WorldWideScience

Sample records for modeling efforts assume

  1. Assumed PDF modeling in rocket combustor simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lempke, M.; Gerlinger, P.; Aigner, M.

    2013-03-01

    In order to account for the interaction between turbulence and chemistry, a multivariate assumed PDF (Probability Density Function) approach is used to simulate a model rocket combustor with finite-rate chemistry. The reported test case is the PennState preburner combustor with a single shear coaxial injector. Experimental data for the wall heat flux is available for this configuration. Unsteady RANS (Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes) simulation results with and without the assumed PDF approach are analyzed and compared with the experimental data. Both calculations show a good agreement with the experimental wall heat flux data. Significant changes due to the utilization of the assumed PDF approach can be observed in the radicals, e. g., the OH mass fraction distribution, while the effect on the wall heat flux is insignificant.

  2. Bayesian modeling growth curves for quail assuming skewness in errors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robson Marcelo Rossi

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Bayesian modeling growth curves for quail assuming skewness in errors - To assume normal distributions in the data analysis is common in different areas of the knowledge. However we can make use of the other distributions that are capable to model the skewness parameter in the situations that is needed to model data with tails heavier than the normal. This article intend to present alternatives to the assumption of the normality in the errors, adding asymmetric distributions. A Bayesian approach is proposed to fit nonlinear models when the errors are not normal, thus, the distributions t, skew-normal and skew-t are adopted. The methodology is intended to apply to different growth curves to the quail body weights. It was found that the Gompertz model assuming skew-normal errors and skew-t errors, respectively for male and female, were the best fitted to the data.

  3. Chemically reacting supersonic flow calculation using an assumed PDF model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farshchi, M.

    1990-01-01

    This work is motivated by the need to develop accurate models for chemically reacting compressible turbulent flow fields that are present in a typical supersonic combustion ramjet (SCRAMJET) engine. In this paper the development of a new assumed probability density function (PDF) reaction model for supersonic turbulent diffusion flames and its implementation into an efficient Navier-Stokes solver are discussed. The application of this model to a supersonic hydrogen-air flame will be considered.

  4. Modeling turbulent/chemistry interactions using assumed pdf methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaffney, R. L, Jr.; White, J. A.; Girimaji, S. S.; Drummond, J. P.

    1992-01-01

    Two assumed probability density functions (pdfs) are employed for computing the effect of temperature fluctuations on chemical reaction. The pdfs assumed for this purpose are the Gaussian and the beta densities of the first kind. The pdfs are first used in a parametric study to determine the influence of temperature fluctuations on the mean reaction-rate coefficients. Results indicate that temperature fluctuations significantly affect the magnitude of the mean reaction-rate coefficients of some reactions depending on the mean temperature and the intensity of the fluctuations. The pdfs are then tested on a high-speed turbulent reacting mixing layer. Results clearly show a decrease in the ignition delay time due to increases in the magnitude of most of the mean reaction rate coefficients.

  5. A Model for Teacher Effects from Longitudinal Data without Assuming Vertical Scaling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mariano, Louis T.; McCaffrey, Daniel F.; Lockwood, J. R.

    2010-01-01

    There is an increasing interest in using longitudinal measures of student achievement to estimate individual teacher effects. Current multivariate models assume each teacher has a single effect on student outcomes that persists undiminished to all future test administrations (complete persistence [CP]) or can diminish with time but remains…

  6. Radial diffusion in Saturn's radiation belts - A modeling analysis assuming satellite and ring E absorption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hood, L. L.

    1983-01-01

    A modeling analysis is carried out of six experimental phase space density profiles for nearly equatorially mirroring protons using methods based on the approach of Thomsen et al. (1977). The form of the time-averaged radial diffusion coefficient D(L) that gives an optimal fit to the experimental profiles is determined under the assumption that simple satellite plus Ring E absorption of inwardly diffusing particles and steady-state radial diffusion are the dominant physical processes affecting the proton data in the L range that is modeled. An extension of the single-satellite model employed by Thomsen et al. to a model that includes multisatellite and ring absorption is described, and the procedures adopted for estimating characteristic satellite and ring absorption times are defined. The results obtained in applying three representative solid-body absorption models to evaluate D(L) in the range where L is between 4 and 16 are reported, and a study is made of the sensitivity of the preferred amplitude and L dependence for D(L) to the assumed model parameters. The inferred form of D(L) is then compared with that which would be predicted if various proposed physical mechanisms for driving magnetospheric radial diffusion are operative at Saturn.

  7. Analysis of Empirical Software Effort Estimation Models

    CERN Document Server

    Basha, Saleem

    2010-01-01

    Reliable effort estimation remains an ongoing challenge to software engineers. Accurate effort estimation is the state of art of software engineering, effort estimation of software is the preliminary phase between the client and the business enterprise. The relationship between the client and the business enterprise begins with the estimation of the software. The credibility of the client to the business enterprise increases with the accurate estimation. Effort estimation often requires generalizing from a small number of historical projects. Generalization from such limited experience is an inherently under constrained problem. Accurate estimation is a complex process because it can be visualized as software effort prediction, as the term indicates prediction never becomes an actual. This work follows the basics of the empirical software effort estimation models. The goal of this paper is to study the empirical software effort estimation. The primary conclusion is that no single technique is best for all sit...

  8. Comparison of ELCAP data with lighting and equipment load levels and profiles assumed in regional models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taylor, Z.T.; Pratt, R.G.

    1990-09-01

    The analysis in this report was driven by two primary objectives: to determine whether and to what extent the lighting and miscellaneous equipment electricity consumption measured by metering in real buildings differs from the levels assumed in the various prototypes used in power forecasting; and to determine the reasons for those differences if, in fact, differences were found. 13 refs., 47 figs., 4 tabs.

  9. Tsunami Waveform Inversion without Assuming Fault Models- Application to Recent Three Earthquakes around Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Namegaya, Y.; Ueno, T.; Satake, K.; Tanioka, Y.

    2010-12-01

    Tsunami waveform inversion is often used to study the source of tsunamigenic earthquakes. In this method, subsurface fault planes are divided into small subfaults, and the slip distribution, then seafloor deformation are estimated. However, it is sometimes difficult to judge the actual fault plane for offshore earthquake such as those along the eastern margin of Japan Sea. We developed an inversion method to estimate vertical seafloor deformation directly from observed tsunami waveforms. The tsunami source area is divided into many nodes, and the vertical seafloor deformation is calculated around each node by using the B-spline functions. The tsunami waveforms are calculated from each node, and used as the Green’s functions for inversion. To stabilize inversion or avoid overestimation of data errors, we introduce smoothing equations like Laplace’s equations. The optimum smoothing strength is estimated from the Akaike’s Bayesian information criterion (ABIC) Method. Advantage of this method is to estimate the vertical seafloor deformation can be estimated without assuming a fault plane. We applied the method to three recent earthquakes around Japan: the 2007 Chuetsu-oki, 2007 Noto Hanto, and 2003 Tokachi-oki earthquakes. The Chuetsu-oki earthquake (M6.8) occurred off the Japan Sea coast of central Japan on 16 July 2007. For this earthquake, complicated aftershock distribution makes it difficult to judge which of the southeast dipping fault or the northwest dipping fault was the actual fault plane. The tsunami inversion result indicates that the uplifted area extends about 10 km from the coastline, and there are two peaks of uplift: about 40 cm in the south and about 20 cm in the north. TheNoto Hanto earthquake (M6.9) occurred off Noto peninsula, also along the Japan Sea coast of central Japan, on 25 March 2007. The inversion result indicates that the uplifted area extends about 10 km off the coast, and the largest uplift amount is more than 40 cm. Location of

  10. THM Coupled Modeling in Near Field of an Assumed HLW Deep Geological Disposal Repository

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shen Zhenyao; Li Guoding; Li Shushen

    2004-01-01

    One of the most suitable ways under study for the disposal of high-level radioactive waste (HLW) is isolation in deep geological repositories. It is very important to research the thermo-hydro-mechanical (THM) coupled processes associated with an HLW disposal repository. Non-linear coupled equations, which are used to describe the THM coupled process and are suited to saturated-unsaturated porous media, are presented in this paper. A numerical method to solve these equations is put forward, and a finite element code is developed. This code is suited to the plane strain or axis-symmetry problem. Then this code is used to simulate the THM coupled process in the near field of an ideal disposal repository. The temperature vs. time, hydraulic head vs. time and stress vs. time results show that, in this assumed condition, the impact of temperature is very long (over 10 000 a) and the impact of the water head is short (about 90 d). Since the stress is induced by temperature and hydraulic head in this condition, the impact time of stress is the same as that of temperature. The results show that THM coupled processes are very important in the safety analysis of an HLW deep geological disposal repository.

  11. Statistical Modeling Efforts for Headspace Gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weaver, Brian Phillip [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-03-17

    The purpose of this document is to describe the statistical modeling effort for gas concentrations in WIPP storage containers. The concentration (in ppm) of CO2 in the headspace volume of standard waste box (SWB) 68685 is shown. A Bayesian approach and an adaptive Metropolis-Hastings algorithm were used.

  12. Phase field modeling of brittle fracture for enhanced assumed strain shells at large deformations: formulation and finite element implementation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinoso, J.; Paggi, M.; Linder, C.

    2017-02-01

    Fracture of technological thin-walled components can notably limit the performance of their corresponding engineering systems. With the aim of achieving reliable fracture predictions of thin structures, this work presents a new phase field model of brittle fracture for large deformation analysis of shells relying on a mixed enhanced assumed strain (EAS) formulation. The kinematic description of the shell body is constructed according to the solid shell concept. This enables the use of fully three-dimensional constitutive models for the material. The proposed phase field formulation integrates the use of the (EAS) method to alleviate locking pathologies, especially Poisson thickness and volumetric locking. This technique is further combined with the assumed natural strain method to efficiently derive a locking-free solid shell element. On the computational side, a fully coupled monolithic framework is consistently formulated. Specific details regarding the corresponding finite element formulation and the main aspects associated with its implementation in the general purpose packages FEAP and ABAQUS are addressed. Finally, the applicability of the current strategy is demonstrated through several numerical examples involving different loading conditions, and including linear and nonlinear hyperelastic constitutive models.

  13. Phase field modeling of brittle fracture for enhanced assumed strain shells at large deformations: formulation and finite element implementation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinoso, J.; Paggi, M.; Linder, C.

    2017-06-01

    Fracture of technological thin-walled components can notably limit the performance of their corresponding engineering systems. With the aim of achieving reliable fracture predictions of thin structures, this work presents a new phase field model of brittle fracture for large deformation analysis of shells relying on a mixed enhanced assumed strain (EAS) formulation. The kinematic description of the shell body is constructed according to the solid shell concept. This enables the use of fully three-dimensional constitutive models for the material. The proposed phase field formulation integrates the use of the (EAS) method to alleviate locking pathologies, especially Poisson thickness and volumetric locking. This technique is further combined with the assumed natural strain method to efficiently derive a locking-free solid shell element. On the computational side, a fully coupled monolithic framework is consistently formulated. Specific details regarding the corresponding finite element formulation and the main aspects associated with its implementation in the general purpose packages FEAP and ABAQUS are addressed. Finally, the applicability of the current strategy is demonstrated through several numerical examples involving different loading conditions, and including linear and nonlinear hyperelastic constitutive models.

  14. Importance of the habitat choice behavior assumed when modeling the effects of food and temperature on fish populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wildhaber, Mark L.; Lamberson, Peter J.

    2004-01-01

    Various mechanisms of habitat choice in fishes based on food and/or temperature have been proposed: optimal foraging for food alone; behavioral thermoregulation for temperature alone; and behavioral energetics and discounted matching for food and temperature combined. Along with development of habitat choice mechanisms, there has been a major push to develop and apply to fish populations individual-based models that incorporate various forms of these mechanisms. However, it is not known how the wide variation in observed and hypothesized mechanisms of fish habitat choice could alter fish population predictions (e.g. growth, size distributions, etc.). We used spatially explicit, individual-based modeling to compare predicted fish populations using different submodels of patch choice behavior under various food and temperature distributions. We compared predicted growth, temperature experience, food consumption, and final spatial distribution using the different models. Our results demonstrated that the habitat choice mechanism assumed in fish population modeling simulations was critical to predictions of fish distribution and growth rates. Hence, resource managers who use modeling results to predict fish population trends should be very aware of and understand the underlying patch choice mechanisms used in their models to assure that those mechanisms correctly represent the fish populations being modeled.

  15. Efforts and models of education for parents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Niels Rosendal

    2010-01-01

    Artiklen omfatter en gennemgang af modeller for forældreuddannelse, der fortrinsvis anvendes i Danmark. Artiklen indlejrer modellerne i nogle bredere blikke på uddannelsessystemet og den aktuelle diskurs om ansvarliggørelse af forældre.   Udgivelsesdato: Marts 2010...

  16. Distance determination for RAVE stars using stellar models II: Most likely values assuming a standard stellar evolution scenario

    CERN Document Server

    Zwitter, T; Breddels, M A; Smith, M C; Helmi, A; Munari, U; Bienaym\\'{e), O; Bland-Hawthorn, J; Boeche, C; Brown, A G A; Campbell, R; Freeman, K C; Fulbright, J; Gibson, B; Gilmore, G; Grebel, E K; Navarro, J F; Parker, Q A; Seabroke, G M; Siebert, A; Siviero, A; Steinmetz, M; Watson, F G; Williams, M; Wyse, R F G

    2010-01-01

    The RAdial Velocity Experiment (RAVE) is a spectroscopic survey of the Milky Way. We use the subsample of spectra with spectroscopically determined values of stellar parameters to determine the distances to these stars. The list currently contains 235,064 high quality spectra which show no peculiarities and belong to 210,872 different stars. The numbers will grow as the RAVE survey progresses. The public version of the catalog will be made available through the CDS services along with the ongoing RAVE public data releases. The distances are determined with a method based on the work by Breddels et al.~(2010). Here we assume that the star undergoes a standard stellar evolution and that its spectrum shows no peculiarities. The refinements include: the use of either of the three isochrone sets, a better account of the stellar ages and masses, use of more realistic errors of stellar parameter values, and application to a larger dataset. The derived distances of both dwarfs and giants match within ~21% to the astr...

  17. Electrophysiological correlates of listening effort: neurodynamical modeling and measurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strauss, Daniel J; Corona-Strauss, Farah I; Trenado, Carlos; Bernarding, Corinna; Reith, Wolfgang; Latzel, Matthias; Froehlich, Matthias

    2010-06-01

    An increased listing effort represents a major problem in humans with hearing impairment. Neurodiagnostic methods for an objective listening effort estimation might support hearing instrument fitting procedures. However the cognitive neurodynamics of listening effort is far from being understood and its neural correlates have not been identified yet. In this paper we analyze the cognitive neurodynamics of listening effort by using methods of forward neurophysical modeling and time-scale electroencephalographic neurodiagnostics. In particular, we present a forward neurophysical model for auditory late responses (ALRs) as large-scale listening effort correlates. Here endogenously driven top-down projections related to listening effort are mapped to corticothalamic feedback pathways which were analyzed for the selective attention neurodynamics before. We show that this model represents well the time-scale phase stability analysis of experimental electroencephalographic data from auditory discrimination paradigms. It is concluded that the proposed neurophysical and neuropsychological framework is appropriate for the analysis of listening effort and might help to develop objective electroencephalographic methods for its estimation in future.

  18. Dependence of radiation belt simulations to assumed radial diffusion rates tested for two empirical models of radial transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drozdov, Alexander; Shprits, Yuri; Aseev, Nikita; Kellerman, Adam; Reeves, Geoffrey

    2017-04-01

    Radial diffusion is one of the dominant physical mechanisms that drives acceleration and loss of the radiation belt electrons, which makes it very important for nowcasting and forecasting space weather models. We investigate the sensitivity of the two parameterizations of the radial diffusion of Brautigam and Albert [2000] and Ozeke et al. [2014] on long-term radiation belt modeling using the Versatile Electron Radiation Belt (VERB). Following Brautigam and Albert [2000] and Ozeke et al. [2014], we first perform 1-D radial diffusion simulations. Comparison of the simulation results with observations shows that the difference between simulations with either radial diffusion parameterization is small. To take into account effects of local acceleration and loss, we perform 3-D simulations, including pitch-angle, energy and mixed diffusion. We found that the results of 3-D simulations are even less sensitive to the choice of parameterization of radial diffusion rates than the results of 1-D simulations at various energies (from 0.59 to 1.80 MeV). This result demonstrates that the inclusion of local acceleration and pitch-angle diffusion can provide a negative feedback effect, such that the result is largely indistinguishable simulations conducted with different radial diffusion parameterizations. We also perform a number of sensitivity tests by multiplying radial diffusion rates by constant factors and show that such an approach leads to unrealistic predictions of radiation belt dynamics. References Brautigam, D. H., and J. M. Albert (2000), Radial diffusion analysis of outer radiation belt electrons during the October 9, 1990, magnetic storm, J. Geophys. Res., 105(A1), 291-309, doi:10.1029/1999ja900344. Ozeke, L. G., I. R. Mann, K. R. Murphy, I. Jonathan Rae, and D. K. Milling (2014), Analytic expressions for ULF wave radiation belt radial diffusion coefficients, J. Geophys. Res. [Space Phys.], 119(3), 1587-1605, doi:10.1002/2013JA019204.

  19. City Logistics Modeling Efforts: Trends and Gaps - A Review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Anand, N.R.; Quak, H.J.; Van Duin, J.H.R.; Tavasszy, L.A.

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we present a review of city logistics modeling efforts reported in the literature for urban freight analysis. The review framework takes into account the diversity and complexity found in the present-day city logistics practice. Next, it covers the different aspects in the modeling se

  20. Inversion assuming weak scattering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xenaki, Angeliki; Gerstoft, Peter; Mosegaard, Klaus

    2013-01-01

    The study of weak scattering from inhomogeneous media or interface roughness has long been of interest in sonar applications. In an acoustic backscattering model of a stationary field of volume inhomogeneities, a stochastic description of the field is more useful than a deterministic description...... due to the complex nature of the field. A method based on linear inversion is employed to infer information about the statistical properties of the scattering field from the obtained cross-spectral matrix. A synthetic example based on an active high-frequency sonar demonstrates that the proposed...

  1. Efforts - Final technical report on task 4. Physical modelling calidation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreasen, Jan Lasson; Olsson, David Dam; Christensen, T. W.

    The present report is documentation for the work carried out in Task 4 at DTU Physical modelling-validation on the Brite/Euram project No. BE96-3340, contract No. BRPR-CT97-0398, with the title Enhanced Framework for forging design using reliable three-dimensional simulation (EFFORTS). The report...

  2. Linking effort and fishing mortality in a mixed fisheries model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thøgersen, Thomas Talund; Hoff, Ayoe; Frost, Hans Staby

    2012-01-01

    in fish stocks has led to overcapacity in many fisheries, leading to incentives for overfishing. Recent research has shown that the allocation of effort among fleets can play an important role in mitigating overfishing when the targeting covers a range of species (multi-species—i.e., so-called mixed...... fisheries), while simultaneously optimising the overall economic performance of the fleets. The so-called FcubEcon model, in particular, has elucidated both the biologically and economically optimal method for allocating catches—and thus effort—between fishing fleets, while ensuring that the quotas...

  3. Early efforts in modeling the incubation period of infectious diseases with an acute course of illness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nishiura Hiroshi

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The incubation period of infectious diseases, the time from infection with a microorganism to onset of disease, is directly relevant to prevention and control. Since explicit models of the incubation period enhance our understanding of the spread of disease, previous classic studies were revisited, focusing on the modeling methods employed and paying particular attention to relatively unknown historical efforts. The earliest study on the incubation period of pandemic influenza was published in 1919, providing estimates of the incubation period of Spanish flu using the daily incidence on ships departing from several ports in Australia. Although the study explicitly dealt with an unknown time of exposure, the assumed periods of exposure, which had an equal probability of infection, were too long, and thus, likely resulted in slight underestimates of the incubation period. After the suggestion that the incubation period follows lognormal distribution, Japanese epidemiologists extended this assumption to estimates of the time of exposure during a point source outbreak. Although the reason why the incubation period of acute infectious diseases tends to reveal a right-skewed distribution has been explored several times, the validity of the lognormal assumption is yet to be fully clarified. At present, various different distributions are assumed, and the lack of validity in assuming lognormal distribution is particularly apparent in the case of slowly progressing diseases. The present paper indicates that (1 analysis using well-defined short periods of exposure with appropriate statistical methods is critical when the exact time of exposure is unknown, and (2 when assuming a specific distribution for the incubation period, comparisons using different distributions are needed in addition to estimations using different datasets, analyses of the determinants of incubation period, and an understanding of the underlying disease mechanisms.

  4. Recent efforts to model human diseases in vivo in Drosophila.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfleger, Cathie M; Reiter, Lawrence T

    2008-01-01

    Upon completion of sequencing the Drosophila genome, it was estimated that 61% of human disease-associated genes had sequence homologs in flies, and in some diseases such as cancer, the number was as high as 68%. We now know that as many as 75% of the genes associated with genetic disease have counterparts in Drosophila. Using better tools for mutation detection, association studies and whole genome analysis the number of human genes associated with genetic disease is steadily increasing. These detection efforts are outpacing the ability to assign function and understand the underlying cause of the disease at the molecular level. Drosophila models can therefore advance human disease research in a number of ways by: establishing the normal role of these gene products during development, elucidating the mechanism underlying disease pathology, and even identifying candidate therapeutic agents for the treatment of human disease. At the 49(th) Annual Drosophila Research Conference in San Diego this year, a number of labs presented their exciting findings on Drosophila models of human disease in both platform presentations and poster sessions. Here we can only briefly review some of these developments, and we apologize that we do not have the time or space to review all of the findings presented which use Drosophila to understand human disease etiology.

  5. Performance Analysis of Software Effort Estimation Models Using Neural Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.Latha

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Software Effort estimation involves the estimation of effort required to develop software. Cost overrun, schedule overrun occur in the software development due to the wrong estimate made during the initial stage of software development. Proper estimation is very essential for successful completion of software development. Lot of estimation techniques available to estimate the effort in which neural network based estimation technique play a prominent role. Back propagation Network is the most widely used architecture. ELMAN neural network a recurrent type network can be used on par with Back propagation Network. For a good predictor system the difference between estimated effort and actual effort should be as low as possible. Data from historic project of NASA is used for training and testing. The experimental Results confirm that Back propagation algorithm is efficient than Elman neural network.

  6. Natural beauty of the standard model -A derivation of electro-weak unified and quantum-gravity theory without assuming a Higgs particle-

    CERN Document Server

    Nishikawa, M

    2004-01-01

    We study the asymptotic behavior of a singular potential that arises under several frequently occurring analytic behaviors of the eigenfunctions without introducing cut-offs. Instead, in our analyses we focus on power behaviors of eigenfunctions. Then, we discuss the self-consistency condition for the spherical symmetric Klein-Gordon equation, and discuss a natural possibility that gravity and weak coupling constants $g_G$ and $g_W$ may be defined after $g_{EM}$. In this point of view, gravity and the weak force are subsidiary derived from electricity. Particularly, $SU(2)_L\\times U(1)$ unification is derived without assuming a phase transition. A possible origin of the Higgs mechanism is proposed. Each particle pair of the standard model is associated with the corresponding asymptotic expansion of an eigenfunction. Next we consider the meaning of internal and external degreesof freedom for a two body problem, and find two degrees of freedom which can not reduce to the local motion of one frame. These two deg...

  7. Web life: If We Assume

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-01

    The title If We Assume refers to physicists' habit of making back-of-the-envelope calculations, but do not let the allusion to assumptions fool you: there are precious few spherical cows rolling around frictionless surfaces in this corner of the Internet.

  8. Linking effort and fishing mortality in a mixed fisheries model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thøgersen, Thomas Talund; Hoff, Ayoe; Frost, Hans Staby

    2012-01-01

    in fish stocks has led to overcapacity in many fisheries, leading to incentives for overfishing. Recent research has shown that the allocation of effort among fleets can play an important role in mitigating overfishing when the targeting covers a range of species (multi-species—i.e., so-called mixed...

  9. Suggestion Program and Model Installation Program - Duplication of Effort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-04-01

    REPORTNUMBER88-26- TITL SUGESIONPROGAM ND ODE INSALLTIO PRGRAM -DULICTIO OF EFFORT AUTHR(S)MAJR DOALD . TOWBRDGEUSA FACUTY DVISRMAOR SEVE L.HANSN, CSC/824STU...NIP Evaluation Process............................ 13 FIGURE 3--USAF MIP Growth................................... 17 0. p.r vip I -.# EXECUTIVE SUMMARY...the study centers on program processes for submitting and evaluating proposals. The Suggestion Program and MIP processes are similar in that they both

  10. A polynomial model of patient-specific breathing effort during controlled mechanical ventilation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redmond, Daniel P; Docherty, Paul D; Yeong Shiong Chiew; Chase, J Geoffrey

    2015-08-01

    Patient breathing efforts occurring during controlled ventilation causes perturbations in pressure data, which cause erroneous parameter estimation in conventional models of respiratory mechanics. A polynomial model of patient effort can be used to capture breath-specific effort and underlying lung condition. An iterative multiple linear regression is used to identify the model in clinical volume controlled data. The polynomial model has lower fitting error and more stable estimates of respiratory elastance and resistance in the presence of patient effort than the conventional single compartment model. However, the polynomial model can converge to poor parameter estimation when patient efforts occur very early in the breath, or for long duration. The model of patient effort can provide clinical benefits by providing accurate respiratory mechanics estimation and monitoring of breath-to-breath patient effort, which can be used by clinicians to guide treatment.

  11. A comparison between the effort-reward imbalance and demand control models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostry, Aleck S; Kelly, Shona; Demers, Paul A; Mustard, Cameron; Hertzman, Clyde

    2003-02-27

    To compare the predictive validity of the demand/control and reward/imbalance models, alone and in combination with each other, for self-reported health status and the self-reported presence of any chronic disease condition. Self-reports for psychosocial work conditions were obtained in a sample of sawmill workers using the demand/control and effort/reward imbalance models. The relative predictive validity of task-level control was compared with effort/reward imbalance. As well, the predictive validity of a model developed by combining task-level control with effort/reward imbalance was determined. Logistic regression was utilized for all models. The demand/control and effort/reward imbalance models independently predicted poor self-reported health status. The effort-reward imbalance model predicted the presence of a chronic disease while the demand/control model did not. A model combining effort-reward imbalance and task-level control was a better predictor of self-reported health status and any chronic condition than either model alone. Effort reward imbalance modeled with intrinsic effort had marginally better predictive validity than when modeled with extrinsic effort only. Future work should explore the combined effects of these two models of psychosocial stress at work on health more thoroughly.

  12. Colloids and Radionuclide Transport: A Field, Experimental and Modeling Effort

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, P.; Zavarin, M.; Sylwester, E. E.; Allen, P. G.; Williams, R. W.; Kersting, A. B.

    2002-05-01

    Natural inorganic colloids (clinoptilolite, colloids particle size 171 ñ 25 nm) were conducted in synthetic groundwater (similar to J-13, Yucca Mountain standard) with a pH range from 4 to 10 and initial plutonium concentration of 10-9 M. The results show that Pu(IV) sorption takes place within an hour, while the rates of Pu(V) sorption onto the colloids is much slower and mineral dependent. The kinetic results from the batch sorption/desorption experiments, coupled with redox kinetics of plutonium in solution will be used in geochemical modeling of Pu surface complexation to colloids and reactive transport. (This work was performed under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy by University of California Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under contract No. W-7405-Eng-48.)

  13. Efforts and Models of Education for Parents: the Danish Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosendal Jensen, Niels

    2009-12-01

    to underline that Danish welfare policy has been changing rather radical. The classic model was an understanding of welfare as social assurance and/or as social distribution – based on social solidarity. The modern model looks like welfare as social service and/or social investment. This means that citizens are changing role – from user and/or citizen to consumer and/or investor. The Danish state is in correspondence with decisions taken by the government investing in a national future shaped by global competition. The new models of welfare – “service” and “investment” – imply severe changes in hitherto known concepts of family life, relationship between parents and children etc. As an example the investment model points at a new implementation of the relationship between social rights and the rights of freedom. The service model has demonstrated that weakness that the access to qualified services in the field of health or education is becoming more and more dependent of the private purchasing power. The weakness of the investment model is that it represents a sort of “The Winner takes it all” – since a political majority is enabled to make agendas in societal fields former protected by the tripartite power and the rights of freedom of the citizens. The outcome of the Danish development seems to be an establishment of a political governed public service industry which on one side are capable of competing on market conditions and on the other are able being governed by contracts. This represents a new form of close linking of politics, economy and professional work. Attempts of controlling education, pedagogy and thereby the population are not a recent invention. In European history we could easily point at several such experiments. The real news is the linking between political priorities and exercise of public activities by economic incentives. By defining visible goals for the public servants, by introducing measurement of achievements and

  14. Nuclear Hybrid Energy Systems FY16 Modeling Efforts at ORNL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cetiner, Sacit M. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Greenwood, Michael Scott [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Harrison, Thomas J. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Qualls, A. L. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Guler Yigitoglu, Askin [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Fugate, David W. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2016-09-01

    A nuclear hybrid system uses a nuclear reactor as the basic power generation unit. The power generated by the nuclear reactor is utilized by one or more power customers as either thermal power, electrical power, or both. In general, a nuclear hybrid system will couple the nuclear reactor to at least one thermal power user in addition to the power conversion system. The definition and architecture of a particular nuclear hybrid system is flexible depending on local markets needs and opportunities. For example, locations in need of potable water may be best served by coupling a desalination plant to the nuclear system. Similarly, an area near oil refineries may have a need for emission free hydrogen production. A nuclear hybrid system expands the nuclear power plant from its more familiar central power station role by diversifying its immediately and directly connected customer base. The definition, design, analysis, and optimization work currently performed with respect to the nuclear hybrid systems represents the work of three national laboratories. Idaho National Laboratory (INL) is the lead lab working with Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) and Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Each laboratory is providing modeling and simulation expertise for the integration of the hybrid system.

  15. The minimum effort required to eradicate infections in models with backward bifurcation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Safan, M.; Heesterbeek, J.A.P.; Dietz, K.

    2006-01-01

    We study an epidemiological model which assumes that the susceptibility after a primary infection is r times the susceptibility before a primary infection. For r = 0 (r = 1) this is the SIR (SIS) model. For r > 1 + (μ/α) this model shows backward bifurcations, where μ is the death rate and α is the

  16. Modeling to Mars: a NASA Model Based Systems Engineering Pathfinder Effort

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phojanamongkolkij, Nipa; Lee, Kristopher A.; Miller, Scott T.; Vorndran, Kenneth A.; Vaden, Karl R.; Ross, Eric P.; Powell, Bobby C.; Moses, Robert W.

    2017-01-01

    The NASA Engineering Safety Center (NESC) Systems Engineering (SE) Technical Discipline Team (TDT) initiated the Model Based Systems Engineering (MBSE) Pathfinder effort in FY16. The goals and objectives of the MBSE Pathfinder include developing and advancing MBSE capability across NASA, applying MBSE to real NASA issues, and capturing issues and opportunities surrounding MBSE. The Pathfinder effort consisted of four teams, with each team addressing a particular focus area. This paper focuses on Pathfinder team 1 with the focus area of architectures and mission campaigns. These efforts covered the timeframe of February 2016 through September 2016. The team was comprised of eight team members from seven NASA Centers (Glenn Research Center, Langley Research Center, Ames Research Center, Goddard Space Flight Center IV&V Facility, Johnson Space Center, Marshall Space Flight Center, and Stennis Space Center). Collectively, the team had varying levels of knowledge, skills and expertise in systems engineering and MBSE. The team applied their existing and newly acquired system modeling knowledge and expertise to develop modeling products for a campaign (Program) of crew and cargo missions (Projects) to establish a human presence on Mars utilizing In-Situ Resource Utilization (ISRU). Pathfinder team 1 developed a subset of modeling products that are required for a Program System Requirement Review (SRR)/System Design Review (SDR) and Project Mission Concept Review (MCR)/SRR as defined in NASA Procedural Requirements. Additionally, Team 1 was able to perform and demonstrate some trades and constraint analyses. At the end of these efforts, over twenty lessons learned and recommended next steps have been identified.

  17. Effects of composite casein and beta-lactoglobulin genotypes on renneting properties and composition of bovine milk by assuming an animal model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. IKONEN

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The effects of kappa-beta-casein genotypes and b-lactoglobulin genotypes on the renneting properties and composition of milk were estimated for 174 and 155 milk samples of 59 Finnish Ayrshire and 55 Finnish Friesian cows, respectively. As well as the random additive genetic and permanent environmental effects of a cow, the model included the fixed effects for parity, lactation stage, season, kappa-beta-casein genotypes and b-lactoglobulin genotypes. Favourable renneting properties were associated with kappa-beta-casein genotypes ABA 1 A 2 , ABA 1 A 1 and AAA 1 A 2 in the Finnish Ayrshire, and with ABA 2 B, AAA 1 A 3 , AAA 2 A 3 , ABA 1 A 2 and ABA 2 A 2 in the Finnish Friesian. The favourable effect of these genotypes on curd firming time and on firmness of the curd was partly due to their association with a high kappa-casein concentration in the milk. The effect of the kappa-casein E allele on renneting properties was unfavourable compared with that of the kappa-casein B allele, and possibly with that of the A allele. The beta-lactoglobulin genotypes had no effect on renneting properties but they had a clear effect on the protein composition of milk. The beta-lactoglobulin AA genotype was associated with a high whey protein % and beta-lactoglobulin concentration and the BB genotype with a high casein % and casein number.;

  18. The Mental Effort-Reward Imbalances Model and Its Implications for Behaviour Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poulton, Alison; Whale, Samina; Robinson, Joanne

    2016-01-01

    Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is frequently associated with oppositional defiant disorder (ODD). The Mental Effort Reward Imbalances Model (MERIM) explains this observational association as follows: in ADHD a disproportionate level of mental effort is required for sustaining concentration for achievement; in ODD the subjective…

  19. [Psychometric properties of the French version of the Effort-Reward Imbalance model].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niedhammer, I; Siegrist, J; Landre, M F; Goldberg, M; Leclerc, A

    2000-10-01

    Two main models are currently used to evaluate psychosocial factors at work: the Job Strain model developed by Karasek and the Effort-Reward Imbalance model. A French version of the first model has been validated for the dimensions of psychological demands and decision latitude. As regards the second one evaluating three dimensions (extrinsic effort, reward, and intrinsic effort), there are several versions in different languages, but until recently there was no validated French version. The objective of this study was to explore the psychometric properties of the French version of the Effort-Reward Imbalance model in terms of internal consistency, factorial validity, and discriminant validity. The present study was based on the GAZEL cohort and included the 10 174 subjects who were working at the French national electric and gas company (EDF-GDF) and answered the questionnaire in 1998. A French version of Effort-Reward Imbalance was included in this questionnaire. This version was obtained by a standard forward/backward translation procedure. Internal consistency was satisfactory for the three scales of extrinsic effort, reward, and intrinsic effort: Cronbach's Alpha coefficients higher than 0.7 were observed. A one-factor solution was retained for the factor analysis of the scale of extrinsic effort. A three-factor solution was retained for the factor analysis of reward, and these dimensions were interpreted as the factor analysis of intrinsic effort did not support the expected four-dimension structure. The analysis of discriminant validity displayed significant associations between measures of Effort-Reward Imbalance and the variables of sex, age, education level, and occupational grade. This study is the first one supporting satisfactory psychometric properties of the French version of the Effort-Reward Imbalance model. However, the factorial validity of intrinsic effort could be questioned. Furthermore, as most previous studies were based on male samples

  20. Finding the right balance between groundwater model complexity and experimental effort via Bayesian model selection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schöniger, Anneli; Illman, Walter A.; Wöhling, Thomas; Nowak, Wolfgang

    2015-12-01

    Groundwater modelers face the challenge of how to assign representative parameter values to the studied aquifer. Several approaches are available to parameterize spatial heterogeneity in aquifer parameters. They differ in their conceptualization and complexity, ranging from homogeneous models to heterogeneous random fields. While it is common practice to invest more effort into data collection for models with a finer resolution of heterogeneities, there is a lack of advice which amount of data is required to justify a certain level of model complexity. In this study, we propose to use concepts related to Bayesian model selection to identify this balance. We demonstrate our approach on the characterization of a heterogeneous aquifer via hydraulic tomography in a sandbox experiment (Illman et al., 2010). We consider four increasingly complex parameterizations of hydraulic conductivity: (1) Effective homogeneous medium, (2) geology-based zonation, (3) interpolation by pilot points, and (4) geostatistical random fields. First, we investigate the shift in justified complexity with increasing amount of available data by constructing a model confusion matrix. This matrix indicates the maximum level of complexity that can be justified given a specific experimental setup. Second, we determine which parameterization is most adequate given the observed drawdown data. Third, we test how the different parameterizations perform in a validation setup. The results of our test case indicate that aquifer characterization via hydraulic tomography does not necessarily require (or justify) a geostatistical description. Instead, a zonation-based model might be a more robust choice, but only if the zonation is geologically adequate.

  1. Supercomputer and cluster performance modeling and analysis efforts:2004-2006.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sturtevant, Judith E.; Ganti, Anand; Meyer, Harold (Hal) Edward; Stevenson, Joel O.; Benner, Robert E., Jr. (.,; .); Goudy, Susan Phelps; Doerfler, Douglas W.; Domino, Stefan Paul; Taylor, Mark A.; Malins, Robert Joseph; Scott, Ryan T.; Barnette, Daniel Wayne; Rajan, Mahesh; Ang, James Alfred; Black, Amalia Rebecca; Laub, Thomas William; Vaughan, Courtenay Thomas; Franke, Brian Claude

    2007-02-01

    This report describes efforts by the Performance Modeling and Analysis Team to investigate performance characteristics of Sandia's engineering and scientific applications on the ASC capability and advanced architecture supercomputers, and Sandia's capacity Linux clusters. Efforts to model various aspects of these computers are also discussed. The goals of these efforts are to quantify and compare Sandia's supercomputer and cluster performance characteristics; to reveal strengths and weaknesses in such systems; and to predict performance characteristics of, and provide guidelines for, future acquisitions and follow-on systems. Described herein are the results obtained from running benchmarks and applications to extract performance characteristics and comparisons, as well as modeling efforts, obtained during the time period 2004-2006. The format of the report, with hypertext links to numerous additional documents, purposefully minimizes the document size needed to disseminate the extensive results from our research.

  2. Adaptive Effort Investment in Cognitive and Physical Tasks: A Neurocomputational Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tom eVerguts

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Despite its importance in everyday life, the computational nature of effort investment remains poorly understood. We propose an effort model obtained from optimality considerations, and a neurocomputational approximation to the optimal model. Both are couched in the framework of reinforcement learning. It is shown that choosing when or when not to exert effort can be adaptively learned, depending on rewards, costs, and task difficulty. In the neurocomputational model, the limbic loop comprising anterior cingulate cortex and ventral striatum in the basal ganglia allocates effort to cortical stimulus-action pathways whenever this is valuable. We demonstrate that the model approximates optimality. Next, we consider two hallmark effects from the cognitive control literature, namely proportion congruency and sequential congruency effects. It is shown that the model exerts both proactive and reactive cognitive control. Then, we simulate two physical effort tasks. In line with empirical work, impairing the model’s dopaminergic pathway leads to apathetic behavior. Thus, we conceptually unify the exertion of cognitive and physical effort, studied across a variety of literatures (e.g., motivation and cognitive control and animal species.

  3. Overview 2004 of NASA-Stirling Convertor CFD Model Development and Regenerator R and D Efforts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tew, Roy C.; Dyson, Rodger W.; Wilson, Scott D.; Demko, Rikako

    2004-01-01

    This paper reports on accomplishments in 2004 in (1) development of Stirling-convertor CFD models at NASA Glenn and via a NASA grant, (2) a Stirling regenerator-research effort being conducted via a NASA grant (a follow-on effort to an earlier DOE contract), and (3) a regenerator-microfabrication contract for development of a "next-generation Stirling regenerator." Cleveland State University is the lead organization for all three grant/contractual efforts, with the University of Minnesota and Gedeon Associates as subcontractors. Also, the Stirling Technology Company and Sunpower, Inc. are both involved in all three efforts, either as funded or unfunded participants. International Mezzo Technologies of Baton Rouge, Louisiana is the regenerator fabricator for the regenerator-microfabrication contract. Results of the efforts in these three areas are summarized.

  4. Evolving Software Effort Estimation Models Using Multigene Symbolic Regression Genetic Programming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sultan Aljahdali

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Software has played an essential role in engineering, economic development, stock market growth and military applications. Mature software industry count on highly predictive software effort estimation models. Correct estimation of software effort lead to correct estimation of budget and development time. It also allows companies to develop appropriate time plan for marketing campaign. Now a day it became a great challenge to get these estimates due to the increasing number of attributes which affect the software development life cycle. Software cost estimation models should be able to provide sufficient confidence on its prediction capabilities. Recently, Computational Intelligence (CI paradigms were explored to handle the software effort estimation problem with promising results. In this paper we evolve two new models for software effort estimation using Multigene Symbolic Regression Genetic Programming (GP. One model utilizes the Source Line Of Code (SLOC as input variable to estimate the Effort (E; while the second model utilize the Inputs, Outputs, Files, and User Inquiries to estimate the Function Point (FP. The proposed GP models show better estimation capabilities compared to other reported models in the literature. The validation results are accepted based Albrecht data set.

  5. Simple capture-recapture models permitting unequal catchability and variable sampling effort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agresti, A

    1994-06-01

    We consider two capture-recapture models that imply that the logit of the probability of capture is an additive function of an animal catchability parameter and a parameter reflecting the sampling effort. The models are special cases of the Rasch model, and satisfy the property of quasi-symmetry. One model is log-linear and the other is a latent class model. For the log-linear model, point and interval estimates of the population size are easily obtained using standard software, such as GLIM.

  6. Reviewing the effort-reward imbalance model: drawing up the balance of 45 empirical studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Vegchel, Natasja; de Jonge, Jan; Bosma, Hans; Schaufeli, Wilmar

    2005-03-01

    The present paper provides a review of 45 studies on the Effort-Reward Imbalance (ERI) Model published from 1986 to 2003 (inclusive). In 1986, the ERI Model was introduced by Siegrist et al. (Biological and Psychological Factors in Cardiovascular Disease, Springer, Berlin, 1986, pp. 104-126; Social Science & Medicine 22 (1986) 247). The central tenet of the ERI Model is that an imbalance between (high) efforts and (low) rewards leads to (sustained) strain reactions. Besides efforts and rewards, overcommitment (i.e., a personality characteristic) is a crucial aspect of the model. Essentially, the ERI Model contains three main assumptions, which could be labeled as (1) the extrinsic ERI hypothesis: high efforts in combination with low rewards increase the risk of poor health, (2) the intrinsic overcommitment hypothesis: a high level of overcommitment may increase the risk of poor health, and (3) the interaction hypothesis: employees reporting an extrinsic ERI and a high level of overcommitment have an even higher risk of poor health. The review showed that the extrinsic ERI hypothesis has gained considerable empirical support. Results for overcommitment remain inconsistent and the moderating effect of overcommitment on the relation between ERI and employee health has been scarcely examined. Based on these review results suggestions for future research are proposed.

  7. Effort dynamics in a fisheries bioeconomic model: A vessel level approach through Game Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gorka Merino

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Red shrimp, Aristeus antennatus (Risso, 1816 is one of the most important resources for the bottom-trawl fleets in the northwestern Mediterranean, in terms of both landings and economic value. A simple bioeconomic model introducing Game Theory for the prediction of effort dynamics at vessel level is proposed. The game is performed by the twelve vessels exploiting red shrimp in Blanes. Within the game, two solutions are performed: non-cooperation and cooperation. The first is proposed as a realistic method for the prediction of individual effort strategies and the second is used to illustrate the potential profitability of the analysed fishery. The effort strategy for each vessel is the number of fishing days per year and their objective is profit maximisation, individual profits for the non-cooperative solution and total profits for the cooperative one. In the present analysis, strategic conflicts arise from the differences between vessels in technical efficiency (catchability coefficient and economic efficiency (defined here. The ten-year and 1000-iteration stochastic simulations performed for the two effort solutions show that the best strategy from both an economic and a conservationist perspective is homogeneous effort cooperation. However, the results under non-cooperation are more similar to the observed data on effort strategies and landings.

  8. VRS Model: A Model for Estimation of Efforts and Time Duration in Development of IVR Software System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Devesh Kumar Srivastava

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Accurate software effort estimates are critical to measure for developers, leaders, project managers. Underestimating the costs may result in management approving proposed systems which can exceed their budgets, with underdeveloped functions and poor quality, and failure to complete on time. Various models have been derived to calculate the effort of large number of completed software projects from various organizations and applications to explore how project sizes mapped into project effort. But, still there is a need to prediction accuracy of the models. Day to day there is rapid change and growth to get new techniques and model to estimate the accurate size, effort and cost of software but still there is lack of accuracy to meet exactly the accurate effort as per company norms and standards. A BPO Company takes up a process of another company. The Company which is handling the incoming calls of customers, queries, solution, services through software is known as IVR software. In this paper the author has proposed a model named ?VRS Model? to estimate the accurate effort and schedule of IVR software applications. This model will be helpful for project managers, developers and customers to estimate accurate effort and schedule of only IVR Projects.

  9. A technique for estimating maximum harvesting effort in a stochastic fishery model

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Ram Rup Sarkar; J Chattopadhayay

    2003-06-01

    Exploitation of biological resources and the harvest of population species are commonly practiced in fisheries, forestry and wild life management. Estimation of maximum harvesting effort has a great impact on the economics of fisheries and other bio-resources. The present paper deals with the problem of a bioeconomic fishery model under environmental variability. A technique for finding the maximum harvesting effort in fluctuating environment has been developed in a two-species competitive system, which shows that under realistic environmental variability the maximum harvesting effort is less than what is estimated in the deterministic model. This method also enables us to find out the safe regions in the parametric space for which the chance of extinction of the species is minimized. A real life fishery problem has been considered to obtain the inaccessible parameters of the system in a systematic way. Such studies may help resource managers to get an idea for controlling the system.

  10. Automata networks model for alignment and least effort on vocabulary formation

    CERN Document Server

    Vera, Javier; Goles, Eric

    2015-01-01

    Can artificial communities of agents develop language with scaling relations close to the Zipf law? As a preliminary answer to this question, we propose an Automata Networks model of the formation of a vocabulary on a population of individuals, under two in principle opposite strategies: the alignment and the least effort principle. Within the previous account to the emergence of linguistic conventions (specially, the Naming Game), we focus on modeling speaker and hearer efforts as actions over their vocabularies and we study the impact of these actions on the formation of a shared language. The numerical simulations are essentially based on an energy function, that measures the amount of local agreement between the vocabularies. The results suggests that on one dimensional lattices the best strategy to the formation of shared languages is the one that minimizes the efforts of speakers on communicative tasks.

  11. Commonalities in WEPP and WEPS and efforts towards a single erosion process model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visser, S.M.; Flanagan, D.C.

    2004-01-01

    Since the late 1980's, the Agricultural Research Service (ARS) of the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) has been developing process-based erosion models to predict water erosion and wind erosion. During much of that time, the development efforts of the Water Erosion Prediction Project (

  12. Commonalities in WEPP and WEPS and efforts towards a single erosion process model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visser, S.M.; Flanagan, D.C.

    2004-01-01

    Since the late 1980's, the Agricultural Research Service (ARS) of the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) has been developing process-based erosion models to predict water erosion and wind erosion. During much of that time, the development efforts of the Water Erosion Prediction Project

  13. A Study on System Availability Vs System Administration Efforts with Mathematical Models

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑建德

    2003-01-01

    Two mathematical models are developed in this paper to study the effectiveness of system administration efforts on the improvement of system availability, based on the assumption that there exists a transitional state for a computer system in operation before it is brought down by some hardware or software problems and with intensified system administration efforts, it is possible to discover and fix the problems in time to bring the system back to normal state before it is down. Markov chain is used to simulate the transition of system states. A conclusion is made that increasing system administration efforts may be a cost-effective way to meet the requirements for moderate improvement on system availability, but higher demand on this aspect still has to be met by advanced technologies.

  14. The Effect of the Demand Control and Effort Reward Imbalance Models on the Academic Burnout of Korean Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jayoung; Puig, Ana; Lee, Sang Min

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of the Demand Control Model (DCM) and the Effort Reward Imbalance Model (ERIM) on academic burnout for Korean students. Specifically, this study identified the effects of the predictor variables based on DCM and ERIM (i.e., demand, control, effort, reward, Demand Control Ratio, Effort Reward…

  15. Incorporating phosphorus cycling into global modeling efforts: a worthwhile, tractable endeavor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, Sasha C.; Yang, Xiaojuan; Thornton, Peter E.

    2015-01-01

    Myriad field, laboratory, and modeling studies show that nutrient availability plays a fundamental role in regulating CO2 exchange between the Earth's biosphere and atmosphere, and in determining how carbon pools and fluxes respond to climatic change. Accordingly, global models that incorporate coupled climate–carbon cycle feedbacks made a significant advance with the introduction of a prognostic nitrogen cycle. Here we propose that incorporating phosphorus cycling represents an important next step in coupled climate–carbon cycling model development, particularly for lowland tropical forests where phosphorus availability is often presumed to limit primary production. We highlight challenges to including phosphorus in modeling efforts and provide suggestions for how to move forward.

  16. Model Calibration Efforts for the International Space Station's Solar Array Mast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliott, Kenny B.; Horta, Lucas G.; Templeton, Justin D.; Knight, Norman F., Jr.

    2012-01-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) relies on sixteen solar-voltaic blankets to provide electrical power to the station. Each pair of blankets is supported by a deployable boom called the Folding Articulated Square Truss Mast (FAST Mast). At certain ISS attitudes, the solar arrays can be positioned in such a way that shadowing of either one or three longerons causes an unexpected asymmetric thermal loading that if unchecked can exceed the operational stability limits of the mast. Work in this paper documents part of an independent NASA Engineering and Safety Center effort to assess the existing operational limits. Because of the complexity of the system, the problem is being worked using a building-block progression from components (longerons), to units (single or multiple bays), to assembly (full mast). The paper presents results from efforts to calibrate the longeron components. The work includes experimental testing of two types of longerons (straight and tapered), development of Finite Element (FE) models, development of parameter uncertainty models, and the establishment of a calibration and validation process to demonstrate adequacy of the models. Models in the context of this paper refer to both FE model and probabilistic parameter models. Results from model calibration of the straight longerons show that the model is capable of predicting the mean load, axial strain, and bending strain. For validation, parameter values obtained from calibration of straight longerons are used to validate experimental results for the tapered longerons.

  17. Undamped critical speeds of rotor systems using assumed modes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, H. D.; Chen, W. J.

    1993-07-01

    A procedure is presented to reduce the DOF of a discrete rotordynamics model by utilizing an assumed-modes Rayleigh-Ritz approximation. Many possibilities exist for the assumed modes and any reasonable choice will yield a reduced-order model with adequate accuracy for most applications. The procedure provides an option which can be implemented with relative ease and may prove beneficial for many applications where computational efficiency is particularly important.

  18. Revised Use Case Point (Re-UCP Model for Software Effort Estimation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mudasir Manzoor Kirmani

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available At present the most challenging issue that the software development industry encounters is less efficient management of software development budget projections. This problem has put the modern day software development companies in a situation wherein they are dealing with improper requirement engineering, ambiguous resource elicitation, uncertain cost and effort estimation. The most indispensable and inevitable aspect of any software development company is to form a counter mechanism to deal with the problems which leads to chaos. An emphatic combative domain to deal with this problem is to schedule the whole development process to undergo proper and efficient estimation process, wherein the estimation of all the resources can be made well in advance in order to check whether the conceived project is feasible and within the resources available. The basic building block in any object oriented design is Use Case diagrams which are prepared in early stages of design after clearly understanding the requirements. Use Case Diagrams are considered to be useful for approximating estimates for software development project. This research work gives detailed overview of Re-UCP (revised use case point method of effort estimation for software projects. The Re-UCP method is a modified approach which is based on UCP method of effort estimation. In this research study 14 projects were subjected to estimate efforts using Re-UCP method and the results were compared with UCP and e-UCP models. The comparison of 14 projects shows that Re-UCP has significantly outperformed the existing UCP and e-UCP effort estimation techniques.

  19. Evaluation of Arroyo Channel Restoration Efforts using Hydrological Modeling: Rancho San Bernardino, Sonora, MX

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jemison, N. E.; DeLong, S.; Henderson, W. M.; Adams, J.

    2012-12-01

    In the drylands of the southwestern U.S. and northwestern Mexico, historical river channel incision (arroyo cutting) has led to the destruction of riparian ecological systems and cieñega wetlands in many locations. Along Silver Creek on the Arizona-Sonora border, the Cuenca Los Ojos Foundation has been installing rock gabions and concrete and earthen berms with a goal of slowing flash floods, raising groundwater levels, and refilling arroyo channels with sediment in an area that changed from a broad, perennially wet cieñega to a narrow sand- and gravel-dominated arroyo channel with an average depth of ~6 m. The engineering efforts hope to restore desert wetlands, regrow riparian vegetation, and promote sediment deposition along the arroyo floor. Hydrological modeling allows us to predict how rare flood events interact with the restoration efforts and may guide future approaches to dryland ecological restoration. This modeling is complemented by detailed topographic surveying and use of streamflow sensors to monitor hydrological processes in the restoration project. We evaluate the inundation associated with model 10-, 50-, 100-, 500-, and 1,000-year floods through the study area using FLO-2D and HEC-RAS modeling environments in order to evaluate the possibility of returning surface inundation to the former cieñega surface. According to HEC-RAS model predictions, given current channel configuration, it would require a 500-year flood to overtop the channel banks and reinundate the cieñega (now terrace) surface, though the 100-year flood may lead to limited terrace surface inundation. Based on our models, 10-year floods were ~2 m from overtopping the arroyo walls, 50-year floods came ~1.5 m from overtopping the arroyos, 100-year floods were ~1.2 m from overtopping, and 500- and 1,000-year floods at least partially inundated the cieñega surface. The current topography of Silver Creek does not allow for frequent flooding of the former cieñega; model predictions

  20. Software Project Effort Estimation Based on Multiple Parametric Models Generated Through Data Clustering

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Juan J. Cuadrado Gallego; Daniel Rodríguez; Miguel (A)ngel Sicilia; Miguel Garre Rubio; Angel García Crespo

    2007-01-01

    Parametric software effort estimation models usually consists of only a single mathematical relationship. Withthe advent of software repositories containing data from heterogeneous projects, these types of models suffer from pooradjustment and predictive accuracy. One possible way to alleviate this problem is the use of a set of mathematical equationsobtained through dividing of the historical project datasets according to different parameters into subdatasets called parti-tions. In turn, partitions are divided into clusters that serve as a tool for more accurate models. In this paper, we describethe process, tool and results of such approach through a case study using a publicly available repository, ISBSG. Resultssuggest the adequacy of the technique as an extension of existing single-expression models without making the estimationprocess much more complex that uses a single estimation model. A tool to support the process is also presented.

  1. Competition for marine space: modelling the Baltic Sea fisheries and effort displacement under spatial restrictions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bastardie, Francois; Nielsen, J. Rasmus; Eigaard, Ole Ritzau

    2015-01-01

    to fishery and from vessel to vessel. The impact assessment of new spatial plans involving fisheries should be based on quantitative bioeconomic analyses that take into account individual vessel decisions, and trade-offs in cross-sector conflicting interests.Weuse a vessel-oriented decision-support tool (the...... various constraints. Interlinked spatial, technical, and biological dynamics of vessels and stocks in the scenarios result in stable profits, which compensate for the additional costs from effort displacement and release pressure on the fish stocks. The effort is further redirected away from sensitive...... benthic habitats, enhancing the ecological positive effects. The energy efficiency of some of the vessels, however, is strongly reduced with the new zonation, and some of the vessels suffer decreased profits. The DISPLACE model serves as a spatially explicit bioeconomic benchmark tool for management...

  2. APPLYING TEACHING-LEARNING TO ARTIFICIAL BEE COLONY FOR PARAMETER OPTIMIZATION OF SOFTWARE EFFORT ESTIMATION MODEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    THANH TUNG KHUAT

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Artificial Bee Colony inspired by the foraging behaviour of honey bees is a novel meta-heuristic optimization algorithm in the community of swarm intelligence algorithms. Nevertheless, it is still insufficient in the speed of convergence and the quality of solutions. This paper proposes an approach in order to tackle these downsides by combining the positive aspects of TeachingLearning based optimization and Artificial Bee Colony. The performance of the proposed method is assessed on the software effort estimation problem, which is the complex and important issue in the project management. Software developers often carry out the software estimation in the early stages of the software development life cycle to derive the required cost and schedule for a project. There are a large number of methods for effort estimation in which COCOMO II is one of the most widely used models. However, this model has some restricts because its parameters have not been optimized yet. In this work, therefore, we will present the approach to overcome this limitation of COCOMO II model. The experiments have been conducted on NASA software project dataset and the obtained results indicated that the improvement of parameters provided better estimation capabilities compared to the original COCOMO II model.

  3. Quantitative Analysis of the Security of Software-Defined Network Controller Using Threat/Effort Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zehui Wu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available SDN-based controller, which is responsible for the configuration and management of the network, is the core of Software-Defined Networks. Current methods, which focus on the secure mechanism, use qualitative analysis to estimate the security of controllers, leading to inaccurate results frequently. In this paper, we employ a quantitative approach to overcome the above shortage. Under the analysis of the controller threat model we give the formal model results of the APIs, the protocol interfaces, and the data items of controller and further provide our Threat/Effort quantitative calculation model. With the help of Threat/Effort model, we are able to compare not only the security of different versions of the same kind controller but also different kinds of controllers and provide a basis for controller selection and secure development. We evaluated our approach in four widely used SDN-based controllers which are POX, OpenDaylight, Floodlight, and Ryu. The test, which shows the similarity outcomes with the traditional qualitative analysis, demonstrates that with our approach we are able to get the specific security values of different controllers and presents more accurate results.

  4. The Disquietude of Duty Assuming Kant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Max Maureira Pacheco

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available For Kant, the moral duty is determined universally, that is, on account of its form, in the moral norm. However the moral norm is opposed to particularity, determined by what is not the norm itself, hence being the origin of singularity. The singularized norm is opposed, from experience, by its negation in individual cases. To assume Kant demands the reconciliation of the singular, manifested incases, with the universal. This article deals with this question, demonstrating, above all, the practical difficulties linked to the moral experience in its totality.

  5. An effort allocation model considering different budgetary constraint on fault detection process and fault correction process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vijay Kumar

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Fault detection process (FDP and Fault correction process (FCP are important phases of software development life cycle (SDLC. It is essential for software to undergo a testing phase, during which faults are detected and corrected. The main goal of this article is to allocate the testing resources in an optimal manner to minimize the cost during testing phase using FDP and FCP under dynamic environment. In this paper, we first assume there is a time lag between fault detection and fault correction. Thus, removal of a fault is performed after a fault is detected. In addition, detection process and correction process are taken to be independent simultaneous activities with different budgetary constraints. A structured optimal policy based on optimal control theory is proposed for software managers to optimize the allocation of the limited resources with the reliability criteria. Furthermore, release policy for the proposed model is also discussed. Numerical example is given in support of the theoretical results.

  6. Measuring Effortful Control Using the Children's Behavior Questionnaire-Very Short Form: Modeling Matters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Backer-Grøndahl, Agathe; Nærde, Ane; Ulleberg, Pål; Janson, Harald

    2016-01-01

    Effortful control (EC) is an important concept in the research on self-regulation in children. We tested 2 alternative factor models of EC as measured by the Children's Behavior Questionnaire-Very Short Form (CBQ-VSF; Putnam & Rothbart, 2006 ) in a large sample of preschoolers (N = 1,007): 1 lower order and 1 hierarchical second-order structure. Additionally, convergent and predictive validity of EC as measured by the CBQ-VSF were investigated. The results supported a hierarchical model. Moderate convergent validity of the second-order latent EC factor was found in that it correlated with compliance and observed EC tasks. Both CBQ-VSF EC measures were also negatively correlated with child physical aggression. The results have implications for the measurement, modeling, and interpretation of EC applying the CBQ.

  7. The NASA-Langley Wake Vortex Modelling Effort in Support of an Operational Aircraft Spacing System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proctor, Fred H.

    1998-01-01

    Two numerical modelling efforts, one using a large eddy simulation model and the other a numerical weather prediction model, are underway in support of NASA's Terminal Area Productivity program. The large-eddy simulation model (LES) has a meteorological framework and permits the interaction of wake vortices with environments characterized by crosswind shear, stratification, humidity, and atmospheric turbulence. Results from the numerical simulations are being used to assist in the development of algorithms for an operational wake-vortex aircraft spacing system. A mesoscale weather forecast model is being adapted for providing operational forecast of winds, temperature, and turbulence parameters to be used in the terminal area. This paper describes the goals and modelling approach, as well as achievements obtained to date. Simulation results will be presented from the LES model for both two and three dimensions. The 2-D model is found to be generally valid for studying wake vortex transport, while the 3-D approach is necessary for realistic treatment of decay via interaction of wake vortices and atmospheric boundary layer turbulence. Meteorology is shown to have an important affect on vortex transport and decay. Presented are results showing that wake vortex transport is unaffected by uniform fog or rain, but wake vortex transport can be strongly affected by nonlinear vertical change in the ambient crosswind. Both simulation and observations show that atmospheric vortices decay from the outside with minimal expansion of the core. Vortex decay and the onset three-dimensional instabilities are found to be enhanced by the presence of ambient turbulence.

  8. Incorporating S-shaped testing-effort functions into NHPP software reliability model with imperfect debugging

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qiuying Li; Haifeng Li; Minyan Lu

    2015-01-01

    Testing-effort (TE) and imperfect debugging (ID) in the reliability modeling process may further improve the fitting and pre-diction results of software reliability growth models (SRGMs). For describing the S-shaped varying trend of TE increasing rate more accurately, first, two S-shaped testing-effort functions (TEFs), i.e., delayed S-shaped TEF (DS-TEF) and inflected S-shaped TEF (IS-TEF), are proposed. Then these two TEFs are incorporated into various types (exponential-type, delayed S-shaped and in-flected S-shaped) of non-homogeneous Poisson process (NHPP) SRGMs with two forms of ID respectively for obtaining a series of new NHPP SRGMs which consider S-shaped TEFs as wel as ID. Final y these new SRGMs and several comparison NHPP SRGMs are applied into four real failure data-sets respectively for investigating the fitting and prediction power of these new SRGMs. The experimental results show that: (i) the proposed IS-TEF is more suitable and flexible for describing the consumption of TE than the previous TEFs; (i ) incorporating TEFs into the inflected S-shaped NHPP SRGM may be more effective and appropriate compared with the exponential-type and the delayed S-shaped NHPP SRGMs; (i i) the inflected S-shaped NHPP SRGM con-sidering both IS-TEF and ID yields the most accurate fitting and prediction results than the other comparison NHPP SRGMs.

  9. Simulation and Modeling Efforts to Support Decision Making in Healthcare Supply Chain Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eman AbuKhousa

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Recently, most healthcare organizations focus their attention on reducing the cost of their supply chain management (SCM by improving the decision making pertaining processes’ efficiencies. The availability of products through healthcare SCM is often a matter of life or death to the patient; therefore, trial and error approaches are not an option in this environment. Simulation and modeling (SM has been presented as an alternative approach for supply chain managers in healthcare organizations to test solutions and to support decision making processes associated with various SCM problems. This paper presents and analyzes past SM efforts to support decision making in healthcare SCM and identifies the key challenges associated with healthcare SCM modeling. We also present and discuss emerging technologies to meet these challenges.

  10. Simulation and modeling efforts to support decision making in healthcare supply chain management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    AbuKhousa, Eman; Al-Jaroodi, Jameela; Lazarova-Molnar, Sanja; Mohamed, Nader

    2014-01-01

    Recently, most healthcare organizations focus their attention on reducing the cost of their supply chain management (SCM) by improving the decision making pertaining processes' efficiencies. The availability of products through healthcare SCM is often a matter of life or death to the patient; therefore, trial and error approaches are not an option in this environment. Simulation and modeling (SM) has been presented as an alternative approach for supply chain managers in healthcare organizations to test solutions and to support decision making processes associated with various SCM problems. This paper presents and analyzes past SM efforts to support decision making in healthcare SCM and identifies the key challenges associated with healthcare SCM modeling. We also present and discuss emerging technologies to meet these challenges.

  11. An effort for developing a seamless transport modeling and remote sensing system for air pollutants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakajima, T.; Goto, D.; Dai, T.; Misawa, S.; Uchida, J.; Schutgens, N.; Hashimoto, M.; Oikawa, E.; Takenaka, H.; Tsuruta, H.; Inoue, T.; Higurashi, A.

    2015-12-01

    Wide area of the globe, like Asian region, still suffers from a large emission of air pollutants and cause serious impacts on the earth's climate and the public health of the area. Launch of an international initiative, Climate and Clean Air Coalition (CCAC), is an example of efforts to ease the difficulties by reducing Short-Lived Climate Pollutants (SLCPs), i.e., black carbon aerosol, methane and other short-lived atmospheric materials that heat the earth's system, along with long-lived greenhouse gas mitigation. Impact evaluation of the air pollutants, however, has large uncertainties. We like to introduce a recent effort of projects MEXT/SALSA and MOEJ/S-12 to develop a seamless transport model for atmospheric constituents, NICAM-Chem, that is flexible enough to cover global scale to regional scale by the NICAM nonhydrostatic dynamic core (NICAM), coupled with SPRINTARS aerosol model, CHASER atmospheric chemistry model and with their three computational grid systems, i.e. quasi homogeneous grids, stretched grids and diamond grids. A local ensemble transform Kalman filter/smoother with this modeling system was successfully applied to data from MODIS, AERONET, and CALIPSO for global assimilation/inversion and surface SPM and SO2 air pollution monitoring networks for Japanese area assimilation. My talk will be extended to discuss an effective utility of satellite remote sensing of aerosols using Cloud and Aerosol Imager (CAI) on board the GOSAT satellite and Advanced Himawari Imager (AHI) on board the new third generation geostationary satellite, Himawari-8. The CAI has a near-ultraviolet channel of 380nm with 500m spatial resolution and the AHI has high frequency measurement capability of every 10 minutes. These functions are very effective for accurate land aerosol remote sensing, so that a combination with the developed aerosol assimilation system is promising.

  12. Behavioral modeling of human choices reveals dissociable effects of physical effort and temporal delay on reward devaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein-Flügge, Miriam C; Kennerley, Steven W; Saraiva, Ana C; Penny, Will D; Bestmann, Sven

    2015-03-01

    There has been considerable interest from the fields of biology, economics, psychology, and ecology about how decision costs decrease the value of rewarding outcomes. For example, formal descriptions of how reward value changes with increasing temporal delays allow for quantifying individual decision preferences, as in animal species populating different habitats, or normal and clinical human populations. Strikingly, it remains largely unclear how humans evaluate rewards when these are tied to energetic costs, despite the surge of interest in the neural basis of effort-guided decision-making and the prevalence of disorders showing a diminished willingness to exert effort (e.g., depression). One common assumption is that effort discounts reward in a similar way to delay. Here we challenge this assumption by formally comparing competing hypotheses about effort and delay discounting. We used a design specifically optimized to compare discounting behavior for both effort and delay over a wide range of decision costs (Experiment 1). We then additionally characterized the profile of effort discounting free of model assumptions (Experiment 2). Contrary to previous reports, in both experiments effort costs devalued reward in a manner opposite to delay, with small devaluations for lower efforts, and progressively larger devaluations for higher effort-levels (concave shape). Bayesian model comparison confirmed that delay-choices were best predicted by a hyperbolic model, with the largest reward devaluations occurring at shorter delays. In contrast, an altogether different relationship was observed for effort-choices, which were best described by a model of inverse sigmoidal shape that is initially concave. Our results provide a novel characterization of human effort discounting behavior and its first dissociation from delay discounting. This enables accurate modelling of cost-benefit decisions, a prerequisite for the investigation of the neural underpinnings of effort

  13. AN ENHANCED MODEL TO ESTIMATE EFFORT, PERFORMANCE AND COST OF THE SOFTWARE PROJECTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Pauline

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The Authors have proposed a model that first captures the fundamentals of software metrics in the phase 1 consisting of three primitive primary software engineering metrics; they are person-months (PM, function-points (FP, and lines of code (LOC. The phase 2 consists of the proposed function point which is obtained by grouping the adjustment factors to simplify the process of adjustment and to ensure more consistency in the adjustments. In the proposed method fuzzy logic is used for quantifying the quality of requirements and is added as one of the adjustment factor, thus a fuzzy based approach for the Enhanced General System Characteristics to Estimate Effort of the Software Projects using productivity has been obtained. The phase 3 takes the calculated function point from our work and is given as input to the static single variable model (i.e. to the Intermediate COCOMO and COCOMO II for cost estimation. The Authors have tailored the cost factors in intermediate COCOMO and both; cost and scale factors are tailored in COCOMO II to suite to the individual development environment, which is very important for the accuracy of the cost estimates. The software performance indicators are project duration, schedule predictability, requirements completion ratio and post-release defect density, are also measured for the software projects in my work. A comparative study for effort, performance measurement and cost estimation of the software project is done between the existing model and the authors proposed work. Thus our work analyzes the interaction¬al process through which the estimation tasks were collectively accomplished.

  14. The effort-reward imbalance work-stress model and daytime salivary cortisol and dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) among Japanese women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ota, Atsuhiko; Mase, Junji; Howteerakul, Nopporn; Rajatanun, Thitipat; Suwannapong, Nawarat; Yatsuya, Hiroshi; Ono, Yuichiro

    2014-09-17

    We examined the influence of work-related effort-reward imbalance and overcommitment to work (OC), as derived from Siegrist's Effort-Reward Imbalance (ERI) model, on the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical (HPA) axis. We hypothesized that, among healthy workers, both cortisol and dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) secretion would be increased by effort-reward imbalance and OC and, as a result, cortisol-to-DHEA ratio (C/D ratio) would not differ by effort-reward imbalance or OC. The subjects were 115 healthy female nursery school teachers. Salivary cortisol, DHEA, and C/D ratio were used as indexes of HPA activity. Mixed-model analyses of variance revealed that neither the interaction between the ERI model indicators (i.e., effort, reward, effort-to-reward ratio, and OC) and the series of measurement times (9:00, 12:00, and 15:00) nor the main effect of the ERI model indicators was significant for daytime salivary cortisol, DHEA, or C/D ratio. Multiple linear regression analyses indicated that none of the ERI model indicators was significantly associated with area under the curve of daytime salivary cortisol, DHEA, or C/D ratio. We found that effort, reward, effort-reward imbalance, and OC had little influence on daytime variation patterns, levels, or amounts of salivary HPA-axis-related hormones. Thus, our hypotheses were not supported.

  15. Mental Effort and Perceptions of TV and Books: A Dutch Replication Study Based on Salomon's Model of Learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beentjes, Hans W. J.

    This comparison of students' learning from reading books and from watching television uses Gavriel Salomon's model of learning effects, which is based on the amount of mental effort invested (AIME) in a medium as determining how deeply the information from that medium is processed. Mental effort, in turn, is predicted to depend on two perceptions…

  16. The intentionality model and language acquisition: engagement, effort, and the essential tension in development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloom, L; Tinker, E

    2001-01-01

    The purpose of the longitudinal research reported in this Monograph was to examine language acquisition in the second year of life in the context of developments in cognition, affect, and social connectedness. The theoretical focus for the research is on the agency of the child and the importance of the child's intentionality for explaining development, rather than on language as an independent object. The model of development for the research is a Model of Intentionality with two components: the engagement in a world of persons and objects that motivates acquiring a language, and the effort that is required to express and articulate increasingly discrepant and elaborate intentional state representations. The fundamental assumption in the model is that the driving force for acquiring language is in the essential tension between engagement and effort for linguistic, emotional, and physical actions of interpretation and expression. Results of lag sequential analyses are reported to show how different behaviors--words, sentences, emotional expressions, conversational interactions, and constructing thematic relations between objects in play--converged, both in the stream of children's actions in everyday events, in real time, and in developmental time between the emergence of words at about 13 months and the transition to simple sentences at about 2 years of age. Patterns of deviation from baseline rates of the different behaviors show that child emotional expression, child speech, and mother speech clearly influence each other, and the mutual influences between them are different at times of either emergence or achievement in both language and object play. The three conclusions that follow from the results of the research are that (a) expression and interpretation are the acts of performance in which language is learned, which means that performance counts for explaining language acquisition; (b) language is not an independent object but is acquired by a child in

  17. Habitat models to assist plant protection efforts in Shenandoah National Park, Virginia, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Manen, F.T.; Young, J.A.; Thatcher, C.A.; Cass, W.B.; Ulrey, C.

    2005-01-01

    During 2002, the National Park Service initiated a demonstration project to develop science-based law enforcement strategies for the protection of at-risk natural resources, including American ginseng (Panax quinquefolius L.), bloodroot (Sanguinaria canadensis L.), and black cohosh (Cimicifuga racemosa (L.) Nutt. [syn. Actaea racemosa L.]). Harvest pressure on these species is increasing because of the growing herbal remedy market. We developed habitat models for Shenandoah National Park and the northern portion of the Blue Ridge Parkway to determine the distribution of favorable habitats of these three plant species and to demonstrate the use of that information to support plant protection activities. We compiled locations for the three plant species to delineate favorable habitats with a geographic information system (GIS). We mapped potential habitat quality for each species by calculating a multivariate statistic, Mahalanobis distance, based on GIS layers that characterized the topography, land cover, and geology of the plant locations (10-m resolution). We tested model performance with an independent dataset of plant locations, which indicated a significant relationship between Mahalanobis distance values and species occurrence. We also generated null models by examining the distribution of the Mahalanobis distance values had plants been distributed randomly. For all species, the habitat models performed markedly better than their respective null models. We used our models to direct field searches to the most favorable habitats, resulting in a sizeable number of new plant locations (82 ginseng, 73 bloodroot, and 139 black cohosh locations). The odds of finding new plant locations based on the habitat models were 4.5 (black cohosh) to 12.3 (American ginseng) times greater than random searches; thus, the habitat models can be used to improve the efficiency of plant protection efforts, (e.g., marking of plants, law enforcement activities). The field searches also

  18. Two models at work : A study of interactions and specificity in relation to the Demand-Control Model and the Effort-Reward Imbalance Model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vegchel, N.

    2005-01-01

    To investigate the relation between work and employee health, several work stress models, e.g., the Demand-Control (DC) Model and the Effort-Reward Imbalance (ERI) Model, have been developed. Although these models focus on job demands and job resources, relatively little attention has been devoted

  19. Two models at work : A study of interactions and specificity in relation to the Demand-Control Model and the Effort-Reward Imbalance Model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vegchel, N.

    2005-01-01

    To investigate the relation between work and employee health, several work stress models, e.g., the Demand-Control (DC) Model and the Effort-Reward Imbalance (ERI) Model, have been developed. Although these models focus on job demands and job resources, relatively little attention has been devoted t

  20. Economic effort management in multispecies fisheries: the FcubEcon model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoff, Ayoe; Frost, Hans; Ulrich, Clara

    2010-01-01

    in the development of management tools based on fleets, fisheries, and areas, rather than on unit fish stocks. A natural consequence of this has been to consider effort rather than quota management, a final effort decision being based on fleet-harvest potential and fish-stock-preservation considerations. Effort...... allocation between fleets should not be based on biological considerations alone, but also on the economic behaviour of fishers, because fisheries management has a significant impact on human behaviour as well as on ecosystem development. The FcubEcon management framework for effort allocation between fleets...... optimal manner, in both effort-management and single-quota management settings.Applying single-species assessment and quotas in multispecies fisheries can lead to overfishing or quota underutilization, because advice can be conflicting when different stocks are caught within the same fishery. During...

  1. Upending the social ecological model to guide health promotion efforts toward policy and environmental change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golden, Shelley D; McLeroy, Kenneth R; Green, Lawrence W; Earp, Jo Anne L; Lieberman, Lisa D

    2015-04-01

    Efforts to change policies and the environments in which people live, work, and play have gained increasing attention over the past several decades. Yet health promotion frameworks that illustrate the complex processes that produce health-enhancing structural changes are limited. Building on the experiences of health educators, community activists, and community-based researchers described in this supplement and elsewhere, as well as several political, social, and behavioral science theories, we propose a new framework to organize our thinking about producing policy, environmental, and other structural changes. We build on the social ecological model, a framework widely employed in public health research and practice, by turning it inside out, placing health-related and other social policies and environments at the center, and conceptualizing the ways in which individuals, their social networks, and organized groups produce a community context that fosters healthy policy and environmental development. We conclude by describing how health promotion practitioners and researchers can foster structural change by (1) conveying the health and social relevance of policy and environmental change initiatives, (2) building partnerships to support them, and (3) promoting more equitable distributions of the resources necessary for people to meet their daily needs, control their lives, and freely participate in the public sphere.

  2. Overview 2004 of NASA Stirling-Convertor CFD-Model Development and Regenerator R&D Efforts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tew, Roy C.; Dyson, Rodger W.; Wilson, Scott D.; Demko, Rikako

    2005-01-01

    This paper reports on accomplishments in 2004 in development of Stirling-convertor CFD model at NASA GRC and via a NASA grant, a Stirling regenerator-research effort being conducted via a NASA grant (a follow-on effort to an earlier DOE contract), and a regenerator-microfabrication contract for development of a "next-generation Stirling regenerator." Cleveland State University is the lead organization for all three grant/contractual efforts, with the University of Minnesota and Gedeor Associates as subcontractors. Also, the Stirling Technology Co. and Sunpower, Inc. are both involved in all three efforts, either as funded or unfunded participants. International Mezzo Technologies of Baton Rouge, LA is the regenerator fabricator for the regenerator-microfabrication contract. Results of the efforts in these three areas are summarized.

  3. Developing a primary care research agenda through collaborative efforts - a proposed "6E" model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Ngiap Chuan; Ng, Chirk Jenn; Rosemary, Mitchell; Wahid, Khan; Goh, Lee Gan

    2014-01-01

    Primary care research is at a crossroad in South Pacific. A steering committee comprising a member of WONCA Asia Pacific Regional (APR) council and the President of Fiji College of General Practitioners garnered sponsorship from Fiji Ministry of Health, WONCA APR and pharmaceutical agencies to organize the event in October 2013. This paper describes the processes needed to set up a national primary research agenda through the collaborative efforts of local stakeholders and external facilitators using a test case in South Pacific. The setting was a 2-day primary care research workshop in Fiji. The steering committee invited a team of three external facilitators from the Asia-Pacific region to organize and operationalize the workshop. The eventual participants were 3 external facilitators, 6 local facilitators, and 29 local primary care physicians, academics, and local medical leaders from Fiji and South Pacific Islands. Pre-workshop and main workshop programs were drawn up by the external facilitators, using participants' input of research topics relating to their local clinical issues of interest. Course notes were prepared and distributed before the workshop. In the workshop, proposed research topics were shortlisted by group discussion and consensus. Study designs were proposed, scrutinized, and adopted for further research development. The facilitators reviewed the processes in setting the research agenda after the workshop and conceived the proposed 6E model. These processes can be grouped for easy reference, comprising the pre-workshop stages of "entreat", "enlist", "engage", and the workshop stages of "educe", "empower", and "encapsulate". The 6E model to establish a research agenda is conceptually logical. Its feasibility can be further tested in its application in other situation where research agenda setting is the critical step to improve the quality of primary care.

  4. Automated Assume-Guarantee Reasoning by Abstraction Refinement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasareanu, Corina S.; Giannakopoulous, Dimitra; Glannakopoulou, Dimitra

    2008-01-01

    Current automated approaches for compositional model checking in the assume-guarantee style are based on learning of assumptions as deterministic automata. We propose an alternative approach based on abstraction refinement. Our new method computes the assumptions for the assume-guarantee rules as conservative and not necessarily deterministic abstractions of some of the components, and refines those abstractions using counter-examples obtained from model checking them together with the other components. Our approach also exploits the alphabets of the interfaces between components and performs iterative refinement of those alphabets as well as of the abstractions. We show experimentally that our preliminary implementation of the proposed alternative achieves similar or better performance than a previous learning-based implementation.

  5. Effects of fishing effort allocation scenarios on energy efficiency and profitability: an individual-based model applied to Danish fisheries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bastardie, Francois; Nielsen, J. Rasmus; Andersen, Bo Sølgaard

    2010-01-01

    engine specifications, and fish and fuel prices. The outcomes of scenarios A and B indicate a trade-off between fuel savings and energy efficiency improvements when effort is displaced closer to the harbour compared to reductions in total landing amounts and profit. Scenario C indicates that historic...... efficiency (quantity of fish caught per litre of fuel used), and profitability are factors that we simulated in developing a spatially explicit individual-based model (IBM) for fishing vessel movements. The observed spatial and seasonal patterns of fishing effort for each fishing activity are evaluated...... to the harbour, and (C) allocating effort towards optimising the expected area-specific profit per trip. The model is informed by data from each Danish fishing vessel >15 m after coupling its high resolution spatial and temporal effort data (VMS) with data from logbook landing declarations, sales slips, vessel...

  6. Application of the limited strength model of self-regulation to understanding exercise effort, planning and adherence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin Ginis, Kathleen A; Bray, Steven R

    2010-12-01

    The limited strength model posits that self-regulatory strength is a finite, renewable resource that is drained when people attempt to regulate their emotions, thoughts or behaviours. The purpose of this study was to determine whether self-regulatory depletion can explain lapses in exercise effort, planning and adherence. In a lab-based experiment, participants exposed to a self-regulatory depletion manipulation generated lower levels of work during a 10 min bicycling task, and planned to exert less effort during an upcoming exercise bout, compared with control participants. The magnitude of reduction in planned exercise effort predicted exercise adherence over a subsequent 8-week period. Together, these results suggest that self-regulatory depletion can influence exercise effort, planning and decision-making and that the depletion of self-regulatory resources can explain episodes of exercise non-adherence both in the lab and in everyday life.

  7. Mental effort

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kirschner, Paul A.; Kirschner, Femke

    2013-01-01

    Kirschner, P. A., & Kirschner, F. (2012). Mental effort. In N. Seel (Ed.), Encyclopedia of the sciences of learning, Volume 5 (pp. 2182-2184). New York, NY: Springer. doi:10.1007/978-1-4419-1428-6_226

  8. One State's Systems Change Efforts to Reduce Child Care Expulsion: Taking the Pyramid Model to Scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinh, Megan; Strain, Phil; Davidon, Sarah; Smith, Barbara J.

    2016-01-01

    This article describes the efforts funded by the state of Colorado to address unacceptably high rates of expulsion from child care. Based on the results of a 2006 survey, the state of Colorado launched two complementary policy initiatives in 2009 to impact expulsion rates and to improve the use of evidence-based practices related to challenging…

  9. Modeling Psychological Empowerment among Youth Involved in Local Tobacco Control Efforts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holden, Debra J.; Evans, W. Douglas; Hinnant, Laurie W.; Messeri, Peter

    2005-01-01

    The American Legacy Foundation funded 13 state health departments for their Statewide Youth Movement Against Tobacco Use in September 2000. Its goal was to create statewide tobacco control initiatives implemented with youth leadership. The underlying theory behind these initiatives was that tobacco control efforts can best be accomplished by…

  10. An assumed pdf approach for the calculation of supersonic mixing layers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baurle, R. A.; Drummond, J. P.; Hassan, H. A.

    1992-01-01

    In an effort to predict the effect that turbulent mixing has on the extent of combustion, a one-equation turbulence model is added to an existing Navier-Stokes solver with finite-rate chemistry. To average the chemical-source terms appearing in the species-continuity equations, an assumed pdf approach is also used. This code was used to analyze the mixing and combustion caused by the mixing layer formed by supersonic coaxial H2-air streams. The chemistry model employed allows for the formation of H2O2 and HO2. Comparisons are made with recent measurements using laser Raman diagnostics. Comparisons include temperature and its rms, and concentrations of H2, O2, N2, H2O, and OH. In general, good agreement with experiment was noted.

  11. Effortful echolalia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadano, K; Nakamura, H; Hamanaka, T

    1998-02-01

    We report three cases of effortful echolalia in patients with cerebral infarction. The clinical picture of speech disturbance is associated with Type 1 Transcortical Motor Aphasia (TCMA, Goldstein, 1915). The patients always spoke nonfluently with loss of speech initiative, dysarthria, dysprosody, agrammatism, and increased effort and were unable to repeat sentences longer than those containing four or six words. In conversation, they first repeated a few words spoken to them, and then produced self initiated speech. The initial repetition as well as the subsequent self initiated speech, which were realized equally laboriously, can be regarded as mitigated echolalia (Pick, 1924). They were always aware of their own echolalia and tried to control it without effect. These cases demonstrate that neither the ability to repeat nor fluent speech are always necessary for echolalia. The possibility that a lesion in the left medial frontal lobe, including the supplementary motor area, plays an important role in effortful echolalia is discussed.

  12. Health Promotion Efforts as Predictors of Physical Activity in Schools: An Application of the Diffusion of Innovations Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glowacki, Elizabeth M.; Centeio, Erin E.; Van Dongen, Daniel J.; Carson, Russell L.; Castelli, Darla M.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Implementing a comprehensive school physical activity program (CSPAP) effectively addresses public health issues by providing opportunities for physical activity (PA). Grounded in the Diffusion of Innovations model, the purpose of this study was to identify how health promotion efforts facilitate opportunities for PA. Methods: Physical…

  13. Modelling detectability of kiore (Rattus exulans) on Aguiguan, Mariana Islands, to inform possible eradication and monitoring efforts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, A.A.Y.; Stanford, J.W.; Wiewel, A.S.; Rodda, G.H.

    2011-01-01

    Estimating the detection probability of introduced organisms during the pre-monitoring phase of an eradication effort can be extremely helpful in informing eradication and post-eradication monitoring efforts, but this step is rarely taken. We used data collected during 11 nights of mark-recapture sampling on Aguiguan, Mariana Islands, to estimate introduced kiore (Rattus exulans Peale) density and detection probability, and evaluated factors affecting detectability to help inform possible eradication efforts. Modelling of 62 captures of 48 individuals resulted in a model-averaged density estimate of 55 kiore/ha. Kiore detection probability was best explained by a model allowing neophobia to diminish linearly (i.e. capture probability increased linearly) until occasion 7, with additive effects of sex and cumulative rainfall over the prior 48 hours. Detection probability increased with increasing rainfall and females were up to three times more likely than males to be trapped. In this paper, we illustrate the type of information that can be obtained by modelling mark-recapture data collected during pre-eradication monitoring and discuss the potential of using these data to inform eradication and posteradication monitoring efforts. ?? New Zealand Ecological Society.

  14. Mass transport in fracture media: impact of the random function model assumed for fractures conductivity; Transporte de masa en medio fracturado: impacto del modelo estocastico de conductividad en las fracturas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Capilla, J. E.; Rodrigo, J.; Gomez Hernandez, J. J.

    2003-07-01

    Characterizing the uncertainty of flow and mass transport models requires the definition of stochastic models to describe hydrodynamic parameters. Porosity and hydraulic conductivity (K) are two of these parameters that exhibit a high degree of spatial variability. K is usually the parameter whose variability influence to a more extended degree solutes movement. In fracture media, it is critical to properly characterize K in the most altered zones where flow and solutes migration tends to be concentrated. However, K measurements use to be scarce and sparse. This fact calls to consider stochastic models that allow quantifying the uncertainty of flow and mass transport predictions. This paper presents a convective transport problem solved in a 3D block of fractured crystalline rock. the case study is defined based on data from a real geological formation. As the scarcity of K data in fractures does not allow supporting classical multi Gaussian assumptions for K in fractures, the non multi Gaussian hypothesis has been explored, comparing mass transport results for alternative Gaussian and non-Gaussian assumptions. The latter hypothesis allows reproducing high spatial connectivity for extreme values of K. This feature is present in nature, might lead to reproduce faster solute pathways, and therefore should be modeled in order to obtain reasonably safe prediction of contaminants migration in a geological formation. The results obtained for the two alternative hypotheses show a remarkable impact of the K random function model in solutes movement. (Author) 9 refs.

  15. Comparison of Observed, MM5 and WRF-NMM Model-Simulated, and HPAC-Assumed Boundary-Layer Meteorological Variables for 3 Days During the IHOP Field Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanna, Steven R.; Reen, Brian; Hendrick, Elizabeth; Santos, Lynne; Stauffer, David; Deng, Aijun; McQueen, Jeffrey; Tsidulko, Marina; Janjic, Zavisa; Jovic, Dusan; Sykes, R. Ian

    2010-02-01

    The objective of the study is to evaluate operational mesoscale meteorological model atmospheric boundary-layer (ABL) outputs for use in the Hazard Prediction Assessment Capability (HPAC)/Second-Order Closure Integrated Puff (SCIPUFF) transport and dispersion model. HPAC uses the meteorological models’ routine simulations of surface buoyancy flux, winds, and mixing depth to derive the profiles of ABL turbulence. The Fifth-Generation Pennsylvania State University/National Center for Atmospheric Research Mesoscale Model (MM5) and the Weather Research and Forecast-Nonhydrostatic Mesoscale Model (WRF-NMM) ABL outputs and the HPAC ABL parameterisations are compared with observations during the International H2O Project (IHOP). The meteorological models’ configurations are not specially designed research versions for this study but rather are intended to be representative of what may be used operationally and thus have relatively coarse lowest vertical layer thicknesses of 59 and 36 m, respectively. The meteorological models’ simulations of mixing depth are in good agreement (±20%) with observations on most afternoons. Wind speed errors of 1 or 2 ms-1 are found, typical of those found in other studies, with larger errors occurring when the simulated centre of a low-pressure system is misplaced in time or space. The hourly variation of turbulent kinetic energy (TKE) is well-simulated during the daytime, although there is a meteorological model underprediction bias of about 20-40%. At night, WRF-NMM shows fair agreement with observations, and MM5 sometimes produces a very small default TKE value because of the stable boundary-layer parameterisation that is used. The HPAC TKE parameterisation is usually a factor of 5-10 high at night, primarily due to the fact that the meteorological model wind-speed output is at a height of 30 m for MM5 and 18 m for WRF-NMM, which is often well above the stable mixing depth. It is concluded that, before meteorological model TKE

  16. ELEMENTS OF CONTROL OVER HIERARCHIE SYSTEMS WITH ASSUMED HIERARCHY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kushnir N. V.

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The article presents a mathematical model of control over dynamic hierarchy system. The model was proposed for dealing with systems with assumed order in the technical problem of predicting destructions depending onto the amount of defects on different scale levels. The problem of the closest to a certain point of shelf life of hierarchy system is solved. The example of approach control during the given time is given. The problem concerns mathematic programming. Formulation of multi-parameter vector optimization criteria (improvement with its own hierarchy and the formal exercise of multi-criteria optimization of the model parameters. The research can achieve clarity about the conditions under which the structure is preserved. Managing sustainable development system with a given level of the hierarchy for the technical systems can only be achieved in keeping

  17. Millimeter wave satellite communication studies. Results of the 1981 propagation modeling effort

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stutzman, W. L.; Tsolakis, A.; Dishman, W. K.

    1982-12-01

    Theoretical modeling associated with rain effects on millimeter wave propagation is detailed. Three areas of work are discussed. A simple model for prediction of rain attenuation is developed and evaluated. A method for computing scattering from single rain drops is presented. A complete multiple scattering model is described which permits accurate calculation of the effects on dual polarized signals passing through rain.

  18. Economic effort management in multispecies fisheries: the FcubEcon model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoff, Ayoe; Frost, Hans; Ulrich, Clara

    2010-01-01

    Applying single-species assessment and quotas in multispecies fisheries can lead to overfishing or quota underutilization, because advice can be conflicting when different stocks are caught within the same fishery. During the past decade, increased focus on this issue has resulted in the developm......Applying single-species assessment and quotas in multispecies fisheries can lead to overfishing or quota underutilization, because advice can be conflicting when different stocks are caught within the same fishery. During the past decade, increased focus on this issue has resulted...... optimal manner, in both effort-management and single-quota management settings.Applying single-species assessment and quotas in multispecies fisheries can lead to overfishing or quota underutilization, because advice can be conflicting when different stocks are caught within the same fishery. During...

  19. Plasma expansion into vacuum assuming a steplike electron energy distribution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiefer, Thomas; Schlegel, Theodor; Kaluza, Malte C

    2013-04-01

    The expansion of a semi-infinite plasma slab into vacuum is analyzed with a hydrodynamic model implying a steplike electron energy distribution function. Analytic expressions for the maximum ion energy and the related ion distribution function are derived and compared with one-dimensional numerical simulations. The choice of the specific non-Maxwellian initial electron energy distribution automatically ensures the conservation of the total energy of the system. The estimated ion energies may differ by an order of magnitude from the values obtained with an adiabatic expansion model supposing a Maxwellian electron distribution. Furthermore, good agreement with data from experiments using laser pulses of ultrashort durations τ(L)Maxwellian electron distribution is assumed.

  20. Artificial Neural Networks for Reducing Computational Effort in Active Truncated Model Testing of Mooring Lines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Niels Hørbye; Voie, Per Erlend Torbergsen; Høgsberg, Jan Becker

    2015-01-01

    is by active truncated models. In these models only the very top part of the system is represented by a physical model whereas the behavior of the part below the truncation is calculated by numerical models and accounted for in the physical model by active actuators applying relevant forces to the physical...... model. Hence, in principal it is possible to achieve reliable experimental data for much larger water depths than what the actual depth of the test basin would suggest. However, since the computations must be faster than real time, as the numerical simulations and the physical experiment run...... simultaneously, this method is very demanding in terms of numerical efficiency and computational power. Therefore, this method has not yet proved to be feasible. It has recently been shown how a hybrid method combining classical numerical models and artificial neural networks (ANN) can provide a dramatic...

  1. Markov Modeling of Component Fault Growth Over A Derived Domain of Feasible Output Control Effort Modifications

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This paper introduces a novel Markov process formulation of stochastic fault growth modeling, in order to facilitate the development and analysis of...

  2. Modeling the impact of restoration efforts on phosphorus loading and transport through Everglades National Park, FL, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Stephanie A; Tachiev, Georgio I; Fennema, Robert; Cook, Amy M; Sukop, Michael C; Miralles-Wilhelm, Fernando

    2015-07-01

    Ecosystems of Florida Everglades are highly sensitive to phosphorus loading. Future restoration efforts, which focus on restoring Everglades water flows, may pose a threat to the health of these ecosystems. To determine the fate and transport of total phosphorus and evaluate proposed Everglades restoration, a water quality model has been developed using the hydrodynamic results from the M3ENP (Mike Marsh Model of Everglades National Park)--a physically-based hydrological numerical model which uses MIKE SHE/MIKE 11 software. Using advection-dispersion with reactive transport for the model, parameters were optimized and phosphorus loading in the overland water column was modeled with good accuracy (60%). The calibrated M3ENP-AD model was then modified to include future bridge construction and canal water level changes, which have shown to increase flows into ENP. These bridge additions increased total dissolved phosphorus (TP) load downstream in Shark Slough and decreased TP load in downstream Taylor Slough. However, there was a general decrease in TP concentration and TP mass per area over the entire model domain. The M3ENP-AD model has determined the mechanisms for TP transport and quantified the impacts of ENP restoration efforts on the spatial-temporal distribution of phosphorus transport. This tool can be used to guide future Everglades restoration decisions.

  3. The European Integrated Tokamak Modelling (ITM) effort: achievements and first physics results

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    G.L. Falchetto,; Coster, D.; Coelho, R.; Scott, B. D.; Figini, L.; Kalupin, D.; Nardon, E.; Nowak, S.; L.L. Alves,; Artaud, J. F.; Basiuk, V.; João P.S. Bizarro,; C. Boulbe,; Dinklage, A.; Farina, D.; B. Faugeras,; Ferreira, J.; Figueiredo, A.; Huynh, P.; Imbeaux, F.; Ivanova-Stanik, I.; Jonsson, T.; H.-J. Klingshirn,; Konz, C.; Kus, A.; Marushchenko, N. B.; Pereverzev, G.; M. Owsiak,; Poli, E.; Peysson, Y.; R. Reimer,; Signoret, J.; Sauter, O.; Stankiewicz, R.; Strand, P.; Voitsekhovitch, I.; Westerhof, E.; T. Zok,; Zwingmann, W.; ITM-TF contributors,; ASDEX Upgrade team,; JET-EFDA Contributors,

    2014-01-01

    A selection of achievements and first physics results are presented of the European Integrated Tokamak Modelling Task Force (EFDA ITM-TF) simulation framework, which aims to provide a standardized platform and an integrated modelling suite of validated numerical codes for the simulation and

  4. Evaluation of Thin Plate Hydrodynamic Stability through a Combined Numerical Modeling and Experimental Effort

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tentner, A. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Bojanowski, C. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Feldman, E. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Wilson, E. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Solbrekken, G [Univ. of Missouri, Columbia, MO (United States); Jesse, C. [Univ. of Missouri, Columbia, MO (United States); Kennedy, J. [Univ. of Missouri, Columbia, MO (United States); Rivers, J. [Univ. of Missouri, Columbia, MO (United States); Schnieders, G. [Univ. of Missouri, Columbia, MO (United States)

    2017-05-01

    An experimental and computational effort was undertaken in order to evaluate the capability of the fluid-structure interaction (FSI) simulation tools to describe the deflection of a Missouri University Research Reactor (MURR) fuel element plate redesigned for conversion to lowenriched uranium (LEU) fuel due to hydrodynamic forces. Experiments involving both flat plates and curved plates were conducted in a water flow test loop located at the University of Missouri (MU), at conditions and geometries that can be related to the MURR LEU fuel element. A wider channel gap on one side of the test plate, and a narrower on the other represent the differences that could be encountered in a MURR element due to allowed fabrication variability. The difference in the channel gaps leads to a pressure differential across the plate, leading to plate deflection. The induced plate deflection the pressure difference induces in the plate was measured at specified locations using a laser measurement technique. High fidelity 3-D simulations of the experiments were performed at MU using the computational fluid dynamics code STAR-CCM+ coupled with the structural mechanics code ABAQUS. Independent simulations of the experiments were performed at Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) using the STAR-CCM+ code and its built-in structural mechanics solver. The simulation results obtained at MU and ANL were compared with the corresponding measured plate deflections.

  5. Examining Mutual Elements of the Job Strain Model and the Effort--Reward Imbalance Model among Special Education Staff in the USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shyman, Eric

    2011-01-01

    Two theories of occupational stress are often cited as being most supported by research: the job strain model (JSM) and the effort--reward imbalance model (ERIM). In order to investigate the applicability of mutual theoretical elements of both models to special education in the USA, a sample of 100 special education paraeducators in public and…

  6. Examining roles pharmacists assume in disasters: a content analytic approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ford, Heath; Dallas, Cham E; Harris, Curt

    2013-12-01

    Numerous practice reports recommend roles pharmacists may adopt during disasters. This study examines the peer-reviewed literature for factors that explain the roles pharmacists assume in disasters and the differences in roles and disasters when stratified by time. Quantitative content analysis was used to gather data consisting of words and phrases from peer-reviewed pharmacy literature regarding pharmacists' roles in disasters. Negative binomial regression and Kruskal-Wallis nonparametric models were applied to the data. Pharmacists' roles in disasters have not changed significantly since the 1960s. Pharmaceutical supply remains their preferred role, while patient management and response integration roles decrease in context of common, geographically widespread disasters. Policy coordination roles, however, significantly increase in nuclear terrorism planning. Pharmacists' adoption of nonpharmaceutical supply roles may represent a problem of accepting a paradigm shift in nontraditional roles. Possible shortages of personnel in future disasters may change the pharmacists' approach to disaster management.

  7. Finding a balance between accuracy and computational effort for modeling biomineralization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hommel, Johannes; Ebigbo, Anozie; Gerlach, Robin; Cunningham, Alfred B.; Helmig, Rainer; Class, Holger

    2016-04-01

    One of the key issues of underground gas storage is the long-term security of the storage site. Amongst the different storage mechanisms, cap-rock integrity is crucial for preventing leakage of the stored gas due to buoyancy into shallower aquifers or, ultimately, the atmosphere. This leakage would reduce the efficiency of underground gas storage and pose a threat to the environment. Ureolysis-driven, microbially induced calcite precipitation (MICP) is one of the technologies in the focus of current research aiming at mitigation of potential leakage by sealing high-permeability zones in cap rocks. Previously, a numerical model, capable of simulating two-phase multi-component reactive transport, including the most important processes necessary to describe MICP, was developed and validated against experiments in Ebigbo et al. [2012]. The microbial ureolysis kinetics implemented in the model was improved based on new experimental findings and the model was recalibrated using improved experimental data in Hommel et al. [2015]. This increased the ability of the model to predict laboratory experiments while simplifying some of the reaction rates. However, the complexity of the model is still high which leads to high computation times even for relatively small domains. The high computation time prohibits the use of the model for the design of field-scale applications of MICP. Various approaches to reduce the computational time are possible, e.g. using optimized numerical schemes or simplified engineering models. Optimized numerical schemes have the advantage of conserving the detailed equations, as they save computation time by an improved solution strategy. Simplified models are more an engineering approach, since they neglect processes of minor impact and focus on the processes which have the most influence on the model results. This allows also for investigating the influence of a certain process on the overall MICP, which increases the insights into the interactions

  8. Markov Modeling of Component Fault Growth Over a Derived Domain of Feasible Output Control Effort Modifications

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-01

    of similar stochastic modeling techniques, are given in Banjevic and Jardine (2006). The state transition probabilities in a Markov process descrip...Technology, and Dr Kai Goebel, Director of the Prognostics Center of Excellence at NASA AMES. REFERENCES Banjevic, D., & Jardine , A. (2006). Calculation of

  9. Ideals, activities, dissonance, and processing: a conceptual model to guide educators' efforts to stimulate student reflection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Britta M; Teal, Cayla R; Rogers, John C; Paterniti, Debora A; Haidet, Paul

    2010-05-01

    Medical schools are increasingly incorporating opportunities for reflection into their curricula. However, little is known about the cognitive and/or emotional processes that occur when learners participate in activities designed to promote reflection. The purpose of this study was to identify and elucidate those processes. In 2008, the authors analyzed qualitative data from focus groups that were originally conducted to evaluate an educational activity designed to promote reflection. These data afforded the opportunity to explore the processes of reflection in detail. Transcripts (94 pages, single-spaced) from four focus groups were analyzed using a narrative framework. The authors spent approximately 40 hours in group and 240 hours in individual coding activities. The authors developed a conceptual model of five major elements in students' reflective processes: the educational activity, the presence or absence of cognitive or emotional dissonance, and two methods of processing dissonance (preservation or reconciliation). The model also incorporates the relationship between the student's internal ideal of what a doctor is or does and the student's perception of the teacher's ideal of what a doctor is or does. The model further identifies points at which educators may be able to influence the processes of reflection and the development of professional ideals. Students' cognitive and emotional processes have important effects on the success of educational activities intended to stimulate reflection. Although additional research is needed, this model-which incorporates ideals, activities, dissonance, and processing-can guide educators as they plan and implement such activities.

  10. Dynamic material flow modeling: an effort to calibrate and validate aluminum stocks and flows in Austria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchner, Hanno; Laner, David; Rechberger, Helmut; Fellner, Johann

    2015-05-01

    A calibrated and validated dynamic material flow model of Austrian aluminum (Al) stocks and flows between 1964 and 2012 was developed. Calibration and extensive plausibility testing was performed to illustrate how the quality of dynamic material flow analysis can be improved on the basis of the consideration of independent bottom-up estimates. According to the model, total Austrian in-use Al stocks reached a level of 360 kg/capita in 2012, with buildings (45%) and transport applications (32%) being the major in-use stocks. Old scrap generation (including export of end-of-life vehicles) amounted to 12.5 kg/capita in 2012, still being on the increase, while Al final demand has remained rather constant at around 25 kg/capita in the past few years. The application of global sensitivity analysis showed that only small parts of the total variance of old scrap generation could be explained by the variation of single parameters, emphasizing the need for comprehensive sensitivity analysis tools accounting for interaction between parameters and time-delay effects in dynamic material flow models. Overall, it was possible to generate a detailed understanding of the evolution of Al stocks and flows in Austria, including plausibility evaluations of the results. Such models constitute a reliable basis for evaluating future recycling potentials, in particular with respect to application-specific qualities of current and future national Al scrap generation and utilization.

  11. MCNP6 and DRiFT modeling efforts for the NEUANCE/DANCE detector array

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pinilla, Maria Isabel [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-01-30

    This report seeks to study and benchmark code predictions against experimental data; determine parameters to match MCNP-simulated detector response functions to experimental stilbene measurements; add stilbene processing capabilities to DRiFT; and improve NEUANCE detector array modeling and analysis using new MCNP6 and DRiFT features.

  12. Multiparametric modeling of the ineffective efforts in assisted ventilation within an ICU.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chouvarda, I G; Babalis, D; Papaioannou, V; Maglaveras, N; Georgopoulos, D

    2016-03-01

    In the context of assisted ventilation in ICU, it is of vital importance to keep a high synchronization between the patient's attempt to breath and the assisted ventilation event, so that the patient receives the ventilation support requested. In this work, experimental equipment is employed, which allows for unobtrusive and continuous monitoring of a multiple relevant bioparameters. These are meant to guide the medical professionals in appropriately adapting the treatment and fine-tune the ventilation. However, synchronization phenomena of different origin (neurological, mechanical, ventilation parameters) may occur, which vary among patients, and during the course of monitoring of a single patient, the timely recognition of which is challenging even for experts. The dynamics and complex causal relations among bioparameters and the ventilation synchronization are not well studied. The purpose of this work is to elaborate on a methodology toward modeling the ventilation synchronization failures based on the evolution of monitored bioparameters. Principal component analysis is employed for the transformation into a small number of features and the investigation of repeating patterns and clusters within measurements. Using these features, nonlinear prediction models based on support vector machines regression are explored, in terms of what past knowledge is required and what is the future horizon that can be predicted. The proposed model shows good correlation (over 0.74) with the actual outputs, constituting an encouraging step toward understanding of ICU ventilation dynamic phenomena.

  13. Controls over Ocean Mesopelagic Interior Carbon Storage (COMICS: fieldwork, synthesis and modelling efforts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard John Sanders

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The ocean’s biological carbon pump plays a central role in regulating atmospheric CO2 levels. In particular, the depth at which sinking organic carbon is broken down and respired in the mesopelagic zone is critical, with deeper remineralisation resulting in greater carbon storage. Until recently, however, a balanced budget of the supply and consumption of organic carbon in the mesopelagic had not been constructed in any region of the ocean, and the processes controlling organic carbon turnover are still poorly understood. Large-scale data syntheses suggest that a wide range of factors can influence remineralisation depth including upper-ocean ecological interactions, and interior dissolved oxygen concentration and temperature. However these analyses do not provide a mechanistic understanding of remineralisation, which increases the challenge of appropriately modelling the mesopelagic carbon dynamics. In light of this, the UK Natural Environment Research Council has funded a programme with this mechanistic understanding as its aim, drawing targeted fieldwork right through to implementation of a new parameterisation for mesopelagic remineralisation within an IPCC class global biogeochemical model. The Controls over Ocean Mesopelagic Interior Carbon Storage (COMICS programme will deliver new insights into the processes of carbon cycling in the mesopelagic zone and how these influence ocean carbon storage. Here we outline the programme’s rationale, its goals, planned fieldwork and modelling activities, with the aim of stimulating international collaboration.

  14. Combined observational and modeling efforts of aerosol-cloud-precipitation interactions over Southeast Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loftus, Adrian; Tsay, Si-Chee; Nguyen, Xuan Anh

    2016-04-01

    Low-level stratocumulus (Sc) clouds cover more of the Earth's surface than any other cloud type rendering them critical for Earth's energy balance, primarily via reflection of solar radiation, as well as their role in the global hydrological cycle. Stratocumuli are particularly sensitive to changes in aerosol loading on both microphysical and macrophysical scales, yet the complex feedbacks involved in aerosol-cloud-precipitation interactions remain poorly understood. Moreover, research on these clouds has largely been confined to marine environments, with far fewer studies over land where major sources of anthropogenic aerosols exist. The aerosol burden over Southeast Asia (SEA) in boreal spring, attributed to biomass burning (BB), exhibits highly consistent spatiotemporal distribution patterns, with major variability due to changes in aerosol loading mediated by processes ranging from large-scale climate factors to diurnal meteorological events. Downwind from source regions, the transported BB aerosols often overlap with low-level Sc cloud decks associated with the development of the region's pre-monsoon system, providing a unique, natural laboratory for further exploring their complex micro- and macro-scale relationships. Compared to other locations worldwide, studies of springtime biomass-burning aerosols and the predominately Sc cloud systems over SEA and their ensuing interactions are underrepresented in scientific literature. Measurements of aerosol and cloud properties, whether ground-based or from satellites, generally lack information on microphysical processes; thus cloud-resolving models are often employed to simulate the underlying physical processes in aerosol-cloud-precipitation interactions. The Goddard Cumulus Ensemble (GCE) cloud model has recently been enhanced with a triple-moment (3M) bulk microphysics scheme as well as the Regional Atmospheric Modeling System (RAMS) version 6 aerosol module. Because the aerosol burden not only affects cloud

  15. Ultraviolet Interstellar Linear Polarization: Initial Modeling Efforts for the Astro-2 WUPPE Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolff, M. J.; Anderson, C. M.; Clayton, Geoff; Kim, S.-H.; Martin, P. G.

    1996-05-01

    Prior to the flight of the Wisconsin Ultraviolet Photo Polarimeter Experiment (WUPPE) on Astro-2, studies of ultraviolet (UV) interstellar linear polarization have generally catagorized the wavelength dependence in two ways: that which agrees with an extrapolation of the Serkowski Law into the UV and that which has a polarization greater than the extrapolation (see Clayton et al. 1995 and references within). Only one object (HD 197770) had been reported to deviate from either of these behaviors. It is important to note that earlier work has been limited in scope primarily by the amount of data available (14 published sightlines). However, with the flight of Astro-2, WUPPE has tripled the number of UV interstellar polarization observations (Anderson et al. 1995, 1996). These new data will provide a significant improvement to our ability to test interstellar dust grain models and study the effects of sightline environments. We present the modeling results for several WUPPE (Astro-2) sightlines, including two which clearly depart from the previously mentioned catagorizations: HD 147933 and HD 197770. In addition to "classial" grain modeling technques (series solution, Effective Medium Theory), we also employ the Maximum Entropy Method and the Discrete Dipole Approximate. WUPPE is supported by NASA contract NAS 5-26777. Anderson, C.M., Weitenbach, A.J., & Code, A.D. 1995, Proceedings of the Conference on Polarimetry in the Interstellar Medium, eds. Roberge & Whittet, Troy, NY, June 1995. Anderson, C.M. et al. 1996, ApJ, submitted. Clayton, G. C. et al. 1995, ApJ, 445, 947

  16. Dynamic modeling efforts for system interface studies for nuclear hydrogen production.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vilim, R. B.; Nuclear Engineering Division

    2007-08-15

    System interface studies require not only identifying economically optimal equipment configurations, which involves studying mainly full power steady-state operation, but also assessing the operability of a design during load change and startup and assessing safety-related behavior during upset conditions. This latter task is performed with a dynamic simulation code. This report reviews the requirements of such a code. It considers the types of transients that will need to be simulated, the phenomena that will be present, the models best suited for representing the phenomena, and the type of numerical solution scheme for solving the models to obtain the dynamic response of the combined nuclear-hydrogen plant. Useful insight into plant transient behavior prior to running a dynamics code is obtained by some simple methods that take into account component time constants and energy capacitances. Methods for determining reactor stability, plant startup time, and temperature response during load change, and tripping of the reactor are described. Some preliminary results are presented.

  17. Latent Tuberculosis: Models, Computational efforts and the Pathogen's regulatory mechanisms during dormancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gesham eMagombedze

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Latent tuberculosis is a clinical syndrome that occurs after an individual has been exposed to the Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb bacillus, the infection has been established and an immune response has been generated to control the pathogen and force it into a quiescent state. Mtb can exit this quiescent state where it is unresponsive to treatment and elusive to the immune response, and enter a rapid replicating state, hence causing infection reactivation. It remains a grey area to understand how the pathogen causes a persistent infection and it is unclear whether the organism will be in a slow replicating state or a dormant non-replicating state. The ability of the pathogen to adapt to changing host immune response mechanisms, in which it is exposed to hypoxia, low pH, nitric oxide (NO, nutrient starvation and several other anti-microbial effectors, is associated with a high metabolic plasticity that enables it to metabolise under these different conditions. Adaptive gene regulatory mechanisms are thought to coordinate how the pathogen changes their metabolic pathways through mechanisms that sense changes in oxygen tension and other stress factors, hence stimulating the pathogen to make necessary adjustments to ensure survival. Here, we review studies that give insights into latency/dormancy regulatory mechanisms that enable infection persistence and pathogen adaptation to different stress conditions. We highlight what mathematical and computational models can do and what they should do to enhance our current understanding of TB latency.

  18. Three-dimensional cell culture models for anticancer drug screening: Worth the effort?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verjans, Eddy-Tim; Doijen, Jordi; Luyten, Walter; Landuyt, Bart; Schoofs, Liliane

    2017-06-15

    High attrition of new oncology drug candidates in clinical trials is partially caused by the poor predictive capacity of artificial monolayer cell culture assays early in drug discovery. Monolayer assays do not take the natural three-dimensional (3D) microenvironment of cells into account. As a result, false positive compounds often enter clinical trials, leading to high dropout rates and a waste of time and money. Over the past 2 decades, tissue engineers and cell biologists have developed a broad range of 3D in vitro culturing tools that better represent in vivo cell biology. These tools preserve the 3D architecture of cells and can be used to predict toxicity of and resistance against antitumor agents. Recent progress in tissue engineering further improves 3D models by taking into account the tumor microenvironment, which is important for metastatic progression and vascularization. However, the widespread implementation of 3D cell cultures into cell-based research programs has been limited by various factors, including their cost and reproducibility. In addition, different 3D cell culture techniques often produce spheroids of different size and shape, which can strongly influence drug efficacy and toxicity. Hence, it is imperative to morphometrically characterize multicellular spheroids to avoid generalizations among different spheroid types. Standardized 3D culturing procedures could further reduce data variability and enhance biological relevance. Here, we critically evaluate the benefits and challenges inherent to growing cells in 3D, along with an overview of the techniques used to form spheroids. This is done with a specific focus on antitumor drug screening. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Assumed Probability Density Functions for Shallow and Deep Convection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven K Krueger

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available The assumed joint probability density function (PDF between vertical velocity and conserved temperature and total water scalars has been suggested to be a relatively computationally inexpensive and unified subgrid-scale (SGS parameterization for boundary layer clouds and turbulent moments. This paper analyzes the performance of five families of PDFs using large-eddy simulations of deep convection, shallow convection, and a transition from stratocumulus to trade wind cumulus. Three of the PDF families are based on the double Gaussian form and the remaining two are the single Gaussian and a Double Delta Function (analogous to a mass flux model. The assumed PDF method is tested for grid sizes as small as 0.4 km to as large as 204.8 km. In addition, studies are performed for PDF sensitivity to errors in the input moments and for how well the PDFs diagnose some higher-order moments. In general, the double Gaussian PDFs more accurately represent SGS cloud structure and turbulence moments in the boundary layer compared to the single Gaussian and Double Delta Function PDFs for the range of grid sizes tested. This is especially true for small SGS cloud fractions. While the most complex PDF, Lewellen-Yoh, better represents shallow convective cloud properties (cloud fraction and liquid water mixing ratio compared to the less complex Analytic Double Gaussian 1 PDF, there appears to be no advantage in implementing Lewellen-Yoh for deep convection. However, the Analytic Double Gaussian 1 PDF better represents the liquid water flux, is less sensitive to errors in the input moments, and diagnoses higher order moments more accurately. Between the Lewellen-Yoh and Analytic Double Gaussian 1 PDFs, it appears that neither family is distinctly better at representing cloudy layers. However, due to the reduced computational cost and fairly robust results, it appears that the Analytic Double Gaussian 1 PDF could be an ideal family for SGS cloud and turbulence

  20. Applying the effort-reward imbalance model to household and family work: a population-based study of German mothers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sperlich Stefanie

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This paper reports on results of a newly developed questionnaire for the assessment of effort-reward imbalance (ERI in unpaid household and family work. Methods: Using a cross-sectional population-based survey of German mothers (n = 3129 the dimensional structure of the theoretical ERI model was validated by means of Confirmatory Factor Analysis (CFA. Analyses of Variance were computed to examine relationships between ERI and social factors and health outcomes. Results CFA revealed good psychometric properties indicating that the subscale 'effort' is based on one latent factor and the subscale 'reward' is composed of four dimensions: 'intrinsic value of family and household work', 'societal esteem', 'recognition from the partner', and 'affection from the child(ren'. About 19.3% of mothers perceived lack of reciprocity and 23.8% showed high rates of overcommitment in terms of inability to withdraw from household and family obligations. Socially disadvantaged mothers were at higher risk of ERI, in particular with respect to the perception of low societal esteem. Gender inequality in the division of household and family work and work-family conflict accounted most for ERI in household and family work. Analogous to ERI in paid work we could demonstrate that ERI affects self-rated health, somatic complaints, mental health and, to some extent, hypertension. Conclusions The newly developed questionnaire demonstrates satisfied validity and promising results for extending the ERI model to household and family work.

  1. Modeling and Evaluating Pilot Performance in NextGen: Review of and Recommendations Regarding Pilot Modeling Efforts, Architectures, and Validation Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wickens, Christopher; Sebok, Angelia; Keller, John; Peters, Steve; Small, Ronald; Hutchins, Shaun; Algarin, Liana; Gore, Brian Francis; Hooey, Becky Lee; Foyle, David C.

    2013-01-01

    NextGen operations are associated with a variety of changes to the national airspace system (NAS) including changes to the allocation of roles and responsibilities among operators and automation, the use of new technologies and automation, additional information presented on the flight deck, and the entire concept of operations (ConOps). In the transition to NextGen airspace, aviation and air operations designers need to consider the implications of design or system changes on human performance and the potential for error. To ensure continued safety of the NAS, it will be necessary for researchers to evaluate design concepts and potential NextGen scenarios well before implementation. One approach for such evaluations is through human performance modeling. Human performance models (HPMs) provide effective tools for predicting and evaluating operator performance in systems. HPMs offer significant advantages over empirical, human-in-the-loop testing in that (1) they allow detailed analyses of systems that have not yet been built, (2) they offer great flexibility for extensive data collection, (3) they do not require experimental participants, and thus can offer cost and time savings. HPMs differ in their ability to predict performance and safety with NextGen procedures, equipment and ConOps. Models also vary in terms of how they approach human performance (e.g., some focus on cognitive processing, others focus on discrete tasks performed by a human, while others consider perceptual processes), and in terms of their associated validation efforts. The objectives of this research effort were to support the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) in identifying HPMs that are appropriate for predicting pilot performance in NextGen operations, to provide guidance on how to evaluate the quality of different models, and to identify gaps in pilot performance modeling research, that could guide future research opportunities. This research effort is intended to help the FAA

  2. Overview of past, ongoing and future efforts of the integrated modeling of global change for Northern Eurasia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monier, Erwan; Kicklighter, David; Sokolov, Andrei; Zhuang, Qianlai; Melillo, Jerry; Reilly, John

    2016-04-01

    Northern Eurasia is both a major player in the global carbon budget (it includes roughly 70% of the Earth's boreal forest and more than two-thirds of the Earth's permafrost) and a region that has experienced dramatic climate change (increase in temperature, growing season length, floods and droughts) over the past century. Northern Eurasia has also undergone significant land-use change, both driven by human activity (including deforestation, expansion of agricultural lands and urbanization) and natural disturbances (such as wildfires and insect outbreaks). These large environmental and socioeconomic impacts have major implications for the carbon cycle in the region. Northern Eurasia is made up of a diverse set of ecosystems that range from tundra to forests, with significant areas of croplands and pastures as well as deserts, with major urban areas. As such, it represents a complex system with substantial challenges for the modeling community. In this presentation, we provide an overview of past, ongoing and possible future efforts of the integrated modeling of global change for Northern Eurasia. We review the variety of existing modeling approaches to investigate specific components of Earth system dynamics in the region. While there are a limited number of studies that try to integrate various aspects of the Earth system (through scale, teleconnections or processes), we point out that there are few systematic analyses of the various feedbacks within the Earth system (between components, regions or scale). As a result, there is a lack of knowledge of the relative importance of such feedbacks, and it is unclear how policy relevant current studies are that fail to account for these feedbacks. We review the role of Earth system models, and their advantages/limitations compared to detailed single component models. We further introduce the human activity system (global trade, economic models, demographic model and so on), the need for coupled human/earth system models

  3. New Experimental Models of Diabetic Nephropathy in Mice Models of Type 2 Diabetes: Efforts to Replicate Human Nephropathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María José Soler

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Diabetic nephropathy (DN is the leading cause of end-stage renal disease. The use of experimental models of DN has provided valuable information regarding many aspects of DN, including pathophysiology, progression, implicated genes, and new therapeutic strategies. A large number of mouse models of diabetes have been identified and their kidney disease was characterized to various degrees. Most experimental models of type 2 DN are helpful in studying early stages of DN, but these models have not been able to reproduce the characteristic features of more advanced DN in humans such as nodules in the glomerular tuft or glomerulosclerosis. The generation of new experimental models of DN created by crossing, knockdown, or knockin of genes continues to provide improved tools for studying DN. These models provide an opportunity to search for new mechanisms involving the development of DN, but their shortcomings should be recognized as well. Moreover, it is important to recognize that the genetic background has a substantial effect on the susceptibility to diabetes and kidney disease development in the various models of diabetes.

  4. DISPLACE: a dynamic, individual-based model for spatial fishing planning and effort displacement: Integrating underlying fish population models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bastardie, Francois; Nielsen, J. Rasmus; Miethe, Tanja

    We previously developed a spatially explicit, individual-based model (IBM) evaluating the bio-economic efficiency of fishing vessel movements between regions according to the catching and targeting of different species based on the most recent high resolution spatial fishery data. The main purpose...... version couples the vessel model to selected size-based population models and considers the underlying resource dynamics in the distribution and density patterns of the targeted stocks for the cases of Danish and German vessels harvesting the North Sea and Baltic fish stocks. The stochastic fishing...... by vessels on the fish stocks, with resulting fishing mortality, and the vessels’ economic consequences are evaluated on high spatial and seasonal disaggregation levels by simulating different individual choices of vessel speed, fishing grounds and ports. All tested scenarios led to increased overall energy...

  5. DEFORMATION RIGIDITY OF ASSUMED STRESS MODES IN HYBRID ELEMENTS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Can-hui; HUANG Qian; FENG Wei

    2006-01-01

    The new methods to determine the zero-energy deformation modes in the hybrid elements and the zero-energy stress modes in their assumed stress fields are presented by the natural deformation modes of the elements. And the formula of the additional element deformation rigidity due to additional mode into the assumed stress field is derived.Based on, it is concluded in theory that the zero-energy stress mode cannot suppress the zero-energy deformation modes but increase the extra rigidity to the nonzero-energy deformation modes of the element instead. So they should not be employed to assume the stress field. In addition, the parasitic stress modes will produce the spurious parasitic energy and result the element behaving over rigidity. Thus, they should not be used into the assumed stress field even though they can suppress the zero-energy deformation modes of the element. The numerical examples show the performance of the elements including the zero-energy stress modes or the parasitic stress modes.

  6. Statistical motor number estimation assuming a binomial distribution.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blok, J.H.; Visser, G.H.A.; Graaf, S.S.N. de; Zwarts, M.J.; Stegeman, D.F.

    2005-01-01

    The statistical method of motor unit number estimation (MUNE) uses the natural stochastic variation in a muscle's compound response to electrical stimulation to obtain an estimate of the number of recruitable motor units. The current method assumes that this variation follows a Poisson distribution.

  7. Short-term dispersal of Fukushima-derived radionuclides off Japan: modeling efforts and model-data intercomparison

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. I. Rypina

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The Great East Japan Earthquake and tsunami that caused a loss of power at the Fukushima nuclear power plants (FNPP resulted in emission of radioactive isotopes into the atmosphere and the ocean. In June of 2011, an international survey measuring a variety of radionuclide isotopes, including 137Cs, was conducted in surface and subsurface waters off Japan. This paper presents the results of numerical simulations specifically aimed at interpreting these observations and investigating the spread of Fukushima-derived radionuclides off the coast of Japan and into the greater Pacific Ocean. Together, the simulations and observations allow us to study the dominant mechanisms governing this process, and to estimate the total amount of radionuclides in discharged coolant waters and atmospheric airborne radionuclide fallout. The numerical simulations are based on two different ocean circulation models, one inferred from AVISO altimetry and NCEP/NCAR reanalysis wind stress, and the second generated numerically by the NCOM model. Our simulations determine that > 95% of 137Cs remaining in the water within ~600 km of Fukushima, Japan in mid-June 2011 was due to the direct oceanic discharge. The estimated strength of the oceanic source is 16.2 ± 1.6 PBq, based on minimizing the model-data mismatch. We cannot make an accurate estimate for the atmospheric source strength since most of the fallout cesium had left the survey area by mid-June. The model explained several key features of the observed 137Cs distribution. First, the absence of 137Cs at the southernmost stations is attributed to the Kuroshio Current acting as a transport barrier against the southward progression of 137Cs. Second, the largest 137Cs concentrations were associated with a semi-permanent eddy that entrained 137Cs-rich waters, collecting and stirring them around the eddy perimeter. Finally, the intermediate 137Cs concentrations at the westernmost stations are attributed to younger, and

  8. Short-term dispersal of Fukushima-derived radionuclides off Japan: modeling efforts and model-data intercomparison

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. I. Rypina

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The March of 2011 earthquake and tsunami that caused a loss of power at the Fukushima nuclear power plants (FNPP resulted in emission of radioactive isotopes into the atmosphere and the ocean. In June of 2011, an international survey of various radionuclide isotopes, including 137Cs, was conducted in surface and subsurface waters off Japan. This paper presents the results of numerical simulations aimed at interpreting these observations, investigating the spread of Fukushima-derived radionuclides off the coast of Japan and into the greater Pacific Ocean, studying the dominant mechanisms governing this process, as well as estimating the total amount of radionuclides in discharged coolant waters and atmospheric airborne radionuclide fallout. The numerical simulations are based on two different ocean circulation models, one inferred from AVISO altimetry and NCEP/NCAR reanalysis wind stress, and the second generated numerically by the NCOM model. Our simulations determine that >95% of 137Cs remaining in the water within ~600 km of Fukushima, Japan in mid-June 2011 was due to the direct oceanic discharge. The estimated strength of the oceanic source is 16.2 ± 1.6 PBq, based on minimizing the model-data mismatch. We cannot make an accurate estimate for the atmospheric source strength since most of the fallout cesium would have moved out of the survey area by mid-June. The model explained several features of the observed 137Cs distribution. First, the absence of 137Cs at the southernmost stations is attributed to the Kuroshio Current acting as a transport barrier against the southward progression of 137Cs. Second, the largest 137Cs concentrations were associated with a semi-permanent eddy that entrained 137Cs-rich waters collecting and stirring them around the eddy perimeter. Finally, the intermediate 137Cs concentrations at the westernmost stations were attributed

  9. Civil Aviation: U.S. Efforts Improved Afghan Capabilities, but the Afghan Government Did Not Assume Airspace Management as Planned

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-05-01

    Afghanistan with opportunities to expand its economic markets and take advantage of its strategic geographic position in international commerce to provide...USAID hoped to connect remote areas of Afghanistan with major cities, thereby spurring social and economic development and integrating the provinces with...Commerce officials at the U.S. Embassy in Kabul helped to organize a conference in Dubai , United Arab Emirates, to facilitate discussions between

  10. Assume-Guarantee Synthesis for Digital Contract Signing

    CERN Document Server

    Chatterjee, Krishnendu

    2010-01-01

    We study the automatic synthesis of fair non-repudiation protocols, a class of fair exchange protocols, used for digital contract signing. First, we show how to specify the objectives of the participating agents and the trusted third party (TTP) as path formulas in LTL and prove that the satisfaction of these objectives imply fairness and abuse-freeness; properties required of fair exchange protocols. We then show that weak (co-operative) co-synthesis and classical (strictly competitive) co-synthesis fail, whereas assume-guarantee synthesis (AGS) succeeds. We demonstrate the success of assume-guarantee synthesis as follows: (a) any solution of assume-guarantee synthesis is attack-free; no subset of participants can violate the objectives of the other participants; (b) the Asokan-Shoup-Waidner (ASW) certified mail protocol that has known vulnerabilities is not a solution of AGS; (c) The Garay-Jakobsson-MacKenzie (GJM) protocol, while fair and abuse-free, is not attack-free by our definition and is hence not a ...

  11. Co-effect of Demand-control-support Model and Effort-reward Imbalance Model on Depression Risk Estimation in Humans:Findings from Henan Province of China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YU Shan Fa; NAKATA Akinori; GU Gui Zhen; SWANSON Naomi G; ZHOU Wen Hui; HE Li Hua; WANG Sheng

    2013-01-01

    Objective To investigate the co-effect of Demand-control-support (DCS) model and Effort-reward Imbalance (ERI) model on the risk estimation of depression in humans in comparison with the effects when they are used respectively. Methods A total of 3 632 males and 1 706 females from 13 factories and companies in Henan province were recruited in this cross-sectional study. Perceived job stress was evaluated with the Job Content Questionnaire and Effort-Reward Imbalance Questionnaire (Chinese version). Depressive symptoms were assessed by using the Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale (CES-D). Results DC (demands/job control ratio) and ERI were shown to be independently associated with depressive symptoms. The outcome of low social support and overcommitment were similar. High DC and low social support (SS), high ERI and high overcommitment, and high DC and high ERI posed greater risks of depressive symptoms than each of them did alone. ERI model and SS model seem to be effective in estimating the risk of depressive symptoms if they are used respectively. Conclusion The DC had better performance when it was used in combination with low SS. The effect on physical demands was better than on psychological demands. The combination of DCS and ERI models could improve the risk estimate of depressive symptoms in humans.

  12. [Measuring psychosocial stress at work in Spanish hospital's personnel. Psychometric properties of the Spanish version of Effort-Reward Imbalance model].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macías Robles, María Dolores; Fernández-López, Juan Antonio; Hernández-Mejía, Radhamés; Cueto-Espinar, Antonio; Rancaño, Iván; Siegrist, Johannes

    2003-05-10

    Two main models are currently used to evaluate the psychosocial factors at work: the Demand-Control (or job strain) model developed by Karasek and the Effort-Reward Imbalance model, developed by Siegrist. A Spanish version of the first model has been validated, yet so far no validated Spanish version of the second model is available. The objective of this study was to explore the psychometric properties of the Spanish version of the Effort-Reward Imbalance model in terms of internal consistency, factorial validity, and discriminate validity. A cross-sectional study on a representative sample of 298 workers of the Spanish public hospital San Agustin in Asturias was performed. The Spanish version of Effort-Reward Imbalance Questionnaire (23 items) was obtained by a standard forward/backward translation procedure, and the information was gathered by a self-administered application. Exploratory factor analysis were performed to test the dimensional structure of the theoretical model. Cronbach's alpha coefficient was calculated to estimate the internal consistency reliability. Information on discriminate validity is given for sex, age and education. Differences were calculated with the t-test for two independent samples or ANOVA, respectively. Internal consistency was satisfactory for the two scales (reward and intrinsic effort) and Cronbach's Alpha coefficients higher than 0.80 were observed. The internal consistency for the scale of extrinsic effort was lower (alpha = 0.63). A three-factor solution was retained for the factor analysis of reward as expected, and these dimensions were interpreted as a) esteem, b) job promotion and salary and c) job instability. A one-factor solution was retained for the factor analysis of intrinsic effort. The factor analysis of the scale of extrinsic effort did not support the expected one-dimension structure. The analysis of discriminate validity displayed significant associations between measures of Effort-Reward Imbalance and the

  13. A New Assumed Interaction. Experiments and Manifestations in Astrophysics

    CERN Document Server

    Baurov, Yu A

    2008-01-01

    Results of experimental investigations of a new assumed interaction in nature with the aid of high-current magnets, torsion and piezoresonance balances, high-precision gravimeter, fluctuations in intensity of betta-decay of radioactive elements, plasma devices and manifestations in astrophysics are presented. A possible explanation of the results obtained based on a hypothesis of global anisotropy of physical space caused by the existence of a cosmological vectorial potential A_g, is given. It is shown that the vector A_g has the following coordinates in the second equatorial coordinate system: right ascension alpha = 293 +- 10, declination delta = 36 +- 10.

  14. A multidisciplinary effort to assign realistic source parameters to models of volcanic ash-cloud transport and dispersion during eruptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mastin, L.G.; Guffanti, M.; Servranckx, R.; Webley, P.; Barsotti, S.; Dean, K.; Durant, A.; Ewert, J.W.; Neri, A.; Rose, William I.; Schneider, D.; Siebert, L.; Stunder, B.; Swanson, G.; Tupper, A.; Volentik, A.; Waythomas, C.F.

    2009-01-01

    During volcanic eruptions, volcanic ash transport and dispersion models (VATDs) are used to forecast the location and movement of ash clouds over hours to days in order to define hazards to aircraft and to communities downwind. Those models use input parameters, called "eruption source parameters", such as plume height H, mass eruption rate ???, duration D, and the mass fraction m63 of erupted debris finer than about 4??{symbol} or 63????m, which can remain in the cloud for many hours or days. Observational constraints on the value of such parameters are frequently unavailable in the first minutes or hours after an eruption is detected. Moreover, observed plume height may change during an eruption, requiring rapid assignment of new parameters. This paper reports on a group effort to improve the accuracy of source parameters used by VATDs in the early hours of an eruption. We do so by first compiling a list of eruptions for which these parameters are well constrained, and then using these data to review and update previously studied parameter relationships. We find that the existing scatter in plots of H versus ??? yields an uncertainty within the 50% confidence interval of plus or minus a factor of four in eruption rate for a given plume height. This scatter is not clearly attributable to biases in measurement techniques or to well-recognized processes such as elutriation from pyroclastic flows. Sparse data on total grain-size distribution suggest that the mass fraction of fine debris m63 could vary by nearly two orders of magnitude between small basaltic eruptions (??? 0.01) and large silicic ones (> 0.5). We classify eleven eruption types; four types each for different sizes of silicic and mafic eruptions; submarine eruptions; "brief" or Vulcanian eruptions; and eruptions that generate co-ignimbrite or co-pyroclastic flow plumes. For each eruption type we assign source parameters. We then assign a characteristic eruption type to each of the world's ??? 1500

  15. Statistical motor number estimation assuming a binomial distribution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blok, Joleen H; Visser, Gerhard H; de Graaf, Sándor; Zwarts, Machiel J; Stegeman, Dick F

    2005-02-01

    The statistical method of motor unit number estimation (MUNE) uses the natural stochastic variation in a muscle's compound response to electrical stimulation to obtain an estimate of the number of recruitable motor units. The current method assumes that this variation follows a Poisson distribution. We present an alternative that instead assumes a binomial distribution. Results of computer simulations and of a pilot study on 19 healthy subjects showed that the binomial MUNE values are considerably higher than those of the Poisson method, and in better agreement with the results of other MUNE techniques. In addition, simulation results predict that the performance in patients with severe motor unit loss will be better for the binomial than Poisson method. The adapted method remains closer to physiology, because it can accommodate the increase in activation probability that results from rising stimulus intensity. It does not need recording windows as used with the Poisson method, and is therefore less user-dependent and more objective and quicker in its operation. For these reasons, we believe that the proposed modifications may lead to significant improvements in the statistical MUNE technique.

  16. Technology Transfer Center to Assume Patenting and Licensing Responsibilities | Poster

    Science.gov (United States)

    The NCI Technology Transfer Center (TTC) is undergoing a reorganization that will bring patenting and licensing responsibilities to the Shady Grove and Frederick offices by October 2015. The reorganization is a result of an effort begun in 2014 by NIH to improve the organizational structure of technology transfer at NIH to meet the rapid rate of change within science, technology, and industry, and to better align the science and laboratory goals with the licensing and patenting process.

  17. Technology Transfer Center to Assume Patenting and Licensing Responsibilities | Poster

    Science.gov (United States)

    The NCI Technology Transfer Center (TTC) is undergoing a reorganization that will bring patenting and licensing responsibilities to the Shady Grove and Frederick offices by October 2015. The reorganization is a result of an effort begun in 2014 by NIH to improve the organizational structure of technology transfer at NIH to meet the rapid rate of change within science, technology, and industry, and to better align the science and laboratory goals with the licensing and patenting process.

  18. Unremarked or Unperformed? Systematic Review on Reporting of Validation Efforts of Health Economic Decision Models in Seasonal Influenza and Early Breast Cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Boer, Pieter T.; Frederix, G.W.J.; Feenstra, Talitha L.; Vemer, Pepijn

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Transparent reporting of validation efforts of health economic models give stakeholders better insight into the credibility of model outcomes. In this study we reviewed recently published studies on seasonal influenza and early breast cancer in order to gain insight into the reporting of

  19. Unremarked or Unperformed? : Systematic Review on Reporting of Validation Efforts of Health Economic Decision Models in Seasonal Influenza and Early Breast Cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Boer, Pieter T; Frederix, Geert W J; Feenstra, Talitha L; Vemer, Pepijn

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Transparent reporting of validation efforts of health economic models give stakeholders better insight into the credibility of model outcomes. In this study we reviewed recently published studies on seasonal influenza and early breast cancer in order to gain insight into the reporting of

  20. Unremarked or Unperformed? : Systematic Review on Reporting of Validation Efforts of Health Economic Decision Models in Seasonal Influenza and Early Breast Cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Boer, Pieter T.; Frederix, Geert W. J.; Feenstra, Talitha L.; Vemer, Pepijn

    2016-01-01

    Background Transparent reporting of validation efforts of health economic models give stakeholders better insight into the credibility of model outcomes. In this study we reviewed recently published studies on seasonal influenza and early breast cancer in order to gain insight into the reporting of

  1. Beyond an assumed mother–child symbiosis in nutritional guidelines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Annemette; Michaelsen, Kim F.; Holm, Lotte

    2014-01-01

    of the child and the interest and focus of the mother. The aim of this qualitative study was to explore mothers’ concerns and feeding practices in the context of everyday life. A total of 45 mothers with children either seven months old or 13 months old participated. The results showed that the need to find......Researchers question the implications of the way in which “motherhood” is constructed in public health discourse. Current nutritional guidelines for Danish parents of young children are part of this discourse. They are shaped by an assumed symbiotic relationship between the nutritional needs...... practical solutions for the whole family in a busy everyday life, to socialise the child into the family and society at large, and to create personal relief from the strain small children put on time and energy all served as socially acceptable reasons for knowingly departing from nutritional...

  2. Tracing of the 1st IEC Secretariat Assumed by China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    @@ Introduction The IEC central office informed in 7/543/AC that the secretariat of TC 7 would be taken over by the Chinese National Committee on January 10, 2003 and affirmed subsequently in 7/544/AC that the secretariat of TC 7 has been taken over by the Chinese National Committee which appointing secretary in Shanghai Electric Cable Research Institute as no objection has been raised by the Standardization Management Board members. It's the first IEC secretariat that assumed by China, with great significance, just as commented by the media that the commitment indicate undoubtedly China is to play a much more active and important role in the world especially after its entry into world trade organization as well as the trend of global economic integration.

  3. Personality traits of the five-factor model are associated with effort-reward imbalance at work: a population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Törnroos, Maria; Hintsanen, Mirka; Hintsa, Taina; Jokela, Markus; Pulkki-Råback, Laura; Kivimäki, Mika; Hutri-Kähönen, Nina; Keltikangas-Järvinen, Liisa

    2012-07-01

    This study examined the association between personality traits and work stress. The sample comprised 757 women and 613 men (aged 30 to 45 years in 2007) participating in the Young Finns study. Personality was assessed with the NEO-FFI questionnaire and work stress according to Siegrist's effort-reward imbalance (ERI) model. High neuroticism, low extraversion, and low agreeableness were associated with high ERI. Low conscientiousness was associated with high ERI in men. No association was found between openness and ERI. High neuroticism, high extraversion, and low agreeableness were associated with high effort and low neuroticism, high extraversion, and high agreeableness with high rewards. High conscientiousness was associated with high effort, and in women, with high rewards. High openness was associated with high effort. This study suggests that personality traits may predispose to and protect from work stress.

  4. Efforts to Address the Aging Academic Workforce: Assessing Progress through a Three-Stage Model of Institutional Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaskie, Brian; Walker, Mark; Andersson, Matthew

    2017-01-01

    The aging of the academic workforce is becoming more relevant to policy discussions in higher education. Yet there has been no formal, large-scale analysis of institutional efforts to develop policies and programs for aging employees. We fielded a representative survey of human resource specialists at 187 colleges and universities across the…

  5. A proposal for a coordinated effort for the determination of brainwide neuroanatomical connectivity in model organisms at a mesoscopic scale.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jason W Bohland

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available In this era of complete genomes, our knowledge of neuroanatomical circuitry remains surprisingly sparse. Such knowledge is critical, however, for both basic and clinical research into brain function. Here we advocate for a concerted effort to fill this gap, through systematic, experimental mapping of neural circuits at a mesoscopic scale of resolution suitable for comprehensive, brainwide coverage, using injections of tracers or viral vectors. We detail the scientific and medical rationale and briefly review existing knowledge and experimental techniques. We define a set of desiderata, including brainwide coverage; validated and extensible experimental techniques suitable for standardization and automation; centralized, open-access data repository; compatibility with existing resources; and tractability with current informatics technology. We discuss a hypothetical but tractable plan for mouse, additional efforts for the macaque, and technique development for human. We estimate that the mouse connectivity project could be completed within five years with a comparatively modest budget.

  6. Applying a Theory-Driven Framework to Guide Quality Improvement Efforts in Nursing Homes: The LOCK Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mills, Whitney L; Pimentel, Camilla B; Palmer, Jennifer A; Snow, A Lynn; Wewiorski, Nancy J; Allen, Rebecca S; Hartmann, Christine W

    2017-06-23

    Implementing quality improvement (QI) programs in nursing homes continues to encounter significant challenges, despite recognized need. QI approaches provide nursing home staff with opportunities to collaborate on developing and testing strategies for improving care delivery. We present a theory-driven and user-friendly adaptable framework and facilitation package to overcome existing challenges and guide QI efforts in nursing homes. The framework is grounded in the foundational concepts of strengths-based learning, observation, relationship-based teams, efficiency, and organizational learning. We adapted these concepts to QI in the nursing home setting, creating the "LOCK" framework. The LOCK framework is currently being disseminated across the Veterans Health Administration. The LOCK framework has five tenets: (a) Look for the bright spots, (b) Observe, (c) Collaborate in huddles, (d) Keep it bite-sized, and (e) facilitation. Each tenet is described. We also present a case study documenting how a fictional nursing home can implement the LOCK framework as part of a QI effort to improve engagement between staff and residents. The case study describes sample observations, processes, and outcomes. We also discuss practical applications for nursing home staff, the adaptability of LOCK for different QI projects, the specific role of facilitation, and lessons learned. The proposed framework complements national efforts to improve quality of care and quality of life for nursing home residents and may be valuable across long-term care settings and QI project types.

  7. Using the Internet in Middle Schools: A Model for Success. A Collaborative Effort between Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) and Los Alamos Middle School (LAMS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Addessio, Barbara K.; And Others

    Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) developed a model for school networking using Los Alamos Middle School as a testbed. The project was a collaborative effort between the school and the laboratory. The school secured administrative funding for hardware and software; and LANL provided the network architecture, installation, consulting, and…

  8. Optimal Control for TB disease with vaccination assuming endogeneous reactivation and exogeneous reinfection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anggriani, N.; Wicaksono, B. C.; Supriatna, A. K.

    2016-06-01

    Tuberculosis (TB) is one of the deadliest infectious disease in the world which caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis. The disease is spread through the air via the droplets from the infectious persons when they are coughing. The World Health Organization (WHO) has paid a special attention to the TB by providing some solution, for example by providing BCG vaccine that prevent an infected person from becoming an active infectious TB. In this paper we develop a mathematical model of the spread of the TB which assumes endogeneous reactivation and exogeneous reinfection factors. We also assume that some of the susceptible population are vaccinated. Furthermore we investigate the optimal vaccination level for the disease.

  9. Parental involvement, child effort, and the development of immigrant boys' and girls' reading and mathematics skills: A latent difference score growth model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moon, Ui Jeong; Hofferth, Sandra L

    2016-04-01

    Gender differences in elementary school performance among immigrant children have not yet been well documented. This study examined how differences in parental involvement, child effort, and family characteristics and resources contribute to immigrant boys'-and girls' academic achievement from kindergarten through 5(th)-grade. The sample was drawn from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study-Kindergarten cohort. Using a latent score growth model, this study found that parents' involvement at home benefited boys' reading and mathematics skills throughout all early elementary school years, but did not have the same benefit for girls. For both boys and girls, child effort in reading appears to be strongly linked to better reading and mathematics skills at kindergarten and to subsequent improvement between grades. The positive associations of parental involvement and child's effort with test scores were greater during earlier years than during later years for boys, whereas there was no difference in the association over time for girls.

  10. Trajectory Simulation of Meteors Assuming Mass Loss and Fragmentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Gary A., Jr.; Prabhu, Dinesh K.; Saunders, David A

    2015-01-01

    Program used to simulate atmospheric flight trajectories of entry capsules [1] Includes models of atmospheres of different planetary destinations - Earth, Mars, Venus, Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, Titan, ... Solves 3-­-degrees of freedom (3DoF) equations for a single body treated as a point mass. Also supports 6-DoF trajectory simula4on and Monte Carlo analyses. Uses Fehlberg-­-Runge-­-Kuna (4th-5th order) time integraion with automaic step size control. Includes rotating spheroidal planet with gravitational field having a J2 harmonic. Includes a variety of engineering aerodynamic and heat flux models. Capable of specifying events - heatshield jettison, parachute deployment, etc. - at predefined altitudes or Mach number. Has material thermal response models of typical aerospace materials integrated.

  11. Inferring word meanings by assuming that speakers are informative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frank, Michael C; Goodman, Noah D

    2014-12-01

    Language comprehension is more than a process of decoding the literal meaning of a speaker's utterance. Instead, by making the assumption that speakers choose their words to be informative in context, listeners routinely make pragmatic inferences that go beyond the linguistic data. If language learners make these same assumptions, they should be able to infer word meanings in otherwise ambiguous situations. We use probabilistic tools to formalize these kinds of informativeness inferences-extending a model of pragmatic language comprehension to the acquisition setting-and present four experiments whose data suggest that preschool children can use informativeness to infer word meanings and that adult judgments track quantitatively with informativeness.

  12. Parameterizing deep convection using the assumed probability density function method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. L. Storer

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Due to their coarse horizontal resolution, present-day climate models must parameterize deep convection. This paper presents single-column simulations of deep convection using a probability density function (PDF parameterization. The PDF parameterization predicts the PDF of subgrid variability of turbulence, clouds, and hydrometeors. That variability is interfaced to a prognostic microphysics scheme using a Monte Carlo sampling method. The PDF parameterization is used to simulate tropical deep convection, the transition from shallow to deep convection over land, and mid-latitude deep convection. These parameterized single-column simulations are compared with 3-D reference simulations. The agreement is satisfactory except when the convective forcing is weak. The same PDF parameterization is also used to simulate shallow cumulus and stratocumulus layers. The PDF method is sufficiently general to adequately simulate these five deep, shallow, and stratiform cloud cases with a single equation set. This raises hopes that it may be possible in the future, with further refinements at coarse time step and grid spacing, to parameterize all cloud types in a large-scale model in a unified way.

  13. A community effort towards a knowledge-base and mathematical model of the human pathogen Salmonella Typhimurium LT2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shin Sook-Il

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Metabolic reconstructions (MRs are common denominators in systems biology and represent biochemical, genetic, and genomic (BiGG knowledge-bases for target organisms by capturing currently available information in a consistent, structured manner. Salmonella enterica subspecies I serovar Typhimurium is a human pathogen, causes various diseases and its increasing antibiotic resistance poses a public health problem. Results Here, we describe a community-driven effort, in which more than 20 experts in S. Typhimurium biology and systems biology collaborated to reconcile and expand the S. Typhimurium BiGG knowledge-base. The consensus MR was obtained starting from two independently developed MRs for S. Typhimurium. Key results of this reconstruction jamboree include i development and implementation of a community-based workflow for MR annotation and reconciliation; ii incorporation of thermodynamic information; and iii use of the consensus MR to identify potential multi-target drug therapy approaches. Conclusion Taken together, with the growing number of parallel MRs a structured, community-driven approach will be necessary to maximize quality while increasing adoption of MRs in experimental design and interpretation.

  14. The Investigation of Model of Consumers Responses to Brand Equity Based on Marketing Mix Efforts, Corporate Image and Brand Equity Relation (case stady : Butane Campany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Sardari

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract For keeping and continuing their perpetuity in nowadays, companies and should focus on competitive advantages and getting more consumers’ satisfaction for sale and more market shares.One of the useful tools that makes the company less vulnerable in face of market competitive activities and consumption liability and repetition is brand equity. The purpose of this paper is investigating the consumers’ responses on marketing- mix efforts, corporate image and brand equity relation using Kim & Hyun model(2011 and Buil & Martı´nez model(2013.This research is considered as applied based on goal and descriptive-survey based on data collection. Hypotheses were tested using structural equation modeling or SEM (in Lisrel and P.L.S software and consumers’ data Butane corporation productes in Tehran. Findings corroborate the positive impact of brand equity on consumers’ responses.The results of hypotheses analysis illustrate marketing- mix efforts positively impacts on brand equity and corporate image plays a significant role in creation of brand equity for Butane.So company managers should designate special places for distribution system growth, after sale services development, pricing, promotion in investment matrix for marketing mixed efforts.

  15. Improving fishing effort descriptors: Modelling engine power and gear-size relations of five European trawl fleets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eigaard, Ole Ritzau; Rihan, Dominic; Graham, Norman

    2011-01-01

    Based on information from an international inventory of gears currently deployed by trawlers in five European countries, the relationship between vessel engine power and trawl size is quantified for different trawl types, trawling techniques and target species. Using multiplicative modelling...

  16. Assuming too much? Participatory water resource governance in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Julia

    2011-01-01

    This paper argues that participation in natural resource management, which is often coupled with moves for more local ownership of decision making, is based on three sets of assumptions: about the role of the state, the universality of application of such approaches and the transformatory potential of institutional reform. The validity of these assumptions requires investigation in view of the rapid institutionalisation and scaling-up of participatory approaches, particularly in developing country contexts. Post-apartheid South Africa is widely recognised as a pioneer of participatory and devolutionary approaches, particularly in the field of water resources. It is 12 years since the promulgation of the forward-thinking 1998 National Water Act, and thus an opportune moment to reflect on South Africa's experiences of participatory governance. Drawing on empirical research covering the establishment of the first Catchment Management Agency, and the transformation of existing Irrigation Boards into more inclusive Water User Associations in the Inkomati Water Management Area, it emerges that there may be fundamental weaknesses in the participatory model and underlying assumptions, and indeed such approaches may actually reinforce inequitable outcomes: the legacy of long-established institutional frameworks and powerful actors therein continues to exert influence in post-apartheid South Africa, and has the potential to subvert the democratic and redistributive potential of the water reforms. It is argued that a reassessment of the role of the state is necessary: where there is extreme heterogeneity in challenging catchments more, rather than less, state intervention may be required to uphold the interests of marginalised groups and effect redistribution.

  17. A longitudinal multilevel model analysis of the within-person and between-person effect of effortful engagement and academic self-efficacy on academic performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galla, Brian M; Wood, Jeffrey J; Tsukayama, Eli; Har, Kim; Chiu, Angela W; Langer, David A

    2014-06-01

    Using data from an accelerated longitudinal study, we examined the within-person and between-person effect of effortful engagement and academic self-efficacy on academic performance across students (N=135) in elementary school. Teachers assessed participants' effortful engagement and participants rated their academic self-efficacy once per year for 3 years. Academic performance was assessed through standardized test scores in reading and math. Multilevel models indicated that within-person change in Effortful Engagement and Academic Self-Efficacy scores significantly predicted concomitant within-person change in reading test scores, B=2.71, p=.043, Pseudo-R2=.02 and B=4.72, p=.005, Pseudo-R2=.04, respectively. Participants with higher between-person levels of Effortful Engagement had higher initial reading test scores, B=10.03, p=.001, Pseudo-R2=.09, and math test scores, B=11.20, pAcademic Self-Efficacy showed a faster rate of increase in math test scores across elementary school, B=10.21, p=.036, Pseudo-R2=.25. At the between-person level, Effortful Engagement mediated the association between Academic Self-Efficacy and both reading and math test scores, although no support was found for mediation at the within-person level. Collectively, results suggest that trait-level psychological factors can vary meaningfully within school-aged children and that both within-person change and between-person individual differences in these traits have important consequences for academic performance.

  18. Modeling the effects of promotional efforts on aggregate pharmaceutical demand : What we know and challenges for the future

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wieringa, J.E.; Osinga, E.C.; Conde, E.R.; Leeflang, P.S.H.; Stern, P.; Ding, M.; Eliashberg, J.; Stremersch, S.

    2014-01-01

    Pharmaceutical marketing is becoming an important area of research in its own right, as evidenced by the steady increase in relevant papers published in the major marketing journals in recent years. These papers utilize different modeling techniques and types of data. In this chapter we focus on

  19. Efforts to Increase Students Reading Interest on Educational Reference Through Classical Guidance and Counseling Experiential Learning Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatik Sutarti

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the research is improving students’ reading interest on educational references through classical guidance and counseling experiential learning model. The research was carried out at STKIP Pacitan on the second semester in 2016/2017 academic year. The subject of the research was 20 fourth semester students of STKIP Pacitan. The method of the research was Classroom Action Research (CAR. The data was collected through 3 (three stages namely: data reduction, data presentation, and data conclusion or verification. The research resulted that the use of classical guidance and counseling experiential learning model gave opportunity for students to deliver their ideas related with the problems in reading interest, and then, being solved together through critical thinking.

  20. CFD Modelling and Experimental Testing of Thermal Calcination of Kaolinite Rich Clay Particles - An Effort towards Green Concrete

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gebremariam, Abraham Teklay

    Cement industry is one of the major industrial emitters of greenhouse gases, generating 5-7% of the total anthropogenic CO2 emissions. Consequently, use of supplementary cementitious materials (SCM) to replace part of the CO2-intensive cement clinker is an attractive way to mitigate CO2 emissions...... from cement industry. SCMs based on industrial byproducts like fly ashes and slags are subject to availability problems. Yet clays are the most ubiquitous material on earth's crust. Thus, properly calcined clays are a very promising candidate for SCMs to produce green cements. Calcination...... PROcess Modeling System) software, which is suspended during the project due to the adjustment made by the project consortium. The model results from both C++ and gPROMS software show good similarity. Various experiments have been performed to derive key kinetic data, to collect data from a gas suspension...

  1. An effort to improve track and intensity prediction of tropical cyclones through vortex initialization in NCUM-global model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Vivek; Routray, A.; Mallick, Swapan; George, John P.; Rajagopal, E. N.

    2016-05-01

    Tropical cyclones (TCs) have strong impact on socio-economic conditions of the countries like India, Bangladesh and Myanmar owing to its awful devastating power. This brings in the need of precise forecasting system to predict the tracks and intensities of TCs accurately well in advance. However, it has been a great challenge for major operational meteorological centers over the years. Genesis of TCs over data sparse warm Tropical Ocean adds more difficulty to this. Weak and misplaced vortices at initial time are one of the prime sources of track and intensity errors in the Numerical Weather Prediction (NWP) models. Many previous studies have reported the forecast skill of track and intensity of TC improved due to the assimilation of satellite data along with vortex initialization (VI). Keeping this in mind, an attempt has been made to investigate the impact of vortex initialization for simulation of TC using UK-Met office global model, operational at NCMRWF (NCUM). This assessment is carried out by taking the case of a extremely severe cyclonic storm "Chapala" that occurred over Arabian Sea (AS) from 28th October to 3rd November 2015. Two numerical experiments viz. Vort-GTS (Assimilation of GTS observations with VI) and Vort-RAD (Same as Vort-GTS with assimilation of satellite data) are carried out. This vortex initialization study in NCUM model is first of its type over North Indian Ocean (NIO). The model simulation of TC is carried out with five different initial conditions through 24 hour cycles for both the experiments. The results indicate that the vortex initialization with assimilation of satellite data has a positive impact on the track and intensity forecast, landfall time and position error of the TCs.

  2. Optimal effort investment for overcoming the weakest point: new insights from a computational model of neuromuscular adaptation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arandjelović, Ognjen

    2011-08-01

    The occurrence of so-called sticking points in a lift is pervasive in weight training practice. Biomechanically complex exercises often exhibit multi-modal variation of effective force exerted against the load as a function of the elevation and velocity of the load. This results in a variety of possible loci for the occurrence of sticking points and makes the problem of designing the optimal training strategy to overcome them challenging. In this article a case founded on theoretical grounds is made against a purely empirical method. It is argued that the nature of the problem considered and the wide range of variables involved limit the generality of conclusions which can be drawn from experimental studies alone. Instead an alternative is described, whereby a recently proposed mathematical model of neuromuscular adaptation is employed in a series of computer simulations. These are used to examine quantitatively the effects of differently targeted partial range of motion (ROM) training approaches. Counter-intuitively and in contrast to common training practices, the key novel insight inferred from the obtained results is that in some cases the most effective approach for improving performance in an exercise with a sticking point at a particular point in the ROM is to improve force production capability at a different and possibly remote position in the lift. In the context of the employed model, this result is explained by changes in the neuromuscular and biomechanical environment for force production.

  3. Putting the Hydrology Back in Water Resources: Recent Efforts to Improve Representation of Physical Hydrology in Water Resources Planning and Operations Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferguson, I. M.; Parker, N.; Draper, A.; Dogrul, E. C.; Condon, L. E.

    2012-12-01

    Water resources planners and managers rely on a broad range of data analysis and modeling tools. Data analysis, statistical models, and physical hydrology models are used to estimate water supply, while systems-based planning and operations models are used to simulate system operation with respect to competing objectives—e.g., water supply vs. flood control vs. in-stream flows—under physical and regulatory constraints. In general, physical hydrology models neglect water operations, while planning and operations models lack physically-based representation hydrologic processes. Accurate assessment of climate change impacts on water resources requires modeling tools that integrate physical hydrology and water resources operations. This presentation will discuss recent efforts to improve representation of physical hydrology in water resources planning and operations models, focusing on key challenges, trade-offs between various approaches, and implications for climate change risk assessment and adaptation studies. Discussion will focus on recent model development by the US Bureau of Reclamation, California Department of Water Resources, and collaborators for the Sacramento-San Joaquin watershed in California.

  4. Bayesian Analysis for Risk Assessment of Selected Medical Events in Support of the Integrated Medical Model Effort

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilkey, Kelly M.; Myers, Jerry G.; McRae, Michael P.; Griffin, Elise A.; Kallrui, Aditya S.

    2012-01-01

    The Exploration Medical Capability project is creating a catalog of risk assessments using the Integrated Medical Model (IMM). The IMM is a software-based system intended to assist mission planners in preparing for spaceflight missions by helping them to make informed decisions about medical preparations and supplies needed for combating and treating various medical events using Probabilistic Risk Assessment. The objective is to use statistical analyses to inform the IMM decision tool with estimated probabilities of medical events occurring during an exploration mission. Because data regarding astronaut health are limited, Bayesian statistical analysis is used. Bayesian inference combines prior knowledge, such as data from the general U.S. population, the U.S. Submarine Force, or the analog astronaut population located at the NASA Johnson Space Center, with observed data for the medical condition of interest. The posterior results reflect the best evidence for specific medical events occurring in flight. Bayes theorem provides a formal mechanism for combining available observed data with data from similar studies to support the quantification process. The IMM team performed Bayesian updates on the following medical events: angina, appendicitis, atrial fibrillation, atrial flutter, dental abscess, dental caries, dental periodontal disease, gallstone disease, herpes zoster, renal stones, seizure, and stroke.

  5. Glass Property Models and Constraints for Estimating the Glass to be Produced at Hanford by Implementing Current Advanced Glass Formulation Efforts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vienna, John D.; Kim, Dong-Sang; Skorski, Daniel C.; Matyas, Josef

    2013-07-31

    Recent glass formulation and melter testing data have suggested that significant increases in waste loading in HLW and LAW glasses are possible over current system planning estimates. The data (although limited in some cases) were evaluated to determine a set of constraints and models that could be used to estimate the maximum loading of specific waste compositions in glass. It is recommended that these models and constraints be used to estimate the likely HLW and LAW glass volumes that would result if the current glass formulation studies are successfully completed. It is recognized that some of the models are preliminary in nature and will change in the coming years. Plus the models do not currently address the prediction uncertainties that would be needed before they could be used in plant operations. The models and constraints are only meant to give an indication of rough glass volumes and are not intended to be used in plant operation or waste form qualification activities. A current research program is in place to develop the data, models, and uncertainty descriptions for that purpose. A fundamental tenet underlying the research reported in this document is to try to be less conservative than previous studies when developing constraints for estimating the glass to be produced by implementing current advanced glass formulation efforts. The less conservative approach documented herein should allow for the estimate of glass masses that may be realized if the current efforts in advanced glass formulations are completed over the coming years and are as successful as early indications suggest they may be. Because of this approach there is an unquantifiable uncertainty in the ultimate glass volume projections due to model prediction uncertainties that has to be considered along with other system uncertainties such as waste compositions and amounts to be immobilized, split factors between LAW and HLW, etc.

  6. Glass Property Models and Constraints for Estimating the Glass to be Produced at Hanford by Implementing Current Advanced Glass Formulation Efforts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vienna, John D. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Kim, Dong-Sang [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Skorski, Daniel C. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Matyas, Josef [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2013-07-01

    Recent glass formulation and melter testing data have suggested that significant increases in waste loading in HLW and LAW glasses are possible over current system planning estimates. The data (although limited in some cases) were evaluated to determine a set of constraints and models that could be used to estimate the maximum loading of specific waste compositions in glass. It is recommended that these models and constraints be used to estimate the likely HLW and LAW glass volumes that would result if the current glass formulation studies are successfully completed. It is recognized that some of the models are preliminary in nature and will change in the coming years. Plus the models do not currently address the prediction uncertainties that would be needed before they could be used in plant operations. The models and constraints are only meant to give an indication of rough glass volumes and are not intended to be used in plant operation or waste form qualification activities. A current research program is in place to develop the data, models, and uncertainty descriptions for that purpose. A fundamental tenet underlying the research reported in this document is to try to be less conservative than previous studies when developing constraints for estimating the glass to be produced by implementing current advanced glass formulation efforts. The less conservative approach documented herein should allow for the estimate of glass masses that may be realized if the current efforts in advanced glass formulations are completed over the coming years and are as successful as early indications suggest they may be. Because of this approach there is an unquantifiable uncertainty in the ultimate glass volume projections due to model prediction uncertainties that has to be considered along with other system uncertainties such as waste compositions and amounts to be immobilized, split factors between LAW and HLW, etc.

  7. Federal and state management of inland wetlands: Are states ready to assume control?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glubiak, Peter G.; Nowka, Richard H.; Mitsch, William J.

    1986-03-01

    As inland wetlands face increasing pressure for development, both the federal government and individual states have begun reevaluating their respective wetland regulatory schemes. This article focuses first on the effectiveness of the past, present, and proposed federal regulations, most notably the Section 404, Dredge and Fill Permit Program, in dealing with shrinking wetland resources. The article then addresses the status of state involvement in this largely federal area, as well as state preparedness to assume primacy should federal priorities change. Finally, the subject of comprehensive legislation for wetland protection is investigated, and the article concludes with some procedural suggestions for developing a model law.

  8. Phase tuning in Michelson-Morley experiments performed in vacuum, assuming length contraction

    CERN Document Server

    Levy, Joseph

    2010-01-01

    In agreement with Michelson-Morley experiments performed in vacuum, we show that, assuming the existence of a fundamental aether frame and of a length contraction affecting the material bodies in the direction of the Earth absolute velocity, the light signals, travelling along the arms of the interferometer arrive in phase whatever their orientation, a result which responds to an objection opposed to the non-entrained aether theory. This result constitutes a strong argument in support of length contraction and of the existence of a model of aether non-entrained by the motion of celestial bodies.

  9. Finite element model approach of a cylindrical lithium ion battery cell with a focus on minimization of the computational effort and short circuit prediction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raffler, Marco; Sevarin, Alessio; Ellersdorfer, Christian; Heindl, Simon F.; Breitfuss, Christoph; Sinz, Wolfgang

    2017-08-01

    In this research, a parameterized beam-element-based mechanical modeling approach for cylindrical lithium ion batteries is developed. With the goal to use the cell model in entire vehicle crash simulations, focus of development is on minimizing the computational effort whilst simultaneously obtaining accurate mechanical behavior. The cylindrical cell shape is approximated by radial beams connected to each other in circumferential and longitudinal directions. The discrete beam formulation is used to define an anisotropic material behavior. An 18650 lithium ion cell model constructed in LS-Dyna is used to show the high degree of parameterization of the approach. A criterion which considers the positive pole deformation and the radial deformation of the cell is developed for short circuit prediction during simulation. An abuse testing program, consisting of radial crush, axial crush, and penetration is performed to evaluate the mechanical properties and internal short circuit behavior of a commercially available 18650 lithium cell. Additional 3-point-bending tests are performed to verify the approach objectively. By reducing the number of strength-related elements to 1600, a fast and accurate cell model can be created. Compared to typical cell models in technical literature, simulation time of a single cell load case can be reduced by approx. 90%.

  10. Reproductive effort in viscous populations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pen, Ido

    2000-01-01

    Here I study a kin selection model of reproductive effort, the allocation of resources to fecundity versus survival, in a patch-structured population. Breeding females remain in the same patch for life. Offspring have costly, partial long-distance dispersal and compete for breeding sites, which beco

  11. Associations of Extrinsic and Intrinsic Components of Work Stress with Health: A Systematic Review of Evidence on the Effort-Reward Imbalance Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegrist, Johannes; Li, Jian

    2016-04-19

    Mainstream psychological stress theory claims that it is important to include information on people's ways of coping with work stress when assessing the impact of stressful psychosocial work environments on health. Yet, some widely used respective theoretical models focus exclusively on extrinsic factors. The model of effort-reward imbalance (ERI) differs from them as it explicitly combines information on extrinsic and intrinsic factors in studying workers' health. As a growing number of studies used the ERI model in recent past, we conducted a systematic review of available evidence, with a special focus on the distinct contribution of its intrinsic component, the coping pattern "over-commitment", towards explaining health. Moreover, we explore whether the interaction of intrinsic and extrinsic components exceeds the size of effects on health attributable to single components. Results based on 51 reports document an independent explanatory role of "over-commitment" in explaining workers' health in a majority of studies. However, support in favour of the interaction hypothesis is limited and requires further exploration. In conclusion, the findings of this review support the usefulness of a work stress model that combines extrinsic and intrinsic components in terms of scientific explanation and of designing more comprehensive worksite stress prevention programs.

  12. After the Tournament: Outcomes and Effort Provision

    OpenAIRE

    McGee, Andrew; McGee, Peter

    2013-01-01

    Modeling the incentive effects of competitions among employees for promotions or financial rewards, economists have largely ignored the effects of competition on effort provision once the competition is finished. In a laboratory experiment, we examine how competition outcomes affect the provision of post-competition effort. We find that subjects who lose arbitrarily decided competitions choose lower subsequent effort levels than subjects who lose competitions decided by their effort choices. ...

  13. 25 CFR 224.65 - How may a tribe assume additional activities under a TERA?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false How may a tribe assume additional activities under a TERA... Procedures for Obtaining Tribal Energy Resource Agreements Tera Requirements § 224.65 How may a tribe assume additional activities under a TERA? A tribe may assume additional activities related to the development...

  14. Risk Reduction of an Invasive Insect by Targeting Surveillance Efforts with the Assistance of a Phenology Model and International Maritime Shipping Routes and Schedules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, David R

    2016-05-01

    Reducing the risk of introduction to North America of the invasive Asian gypsy moth (Lymantria dispar asiatica Vnukovskij and L. d. japonica [Motschulsky]) on international maritime vessels involves two tactics: (1) vessels that wish to arrive in Canada or the United States and have visited any Asian port that is subject to regulation during designated times must obtain a predeparture inspection certificate from an approved entity; and (2) vessels with a certificate may be subjected to an additional inspection upon arrival. A decision support tool is described here with which the allocation of inspection resources at North American ports can be partitioned among multiple vessels according to estimates of the potential onboard Asian gypsy moth population and estimates of the onboard larval emergence pattern. The decision support tool assumes that port inspection is uniformly imperfect at the Asian ports and that each visit to a regulated port has potential for the vessel to be contaminated with gypsy moth egg masses. The decision support tool uses a multigenerational phenology model to estimate the potential onboard population of egg masses by calculating the temporal intersection between the dates of port visits to regulated ports and the simulated oviposition pattern in each port. The phenological development of the onboard population is simulated each day of the vessel log until the vessel arrives at the port being protected from introduction. Multiple independent simulations are used to create a probability distribution of the size and timing of larval emergence.

  15. Aseismic Slips Preceding Ruptures Assumed for Anomalous Seismicities and Crustal Deformations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogata, Y.

    2007-12-01

    If aseismic slips occurs on a fault or its deeper extension, both seismicity and geodetic records around the source should be affected. Such anomalies are revealed to have occurred during the last several years leading up to the October 2004 Chuetsu Earthquake of M6.8, the March 2007 Noto Peninsula Earthquake of M6.9, and the July 2007 Chuetsu-Oki Earthquake of M6.8, which occurred successively in the near-field, central Japan. Seismic zones of negative and positive increments of the Coulomb failure stress, assuming such slips, show seismic quiescence and activation, respectively, relative to the predicted rate by the ETAS model. These are further supported by transient crustal movement around the source preceding the rupture. Namely, time series of the baseline distance records between a numbers of the permanent GPS stations deviated from the predicted trend, with the trend of different slope that is basically consistent with the horizontal displacements of the stations due to the assumed slips. References Ogata, Y. (2007) Seismicity and geodetic anomalies in a wide area preceding the Niigata-Ken-Chuetsu Earthquake of October 23, 2004, central Japan, J. Geophys. Res. 112, in press.

  16. Modelling efforts needed to advance herpes simplex virus (HSV) vaccine development: Key findings from the World Health Organization Consultation on HSV Vaccine Impact Modelling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gottlieb, Sami L; Giersing, Birgitte; Boily, Marie-Claude; Chesson, Harrell; Looker, Katharine J; Schiffer, Joshua; Spicknall, Ian; Hutubessy, Raymond; Broutet, Nathalie

    2017-06-21

    Development of a vaccine against herpes simplex virus (HSV) is an important goal for global sexual and reproductive health. In order to more precisely define the health and economic burden of HSV infection and the theoretical impact and cost-effectiveness of an HSV vaccine, in 2015 the World Health Organization convened an expert consultation meeting on HSV vaccine impact modelling. The experts reviewed existing model-based estimates and dynamic models of HSV infection to outline critical future modelling needs to inform development of a comprehensive business case and preferred product characteristics for an HSV vaccine. This article summarizes key findings and discussions from the meeting on modelling needs related to HSV burden, costs, and vaccine impact, essential data needs to carry out those models, and important model components and parameters. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  17. Asymmetric Best Effort Service for Packet Networks

    OpenAIRE

    Le Boudec, Jean-Yves; Hamdi, M; Blazevic, L.; P. Thiran

    1998-01-01

    We propose a system and method for providing a ``throughput versus delay'' differentiated service for IP packets. We distinguish two types of traffic: type A and type B. It is expected that type A traffic receives less throughput per flow than type B. On the other hand, type A packets experience considerably smaller delay. The method is intended to be implemented in Internet routers. No bandwidth or buffer reservation is assumed in this system. The service remains a Best Effort service, thus ...

  18. Asymmetric Best Effort Service for Packet Networks

    OpenAIRE

    Blazevic, Ljubica; Le Boudec, Jean-Yves; Thiran, Patrick

    1998-01-01

    We propose a system and method for providing a ``throughput versus delay`` differentiated service for IP packets. We distinguish two types of traffic: type A and type B. It is expected that type A traffic receives less throughput per flow than type B. On the other hand, type A packets experience considerably smaller delay. The method is intended to be implemented in Internet routers. No bandwidth or buffer reservation is assumed in this system. The service remains a Best Effort service, thus...

  19. Estimating option values of solar radiation management assuming that climate sensitivity is uncertain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arino, Yosuke; Akimoto, Keigo; Sano, Fuminori; Homma, Takashi; Oda, Junichiro; Tomoda, Toshimasa

    2016-05-24

    Although solar radiation management (SRM) might play a role as an emergency geoengineering measure, its potential risks remain uncertain, and hence there are ethical and governance issues in the face of SRM's actual deployment. By using an integrated assessment model, we first present one possible methodology for evaluating the value arising from retaining an SRM option given the uncertainty of climate sensitivity, and also examine sensitivities of the option value to SRM's side effects (damages). Reflecting the governance challenges on immediate SRM deployment, we assume scenarios in which SRM could only be deployed with a limited degree of cooling (0.5 °C) only after 2050, when climate sensitivity uncertainty is assumed to be resolved and only when the sensitivity is found to be high (T2x = 4 °C). We conduct a cost-effectiveness analysis with constraining temperature rise as the objective. The SRM option value is originated from its rapid cooling capability that would alleviate the mitigation requirement under climate sensitivity uncertainty and thereby reduce mitigation costs. According to our estimates, the option value during 1990-2049 for a +2.4 °C target (the lowest temperature target level for which there were feasible solutions in this model study) relative to preindustrial levels were in the range between $2.5 and $5.9 trillion, taking into account the maximum level of side effects shown in the existing literature. The result indicates that lower limits of the option values for temperature targets below +2.4 °C would be greater than $2.5 trillion.

  20. 76 FR 4933 - Environmental Review Procedures for Entities Assuming HUD Environmental Review Responsibilities...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-27

    ... Responsibilities; Notice of Proposed Information Collection: Comment Request AGENCY: Office of the Assistant...: Environmental Review Procedures for Entities Assuming HUD Environmental Responsibilities. OMB Control...

  1. A modelling framework for predicting the optimal balance between control and surveillance effort in the local eradication of tuberculosis in New Zealand wildlife.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gormley, Andrew M; Holland, E Penelope; Barron, Mandy C; Anderson, Dean P; Nugent, Graham

    2016-03-01

    Bovine tuberculosis (TB) impacts livestock farming in New Zealand, where the introduced marsupial brushtail possum (Trichosurus vulpecula) is the wildlife maintenance host for Mycobacterium bovis. New Zealand has implemented a campaign to control TB using a co-ordinated programme of livestock diagnostic testing and large-scale culling of possums, with the long-term aim of TB eradication. For management of the disease in wildlife, methods that can optimise the balance between control and surveillance effort will facilitate the objective of eradication on a fixed or limited budget. We modelled and compared management options to optimise the balance between the two activities necessary to achieve and verify eradication of TB from New Zealand wildlife: the number of lethal population control operations required to halt the M. bovis infection cycle in possums, and the subsequent surveillance effort needed to confidently declare TB freedom post-control. The approach considered the costs of control and surveillance, as well as the potential costs of re-control resulting from false declaration of TB freedom. The required years of surveillance decreased with increasing numbers of possum lethal control operations but the overall time to declare TB freedom depended on additional factors, such as the probability of freedom from disease after control and the probability of success of mop-up control, i.e. retroactive culling following detection of persistent disease in the residual possum population. The total expected cost was also dependent on a number of factors, many of which had wide cost ranges, suggesting that an optimal strategy is unlikely to be singular and fixed, but will likely vary for each different area being considered. Our approach provides a simple framework that considers the known and potential costs of possum control and TB surveillance, enabling managers to optimise the balance between these two activities to achieve and prove eradication of a wildlife

  2. Navy superconductivity efforts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gubser, D. U.

    1990-04-01

    Both the new high temperature superconductors (HTS) and the low temperature superconductors (LTS) are important components of Navy's total plan to integrate superconductivity into field operational systems. Fundamental research is an important component of the total Navy program and focuses on the HTS materials. Power applications (ship propulsion, etc.) use LTS materials while space applications (MMW electronics, etc.) use HTS materials. The Space Experiment being conducted at NRL will involve space flight testing of HTS devices built by industry and will demonstrate the ability to engineer and space qualify these devices for systems use. Another important component of the Navy's effort is the development of Superconducting Quantum Interference Device (SQUID) magnetometers. This program will use LTS materials initially, but plans to implement HTS materials as soon as possible. Hybrid HTS/LTS systems are probable in many applications. A review of the status of the Navy's HTS materials research is given as well as an update on the Navy's development efforts in superconductivity, with particular emphasis on the related SDIO sponsored program on HTS applications.

  3. Navy superconductivity efforts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gubser, D. U.

    1990-01-01

    Both the new high temperature superconductors (HTS) and the low temperature superconductors (LTS) are important components of Navy's total plan to integrate superconductivity into field operational systems. Fundamental research is an important component of the total Navy program and focuses on the HTS materials. Power applications (ship propulsion, etc.) use LTS materials while space applications (MMW electronics, etc.) use HTS materials. The Space Experiment being conducted at NRL will involve space flight testing of HTS devices built by industry and will demonstrate the ability to engineer and space qualify these devices for systems use. Another important component of the Navy's effort is the development of Superconducting Quantum Interference Device (SQUID) magnetometers. This program will use LTS materials initially, but plans to implement HTS materials as soon as possible. Hybrid HTS/LTS systems are probable in many applications. A review of the status of the Navy's HTS materials research is given as well as an update on the Navy's development efforts in superconductivity, with particular emphasis on the related SDIO sponsored program on HTS applications.

  4. Effort, Wages, and the International Division of Labor

    OpenAIRE

    Edward E. Leamer

    1999-01-01

    This paper embeds variable effort into a traditional multi-sector model. Effort enters a production function like total-factor-productivity and on the assumption that effort doesn't affect capital depreciation, the capital-cost savings from high effort operations are passed on to workers. The labor market thus offers a set of contracts with higher wages compensating for higher effort. Among the implications of the model are: The capital savings from effort are greatest in the capital-intensiv...

  5. Pre-Service Teachers' Personal Epistemic Beliefs and the Beliefs They Assume Their Pupils to Have

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rebmann, Karin; Schloemer, Tobias; Berding, Florian; Luttenberger, Silke; Paechter, Manuela

    2015-01-01

    In their workaday life, teachers are faced with multiple complex tasks. How they carry out these tasks is also influenced by their epistemic beliefs and the beliefs they assume their pupils hold. In an empirical study, pre-service teachers' epistemic beliefs and those they assume of their pupils were investigated in the setting of teacher…

  6. Wetware, Hardware, or Software Incapacitation: Observational Methods to Determine When Autonomy Should Assume Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trujillo, Anna C.; Gregory, Irene M.

    2014-01-01

    Control-theoretic modeling of human operator's dynamic behavior in manual control tasks has a long, rich history. There has been significant work on techniques used to identify the pilot model of a given structure. This research attempts to go beyond pilot identification based on experimental data to develop a predictor of pilot behavior. Two methods for pre-dicting pilot stick input during changing aircraft dynamics and deducing changes in pilot behavior are presented This approach may also have the capability to detect a change in a subject due to workload, engagement, etc., or the effects of changes in vehicle dynamics on the pilot. With this ability to detect changes in piloting behavior, the possibility now exists to mediate human adverse behaviors, hardware failures, and software anomalies with autono-my that may ameliorate these undesirable effects. However, appropriate timing of when au-tonomy should assume control is dependent on criticality of actions to safety, sensitivity of methods to accurately detect these adverse changes, and effects of changes in levels of auto-mation of the system as a whole.

  7. Perceived distributed effort in team ball sports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beniscelli, Violeta; Tenenbaum, Gershon; Schinke, Robert Joel; Torregrosa, Miquel

    2014-01-01

    In this study, we explored the multifaceted concept of perceived mental and physical effort in team sport contexts where athletes must invest individual and shared efforts to reach a common goal. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with a convenience sample of 15 Catalan professional coaches (3 women and 12 men, 3 each from the following sports: volleyball, basketball, handball, soccer, and water polo) to gain their views of three perceived effort-related dimensions: physical, psychological, and tactical. From a theoretical thematic analysis, it was found that the perception of effort is closely related to how effort is distributed within the team. Moreover, coaches viewed physical effort in relation to the frequency and intensity of the players' involvement in the game. They identified psychological effort in situations where players pay attention to proper cues, and manage emotions under difficult circumstances. Tactical effort addressed the decision-making process of players and how they fulfilled their roles while taking into account the actions of their teammates and opponents. Based on these findings, a model of perceived distributed effort was developed, which delineates the elements that compose each of the aforementioned dimensions. Implications of perceived distributed effort in team coordination and shared mental models are discussed.

  8. Work experiences among nurses and physicians in the beginning of their professional careers - analyses using the effort-reward imbalance model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birgit, Enberg; Gunnevi, Sundelin; Ann, Öhman

    2013-03-01

    The aim of the study was to scrutinise how nurses and physicians, employed by the county councils in Sweden, assess their work environment in terms of effort and reward at the start of their career. The aim was also to estimate associations between work satisfaction and the potential outcomes from the effort-reward imbalance (ERI) questionnaire. The study group, 198 nurses and 242 physicians who graduated in 1999, is a subsample drawn from a national cross-sectional survey. Data were collected in the third year after graduation among the nurses and in the fourth year after graduation among registered physicians. The effort-reward imbalance questionnaire, together with a question on work satisfaction, was used to evaluate psychosocial factors at work. The results reveal that nurses scored higher on effort, lower on reward and experienced higher effort-reward imbalance, compared with physicians. Women scored higher on work-related overcommitment (WOC) compared with men. Among the physicians, logistic regression analysis revealed a statistically significant association between WOC and ERI, sex, effort and reward. Logistic regression analysis also revealed a statistically significant association between WOC and ERI and between WOC and effort among the nurses. Dissatisfaction with work was significantly higher among those who scored worst on all three ERI subscales (effort, reward and WOC) and also among those with the highest ERI ratios compared with the other respondents. In conclusion, to prevent future work-related health problems and work dissatisfaction among nurses and physicians in the beginning of their professional careers, signs of poor psychosocial working conditions have to been taken seriously. In future work-related stress research among healthcare personnel, gender-specific aspects of working conditions must be further highlighted to develop more gender-sensitive analyses.

  9. Cassini launch contingency effort

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Yale; O'Neil, John M.; McGrath, Brian E.; Heyler, Gene A.; Brenza, Pete T.

    2002-01-01

    On 15 October 1997 at 4:43 AM EDT, the Cassini spacecraft was successfully launched on a Titan IVB/Centaur on a mission to explore the Saturnian system. It carried three Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generators (RTGs) and 117 Light Weight Radioisotope Heater Units (LWRHUs). As part of the joint National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA)/U.S. Department of Energy (DoE) safety effort, a contingency plan was prepared to address the unlikely events of an accidental suborbital reentry or out-of-orbital reentry. The objective of the plan was to develop procedures to predict, within hours, the Earth impact footprints (EIFs) for the nuclear heat sources released during the atmospheric reentry. The footprint predictions would be used in subsequent notification and recovery efforts. As part of a multi-agency team, The Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory (JHU/APL) had the responsibility to predict the EIFs of the heat sources after a reentry, given the heat sources' release conditions from the main spacecraft. (No ablation burn-through of the heat sources' aeroshells was expected, as a result of earlier testing.) JHU/APL's other role was to predict the time of reentry from a potential orbital decay. The tools used were a three degree-of-freedom trajectory code, a database of aerodynamic coefficients for the heat sources, secure links to obtain tracking data, and a high fidelity special perturbation orbit integrator code to predict time of spacecraft reentry from orbital decay. In the weeks and days prior to launch, all the codes and procedures were exercised. Notional EIFs were derived from hypothetical reentry conditions. EIFs predicted by JHU/APL were compared to those by JPL and US SPACECOM, and were found to be in good agreement. The reentry time from orbital decay for a booster rocket for the Russian Progress M-36 freighter, a cargo ship for the Mir space station, was predicted to within 5 minutes more than two hours before reentry. For the

  10. Breckinridge Project, initial effort

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None

    1982-09-01

    Report III, Volume 1 contains those specifications numbered A through J, as follows: General Specifications (A); Specifications for Pressure Vessels (C); Specifications for Tanks (D); Specifications for Exchangers (E); Specifications for Fired Heaters (F); Specifications for Pumps and Drivers (G); and Specifications for Instrumentation (J). The standard specifications of Bechtel Petroleum Incorporated have been amended as necessary to reflect the specific requirements of the Breckinridge Project, and the more stringent specifications of Ashland Synthetic Fuels, Inc. These standard specifications are available to the Initial Effort (Phase Zero) work performed by all contractors and subcontractors. Report III, Volume 1 also contains the unique specifications prepared for Plants 8, 15, and 27. These specifications will be substantially reviewed during Phase I of the project, and modified as necessary for use during the engineering, procurement, and construction of this project.

  11. Mapping telemedicine efforts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kierkegaard, Patrick

    2015-01-01

    are being utilized? What medical disciplines are being addressed using telemedicine systems? Methods: All data was surveyed from the "Telemedicinsk Landkort", a newly created database designed to provide a comprehensive and systematic overview of all telemedicine technologies in Denmark. Results......Objectives: The aim of this study is to survey telemedicine services currently in operation across Denmark. The study specifically seeks to answer the following questions: What initiatives are deployed within the different regions? What are the motivations behind the projects? What technologies......: The results of this study suggest that a growing number of telemedicine initiatives are currently in operation across Denmark but that considerable variations existed in terms of regional efforts as the number of operational telemedicine projects varied from region to region. Conclusions: The results...

  12. Methane release from the East Siberian Arctic Shelf: The role of subsea permafrost and other controlling factors as inferred from decadal observational and modeling efforts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shakhova, N. E.

    2015-12-01

    Sustained methane (CH4) release from thawing Arctic permafrost to atmosphere may be a positive, major feedback to climate warming. East Siberian Arctic Shelf (ESAS) atmospheric CH4 venting was reported as on par with flux from Arctic tundra. Unlike release when ancient carbon in thawed on-land permafrost is mobilized, ESAS CH4 release is not determined by modern methanogenesis. Pre-formed CH4 largely stems from seabed deposits. Our investigation, including observational studies using hydrological, biogeochemical, geophysical, geo-electrical, microbiological, and isotopic methods, and modeling efforts to assess current subsea permafrost state and the ESAS' contribution to the regional CH4 budget, have clarified processes driving ESAS CH4 emissions. Subsea permafrost state is a major emission determinant; rates vary by 3-5 orders of magnitude. Outer ESAS CH4 emission rates, where subsea permafrost is predicted to be degraded due to long submergence by seawater, in places are similar to near-shore rates, where deep/open taliks can form due to combined heating effects of seawater, river runoff, geothermal flux, and pre-existing thermokarst. Progressive subsea permafrost thawing and decreasing ice extent could significantly increase ESAS CH4 emissions. Subsea permafrost drilling results reveal modern recently submerged subsea permafrost degradation rates, contradicting previous hypotheses that thousands of years required to form escape paths for permafrost-preserved gas. We used a decadal observational ESAS water column and atmospheric boundary layer (ABL) data set to define the minimum source strength required to explain observed seasonally-increased ABL CH4 concentration. Modeling results agree with estimates from in-situ sonar data. In <10 m shallow water ≤72% of CH4 remains in surfacing bubbles. Dissolved CH4 fate largely depends on 3 factors: dissolved CH4 water column turnover time, water column stability against vertical mixing, and turbulent diffusion and

  13. A Concept Analysis: Assuming Responsibility for Self-Care among Adolescents with Type 1 Diabetes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanna, Kathleen M.; Decker, Carol L.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose This concept analysis clarifies “assuming responsibility for self-care” by adolescents with type 1 diabetes. Methods Walker and Avant’s (2005) methodology guided the analysis. Results Assuming responsibility for self-care was defined as a process specific to diabetes within the context of development. It is daily, gradual, individualized to person, and unique to task. The goal is ownership that involves autonomy in behaviors and decision-making. Practice Implications Adolescents with type 1 diabetes need to be assessed for assuming responsibility for self-care. This achievement has implications for adolescents’ diabetes management, short- and long-term health, and psychosocial quality of life. PMID:20367781

  14. Voluntary versus Enforced Team Effort

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Keser

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available We present a model where each of two players chooses between remuneration based on either private or team effort. Although at least one of the players has the equilibrium strategy to choose private remuneration, we frequently observe both players to choose team remuneration in a series of laboratory experiments. This allows for high cooperation payoffs but also provides individual free-riding incentives. Due to significant cooperation, we observe that, in team remuneration, participants make higher profits than in private remuneration. We also observe that, when participants are not given the option of private remuneration, they cooperate significantly less.

  15. Artificially introduced aneuploid chromosomes assume a conserved position in colon cancer cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kundan Sengupta

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Chromosomal aneuploidy is a defining feature of carcinomas. For instance, in colon cancer, an additional copy of Chromosome 7 is not only observed in early pre-malignant polyps, but is faithfully maintained throughout progression to metastasis. These copy number changes show a positive correlation with average transcript levels of resident genes. An independent line of research has also established that specific chromosomes occupy a well conserved 3D position within the interphase nucleus. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We investigated whether cancer-specific aneuploid chromosomes assume a 3D-position similar to that of its endogenous homologues, which would suggest a possible correlation with transcriptional activity. Using 3D-FISH and confocal laser scanning microscopy, we show that Chromosomes 7, 18, or 19 introduced via microcell-mediated chromosome transfer into the parental diploid colon cancer cell line DLD-1 maintain their conserved position in the interphase nucleus. CONCLUSIONS: Our data is therefore consistent with the model that each chromosome has an associated zip code (possibly gene density that determines its nuclear localization. Whether the nuclear localization determines or is determined by the transcriptional activity of resident genes has yet to be ascertained.

  16. Assuming it is all about conditions : Framing a simulation model for complex, adaptive urban space

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yamu, Claudia; de Roo, Gert; Frankhauser, Pierre

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we explore the route beyond the conventional, linear attitude within planning and its rationality debate. We combine our theoretical reasoning with a multiscale approach and with fractal-like argumentation which results in a frame of conditions which is supported by the outline of a

  17. Preparing for Upheaval in North Korea: Assuming North Korean Regime Collapse

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-01

    defense agreement between North Korea and China but also pro-Chinese North Korean elites’ requests for Chinese help are likely to justify Chinese...PREPARING FOR UPHEAVAL IN NORTH KOREA : ASSUMING NORTH KOREAN REGIME COLLAPSE by Kwonwoo Kim December 2013 Thesis Advisor: Wade Huntley Second...REPORT TYPE AND DATES COVERED Master’s Thesis 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE PREPARING FOR UPHEAVAL IN NORTH KOREA : ASSUMING NORTH KOREAN REGIME COLLAPSE 5

  18. Swedish nuclear waste efforts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rydberg, J.

    1981-09-01

    After the introduction of a law prohibiting the start-up of any new nuclear power plant until the utility had shown that the waste produced by the plant could be taken care of in an absolutely safe way, the Swedish nuclear utilities in December 1976 embarked on the Nuclear Fuel Safety Project, which in November 1977 presented a first report, Handling of Spent Nuclear Fuel and Final Storage of Vitrified Waste (KBS-I), and in November 1978 a second report, Handling and Final Storage of Unreprocessed Spent Nuclear Fuel (KBS II). These summary reports were supported by 120 technical reports prepared by 450 experts. The project engaged 70 private and governmental institutions at a total cost of US $15 million. The KBS-I and KBS-II reports are summarized in this document, as are also continued waste research efforts carried out by KBS, SKBF, PRAV, ASEA and other Swedish organizations. The KBS reports describe all steps (except reprocessing) in handling chain from removal from a reactor of spent fuel elements until their radioactive waste products are finally disposed of, in canisters, in an underground granite depository. The KBS concept relies on engineered multibarrier systems in combination with final storage in thoroughly investigated stable geologic formations. This report also briefly describes other activities carried out by the nuclear industry, namely, the construction of a central storage facility for spent fuel elements (to be in operation by 1985), a repository for reactor waste (to be in operation by 1988), and an intermediate storage facility for vitrified high-level waste (to be in operation by 1990). The R and D activities are updated to September 1981.

  19. Using a Model of Team Collaboration to Investigate Inter-Organizational Collaboration During the Relief Effort of the January 2010 Haiti Earthquake

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-01

    whack, it’ll be tough. TKS SM 2. This question of security and the rumors of security and the racism behind the idea of security has been our major...of team collaboration is not likely at this point of diminishing returns. As such, further validation efforts are warranted. The March 2011 Japan

  20. Is Effort Praise Motivational? The Role of Beliefs in the Effort-Ability Relationship

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, Shui-fong; Yim, Pui-shan; Ng, Yee-lam

    2008-01-01

    In two studies, we investigated how beliefs in the effort-ability relationship moderated the effects of effort praise on student motivation. Study 1 showed that the more the participants believed that effort and ability were related positively (the positive rule) versus related negatively (the inverse rule), the more they would have positive…

  1. Towards a Concerted Effort

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Mette-Louise; Mouritsen, Tina; Montgomery, Edith

    2006-01-01

    This book contains a method model for the prevention of youth crime in Danish municipalities. The method model consists of instructions for conducting processual network meetings between traumatized refugee parents and the professional specialists working with their children on an intermunicipal...... and division of responsibilities between specialists and parents. The book is based on a method development project carried out in Karlebo municipality involving refugee families and welfare staff representatives in the municipality, the health system, and the police. The project was carried out with financial...

  2. The fallacies of concurrent climate policy efforts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radetzki, Marian

    2010-05-01

    Climate policy has assumed an extreme degree of urgency in the international debate in recent years. This article begins by taking a critical look at the scientific underpinnings of the efforts to stabilize the climate. It points to several serious question marks on the purported relationship between greenhouse gas emissions and global warming, and expresses distrust about claims of impending catastrophes related to rising sea levels, hurricanes, and spread of infectious disease. It then reviews the concurrent climate policy efforts and concludes that they are incoherent, misguided and unduly costly, and that they have so far had no perceptible impact on anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions. The exceedingly ambitious policy plans currently under preparation suffer from similar fallacies. For these reasons, but also because of the remaining scientific doubts and the exorbitant costs that have to be incurred, skepticism is expressed about the preparedness to implement the climate policy plans currently on the table.

  3. The Effects on Tsunami Hazard Assessment in Chile of Assuming Earthquake Scenarios with Spatially Uniform Slip

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvajal, Matías; Gubler, Alejandra

    2016-12-01

    We investigated the effect that along-dip slip distribution has on the near-shore tsunami amplitudes and on coastal land-level changes in the region of central Chile (29°-37°S). Here and all along the Chilean megathrust, the seismogenic zone extends beneath dry land, and thus, tsunami generation and propagation is limited to its seaward portion, where the sensitivity of the initial tsunami waveform to dislocation model inputs, such as slip distribution, is greater. We considered four distributions of earthquake slip in the dip direction, including a spatially uniform slip source and three others with typical bell-shaped slip patterns that differ in the depth range of slip concentration. We found that a uniform slip scenario predicts much lower tsunami amplitudes and generally less coastal subsidence than scenarios that assume bell-shaped distributions of slip. Although the finding that uniform slip scenarios underestimate tsunami amplitudes is not new, it has been largely ignored for tsunami hazard assessment in Chile. Our simulations results also suggest that uniform slip scenarios tend to predict later arrival times of the leading wave than bell-shaped sources. The time occurrence of the largest wave at a specific site is also dependent on how the slip is distributed in the dip direction; however, other factors, such as local bathymetric configurations and standing edge waves, are also expected to play a role. Arrival time differences are especially critical in Chile, where tsunamis arrive earlier than elsewhere. We believe that the results of this study will be useful to both public and private organizations for mapping tsunami hazard in coastal areas along the Chilean coast, and, therefore, help reduce the risk of loss and damage caused by future tsunamis.

  4. Assuming a Pharmacy Organization Leadership Position: A Guide for Pharmacy Leaders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shay, Blake; Weber, Robert J

    2015-11-01

    Important and influential pharmacy organization leadership positions, such as president, board member, or committee chair, are volunteer positions and require a commitment of personal and professional time. These positions provide excellent opportunities for leadership development, personal promotion, and advancement of the profession. In deciding to assume a leadership position, interested individuals must consider the impact on their personal and professional commitments and relationships, career planning, employer support, current and future department projects, employee support, and personal readiness. This article reviews these factors and also provides an assessment tool that leaders can use to determine their readiness to assume leadership positions. By using an assessment tool, pharmacy leaders can better understand their ability to assume an important and influential leadership position while achieving job and personal goals.

  5. Historical Carbon Dioxide Emissions Caused by Land-Use Changes are Possibly Larger than Assumed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arneth, A.; Sitch, S.; Pongratz, J.; Stocker, B. D.; Ciais, P.; Poulter, B.; Bayer, A. D.; Bondeau, A.; Calle, L.; Chini, L. P.; hide

    2017-01-01

    The terrestrial biosphere absorbs about 20% of fossil-fuel CO2 emissions. The overall magnitude of this sink is constrained by the difference between emissions, the rate of increase in atmospheric CO2 concentrations, and the ocean sink. However, the land sink is actually composed of two largely counteracting fluxes that are poorly quantified: fluxes from land-use change andCO2 uptake by terrestrial ecosystems. Dynamic global vegetation model simulations suggest that CO2 emissions from land-use change have been substantially underestimated because processes such as tree harvesting and land clearing from shifting cultivation have not been considered. As the overall terrestrial sink is constrained, a larger net flux as a result of land-use change implies that terrestrial uptake of CO2 is also larger, and that terrestrial ecosystems might have greater potential to sequester carbon in the future. Consequently, reforestation projects and efforts to avoid further deforestation could represent important mitigation pathways, with co-benefits for biodiversity. It is unclear whether a larger land carbon sink can be reconciled with our current understanding of terrestrial carbon cycling. Our possible underestimation of the historical residual terrestrial carbon sink adds further uncertainty to our capacity to predict the future of terrestrial carbon uptake and losses.

  6. Historical carbon dioxide emissions caused by land-use changes are possibly larger than assumed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arneth, A.; Sitch, S.; Pongratz, J.; Stocker, B. D.; Ciais, P.; Poulter, B.; Bayer, A. D.; Bondeau, A.; Calle, L.; Chini, L. P.; Gasser, T.; Fader, M.; Friedlingstein, P.; Kato, E.; Li, W.; Lindeskog, M.; Nabel, J. E. M. S.; Pugh, T. A. M.; Robertson, E.; Viovy, N.; Yue, C.; Zaehle, S.

    2017-01-01

    The terrestrial biosphere absorbs about 20% of fossil-fuel CO2 emissions. The overall magnitude of this sink is constrained by the difference between emissions, the rate of increase in atmospheric CO2 concentrations, and the ocean sink. However, the land sink is actually composed of two largely counteracting fluxes that are poorly quantified: fluxes from land-use change and CO2 uptake by terrestrial ecosystems. Dynamic global vegetation model simulations suggest that CO2 emissions from land-use change have been substantially underestimated because processes such as tree harvesting and land clearing from shifting cultivation have not been considered. As the overall terrestrial sink is constrained, a larger net flux as a result of land-use change implies that terrestrial uptake of CO2 is also larger, and that terrestrial ecosystems might have greater potential to sequester carbon in the future. Consequently, reforestation projects and efforts to avoid further deforestation could represent important mitigation pathways, with co-benefits for biodiversity. It is unclear whether a larger land carbon sink can be reconciled with our current understanding of terrestrial carbon cycling. Our possible underestimation of the historical residual terrestrial carbon sink adds further uncertainty to our capacity to predict the future of terrestrial carbon uptake and losses.

  7. A URI 4-NODE QUADRILATERAL ELEMENT BY ASSUMED STRAIN METHOD FOR NONLINEAR PROBLEMS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Jinyan; CHEN Jun; LI Minghui

    2004-01-01

    In this paper one-point quadrature "assumed strain" mixed element formulation based on the Hu-Washizu variational principle is presented. Special care is taken to avoid hourglass modes and volumetric locking as well as shear locking. The assumed strain fields are constructed so that those portions of the fields which lead to volumetric and shear locking phenomena are eliminated by projection, while the implementation of the proposed URI scheme is straightforward to suppress hourglass modes. In order to treat geometric nonlinearities simply and efficiently, a corotational coordinate system is used. Several numerical examples are given to demonstrate the performance of the suggested formulation, including nonlinear static/dynamic mechanical problems.

  8. Numerical Simulation of Wind Fields Calculated from Assumed Mode S Data Link Inputs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-01-01

    U) JAN 82 A CARRO . R C G0FF UNLSIIDFAA/CT-a/?, FAA-RD-81/100 N I31 uuuHu.. 2 DOT/FAA/RD81/lOO Numerical Simulation of Wind Fields Calculated From...Assumed Mode S Data Link Inputs Anthony Carro R. Craig Goff ~IIE~Prepared By FAA Technical Center Atlantic City Airport, N.J. 08405 January 1982 Final...FROM January 1982 ASSUMED MODE S DATA LINK INPUTS 6. Performing Organization Code 8. Performing Organization Report No. 7. Author{ s) Anthony Carro and K

  9. How Public High School Students Assume Cooperative Roles to Develop Their EFL Speaking Skills

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julie Natalie Parra Espinel

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available This study describes an investigation we carried out in order to identify how the specific roles that 7th grade public school students assumed when they worked cooperatively were related to their development of speaking skills in English. Data were gathered through interviews, field notes, students’ reflections and audio recordings. The findings revealed that students who were involved in cooperative activities chose and assumed roles taking into account preferences, skills and personality traits. In the same manner, when learners worked together, their roles were affected by each other and they put into practice some social strategies with the purpose of supporting their embryonic speaking development.

  10. Internal Structure and Mineralogy of Differentiated Asteroids Assuming Chondritic Bulk Composition: The Case of Vesta

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toplis, M. J.; Mizzon, H.; Forni, O.; Monnereau, M.; Prettyman, T. H.; McSween, H. Y.; McCoy, T. J.; Mittlefehldt, D. W.; DeSanctis, M. C.; Raymond, C. A.; Russell, C. T.

    2012-01-01

    Bulk composition (including oxygen content) is a primary control on the internal structure and mineralogy of differentiated asteroids. For example, oxidation state will affect core size, as well as Mg# and pyroxene content of the silicate mantle. The Howardite-Eucrite-Diogenite class of meteorites (HED) provide an interesting test-case of this idea, in particular in light of results of the Dawn mission which provide information on the size, density and differentiation state of Vesta, the parent body of the HED's. In this work we explore plausible bulk compositions of Vesta and use mass-balance and geochemical modelling to predict possible internal structures and crust/mantle compositions and mineralogies. Models are constrained to be consistent with known HED samples, but the approach has the potential to extend predictions to thermodynamically plausible rock types that are not necessarily present in the HED collection. Nine chondritic bulk compositions are considered (CI, CV, CO, CM, H, L, LL, EH, EL). For each, relative proportions and densities of the core, mantle, and crust are quantified. Considering that the basaltic crust has the composition of the primitive eucrite Juvinas and assuming that this crust is in thermodynamic equilibrium with the residual mantle, it is possible to calculate how much iron is in metallic form (in the core) and how much in oxidized form (in the mantle and crust) for a given bulk composition. Of the nine bulk compositions tested, solutions corresponding to CI and LL groups predicted a negative metal fraction and were not considered further. Solutions for enstatite chondrites imply significant oxidation relative to the starting materials and these solutions too are considered unlikely. For the remaining bulk compositions, the relative proportion of crust to bulk silicate is typically in the range 15 to 20% corresponding to crustal thicknesses of 15 to 20 km for a porosity-free Vesta-sized body. The mantle is predicted to be largely

  11. Effort rights-based management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Squires, Dale; Maunder, Mark; Allen, Robin

    2017-01-01

    Effort rights-based fisheries management (RBM) is less widely used than catch rights, whether for groups or individuals. Because RBM on catch or effort necessarily requires a total allowable catch (TAC) or total allowable effort (TAE), RBM is discussed in conjunction with issues in assessing fish...

  12. On the Estimation of Complex Speech DFT Coefficients Without Assuming Independent Real and Imaginary Parts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Erkelens, J.S.; Hendriks, R.C.; Heusdens, R.

    2008-01-01

    This letter considers the estimation of speech signals contaminated by additive noise in the discrete Fourier transform (DFT) domain. Existing complex-DFT estimators assume independency of the real and imaginary parts of the speech DFT coefficients, although this is not in line with measurements. In

  13. Application of the Perturbation Method for Determination of Eigenvalues and Eigenvectors for the Assumed Static Strain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Major Izabela

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the perturbation method which was used for computation of eigenvalues and eigenvectors for the assumed homogeneous state of strain in the hyperelastic Murnaghan material. The values calculated might be used for determination of the rate of propagation of unit vectors of wave amplitude for other non-linear

  14. ASSUMED OXYGEN-CONSUMPTION BASED ON CALCULATION FROM DYE DILUTION CARDIAC-OUTPUT - AN IMPROVED FORMULA

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    BERGSTRA, A; VANDIJK, RB; HILLEGE, HL; LIE, KI; MOOK, GA

    1995-01-01

    This study was performed because of observed differences between dye dilution cardiac output and the Fick cardiac output, calculated from estimated oxygen consumption according to LaFarge and Miettinen, and to find a better formula for assumed oxygen consumption. In 250 patients who underwent left a

  15. Partial sums of the M\\"obius function in arithmetic progressions assuming GRH

    CERN Document Server

    Halupczok, Karin

    2011-01-01

    We consider Mertens' function M(x,q,a) in arithmetic progression, Assuming the generalized Riemann hypothesis (GRH), we show an upper bound that is uniform for all moduli which are not too large. For the proof, a former method of K. Soundararajan is extended to L-series.

  16. Software Development Effort Estimation Techniques: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rshma Chawla

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The most important activity in software project management process is the estimation of Software development effort. The literature shows many algorithmic cost estimation models such as Boehm’s COCOMO, Albrecht's Function Point Analysis, Putnam’s SLIM, ESTIMACS, Soft computing based techniques etc., but each model have their own advantages and disadvantages in predicting development cost and effort. This is because of the availability of project data in the initial stages of development process is often incomplete, inconsistent and vague. The accurate effort estimation in software project management process is major challenge. This paper is a systematic reviewof classic and contemporary literature on software effort estimation. A systematicsearch is done across data sources to understand the issues and research problems ineffort estimation problem domain

  17. Attachment and Effortful Control: Relationships With Maladjustment in Early Adolescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heylen, Joke; Vasey, Michael W.; Dujardin, Adinda; Vandevivere, Eva; Braet, Caroline; De Raedt, Rudi; Bosmans, Guy

    2017-01-01

    Based on former research, it can be assumed that attachment relationships provide a context in which children develop both the effortful control (EC) capacity and the repertoire of responses to regulate distress. Both are important to understand children's (mal)adjustment. While the latter assumption has been supported in several studies, less is…

  18. Uniform convergence and a posteriori error estimation for assumed stress hybrid finite element methods

    CERN Document Server

    Yu, Guozhu; Carstensen, Carsten

    2011-01-01

    Assumed stress hybrid methods are known to improve the performance of standard displacement-based finite elements and are widely used in computational mechanics. The methods are based on the Hellinger-Reissner variational principle for the displacement and stress variables. This work analyzes two existing 4-node hybrid stress quadrilateral elements due to Pian and Sumihara [Int. J. Numer. Meth. Engng, 1984] and due to Xie and Zhou [Int. J. Numer. Meth. Engng, 2004], which behave robustly in numerical benchmark tests. For the finite elements, the isoparametric bilinear interpolation is used for the displacement approximation, while different piecewise-independent 5-parameter modes are employed for the stress approximation. We show that the two schemes are free from Poisson-locking, in the sense that the error bound in the a priori estimate is independent of the relevant Lame constant $\\lambda$. We also establish the equivalence of the methods to two assumed enhanced strain schemes. Finally, we derive reliable ...

  19. COUPLING OF ASSUMED STRESS FINITE ELEMENT AND BOUNDARY ELEMENT METHODS WITH STRESS-TRACTION EQUILIBRIUM

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GUZELBEY Ibrahim H.; KANBER Bahattin; AKPOLAT Abdullah

    2004-01-01

    In this study, the stress based finite element method is coupled with the boundary element method in two different ways. In the first one, the ordinary distribution matrix is used for coupling. In the second one, the stress traction equilibrium is used at the interface line of both regions as a new coupling process. This new coupling procedure is presented without a distribution matrix. Several case studies are solved for the validation of the developed coupling procedure. The results of case studies are compared with the distribution matrix coupling, displacement based finite element method, assumed stress finite element method, boundary element method, ANSYS and analytical results whenever possible. It is shown that the coupling of the stress traction equilibrium with assumed stress finite elements gives as accurate results as those by the distribution matrix coupling.

  20. Three-dimensional base isolation system for assumed FBR reactor building

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tokuda, N.; Kashiwazaki, A.; Omata, I. [Ishikawajima-Harima Heavy Industries Co. Ltd., Yokohama (Japan); Ohnaka, T. [Yokohama Rubber Co. Ltd., Hiratsuka (Japan)

    1995-12-31

    A three-dimensional base isolation system for an assumed FBR reactor building is proposed, where a horizontally isolated building by laminated rubber bearings is supported by an intermediate slab which is vertically isolated by using air springs of high pressure. From some fundamental investigations on the above system, it is concluded that the system can be sufficiently practical by using the current industrially available techniques. (author). 4 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab.

  1. Modeling the Impact of Simulated Educational Interventions on the Use and Abuse of Pharmaceutical Opioids in the United States: A Report on Initial Efforts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wakeland, Wayne; Nielsen, Alexandra; Schmidt, Teresa D.; McCarty, Dennis; Webster, Lynn R.; Fitzgerald, John; Haddox, J. David

    2013-01-01

    Three educational interventions were simulated in a system dynamics model of the medical use, trafficking, and nonmedical use of pharmaceutical opioids. The study relied on secondary data obtained in the literature for the period of 1995 to 2008 as well as expert panel recommendations regarding model parameters and structure. The behavior of the…

  2. Learning Environment and Student Effort

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopland, Arnt O.; Nyhus, Ole Henning

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to explore the relationship between satisfaction with learning environment and student effort, both in class and with homework assignments. Design/methodology/approach: The authors use data from a nationwide and compulsory survey to analyze the relationship between learning environment and student effort. The…

  3. Comparing nadir and limb observations of polar mesospheric clouds: The effect of the assumed particle size distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, Scott M.; Thomas, Gary E.; Hervig, Mark E.; Lumpe, Jerry D.; Randall, Cora E.; Carstens, Justin N.; Thurairajah, Brentha; Rusch, David W.; Russell, James M.; Gordley, Larry L.

    2015-05-01

    Nadir viewing observations of Polar Mesospheric Clouds (PMCs) from the Cloud Imaging and Particle Size (CIPS) instrument on the Aeronomy of Ice in the Mesosphere (AIM) spacecraft are compared to Common Volume (CV), limb-viewing observations by the Solar Occultation For Ice Experiment (SOFIE) also on AIM. CIPS makes multiple observations of PMC-scattered UV sunlight from a given location at a variety of geometries and uses the variation of the radiance with scattering angle to determine a cloud albedo, particle size distribution, and Ice Water Content (IWC). SOFIE uses IR solar occultation in 16 channels (0.3-5 μm) to obtain altitude profiles of ice properties including the particle size distribution and IWC in addition to temperature, water vapor abundance, and other environmental parameters. CIPS and SOFIE made CV observations from 2007 to 2009. In order to compare the CV observations from the two instruments, SOFIE observations are used to predict the mean PMC properties observed by CIPS. Initial agreement is poor with SOFIE predicting particle size distributions with systematically smaller mean radii and a factor of two more albedo and IWC than observed by CIPS. We show that significantly improved agreement is obtained if the PMC ice is assumed to contain 0.5% meteoric smoke by mass, in agreement with previous studies. We show that the comparison is further improved if an adjustment is made in the CIPS data processing regarding the removal of Rayleigh scattered sunlight below the clouds. This change has an effect on the CV PMC, but is negligible for most of the observed clouds outside the CV. Finally, we examine the role of the assumed shape of the ice particle size distribution. Both experiments nominally assume the shape is Gaussian with a width parameter roughly half of the mean radius. We analyze modeled ice particle distributions and show that, for the column integrated ice distribution, Log-normal and Exponential distributions better represent the range

  4. Direct and Indirect Effects of IQ, Parental Help, Effort, and Mathematics Self-Concept on Mathematics Achievement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maher Abu-Hilal

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available This study examined the structural relationships among cognitive constructs (intelligence and achievement and affective constructs (perceived parental help, effort and self-concept. It was proposed that the relationships are not invariant across gender. The sample consisted of 219 boys and 133 girls from elementary and preparatory public schools in Al Ain in the United Arab Emirates. Intelligence (IQ was measured by the Test of Non-verbal Intelligence (TONI and parental help was measured by 4-Likert-type items. Effort was measured by 4-Likert-type items. Self-concept (SC was measured by 8-Likert-type items taken from the SDQ I (Abu-Hilal, 2000. Mathematic Achievement was the scores of students in mathematics from school records. The structural model assumed that IQ would have an effect on parental help, effort, SC and achievement. Parental help would have an effect on effort, SC and achievement. Also, effort would have an effect on SC and achievement. Finally, SC would have an effect on achievement. The structural model was tested for invariance across gender. The measurement model proved to be invariant across gender and so was the structural model. The non-constrained model indicated that the structural relationships among the variables do vary according to gender. For example, boys benefited from parental help by exerting more effort while girls did not. Boys with high IQ exerted more effort than boys with low IQ; but girls with high IQ exerted the same amount of effort as girls with low IQ. The model explained 45% and 39% of the variance in math scores for boys and girls, respectively.

  5. Children's Everyday Learning by Assuming Responsibility for Others: Indigenous Practices as a Cultural Heritage Across Generations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández, David Lorente

    2015-01-01

    This chapter uses a comparative approach to examine the maintenance of Indigenous practices related with Learning by Observing and Pitching In in two generations--parent generation and current child generation--in a Central Mexican Nahua community. In spite of cultural changes and the increase of Western schooling experience, these practices persist, to different degrees, as a Nahua cultural heritage with close historical relations to the key value of cuidado (stewardship). The chapter explores how children learn the value of cuidado in a variety of everyday activities, which include assuming responsibility in many social situations, primarily in cultivating corn, raising and protecting domestic animals, health practices, and participating in family ceremonial life. The chapter focuses on three main points: (1) Cuidado (assuming responsibility for), in the Nahua socio-cultural context, refers to the concepts of protection and "raising" as well as fostering other beings, whether humans, plants, or animals, to reach their potential and fulfill their development. (2) Children learn cuidado by contributing to family endeavors: They develop attention and self-motivation; they are capable of responsible actions; and they are able to transform participation to achieve the status of a competent member of local society. (3) This collaborative participation allows children to continue the cultural tradition and to preserve a Nahua heritage at a deeper level in a community in which Nahuatl language and dress have disappeared, and people do not identify themselves as Indigenous.

  6. Perceiving others' personalities: examining the dimensionality, assumed similarity to the self, and stability of perceiver effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srivastava, Sanjay; Guglielmo, Steve; Beer, Jennifer S

    2010-03-01

    In interpersonal perception, "perceiver effects" are tendencies of perceivers to see other people in a particular way. Two studies of naturalistic interactions examined perceiver effects for personality traits: seeing a typical other as sympathetic or quarrelsome, responsible or careless, and so forth. Several basic questions were addressed. First, are perceiver effects organized as a global evaluative halo, or do perceptions of different traits vary in distinct ways? Second, does assumed similarity (as evidenced by self-perceiver correlations) reflect broad evaluative consistency or trait-specific content? Third, are perceiver effects a manifestation of stable beliefs about the generalized other, or do they form in specific contexts as group-specific stereotypes? Findings indicated that perceiver effects were better described by a differentiated, multidimensional structure with both trait-specific content and a higher order global evaluation factor. Assumed similarity was at least partially attributable to trait-specific content, not just to broad evaluative similarity between self and others. Perceiver effects were correlated with gender and attachment style, but in newly formed groups, they became more stable over time, suggesting that they grew dynamically as group stereotypes. Implications for the interpretation of perceiver effects and for research on personality assessment and psychopathology are discussed.

  7. Update on the Status of the On-Going Range Dependent Low Frequency Active Sonar Model Benchmarking Effort : From Cambridge to Kos [abstract

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zampolli, M.; Ainslie, M.A.

    2011-01-01

    In April 2010, a symposium in Memory of David Weston was held at Clare College in Cambridge (UK). International researchers from academia and research laboratories met to discuss two sets of test problems for sonar performance models, one aimed at understanding mammal echolocation sonar („Problem AI

  8. Preparing for upheaval in North Korea: assuming North Korean regime collapse

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Kwonwoo

    2013-01-01

    Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. This thesis will attempt to provide the optimal policy prescription for the Republic of Korea (ROK) Army on how to disarm, demobilize and reintegrate (DDR) the North Korean people in the case of their regime collapse. It is important to know how the likelihood of environment in which post-conflict reconstruction efforts will be implemented. The viability of any contingency plan should be assessed, based on an assumption about the envi...

  9. 42 CFR 137.292 - How do Self-Governance Tribes assume environmental responsibilities for construction projects...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false How do Self-Governance Tribes assume environmental...-Governance Tribes assume environmental responsibilities for construction projects under section 509 of the Act ? Self-Governance Tribes assume environmental responsibilities by: (a) Adopting a resolution...

  10. Rent seeking with efforts and bids

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haan, M.A.; Schoonbeek, L.

    2003-01-01

    We introduce bids in a rent-seeking contest. Players compete for a prize. Apart from exerting lobbying efforts, they also submit a bid which is payable only if they win the prize. We show that our model has a unique Nash equilibrium in pure strategies, in which each active player submits the same bi

  11. Net benefits of wildfire prevention education efforts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeffrey P. Prestemon; David T. Butry; Karen L. Abt; Ronda. Sutphen

    2010-01-01

    Wildfire prevention education efforts involve a variety of methods, including airing public service announcements, distributing brochures, and making presentations, which are intended to reduce the occurrence of certain kinds of wildfires. A Poisson model of preventable Florida wildfires from 2002 to 2007 by fire management region was developed. Controlling for...

  12. Nash Equilibria in Shared Effort Games

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Polevoy, G.; Trajanovski, S.; De Weerdt, M.M.

    2014-01-01

    Shared effort games model people's contribution to projects and sharing the obtained profits. Those games generalize both public projects like writing for Wikipedia, where everybody shares the resulting benefits, and all-pay auctions such as contests and political campaigns, where only the winner ob

  13. Analysis of an object assumed to contain “Red Mercury”

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obhođaš, Jasmina; Sudac, Davorin; Blagus, Saša; Valković, Vladivoj

    2007-08-01

    After having been informed about an attempt of illicit trafficking, the Organized Crime Division of the Zagreb Police Authority confiscated in November 2003 a hand size metal cylinder suspected to contain "Red Mercury" (RM). The sample assumed to contain RM was analyzed with two nondestructive analytical methods in order to obtain information about the nature of the investigated object, namely, activation analysis with 14.1 MeV neutrons and EDXRF analysis. The activation analysis with 14.1 MeV neutrons showed that the container and its contents were characterized by the following chemical elements: Hg, Fe, Cr and Ni. By using EDXRF analysis, it was shown that the elements Fe, Cr and Ni were constituents of the capsule. Therefore, it was concluded that these three elements were present in the capsule only, while the content of the unknown material was Hg. Antimony as a hypothetical component of red mercury was not detected.

  14. Monitoring, Operational Manager Efforts and Inventory Policy

    OpenAIRE

    Alfaro, J A; Tribó, J. (Josep)

    2003-01-01

    Operations managers are becoming more important in modern corporations. They do not only care on firms’ inventory management but also they are involved in firms’ strategic decisions. Within this setting we ask about the consequences in the inventory policy of this new role undertaken by these managers. To do so, we develop a model where a firm’s Operations Manager can devote some efforts to develop non-inventory related activities. These efforts, although non-verifiable, may be known with a c...

  15. Optimal Work Effort and Monitoring Cost

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamara Todorova

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Using a simple job market equilibrium model we study the relationship between work effort and monitoring by firms. Some other determinants of work effort investigated include the educational level of the worker, the minimum or start-up salary as well as the economic conjuncture. As common logic dictates, optimal work effort increases with the amount of monitoring done by the employer. Quite contrary to common logic, though, we find that at the optimum employers observe and control good workers much more stringently and meticulously than poor workers. This is because under profit maximization most of the employer’s profit and surplus result from good workers and he risks losing a large amount of profit by not observing those. Managers monitor strictly more productive workers, fast learners and those starting at a higher autonomous level of monitoring, as those contribute more substantially to the firm’s profit.

  16. Dopamine, behavioral economics, and effort

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John D Salamone

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. There are numerous problems with the hypothesis that brain dopamine (DA systems, particularly in the nucleus accumbens, directly mediate the rewarding or primary motivational characteristics of natural stimuli such as food. Research and theory related to the functions of mesolimbic DA are undergoing a substantial conceptual restructuring, with the traditional emphasis on hedonia and primary reward yielding to other concepts and lines of inquiry. The present review is focused upon the involvement of nucleus accumbens DA in behavioral activation and effort-related processes. Viewed from the framework of behavioral economics, the effects of accumbens DA depletions and antagonism on food-reinforced behavior are highly dependent upon the work requirements of the instrumental task, and DA depleted rats are more sensitive to increases in response costs (i.e., ratio requirements. Moreover, interference with accumbens DA transmission exerts a powerful influence over effort-related choice behavior. Rats with accumbens DA depletions or antagonism reallocate their instrumental behavior away from food-reinforced tasks that have high response requirements, and instead these rats select a less-effortful type of food-seeking behavior. Nucleus accumbens DA and adenosine interact in the regulation of effort-related functions, and other brain structures (anterior cingulate cortex, amygdala, ventral pallidum also are involved. Studies of the brain systems regulating effort-based processes may have implications for understanding drug abuse, as well as energy-related disorders such as psychomotor slowing, fatigue or anergia in depression and other neurological disorders.

  17. Dopamine, behavioral economics, and effort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salamone, John D; Correa, Merce; Farrar, Andrew M; Nunes, Eric J; Pardo, Marta

    2009-01-01

    There are numerous problems with the hypothesis that brain dopamine (DA) systems, particularly in the nucleus accumbens, directly mediate the rewarding or primary motivational characteristics of natural stimuli such as food. Research and theory related to the functions of mesolimbic DA are undergoing a substantial conceptual restructuring, with the traditional emphasis on hedonia and primary reward yielding to other concepts and lines of inquiry. The present review is focused upon the involvement of nucleus accumbens DA in behavioral activation and effort-related processes. Viewed from the framework of behavioral economics, the effects of accumbens DA depletions and antagonism on food-reinforced behavior are highly dependent upon the work requirements of the instrumental task, and DA depleted rats are more sensitive to increases in response costs (i.e., ratio requirements). Moreover, interference with accumbens DA transmission exerts a powerful influence over effort-related choice behavior. Rats with accumbens DA depletions or antagonism reallocate their instrumental behavior away from food-reinforced tasks that have high response requirements, and instead these rats select a less-effortful type of food-seeking behavior. Nucleus accumbens DA and adenosine interact in the regulation of effort-related functions, and other brain structures (anterior cingulate cortex, amygdala, ventral pallidum) also are involved. Studies of the brain systems regulating effort-based processes may have implications for understanding drug abuse, as well as energy-related disorders such as psychomotor slowing, fatigue or anergia in depression and other neurological disorders.

  18. Vocal effort and voice handicap among teachers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sampaio, Márcio Cardoso; dos Reis, Eduardo José Farias Borges; Carvalho, Fernando Martins; Porto, Lauro Antonio; Araújo, Tânia Maria

    2012-11-01

    The relationship between voice handicap and professional vocal effort was investigated among teachers in a cross-sectional study of census nature on 4496 teachers within the public elementary education network in Salvador, Bahia, Brazil. Voice handicap (the outcome of interest) was evaluated using the Voice Handicap Index 10. The main exposure, the lifetime vocal effort index, was obtained as the product of the number of years working as a teacher multiplied by the mean weekly working hours. The prevalence of voice handicap was 28.8% among teachers with high professional vocal effort and 21.3% among those with acceptable vocal effort, thus yielding a crude prevalence ratio (PR) of 1.36 (95% confidence interval [CI]=1.14-1.61). In the final logistic model, the prevalence of voice handicap was statistically associated with the professional vocal effort index (PR=1.47; 95% CI=1.19-1.82), adjusted according to sex, microphone availability in the classroom, excessive noise, pressure from the school management, heartburn, and rhinitis.

  19. The dynamic system of parental work of care for children with special health care needs: A conceptual model to guide quality improvement efforts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hexem Kari R

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The work of care for parents of children with complex special health care needs may be increasing, while excessive work demands may erode the quality of care. We sought to summarize knowledge and develop a general conceptual model of the work of care. Methods Systematic review of peer-reviewed journal articles that focused on parents of children with special health care needs and addressed factors related to the physical and emotional work of providing care for these children. From the large pool of eligible articles, we selected articles in a randomized sequence, using qualitative techniques to identify the conceptual components of the work of care and their relationship to the family system. Results The work of care for a child with special health care needs occurs within a dynamic system that comprises 5 core components: (1 performance of tasks such as monitoring symptoms or administering treatments, (2 the occurrence of various events and the pursuit of valued outcomes regarding the child's physical health, the parent's mental health, or other attributes of the child or family, (3 operating with available resources and within certain constraints (4 over the passage of time, (5 while mentally representing or depicting the ever-changing situation and detecting possible problems and opportunities. These components interact, some with simple cause-effect relationships and others with more complex interdependencies. Conclusions The work of care affecting the health of children with special health care needs and their families can best be understood, studied, and managed as a multilevel complex system.

  20. Evaluating HIV prevention efforts using semiparametric regression models: results from a large cohort of women participating in an HIV prevention trial from KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gita Ramjee

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To describe and quantify the differences in risk behaviours, HIV prevalence and incidence rates by birth cohorts among a group of women in Durban, South Africa. Methods: Cross-sectional and prospective cohort analyses were conducted for women who consented to be screened and enrolled in an HIV prevention trial. Demographic and sexual behaviours were described by five-year birth cohorts. Semiparametric regression models were used to investigate the bivariate associations between these factors and the birth cohorts. HIV seroconversion rates were also estimated by birth cohorts. Results: The prevalence of HIV-1 infection at the screening visit was lowest (20.0% among the oldest (born before 1960 cohorts, while the highest prevalence was observed among those born between 1975 and 79. Level of education increased across the birth cohorts while the median age at first sexual experience declined among those born after 1975 compared to those born before 1975. Only 33.03% of the oldest group reported ever using a condom while engaging in vaginal sex compared to 73.68% in the youngest group; however, HIV and other sexually transmitted infection (STI incidence rates were significantly higher among younger women compared to older women. Conclusions: These findings clearly suggest that demographic and sexual risk behaviours are differentially related to the birth cohorts. Significantly high HIV and STI incidence rates were observed among the younger group. Although the level of education increased, early age at sexual debut was more common among the younger group. The continuing increase in HIV and STI incidence rates among the later cohorts suggests that the future trajectory of the epidemic will be dependent on the infection patterns in younger birth cohorts.

  1. ASME Code Efforts Supporting HTGRs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D.K. Morton

    2011-09-01

    In 1999, an international collaborative initiative for the development of advanced (Generation IV) reactors was started. The idea behind this effort was to bring nuclear energy closer to the needs of sustainability, to increase proliferation resistance, and to support concepts able to produce energy (both electricity and process heat) at competitive costs. The U.S. Department of Energy has supported this effort by pursuing the development of the Next Generation Nuclear Plant, a high temperature gas-cooled reactor. This support has included research and development of pertinent data, initial regulatory discussions, and engineering support of various codes and standards development. This report discusses the various applicable American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) codes and standards that are being developed to support these high temperature gascooled reactors during construction and operation. ASME is aggressively pursuing these codes and standards to support an international effort to build the next generation of advanced reactors so that all can benefit.

  2. ASME Code Efforts Supporting HTGRs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D.K. Morton

    2010-09-01

    In 1999, an international collaborative initiative for the development of advanced (Generation IV) reactors was started. The idea behind this effort was to bring nuclear energy closer to the needs of sustainability, to increase proliferation resistance, and to support concepts able to produce energy (both electricity and process heat) at competitive costs. The U.S. Department of Energy has supported this effort by pursuing the development of the Next Generation Nuclear Plant, a high temperature gas-cooled reactor. This support has included research and development of pertinent data, initial regulatory discussions, and engineering support of various codes and standards development. This report discusses the various applicable American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) codes and standards that are being developed to support these high temperature gascooled reactors during construction and operation. ASME is aggressively pursuing these codes and standards to support an international effort to build the next generation of advanced reactors so that all can benefit.

  3. ASME Code Efforts Supporting HTGRs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D.K. Morton

    2012-09-01

    In 1999, an international collaborative initiative for the development of advanced (Generation IV) reactors was started. The idea behind this effort was to bring nuclear energy closer to the needs of sustainability, to increase proliferation resistance, and to support concepts able to produce energy (both electricity and process heat) at competitive costs. The U.S. Department of Energy has supported this effort by pursuing the development of the Next Generation Nuclear Plant, a high temperature gas-cooled reactor. This support has included research and development of pertinent data, initial regulatory discussions, and engineering support of various codes and standards development. This report discusses the various applicable American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) codes and standards that are being developed to support these high temperature gascooled reactors during construction and operation. ASME is aggressively pursuing these codes and standards to support an international effort to build the next generation of advanced reactors so that all can benefit.

  4. Effort problem of chemical pipelines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Okrajni, J.; Ciesla, M.; Mutwil, K. [Silesian Technical University, Katowice (Poland)

    1998-12-31

    The problem of the technical state assessment of the chemical pipelines working under mechanical and thermal loading has been shown in the paper. The pipelines effort after the long time operating period has been analysed. Material geometrical and loading conditions of the crack initiation and crack growth process in the chosen object has been discussed. Areas of the maximal effort have been determined. The material structure charges after the long time operating period have been described. Mechanisms of the crack initiation and crack growth in the pipeline elements have been analysed and mutual relations between the chemical and mechanical influences have been shown. (orig.) 16 refs.

  5. Automated Assume-Guarantee Reasoning for Omega-Regular Systems and Specifications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaki, Sagar; Gurfinkel, Arie

    2010-01-01

    We develop a learning-based automated Assume-Guarantee (AG) reasoning framework for verifying omega-regular properties of concurrent systems. We study the applicability of non-circular (AGNC) and circular (AG-C) AG proof rules in the context of systems with infinite behaviors. In particular, we show that AG-NC is incomplete when assumptions are restricted to strictly infinite behaviors, while AG-C remains complete. We present a general formalization, called LAG, of the learning based automated AG paradigm. We show how existing approaches for automated AG reasoning are special instances of LAG.We develop two learning algorithms for a class of systems, called infinite regular systems, that combine finite and infinite behaviors. We show that for infinity-regular systems, both AG-NC and AG-C are sound and complete. Finally, we show how to instantiate LAG to do automated AG reasoning for infinite regular, and omega-regular, systems using both AG-NC and AG-C as proof rules

  6. Cardiovascular Responses during Head-Down Crooked Kneeling Position Assumed in Muslim Prayers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adamu Ahmad Rufa’i

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Movement dysfunction may be expressed in terms of symptoms experienced in non-physiological postures, and head-down crooked kneeling (HDCK is a posture frequently assumed by Muslims during prayer activities. The purpose of this study was to investigate the cardiovascular responses in the HDCK posture. Methods: Seventy healthy volunteers, comprising 35 males and 35 females, participated in the study. Cardiovascular parameters of blood pressure and pulse rate of the participants were measured in rested sitting position and then at one and three minutes into the HDCK posture. Two-way ANOVA was used to determine the differences between cardiovascular responses at rest and in the HDCK posture, and the Student t test was utilized to determine gender difference in cardiovascular responses at rest and at one and three minutes into the HDCK posture. Results: The study showed a significant decrease in systolic and diastolic blood pressures at one minute into the HDCK posture and an increase in pulse rate at one and three minutes into the HDCK posture, as compared to the resting values. Rate pressure product also rose at one minute into the HDCK posture, whereas pulse pressure increased at one and three minutes into the HDCK posture, as compared with the resting values. However, no significant change was observed in the mean arterial pressure values. Conclusion: The findings from this study suggest that no adverse cardiovascular event can be expected to occur for the normal duration of this posture during Muslim prayer activities.

  7. Cardiovascular Responses during Head-Down Crooked Kneeling Position Assumed in Muslim Prayers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad Rufa’i, Adamu; Hamu Aliyu, Hadeezah; Yunoos Oyeyemi, Adetoyeje; Lukman Oyeyemi, Adewale

    2013-01-01

    Background: Movement dysfunction may be expressed in terms of symptoms experienced in non-physiological postures, and head-down crooked kneeling (HDCK) is a posture frequently assumed by Muslims during prayer activities. The purpose of this study was to investigate the cardiovascular responses in the HDCK posture. Methods: Seventy healthy volunteers, comprising 35 males and 35 females, participated in the study. Cardiovascular parameters of blood pressure and pulse rate of the participants were measured in rested sitting position and then at one and three minutes into the HDCK posture. Two-way ANOVA was used to determine the differences between cardiovascular responses at rest and in the HDCK posture, and the Student t test was utilized to determine gender difference in cardiovascular responses at rest and at one and three minutes into the HDCK posture. Results: The study showed a significant decrease in systolic and diastolic blood pressures at one minute into the HDCK posture and an increase in pulse rate at one and three minutes into the HDCK posture, as compared to the resting values. Rate pressure product also rose at one minute into the HDCK posture, whereas pulse pressure increased at one and three minutes into the HDCK posture, as compared with the resting values. However, no significant change was observed in the mean arterial pressure values. Conclusion: The findings from this study suggest that no adverse cardiovascular event can be expected to occur for the normal duration of this posture during Muslim prayer activities. PMID:24031108

  8. The AstroHDF Effort

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Masters; A. Alexov; M. Folk; R. Hanisch; G. Heber; M. Wise

    2011-01-01

    Here we update the astronomy community on our effort to deal with the demands of ever-increasing astronomical data size and complexity, using the Hierarchical Data Format, version 5 (HDF5) format (Wise et al. 2011). NRAO, LOFAR and VAO have joined forces with The HDF Group to write an NSF grant, req

  9. Analysis of effort of carbides and austenite in austenitic cast steel cooled violently

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Tuleja

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This work presents the analysis the effort of phases which are present in the austenitic cast steel Fe-Ni-Cr-C, applied for elements of technological instrumentation for carburising furnaces. The reduced stresses σred in the carbides and the austenitic matrix were determined in accordance with the assumed hypotheses of effort, on the basis of the structural stresses σx, σy, σz and σ1, σ2, σ3 calculated by the finite element method for two model location cases of the carbides towards the cast steel surface. The hypotheses referred to the crack condition were applied to evaluate the elastic carbide efforts, while for the elastic-plastic austenitic matrix - the hypotheses referred to the plasticity condition were used. There were compared the reduced stresses σred determined in accordance with various hypotheses and the correctness of their applying. It was demonstrated on the basis of the executed analysis of the effort that the carbides are destroyed only when they are not entirely surrounded by the austenitic matrix.

  10. Engineering evaluation of alternatives: Managing the assumed leak from single-shell Tank 241-T-101

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brevick, C.H. [ICF Kaiser Hanford Co., Richland, WA (United States); Jenkins, C. [Westinghouse Hanford Co., Richland, WA (United States)

    1996-02-01

    At mid-year 1992, the liquid level gage for Tank 241-T-101 indicated that 6,000 to 9,000 gal had leaked. Because of the liquid level anomaly, Tank 241-T-101 was declared an assumed leaker on October 4, 1992. SSTs liquid level gages have been historically unreliable. False readings can occur because of instrument failures, floating salt cake, and salt encrustation. Gages frequently self-correct and tanks show no indication of leak. Tank levels cannot be visually inspected and verified because of high radiation fields. The gage in Tank 241-T-101 has largely corrected itself since the mid-year 1992 reading. Therefore, doubt exists that a leak has occurred, or that the magnitude of the leak poses any immediate environmental threat. While reluctance exists to use valuable DST space unnecessarily, there is a large safety and economic incentive to prevent or mitigate release of tank liquid waste into the surrounding environment. During the assessment of the significance of the Tank 241-T-101 liquid level gage readings, Washington State Department of Ecology determined that Westinghouse Hanford Company was not in compliance with regulatory requirements, and directed transfer of the Tank 241-T-101 liquid contents into a DST. Meanwhile, DOE directed WHC to examine reasonable alternatives/options for safe interim management of Tank 241-T-101 wastes before taking action. The five alternatives that could be used to manage waste from a leaking SST are: (1) No-Action, (2) In-Tank Stabilization, (3) External Tank Stabilization, (4) Liquid Retrieval, and (5) Total Retrieval. The findings of these examinations are reported in this study.

  11. The Telemetry Agile Manufacturing Effort

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, K.D.

    1995-01-01

    The Telemetry Agile Manufacturing Effort (TAME) is an agile enterprising demonstration sponsored by the US Department of Energy (DOE). The project experimented with new approaches to product realization and assessed their impacts on performance, cost, flow time, and agility. The purpose of the project was to design the electrical and mechanical features of an integrated telemetry processor, establish the manufacturing processes, and produce an initial production lot of two to six units. This paper outlines the major methodologies utilized by the TAME, describes the accomplishments that can be attributed to each methodology, and finally, examines the lessons learned and explores the opportunities for improvement associated with the overall effort. The areas for improvement are discussed relative to an ideal vision of the future for agile enterprises. By the end of the experiment, the TAME reduced production flow time by approximately 50% and life cycle cost by more than 30%. Product performance was improved compared with conventional DOE production approaches.

  12. Effort responses to suboptimal reward cues are related to striatal dopaminergic functioning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pas, P.; Custers, R.; Bijleveld, E.H.; Vink, M.

    2014-01-01

    Reward cues have been found to increase the investment of effort in tasks even when cues are presented suboptimally (i.e. very briefly), making them hard to consciously detect. Such effort responses to suboptimal reward cues are assumed to rely mainly on the mesolimbic dopamine system, including the

  13. Overconfidence, Effort, and Investment (Revised version of CentER DP 2013-035)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pikulina, E.S.; Renneboog, L.D.R.; Tobler, P.N.

    2014-01-01

    A positive relation between confidence and effort/investment provision has been theoretically justified and practically assumed in the literature, but has not been thoroughly investigated. We test and confirm this positive relation between direct measures of confidence and choice of effort or invest

  14. Estimating genetic covariance functions assuming a parametric correlation structure for environmental effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meyer Karin

    2001-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract A random regression model for the analysis of "repeated" records in animal breeding is described which combines a random regression approach for additive genetic and other random effects with the assumption of a parametric correlation structure for within animal covariances. Both stationary and non-stationary correlation models involving a small number of parameters are considered. Heterogeneity in within animal variances is modelled through polynomial variance functions. Estimation of parameters describing the dispersion structure of such model by restricted maximum likelihood via an "average information" algorithm is outlined. An application to mature weight records of beef cow is given, and results are contrasted to those from analyses fitting sets of random regression coefficients for permanent environmental effects.

  15. 25 CFR 224.64 - How may a tribe assume management of development of different types of energy resources?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Requirements § 224.64 How may a tribe assume management of development of different types of energy resources... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false How may a tribe assume management of development of different types of energy resources? 224.64 Section 224.64 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT...

  16. Validation of Fick cardiac output calculated with assumed oxygen consumption : a study of cardiac output during epoprostenol

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bergstra, A; van den Heuvel, A F M; Zijlstra, F; Berger, R M F; Mook, G A; van Veldhuisen, D J

    2004-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To test the validity of using assumed oxygen consumption for Fick cardiac output during administration of epoprostenol. METHODS: In 24 consecutive patients Fick cardiac output calculated with assumed oxygen consumption according to LaFarge and Miettinen (COLM) and according to Bergstra et

  17. 42 CFR 137.291 - May Self-Governance Tribes carry out construction projects without assuming these Federal...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ...-Governance Tribes carry out construction projects without assuming these Federal environmental... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false May Self-Governance Tribes carry out construction projects without assuming these Federal environmental responsibilities? 137.291 Section 137.291...

  18. Nonlinear delay difference equations for housing dynamics assuming heterogeneous backward-looking expectations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LEUNG Andrew Y.T.; XU Jia-na; TSUI Wing Shum

    2007-01-01

    China's first interest rate hike during the last decade, aiming to cool down the seemingly overheated real estate market, had aroused more caution on housing market. This paper aims to analyze the housing price dynamics after an unanticipated economic shock, which was believed to have similar properties with the backward-looking expectation models. The analysis of the housing price dynamics is based on the cobweb model with a simple user cost affected demand and a stock-flow supply assumption. Several nthorder delay rational difference equations are set up to illustrate the properties of housing dynamics phenomena, such as the equilibrium or oscillations, overshoot or undershoot and convergent or divergent, for a kind of heterogeneous backward-looking expectation models. The results show that demand elasticity is less than supply elasticity is not a necessary condition for the occurrence of oscillation. The housing price dynamics will vary substantially with the heterogeneous backward-looking expectation assumption and some other endogenous factors.

  19. The impact of assumed error variances on surface soil moisture and snow depth hydrologic data assimilation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Accurate knowledge of antecedent soil moisture and snow depth conditions is often important for obtaining reliable hydrological simulations of stream flow. Data assimilation (DA) methods can be used to integrate remotely-sensed (RS) soil moisture and snow depth retrievals into a hydrology model and...

  20. Design-based Sample and Probability Law-Assumed Sample: Their Role in Scientific Investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ojeda, Mario Miguel; Sahai, Hardeo

    2002-01-01

    Discusses some key statistical concepts in probabilistic and non-probabilistic sampling to provide an overview for understanding the inference process. Suggests a statistical model constituting the basis of statistical inference and provides a brief review of the finite population descriptive inference and a quota sampling inferential theory.…

  1. Study of photometric phase curve: assuming a cellinoid ellipsoid shape for asteroid (106) Dione

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yi-Bo; Wang, Xiao-Bin; Pray, Donald P.; Wang, Ao

    2017-09-01

    We carried out new photometric observations of asteroid (106) Dione at three apparitions (2004, 2012 and 2015) to understand its basic physical properties. Based on a new brightness model, new photometric observational data and published data of (106) Dione were analyzed to characterize the morphology of Dione’s photometric phase curve. In this brightness model, a cellinoid ellipsoid shape and three-parameter (H,{G}1,{G}2) magnitude phase function system were involved. Such a model can not only solve the phase function system parameters of (106) Dione by considering an asymmetric shape of an asteroid, but also can be applied to more asteroids, especially those without enough photometric data to solve the convex shape. Using a Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) method, Dione’s absolute magnitude of H={7.66}-0.03+0.03 mag, and phase function parameters {G}1={0.682}-0.077+0.077 and {G}2={0.081}-0.042+0.042 were obtained. Simultaneously, Dione’s simplistic shape, orientation of pole and rotation period were also determined preliminarily.

  2. Activation of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor by carbaryl: Computational evidence of the ability of carbaryl to assume a planar conformation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casado, Susana; Alonso, Mercedes; Herradón, Bernardo; Tarazona, José V; Navas, José

    2006-12-01

    It has been accepted that aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) ligands are compounds with two or more aromatic rings in a coplanar conformation. Although general agreement exists that carbaryl is able to activate the AhR, it has been proposed that such activation could occur through alternative pathways without ligand binding. This idea was supported by studies showing a planar conformation of carbaryl as unlikely. The objective of the present work was to clarify the process of AhR activation by carbaryl. In rat H4IIE cells permanently transfected with a luciferase gene under the indirect control of AhR, incubation with carbaryl led to an increase of luminescence. Ligand binding to the AhR was studied by means of a cell-free in vitro system in which the activation of AhR can occur only by ligand binding. In this system, exposure to carbaryl also led to activation of AhR. These results were similar to those obtained with the AhR model ligand beta-naphthoflavone, although this compound exhibited higher potency than carbaryl in both assays. By means of computational modeling (molecular mechanics and quantum chemical calculations), the structural characteristics and electrostatic properties of carbaryl were described in detail, and it was observed that the substituent at C-1 and the naphthyl ring were not coplanar. Assuming that carbaryl would interact with the AhR through a hydrogen bond, this interaction was studied computationally using hydrogen fluoride as a model H-bond donor. Under this situation, the stabilization energy of the carbaryl molecule would permit it to adopt a planar conformation. These results are in accordance with the mechanism traditionally accepted for AhR activation: Binding of ligands in a planar conformation.

  3. APS Education and Diversity Efforts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prestridge, Katherine; Hodapp, Theodore

    2015-11-01

    American Physical Society (APS) has a wide range of education and diversity programs and activities, including programs that improve physics education, increase diversity, provide outreach to the public, and impact public policy. We present the latest programs spearheaded by the Committee on the Status of Women in Physics (CSWP), with highlights from other diversity and education efforts. The CSWP is working to increase the fraction of women in physics, understand and implement solutions for gender-specific issues, enhance professional development opportunities for women in physics, and remedy issues that impact gender inequality in physics. The Conferences for Undergraduate Women in Physics, Professional Skills Development Workshops, and our new Professional Skills program for students and postdocs are all working towards meeting these goals. The CSWP also has site visit and conversation visit programs, where department chairs request that the APS assess the climate for women in their departments or facilitate climate discussions. APS also has two significant programs to increase participation by underrepresented minorities (URM). The newest program, the APS National Mentoring Community, is working to provide mentoring to URM undergraduates, and the APS Bridge Program is an established effort that is dramatically increasing the number of URM PhDs in physics.

  4. Job Satisfaction, Effort, and Performance: A Reasoned Action Perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Icek Ajzen

    2011-01-01

    In this article the author takes issue with the recurrent reliance on job satisfaction to explain job-related effort and performance.  The disappointing findings in this tradition are explained by lack of compatibility between job satisfaction–-a very broad attitude–-and the more specific effort and performance criteria.  Moreover, attempts to apply the expectancy-value model of attitude to explore the determinants of effort and performance suffer from reliance on unrepresentative sets of bel...

  5. How the Assumed Size Distribution of Dust Minerals Affects the Predicted Ice Forming Nuclei

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perlwitz, Jan P.; Fridlind, Ann M.; Garcia-Pando, Carlos Perez; Miller, Ron L.; Knopf, Daniel A.

    2015-01-01

    The formation of ice in clouds depends on the availability of ice forming nuclei (IFN). Dust aerosol particles are considered the most important source of IFN at a global scale. Recent laboratory studies have demonstrated that the mineral feldspar provides the most efficient dust IFN for immersion freezing and together with kaolinite for deposition ice nucleation, and that the phyllosilicates illite and montmorillonite (a member of the smectite group) are of secondary importance.A few studies have applied global models that simulate mineral specific dust to predict the number and geographical distribution of IFN. These studies have been based on the simple assumption that the mineral composition of soil as provided in data sets from the literature translates directly into the mineral composition of the dust aerosols. However, these tables are based on measurements of wet-sieved soil where dust aggregates are destroyed to a large degree. In consequence, the size distribution of dust is shifted to smaller sizes, and phyllosilicates like illite, kaolinite, and smectite are only found in the size range 2 m. In contrast, in measurements of the mineral composition of dust aerosols, the largest mass fraction of these phyllosilicates is found in the size range 2 m as part of dust aggregates. Conversely, the mass fraction of feldspar is smaller in this size range, varying with the geographical location. This may have a significant effect on the predicted IFN number and its geographical distribution.An improved mineral specific dust aerosol module has been recently implemented in the NASA GISS Earth System ModelE2. The dust module takes into consideration the disaggregated state of wet-sieved soil, on which the tables of soil mineral fractions are based. To simulate the atmospheric cycle of the minerals, the mass size distribution of each mineral in aggregates that are emitted from undispersed parent soil is reconstructed. In the current study, we test the null

  6. Reply to the commentary "Be careful when assuming the obvious", by P. Alday

    CERN Document Server

    Ferrer-i-Cancho, Ramon

    2014-01-01

    Here we respond to some comments by Alday concerning headedness in linguistic theory and the validity of the assumptions of a mathematical model for word order. For brevity, we focus only on two assumptions: the unit of measurement of dependency length and the monotonicity of the cost of a dependency as a function of its length. We also revise the implicit psychological bias in Alday's comments. Notwithstanding, Alday is indicating the path for linguistic research with his unusual concerns about parsimony from multiple dimensions.

  7. Further investigations of ATLAS Sensitivity to Higgs Boson Production in different assumed LHC scenarios

    CERN Document Server

    The ATLAS collaboration

    2011-01-01

    Projections for the ATLAS sensitivity to the Standard Model Higgs boson from LHC running at centre-of-mass energies of sqrts = 7 and 8 TeV are reported. These studies extend our previous results by considering the luminosities required to reach 5sigma discovery significance. The projections are largely derived using cross-sections rescaling to different centre-of-mass energies. The ATLAS experiment, with 1 fb−1 of data taken at sqrts = 7 TeV and using rather conservative assumptions, should have sensitivity such that Higgs boson masses between 129 and 460 GeV have at least a 50% chance of being excluded at 95% CL. If 10 fb−1 of data taken at sqrts = 8 TeV is available the 5sigma discovery region covers from 128 to over 500 GeV.

  8. Self-other agreement and assumed similarity in neuroticism, extraversion, and trait affect: distinguishing the effects of form and content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beer, Andrew; Watson, David; McDade-Montez, Elizabeth

    2013-12-01

    Trait Negative Affect (NA) and Positive Affect (PA) are strongly associated with Neuroticism and Extraversion, respectively. Nevertheless, measures of the former tend to show substantially weaker self-other agreement-and stronger assumed similarity correlations-than scales assessing the latter. The current study separated the effects of item content versus format on agreement and assumed similarity using two different sets of Neuroticism and Extraversion measures and two different indicators of NA and PA (N = 381 newlyweds). Neuroticism and Extraversion consistently showed stronger agreement than NA and PA; in addition, however, scales with more elaborated items yielded significantly higher agreement correlations than those based on single adjectives. Conversely, the trait affect scales yielded stronger assumed similarity correlations than the personality scales; these coefficients were strongest for the adjectival measures of trait affect. Thus, our data establish a significant role for both content and format in assumed similarity and self-other agreement.

  9. Termination of prehospital resuscitative efforts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mikkelsen, Søren; Schaffalitzky de Muckadell, Caroline; Binderup, Lars Grassmé

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Discussions on ethical aspects of life-and-death decisions within the hospital are often made in plenary. The prehospital physician, however, may be faced with ethical dilemmas in life-and-death decisions when time-critical decisions to initiate or refrain from resuscitative efforts...... need to be taken without the possibility to discuss matters with colleagues. Little is known whether these considerations regarding ethical issues in crucial life-and-death decisions are documented prehospitally. This is a review of the ethical considerations documented in the prehospital medical....... The medical records with possible documentation of ethical issues were independently reviewed by two philosophers in order to identify explicit ethical or philosophical considerations pertaining to the decision to resuscitate or not. RESULTS: In total, 1275 patients were either declared dead at the scene...

  10. Impaired effort allocation in patients with schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Treadway, Michael T; Peterman, Joel S; Zald, David H; Park, Sohee

    2015-02-01

    A hallmark of negative symptoms in schizophrenia is reduced motivation and goal directed behavior. While preclinical models suggest that blunted striatal dopamine levels can produce such reductions, this mechanism is inconsistent with evidence for enhanced striatal dopamine levels in schizophrenia. In seeking to reconcile this discrepancy, one possibility is that negative symptoms reflect a failure of striatal motivational systems to mobilize appropriately in response to reward-related information. In the present study, we used a laboratory effort-based decision-making task in a sample of patients with schizophrenia and healthy controls to examine allocation of effort in exchange for varying levels of monetary reward. We found that patients and controls did not differ in the overall amount of effort expenditure, but patients made significantly less optimal choices in terms of maximizing rewards. These results provide further evidence for a selective deficit in the ability of schizophrenia patients to utilize environmental cues to guide reward-seeking behavior. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. SOLAR DRYING KINETICS OF DATE PALM FRUITS ASSUMING A STEP-WISE AIR TEMPERATURE CHANGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ABDELGHANI BOUBEKRI

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available The effect of drying using a step-wise temperature change was studied considering the case of indirect solar drying of the date palm fruit (Phoenix dactylifera L.. The followed procedure consists of building drying kinetics by stages of temperatures resulting from drying, in constant conditions, of the same variety of dates from Algerian and Tunisian origin. A law of daily temperature variation prevailed by 60°C, was deduced from a statement of temperature collected on a laboratory solar dryer prototype. Two drying curve equation models were used and some comparisons were discussed. The results obtained for dates from the two origins highlighted different response times by changing the air temperature and showed the possibility of reaching a fruit with standard moisture content in only one day of drying on the basis of initial water contents ranging from 0.40 to 0.65. This moisture range is in practice allotted to rehydrated dates by water immersion in order to enhance their quality. Experiments conducted in a laboratory solar drier under temperatures oscillating around 50°C and 60°C led to the same end up regarding the drying time ensuring a visually appreciable fruit quality. Results obtained by a simple sensorial test revealed a better quality of date fruits treated by solar drying comparing to those issued from industrial heat treatment units.

  12. LMFBR Emergency Deployment Assuming 45 year Time-Delay Excess CO{sub 2} Removal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schenewerk, William Ernest [5060 San Rafael Avenue, Los Angeles, CA, 90042-3239 (United States)

    2008-07-01

    Atmospheric CO{sub 2} is presently increasing 2.25% per year in proportion to 2.25% per year exponential fossil fuel consumption increase. CO{sub 2} removal is modeled as being proportional to 45-year-earlier CO{sub 2} amount above 280 ppmV-C. This is: Exp (-0.0225/year * 45 years) = 0.36 fraction CO{sub 2} removed from anthropological emissions, apparently by seawater. LMFBRs use 15 year doubling time. Deploying 30000 GWe atomic power by year-2080 results in CO{sub 2} doubling year-2065 if World primary energy consumption continues increasing 2.25% per year. CO{sub 2} remains roughly twice pre-industrial until year-2100. Beginning year-2080, CO{sub 2} declines at 2.25% per year. CO{sub 2} will presumably decline back to roughly the year-2000 value by year-2200 if the 45-year-delay sink remains effective. LMFBR and GCFR fleet expands to 30000 GWe by 2080. 1000 GWe LWR fleet consumes 5 Mt HM (Heavy Metal). Breeder first cores require 1 Mt HM. (author)

  13. Differences in gravity wave drag between realistic oblique and assumed vertical propagation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalisch, Silvio; Preusse, Peter; Ern, Manfred; Eckermann, Stephen D.; Riese, Martin

    2014-09-01

    Gravity wave (GW) parametrizations for general circulation models (GCMs) restrict the propagation of GWs to the vertical direction. The influence of this vertical-only propagation assumption on the distribution of GW drag (GWD) has not yet been investigated. Thus, we present results of two global GW ray tracing simulations, one with full three-dimensional propagation (GWO) and a second one with vertical-only propagation (GWV) of GWs for January and July 2008. The Gravity wave Regional Or Global RAy Tracer (GROGRAT) was used to perform these simulations with a global homogeneous and isotropic launch distribution. Both simulations, GWO and GWV, are analyzed with respect to GWD in the zonal and meridional direction. The location of zonal GWD maxima changes. GWO shows in comparison to GWV a poleward shift of zonal GWD in both seasons with increased GWD at the summer stratopause. The meridional GWD is much stronger in the GWO case, spatially correlated with the zonal drag, and is generally poleward directed. These features in zonal and meridional drag are consistent with a general prevalence of poleward propagation of GWs. Additional simulations suggest that this is due to the Coriolis effect as well as wind filtering around the tropopause, allowing more GWs to propagate into the middle atmosphere. We infer how GWs of different horizontal wavelengths and phase speeds cause the main differences in GWD in the middle atmosphere. A simple test for GCMs is proposed to assess the effects of the altered meridional drag on the general circulation and the interaction with planetary waves.

  14. Mental and physical effort affect vigilance differently

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smit, A.S.; Eling, P.A.T.M.; Hopman, M.T.E.; Coenen, A.M.L.

    2005-01-01

    Both physical and mental effort are thought to affect vigilance. Mental effort is known for its vigilance declining effects, but the effects of physical effort are less clear. This study investigated whether these two forms of effort affect the EEG and subjective alertness differently. Participants

  15. Mental and physical effort affect vigilance differently.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smit, A.S.; Eling, P.A.T.M.; Hopman, M.T.E.; Coenen, A.M.L.

    2005-01-01

    Both physical and mental effort are thought to affect vigilance. Mental effort is known for its vigilance declining effects, but the effects of physical effort are less clear. This study investigated whether these two forms of effort affect the EEG and subjective alertness differently. Participants

  16. Neurocomputational mechanisms underlying subjective valuation of effort costs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giehl, Kathrin; Sillence, Annie

    2017-01-01

    In everyday life, we have to decide whether it is worth exerting effort to obtain rewards. Effort can be experienced in different domains, with some tasks requiring significant cognitive demand and others being more physically effortful. The motivation to exert effort for reward is highly subjective and varies considerably across the different domains of behaviour. However, very little is known about the computational or neural basis of how different effort costs are subjectively weighed against rewards. Is there a common, domain-general system of brain areas that evaluates all costs and benefits? Here, we used computational modelling and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to examine the mechanisms underlying value processing in both the cognitive and physical domains. Participants were trained on two novel tasks that parametrically varied either cognitive or physical effort. During fMRI, participants indicated their preferences between a fixed low-effort/low-reward option and a variable higher-effort/higher-reward offer for each effort domain. Critically, reward devaluation by both cognitive and physical effort was subserved by a common network of areas, including the dorsomedial and dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, the intraparietal sulcus, and the anterior insula. Activity within these domain-general areas also covaried negatively with reward and positively with effort, suggesting an integration of these parameters within these areas. Additionally, the amygdala appeared to play a unique, domain-specific role in processing the value of rewards associated with cognitive effort. These results are the first to reveal the neurocomputational mechanisms underlying subjective cost–benefit valuation across different domains of effort and provide insight into the multidimensional nature of motivation. PMID:28234892

  17. Economic growth, biodiversity loss and conservation effort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dietz, Simon; Adger, W Neil

    2003-05-01

    This paper investigates the relationship between economic growth, biodiversity loss and efforts to conserve biodiversity using a combination of panel and cross section data. If economic growth is a cause of biodiversity loss through habitat transformation and other means, then we would expect an inverse relationship. But if higher levels of income are associated with increasing real demand for biodiversity conservation, then investment to protect remaining diversity should grow and the rate of biodiversity loss should slow with growth. Initially, economic growth and biodiversity loss are examined within the framework of the environmental Kuznets hypothesis. Biodiversity is represented by predicted species richness, generated for tropical terrestrial biodiversity using a species-area relationship. The environmental Kuznets hypothesis is investigated with reference to comparison of fixed and random effects models to allow the relationship to vary for each country. It is concluded that an environmental Kuznets curve between income and rates of loss of habitat and species does not exist in this case. The role of conservation effort in addressing environmental problems is examined through state protection of land and the regulation of trade in endangered species, two important means of biodiversity conservation. This analysis shows that the extent of government environmental policy increases with economic development. We argue that, although the data are problematic, the implications of these models is that conservation effort can only ever result in a partial deceleration of biodiversity decline partly because protected areas serve multiple functions and are not necessarily designated to protect biodiversity. Nevertheless institutional and policy response components of the income biodiversity relationship are important but are not well captured through cross-country regression analysis.

  18. Search, Effort, and Locus of Control

    OpenAIRE

    McGee, Andrew; McGee, Peter

    2011-01-01

    We test the hypothesis that locus of control – one's perception of control over events in life – influences search by affecting beliefs about the efficacy of search effort in a laboratory experiment. We find that reservation offers and effort are increasing in the belief that one's efforts influence outcomes when subjects exert effort without knowing how effort influences the generation of offers but are unrelated to locus of control beliefs when subjects are informed about the relationship b...

  19. Optimal Effort in Consumer Choice : Theory and Experimental Evidence for Binary Choice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Conlon, B.J.; Dellaert, B.G.C.; van Soest, A.H.O.

    2001-01-01

    This paper develops a theoretical model of optimal effort in consumer choice.The model extends previous consumer choice models in that the consumer not only chooses a product, but also decides how much effort to apply to a given choice problem.The model yields a unique optimal level of effort, which

  20. 9 CFR 72.15 - Owners assume responsibility; must execute agreement prior to dipping or treatment waiving all...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ....15 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE INTERSTATE TRANSPORTATION OF ANIMALS (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS TEXAS (SPLENETIC) FEVER IN... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Owners assume responsibility;...

  1. 42 CFR 137.286 - Do Self-Governance Tribes become Federal agencies when they assume these Federal environmental...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Self-Governance Tribes are required to assume Federal environmental responsibilities for projects in... performing these Federal environmental responsibilities, Self-Governance Tribes will be considered the... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Do Self-Governance Tribes become Federal...

  2. 42 CFR 137.300 - Since Federal environmental responsibilities are new responsibilities, which may be assumed by...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Federal environmental responsibilities assumed by the Self-Governance Tribe. ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Since Federal environmental responsibilities are... additional funds available to Self-Governance Tribes to carry out these formerly inherently...

  3. High mortality risk among individuals assumed to be TB-negative can be predicted using a simple test

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rabna, Paulo; Andersen, Andreas; Wejse, Christian

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To determine mortality among assumed TB negative (aTBneg) individuals in Guinea-Bissau and to investigate whether plasma levels of soluble urokinase receptor (suPAR) can be used to determine post-consultation mortality risk. METHODS: This prospective West-African cohort study included...

  4. Effects of an assumed cosmic ray-modulated low global cloud cover on the Earth's temperature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramirez, J.; Mendoza, B. [Instituto de Geofisica, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Mexico, D.F. (Mexico); Mendoza, V.; Adem, J. [Centro de Ciencias de la Atmosfera, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Mexico, D.F. (Mexico)]. E-mail: victor@atmosfera.unam.mx

    2006-07-15

    We have used the Thermodynamic Model of the Climate to estimate the effect of variations in the low cloud cover on the surface temperature of the Earth in the Northern Hemisphere during the period 1984-1994. We assume that the variations in the low cloud cover are proportional to the variation of the cosmic ray flux measured during the same period. The results indicate that the effect in the surface temperature is more significant in the continents, where for July of 1991, we have found anomalies of the order of 0.7 degrees Celsius for the southeastern of Asia and 0.5 degrees Celsius for the northeast of Mexico. For an increase of 0.75% in the low cloud cover, the surface temperature computed by the model in the North Hemisphere presents a decrease of {approx} 0.11 degrees Celsius; however, for a decrease of 0.90% in the low cloud cover, the model gives an increase in the surface temperature of {approx} 0.15 degrees Celsius, these two cases correspond to a climate sensitivity factor for the case of forcing by duplication of atmospheric CO{sub 2}. These decreases or increases in surface temperature by increases of decreases in low clouds cover are ten times greater than the overall variability of the non-forced model time series. [Spanish] Hemos usado el Modelo Termodinamico del Clima para estimar el efecto de variaciones en la cubierta de nubes bajas sobre la temperatura superficial de la Tierra en el Hemisferio Norte durante el periodo 1984 - 1994. Suponemos que las variaciones en la cubierta de nubes bajas son proporcionales a las variaciones del flujo de rayos cosmicos medido durante el mismo periodo. Los resultados indican que el efecto en la temperatura es mas significativo en los continentes, donde para julio de 1991, hemos encontrado anomalias del orden de 0.7 grados Celsius sobre el sureste de Asia y 0.5 grados Celsius al noreste de Mexico. Para un incremento de 0.75% en la cubierta de nubes bajas, la temperatura de la superficie calculada por el modelo en

  5. NASA Software Engineering Benchmarking Effort

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godfrey, Sally; Rarick, Heather

    2012-01-01

    Benchmarking was very interesting and provided a wealth of information (1) We did see potential solutions to some of our "top 10" issues (2) We have an assessment of where NASA stands with relation to other aerospace/defense groups We formed new contacts and potential collaborations (1) Several organizations sent us examples of their templates, processes (2) Many of the organizations were interested in future collaboration: sharing of training, metrics, Capability Maturity Model Integration (CMMI) appraisers, instructors, etc. We received feedback from some of our contractors/ partners (1) Desires to participate in our training; provide feedback on procedures (2) Welcomed opportunity to provide feedback on working with NASA

  6. PROTEINURIA AND ACUTE PHYSICAL EFFORT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radu M.D.

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available It is well known that intense exercise leads to increased urinary excretion of protein, a phenomenon encountered both in experimental models in laboratory animals and in amateur and professional athletes, where proteinuria mechanism is still unclear. Proteinuria is an important marker of physiological integrity of the excretory system. Proteinuria after exercise, induced the effect of physical exercise on renal function. During physical exertion blood flow is directed mainly towards skeletal muscles that are in business, to the detriment of many organs that are subjected to transient ischemia. Ischemic reperfusion is an important source of activation and generation of oxygen free radicals in organs involved in supporting passive exercise. The effects of biochemical or functional neurons induced oxygen free radicals play an important role in urinary protein excretion. Therefore, exercise is an inducer of oxidative stress phenomenon not only in skeletal muscle in operation. Experimental study quantify the biochemical adaptation of functional kidney in one workout. Experimental results suggest that functional alterations of neuronal membranes, due to oxygen free radicals actions are a cause of proteinuria after exercise in laboratory animals.

  7. Application of a hydrodynamic and sediment transport model for guidance of response efforts related to the Deepwater Horizon oil spill in the Northern Gulf of Mexico along the coast of Alabama and Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plant, Nathaniel G.; Long, Joseph W.; Dalyander, P. Soupy; Thompson, David M.; Raabe, Ellen A.

    2013-01-01

    U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) scientists have provided a model-based assessment of transport and deposition of residual Deepwater Horizon oil along the shoreline within the northern Gulf of Mexico in the form of mixtures of sand and weathered oil, known as surface residual balls (SRBs). The results of this USGS research, in combination with results from other components of the overall study, will inform operational decisionmaking. The results will provide guidance for response activities and data collection needs during future oil spills. In May 2012 the U.S. Coast Guard, acting as the Deepwater Horizon Federal on-scene coordinator, chartered an operational science advisory team to provide a science-based review of data collected and to conduct additional directed studies and sampling. The goal was to characterize typical shoreline profiles and morphology in the northern Gulf of Mexico to identify likely sources of residual oil and to evaluate mechanisms whereby reoiling phenomena may be occurring (for example, burial and exhumation and alongshore transport). A steering committee cochaired by British Petroleum Corporation (BP) and the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) is overseeing the project and includes State on-scene coordinators from four States (Alabama, Florida, Louisiana, and Mississippi), trustees of the U.S. Department of the Interior (DOI), and representatives from the U.S. Coast Guard. This report presents the results of hydrodynamic and sediment transport models and developed techniques for analyzing potential SRB movement and burial and exhumation along the coastline of Alabama and Florida. Results from these modeling efforts are being used to explain the complexity of reoiling in the nearshore environment and to broaden consideration of the different scenarios and difficulties that are being faced in identifying and removing residual oil. For instance, modeling results suggest that larger SRBs are not, under the most commonly

  8. Is it reasonable to assume a uniformly distributed cooling-rate along the microslide of a directional solidification stage?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabin

    2000-10-01

    It is commonly assumed that the cooling-rate along the microslide of a directional solidification stage is uniformly distributed, an assumption which is typically applied in low cooling-rates studies. A new directional solidification stage has recently been presented, which is specified to achieve high cooling-rates of up to 1.8 x 104 degrees C min-1, where cooling-rates are still assumed to be uniformly distributed. The current study presents a closed-form solution to the temperature distribution and to the cooling-rate in the microslide. Thermal analysis shows that the cooling-rate is by no means uniformly distributed and can vary by several hundred percent along the microslide in some cases. Therefore, the mathematical solution presented in this study is essential for experimental planning of high cooling-rate experiments.

  9. Grey Prediction Based Software Stage-Effort Estimation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Yong; SONG Qinbao; SHEN Junyi

    2007-01-01

    The software stage-effort estimation can be used to dynamically adjust software project schedule, further to help make the project finished on budget. This paper presents a grey model Verhulst based method for stage-effort estimation during software development process, a bias correction technology was used to improve the estimation accuracy. The proposed method was evaluated with a large-scale industrial software engineering database. The results are very encouraging and indicate the method has considerable potential.

  10. RBANS embedded measures of suboptimal effort in dementia: effort scale has a lower failure rate than the effort index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burton, Rachel L; Enright, Joe; O'Connell, Megan E; Lanting, Shawnda; Morgan, Debra

    2015-02-01

    The importance of evaluating effort in neuropsychological assessments has been widely acknowledged, but measuring effort in the context of dementia remains challenging due to the impact of dementia severity on effort measure scores. Two embedded measures have been developed for the repeatable battery for the assessment of neuropsychological status (RBANS; Randolph, C., Tierney, M. C., Mohr, E., & Chase, T. N. (1998). The repeatable battery for the assessment of neuropsychological status (RBANS): Preliminary clinical validity. Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology, 20 (3), 310-319): the Effort Index (EI; Silverberg, N. D., Wertheimer, J. C., & Fichtenberg, N. L. (2007). An effort index for the repeatable battery for the assessment of neuropsychological status (RBANS). Clinical Neuropsychologist, 21 (5), 841-854) and the Effort Scale (ES; Novitski, J., Steele, S., Karantzoulis, S., & Randolph, C. (2012). The repeatable battery for the assessment of neuropsychological status effort scale. Archives of Clinical Neuropsychology, 27 (2), 190-195). We explored failure rates on these effort measures in a non-litigating mixed dementia sample (N = 145). Failure rate on the EI was high (48%) and associated with dementia severity. In contrast, failure on the ES was 14% but differed based on type of dementia. ES failure was low (4%) when dementia was due to Alzheimer disease (AD), but high (31%) for non-AD dementias. These data raise concerns about use of the RBANS embedded effort measures in dementia evaluations.

  11. Effort-reward imbalance and depression in Japanese medical residents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakata, Yumi; Wada, Koji; Tsutsumi, Akizumi; Ishikawa, Hiroyasu; Aratake, Yutaka; Watanabe, Mayumi; Katoh, Noritada; Aizawa, Yoshiharu; Tanaka, Katsutoshi

    2008-01-01

    The effort-reward imbalance is an important psychosocial factor which is related to poor health among employees. However, there are few studies that have evaluated effort-reward imbalance among medical residents. The present study was done to determine the association between psychosocial factors at work as defined by the effort-reward imbalance model and depression among Japanese medical residents. We distributed a questionnaire to 227 medical residents at 16 teaching hospitals in Japan at the end of August 2005. We asked participants to answer questions which included demographic information, depressive symptoms, effort-reward imbalance, over-commitment and social support. Depression was evaluated using the Japanese version of the Center for Epidemiologic Studies-Depression (CES-D) scale. The effort-reward imbalance and over-commitment were assessed by the Effort-Reward Imbalance (ERI) questionnaire which Siegrist developed. Social support was determined on a visual analog scale. Logistic regression analysis was performed to determine the associations between effort-reward imbalance and depressive symptoms. Depressive symptoms were found in 35 (29.2%) 1st-year residents and 21 (27.6%) 2nd-year residents. The effort-reward ratio >1 (OR, 8.83; 95% CI, 2.87-27.12) and low social support score (OR, 2.77, 95% CI, 1.36-5.64) were associated with depressive symptoms among medical residents. Effort-reward imbalance was independently related to depression among Japanese medical residents. The present study suggests that balancing between effort and reward at work is important for medical residents' mental health.

  12. 7-Years of Using Distributed Temperature Sensing (DTS) to assess river restoration efforts : synergies of high-resolution observation and modeling on the Middle Fork of the John Day River

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, A.; Diabat, M.

    2014-12-01

    Temperature is a key factor for salmonid health and is an important restoration metric on the Middle Fork of the John Day River, northeast Oregon. The longest undammed tributary to the Columbia, the headwaters of the Middle Fork are crucial to steelhead and spring Chinook and summer Chinook juvenile rearing. In the past century the river has been altered by dredge mining, overgrazing, logging activities, and irrigation resulting in bank erosion, low effective shade, and channelization. These factors decreased fish habitat and led to increased stream temperature maxima. Restoration has focused on restoring fish habitat, creating thermal refugia, and planting native vegetation. The most recent completed restoration project diverted the flow into the historic, meandering stream channel from the dredged, straightened channel. Over the past seven years, Oregon State University researchers (Tara O'Donnell-2012, Julie Huff-2009) have been involved in a planned-to-be 10-year stream temperature monitoring study to assess maximum temperatures during low-flow summer months. The use of fiber optics through distributed temperature sensing (DTS) made it possible to record high resolution temperature data at both temporal and spatial scales; data which is used to assess the efficacy of restoration efforts on the reach. Furthermore, DTS provided temperature data that reveals subtle hydrologic processes such as groundwater or hyporheic inflows and quantifies their effect on the stream. Current research has focused on large scale DTS installations on the Middle Fork of the John Day River on the Oxbow, Forrest, and the upstream Galena ("RPB") conservation properties. In the summers of 2013 and 2014, 16 km of river were monitored. Our study compares temperatures before and after the restoration project and provides essential guidance for future restoration projects. Direct comparisons coupled with a deterministic modeling using HeatSource assist in better understanding the

  13. Counselors and Principals, a Team Effort: Small/Rural Schools in Texas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilmore, Elaine L.

    Principals from small and rural elementary, middle, and high schools in Texas participated in a 3-year study of the role of the school counselor and the extent of collaborative efforts between counselors and principals. Principals reported a strong dependence on the assistance their counselors provided, often crediting them with assuming the…

  14. Job demands, perceptions of effort-reward fairness and innovative work behaviour

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janssen, O

    2000-01-01

    Building on person-environment fit theory and social exchange theory, the relationship between job demands and innovative work behaviour was assumed to be moderated by fairness perceptions of the ratio between effort spent and reward received at work. This interaction of job demands with perceptions

  15. Economic response to harvest and effort control in fishery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoff, Ayoe; Frost, Hans

    for fisheries management. The report outlines bio-economic models, which are designed to shed light on the efficiency of different management tools in terms of quota or effort restrictions given the objectives of the Common Fisheries Policy about sustainable and economic viable fisheries. The report addresses...... the complexities of biological and economic interaction in a multispecies, multifleet framework and outlines consistent mathematical models....

  16. Devising a Structural Equation Model of Relationships between Preservice Teachers' Time and Study Environment Management, Effort Regulation, Self-Efficacy, Control of Learning Beliefs, and Metacognitive Self-Regulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sen, Senol; Yilmaz, Ayhan

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study is to analyze the relationship between preservice teachers' time and study environment management, effort regulation, self-efficacy beliefs, control of learning beliefs and metacognitive self-regulation. This study also investigates the direct and indirect effects of metacognitive self-regulation on time and study…

  17. On Integral Upper Limits Assuming Power-law Spectra and the Sensitivity in High-energy Astronomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahnen, Max L.

    2017-02-01

    The high-energy non-thermal universe is dominated by power-law-like spectra. Therefore, results in high-energy astronomy are often reported as parameters of power-law fits, or, in the case of a non-detection, as an upper limit assuming the underlying unseen spectrum behaves as a power law. In this paper, I demonstrate a simple and powerful one-to-one relation of the integral upper limit in the two-dimensional power-law parameter space into the spectrum parameter space and use this method to unravel the so-far convoluted question of the sensitivity of astroparticle telescopes.

  18. Productive and Ineffective Efforts: How Student Effort in High School Mathematics Relates to College Calculus Success

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnett, M.D.; Sonnert, G.; Sadler, P.M.

    2014-01-01

    Relativizing the popular belief that student effort is the key to success, this article finds that effort in the most advanced mathematics course in US high schools is not consistently associated with college calculus performance. We distinguish two types of student effort: productive and ineffective efforts. Whereas the former carries the…

  19. Productive and Ineffective Efforts: How Student Effort in High School Mathematics Relates to College Calculus Success

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnett, M.D.; Sonnert, G.; Sadler, P.M.

    2014-01-01

    Relativizing the popular belief that student effort is the key to success, this article finds that effort in the most advanced mathematics course in US high schools is not consistently associated with college calculus performance. We distinguish two types of student effort: productive and ineffective efforts. Whereas the former carries the…

  20. Reasons People Surrender Unowned and Owned Cats to Australian Animal Shelters and Barriers to Assuming Ownership of Unowned Cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zito, Sarah; Morton, John; Vankan, Dianne; Paterson, Mandy; Bennett, Pauleen C; Rand, Jacquie; Phillips, Clive J C

    2016-01-01

    Most cats surrendered to nonhuman animal shelters are identified as unowned, and the surrender reason for these cats is usually simply recorded as "stray." A cross-sectional study was conducted with people surrendering cats to 4 Australian animal shelters. Surrenderers of unowned cats commonly gave surrender reasons relating to concern for the cat and his/her welfare. Seventeen percent of noncaregivers had considered adopting the cat. Barriers to assuming ownership most commonly related to responsible ownership concerns. Unwanted kittens commonly contributed to the decision to surrender for both caregivers and noncaregivers. Nonowners gave more surrender reasons than owners, although many owners also gave multiple surrender reasons. These findings highlight the multifactorial nature of the decision-making process leading to surrender and demonstrate that recording only one reason for surrender does not capture the complexity of the surrender decision. Collecting information about multiple reasons for surrender, particularly reasons for surrender of unowned cats and barriers to assuming ownership, could help to develop strategies to reduce the number of cats surrendered.

  1. Is it growing exponentially fast? -- Impact of assuming exponential growth for characterizing and forecasting epidemics with initial near-exponential growth dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chowell, Gerardo; Viboud, Cécile

    2016-10-01

    The increasing use of mathematical models for epidemic forecasting has highlighted the importance of designing models that capture the baseline transmission characteristics in order to generate reliable epidemic forecasts. Improved models for epidemic forecasting could be achieved by identifying signature features of epidemic growth, which could inform the design of models of disease spread and reveal important characteristics of the transmission process. In particular, it is often taken for granted that the early growth phase of different growth processes in nature follow early exponential growth dynamics. In the context of infectious disease spread, this assumption is often convenient to describe a transmission process with mass action kinetics using differential equations and generate analytic expressions and estimates of the reproduction number. In this article, we carry out a simulation study to illustrate the impact of incorrectly assuming an exponential-growth model to characterize the early phase (e.g., 3-5 disease generation intervals) of an infectious disease outbreak that follows near-exponential growth dynamics. Specifically, we assess the impact on: 1) goodness of fit, 2) bias on the growth parameter, and 3) the impact on short-term epidemic forecasts. Designing transmission models and statistical approaches that more flexibly capture the profile of epidemic growth could lead to enhanced model fit, improved estimates of key transmission parameters, and more realistic epidemic forecasts.

  2. Regionalism and the Defense of Southeast Asia: An Analysis of ASEAN’s Potential to Assume a Security Dimension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-09-26

    complementary nature of the economies involved. Political self interest inhibited efforts toward significant econo- mic and social achievements. It...priority given to training and scholarships. 4 The infrastructure of the economies of modern Southeast Asia are indebted, in no small measure, to...Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) emerged from the framework of the dormant Association of Southeast Asia. It was established with the signing of the Bangkok

  3. Dopamine and Effort-Based Decision Making

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irma Triasih Kurniawan

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Motivational theories of choice focus on the influence of goal values and strength of reinforcement to explain behavior. By contrast relatively little is known concerning how the cost of an action, such as effort expended, contributes to a decision to act. Effort-based decision making addresses how we make an action choice based on an integration of action and goal values. Here we review behavioral and neurobiological data regarding the representation of effort as action cost, and how this impacts on decision making. Although organisms expend effort to obtain a desired reward there is a striking sensitivity to the amount of effort required, such that the net preference for an action decreases as effort cost increases. We discuss the contribution of the neurotransmitter dopamine (DA towards overcoming response costs and in enhancing an animal’s motivation towards effortful actions. We also consider the contribution of brain structures, including the basal ganglia (BG and anterior cingulate cortex (ACC, in the internal generation of action involving a translation of reward expectation into effortful action.

  4. Time preferences, study effort, and academic performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Non, J.A.; Tempelaar, D.T.

    2014-01-01

    We analyze the relation between time preferences, study effort, and academic performance among first-year Business and Economics students. Time preferences are measured by stated preferences for an immediate payment over larger delayed payments. Data on study efforts are derived from an electronic l

  5. Visual Cues and Listening Effort: Individual Variability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Picou, Erin M.; Ricketts, Todd A; Hornsby, Benjamin W. Y.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: To investigate the effect of visual cues on listening effort as well as whether predictive variables such as working memory capacity (WMC) and lipreading ability affect the magnitude of listening effort. Method: Twenty participants with normal hearing were tested using a paired-associates recall task in 2 conditions (quiet and noise) and…

  6. Endogenous Effort Norms in Hierarchical Firms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Tichem (Jan)

    2013-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ This paper studies how a three-layer hierarchical firm (principal-supervisor-agent) optimally creates effort norms for its employees. The key assumption is that effort norms are affected by the example of superiors. In equilibrium, norms are eroded as one moves down

  7. The Effect of Age on Listening Effort

    Science.gov (United States)

    Degeest, Sofie; Keppler, Hannah; Corthals, Paul

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of age on listening effort. Method: A dual-task paradigm was used to evaluate listening effort in different conditions of background noise. Sixty adults ranging in age from 20 to 77 years were included. A primary speech-recognition task and a secondary memory task were performed…

  8. Listening Effort With Cochlear Implant Simulations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pals, Carina; Sarampalis, Anastasios; Başkent, Deniz

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: Fitting a cochlear implant (CI) for optimal speech perception does not necessarily optimize listening effort. This study aimed to show that listening effort may change between CI processing conditions for which speech intelligibility remains constant. Method: Nineteen normal-hearing partici

  9. Listening Effort with Cochlear Implant Simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pals, Carina; Sarampalis, Anastasios; Baskent, Deniz

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: Fitting a cochlear implant (CI) for optimal speech perception does not necessarily optimize listening effort. This study aimed to show that listening effort may change between CI processing conditions for which speech intelligibility remains constant. Method: Nineteen normal-hearing participants listened to CI simulations with varying…

  10. Tsunami Defense Efforts at Samcheok Port, Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Y. S.

    2016-02-01

    Tsunamis mainly triggered by impulsive undersea motions are long waves and can propagate a long distance. Thus, they can cause huge casualties not only neighboring countries but also distant countries. Recently, several devastating tsunamis have been occurred around the Pacific Ocean rim. Among them, the Great East Japan tsunami occurred on March 11, 2011 is probably recorded as one of the most destructive tsunamis during last several decades. The Tsunami killed more than 20,000 people (including missing people) and deprived of property damage of approximately 300 billion USD. The eastern coast of the Korean Peninsula has been attacked historically by unexpected tsunami events. These tsunamis were generated by undersea earthquakes occurred off the west coast of Japan. For example, the Central East Sea Tsunami occurred on May 26, 1983 killed 3 people and caused serious property damage at Samcheok Port located at the eastern coast of Korea. Thus, a defense plan against unexpected tsunami strikes is an essential task for the port authority to protect lives of human beings and port facilities. In this study, a master plan of tsunami defense is introduced at Samcheok Port. A tsunami hazard map is also made by employing both propagation and inundation models. Detailed defense efforts are described including the procedure of development of a tsunami hazard map. Keywords: tsunami, hazard map, run-up height, emergency action plan

  11. Explicit theory of mind is even more unified than previously assumed: belief ascription and understanding aspectuality emerge together in development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rakoczy, Hannes; Bergfeld, Delia; Schwarz, Ina; Fizke, Ella

    2015-01-01

    Existing evidence suggests that children, when they first pass standard theory-of-mind tasks, still fail to understand the essential aspectuality of beliefs and other propositional attitudes: such attitudes refer to objects only under specific aspects. Oedipus, for example, believes Yocaste (his mother) is beautiful, but this does not imply that he believes his mother is beautiful. In three experiments, 3- to 6-year-olds' (N = 119) understanding of aspectuality was tested with a novel, radically simplified task. In contrast to all previous findings, this task was as difficult as and highly correlated with a standard false belief task. This suggests that a conceptual capacity more unified than previously assumed emerges around ages 4-5, a full-fledged metarepresentational scheme of propositional attitudes.

  12. Attitude assumed by nurses in regards to end of life decisions of people: Case of Costa Rica, 2011

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jerik Andrade Espinales

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The research problem was to analyze what is the attitude assumed by nurses in regards to end of life decisions of people in Costa Rica during 2011. A quantitative exploratory and transactional methodology was developed, with a random sample and a subsample multistage taking into account the national hospitals Class A; obtaining a sample of 86 nursing professionals who completed a questionnaire. The obtained data was tabulated using a statistical package. The data demonstrated that although most of the participants were unfamiliar with the concept of end of life decisions, they related the said concept to the respect for the dignity, the rights and the autonomy of people in the same way they apply such ethical values when providing care. The research team concluded that the sampled nursing professionals favored the mentioned ethical values over their own personal ethics and morals.

  13. 重整热力学理论的方案%Assume of Reconstructing the Thermodynamic Theory

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何沛平; 朱顶余

    2012-01-01

    “热寂说”是热力学第二定律的宇宙学推论,由于涉及到宇宙未来、人类命运等重大问题,引起了科学界和哲学界一百多年持续不断的争论.本文从重力场影响介质温度分布出发,研究系统处于外力场中的热力学规律,给出重整热力学理论的方案,该方案涉及到热力学第二定律、第零定律、热流定律.重整后的热力学定律更具普适性.%"Heat Death" is the second law of thermodynamics cosmological inferences. As it relates to the future of the universe and the destiny of mankind, the scientific community and the philosophical community have debated hundred years. A famous scholar pointed out that " With gravitation, thermodynamics should how to reconstruct? "in the article "why not heat death " . In order to study the subject, based on force field affecting the medium temperature, we study thermodynamics laws when the system staying in the external force field, obtaining the reconstructing assume of the thermodynamic theory. The assume is related to the second law of thermodynamics, zero law, heat flow law. After the reconstructing, the law of thermodynamics is more universal.

  14. Job Satisfaction, Effort, and Performance: A Reasoned Action Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Icek Ajzen

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available In this article the author takes issue with the recurrent reliance on job satisfaction to explain job-related effort and performance.  The disappointing findings in this tradition are explained by lack of compatibility between job satisfaction–-a very broad attitude–-and the more specific effort and performance criteria.  Moreover, attempts to apply the expectancy-value model of attitude to explore the determinants of effort and performance suffer from reliance on unrepresentative sets of beliefs about the likely consequences of these behaviors.  The theory of planned behavior (Ajzen, 1991, 2012, with its emphasis on the proximal antecedents of job effort and performance, is offered as an alternative.  According to the theory, intentions to exert effort and to attain a certain performance level are determined by attitudes, subjective norms, and perceptions of control in relation to these behaviors; and these variables, in turn, are a function of readily accessible beliefs about the likely outcomes of effort and performance, about the normative expectations of important others, and about factors that facilitate or hinder effective performance.

  15. Practitioner's knowledge representation a pathway to improve software effort estimation

    CERN Document Server

    Mendes, Emilia

    2014-01-01

    The main goal of this book is to help organizations improve their effort estimates and effort estimation processes by providing a step-by-step methodology that takes them through the creation and validation of models that are based on their own knowledge and experience. Such models, once validated, can then be used to obtain predictions, carry out risk analyses, enhance their estimation processes for new projects and generally advance them as learning organizations.Emilia Mendes presents the Expert-Based Knowledge Engineering of Bayesian Networks (EKEBNs) methodology, which she has used and adapted during the course of several industry collaborations with different companies world-wide over more than 6 years. The book itself consists of two major parts: first, the methodology's foundations in knowledge management, effort estimation (with special emphasis on the intricacies of software and Web development) and Bayesian networks are detailed; then six industry case studies are presented which illustrate the pra...

  16. 基于假设模态法的风力机动力学分析%Dynamic analysis of a wind turbine base on assumed mode method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王磊; 陈柳; 何玉林; 刘桦; 金鑫

    2012-01-01

    The structural dynamic model of a wind turbine was investigated by using assumed mode method. Veer turbulence model was created for generating time history of three-dimensional wind speed. Along with a wind field model and a modified BEM model, aero-elastic system dynamic model of a wind turbine was constructed with fortran. This model described the dynamics of the wind turbine more correctly than the subsystem model did. A 2.5 MW wind turbine model was calculated and the results were compared with those using GH bladed data. The results showed that the proposed method has excellent capacity to simulate dynamic characteristics of a wind turbine based on the theory of assumed mode method with less computing time and higher accuracy.%采用Kane方法建立风力机系统动力学模型,并使用假设模态离散化方法对其进行柔性化.结合修正的BEM理论计算得到的风轮气动载荷,并在Fortran环境下编程建立风力机整机的系统动力学数学模型,完成对风力机的随机响应分析.以某型2.5MW风力发电机组为研究对象进行分析计算,将分析数据同国际权威计算软件GH Bladed数据比较.比较表明,该分析模型可以较好的模拟风力机的动力学特性,同时兼顾了较少建模计算时间和较高分析精度两个优点,近而验证采用假设模态法进行风力机动力学分析是一种行之有效的方法.

  17. Optimal effort in consumer choice : theory and experimental analysis for binary choice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    B. Conlon; B.G.C. Dellaert (Benedict); A.H.O. van Soest (Arthur)

    2001-01-01

    textabstractThis paper develops a theoretical model of optimal effort in consumer choice. The model extends previous consumer choice models in that the consumer not only chooses a product, but also decides how much effort to apply to a given choice problem. The model yields a unique optimal level of

  18. Information problem solving and mental effort

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brand-Gruwel, Saskia; Frerejean, Jimmy

    2012-01-01

    Brand-Gruwel, S., & Frerejean, J. (2012, 5 September). Information problem solving and mental effort. Presentation at the EARLI ASC 2012 "Using eye tracking to design and evaluate education & training methods", Heerlen, The Netherlands.

  19. EU grid computing effort takes on malaria

    CERN Multimedia

    Lawrence, Stacy

    2006-01-01

    Malaria is the world's most common parasitic infection, affecting more thatn 500 million people annually and killing more than 1 million. In order to help combat malaria, CERN has launched a grid computing effort (1 page)

  20. Maternal regulation and toddlers’ effortful control

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    Effortful control is a regulatory component of emotion (Calkins & Hill, 2007). This descriptive study analyzed the relation between maternal co-regulation strategies and children self-regulation strategies in order to evaluate their effortful control skills.19 dyads [mother-child] with children between 18 and 36 months old participated and were divided in three groups, the sample was taken from government´s nurseries. A transversal study with direct observation of the experimental situati...

  1. Worker Morale and Effort : Is the Relationship Causal?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hassink, W.H.J.; Fernandez, Roberto M.

    2015-01-01

    We investigate a unique setting which enables us to distinguish between two theories of work performance. A standard labor supply framework implies a negative effect of the nonpecuniary cost of work on the employee’s effort. In contrast, a model of worker morale that is consistent with a widely used

  2. The Originality of Regionalism in Castile and Leon Between 1931 and 1932. A Genuine Proyect or the Need to Assume a Second Best?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Felipe PALACIOS

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Between 1931 and 1932, as in other regions of Spain, Castile and Leon saw the resurgence of a regionalism that, so far, had hardly shown any signs of vitality. From this point, the question that arises is whether the renewed regionalist activity in Castile and Leon reflected an original feeling or was the consequence of the political advancement in Catalonia and of the new model of territorial organization regulated by the 1931 Constitution. Considering the behavior and the statements of the political, social and institutional forces, we can say that the regionalism in Castile and Leon did not respond to a genuine feeling but it was the result of the necessity of assuming a second best.

  3. The effects of scaffolding in the classroom : support contingency and student independent working time in relation to student achievement, task effort and appreciation of support

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van de Pol, Janneke; Volman, Monique; Oort, Frans; Beishuizen, Jos

    2015-01-01

    Teacher scaffolding, in which teachers support students adaptively or contingently, is assumed to be effective. Yet, hardly any evidence from classroom studies exists. With the current experimental classroom study we investigated whether scaffolding affects students’ achievement, task effort, and ap

  4. The effects of scaffolding in the classroom: support contingency and student independent working time in relation to student achievement, task effort and appreciation of support

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van de Pol, J.; Volman, M.; Oort, F.; Beishuizen, J.

    2015-01-01

    Teacher scaffolding, in which teachers support students adaptively or contingently, is assumed to be effective. Yet, hardly any evidence from classroom studies exists. With the current experimental classroom study we investigated whether scaffolding affects students’ achievement, task effort, and ap

  5. The canonical Luminous Blue Variable AG Car and its neighbor Hen 3-519 are much closer than previously assumed

    CERN Document Server

    Smith, Nathan

    2016-01-01

    The strong mass loss of Luminous Blue Variables (LBVs) is thought to play a critical role in the evolution of massive stars, but the physics of their instability and their place in the evolutionary sequence remains uncertain and debated. A key to understanding their peculiar instability is their high observed luminosity, which for Galactic LBVs often depends on an uncertain distance estimate. Here we report direct distances and space motions of four canonical Milky Way LBVs---AG Car, HR Car, HD 168607, and (the LBV candidate) Hen 3-519---whose parallaxes and proper motions have been provided by the Gaia first data release. Whereas the distances of HR Car and HD 168607 are consistent with those previously adopted in the literature within the uncertainty, we find that the distances to Hen 3-519 and AG Car, both at $\\sim$2 kpc, are much closer than the 6--8 kpc distances previously assumed. For Hen 3-519, this moves the star far from the locus of LBVs on the HR Diagram. AG Car has been considered a defining exam...

  6. Controlling a transfer trajectory with realistic impulses assumming perturbations in the Sun-Earth-Moon Quasi-Bicircular Problem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leiva, A. M.; Briozzo, C. B.

    In a previous work we successfully implemented a control algorithm to stabilize unstable periodic orbits in the Sun-Earth-Moon Quasi-Bicircular Problem (QBCP). Applying the same techniques, in this work we stabilize an unstable trajectory performing fast transfers between the Earth and the Moon in a dynamical system similar to the QBCP but incorporating the gravitational perturbation of the planets Mercury, Venus, Mars, Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, and Neptune, assumed to move on circular coplanar heliocentric orbits. In the control stage we used as a reference trajectory an unstable periodic orbit from the unperturbed QBCP. We performed 400 numerical experiments integrating the trajectories over time spans of ~40 years, taking for each one random values for the initial positions of the planets. In all cases the control impulses applied were larger than 20 cm/s, consistently with realistic implementations. The minimal and maximal yearly mean consumptions were ~10 m/s and ~71 m/s, respectively. FULL TEXT IN SPANISH

  7. An Effective ARMA Modeling Method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-04-01

    directed towards spectral analysis, power spectral density function the preponderance of effort has been directed to- wards two special cases of the...domain spectral density function than from pole model, and, the general ARMA model is seen to its equivalent time domain autocorrelation sequence. be...n-k) (11) prediction. Assuming this prediction behavior, it k-I then follows from relationship (11) that the spectral density function of the time

  8. Supply Chain Coordination with Sales Effort Effects and Impact of Loss Aversion on Effort Decision

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SUO Hansheng; WANG Jingchun; JIN Yihui

    2005-01-01

    A new supply contract based on sharing the sales profits as well as the cost of effort was developed to coordinate the supply chain with sales effort effects. The contract coordinates the supplier's actions with voluntary compliance; the contract is symmetric in the sense that both the supplier's and retailer's profits are linearly correlated and is more easily implemented in some situations. The impact of the retailer's loss aversion on his effort is investigated based on the contract. After characterizing the retailer's optimal solutions, this paper demonstrates that contrary to intuition, loss aversion weakens incentives for retailer's sales effort and the retailer's optimal effort decreases as the loss aversion increases.

  9. Productive and ineffective efforts: how student effort in high school mathematics relates to college calculus success

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnett, M. D.; Sonnert, G.; Sadler, P. M.

    2014-10-01

    Relativizing the popular belief that student effort is the key to success, this article finds that effort in the most advanced mathematics course in US high schools is not consistently associated with college calculus performance. We distinguish two types of student effort: productive and ineffective efforts. Whereas the former carries the commonly expected benefits, the latter is associated with negative consequences. Time spent reading the course text in US high schools was negatively related to college calculus performance. Daily study time, however, was found to be either a productive or an ineffective effort, depending on the level of high school mathematics course and the student's performance in it.

  10. Different effort constructs and effort-reward imbalance: Effects on employee well-being in ancillary health care workers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vegchel, N. van; Jonge, J. de; Meijer, T.; Hamers, J.P.H.

    2001-01-01

    Aims of the study. The present study investigates the relationship between Effort–Reward Imbalance (ERI) and employee well-being, using three different concepts of efforts (i.e. psychological demands, physical demands and emotional demands). Background. The ERI model had been used as a

  11. Simplified approach to effort estimation in software maintenance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petr Marounek

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available This article introduces software support and maintenance from effort estimation perspective. Software maintenance is a set of activities needed for cost-effective support of IT solution. More or less, delivery strategies and best practices focus mostly on delivery process and only some of them partially cover effort estimation. Magne Jørgensen in his work formulated conclusions that 83 to 84% of all estimation is done by pure expert estimates and estimating models are not used basically due to their complexity. Author introduced his simplified, easy to use approach to effort estimation in software maintenance based on extending PERT formula about quality of estimator and historical experience. Both formulas were verified in sub-competence center for supporting mortgage IS with significantly better result than only pure PERT estimate (98.8% and 91.8% against pure PERT 90.1%.

  12. The Canonical Luminous Blue Variable AG Car and Its Neighbor Hen 3-519 are Much Closer than Previously Assumed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Nathan; Stassun, Keivan G.

    2017-03-01

    The strong mass loss of Luminous Blue Variables (LBVs) is thought to play a critical role in massive-star evolution, but their place in the evolutionary sequence remains debated. A key to understanding their peculiar instability is their high observed luminosities, which often depends on uncertain distances. Here we report direct distances and space motions of four canonical Milky Way LBVs—AG Car, HR Car, HD 168607, and (candidate) Hen 3-519—from the Gaia first data release. Whereas the distances of HR Car and HD 168607 are consistent with previous literature estimates within the considerable uncertainties, Hen 3-519 and AG Car, both at ∼2 kpc, are much closer than the 6–8 kpc distances previously assumed. As a result, Hen 3-519 moves far from the locus of LBVs on the Hertzsprung–Russell diagram, making it a much less luminous object. For AG Car, considered a defining example of a classical LBV, its lower luminosity would also move it off the S Dor instability strip. Lower luminosities allow both AG Car and Hen 3-519 to have passed through a previous red supergiant phase, lower the mass estimates for their shell nebulae, and imply that binary evolution is needed to account for their peculiarities. These results may also impact our understanding of LBVs as potential supernova progenitors and their isolated environments. Improved distances will be provided in the Gaia second data release, which will include additional LBVs. AG Car and Hen 3-519 hint that this new information may alter our traditional view of LBVs.

  13. Examining Requirements Change Rework Effort: A Study

    CERN Document Server

    Chua, Bee Bee; 10.5121/ijsea.2010.1304

    2010-01-01

    Although software managers are generally good at new project estimation, their experience of scheduling rework tends to be poor. Inconsistent or incorrect effort estimation can increase the risk that the completion time for a project will be problematic. To continually alter software maintenance schedules during software maintenance is a daunting task. Our proposed framework, validated in a case study confirms that the variables resulting from requirements changes suffer from a number of problems, e.g., the coding used, end user involvement and user documentation. Our results clearly show a significant impact on rework effort as a result of unexpected errors that correlate with 1) weak characteristics and attributes as described in the program's source lines of code, especially in data declarations and data statements, 2) lack of communication between developers and users on a change effects, and 3) unavailability of user documentation. To keep rework effort under control, new criteria in change request forms...

  14. When is an “Extinct” Species Really Extinct? Gauging the Search Efforts for Hawaiian Forest Birds and the Ivory-Billed Woodpecker

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Michael. Scott

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Rare species, particularly those in inaccessible habitat, can go years without being observed. If we are to allocate conservation resources appropriately to conserving such species, it is important to be able to distinguish “rare” from “extinct.” Criteria for designating extinction, however, tend to be arbitrary or vaguely defined. This designation should not be made unless the search effort has been sufficient to yield a high degree of confidence that the species is in fact absent. We develop models to assess the probability of extinction and the search effort necessary to detect an individual in a small population. We apply these models to searches for nine potentially extinct Hawaiian forest birds and for the Ivory-billed Woodpecker (Campephilus principalis in intensively searched areas in Arkansas. The Hawaiian forest bird survey was extensive, providing excellent information on population sizes and habitat associations of species encountered during the survey. Nonetheless, we conclude that the survey effort was not sufficient to conclude extinction (p > 0.90 for populations of 10 or fewer individuals for those species that were not encountered during surveys. In contrast, our analysis for Ivory-billed Woodpeckers suggests that, unless there were actually two or fewer birds present, the search effort was sufficient to conclude (p > 0.95 that Ivory-billed woodpeckers were not present in the intensively searched area. If one assumes distributions other than uniform, there is a greater chance that Ivory-billed Woodpeckers may persist in the intensively searched areas. Conclusions regarding occupancy of suitable habitat throughout the rest of the former range will require similarly intensive survey efforts. The degree of confidence in the absence of the Ivory-billed Woodpecker depended in part on our assumptions about the distribution of birds in the search area. For species with limited detection distance and small populations, a

  15. Parabolic discounting of monetary rewards by physical effort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartmann, Matthias N; Hager, Oliver M; Tobler, Philippe N; Kaiser, Stefan

    2013-11-01

    When humans and other animals make decisions in their natural environments prospective rewards have to be weighed against costs. It is well established that increasing costs lead to devaluation or discounting of reward. While our knowledge about discount functions for time and probability costs is quite advanced, little is known about how physical effort discounts reward. In the present study we compared three different models in a binary choice task in which human participants had to squeeze a handgrip to earn monetary rewards: a linear, a hyperbolic, and a parabolic model. On the group as well as the individual level, the concave parabolic model explained most variance of the choice data, thus contrasting with the typical hyperbolic discounting of reward value by delay. Research on effort discounting is not only important to basic science but also holds the potential to quantify aberrant motivational states in neuropsychiatric disorders.

  16. 付出-回馈工作压力模型:西方国家十年来研究的回顾与评析%Effort-Reward Imbalance Model: A Review of Empirical Researches in Western Countries

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗玉越; 舒晓兵; 史茜

    2011-01-01

    付出-回馈工作压力模型((Effort-Reward Imbalance,ERI)以社会交换理论为视角,从付出、回馈、过度投入三个方面探讨了工作压力的形成机制和作用机理.在对近十几年来有关ERI模型实证研究文献的梳理和分析的基础上,系统地介绍ERI模型的理论基础、模型的适用性验证、相关变量探索及模型拓展等,发现目前的ERI模型具有较好的解释力和适用性,但是模型的中间变量及交互假设有待进一步探索,付出、回报失衡值的计算方法尚需进一步优化.

  17. 制造商促销努力下的三级供应链收益共享契约模型%Study on Three-echelon Supply Chain Benefit Sharing Contract Model with Manufacturer Promotion Effort

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵倩茹; 马凯

    2015-01-01

    分析了制造商的促销努力因素对收益共享契约协调供应链的影响。研究发现制造商仅仅获得了由于其促销努力行为活动而带来的收益中的一部分,但却要承担所有的努力活动成本,导致收益共享契约无法协调供应链。为此在三级供应链中的1个或2个交易过程中引入回馈与惩罚策略,解决了单纯的收益共享契约无法协调供应链的问题,使得供应链恢复到协调状态。%In this paper, we analyzed the influence of the promotion effort of the manufacturer on the benefit sharing contract intended to coordinate the supply chain, and identified why the benefit sharing contract failed to coordinate the supply chain, for which purpose, we introduced the feedback and penalty strategy to restore the supply chain back to the state of coordination.

  18. 框架理论视角下多任务处理模式的运用--电视访谈类节目口译的实践研究%The Application of Effort Models under the Perspective of Frame Theory-Interpreting Practice and research of TV In-terviews

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曲江波

    2015-01-01

    该文以W.Rooney和J.Rener的两期人物专访为样本,试图针对电视访谈节目的英汉同传实践,将框架理论和任务处理模式进行有机结合,整理出一种行之有效的处理模式,即框架理论体系下的多任务处理模式(Effort Models under Frame Theory),在确立并构建好相应的框架后,运用多任务处理模式对同传过程进行实践,验证该种模式的可行性,并在此基础上探讨省略、增补、搭建记忆等技巧的运用,从而为口译实践提供些许实证研究。%The article takes two interviews of W.Rooney and J.Rener for example, tries to summarize an effective mode of interpre⁃tation aimed at TV interviews on the basis of combining the Frame Theory and the Effort Models, that’s the so-called Effort Models under Frame Theory. After structuring the frame, I used the Effort models to practice to test the feasibility of it ,and tired to study the use of omission, addition and building memory on the basis of that, therefore some empirical researches will be offered to inter⁃pretation practice.

  19. Effort - Final technical report on task 3

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bay, Niels; Henningsen, Poul; Eriksen, Morten;

    The present report is documentation for the work carried out at DTU on the Brite/Euram project No. BE96-3340, contract No. BRPR-CT97-0398, with the title Enhanced Framework for forging design using reliable three-dimensional simulation (EFFORTS). The objective of task 3 is to determine data...

  20. The Galileo Teacher Training Program Global Efforts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doran, R.; Pennypacker, C.; Ferlet, R.

    2012-08-01

    The Galileo Teacher Training Program (GTTP) successfully named representatives in nearly 100 nations in 2009, the International Year of Astronomy (IYA2009). The challenge had just begun. The steps ahead are how to reach educators that might benefit from our program and how to help build a more fair and science literate society, a society in which good tools and resources for science education are not the privilege of a few. From 2010 on our efforts have been to strengthen the newly formed network and learn how to equally help educators and students around the globe. New partnerships with other strong programs and institutions are being formed, sponsorship schemes being outlined, new tools and resources being publicized, and on-site and video conference training conducted all over the world. Efforts to officially accredit a GTTP curriculum are on the march and a stronger certification process being outlined. New science topics are being integrated in our effort and we now seek to discuss the path ahead with experts in this field and the community of users, opening the network to all corners of our beautiful blue dot. The main aim of this article is to open the discussion regarding the urgent issue of how to reawaken student interest in science, how to solve the gender inequality in science careers, and how to reach the underprivileged students and open to them the same possibilities. Efforts are in strengthening the newly formed network and learning how to equally help educators and students around the globe.

  1. Report: hospitals need more sophisticated planning efforts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, H J

    1990-09-20

    Sophisticated planning efforts are increasing among hospitals. However, hospital planners and marketers still have far to go before they can match their counterparts in industry. This is according to a report on hospital planning recently released by the Society for Healthcare Planning and Marketing of the American Hospital Association, Chicago.

  2. Student Effort, Consistency, and Online Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patron, Hilde; Lopez, Salvador

    2011-01-01

    This paper examines how student effort, consistency, motivation, and marginal learning, influence student grades in an online course. We use data from eleven Microeconomics courses taught online for a total of 212 students. Our findings show that consistency, or less time variation, is a statistically significant explanatory variable, whereas…

  3. School Trips: Are They Worth the Effort?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, Robert

    2015-01-01

    Even the most basic of school trips will require booking places, arranging transport, writing to parents, collecting payments, planning activities, producing worksheets and, of course, endless risk assessments. It always leaves teachers wondering: "is it really worth all this effort?" Robert Johnston believes that every teacher should…

  4. Revolutionary Educational Reform Efforts in Latin America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paulston, Rolland G.

    1975-01-01

    The author briefly examines how educational reform attempts in Cuba since 1959 have taken place and how they have been related to social, economic, and political change efforts in the society at large. The Cuban educational system makes a significant contrast against the failure which characterizes the other Latin American educational systems.…

  5. CAS Headquarters Steps Up Efficiency Efforts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    @@ As part of China's S&T system reform and national Knowledge Innovation Program (KIP) spearheaded by CAS, an effort to downsize the administration at the CAS headquarters has made significant progress,Vice President Yang Bailing announced at a conference for position-engagement at the CAS headquarters on Nov. 4 in Beijing.

  6. Lessons from the Physics Education Reform Effort

    OpenAIRE

    Richard Hake

    2002-01-01

    Several years ago I reported a survey (Hake 1998a,b,c) of pre/post test data for 62 introductory physics courses enrolling a total of 6542 students. The present article provides a summary of that survey and presents fourteen lessons from the physics-education reform effort that may assist the general upgrading of education and science literacy.

  7. Has Malaysia's antidrug effort been effective?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scorzelli, J F

    1992-01-01

    It is a common belief that a massive effort in law enforcement, preventive education and rehabilitation will result in the elimination of a country's drug problem. Based on this premise. Malaysia in 1983 implemented such a multifaceted anti-drug strategy, and the results of a 1987 study by the author suggested that Malaysia's effort had begun to contribute to a steady decrease in the number of identified drug abusers. Although the number of drug-addicted individuals declined, the country's recidivism rates were still high. Because of this high relapse rate, Malaysia expanded their rehabilitation effort and developed a community transition program. In order to determine the impact of these changes on the country's battle against drug abuse, a follow-up study was conducted in 1990. The results of this study did not clearly demonstrate that the Malaysian effort had been successful in eliminating the problem of drug abuse, and raised some questions concerning the effectiveness of the country's drug treatment programs.

  8. Sludge, biosolids, and the propaganda model of communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rampton, Sheldon

    2002-01-01

    The Water Environment Federation's elaborate effort to rename sewage sludge as "biosolids" is an example in practice of the "propaganda model" of communications, which sees its task as indoctrinating target audiences with ideas favorable to the interests of the communicators. The propaganda model assumes that members of the public are irrational and focuses therefore on symbolic and emotional aspects of communication. This approach to communicating arouses public resentment rather than trust. In place of a "propaganda model," public officials should adopt a "democratic model," which assumes that audiences are rational and intellectually capable of meaningful participation in decision-making.

  9. Widely Assumed but Thinly Tested: Do Employee Volunteers' Self-Reported Skill Improvements Reflect the Nature of Their Volunteering Experiences?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, David A

    2016-01-01

    An increasing number of companies use corporate volunteering programs (CVPs) to support and coordinate their employees' efforts to serve their communities. Among the most frequently touted benefits of such programs to sponsoring companies and employee volunteers alike is the opportunities for employees to develop tangible work-related skills through their volunteering activities. Evidence for skill development through volunteering, however, is mostly limited to the expressed beliefs of corporate leaders and employee volunteers. This study was designed to contribute to this largely anecdotal literature by testing hypotheses about the extent to which employee volunteers' self-reported skill development reflects the characteristics of the volunteers and their volunteering experiences. Study participants were 74 employee volunteers who completed a service apprenticeship managed by a U.S.-based nonprofit called Citizen Schools that partners with middle schools to extend the learning day with a combination of academic support, enrichment, and youth development activities. Data were obtained via the nonprofit's records, and surveys completed by employee volunteers before and after their service experience, including measures used to assess self-reported improvements in each of 10 work-related skills: communicating performance expectations, leadership, mentorship, motivating others, project management, providing performance feedback, public speaking and presenting, speaking clearly, teamwork, and time management. Support was found for several hypothesized effects suggesting that employees who practiced specific skills more often during their volunteering experience reported greater improvements in those skills. Improvements in some skills were higher among employee volunteers who completed a greater number of pre-volunteering preparation courses, and the effects of preparation courses were moderated by the employee volunteers' self-efficacy about improving their work

  10. Widely Assumed but Thinly Tested: Do Employee Volunteers' Self-Reported Skill Improvements Reflect the Nature of Their Volunteering Experiences?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, David A.

    2016-01-01

    An increasing number of companies use corporate volunteering programs (CVPs) to support and coordinate their employees' efforts to serve their communities. Among the most frequently touted benefits of such programs to sponsoring companies and employee volunteers alike is the opportunities for employees to develop tangible work-related skills through their volunteering activities. Evidence for skill development through volunteering, however, is mostly limited to the expressed beliefs of corporate leaders and employee volunteers. This study was designed to contribute to this largely anecdotal literature by testing hypotheses about the extent to which employee volunteers' self-reported skill development reflects the characteristics of the volunteers and their volunteering experiences. Study participants were 74 employee volunteers who completed a service apprenticeship managed by a U.S.-based nonprofit called Citizen Schools that partners with middle schools to extend the learning day with a combination of academic support, enrichment, and youth development activities. Data were obtained via the nonprofit's records, and surveys completed by employee volunteers before and after their service experience, including measures used to assess self-reported improvements in each of 10 work-related skills: communicating performance expectations, leadership, mentorship, motivating others, project management, providing performance feedback, public speaking and presenting, speaking clearly, teamwork, and time management. Support was found for several hypothesized effects suggesting that employees who practiced specific skills more often during their volunteering experience reported greater improvements in those skills. Improvements in some skills were higher among employee volunteers who completed a greater number of pre-volunteering preparation courses, and the effects of preparation courses were moderated by the employee volunteers' self-efficacy about improving their work

  11. Motivational climate, behaviour regulation and perceived effort in soccer athletes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diogo Monteiro

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to test the integration of two motivational theoretical models (self-determination theory and the achievement goal theory to analyze the impact of motivational climate in the regulation of motivation and athletes´ effort perception. Participated in the study 460 athletes (male football players at both regional and national level, on the categories of beginners, youth, juniors and seniors, with 17.42 ± 4.37 years-old. The quality of the structural equation model was examined by the Chi-square value and some complementary model fit indices. The results support the model fit (S-Bχ²= 288.84, df= 147, p< 0.001, S-Bχ²/df= 1.96, SRMR= 0.049, NNFI= 0.912, CFI= 0.924, RMSEA= 0.046, 90%IC RMSEA= 0.038−0.054, suggesting that a motivational task-oriented climate has a significant positive effect on autonomous motivation, which in turn has a significant positive effect on athletes' effort perception. On the other hand, an ego-oriented environment had a positive effect on the controlled motivation, which in turn had a negative effect on athletes' effort perception, although not significant.

  12. Adverse health effects of high-effort/low-reward conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegrist, J

    1996-01-01

    In addition to the person-environment fit model (J. R. French, R. D. Caplan, & R. V. Harrison, 1982) and the demand-control model (R. A. Karasek & T. Theorell, 1990), a third theoretical concept is proposed to assess adverse health effects of stressful experience at work: the effort-reward imbalance model. The focus of this model is on reciprocity of exchange in occupational life where high-cost/low-gain conditions are considered particularly stressful. Variables measuring low reward in terms of low status control (e.g., lack of promotion prospects, job insecurity) in association with high extrinsic (e.g., work pressure) or intrinsic (personal coping pattern, e.g., high need for control) effort independently predict new cardiovascular events in a prospective study on blue-collar men. Furthermore, these variables partly explain prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors (hypertension, atherogenic lipids) in 2 independent studies. Studying adverse health effects of high-effort/low-reward conditions seems well justified, especially in view of recent developments of the labor market.

  13. Investigating Effort Prediction of Software Projects on the ISBSG Dataset

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanaa Elyassami

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Many cost estimation models have been proposed over the last three decades. In this study, we investigatefuzzy ID3 decision tree as a method for software effort estimation. Fuzzy ID software effort estimationmodel is designed by incorporating the principles of ID3 decision tree and the concepts of the fuzzy settheoretic; permitting the model to handle uncertain and imprecise data when presenting the softwareprojects.MMRE (Mean Magnitude of Relative Error and Pred(l (Prediction at level l are used, as measures ofprediction accuracy, for this study. A series of experiments is reported using ISBSG software projectsdataset. Fuzzy trees are grown using different fuzziness control thresholds.Results showed that optimizing the fuzzy ID3 parameters can improve greatly the accuracy of the generatedsoftware cost estimate.

  14. Widely Assumed but Thinly Tested: Do Employee Volunteers’ Self-Reported Skill Improvements Reflect the Nature of their Volunteering Experience?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Allen Jones

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available An increasing number of companies use corporate volunteering programs (CVPs to support and coordinate their employees’ efforts to serve their communities. Among the most frequently touted benefits of such programs to sponsoring companies and employee volunteers alike is the opportunities they provide for employees to develop tangible work-related skills through their volunteering activities. Evidence for skill development through volunteering, however, is mostly limited to the expressed beliefs of corporate leaders and employee volunteers. This study was designed to contribute to this largely anecdotal literature by testing hypotheses about the extent to which employee volunteers’ self-reported skill development reflects the characteristics of the volunteers and their volunteering experience. Study participants were 74 employees who volunteered a few hours of their time once a week for ten weeks in a service apprenticeship managed by a U.S.-based nonprofit called Citizen Schools that partners with middle schools to extend the learning day with a combination of academic support, enrichment, and youth development activities. Data were obtained via the nonprofit’s records, and surveys completed by employee volunteers before and after their service experience, including measures used to assess self-reported improvements in each of ten work-related skills: communicating performance expectations, leadership, mentorship, motivating others, project management, providing performance feedback, public speaking and presenting, speaking clearly, teamwork, and time management. Support was found for several hypothesized effects suggesting that employees who practiced specific skills more often during their volunteering experience reported greater improvements in those skills. Improvements in some skills were higher among employee volunteers who completed a greater number of pre-volunteering preparation courses, and the effects of preparation courses were

  15. Impact assessment of a fisheries closure with effort and landings spatial analyses: A case study in the Western Baltic Sea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Miethe, Tanja; Bastardie, Francois; Dorrien, Christian von;

    2014-01-01

    Link connectingDenmark and Germany could lead to the temporal closure of fishing activities. Three different effort-displacement scenarios were tested to determine how lost landings, caused by a fishing closure of acorridor near the link during construction, could be counteracted by moving...... the activities to a nearfieldarea. To compensate for lost landings, the best strategy appears to be redistributing fishing effort of sprat-targeting métiers to areas that have had relatively high catch rates (landings per unit of effort (LPUE))or with large absolute sprat landings, assuming spatial stability...... of sprat distribution in the area. Becausehigh effort did not lead to large sprat landings in all locations, effort displacement to high effort areas maynot compensate for lost sprat landings, particularly for mixed fishery métiers that also landed herring...

  16. Bayesian estimation of finite3-component mixture of Burr Type-XII distributions assuming Type-I right censoring scheme

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Tahir

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available As compared to simple models, the mixture models of underlying lifetime distributions are intuitively more appropriate and appealing to model the heterogeneous nature of process. This study focuses on the problem of estimating the parameters of a newly developed 3-component mixture of Burr Type-XII distributions using Type-I right censored data. Firstly, considering a Bayesian structure, some mathematical properties of a 3-component mixture of Burr Type-XII distributions are discussed. These mathematical properties include Bayes estimators and posterior risks for the unknown component and proportion parameters using the non-informative and the informative priors under squared error loss function, precautionary loss function and DeGroot loss function. Secondly, in case when no or little prior information is available, elicitation of hyperparameters is given. Also, the posterior predictive distribution for a future observation and the Bayesian predictive interval are constructed. Moreover, the limiting expressions for the Bayes estimators and posterior risks are derived. In addition, the performance of the Bayes estimators for different sample sizes, test termination times and parametric values under different loss functions is investigated. Finally, simulated datasets are designed for the different comparisons and the model is illustrated using the real data.

  17. Making Life Easier with Effort: Basic Findings and Applied Research on Response Effort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friman, Patrick C.; Poling, Alan

    1995-01-01

    This paper summarizes basic research on response effort in diverse applied areas including deceleration of aberrant behavior, attention deficit-hyperactivity disorder, oral habits, littering, and problem solving. The paper concludes that response effort as an independent variable has potent effects, and research exploring the applied benefits of…

  18. IMPATIENCE AND ACADEMIC PERFORMANCE. LESS EFFORT AND LESS AMBITIOUS GOALS

    OpenAIRE

    Maria De Paola; Francesca Gioia

    2013-01-01

    In a simple theoretical model we show that impatience affects academic performance through two different channels: impatient students spend less effort in studying activities and set less ambitious objectives in terms of grades at exams. As a consequence, the relationship between impatience and academic success may vary according to how performance is measured. Using data from a sample of Italian undergraduate students, we find a strong negative relationship between impatience and both the av...

  19. Hybrid Neuro-Fuzzy Systems for Software Development Effort Estimation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rama Sree P

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The major prevailing challenges for Software Projects are Software Estimations like cost estimation, effort estimation, quality estimation and risk analysis. Though there are several algorithmiccost estimation models in practice, each model has its own pros and cons for estimation. There is still a need to find a model that gives accurate estimates. This paper is an attempt to experiment different types of Neuro-Fuzzy Models. Using the types of Neuro-Fuzzy Models for software effort prediction is a relatively unexplored area. Two case studies are used for this purpose. The first is based on NASA-93dataset and the other is based on Maxwell-62 dataset. The case studies were analyzed using six different criterions like Variance Accounted For (VAF, Mean Absolute Relative Error (MARE, VarianceAbsolute Relative Error (VARE, Mean Balance Relative Error (Mean BRE, Mean Magnitude Relative Error (MMRE and Prediction. From the results and from reasoning, it is concluded that Type BCompensationNeuro-Fuzzy Model with more fuzzy rules is best suitable for cases in which the datapoints are more linear. Type J Neuro-Fuzzy Model with more fuzzy rules is best suitable for cases in which the datapoints are not linear.

  20. EFFORT ADAPTATION OR SUDDEN CARDIAC DEATH?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Musat Carmina Liana

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available During training processes, the human body gradually adapts itself, yet it is hard to believe that it has beenconceived in such way that it could endure the conditions of winning a modern Olympic or world medal. Withrespect to the physical effort, there is the following paradox: if the physical effort is acknowledged as a protector of the heart on the long term, then what causes these sports-related conditions that may result in sudden death?Thus arises the necessity of tracking and evaluating the cardiovascular risk targeting the professional sportsmen, their EKG fluctuations, the cardiovascular causes of sudden death, the part played by the physician and the sportsman in preventing the sudden death, as well as numerous clinical cases of sports cardiology

  1. Student Effort, Consistency and Online Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hilde Patron

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines how student effort, consistency, motivation, and marginal learning, influence student grades in an online course. We use data from eleven Microeconomics courses taught online for a total of 212 students. Our findings show that consistency, or less time variation, is a statistically significant explanatory variable, whereas effort, or total minutes spent online, is not. Other independent variables include GPA and the difference between a pre-test and a post-test. The GPA is used as a measure of motivation, and the difference between a post-test and pre-test as marginal learning. As expected, the level of motivation is found statistically significant at a 99% confidence level, and marginal learning is also significant at a 95% level.

  2. Autonomous Preservation Tools in Minimal Effort Ingest

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jurik, Bolette Ammitzbøll; Blekinge, Asger Askov; Andersen, Thorbjørn Ravn

    2016-01-01

    This poster presents the concept of Autonomous Preservation Tools, as developed by the State and University Library, Denmark. The work expands the idea of Minimal Effort Ingest, where most preservation actions such as Quality Assurance and enrichment of the digital objects are performed after con...... content is ingested for preservation, rather than before. We present our Newspaper Digitisation Project as a case-study of real-world implementations of Autonomous Preservation Tools.......This poster presents the concept of Autonomous Preservation Tools, as developed by the State and University Library, Denmark. The work expands the idea of Minimal Effort Ingest, where most preservation actions such as Quality Assurance and enrichment of the digital objects are performed after...

  3. Effort variation regularization in sound field reproduction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stefanakis, Nick; Jacobsen, Finn; Sarris, Ioannis

    2010-01-01

    . Specifically, it is suggested that the phase differential of the source driving signals should be in agreement with the phase differential of the desired sound pressure field. The performance of the suggested method is compared with that of conventional effort regularization, wave field synthesis (WFS......In this paper, active control is used in order to reproduce a given sound field in an extended spatial region. A method is proposed which minimizes the reproduction error at a number of control positions with the reproduction sources holding a certain relation within their complex strengths......), and adaptive wave field synthesis (AWFS), both under free-field conditions and in reverberant rooms. It is shown that effort variation regularization overcomes the problems associated with small spaces and with a low ratio of direct to reverberant energy, improving thus the reproduction accuracy...

  4. Comparative Analysis of VNSA Complex Engineering Efforts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gary Ackerman

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The case studies undertaken in this special issue demonstrate unequivocally that, despite being forced to operate clandestinely and facing the pressures of security forces seeking to hunt them down and neutralize them, at least a subset of violent non-state actors (VNSAs are capable of some genuinely impressive feats of engineering. At the same time, success in such endeavours is not guaranteed and VNSAs will undoubtedly face a number of obstacles along the way. A comparative analysis of the cases also reveals new insights about the factors influencing the decision to pursue complex engineering efforts, the implementation of such decisions and the determinants of the ultimate outcome. These result in a set of hypotheses and indicators that, if confirmed by future research, can contribute to both operational and strategic intelligence assessments. Overall, the current study enriches our understanding of how and why VNSAs might engage in complex engineering efforts.

  5. Autonomous Preservation Tools in Minimal Effort Ingest

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jurik, Bolette Ammitzbøll; Blekinge, Asger Askov; Andersen, Thorbjørn Ravn

    2016-01-01

    This poster presents the concept of Autonomous Preservation Tools, as developed by the State and University Library, Denmark. The work expands the idea of Minimal Effort Ingest, where most preservation actions such as Quality Assurance and enrichment of the digital objects are performed after...... content is ingested for preservation, rather than before. We present our Newspaper Digitisation Project as a case-study of real-world implementations of Autonomous Preservation Tools....

  6. Joint SatOPS Compatibility Efforts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Danford

    2010-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews NASA Goddard Space Flight Center's (GSFC) participation in the interagency cooperation committee, the Joint SatOps Compatibility Committee (JSCC), and the compatible Sat 2 efforts. Part of GSFC's participation in the JSCC is to work with the Goddard Mission Systems Evolution Center (GMSEC) to provides a publish/subscribe framework to enable rapid integration of commercially available satellite control products.

  7. Announcement as effort on topological spaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hans van Ditmarsch

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available We propose a multi-agent logic of knowledge, public and arbitrary announcements, that is interpreted on topological spaces in the style of subset space semantics. The arbitrary announcement modality functions similarly to the effort modality in subset space logics, however, it comes with intuitive and semantic differences. We provide axiomatizations for three logics based on this setting, and demonstrate their completeness.

  8. What Motivates California's Global Promotion Efforts

    OpenAIRE

    Axelrad, Lee

    1991-01-01

    State governments in the U.S. have increasingly been promoting their business climate and products abroad. The motivation behind these efforts at "global promotion" might seem obvious to persons acquainted with export base theory. According to this theory, growth in a region's total economy-usually measured in either jobs or income -is a function of growth in its export or "basic" sectors; one builds an economy by building exports. Export base theory has been a mainstay of economic ...

  9. Early College for All: Efforts to Scale up Early Colleges in Multiple Settings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edmunds, Julie A.

    2016-01-01

    Given the positive impacts of the small, stand-alone early college model and the desire to provide those benefits to more students, organizations have begun efforts to scale up the early college model in a variety of settings. These efforts have been supported by the federal government, particularly by the Investing in Innovation (i3) program.…

  10. Prosocial apathy for helping others when effort is required.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lockwood, Patricia L; Hamonet, Mathilde; Zhang, Samuel H; Ratnavel, Anya; Salmony, Florentine U; Husain, Masud; Apps, Matthew A J

    2017-07-01

    Prosocial acts - those that are costly to ourselves but benefit others - are a central component of human co-existence1-3. While the financial and moral costs of prosocial behaviours are well understood4-6, everyday prosocial acts do not typically come at such costs. Instead, they require effort. Here, using computational modelling of an effort-based task we show that people are prosocially apathetic. They are less willing to choose to initiate highly effortful acts that benefit others compared to benefitting themselves. Moreover, even when choosing to initiate effortful prosocial acts, people show superficiality, exerting less force into actions that benefit others than themselves. These findings replicated, were present when the other was anonymous or not, and when choices were made to earn rewards or avoid losses. Importantly, the least prosocially motivated people had higher subclinical levels of psychopathy and social apathy. Thus, although people sometimes 'help out', they are less motivated to benefit others and sometimes 'superficially prosocial', which may characterise everyday prosociality and its disruption in social disorders.

  11. Mere effort and stereotype threat performance effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamieson, Jeremy P; Harkins, Stephen G

    2007-10-01

    Although the fact that stereotype threat impacts performance is well established, the underlying process(es) is(are) not clear. Recently, T. Schmader and M. Johns (2003) argued for a working memory interference account, which proposes that performance suffers because cognitive resources are expended on processing information associated with negative stereotypes. The antisaccade task provides a vehicle to test this account because optimal performance requires working memory resources to inhibit the tendency to look at an irrelevant, peripheral cue (the prepotent response) and to generate volitional saccades to the target. If stereotype threat occupies working memory resources, then the ability to inhibit the prepotent response and to launch volitional saccades will be impaired, and performance will suffer. In contrast, S. Harkins's (2006) mere effort account argues that stereotype threat participants are motivated to perform well, which potentiates the prepotent response, but also leads to efforts to counter this tendency if participants recognize that the response is incorrect, know the correct response, and have the opportunity to make it. Results from 4 experiments support the mere effort but not the working memory interference account.

  12. International efforts to develop biospecimen best practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaught, Jimmie B; Caboux, Elodie; Hainaut, Pierre

    2010-04-01

    Variables introduced during the processes involved in biospecimen collection, processing, storage, and analysis are among the potential sources of bias in biomarker research. International efforts are under way to develop best practices to standardize biospecimen handling protocols. In general, documents on best practices address three major recurring themes: technical best practices on infrastructure and specimen handling, recommendations on informatics and data management, and recommendations on ethical, legal, and social issues. There are many areas of agreement among various international efforts, but no single set of practices has emerged as a unifying document. The ethical, legal, and social issues are particularly difficult to harmonize due to the many country-specific issues that are governed by a variety of local and federal rules and regulations. Given the increasingly international nature of research involving biomarkers and biospecimens, it will be necessary to continue to cooperate in the development of harmonized evidence-based best practices. Several international organizations including the International Cancer Genome Consortium are engaged in such efforts.

  13. An Overview of the Launch Vehicle Blast Environments Development Efforts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, Erin; Bangham, Mike; Blackwood, James; Skinner, Troy; Hays, Michael; Jackson, Austin; Richman, Ben

    2014-01-01

    NASA has been funding an ongoing development program to characterize the explosive environments produced during a catastrophic launch vehicle accident. These studies and small-scale tests are focused on the near field environments that threaten the crew. The results indicate that these environments are unlikely to result in immediate destruction of the crew modules. The effort began as an independent assessment by NASA safety organizations, followed by the Ares program and NASA Engineering and Safety Center and now as a Space Launch Systems (SLS) focused effort. The development effort is using the test and accident data available from public or NASA sources as well as focused scaled tests that are examining the fundamental aspects of uncontained explosions of Hydrogen and air and Hydrogen and Oxygen. The primary risk to the crew appears to be the high-energy fragments and these are being characterized for the SLS. The development efforts will characterize the thermal environment of the explosions as well to ensure that the risk is well understood and to document the overall energy balance of an explosion. The effort is multi-path in that analytical, computational and focused testing is being used to develop the knowledge to understand potential SLS explosions. This is an ongoing program with plans that expand the development from fundamental testing at small-scale levels to large-scale tests that can be used to validate models for commercial programs. The ultimate goal is to develop a knowledge base that can be used by vehicle designers to maximize crew survival in an explosion.

  14. First, Assume a Monopoly: The Failure of Vertical Foreclosure Theory on the Never-Was-Neutral Internet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Douglas A. Hass

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Internet service providers and their customers have understood and debated the concepts of net neutrality since the beginning of the era of dial-up bulletin board systems. Commentators have only recently joined the debate, and often overlook history. No commentator, legislator, or regulator can be certain how networks and technologies will evolve over the next decade - especially when they misunderstand how those networks evolved over the last one. This paper refocuses the net neutrality debate by challenging the application of vertical foreclosure theory to today's non-neutral Internet access and content markets. The paper finds that the current policy fascination with non-existent net neutrality is ill founded. Disclosure and a broader focus on both network and content providers' non-neutral traffic policies would better enable the market to choose technologies and business models dynamically while still providing regulators with a potential enforcement mechanism.

  15. Implementing Successful Geoscience Education and Outreach Efforts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braile, L. W.

    2004-12-01

    Successful geoscience Education and Outreach (E&O) efforts associated with a research program benefit from effective planning and a commitment by scientists/researchers to become more knowledgeable about and involved in education. Several suggested strategies have evolved based on experience in Earth science E&O with K-16 educators and students during the past 10 years. E&O programs and materials should be developed at appropriate levels ("start from where they're at") and utilize information, skills and topics that are most relevant to students and teachers. Hands-on and inquiry-based activities that teach or reinforce fundamental science understanding and skills, while introducing new topics, results and discoveries, are particularly effective. It is useful to design materials that can provide for a range of time commitment, level of technical skills, and effort, so that introductory to in-depth curriculum units can be implemented. Use of the Internet and working with teachers can be effective methods for dissemination and taking advantage of a "multiplying factor". Obtaining feedback and evaluation of the programs and developed materials, and connecting the materials to national or state education standards are also highly recommended. Most importantly, scientists should become more involved in the science education community. Attending and presenting papers at appropriate science education sessions or workshops, or state or national science teacher meetings (the annual National Science Teachers Association convention is an excellent place to start) can be a significant educational experience for the scientist/researcher. Effective geoscience E&O programs have significant potential for enhancing K-16 education and scientific literacy, and can help attract students to the sciences. Perhaps surprisingly, these efforts have substantial positive impact on the scientist/researcher as well.

  16. Estimation of Tax Capacity and Effort and Oil Revenue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahnaz Rabiei

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the tax capacity and effort and its relationship with oil revenue of 6 selected countries member in OPEC such as Iran, Kuwait, United Arab Emirates, Venezuela, Algeria and Saudi Arabia are considered. The study has been applied by panel data within 1990-2008. According to the results of Husman test, fixed effects method was confirmed for estimation of panel data. Therefore, tax capacity model was compiled and estimated via fixed effects method. The variables affecting the tax capacity including per capita income, open economics (import and export ratio to the gross domestic product and oil revenue ratio to gross domestic product and tax capacity with one lag were considered. The summary of the analysis indicated that the relationship between the per capita income, oil revenue to gross domestic product ratio and tax capacity with one lag and dependent variable is positive and significant. Whilst the open economics grade in the oil countries has negative and significant relationship with the tax capacity. At the next stage, the tax effort was computed for the studied countries according to the results of tax capacity model estimation. The results of this study indicated that the tax effort in Iran is placed in lower ranks than Venezuela, Algeria and with a inconsiderable difference to Saudi Arabia in the fourth rank out of six studied countries.

  17. Postconcussive complaints, cognition, symptom attribution and effort among veterans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larson, Eric B; Kondiles, Bethany R; Starr, Christine R; Zollman, Felise S

    2013-01-01

    The etiology of postconcussive symptoms is not clearly understood. Development of etiological models of those symptoms will be helpful for accurate diagnosis and for planning effective treatment. Such a model should characterize the role of subject characteristics (education, premorbid intelligence), social psychological factors and symptom validity. Toward that end, the present study examined the association of postconcussive complaints and cognitive performance with symptom attribution and level of effort on testing. In a sample of 155 veterans, attribution to concussion was associated with endorsement of more severe postconcussive complaints, after controlling for the effects of other factors such as subject characteristics. Similarly, effort was associated with cognitive performance after controlling for the effects of these other factors. The present findings are consistent with previous reports that illness perception and effort on testing are associated with postconcussive complaints. This supports previous recommendations to routinely educate all concussion patients immediately after injury to reduce distorted perceptions and related persistent complaints. Finally, these findings highlight a need for routine assessment of patients' perception of their injury to identify cases that may require psychotherapy to address any misattributions that develop.

  18. Multipartite Entanglement Detection with Minimal Effort

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knips, Lukas; Schwemmer, Christian; Klein, Nico; Wieśniak, Marcin; Weinfurter, Harald

    2016-11-01

    Certifying entanglement of a multipartite state is generally considered a demanding task. Since an N qubit state is parametrized by 4N-1 real numbers, one might naively expect that the measurement effort of generic entanglement detection also scales exponentially with N . Here, we introduce a general scheme to construct efficient witnesses requiring a constant number of measurements independent of the number of qubits for states like, e.g., Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger states, cluster states, and Dicke states. For four qubits, we apply this novel method to experimental realizations of the aforementioned states and prove genuine four-partite entanglement with two measurement settings only.

  19. Educational Outreach Efforts at the NNDC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holden, N.E., E-mail: holden@bnl.gov

    2014-06-15

    Isotopes and nuclides are important in our everyday life. The general public and most students are never exposed to the concepts of stable and radioactive isotopes/nuclides. The National Nuclear Data Center (NNDC) is involved in an international project to develop a Periodic Table of the Isotopes for the educational community to illustrate the importance of isotopes and nuclides in understanding the world around us. This effort should aid teachers in introducing these concepts to students from the high school to the graduate school level.

  20. Educational Outreach Efforts at the NNDC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holden, N. E. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States)

    2014-06-01

    We found that isotopes and nuclides are important in our everyday life. The general public and most students are never exposed to the concepts of stable and radioactive isotopes/nuclides. The National Nuclear Data Center (NNDC) is involved in an international project to develop a Periodic Table of the Isotopes for the educational community to illustrate the importance of isotopes and nuclides in understanding the world around us. Our effort should aid teachers in introducing these concepts to students from the high school to the graduate school level.

  1. River gradient anomalies reveal recent tectonic movements when assuming an exponential gradient decrease along a river course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Žibret, Gorazd; Žibret, Lea

    2017-03-01

    High resolution digital models, combined with GIS or other terrain modelling software, allow many new possibilities in geoscience. In this paper we develop, describe and test a novel method, the GLA method, to detect active tectonic uplift or subsidence along river courses. It is a modification of Hack's SL-index method in order to overcome the disadvantages of the latter. The core assumption of the GLA method is that over geological time river profiles quickly adjust to follow an exponential decrease in elevation along the river course. Any large deviation can be attributed to active tectonic movement, or to disturbances in erosion/sedimentation processes caused by an anthropogenic structure (e.g. artificial dam). During the testing phase, the locations of identified deviations were compared to the locations of faults, identified on a 1:100,000 geological map. Results show that higher magnitude deviations are found within a maximum radius of 200 m from the fault, and the majority of detected deviations within a maximum radius of 600 m from faults or thrusts. However, these results are not the best that could be obtained because the geological map that was used (and the only one available for the area) is not of the appropriate scale, and was therefore not precise enough. Comparison of deviation magnitudes against PSInSAR measurements of vertical displacements in the vicinity revealed that in spite of the very few suitable points available, a good correlation between both independent methods was obtained (R2 = 0.68 for the E research area and R2 = 0.69 for the W research area). The GLA method was applied to the three test sites where previous studies have shown active tectonic movements. It shows that deviations occur at the intersections between active faults and river courses, as well as also correctly detected active uplift, attributed to the increased sedimentation rate above an artificial hydropower dam, and an increased erosion rate below. The method gives

  2. Optimized Fuzzy Logic Based Framework for Effort Estimation in Software Development

    CERN Document Server

    Sharma, Vishal

    2010-01-01

    Software effort estimation at early stages of project development holds great significance for the industry to meet the competitive demands of today's world. Accuracy, reliability and precision in the estimates of effort are quite desirable. The inherent imprecision present in the inputs of the algorithmic models like Constructive Cost Model (COCOMO) yields imprecision in the output, resulting in erroneous effort estimation. Fuzzy logic based cost estimation models are inherently suitable to address the vagueness and imprecision in the inputs, to make reliable and accurate estimates of effort. In this paper, we present an optimized fuzzy logic based framework for software development effort prediction. The said framework tolerates imprecision, incorporates experts knowledge, explains prediction rationale through rules, offers transparency in the prediction system, and could adapt to changing environments with the availability of new data. The traditional cost estimation model COCOMO is extended in the propose...

  3. Regional Effort to Deploy Clean Coal Technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gerald Hill; Kenneth Nemeth; Gary Garrett; Kimberly Sams

    2009-01-31

    The Southern States Energy Board's (SSEB) 'Regional Effort to Deploy Clean Coal Technologies' program began on June 1, 2003, and was completed on January 31, 2009. The project proved beneficial in providing state decision-makers with information that assisted them in removing barriers or implementing incentives to deploy clean coal technologies. This was accomplished through two specific tasks: (1) domestic energy security and diversity; and (2) the energy-water interface. Milestones accomplished during the project period are: (1) Presentations to Annual Meetings of SSEB Members, Associate Member Meetings, and the Gasification Technologies Council. (2) Energy: Water reports - (A) Regional Efforts to Deploy Clean Coal Technologies: Impacts and Implications for Water Supply and Quality. June 2004. (B) Energy-Water Interface Challenges: Coal Bed Methane and Mine Pool Water Characterization in the Southern States Region. 2004. (C) Freshwater Availability and Constraints on Thermoelectric Power Generation in the Southeast U.S. June 2008. (3) Blackwater Interactive Tabletop Exercise - Decatur, Georgia April 2007. (4) Blackwater Report: Blackwater: Energy and Water Interdependency Issues: Best Practices and Lessons Learned. August 2007. (5) Blackwater Report: BLACKWATER: Energy Water Interdependency Issues REPORT SUMMARY. April 2008.

  4. HEP data in education and outreach efforts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellis, Matt

    2010-02-01

    The High Energy Physics (HEP) community has recognized that data preservation is an important part of our future and has organized an international working committee to address this. Beyond the continued data mining which can take place, there is a great opportunity to use these datasets as teaching tools, both for university students and an interested general public. The BABAR experiment at the SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory has a dedicated group working on the preservation effort; the education and outreach effort is a significant goal of this group. Retention of knowledge and conceptual understanding is enhanced by active participation in problem solving -- a challenge that can be addressed with more involved projects than currently available to the general public from the HEP outreach centers. We are developing a framework that will make subsets of the BABAR dataset available to others, along with computing tools and tutorials, so that interested parties can work through either parts or the whole of a variety of analyses. With the proper framework, this may be used by other HEP experiments as a way to make their physics available and teachable beyond our community. The scope of this project may be extended to teach the next generation of particle physicists, who may lack immediate data, by providing them with datasets with which to prepare themselves for upcoming experiments. )

  5. Sidoarjo mudflow phenomenon and its mitigation efforts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wibowo, H. T.; Williams, V.

    2009-12-01

    Hot mud first erupted in Siring village, Porong, Sidoarjo May 29th 2006. The mud first appeared approximately 200 meters from Banjarpanji-1 gas-drilling well. The mud volume increased day by day, from 5000 cubic meters per day on June 2006 to 50,000 cubic meters per day during the last of 2006, and then increased to 100,000-120,000 cubic meters per day during 2007. Flow still continues at a high rate. Moreover, as the water content has gone down, the clast content has gone up. Consequently, there is now the threat of large amounts of solid material being erupted throughout the area. Also, there is the issue of subsurface collapse and ground surface subsidence. The Indonesian government has set up a permanent team to support communities affected by the mudflow that has swamped a number of villages near LUSI. Toll roads, railway tracks and factories also have been submerged and over 35,000 people have been displaced to date. The Sidoarjo Mudflow Mitigation Agency [SMMA, BPLS (Indonesia)] replaces a temporary team called National Team PSLS which was installed for seven months and ended their work on 7 April 2007. BPLS was set up by Presidential Regulation No. 14 / 2007, and it will have to cover the costs related to the social impact of the disaster, especially outside the swamped area. BPLS is the central government institution designated to handle the disaster by coordination with both the drilling company and local (provincial and district) governments. It takes a comprehensive, integrated and holistic approach for its mission and challenges. Those are: 1) How to stop the mudflow, 2) How to mitigate the impacts of the mudflow, and 3) How to minimize the social, economic, environmental impacts, and infrastructure impacts. The mudflow mitigation efforts were constrained by dynamic geology conditions, as well as resistance to certain measures by residents of impacted areas. Giant dykes were built to retain the spreading mud, and the mudflow from the main vent was

  6. Is forest insurance a relevant vector to induce adaptation efforts to climate change?

    OpenAIRE

    Couture, Stéphane; Pannequin, Francois

    2017-01-01

    Key message Insurance might be an efficient tool to strengthen adaptation of forest management to climate change. A theoretical model under uncertainty is proposed to highlight the effect, on adaptation decisions, of considering adaptation efforts in forest insurance contracts. Results show that insurance is relevant to increase adaptation efforts under some realistic conditions on forest owner's uncertainty and risk preferences, and on the observability or not of adaptation efforts. Context ...

  7. Mars Exploration Rovers Launch Contingency Efforts

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGrath, Brian E.; Frostbutter, David A.; Parthasarathy, Karungulam N.; Heyler, Gene A.; Chang, Yale

    2004-02-01

    On 10 June 2003 at 1:58 p.m. Eastern Daylight Time (EDT) and 7 July 2003 at 11:18 p.m. EDT, two separate spacecraft/rovers were successfully launched to Mars atop a Delta II 7925 and Delta II 7925H, respectively. Each spacecraft/rover carried eight Light Weight Radioisotope Heater Units (LWRHUs) for thermal conditioning of electronics during the cold Martian nights. As a part of the joint National Aeronautics and Space Administration/U. S. Department of Energy safety effort, a contingency plan was prepared to address the unlikely events of an accidental suborbital reentry or out-of-orbit reentry. The objective of the contingency plan was to develop and implement procedures to predict, within the first hour, the probable Earth Impact Footprints (EIFs) for the LWRHUs or other possible spacecraft debris after an accidental reentry. No ablation burn-through of the heat sources' aeroshells was expected, as a result of earlier testing. Any predictions would be used in subsequent notification and recovery efforts. The Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory, as part of a multi-agency team, was responsible for prediction of the EIFs, and the time of reentry from a potential orbital decay. The tools used to predict the EIFs included a Three-Degree-of-Freedom (3DOF) trajectory simulation code, a Six-Degree-of-Freedom (6DOF) code, a database of aerodynamic coefficients for the LWRHUs and other spacecraft debris, secure links to obtain tracking data, and a high fidelity special perturbation orbit integrator code to predict time of spacecraft reentry from orbital decay. This paper will discuss the contingency plan and process, as well as highlight the improvements made to the analytical tools. Improvements to the 3DOF, aerodynamic database, and orbit integrator and inclusion of the 6DOF have significantly enhanced the prediction capabilities. In the days before launch, the trajectory simulation codes were exercised and predictions of hypothetical EIFs were produced

  8. Transnational efforts for justice and social empowerment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Farah, Abdulkadir Osman

    2016-01-01

    of movements, organizations and communities that engage socio-cultural, political and economic activities across national territories. This paper deals with the concept of injustice herewith defined as the combined suffering from extreme poverty and the general insecurity undermining the immediate...... prerequisites for human life. The paper particularly discusses the transition from traditionalism to colonial internationalism and to the subsequent transnationalism efforts to deal with poverty and insecurity. The Somali case with its contemporary complexities of poverty and insecurity attests to a perpetual...... modernization tendencies to centralize socio-political and economic life. While transnationalism actors ideally aim at decentralizing and diversifying with bottom up more inclusive approaches in addressing poverty and insecurity. Finally in order to properly address transitional justice and consolidate social...

  9. EMOTIVE EFFORT AMONG MEDICAL PROFESSIONALS IN PAKISTAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kanwal Bilal

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to investigate the relationship between work complexity, emotive effort and its effects on job satisfaction and Emotion Management related stress among medical professionals; as in accordance with ‘The Managed Heart’ by Arlie Hochschild, it is asserted that emotive toil is carried out by medical professionals. Correspondence among work complexity, emotive toil and job satisfaction are ascertained by circulating questionnaires among medical personnel. This correspondence is investigated by the use of regression analysis. Conclusions drawn on the basis of analysis disclose that emotive struggle was considerably negatively associated to job satisfaction and work complexity. The research verdicts are only restricted to the medical professionals working in different hospitals in Lahore, Pakistan

  10. Advancing efforts to address youth violence involvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weist, M D; Cooley-Quille, M

    2001-06-01

    Discusses the increased public attention on violence-related problems among youth and the concomitant increased diversity in research. Youth violence involvement is a complex construct that includes violence experienced in multiple settings (home, school, neighborhood) and in multiple forms (as victims, witnesses, perpetrators, and through family members, friends, and the media). Potential impacts of such violence involvement are considerable, including increased internalizing and externalizing behaviors among youth and future problems in school adjustment and life-course development. This introductory article reviews key dimensions of youth-related violence, describes an American Psychological Association Task Force (Division 12) developed to advance relevant research, and presents examples of national resources and efforts that attempt to address this critical public health issue.

  11. Directed-energy process technology efforts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, P.

    1985-06-01

    A summary of directed-energy process technology for solar cells was presented. This technology is defined as directing energy or mass to specific areas on solar cells to produce a desired effect in contrast to exposing a cell to a thermal or mass flow environment. Some of these second generation processing techniques are: ion implantation; microwave-enhanced chemical vapor deposition; rapid thermal processing; and the use of lasers for cutting, assisting in metallization, assisting in deposition, and drive-in of liquid dopants. Advantages of directed energy techniques are: surface heating resulting in the bulk of the cell material being cooler and unchanged; better process control yields; better junction profiles, junction depths, and metal sintering; lower energy consumption during processing and smaller factory space requirements. These advantages should result in higher-efficiency cells at lower costs. The results of the numerous contracted efforts were presented as well as the application potentials of these new technologies.

  12. The Relations of Effortful Control and Impulsivity to Children's Resiliency and Adjustment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisenberg, Nancy; Spinrad, Tracy L.; Fabes, Richard A.; Reiser, Mark; Cumberland, Amanda; Shepard, Stephanie A.; Valiente, Carlos; Losoya, Andra H.; Guthrie, Vanna K.; Thompson, Marilyn

    2004-01-01

    The unique relations of effortful control and impulsivity to resiliency and adjustment were examined when children were 4.5 to 8 years old, and 2 years later. Parents and teachers reported on all constructs and children's attentional persistence was observed. In concurrent structural equation models, effortful control and impulsivity uniquely and…

  13. China's Green Transformation: Efforts, Practices and Future%China's Green Transformation: Efforts, Practices and Future

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Weizhong

    2012-01-01

    I'm very pleased to be here at this side meeting, China's Green Transformation: Efforts, Practices and Future, co-sponsored by ACCA21 and UNDP. Since the UN Conference on Environment and Development in 1992, people around the world have made numerous efforts to- ward sustainable development and made positive develop- ment in that direction. However, we still face many new challenges and need to explore new approaches to achieve sustainable development. That's why we are gathered here today to discuss Green Economy in the Context of Sustain- able Development and Poverty Eradication, in the hope of finding new ways and measures to meet the new challenges and seek sustainable development.

  14. Integrated Efforts for Analysis of Geophysical Measurements and Models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-02

    B are also non-trivial. If the cross- sectional area varies (i.e., payload tumbling ) or the mass changes (i.e., fuel being burned), the lifetime...performing maneuvers. If the spacecraft does tumble , the expectations have been that the rate of change to the area would be periodic and rapid...Vandev, D., K. Danov, P. Mateev, P. Petrov, M. Kartalev, N. Trendafilov, Z. K. Smith, and M. Dryer , "Detection of solar wind discontinuities", Astrophys

  15. A Mathematical Model for Assessing Target Vulnerability Research Efforts

    Science.gov (United States)

    1978-10-31

    3A ATTN: MOCA -ADL Defense Nuclear Agency Deputy Chief of Staff for Rsch., Dev., & Acq. ATTN: DDST Department of the Army ATTN: STSP ATTN: DAMA-CSS-M 2...Institute Agbabian Associates ATTN: G. Sliter ATTN: M. Agbabian ATTN: C. Bagge Electromechanical Sys. of New Mexico , Inc. ATTN: R. Shunk Analytic...Continued) H-Tech Labs, Inc University of New Mexico ATTN: B. Hartenbaum ATTN: G. Triandafalidis Honeywell, Inc. University of Oklahoma ATTN: T. Helvig ATTN

  16. A new look at psychological climate and its relationship to job involvement, effort, and performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, S P; Leigh, T W

    1996-08-01

    This study investigated the process by which employee perceptions of the organizational environment are related to job involvement, effort, and performance. The researchers developed an operational definition of psychological climate that was based on how employees perceive aspects of the organizational environment and interpret them in relation to their own well-being. Perceived psychological climate was then related to job involvement, effort, and performance in a path-analytic framework. Results showed that perceptions of a motivating and involving psychological climate were related to job involvement, which in turn was related to effort. Effort was also related to work performance. Results revealed that a modest but statistically significant effect of job involvement on performance became nonsignificant when effort was inserted into the model, indicating the mediating effect of effort on the relationship. The results cross-validated well across 2 samples of outside salespeople, indicating that relationships are generalizable across these different sales contexts.

  17. Biomechanical Comparison of Three Perceived Effort Set Shots in Team Handball Players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plummer, Hillary A; Gascon, Sarah S; Oliver, Gretchen D

    2017-01-01

    Plummer, HA, Gascon, SS, and Oliver, GD. Biomechanical comparison of three perceived effort set shots in team handball players. J Strength Cond Res 31(1): 80-87, 2017-Shoulder injuries are prevalent in the sport of team handball; however, no guidelines currently exist in the implementation of an interval throwing protocol for players returning from an upper extremity injury. These guidelines exist for the sport of baseball, but team handball may present additional challenges due to greater ball mass that must be accounted for. The purpose of this study was to examine kinematic differences in the team handball set shot at 50, 75, and 100% effort which are common throwing intensities in throwing protocols. Eleven male team handball players (23.09 ± 3.05 years; 185.12 ± 8.33 cm; 89.65 ± 12.17 kg) volunteered. An electromagnetic tracking system was used to collect kinematic data at the pelvis, trunk, scapula, and shoulder. Kinematic differences at the shoulder, trunk, and pelvis were observed across effort levels throughout the set shot with most occurring at ball release and maximum internal rotation. Significant differences in ball speed were observed between all 3 effort level shots (p handball players are able to gauge the effort at which they shoot; however, it cannot be assumed that these speeds will be at a certain percentage of their maximum. The results of this study provide valuable evidence that can be used to prepare a team handball player to return to throwing activities.

  18. Global efforts inconquering lung cancer in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LiYan; LiXu

    2015-01-01

    Lung cancer, the most prevalent and deadly malignancy in the world, poses a particularly critical healthcare challenge to China due to the rapidly increasing new cases and the unique cancer genetics in Chinese patient population. Sub-stantial progress has been made in molecular diagnosis and personalized treatment of the disease. The ifeld is now moving towards multiple new directions to include (1) new generation of targeted agents such as epidermal growth factor receptor and anaplastic lymphoma kinase inhibitors to overcome resistance to their early generation counter-parts; and (2) deeper understanding of tumor genetics of each individual patient and consequently the application of biomarkers to guide personalized treatment as well as novel drug development including combination therapy. The increasing capacity in innovative cancer drug research and development is supported by extensive collaboration within China and globally, and across academia and industry, to build up expertise and infrastructure in early-phase clinical testing of novel drugs. With these combined efforts, new and better medicines will be available for lung can-cer patients in China in the near future.

  19. STEM Education Efforts in the Ares Projects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doreswamy, Rajiv; Armstrong, Robert C.

    2010-01-01

    According to the National Science Foundation, of the more than 4 million first university degrees awarded in science and engineering in 2006, students in China earned about 21%, those in the European Union earned about 19%, and those in the United States earned about 11%. Statistics like these are of great interest to NASA's Ares Projects, which are responsible for building the rockets for the U.S. Constellation Program to send humans beyond low-Earth orbit. Science, technology, engineering, and mathematics students are essential for the long-term sustainability of any space program. Since the Projects creation, the Ares Outreach Team has used a variety of STEM-related media, methods, and materials to engage students, educators, and the general public in Constellation's mission. Like Project Apollo, the nation s exploration destinations and the vehicles used to get there can inspire students to learn more about STEM. Ares has been particularly active in public outreach to schools in Northern Alabama; on the Internet via outreach and grade-specific educational materials; and in more informal social media settings such as YouTube and Facebook. These combined efforts remain integral to America s space program, regardless of its future direction.

  20. Current efforts in medical education to incorporate national health priorities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nair, Manisha; Fellmeth, Gracia

    2017-08-03

    As a reflection on the Edinburgh Declaration, this conceptual synthesis presents six important challenges in relation to the role of medical education in meeting current national health priorities. This paper presents a conceptual synthesis of current efforts in medical education to incorporate national health priorities as a reflection on how the field has evolved since the Edinburgh Declaration. Considering that health needs vary from country to country, our paper focuses on three broad and cross-cutting themes: health equity, health systems strengthening, and changing patterns of disease. Considering the complexity of this topic, we conducted a targeted search to broadly sample and critically review the literature in two phases. Phase 1: within each theme, we assessed the current challenges in the field of medical education to meet the health priority. Phase 2: a search for various strategies in undergraduate and postgraduate education that have been tested in an effort to address the identified challenges. We conducted a qualitative synthesis of the literature followed by mapping of the identified challenges within each of the three themes with targeted efforts. We identified six important challenges: (i) mismatch between the need for generalist models of health care and medical education curricula's specialist focus; (ii) attitudes of health care providers contributing to disparities in health care; (iii) the lack of a universal approach in preparing medical students for 21st century health systems; (iv) the inability of medical education to keep up with the abundance of new health care technologies; (v) a mismatch between educational requirements for integrated care and poorly integrated, specialised health care systems; and (vi) development of a globally interdependent education system to meet global health challenges. Examples of efforts being made to address these challenges are offered. Although strategies for combatting these challenges exist, the

  1. When can efforts to control nuisance and invasive species backfire?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zipkin, E.F.; Kraft, C.E.; Cooch, E.G.; Sullivan, P.J.

    2009-01-01

    Population control through harvest has the potential to reduce the abundance of nuisance and invasive species. However, demographic structure and density-dependent processes can confound removal efforts and lead to undesirable consequences, such as overcompensation (an increase in abundance in response to harvest) and instability (population cycling or chaos). Recent empirical studies have demonstrated the potential for increased mortality (such as that caused by harvest) to lead to overcompensation and instability in plant, insect, and fish populations. We developed a general population model with juvenile and adult stages to help determine the conditions under which control harvest efforts can produce unintended outcomes. Analytical and simulation analyses of the model demonstrated that the potential for overcompensation as a result of harvest was significant for species with high fecundity, even when annual stage-specific survivorship values were fairly low. Population instability as a result of harvest occurred less frequently and was only possible with harvest strategies that targeted adults when both fecundity and adult survivorship were high. We considered these results in conjunction with current literature on nuisance and invasive species to propose general guidelines for assessing the risks associated with control harvest based on life history characteristics of target populations. Our results suggest that species with high per capita fecundity (over discrete breeding periods), short juvenile stages, and fairly constant survivorship rates are most likely to respond undesirably to harvest. It is difficult to determine the extent to which overcompensation and instability could occur during real-world removal efforts, and more empirical removal studies should be undertaken to evaluate population-level responses to control harvests. Nevertheless, our results identify key issues that have been seldom acknowledged and are potentially generic across taxa

  2. Breaking the double-edged sword of effort/trying hard: Developmental equilibrium and longitudinal relations among effort, achievement, and academic self-concept.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsh, Herbert W; Pekrun, Reinhard; Lichtenfeld, Stephanie; Guo, Jiesi; Arens, A Katrin; Murayama, Kou

    2016-08-01

    Ever since the classic research of Nicholls (1976) and others, effort has been recognized as a double-edged sword: while it might enhance achievement, it undermines academic self-concept (ASC). However, there has not been a thorough evaluation of the longitudinal reciprocal effects of effort, ASC, and achievement, in the context of modern self-concept theory and statistical methodology. Nor have there been developmental equilibrium tests of whether these effects are consistent across the potentially volatile early-to-middle adolescence. Hence, focusing on mathematics, we evaluate reciprocal effects models (REMs) over the first 4 years of secondary school (grades 5-8), relating effort, achievement (test scores and school grades), ASC, and ASC × Effort interactions for a representative sample of 3,144 German students (Mage = 11.75 years at Wave 1). ASC, effort, and achievement were positively correlated at each wave, and there was a clear pattern of positive reciprocal positive effects among ASC, test scores, and school grades-each contributing to the other, after controlling for the prior effects of all others. There was an asymmetrical pattern of effects for effort that is consistent with the double-edged sword premise: prior school grades had positive effects on subsequent effort, but prior effort had nonsignificant or negative effects on subsequent grades and ASC. However, on the basis of a synergistic application of new theory and methodology, we predicted and found a significant ASC × Effort interaction, such that prior effort had more positive effects on subsequent ASC and school grades when prior ASC was high-thus providing a key to breaking the double-edged sword. (PsycINFO Database Record

  3. QUALITY MANAGEMENT: EFFORTS AND PROBLEMS IN ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Revenues. Figure 1 Quality and .... soft drinks, beer, and alcohol drinks [15]. In Ethiopian ... Many state'- owned enterprise set .... of Ethiopian manufacturers to adopt such quality standards. ..... The Excellence model focuses on the real issue of.

  4. Common aspects and differences in the behaviour of classical configuration versus canard configuration aircraft in the presence of vertical gusts, assuming the hypothesis of an elastic fuselage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Octavian PREOTU

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper analyzes, in parallel, common aspects and differences in the behavior of classical configuration versus canard configuration aircraft in the presence of vertical gusts, assuming the hypothesis of an elastic fuselage. The effects of the main constructional dimensions of the horizontal empennage on lift cancelling and horizontal empennage control are being analyzed

  5. Assumed white blood cell count of 8,000 cells/μL overestimates malaria parasite density in the Brazilian Amazon.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo R Alves-Junior

    Full Text Available Quantification of parasite density is an important component in the diagnosis of malaria infection. The accuracy of this estimation varies according to the method used. The aim of this study was to assess the agreement between the parasite density values obtained with the assumed value of 8,000 cells/μL and the automated WBC count. Moreover, the same comparative analysis was carried out for other assumed values of WBCs. The study was carried out in Brazil with 403 malaria patients who were infected in different endemic areas of the Brazilian Amazon. The use of a fixed WBC count of 8,000 cells/μL to quantify parasite density in malaria patients led to overestimated parasitemia and resulted in low reliability when compared to the automated WBC count. Assumed values ranging between 5,000 and 6,000 cells/μL, and 5,500 cells/μL in particular, showed higher reliability and more similar values of parasite density when compared between the 2 methods. The findings show that assumed WBC count of 5,500 cells/μL could lead to a more accurate estimation of parasite density for malaria patients in this endemic region.

  6. VLTI-UT vibrations effort and performances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poupar, Sébastien; Haguenauer, Pierre; Alonso, Jaime; Schuhler, Nicolas; Henriquez, Juan-Pablo; Berger, Jean-Philippe; Bourget, Pierre; Brillant, Stephane; Castillo, Roberto; Gitton, Philippe; Gonte, Frederic; Di Lieto, Nicola; Lizon, Jean-Louis; Merand, Antoine; Woillez, Julien

    2014-07-01

    The ESO Very Large Telescope Interferometer (VLTI) using the Unit Telescope (UT) was strongly affected by vibrations since the first observations. Investigation by ESO on that subject had started in 2007, with a considerable effort since mid 2008. An important number of investigations on various sub-systems (On telescope: Guiding, Passive supports, Train Coude, insulation of electronics cabinets; On Instruments: dedicated campaign on each instruments with a special attention on the ones equipped with Close Cycle Cooler) were realized. Vibrations were not only recorded and analyzed using the usual accelerometers but also using on use sub-systems as InfRared Image Sensor (IRIS) and Multiple Applications Curvature Adaptive Optics (MACAO) and using a specific tool developed for vibrations measurements Mirror vibrAtion Metrology systeM for the Unit Telescope (MAMMUT). Those tools and systems have been used in order to improve the knowledge on telescope by finding sources. The sources whenever it was possible were damped. As known for years, instruments are still the principal sources of vibrations, for the majority of the UT. A special test in which 2 UTs instruments were completely shut down was realized to determine the minimum Optical Path Length (OPL) achievable. Vibrations is now a part of the instruments interface document and during the installation of any new instrument (KMOS) or system (AOF) a test campaign is realized. As a result some modifications (damping of CCC) can be asked in case of non-compliance. To ensure good operational conditions, levels of vibrations are regularly recorded to control any environmental change.

  7. Multiproduct Multiperiod Newsvendor Problem with Dynamic Market Efforts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianmai Shi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We study a multiperiod multiproduct production planning problem where the production capacity and the marketing effort on demand are both considered. The accumulative impact of marketing effort on demand is captured by the Nerlove and Arrow (N-A advertising model. The problem is formulated as a discrete-time, finite-horizon dynamic optimization problem, which can be viewed as an extension to the classic newsvendor problem by integrating with the N-A model. A Lagrangian relaxation based solution approach is developed to solve the problem, in which the subgradient algorithm is used to find an upper bound of the solution and a feasibility heuristic algorithm is proposed to search for a feasible lower bound. Twelve kinds of instances with different problem size involving up to 50 products and 15 planning periods are randomly generated and used to test the Lagrangian heuristic algorithm. Computational results show that the proposed approach can obtain near optimal solutions for all the instances in very short CPU time, which is less than 90 seconds even for the largest instance.

  8. Applying Fuzzy ID3 Decision Tree for Software Effort Estimation

    CERN Document Server

    Elyassami, Sanaa

    2011-01-01

    Web Effort Estimation is a process of predicting the efforts and cost in terms of money, schedule and staff for any software project system. Many estimation models have been proposed over the last three decades and it is believed that it is a must for the purpose of: Budgeting, risk analysis, project planning and control, and project improvement investment analysis. In this paper, we investigate the use of Fuzzy ID3 decision tree for software cost estimation; it is designed by integrating the principles of ID3 decision tree and the fuzzy set-theoretic concepts, enabling the model to handle uncertain and imprecise data when describing the software projects, which can improve greatly the accuracy of obtained estimates. MMRE and Pred are used as measures of prediction accuracy for this study. A series of experiments is reported using two different software projects datasets namely, Tukutuku and COCOMO'81 datasets. The results are compared with those produced by the crisp version of the ID3 decision tree.

  9. Applying Fuzzy ID3 Decision Tree for Software Effort Estimation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Idri

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Web Effort Estimation is a process of predicting the efforts and cost in terms of money, schedule and staff for any software project system. Many estimation models have been proposed over the last three decades and it is believed that it is a must for the purpose of: Budgeting, risk analysis, project planning and control, and project improvement investment analysis. In this paper, we investigate the use of Fuzzy ID3 decision tree for software cost estimation; it is designed by integrating the principles of ID3 decision tree and the fuzzy set-theoretic concepts, enabling the model to handle uncertain and imprecise data when describing the software projects, which can improve greatly the accuracy of obtained estimates. MMRE and Pred are used as measures of prediction accuracy for this study. A series of experiments is reported using two different software projects datasets namely, Tukutuku and COCOMO'81 datasets. The results are compared with those produced by the crisp version of the ID3 decision tree.

  10. Testing listening effort for speech comprehension using the individuals’ cognitive spare capacity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Rönnberg

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Most hearing aid fittings today are almost solely based on the patient’s audiogram. Although the loss of gain in the cochlea is important, for a more optimal fitting, more individual parameters of the patient’s cochlear loss together with the patient's cognitive abilities to process the auditory signal are required (Stenfelt & Rönnberg, 2009; Edwards, 2007. Moreover, the evaluation of the fitting is often based on a speech in noise task and the aim is to improve the individual patient’s signal to noise ratio (SNR thresholds. As a consequence, hearing aid fitting may be seen as a process aimed to improve the patient’s SNR threshold rather than to improve communication ability. However, subsequent to a hearing aid fitting, there can be great differences in SNR improvement between patients that have identical hearing impairment in terms of threshold data (the audiogram. The reasons are certainly complex but one contributing factor may be the individual differences in cognitive capacity and associated listening effort. Another way to think about amplified hearing is to ease a subject’s listening effort (Sarampalis, et al., 2009. When the speech signal is degraded by noise or by a hearing impairment, more high-order cognitive or top-down processes are required to perceive and understand the signal, and listening is therefore more effortful. It is assumed that a hearing aid would ease the listening effort for a hearing impaired person. However, it is not clear how to measure the listening effort. We here present a test that will tap into the different cognitive aspects of listening effort, the Auditory Inference Span Test (AIST. The AIST is a dual task hearing in noise test, that combines auditory and memory processing and is well suited as a clinical test for listening effort.

  11. On The Validity of the Assumed PDF Method for Modeling Binary Mixing/Reaction of Evaporated Vapor in GAS/Liquid-Droplet Turbulent Shear Flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, R. S.; Bellan, J.

    1997-01-01

    An Investigation of the statistical description of binary mixing and/or reaction between a carrier gas and an evaporated vapor species in two-phase gas-liquid turbulent flows is perfomed through both theroetical analysis and comparisons with results from direct numerical simulations (DNS) of a two-phase mixing layer.

  12. On The Validity of the Assumed PDF Method for Modeling Binary Mixing/Reaction of Evaporated Vapor in GAS/Liquid-Droplet Turbulent Shear Flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, R. S.; Bellan, J.

    1997-01-01

    An Investigation of the statistical description of binary mixing and/or reaction between a carrier gas and an evaporated vapor species in two-phase gas-liquid turbulent flows is perfomed through both theroetical analysis and comparisons with results from direct numerical simulations (DNS) of a two-phase mixing layer.

  13. STAR Infrastructure Database: An effort to know each other

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mora, J.C.; Real, Almudena [Centro de Investigaciones Energeticas, Medioambientales y Tecnologicas - CIEMAT (Spain); Vesterbacka, Pia; Outola, Iisa [STUK - Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority (Finland); Barnett, Catherine; Beresford, Nick [Natural Environment Research Council - NERC-CEH (United Kingdom); Bradshaw, Clare [Stockholm University (Sweden); Skipperud, Lindis [Norwegian University of Life Sciences - UMB (Norway); Wilrodt, Christine; Steiner, Martin [Federal Office for Radiation Protection - BfS (Germany); Vanhoudt, Nathalie [Belgian Nuclear Research Centre SCK-CEN (Belgium); Komperoed, Mari [Norwegian Radiation Protection Authority - NRPA (Norway); Gurriaran, Rodolfo; Gilbin, Rodolphe; Hinton, Thomas [Institut de Radioprotection et de Surete Nucleaire - IRSN (France)

    2014-07-01

    Effort over the last decade to make radioecology stronger and sustainable within Europe crystallized in the creation of the European Radioecology Alliance. The first step for this integrative effort was the establishment of a network of excellence (NoE) under the EU FP7 Strategy for Allied Radioecology (STAR www.star-radioecology.org) project which commenced in 2011. One of the project objectives was to share knowledge of European radioecological capabilities. To help achieve this, a register of these capabilities at each of the STAR laboratories has been created. An Infrastructure Database was designed and programmed using web 2.0 technologies on a 'wiki' platform. Its intended use was to identify what assets were held and where improvements could be made. Information collated includes an inventory of the radioanalytical or conventional equipment and methods, bio-informatics equipment and methods, sample and data archives held, and models and codes used. It also provides a summary of the radioecological expertise of the 170 radio-ecologists at STAR institutes whose knowledge is wide-ranging and encompasses: atmospheric dispersion, dosimetry, ecology, ecotoxicology, environmental radiation protection, environmental surveillance, foodstuffs, terrestrial, freshwater and marine radioecology, modelling, radiobiology and radionuclide analyses, emergency preparedness, education and training, amongst others. In 2013, the EU FP7 Coordination and implementation of a pan-European instrument for radioecology (COMET, www.comet-radioecology.org) project, involving the STAR partners and additionally one Japanese and two Ukrainian research institutes, was initiated. The capabilities of these additional partners will be added to the database in 2014. The aim of the database was to gather information to: - avoid duplication of effort and thereby increase efficiency, - improve synergy and collaboration between the STAR project partners and others involved in

  14. Linking customisation of ERP systems to support effort: an empirical study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koch, Stefan; Mitteregger, Kurt

    2016-01-01

    The amount of customisation to an enterprise resource planning (ERP) system has always been a major concern in the context of the implementation. This article focuses on the phase of maintenance and presents an empirical study about the relationship between the amount of customising and the resulting support effort. We establish a structural equation modelling model that explains support effort using customisation effort, organisational characteristics and scope of implementation. The findings using data from an ERP provider show that there is a statistically significant effect: with an increasing amount of customisation, the quantity of telephone calls to support increases, as well as the duration of each call.

  15. Perfectionism and Effort-Related Cardiac Activity: Do Perfectionists Try Harder?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harper, Kelly L; Eddington, Kari M; Silvia, Paul J

    2016-01-01

    Do perfectionists try harder? Previous research on perfectionism and effort has used self-report items and task performance as indicators of effort. The current study investigated whether individual differences in perfectionism predicted effort-related cardiac activity during a mental effort task. Based on past research that suggests adaptive perfectionism is associated with higher effort, it was hypothesized that self-oriented perfectionism (SOP) would predict increased effort on the task. One hundred and eleven college students completed the Multidimensional Perfectionism Scale (MPS) and a self-paced parity task in which they received a small cash reward (3 cents) for each correct response. Impedance cardiography was used to assess autonomic reactivity, and regression models tested whether SOP and socially prescribed perfectionism (SPP) explained autonomic reactivity. Overall, participants showed both sympathetic (faster pre-ejection period; PEP) and parasympathetic activation (elevated high-frequency heart rate variability; HRV) during the task, reflecting higher effort and engagement. Contrary to predictions, individual differences in perfectionism did not moderate cardiac reactivity. These findings draw attention to the importance of assessing physiological components of effort and motivation directly rather than inferring them from task performance or self-reported effort.

  16. Assessing effort: differentiating performance and symptom validity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Dyke, Sarah A; Millis, Scott R; Axelrod, Bradley N; Hanks, Robin A

    2013-01-01

    The current study aimed to clarify the relationship among the constructs involved in neuropsychological assessment, including cognitive performance, symptom self-report, performance validity, and symptom validity. Participants consisted of 120 consecutively evaluated individuals from a veteran's hospital with mixed referral sources. Measures included the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Fourth Edition Full Scale IQ (WAIS-IV FSIQ), California Verbal Learning Test-Second Edition (CVLT-II), Trail Making Test Part B (TMT-B), Test of Memory Malingering (TOMM), Medical Symptom Validity Test (MSVT), WAIS-IV Reliable Digit Span (RDS), Post-traumatic Check List-Military Version (PCL-M), MMPI-2 F scale, MMPI-2 Symptom Validity Scale (FBS), MMPI-2 Response Bias Scale (RBS), and the Postconcussive Symptom Questionnaire (PCSQ). Six different models were tested using confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) to determine the factor model describing the relationships between cognitive performance, symptom self-report, performance validity, and symptom validity. The strongest and most parsimonious model was a three-factor model in which cognitive performance, performance validity, and self-reported symptoms (including both standard and symptom validity measures) were separate factors. The findings suggest failure in one validity domain does not necessarily invalidate the other domain. Thus, performance validity and symptom validity should be evaluated separately.

  17. Running Head: Implementing Six Sigma Efforts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindsay, Jamie Eleaitia Mae

    2005-01-01

    Six Sigma is an organization wide program that provides common set of goals, language, and methodology for improving the overall quality of the processes within the organization (Davis & Heineke 2004). Six Sigma main concern is for the customer. What will the customers want? Need? Six Sigma has a model that helps Sigma get implemented DMAIC model…

  18. Effort and Displeasure in People Who Are Hard of Hearing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthen, Mohan

    2016-01-01

    Listening effort helps explain why people who are hard of hearing are prone to fatigue and social withdrawal. However, a one-factor model that cites only effort due to hardness of hearing is insufficient as there are many who lead happy lives despite their disability. This article explores other contributory factors, in particular motivational arousal and pleasure. The theory of rational motivational arousal predicts that some people forego listening comprehension because they believe it to be impossible and hence worth no effort at all. This is problematic. Why should the listening task be rated this way, given the availability of aids that reduce its difficulty? Two additional factors narrow the explanatory gap. First, we separate the listening task from the benefit derived as a consequence. The latter is temporally more distant, and is discounted as a result. The second factor is displeasure attributed to the listening task, which increases listening cost. Many who are hard of hearing enjoy social interaction. In such cases, the actual activity of listening is a benefit, not a cost. These people also reap the benefits of listening, but do not have to balance these against the displeasure of the task. It is suggested that if motivational harmony can be induced by training in somebody who is hard of hearing, then the obstacle to motivational arousal would be removed. This suggests a modified goal for health care professionals. Do not just teach those who are hard of hearing how to use hearing assistance devices. Teach them how to do so with pleasure and enjoyment.

  19. Genetic programming as alternative for predicting development effort of individual software projects.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arturo Chavoya

    Full Text Available Statistical and genetic programming techniques have been used to predict the software development effort of large software projects. In this paper, a genetic programming model was used for predicting the effort required in individually developed projects. Accuracy obtained from a genetic programming model was compared against one generated from the application of a statistical regression model. A sample of 219 projects developed by 71 practitioners was used for generating the two models, whereas another sample of 130 projects developed by 38 practitioners was used for validating them. The models used two kinds of lines of code as well as programming language experience as independent variables. Accuracy results from the model obtained with genetic programming suggest that it could be used to predict the software development effort of individual projects when these projects have been developed in a disciplined manner within a development-controlled environment.

  20. New Efforts to Identify Dark Matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2016-09-01

    Could the dark matter in our universe be warm instead of cold? Recent observations have placed new constraints on the warm dark matter model.Whats the Deal with Cold/Warm/Hot Dark Matter?An example of cold dark matter: MACHOs, massive objects like black holes that are hiding in the halo of our galaxy. [Alain r]Nobody knows what dark matter is made of, but we have a few theories. The objects or particles that could make up dark matter fall into three broad categories cold, warm, and hot dark matter based on something called their free streaming length, or how far they moved due to random motions in the early universe.Neutrinos are an example of hot dark matter: very light particles with free streaming lengths much longer than the size of a typical galaxy. Cold dark matter could consist of objects like black holes or brown dwarfs, or particles like WIMPs all of which are very heavy and therefore have free streaming lengths much shorter than the size of a galaxy.Warm dark matter is whats in between: middle-mass particles with free streaming lengths roughly the size of a galaxy. There arent any known particles that fit this description, but there are theorized particles such as sterile neutrinos or gravitinos that do.Cumulative mass functions at z = 6 for different values of the warm dark matter particle mass mX. The shaded boxs on the left correspond to the observed number density of faint galaxies within different confidence levels. [Menci et al. 2016]Smoothing Out the UniverseThe widely favored model is lambda-CDM, in which cold dark matter makes up the missing matter in our universe. This model nicely explains much of what we observe, but it still has a few problems. The biggest issue with lambda-CDM is that it predicts that there should be many more small, dwarf galaxies than we observe.While this could just mean that we havent yet managed to see all the existing, faint dwarf galaxies, we should also consider alternative models the warm dark matter model chief

  1. Machine-translatability and post-editing effort: an empirical study using translog and choice network analysis

    OpenAIRE

    O'Brien, Sharon

    2006-01-01

    Studies on Controlled Language (CL) suggest that by removing features that are known to be problematic for MT (termed here “negative translatability indicators”, or “NTIs”), the MT output can be improved. It is assumed that an improvement in the output will result in lower post-editing effort. This study tests that assumption by measuring the technical, temporal and cognitive post-editing effort (Krings 2001) for English sentences in a user manual that have been translated into German using a...

  2. Targeting groundwater conservation efforts to support agricultural drought resilience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, Timothy; Brozovic, Nicholas; Butler, Adrian P.

    2017-04-01

    Depletion of groundwater is a critical policy issue in many irrigated agricultural systems worldwide. An important question for water managers is where and when management efforts should be targeted to maximize benefits from conservation. In this study, we evaluate how the value and effectiveness of groundwater conservation measures is affected by the timing of regulatory intervention along an aquifer's depletion pathway. We develop a new integrated modelling framework, which captures realistically the effects of both pumping costs and well yields on production risk and farmers' irrigation decision-making. Through an application to the High Plains Aquifer in the United States, we demonstrate that there is a range of aquifer conditions within which regulating groundwater use will deliver long-term economic benefits for farmers by slowing reductions in well yield and extending the usable lifetime of the aquifer for irrigated production. These findings provide new insights about the economic value of groundwater resource, and, significantly, can be used to help policymakers target conservation efforts to maximize the capacity of limited groundwater resources to buffer production against risks from drought and climate change.

  3. The Determinants of Student Effort at Learning ERP: A Cultural Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alshare, Khaled A.; El-Masri, Mazen; Lane, Peggy L.

    2015-01-01

    This paper develops a research model based on the Unified Theory of Acceptance and Use of Technology model (UTAUT) and Hofstede's cultural dimensions to explore factors that influence student effort at learning Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP) systems. A Structural Equation Model (SEM) using LISREL was utilized to validate the proposed research…

  4. The Determinants of Student Effort at Learning ERP: A Cultural Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alshare, Khaled A.; El-Masri, Mazen; Lane, Peggy L.

    2015-01-01

    This paper develops a research model based on the Unified Theory of Acceptance and Use of Technology model (UTAUT) and Hofstede's cultural dimensions to explore factors that influence student effort at learning Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP) systems. A Structural Equation Model (SEM) using LISREL was utilized to validate the proposed research…

  5. MACCS2 development and verification efforts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Young, M.; Chanin, D.

    1997-03-01

    MACCS2 represents a major enhancement of the capabilities of its predecessor MACCS, the MELCOR Accident Consequence Code System. MACCS, released in 1987, was developed to estimate the potential impacts to the surrounding public of severe accidents at nuclear power plants. The principal phenomena considered in MACCS/MACCS2 are atmospheric transport and deposition under time-variant meteorology, short-term and long-term mitigative actions and exposure pathways, deterministic and stochastic health effects, and economic costs. MACCS2 was developed as a general-purpose analytical tool applicable to diverse reactor and nonreactor facilities. The MACCS2 package includes three primary enhancements: (1) a more flexible emergency response model, (2) an expanded library of radionuclides, and (3) a semidynamic food-chain model. In addition, errors that had been identified in MACCS version1.5.11.1 were corrected, including an error that prevented the code from providing intermediate-phase results. MACCS2 version 1.10 beta test was released to the beta-test group in May, 1995. In addition, the University of New Mexico (UNM) has completed an independent verification study of the code package. Since the beta-test release of MACCS2 version 1.10, a number of minor errors have been identified and corrected, and a number of enhancements have been added to the code package. The code enhancements added since the beta-test release of version 1.10 include: (1) an option to allow the user to input the {sigma}{sub y} and {sigma}{sub z} plume expansion parameters in a table-lookup form for incremental downwind distances, (2) an option to define different initial dimensions for up to four segments of a release, (3) an enhancement to the COMIDA2 food-chain model preprocessor to allow the user to supply externally calculated tables of tritium food-chain dose per unit deposition on farmland to support analyses of tritium releases, and (4) the capability to calculate direction-dependent doses.

  6. 7 CFR 622.31 - Basic planning efforts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Basic planning efforts. 622.31 Section 622.31..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE WATER RESOURCES WATERSHED PROJECTS Planning § 622.31 Basic planning efforts. Upon... the need for planning effort. Once planning is authorized by the Chief of NRCS, a watershed plan...

  7. Goal Setting and Expectancy Theory Predictions of Effort and Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dossett, Dennis L.; Luce, Helen E.

    Neither expectancy (VIE) theory nor goal setting alone are effective determinants of individual effort and task performance. To test the combined ability of VIE and goal setting to predict effort and performance, 44 real estate agents and their managers completed questionnaires. Quarterly income goals predicted managers' ratings of agents' effort,…

  8. Measuring Developmental Levels of Understanding of Ability and Effort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Arden T.; Nicholls, John G.

    Discussed are research methods used to measure developmental changes in children's reasoning about ability. While adults generally differentiate ability, effort, luck, and task difficulty as causes for success and failure, children progressively think that effort or outcome is ability (level 1), that effort is the cause of performance outcomes…

  9. 48 CFR 1331.205-70 - Duplication of effort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Duplication of effort....205-70 Duplication of effort. The Department will not pay any costs for work that is duplicative of..., Duplication of Effort, in all cost-reimbursement, time and materials, and labor hour solicitations...

  10. Quality-oriented efforts in IPD, - a framework

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreasen, Mogens Myrup

    1998-01-01

    It is generally expected that modern quality efforts like TQM and ISO9000 should deliver a sufficient framework for quality efforts in industrial companies. Our findings in Danish industry shows a fragmented picture of islands of efforts and a weak understanding of basic quality concepts between...

  11. American Reform Efforts: German Professional Education after World War II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClelland, Charles E.

    1997-01-01

    Profiles the reeducation and denazification efforts aimed at the training of doctors, lawyers, teachers, and engineers. The efforts espoused few radical innovations and generally supported a return to the well-regarded conditions of the Weimar Republic. These efforts laid the foundation for later reforms in the 1960s. (MJP)

  12. Complementary roles of different oscillatory activities in the subthalamic nucleus in coding motor effort in Parkinsonism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Huiling; Pogosyan, Alek; Anzak, Anam; Ashkan, Keyoumars; Bogdanovic, Marko; Green, Alexander L; Aziz, Tipu; Foltynie, Thomas; Limousin, Patricia; Zrinzo, Ludvic; Brown, Peter

    2013-10-01

    The basal ganglia may play an important role in the control of motor scaling or effort. Recently local field potential (LFP) recordings from patients with deep brain stimulation electrodes in the basal ganglia have suggested that local increases in the synchronisation of neurons in the gamma frequency band may correlate with force or effort. Whether this feature uniquely codes for effort and whether such a coding mechanism holds true over a range of efforts is unclear. Here we investigated the relationship between frequency-specific oscillatory activities in the subthalamic nucleus (STN) and manual grips made with different efforts. The latter were self-rated using the 10 level Borg scale ranging from 0 (no effort) to 10 (maximal effort). STN LFP activities were recorded in patients with Parkinson's Disease (PD) who had undergone functional surgery. Patients were studied while motor performance was improved by dopaminergic medication. In line with previous studies we observed power increase in the theta/alpha band (4-12 Hz), power suppression in the beta band (13-30 Hz) and power increase in the gamma band (55-90 Hz) and high frequency band (101-375 Hz) during voluntary grips. Beta suppression deepened, and then reached a floor level as effort increased. Conversely, gamma and high frequency power increases were enhanced during grips made with greater effort. Multiple regression models incorporating the four different spectral changes confirmed that the modulation of power in the beta band was the only independent predictor of effort during grips made with efforts rated coding. The latter function is thought to be impaired in untreated PD where task-related reactivity in these two bands is deficient.

  13. Conservation efforts and malaria in the Brazilian Amazon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hahn, Micah B; Olson, Sarah H; Vittor, Amy Y; Barcellos, Christovam; Patz, Jonathan A; Pan, William

    2014-04-01

    We respond to Valle and Clark, who assert that "conservation efforts may increase malaria burden in the Brazilian Amazon," because the relationship between forest cover and malaria incidence was stronger than the effect of the deforestation rate. We contend that their conclusion is flawed because of limitations in their methodology that we discuss in detail. Most important are the exclusion of one-half the original data without a discussion of selection bias, the lack of model adjustment for either population growth or migration, and the crude classifications of land cover and protected areas that lead to aggregation bias. Of greater significance, we stress the need for caution in the interpretation of data that could have profound effects on regional land use decisions.

  14. Conservation Efforts and Malaria in the Brazilian Amazon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hahn, Micah B.; Olson, Sarah H.; Vittor, Amy Y.; Barcellos, Christovam; Patz, Jonathan A.; Pan, William

    2014-01-01

    We respond to Valle and Clark,1 who assert that “conservation efforts may increase malaria burden in the Brazilian Amazon,” because the relationship between forest cover and malaria incidence was stronger than the effect of the deforestation rate.1 We contend that their conclusion is flawed because of limitations in their methodology that we discuss in detail. Most important are the exclusion of one-half the original data without a discussion of selection bias, the lack of model adjustment for either population growth or migration, and the crude classifications of land cover and protected areas that lead to aggregation bias.1 Of greater significance, we stress the need for caution in the interpretation of data that could have profound effects on regional land use decisions. PMID:24277787

  15. Master Settlement Agreement (MSA) spending and tobacco control efforts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayawardhana, Jayani; Bradford, W David; Jones, Walter; Nietert, Paul J; Silvestri, Gerard

    2014-01-01

    We investigate whether the distributions to the states from the Tobacco Master Settlement Agreement (MSA) in 1998 is associated with stronger tobacco control efforts. We use state level data from 50 states and the District of Columbia from four time periods post MSA (1999, 2002, 2004, and 2006) for the analysis. Using fixed effect regression models, we estimate the relationship between MSA disbursements and a new aggregate measure of strength of state tobacco control known as the Strength of Tobacco Control (SoTC) Index. Results show an increase of $1 in the annual per capita MSA disbursement to a state is associated with a decrease of -0.316 in the SoTC mean value, indicating higher MSA payments were associated with weaker tobacco control measures within states. In order to achieve the initial objectives of the MSA payments, policy makers should focus on utilizing MSA payments strictly on tobacco control activities across states.

  16. Optimal pricing and promotional effort control policies for a new product growth in segmented market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jha P.C.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Market segmentation enables the marketers to understand and serve the customers more effectively thereby improving company’s competitive position. In this paper, we study the impact of price and promotion efforts on evolution of sales intensity in segmented market to obtain the optimal price and promotion effort policies. Evolution of sales rate for each segment is developed under the assumption that marketer may choose both differentiated as well as mass market promotion effort to influence the uncaptured market potential. An optimal control model is formulated and a solution method using Maximum Principle has been discussed. The model is extended to incorporate budget constraint. Model applicability is illustrated by a numerical example. P.C. Jha, P. Manik, K. Chaudhary, R. Cambini / Optimal Pricing and Promotional 2 Since the discrete time data is available, the formulated model is discretized. For solving the discrete model, differential evolution algorithm is used.

  17. Summary of NR Program Prometheus Efforts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J Ashcroft; C Eshelman

    2006-02-08

    The Naval Reactors Program led work on the development of a reactor plant system for the Prometheus space reactor program. The work centered on a 200 kWe electric reactor plant with a 15-20 year mission applicable to nuclear electric propulsion (NEP). After a review of all reactor and energy conversion alternatives, a direct gas Brayton reactor plant was selected for further development. The work performed subsequent to this selection included preliminary nuclear reactor and reactor plant design, development of instrumentation and control techniques, modeling reactor plant operational features, development and testing of core and plant material options, and development of an overall project plan. Prior to restructuring of the program, substantial progress had been made on defining reference plant operating conditions, defining reactor mechanical, thermal and nuclear performance, understanding the capabilities and uncertainties provided by material alternatives, and planning non-nuclear and nuclear system testing. The mission requirements for the envisioned NEP missions cannot be accommodated with existing reactor technologies. Therefore concurrent design, development and testing would be needed to deliver a functional reactor system. Fuel and material performance beyond the current state of the art is needed. There is very little national infrastructure available for fast reactor nuclear testing and associated materials development and testing. Surface mission requirements may be different enough to warrant different reactor design approaches and development of a generic multi-purpose reactor requires substantial sacrifice in performance capability for each mission.

  18. Summary of NR Program Prometheus Efforts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashcroft, John; Eshelman, Curtis

    2007-01-01

    The Naval Reactors Program led work on the development of a reactor plant system for the Prometheus space reactor program. The work centered on a 200 kWe electric reactor plant with a 15-20 year mission applicable to nuclear electric propulsion (NEP). After a review of all reactor and energy conversion alternatives, a direct gas Brayton reactor plant was selected for further development. The work performed subsequent to this selection included preliminary nuclear reactor and reactor plant design, development of instrumentation and control techniques, modeling reactor plant operational features, development and testing of core and plant material options, and development of an overall project plan. Prior to restructuring of the program, substantial progress had been made on defining reference plant operating conditions, defining reactor mechanical, thermal and nuclear performance, understanding the capabilities and uncertainties provided by material alternatives, and planning non-nuclear and nuclear system testing. The mission requirements for the envisioned NEP missions cannot be accommodated with existing reactor technologies. Therefore concurrent design, development and testing would be needed to deliver a functional reactor system. Fuel and material performance beyond the current state of the art is needed. There is very little national infrastructure available for fast reactor nuclear testing and associated materials development and testing. Surface mission requirements may be different enough to warrant different reactor design approaches and development of a generic multi-purpose reactor requires substantial sacrifice in performance capability for each mission.

  19. How much effort should be employed for surveying a low-diversity Amazonian mammal assemblage using line-transects?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ítalo Mourthé

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Line-transect surveys are commonly used for sampling large mammals, but estimates of the effort needed to reliably surveying low-diversity assemblages of mammals are scarce. Using data from line-transects and species accumulation curves, I examined whether or not a sampling effort previously suggested to survey mammals elsewhere (ca. 85-100 km would be satisfactory for surveying a low-diversity assemblage of large mammals in the Rio Negro basin in northern Amazonia. In total, 14 mammals were recorded after an accumulated effort of 690 km walked. The desired threshold of completeness was only achieved in one of six transects after an average effort of 115 km surveyed. Considering the entire landscape (all transects pooled, survey completeness was reached after a much higher effort. Moreover, the theoretical effort required to achieve completeness was estimated to be 150-360 km per transect, and 512 km for the landscape. Further studies are required to fully understand this issue, but meanwhile it is safest to assume that higher sampling efforts should be employed when surveying low-diversity assemblages through diurnal line-transects in northwestern Amazonia to get robust estimates of mammal richness.

  20. Effort assessment in the development of information systems projects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Živadinović Jovan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available There is a great lack of methods and techniques in the software development process itself, as well as the lack of the appropriate tools that would make it more efficient. The significance of the problem is repeatedly emphasized by the need to ensure a high quality of software and software-based systems. The main objective of this work is to develop and systematize the original formal procedure for assessing the development of information systems in the early stages of the software life cycle, through metrics of the data model. We calculate the metrics of data model by using data that can be read off from a base data model, which is represented with an Entity-Relationship (ER diagram that is defined with four basic concepts: entities, relationships, attributes of entities or relationships and values. The idea is to present the complexity of the process with a function of a number of these concepts and a number of attributes for entity types. Assessment techniques represent the basis for planning and successful performance of software projects. Statistical method was used in this paper and these assessment processes go under the category of empirical parametric methods, although they have some characteristics of the expert estimation method. A developed assessment process represents a step in the efforts to reach suitable measures which we would use to assess the size and complexity of the data model and also to estimate the amount of costs and resources necessary for the development of information systems. Likewise, certain metrics are developed. By being familiar with the data model, we can use these metrics to quantify characteristics of an information system as a whole in the logic design phase. Suggested metrics were tested on specific models and the results are shown here.

  1. AIDSCAP initiative expands prevention efforts for women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1995-01-01

    By 2000, women will likely comprise 50% of HIV-infected persons worldwide. Women, regardless of number of sexual partners, are especially vulnerable to HIV. One act of intercourse puts women at an 18 times greater risk than men of acquiring HIV. Traditional gender roles denying women the power to protect their own health exacerbate their biological susceptibility to HIV infection. AIDSCAP's Women's Initiative (AWI) aims to secure culturally and gender-sensitive AIDSCAP interventions and strategies and to advance AIDSCAP's leadership role in developing HIV/AIDS prevention models for women. More than 50% of AIDSCAP current projects target women. AWI integrates a broader gender perspective into AIDSCAP's project design, technical assistance, evaluation and monitoring, and policy projects. It has expanded target women's groups beyond the groups traditionally considered at high risk. To date, various AIDSCAP projects have trained and educated about one million women. The Christian Reformed World Relief Committee (CRWRC) is involved in HIV/AIDS prevention activities. Its AIDS and Sexually Transmitted Disease (STD) Health Promotion Prevention Program with Market Women in Senegal targets self-employed market women and urban female youth in Dakar, Kaoloack, and Thies. CRWRC worked with two women's groups to develop a sexual health promotion package with HIV/AIDS and STD IEC (information, education, and communication) materials and has trained 20 facilitators to use the promotion package. It helps the two collaborating groups to develop their organization capacities so they can implement and evaluate sustainable HIV/STD prevention programs. AIDSCAP also supports training of Kenyan family planning provider activities in HIV prevention of the JSI Family Planning Sector Project. It collaborates with the Center of Women Workers in Haiti to provide women factory workers IEC and condoms to promote risk reduction behavior. AWI also conducts research and policy activities (e

  2. Software project effort estimation foundations and best practice guidelines for success

    CERN Document Server

    Trendowicz, Adam

    2014-01-01

    Software effort estimation is one of the oldest and most important problems in software project management, and thus today there are a large number of models, each with its own unique strengths and weaknesses in general, and even more importantly, in relation to the environment and context in which it is to be applied.Trendowicz and Jeffery present a comprehensive look at the principles of software effort estimation and support software practitioners in systematically selecting and applying the most suitable effort estimation approach. Their book not only presents what approach to take and how

  3. Task difficulty moderates implicit fear and anger effects on effort-related cardiac response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatelain, Mathieu; Silvestrini, Nicolas; Gendolla, Guido H E

    2016-03-01

    Based on the implicit-affect-primes-effort (IAPE) model (Gendolla, 2012, 2015), the present experiment tested whether objective task difficulty moderates the previously found impact of fear and anger primes on effort-related cardiac response during an arithmetic task. We expected that fear primes would lead to stronger cardiac pre-ejection period (PEP) reactivity than anger primes in an easy task, but that anger primes would lead to a stronger PEP response than fear primes in a difficult task. Results corroborated these predictions. Moreover, there was no evidence that the affect primes induced conscious feelings that could explain the observed cardiac reactivity, suggesting that the primes had the intended implicit effect on effort mobilization. The findings contribute to the accumulating evidence in support of the IAPE model, showing that objective task difficulty is a moderator of implicit affect's influence on effort-related cardiac response.

  4. 河南省高校可承担债务比例分析%AN ANALYSIS OF THE RATIO OF DEBT UNIVERSITIES CAN ASSUME IN HENAN PROVINCE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    任新平

    2012-01-01

    以高校债务与收入资料为基础,对当前高校可承担债务比例与风险状况进行了测算,揭示出还款期限与还款比例之间的关系。%The paper measures and calculates the ratio of debt universities can assume at present and the current condition of risks based on their debt and revenue and then it reveals the relationship between reimbursement deadline and ratio.

  5. Evaluating cognitive effort in a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Travis H; Renfroe, Jenna B; Morella, Kristen; Marriott, Bernadette P

    2016-09-01

    Many randomized controlled trials (RCTs) of neuropsychiatric conditions involve cognitive outcome measures; however, validity of cognitive data relies on adequate effort during testing, and such screening is seldom performed. Given well-established rates of 10 to 30% poor effort in clinical settings, this is not a trivial concern. This preliminary study evaluated effort during cognitive testing in an RCT of omega-3 supplementation to reduce suicidality in a high-risk psychiatric population. An interim analysis of sustained attentions measures from the Connors Performance Test (CPT-2) at baseline for the first 60 participants was conducted. Previously validated cut points to detect insufficient effort on the CPT-2 were applied. At baseline, 12% (7) were identified as giving poor effort. Follow-up analyses indicated less psychiatric distress and suicidality among those who gave poor effort. Results suggest comparable likelihood of a poor effort on cognitive testing in clinical and RCT participation. Reduced psychiatric distress in the poor effort group raises concern regarding interpretation of other measures. The importance of screening cognitive data for effort in RCTs is highlighted. Future studies will examine effort at follow-up visits, and explore relationships to attrition, adherence, and response to treatment. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  6. An Approach for Software Effort Estimation Using Fuzzy Numbers and Genetic Algorithm to Deal with Uncertainity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Divya Kashyap

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available One of the most critical tasks during the software development life cycle is that of estimating the effort and time involved in the development of the software product. Estimation may be performed by many ways such as: Expert judgments, A lgorithmic effort estimation, Machine learning and Analogy-based estimation. In which Ana logy-based software effort estimation is the process of identifying one or more historical p rojects that are similar to the project being developed and then using the estimates from them. A nalogy-based estimation is integrated with Fuzzy numbers in order to improve the performance o f software project effort estimation during the early stages of a software development lifecycl e. Because of uncertainty associated with attribute measurement and data availability, fuzzy logic is introduced in the proposed model. But hardly a historical project is exactly same as the project being estimated due to some distance associated in similarity distance. This me ans that the most similar project still has a similarity distance with the project being estimate d in most of the cases. Therefore, the effort needs to be adjusted when the most similar project has a similarity distance with the project being estimated. To adjust the reused effort, we bu ild an adjustment mechanism whose algorithm can derive the optimal adjustment on the reused effort using Genetic Algorithm. The proposed model Combine the fuzzy logic to estimate software effort in early stages with Genetic algorithm based adjustment mechanism may result to near the correct effort estimation.

  7. Military efforts in nanosensors, 3D printing, and imaging detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Eugene; Booth, Janice C.; Roberts, J. Keith; Brantley, Christina L.; Crutcher, Sihon H.; Whitley, Michael; Kranz, Michael; Seif, Mohamed; Ruffin, Paul

    2017-04-01

    A team of researchers and support organizations, affiliated with the Army Aviation and Missile Research, Development, and Engineering Center (AMRDEC), has initiated multidiscipline efforts to develop nano-based structures and components for advanced weaponry, aviation, and autonomous air/ground systems applications. The main objective of this research is to exploit unique phenomena for the development of novel technology to enhance warfighter capabilities and produce precision weaponry. The key technology areas that the authors are exploring include nano-based sensors, analysis of 3D printing constituents, and nano-based components for imaging detection. By integrating nano-based devices, structures, and materials into weaponry, the Army can revolutionize existing (and future) weaponry systems by significantly reducing the size, weight, and cost. The major research thrust areas include the development of carbon nanotube sensors to detect rocket motor off-gassing; the application of current methodologies to assess materials used for 3D printing; and the assessment of components to improve imaging seekers. The status of current activities, associated with these key areas and their implementation into AMRDEC's research, is outlined in this paper. Section #2 outlines output data, graphs, and overall evaluations of carbon nanotube sensors placed on a 16 element chip and exposed to various environmental conditions. Section #3 summarizes the experimental results of testing various materials and resulting components that are supplementary to additive manufacturing/fused deposition modeling (FDM). Section #4 recapitulates a preliminary assessment of the optical and electromechanical components of seekers in an effort to propose components and materials that can work more effectively.

  8. Effort reward imbalance is associated with vagal withdrawal in Danish public sector employees

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eller, Nanna Hurwitz; Blønd, Morten; Nielsen, Martin

    2011-01-01

    The current study analyzed the relationship between psychosocial work environment assessed by the Effort Reward Imbalance Model (ERI-model) and heart rate variability (HRV) measured at baseline and again, two years later, as this relationship is scarcely covered by the literature....

  9. Pathways to Problem Behaviors: Chaotic Homes, Parent and Child Effortful Control, and Parenting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valiente, Carlos; Lemery-Chalfant, Kathryn; Reiser, Mark

    2007-01-01

    Guided by Belsky's and Eisenberg, Cumberland, and Spinrad's heuristic models, we tested a process model with hypothesized paths from parents' effortful control (EC) and family chaos to indices of parenting to children's EC, and finally children's externalizing problem behavior. Parents reported on all constructs and children (N = 188; M age = 9.55…

  10. Relationship effort, satisfaction, and stability: differences across union type.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shafer, Kevin; Jensen, Todd M; Larson, Jeffry H

    2014-04-01

    Relationship satisfaction and stability are two commonly studied outcomes in marriage and family research. Majority of studies address socio demographic variability and differences across union type in these outcomes. We extend this literature by addressing how the amount of effort one puts into their relationship is associated with stability and satisfaction. Specifically, we focus on how effort impacts these measures of quality in four union types: premarital cohabitation, first marriage, post-divorce cohabitation, and second marriage following divorce. Furthermore, we make union type comparisons in the strength of effort's association with satisfaction and stability. Using data from 8,006 respondents in the Relationship Evaluation Survey, our results show that effort was strongly and positively associated with satisfaction and stability in all four unions. Although effort is more strongly associated with satisfaction in first marriage than cohabiting relationships, no union type differences in the role of effort on stability were observed. Clinical and research implications of these findings are discussed.

  11. Recent Efforts in Data Compilations for Nuclear Astrophysics

    CERN Document Server

    Dillmann, I

    2008-01-01

    Some recent efforts in compiling data for astrophysical purposes are introduced, which were discussed during a JINA-CARINA Collaboration meeting on "Nuclear Physics Data Compilation for Nucleosynthesis Modeling" held at the ECT* in Trento/ Italy from May 29th- June 3rd, 2007. The main goal of this collaboration is to develop an updated and unified nuclear reaction database for modeling a wide variety of stellar nucleosynthesis scenarios. Presently a large number of different reaction libraries (REACLIB) are used by the astrophysics community. The "JINA Reaclib Database" on http://www.nscl.msu.edu/\\~nero/db/ aims to merge and fit the latest experimental stellar cross sections and reaction rate data of various compilations, e.g. NACRE and its extension for Big Bang nucleosynthesis, Caughlan and Fowler, Iliadis et al., and KADoNiS. The KADoNiS (Karlsruhe Astrophysical Database of Nucleosynthesis in Stars, http://nuclear-astrophysics.fzk.de/kadonis) project is an online database for neutron capture cross sections...

  12. Earth Orientation Parameters from repro- cessing and combination efforts (abstract)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothacher, M.; Steigenberger, P.; Thaller, D.

    2006-10-01

    In the last few years two major improvements have been achieved concerning the determination of Earth Orientation Parameters (EOP): (1) A few GPS analysis centers started to reprocess long time intervals (≍10 years) of global GPS data to obtain very homogeneous and much refined time series of EOPs, considerably improving the modeling of the observations (ionospheric corrections of higher order, satellite and receiver antenna phase center patterns, atmospheric mapping function, etc.). The effect of these reprocessing and modeling efforts on polar motion, LOD and nutation rates will be shown. (2) With various activities (IERS SINEX Combination Campaign, IERS Combination Pilot Project, IERS Call for Long Time Series) the IERS has promoted the rigorous combination of the different space geodetic techniques. Such a combination is not only important to guarantee EOP results referring to a unique reference frame, but it also allows to make use of the complementarity of the space techniques (e.g., UT1 from VLBI densified in time using LOD from GPS). We show results from the CONT02 campaign to illustrate the benefits but also the critical issues of such a rigorous combination of the different observation techniques. Finally, we will give an outlook at what might be a future, very consistent and highly accurate set of IERS products, resulting from the combination of the space geodetic techniques.

  13. Neural Network based Software Effort Estimation: A Survey

    OpenAIRE

    Muhammad Waseem Khan; Imran Qureshi

    2014-01-01

    Software effort estimation is used to estimate how many resources and how many hours are required to develop a software project. The accurate and reliable prediction is the key to success of a project. There are numerous mechanisms in software effort estimation but accurate prediction is still a challenge for the researchers and software project managers. In this paper, the use of Neural Network techniques for Software Effort Estimation is discussed and evaluate on the basis of MMRE and Predi...

  14. The Role of Cognitive Effort in Framing Effects

    OpenAIRE

    Krzysztof Przybyszewski; Dorota Rutkowska

    2013-01-01

    Framing effects are a common bias in people making risky decisions. The account for this bias is found in the loss aversion derived from Prospect Theory. Most often in the decision making literature this is the effortful processes that are claimed to reduce framing effects in risky choice tasks i.e. investing of mental effort should de-bias the decision makers. However, in goal framing studies, effortful mental processes may produce those effects. In our experiment participants were primed wi...

  15. [The activity of muscles of the shoulder girdle and shoulder during the constant isometric efforts of the wrist].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vereshchaka, I V; Lehedza, O V; Dornovs'kyĭ, M; Horkovenko, A V; Khorievin, V I

    2014-01-01

    Electromyogramms (EMG) of eight muscles of the arm were analyzed in 11 healthy men aged 25-40 years during equal magnitude isometric efforts created by wrist. Subjects had to track cursor that moved around on the screen at a constant speed (16 degrees/s) in a horizontal plane. Thus, the subject slowly changed the direction of generation of efforts, while its amplitude remained constant. It was established that during creation of the static efforts equal in all directions, the extensors activity was mainly in the areas of extension of shoulder and elbow joints, whereas the flexor activity was observed in all directions with maximum, which corresponded to the arm bending. It is assumed that muscular activity is organized on the principle of the synergies that are clearly related to the task and beyond it can not exist.

  16. The vulnerability to coaching across measures of effort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brennan, Adrianne M; Meyer, Stephen; David, Emily; Pella, Russell; Hill, Ben D; Gouvier, Wm Drew

    2009-02-01

    Neuropsychologists are increasingly called upon to conduct evaluations with individuals involved in personal injury litigation. While the inclusion of measures of effort within a test battery may help clinicians determine whether a client has put forth full effort, attorney coaching may allow dishonest clients to circumvent these efforts. The purpose of this study was to determine the degree to which frequently used measures of effort are susceptible to coaching, as well as to explore and classify strategies undertaken by coached malingering simulators. Overall, coached simulators performed significantly better on 7 of 14 measured variables. Potential improvements in the external validity of the simulation design were also explored.

  17. Stochastic evolutionary dynamics in minimum-effort coordination games

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Kun; Cong, Rui; Wang, Long

    2016-08-01

    The minimum-effort coordination game draws recently more attention for the fact that human behavior in this social dilemma is often inconsistent with the predictions of classical game theory. Here, we combine evolutionary game theory and coalescence theory to investigate this game in finite populations. Both analytic results and individual-based simulations show that effort costs play a key role in the evolution of contribution levels, which is in good agreement with those observed experimentally. Besides well-mixed populations, set structured populations have also been taken into consideration. Therein we find that large number of sets and moderate migration rate greatly promote effort levels, especially for high effort costs.

  18. Stretch-sensitive paresis and effort perception in hemiparesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinti, Maria; Bayle, Nicolas; Hutin, Emilie; Burke, David; Gracies, Jean-Michel

    2015-08-01

    In spastic paresis, stretch applied to the antagonist increases its inappropriate recruitment during agonist command (spastic co-contraction). It is unknown whether antagonist stretch: (1) also affects agonist recruitment; (2) alters effort perception. We quantified voluntary activation of ankle dorsiflexors, effort perception, and plantar flexor co-contraction during graded dorsiflexion efforts at two gastrocnemius lengths. Eighteen healthy (age 41 ± 13) and 18 hemiparetic (age 54 ± 12) subjects performed light, medium and maximal isometric dorsiflexion efforts with the knee flexed or extended. We determined dorsiflexor torque, Root Mean Square EMG and Agonist Recruitment/Co-contraction Indices (ARI/CCI) from the 500 ms peak voluntary agonist recruitment in a 5-s maximal isometric effort in tibialis anterior, soleus and medial gastrocnemius. Subjects retrospectively reported effort perception on a 10-point visual analog scale. During gastrocnemius stretch in hemiparetic subjects, we observed: (1) a 25 ± 7 % reduction of tibialis anterior voluntary activation (maximum reduction 98 %; knee extended vs knee flexed; p = 0.007, ANOVA); (2) an increase in dorsiflexion effort perception (p = 0.03, ANCOVA). Such changes did not occur in healthy subjects. Effort perception depended on tibialis anterior recruitment only (βARI(TA) = 0.61, p hemiparesis, voluntary ability to recruit agonist motoneurones is impaired--sometimes abolished--by antagonist stretch, a phenomenon defined here as stretch-sensitive paresis. In addition, spastic co-contraction increases effort perception, an additional incentive to evaluate and treat this phenomenon.

  19. Effort Levels of Capital-constrained Retailer under Bank Financing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiaojing LIU; Xingzheng AI; Xiaowo TANG

    2015-01-01

    In a supply chain with a retailer confronted with financial constraints,impacts on profits of the supply chain can be alleviated by increasing the retailer’s efforts and market demand through external financing( bank). If the cost of bank lending is not very high,the capitalconstrained retailer can borrow money and make efforts. The reduction of bank interest rates,however,increases the retailer’s efforts. We prove that there is a unique equilibrium point between the retailers. We find out the optimal interest rate of the bank and the optimal efforts by the retailer through numerical analysis and verify validity of the results.

  20. Feedforward consequences of isometric contractions: effort and ventilation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luu, Billy L; Smith, Janette L; Martin, Peter G; McBain, Rachel A; Taylor, Janet L; Butler, Jane E

    2016-08-01

    The onset of voluntary muscle contractions causes rapid increases in ventilation and is accompanied by a sensation of effort. Both the ventilatory response and perception of effort are proportional to contraction intensity, but these behaviors have been generalized from contractions of a single muscle group. Our aim was to determine how these relationships are affected by simultaneous contractions of multiple muscle groups. We examined the ventilatory response and perceived effort of contraction during separate and simultaneous isometric contractions of the contralateral elbow flexors and of an ipsilateral elbow flexor and knee extensor. Subjects made 10-sec contractions at 25, 50, and 100% of maximum during normocapnia and hypercapnia. For simultaneous contractions, both muscle groups were activated at the same intensities. Ventilation was measured continuously and subjects rated the effort required to produce each contraction. As expected, ventilation and perceived effort increased proportionally with contraction intensity during individual contractions. However, during simultaneous contractions, neither ventilation nor effort reflected the combined muscle output. Rather, the ventilatory response was similar to when contractions were performed separately, and effort ratings showed a small but significant increase for simultaneous contractions. Hypercapnia at rest doubled baseline ventilation, but did not affect the difference in perceived effort between separate and simultaneous contractions. The ventilatory response and the sense of effort at the onset of muscle activity are not related to the total output of the motor pathways, or the working muscles, but arise from cortical regions upstream from the motor cortex.

  1. An Empirical Investigation of Predicting Fault Count, Fix Cost and Effort Using Software Metrics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raed Shatnawi

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Software fault prediction is important in software engineering field. Fault prediction helps engineers manage their efforts by identifying the most complex parts of the software where errors concentrate. Researchers usually study the fault-proneness in modules because most modules have zero faults, and a minority have the most faults in a system. In this study, we present methods and models for the prediction of fault-count, fault-fix cost, and fault-fix effort and compare the effectiveness of different prediction models. This research proposes using a set of procedural metrics to predict three fault measures: fault count, fix cost and fix effort. Five regression models are used to predict the three fault measures. The study reports on three data sets published by NASA. The models for each fault are evaluated using the Root Mean Square Error. A comparison amongst fault measures is conducted using the Relative Absolute Error. The models show promising results to provide a practical guide to help software engineers in allocating resources during software testing and maintenance. The cost fix models show equal or better performance than fault count and effort models.

  2. The pharmacology of effort-related choice behavior: Dopamine, depression, and individual differences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salamone, John D; Correa, Merce; Yohn, Samantha; Lopez Cruz, Laura; San Miguel, Noemi; Alatorre, Luisa

    2016-06-01

    This review paper is focused upon the involvement of mesolimbic dopamine (DA) and related brain systems in effort-based processes. Interference with DA transmission affects instrumental behavior in a manner that interacts with the response requirements of the task, such that rats with impaired DA transmission show a heightened sensitivity to ratio requirements. Impaired DA transmission also affects effort-related choice behavior, which is assessed by tasks that offer a choice between a preferred reinforcer that has a high work requirement vs. less preferred reinforcer that can be obtained with minimal effort. Rats and mice with impaired DA transmission reallocate instrumental behavior away from food-reinforced tasks with high response costs, and show increased selection of low reinforcement/low cost options. Tests of effort-related choice have been developed into models of pathological symptoms of motivation that are seen in disorders such as depression and schizophrenia. These models are being employed to explore the effects of conditions associated with various psychopathologies, and to assess drugs for their potential utility as treatments for effort-related symptoms. Studies of the pharmacology of effort-based choice may contribute to the development of treatments for symptoms such as psychomotor slowing, fatigue or anergia, which are seen in depression and other disorders.

  3. Discussion on the Scope of Legal Fictions to Assume Executives and Employees of Entrusted Agencies Are Civil Servants in the Application of Punishments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Sang-won; Jang, Gun-hyeon; Kim, Chang-beom; Go, Jae-dong; Ahn, Hyeong-jun; Rhyu, Jung; Chung, Sang-ki [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2008-05-15

    Article 122 of the Atomic Energy Act sets forth that 'executives and employees of an agency engaged in an entrusted work or its associated specialized agency, in the application of any punishment as per the Criminal Act or other laws, shall be regarded as civil servants,' stipulating that the scope of legal fictions to assume such persons are civil servants should be applicable to any punishment as per the Criminal Act or other laws. Accordingly, the executives and employees of an entrusted agency or its associated specialized agency are subject to the punishments not only for acceptance of graft but also for dereliction of duty or divulgence of classified information. In addition, they are also subject to increased punishment in accordance with other laws, for example, such special laws as Law Concerning Increased Punishment for Specified Crimes and Law Concerning Increased Punishment for Specified Economic Crimes.

  4. New insight into fat, muscle and bone relationship in women: determining the threshold at which body fat assumes negative relationship with bone mineral density.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Pei-Yang; Ilich, Jasminka Z; Brummel-Smith, Ken; Ghosh, Sunita

    2014-11-01

    The aim was to investigate the relationships among lean mass (LM), fat mass (FM), and bone mineral density (BMD) in women stratified by body mass index (BMI) (BMI - normal-weight, overweight, obese) and to determine threshold at which body fat assumes negative relationship with BMD. This was a cross-sectional study in 471 healthy Caucasian women, aged 18-67 years. BMD, LM, and FM were measured using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Analysis of variance with Bonferroni corrections was used to test the BMI group differences. Linear regression was used to examine independent contributions of LM and FM on BMD of various skeletal sites (controlling for age and height). In overweight/obese women PROC LOESS plots were used to determine the inflection points at which either LM or FM relationship with BMD changes direction. Separate analyses in pre- and post-menopausal women were conducted as well. Spine and femoral neck BMD were not different among three BMI groups while total body, femur and radius BMD were statistically different (the highest in the obese group). Linear regression revealed that LM had significant positive association with BMD of various skeletal sites in all groups. FM showed a negative association with BMD of femoral neck and femur in normal-weight and spine in overweight women, but a positive association with radius in obese women. Inflection points showed that body fat between 33% and 38% assumed negative relationship with BMD for most skeletal sites in overweight and obese women. Although LM has strong positive relationship with BMD, FM above 33% in overweight/obese women is negatively related to BMD of most skeletal sites. Therefore, overweight/obesity after certain amount of FM, may not be a protective factor against osteoporosis in females. For clinical practice in women, it is important to maintain LM and keep FM accrual below ~30% body fat to maintain good skeletal health.

  5. Impacts of Daily Bag Limit Reductions on Angler Effort in Wisconsin Walleye Lakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beard, T.D.; Cox, S.P.; Carpenter, S.R.

    2003-01-01

    Angler effort is an important factor affecting recreational fisheries. However, angler responses are rarely incorporated into recreational fisheries regulations or predictions. Few have attempted to examine how daily bag limit regulations affect total angling pressure and subsequent stock densities. Our paper develops a theoretical basis for predicting angler effort and harvest rate based on stock densities and bag limit regulations. We examined data from a management system that controls the total exploitation of walleyes Sander vitreus (formerly Stizostedion vitreum) in northern Wisconsin lakes and compared these empirical results with the predictions from a theoretical effort and harvest rate response model. The data indicated that higher general angler effort occurs on lakes regulated with a 5-walleye daily limit than on lakes regulated with either a 2- or 3-walleye daily limit. General walleye catch rates were lower on lakes with a 5-walleye limit than on lakes with either a 2- or 3-walleye daily limit. An effort response model predicted a logarithmic relationship between angler effort and adult walleye density and that an index of attractiveness would be greater on lakes with high bag limits. Predictions from the harvest rate model with constant walleye catchability indicated that harvest rates increased nonlinearly with increasing density. When the effort model was fitted to data from northern Wisconsin, we found higher lake attractiveness at 5-walleye-limit lakes. We conclude that different groups of anglers respond differently to bag limit changes and that reliance on daily bag limits may not be sufficient to maintain high walleye densities in some lakes in this region.

  6. A 3D Orthotropic Strain-Rate Dependent Elastic Damage Material Model.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    English, Shawn Allen

    2014-09-01

    A three dimensional orthotropic elastic constitutive model with continuum damage and cohesive based fracture is implemented for a general polymer matrix composite lamina. The formulation assumes the possibility of distributed (continuum) damage followed b y localized damage. The current damage activation functions are simply partially interactive quadratic strain criteria . However, the code structure allows for changes in the functions without extraordinary effort. The material model formulation, implementation, characterization and use cases are presented.

  7. Does HPA-Axis Dysregulation Account for the Effects of Income on Effortful Control and Adjustment in Preschool Children?

    OpenAIRE

    Lengua, Liliana J.; Zalewski, Maureen; Fisher, Phil; Moran, Lyndsey

    2013-01-01

    The effects of low income on children's adjustment might be accounted for by disruptions to hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal (HPA)-axis activity and to the development of effortful control. Using longitudinal data and a community sample of preschool-age children (N = 306, 36–39 months) and their mothers, recruited to over-represent low-income families, we explored the associations among diurnal cortisol levels and effortful control, and we tested a model in which diurnal cortisol and effortful ...

  8. 15 CFR 930.114 - Secretarial mediation efforts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Secretarial mediation efforts. 930.114... MANAGEMENT FEDERAL CONSISTENCY WITH APPROVED COASTAL MANAGEMENT PROGRAMS Secretarial Mediation § 930.114 Secretarial mediation efforts. (a) Following the close of the hearing, the hearing officer shall transmit...

  9. Group Diffusion of Cognitive Effort as a Determinant of Attribution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quintanar, Leo R.; Pryor, John B.

    The tendency for individuals to reduce their own efforts when others are available to respond has been called "social loafing." Social loafing has been found also to characterize collective endeavors on tasks considered cognitively efffortful. To test the hypothesis that reduced cognitive effort related to the presence of a coacting group would…

  10. KOPE /Kalendar Oriented Program Efforts/ provides data for management decisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karkainen, T. A.

    1967-01-01

    KOPE /Kalendar Oriented Program Efforts/ is a computer program that establishes control over project efforts to assure management of meeting a specified completion date. With the appropriate input data, KOPE computes the starting and completion dates, the manning level for each activity, and the composite manning level for the program.

  11. Cognitive Effort in Modality Retrieval by Young and Older Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mellinger, Jeanne C.; And Others

    Recent studies of contextual attributes thought to be automatic have reported deficits among the elderly, raising the question of whether automatic memory processing does require some effortful attention and if so, whether such effort is needed during encoding, storage, or retrieval. This study used a secondary task methodology to examine these…

  12. Effortful Control and Academic Achievement in Rural China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Li; Rao, Nirmala

    2017-01-01

    Research Findings: This study investigated the relationships between effortful control and early literacy and mathematics achievement. A total of 181 children (85 girls and 96 boys) from rural China were assessed when they were in Grades 1 and 2. Path analyses controlling for maternal education indicated that effortful control at the beginning of…

  13. Effort reward imbalance, and salivary cortisol in the morning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eller, Nanna Hurwitz; Nielsen, Søren Feodor; Blønd, Morten

    2012-01-01

    Effort reward imbalance (ERI) is suggested to increase risk for stress and is hypothesized to increase cortisol levels, especially the awakening cortisol response, ACR.......Effort reward imbalance (ERI) is suggested to increase risk for stress and is hypothesized to increase cortisol levels, especially the awakening cortisol response, ACR....

  14. Best-effort Support for a Virtual Seminar Room

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sharp, Robin; Todirica, Edward Alexandru

    2002-01-01

    This paper describes the RTMM Virtual Seminar Room, an interactive distributed multimedia application based on a platform with a simple middleware architecture, using best effort scheduling and a best effort network service. Emphasis has been placed on achieving low latency in all parts...

  15. Interaction of poststroke voluntary effort and functional neuromuscular electrical stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makowski, Nathaniel; Knutson, Jayme; Chae, John; Crago, Patrick

    2013-01-01

    Functional electrical stimulation (FES) may be able to augment functional arm and hand movement after stroke. Poststroke neuroprostheses that incorporate voluntary effort and FES to produce the desired movement must consider how forces generated by voluntary effort and FES combine, even in the same muscle, in order to provide an appropriate level of stimulation to elicit the desired assistive force. The goal of this study was to determine whether the force produced by voluntary effort and FES add together independently of effort or whether the increment in force depends on the level of voluntary effort. Isometric force matching tasks were performed under different combinations of voluntary effort and FES. Participants reached a steady level of force, and while attempting to maintain a constant effort level, FES was applied to augment the force. Results indicate that the increment in force produced by FES decreases as the level of initial voluntary effort increases. Potential mechanisms causing the change in force output are proposed, but the relative contribution of each mechanism is unknown.

  16. Does Confidence Predict Out-of-Domain Effort?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Prokudina, Elena; Renneboog, Luc; Tobler, Philippe

    2015-01-01

    Predicting worker’s effort is important in many different areas, but is often difficult. Using a laboratory experiment, we test the hypothesis that confidence, i.e. the person-specific beliefs about her abilities, can be used as a generic proxy to predict future effort provision. We measure

  17. 48 CFR 1352.231-71 - Duplication of effort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Duplication of effort. 1352.231-71 Section 1352.231-71 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE CLAUSES... Duplication of effort. As prescribed in 48 CFR 1331.205-70, insert the following clause: Duplication of...

  18. Children's Effortful Control and Academic Competence: Mediation through School Liking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valiente, Carlos; Lemery-Chalfant, Kathryn; Castro, Kimberly S.

    2007-01-01

    We examined the relations among children's effortful control, school liking, and academic competence with a sample of 240 7- to 12-year-old children. Parents and children reported on effortful control, and teachers and children assessed school liking. Children, parents, and teachers reported on children's academic competence. Significant positive…

  19. Stochastic evolutionary dynamics of minimum-effort coordination games

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Kun; Wang, Long

    2016-01-01

    The minimum-effort coordination game, having potentially important implications in both evolutionary biology and sociology, draws recently more attention for the fact that human behavior in this social dilemma is often inconsistent with the predictions of classic game theory. In the framework of classic game theory, any common effort level is a strict and trembling hand perfect Nash equilibrium, so that no desideratum is provided for selecting among them. Behavior experiments, however, show that the effort levels employed by subjects are inversely related to the effort costs. Here, we combine coalescence theory and evolutionary game theory to investigate this game in finite populations. Both analytic results and individual-based simulations show that effort costs play a key role in the evolution of contribution levels, which is in good agreement with those observed experimentally. Besides well-mixed populations, set structured populations, where the population structure itself is a consequence of the evolutio...

  20. Delivering Climate Projections at Regional Scales to Support Decisionmakers: a new NOAA effort

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, D. E.; Ray, A. J.; MacDonald, A. E.; Rood, R. B.; Schneider, J. P.

    2010-12-01

    NOAA is developing a pilot effort for a capability to deliver climate projections at regional scales across the nation, in order to support a wide range of public policy and planning decisionmaking, from urban planning to ecosystems sustainability and management. The initial pilot effort will utilize model output and analyses from previous IPCC studies, such as those available from the DOE LLNL PCMDI archive and the NARCCAP datasets. New global model datasets applicable to US decision support will be generated through access to IPCC-vetted, publically available and documented models. Application of downscaling approaches will be evaluated through community interaction in order to support decisions at regional scales. Over the longer-term, this effort will evolve into a capability to support state-of-the-art approaches and applications of downscaled climate projection information to support regional decision making, including facilitating better connectivity of high resolution data with decision processes and models. This effort addresses the need articulated by the White House Interagency Climate Change Adaptation Task Force for science inputs to adaptation decisions and policy. The effort has considerable science challenges as well as challenges in meeting the needs of the end user community. This talk will discuss plans for addressing near-term and longer-term needs for regional climate information, defined for this effort as decision-scale climate projections over time scales ranging from seasonal to inter-annual out to a century or so. Initially, this effort will engage three key user communities through collaborative efforts: the Regional Integrated Science and Assessment network and other NOAA regional networks, the National Assessment, and the Department of Interior (DOI) via a recently signed DOI-Department of Commerce (DOC) Memorandum of Understanding to cooperate on climate-related activities. In summary, this effort is envisioned as an intellectual

  1. Mothers' teaching strategies and children's effortful control: a longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisenberg, Nancy; Vidmar, Masa; Spinrad, Tracy L; Eggum, Natalie D; Edwards, Alison; Gaertner, Bridget; Kupfer, Anne

    2010-09-01

    Findings on the relation of maternal verbal teaching strategies to children's effortful control (EC; i.e., self-regulation) are limited in quantity and somewhat inconsistent. In this study, children's EC was assessed at 18, 30, and 42 months (ns = 255, 229, and 209, respectively) with adults' reports and a behavioral measure. Mothers' verbal teaching strategies were assessed while the mother and child worked on a task together. Children's general vocabulary also was measured. In a structural panel model taking into account prior levels of constructs and correlations within time, as well as the relations of EC and teaching strategies to children's vocabulary, socioeconomic status, age, and sex of the child, 18-month EC positively predicted mothers' 30-month cognitive assistance and questioning strategies and negatively predicted 30-month maternal directive strategies. In addition, high 30-month EC predicted greater 42-month maternal cognitive assistance and fewer directive strategies. Thus, mothers' teaching strategies were predicted by individual differences in self-regulatory skills, supporting potential evocative child effects on mothers' teaching strategies.

  2. Goal striving strategies and effort mobilization: When implementation intentions reduce effort-related cardiac activity during task performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freydefont, Laure; Gollwitzer, Peter M; Oettingen, Gabriele

    2016-09-01

    Two experiments investigate the influence of goal and implementation intentions on effort mobilization during task performance. Although numerous studies have demonstrated the beneficial effects of setting goals and making plans on performance, the effects of goals and plans on effort-related cardiac activity and especially the cardiac preejection period (PEP) during goal striving have not yet been addressed. According to the Motivational Intensity Theory, participants should increase effort mobilization proportionally to task difficulty as long as success is possible and justified. Forming goals and making plans should allow for reduced effort mobilization when participants perform an easy task. However, when the task is difficult, goals and plans should differ in their effect on effort mobilization. Participants who set goals should disengage, whereas participants who made if-then plans should stay in the field showing high effort mobilization during task performance. As expected, using an easy task in Experiment 1, we observed a lower cardiac PEP in both the implementation intention and the goal intention condition than in the control condition. In Experiment 2, we varied task difficulty and demonstrated that while participants with a mere goal intention disengaged from difficult tasks, participants with an implementation intention increased effort mobilization proportionally with task difficulty. These findings demonstrate the influence of goal striving strategies (i.e., mere goals vs. if-then plans) on effort mobilization during task performance.

  3. Dissociating variability and effort as determinants of coordination.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ian O'Sullivan

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available When coordinating movements, the nervous system often has to decide how to distribute work across a number of redundant effectors. Here, we show that humans solve this problem by trying to minimize both the variability of motor output and the effort involved. In previous studies that investigated the temporal shape of movements, these two selective pressures, despite having very different theoretical implications, could not be distinguished; because noise in the motor system increases with the motor commands, minimization of effort or variability leads to very similar predictions. When multiple effectors with different noise and effort characteristics have to be combined, however, these two cost terms can be dissociated. Here, we measure the importance of variability and effort in coordination by studying how humans share force production between two fingers. To capture variability, we identified the coefficient of variation of the index and little fingers. For effort, we used the sum of squared forces and the sum of squared forces normalized by the maximum strength of each effector. These terms were then used to predict the optimal force distribution for a task in which participants had to produce a target total force of 4-16 N, by pressing onto two isometric transducers using different combinations of fingers. By comparing the predicted distribution across fingers to the actual distribution chosen by participants, we were able to estimate the relative importance of variability and effort of 1:7, with the unnormalized effort being most important. Our results indicate that the nervous system uses multi-effector redundancy to minimize both the variability of the produced output and effort, although effort costs clearly outweighed variability costs.

  4. On the analytical solution of the S{sub N} equation in a rectangle assuming an exponential exiting angular flux boundary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goncalez, Tifani T. [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul (PROMEC/UFRGS), Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil). Programa de Pos-Graduacao em Engenharia Mecanica; Segatto, Cynthia F.; Vilhena, Marco Tullio, E-mail: csegatto@pq.cnpq.b, E-mail: vilhena@pq.cnpq.b [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul (DMPA/UFRGS), Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil). Programa de Pos-Graduacao em Matematica Aplicada

    2011-07-01

    In this work, we report an analytical solution for the set of S{sub N} equations for the angular flux, in a rectangle, using the double Laplace transform technique. Its main idea comprehends the steps: application of the Laplace transform in one space variable, solution of the resulting equation by the LTS{sub N} method and reconstruction of the double Laplace transformed angular flux using the inversion theorem of the Laplace transform. We must emphasize that we perform the Laplace inversion by the LTS{sub N} method in the x direction, meanwhile we evaluate the inversion in the y direction performing the calculation of the corresponding line integral solution by the Stefest method. We have also to figure out that the application of Laplace transform to this type of boundary value problem introduces additional unknown functions associated to the partial derivatives of the angular flux at boundary. Based on the good results attained by the nodal LTS{sub N} method, we assume that the angular flux at boundary is also approximated by an exponential function. By analytical we mean that no approximation is done along the solution derivation except for the exponential hypothesis for the exiting angular flux at boundary. For sake of completeness, we report numerical comparisons of the obtained results against the ones of the literature. (author)

  5. What makes a reach movement effortful? Physical effort discounting supports common minimization principles in decision making and motor control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morel, Pierre; Ulbrich, Philipp; Gail, Alexander

    2017-06-01

    When deciding between alternative options, a rational agent chooses on the basis of the desirability of each outcome, including associated costs. As different options typically result in different actions, the effort associated with each action is an essential cost parameter. How do humans discount physical effort when deciding between movements? We used an action-selection task to characterize how subjective effort depends on the parameters of arm transport movements and controlled for potential confounding factors such as delay discounting and performance. First, by repeatedly asking subjects to choose between 2 arm movements of different amplitudes or durations, performed against different levels of force, we identified parameter combinations that subjects experienced as identical in effort (isoeffort curves). Movements with a long duration were judged more effortful than short-duration movements against the same force, while movement amplitudes did not influence effort. Biomechanics of the movements also affected effort, as movements towards the body midline were preferred to movements away from it. Second, by introducing movement repetitions, we further determined that the cost function for choosing between effortful movements had a quadratic relationship with force, while choices were made on the basis of the logarithm of these costs. Our results show that effort-based action selection during reaching cannot easily be explained by metabolic costs. Instead, force-loaded reaches, a widely occurring natural behavior, imposed an effort cost for decision making similar to cost functions in motor control. Our results thereby support the idea that motor control and economic choice are governed by partly overlapping optimization principles.

  6. Cooperative effort for industrial energy data collection (IEDC)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Green, H.J.

    1979-10-01

    The expanding research effort in recent years in industrial energy use has created a need for detailed data on specific industrial processes. To meet this need and eliminate multiple contacts with individual plants, a cooperative effort to collect and centralize industrial energy-use data has been organized by several solar research organizations. To date, a centralized list has been produced of industrial plants and trade associations that have been contracted, and a data format has been created for use by all organizations interested in participating in this effort.

  7. Experiences with Two Reliability Data Collection Efforts (Presentation)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sheng, S.; Lantz, E.

    2013-08-01

    This presentation, given by NREL at the Wind Reliability Experts Meeting in Albuquerque, New Mexico, outlines the causes of wind plant operational expenditures and gearbox failures and describes NREL's efforts to create a gearbox failure database.

  8. Cognitive dissonance in children: justification of effort or contrast?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alessandri, Jérôme; Darcheville, Jean-Claude; Zentall, Thomas R

    2008-06-01

    Justification of effort is a form of cognitive dissonance in which the subjective value of an outcome is directly related to the effort that went into obtaining it. However, it is likely that in social contexts (such as the requirements for joining a group) an inference can be made (perhaps incorrectly) that an outcome that requires greater effort to obtain in fact has greater value. Here we present evidence that a cognitive dissonance effect can be found in children under conditions that offer better control for the social value of the outcome. This effect is quite similar to contrast effects that recently have been studied in animals. We suggest that contrast between the effort required to obtain the outcome and the outcome itself provides a more parsimonious account of this phenomenon and perhaps other related cognitive dissonance phenomena as well. Research will be needed to identify cognitive dissonance processes that are different from contrast effects of this kind.

  9. Using Computing Intelligence Techniques to Estimate Software Effort

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin-Cherng Lin

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available In the IT industry, precisely estimate the effort of each software project the development cost and scheduleare count for much to the software company. So precisely estimation of man power seems to be gettingmore important. In the past time, the IT companies estimate the work effort of man power by humanexperts, using statistics method. However, the outcomes are always unsatisfying the management level.Recently it becomes an interesting topic if computing intelligence techniques can do better in this field. Thisresearch uses some computing intelligence techniques, such as Pearson product-moment correlationcoefficient method and one-way ANOVA method to select key factors, and K-Means clustering algorithm todo project clustering, to estimate the software project effort. The experimental result show that usingcomputing intelligence techniques to estimate the software project effort can get more precise and moreeffective estimation than using traditional human experts did.

  10. Grassroots Efforts: If You Plant Them, They Will Grow!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurley, Kimberly S.

    2016-01-01

    This article presents a four-tiered framework for the development of advocacy skills among teacher preparation professionals that reflects grassroots advocacy efforts and endorses the value of the physical and health education disciplines.

  11. Strength of Intentional Effort Enhances the Sense of Agency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rin Minohara

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Sense of agency refers to the feeling of controlling one’s own actions, and the experience of controlling external events with one’s actions. The present study examined the effect of strength of intentional effort on sense of agency. We manipulated the strength of intentional effort using three types of buttons that differed in the amount of force required to depress them. We used a self-attribution task as an explicit measure of sense of agency. The results indicate that strength of intentional effort enhanced self-attribution when action-effect congruency was unreliable. We concluded that intentional effort importantly affects the integration of multiple cues affecting explicit judgments of agency when the causal relationship action and effect was unreliable.

  12. Southeast Region Headboat Survey-Angler Effort Estimates

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset is a summary of the amount of angler effort in the headboat fishery. The number of anglers fished from trip reports and the length of trip is used to...

  13. Manage changes in the requirements definition through a collaborative effort

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Joseph-Malherbe, S

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Updating or changing the requirements statement during the systems engineering process may impact adversely on project parameters such as sequence, dependencies, effort, and duration of tasks, usually with an increase in development time and cost...

  14. Combined Sales Effort and Inventory Control under Demand Uncertainty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weili Xue

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We study the joint inventory and sales effort management problems of a retailer in a broad context and investigate the optimal policies for a single item, periodic-review system. In each period, the demand is uncertain depending on the sales effort level exerted by the retailer, which incurs an associated cost. The retailer’s objective is to find a joint optimal inventory replenishment and sales effort policy to maximize the discounted profit over a finite horizon. We first consider a basic setting with zero setup cost and no batch ordering, under which the base stock list sales effort policy is optimal. Two extensions are then investigated: (1 the case with nonzero setup cost, under which we show that (s,S,e policy is optimal; and (2 the case with batch ordering, under which we prove the optimality of the (r,Nq,e policy. Finally, we conduct numerical studies to provide additional managerial insights.

  15. Spectral analysis of sinus arrhythmia - A measure of mental effort

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vicente, Kim J.; Craig Thornton, D.; Moray, Neville

    1987-01-01

    The validity of the spectral analysis of sinus arrhythmia as a measure of mental effort was investigated using a computer simulation of a hovercraft piloted along a river as the experimental task. Strong correlation was observed between the subjective effort-ratings and the heart-rate variability (HRV) power spectrum between 0.06 and 0.14 Hz. Significant correlations were observed not only between subjects but, more importantly, within subjects as well, indicating that the spectral analysis of HRV is an accurate measure of the amount of effort being invested by a subject. Results also indicate that the intensity of effort invested by subjects cannot be inferred from the objective ratings of task difficulty or from performance.

  16. Efforts Towards The Development Of Recombinant Vaccines Against

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Presently, there is increasing efforts towards construction of recombinant clone for vaccine ... sequence of other P. multocida strains will surely bridge the gap between ..... comparative analysis may therefore open a new way towards vaccine ...

  17. Muscle strength, working capacity and effort in patients with fibromyalgia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørregaard, J; Bülow, P M; Lykkegaard, J J

    1997-01-01

    exercise capacity, work status and psychometric scoring (SCL-90-R) were correlated. The fibromyalgia patients exhibited significant reduction in voluntary muscle strength of the knee and elbow, flexors and extensors in the order of 20-30%. However, the coefficient of variation was higher among patients...... scores. Work status was related to psychometric scoring, but not to physical capacity or effort. In conclusion, we found a low degree of effort but near normal physical capacity in the fibromyalgia patients....

  18. Shell Inspection History and Current CMM Inspection Efforts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Montano, Joshua Daniel [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-01-26

    The following report provides a review of past and current CMM Shell Inspection efforts. Calibration of the Sheffield rotary contour gauge has expired and the primary inspector, Matthew Naranjo, has retired. Efforts within the Inspection team are transitioning from maintaining and training new inspectors on Sheffield to off-the-shelf CMM technology. Although inspection of a shell has many requirements, the scope of the data presented in this report focuses on the inner contour, outer contour, radial wall thickness and mass comparisons.

  19. Effects of social factors on fishing effort: The case of the Philippine tuna purse seine fishery

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Libre, S.V.D.; Voorn, van G.A.K.; Broeke, Ten G.A.; Bailey, M.L.; Berentsen, P.B.M.; Bush, S.R.

    2015-01-01

    High fishing effort remains in many of the world’s fisheries despite a variety of policies that have been implemented to reduce it. These policies have predominantly focused on models of cause and effect that ignore the possibility that the intended outcomes are altered by social behavior and bounde

  20. Solving Ratio-Dependent Predatorprey System with Constant Effort Harvesting Using Variational Iteration Method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ghotbi, Abdoul R; Barari, Amin

    2009-01-01

    Due to wide range of interest in use of bio-economic models to gain insight in to the scientific management of renewable resources like fisheries and forestry, variational iteration method (VIM) is employed to approximate the solution of the ratio-dependent predator-prey system with constant effort...