raymond; Broutet, Nathalie


    Development of a vaccine against herpes simplex virus (HSV) is an important goal for global sexual and reproductive health. In order to more precisely define the health and economic burden of HSV infection and the theoretical impact and cost-effectiveness of an HSV vaccine, in 2015 the World Health Organization convened an expert consultation meeting on HSV vaccine impact modelling. The experts reviewed existing model-based estimates and dynamic models of HSV infection to outline critical future modelling needs to inform development of a comprehensive business case and preferred product characteristics for an HSV vaccine. This article summarizes key findings and discussions from the meeting on modelling needs related to HSV burden, costs, and vaccine impact, essential data needs to carry out those models, and important model components and parameters. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  16. A systematic review and meta-analysis of the effort-reward imbalance model of workplace stress with indicators of immune function. (United States)

    Eddy, Pennie; Heckenberg, Rachael; Wertheim, Eleanor H; Kent, Stephen; Wright, Bradley J


    Despite considerable research into associations between the effort reward imbalance (ERI) model and various health outcomes over the past 20years, the underlying mechanisms responsible for the association remain unclear. Recently, ERI investigations have examined associations with immune sub-systems (e.g., leukocytes, cytokines and immunoglobulins). Synthesis of the amalgamated research evidence will aid clarity to this field of enquiry. We conducted a meta-analysis and reviewed the associations of ERI and over-commitment (OC) in the workplace with immunity. Electronic databases were searched with the phrase 'effort reward imbalance' which initially yielded 319 studies leading to 57 full text studies being screened. Seven studies that met inclusion criteria were combined using mixed and random effects models. Greater ERI was associated with lower immunity (r=-0.09, CI -0.14, -0.05, p<0.001). Sub-group analyses revealed the effect with mucosal immunity was stronger (r=-0.33, CI -0.47 to -0.18) than trends between both cytokine (r=-0.04, CI -0.07, -0.01) and leukocyte sub-groups (r=-0.02 CI -0.04, 0.01) respectively (k=7, N=9952). Over-commitment was also associated with lower immunity (r=-0.05, CI -0.09, 0.01, p=0.014); subgroup (leukocytes, cytokines, mucosal immunity) associations, however, were homogenous (Q=1.83, df=2, p=0.400, k=6, N=2358). Greater ERI and OC were both associated with lower immunity. The association between mucosal immunity and ERI was stronger than the cytokine and leukocyte sub-groups. OC moderated the relationship between ERI and immunity. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Aerosol-Radiation-Cloud Interactions in the South-East Atlantic: Model-Relevant Observations and the Beneficiary Modeling Efforts in the Realm of the EVS-2 Project ORACLES (United States)

    Redemann, Jens


    Globally, aerosols remain a major contributor to uncertainties in assessments of anthropogenically-induced changes to the Earth climate system, despite concerted efforts using satellite and suborbital observations and increasingly sophisticated models. The quantification of direct and indirect aerosol radiative effects, as well as cloud adjustments thereto, even at regional scales, continues to elude our capabilities. Some of our limitations are due to insufficient sampling and accuracy of the relevant observables, under an appropriate range of conditions to provide useful constraints for modeling efforts at various climate scales. In this talk, I will describe (1) the efforts of our group at NASA Ames to develop new airborne instrumentation to address some of the data insufficiencies mentioned above; (2) the efforts by the EVS-2 ORACLES project to address aerosol-cloud-climate interactions in the SE Atlantic and (3) time permitting, recent results from a synergistic use of A-Train aerosol data to test climate model simulations of present-day direct radiative effects in some of the AEROCOM phase II global climate models.

  18. Reproductive effort in viscous populations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pen, Ido

    Here I study a kin selection model of reproductive effort, the allocation of resources to fecundity versus survival, in a patch-structured population. Breeding females remain in the same patch for life. Offspring have costly, partial long-distance dispersal and compete for breeding sites, which

  19. Downscaling the marine modelling effort: Development, application and assessment of a 3D ecosystem model implemented in a small coastal area (United States)

    Kolovoyiannis, V. N.; Tsirtsis, G. E.


    The present study deals with the development, application and evaluation of a modelling tool, implemented along with a field sampling program, in a limited coastal area in the Northeast Aegean. The aim was to study, understand and quantify physical circulation and water column ecological processes in a high resolution simulation of a past annual cycle. The marine ecosystem model consists of a three dimensional hydrodynamic component suitable for coastal areas (Princeton Ocean Model) coupled to a simple ecological model of five variables, namely, phytoplankton, nitrate, ammonia, phosphate and dissolved organic carbon concentrations. The ecological parameters (e.g. half saturation constants and maximum uptake rates for nutrients) were calibrated using a specially developed automated procedure. Model errors were evaluated using qualitative, graphic techniques and were quantified with a number of goodness-of-fit measures. Regarding physical variables, the goodness-of-fit of model to field data varied from fairly to quite good. Indicatively, the cost function, expressed as mean value per sampling station, ranged from 0.15 to 0.23 for temperature and 0.81 to 3.70 for current speed. The annual cycle of phytoplankton biomass was simulated with sufficient accuracy (e.g. mean cost function ranging from 0.49 to 2.67), partly attributed to the adequate reproduction of the dynamics of growth limiting nutrients, nitrate, ammonia and the main limiting nutrient, phosphate, whose mean cost function ranged from 0.97 to 1.88. Model results and field data provided insight to physical processes such as the development of a wind-driven, coastal jet type of surface alongshore flow with a subsurface countercurrent flowing towards opposite direction and the formation of rotational flows in the embayments of the coastline when the offshore coastal current speed approaches values of about 0.1 m/s. The percentage of field measurements where the N:P ratio was found over 16:1 varied between

  20. 39 CFR 3060.40 - Calculation of the assumed Federal income tax. (United States)


    ... Federal income tax. (a) The assumed Federal income tax on competitive products income shall be based on the Postal Service theoretical competitive products enterprise income statement for the relevant year... 39 Postal Service 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Calculation of the assumed Federal income tax...

  1. Wetware, Hardware, or Software Incapacitation: Observational Methods to Determine When Autonomy Should Assume Control (United States)

    Trujillo, Anna C.; Gregory, Irene M.


    Control-theoretic modeling of human operator's dynamic behavior in manual control tasks has a long, rich history. There has been significant work on techniques used to identify the pilot model of a given structure. This research attempts to go beyond pilot identification based on experimental data to develop a predictor of pilot behavior. Two methods for pre-dicting pilot stick input during changing aircraft dynamics and deducing changes in pilot behavior are presented This approach may also have the capability to detect a change in a subject due to workload, engagement, etc., or the effects of changes in vehicle dynamics on the pilot. With this ability to detect changes in piloting behavior, the possibility now exists to mediate human adverse behaviors, hardware failures, and software anomalies with autono-my that may ameliorate these undesirable effects. However, appropriate timing of when au-tonomy should assume control is dependent on criticality of actions to safety, sensitivity of methods to accurately detect these adverse changes, and effects of changes in levels of auto-mation of the system as a whole.

  2. Assuming it is all about conditions : Framing a simulation model for complex, adaptive urban space

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yamu, Claudia; de Roo, Gert; Frankhauser, Pierre


    In this paper, we explore the route beyond the conventional, linear attitude within planning and its rationality debate. We combine our theoretical reasoning with a multiscale approach and with fractal-like argumentation which results in a frame of conditions which is supported by the outline of a

  3. How the dual process model of human cognition can inform efforts to de-implement ineffective and harmful clinical practices: A preliminary model of unlearning and substitution. (United States)

    Helfrich, Christian D; Rose, Adam J; Hartmann, Christine W; van Bodegom-Vos, Leti; Graham, Ian D; Wood, Suzanne J; Majerczyk, Barbara R; Good, Chester B; Pogach, Leonard M; Ball, Sherry L; Au, David H; Aron, David C


    One way to understand medical overuse at the clinician level is in terms of clinical decision-making processes that are normally adaptive but become maladaptive. In psychology, dual process models of cognition propose 2 decision-making processes. Reflective cognition is a conscious process of evaluating options based on some combination of utility, risk, capabilities, and/or social influences. Automatic cognition is a largely unconscious process occurring in response to environmental or emotive cues based on previously learned, ingrained heuristics. De-implementation strategies directed at clinicians may be conceptualized as corresponding to cognition: (1) a process of unlearning based on reflective cognition and (2) a process of substitution based on automatic cognition. We define unlearning as a process in which clinicians consciously change their knowledge, beliefs, and intentions about an ineffective practice and alter their behaviour accordingly. Unlearning has been described as "the questioning of established knowledge, habits, beliefs and assumptions as a prerequisite to identifying inappropriate or obsolete knowledge underpinning and/or embedded in existing practices and routines." We hypothesize that as an unintended consequence of unlearning strategies clinicians may experience "reactance," ie, feel their professional prerogative is being violated and, consequently, increase their commitment to the ineffective practice. We define substitution as replacing the ineffective practice with one or more alternatives. A substitute is a specific alternative action or decision that either precludes the ineffective practice or makes it less likely to occur. Both approaches may work independently, eg, a substitute could displace an ineffective practice without changing clinicians' knowledge, and unlearning could occur even if no alternative exists. For some clinical practice, unlearning and substitution strategies may be most effectively used together. By taking into

  4. Breckinridge Project, initial effort

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None


    Report III, Volume 1 contains those specifications numbered A through J, as follows: General Specifications (A); Specifications for Pressure Vessels (C); Specifications for Tanks (D); Specifications for Exchangers (E); Specifications for Fired Heaters (F); Specifications for Pumps and Drivers (G); and Specifications for Instrumentation (J). The standard specifications of Bechtel Petroleum Incorporated have been amended as necessary to reflect the specific requirements of the Breckinridge Project, and the more stringent specifications of Ashland Synthetic Fuels, Inc. These standard specifications are available to the Initial Effort (Phase Zero) work performed by all contractors and subcontractors. Report III, Volume 1 also contains the unique specifications prepared for Plants 8, 15, and 27. These specifications will be substantially reviewed during Phase I of the project, and modified as necessary for use during the engineering, procurement, and construction of this project.

  5. Perceived distributed effort in team ball sports. (United States)

    Beniscelli, Violeta; Tenenbaum, Gershon; Schinke, Robert Joel; Torregrosa, Miquel


    In this study, we explored the multifaceted concept of perceived mental and physical effort in team sport contexts where athletes must invest individual and shared efforts to reach a common goal. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with a convenience sample of 15 Catalan professional coaches (3 women and 12 men, 3 each from the following sports: volleyball, basketball, handball, soccer, and water polo) to gain their views of three perceived effort-related dimensions: physical, psychological, and tactical. From a theoretical thematic analysis, it was found that the perception of effort is closely related to how effort is distributed within the team. Moreover, coaches viewed physical effort in relation to the frequency and intensity of the players' involvement in the game. They identified psychological effort in situations where players pay attention to proper cues, and manage emotions under difficult circumstances. Tactical effort addressed the decision-making process of players and how they fulfilled their roles while taking into account the actions of their teammates and opponents. Based on these findings, a model of perceived distributed effort was developed, which delineates the elements that compose each of the aforementioned dimensions. Implications of perceived distributed effort in team coordination and shared mental models are discussed.

  6. Egg origin determination efforts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horvath, A.; Futo, I.; Vodila, G.; Palcsu, L.


    Complete text of publication follows. As a co-operation with the Poultry Product Board, egg and drinking water samples were received in order to investigate whether the country of origin of the egg can be determined based on its stable isotope composition with the aim of market protection of the Hungarian eggs against the mislabelled foreign ones. The scientific background is that drinking water of egg laying hens is assumed to reflect the composition of regional precipitation, and it is also an input data in the process of egg formation. In the first sampling, altogether 23 sets of egg and drinking water samples were received from different production sites covering the whole area of Hungary. The egg white samples were vacuum distilled and frozen out by liquid nitrogen at -196 deg C. The process was monitored by two vacuum gauges. Water frozen out together with the drinking water samples was measured were measured by a Thermo Finnigan Delta PLUS XP isotope ratio mass spectrometer using a GasBench II peripheral unit equipped with a GC-autosampler. As a second issue, additionally, elemental composition of egg shells were also performed for series of Hungarian, Czech and Polish egg samples by energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence. The drinking waters fit well to the Global Meteoric Water Line indicating their precipitation origin. It was experienced that the water in egg white gets enriched compared to the drinking water (Δ 18 O = -4.9 ± 1.0 per thousand and Δ D = -21.8 ± 6.4 per thousand), however, this shift is independent of the type of the hens, since the mean shifts in the eggs of Tetra and Hy-line hens are similar within error bar. For more depleted drinking water, the shift of the egg white was higher than for more enriched ones. This can be due to the contribution of the nutriment isotopic composition. The water isotope composition of the Hungarian eggs investigated was δ 18 O = -4.8 - -7.3 per thousand and δD = -46.0 - -70.7 per thousand, therefore egg

  7. Assuming a Pharmacy Organization Leadership Position: A Guide for Pharmacy Leaders. (United States)

    Shay, Blake; Weber, Robert J


    Important and influential pharmacy organization leadership positions, such as president, board member, or committee chair, are volunteer positions and require a commitment of personal and professional time. These positions provide excellent opportunities for leadership development, personal promotion, and advancement of the profession. In deciding to assume a leadership position, interested individuals must consider the impact on their personal and professional commitments and relationships, career planning, employer support, current and future department projects, employee support, and personal readiness. This article reviews these factors and also provides an assessment tool that leaders can use to determine their readiness to assume leadership positions. By using an assessment tool, pharmacy leaders can better understand their ability to assume an important and influential leadership position while achieving job and personal goals.

  8. Exoatmospheric intercepts using zero effort miss steering for midcourse guidance (United States)

    Newman, Brett

    The suitability of proportional navigation, or an equivalent zero effort miss formulation, for exatmospheric intercepts during midcourse guidance, followed by a ballistic coast to the endgame, is addressed. The problem is formulated in terms of relative motion in a general, three dimensional framework. The proposed guidance law for the commanded thrust vector orientation consists of the sum of two terms: (1) along the line of sight unit direction and (2) along the zero effort miss component perpendicular to the line of sight and proportional to the miss itself and a guidance gain. If the guidance law is to be suitable for longer range targeting applications with significant ballistic coasting after burnout, determination of the zero effort miss must account for the different gravitational accelerations experienced by each vehicle. The proposed miss determination techniques employ approximations for the true differential gravity effect and thus, are less accurate than a direct numerical propagation of the governing equations, but more accurate than a baseline determination, which assumes equal accelerations for both vehicles. Approximations considered are constant, linear, quadratic, and linearized inverse square models. Theoretical results are applied to a numerical engagement scenario and the resulting performance is evaluated in terms of the miss distances determined from nonlinear simulation.

  9. Bowing-reactivity trends in EBR-II assuming zero-swelling ducts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meneghetti, D.


    Predicted trends of duct-bowing reactivities for the Experimental Breeder Reactor II (EBR-II) are correlated with predicted row-wise duct deflections assuming use of idealized zero-void-swelling subassembly ducts. These assume no irradiation induced swellings of ducts but include estimates of the effects of irradiation-creep relaxation of thermally induced bowing stresses. The results illustrate the manners in which at-power creeps may affect subsequent duct deflections at zero power and thereby the trends of the bowing component of a subsequent power reactivity decrement

  10. Numerical analysis of dependence between adapted mesh and assumed error indicator (United States)

    Kucwaj, Jan


    The paper considers the influence of the assumed error indicator on the final adapted mesh. Provided that threshold values of an error are increased by applying the adaptive procedure, it turns out that final mesh depends on the assumed error indicator. In the paper, there were used the standard error estimates and the error indicator proposed by the author. The proposed error indicator is based on applying hierarchically generalized finite difference method (FDM). In the case of the proposed error indicator, the final adapted mesh is the most optimal for the exact solution.

  11. Voluntary versus Enforced Team Effort

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Keser


    Full Text Available We present a model where each of two players chooses between remuneration based on either private or team effort. Although at least one of the players has the equilibrium strategy to choose private remuneration, we frequently observe both players to choose team remuneration in a series of laboratory experiments. This allows for high cooperation payoffs but also provides individual free-riding incentives. Due to significant cooperation, we observe that, in team remuneration, participants make higher profits than in private remuneration. We also observe that, when participants are not given the option of private remuneration, they cooperate significantly less.

  12. Historical Carbon Dioxide Emissions Caused by Land-Use Changes are Possibly Larger than Assumed (United States)

    Arneth, A.; Sitch, S.; Pongratz, J.; Stocker, B. D.; Ciais, P.; Poulter, B.; Bayer, A. D.; Bondeau, A.; Calle, L.; Chini, L. P.; hide


    The terrestrial biosphere absorbs about 20% of fossil-fuel CO2 emissions. The overall magnitude of this sink is constrained by the difference between emissions, the rate of increase in atmospheric CO2 concentrations, and the ocean sink. However, the land sink is actually composed of two largely counteracting fluxes that are poorly quantified: fluxes from land-use change andCO2 uptake by terrestrial ecosystems. Dynamic global vegetation model simulations suggest that CO2 emissions from land-use change have been substantially underestimated because processes such as tree harvesting and land clearing from shifting cultivation have not been considered. As the overall terrestrial sink is constrained, a larger net flux as a result of land-use change implies that terrestrial uptake of CO2 is also larger, and that terrestrial ecosystems might have greater potential to sequester carbon in the future. Consequently, reforestation projects and efforts to avoid further deforestation could represent important mitigation pathways, with co-benefits for biodiversity. It is unclear whether a larger land carbon sink can be reconciled with our current understanding of terrestrial carbon cycling. Our possible underestimation of the historical residual terrestrial carbon sink adds further uncertainty to our capacity to predict the future of terrestrial carbon uptake and losses.

  13. Assuming measurement invariance of background indicators in international comparative educational achievement studies: a challenge for the interpretation of achievement differences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heike Wendt


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Large-scale cross-national studies designed to measure student achievement use different social, cultural, economic and other background variables to explain observed differences in that achievement. Prior to their inclusion into a prediction model, these variables are commonly scaled into latent background indices. To allow cross-national comparisons of the latent indices, measurement invariance is assumed. However, it is unclear whether the assumption of measurement invariance has some influence on the results of the prediction model, thus challenging the reliability and validity of cross-national comparisons of predicted results. Methods To establish the effect size attributed to different degrees of measurement invariance, we rescaled the ‘home resource for learning index’ (HRL for the 37 countries ( $$n=166,709$$ n = 166 , 709 students that participated in the IEA’s combined ‘Progress in International Reading Literacy Study’ (PIRLS and ‘Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study’ (TIMSS assessments of 2011. We used (a two different measurement models [one-parameter model (1PL and two-parameter model (2PL] with (b two different degrees of measurement invariance, resulting in four different models. We introduced the different HRL indices as predictors in a generalized linear mixed model (GLMM with mathematics achievement as the dependent variable. We then compared three outcomes across countries and by scaling model: (1 the differing fit-values of the measurement models, (2 the estimated discrimination parameters, and (3 the estimated regression coefficients. Results The least restrictive measurement model fitted the data best, and the degree of assumed measurement invariance of the HRL indices influenced the random effects of the GLMM in all but one country. For one-third of the countries, the fixed effects of the GLMM also related to the degree of assumed measurement invariance. Conclusion The

  14. The Ability to Assume the Upright Position in Blind and Sighted Children. (United States)

    Gipsman, Sandra Curtis

    To investigate the ability of 48 blind and partially sighted children (8 to 10 and 12 to 14 years old) to assume the upright position, Ss were given six trials in which they were requested to move themselves from a tilted starting position in a specially constructed chair to an upright position. No significant differences were found between three…

  15. Anti-periodic solutions for recurrent neural networks without assuming global Lipschitz conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong Zhang


    Full Text Available In this paper we study recurrent neural networks with time-varying delays and continuously distributed delays. Without assuming global Lipschitz conditions on the activation functions, we establish the existence and local exponential stability of anti-periodic solutions.

  16. Does the Advice to Assume the Knee-Chest Position at the 36th to ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    of the intervention group assumed the knee-chest position for 15 minutes three times a day for one week. The control group had 53 cases. The study and control groups were reviewed after a week to assess the fetal presentation. The version rate was 61% and 20% in intervention and in control groups, respectively (P value ...

  17. On the Estimation of Complex Speech DFT Coefficients Without Assuming Independent Real and Imaginary Parts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Erkelens, J.S.; Hendriks, R.C.; Heusdens, R.


    This letter considers the estimation of speech signals contaminated by additive noise in the discrete Fourier transform (DFT) domain. Existing complex-DFT estimators assume independency of the real and imaginary parts of the speech DFT coefficients, although this is not in line with measurements. In

  18. Some considerations on displacement assumed finite elements with the reduced numerical integration technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takeda, H.; Isha, H.


    The paper is concerned with the displacement-assumed-finite elements by applying the reduced numerical integration technique in structural problems. The first part is a general consideration on the technique. Its purpose is to examine a variational interpretation of the finite element displacement formulation with the reduced integration technique in structural problems. The formulation is critically studied from a standpoint of the natural stiffness approach. It is shown that these types of elements are equivalent to a certain type of displacement and stress assumed mixed elements. The rank deficiency of the stiffness matrix of these elements is interpreted as a problem in the transformation from the natural system to a Cartesian system. It will be shown that a variational basis of the equivalent mixed formulation is closely related to the Hellinger-Reissner's functional. It is presented that for simple elements, e.g. bilinear quadrilateral plane stress and plate bending there are corresponding mixed elements from the functional. For relatively complex types of these elements, it is shown that they are equivalent to localized mixed elements from the Hellinger-Reissner's functional. In the second part, typical finite elements with the reduced integration technique are studied to demonstrate this equivalence. A bilinear displacement and rotation assumed shear beam element, a bilinear displacement assumed quadrilateral plane stress element and a bilinear deflection and rotation assumed quadrilateral plate bending element are examined to present equivalent mixed elements. Not only the theoretical consideration is presented but numerical studies are shown to demonstrate the effectiveness of these elements in practical analysis. (orig.)

  19. Swedish nuclear waste efforts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rydberg, J.


    After the introduction of a law prohibiting the start-up of any new nuclear power plant until the utility had shown that the waste produced by the plant could be taken care of in an absolutely safe way, the Swedish nuclear utilities in December 1976 embarked on the Nuclear Fuel Safety Project, which in November 1977 presented a first report, Handling of Spent Nuclear Fuel and Final Storage of Vitrified Waste (KBS-I), and in November 1978 a second report, Handling and Final Storage of Unreprocessed Spent Nuclear Fuel (KBS II). These summary reports were supported by 120 technical reports prepared by 450 experts. The project engaged 70 private and governmental institutions at a total cost of US $15 million. The KBS-I and KBS-II reports are summarized in this document, as are also continued waste research efforts carried out by KBS, SKBF, PRAV, ASEA and other Swedish organizations. The KBS reports describe all steps (except reprocessing) in handling chain from removal from a reactor of spent fuel elements until their radioactive waste products are finally disposed of, in canisters, in an underground granite depository. The KBS concept relies on engineered multibarrier systems in combination with final storage in thoroughly investigated stable geologic formations. This report also briefly describes other activities carried out by the nuclear industry, namely, the construction of a central storage facility for spent fuel elements (to be in operation by 1985), a repository for reactor waste (to be in operation by 1988), and an intermediate storage facility for vitrified high-level waste (to be in operation by 1990). The R and D activities are updated to September 1981.

  20. Worldwide effort against smoking. (United States)


    The 39th World Health Assembly, which met in May 1986, recognized the escalating health problem of smoking-related diseases and affirmed that tobacco smoking and its use in other forms are incompatible with the attainment of "Health for All by the Year 2000." If properly implemented, antismoking campaigns can decrease the prevalence of smoking. Nations as a whole must work toward changing smoking habits, and governments must support these efforts by officially stating their stand against smoking. Over 60 countries have introduced legislation affecting smoking. The variety of policies range from adopting a health education program designed to increase peoples' awareness of its dangers to increasing taxes to deter smoking by increasing tobacco prices. Each country must adopt an antismoking campaign which works most effectively within the cultural parameters of the society. Other smoking policies include: printed warnings on cigarette packages; health messages via radio, television, mobile teams, pamphlets, health workers, clinic walls, and newspapers; prohibition of smoking in public areas and transportation; prohibition of all advertisement of cigarettes and tobacco; and the establishment of upper limits of tar and nicotine content in cigarettes. The tobacco industry spends about $2000 million annually on worldwide advertising. According to the World Health Organization (WHO), controlling this overabundance of tobacco advertisements is a major priority in preventing the spread of smoking. Cigarette and tobacco advertising can be controlled to varying degrees, e.g., over a dozen countries have enacted a total ban on advertising on television or radio, a mandatory health warning must accompany advertisements in other countries, and tobacco companies often are prohibited from sponsoring sports events. Imposing a substantial tax on cigarettes is one of the most effective means to deter smoking. However, raising taxes and banning advertisements is not enough because

  1. The fallacies of concurrent climate policy efforts. (United States)

    Radetzki, Marian


    Climate policy has assumed an extreme degree of urgency in the international debate in recent years. This article begins by taking a critical look at the scientific underpinnings of the efforts to stabilize the climate. It points to several serious question marks on the purported relationship between greenhouse gas emissions and global warming, and expresses distrust about claims of impending catastrophes related to rising sea levels, hurricanes, and spread of infectious disease. It then reviews the concurrent climate policy efforts and concludes that they are incoherent, misguided and unduly costly, and that they have so far had no perceptible impact on anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions. The exceedingly ambitious policy plans currently under preparation suffer from similar fallacies. For these reasons, but also because of the remaining scientific doubts and the exorbitant costs that have to be incurred, skepticism is expressed about the preparedness to implement the climate policy plans currently on the table.

  2. Towards a Concerted Effort

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Mette-Louise; Mouritsen, Tina; Montgomery, Edith


    basis. The book provides recommendations for organizing and implementing well-defined network meeting flows as well as methods for achieving systemic meeting management. The network-oriented approach emphasizes involvement of the parents, knowledge-sharing between specialist groups and dialogue......This book contains a method model for the prevention of youth crime in Danish municipalities. The method model consists of instructions for conducting processual network meetings between traumatized refugee parents and the professional specialists working with their children on an intermunicipal...... and division of responsibilities between specialists and parents. The book is based on a method development project carried out in Karlebo municipality involving refugee families and welfare staff representatives in the municipality, the health system, and the police. The project was carried out with financial...

  3. Project of computer program for designing the steel with the assumed CCT diagram


    S. Malara; J. Trzaska; L.A. Dobrzański


    Purpose: The aim of this paper was developing a project of computer aided method for designing the chemicalcomposition of steel with the assumed CCT diagram.Design/methodology/approach: The purpose has been achieved in four stages. At the first stage characteristicpoints of CCT diagram have been determined. At the second stage neural networks have been developed, andnext CCT diagram terms of similarity have been worked out- at the third one. In the last one steel chemicalcomposition optimizat...

  4. Accessibility versus accuracy in retrieving spatial memory: evidence for suboptimal assumed headings. (United States)

    Yerramsetti, Ashok; Marchette, Steven A; Shelton, Amy L


    Orientation dependence in spatial memory has often been interpreted in terms of accessibility: Object locations are encoded relative to a reference orientation that affords the most accurate access to spatial memory. An open question, however, is whether people naturally use this "preferred" orientation whenever recalling the space. We tested this question by asking participants to locate buildings on a familiar campus from various imagined locations, without specifying the heading to be assumed. We then used these pointing judgments to infer the approximate heading participants assumed at each location. Surprisingly, each location showed a unique assumed heading that was consistent across participants and seemed to reflect episodic or visual properties of the space. This result suggests that although locations are encoded relative to a reference orientation, other factors may influence how people choose to access the stored information and whether they appeal to long-term spatial memory or other more sensory-based stores. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved.

  5. The impact of assumed knowledge entry standards on undergraduate mathematics teaching in Australia (United States)

    King, Deborah; Cattlin, Joann


    Over the last two decades, many Australian universities have relaxed their selection requirements for mathematics-dependent degrees, shifting from hard prerequisites to assumed knowledge standards which provide students with an indication of the prior learning that is expected. This has been regarded by some as a positive move, since students who may be returning to study, or who are changing career paths but do not have particular prerequisite study, now have more flexible pathways. However, there is mounting evidence to indicate that there are also significant negative impacts associated with assumed knowledge approaches, with large numbers of students enrolling in degrees without the stated assumed knowledge. For students, there are negative impacts on pass rates and retention rates and limitations to pathways within particular degrees. For institutions, the necessity to offer additional mathematics subjects at a lower level than normal and more support services for under-prepared students impacts on workloads and resources. In this paper, we discuss early research from the First Year in Maths project, which begins to shed light on the realities of a system that may in fact be too flexible.

  6. Similarity, agreement, and assumed similarity in proxy end-of-life decision making. (United States)

    McDade-Montez, Elizabeth; Watson, David; Beer, Andrew


    Medical decisions near the end of life are often made by proxies who can be inaccurate in their judgments of patient preferences. Given that accuracy in surrogate decision making is an important goal in end-of-life decision making, and in light of that previously seen levels of accuracy reflect substantial disagreement, error, or both, this study examined both relationship and individual factors that potentially affect surrogate accuracy. Specifically, this study examined similarity, agreement, and assumed similarity-a process whereby raters use their own traits and preferences to rate another person-in spousal ratings of end-of-life treatment. This study expands on previous research by examining the potential influence of relationship factors and assumed similarity on end-of-life decision making among a sample of newlyweds. Newly married couples (n = 197) completed self and spouse measures of hypothetical end-of-life preferences and scales assessing marital satisfaction, personality, and attitudes. Results indicate a moderate level of similarity on husband and wife self-rated end-of-life treatment preferences (rs = .18-.29) and a moderate level of agreement between self and proxy ratings (rs = .17-.41). The largest correlations were seen between self ratings and proxy ratings (e.g., husband self ratings and husband proxy ratings of wife preferences, rs = .46-.69), reflecting strong assumed similarity in proxy ratings. For wives, similarity with husbands on a few attitudinal variables (i.e., spirituality, moral strictness, and conservatism) influenced proxy accuracy. Recognizing the potential impact of personal preferences on proxy ratings, as well as the potential influence of relationship factors, may help improve proxy accuracy and end-of-life care for patients and families.

  7. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Stellar parameters and assumed wind parameters (Cazorla+, 2017) (United States)

    Cazorla, C.; Morel, T.; Naze, Y.; Rauw, G.; Semaan, T.; Daflon, S.; Oey, S.


    Stellar parameters derived for the stars in our sample and assumed wind parameters for our hotter stars. Because macroturbulent velocities cannot be determined reliably for fast rotators (Sect. 4.2), all values in column 6 are upper limits. Column 7 provides the multiplicity status (see Sect. 4.1 for the classification criterion and Appendix C for the RV studies of each individual object). The runaway status is based on literature studies (references are given on a star-to-star basis in Appendix C). Columns 15, 16, and 17 of the table presenting the results for the hotter stars list the assumed wind parameters. For stars with the lowest temperatures (typically B0.5 stars), the carbon abundance cannot be firmly determined due to the weakness of the CIII lines at these temperatures. Besides, NII lines may also be very weak for the hottest stars studied with DETAIL/SURFACE. In these cases, we provide upper limits for both carbon and nitrogen abundances. They correspond to predicted lines becoming detectable, i.e., having a depth significantly exceeding the local noise. Similarly, CMFGEN fits may converge towards very high or very low CNO abundances. In both cases, the upper or lower limits were determined from the chi2 curves and correspond to the limit of their flat minimum. Since the CNO abundances are measured relative to the hydrogen content (assumed to be constant in our study), a correction should in principle be applied to the CNO abundances of stars that exhibit a very high helium abundance (and therefore have a reduced hydrogen abundance). However, we found this correction to be negligible (<~0.1dex) even for the most He-rich stars. The 1σ errors on the parameters are given in dedicated columns. (2 data files).

  8. Assumed strain distributions for a finite strip plate bending element using Mindlin-Reissner plate theory (United States)

    Chulya, Abhisak; Mullen, Robert L.


    A linear finite strip plate element based on Mindlin-Reissner plate theory is developed. The analysis is suitable for both thin and thick plates. In the formulation, new transverse shear strains are introduced and assumed constant in each two-node linear strip. The element stiffness matrix is explicitly formulated for efficient computation and computer implementation. Numerical results showing the efficiency and predictive capability of the element for the analysis of plates are presented for different support and loading conditions and a wide range of thicknesses. No sign of shear locking is observed with the newly developed element.

  9. Improved finite strip Mindlin plate bending element using assumed shear strain distributions (United States)

    Chulya, Abhisak; Thompson, Robert L.


    A linear finite strip plate element based on Mindlin/Reissner plate theory is developed. The analysis is suitable for both thin and thick plates. In the formulation new transverse shear strains are introduced and assumed constant in each two-code linear strip. The element stiffness matrix is explicitly formulated for efficient computation and computer implementation. Numerical results showing the efficiency and predictive capability of the element for the analysis of plates are presented for different support and loading conditions and a wide range of thicknesses. No sign of shear locking phenomenon was observed with the newly developed element.

  10. Modeling the Impact of Simulated Educational Interventions on the Use and Abuse of Pharmaceutical Opioids in the United States: A Report on Initial Efforts (United States)

    Wakeland, Wayne; Nielsen, Alexandra; Schmidt, Teresa D.; McCarty, Dennis; Webster, Lynn R.; Fitzgerald, John; Haddox, J. David


    Three educational interventions were simulated in a system dynamics model of the medical use, trafficking, and nonmedical use of pharmaceutical opioids. The study relied on secondary data obtained in the literature for the period of 1995 to 2008 as well as expert panel recommendations regarding model parameters and structure. The behavior of the…

  11. Children's Everyday Learning by Assuming Responsibility for Others: Indigenous Practices as a Cultural Heritage Across Generations. (United States)

    Fernández, David Lorente


    This chapter uses a comparative approach to examine the maintenance of Indigenous practices related with Learning by Observing and Pitching In in two generations--parent generation and current child generation--in a Central Mexican Nahua community. In spite of cultural changes and the increase of Western schooling experience, these practices persist, to different degrees, as a Nahua cultural heritage with close historical relations to the key value of cuidado (stewardship). The chapter explores how children learn the value of cuidado in a variety of everyday activities, which include assuming responsibility in many social situations, primarily in cultivating corn, raising and protecting domestic animals, health practices, and participating in family ceremonial life. The chapter focuses on three main points: (1) Cuidado (assuming responsibility for), in the Nahua socio-cultural context, refers to the concepts of protection and "raising" as well as fostering other beings, whether humans, plants, or animals, to reach their potential and fulfill their development. (2) Children learn cuidado by contributing to family endeavors: They develop attention and self-motivation; they are capable of responsible actions; and they are able to transform participation to achieve the status of a competent member of local society. (3) This collaborative participation allows children to continue the cultural tradition and to preserve a Nahua heritage at a deeper level in a community in which Nahuatl language and dress have disappeared, and people do not identify themselves as Indigenous. © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. An efficient Mindlin finite strip plate element based on assumed strain distribution (United States)

    Chulya, Abhisak; Thompson, Robert L.


    A simple two node, linear, finite strip plate bending element based on Mindlin-Reissner plate theory for the analysis of very thin to thick bridges, plates, and axisymmetric shells is presented. The new transverse shear strains are assumed for constant distribution in the two node linear strip. The important aspect is the choice of the points that relate the nodal displacements and rotations through the locking transverse shear strains. The element stiffness matrix is explicitly formulated for efficient computation and ease in computer implementation. Numerical results showing the efficiency and predictive capability of the element for analyzing plates with different supports, loading conditions, and a wide range of thicknesses are given. The results show no sign of the shear locking phenomenon.

  13. Compositional Synthesis of Controllers from Scenario-Based Assume-Guarantee Specifications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Greenyer, Joel; Kindler, Ekkart


    to avoid flaws in the product or costly iterations during its development. We propose to use Modal Sequence Diagrams (MSDs), a formal, yet intuitive formalism for specifying the interaction of a system with its environment, and developed a formal synthesis approach that allows us to detect inconsistencies...... and even to automatically synthesize controllers from MSD specifications. The technique is suited for specifications of technical systems with real-time constraints and environment assumptions. However, synthesis is computationally expensive. In order to employ synthesis also for larger specifications, we...... present, in this paper, a novel assume-guarantee-style compositional synthesis technique for MSD specifications. We provide evaluation results underlining the benefit of our approach and formally justify its correctness....

  14. Update on the Status of the On-Going Range Dependent Low Frequency Active Sonar Model Benchmarking Effort : From Cambridge to Kos [abstract

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zampolli, M.; Ainslie, M.A.


    In April 2010, a symposium in Memory of David Weston was held at Clare College in Cambridge (UK). International researchers from academia and research laboratories met to discuss two sets of test problems for sonar performance models, one aimed at understanding mammal echolocation sonar („Problem

  15. Learning Environment and Student Effort (United States)

    Hopland, Arnt O.; Nyhus, Ole Henning


    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to explore the relationship between satisfaction with learning environment and student effort, both in class and with homework assignments. Design/methodology/approach: The authors use data from a nationwide and compulsory survey to analyze the relationship between learning environment and student effort. The…

  16. Multidisciplinary Efforts Driving Translational Theranostics (United States)

    Hu, Tony Y.


    This themed issue summarizes significant efforts aimed at using “biological language” to discern between “friends” and “foes” in the context of theranostics for true clinical application. It is expected that the success of theranostics depends on multidisciplinary efforts, combined to expedite our understanding of host responses to “customized” theranostic agents and formulating individualized therapies. PMID:25285169

  17. Effort rights-based management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Squires, Dale; Maunder, Mark; Allen, Robin


    populations and providing TACs or TAEs. Both approaches have advantages and disadvantages, and there are trade-offs between the two approaches. In a narrow economic sense, catch rights are superior because of the type of incentives created, but once the costs of research to improve stock assessments...... employed to manage marine fisheries to capture the advantages of both approaches. In hybrid systems, catch or effort RBM dominates and controls on the other supplements. RBM using either catch or effort by itself addresses only the target species stock externality and not the remaining externalities......Effort rights-based fisheries management (RBM) is less widely used than catch rights, whether for groups or individuals. Because RBM on catch or effort necessarily requires a total allowable catch (TAC) or total allowable effort (TAE), RBM is discussed in conjunction with issues in assessing fish...

  18. Respiratory effort from the photoplethysmogram. (United States)

    Addison, Paul S


    The potential for a simple, non-invasive measure of respiratory effort based on the pulse oximeter signal - the photoplethysmogram or 'pleth' - was investigated in a pilot study. Several parameters were developed based on a variety of manifestations of respiratory effort in the signal, including modulation changes in amplitude, baseline, frequency and pulse transit times, as well as distinct baseline signal shifts. Thirteen candidate parameters were investigated using data from healthy volunteers. Each volunteer underwent a series of controlled respiratory effort maneuvers at various set flow resistances and respiratory rates. Six oximeter probes were tested at various body sites. In all, over three thousand pleth-based effort-airway pressure (EP) curves were generated across the various airway constrictions, respiratory efforts, respiratory rates, subjects, probe sites, and the candidate parameters considered. Regression analysis was performed to determine the existence of positive monotonic relationships between the respiratory effort parameters and resulting airway pressures. Six of the candidate parameters investigated exhibited a distinct positive relationship (poximeter probe and an ECG (P2E-Effort) and the other using two pulse oximeter probes placed at different peripheral body sites (P2-Effort); and baseline shifts in heart rate, (BL-HR-Effort). In conclusion, a clear monotonic relationship was found between several pleth-based parameters and imposed respiratory loadings at the mouth across a range of respiratory rates and flow constrictions. The results suggest that the pleth may provide a measure of changing upper airway dynamics indicative of the effort to breathe. Copyright © 2017 The Author. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  19. Lower vehicular primary emissions of NO2 in Europe than assumed in policy projections (United States)

    Grange, Stuart K.; Lewis, Alastair C.; Moller, Sarah J.; Carslaw, David C.


    Many European countries do not meet legal air quality standards for ambient nitrogen dioxide (NO2) near roads; a problem that has been forecasted to persist to 2030. Although European air quality standards regulate NO2 concentrations, emissions standards for new vehicles instead set limits for NOx—the combination of nitric oxide (NO) and NO2. From around 1990 onwards, the total emissions of NOx declined significantly in Europe, but roadside concentrations of NO2—a regulated species—declined much less than expected. This discrepancy has been attributed largely to the increasing usage of diesel vehicles in Europe and more directly emitted tailpipe NO2. Here we apply a data-filtering technique to 130 million hourly measurements of NOx, NO2 and ozone (O3) from roadside monitoring stations across 61 urban areas in Europe over the period 1990-2015 to estimate the continent-wide trends of directly emitted NO2. We find that the ratio of NO2 to NOx emissions increased from 1995 to around 2010 but has since stabilized at a level that is substantially lower than is assumed in some key emissions inventories. The proportion of NOx now being emitted directly from road transport as NO2 is up to a factor of two smaller than the estimates used in policy projections. We therefore conclude that there may be a faster attainment of roadside NO2 air quality standards across Europe than is currently expected.

  20. Attitudes and Willingness to Assume Risk of Experimental Therapy to Eradicate Genital Herpes Simplex Virus Infection. (United States)

    Oseso, Linda; Magaret, Amalia S; Jerome, Keith R; Fox, Julie; Wald, Anna


    Current treatment of genital herpes is focused on ameliorating signs and symptoms but is not curative. However, as potential herpes simplex virus (HSV) cure approaches are tested in the laboratory, we aimed to assess the interest in such studies by persons with genital herpes and the willingness to assume risks associated with experimental therapy. We constructed an anonymous online questionnaire that was posted on websites that provide information regarding genital herpes. The questions collected demographic and clinical information on adults who self-reported as having genital herpes, and assessed attitudes toward and willingness to participate in HSV cure clinical research. Seven hundred eleven participants provided sufficient responses to be included in the analysis. Sixty-six percent were women; the median age was 37 years, and the median time since genital HSV diagnosis was 4.7 years. The willingness to participate in trials increased from 59.0% in phase 1 to 68.5% in phase 2, and 81.2% in phase 3 trials, and 40% reported willingness to participate even in the absence of immediate, personal benefits. The most desirable outcome was the elimination of risk for transmission to sex partner or neonate. The mean perceived severity of receiving a diagnosis of genital HSV-2 was 4.2 on a scale of 1 to 5. Despite suppressive therapy available, persons with genital herpes are interested in participating in clinical research aimed at curing HSV, especially in more advanced stages of development.

  1. Relationships between protein-encoding gene abundance and corresponding process are commonly assumed yet rarely observed (United States)

    Rocca, Jennifer D.; Hall, Edward K.; Lennon, Jay T.; Evans, Sarah E.; Waldrop, Mark P.; Cotner, James B.; Nemergut, Diana R.; Graham, Emily B.; Wallenstein, Matthew D.


    For any enzyme-catalyzed reaction to occur, the corresponding protein-encoding genes and transcripts are necessary prerequisites. Thus, a positive relationship between the abundance of gene or transcripts and corresponding process rates is often assumed. To test this assumption, we conducted a meta-analysis of the relationships between gene and/or transcript abundances and corresponding process rates. We identified 415 studies that quantified the abundance of genes or transcripts for enzymes involved in carbon or nitrogen cycling. However, in only 59 of these manuscripts did the authors report both gene or transcript abundance and rates of the appropriate process. We found that within studies there was a significant but weak positive relationship between gene abundance and the corresponding process. Correlations were not strengthened by accounting for habitat type, differences among genes or reaction products versus reactants, suggesting that other ecological and methodological factors may affect the strength of this relationship. Our findings highlight the need for fundamental research on the factors that control transcription, translation and enzyme function in natural systems to better link genomic and transcriptomic data to ecosystem processes.

  2. Molecular relativistic corrections determined in the framework where the Born-Oppenheimer approximation is not assumed. (United States)

    Stanke, Monika; Adamowicz, Ludwik


    In this work, we describe how the energies obtained in molecular calculations performed without assuming the Born-Oppenheimer (BO) approximation can be augmented with corrections accounting for the leading relativistic effects. Unlike the conventional BO approach, where these effects only concern the relativistic interactions between the electrons, the non-BO approach also accounts for the relativistic effects due to the nuclei and due to the coupling of the coupled electron-nucleus motion. In the numerical sections, the results obtained with the two approaches are compared. The first comparison concerns the dissociation energies of the two-electron isotopologues of the H2 molecule, H2, HD, D2, T2, and the HeH(+) ion. The comparison shows that, as expected, the differences in the relativistic contributions obtained with the two approaches increase as the nuclei become lighter. The second comparison concerns the relativistic corrections to all 23 pure vibrational states of the HD(+) ion. An interesting charge asymmetry caused by the nonadiabatic electron-nucleus interaction appears in this system, and this effect significantly increases with the vibration excitation. The comparison of the non-BO results with the results obtained with the conventional BO approach, which in the lowest order does not describe the charge-asymmetry effect, reveals how this effect affects the values of the relativistic corrections.

  3. From Effort to Value: Preschool Children's Alternative to Effort Justification. (United States)

    Benozio, Avi; Diesendruck, Gil


    In the current studies, we addressed the development of effort-based object valuation. Four- and 6-year-olds invested either great or little effort in order to obtain attractive or unattractive rewards. Children were allowed to allocate these rewards to an unfamiliar recipient (dictator game). Investing great effort to obtain attractive rewards (a consonant situation) led 6-year-olds, but not 4-year-olds, to enhance the value of the rewards and thus distribute fewer of them to others. After investing effort to attain unattractive rewards (a dissonant situation), 6-year-olds cognitively reduced the dissonance between effort and reward quality by reappraising the value of the rewards and thus distributing fewer of them. In contrast, 4-year-olds reduced the dissonance behaviorally by discarding the rewards. These findings provide evidence for the emergence of an effort-value link and underline possible mechanisms underlying the primacy of cognitive versus behavioral solutions to dissonance reduction. © The Author(s) 2015.

  4. Direct and Indirect Effects of IQ, Parental Help, Effort, and Mathematics Self-Concept on Mathematics Achievement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maher Abu-Hilal


    Full Text Available This study examined the structural relationships among cognitive constructs (intelligence and achievement and affective constructs (perceived parental help, effort and self-concept. It was proposed that the relationships are not invariant across gender. The sample consisted of 219 boys and 133 girls from elementary and preparatory public schools in Al Ain in the United Arab Emirates. Intelligence (IQ was measured by the Test of Non-verbal Intelligence (TONI and parental help was measured by 4-Likert-type items. Effort was measured by 4-Likert-type items. Self-concept (SC was measured by 8-Likert-type items taken from the SDQ I (Abu-Hilal, 2000. Mathematic Achievement was the scores of students in mathematics from school records. The structural model assumed that IQ would have an effect on parental help, effort, SC and achievement. Parental help would have an effect on effort, SC and achievement. Also, effort would have an effect on SC and achievement. Finally, SC would have an effect on achievement. The structural model was tested for invariance across gender. The measurement model proved to be invariant across gender and so was the structural model. The non-constrained model indicated that the structural relationships among the variables do vary according to gender. For example, boys benefited from parental help by exerting more effort while girls did not. Boys with high IQ exerted more effort than boys with low IQ; but girls with high IQ exerted the same amount of effort as girls with low IQ. The model explained 45% and 39% of the variance in math scores for boys and girls, respectively.

  5. The dynamic system of parental work of care for children with special health care needs: a conceptual model to guide quality improvement efforts. (United States)

    Hexem, Kari R; Bosk, Abigail M; Feudtner, Chris


    The work of care for parents of children with complex special health care needs may be increasing, while excessive work demands may erode the quality of care. We sought to summarize knowledge and develop a general conceptual model of the work of care. Systematic review of peer-reviewed journal articles that focused on parents of children with special health care needs and addressed factors related to the physical and emotional work of providing care for these children. From the large pool of eligible articles, we selected articles in a randomized sequence, using qualitative techniques to identify the conceptual components of the work of care and their relationship to the family system. The work of care for a child with special health care needs occurs within a dynamic system that comprises 5 core components: (1) performance of tasks such as monitoring symptoms or administering treatments, (2) the occurrence of various events and the pursuit of valued outcomes regarding the child's physical health, the parent's mental health, or other attributes of the child or family, (3) operating with available resources and within certain constraints (4) over the passage of time, (5) while mentally representing or depicting the ever-changing situation and detecting possible problems and opportunities. These components interact, some with simple cause-effect relationships and others with more complex interdependencies. The work of care affecting the health of children with special health care needs and their families can best be understood, studied, and managed as a multilevel complex system.

  6. Engineering evaluation of alternatives: Managing the assumed leak from single-shell Tank 241-T-101

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brevick, C.H.; Jenkins, C.


    At mid-year 1992, the liquid level gage for Tank 241-T-101 indicated that 6,000 to 9,000 gal had leaked. Because of the liquid level anomaly, Tank 241-T-101 was declared an assumed leaker on October 4, 1992. SSTs liquid level gages have been historically unreliable. False readings can occur because of instrument failures, floating salt cake, and salt encrustation. Gages frequently self-correct and tanks show no indication of leak. Tank levels cannot be visually inspected and verified because of high radiation fields. The gage in Tank 241-T-101 has largely corrected itself since the mid-year 1992 reading. Therefore, doubt exists that a leak has occurred, or that the magnitude of the leak poses any immediate environmental threat. While reluctance exists to use valuable DST space unnecessarily, there is a large safety and economic incentive to prevent or mitigate release of tank liquid waste into the surrounding environment. During the assessment of the significance of the Tank 241-T-101 liquid level gage readings, Washington State Department of Ecology determined that Westinghouse Hanford Company was not in compliance with regulatory requirements, and directed transfer of the Tank 241-T-101 liquid contents into a DST. Meanwhile, DOE directed WHC to examine reasonable alternatives/options for safe interim management of Tank 241-T-101 wastes before taking action. The five alternatives that could be used to manage waste from a leaking SST are: (1) No-Action, (2) In-Tank Stabilization, (3) External Tank Stabilization, (4) Liquid Retrieval, and (5) Total Retrieval. The findings of these examinations are reported in this study

  7. The dynamic system of parental work of care for children with special health care needs: A conceptual model to guide quality improvement efforts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hexem Kari R


    Full Text Available Abstract Background The work of care for parents of children with complex special health care needs may be increasing, while excessive work demands may erode the quality of care. We sought to summarize knowledge and develop a general conceptual model of the work of care. Methods Systematic review of peer-reviewed journal articles that focused on parents of children with special health care needs and addressed factors related to the physical and emotional work of providing care for these children. From the large pool of eligible articles, we selected articles in a randomized sequence, using qualitative techniques to identify the conceptual components of the work of care and their relationship to the family system. Results The work of care for a child with special health care needs occurs within a dynamic system that comprises 5 core components: (1 performance of tasks such as monitoring symptoms or administering treatments, (2 the occurrence of various events and the pursuit of valued outcomes regarding the child's physical health, the parent's mental health, or other attributes of the child or family, (3 operating with available resources and within certain constraints (4 over the passage of time, (5 while mentally representing or depicting the ever-changing situation and detecting possible problems and opportunities. These components interact, some with simple cause-effect relationships and others with more complex interdependencies. Conclusions The work of care affecting the health of children with special health care needs and their families can best be understood, studied, and managed as a multilevel complex system.

  8. Reproductive effort decreases antibody responsiveness

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Deerenberg, Charlotte; Arpanius, Victor; Daan, Serge; Bos, Nicolaas


    The prevalence and intensity of parasitic infection often increases in animals when they are reproducing. This may be a consequence of increased rates of parasite transmission due to reproductive effort. Alternatively, endocrine changes associated with reproduction can lead to immunosuppression.

  9. EA Shuttle Document Retention Effort (United States)

    Wagner, Howard A.


    This slide presentation reviews the effort of code EA at Johnson Space Center (JSC) to identify and acquire databases and documents from the space shuttle program that are adjudged important for retention after the retirement of the space shuttle.

  10. Nash Equilibria in Shared Effort Games

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Polevoy, G.; Trajanovski, S.; De Weerdt, M.M.


    Shared effort games model people's contribution to projects and sharing the obtained profits. Those games generalize both public projects like writing for Wikipedia, where everybody shares the resulting benefits, and all-pay auctions such as contests and political campaigns, where only the winner

  11. Net benefits of wildfire prevention education efforts (United States)

    Jeffrey P. Prestemon; David T. Butry; Karen L. Abt; Ronda. Sutphen


    Wildfire prevention education efforts involve a variety of methods, including airing public service announcements, distributing brochures, and making presentations, which are intended to reduce the occurrence of certain kinds of wildfires. A Poisson model of preventable Florida wildfires from 2002 to 2007 by fire management region was developed. Controlling for...

  12. Effort in Multitasking: Local and Global Assessment of Effort. (United States)

    Kiesel, Andrea; Dignath, David


    When performing multiple tasks in succession, self-organization of task order might be superior compared to external-controlled task schedules, because self-organization allows optimizing processing modes and thus reduces switch costs, and it increases commitment to task goals. However, self-organization is an additional executive control process that is not required if task order is externally specified and as such it is considered as time-consuming and effortful. To compare self-organized and externally controlled task scheduling, we suggest assessing global subjective and objectives measures of effort in addition to local performance measures. In our new experimental approach, we combined characteristics of dual tasking settings and task switching settings and compared local and global measures of effort in a condition with free choice of task sequence and a condition with cued task sequence. In a multi-tasking environment, participants chose the task order while the task requirement of the not-yet-performed task remained the same. This task preview allowed participants to work on the previously non-chosen items in parallel and resulted in faster responses and fewer errors in task switch trials than in task repetition trials. The free-choice group profited more from this task preview than the cued group when considering local performance measures. Nevertheless, the free-choice group invested more effort than the cued group when considering global measures. Thus, self-organization in task scheduling seems to be effortful even in conditions in which it is beneficiary for task processing. In a second experiment, we reduced the possibility of task preview for the not-yet-performed tasks in order to hinder efficient self-organization. Here neither local nor global measures revealed substantial differences between the free-choice and a cued task sequence condition. Based on the results of both experiments, we suggest that global assessment of effort in addition to

  13. Assuming Regge trajectories in holographic QCD: from OPE to Chiral Perturbation Theory

    CERN Document Server

    Cappiello, Luigi; Greynat, David


    The Soft Wall model in holographic QCD has Regge trajectories but wrong operator product expansion (OPE) for the two-point vectorial QCD Green function. We correct analytically this problem and describe the axial sector and chiral symmetry breaking. The low energy chiral parameters, $F_{\\pi}$ and $L_{10}$ , are well described analytically by the model in terms of Regge spacing and QCD condensates. The model nicely supports and extends previous theoretical analyses advocating Digamma function to study QCD two-point functions in different momentum regions.

  14. Estimating genetic covariance functions assuming a parametric correlation structure for environmental effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meyer Karin


    Full Text Available Abstract A random regression model for the analysis of "repeated" records in animal breeding is described which combines a random regression approach for additive genetic and other random effects with the assumption of a parametric correlation structure for within animal covariances. Both stationary and non-stationary correlation models involving a small number of parameters are considered. Heterogeneity in within animal variances is modelled through polynomial variance functions. Estimation of parameters describing the dispersion structure of such model by restricted maximum likelihood via an "average information" algorithm is outlined. An application to mature weight records of beef cow is given, and results are contrasted to those from analyses fitting sets of random regression coefficients for permanent environmental effects.

  15. Simulation of deep coalbed methane permeability and production assuming variable pore volume compressibility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tonnsen, R.R.; Miskimins, J.L. [Colorado School of Mines, Golden, CO (United States)


    This paper presented an alternative view of deep coalbed methane (CBM) permeability, questioning the assumption of using constant pore volume compressibility for modelling permeability changes that would be part of deep CBM production. The sensitivity of coal permeability to changes in stress has led to the assumption that deep coals have limited permeability, but this belief takes for granted that a coal's porosity/cleat system maintains a constant pore volume compressibility during changing stress conditions. Exponentially declining (variable) pore volume compressibility was employed to model changes in permeability related to changing stress conditions within the coalbed. The assumption of constant or variable pore volume compressibility affects modelled permeability changes. Deep coals may maintain higher values during production than previously indicated. The modelled compressibility and permeability results were applied to the simulation of deep CBM reservoirs to determine the practical difference the compressibility assumption has on a coal's simulated production. With the assumption of variable pore volume compressibility, the modelled permeability decreases less than previously indicated, resulting in greater production. The simulation results may justify exploration for deeper CBM reservoirs, although economic production rates are shown to be possible only when the coal is modelled with zero water saturation in the cleat system. 21 refs., 4 tabs., 9 figs.

  16. Dopamine, behavioral economics, and effort

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John D Salamone


    Full Text Available Abstract. There are numerous problems with the hypothesis that brain dopamine (DA systems, particularly in the nucleus accumbens, directly mediate the rewarding or primary motivational characteristics of natural stimuli such as food. Research and theory related to the functions of mesolimbic DA are undergoing a substantial conceptual restructuring, with the traditional emphasis on hedonia and primary reward yielding to other concepts and lines of inquiry. The present review is focused upon the involvement of nucleus accumbens DA in behavioral activation and effort-related processes. Viewed from the framework of behavioral economics, the effects of accumbens DA depletions and antagonism on food-reinforced behavior are highly dependent upon the work requirements of the instrumental task, and DA depleted rats are more sensitive to increases in response costs (i.e., ratio requirements. Moreover, interference with accumbens DA transmission exerts a powerful influence over effort-related choice behavior. Rats with accumbens DA depletions or antagonism reallocate their instrumental behavior away from food-reinforced tasks that have high response requirements, and instead these rats select a less-effortful type of food-seeking behavior. Nucleus accumbens DA and adenosine interact in the regulation of effort-related functions, and other brain structures (anterior cingulate cortex, amygdala, ventral pallidum also are involved. Studies of the brain systems regulating effort-based processes may have implications for understanding drug abuse, as well as energy-related disorders such as psychomotor slowing, fatigue or anergia in depression and other neurological disorders.

  17. Maximum effort in the minimum-effort game

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Engelmann, Dirk; Normann, H.-T.


    Roč. 13, č. 3 (2010), s. 249-259 ISSN 1386-4157 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z70850503 Keywords : minimum-effort game * coordination game * experiments * social capital Subject RIV: AH - Economics Impact factor: 1.868, year: 2010

  18. Endogenous Fishing Mortality in Life History Models: Relaxing Some Implicit Assumptions


    Smith, Martin D.


    Life history models can include a wide range of biological and ecological features that affect exploited fish populations. However, they typically treat fishing mortality as an exogenous parameter. Implicitly, this approach assumes that the supply of fishing effort is perfectly inelastic. That is, the supply curve of effort is vertical. Fishery modelers often run simulations for different values of fishing mortality, but his exercise also assumes vertical supply and simply explores a series o...

  19. Assuming Regge trajectories in holographic QCD: from OPE to chiral perturbation theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cappiello, Luigi; Greynat, David [Universita di Napoli ' ' Federico II' ' , Dipartimento di Fisica, Naples (Italy); INFN-Sezione di Napoli, Naples (Italy); D' Ambrosio, Giancarlo [INFN-Sezione di Napoli, Naples (Italy); CERN Theory Division, Geneva 23 (Switzerland)


    The soft wall model in holographic QCD has Regge trajectories but wrong operator product expansion (OPE) for the two-point vectorial QCD Green function. We modify the dilaton potential to comply with the OPE. We study also the axial two-point function using the same modified dilaton field and an additional scalar field to address chiral symmetry breaking. OPE is recovered adding a boundary term and low energy chiral parameters, F{sub π} and L{sub 10}, are well described analytically by the model in terms of Regge spacing and QCD condensates. The model nicely supports and extends previous theoretical analyses advocating Digamma function to study QCD two-point functions in different momentum regions. (orig.)

  20. Assuming Regge trajectories in holographic QCD: from OPE to Chiral Perturbation Theory

    CERN Document Server

    Cappiello, Luigi; Greynat, David


    The soft wall model in holographic QCD has Regge trajectories but wrong operator product expansion (OPE) for the two-point vectorial QCD Green function. We modify the dilaton potential to comply OPE. We study also the axial two-point function using the same modified dilaton field and an additional scalar field to address chiral symmetry breaking. OPE is recovered adding a boundary term and low energy chiral parameters, $F_\\pi$ and $L_{10}$, are well described analytically by the model in terms of Regge spacing and QCD condensates. The model nicely supports and extends previous theoretical analyses advocating Digamma function to study QCD two-point functions in different momentum regions.

  1. ASME Code Efforts Supporting HTGRs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D.K. Morton


    In 1999, an international collaborative initiative for the development of advanced (Generation IV) reactors was started. The idea behind this effort was to bring nuclear energy closer to the needs of sustainability, to increase proliferation resistance, and to support concepts able to produce energy (both electricity and process heat) at competitive costs. The U.S. Department of Energy has supported this effort by pursuing the development of the Next Generation Nuclear Plant, a high temperature gas-cooled reactor. This support has included research and development of pertinent data, initial regulatory discussions, and engineering support of various codes and standards development. This report discusses the various applicable American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) codes and standards that are being developed to support these high temperature gascooled reactors during construction and operation. ASME is aggressively pursuing these codes and standards to support an international effort to build the next generation of advanced reactors so that all can benefit.

  2. ASME Code Efforts Supporting HTGRs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D.K. Morton


    In 1999, an international collaborative initiative for the development of advanced (Generation IV) reactors was started. The idea behind this effort was to bring nuclear energy closer to the needs of sustainability, to increase proliferation resistance, and to support concepts able to produce energy (both electricity and process heat) at competitive costs. The U.S. Department of Energy has supported this effort by pursuing the development of the Next Generation Nuclear Plant, a high temperature gas-cooled reactor. This support has included research and development of pertinent data, initial regulatory discussions, and engineering support of various codes and standards development. This report discusses the various applicable American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) codes and standards that are being developed to support these high temperature gascooled reactors during construction and operation. ASME is aggressively pursuing these codes and standards to support an international effort to build the next generation of advanced reactors so that all can benefit.

  3. ASME Code Efforts Supporting HTGRs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D.K. Morton


    In 1999, an international collaborative initiative for the development of advanced (Generation IV) reactors was started. The idea behind this effort was to bring nuclear energy closer to the needs of sustainability, to increase proliferation resistance, and to support concepts able to produce energy (both electricity and process heat) at competitive costs. The U.S. Department of Energy has supported this effort by pursuing the development of the Next Generation Nuclear Plant, a high temperature gas-cooled reactor. This support has included research and development of pertinent data, initial regulatory discussions, and engineering support of various codes and standards development. This report discusses the various applicable American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) codes and standards that are being developed to support these high temperature gascooled reactors during construction and operation. ASME is aggressively pursuing these codes and standards to support an international effort to build the next generation of advanced reactors so that all can benefit.

  4. Vocal effort and voice handicap among teachers. (United States)

    Sampaio, Márcio Cardoso; dos Reis, Eduardo José Farias Borges; Carvalho, Fernando Martins; Porto, Lauro Antonio; Araújo, Tânia Maria


    The relationship between voice handicap and professional vocal effort was investigated among teachers in a cross-sectional study of census nature on 4496 teachers within the public elementary education network in Salvador, Bahia, Brazil. Voice handicap (the outcome of interest) was evaluated using the Voice Handicap Index 10. The main exposure, the lifetime vocal effort index, was obtained as the product of the number of years working as a teacher multiplied by the mean weekly working hours. The prevalence of voice handicap was 28.8% among teachers with high professional vocal effort and 21.3% among those with acceptable vocal effort, thus yielding a crude prevalence ratio (PR) of 1.36 (95% confidence interval [CI]=1.14-1.61). In the final logistic model, the prevalence of voice handicap was statistically associated with the professional vocal effort index (PR=1.47; 95% CI=1.19-1.82), adjusted according to sex, microphone availability in the classroom, excessive noise, pressure from the school management, heartburn, and rhinitis. Copyright © 2012 The Voice Foundation. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Effort problem of chemical pipelines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Okrajni, J.; Ciesla, M.; Mutwil, K. [Silesian Technical University, Katowice (Poland)


    The problem of the technical state assessment of the chemical pipelines working under mechanical and thermal loading has been shown in the paper. The pipelines effort after the long time operating period has been analysed. Material geometrical and loading conditions of the crack initiation and crack growth process in the chosen object has been discussed. Areas of the maximal effort have been determined. The material structure charges after the long time operating period have been described. Mechanisms of the crack initiation and crack growth in the pipeline elements have been analysed and mutual relations between the chemical and mechanical influences have been shown. (orig.) 16 refs.

  6. Design-based Sample and Probability Law-Assumed Sample: Their Role in Scientific Investigation. (United States)

    Ojeda, Mario Miguel; Sahai, Hardeo


    Discusses some key statistical concepts in probabilistic and non-probabilistic sampling to provide an overview for understanding the inference process. Suggests a statistical model constituting the basis of statistical inference and provides a brief review of the finite population descriptive inference and a quota sampling inferential theory.…

  7. Assume-Guarantee Verification of Software Components in SOFA 2 Framework

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Parízek, P.; Plášil, František


    Roč. 4, č. 3 (2010), s. 210-221 ISSN 1751-8806 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR 1ET400300504 Grant - others:GA MŠk(CZ) 7E08004 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10300504 Keywords : components * software verification * model checking Subject RIV: JC - Computer Hardware ; Software Impact factor: 0.671, year: 2010

  8. Criticality safety assessment by assuming spent fuel burnup distribution. Examination of various methods for setting burnup (1) (Contract research)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nomura, Yasushi; Okuno, Hiroshi; Miyoshi, Yoshinori


    Firstly, concerning the methods to set burnup for depletion calculation linked with criticality safety evaluation taking burnup credit into consideration, the upper 50 cm averaged burnups approved by regulations in European countries and USA are comparatively evaluated. Secondary, errors produced by different shapes of axial spent fuel burnup distribution assumed for criticality calculation, bias errors associated with depletion calculation compensated by correction factors applied to calculated nuclide isotopic composition, and statistic errors exerted by variation of irradiation history parameters used as input data for depletion calculation, are separately evaluated by performing criticality analyses with the spent fuel transport cask model of OECD/NEA Burnup Credit Criticality Benchmark. As a result, methods are proposed to set equivalent burnups reduced from a given burnup so as to compensate these errors to obtain criticality calculation results on the conservative side. Finally, 'Equivalent Uniform Burnup' and Equivalent Initial Enrichment' which are derived by incorporating these errors synthetically, are described to mention possibility of their common usage irrespective of difference in spent fuel transport cask specification. (author)

  9. Factor screening in a 12 Run Plackett-Burman design assuming four active factors


    Jin, Yingzi


    In this thesis we perform factor screening in a non-regular two-level design by reducing the number of possible sets of active factors to a certain number. The 12 Run Plackett-Burman(PB) design with four active factors is mainly concerned. Our proposed method works through picking up the 6 effects with the highest absolute value out of 10 in each projection model. To evaluate this method, we used the same example as was used in Tyssedal and Shahrukh\\cite{tyssedal2016factor} where variable sel...

  10. The importance of variations in the deposition velocity assumed for the assessment of airborne radionuclide releases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, C.W.; Hoffman, F.O.; Shaeffer, D.L.


    In environmental radiological assessments, the depletion of airborne plumes by dry deposition processes and the subsequent contamination of ground and vegetation have been estimated through the use of a parameter termed the 'deposition velocity'. The sensitivity of environmental assessment models to changes in values of deposition velocity is here examined so that the effect of potential variations of deposition velocity on calculations of radiation dose can be determined. The results show that until more data are available great care must be exercised when applying theoretical ideas and scientific judgement in the selection of a value of the deposition velocity to be used in calculating the dose to man as a result of deposition. (U.K.)

  11. LMFBR Emergency Deployment Assuming 45 year Time-Delay Excess CO{sub 2} Removal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schenewerk, William Ernest [5060 San Rafael Avenue, Los Angeles, CA, 90042-3239 (United States)


    Atmospheric CO{sub 2} is presently increasing 2.25% per year in proportion to 2.25% per year exponential fossil fuel consumption increase. CO{sub 2} removal is modeled as being proportional to 45-year-earlier CO{sub 2} amount above 280 ppmV-C. This is: Exp (-0.0225/year * 45 years) = 0.36 fraction CO{sub 2} removed from anthropological emissions, apparently by seawater. LMFBRs use 15 year doubling time. Deploying 30000 GWe atomic power by year-2080 results in CO{sub 2} doubling year-2065 if World primary energy consumption continues increasing 2.25% per year. CO{sub 2} remains roughly twice pre-industrial until year-2100. Beginning year-2080, CO{sub 2} declines at 2.25% per year. CO{sub 2} will presumably decline back to roughly the year-2000 value by year-2200 if the 45-year-delay sink remains effective. LMFBR and GCFR fleet expands to 30000 GWe by 2080. 1000 GWe LWR fleet consumes 5 Mt HM (Heavy Metal). Breeder first cores require 1 Mt HM. (author)

  12. Relation Between Listening Effort and Speech Intelligibility in Noise. (United States)

    Krueger, Melanie; Schulte, Michael; Zokoll, Melanie A; Wagener, Kirsten C; Meis, Markus; Brand, Thomas; Holube, Inga


    Subjective ratings of listening effort might be applicable to estimate hearing difficulties at positive signal-to-noise ratios (SNRs) at which speech intelligibility scores are near 100%. Hence, ratings of listening effort were compared with speech intelligibility scores at different SNRs, and the benefit of hearing aids was evaluated. Two groups of listeners, 1 with normal hearing and 1 with hearing impairment, performed adaptive speech intelligibility and adaptive listening effort tests (Adaptive Categorical Listening Effort Scaling; Krueger, Schulte, Brand, & Holube, 2017) with sentences of the Oldenburg Sentence Test (Wagener, Brand, & Kollmeier, 1999a, 1999b; Wagener, Kühnel, & Kollmeier, 1999) in 4 different maskers. Model functions were fitted to the data to estimate the speech reception threshold and listening effort ratings for extreme effort and no effort. Listeners with hearing impairment showed higher rated listening effort compared with listeners with normal hearing. For listeners with hearing impairment, the rating extreme effort, which corresponds to negative SNRs, was more correlated to the speech reception threshold than the rating no effort, which corresponds to positive SNRs. A benefit of hearing aids on speech intelligibility was only verifiable at negative SNRs, whereas the effect on listening effort showed high individual differences mainly at positive SNRs. The adaptive procedure for rating subjective listening effort yields information beyond using speech intelligibility to estimate hearing difficulties and to evaluate hearing aids.

  13. Analysis Efforts Supporting NSTX Upgrades

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, H.; Titus, P.; Rogoff, P.; Zolfaghari, A.; Mangra, D.; Smith, M.


    The National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX) is a low aspect ratio, spherical torus (ST) configuration device which is located at Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory (PPPL) This device is presently being updated to enhance its physics by doubling the TF field to 1 Tesla and increasing the plasma current to 2 Mega-amperes. The upgrades include a replacement of the centerstack and addition of a second neutral beam. The upgrade analyses have two missions. The first is to support design of new components, principally the centerstack, the second is to qualify existing NSTX components for higher loads, which will increase by a factor of four. Cost efficiency was a design goal for new equipment qualification, and reanalysis of the existing components. Showing that older components can sustain the increased loads has been a challenging effort in which designs had to be developed that would limit loading on weaker components, and would minimize the extent of modifications needed. Two areas representing this effort have been chosen to describe in more details: analysis of the current distribution in the new TF inner legs, and, second, analysis of the out-of-plane support of the existing TF outer legs.

  14. APS Education and Diversity Efforts (United States)

    Prestridge, Katherine; Hodapp, Theodore


    American Physical Society (APS) has a wide range of education and diversity programs and activities, including programs that improve physics education, increase diversity, provide outreach to the public, and impact public policy. We present the latest programs spearheaded by the Committee on the Status of Women in Physics (CSWP), with highlights from other diversity and education efforts. The CSWP is working to increase the fraction of women in physics, understand and implement solutions for gender-specific issues, enhance professional development opportunities for women in physics, and remedy issues that impact gender inequality in physics. The Conferences for Undergraduate Women in Physics, Professional Skills Development Workshops, and our new Professional Skills program for students and postdocs are all working towards meeting these goals. The CSWP also has site visit and conversation visit programs, where department chairs request that the APS assess the climate for women in their departments or facilitate climate discussions. APS also has two significant programs to increase participation by underrepresented minorities (URM). The newest program, the APS National Mentoring Community, is working to provide mentoring to URM undergraduates, and the APS Bridge Program is an established effort that is dramatically increasing the number of URM PhDs in physics.

  15. Inversion assuming weak scattering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xenaki, Angeliki; Gerstoft, Peter; Mosegaard, Klaus


    due to the complex nature of the field. A method based on linear inversion is employed to infer information about the statistical properties of the scattering field from the obtained cross-spectral matrix. A synthetic example based on an active high-frequency sonar demonstrates that the proposed...

  16. Termination of prehospital resuscitative efforts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mikkelsen, Søren; Schaffalitzky de Muckadell, Caroline; Binderup, Lars Grassmé


    . The medical records with possible documentation of ethical issues were independently reviewed by two philosophers in order to identify explicit ethical or philosophical considerations pertaining to the decision to resuscitate or not. RESULTS: In total, 1275 patients were either declared dead at the scene......BACKGROUND: Discussions on ethical aspects of life-and-death decisions within the hospital are often made in plenary. The prehospital physician, however, may be faced with ethical dilemmas in life-and-death decisions when time-critical decisions to initiate or refrain from resuscitative efforts...... need to be taken without the possibility to discuss matters with colleagues. Little is known whether these considerations regarding ethical issues in crucial life-and-death decisions are documented prehospitally. This is a review of the ethical considerations documented in the prehospital medical...

  17. 42 CFR 137.286 - Do Self-Governance Tribes become Federal agencies when they assume these Federal environmental... (United States)


    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Do Self-Governance Tribes become Federal agencies... HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES TRIBAL SELF-GOVERNANCE Construction Nepa Process § 137.286 Do Self-Governance... Self-Governance Tribes are required to assume Federal environmental responsibilities for projects in...

  18. 42 CFR 137.291 - May Self-Governance Tribes carry out construction projects without assuming these Federal... (United States)


    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false May Self-Governance Tribes carry out construction... OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES TRIBAL SELF-GOVERNANCE Construction Nepa Process § 137.291 May Self-Governance Tribes carry out construction projects without assuming these Federal environmental...

  19. 25 CFR 224.64 - How may a tribe assume management of development of different types of energy resources? (United States)


    ... different types of energy resources? 224.64 Section 224.64 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF... Requirements § 224.64 How may a tribe assume management of development of different types of energy resources... develop that type of energy resource and will trigger the public notice and opportunity for comment...

  20. Effects of an assumed cosmic ray-modulated low global cloud cover on the Earth's temperature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramirez, J.; Mendoza, B. [Instituto de Geofisica, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Mexico, D.F. (Mexico); Mendoza, V.; Adem, J. [Centro de Ciencias de la Atmosfera, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Mexico, D.F. (Mexico)]. E-mail:


    We have used the Thermodynamic Model of the Climate to estimate the effect of variations in the low cloud cover on the surface temperature of the Earth in the Northern Hemisphere during the period 1984-1994. We assume that the variations in the low cloud cover are proportional to the variation of the cosmic ray flux measured during the same period. The results indicate that the effect in the surface temperature is more significant in the continents, where for July of 1991, we have found anomalies of the order of 0.7 degrees Celsius for the southeastern of Asia and 0.5 degrees Celsius for the northeast of Mexico. For an increase of 0.75% in the low cloud cover, the surface temperature computed by the model in the North Hemisphere presents a decrease of {approx} 0.11 degrees Celsius; however, for a decrease of 0.90% in the low cloud cover, the model gives an increase in the surface temperature of {approx} 0.15 degrees Celsius, these two cases correspond to a climate sensitivity factor for the case of forcing by duplication of atmospheric CO{sub 2}. These decreases or increases in surface temperature by increases of decreases in low clouds cover are ten times greater than the overall variability of the non-forced model time series. [Spanish] Hemos usado el Modelo Termodinamico del Clima para estimar el efecto de variaciones en la cubierta de nubes bajas sobre la temperatura superficial de la Tierra en el Hemisferio Norte durante el periodo 1984 - 1994. Suponemos que las variaciones en la cubierta de nubes bajas son proporcionales a las variaciones del flujo de rayos cosmicos medido durante el mismo periodo. Los resultados indican que el efecto en la temperatura es mas significativo en los continentes, donde para julio de 1991, hemos encontrado anomalias del orden de 0.7 grados Celsius sobre el sureste de Asia y 0.5 grados Celsius al noreste de Mexico. Para un incremento de 0.75% en la cubierta de nubes bajas, la temperatura de la superficie calculada por el modelo en

  1. Coercion and polio eradication efforts in Moradabad. (United States)

    Rentmeester, Christy A; Dasgupta, Rajib; Feemster, Kristen A; Packard, Randall M


    We introduce the problem of vaccine coercion as reported in Moradabad, India. We offer commentary and critical analysis on ethical complexities at the intersection of global public health and regional political strife and relate them to broader vaccine goals. We draw upon a historical example from malaria vaccine efforts, focusing specifically on ethical and health justice issues expressed through the use of coercion in vaccine administration. We suggest how coercion is indicative of failed leadership in public health and consider community-based collaborations as models for cultivating local investment and trust in vaccination campaigns and for success in global public health initiatives.

  2. Assessment of sustainable yield and optimum fishing effort for the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus, L. 1758) stock of Lake Hawassa, Ethiopia, was assessed to estimate sustainable yield (MSY) and optimum fishing effort (fopt) using length-based analytical models (Jone's cohort analysis and Thompson and Bell). Pertinent data (length, weight, catch, effort, etc.) were collected on a daily ...

  3. Manager's effort and endogenous economic discrimination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaime Orrillo


    Full Text Available Assume a labor supply consisting of two types of workers, 1 and 2. Both workers are equally productive and exhibit supply functions with the same elasticity. We consider a firm (entrepreneur or shareholders that is competitive in the output market and monopsonistic in input markets. The firm uses the services of a manager who has a high human capital and whose wage is given by the market. It is supposed that the manager does not like to work with one type of worker, say type 1. If we allow the manager's effort to be an additional input without any extra (in addition to his salary cost for the firm, then the firm's pricing decision will be different for both workers. That is, there will be a wage differential and therefore endogenous economic discrimination2 in the labor markets.Vamos assumir que a oferta de trabalho consiste de dois tipos de trabalhadores, 1 e 2. Ambos os trabalhadores são igualmente produtivos e exibem funções de oferta com a mesma elasticidade. Consideramos uma firma (empresário ou acionistas, a qual é competitiva no mercado de produtos e monopsonista nos mercados de insumos. A firma usa os serviços de um gerente quem tem um alto capital humano e cujo salário é dado pelo mercado. Suponhamos que o gerente não gosta de trabalhar com um tipo de trabalhador, digamos o tipo 1. Se permitirmos que o esforço do gerente seja um insumo adicional sem nenhum custo extra (além de seu salário, a decisão de salários será diferente para ambos os trabalhadores. Isto é, haverá um diferencial de salários e, em conseqüência, uma discriminação econômica1 endógena nos mercados de trabalho.

  4. Intersection of Effort and Risk: Ethological and Neurobiological Perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mike A Miller


    Full Text Available The physical effort required to seek out and extract a resource is an important consideration for a foraging animal. A second consideration is the variability or risk associated with resource delivery. An intriguing observation from ethological studies is that animals shift their preference from stable to variable food sources under conditions of increased physical effort or falling energetic reserves. Although theoretical models for this effect exist, no exploration into its biological basis has been pursued. Recent advances in understanding the neural basis of effort- and risk-guided decision making suggest that opportunities exist for determining how effort influences risk preference. In this review, we describe the intersection between the neural systems involved in effort- and risk-guided decision making and outline two mechanisms by which effort-induced changes in dopamine release may increase the preference for variable rewards.

  5. Economic growth, biodiversity loss and conservation effort. (United States)

    Dietz, Simon; Adger, W Neil


    This paper investigates the relationship between economic growth, biodiversity loss and efforts to conserve biodiversity using a combination of panel and cross section data. If economic growth is a cause of biodiversity loss through habitat transformation and other means, then we would expect an inverse relationship. But if higher levels of income are associated with increasing real demand for biodiversity conservation, then investment to protect remaining diversity should grow and the rate of biodiversity loss should slow with growth. Initially, economic growth and biodiversity loss are examined within the framework of the environmental Kuznets hypothesis. Biodiversity is represented by predicted species richness, generated for tropical terrestrial biodiversity using a species-area relationship. The environmental Kuznets hypothesis is investigated with reference to comparison of fixed and random effects models to allow the relationship to vary for each country. It is concluded that an environmental Kuznets curve between income and rates of loss of habitat and species does not exist in this case. The role of conservation effort in addressing environmental problems is examined through state protection of land and the regulation of trade in endangered species, two important means of biodiversity conservation. This analysis shows that the extent of government environmental policy increases with economic development. We argue that, although the data are problematic, the implications of these models is that conservation effort can only ever result in a partial deceleration of biodiversity decline partly because protected areas serve multiple functions and are not necessarily designated to protect biodiversity. Nevertheless institutional and policy response components of the income biodiversity relationship are important but are not well captured through cross-country regression analysis.

  6. Malaria Parasite Density Estimation using Actual and Assumed White Blood Cells Count in Children in Eastern Sudan. (United States)

    Bilal, Jalal A; Gasim, Gasim I; Karsani, Amani H; Elbashir, Leana M; Adam, Ishag


    Estimating malaria parasite count is needed for estimating the severity of the disease and during the follow-up. This study was conducted to determine the malaria parasite density among children using actual white blood cell (WBC) and the assumed WBC counts (8.0 × 10(9)/l). A cross-sectional study was conducted at New Halfa Hospital, Sudan. WBC count and count of asexual malaria parasite were performed on blood films. One hundred and three children were enrolled. The mean (SD) WBCs was 6.2 (2.9) cells × 10(9)/l. The geometric mean (SD) of the parasite count using the assumed WBCs (8.0 × 10(9)/l cells/μl) was significantly higher than that estimated using the actual WBC count [7345.76 (31,038.56) vs. 5965 (28,061.57) rings/μl,p = 0.042]. Malaria parasitemia based on assumed (8.0 × 10(9)/) WBCs is higher than parasitemia based on actual WBCs. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email:

  7. NASA Software Engineering Benchmarking Effort (United States)

    Godfrey, Sally; Rarick, Heather


    Benchmarking was very interesting and provided a wealth of information (1) We did see potential solutions to some of our "top 10" issues (2) We have an assessment of where NASA stands with relation to other aerospace/defense groups We formed new contacts and potential collaborations (1) Several organizations sent us examples of their templates, processes (2) Many of the organizations were interested in future collaboration: sharing of training, metrics, Capability Maturity Model Integration (CMMI) appraisers, instructors, etc. We received feedback from some of our contractors/ partners (1) Desires to participate in our training; provide feedback on procedures (2) Welcomed opportunity to provide feedback on working with NASA

  8. Application of a hydrodynamic and sediment transport model for guidance of response efforts related to the Deepwater Horizon oil spill in the Northern Gulf of Mexico along the coast of Alabama and Florida (United States)

    Plant, Nathaniel G.; Long, Joseph W.; Dalyander, P. Soupy; Thompson, David M.; Raabe, Ellen A.


    U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) scientists have provided a model-based assessment of transport and deposition of residual Deepwater Horizon oil along the shoreline within the northern Gulf of Mexico in the form of mixtures of sand and weathered oil, known as surface residual balls (SRBs). The results of this USGS research, in combination with results from other components of the overall study, will inform operational decisionmaking. The results will provide guidance for response activities and data collection needs during future oil spills. In May 2012 the U.S. Coast Guard, acting as the Deepwater Horizon Federal on-scene coordinator, chartered an operational science advisory team to provide a science-based review of data collected and to conduct additional directed studies and sampling. The goal was to characterize typical shoreline profiles and morphology in the northern Gulf of Mexico to identify likely sources of residual oil and to evaluate mechanisms whereby reoiling phenomena may be occurring (for example, burial and exhumation and alongshore transport). A steering committee cochaired by British Petroleum Corporation (BP) and the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) is overseeing the project and includes State on-scene coordinators from four States (Alabama, Florida, Louisiana, and Mississippi), trustees of the U.S. Department of the Interior (DOI), and representatives from the U.S. Coast Guard. This report presents the results of hydrodynamic and sediment transport models and developed techniques for analyzing potential SRB movement and burial and exhumation along the coastline of Alabama and Florida. Results from these modeling efforts are being used to explain the complexity of reoiling in the nearshore environment and to broaden consideration of the different scenarios and difficulties that are being faced in identifying and removing residual oil. For instance, modeling results suggest that larger SRBs are not, under the most commonly

  9. Transient Accumulation of NO2- and N2O during Denitrification Explained by Assuming Cell Diversification by Stochastic Transcription of Denitrification Genes. (United States)

    Hassan, Junaid; Qu, Zhi; Bergaust, Linda L; Bakken, Lars R


    Denitrifying bacteria accumulate [Formula: see text], NO, and N2O, the amounts depending on transcriptional regulation of core denitrification genes in response to O2-limiting conditions. The genes include nar, nir, nor and nosZ, encoding [Formula: see text]-, [Formula: see text]-, NO- and N2O reductase, respectively. We previously constructed a dynamic model to simulate growth and respiration in batch cultures of Paracoccus denitrificans. The observed denitrification kinetics were adequately simulated by assuming a stochastic initiation of nir-transcription in each cell with an extremely low probability (0.5% h-1), leading to product- and substrate-induced transcription of nir and nor, respectively, via NO. Thus, the model predicted cell diversification: after O2 depletion, only a small fraction was able to grow by reducing [Formula: see text]. Here we have extended the model to simulate batch cultivation with [Formula: see text], i.e., [Formula: see text], NO, N2O, and N2 kinetics, measured in a novel experiment including frequent measurements of [Formula: see text]. Pa. denitrificans reduced practically all [Formula: see text] to [Formula: see text] before initiating gas production. The [Formula: see text] production is adequately simulated by assuming stochastic nar-transcription, as that for nirS, but with a higher probability (0.035 h-1) and initiating at a higher O2 concentration. Our model assumes that all cells express nosZ, thus predicting that a majority of cells have only N2O-reductase (A), while a minority (B) has [Formula: see text]-, NO- and N2O-reductase. Population B has a higher cell-specific respiration rate than A because the latter can only use N2O produced by B. Thus, the ratio [Formula: see text] is low immediately after O2 depletion, but increases throughout the anoxic phase because B grows faster than A. As a result, the model predicts initially low but gradually increasing N2O concentration throughout the anoxic phase, as observed. The

  10. Is My Effort Worth It?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Fei; Xiao, Bo; Lim, Eric T. K.


    Inefficiencies associated with online information search are becoming increasingly prevalent in digital environments due to a surge in Consumer Generated Content (CGC). Despite growing scholarly interest in investigating information search behavior and practical demands to optimize users’ search...... experience, there is a paucity of studies that investigate the impact of search features on search outcomes. We therefore draw on Information Foraging Theory (IFT) to disentangle the dual role of search cost in shaping the utility of information search. We also extend the Information Seeking Model...... by advancing a typology of information search tactics, each incurring distinctive search cost. Furthermore, two types of search tasks were adapted from prior research to explore how search tactics differ between goal-oriented and exploratory conditions. Our hypotheses were validated via an online experiment...

  11. ICRP new recommendations. Committee 2's efforts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eckerman, K.F.


    The International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) may release new primary radiation protection recommendation in 2007. Committee 2 has underway reviews of the dosimetric and biokinetic models and associated data used in calculating dose coefficients for intakes of radionuclides and exposures to external radiation fields. This paper outlines the work plans of Committee 2 during the current term, 2005-2009, in anticipation of the new primary recommendations. The two task groups of Committee 2 responsible for the computations of dose coefficients, INDOS and DOCAL, are reviewing the models and data used in the computations. INDOS is reviewing the lung model and the biokinetic models that describe the behavior of the radionuclides in the body. DOCAL is reviewing its computational formulations with the objective of harmonizing the formulation with those of nuclear medicine, and developing new computational phantoms representing the adult male and female reference individuals of ICRP Publication 89. In addition, DOCAL will issue a publication on nuclear decay data to replace ICRP Publication 38. While the current efforts are focused on updating the dose coefficients for occupational intakes of radionuclides plans are being formulated to address dose coefficients for external radiation fields which include consideration of high energy fields associated with accelerators and space travel and the updating of dose coefficients for members of the public. (author)

  12. Perception of effort in Exercise Science: Definition, measurement and perspectives. (United States)

    Pageaux, Benjamin


    Perception of effort, also known as perceived exertion or sense of effort, can be described as a cognitive feeling of work associated with voluntary actions. The aim of the present review is to provide an overview of what is perception of effort in Exercise Science. Due to the addition of sensations other than effort in its definition, the neurophysiology of perceived exertion remains poorly understood. As humans have the ability to dissociate effort from other sensations related to physical exercise, the need to use a narrower definition is emphasised. Consequently, a definition and some brief guidelines for its measurement are provided. Finally, an overview of the models present in the literature aiming to explain its neurophysiology, and some perspectives for future research are offered.

  13. Cardio-vascular reserve index (CVRI) during exercise complies with the pattern assumed by the cardiovascular reserve hypothesis. (United States)

    Segel, Michael J; Bobrovsky, Ben-Zion; Gabbay, Itay E; Ben-Dov, Issahar; Reuveny, Ronen; Gabbay, Uri


    The Cardio-vascular reserve index (CVRI) had been empirically validated in diverse morbidities as a quantitative estimate of the reserve assumed by the cardiovascular reserve hypothesis. This work evaluates whether CVRI during exercise complies with the cardiovascular reserve hypothesis. Retrospective study based on a database of patients who underwent cardio-pulmonary exercise testing (CPX) for diverse indications. Patient's physiological measurements were retrieved at four predefined CPX stages (rest, anaerobic threshold, peak exercise and after 2min of recovery). CVRI was individually calculated retrospectively at each stage. Mean CVRI at rest was 0.81, significantly higher (p0.05). CVRI after 2min of recovery rose considerably, most in the group with the best exercise capacity and least in those with the lowest exercise capacity. CVRI during exercise fits the pattern predicted by the cardiovascular reserve hypothesis. CVRI decreased with exercise reaching a minimum at peak exercise and rising with recovery. The CVRI nadir at peak exercise, similar across groups classified by exercise capacity, complies with the assumed exhaustion threshold. The clinical utility of CVRI should be further evaluated. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Reasons People Surrender Unowned and Owned Cats to Australian Animal Shelters and Barriers to Assuming Ownership of Unowned Cats. (United States)

    Zito, Sarah; Morton, John; Vankan, Dianne; Paterson, Mandy; Bennett, Pauleen C; Rand, Jacquie; Phillips, Clive J C


    Most cats surrendered to nonhuman animal shelters are identified as unowned, and the surrender reason for these cats is usually simply recorded as "stray." A cross-sectional study was conducted with people surrendering cats to 4 Australian animal shelters. Surrenderers of unowned cats commonly gave surrender reasons relating to concern for the cat and his/her welfare. Seventeen percent of noncaregivers had considered adopting the cat. Barriers to assuming ownership most commonly related to responsible ownership concerns. Unwanted kittens commonly contributed to the decision to surrender for both caregivers and noncaregivers. Nonowners gave more surrender reasons than owners, although many owners also gave multiple surrender reasons. These findings highlight the multifactorial nature of the decision-making process leading to surrender and demonstrate that recording only one reason for surrender does not capture the complexity of the surrender decision. Collecting information about multiple reasons for surrender, particularly reasons for surrender of unowned cats and barriers to assuming ownership, could help to develop strategies to reduce the number of cats surrendered.

  15. Aerodynamic and acoustic features of vocal effort. (United States)

    Rosenthal, Allison L; Lowell, Soren Y; Colton, Raymond H


    The purpose of this study was to determine the aerodynamic and acoustic features of speech produced at comfortable, maximal and minimal levels of vocal effort. Prospective, quasi-experimental research design. Eighteen healthy participants with normal voice were included in this study. After task training, participants produced repeated syllable combinations at comfortable, maximal and minimal levels of vocal effort. A pneumotachometer and vented (Rothenberg) mask were used to record aerodynamic data, with simultaneous recording of the acoustic signal for subsequent analysis. Aerodynamic measures of subglottal pressure, translaryngeal airflow, maximum flow declination rate (MFDR), and laryngeal resistance were analyzed, along with acoustic measures of cepstral peak prominence (CPP) and its standard deviation (SD). Participants produced significantly greater subglottal pressure, translaryngeal airflow, and MFDR during maximal effort speech as compared with comfortable vocal effort. When producing speech at minimal vocal effort, participants lowered subglottal pressure, MFDR, and laryngeal resistance. Acoustic changes associated with changes in vocal effort included significantly higher CPP during maximal effort speech and significantly lower CPP SD during minimal effort speech, when each was compared with comfortable effort. For healthy speakers without voice disorders, subglottal pressure, translaryngeal airflow, and MFDR may be important factors that contribute to an increased sense of vocal effort. Changes in the cepstral signal also occur under conditions of increased or decreased vocal effort relative to comfortable effort. Copyright © 2014 The Voice Foundation. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Devising a Structural Equation Model of Relationships between Preservice Teachers' Time and Study Environment Management, Effort Regulation, Self-Efficacy, Control of Learning Beliefs, and Metacognitive Self-Regulation (United States)

    Sen, Senol; Yilmaz, Ayhan


    The objective of this study is to analyze the relationship between preservice teachers' time and study environment management, effort regulation, self-efficacy beliefs, control of learning beliefs and metacognitive self-regulation. This study also investigates the direct and indirect effects of metacognitive self-regulation on time and study…

  17. Job demands, perceptions of effort-reward fairness and innovative work behaviour

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janssen, O

    Building on person-environment fit theory and social exchange theory, the relationship between job demands and innovative work behaviour was assumed to be moderated by fairness perceptions of the ratio between effort spent and reward received at work. This interaction of job demands with perceptions

  18. Contract mechanisms for coordinating a supply chain with price and sales-effort dependent demand

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nalla, V.R.; Venugopal, V.; Veen, van der J.A.A.


    This paper considers a two-stage supply chain with a Buyer and a Supplier, where the endconsumer demand is influenced by two factors, namely the price of the product and the saleseffort made by the Buyer. It is assumed that the Buyer makes the sales-effort decision and incurs the associated cost.

  19. Investigating the Nature of Relationship between Software Size and Development Effort


    Bajwa, Sohaib-Shahid


    Software effort estimation still remains a challenging and debatable research area. Most of the software effort estimation models take software size as the base input. Among the others, Constructive Cost Model (COCOMO II) is a widely known effort estimation model. It uses Source Lines of Code (SLOC) as the software size to estimate effort. However, many problems arise while using SLOC as a size measure due to its late availability in the software life cycle. Therefore, a lot of research has b...

  20. Coordinating Three-Level Supply Chain under Disruptions Using Revenue-Sharing Contract with Effort Dependent Demand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qinghua Pang


    Full Text Available Considering that the market demand is stochastic and dependent on effort, this essay shows that the benchmark revenue-sharing contract could not coordinate a three-level supply chain consisting of one manufacturer, one distributor, and one retailer. By assuming that the retailer himself bears the effort cost, coordination is achieved by implementing revenue-sharing contract based on rebate and penalty policy in one transaction or two transactions of three-level supply chain, and the former is a special case of the latter. When the disruptions induce the changes of the market demand, the revenue-sharing contract could not coordinate the supply chain. To deal with the problem, this essay introduces two forms of improved revenue-sharing contracts which have antidisruption ability. The model of improved revenue-sharing contract is optimized when the market demand is in the additive form with effort dependent demand. Formulas are given to calculate the optimal contract parameters. Finally, this essay demonstrates the accuracy of the model of improved revenue-sharing contract with the help of numerical examples.

  1. Economic response to harvest and effort control in fishery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoff, Ayoe; Frost, Hans

    for fisheries management. The report outlines bio-economic models, which are designed to shed light on the efficiency of different management tools in terms of quota or effort restrictions given the objectives of the Common Fisheries Policy about sustainable and economic viable fisheries. The report addresses...... the complexities of biological and economic interaction in a multispecies, multifleet framework and outlines consistent mathematical models....

  2. Control Effort Strategies for Acoustically Coupled Distributed Acoustic Nodes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Antoñanzas


    Full Text Available This paper considers the effect of effort constraints on the behavior of an active noise control (ANC system over a distributed network composed of acoustic nodes. A distributed implementation can be desirable in order to provide more flexible, versatile, and scalable ANC systems. In this regard, the distributed version of the multiple error filtered-x least mean square (DMEFxLMS algorithm that allows collaboration between nodes has shown excellent properties. However, practical constraints need to be considered since, in real scenarios, the acoustic nodes are equipped with power constrained actuators. If these constraints are not considered within the adaptive algorithm, the control signals may increase and saturate the hardware devices, causing system instability. To avoid this drawback, a control effort weighting can be considered in the cost function of the distributed algorithm at each node. Therefore, a control effort strategy over the output signals at each node is used to keep them under a given threshold and ensuring the distributed ANC system stability. Experimental results show that, assuming ideal network communications, the proposed distributed algorithm achieves the same performance as the leaky centralized ANC system. A performance evaluation of several versions of the leaky DMEFxLMS algorithm in realistic scenarios is also included.

  3. Curl-Based Finite Element Reconstruction of the Shear Modulus Without Assuming Local Homogeneity: Time Harmonic Case. (United States)

    Honarvar, Mohammad; Sahebjavaher, Ramin; Sinkus, Ralph; Rohling, Robert; Salcudean, Septimiu E


    In elasticity imaging, the shear modulus is obtained from measured tissue displacement data by solving an inverse problem based on the wave equation describing the tissue motion. In most inversion approaches, the wave equation is simplified using local homogeneity and incompressibility assumptions. This causes a loss of accuracy and therefore imaging artifacts in the resulting elasticity images. In this paper we present a new curl-based finite element method inversion technique that does not rely upon these simplifying assumptions. As done in previous research, we use the curl operator to eliminate the dilatational term in the wave equation, but we do not make the assumption of local homogeneity. We evaluate our approach using simulation data from a virtual tissue phantom assuming time harmonic motion and linear, isotropic, elastic behavior of the tissue. We show that our reconstruction results are superior to those obtained using previous curl-based methods with homogeneity assumption. We also show that with our approach, in the 2-D case, multi-frequency measurements provide better results than single-frequency measurements. Experimental results from magnetic resonance elastography of a CIRS elastography phantom confirm our simulation results and further demonstrate, in a quantitative and repeatable manner, that our method is accurate and robust.

  4. Time preferences, study effort, and academic performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Non, J.A.; Tempelaar, D.T.


    We analyze the relation between time preferences, study effort, and academic performance among first-year Business and Economics students. Time preferences are measured by stated preferences for an immediate payment over larger delayed payments. Data on study efforts are derived from an electronic

  5. The Role of Effort Justification in Psychotherapy. (United States)

    Axsom, Danny; Cooper, Joel

    The possible influence of cognitive dissonance in psychotherapy was examined by conceptualizing therapy as an effort justification process. It was predicted that freely choosing to undergo a highly effortful procedure would aid in positive therapeutic change. Subjects (N=52) participated in a weight-reduction experiment in which the degree of…

  6. Listening Effort With Cochlear Implant Simulations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pals, Carina; Sarampalis, Anastasios; Başkent, Deniz


    Purpose: Fitting a cochlear implant (CI) for optimal speech perception does not necessarily optimize listening effort. This study aimed to show that listening effort may change between CI processing conditions for which speech intelligibility remains constant. Method: Nineteen normal-hearing

  7. The Effect of Age on Listening Effort (United States)

    Degeest, Sofie; Keppler, Hannah; Corthals, Paul


    Purpose: The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of age on listening effort. Method: A dual-task paradigm was used to evaluate listening effort in different conditions of background noise. Sixty adults ranging in age from 20 to 77 years were included. A primary speech-recognition task and a secondary memory task were performed…

  8. Effort and Selection Effects of Incentive Contracts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bouwens, J.F.M.G.; van Lent, L.A.G.M.


    We show that the improved effort of employees associated with incentive contracts depends on the properties of the performance measures used in the contract.We also find that the power of incentives in the contract is only indirectly related to any improved employee effort.High powered incentive

  9. Low-effort thought promotes political conservatism. (United States)

    Eidelman, Scott; Crandall, Christian S; Goodman, Jeffrey A; Blanchar, John C


    The authors test the hypothesis that low-effort thought promotes political conservatism. In Study 1, alcohol intoxication was measured among bar patrons; as blood alcohol level increased, so did political conservatism (controlling for sex, education, and political identification). In Study 2, participants under cognitive load reported more conservative attitudes than their no-load counterparts. In Study 3, time pressure increased participants' endorsement of conservative terms. In Study 4, participants considering political terms in a cursory manner endorsed conservative terms more than those asked to cogitate; an indicator of effortful thought (recognition memory) partially mediated the relationship between processing effort and conservatism. Together these data suggest that political conservatism may be a process consequence of low-effort thought; when effortful, deliberate thought is disengaged, endorsement of conservative ideology increases.

  10. Transmission of Helminths between Species of Ruminants in Austria Appears More Likely to Occur than Generally Assumed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jakob Winter


    Full Text Available Helminth infections of the gastrointestinal tract and lungs can lead to devastating economical losses to the pastoral based animal production. Farm animals can suffer from malnutrition, tissue damage, and blood loss resulting in impaired production traits and reproduction parameters. In Austria, pastures grazed by sheep, goats, and cattle overlap with the habitats of several species of wild cervids (roe deer, red deer, sika deer, and fallow deer and bovids (mouflon, chamois, and ibex, and transmission of parasites between different ruminant species seems likely. A complete and updated overview on the occurrence of helminths of domestic and wild ruminants in Austria is presented. Based on these data, intersections of the host spectrum of the determined parasites were depicted. The “liability index” was applied to identify the ruminant species, which most likely transmit parasites between each other. A degree for host specificity was calculated for each parasite species based on the average taxonomic distance of their host species. Of the 73 identified helminth species 42 were identified as generalists, and 14 transmission experiments supported the assumed broad host specificity for 14 generalists and 1 specialist helminth species. Overall, 61 helminths were found to infect more than one host species, and 4 were found in all 10 ruminant species investigated. From these analyses, it can be concluded that a number of helminth parasites of the gastrointestinal tract and the lungs are potentially transmitted between domestic and wild ruminants in Austria. For some parasites and host species, experimental evidence is in support for possible transmission, while for other such studies are lacking. Host preference of different genotypes of the same parasite species may have a confounding effect on the evaluation of cross-transmission, but so far this has not been evaluated systematically in helminths in Austria. Further studies focusing on

  11. Practitioner's knowledge representation a pathway to improve software effort estimation

    CERN Document Server

    Mendes, Emilia


    The main goal of this book is to help organizations improve their effort estimates and effort estimation processes by providing a step-by-step methodology that takes them through the creation and validation of models that are based on their own knowledge and experience. Such models, once validated, can then be used to obtain predictions, carry out risk analyses, enhance their estimation processes for new projects and generally advance them as learning organizations.Emilia Mendes presents the Expert-Based Knowledge Engineering of Bayesian Networks (EKEBNs) methodology, which she has used and adapted during the course of several industry collaborations with different companies world-wide over more than 6 years. The book itself consists of two major parts: first, the methodology's foundations in knowledge management, effort estimation (with special emphasis on the intricacies of software and Web development) and Bayesian networks are detailed; then six industry case studies are presented which illustrate the pra...

  12. Programming effort analysis of the ELLPACK language (United States)

    Rice, J. R.


    ELLPACK is a problem statement language and system for elliptic partial differential equations which is implemented by a FORTRAN preprocessor. ELLPACK's principal purpose is as a tool for the performance evaluation of software. However, it is used here as an example with which to study the programming effort required for problem solving. It is obvious that problem statement languages can reduce programming effort tremendously; the goal is to quantify this somewhat. This is done by analyzing the lengths and effort (as measured by Halstead's software science technique) of various approaches to solving these problems.

  13. Job Satisfaction, Effort, and Performance: A Reasoned Action Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Icek Ajzen


    Full Text Available In this article the author takes issue with the recurrent reliance on job satisfaction to explain job-related effort and performance.  The disappointing findings in this tradition are explained by lack of compatibility between job satisfaction–-a very broad attitude–-and the more specific effort and performance criteria.  Moreover, attempts to apply the expectancy-value model of attitude to explore the determinants of effort and performance suffer from reliance on unrepresentative sets of beliefs about the likely consequences of these behaviors.  The theory of planned behavior (Ajzen, 1991, 2012, with its emphasis on the proximal antecedents of job effort and performance, is offered as an alternative.  According to the theory, intentions to exert effort and to attain a certain performance level are determined by attitudes, subjective norms, and perceptions of control in relation to these behaviors; and these variables, in turn, are a function of readily accessible beliefs about the likely outcomes of effort and performance, about the normative expectations of important others, and about factors that facilitate or hinder effective performance.

  14. Gene stacking strategies with doubled haploids derived from biparental crosses: theory and simulations assuming a finite number of loci. (United States)

    Melchinger, Albrecht E; Technow, Frank; Dhillon, Baldev S


    Recent progress in genotyping and doubled haploid (DH) techniques has created new opportunities for development of improved selection methods in numerous crops. Assuming a finite number of unlinked loci (ℓ) and a given total number (n) of individuals to be genotyped, we compared, by theory and simulations, three methods of marker-assisted selection (MAS) for gene stacking in DH lines derived from biparental crosses: (1) MAS for high values of the marker score (T, corresponding to the total number of target alleles) in the F(2) generation and subsequently among DH lines derived from the selected F(2) individual (Method 1), (2) MAS for augmented F(2) enrichment and subsequently for T among DH lines from the best carrier F(2) individual (Method 2), and (3) MAS for T among DH lines derived from the F(1) generation (Method 3). Our objectives were to (a) determine the optimum allocation of resources to the F(2) ([Formula: see text]) and DH generations [Formula: see text] for Methods 1 and 2 by simulations, (b) compare the efficiency of all three methods for gene stacking by simulations, and (c) develop theory to explain the general effect of selection on the segregation variance and interpret our simulation results. By theory, we proved that for smaller values of ℓ, the segregation variance of T among DH lines derived from F(2) individuals, selected for high values of T, can be much smaller than expected in the absence of selection. This explained our simulation results, showing that for Method 1, it is best to genotype more F(2) individuals than DH lines ([Formula: see text]), whereas under Method 2, the optimal ratio [Formula: see text] was close to 0.5. However, for ratios deviating moderately from the optimum, the mean [Formula: see text] of T in the finally selected DH line ([Formula: see text]) was hardly reduced. Method 3 had always the lowest mean [Formula: see text] of [Formula: see text] except for small numbers of loci (ℓ = 4) and is favorable only if


    Whiting, E. E.


    This program predicts the spectra resulting from electronic transitions of diatomic molecules and atoms in local thermodynamic equilibrium. The program produces a spectrum by accounting for the contribution of each rotational and atomic line considered. The integrated intensity of each line is distributed in the spectrum by an approximate Voigt profile. The program can produce spectra for optically thin gases or for cases where simultaneous emission and absorption occurs. In addition, the program can compute the spectrum resulting from the absorption of incident radiation by a column of cold gas or the high-temperature, self-absorbed emission spectrum from a nonisothermal gas. The computed spectrum can be output directly or combined with a slit function and sensitivity calibration to predict the output of a grating spectrograph or a fixed wavelength radiometer. Specifically, the program has the capability to include the following features in any computations: (1) Parallel transitions, in which spin splitting and lambda doubling are ignored (ignoring spin splitting and/or lambda doubling means that the total multiple strength is assumed to reside in a single "effective" line), (2) Perpendicular transitions, in which spin splitting and lambda doubling are ignored, (3) Sigma Pi transitions, in which lambda doubling is ignored, (4) Atomic lines, (5) Option to terminate rotational line calculations when the molecule dissociates due to rotation, (6) Option to include the alternation of line intensities for homonuclear molecules, (7) Use of an approximate Voigt profile for the line shape, and (8) Radiative energy transport in a nonisothermal gas. The output options available in the program are: (1) Tabulation of the spontaneous emission spectrum (i.e., optically thin spectrum) for a 1.0 cm path length, (2) Tabulation of the "true" spectrum, which incorporates spontaneous emission, induced emission, absorption, and externally incident radiation through the equation of

  16. Different effort constructs and effort-reward imbalance: effects on employee well-being in ancillary health care workers. (United States)

    van Vegchel, N; de Jonge, J; Meijer, T; Hamers, J P


    The present study investigates the relationship between Effort-Reward Imbalance (ERI) and employee well-being, using three different concepts of efforts (i.e. psychological demands, physical demands and emotional demands). The ERI model had been used as a theoretical framework, indicating that work stress is related to high efforts (i.e. job demands) and low occupational rewards (e.g. money, esteem and security/career opportunities). The ERI model also predicts that, in overcommitted workers, effects of ERI on employee well-being are stronger compared with their less committed counterparts. A cross-sectional survey among 167 ancillary health care workers of two nursing homes was conducted. Multiple univariate logistic regression analyses were used to test the relationship between ERI and employee well-being. Results of the logistic regression analyses showed that employees with both high (psychological, physical and emotional) efforts and low rewards had higher risks of psychosomatic health complaints, physical health symptoms and job dissatisfaction (odds ratios (ORs) ranged from 5.09 to 18.55). Moreover, employees who reported both high efforts and high rewards had elevated risks of physical symptoms and exhaustion (ORs ranged from 6.17 to 9.39). No support was found for the hypothesis on the moderating effect of overcommitment. Results show some support for the ERI model; ancillary health care workers with high effort/low reward imbalance had elevated risks of poor employee well-being. In addition, results show that the combination of high efforts and high rewards is important for employee well-being. Finally, some practical implications are discussed to combat work stress in health care work.

  17. EU grid computing effort takes on malaria

    CERN Multimedia

    Lawrence, Stacy


    Malaria is the world's most common parasitic infection, affecting more thatn 500 million people annually and killing more than 1 million. In order to help combat malaria, CERN has launched a grid computing effort (1 page)

  18. Illinois highway materials sustainability efforts of 2015. (United States)


    This report provides a summary of the sustainability efforts of the Illinois Department of Transportation (IDOT) in recycling : reclaimed materials in highway construction during calendar year 2015. This report meets the requirements of Illinois Publ...

  19. Illinois highway materials sustainability efforts of 2016. (United States)


    This report provides a summary of the sustainability efforts of the Illinois Department of Transportation (IDOT) in recycling : reclaimed materials in highway construction during calendar year 2016. This report meets the requirements of Illinois Publ...

  20. Illinois highway materials sustainability efforts of 2013. (United States)


    This report presents the sustainability efforts of the Illinois Department of Transportation (IDOT) in : recycling and reclaiming materials for use in highway construction. This report meets the requirements of : Illinois Public Act 097-0314 by docum...

  1. Illinois highway materials sustainability efforts of 2014. (United States)


    This report presents the 2014 sustainability efforts of the Illinois Department of Transportation (IDOT) in : recycling reclaimed materials in highway construction. This report meets the requirements of Illinois : Public Act 097-0314 by documenting I...

  2. Anticipated emotions and effort allocation in weight goal striving

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nelissen, R.M.A.; de Vet, H.C.W.; Zeelenberg, M.


    Objective. This study aimed to investigate the influence of anticipated emotions on preventive health behaviour if specified at the level of behavioural outcomes. Consistent with predictions from a recently developed model of goal pursuit, we hypothesized that the impact of emotions on effort levels

  3. Components of Effortful Control and Their Relations to Children's Shyness (United States)

    Eggum-Wilkens, Natalie D.; Reichenberg, Ray E.; Eisenberg, Nancy; Spinrad, Tracy L.


    Relations between children's (n = 213) mother-reported effortful control components (attention focusing, attention shifting, inhibitory control at 42 months; activational control at 72 months) and mother-reported shyness trajectories across 42, 54, 72, and 84 months of age were examined. In growth models, shyness decreased. Inhibitory control and…

  4. A technique for estimating maximum harvesting effort in a stochastic ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)


    realistic environmental variability the maximum harvesting effort is less than what is estimated in the deterministic model. This method also enables us to find out the safe regions in the parametric space for which the chance of extinction of the species is minimized. A real life fishery problem has been considered to obtain.

  5. Worker Morale and Effort : Is the Relationship Causal?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hassink, W.H.J.; Fernandez, Roberto M.


    We investigate a unique setting which enables us to distinguish between two theories of work performance. A standard labor supply framework implies a negative effect of the nonpecuniary cost of work on the employee’s effort. In contrast, a model of worker morale that is consistent with a widely used

  6. Sludge, biosolids, and the propaganda model of communication. (United States)

    Rampton, Sheldon


    The Water Environment Federation's elaborate effort to rename sewage sludge as "biosolids" is an example in practice of the "propaganda model" of communications, which sees its task as indoctrinating target audiences with ideas favorable to the interests of the communicators. The propaganda model assumes that members of the public are irrational and focuses therefore on symbolic and emotional aspects of communication. This approach to communicating arouses public resentment rather than trust. In place of a "propaganda model," public officials should adopt a "democratic model," which assumes that audiences are rational and intellectually capable of meaningful participation in decision-making.

  7. Widely Assumed but Thinly Tested: Do Employee Volunteers' Self-Reported Skill Improvements Reflect the Nature of Their Volunteering Experiences? (United States)

    Jones, David A.


    An increasing number of companies use corporate volunteering programs (CVPs) to support and coordinate their employees' efforts to serve their communities. Among the most frequently touted benefits of such programs to sponsoring companies and employee volunteers alike is the opportunities for employees to develop tangible work-related skills through their volunteering activities. Evidence for skill development through volunteering, however, is mostly limited to the expressed beliefs of corporate leaders and employee volunteers. This study was designed to contribute to this largely anecdotal literature by testing hypotheses about the extent to which employee volunteers' self-reported skill development reflects the characteristics of the volunteers and their volunteering experiences. Study participants were 74 employee volunteers who completed a service apprenticeship managed by a U.S.-based nonprofit called Citizen Schools that partners with middle schools to extend the learning day with a combination of academic support, enrichment, and youth development activities. Data were obtained via the nonprofit's records, and surveys completed by employee volunteers before and after their service experience, including measures used to assess self-reported improvements in each of 10 work-related skills: communicating performance expectations, leadership, mentorship, motivating others, project management, providing performance feedback, public speaking and presenting, speaking clearly, teamwork, and time management. Support was found for several hypothesized effects suggesting that employees who practiced specific skills more often during their volunteering experience reported greater improvements in those skills. Improvements in some skills were higher among employee volunteers who completed a greater number of pre-volunteering preparation courses, and the effects of preparation courses were moderated by the employee volunteers' self-efficacy about improving their work

  8. Widely Assumed but Thinly Tested: Do Employee Volunteers' Self-Reported Skill Improvements Reflect the Nature of Their Volunteering Experiences? (United States)

    Jones, David A


    An increasing number of companies use corporate volunteering programs (CVPs) to support and coordinate their employees' efforts to serve their communities. Among the most frequently touted benefits of such programs to sponsoring companies and employee volunteers alike is the opportunities for employees to develop tangible work-related skills through their volunteering activities. Evidence for skill development through volunteering, however, is mostly limited to the expressed beliefs of corporate leaders and employee volunteers. This study was designed to contribute to this largely anecdotal literature by testing hypotheses about the extent to which employee volunteers' self-reported skill development reflects the characteristics of the volunteers and their volunteering experiences. Study participants were 74 employee volunteers who completed a service apprenticeship managed by a U.S.-based nonprofit called Citizen Schools that partners with middle schools to extend the learning day with a combination of academic support, enrichment, and youth development activities. Data were obtained via the nonprofit's records, and surveys completed by employee volunteers before and after their service experience, including measures used to assess self-reported improvements in each of 10 work-related skills: communicating performance expectations, leadership, mentorship, motivating others, project management, providing performance feedback, public speaking and presenting, speaking clearly, teamwork, and time management. Support was found for several hypothesized effects suggesting that employees who practiced specific skills more often during their volunteering experience reported greater improvements in those skills. Improvements in some skills were higher among employee volunteers who completed a greater number of pre-volunteering preparation courses, and the effects of preparation courses were moderated by the employee volunteers' self-efficacy about improving their work

  9. Structural Relations among Negative Affect, Mate Value, and Mating Effort

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beth Randi Kirsner


    Full Text Available We compared the ability of models based on evolutionary economic theory and Life History (LH Theory to explain relations among self-reported negative affect, mate value, and mating effort. Method: Two hundred thirty-eight undergraduates provided multiple measures of these latent constructs, permitting us to test a priori predictions based on Kirsner, Figueredo, and Jacobs (2003. We compared the fit of the initial model to the fit of five alternative theory-driven models using nested model comparisons of Structural Equations Models. Rejecting less parsimonious and explanatory models eliminated the original model. Two equally parsimonious models explained the data pattern well. The first, based on evolutionary economic theory, specified that Negative Affect increases both Personal Mate Value and Mating Effort via the direct effects specified in the original model. The second, based on LH Theory, specified that Negative Affect, Personal Mate Value, and Mating Effort relate spuriously through a common latent construct, the LH Factor. The primary limitation of the present study is generalizability. We used self-reports taken from a young, university-based sample that included a spectrum of affective states. We cannot know how well these models generalize to an older population or to actual behavior. Both models predict the presence of a rich pattern of mate acquisition and retention behaviors, including an alarming set of behavioral tactics often not considered or targeted during treatment. Moreover, each model suggests a unique set of problems may arise after an effective intervention. We describe several ways to distinguish these models empirically.

  10. Different effort constructs and effort-reward imbalance: Effects on employee well-being in ancillary health care workers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vegchel, N. van; Jonge, J. de; Meijer, T.; Hamers, J.P.H.


    Aims of the study. The present study investigates the relationship between Effort–Reward Imbalance (ERI) and employee well-being, using three different concepts of efforts (i.e. psychological demands, physical demands and emotional demands). Background. The ERI model had been used as a theoretical

  11. Widely Assumed but Thinly Tested: Do Employee Volunteers’ Self-Reported Skill Improvements Reflect the Nature of their Volunteering Experience?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Allen Jones


    Full Text Available An increasing number of companies use corporate volunteering programs (CVPs to support and coordinate their employees’ efforts to serve their communities. Among the most frequently touted benefits of such programs to sponsoring companies and employee volunteers alike is the opportunities they provide for employees to develop tangible work-related skills through their volunteering activities. Evidence for skill development through volunteering, however, is mostly limited to the expressed beliefs of corporate leaders and employee volunteers. This study was designed to contribute to this largely anecdotal literature by testing hypotheses about the extent to which employee volunteers’ self-reported skill development reflects the characteristics of the volunteers and their volunteering experience. Study participants were 74 employees who volunteered a few hours of their time once a week for ten weeks in a service apprenticeship managed by a U.S.-based nonprofit called Citizen Schools that partners with middle schools to extend the learning day with a combination of academic support, enrichment, and youth development activities. Data were obtained via the nonprofit’s records, and surveys completed by employee volunteers before and after their service experience, including measures used to assess self-reported improvements in each of ten work-related skills: communicating performance expectations, leadership, mentorship, motivating others, project management, providing performance feedback, public speaking and presenting, speaking clearly, teamwork, and time management. Support was found for several hypothesized effects suggesting that employees who practiced specific skills more often during their volunteering experience reported greater improvements in those skills. Improvements in some skills were higher among employee volunteers who completed a greater number of pre-volunteering preparation courses, and the effects of preparation courses were

  12. Separate valuation subsystems for delay and effort decision costs. (United States)

    Prévost, Charlotte; Pessiglione, Mathias; Météreau, Elise; Cléry-Melin, Marie-Laure; Dreher, Jean-Claude


    Decision making consists of choosing among available options on the basis of a valuation of their potential costs and benefits. Most theoretical models of decision making in behavioral economics, psychology, and computer science propose that the desirability of outcomes expected from alternative options can be quantified by utility functions. These utility functions allow a decision maker to assign subjective values to each option under consideration by weighting the likely benefits and costs resulting from an action and to select the one with the highest subjective value. Here, we used model-based neuroimaging to test whether the human brain uses separate valuation systems for rewards (erotic stimuli) associated with different types of costs, namely, delay and effort. We show that humans devalue rewards associated with physical effort in a strikingly similar fashion to those they devalue that are associated with delays, and that a single computational model derived from economics theory can account for the behavior observed in both delay discounting and effort discounting. However, our neuroimaging data reveal that the human brain uses distinct valuation subsystems for different types of costs, reflecting in opposite fashion delayed reward and future energetic expenses. The ventral striatum and the ventromedial prefrontal cortex represent the increasing subjective value of delayed rewards, whereas a distinct network, composed of the anterior cingulate cortex and the anterior insula, represent the decreasing value of the effortful option, coding the expected expense of energy. Together, these data demonstrate that the valuation processes underlying different types of costs can be fractionated at the cerebral level.

  13. Assessments of conditioned radioactive waste arisings from existing and committed nuclear installations and assuming a moderate growth in nuclear electricity generation - June 1985

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fairclough, M.P.; Goodill, D.R.; Tymons, B.J.


    This report describes an assessment of conditioned radioactive waste arisings from existing and committed nuclear installations, DOE Revised Scheme 1, and from an assumed nuclear power generation scenario, DOE Revised Scheme 3, representing a moderate growth in nuclear generation. Radioactive waste arise from 3 main groups of installations and activities: i. existing and committed commercial reactors; ii. fuel reprocessing plants, iii. research, industrial and medical activities. Stage 2 decommissioning wastes are considered together with WAGR decommissioning and the 1983 Sea Dump Consignment. The study uses the SIMULATION 2 code which models waste material flows through a system of waste treatment and packaging to disposal. With a knowledge of the accumulations and average production rates of untreated wastes and their isotopic compositions (or total activities), the rates at which conditioned wastes become available for transportation and disposal are calculated, with specific activity levels. The data for the inventory calculations have previously been documented. Some recent revisions and assumptions concerning future operation of nuclear facilities are presented in this report. (author)

  14. When is an "Extinct" Species Really Extinct? Gauging the Search Efforts for Hawaiian Forest Birds and the Ivory-Billed Woodpecker

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Michael. Scott


    Full Text Available Rare species, particularly those in inaccessible habitat, can go years without being observed. If we are to allocate conservation resources appropriately to conserving such species, it is important to be able to distinguish "rare" from "extinct." Criteria for designating extinction, however, tend to be arbitrary or vaguely defined. This designation should not be made unless the search effort has been sufficient to yield a high degree of confidence that the species is in fact absent. We develop models to assess the probability of extinction and the search effort necessary to detect an individual in a small population. We apply these models to searches for nine potentially extinct Hawaiian forest birds and for the Ivory-billed Woodpecker (Campephilus principalis in intensively searched areas in Arkansas. The Hawaiian forest bird survey was extensive, providing excellent information on population sizes and habitat associations of species encountered during the survey. Nonetheless, we conclude that the survey effort was not sufficient to conclude extinction (p > 0.90 for populations of 10 or fewer individuals for those species that were not encountered during surveys. In contrast, our analysis for Ivory-billed Woodpeckers suggests that, unless there were actually two or fewer birds present, the search effort was sufficient to conclude (p > 0.95 that Ivory-billed woodpeckers were not present in the intensively searched area. If one assumes distributions other than uniform, there is a greater chance that Ivory-billed Woodpeckers may persist in the intensively searched areas. Conclusions regarding occupancy of suitable habitat throughout the rest of the former range will require similarly intensive survey efforts. The degree of confidence in the absence of the Ivory-billed Woodpecker depended in part on our assumptions about the distribution of birds in the search area. For species with limited detection distance and small populations, a massive search

  15. Effort allocation in tournaments: the effect of gender on academic performance in Italian universities


    Castagnetti, Carolina; Rosti, Luisa


    We consider the academic performance of Italian university graduates and their labor market position 3 years after graduation. Our data confirm the common finding that female students outperform male students in academia but are overcome in the labor market. Assuming that academic competition is fair and that individual talent is equally distributed by gender, we suggest that the gender gap evident in degree scores is endogenously due to the greater effort exerted by female students. We find ...

  16. Effort, success, and nonuse determine arm choice. (United States)

    Schweighofer, Nicolas; Xiao, Yupeng; Kim, Sujin; Yoshioka, Toshinori; Gordon, James; Osu, Rieko


    How do humans choose one arm or the other to reach single targets in front of the body? Current theories of reward-driven decisionmaking predict that choice results from a comparison of "action values," which are the expected rewards for possible actions in a given state. In addition, current theories of motor control predict that in planning arm movements, humans minimize an expected motor cost that balances motor effort and endpoint accuracy. Here, we test the hypotheses that arm choice is determined by comparison of action values comprising expected effort and expected task success for each arm, as well as a handedness bias. Right-handed subjects, in either a large or small target condition, were first instructed to use each hand in turn to shoot through an array of targets and then to choose either hand to shoot through the same targets. Effort was estimated via inverse kinematics and dynamics. A mixed-effects logistic-regression analysis showed that, as predicted, both expected effort and expected success predicted choice, as did arm use in the preceding trial. Finally, individual parameter estimation showed that the handedness bias correlated with mean difference between right- and left-arm success, leading to overall lower use of the left arm. We discuss our results in light of arm nonuse in individuals' poststroke. Copyright © 2015 the American Physiological Society.

  17. Philanthropies Add Weight to "i3" Effort (United States)

    Robelen, Erik W.; McNeil, Michele


    The author reports on a new effort by 12 major education philanthropies that aims to dovetail with the Education Department's "i3" agenda, raising complex issues. The decision by a dozen major education grantmakers to team up on an initiative designed to dovetail with the federal "Investing in Innovation" grant competition is being seen by…

  18. School Trips: Are They Worth the Effort? (United States)

    Johnston, Robert


    Even the most basic of school trips will require booking places, arranging transport, writing to parents, collecting payments, planning activities, producing worksheets and, of course, endless risk assessments. It always leaves teachers wondering: "is it really worth all this effort?" Robert Johnston believes that every teacher should…

  19. Behavior Contracts: A Home School Cooperative Effort. (United States)

    Stitely, Rose Patton


    This paper focuses on behavior contracts at school which attempt to promote a home school cooperative effort. The contract is drawn up at school, and classroom teachers award points for appropriate school behaviors; parents in turn reward the student if the report is good. (DS)

  20. Has Malaysia's antidrug effort been effective? (United States)

    Scorzelli, J F


    It is a common belief that a massive effort in law enforcement, preventive education and rehabilitation will result in the elimination of a country's drug problem. Based on this premise. Malaysia in 1983 implemented such a multifaceted anti-drug strategy, and the results of a 1987 study by the author suggested that Malaysia's effort had begun to contribute to a steady decrease in the number of identified drug abusers. Although the number of drug-addicted individuals declined, the country's recidivism rates were still high. Because of this high relapse rate, Malaysia expanded their rehabilitation effort and developed a community transition program. In order to determine the impact of these changes on the country's battle against drug abuse, a follow-up study was conducted in 1990. The results of this study did not clearly demonstrate that the Malaysian effort had been successful in eliminating the problem of drug abuse, and raised some questions concerning the effectiveness of the country's drug treatment programs.

  1. Student Effort, Consistency, and Online Performance (United States)

    Patron, Hilde; Lopez, Salvador


    This paper examines how student effort, consistency, motivation, and marginal learning, influence student grades in an online course. We use data from eleven Microeconomics courses taught online for a total of 212 students. Our findings show that consistency, or less time variation, is a statistically significant explanatory variable, whereas…

  2. Coordinating the United States Interagency Partnering Effort (United States)


    operations now will mean throwing 18 away hard-fought gains, and expose the United States to new risks from across the globalising ...effort and how they present themselves. OIP will leverage technology and training to provide the best information and personnel for interagency

  3. Hydrogen economy: a little bit more effort

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pauron, M.


    In few years, the use of hydrogen in economy has become a credible possibility. Today, billions of euros are invested in the hydrogen industry which is strengthened by technological advances in fuel cells development and by an increasing optimism. However, additional research efforts and more financing will be necessary to make the dream of an hydrogen-based economy a reality

  4. Motivational climate, behaviour regulation and perceived effort in soccer athletes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diogo Monteiro


    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to test the integration of two motivational theoretical models (self-determination theory and the achievement goal theory to analyze the impact of motivational climate in the regulation of motivation and athletes´ effort perception. Participated in the study 460 athletes (male football players at both regional and national level, on the categories of beginners, youth, juniors and seniors, with 17.42 ± 4.37 years-old. The quality of the structural equation model was examined by the Chi-square value and some complementary model fit indices. The results support the model fit (S-Bχ²= 288.84, df= 147, p< 0.001, S-Bχ²/df= 1.96, SRMR= 0.049, NNFI= 0.912, CFI= 0.924, RMSEA= 0.046, 90%IC RMSEA= 0.038−0.054, suggesting that a motivational task-oriented climate has a significant positive effect on autonomous motivation, which in turn has a significant positive effect on athletes' effort perception. On the other hand, an ego-oriented environment had a positive effect on the controlled motivation, which in turn had a negative effect on athletes' effort perception, although not significant.

  5. Photocrosslinked PLA-PEO-PLA Hydrogels from Self-Assembled Physical Networks: Mechanical Properties and Influence of Assumed Constitutive Relationships (United States)

    Sanabria-DeLong, Naomi; Crosby, Alfred J.; Tew, Gregory N.


    Poly(lactide) – block – poly(ethylene oxide) – block – poly(lactide) [PLA-PEO-PLA] triblock copolymers are known to form physical hydrogels in water, due to the polymer's amphiphilicity. Their mechanical properties, biocompatibility, and biodegradability have made them attractive for use as soft tissue scaffolds. However, the network junction points are not covalently crosslinked and in a highly aqueous environment these hydrogels adsorb more water, transform from gel to sol, and lose the designed mechanical properties. In this report, a hydrogel was formed by using a novel two step approach. In the first step end-functionalized PLA-PEOPLA triblock was self-assembled into a physical hydrogel through hydrophobic micelle network junctions, and then, in the second step, this self-assembled physical network structure was locked into place by photocrosslinking the terminal acrylate groups. In contrast to physical hydrogels, the photocrosslinked gels remained intact in phosphate buffered solution at body temperature. The swelling, degradation, and mechanical properties were characterized and demonstrated extended degradation time (~ 65 days), exponential decrease in modulus with degradation time, and tunable shear modulus (1.6 – 133 kPa) by varying concentration. We also discuss the various constitutive relationships (Hookean, Neo-Hookean, and Mooney-Rivlin) that can be used to describe the stress-strain behavior of these hydrogels. The chosen model and assumptions used for data fitting influences the obtained modulus values by as much as a factor of 3.5, demonstrating the importance of clearly stating one's data fitting parameters so that accurate comparisons can be made within the literature. PMID:18817440

  6. Predicting Software Test Effort in Iterative Development Using a Dynamic Bayesian Network


    Torkar, Richard; Awan, Nasir Majeed; Alvi, Adnan Khadem; Afzal, Wasif


    Projects following iterative software development methodologies must still be managed in a way as to maximize quality and minimize costs. However, there are indications that predicting test effort in iterative development is challenging and currently there seem to be no models for test effort prediction. This paper introduces and validates a dynamic Bayesian network for predicting test effort in iterative software devel- opment. The proposed model is validated by the use of data from two indu...

  7. Effort to Accelerate MBSE Adoption and Usage at JSC (United States)

    Wang, Lui; Izygon, Michel; Okron, Shira; Garner, Larry; Wagner, Howard


    This paper describes the authors' experience in adopting Model Based System Engineering (MBSE) at the NASA/Johnson Space Center (JSC). Since 2009, NASA/JSC has been applying MBSE using the Systems Modeling Language (SysML) to a number of advanced projects. Models integrate views of the system from multiple perspectives, capturing the system design information for multiple stakeholders. This method has allowed engineers to better control changes, improve traceability from requirements to design and manage the numerous interactions between components. As the project progresses, the models become the official source of information and used by multiple stakeholders. Three major types of challenges that hamper the adoption of the MBSE technology are described. These challenges are addressed by a multipronged approach that includes educating the main stakeholders, implementing an organizational infrastructure that supports the adoption effort, defining a set of modeling guidelines to help engineers in their modeling effort, providing a toolset that support the generation of valuable products, and providing a library of reusable models. JSC project case studies are presented to illustrate how the proposed approach has been successfully applied.

  8. Heart rate variability related to effort at work. (United States)

    Uusitalo, Arja; Mets, Terhi; Martinmäki, Kaisu; Mauno, Saija; Kinnunen, Ulla; Rusko, Heikki


    Changes in autonomic nervous system function have been related to work stress induced increases in cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Our purpose was to examine whether various heart rate variability (HRV) measures and new HRV-based relaxation measures are related to self-reported chronic work stress and daily emotions. The relaxation measures are based on neural network modelling of individual baseline heart rate and HRV information. Nineteen healthy hospital workers were studied during two work days during the same work period. Daytime, work time and night time heart rate, as well as physical activity were recorded. An effort-reward imbalance (ERI) questionnaire was used to assess chronic work stress. The emotions of stress, irritation and satisfaction were assessed six times during both days. Seventeen subjects had an ERI ratio over 1, indicating imbalance between effort and reward, that is, chronic work stress. Of the daily emotions, satisfaction was the predominant emotion. The daytime relaxation percentage was higher on Day 2 than on Day 1 (4 ± 6% vs. 2 ± 3%, p work time relaxation on the both Days. Chronic work stress correlated with the vagal activity index of HRV. However, effort at work had many HRV correlates: the higher the work effort the lower daytime HRV and relaxation time. Emotions at work were also correlated with work time (stress and satisfaction) and night time (irritation) HRV. These results indicate that daily emotions at work and chronic work stress, especially effort, is associated with cardiac autonomic function. Neural network modelling of individual heart rate and HRV information may provide additional information in stress research in field conditions. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd and The Ergonomics Society. All rights reserved.

  9. Measuring progress of collaborative action in a community health effort


    Vicki L. Collie-Akers; Stephen B. Fawcett; Jerry A. Schultz


    OBJECTIVE: To measure the progress made by the collaborative actions of multisectorial partners in a community health effort using a systematic method to document and evaluate community/system changes over time. METHODS: This was a community-based participatory research project engaging community partners of the Latino Health for All Coalition, which based on the Health for All model, addresses health inequity in a low-income neighborhood in Kansas City, Kansas, United States of America. Guid...


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Musat Carmina Liana


    Full Text Available During training processes, the human body gradually adapts itself, yet it is hard to believe that it has beenconceived in such way that it could endure the conditions of winning a modern Olympic or world medal. Withrespect to the physical effort, there is the following paradox: if the physical effort is acknowledged as a protector of the heart on the long term, then what causes these sports-related conditions that may result in sudden death?Thus arises the necessity of tracking and evaluating the cardiovascular risk targeting the professional sportsmen, their EKG fluctuations, the cardiovascular causes of sudden death, the part played by the physician and the sportsman in preventing the sudden death, as well as numerous clinical cases of sports cardiology

  11. Student Effort, Consistency and Online Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hilde Patron


    Full Text Available This paper examines how student effort, consistency, motivation, and marginal learning, influence student grades in an online course. We use data from eleven Microeconomics courses taught online for a total of 212 students. Our findings show that consistency, or less time variation, is a statistically significant explanatory variable, whereas effort, or total minutes spent online, is not. Other independent variables include GPA and the difference between a pre-test and a post-test. The GPA is used as a measure of motivation, and the difference between a post-test and pre-test as marginal learning. As expected, the level of motivation is found statistically significant at a 99% confidence level, and marginal learning is also significant at a 95% level.

  12. Comparative Analysis of VNSA Complex Engineering Efforts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gary Ackerman


    Full Text Available The case studies undertaken in this special issue demonstrate unequivocally that, despite being forced to operate clandestinely and facing the pressures of security forces seeking to hunt them down and neutralize them, at least a subset of violent non-state actors (VNSAs are capable of some genuinely impressive feats of engineering. At the same time, success in such endeavours is not guaranteed and VNSAs will undoubtedly face a number of obstacles along the way. A comparative analysis of the cases also reveals new insights about the factors influencing the decision to pursue complex engineering efforts, the implementation of such decisions and the determinants of the ultimate outcome. These result in a set of hypotheses and indicators that, if confirmed by future research, can contribute to both operational and strategic intelligence assessments. Overall, the current study enriches our understanding of how and why VNSAs might engage in complex engineering efforts.

  13. Some recent efforts toward high density implosions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McClellan, G.E.


    Some recent Livermore efforts towards achieving high-density implosions are presented. The implosion dynamics necessary to compress DT fuel to 10 to 100 times liquid density are discussed. Methods of diagnosing the maximum DT density for a specific design are presented along with results to date. The dynamics of the double-shelled target with an exploding outer shell are described, and some preliminary experimental results are presented

  14. Joint SatOPS Compatibility Efforts (United States)

    Smith, Danford


    This slide presentation reviews NASA Goddard Space Flight Center's (GSFC) participation in the interagency cooperation committee, the Joint SatOps Compatibility Committee (JSCC), and the compatible Sat 2 efforts. Part of GSFC's participation in the JSCC is to work with the Goddard Mission Systems Evolution Center (GMSEC) to provides a publish/subscribe framework to enable rapid integration of commercially available satellite control products.

  15. How do feelings influence effort? An empirical study of entrepreneurs' affect and venture effort. (United States)

    Foo, Maw-Der; Uy, Marilyn A; Baron, Robert A


    How do feelings influence the effort of entrepreneurs? To obtain data on this issue, the authors implemented experience sampling methodology in which 46 entrepreneurs used cell phones to provide reports on their affect, future temporal focus, and venture effort twice daily for 24 days. Drawing on the affect-as-information theory, the study found that entrepreneurs' negative affect directly predicts entrepreneurs' effort toward tasks that are required immediately. Results were consistent for within-day and next-day time lags. Extending the theory, the study found that positive affect predicts venture effort beyond what is immediately required and that this relationship is mediated by future temporal focus. The mediating effects were significant only for next-day outcomes. Implications of findings on the nature of the affect-effort relationship for different time lags are discussed.

  16. Changing reproductive effort within a semelparous reproductive episode. (United States)

    Hughes, P William; Simons, Andrew M


    • Life-history theory predicts a trade-off between current and future reproduction for iteroparous organisms-as individuals age, the expected value of future reproduction declines, and thus reproductive effort is expected to be higher in later clutches than in earlier. In contrast, models explaining the evolution of semelparity treat semelparous reproduction as instantaneous, with no scope for intraindividual variation. However, semelparous reproduction is also extended, but over shorter time scales; whether there are similar age- or stage-specific changes in reproductive effort within a semelparous episode is unclear. In this study, we assessed whether semelparous individuals increase reproductive effort as residual reproductive value declines by comparing the reproductive phenotype of flowers at five different floral positions along a main inflorescence.• Using the herbaceous monocarp Lobelia inflata, we conducted a longitudinal study of 409 individuals including both laboratory and field populations over three seasons. We recorded six reproductive traits-including the length of three phenological intervals as well as fruit size, seed size, and seed number-for all plants across floral positions produced throughout the reproductive episode.• We found that while the rate of flower initiation did not change, flowers at distal (late) floral positions developed more quickly and contained larger seed than flowers at basal (early) floral positions did.• Our results were consistent with the hypothesis that, like iteroparous organisms, L. inflata increases reproductive effort in response to low residual reproductive value. © 2014 Botanical Society of America, Inc.

  17. Prosocial apathy for helping others when effort is required. (United States)

    Lockwood, Patricia L; Hamonet, Mathilde; Zhang, Samuel H; Ratnavel, Anya; Salmony, Florentine U; Husain, Masud; Apps, Matthew A J


    Prosocial acts - those that are costly to ourselves but benefit others - are a central component of human co-existence1-3. While the financial and moral costs of prosocial behaviours are well understood4-6, everyday prosocial acts do not typically come at such costs. Instead, they require effort. Here, using computational modelling of an effort-based task we show that people are prosocially apathetic. They are less willing to choose to initiate highly effortful acts that benefit others compared to benefitting themselves. Moreover, even when choosing to initiate effortful prosocial acts, people show superficiality, exerting less force into actions that benefit others than themselves. These findings replicated, were present when the other was anonymous or not, and when choices were made to earn rewards or avoid losses. Importantly, the least prosocially motivated people had higher subclinical levels of psychopathy and social apathy. Thus, although people sometimes 'help out', they are less motivated to benefit others and sometimes 'superficially prosocial', which may characterise everyday prosociality and its disruption in social disorders.

  18. Effort-Reward Imbalance and Overcommitment in UK Academics: Implications for Mental Health, Satisfaction and Retention (United States)

    Kinman, Gail


    This study utilises the effort-reward imbalance (ERI) model of job stress to predict several indices of well-being in academics in the UK: mental ill health, job satisfaction and leaving intentions. This model posits that (a) employees who believe that their efforts are not counterbalanced by sufficient rewards will experience impaired well-being…

  19. Early College for All: Efforts to Scale up Early Colleges in Multiple Settings (United States)

    Edmunds, Julie A.


    Given the positive impacts of the small, stand-alone early college model and the desire to provide those benefits to more students, organizations have begun efforts to scale up the early college model in a variety of settings. These efforts have been supported by the federal government, particularly by the Investing in Innovation (i3) program.…

  20. Results of the Software Process Improvement Efforts of the Early Adopters in NAVAIR 4.0

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Saint-Amand, David C; Hodgins, Bradley


    .... The process improvement efforts described in this paper began in the 1990s and early 2000s. Their process improvement tool sets included the Capability Maturity Model, the Capability Maturity Model (CMM...

  1. Pioneering efforts to control AIDS. Review: IHO. (United States)

    Chatterji, A; Sehgal, K


    The Indian Health Organisation (IHO) is a nongovernmental organization based in Bombay with more than 12 years experience in HIV/AIDS prevention and control efforts. It has attacked ignorance and prejudice via communication efforts. IHO has created a bond with some hospital systems of Bombay. IHO disseminated information about HIV/AIDS in Bombay's red light districts and has bridged the gap between the city's medical establishment and the community most in need. IHO's aggressive street-level fighting in a sector replete with sensitive issues has somewhat isolated it from mainstream national NGOs involved in HIV/AIDS education and control as well as from the medical establishment and potential partners. IHO funds have been reduced, forcing IHO to reduce intervention programs and responses to field demands. It suffers from a high rate of turnover among middle management staff. IHO's chief advantage is its confidence gained over the past 12 years. IHO has clearly delineated the direction it wants to go: care and support programs for persons affected by HIV/AIDS and for commercial sex workers to allow them to quit prostitution, orphan care, and development of training institutions for the education and motivation of medical personnel on HIV/AIDS care and prevention. It plans to build a hospice for AIDS patients and orphans and a training center. Training activities will vary from one-week orientation programs to three-month certificate courses for medical workers, NGOs, and managers from the commercial sector. IHO is prepared to share its experiences in combating HIV/AIDS in Bombay in a team effort. As official and bilateral funding has been decreasing, IHO has targeted industry for funding. Industry has responded, which enables IHO to sustain its core programs and approaches. IHO observations show a decrease in the number of men visiting red-light districts. IHO enjoys a positive relationship with Bombay's media reporting on AIDS.

  2. Effort variation regularization in sound field reproduction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stefanakis, Nick; Jacobsen, Finn; Sarris, Ioannis


    In this paper, active control is used in order to reproduce a given sound field in an extended spatial region. A method is proposed which minimizes the reproduction error at a number of control positions with the reproduction sources holding a certain relation within their complex strengths......), and adaptive wave field synthesis (AWFS), both under free-field conditions and in reverberant rooms. It is shown that effort variation regularization overcomes the problems associated with small spaces and with a low ratio of direct to reverberant energy, improving thus the reproduction accuracy...... in the listening room....

  3. Smart FPA's: are they worth the effort? (United States)

    Leijtens, Johan; Theuwissen, Albert; Magnan, Pierre


    CMOS APS technology allows including signal processing in the sensor array. Inclusion of functionality however will come at a cost both financially and in the field of limited applicability. Based on two real world examples (micro digital sunsensor core and lightning flash detector for Meteosat Third Generation (MTG)) it will be demonstrated that large system gains can be obtained by devising smart focal planes. Therefore it is felt that the advantages outweigh the disadvantages for some applications, making it worth to spend the effort on system integration.

  4. Effort - Final technical report on task 3

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bay, Niels; Henningsen, Poul; Eriksen, Morten

    The present report is documentation for the work carried out at DTU on the Brite/Euram project No. BE96-3340, contract No. BRPR-CT97-0398, with the title Enhanced Framework for forging design using reliable three-dimensional simulation (EFFORTS). The objective of task 3 is to determine data...... on the tool/workpiece interface conditions. The task includes the following four sub-tasks: Subtask 3.1 Simulative testing of friction in cold forming Subtask 3.2 Simulative testing of friction in warm and hot forming Subtask 3.3 Validation of measured friction values by process tests Subtask 3.4 Heat...

  5. Analysis of efforts on a tubular chassis


    Pérez Ripa, Diego


    The objective of this project is to design a tubular chassis of a speed car, based on a earlier design of this type of car. When it is designed, the aim is to design it with a finite element program, in this case, is going to be used the software Abaqus, for after establish a method of calculation in a manner in which can be measured all the parameters, like deformations and stresses, suffered by the chassis submited to the efforts supported by the chassis in different situatio...

  6. Large uncertainty in carbon uptake potential of land-based climate-change mitigation efforts. (United States)

    Krause, Andreas; Pugh, Thomas A M; Bayer, Anita D; Li, Wei; Leung, Felix; Bondeau, Alberte; Doelman, Jonathan C; Humpenöder, Florian; Anthoni, Peter; Bodirsky, Benjamin L; Ciais, Philippe; Müller, Christoph; Murray-Tortarolo, Guillermo; Olin, Stefan; Popp, Alexander; Sitch, Stephen; Stehfest, Elke; Arneth, Almut


    Most climate mitigation scenarios involve negative emissions, especially those that aim to limit global temperature increase to 2°C or less. However, the carbon uptake potential in land-based climate change mitigation efforts is highly uncertain. Here, we address this uncertainty by using two land-based mitigation scenarios from two land-use models (IMAGE and MAgPIE) as input to four dynamic global vegetation models (DGVMs; LPJ-GUESS, ORCHIDEE, JULES, LPJmL). Each of the four combinations of land-use models and mitigation scenarios aimed for a cumulative carbon uptake of ~130 GtC by the end of the century, achieved either via the cultivation of bioenergy crops combined with carbon capture and storage (BECCS) or avoided deforestation and afforestation (ADAFF). Results suggest large uncertainty in simulated future land demand and carbon uptake rates, depending on the assumptions related to land use and land management in the models. Total cumulative carbon uptake in the DGVMs is highly variable across mitigation scenarios, ranging between 19 and 130 GtC by year 2099. Only one out of the 16 combinations of mitigation scenarios and DGVMs achieves an equivalent or higher carbon uptake than achieved in the land-use models. The large differences in carbon uptake between the DGVMs and their discrepancy against the carbon uptake in IMAGE and MAgPIE are mainly due to different model assumptions regarding bioenergy crop yields, and due to the simulation of soil carbon response to land-use change. Differences between land-use models and DGVMs regarding forest biomass and the rate of forest regrowth also have an impact, albeit smaller, on the results. Given the low confidence in simulated carbon uptake for a given land-based mitigation scenario, and that negative emissions simulated by the DGVMs are typically lower than assumed in scenarios consistent with the 2°C target, relying on negative emissions to mitigate climate change is a highly uncertain strategy. This article is

  7. Effort for payment. A tale of two markets. (United States)

    Heyman, James; Ariely, Dan


    The standard model of labor is one in which individuals trade their time and energy in return for monetary rewards. Building on Fiske's relational theory (1992), we propose that there are two types of markets that determine relationships between effort and payment: monetary and social. We hypothesize that monetary markets are highly sensitive to the magnitude of compensation, whereas social markets are not. This perspective can shed light on the well-established observation that people sometimes expend more effort in exchange for no payment (a social market) than they expend when they receive low payment (a monetary market). Three experiments support these ideas. The experimental evidence also demonstrates that mixed markets (markets that include aspects of both social and monetary markets) more closely resemble monetary than social markets.

  8. Indiscriminate polyandry and male parental effort. (United States)

    Fishman, Michael A; Stone, Lewi


    Extrapair paternity involves cooperation between mated females and extrapair males. On the other hand, mated males exhibit a spectrum of anti-cuckolding strategies. Hence, extrapair attributes of diverse species and populations reported in the literature are particular solutions of evolutionary games involving gender-specific cuckolding/anti-cuckolding strategies. Here we use game theoretical methods to study the effect of male paternal effort conserving strategies in situations where females seek extrapair fertilizations (EPF) for reasons of genetic compatibility and/or in pursuit of genetic diversity for their offspring. In such cases, females cannot make a pre-copulatory selection of the optimal genetic partners, and therefore combine promiscuous copulation with the use of in copula and/or post-copulatory selection mechanisms to optimize the genetic endowment of their offspring-indiscriminate polyandry. Our results indicate that, when indiscriminate polygamy is constrained by the availability of extrapair male partners, there are three possible (parameter regime wise) evolutionary stable strategy solutions. (1). All females seek EPF, while all males restrict parental care. (2). All females seek EPF, while all males are unconditionally parental. (3). Females use a combination strategy where pursuit of EPF is mixed-on either a population, or an individual level-with genetic monogamy, while all males use a conditional paternal care strategy, which involves adjusting their parental efforts according to their certainty of paternity.

  9. Regional Effort to Deploy Clean Coal Technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gerald Hill; Kenneth Nemeth; Gary Garrett; Kimberly Sams


    The Southern States Energy Board's (SSEB) 'Regional Effort to Deploy Clean Coal Technologies' program began on June 1, 2003, and was completed on January 31, 2009. The project proved beneficial in providing state decision-makers with information that assisted them in removing barriers or implementing incentives to deploy clean coal technologies. This was accomplished through two specific tasks: (1) domestic energy security and diversity; and (2) the energy-water interface. Milestones accomplished during the project period are: (1) Presentations to Annual Meetings of SSEB Members, Associate Member Meetings, and the Gasification Technologies Council. (2) Energy: Water reports - (A) Regional Efforts to Deploy Clean Coal Technologies: Impacts and Implications for Water Supply and Quality. June 2004. (B) Energy-Water Interface Challenges: Coal Bed Methane and Mine Pool Water Characterization in the Southern States Region. 2004. (C) Freshwater Availability and Constraints on Thermoelectric Power Generation in the Southeast U.S. June 2008. (3) Blackwater Interactive Tabletop Exercise - Decatur, Georgia April 2007. (4) Blackwater Report: Blackwater: Energy and Water Interdependency Issues: Best Practices and Lessons Learned. August 2007. (5) Blackwater Report: BLACKWATER: Energy Water Interdependency Issues REPORT SUMMARY. April 2008.

  10. Sidoarjo mudflow phenomenon and its mitigation efforts (United States)

    Wibowo, H. T.; Williams, V.


    Hot mud first erupted in Siring village, Porong, Sidoarjo May 29th 2006. The mud first appeared approximately 200 meters from Banjarpanji-1 gas-drilling well. The mud volume increased day by day, from 5000 cubic meters per day on June 2006 to 50,000 cubic meters per day during the last of 2006, and then increased to 100,000-120,000 cubic meters per day during 2007. Flow still continues at a high rate. Moreover, as the water content has gone down, the clast content has gone up. Consequently, there is now the threat of large amounts of solid material being erupted throughout the area. Also, there is the issue of subsurface collapse and ground surface subsidence. The Indonesian government has set up a permanent team to support communities affected by the mudflow that has swamped a number of villages near LUSI. Toll roads, railway tracks and factories also have been submerged and over 35,000 people have been displaced to date. The Sidoarjo Mudflow Mitigation Agency [SMMA, BPLS (Indonesia)] replaces a temporary team called National Team PSLS which was installed for seven months and ended their work on 7 April 2007. BPLS was set up by Presidential Regulation No. 14 / 2007, and it will have to cover the costs related to the social impact of the disaster, especially outside the swamped area. BPLS is the central government institution designated to handle the disaster by coordination with both the drilling company and local (provincial and district) governments. It takes a comprehensive, integrated and holistic approach for its mission and challenges. Those are: 1) How to stop the mudflow, 2) How to mitigate the impacts of the mudflow, and 3) How to minimize the social, economic, environmental impacts, and infrastructure impacts. The mudflow mitigation efforts were constrained by dynamic geology conditions, as well as resistance to certain measures by residents of impacted areas. Giant dykes were built to retain the spreading mud, and the mudflow from the main vent was

  11. 41 CFR 302-10.206 - May my agency assume direct responsibility for the costs of preparing and transporting my mobile... (United States)


    ... direct responsibility for the costs of preparing and transporting my mobile home? 302-10.206 Section 302... ALLOWANCES TRANSPORTATION AND STORAGE OF PROPERTY 10-ALLOWANCES FOR TRANSPORTATION OF MOBILE HOMES AND BOATS... responsibility for the costs of preparing and transporting my mobile home? Yes, your agency may assume direct...

  12. Common aspects and differences in the behaviour of classical configuration versus canard configuration aircraft in the presence of vertical gusts, assuming the hypothesis of an elastic fuselage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Octavian PREOTU


    Full Text Available The paper analyzes, in parallel, common aspects and differences in the behavior of classical configuration versus canard configuration aircraft in the presence of vertical gusts, assuming the hypothesis of an elastic fuselage. The effects of the main constructional dimensions of the horizontal empennage on lift cancelling and horizontal empennage control are being analyzed

  13. Mars Exploration Rovers Launch Contingency Efforts (United States)

    McGrath, Brian E.; Frostbutter, David A.; Parthasarathy, Karungulam N.; Heyler, Gene A.; Chang, Yale


    On 10 June 2003 at 1:58 p.m. Eastern Daylight Time (EDT) and 7 July 2003 at 11:18 p.m. EDT, two separate spacecraft/rovers were successfully launched to Mars atop a Delta II 7925 and Delta II 7925H, respectively. Each spacecraft/rover carried eight Light Weight Radioisotope Heater Units (LWRHUs) for thermal conditioning of electronics during the cold Martian nights. As a part of the joint National Aeronautics and Space Administration/U. S. Department of Energy safety effort, a contingency plan was prepared to address the unlikely events of an accidental suborbital reentry or out-of-orbit reentry. The objective of the contingency plan was to develop and implement procedures to predict, within the first hour, the probable Earth Impact Footprints (EIFs) for the LWRHUs or other possible spacecraft debris after an accidental reentry. No ablation burn-through of the heat sources' aeroshells was expected, as a result of earlier testing. Any predictions would be used in subsequent notification and recovery efforts. The Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory, as part of a multi-agency team, was responsible for prediction of the EIFs, and the time of reentry from a potential orbital decay. The tools used to predict the EIFs included a Three-Degree-of-Freedom (3DOF) trajectory simulation code, a Six-Degree-of-Freedom (6DOF) code, a database of aerodynamic coefficients for the LWRHUs and other spacecraft debris, secure links to obtain tracking data, and a high fidelity special perturbation orbit integrator code to predict time of spacecraft reentry from orbital decay. This paper will discuss the contingency plan and process, as well as highlight the improvements made to the analytical tools. Improvements to the 3DOF, aerodynamic database, and orbit integrator and inclusion of the 6DOF have significantly enhanced the prediction capabilities. In the days before launch, the trajectory simulation codes were exercised and predictions of hypothetical EIFs were produced

  14. Supporting Students as Scientists: One Mission's Efforts (United States)

    Taylor, J.; Chambers, L. H.; Trepte, C. R.


    NASA's CALIPSO satellite mission provides an array of opportunities for teachers, students, and the general public. In developing our latest plan for education and public outreach, CALIPSO focused on efforts that would support students as scientists. CALIPSO EPO activities are aimed at inspiring young scientists through multiple avenues of potential contact, including: educator professional development, student-scientist mentoring, curriculum resource development, and public outreach through collaborative mission efforts. In this session, we will explore how these avenues complement one another and take a closer look at the development of the educator professional development activities. As part of CALIPSO's EPO efforts, we have developed the GLOBE Atmosphere Investigations Programs (AIP). The program encourages students to engage in authentic science through research on the atmosphere. The National Research Council (NRC) has emphasized the importance of teaching scientific inquiry in the National Science Education Standards (1996, 2000) and scientific practice in the recent Framework for K-12 Science Education (2011). In order to encourage student-centered science inquiry, teacher training utilizing GLOBE Atmosphere Investigations and GLOBE's Student Research Process are provided to middle and high school teachers to assist them in incorporating real scientific investigations into their classroom. Through participation in the program, teachers become a part of GLOBE (Global Learning and Observations to Benefit the Environment) - an international community of teachers, students, and scientists studying environmental science in over 24,000 schools around the world. The program uses NASA's satellites and the collection of atmosphere data by students to provide an engaging science learning experience for the students, and teachers. The GLOBE Atmosphere Investigations program offers year-long support to both teachers and students through direct involvement with NASA

  15. The European fusion nuclear technology effort

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Darvas, J.


    The role of fusion technology in the European fusion development strategy is outlined. The main thrust of the present fusion technology programme is responding to development needs of the Next European Torus. A smaller, but important and growing R and D effort is dealing with problems specific to the Demonstration, or Fusion Power, Reactor. The part of the programme falling under the somewhat arbitrarily defined category of 'fusion nuclear technology' is reviewed and an outlook to future activities is given. The review includes tritium technology, blanket technology and breeder materials development, technology and materials for the protection of the first wall and of other plasma facing components, remote handling technology, and safety and environmental impact studies. A few reflections are offered on the future long-term developments in fusion technology. (orig.)

  16. Peru continues to press privitization efforts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)



    This paper reports that Peru has again extended the deadline for bids on a 30 year operating contract for state owned Petromar SA's offshore Block Z-2b. The tender is key to efforts to privatize Petromar, a subsidiary of state oil company Petroleos del Peru. The committee charged with implementing Petromar privatization extended the deadline for bids another 70 days Oct. 30, following a 60 day extension made in September. The latest deadline for bids is Feb. 10, with the contract expected to be awarded Feb. 26. A bid package on Block Z-2b is available from Petroperu's Lima headquarters for $20,000. Petromar operates the former Belco Petroleum Corp. offshore assets Peru's government expropriated in 1985. It currently produces 17,600 b/d, compared with 27,000 b/d at the time of expropriation

  17. KEK effort for high field magnets

    CERN Document Server

    Nakamoto, T


    KEK has emphasized efforts to develop the RHQNb3Al superconductor and a sub-scale magnet reaching 13 T towards the HL-LHC upgrade in last years. In addition, relevant R&D regarding radiation resistance has been carried out. For higher field magnets beyond 15 T, HTS in combination with A15 superconductors should be one of baseline materials. However, all these superconductors are very sensitive to stress and strain and thorough understanding of behaviour is truly desired for realization of high field magnets. KEK has launched a new research subject on stress/strain sensitivity of HTS and A15 superconductors in collaboration with the neutron diffraction facility at J-PARC and High Field Laboratory in Tohoku University. Present activity for high field magnets at KEK is reported.

  18. The present gravitational wave detection effort

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Riles, Keith


    Gravitational radiation offers a new non-electromagnetic window through which to observe the universe. The LIGO and Virgo Collaborations have completed a first joint data run with unprecedented sensitivities to gravitational waves. Results from searches in the data for a variety of astrophysical sources are presented. A second joint data run with improved detector sensitivities is underway, and soon major upgrades will be carried out to build Advanced LIGO and Advanced Virgo with expected improvements in event rates of more than 1000. In parallel there is a vigorous effort in the radio pulsar community to detect nHz gravitational waves via the timing residuals in an array of pulsars at different locations in the sky.

  19. Self-regulating the effortful "social dos". (United States)

    Cortes, Kassandra; Kammrath, Lara K; Scholer, Abigail A; Peetz, Johanna


    In the current research, we explored differences in the self-regulation of the personal dos (i.e., engaging in active and effortful behaviors that benefit the self) and in the self-regulation of the social dos (engaging in those same effortful behaviors to benefit someone else). In 6 studies, we examined whether the same trait self-control abilities that predict task persistence on personal dos would also predict task persistence on social dos. That is, would the same behavior, such as persisting through a tedious and attentionally demanding task, show different associations with trait self-control when it is framed as benefitting the self versus someone else? In Studies 1-3, we directly compared the personal and social dos and found that trait self-control predicted self-reported and behavioral personal dos but not social dos, even when the behaviors were identical and when the incentives were matched. Instead, trait agreeableness--a trait linked to successful self-regulation within the social domain--predicted the social dos. Trait self-control did not predict the social dos even when task difficulty increased (Study 4), but it did predict the social don'ts, consistent with past research (Studies 5-6). The current studies provide support for the importance of distinguishing different domains of self-regulated behaviors and suggest that social dos can be successfully performed through routes other than traditional self-control abilities. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved).

  20. Effort-Reward Imbalance and Post-Traumatic Stress After a Workplace Terror Attack. (United States)

    Hem, Camilla; Nielsen, Morten Birkeland; Hansen, Marianne Bang; Heir, Trond


    Following adverse work conditions, health consequences can be explained by an imbalance between the effort made and the reward received. We investigated the association between extra effort, perceived reward, and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). The Effort-Reward Imbalance Model was used to examine whether extra effort at work in the aftermath of a workplace-related terrorist attack affected the risk of PTSD and the effects of reward for extra effort from a leader or colleagues. Cross-sectional data were collected 10 months after a terrorist attack in Norway in 2011. Out of 3520 Ministry employees invited, 1927 agreed to participate. Employees reported any extra effort performed as a result of the bomb explosion and any reward received from a leader or colleagues. PTSD was assessed with the PTSD Checklist. Employees who reported extra effort displayed increased risk for PTSD (odds ratio [OR]=1.71, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.15-2.55, P=0.008). Perceived reward for extra effort from a leader was associated with lower risk for PTSD (OR=0.39, 95% CI: 0.23-0.64, P<0.001) but not perceived reward from colleagues. Extra effort may increase the risk of PTSD, but reward from a leader may mitigate this effect. The Effort-Reward Imbalance Model appears to be an appropriate approach that may contribute to understanding of the etiology of work-related PTSD.

  1. Dopamine, Effort-Based Choice, and Behavioral Economics: Basic and Translational Research. (United States)

    Salamone, John D; Correa, Merce; Yang, Jen-Hau; Rotolo, Renee; Presby, Rose


    Operant behavior is not only regulated by factors related to the quality or quantity of reinforcement, but also by the work requirements inherent in performing instrumental actions. Moreover, organisms often make effort-related decisions involving economic choices such as cost/benefit analyses. Effort-based decision making is studied using behavioral procedures that offer choices between high-effort options leading to relatively preferred reinforcers vs. low effort/low reward choices. Several neural systems, including the mesolimbic dopamine (DA) system and other brain circuits, are involved in regulating effort-related aspects of motivation. Considerable evidence indicates that mesolimbic DA transmission exerts a bi-directional control over exertion of effort on instrumental behavior tasks. Interference with DA transmission produces a low-effort bias in animals tested on effort-based choice tasks, while increasing DA transmission with drugs such as DA transport blockers tends to enhance selection of high-effort options. The results from these pharmacology studies are corroborated by the findings from recent articles using optogenetic, chemogenetic and physiological techniques. In addition to providing important information about the neural regulation of motivated behavior, effort-based choice tasks are useful for developing animal models of some of the motivational symptoms that are seen in people with various psychiatric and neurological disorders (e.g., depression, schizophrenia, Parkinson's disease). Studies of effort-based decision making may ultimately contribute to the development of novel drug treatments for motivational dysfunction.

  2. Elementary Students' Effortful Control and Academic Achievement: The Mediating Role of Teacher-Student Relationship Quality (United States)

    Hernández, Maciel M.; Valiente, Carlos; Eisenberg, Nancy; Berger, Rebecca H.; Spinrad, Tracy L.; VanSchyndel, Sarah K.; Silva, Kassondra M.; Southworth, Jody; Thompson, Marilyn S.


    This study evaluated the association between effortful control in kindergarten and academic achievement one year later (N = 301), and whether teacher–student closeness and conflict in kindergarten mediated the association. Parents, teachers, and observers reported on children's effortful control, and teachers reported on their perceived levels of closeness and conflict with students. Students completed the passage comprehension and applied problems subtests of the Woodcock–Johnson tests of achievement, as well as a behavioral measure of effortful control. Analytical models predicting academic achievement were estimated using a structural equation model framework. Effortful control positively predicted academic achievement even when controlling for prior achievement and other covariates. Mediation hypotheses were tested in a separate model; effortful control positively predicted teacher–student closeness and strongly, negatively predicted teacher–student conflict. Teacher–student closeness and effortful control, but not teacher–student conflict, had small, positive associations with academic achievement. Effortful control also indirectly predicted higher academic achievement through its positive effect on teacher–student closeness and via its positive relation to early academic achievement. The findings suggest that teacher–student closeness is one mechanism by which effortful control is associated with academic achievement. Effortful control was also a consistent predictor of academic achievement, beyond prior achievement levels and controlling for teacher–student closeness and conflict, with implications for intervention programs on fostering regulation and achievement concurrently. PMID:28684888

  3. Elementary Students' Effortful Control and Academic Achievement: The Mediating Role of Teacher-Student Relationship Quality. (United States)

    Hernández, Maciel M; Valiente, Carlos; Eisenberg, Nancy; Berger, Rebecca H; Spinrad, Tracy L; VanSchyndel, Sarah K; Silva, Kassondra M; Southworth, Jody; Thompson, Marilyn S

    This study evaluated the association between effortful control in kindergarten and academic achievement one year later ( N = 301), and whether teacher-student closeness and conflict in kindergarten mediated the association. Parents, teachers, and observers reported on children's effortful control, and teachers reported on their perceived levels of closeness and conflict with students. Students completed the passage comprehension and applied problems subtests of the Woodcock-Johnson tests of achievement, as well as a behavioral measure of effortful control. Analytical models predicting academic achievement were estimated using a structural equation model framework. Effortful control positively predicted academic achievement even when controlling for prior achievement and other covariates. Mediation hypotheses were tested in a separate model; effortful control positively predicted teacher-student closeness and strongly, negatively predicted teacher-student conflict. Teacher-student closeness and effortful control, but not teacher-student conflict, had small, positive associations with academic achievement. Effortful control also indirectly predicted higher academic achievement through its positive effect on teacher-student closeness and via its positive relation to early academic achievement. The findings suggest that teacher-student closeness is one mechanism by which effortful control is associated with academic achievement. Effortful control was also a consistent predictor of academic achievement, beyond prior achievement levels and controlling for teacher-student closeness and conflict, with implications for intervention programs on fostering regulation and achievement concurrently.

  4. Preparing for creative responses to “beyond assumed level” disasters: lessons from the ICT management in the 2011 Great East Japan earthquake crisis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihoko Sakurai


    Full Text Available A survey of the municipal government ICT divisions during and after the 2011 Great East Japan Earthquake and Tsunami crisis reveals the need for creative responses for “beyond assumed level” disasters. Complexity and diversity of the damage were simply too great for any plans to assume. Resident needs toward the municipal governments were also diverse and changed quickly as the time went by. The research also indicates that there would be ways to strengthen the capabilities to execute such spontaneous responses. Creative solutions executed during the 3.11 crisis were supported by the existence of open source software available on the net and skilled engineers that were capable of exploiting them. Frugal information system will be useful to improve preparedness for creative responses

  5. Investigation on the effects of different levels of effort and of the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    After effort control, the closed season is the most important management tool used to regulate fishing mortality in the South African jig fishery for chokka squid Loligo vulgaris reynaudii. The dynamics of the stock biomass on the spawning grounds were modelled in order to assess the effects of current effort levels and the ...

  6. Risk Aversion and Effort in an Incentive Pay Scheme with Multiplicative Noise: Theory and Experimental Evidence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    N.V. Zubanov (Nick)


    textabstractThe application of the classical "linear" model of incentive pay to the case when the noise is multiplicative to effort generates two predictions for a given strength of incentives: 1) more risk-averse workers will put in less effort, and 2) setting a performance target will weaken the

  7. Contemporary and emerging efforts on material degradation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andresen, Peter L.


    After decades of surprises and lost capacity in commercial nuclear power plants, there are major efforts throughout the world to address materials degradation proactively, although to date there has been vastly more paper studies than R and D. Proactivity requires sufficient knowledge and extrapolation/projection of prior and yet-to-be-observed degradation in reactors. This is complex because relatively subtle variations of conditions that gave rise to historical problems can reduce or enhance their incidence, and of course simple evolution vs. time leads to increased incidence. Problems not yet observed are even more difficult to assess, and extremes of opinion range from a vast array of imaginative potential degradation mechanisms to the view that if a problem has not yet surfaced in plant, then it won't be a future problem. Environmentally assisted cracking in high temperature water has been extensively studied. But it is sufficiently complex-involving dozens of important parameters - that important issues continue to emerge as careful studies have been performed. This paper summarizes a number of emerging issues, and highlights the need for improvements in experimental sophistication and for deeper probing into the nature and importance of these emerging issues. With sophisticated laboratory measurements that can reproduce plant conditions and degradation, it is reasonable to conclude that lab data can act as a preview of future field experience. (author)

  8. Slow growth efforts renewed in Iran. (United States)

    Aghajanian, A


    Iran's first population policy was developed under the Shah in 1967. Policymakers brought in with the Islamic Revolution of 1979, however, rejected much of the earlier regime's views on women and childbearing. During the Iran-Iraq war of 1980-88, large population size and rapid growth were seen as advantageous to the war effort. After the war, the government of Iran again began to voice concern about rapid population growth. The pragmatic and proactive approach taken by the government since 1988 may, indeed, accelerate a decline in fertility began in the late 1960s, but stalled in the 1980s. The following are examples of the new governmental attitude: the Iranian government announced March 1992 that it would begin importing Norplant and make it available along with other contraceptives at public clinics; last year, the government announced that the fourth child of a family would not be eligible for food rationing or nutritional supplements and other public child benefits; the Minister of Health in 1991 for the first time publicly encouraged male sterilization; and last fall, Iran conducted a special census of the population five years before the regular decennial census date of 1996. These actions represent dramatic policy changes on population growth and family planning in this country of 60 million, the largest and one of the fastest growing in the Middle East.

  9. Regionally Applied Research Efforts (RARE) Report titled " ... (United States)

    The traditional methodology for health risk assessment used by the U. S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is based on the use of exposure assumptions (e.g. exposure duration, food ingestion rate, body weight, etc.) that represent the entire American population, either as a central tendency exposure (e.g. average, median) or as a reasonable maximum exposure (e.g. 95% upper confidence limit). Unfortunately, EPA lacked exposure information for assessing health risks for New England regional tribes sustaining a tribal subsistence way of life. As a riverine tribe, the Penobscot culture and traditions are inextricably tied to the Penobscot River watershed. It is through hunting, fishing, trapping, gathering and making baskets, pottery, moccasins, birch-bark canoes and other traditional practices that the Penobscot culture and people are sustained. The Penobscot River receives a variety of pollutant discharges leaving the Penobscot Indian Nation (PIN) questioning the ecological health and water quality of the river and how this may affect the practices that sustain their way of life. The objectives of this Regional Applied Research Effort (RARE) study were to: (1) Develop culturally sensitive methodologies for assessing the potential level of exposure to contaminants that Penobscot Indian Nation tribal members may have from maintaining tribal sustenance practices; (2) Conduct field surveys and laboratory analysis on targeted flora and fauna for chemical expo

  10. STEM Education Efforts in the Ares Projects (United States)

    Doreswamy, Rajiv; Armstrong, Robert C.


    According to the National Science Foundation, of the more than 4 million first university degrees awarded in science and engineering in 2006, students in China earned about 21%, those in the European Union earned about 19%, and those in the United States earned about 11%. Statistics like these are of great interest to NASA's Ares Projects, which are responsible for building the rockets for the U.S. Constellation Program to send humans beyond low-Earth orbit. Science, technology, engineering, and mathematics students are essential for the long-term sustainability of any space program. Since the Projects creation, the Ares Outreach Team has used a variety of STEM-related media, methods, and materials to engage students, educators, and the general public in Constellation's mission. Like Project Apollo, the nation s exploration destinations and the vehicles used to get there can inspire students to learn more about STEM. Ares has been particularly active in public outreach to schools in Northern Alabama; on the Internet via outreach and grade-specific educational materials; and in more informal social media settings such as YouTube and Facebook. These combined efforts remain integral to America s space program, regardless of its future direction.

  11. Validated Predictions of Metabolic Energy Consumption for Submaximal Effort Movement.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George A Tsianos


    Full Text Available Physical performance emerges from complex interactions among many physiological systems that are largely driven by the metabolic energy demanded. Quantifying metabolic demand is an essential step for revealing the many mechanisms of physical performance decrement, but accurate predictive models do not exist. The goal of this study was to investigate if a recently developed model of muscle energetics and force could be extended to reproduce the kinematics, kinetics, and metabolic demand of submaximal effort movement. Upright dynamic knee extension against various levels of ergometer load was simulated. Task energetics were estimated by combining the model of muscle contraction with validated models of lower limb musculotendon paths and segment dynamics. A genetic algorithm was used to compute the muscle excitations that reproduced the movement with the lowest energetic cost, which was determined to be an appropriate criterion for this task. Model predictions of oxygen uptake rate (VO2 were well within experimental variability for the range over which the model parameters were confidently known. The model's accurate estimates of metabolic demand make it useful for assessing the likelihood and severity of physical performance decrement for a given task as well as investigating underlying physiologic mechanisms.

  12. The assessment of efforts to return to work in the European Union. (United States)

    Muijzer, Anna; Groothoff, Johan W; de Boer, Wout E L; Geertzen, Jan H B; Brouwer, Sandra


    Assessment of efforts to promote return-to-work (RTW) includes all efforts (vocational and non-vocational) designed to improve the work ability of the sick-listed employee and increase the chance to return to work. Aim of the study was to investigate whether in 13 European countries these RTW efforts are assessed and to compare the procedures by means of six criteria. Data were gathered in the taxonomy project of the European Union of Medicine in Assurance and Social Security and by means of an additional questionnaire. In seven countries RTW efforts are subject of the assessment in relation to the application for disability benefits. Description of RTW efforts is a prerequisite in five countries. Guidelines on the assessment of RTW efforts are only available in the Netherlands and no countries report the use of the ICF model. Based on the results of the additional questionnaire, the assessor is a social scientist or a physician. The information used to assess RTW efforts differs, from a report on the RTW process to medical information. A negative outcome of the assessment leads to delay of the application for disability benefits or to application for rehabilitation subsidy. RTW efforts are assessed in half of the participating European countries. When compared, the characteristics of the assessment of RTW efforts in the participating European countries show both similarities and differences. This study may facilitate the gathering and exchange of knowledge and experience between countries on the assessment of RTW efforts.

  13. Hearing Handicap and Speech Recognition Correlate With Self-Reported Listening Effort and Fatigue. (United States)

    Alhanbali, Sara; Dawes, Piers; Lloyd, Simon; Munro, Kevin J


    To investigate the correlations between hearing handicap, speech recognition, listening effort, and fatigue. Eighty-four adults with hearing loss (65 to 85 years) completed three self-report questionnaires: the Fatigue Assessment Scale, the Effort Assessment Scale, and the Hearing Handicap Inventory for Elderly. Audiometric assessment included pure-tone audiometry and speech recognition in noise. There was a significant positive correlation between handicap and fatigue (r = 0.39, p handicap and effort (r = 0.73, p handicap and speech recognition both correlate with self-reported listening effort and fatigue, which is consistent with a model of listening effort and fatigue where perceived difficulty is related to sustained effort and fatigue for unrewarding tasks over which the listener has low control. A clinical implication is that encouraging clients to recognize and focus on the pleasure and positive experiences of listening may result in greater satisfaction and benefit from hearing aid use.

  14. Quality-oriented efforts in IPD, - a framework

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreasen, Mogens Myrup


    It is generally expected that modern quality efforts like TQM and ISO9000 should deliver a sufficient framework for quality efforts in industrial companies. Our findings in Danish industry shows a fragmented picture of islands of efforts and a weak understanding of basic quality concepts between...... designers. The paper propose a framework for quality efforts, illustrated by simple metaphors....

  15. When can efforts to control nuisance and invasive species backfire? (United States)

    Zipkin, E.F.; Kraft, C.E.; Cooch, E.G.; Sullivan, P.J.


    Population control through harvest has the potential to reduce the abundance of nuisance and invasive species. However, demographic structure and density-dependent processes can confound removal efforts and lead to undesirable consequences, such as overcompensation (an increase in abundance in response to harvest) and instability (population cycling or chaos). Recent empirical studies have demonstrated the potential for increased mortality (such as that caused by harvest) to lead to overcompensation and instability in plant, insect, and fish populations. We developed a general population model with juvenile and adult stages to help determine the conditions under which control harvest efforts can produce unintended outcomes. Analytical and simulation analyses of the model demonstrated that the potential for overcompensation as a result of harvest was significant for species with high fecundity, even when annual stage-specific survivorship values were fairly low. Population instability as a result of harvest occurred less frequently and was only possible with harvest strategies that targeted adults when both fecundity and adult survivorship were high. We considered these results in conjunction with current literature on nuisance and invasive species to propose general guidelines for assessing the risks associated with control harvest based on life history characteristics of target populations. Our results suggest that species with high per capita fecundity (over discrete breeding periods), short juvenile stages, and fairly constant survivorship rates are most likely to respond undesirably to harvest. It is difficult to determine the extent to which overcompensation and instability could occur during real-world removal efforts, and more empirical removal studies should be undertaken to evaluate population-level responses to control harvests. Nevertheless, our results identify key issues that have been seldom acknowledged and are potentially generic across taxa

  16. IAEA Patient Protection Effort Reaches Key Milestone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)


    Full text: An International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) effort to help people track their radiation exposure from medical procedures achieved a significant milestone this week. The Agency received the final approval from a group of medical oversight organizations for the 'Joint Position Statement on the IAEA Patient Radiation Exposure Tracking', a set of principles to guide patient protection efforts at the sub-national, national, and international level. The joint statement endorses the IAEA's three-year-old Smart Card/SmartRadTrack project, which aims to help nations develop systems to track medical radiation procedures and radiation doses. The statement has been agreed by the World Health Organization (WHO), the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA), the European Society of Radiology (ESR), the International Organization for Medical Physics (IOMP), the International Society of Radiographers and Radiological Technologists (ISRRT), and the Conference of Radiation Control Program Directors, USA (CRCPD). 'This system is critical if the medical community is going to keep patients safe when they are being referred for more and more diagnostic scans. These scans, over the years, are made using more and more powerful machines', said Madan Rehani, Radiation Safety Specialist in the IAEA's Radiation Protection of Patients Unit. 'The tracking system will draw doctors' attention to previous radiological examinations, both in terms of clinical information and radiation dose and thus help them assess whether the 11th or 20th CT scan is really appropriate, whether it will do more good than harm.' Advances in radiation-based diagnostic technologies, such as the CT scan, have led to patients receiving such procedures more frequently. The convenience of CT with the added advantage of increased information has resulted in increased usage to the point that there are instances of patients getting tens of CT scans in a few years, not all of which may be justified, or getting CT

  17. 1996 Design effort for IFMIF HEBT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blind, B.


    The paper details the 1996 design effort for the IFMIF HEBT. Following a brief overview, it lists the primary requirements for the beam at the target, describes the design approach and design tools used, introduces the beamline modules, gives the results achieved with the design at this stage, points out possible improvements and gives the names and computer locations of the TRACE3-D and PARMILA files that sum up the design work. The design does not fully meet specifications in regards to the flatness of the distribution at the target. With further work, including if necessary some backup options, the flatness specifications may be realized. It is not proposed that the specifications, namely flatness to ±5% and higher-intensity ridges that are no more than 15% above average, be changed at this time. The design also does not meet the requirement that the modules of all beamlines should operate at the same settings. However, the goal of using identical components and operational procedures has been met and only minor returning is needed to produce very similar beam distributions from all beamlines. Significant further work is required in the following areas: TRACE3-D designs and PARMILA runs must be made for the beams coming from accelerators No. 3 and No. 4. Transport of 30-MeV and 35-MeV beams to the targets and beam dump must be studied. Comprehensive error studies must be made. These must result in tolerance specifications and may require design iterations. Detailed interfacing with target-spot instrumentation is required. This instrumentation must be able to check all aspects of the specifications

  18. Comparison of cardiovascular response to combined static-dynamic effort, postprandial dynamic effort and dynamic effort alone in patients with chronic ischemic heart disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hung, J.; McKillip, J.; Savin, W.; Magder, S.; Kraus, R.; Houston, N.; Goris, M.; Haskell, W.; DeBusk, R.


    The cardiovascular responses to combined static-dynamic effort, postprandial dynamic effort and dynamic effort alone were evaluated by upright bicycle ergometry during equilibrium-gated blood pool scintigraphy in 24 men, mean age 59 +/- 8 years, with chronic ischemic heart disease. Combined static-dynamic effort and the postprandial state elicited a peak cardiovascular response similar to that of dynamic effort alone. Heart rate, intraarterial systolic and diastolic pressures, rate-pressure product and ejection fraction were similar for the three test conditions at the onset of ischemia and at peak effort. The prevalence and extent of exercise-induced ischemic left ventricular dysfunction, ST-segment depression, angina pectoris and ventricular ectopic activity were also similar during the three test conditions. Direct and indirect measurements of systolic and diastolic blood pressure were highly correlated. The onset of ischemic ST-segment depression and angina pectoris correlated as strongly with heart rate alone as with the rate-pressure product during all three test conditions. The cardiovascular response to combined static-dynamic effort and to postprandial dynamic effort becomes more similar to that of dynamic effort alone as dynamic effort reaches a symptom limit. If significant ischemic and arrhythmic abnormalities are absent during symptom-limited dynamic exercise testing, they are unlikely to appear during combined static-dynamic or postprandial dynamic effort

  19. Running Head: Implementing Six Sigma Efforts (United States)

    Lindsay, Jamie Eleaitia Mae


    Six Sigma is an organization wide program that provides common set of goals, language, and methodology for improving the overall quality of the processes within the organization (Davis & Heineke 2004). Six Sigma main concern is for the customer. What will the customers want? Need? Six Sigma has a model that helps Sigma get implemented DMAIC model…

  20. Breaking the double-edged sword of effort/trying hard: Developmental equilibrium and longitudinal relations among effort, achievement, and academic self-concept. (United States)

    Marsh, Herbert W; Pekrun, Reinhard; Lichtenfeld, Stephanie; Guo, Jiesi; Arens, A Katrin; Murayama, Kou


    Ever since the classic research of Nicholls (1976) and others, effort has been recognized as a double-edged sword: while it might enhance achievement, it undermines academic self-concept (ASC). However, there has not been a thorough evaluation of the longitudinal reciprocal effects of effort, ASC, and achievement, in the context of modern self-concept theory and statistical methodology. Nor have there been developmental equilibrium tests of whether these effects are consistent across the potentially volatile early-to-middle adolescence. Hence, focusing on mathematics, we evaluate reciprocal effects models (REMs) over the first 4 years of secondary school (grades 5-8), relating effort, achievement (test scores and school grades), ASC, and ASC × Effort interactions for a representative sample of 3,144 German students (Mage = 11.75 years at Wave 1). ASC, effort, and achievement were positively correlated at each wave, and there was a clear pattern of positive reciprocal positive effects among ASC, test scores, and school grades-each contributing to the other, after controlling for the prior effects of all others. There was an asymmetrical pattern of effects for effort that is consistent with the double-edged sword premise: prior school grades had positive effects on subsequent effort, but prior effort had nonsignificant or negative effects on subsequent grades and ASC. However, on the basis of a synergistic application of new theory and methodology, we predicted and found a significant ASC × Effort interaction, such that prior effort had more positive effects on subsequent ASC and school grades when prior ASC was high-thus providing a key to breaking the double-edged sword. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  1. STAR Infrastructure Database: An effort to know each other

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mora, J.C.; Real, Almudena [Centro de Investigaciones Energeticas, Medioambientales y Tecnologicas - CIEMAT (Spain); Vesterbacka, Pia; Outola, Iisa [STUK - Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority (Finland); Barnett, Catherine; Beresford, Nick [Natural Environment Research Council - NERC-CEH (United Kingdom); Bradshaw, Clare [Stockholm University (Sweden); Skipperud, Lindis [Norwegian University of Life Sciences - UMB (Norway); Wilrodt, Christine; Steiner, Martin [Federal Office for Radiation Protection - BfS (Germany); Vanhoudt, Nathalie [Belgian Nuclear Research Centre SCK-CEN (Belgium); Komperoed, Mari [Norwegian Radiation Protection Authority - NRPA (Norway); Gurriaran, Rodolfo; Gilbin, Rodolphe; Hinton, Thomas [Institut de Radioprotection et de Surete Nucleaire - IRSN (France)


    Effort over the last decade to make radioecology stronger and sustainable within Europe crystallized in the creation of the European Radioecology Alliance. The first step for this integrative effort was the establishment of a network of excellence (NoE) under the EU FP7 Strategy for Allied Radioecology (STAR project which commenced in 2011. One of the project objectives was to share knowledge of European radioecological capabilities. To help achieve this, a register of these capabilities at each of the STAR laboratories has been created. An Infrastructure Database was designed and programmed using web 2.0 technologies on a 'wiki' platform. Its intended use was to identify what assets were held and where improvements could be made. Information collated includes an inventory of the radioanalytical or conventional equipment and methods, bio-informatics equipment and methods, sample and data archives held, and models and codes used. It also provides a summary of the radioecological expertise of the 170 radio-ecologists at STAR institutes whose knowledge is wide-ranging and encompasses: atmospheric dispersion, dosimetry, ecology, ecotoxicology, environmental radiation protection, environmental surveillance, foodstuffs, terrestrial, freshwater and marine radioecology, modelling, radiobiology and radionuclide analyses, emergency preparedness, education and training, amongst others. In 2013, the EU FP7 Coordination and implementation of a pan-European instrument for radioecology (COMET, project, involving the STAR partners and additionally one Japanese and two Ukrainian research institutes, was initiated. The capabilities of these additional partners will be added to the database in 2014. The aim of the database was to gather information to: - avoid duplication of effort and thereby increase efficiency, - improve synergy and collaboration between the STAR project partners and others involved in

  2. Self-ratings of materialism and status consumption in a Malaysian sample: effects of answering during an assumed recession versus economic growth. (United States)

    Jusoh, W J; Heaney, J G; Goldsmith, R E


    Consumers' self-assessments of materialism and status consumption may be influenced by external economic conditions. In this study, 239 Malaysian students were asked to describe their levels of materialism using Richins and Dawson's 1992 Materialism scale and status consumption using Eastman, Goldsmith, and Flynn's 1999 Status Consumption Scale. Half the students were told to respond assuming that they were in an expanding economy, and half as if the economy was in a recession. Comparison of the groups' mean scores showed no statistically significant differences.

  3. Linking customisation of ERP systems to support effort: an empirical study (United States)

    Koch, Stefan; Mitteregger, Kurt


    The amount of customisation to an enterprise resource planning (ERP) system has always been a major concern in the context of the implementation. This article focuses on the phase of maintenance and presents an empirical study about the relationship between the amount of customising and the resulting support effort. We establish a structural equation modelling model that explains support effort using customisation effort, organisational characteristics and scope of implementation. The findings using data from an ERP provider show that there is a statistically significant effect: with an increasing amount of customisation, the quantity of telephone calls to support increases, as well as the duration of each call.

  4. New Efforts to Identify Dark Matter (United States)

    Kohler, Susanna


    Could the dark matter in our universe be warm instead of cold? Recent observations have placed new constraints on the warm dark matter model.Whats the Deal with Cold/Warm/Hot Dark Matter?An example of cold dark matter: MACHOs, massive objects like black holes that are hiding in the halo of our galaxy. [Alain r]Nobody knows what dark matter is made of, but we have a few theories. The objects or particles that could make up dark matter fall into three broad categories cold, warm, and hot dark matter based on something called their free streaming length, or how far they moved due to random motions in the early universe.Neutrinos are an example of hot dark matter: very light particles with free streaming lengths much longer than the size of a typical galaxy. Cold dark matter could consist of objects like black holes or brown dwarfs, or particles like WIMPs all of which are very heavy and therefore have free streaming lengths much shorter than the size of a galaxy.Warm dark matter is whats in between: middle-mass particles with free streaming lengths roughly the size of a galaxy. There arent any known particles that fit this description, but there are theorized particles such as sterile neutrinos or gravitinos that do.Cumulative mass functions at z = 6 for different values of the warm dark matter particle mass mX. The shaded boxs on the left correspond to the observed number density of faint galaxies within different confidence levels. [Menci et al. 2016]Smoothing Out the UniverseThe widely favored model is lambda-CDM, in which cold dark matter makes up the missing matter in our universe. This model nicely explains much of what we observe, but it still has a few problems. The biggest issue with lambda-CDM is that it predicts that there should be many more small, dwarf galaxies than we observe.While this could just mean that we havent yet managed to see all the existing, faint dwarf galaxies, we should also consider alternative models the warm dark matter model chief

  5. Genetic programming as alternative for predicting development effort of individual software projects.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arturo Chavoya

    Full Text Available Statistical and genetic programming techniques have been used to predict the software development effort of large software projects. In this paper, a genetic programming model was used for predicting the effort required in individually developed projects. Accuracy obtained from a genetic programming model was compared against one generated from the application of a statistical regression model. A sample of 219 projects developed by 71 practitioners was used for generating the two models, whereas another sample of 130 projects developed by 38 practitioners was used for validating them. The models used two kinds of lines of code as well as programming language experience as independent variables. Accuracy results from the model obtained with genetic programming suggest that it could be used to predict the software development effort of individual projects when these projects have been developed in a disciplined manner within a development-controlled environment.

  6. The Determinants of Student Effort at Learning ERP: A Cultural Perspective (United States)

    Alshare, Khaled A.; El-Masri, Mazen; Lane, Peggy L.


    This paper develops a research model based on the Unified Theory of Acceptance and Use of Technology model (UTAUT) and Hofstede's cultural dimensions to explore factors that influence student effort at learning Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP) systems. A Structural Equation Model (SEM) using LISREL was utilized to validate the proposed research…

  7. Measuring progress of collaborative action in a community health effort

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vicki L. Collie-Akers


    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To measure the progress made by the collaborative actions of multisectorial partners in a community health effort using a systematic method to document and evaluate community/system changes over time. METHODS: This was a community-based participatory research project engaging community partners of the Latino Health for All Coalition, which based on the Health for All model, addresses health inequity in a low-income neighborhood in Kansas City, Kansas, United States of America. Guided by three research questions regarding the extent to which the Coalition catalyzed change, intensity of change, and how to visually display change, data were collected on community/system changes implemented by the community partners from 2009-2012. These changes were characterized and rated according to intensity (event duration, population reach, and strategy and by other categories, such as social determinant of health mechanism and sector. RESULTS: During the 4-year study period, the Coalition implemented 64 community/system changes. These changes were aligned with the Coalition's primary goals of healthy nutrition, physical activity, and access to health screenings. Community/system efforts improved over time, becoming longer in duration and reaching more of the population. CONCLUSIONS: Although evidence of its predictive validity awaits further research, this method for documenting and characterizing community/system changes enables community partners to see progress made by their health initiatives.

  8. [Reform efforts in dentistry - national and international approaches]. (United States)

    Kahl-Nieke, Bärbel; Vonneilich, Nico


    The Study of dentistry in Germany is in need of reform. The actual regulation on licensing dentists in Germany is from 1955, with the last changes made in 1993. Recently there have been different initiatives related to reform: a national catalogue of competency-based learning objectives in dental education (NKLZ), changes and stipulations in the respective rules relating to undergraduate curriculum in dental medicine, and an initiative of the Germany Ministry of Health to tackle and reorganize dental education in Germany.This article presents and reflects on these reform efforts in the context of actual teaching in Germany, Europe, and the United States.The reform process is an opportunity for dental education in German faculties of medicine. New dentistry programs are allowed at all faculties with model educational programs in medicine. Therefore, an example of actual reform efforts are presented based on the experiences of Hamburg. Research on dental educational programs revealed interesting approaches in dental education in other European faculties of medicine. Selected faculties were visited. These experiences led to the formulation of five main goals of reform: interdisciplinary study, problem- and symptom-based learning, early patient contact, science-based education, and communication training. The main goal is a dental education program designed along science-based, prevention-oriented, multidisciplinary, and individualized dental care that contributes to the life-long oral health of patients.

  9. MACCS2 development and verification efforts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Young, M.; Chanin, D.


    MACCS2 represents a major enhancement of the capabilities of its predecessor MACCS, the MELCOR Accident Consequence Code System. MACCS, released in 1987, was developed to estimate the potential impacts to the surrounding public of severe accidents at nuclear power plants. The principal phenomena considered in MACCS/MACCS2 are atmospheric transport and deposition under time-variant meteorology, short-term and long-term mitigative actions and exposure pathways, deterministic and stochastic health effects, and economic costs. MACCS2 was developed as a general-purpose analytical tool applicable to diverse reactor and nonreactor facilities. The MACCS2 package includes three primary enhancements: (1) a more flexible emergency response model, (2) an expanded library of radionuclides, and (3) a semidynamic food-chain model. In addition, errors that had been identified in MACCS version1.5.11.1 were corrected, including an error that prevented the code from providing intermediate-phase results. MACCS2 version 1.10 beta test was released to the beta-test group in May, 1995. In addition, the University of New Mexico (UNM) has completed an independent verification study of the code package. Since the beta-test release of MACCS2 version 1.10, a number of minor errors have been identified and corrected, and a number of enhancements have been added to the code package. The code enhancements added since the beta-test release of version 1.10 include: (1) an option to allow the user to input the σ y and σ z plume expansion parameters in a table-lookup form for incremental downwind distances, (2) an option to define different initial dimensions for up to four segments of a release, (3) an enhancement to the COMIDA2 food-chain model preprocessor to allow the user to supply externally calculated tables of tritium food-chain dose per unit deposition on farmland to support analyses of tritium releases, and (4) the capability to calculate direction-dependent doses

  10. Recent Ultrasonic Guided Wave Inspection Development Efforts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rose, Joseph L.; Tittmann, Bernhard R.


    The recognition of such natural wave guides as plates, rods, hollow cylinders, multi-layer structures or simply an interface between two materials combined with an increased understanding of the physics and wave mechanics of guided wave propagation has led to a significant increase in the number of guided wave inspection applications being developed each year. Of primary attention Is the ability to inspect partially hidden structures, hard to access areas, and treated or insulated structures. An introduction to some physical consideration of guided waves followed by some sample problem descriptions in pipe, ice detection, fouling detection in the foods industry, aircraft, tar coated structures and acoustic microscopy is presented in this paper. A sample problem in Boundary Element Modeling is also presented to illustrate the move in guided wave analysis beyond detection and location analysis to quantification

  11. Perceived effort for motor control and decision-making. (United States)

    Cos, Ignasi


    How effort is internally quantified and how it influences both movement generation and decisions between potential movements are 2 difficult questions to answer. Physical costs are known to influence motor control and decision-making, yet we lack a general, principled characterization of how the perception of effort operates across tasks and conditions. Morel and colleagues introduce an insightful approach to that end, assessing effort indifference points and presenting a quadratic law between perceived effort and force production.

  12. Recording from a Single Motor Unit During Strong Effort

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreassen, Steen; Rosenfalck, Annelise


    During strong voluntary effort it is rarely possible to identify the action potentials from single motor units. In large muscles the most selective recordings are obtained with bipolar wire electrodes. To elucidate this experimental finding we have calculated the extracellular field around a sing...... order or smaller than the diameter of the muscle fibers, and when iii) the center-line between the recording surfaces is oriented perpendicular to the direction of the muscle fibers....... muscle fiber from an intracellular muscle action potential. This model showed that the selectivity of a bipolar electrode is high provided: i) the diameter of the recording surfaces is less than half the diameter of the muscle fibers; ii) the center distance between the recording surfaces is of the same...

  13. Master Settlement Agreement (MSA) Spending and Tobacco Control Efforts (United States)

    Jayawardhana, Jayani; Bradford, W. David; Jones, Walter; Nietert, Paul J.; Silvestri, Gerard


    We investigate whether the distributions to the states from the Tobacco Master Settlement Agreement (MSA) in 1998 is associated with stronger tobacco control efforts. We use state level data from 50 states and the District of Columbia from four time periods post MSA (1999, 2002, 2004, and 2006) for the analysis. Using fixed effect regression models, we estimate the relationship between MSA disbursements and a new aggregate measure of strength of state tobacco control known as the Strength of Tobacco Control (SoTC) Index. Results show an increase of $1 in the annual per capita MSA disbursement to a state is associated with a decrease of −0.316 in the SoTC mean value, indicating higher MSA payments were associated with weaker tobacco control measures within states. In order to achieve the initial objectives of the MSA payments, policy makers should focus on utilizing MSA payments strictly on tobacco control activities across states. PMID:25506827

  14. Spatial assessment of fishing effort around European marine reserves: implications for successful fisheries management. (United States)

    Stelzenmüller, Vanessa; Maynou, Francesc; Bernard, Guillaume; Cadiou, Gwenaël; Camilleri, Matthew; Crec'hriou, Romain; Criquet, Géraldine; Dimech, Mark; Esparza, Oscar; Higgins, Ruth; Lenfant, Philippe; Pérez-Ruzafa, Angel


    We examined the spatial dynamic of artisanal fishing fleets around five European marine protected areas (MPAs) to derive general implications for the evaluation of MPAs as fisheries management tools. The coastal MPAs studied were located off France, Malta and Spain and presented a variety of spatial designs and processes of establishment. We developed a standardized methodology to define factors influencing effort allocation and to produce fishing effort maps by merging GIS with geostatistical modelling techniques. Results revealed that in most cases the factors "distance to the no-take", "water depth", and "distance to the port" had a significant influence on effort allocation by the fishing fleets. Overall, we found local concentration of fishing effort around the MPA borders. Thus, neglecting the pattern of fishing effort distribution in evaluating MPA benefits, such as spillover of biomass, could hamper sound interpretation of MPAs as fisheries management tools.

  15. Contested Spatial Coincidence of Conservation and Mining Efforts in

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mining appears to represent an important threat to conservation efforts in Madagascar. Expanding mining activities on the island have the potential to provide revenue for development and conservation efforts, but also pose a potential threat to conservation efforts on the island due to the spatial distribution and extent of ...

  16. Goal Setting and Expectancy Theory Predictions of Effort and Performance. (United States)

    Dossett, Dennis L.; Luce, Helen E.

    Neither expectancy (VIE) theory nor goal setting alone are effective determinants of individual effort and task performance. To test the combined ability of VIE and goal setting to predict effort and performance, 44 real estate agents and their managers completed questionnaires. Quarterly income goals predicted managers' ratings of agents' effort,…

  17. Discussion on the Scope of Legal Fictions to Assume Executives and Employees of Entrusted Agencies Are Civil Servants in the Application of Punishments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Sang-won; Jang, Gun-hyeon; Kim, Chang-beom; Go, Jae-dong; Ahn, Hyeong-jun; Rhyu, Jung; Chung, Sang-ki


    Article 122 of the Atomic Energy Act sets forth that 'executives and employees of an agency engaged in an entrusted work or its associated specialized agency, in the application of any punishment as per the Criminal Act or other laws, shall be regarded as civil servants,' stipulating that the scope of legal fictions to assume such persons are civil servants should be applicable to any punishment as per the Criminal Act or other laws. Accordingly, the executives and employees of an entrusted agency or its associated specialized agency are subject to the punishments not only for acceptance of graft but also for dereliction of duty or divulgence of classified information. In addition, they are also subject to increased punishment in accordance with other laws, for example, such special laws as Law Concerning Increased Punishment for Specified Crimes and Law Concerning Increased Punishment for Specified Economic Crimes

  18. Organ Perfusion for Uterus Transplantation in Non-Human Primates With Assumed Procurement of a Uterus From a Brain-Dead Donor. (United States)

    Kisu, I; Kato, Y; Yamada, Y; Matsubara, K; Obara, H; Emoto, K; Adachi, M; Umene, K; Nogami, Y; Banno, K; Kitagawa, Y; Aoki, D


    Clinical studies of uterus transplantation have been performed to treat uterine factor infertility. Because the uterus is a pelvic visceral organ, the method of perfusion for the procurement of vital organs from a brain-dead donor should be modified for removal of the uterus. Herein, we report the results of a preliminary study in cynomolgus monkeys of a new perfusion method for uterus transplantation with assumed procurement of a uterus from a brain-dead donor. Cynomolgus monkeys were used; thoracolaparotomy was performed on the donor. A perfusion catheter was then placed into the unilateral femoral artery and/or external iliac artery. Cross-clamping was performed for the aorta under the diaphragm and the inferior vena cava was divided in the pleural space. The perfusion solution was then administered via the catheter to perfuse all organs in the abdominal cavity, including those in the pelvic cavity. After the perfusion, gross observation and histopathological examination of abdominal organs were conducted. Gross findings showed that all abdominal organs turned white in all specimens, indicating favorable perfusion of the uterus and all other organs in the abdomen. Pathological findings showed that almost no hemocytes were observed in the vessels of each organ. With perfusion via the femoral artery and/or external iliac artery, all organs in the abdominal cavity, including the uterus, could be perfused. It was suggested that this technique could be useful for uterus transplantation assuming the procurement of a uterus from a brain-dead donor. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Effort assessment in the development of information systems projects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Živadinović Jovan


    Full Text Available There is a great lack of methods and techniques in the software development process itself, as well as the lack of the appropriate tools that would make it more efficient. The significance of the problem is repeatedly emphasized by the need to ensure a high quality of software and software-based systems. The main objective of this work is to develop and systematize the original formal procedure for assessing the development of information systems in the early stages of the software life cycle, through metrics of the data model. We calculate the metrics of data model by using data that can be read off from a base data model, which is represented with an Entity-Relationship (ER diagram that is defined with four basic concepts: entities, relationships, attributes of entities or relationships and values. The idea is to present the complexity of the process with a function of a number of these concepts and a number of attributes for entity types. Assessment techniques represent the basis for planning and successful performance of software projects. Statistical method was used in this paper and these assessment processes go under the category of empirical parametric methods, although they have some characteristics of the expert estimation method. A developed assessment process represents a step in the efforts to reach suitable measures which we would use to assess the size and complexity of the data model and also to estimate the amount of costs and resources necessary for the development of information systems. Likewise, certain metrics are developed. By being familiar with the data model, we can use these metrics to quantify characteristics of an information system as a whole in the logic design phase. Suggested metrics were tested on specific models and the results are shown here.

  20. Optimal pricing and promotional effort control policies for a new product growth in segmented market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jha P.C.


    Full Text Available Market segmentation enables the marketers to understand and serve the customers more effectively thereby improving company’s competitive position. In this paper, we study the impact of price and promotion efforts on evolution of sales intensity in segmented market to obtain the optimal price and promotion effort policies. Evolution of sales rate for each segment is developed under the assumption that marketer may choose both differentiated as well as mass market promotion effort to influence the uncaptured market potential. An optimal control model is formulated and a solution method using Maximum Principle has been discussed. The model is extended to incorporate budget constraint. Model applicability is illustrated by a numerical example. P.C. Jha, P. Manik, K. Chaudhary, R. Cambini / Optimal Pricing and Promotional 2 Since the discrete time data is available, the formulated model is discretized. For solving the discrete model, differential evolution algorithm is used.

  1. How much effort should be employed for surveying a low-diversity Amazonian mammal assemblage using line-transects?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ítalo Mourthé


    Full Text Available Line-transect surveys are commonly used for sampling large mammals, but estimates of the effort needed to reliably surveying low-diversity assemblages of mammals are scarce. Using data from line-transects and species accumulation curves, I examined whether or not a sampling effort previously suggested to survey mammals elsewhere (ca. 85-100 km would be satisfactory for surveying a low-diversity assemblage of large mammals in the Rio Negro basin in northern Amazonia. In total, 14 mammals were recorded after an accumulated effort of 690 km walked. The desired threshold of completeness was only achieved in one of six transects after an average effort of 115 km surveyed. Considering the entire landscape (all transects pooled, survey completeness was reached after a much higher effort. Moreover, the theoretical effort required to achieve completeness was estimated to be 150-360 km per transect, and 512 km for the landscape. Further studies are required to fully understand this issue, but meanwhile it is safest to assume that higher sampling efforts should be employed when surveying low-diversity assemblages through diurnal line-transects in northwestern Amazonia to get robust estimates of mammal richness.

  2. Software project effort estimation foundations and best practice guidelines for success

    CERN Document Server

    Trendowicz, Adam


    Software effort estimation is one of the oldest and most important problems in software project management, and thus today there are a large number of models, each with its own unique strengths and weaknesses in general, and even more importantly, in relation to the environment and context in which it is to be applied.Trendowicz and Jeffery present a comprehensive look at the principles of software effort estimation and support software practitioners in systematically selecting and applying the most suitable effort estimation approach. Their book not only presents what approach to take and how

  3. A Composite Contract for Coordinating a Supply Chain with Price and Effort Dependent Stochastic Demand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Shuang Liu


    Full Text Available As the demand is more sensitive to price and sales effort, this paper investigates the issue of channel coordination for a supply chain with one manufacturer and one retailer facing price and effort dependent stochastic demand. A composite contract based on the quantity-restricted returns and target sales rebate can achieve coordination in this setting. Two main problems are addressed: (1 how to coordinate the decentralized supply chain; (2 how to determine the optimal sales effort level, pricing, and inventory decisions under the additive demand case. Numerical examples are presented to verify the effectiveness of combined contract in supply chain coordination and highlight model sensitivities to parametric changes.

  4. Impact of Base Functional Component Types on Software Functional Size based Effort Estimation


    Gencel, Cigdem; Buglione, Luigi


    Software effort estimation is still a significant challenge for software management. Although Functional Size Measurement (FSM) methods have been standardized and have become widely used by the software organizations, the relationship between functional size and development effort still needs further investigation. Most of the studies focus on the project cost drivers and consider total software functional size as the primary input to estimation models. In this study, we investigate whether u...

  5. Maternal Parenting as a Mediator of the Relationship between Intimate Partner Violence and Effortful Control


    Gustafsson, Hanna C.; Cox, Martha J.; Blair, Clancy


    The current study examined the relationship between intimate partner violence (IPV), maternal parenting behaviors, and child effortful control in a diverse sample of 705 families living in predominantly low-income, rural communities. Using structural equation modeling, the authors simultaneously tested whether observed sensitive parenting and/or harsh-intrusive parenting over the toddler years mediated the relationship between early IPV and later effortful control. Results suggest that parent...

  6. Military efforts in nanosensors, 3D printing, and imaging detection (United States)

    Edwards, Eugene; Booth, Janice C.; Roberts, J. Keith; Brantley, Christina L.; Crutcher, Sihon H.; Whitley, Michael; Kranz, Michael; Seif, Mohamed; Ruffin, Paul


    A team of researchers and support organizations, affiliated with the Army Aviation and Missile Research, Development, and Engineering Center (AMRDEC), has initiated multidiscipline efforts to develop nano-based structures and components for advanced weaponry, aviation, and autonomous air/ground systems applications. The main objective of this research is to exploit unique phenomena for the development of novel technology to enhance warfighter capabilities and produce precision weaponry. The key technology areas that the authors are exploring include nano-based sensors, analysis of 3D printing constituents, and nano-based components for imaging detection. By integrating nano-based devices, structures, and materials into weaponry, the Army can revolutionize existing (and future) weaponry systems by significantly reducing the size, weight, and cost. The major research thrust areas include the development of carbon nanotube sensors to detect rocket motor off-gassing; the application of current methodologies to assess materials used for 3D printing; and the assessment of components to improve imaging seekers. The status of current activities, associated with these key areas and their implementation into AMRDEC's research, is outlined in this paper. Section #2 outlines output data, graphs, and overall evaluations of carbon nanotube sensors placed on a 16 element chip and exposed to various environmental conditions. Section #3 summarizes the experimental results of testing various materials and resulting components that are supplementary to additive manufacturing/fused deposition modeling (FDM). Section #4 recapitulates a preliminary assessment of the optical and electromechanical components of seekers in an effort to propose components and materials that can work more effectively.

  7. Agentic extraversion as a predictor of effort-related cardiovascular response. (United States)

    Kemper, Christoph J; Leue, Anja; Wacker, Jan; Chavanon, Mira-Lynn; Hennighausen, Erwin; Stemmler, Gerhard


    The present study examined an extraversion-based extension of the integrative model of cardiovascular effort regulation by Wright and Kirby [Wright, R.A., Kirby, L.D., 2001. Effort determination of cardiovascular response: an integrative analysis with applications in social psychology. In: Zanna, M.P. (Ed.), Advances in Experimental Social Psychology, Academic Press, San Diego, CA, pp. 255-307.]. This model explains cardiovascular effort reactivity in terms of task difficulty, ability appraisal, and success importance. Aggregate measures of cardiovascular variables (alpha-adrenergic, beta-adrenergic, and cholinergic activation components) were used to measure extraversion-based differences in effort. Subjects performed a sequential letter task (n-back verbal working memory task) with four levels of difficulty. Agentic extraverts (n=10) appraised their ability and happiness as significantly higher than introverts (n=10). Introverts showed the expected shark-fin shaped pattern of effort-related cardiovascular reactivity for the alpha-adrenergic and cholinergic activation components. Effort decreased after the moderately difficult 2-back task. Results provide first evidence for an extraversion-based extension of the model and are discussed with regard to mood and resource allocation as possible mechanisms.

  8. Controlling for varying effort in count surveys --an analysis of Christmas Bird Count Data (United States)

    Link, W.A.; Sauer, J.R.


    The Christmas Bird Count (CBC) is a valuable source of information about midwinter populations of birds in the continental U.S. and Canada. Analysis of CBC data is complicated by substantial variation among sites and years in effort expended in counting; this feature of the CBC is common to many other wildlife surveys. Specification of a method for adjusting counts for effort is a matter of some controversy. Here, we present models for longitudinal count surveys with varying effort; these describe the effect of effort as proportional to exp(B effortp), where B and p are parameters. For any fixed p, our models are loglinear in the transformed explanatory variable (effort)p and other covariables. Hence we fit a collection of loglinear models corresponding to a range of values of p, and select the best effort adjustment from among these on the basis of fit statistics. We apply this procedure to data for six bird species in five regions, for the period 1959-1988.

  9. On the analytical solution of the S{sub N} equation in a rectangle assuming an exponential exiting angular flux boundary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goncalez, Tifani T. [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul (PROMEC/UFRGS), Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil). Programa de Pos-Graduacao em Engenharia Mecanica; Segatto, Cynthia F.; Vilhena, Marco Tullio, E-mail: csegatto@pq.cnpq.b, E-mail: vilhena@pq.cnpq.b [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul (DMPA/UFRGS), Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil). Programa de Pos-Graduacao em Matematica Aplicada


    In this work, we report an analytical solution for the set of S{sub N} equations for the angular flux, in a rectangle, using the double Laplace transform technique. Its main idea comprehends the steps: application of the Laplace transform in one space variable, solution of the resulting equation by the LTS{sub N} method and reconstruction of the double Laplace transformed angular flux using the inversion theorem of the Laplace transform. We must emphasize that we perform the Laplace inversion by the LTS{sub N} method in the x direction, meanwhile we evaluate the inversion in the y direction performing the calculation of the corresponding line integral solution by the Stefest method. We have also to figure out that the application of Laplace transform to this type of boundary value problem introduces additional unknown functions associated to the partial derivatives of the angular flux at boundary. Based on the good results attained by the nodal LTS{sub N} method, we assume that the angular flux at boundary is also approximated by an exponential function. By analytical we mean that no approximation is done along the solution derivation except for the exponential hypothesis for the exiting angular flux at boundary. For sake of completeness, we report numerical comparisons of the obtained results against the ones of the literature. (author)

  10. Sewing needles in the abdominal cavity assumed to have been ingested and to have penetrated the GI tract 40 years ago: A case report. (United States)

    Yamaguchi, Naoya; Hiramatsu, Kazuhiro; Shibata, Yoshihisa; Yoshihara, Motoi; Aoba, Taro; Kamiya, Tadahiro; Koike, Yoshio; Fujita, Takeru; Maeda, Chikara; Ito, Kisuke; Kanbara, Yuichi; Nishimura, Motonobu; Kobayashi, Ryutarou; Dei, Hideyuki; Takimoto, Aitaro; Nonaka, Yukiko; Kato, Takehito


    A 60-year old woman had been hospitalized in a psychiatric hospital for 40 years for schizophrenia. An X-ray was performed when she fell, which showed needles in the abdominal field. After additional examinations and questioning, the patient was diagnosed with needles in the abdominal cavity, which were assumed to have been ingested and to have perforated the GI tract 40 years ago. They were removed by laparoscopic surgery. The needles were found in the omentum and near the left ovary. There were no inflammatory reactions around them. There have been previous reports about the removal of intra-abdominal foreign bodies, but foreign body reaction occurred in most of the reports. Our case had the longest period from ingestion of the foreign bodies to their removal. Laparoscopy and intraoperative fluoroscopy are useful for removing intra-abdominal foreign bodies because of their ability to help discriminate between structures and to navigate in real time. © 2017 Japan Society for Endoscopic Surgery, Asia Endosurgery Task Force and John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  11. An assumed mode method and finite element method investigation of the coupled vibration in a flexible-disk rotor system with lacing wires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, Shui-Ting; Huang, Hong-Wu [Hunan University, Changsha (China); Chiu, Yi-Jui; Yu, Guo-Fei [Xiamen University of Technology, Xiamen (China); Yang, Chia-Hao [Taipei Chengshih University of Science and Technology, Taipei (China); Jian, Sheng-Rui [I-Shou University, Kaohsiung (China)


    The Assumed mode method (AMM) and Finite element method (FEM) were used. Their results were compared to investigate the coupled shaft-torsion, disk-transverse, and blade-bending vibrations in a flexible-disk rotor system. The blades were grouped with a spring. The flexible-disk rotor system was divided into three modes of coupled vibrations: Shaft-disk-blade, disk-blade, and blade-blade. Two new modes of coupled vibrations were introduced, namely, lacing wires-blade and lacing wires-disk-blade. The patterns of change of the natural frequencies and mode shapes of the system were discussed. The results showed the following: first, mode shapes and natural frequencies varied, and the results of the AMM and FEM differed; second, numerical calculation results showed three influencing factors on natural frequencies, namely, the lacing wire constant, the lacing wire location, and the flexible disk; lastly, the flexible disk could affect the stability of the system as reflected in the effect of the rotational speed.

  12. Effort reward imbalance is associated with vagal withdrawal in Danish public sector employees

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eller, Nanna Hurwitz; Blønd, Morten; Nielsen, Martin


    The current study analyzed the relationship between psychosocial work environment assessed by the Effort Reward Imbalance Model (ERI-model) and heart rate variability (HRV) measured at baseline and again, two years later, as this relationship is scarcely covered by the literature....

  13. Greater effort increases perceived value in an invertebrate. (United States)

    Czaczkes, Tomer J; Brandstetter, Birgit; di Stefano, Isabella; Heinze, Jürgen


    Expending effort is generally considered to be undesirable. However, both humans and vertebrates will work for a reward they could also get for free. Moreover, cues associated with high-effort rewards are preferred to low-effort associated cues. Many explanations for these counterintuitive findings have been suggested, including cognitive dissonance (self-justification) or a greater contrast in state (e.g., energy or frustration level) before and after an effort-linked reward. Here, we test whether effort expenditure also increases perceived value in ants, using both classical cue-association methods and pheromone deposition, which correlates with perceived value. In 2 separate experimental setups, we show that pheromone deposition is higher toward the reward that requires more effort: 47% more pheromone deposition was performed for rewards reached via a vertical runway (high effort) compared with ones reached via a horizontal runway (low effort), and deposition rates were 28% higher on rough (high effort) versus smooth (low effort) runways. Using traditional cue-association methods, 63% of ants trained on different surface roughness, and 70% of ants trained on different runway elevations, preferred the high-effort related cues on a Y maze. Finally, pheromone deposition to feeders requiring memorization of one path bifurcation was up to 29% higher than to an identical feeder requiring no learning. Our results suggest that effort affects value perception in ants. This effect may stem from a cognitive process, which monitors the change in a generalized hedonic state before and after reward. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).

  14. Entrepreneurial Effort in the Theory of the Firm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Hudson


    Full Text Available This article develops a link between the theory of the firm and entrepreneurship theory to enable the study of employee entrepreneurial behaviour. First, we describe how incomplete contracts permit employee entrepreneurial effort in the theory of the firm. Next, we argue that emancipation offers an explanation for entrepreneurial effort that is not motivated by financial gain. Finally, we show how new technology creates conditions where the boundary of the firm may change and where entrepreneurial effort by employees may occur.

  15. Sharing Information among Various Organizations in Relief Efforts

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Costur, Gurkan


    .... An analysis is presented of the December 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami relief effort; specifically, how different organizations such as the military, United Nations, and non-governmental organizations...

  16. Healthy working days: The (positive) effect of work effort on occupational health from a human capital approach. (United States)

    Urtasun, Ainhoa; Nuñez, Imanol


    The neoclassic economic rationale has taken for granted that the effect of effort on health is negative. However, several studies in the field of occupational health and medicine claim that working is clearly better for health than non-working or being unemployed, as some psychological and physical condition may improve with work effort. This paper analyzes the effect of work effort on occupational health. The proposed human capital approach builds upon the classic economic perspective, that assumes a negative effect of effort on health, and extends it by allowing positive effects, as suggested by occupational researchers. Using a sample from 2010 of 20,000 European workers we find that, under adequate working conditions, the level of effort (measured in working hours) at which health starts to deteriorate is very high (120 h per week). However, if working conditions are not adequate, even a moderate effort (35 h per week) can harm workers health. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. The pharmacology of effort-related choice behavior: Dopamine, depression, and individual differences. (United States)

    Salamone, John D; Correa, Merce; Yohn, Samantha; Lopez Cruz, Laura; San Miguel, Noemi; Alatorre, Luisa


    This review paper is focused upon the involvement of mesolimbic dopamine (DA) and related brain systems in effort-based processes. Interference with DA transmission affects instrumental behavior in a manner that interacts with the response requirements of the task, such that rats with impaired DA transmission show a heightened sensitivity to ratio requirements. Impaired DA transmission also affects effort-related choice behavior, which is assessed by tasks that offer a choice between a preferred reinforcer that has a high work requirement vs. less preferred reinforcer that can be obtained with minimal effort. Rats and mice with impaired DA transmission reallocate instrumental behavior away from food-reinforced tasks with high response costs, and show increased selection of low reinforcement/low cost options. Tests of effort-related choice have been developed into models of pathological symptoms of motivation that are seen in disorders such as depression and schizophrenia. These models are being employed to explore the effects of conditions associated with various psychopathologies, and to assess drugs for their potential utility as treatments for effort-related symptoms. Studies of the pharmacology of effort-based choice may contribute to the development of treatments for symptoms such as psychomotor slowing, fatigue or anergia, which are seen in depression and other disorders. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. The effect of achievement goals on enjoyment, effort, satisfaction and performance. (United States)

    Puente-Díaz, Rogelio


    This study examined the effect of achievement goals and achievement emotions on sport satisfaction, performance and effort among competitive athletes. Participants were 200 athletes. Structural equation modeling was used to test the indirect effect of mastery-approach goals on satisfaction with sport experience and performance, the direct effect of mastery-approach goals on enjoyment and effort, the direct effect of performance-approach and performance-avoidance goals on performance, and the direct effect of mastery-avoidance goals on effort. Results showed a positive direct effect of mastery-approach goals on enjoyment and an indirect effect, through enjoyment, on satisfaction, performance, and effort. We did not find support for the hypothesized effect of performance-approach or performance-avoidance goals on performance. The applied implications of endorsing mastery-approach goals are discussed.

  19. Advancing Globally Integrated Logistics Effort 2017 Wargame Report (United States)


    September 2017 Dr. M. Webster Ewell, Jr. Director, Integration and Gaming Team Advanced Technology and Systems Analysis REPORT ...To) 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE (U) Advancing Globally Integrated Logistics Effort 2017 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER N00014-16-D-5003 Wargame Report 5b. GRANT...DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT A. Approved for public release: distribution unlimited. Advancing Globally Integrated Logistics Effort

  20. Systems Theory, Unity of Effort, and Military Leadership (United States)


    TITLE AND SUBTITLE Systems Theory , Unity of Effort, and Military Leadership 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER...PAGE Name of Candidate: Major Lisa Livingood Thesis Title: Systems Theory , Unity of Effort and Military Leadership Approved by

  1. Polio eradication efforts in regions of geopolitical strife: the Boko ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Polio eradication efforts in regions of geopolitical strife: the Boko Haram threat to efforts in sub-Saharan Africa. ... Targets of Boko Haram aggression in these zones include violence against polio workers, disruption of polio immunization campaigns, with consequent reduced access to health care and immunization.

  2. Student Organizations and Institutional Diversity Efforts: A Typology (United States)

    Kuk, Linda; Banning, James


    American higher education has become focused on increasing access and success for traditionally underrepresented populations. Despite the myriad of institutional efforts, attention has not been given to the role of student organizations in supporting these efforts. This article looks at the role campus student organizations can play within campus…

  3. Determinants of Tourists Information Search Effort: The Case of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The paper examines tourist information search effort prior to the visit to a selected destination. The focus was on identifying the key variables that influence the information search effort of Ghana's international visitors from the United States of America, the United Kingdom and Germany. The Dummy Multiple Regression ...

  4. Reviewing efforts in global forest conservation for sustainable forest ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The world's forests are in crisis - facing greater threats than ever before; and there is need to document efforts made in protecting them for effective forest resources management. The paper compiled and assessed from 1996-1998 a maiden report of the efforts of a leading world forest conservation Organization - the World ...

  5. 24 CFR 115.305 - Special enforcement effort (SEE) funds. (United States)


    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Special enforcement effort (SEE... Housing Assistance Program § 115.305 Special enforcement effort (SEE) funds. (a) SEE funds are funds that HUD may provide to an agency to enhance enforcement activities of the agency's fair housing law. SEE...

  6. Best-effort Support for a Virtual Seminar Room

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sharp, Robin; Todirica, Edward Alexandru


    This paper describes the RTMM Virtual Seminar Room, an interactive distributed multimedia application based on a platform with a simple middleware architecture, using best effort scheduling and a best effort network service. Emphasis has been placed on achieving low latency in all parts of the so...

  7. Does Confidence Predict Out-of-Domain Effort?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Prokudina, Elena; Renneboog, Luc; Tobler, Philippe


    Predicting worker’s effort is important in many different areas, but is often difficult. Using a laboratory experiment, we test the hypothesis that confidence, i.e. the person-specific beliefs about her abilities, can be used as a generic proxy to predict future effort provision. We measure

  8. Policies and Programmatic Efforts Pertaining to Fatherhood: Commentary (United States)

    Raikes, Helen; Bellotti, Jeanne


    The articles in this section focus attention on (1) the historical shift in policies that affect the young men of this nation (2) how fatherhood policies and programmatic efforts are expanding and (3) how fatherhood practices and policies could and perhaps should be expanded and elaborated further. These efforts are linked to a growing body of…

  9. Heuristics Made Easy: An Effort-Reduction Framework (United States)

    Shah, Anuj K.; Oppenheimer, Daniel M.


    In this article, the authors propose a new framework for understanding and studying heuristics. The authors posit that heuristics primarily serve the purpose of reducing the effort associated with a task. As such, the authors propose that heuristics can be classified according to a small set of effort-reduction principles. The authors use this…

  10. Development Efforts Of Oil Companies As Perceived By Rural ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... that the host communities are highly satisfied with companies' efforts (projects and services) to them. Based on these findings, recommendations were made. Key words: Oil producing communities; oil exploration/production; company's development efforts; Journal of Agriculture and Social Research Vol.4(1) 2004: 60-71 ...

  11. Repositioning Science Reform Efforts: Four Practical Recommendations from the Field (United States)

    Ness, Daniel; Farenga, Stephen J.; Shah, Vishal; Garofalo, Salvatore G.


    Appeals to reform science education by policy makers are not new phenomena. To be sure, while science reform efforts have been ongoing occurrences for nearly six decades, perpetual educational reform efforts as a whole have been evolving and gaining momentum in number for more than a century. The general motivation for continual reform appears to…

  12. Private Speech Moderates the Effects of Effortful Control on Emotionality (United States)

    Day, Kimberly L.; Smith, Cynthia L.; Neal, Amy; Dunsmore, Julie C.


    Research Findings: In addition to being a regulatory strategy, children's private speech may enhance or interfere with their effortful control used to regulate emotion. The goal of the current study was to investigate whether children's private speech during a selective attention task moderated the relations of their effortful control to their…

  13. Estimating Software Effort Hours for Major Defense Acquisition Programs (United States)

    Wallshein, Corinne C.


    Software Cost Estimation (SCE) uses labor hours or effort required to conceptualize, develop, integrate, test, field, or maintain program components. Department of Defense (DoD) SCE can use initial software data parameters to project effort hours for large, software-intensive programs for contractors reporting the top levels of process maturity,…

  14. 15 CFR 930.114 - Secretarial mediation efforts. (United States)


    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Secretarial mediation efforts. 930.114... MANAGEMENT FEDERAL CONSISTENCY WITH APPROVED COASTAL MANAGEMENT PROGRAMS Secretarial Mediation § 930.114 Secretarial mediation efforts. (a) Following the close of the hearing, the hearing officer shall transmit the...

  15. Mental Effort in Binary Categorization Aided by Binary Cues (United States)

    Botzer, Assaf; Meyer, Joachim; Parmet, Yisrael


    Binary cueing systems assist in many tasks, often alerting people about potential hazards (such as alarms and alerts). We investigate whether cues, besides possibly improving decision accuracy, also affect the effort users invest in tasks and whether the required effort in tasks affects the responses to cues. We developed a novel experimental tool…

  16. Effort reward imbalance, and salivary cortisol in the morning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eller, Nanna Hurwitz; Nielsen, Søren Feodor; Blønd, Morten


    Effort reward imbalance (ERI) is suggested to increase risk for stress and is hypothesized to increase cortisol levels, especially the awakening cortisol response, ACR.......Effort reward imbalance (ERI) is suggested to increase risk for stress and is hypothesized to increase cortisol levels, especially the awakening cortisol response, ACR....

  17. Men's Work Efforts and the Transition to Fatherhood. (United States)

    Astone, Nan Marie; Dariotis, Jacinda; Sonenstein, Freya; Pleck, Joseph H; Hynes, Kathryn


    In this paper we tested three hypotheses: (a) the transition to fatherhood is associated with an increase in work effort; (b) the positive association (if any) between the transition to fatherhood and work effort is greater for fathers who are married at the time of the transition; and (c) the association (if any) is greater for men who make the transition at younger ages. The data are from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1979 Cohort. The transition to fatherhood was associated with an increase in work effort among young unmarried men, but not for married men. Among married men who were on-time fathers, work effort decreased. Among childless men, the marriage transition was associated with increased work effort.

  18. Combining traditional dietary assessment methods with novel metabolomics techniques: present efforts by the Food Biomarker Alliance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brouwer-Brolsma, Elske M; Brennan, Lorraine; Drevon, Christian A


    FFQ, food diaries and 24 h recall methods represent the most commonly used dietary assessment tools in human studies on nutrition and health, but food intake biomarkers are assumed to provide a more objective reflection of intake. Unfortunately, very few of these biomarkers are sufficiently...... validated. This review provides an overview of food intake biomarker research and highlights present research efforts of the Joint Programming Initiative 'A Healthy Diet for a Healthy Life' (JPI-HDHL) Food Biomarkers Alliance (FoodBAll). In order to identify novel food intake biomarkers, the focus is on new...... food metabolomics techniques that allow the quantification of up to thousands of metabolites simultaneously, which may be applied in intervention and observational studies. As biomarkers are often influenced by various other factors than the food under investigation, FoodBAll developed a food intake...

  19. Stochastic models of technology diffusion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Horner, S.M.


    Simple stochastic models of epidemics have often been employed by economists and sociologists in the study of the diffusion of information or new technology. In the present theoretical inquiry the properties of a family of models related to these epidemic processes are investigated, and use of the results in the study of technical change phenomena is demonstrated. A moving limit to the level of productivity of capital is hypothesized, the exact increment is determined exogenously by basic or applied research carried on outside the industry. It is this level of latent productivity (LPRO) which fills the role of the ''disease'' which ''spreads'' through the industry. In the single advance models, LPRO is assumed to have moved forward at some point in time, after which an individual firm may advance to the limit by virtue of its own research and development or through imitation of the successful efforts of another firm. In the recurrent advance models, LPRO is assumed to increase at either a constant absolute or relative rate. The firms, in the course of their research and imitation efforts, follow behind LPRO. Using the methods of stochastic processes, it is shown that these models are equivalent to ergodic Markov chains. Based on an assumption of constant intensity of R and D effort, it is shown how the single and recurrent advance models reflect on Joseph Schumpeter's hypothesis that more concentrated industries tend to be more technologically advanced than less concentrated. The results corroborate the weakest version of the hypothesis: monopoly prices need not be higher than competitive prices.

  20. Trust and reciprocity: are effort and money equivalent?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iris Vilares


    Full Text Available Trust and reciprocity facilitate cooperation and are relevant to virtually all human interactions. They are typically studied using trust games: one subject gives (entrusts money to another subject, which may return some of the proceeds (reciprocate. Currently, however, it is unclear whether trust and reciprocity in monetary transactions are similar in other settings, such as physical effort. Trust and reciprocity of physical effort are important as many everyday decisions imply an exchange of physical effort, and such exchange is central to labor relations. Here we studied a trust game based on physical effort and compared the results with those of a computationally equivalent monetary trust game. We found no significant difference between effort and money conditions in both the amount trusted and the quantity reciprocated. Moreover, there is a high positive correlation in subjects' behavior across conditions. This suggests that trust and reciprocity may be character traits: subjects that are trustful/trustworthy in monetary settings behave similarly during exchanges of physical effort. Our results validate the use of trust games to study exchanges in physical effort and to characterize inter-subject differences in trust and reciprocity, and also suggest a new behavioral paradigm to study these differences.

  1. Trust and reciprocity: are effort and money equivalent? (United States)

    Vilares, Iris; Dam, Gregory; Kording, Konrad


    Trust and reciprocity facilitate cooperation and are relevant to virtually all human interactions. They are typically studied using trust games: one subject gives (entrusts) money to another subject, which may return some of the proceeds (reciprocate). Currently, however, it is unclear whether trust and reciprocity in monetary transactions are similar in other settings, such as physical effort. Trust and reciprocity of physical effort are important as many everyday decisions imply an exchange of physical effort, and such exchange is central to labor relations. Here we studied a trust game based on physical effort and compared the results with those of a computationally equivalent monetary trust game. We found no significant difference between effort and money conditions in both the amount trusted and the quantity reciprocated. Moreover, there is a high positive correlation in subjects' behavior across conditions. This suggests that trust and reciprocity may be character traits: subjects that are trustful/trustworthy in monetary settings behave similarly during exchanges of physical effort. Our results validate the use of trust games to study exchanges in physical effort and to characterize inter-subject differences in trust and reciprocity, and also suggest a new behavioral paradigm to study these differences.

  2. Characterization of reward and effort mechanisms in apathy. (United States)

    Bonnelle, Valerie; Veromann, Kai-Riin; Burnett Heyes, Stephanie; Lo Sterzo, Elena; Manohar, Sanjay; Husain, Masud


    Apathy is a common but poorly understood condition with a wide societal impact observed in several brain disorders as well as, to some extent, in the normal population. Hence the need for better characterization of the underlying mechanisms. The processes by which individuals decide to attribute physical effort to obtain rewards might be particularly relevant to relate to apathy traits. Here, we designed two paradigms to assess individual differences in physical effort production and effort-based decision-making and their relation to apathy in healthy people. Apathy scores were measured using a modified version of the Lille Apathy Rating Scale, suitable for use in a non-clinical population. In the first study, apathy scores were correlated with the degree to which stake (reward on offer) and difficulty level impacts on physical effort production. Individuals with relatively high apathy traits showed an increased modulation of effort while more motivated individuals generally exerted greater force across different levels of stake. To clarify the underlying mechanisms for this behavior, we designed a second task that allows independent titration of stake and effort levels for which subjects are willing to engage in an effortful response to obtain a reward. Our results suggest that apathy traits in the normal population are related to the way reward subjectively affects the estimation of effort costs, and more particularly manifest as decreased willingness to exert effort when rewards are small, or below threshold. The tasks we introduce here may provide useful tools to further investigate apathy in clinical populations. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  3. Are moods motivational states? A study on effort-related cardiovascular response. (United States)

    de Burgo, Joana; Gendolla, Guido H E


    Based on the mood-behavior-model (Gendolla, 2000), this study tested the idea that moods only have effects on effort mobilization in settings that directly call for this and in which people can thus use their moods as task-relevant information. Fifty university students were randomly assigned to a 2 (Mood: negative vs. positive) x 2 (Memorizing: intentional vs. incidental) x 2 (Time: mood induction vs. task performance) mixed model design. Effort mobilization was operationalized as systolic blood pressure (SBP) reactivity. As expected, in the intentional-memorizing condition, SBP reactivity was stronger in a negative mood than in a positive mood. Mood had no impact in the incidental-memorizing condition, which did not call for effort mobilization.

  4. What makes a reach movement effortful? Physical effort discounting supports common minimization principles in decision making and motor control. (United States)

    Morel, Pierre; Ulbrich, Philipp; Gail, Alexander


    When deciding between alternative options, a rational agent chooses on the basis of the desirability of each outcome, including associated costs. As different options typically result in different actions, the effort associated with each action is an essential cost parameter. How do humans discount physical effort when deciding between movements? We used an action-selection task to characterize how subjective effort depends on the parameters of arm transport movements and controlled for potential confounding factors such as delay discounting and performance. First, by repeatedly asking subjects to choose between 2 arm movements of different amplitudes or durations, performed against different levels of force, we identified parameter combinations that subjects experienced as identical in effort (isoeffort curves). Movements with a long duration were judged more effortful than short-duration movements against the same force, while movement amplitudes did not influence effort. Biomechanics of the movements also affected effort, as movements towards the body midline were preferred to movements away from it. Second, by introducing movement repetitions, we further determined that the cost function for choosing between effortful movements had a quadratic relationship with force, while choices were made on the basis of the logarithm of these costs. Our results show that effort-based action selection during reaching cannot easily be explained by metabolic costs. Instead, force-loaded reaches, a widely occurring natural behavior, imposed an effort cost for decision making similar to cost functions in motor control. Our results thereby support the idea that motor control and economic choice are governed by partly overlapping optimization principles.

  5. The relationship of IQ to effort test performance. (United States)

    Dean, Andy C; Victor, Tara L; Boone, Kyle B; Arnold, Ginger


    The relationship between IQ and nine effort indicators was examined in a sample of 189 neuropsychology clinic outpatients who were not in litigation or attempting to obtain disability. Participants with the lowest IQ (50-59) failed approximately 60% of the effort tests, while patients with an IQ of 60 to 69 failed 44% of effort indicators, and individuals with borderline IQ (70 to 79) exhibited a 17% failure rate. All patients with IQ test. Cutoffs for the Warrington Recognition Memory Test (Words) and Finger Tapping maintained the highest specificities in low IQ samples.

  6. Profitability and Farmers Conservation Efforts on Sustainable Potato Farming in Wonosobo Regency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liana Fatma Leslie Pratiwi


    Full Text Available It takes into account in potato farming sustainability, since it was recognised as a holticultural commodity for farmers’ subsistence in Wonosobo Regency. For the reason that farming land was being degraded by errossion, the potato productivity apparently continued to decline. Potato farming sustainability can be deliberated from economic (profitability and environmental (conservation efforts points of view in order to remain profitable in a long term sustainable environment. This study is aimed to (1 to analyse the profitability of potato farming; (2 to analyse farmers’ effort on soil conservation and factors which affected sustainability of potato farming. The method used in this study was basic descriptive analysis. The study site was in Kejajar District, Wonosobo Regency, subsequently 50 random farmers as respondences was obtained. Gross Margin, Return on Invested Capital, and Operating Ratio were used to measure the profitability of potato farming. Conservation Activity Index (CAI was used to measure farmers’ effort on soil conservation, while paired liner regression model with Ordinary Least Square (OLS method was used to understand the factors which affected the conservation efforts of test sites. The study results revealed that the potato farming was profitable. Farmers conservation efforts mostly was in average category (74%, and only view in high category (16% and low category (10%. Factors affected the farmers conservation efforts i.e. land area, potato products, potato price, the off-farm income, number of family members, farmers ages, and village dummy.

  7. Monetary incentive moderates the effect of implicit fear on effort-related cardiovascular response. (United States)

    Chatelain, Mathieu; Gendolla, Guido H E


    Integrating the implicit-affect-primes-effort model (Gendolla, 2012, 2015) with the principles of motivational intensity theory (Brehm & Self, 1989) we investigated if the effort mobilization deficit observed in people exposed to fear primes (vs. anger primes) in a difficult short-term memory task could be compensated by high monetary incentive. Effort was operationalized as cardiac response. We expected that fear primes should lead to the strongest cardiac pre-ejection period (PEP) reactivity when incentive was high (high subjective demand and high justified effort) and to the weakest response when incentive was low (high subjective demand but only low justified effort). PEP reactivity in the anger-prime conditions should fall in between (high but feasible demand). We obtained the predicted pattern on responses of PEP and systolic blood pressure. The present findings show for the first time that the effort mobilization deficit of participants exposed to fear primes in a difficult cognitive task could be compensated by a high incentive. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Modeling the effect of pollution on biological species: A socio-ecological problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Dubey


    Full Text Available In this paper, a nonlinear spatial model is proposed and analyzed to study the effect of pollution on biological population. It is assumed that the pollutants enter into the environment not directly by the population but by a precursor produced by the population itself. It is further assumed that larger the population, faster the precursor is produced, and larger the precursor, faster the pollutant is produced. Criteria for nonlinear stability and instability for both spatial and non-spatial models are obtained. The various parameter ranges for stable homogeneous solutions are identified. By the simulation experiments, it is observed that by applying an appropriate effort F, the population density P can be maintained at a higher equilibrium level. It is also shown that the equilibrium level of the concentration of precursor pollutant, concentration of pollutant in the environment and in the population decrease due to the effort F.

  9. Combined Sales Effort and Inventory Control under Demand Uncertainty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weili Xue


    Full Text Available We study the joint inventory and sales effort management problems of a retailer in a broad context and investigate the optimal policies for a single item, periodic-review system. In each period, the demand is uncertain depending on the sales effort level exerted by the retailer, which incurs an associated cost. The retailer’s objective is to find a joint optimal inventory replenishment and sales effort policy to maximize the discounted profit over a finite horizon. We first consider a basic setting with zero setup cost and no batch ordering, under which the base stock list sales effort policy is optimal. Two extensions are then investigated: (1 the case with nonzero setup cost, under which we show that (s,S,e policy is optimal; and (2 the case with batch ordering, under which we prove the optimality of the (r,Nq,e policy. Finally, we conduct numerical studies to provide additional managerial insights.

  10. Response effort discounts the subjective value of rewards. (United States)

    Nishiyama, Ryoji


    Factors associated with obtaining a reward, such as a temporal delay in receiving the reward, can influence the subjective value of the reward. Cognitive as well as physical response effort is also known to influence choice behaviors. The present study used hypothetical situations to assess whether response effort affects the subjective value of rewards. The results demonstrated that increasing response effort increases the amount of money that participants are willing to forgo to avoid engaging in work. An exponential as well as hyperbolic function provided a good fit for such discounting. The findings suggest that response effort discounts the subjective value of a reward as a function of its amount. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Normal muscle strength and fatigability in patients with effort syndromes. (United States)

    Stokes, M J; Cooper, R G; Edwards, R H


    To examine fatigue mechanisms in an unselected series of patients with excess fatigue ("effort syndromes") their muscle function was compared with that of normal subjects. Voluntary performance was assessed with a cycle ergometer to exhaustion and by maximal isometric contractions of the quadriceps femoris. The mean maximal heart rate in patients during ergometry was 89% of the predicted rate, and quadriceps strength was either normal or was inappropriate for the available muscle, which suggested submaximal effort. Contractile performance was examined in the absence of volition with stimulated contractions of the adductor pollicis. During stimulated fatiguing activity patients were neither weaker nor more fatigable than controls; thus the excess fatigue experienced by the patients was not due to a defect of the contractile apparatus. The increased perception of effort must therefore be due to impairment of central rather than peripheral mechanisms. The optimal approach to treatment of effort syndromes combines physical and psychological techniques.

  12. Military Transformation: Issues for Congress and Status of Effort

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    DeSerisy, Lloyd D


    This report assesses the status of military transformation across the Department of Defense and indicates issues of potential interest to Congress Other CRS reports focus on individual Service efforts...

  13. Transatlantic Armaments Cooperation: Is It Worth the Effort?

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Brouse, Steven


    .... Taking a closer look however one discovers that the countries of Europe are essentially struggling to find some middle ground in their attempts to consolidate their defense armaments efforts towards...

  14. 48 CFR 35.009 - Subcontracting research and development effort. (United States)


    ... technical or scientific work without the contracting officer's advance knowledge. During the negotiation of... development effort (see also 35.007(c)). Also when negotiating a fixed-price contract, the contracting officer...

  15. NUCLEAR NONPROLIFERATION: U.S. Efforts to Combat Nuclear Smuggling

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library


    ...) information about efforts to combat nuclear smuggling at U.S. borders. My statement today is based on the results of our May 16, 2002, report on this subject1 and information we obtained from the U.S...

  16. Cognitive dissonance in children: justification of effort or contrast? (United States)

    Alessandri, Jérôme; Darcheville, Jean-Claude; Zentall, Thomas R


    Justification of effort is a form of cognitive dissonance in which the subjective value of an outcome is directly related to the effort that went into obtaining it. However, it is likely that in social contexts (such as the requirements for joining a group) an inference can be made (perhaps incorrectly) that an outcome that requires greater effort to obtain in fact has greater value. Here we present evidence that a cognitive dissonance effect can be found in children under conditions that offer better control for the social value of the outcome. This effect is quite similar to contrast effects that recently have been studied in animals. We suggest that contrast between the effort required to obtain the outcome and the outcome itself provides a more parsimonious account of this phenomenon and perhaps other related cognitive dissonance phenomena as well. Research will be needed to identify cognitive dissonance processes that are different from contrast effects of this kind.

  17. Manage changes in the requirements definition through a collaborative effort

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Joseph-Malherbe, S


    Full Text Available Updating or changing the requirements statement during the systems engineering process may impact adversely on project parameters such as sequence, dependencies, effort, and duration of tasks, usually with an increase in development time and cost...

  18. Experiences with Two Reliability Data Collection Efforts (Presentation)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sheng, S.; Lantz, E.


    This presentation, given by NREL at the Wind Reliability Experts Meeting in Albuquerque, New Mexico, outlines the causes of wind plant operational expenditures and gearbox failures and describes NREL's efforts to create a gearbox failure database.

  19. Students Collaborating to Undertake Tracking Efforts for Sturgeon(SCUTES) (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Students Collaborating to Undertake Tracking Efforts for Sturgeon (SCUTES) is a collaboration between NOAA Fisheries, sturgeon researchers, and teachers/educators in...

  20. Activational and effort-related aspects of motivation: neural mechanisms and implications for psychopathology. (United States)

    Salamone, John D; Yohn, Samantha E; López-Cruz, Laura; San Miguel, Noemí; Correa, Mercè


    Motivation has been defined as the process that allows organisms to regulate their internal and external environment, and control the probability, proximity and availability of stimuli. As such, motivation is a complex process that is critical for survival, which involves multiple behavioural functions mediated by a number of interacting neural circuits. Classical theories of motivation suggest that there are both directional and activational aspects of motivation, and activational aspects (i.e. speed and vigour of both the instigation and persistence of behaviour) are critical for enabling organisms to overcome work-related obstacles or constraints that separate them from significant stimuli. The present review discusses the role of brain dopamine and related circuits in behavioural activation, exertion of effort in instrumental behaviour, and effort-related decision-making, based upon both animal and human studies. Impairments in behavioural activation and effort-related aspects of motivation are associated with psychiatric symptoms such as anergia, fatigue, lassitude and psychomotor retardation, which cross multiple pathologies, including depression, schizophrenia, and Parkinson's disease. Therefore, this review also attempts to provide an interdisciplinary approach that integrates findings from basic behavioural neuroscience, behavioural economics, clinical neuropsychology, psychiatry, and neurology, to provide a coherent framework for future research and theory in this critical field. Although dopamine systems are a critical part of the brain circuitry regulating behavioural activation, exertion of effort, and effort-related decision-making, mesolimbic dopamine is only one part of a distributed circuitry that includes multiple neurotransmitters and brain areas. Overall, there is a striking similarity between the brain areas involved in behavioural activation and effort-related processes in rodents and in humans. Animal models of effort-related decision

  1. Shell Inspection History and Current CMM Inspection Efforts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Montano, Joshua Daniel [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)


    The following report provides a review of past and current CMM Shell Inspection efforts. Calibration of the Sheffield rotary contour gauge has expired and the primary inspector, Matthew Naranjo, has retired. Efforts within the Inspection team are transitioning from maintaining and training new inspectors on Sheffield to off-the-shelf CMM technology. Although inspection of a shell has many requirements, the scope of the data presented in this report focuses on the inner contour, outer contour, radial wall thickness and mass comparisons.



    BAYAZIT, Zeynep; PANAYIRCI, Uğur Cevdet


    Contemporary social and technological changes inevitably affect consumer behaviour. Today’s customer is savvy, have no time and hard to persuade. This new relationship between customers and brands has a deeper impact on competitive industries such as fashion. Fashion brands are eager to adopt shocking themes for their marketing communication efforts in order to emotionally affect and challenge consumers. Aim of this study is to study with a critical perspective the advertisement efforts of fa...

  3. Predictive and Stochastic Approach for Software Effort Estimation


    Srinivasa Rao T.; Hari CH.V.M.K.; Prasad Reddy P.V.G.D


    Software cost Estimation is the process of predicting the amount of time (Effort) required to build a software system. The primary reason for cost estimation is to enable the client or the developer to perform a cost-benefit analysis. Effort Estimations are determined in terms of person-months, which can be translated into actual dollar cost. The accuracy of the estimate will be depending on the amount of accurate information of the final product. Specification with uncertainty represents a r...

  4. Measuring the Cognitive Effort of Literal Translation Processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schaeffer, Moritz; Carl, Michael


    It has been claimed that human translators rely on some sort of literal translation equivalences to produce translations and to check their validity. More effort would be required if translations are less literal. However, to our knowledge, there is no established metric to measure and quantify...... this claim. This paper attempts to bridge this gap by introducing a metric for measuring literality of translations and assesses the effort that is observed when translators produce translations which deviate from the introduced literality definition....

  5. Male reed buntings do not adjust parental effort in relation to extrapair paternity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bouwman, KM; Lessells, CM; Komdeur, J; Lessells, C(Kate). M.

    Parental effort is considered to be costly; therefore, males are expected to provide less care to unrelated offspring. Theoretical models suggest that males should either reduce their care to the entire brood or alternatively distinguish between related and unrelated nestlings and direct

  6. Male reed buntings do not adjust parental effort in relation to extrapair paternity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bouwman, K.M.; Lessells, C.M.; Komdeur, J.


    Parental effort is considered to be costly; therefore, males are expected to provide less care to unrelated offspring. Theoretical models suggest that males should either reduce their care to the entire brood or alternatively distinguish between related and unrelated nestlings and direct

  7. Simulating Galaxies and Active Galactic Nuclei in the LSST Image Simulation Effort

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pizagno II, Jim; Ahmad, Z.; Bankert, J.; Bard, D.; Connolly, A.; Chang, C.; Gibson, R. R.; Gilmore, K.; Grace, E.; Hannel, M.; Jernigan, J. G.; Jones, L.; Kahn, S. M.; Krughoff, S. K.; Lorenz, S.; Marshall, S.; Shmakova, S. M.; Sylvestri, N.; Todd, N.; Young, M.

    We present an extragalactic source catalog, which includes galaxies and Active Galactic Nuclei, that is used for the Large Survey Synoptic Telescope Imaging Simulation effort. The galaxies are taken from the De Lucia et. al. (2006) semi-analytic modeling (SAM) of the Millennium Simulation. The LSST

  8. Solving Ratio-Dependent Predatorprey System with Constant Effort Harvesting Using Variational Iteration Method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ghotbi, Abdoul R; Barari, Amin


    Due to wide range of interest in use of bio-economic models to gain insight in to the scientific management of renewable resources like fisheries and forestry, variational iteration method (VIM) is employed to approximate the solution of the ratio-dependent predator-prey system with constant effort...

  9. Judgments of learning depend on how learners interpret study effort. (United States)

    Koriat, Asher; Nussinson, Ravit; Ackerman, Rakefet


    In self-paced learning, when the regulation of study effort is goal driven (e.g., allocated to different items according to their relative importance), judgments of learning (JOLs) increase with study time. When regulation is data driven (e.g., determined by the ease of committing the item to memory), JOLs decrease with study time (Koriat, Ma'ayan, & Nussinson, 2006). We induced learners to interpret differences in their study time (Experiment 1) or in another learner's study time (Experiment 2) as reflecting either differences in data-driven regulation or differences in goal-driven regulation. This manipulation was found to moderate the relationship of both study time and rated effort to JOLs. The results were seen to support the idea that JOLs are based on study effort but the effects of experienced effort are mediated by an attribution that intervenes between the metacognitive regulation of effort and the monitoring of one's learning. The results invite an attributional theoretical framework that encompasses both data-driven and goal-driven regulation and incorporates the option of attributing experienced effort to either or both of the 2 types of regulation. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved.

  10. Control and Effort Costs Influence the Motivational Consequences of Choice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Holly Sullivan-Toole


    Full Text Available The act of making a choice, apart from any outcomes the choice may yield, has, paradoxically, been linked to both the enhancement and the detriment of intrinsic motivation. Research has implicated two factors in potentially mediating these contradictory effects: the personal control conferred by a choice and the costs associated with a choice. Across four experiments, utilizing a physical effort task disguised as a simple video game, we systematically varied costs across two levels of physical effort requirements (Low-Requirement, High-Requirement and control over effort costs across three levels of choice (Free-Choice, Restricted-Choice, and No-Choice to disambiguate how these factors affect the motivational consequences of choosing within an effortful task. Together, our results indicated that, in the face of effort requirements, illusory control alone may not sufficiently enhance perceptions of personal control to boost intrinsic motivation; rather, the experience of actual control may be necessary to overcome effort costs and elevate performance. Additionally, we demonstrated that conditions of illusory control, while otherwise unmotivating, can through association with the experience of free-choice, be transformed to have a positive effect on motivation.

  11. The influence of music on mental effort and driving performance. (United States)

    Ünal, Ayça Berfu; Steg, Linda; Epstude, Kai


    The current research examined the influence of loud music on driving performance, and whether mental effort mediated this effect. Participants (N=69) drove in a driving simulator either with or without listening to music. In order to test whether music would have similar effects on driving performance in different situations, we manipulated the simulated traffic environment such that the driving context consisted of both complex and monotonous driving situations. In addition, we systematically kept track of drivers' mental load by making the participants verbally report their mental effort at certain moments while driving. We found that listening to music increased mental effort while driving, irrespective of the driving situation being complex or monotonous, providing support to the general assumption that music can be a distracting auditory stimulus while driving. However, drivers who listened to music performed as well as the drivers who did not listen to music, indicating that music did not impair their driving performance. Importantly, the increases in mental effort while listening to music pointed out that drivers try to regulate their mental effort as a cognitive compensatory strategy to deal with task demands. Interestingly, we observed significant improvements in driving performance in two of the driving situations. It seems like mental effort might mediate the effect of music on driving performance in situations requiring sustained attention. Other process variables, such as arousal and boredom, should also be incorporated to study designs in order to reveal more on the nature of how music affects driving. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Efforts toward enhancing seismic safety at Kashiwazaki Kariwa Nuclear Power Station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamashita, Kazuhiko


    It has been two years since the Niigata-ken Chuetsu-oki Earthquake (NCOE) occurred in 2007. The earthquake brought a major disaster for Kashiwazaki, Kariwa, and the neighboring areas. First of all, we would like to give condolences to people in the devastated area and to pray for the immediate recovery. Our Kashiwazaki Kariwa Nuclear Power Station located in the same area was naturally caught up in the earthquake. The station was hit by a big tremor more than its intensity assumed to be valid at the station design stage. In spite of unexpected tremor, preventive functions for the station safety worked as expected as it designed. Critical facilities designed as high seismic class were not damaged, though considerable damages were seen in outside-facilities designed as low seismic class. We currently make efforts to inspect and recover damages. While we carefully carry out inspection and assessment to make sure the station integrity, we are also going forward restoration as well as construction for seismic safety enhancement in turn. This report introduces details of the following accounts, these are an outline of guidelines for seismic design evaluation that was revised in 2006, a situation at Kashiwazaki Kariwa Nuclear Power Station in the aftermath of the earthquake, and efforts toward enhancing seismic safety that the Tokyo Electric Power Company (TEPCO) has made since the seismic disaster, and our approach to evaluation of facility integrity. (author)

  13. Effort-reward imbalance at work and job dissatisfaction in Chinese healthcare workers: a validation study. (United States)

    Li, Jian; Yang, Wenjie; Cheng, Yawen; Siegrist, Johannes; Cho, Sung-Il


    The aim of this study was to test the reliability and validity of the Chinese version of the 23-item effort-reward imbalance (ERI) questionnaire and to analyze its association with job dissatisfaction in a sample of Chinese healthcare workers. A self-reported survey was conducted, in university hospitals of China, among 192 male and 608 female healthcare workers. Appropriate internal consistencies of the three scales: effort, reward, and overcommitment, were obtained. Exploratory factor analysis replicated the theoretically assumed structure of the ERI construct in men and women. Evidence of criterion validity was obtained from cross-correlations of the scales and from their correlations with gender, education and job dissatisfaction. Finally, all three scales were associated with an elevated odds ratio of job dissatisfaction, and the effect was strongest for the ERI ratio as predicted by theory. Based on the results of this study the Chinese version of the ERI questionnaire is considered a reliable and valid instrument for measuring psychosocial stress at work. It is applicable to Chinese working populations and, in particular, to the healthcare sector.

  14. National High Frequency Radar Network (hfrnet) and Pacific Research Efforts (United States)

    Hazard, L.; Terrill, E. J.; Cook, T.; de Paolo, T.; Otero, M. P.; Rogowski, P.; Schramek, T. A.


    The U.S. High Frequency Radar Network (HFRNet) has been in operation for over ten years with representation from 31 organizations spanning academic institutions, state and local government agencies, and private organizations. HFRNet currently holds a collection from over 130 radar installations totaling over 10 million records of surface ocean velocity measurements. HFRNet is a primary example of inter-agency and inter-institutional partnerships for improving oceanographic research and operations. HF radar derived surface currents have been used in several societal applications including coastal search and rescue, oil spill response, water quality monitoring and marine navigation. Central to the operational success of the large scale network is an efficient data management, storage, access, and delivery system. The networking of surface current mapping systems is characterized by a tiered structure that extends from the individual field installations to local regional operations maintaining multiple sites and on to centralized locations aggregating data from all regions. The data system development effort focuses on building robust data communications from remote field locations (sites) for ingestion into the data system via data on-ramps (Portals or Site Aggregators) to centralized data repositories (Nodes). Centralized surface current data enables the aggregation of national surface current grids and allows for ingestion into displays, management tools, and models. The Coastal Observing Research and Development Center has been involved in international relationships and research in the Philippines, Palau, and Vietnam. CORDC extends this IT architecture of surface current mapping data systems leveraging existing developments and furthering standardization of data services for seamless integration of higher level applications. Collaborations include the Philippine Atmospheric Geophysical and Astronomical Services Administration (PAGASA), The Coral Reef Research

  15. The association of perceived organizational justice and organizational expectations with nurses' efforts. (United States)

    Motlagh, Farhad Shafiepour; Yarmohammadian, Mohammad Hossein; Yaghoubi, Maryam


    One important factor in growth, progress, and increase in work efficiency of employees of any enterprise is to make considerable effort. Supreme leader of the Islamic Republic of Iran also addressed the issue of need for more efforts. The goal of this study was to determine the association of perceived organizational justice and organizational expectations with efforts of nurses to provide a suitable model. The current study was a descriptive study. The study group consists of all nurses who worked in hospitals of Isfahan. Due to some limitations all nurses of the special unit, surgery wards and operating room were questioned. The data collection tools were the Organizational Justice Questionnaire, organizational expectations questionnaire, and double effort questionnaire. Content validity of the mentioned questionnaires was confirmed after considering the experts' comments. The reliability of these questionnaires, using the Cronbach's alpha, were 0.79, 0.83 and 0.92, respectively. The Pearson correlation and the structural equation model were used for the analysis of data. There was a significant correlation between the perceived organizational justice and the double effort of nurses during the surgery of patients. Correlation of the expectation from job, usefulness of job, and its attractiveness with double effort of nurses before the surgery was also statistically significant. Moreover, it was shown that the root of the mean square error of estimation (RMSEA) was 0.087, the fitted goodness index (GFI) was 0.953, the value of chi-square was 268.5, and the model was statistically significant (p Justice is an essential need for human life and its importance in organizations and social life of individuals is evident.

  16. Search for supersymmetric particles assuming R-parity non-conservation in $e^+e^-$ collisions at $\\sqrt{s}$ = 192 to 208 GeV

    CERN Document Server

    Abdallah, J.; Adam, W.; Adzic, P.; Albrecht, T.; Alderweireld, T.; Alemany-Fernandez, R.; Allmendinger, T.; Allport, P.P.; Amaldi, U.; Amapane, N.; Amato, S.; Anashkin, E.; Andreazza, A.; Andringa, S.; Anjos, N.; Antilogus, P.; Apel, W.D.; Arnoud, Y.; Ask, S.; Asman, B.; Augustin, J.E.; Augustinus, A.; Baillon, P.; Ballestrero, A.; Bambade, P.; Barbier, R.; Bardin, D.; Barker, G.J.; Baroncelli, A.; Battaglia, M.; Baubillier, M.; Becks, K.H.; Begalli, M.; Behrmann, A.; Ben-Haim, E.; Benekos, N.; Benvenuti, A.; Berat, C.; Berggren, M.; Berntzon, L.; Bertrand, D.; Besancon, M.; Besson, N.; Bloch, D.; Blom, M.; Bluj, M.; Bonesini, M.; Boonekamp, M.; Booth, P.S.L.; Borisov, G.; Botner, O.; Bouquet, B.; Bowcock, T.J.V.; Boyko, I.; Bracko, M.; Brenner, R.; Brodet, E.; Bruckman, P.; Brunet, J.M.; Bugge, L.; Buschmann, P.; Calvi, M.; Camporesi, T.; Canale, V.; Carena, F.; Castro, Nuno Filipe; Cavallo, F.; Chapkin, M.; Charpentier, Ph.; Checchia, P.; Chierici, R.; Chliapnikov, P.; Chudoba, J.; Chung, S.U.; Cieslik, K.; Collins, P.; Contri, R.; Cosme, G.; Cossutti, F.; Costa, M.J.; Crennell, D.; Cuevas, J.; D'Hondt, J.; Dalmau, J.; da Silva, T.; Da Silva, W.; Della Ricca, G.; De Angelis, A.; De Boer, W.; De Clercq, C.; De Lotto, B.; De Maria, N.; De Min, A.; de Paula, L.; Di Ciaccio, L.; Di Simone, A.; Doroba, K.; Drees, J.; Dris, M.; Eigen, G.; Ekelof, T.; Ellert, M.; Elsing, M.; Espirito Santo, M.C.; Fanourakis, G.; Fassouliotis, D.; Feindt, M.; Fernandez, J.; Ferrer, A.; Ferro, F.; Flagmeyer, U.; Foeth, H.; Fokitis, E.; Fulda-Quenzer, F.; Fuster, J.; Gandelman, M.; Garcia, C.; Gavillet, Ph.; Gazis, Evangelos; Gokieli, R.; Golob, B.; Gomez-Ceballos, G.; Goncalves, P.; Graziani, E.; Grosdidier, G.; Grzelak, K.; Guy, J.; Haag, C.; Hallgren, A.; Hamacher, K.; Hamilton, K.; Haug, S.; Hauler, F.; Hedberg, V.; Hennecke, M.; Herr, H.; Hoffman, J.; Holmgren, S.O.; Holt, P.J.; Houlden, M.A.; Hultqvist, K.; Jackson, John Neil; Jarlskog, G.; Jarry, P.; Jeans, D.; Johansson, Erik Karl; Johansson, P.D.; Jonsson, P.; Joram, C.; Jungermann, L.; Kapusta, Frederic; Katsanevas, S.; Katsoufis, E.; Kernel, G.; Kersevan, B.P.; Kerzel, U.; Kiiskinen, A.; King, B.T.; Kjaer, N.J.; Kluit, P.; Kokkinias, P.; Kourkoumelis, C.; Kouznetsov, O.; Krumstein, Z.; Kucharczyk, M.; Lamsa, J.; Leder, G.; Ledroit, Fabienne; Leinonen, L.; Leitner, R.; Lemonne, J.; Lepeltier, V.; Lesiak, T.; Liebig, W.; Liko, D.; Lipniacka, A.; Lopes, J.H.; Lopez, J.M.; Loukas, D.; Lutz, P.; Lyons, L.; MacNaughton, J.; Malek, A.; Maltezos, S.; Mandl, F.; Marco, J.; Marco, R.; Marechal, B.; Margoni, M.; Marin, J.C.; Mariotti, C.; Markou, A.; Martinez-Rivero, C.; Masik, J.; Mastroyiannopoulos, N.; Matorras, F.; Matteuzzi, C.; Mazzucato, F.; Mazzucato, M.; McNulty, R.; Meroni, C.; Migliore, E.; Mitaroff, W.; Mjoernmark, U.; Moa, T.; Moch, M.; Monig, Klaus; Monge, R.; Montenegro, J.; Moraes, D.; Moreno, S.; Morettini, P.; Mueller, U.; Muenich, K.; Mulders, M.; Mundim, L.; Murray, W.; Muryn, B.; Myatt, G.; Myklebust, T.; Nassiakou, M.; Navarria, F.; Nawrocki, K.; Nicolaidou, R.; Nikolenko, M.; Oblakowska-Mucha, A.; Obraztsov, V.; Olshevski, A.; Onofre, A.; Orava, R.; Osterberg, K.; Ouraou, A.; Oyanguren, A.; Paganoni, M.; Paiano, S.; Palacios, J.P.; Palka, H.; Papadopoulou, Th.D.; Pape, L.; Parkes, C.; Parodi, F.; Parzefall, U.; Passeri, A.; Passon, O.; Peralta, L.; Perepelitsa, V.; Perrotta, A.; Petrolini, A.; Piedra, J.; Pieri, L.; Pierre, F.; Pimenta, M.; Piotto, E.; Podobnik, T.; Poireau, V.; Pol, M.E.; Polok, G.; Pozdniakov, V.; Pukhaeva, N.; Pullia, A.; Rames, J.; Read, Alexander L.; Rebecchi, P.; Rehn, J.; Reid, D.; Reinhardt, R.; Renton, P.; Richard, F.; Ridky, J.; Rivero, M.; Rodriguez, D.; Romero, A.; Ronchese, P.; Roudeau, P.; Rovelli, T.; Ruhlmann-Kleider, V.; Ryabtchikov, D.; Sadovsky, A.; Salmi, L.; Salt, J.; Sander, C.; Savoy-Navarro, A.; Schwickerath, U.; Segar, A.; Sekulin, R.; Siebel, M.; Sisakian, A.; Smadja, G.; Smirnova, O.; Sokolov, A.; Sopczak, A.; Sosnowski, R.; Spassov, T.; Stanitzki, M.; Stocchi, A.; Strauss, J.; Stugu, B.; Szczekowski, M.; Szeptycka, M.; Szumlak, T.; Tabarelli, T.; Taffard, A.C.; Tegenfeldt, F.; Timmermans, Jan; Tkatchev, L.; Tobin, M.; Todorovova, S.; Tome, B.; Tonazzo, A.; Tortosa, P.; Travnicek, P.; Treille, D.; Tristram, G.; Trochimczuk, M.; Troncon, C.; Turluer, M.L.; Tyapkin, I.A.; Tyapkin, P.; Tzamarias, S.; Uvarov, V.; Valenti, G.; Van Dam, Piet; Van Eldik, J.; Van Lysebetten, A.; van Remortel, N.; Van Vulpen, I.; Vegni, G.; Veloso, F.; Venus, W.; Verdier, P.; Verzi, V.; Vilanova, D.; Vitale, L.; Vrba, V.; Wahlen, H.; Washbrook, A.J.; Weiser, C.; Wicke, D.; Wickens, J.; Wilkinson, G.; Winter, M.; Witek, M.; Yushchenko, O.; Zalewska, A.; Zalewski, P.; Zavrtanik, D.; Zhuravlov, V.; Zimine, N.I.; Zintchenko, A.; Zupan, M.


    Searches for pair-production of supersymmetric particles under the assumption of non-conservation of R-parity with a dominant LLEbar or UbarDbarDbar term have been performed using the data collected by the DELPHI experiment at LEP in e+e- collisions at centre-of-mass energies from 192 up to 208 GeV. No excess of data above Standard Model expectations was observed. The results were used to constrain the MSSM parameter space and to derive limits on the masses of supersymmetric particles.

  17. Leisure and effort at work: incorporating self-employment into urban markets


    J. Ignacio, Giménez-Nadal; Jose Alberto, Molina; Jorge, Velilla


    In this paper, we study self-employment in a theoretical setting derived from urban efficiency wages spatial models, where leisure and effort at work are complementary. Our model shows that unemployment tends to concentrate far from business districts, in contrast to employment and self-employment. The self-employed tend to live closer to workplaces than do the employed, as commuting has relatively negative effects, given that it affects productivity and thus earnings. We use data from the Am...

  18. Solving Ratio-Dependent Predator-Prey System with Constant Effort Harvesting Using Homotopy Perturbation Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdoul R. Ghotbi


    Full Text Available Due to wide range of interest in use of bioeconomic models to gain insight into the scientific management of renewable resources like fisheries and forestry, homotopy perturbation method is employed to approximate the solution of the ratio-dependent predator-prey system with constant effort prey harvesting. The results are compared with the results obtained by Adomian decomposition method. The results show that, in new model, there are less computations needed in comparison to Adomian decomposition method.

  19. Quality effort decision in service supply chain with quality preference based on quantum game (United States)

    Zhang, Cuihua; Xing, Peng; Wang, Jianwei


    Service quality preference behaviors of both members are considered in service supply chain (SSC) including a service integrator and a service provider with stochastic demand. Through analysis of service quality cost and revenue, the utility functions are established on service quality effort degree and service quality preference level in integrated and decentralized SSC. Nash equilibrium and quantum game are used to optimize the models. By comparing the different solutions, the optimal strategies are obtained in SSC with quality preference. Then some numerical examples are studied and the changing trend of service quality effort is further analyzed by the influence of the entanglement operator and quality preferences.

  20. King eider foraging effort during the pre-breeding period in Alaska (United States)

    Oppel, Steffen; Powell, Abby N.; Butler, Malcolm G.


    For reproduction, many arctic-nesting migratory birds rely on nutrients obtained on the breeding grounds, so they devote sufficient time to foraging immediately prior to nesting. However, little is known about the increase in foraging effort necessary to meet the energetic requirements of reproduction. In early June 2006 and 2008, we quantified the proportion of time spent foraging before breeding by a large sea duck, the King Eider (Somateria spectabilis), on its breeding grounds in northern Alaska. During >235 hours of behavioral observations, both male and female King Eiders spent >50% of the day loafing (resting, sleeping, comfort behavior, or being alert). Females foraged on average 30% of the time (mean 7.2 hr day-1,95% CI 6.0-8.4 hr day-1), three times as much as males (9%; 2.3 hr day-1, 95% CI 1.5–2.8 hr day-1). The most common prey in ponds where the eiders foraged were chironomid larvae and worms ranging in length from 1 to 30 mm. If the King Eider's daily energy expenditure on its breeding grounds is similar to values published for related species, it would need to ingest only 0.2–0.6 g dry mass of invertebrates per minute of foraging to meet its energetic requirements. Males did not lose body mass before breeding, and we assume that their foraging effort was sufficient for energy balance. Therefore, female King Eiders appear to triple their foraging effort over maintenance requirements to meet the energetic challenges of egg formation.

  1. Gender-Specific Covariations between Competencies, Interest and Effort during Science Learning in Virtual Environments. (United States)

    Christophel, Eva; Schnotz, Wolfgang


    Women are still underrepresented in engineering courses although some German universities offer separate women's engineering courses which include virtual STEM learning environments. To outline information about fundamental aspects relevant for virtual STEM learning, one has to reveal which similarities both genders in virtual learning show. Moreover, the question arises as to whether there are in fact differences in the virtual science learning of female and male learners. Working with virtual STEM learning environments requires strategic and arithmetic-operative competences. Even if we assume that female and male learners have similar competences levels, their correlational pattern of competences, motivational variables, and invested effort during virtual STEM learning might differ. If such gender differences in the correlations between cognitive and motivational variables and learning behavior were revealed, it would be possible to finetune study conditions for female students in a separate engineering course and shape virtual STEM learning in a more gender-appropriate manner. That might support an increase in the number of women in engineering courses. To reveal the differences and similarities between female and male learners, a field study was conducted with 56 students (female = 27, male = 29) as part of the Open MINT Labs project (the German term for Open STEM Labs, OML). The participants had to complete a virtual STEM learning environment during their regular science lessons. The data were collected with questionnaires. The results revealed that the strategic competences of both genders were positively correlated with situational interest in the virtual learning environment. This result shows the big impact strategic competences have for both genders regarding their situational interest. In contrast, the correlations between mental effort and competences differed between female and male participants. Especially female learners' mental effort decreased if

  2. Gender-Specific Covariations between Competencies, Interest and Effort during Science Learning in Virtual Environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Christophel


    Full Text Available Women are still underrepresented in engineering courses although some German universities offer separate women’s engineering courses which include virtual STEM learning environments. To outline information about fundamental aspects relevant for virtual STEM learning, one has to reveal which similarities both genders in virtual learning show. Moreover, the question arises as to whether there are in fact differences in the virtual science learning of female and male learners. Working with virtual STEM learning environments requires strategic and arithmetic-operative competences. Even if we assume that female and male learners have similar competences levels, their correlational pattern of competences, motivational variables, and invested effort during virtual STEM learning might differ. If such gender differences in the correlations between cognitive and motivational variables and learning behavior were revealed, it would be possible to finetune study conditions for female students in a separate engineering course and shape virtual STEM learning in a more gender-appropriate manner. That might support an increase in the number of women in engineering courses. To reveal the differences and similarities between female and male learners, a field study was conducted with 56 students (female = 27, male = 29 as part of the Open MINT Labs project (the German term for Open STEM Labs, OML. The participants had to complete a virtual STEM learning environment during their regular science lessons. The data were collected with questionnaires. The results revealed that the strategic competences of both genders were positively correlated with situational interest in the virtual learning environment. This result shows the big impact strategic competences have for both genders regarding their situational interest. In contrast, the correlations between mental effort and competences differed between female and male participants. Especially female learners’ mental

  3. The effects of sleep loss on capacity and effort

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mindy Engle-Friedman


    Full Text Available Sleep loss appears to affect the capacity for performance and access to energetic resources. This paper reviews research examining the physical substrates referred to as resource capacity, the role of sleep in protecting that capacity and the reaction of the system as it attempts to respond with effort to overcome the limitations on capacity caused by sleep loss. Effort is the extent to which an organism will exert itself beyond basic levels of functioning or attempt alternative strategies to maintain performance. The purpose of this review is to bring together research across sleep disciplines to clarify the substrates that constitute and influence capacity for performance, consider how the loss of sleep influences access to those resources, examine cortical, physiological, perceptual, behavioral and subjective effort responses and consider how these responses reflect a system reacting to changes in the resource environment. When sleep deprived, the ability to perform tasks that require additional energy is impaired and the ability of the system to overcome the deficiencies caused by sleep loss is limited. Taking on tasks that require effort including school work, meal preparation, pulling off the road to nap when driving drowsy appear to be more challenging during sleep loss. Sleep loss impacts the effort-related choices we make and those choices may influence our health and safety.

  4. APA efforts in promoting human rights and social justice. (United States)

    Leong, Frederick T L; Pickren, Wade E; Vasquez, Melba J T


    This article reviews the American Psychological Association's (APA) efforts in promoting human rights and social justice. Beginning with a historical review of the conceptualizations of human rights and social justice, the social challenges that have faced the United States over time are discussed in relation to the APA's evolving mission and strategic initiatives enacted through its boards, committees, and directorates. From early efforts on the Board for Social and Ethical Responsibility in Psychology and the Board of Ethnic Minority Affairs to the establishment of the Public Interest Directorate, the APA's efforts to address these human rights and social justice challenges through its task force reports, guidelines, and policies are described. Specifically, issues related to diversity and underrepresentation of minority group members and perspective within the APA, as well as women's issues (prochoice, violence against women, sexualization of young girls, human trafficking) were central to these efforts. These minority groups included racial and ethnic minority groups; immigrants and refugees; lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgendered, and queer individuals; and those with disabilities. Later attention shifted to broader social justice challenges within a public health perspective, such as AIDS, obesity, and violence. Also included is a brief discussion of the Hoffman Report. The article ends with a discussion of future directions for the APA's efforts related to human rights and social justice related to health disparities, violent extremism, social inequality, migration, cultural and racial diversity, and an evidence-based approach to programming. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  5. The effect of sleep loss on next day effort. (United States)

    Engle-Friedman, Mindy; Riela, Suzanne; Golan, Rama; Ventuneac, Ana M; Davis, Christine M; Jefferson, Angela D; Major, Donna


    The study had two primary objectives. The first was to determine whether sleep loss results in a preference for tasks demanding minimal effort. The second was to evaluate the quality of performance when participants, under conditions of sleep loss, have control over task demands. In experiment 1, using a repeated-measures design, 50 undergraduate college students were evaluated, following one night of no sleep loss and one night of sleep loss. The Math Effort Task (MET) presented addition problems via computer. Participants were able to select additions at one of five levels of difficulty. Less-demanding problems were selected and more additions were solved correctly when the participants were subject to sleep loss. In experiment 2, 58 undergraduate college students were randomly assigned to a no sleep deprivation or a sleep deprivation condition. Sleep-deprived participants selected less-demanding problems on the MET. Percentage correct on the MET was equivalent for both the non-sleep-deprived and sleep-deprived groups. On a task selection question, the sleep-deprived participants also selected significantly less-demanding non-academic tasks. Increased sleepiness, fatigue, and reaction time were associated with the selection of less difficult tasks. Both groups of participants reported equivalent effort expenditures; sleep-deprived participants did not perceive a reduction in effort. These studies demonstrate that sleep loss results in the choice of low-effort behavior that helps maintain accurate responding.

  6. Effort sharing in ambitious, global climate change mitigation scenarios

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ekholm, Tommi; Soimakallio, Sampo; Moltmann, Sara; Hoehne, Niklas; Syri, Sanna; Savolainen, Ilkka


    The post-2012 climate policy framework needs a global commitment to deep greenhouse gas emission cuts. This paper analyzes reaching ambitious emission targets up to 2050, either -10% or -50% from 1990 levels, and how the economic burden from mitigation efforts could be equitably shared between countries. The scenarios indicate a large low-cost mitigation potential in electricity and industry, while reaching low emission levels in international transportation and agricultural emissions might prove difficult. The two effort sharing approaches, Triptych and Multistage, were compared in terms of equitability and coherence. Both approaches produced an equitable cost distribution between countries, with least developed countries having negative or low costs and more developed countries having higher costs. There is, however, no definitive solution on how the costs should be balanced equitably between countries. Triptych seems to be yet more coherent than other approaches, as it can better accommodate national circumstances. Last, challenges and possible hindrances to effective mitigation and equitable effort sharing are presented. The findings underline the significance of assumptions behind effort sharing on mitigation potentials and current emissions, the challenge of sharing the effort with uncertain future allowance prices and how inefficient markets might undermine the efficiency of a cap-and-trade system.

  7. Level of dynamic efforts weightlifters make in competitive exercises

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oleshko V.G.


    Full Text Available The level of dynamic efforts of weightlifters of high qualification is investigational in the structure of technique of getting up of barbell in a jerk and first reception of shove. Technical actions were investigational 220 strongest weightlifters of the world. In all 169 rising barbells are analysed for men and 116 - for women. It is well-proven that the structure of dynamic efforts changes: one sportsmen put more efforts in the phase of preliminary acceleration, other - in the phase of final acceleration. It is set that descriptions of making effort to the shell change with growth of groups of gravimetric categories. For men in the first three groups of gravimetric categories minimum differences have these indexes. For the sportsmen of gravimetric category 105 and they have over 105 kg substantial differences from other. The same conformity to the law in the dynamic indexes of technique is observed and for women. It is set that the sportsmen of heavy gravimetric categories (for men gravimetric categories 105 and over 105 kg in both exercises, for women - in a gravimetric category over 75 kg in raising of barbell on a breast put more efforts in the moment of dissociating of barbell from a dais, what in the phase of final acceleration.

  8. Climate Data Initiative: A Geocuration Effort to Support Climate Resilience (United States)

    Ramachandran, Rahul; Bugbee, Kaylin; Tilmes, Curt; Pinheiro Privette, Ana


    Curation is traditionally defined as the process of collecting and organizing information around a common subject matter or a topic of interest and typically occurs in museums, art galleries, and libraries. The task of organizing data around specific topics or themes is a vibrant and growing effort in the biological sciences but to date this effort has not been actively pursued in the Earth sciences. In this paper, we introduce the concept of geocuration and define it as the act of searching, selecting, and synthesizing Earth science data/metadata and information from across disciplines and repositories into a single, cohesive, and useful compendium We present the Climate Data Initiative (CDI) project as an exemplar example. The CDI project is a systematic effort to manually curate and share openly available climate data from various federal agencies. CDI is a broad multi-agency effort of the U.S. government and seeks to leverage the extensive existing federal climate-relevant data to stimulate innovation and private-sector entrepreneurship to support national climate-change preparedness. We describe the geocuration process used in CDI project, lessons learned, and suggestions to improve similar geocuration efforts in the future.

  9. Range margin shifts of birds revisited - the role of spatiotemporally varying survey effort. (United States)

    Kujala, Heini; Vepsäläinen, Ville; Zuckerberg, Benjamin; Brommer, Jon E


    Global climate warming is predicted to lead to global and regional changes in the distribution of organisms. One influential approach to test this prediction using temporally repeated mapping surveys of organisms was suggested in a seminal paper by Thomas & Lennon (1999, Nature). The Thomas & Lennon approach corrects observed changes in the range margin for changes in the range size, and thus potentially controls for other broad-scale environmental changes between surveys, however the approach does not necessarily account for potential biases in sampling effort. To verify whether the issue of variation in sampling effort affects empirical estimates of shifts in range margin, we reanalyzed all three published studies exploring range margin changes of breeding birds in Great Britain (GB), Finland, and New York State (NY). Accounting for changes in survey effort on range margins lowered the estimated shift for breeding birds in New York, but the shift remained statistically significant. For Great Britain and Finland, for which no direct estimate of survey effort is available, we used species richness (a strong correlate of survey effort in New York) as a proxy and found that in both cases the estimated shift in range margin was significantly reduced and became nonsignificant. To understand how robust the approach is to sampling biases, we use a simulation model to show that the Thomas & Lennon approach is, under certain conditions, sensitive to changes in detection probability (probability to detect true occupancy) which in turn may be affected by changes in surveying effort between surveys. We thus found evidence that temporal changes in the distribution of breeding birds based on repeated mapping surveys may be inflated by changes in survey effort along range boundaries. We discuss possible approaches to deal with this issue in the analysis and design of national or regional surveys. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  10. Maternal sensitivity and latency to positive emotion following challenge: pathways through effortful control. (United States)

    Conway, Anne; McDonough, Susan C; Mackenzie, Michael; Miller, Alison; Dayton, Carolyn; Rosenblum, Katherine; Muzik, Maria; Sameroff, Arnold


    The ability to self-generate positive emotions is an important component of emotion regulation. In this study, we focus on children's latency to express positive emotions following challenging situations and assess whether this ability operates through early maternal sensitivity and children's effortful control. Longitudinal relations between maternal sensitivity, infant negative affect, effortful control, and latency to positive emotion following challenge were examined in 156 children who were 33 months of age. Structural equation models supported the hypothesis that maternal sensitivity during infancy predicted better effortful control and, in turn, shorter latencies to positive emotions following challenge at 33 months. Directions for future research are discussed. © 2014 Michigan Association for Infant Mental Health.

  11. Econophysics of agent-based models

    CERN Document Server

    Aoyama, Hideaki; Chakrabarti, Bikas; Chakraborti, Anirban; Ghosh, Asim


    The primary goal of this book is to present the research findings and conclusions of physicists, economists, mathematicians and financial engineers working in the field of "Econophysics" who have undertaken agent-based modelling, comparison with empirical studies and related investigations. Most standard economic models assume the existence of the representative agent, who is “perfectly rational” and applies the utility maximization principle when taking action. One reason for this is the desire to keep models mathematically tractable: no tools are available to economists for solving non-linear models of heterogeneous adaptive agents without explicit optimization. In contrast, multi-agent models, which originated from statistical physics considerations, allow us to go beyond the prototype theories of traditional economics involving the representative agent. This book is based on the Econophys-Kolkata VII Workshop, at which many such modelling efforts were presented. In the book, leading researchers in the...

  12. Inpo/industry job and task analysis efforts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wigley, W.W.


    One of the goals of INPO is to develop and coordinate industrywide programs to improve the education, training and qualification of nuclear utility personnel. To accomplish this goal, INPO's Training and Education Division: conducts periodic evaluations of industry training programs; provides assistance to the industry in developing training programs; manages the accreditation of utility training programs. These efforts are aimed at satisfying the need for training programs for nuclear utility personnel to be performance-based. Performance-based means that training programs provide an incumbent with the skills and knowledge required to safely perform the job. One of the ways that INPO has provided assistance to the industry is through the industrywide job and task analysis effort. I will discuss the job analysis and task analysis processes, the current status of JTA efforts, JTA products and JTA lessons learned

  13. Surveillance Systems to Track and Evaluate Obesity Prevention Efforts. (United States)

    Hoelscher, Deanna M; Ranjit, Nalini; Pérez, Adriana


    To address the obesity epidemic, the public health community must develop surveillance systems that capture data at levels through which obesity prevention efforts are conducted. Current systems assess body mass index (BMI), diet, and physical activity behaviors at the individual level, but environmental and policy-related data are often lacking. The goal of this review is to describe US surveillance systems that evaluate obesity prevention efforts within the context of international trends in obesity monitoring, to identify potential data gaps, and to present recommendations to improve the evaluation of population-level initiatives. Our recommendations include adding environmental and policy measures to surveillance efforts with a focus on addressing underserved populations, harmonizing existing surveillance systems, including more sensitive measures of obesity outcomes, and developing a knowledgeable workforce. In addition, the widespread use of electronic health records and new technologies that allow self-quantification of behaviors offers opportunities for innovative surveillance methods.

  14. Muscle strength, working capacity and effort in patients with fibromyalgia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørregaard, J; Bülow, P M; Lykkegaard, J J


    The objective of the study was to evaluate the physical capacity and effort in patients with fibromyalgia. Muscle strength and the coefficient of variation of the strength measurements of 181 female fibromyalgia patients and 126 healthy females were compared. These measurements and ergometer...... exercise capacity, work status and psychometric scoring (SCL-90-R) were correlated. The fibromyalgia patients exhibited significant reduction in voluntary muscle strength of the knee and elbow, flexors and extensors in the order of 20-30%. However, the coefficient of variation was higher among patients...... scores. Work status was related to psychometric scoring, but not to physical capacity or effort. In conclusion, we found a low degree of effort but near normal physical capacity in the fibromyalgia patients....

  15. Pathways from maternal effortful control to child self-regulation: The role of maternal emotional support. (United States)

    Zeytinoglu, Selin; Calkins, Susan D; Swingler, Margaret M; Leerkes, Esther M


    This study examined the direct and indirect pathways from maternal effortful control to 2 aspects of children's self-regulation-executive functioning and behavioral regulation-via maternal emotional support. Two hundred seventy-eight children and their primary caregivers (96% mothers) participated in laboratory visits when children were 4 and 5 years, and teachers reported on children's behavior at kindergarten. At the 4-year assessment, maternal effortful control was measured using the Adult Temperament Questionnaire (Evans & Rothbart, 2007) and maternal emotional support was observed during a semistructured mother-child problem-solving task. At the 5-year assessment, children's executive functioning was measured using laboratory tasks designed to assess updating/working memory, inhibitory control, and cognitive flexibility, whereas behavioral regulation was assessed via teacher-report questionnaires on children's attention control, discipline and persistence, and work habits. Results from structural equation modeling indicated that, after controlling for child gender and minority status, and maternal education, maternal effortful control was indirectly associated with both child executive functioning and behavioral regulation through maternal emotional support. Maternal effortful control had a direct association with children's teacher-reported behavioral regulation but not observed executive functioning. These findings suggest that maternal effortful control may be a key contributing factor to the development of children's self-regulatory competencies through its impact on maternal emotional support. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  16. Manager’s Dilemma: Stockholders’ and Consumers’ Responses to Corporate Environmental Efforts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prayag Lal Yadav


    Full Text Available This study aims to reveal that different stakeholders have different environmental preferences by demonstrating the managers’ dilemma of selecting an appropriate environmental strategy to achieve firms’ corporate goals. It analyzes the effects of firms’ efforts in environmental impact through actual environmental practices and environmental considerations in environmental management on stockholders’ and consumers’ responses by using the Newsweek Green Rankings 2012 for large US-based firms. The study uses the event study methodology and the ordinary least squares multivariate regression model conditioned with relevant firm and industry-specific characteristics. The results indicate that both stockholders and consumers appreciate corporate efforts in reducing environmental damage; however, consumers exhibit a significant and negative response against firms’ environmental management efforts. The conflicting results provide valuable insights into the alignment of environmental efforts for developing core competencies that lead firms toward sustainability. Further, this research makes a valuable contribution to the existing literature and provides guidelines for the formulation of public policies that encourage corporate environmental efforts to ensure simultaneous development of business and society.

  17. Respiratory sinus arrhythmia, effortful control, and parenting as predictors of children's sympathy across early childhood. (United States)

    Taylor, Zoe E; Eisenberg, Nancy; Spinrad, Tracy L


    The goal of this study was to examine physiological and environmental predictors of children's sympathy (an emotional response consisting of feelings of concern or sorrow for others who are distressed or in need) and whether temperamental effortful control mediated these relations. Specifically, in a study of 192 children (23% Hispanic; 54% male), respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA), a measure thought to reflect physiological regulation, and observed authoritative parenting (both at 42 months) were examined as predictors of children's effortful control (at 54 months) and, in turn, children's sympathy (at 72 and 84 months). Measures of both baseline RSA and RSA suppression were examined. In a structural equation model, observed parenting was positively related to children's subsequent sympathy through its positive relation to effortful control. Furthermore, the indirect path from baseline RSA to higher sympathy through effortful control was marginally significant. Authoritative parenting and baseline RSA uniquely predicted individual differences in children's effortful control. Findings highlight the potential role of both authoritative parenting and physiological regulation in the development of children's sympathy.

  18. Relationships between Locus of Control, Self-Efficacy, Efforts and Academic Achievement among Engineering Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alias Maizam


    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to investigate the relationships between the affective learning needs namely, self-efficacy and locus of control, learning efforts and academic achievement among engineering students. For this purpose, a survey was conducted on first year engineering students from two technical universities in Malaysia. Self-efficacy and locus of control were assessed using existing instruments while learning efforts were assessed using a specifically designed instrument based on Carbonaro’s model of learning effort. Academic achievement data were based on cumulative grade point average (CGPA obtained from self-report by participants. The findings indicate that females engineering students tend to have higher self-efficacy compared to males while both groups have similar locus of control and invest in similar learning efforts. Only locus of control is found to be related to academic achievement while self-efficacy is found to be related to efforts. In conclusion, locus of control seems to be an important factor in predicting academic achievement among engineering students.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ferreira, G., Gálvez, D.,


    Full Text Available Among the most popular algorithmic cost and efforts estimation models are COCOMO, SLIM, Function Points. However, since the 90s, the models based on Artificial Intelligence techniques, mainly in Machine Learning techniques have been used to improve the accuracy of the estimates. These models are based on two fundamental aspects: the use of data collected in previous projects where estimates were performed and the application of various knowledge extraction techniques, with the idea of making estimates more efficiently, effectively and, if possible, with greater precision. The aim of this paper is to present an analysis of some of these techniques and how they are been applied in estimating the effort of software projects.

  20. Modeling the effect of time delay on the conservation of forestry biomass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Misra, A.K.; Lata, Kusum


    In this paper, we have studied the effect of time delay on conservation of forestry biomass by proposing a non-linear mathematical model. In the modeling process, it is assumed that the density of forestry biomass depletes due to the presence of human population and it is being conserved by applying some technological efforts. The analysis of model shows that the density of forestry biomass may be conserved if the technological effort is applied within the appropriate time. A longer delay in applying technological effort for its conservation destabilizes the system. The direction of Hopf bifurcation and the stability of the bifurcating periodic solutions are determined by applying the normal form theory and the center manifold theorem. Numerical simulations are given to illustrate the mathematical results.

  1. Limiting assumptions in molecular modeling: electrostatics. (United States)

    Marshall, Garland R


    Molecular mechanics attempts to represent intermolecular interactions in terms of classical physics. Initial efforts assumed a point charge located at the atom center and coulombic interactions. It is been recognized over multiple decades that simply representing electrostatics with a charge on each atom failed to reproduce the electrostatic potential surrounding a molecule as estimated by quantum mechanics. Molecular orbitals are not spherically symmetrical, an implicit assumption of monopole electrostatics. This perspective reviews recent evidence that requires use of multipole electrostatics and polarizability in molecular modeling.

  2. DoDs Efforts to Consolidate Data Centers Need Improvement (United States)


    H 2 9 , 2 0 1 6 Report No. DODIG-2016-068 DoD’s Efforts to Consolidate Data Centers Need Improvement Mission Our mission is to provide independent...e DODIG-2016-068 (Project No. D2015-D000RC-0137.000) │ i Results in Brief DoD’s Efforts to Consolidate Data Centers Need Improvement Visit us March 29, 2016 Objective Our audit objective was to determine whether selected DoD Components were effectively consolidating their data

  3. Photo-cross-linked PLA-PEO-PLA hydrogels from self-assembled physical networks: mechanical properties and influence of assumed constitutive relationships. (United States)

    Sanabria-DeLong, Naomi; Crosby, Alfred J; Tew, Gregory N


    Poly(lactide)-block-poly(ethylene oxide)-block-poly(lactide) (PLA-PEO-PLA) triblock copolymers are known to form physical hydrogels in water as a result of the polymer's amphiphilicity. Their mechanical properties, biocompatibility, and biodegradability have made them attractive for use as soft tissue scaffolds. However, the network junction points are not covalently cross-linked, and in a highly aqueous environment these hydrogels adsorb more water, transform from gel to sol, and lose the designed mechanical properties. In this article, a hydrogel was formed by the use of a novel two-step approach. In the first step, the end-functionalized PLA-PEO-PLA triblock was self-assembled into a physical hydrogel through hydrophobic micelle network junctions, and in the second step, this self-assembled physical network structure was locked into place by photo-cross-linking the terminal acrylate groups. In contrast with physical hydrogels, the photo-cross-linked gels remained intact in phosphate-buffered solution at body temperature. The swelling, degradation, and mechanical properties were characterized, and they demonstrated an extended degradation time (approximately 65 days), an exponential decrease in modulus with degradation time, and a tunable shear modulus (1.6-133 kPa). We also discuss the various constitutive relationships (Hookean, neo-Hookean, and Mooney-Rivlin) that can be used to describe the stress-strain behavior of these hydrogels. The chosen model and assumptions used for data fitting influenced the obtained modulus values by as much as a factor of 3.5, which demonstrates the importance of clearly stating one's data fitting parameters so that accurate comparisons can be made within the literature.

  4. Employee effort - reward balance and first-level manager transformational leadership within elderly care. (United States)

    Keisu, Britt-Inger; Öhman, Ann; Enberg, Birgit


    Negative aspects, staff dissatisfaction and problems related to internal organisational factors of working in elderly care are well-known and documented. Much less is known about positive aspects of working in elderly care, and therefore, this study focuses on such positive factors in Swedish elderly care. We combined two theoretical models, the effort-reward imbalance model and the Transformational Leadership Style model. The aim was to estimate the potential associations between employee-perceived transformational leadership style of their managers, and employees' ratings of effort and reward within elderly care work. The article is based on questionnaires distributed at on-site visits to registered nurses, occupational therapists, physiotherapists (high-level education) and assistant nurses (low-level education) in nine Swedish elderly care facilities. In order to grasp the positive factors of work in elderly care, we focused on balance at work, rather than imbalance. We found a significant association between employees' effort-reward balance at work and a transformational leadership style among managers. An association was also found between employees' level of education and their assessments of the first-level managers. We conclude that the first-level manager is an important actor for achieving a good workplace within elderly care, since she/he influences employees' psychosocial working environment. We also conclude that there are differences and inequalities, in terms of well-being, effort and reward at the work place, between those with academic training and those without, in that the former group to a higher degree evaluated their first-level manager to perform a transformational leadership style, which in turn is beneficial for their psychosocial work environment. Consequently, this (re)-produce inequalities in terms of well-being, effort and reward among the employees at the work place. © 2017 Nordic College of Caring Science.

  5. Reproductive working effort in Danish little owl (Athene noctua)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holsegård-Rasmussen, M.; Sunde, P.; Thorup, K.

    Reduced reproductive success, caused by energy constraints during breeding, is suspected to be one of the reasons for an ongoing decline in the Danish population of little owls (Athene noctua). To measure any food stress during the breeding period, working effort was defined as the minimum flight...

  6. School Climate and Leadership: Levers for School Improvement Efforts (United States)

    Costa, Lois


    This qualitative study considers which aspects of school climate support or inhibit student achievement as each aspect relates to school leadership and school reform efforts. Due to the increased responsibility and accountability which schools face during these challenging times, school climate and the role of the school principal formed the basis…

  7. Cumulative assessment : Strategic choices to influence students' study effort

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kerdijk, Wouter; Tio, Rene A.; Mulder, B. Florentine; Cohen-Schotanus, Janke


    Background: It has been asserted that assessment can and should be used to drive students' learning. In the current study, we present a cumulative assessment program in which test planning, repeated testing and compensation are combined in order to influence study effort. The program is aimed at

  8. Using standardized fishery data to inform rehabilitation efforts (United States)

    Spurgeon, Jonathan J.; Stewart, Nathaniel T.; Pegg, Mark A.; Pope, Kevin L.; Porath, Mark T.


    Lakes and reservoirs progress through an aging process often accelerated by human activities, resulting in degradation or loss of ecosystem services. Resource managers thus attempt to slow or reverse the negative effects of aging using a myriad of rehabilitation strategies. Sustained monitoring programs to assess the efficacy of rehabilitation strategies are often limited; however, long-term standardized fishery surveys may be a valuable data source from which to begin evaluation. We present 3 case studies using standardized fishery survey data to assess rehabilitation efforts stemming from the Nebraska Aquatic Habitat Plan, a large-scale program with the mission to rehabilitate waterbodies within the state. The case studies highlight that biotic responses to rehabilitation efforts can be assessed, to an extent, using standardized fishery data; however, there were specific areas where minor increases in effort would clarify the effectiveness of rehabilitation techniques. Management of lakes and reservoirs can be streamlined by maximizing the utility of such datasets to work smarter, not harder. To facilitate such efforts, we stress collecting both biotic (e.g., fish lengths and weight) and abiotic (e.g., dissolved oxygen, pH, and turbidity) data during standardized fishery surveys and designing rehabilitation actions with an appropriate experimental design.

  9. Principal efforts in improving the understanding of Climate impact of ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    First page Back Continue Last page Overview Graphics. Principal efforts in improving the understanding of Climate impact of aerosols -. New and enhanced satellite borne sensors. Focused field experiments. Establishment and enhancement of ground based networks. Development and deployment of new and enhanced ...

  10. Implementation of Pre-Operative Checklist: An Effort to Reduce ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Implementation of Pre-Operative Checklist: An Effort to Reduce Delays in. Surgery and ... insight to develop a pre-operative checklist to ensure that patients were prepared for surgery and to minimize disruptions ... documentation audit was conducted in May 2014, showing 59% compliance in completing the checklist. Since.

  11. Performance Standards and Employee Effort: Evidence from Teacher Absences (United States)

    Gershenson, Seth


    The 2001 No Child Left Behind Act (NCLB) increased accountability pressure in U.S. public schools by threatening to impose sanctions on Title-1 schools that failed to make adequate yearly progress (AYP) in consecutive years. Difference-in-difference estimates of the effect of failing AYP in the first year of NCLB on teacher effort in the…

  12. Efforts to Develop a 300°C Solder

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Norann, Randy A [Perma Works LLC


    This paper covers the efforts made to find a 300°C electrical solder solution for geothermal well monitoring and logging tools by Perma Works LLC. This paper covers: why a high temperature solder is needed, what makes for a good solder, testing flux, testing conductive epoxy and testing intermetallic bonds. Future areas of research are suggested.

  13. A critic of maternal mortality reduction efforts in Nigeria | Adinma ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Gaps identified to militate against maternal mortality reduction efforts include discontinuity and disconnect in government policies and programmes; legislation and other services emanating from change in government or between the executive and legislature within the same government; poor leadership of the health sector ...

  14. Shopping Effort Classification: Implications for Segmenting the College Student Market (United States)

    Wright, Robert E.; Palmer, John C.; Eidson, Vicky; Griswold, Melissa


    Market segmentation strategies based on levels of consumer shopping effort have long been utilized by marketing professionals. Such strategies can be beneficial in assisting marketers with development of appropriate marketing mix variables for segments. However, these types of strategies have not been assessed by researchers examining segmentation…

  15. Efforts towards the development of recombinant Vaccines against ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Hemorrhagic septicemia is caused by gram-negative bacterium of Pasteurella multocida (P. multocida) strains. Most of the current vaccines against P. multocida have shortcomings. Presently, there is increasing efforts towards construction of recombinant clone for vaccine development against P. multocida. In this review an ...

  16. The Index of Asia-Pacific Regional Integration Effort

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor Yifan Ye


    Full Text Available The Asia-Pacific region is not typically seen as one geographic or socio-economic space. Yet, 58 regional economies occupying the space of 28 million square kilometers from Turkey in the West, Russian Federation in the North, French Polynesia in the East and New Zealand in the South belong to the Economic and Social Commission of Asia and the Pacific (ESCAP. This commission provides a forum for member states that "promotes regional cooperation and collective action, assisting countries in building and sustaining shared economic growth and social equity". In 2013, ESCAP's members adopted the Bangkok Declaration to enhance efforts towards deeper regional economic integration. Yet this document neither proposes a concrete modality or modalities of achieving deeper integration, nor provides a sense of distance of individual countries to a "perceived" integrated Asia-Pacific.This paper aims to comprehensively quantify recent integration efforts of economies in the Asia-Pacific region. We provide an "index of integration effort" based on twelve metrics that measure the relative distance of a given economy to the region as an economic entity. Generally, we find that while the region has trended towards becoming integrated in general, both the level of integration and integration effort are inconsistent among Asia-Pacific economies. We discuss potential applications and extensions of the index in developing our perspective of the region's economic and social dynamics.

  17. Child Welfare Privatization: Reform Efforts in the States. Briefing. (United States)

    Sells, Julia K.

    The number of children in foster care has nearly doubled in recent years. Despite reform efforts, the U.S. child welfare system is not increasing the number of children who get adopted. The federal government spends over $12 billion annually on child welfare programs, but the growing government bureaucracy has allowed the problems to worsen. The…

  18. Mothers' Teaching Strategies and Children's Effortful Control: A Longitudinal Study (United States)

    Eisenberg, Nancy; Vidmar, Masa; Spinrad, Tracy L.; Eggum, Natalie D.; Edwards, Alison; Gaertner, Bridget; Kupfer, Anne


    Findings on the relation of maternal verbal teaching strategies to children's effortful control (EC; i.e., self-regulation) are limited in quantity and somewhat inconsistent. In this study, children's EC was assessed at 18, 30, and 42 months (ns = 255, 229, and 209, respectively) with adults' reports and a behavioral measure. Mothers' verbal…

  19. Effort-Reporting and Cost Analysis of Medical Education (United States)

    Stoddart, Greg L.


    This paper presents a historical review of applications of effort-reporting in medical education, comments on key methodological issues and describes a revised methodology of a 2-step estimating process that is flexible enough to accommodate a multidisciplinary medical education. (Editor/PG)

  20. Assessment of Sustainable Yield and Optimum Fishing Effort for the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    The tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus, L. 1758) stock of Lake Hawassa, Ethiopia, was assessed to estimate sustainable ... would be obtained at an F-factor of 1.0, it was concluded that the current level of fishing effort ..... length based cohort analysis were used as reference and these were increased and/or decreased by certain ...


    Fernandez-Garcia, D.; de Vries, L.; Pool, M.; Sapriza, G.; Sanchez-Vila, X.; Bolster, D.; Tartakovsky, D. M.


    The release of non-aqueous phase liquids (NAPLs) such as petroleum hydrocarbons and chlorinated solvents in the subsurface is a severe source of groundwater and vapor contamination. Because these liquids are essentially immiscible due to low solubility, these contaminants get slowly dissolved in groundwater and/or volatilized in the vadoze zone threatening the environment and public health over a long period. Many remediation technologies and strategies have been developed in the last decades for restoring the water quality properties of these contaminated sites. The failure of an on-site treatment technology application is often due to the unnoticed presence of dissolved NAPL entrapped in low permeability areas (heterogeneity) and/or the remaining of substantial amounts of pure phase after remediation efforts. Full understanding of the impact of remediation efforts is complicated due to the role of many interlink physical and biochemical processes taking place through several potential pathways of exposure to multiple receptors in a highly unknown heterogeneous environment. Due to these difficulties, the design of remediation strategies and definition of remediation endpoints have been traditionally determined without quantifying the risk associated with the failure of such efforts. We conduct a probabilistic risk assessment of the likelihood of success of an on-site NAPL treatment technology that easily integrates all aspects of the problem (causes, pathways, and receptors). Thus, the methodology allows combining the probability of failure of a remediation effort due to multiple causes, each one associated to several pathways and receptors.

  2. The influence of music on mental effort and driving performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ünal, Ayca Berfu; Steg, Linda; Epstude, Kai

    The current research examined the influence of loud music on driving performance, and whether mental effort mediated this effect. Participants (N = 69) drove in a driving simulator either with or without listening to music. In order to test whether music would have similar effects on driving

  3. Preference for rewards that follow greater effort and greater delay. (United States)

    Alessandri, Jérôme; Darcheville, Jean-Claude; Delevoye-Turrell, Yvonne; Zentall, Thomas R


    Humans prefer (conditioned) rewards that follow greater effort (Aronson & Mills, 1959). This phenomenon can be interpreted as evidence for cognitive dissonance (or as justification of effort) but may also result from (1) the contrast between the relatively greater effort and the signal for reinforcement or (2) the delay reduction signaled by the conditioned reinforcer. In the present study, we examined the effect of prior force and prior time to produce stimuli associated with equal reinforcement. As expected, pressing with greater force or for a longer time was less preferred than pressing with less force or for a shorter time. However, participants preferred the conditioned reinforcer that followed greater force and more time. Furthermore, participants preferred a long duration with no force requirement over a shorter duration with a high force requirement and, consistent with the contrast account but not with the delay reduction account, they preferred the conditioned stimulus that followed the less preferred, shorter duration, high-force event. Within-trial contrast provides a more parsimonious account than justification of effort, and a more complete account than delay reduction.

  4. The Vatican and Unesco Link Efforts for World Literacy (United States)

    Ryan, Leo V., Brother


    The problem of functional literacy has been recognized as a moral issue and offers a special challenge to religious authorities. Founded at the Vatican level in March 1969, the Committee on Human Development was commissioned to promote and animate efforts in: (a) basic education; (b) leadership training; (c) vocational education; (d) opinion…


    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    the industry. 4. Within a closed population i.e. in the absence of any significant bull or semen importation, the rate of genetic improvement is related to the effect- ive size of the breeding population. The percentage of stud cows in milk recording and. A.I. is, therefore, of cardinal importance in any effort to effect maximum rates ...

  6. Preservation and Conservation Efforts of Ajami Manuscript in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study examines the efforts of preservation and conservation of Ajami Manuscript. It reports the role of Ajami not only as an ethnic or national but also a regional system of writing for information and communication. The study underscores the assumption that Ajami is no longer a preserve of the Muslim Hausa speaking ...

  7. Effort thrombosis: A case study and discussion | Collins | South ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Paget-Schroetter syndrome or effort thrombosis is a rare condition with potentially severe consequences, affecting young and otherwise healthy athletes. Its classic clinical presentation should be rapidly identified to promote early diagnosis and treatment. This prevents recurrences and long-term complications such as ...

  8. Survey of European Community efforts in RF heating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Consoli, T.


    The present paper briefly reviews the efforts made over the last 10 years, with particular emphasis on the period from 1978 to 1980. The RF heating experiments within EC are presented: low frequency heating; heating at medium frequencies (ICRH); RF heating at low hybrid frequency; heating at the ECR frequency. The plan of Tore-Supra is given

  9. Role of effort in stimulating luck: Its parapsychology implications for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    goalpost) to score goals. The other category was made up of teams that made lesser efforts on the target (goal post) to score goals. The unwanted variables in the study were controlled through quality control, as only the matches watched by the ...

  10. Green Roof Research through EPA's Regional Applied Research Effort - slides (United States)

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency’s (EPA) Regional Applied Research Effort (RARE) allows the Regions of the EPA to choose research projects to be performed in partnership with EPA’s Office of Research and Development (ORD). Over the last decade, several green roof projects...

  11. Green Roof Research through EPA's Regional Applied Research Effort (United States)

    ABSTRACT The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency’s (EPA) Regional Applied Research Effort (RARE) allows the Regions of the EPA to choose research projects to be performed in partnership with EPA’s Office of Research and Development (ORD). Over the last decade, several green roo...

  12. Africa Steps up Efforts to Train Top Scientists (United States)

    Lindow, Megan


    This article reports on new programs that focus on training skilled scientists and mathematicians who will help solve Africa's myriad problems. The African Institute for Mathematical Sciences, in Cape Town, South Africa, offers one of the first working examples of a growing effort to develop a cadre of highly trained, practically minded scientists…

  13. A Minimum Effort Control Approach to Guided Munition Path Planning

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Borkowski, Jeffrey M


    .... The foundation of this path planning method is found in the principles of minimum effort control optimization. Results demonstrate the ability of the path planning algorithm to determine a path for the munition to follow which is both stable and feasible.

  14. Effort and trust: the underpinnings of active learning. (United States)

    Adams, Seana; Bilimoria, Krish; Malhotra, Neha; Rangachari, P K


    Three undergraduate students and their teacher discuss two crucial issues that form the implicit basis of active learning: effort and trust. They use a single course in a Health Sciences Program to anchor their comments. Copyright © 2017 the American Physiological Society.

  15. Finding Funding for Environmental Education Efforts. ERIC/CSMEE Digest. (United States)

    Heimlich, Joe E.; Puglisi, Dawn D.

    Funds are not always available to finance environmental education efforts in communities and schools. This digest highlights steps for identifying potential sources for funding and how to apply for those funds. Two sources of monetary awards to groups and individuals are grants and gifts. Four steps to identify potential donors and apply for…

  16. Current research efforts of EP study in Korea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ryu, C.M.


    After the successful demonstration of H mode on KSTAR, the problem of fast-ion driven MHD modes such as Alfven eigenmodes (AEs) and the reverse effects on fast ions of MHD modes is under study in KSTAR. In this paper, I will briefly describe some recent efforts of KSTAR on energetic particle physics study. (J.P.N.)

  17. Successful Integration of Pediatrics Into State Health Care Reform Efforts. (United States)

    Shaw, Judith S; Varni, Susan E; Tolmie, Elizabeth Cheng; Mohlman, Mary Kate; Harder, Valerie S

    Health care reform in Vermont promotes patient-centered medical homes (PCMH) and multi-disciplinary community health teams to support population health. This qualitative study describes the expansion of Vermont's health care reform efforts, initially focused on adult primary care, to pediatrics through interviews with project managers and facilitators, CHT members, pediatric practitioners and care coordinators, and community-based providers. Analyses used grounded theory, identifying themes confirmed by repeat occurrence across respondents. Respondents believed that PCMH recognition and financial and community supports would improve care for pediatric patients and families. Respondents shared three main challenges with health care reform efforts: achieving PCMH recognition, adapting community health teams for pediatric patients and families, and defining roles for care coordinators. For health care reform efforts to support pediatric patients and be family-centered, states may need additional resources to understand how pediatric and adult primary care differ and how best to support pediatrics during health care reform efforts. Copyright © 2017 National Association of Pediatric Nurse Practitioners. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Community-oriented services in a psychiatric hospital. Effort to ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    “Yaba apa osi” (Yaba to the left side). Consequently, in the year 2000 the hospital stepped up its efforts on destigmatization through public enlightenment programmes and provision of commercial /social as well as general health care services in the institution that would bring or attract the citizenry to its facilities. We carried ...

  19. A critical evalluation of internal revenue generating efforts of some ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In a bid to enhance improvement of local government internal revenue efforts, the federal government has embarked on several policies some of these include; the creation of more local government areas from 96 divisions in 1963 to 774 local government areas in 1993. The local government reform of 1976 and the use of ...

  20. Communication Satellite: Nigeria's Efforts at Bridging Digital Divide ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper examines Nigeria's technological efforts so far at bridging the Digital Divide through communication Satellite. This discourse focuses on the uses and challenges of Satellite communication in Nigeria. The paper relies on secondary data to explore the fate of Nigeria nation in the era of digital divide and ...

  1. F‐GHG Emissions Reduction Efforts: FY2015 Supplier Profiles (United States)

    The Supplier Profiles outlined in this document detail the efforts of large‐area flat panel suppliers to reduce their F‐GHG emissions in manufacturing facilities that make today’s large‐area panels used for products such as TVs and computer monitors.

  2. Efforts Towards The Development Of Recombinant Vaccines Against

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ABSTRACT. Hemorrhagic septicemia is caused by gram-negative bacterium of Pasteurella multocida (P. multocida) strains. Most of the current vaccines against P. multocida have shortcomings. Presently, there is increasing efforts towards construction of recombinant clone for vaccine development against P. multocida.

  3. The Development of Effortful Control in Children Born Preterm (United States)

    Poehlmann, Julie; Schwichtenberg, A. J. Miller; Shah, Prachi E.; Shlafer, Rebecca J.; Hahn, Emily; Maleck, Sarah


    This prospective longitudinal study examined emerging effortful control skills at 24- and 36-months postterm in 172 children born preterm (less than 36 weeks gestation). Infant (neonatal health risks), family (sociodemographic risks), and maternal risk factors (depressive symptoms, anger expressions during play interactions) were assessed at six…

  4. Academic Effort and Achievement in Science: Beyond a Gendered Relationship (United States)

    Adamuti-Trache, Maria; Sweet, Robert


    This study employs the 2004 School Achievement Indicators Program (SAIP) data to examine whether academic effort manifested by greater investments in school and homework does result in higher literacy scores in science for Canadian students. The study compares four gender-immigrant profiles: Canadian-born males, immigrant males, Canadian-born…

  5. NASA OSMA NDE Program Additive Manufacturing Foundational Effort (United States)

    Waller, Jess; Walker, James; Burke, Eric; Wells, Douglas; Nichols, Charles


    NASA is providing key leadership in an international effort linking NASA and non-NASA resources to speed adoption of additive manufacturing (AM) to meet NASA's mission goals. Participants include industry, NASA's space partners, other government agencies, standards organizations and academia. Nondestructive Evaluation (NDE) is identified as a universal need for all aspects of additive manufacturing.

  6. 45 CFR 1321.49 - State agency maintenance of effort. (United States)


    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false State agency maintenance of effort. 1321.49 Section 1321.49 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) OFFICE OF HUMAN... PROGRAMS GRANTS TO STATE AND COMMUNITY PROGRAMS ON AGING State Agency Responsibilities § 1321.49 State...

  7. Anti-Money Laundering Efforts - Failures, Fixes and the Future

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Deleanu, I.S.


    In this PhD thesis I address important topics in the debate on and the organisation of the Anti-Money Laundering efforts, which are related to the legitimacy and the effectiveness of the Anti-Money Laundering policies. First of all, this thesis provides a reflection on the assessments of concern

  8. Venture Investment Incentive Mechanisms and Simulation with Venture Entrepreneurs Having Multistage Efforts Based on Fairness Preference Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaihong Wang


    Full Text Available When venture capital has been invested into venture companies, venture capitalists and venture entrepreneurs form a principal-agent relationship. Take into account the fact that the venture entrepreneur’s effort is a long process, because the effort is not the same at different stage. Therefore, efforts variables are seen as the multistage dynamic variable, and venture investment principal-agent model with venture entrepreneurs having multistage efforts is constructed on the basis of the classic principal-agent theory in the paper. Further, in the later stage effort of venture entrepreneurs is affected by the size of prestage benefit with venture capitalists and venture entrepreneurs; thus the fairness preference model is improved, and venture investment principal-agent model with venture entrepreneurs having multistage efforts is constructed on the basis of fairness preference theory. Both theoretical derivation and simulation have demonstrated that, under the condition of information asymmetry, if the fairness preference of venture entrepreneurs holds, then (1 venture capitalists provide venture entrepreneurs with level higher than that without fairness preference, (2 in every single stage venture entrepreneurs make efforts higher than those without fairness preference, and (3 in two periods both venture investors and venture entrepreneurs gain total real gains higher than those in two periods without fair preference.

  9. Not all effort is equal: the role of the anterior cingulate cortex in different forms of effort-reward decisions (United States)

    Holec, Victoria; Pirot, Heather L.; Euston, David R.


    The rat anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) mediates effort-based decision making when the task requires the physical effort of climbing a ramp. Normal rats will readily climb a barrier leading to high reward whereas rats with ACC lesions will opt instead for an easily obtained small reward. The present study explored whether the role of ACC in cost-benefit decisions extends beyond climbing by testing its role in ramp climbing as well as two novel cost-benefit decision tasks, one involving the physical effort of lifting weights and the other the emotional cost of overcoming fear (i.e., “courage”). As expected, rats with extensive ACC lesions tested on a ramp-climbing task were less likely to choose a high-reward/high-effort arm than sham controls. However, during the first few trials, lesioned rats were as likely as controls to initially turn into the high-reward arm (HRA) but far less likely to actually climb the barrier, suggesting that the role of the ACC is not in deciding which course of action to pursue, but rather in maintaining a course of action in the face of countervailing forces. In the effort-reward decision task involving weight lifting, some lesion animals behaved like controls while others avoided the HRA. However, the results were not statistically significant and a follow-up study using incremental increasing effort failed to show any difference between lesion and control groups. The results suggest that the ACC is not needed for effort-reward decisions involving weight lifting but may affect motor abilities. Finally, a courage task explored the willingness of rats to overcome the fear of crossing an open, exposed arm to obtain a high reward. Both sham and ACC-lesioned animals exhibited equal tendencies to enter the open arm. However, whereas sham animals gradually improved on the task, ACC-lesioned rats did not. Taken together, the results suggest that the role of the ACC in effort-reward decisions may be limited to certain tasks. PMID:24478659

  10. Not all effort is equal: the role of the anterior cingulate cortex in different forms of effort-reward decisions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victoria eHolec


    Full Text Available The rat anterior cingulate cortex (ACC mediates effort-based decision making when the task requires the physical effort of climbing a ramp. Normal rats will readily climb a barrier leading to high reward whereas rats with ACC lesions will opt instead for an easily obtained small reward. The present study explored whether the role of ACC in cost-benefit decisions extends beyond climbing by testing its role in ramp climbing as well as two novel cost-benefit decision tasks, one involving the physical effort of lifting weights and the other the emotional cost of overcoming fear (i.e., courage. As expected, rats with extensive ACC lesions tested on a ramp-climbing task were less likely to choose a high-reward/high-effort arm than sham controls. However, during the first few trials, lesioned rats were as likely as controls to initially turn into the high-reward arm but far less likely to actually climb the barrier, suggesting that the role of the ACC is not in deciding which course of action to pursue, but rather in maintaining a course of action in the face of countervailing forces. In the effort-reward decision task involving weight lifting, some lesion animals behaved like controls while others avoided the high reward arm. However, the results were not statistically significant and a follow-up study using incremental increasing effort failed to show any difference between lesion and control groups. The results suggest that the ACC is not needed for effort-reward decisions involving weight lifting but may affect motor abilities. Finally, a courage task explored the willingness of rats to overcome the fear of crossing an open, exposed arm to obtain a high reward. Both sham and ACC-lesioned animals exhibited equal tendencies to enter the open arm. However, whereas sham animals gradually improved on the task, ACC-lesioned rats did not. Taken together, the results suggest that the role of the ACC in effort-reward decisions may be limited to certain

  11. Single-ended prediction of listening effort using deep neural networks. (United States)

    Huber, Rainer; Krüger, Melanie; Meyer, Bernd T


    The effort required to listen to and understand noisy speech is an important factor in the evaluation of noise reduction schemes. This paper introduces a model for Listening Effort prediction from Acoustic Parameters (LEAP). The model is based on methods from automatic speech recognition, specifically on performance measures that quantify the degradation of phoneme posteriorgrams produced by a deep neural net: Noise or artifacts introduced by speech enhancement often result in a temporal smearing of phoneme representations, which is measured by comparison of phoneme vectors. This procedure does not require a priori knowledge about the processed speech, and is therefore single-ended. The proposed model was evaluated using three datasets of noisy speech signals with listening effort ratings obtained from normal hearing and hearing impaired subjects. The prediction quality was compared to several baseline models such as the ITU-T standard P.563 for single-ended speech quality assessment, the American National Standard ANIQUE+ for single-ended speech quality assessment, and a single-ended SNR estimator. In all three datasets, the proposed new model achieved clearly better prediction accuracies than the baseline models; correlations with subjective ratings were above 0.9. So far, the model is trained on the specific noise types used in the evaluation. Future work will be concerned with overcoming this limitation by training the model on a variety of different noise types in a multi-condition way in order to make it generalize to unknown noise types. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Methods of calculation line optimum travel of trains with consideration of longitudinal dynamic efforts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonas Povilas LINGAITIS


    Full Text Available The paper examines the main provisions of the methods used for optimization of station-to-station travel time taken (according to the criteria of minimum fuel consumption for haulage for freight long train timing with consideration of longitudinal dynamic efforts. A hybrid mathematical model of long train travel is developed, where in one case of travel the train is considered as a flexible non-extensible line with a variable running weight, in other cases the train is considered as a system of weights connected by nonlinear deformable elements with a consideration of gap clearance in a draft. The model allows essentially reducing the time of solving the problem. The problem of selecting an optimum mode of train operation with consideration of longitudinal dynamic efforts and use of method of dynamic programming in a discrete form was set.

  13. Luther's thought assumed form in polemics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vind, Anna


    Luther’s polemic reflects not self-confidence but confidence in God’s Word. His polemic arose in the context of the university disputation, which sought truth and examined skills through disputation. Luther discovered God’s Word’s ability to serve as weapon against his foes. In several literary...... genres Luther’s versatile use of a range of polemical devices countered positions he regarded as false. The necessity of opposing such positions provoked his expansion and deepening of formulations of doctrine and ecclesiastical practice on various topics, including Christian freedom, the external...... character of God’s Word, and other doctrines. Luther’s polemic also served pastoral purposes, defending the faithful against error....

  14. Is CERN Council assuming its responsibilities?

    CERN Multimedia

    Association du personnel


    Before the June official meetings, the Staff Association handed over a letter (see following page) to the President of CERN Council in support of the recommendation of the Governing Board of the Pension Fund to increase contributions by 0.76%, as a step towards a better balance of our Fund.

  15. On Second-best Policing Effort against the Illegal Disposal of Recyclable Waste


    Mariko Onoda


    In this paper, we construct a partial equilibrium model of a product that can be manufactured by using a recycled material as well as a virgin natural resource. In particular, we consider the possibility that a household may resort to the illicit disposal of its waste, such as midnight dumping, instead of discarding it properly. Our focus is on conducting a comparative static analysis on the second-best level of the government fs policing effort to counter illegal disposal. More specifically,...

  16. Optimal Management during the Microorganism Culture Based on the Continuous Purifying Effort

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xianbin Wu


    Full Text Available This paper deals with the problem of selective harvesting in a chemostat model. Here, we have taken the purifying effort as a dynamic variable and tax as a control instrument. The existence of the possible steady states along with their globally stable equilibrium is discussed. The optimal tax policy is also discussed with the help of Pontryagin's maximum principle. Finally, numerical examples are taken to illustrate some of the key results.

  17. Variation in working effort in Danish Little Owls Athene noctua

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holsegård-Rasmussen, Miriam H.; Sunde, Peter; Thorup, Kasper


    Locomotion is costly and should therefore serve a purpose according to the principle of optimal behaviour. In this light, we studied variation in nocturnal activity of radio-tagged Little Owls Athene noctua in Denmark where, after a decline of at least 30 years, the species is threatened...... with extinction. The study is based on 143 one-hour surveys of breeding and 274 surveys of non-breeding Little Owls (27 territorial individuals on 14 territories). Working effort is calculated as the total linear distance between all observed consecutive telemetry fixes during one-hour surveys (Minimum Flight...... Distance, MFD). The effort peaked during the post-hatching dependency period with males flying longer distances and having fewer inactivity periods than females. This might suggest that also after hatching, males provide more food to the nest than females. Non-breeding owls were completely inactive in 13...

  18. Physics Education Research efforts to promote diversity: Challenges and opportunities (United States)

    Brahmia, Suzanne


    We begin this talk with a brief description of the gender and ethnic diversity of the physics community. We then discuss several current efforts within Physics Education Research that have the potential to further our understanding of issues surrounding underrepresentation. These efforts include research into (1) the role of community and strategies for developing effective communities; (2) physics identity and self-efficacy; (3) the affordances that students from underrepresented groups bring to physics learning; (4) socioeconomics and its impact on mathematization. One of the challenges to conducting this research is the relatively small proportion of underrepresented minority students in current physics classes, and the small number of women in physics and engineering majors. In collaboration with Stephen Kanim, New Mexico State University.

  19. Future Efforts in Flynn Effect Research: Balancing Reductionism with Holism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael A. Mingroni


    Full Text Available After nearly thirty years of concerted effort by many investigators, the cause or causes of the secular gains in IQ test scores, known as the Flynn effect, remain elusive. In this target article, I offer six suggestions as to how we might proceed in our efforts to solve this intractable mystery. The suggestions are as follows: (1 compare parents to children; (2 consider other traits and conditions; (3 compare siblings; (4 conduct more and better intervention programs; (5 use subtest profile data in context; and (6 quantify the potential contribution of heterosis. This last section contains new simulations of the process of heterosis, which provide a plausible scenario whereby rapid secular changes in multiple genetically influenced traits are possible. If there is any theme to the present paper, it is that future study designs should be simpler and more highly focused, coordinating multiple studies on single populations.

  20. Audit quality in ASEAN region: some efforts and comparisons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tyasari Irma


    Full Text Available This paper discusses how Asian economies are responding to the increased global attention on audit quality (AQ issues. It shows some of the efforts taken by the countries collectively as a region; as well as individual countries’ measures. The data is obtained from various reports available in public domain including the information available on various relevant websites. The discussion shows how Asian countries are working through an informal organization they established, called the ASEAN Audit Regulators Group (AARG in enhancing AQ. Comparison among five ASEAN countries shows variations in term of how much each country has progressed with respect to their efforts in straightening AQ. Some countries are more advanced than the other. This paper contributes to the literature on audit quality by providing insights into how ASEAN as a region responded to the global demand on improving AQ and the gaps in auditing literature on comparative progress of these nations.