Juan C. Conte
Full Text Available We present a new generalized model for the diagnosis and prediction of accidents among the Spanish workforce. Based on observational data of the accident rate in all Spanish companies over eleven years (7,519,732 accidents, we classified them in a new risk-injury contingency table (19×19. Through correspondence analysis, we obtained a structure composed of three axes whose combination identifies three separate risk and injury groups, which we used as a general Spanish pattern. The most likely or frequent relationships between the risk and injuries identified in the pattern facilitated the decision-making process in companies at an early stage of risk assessment. Each risk-injury group has its own characteristics, which are understandable within the phenomenological framework of the accident. The main advantages of this model are its potential application to any other country and the feasibility of contrasting different country results. One limiting factor, however, is the need to set a common classification framework for risks and injuries to enhance comparison, a framework that does not exist today. The model aims to manage work-related accidents automatically at any level.Apresentamos aqui um modelo generalizado para o diagnóstico e predição de acidentes na classe de trabalhadores da Espanha. Baseados em dados sobre a frequência de acidentes em todas as companhias da Espanha em 11 anos (7.519.732 acidentes, nós os classificamos em uma nova tabela de contingência risco-injúria (19×19. Através de uma análise por correspondência obtivemos uma estrutura composta por 3 eixos cuja combinação identifica 3 grupos separados de risco e injúria, que nós usamos como um perfil geral na Espanha. As mais prováveis ou frequentes relações entre risco e injúrias identificadas nesse perfil facilitaram o processo de decisão nas companhias em um estágio inicial de apreciação do risco. Cada grupo de risco-injúria tem suas próprias caracter
Deacon, Joseph R.; Konarski, Edward A., Jr.
Results of a study comparing the outcome of a reinforcement (do only) procedure with correspondence (say/do) training indicated no apparent differences in generalization between two groups of mentally retarded adults (N=12). Rule-governed behavior, rather than verbal regulation of behavior, may best account for behavior changes seen in…
A new algorithm for the diagnosis of all forms of tuberculosis is required for. South Africa. To the Editor: I write in response to 'Diagnosing Xpert MTB/RIF- negative TB: Impact and cost of alternative algorithms for South. Africa' published in the SAMJ in February 2013.. Modelling the impact and cost of alternative algorithms ...
for subsets of CDs are often interpreted as the totality of CDs when it is not the case. If single-gene disorders, accounting for 30.0% of CDs. (B Modell − personal communication, 2016), were pooled with con- genital abnormalities in the study by Reid et al., a greater proportion of under-5 deaths may be attributed to CDs.
Zwingelstein, G.; Upadhyaya, B.R.; Kerlin, T.W.
An on line surveillance method based on the correspondence between empirical models and physicals models is proposed for pressurized water reactors. Two types of empirical models are considered as well as the mathematical models defining the correspondence between the physical and empirical parameters. The efficiency of this method is illustrated for the surveillance of the Doppler coefficient for Oconee I (an 886 MWe PWR) [fr
Paulsen, Rasmus Reinhold; Hilger, Klaus Baggesen
A method for building statistical point distribution models is proposed. The novelty in this paper is the adaption of Markov random field regularization of the correspondence field over the set of shapes. The new approach leads to a generative model that produces highly homogeneous polygonized sh...
Asthana, Akshay; de la Hunty, Miles; Dhall, Abhinav; Goecke, Roland
The issue of transferring facial performance from one person's face to another's has been an area of interest for the movie industry and the computer graphics community for quite some time. In recent years, deformable face models, such as the Active Appearance Model (AAM), have made it possible to track and synthesize faces in real time. Not surprisingly, deformable face model-based approaches for facial performance transfer have gained tremendous interest in the computer vision and graphics community. In this paper, we focus on the problem of real-time facial performance transfer using the AAM framework. We propose a novel approach of learning the mapping between the parameters of two completely independent AAMs, using them to facilitate the facial performance transfer in a more realistic manner than previous approaches. The main advantage of modeling this parametric correspondence is that it allows a "meaningful" transfer of both the nonrigid shape and texture across faces irrespective of the speakers' gender, shape, and size of the faces, and illumination conditions. We explore linear and nonlinear methods for modeling the parametric correspondence between the AAMs and show that the sparse linear regression method performs the best. Moreover, we show the utility of the proposed framework for a cross-language facial performance transfer that is an area of interest for the movie dubbing industry.
Full Text Available Chlorination is the most popular method for disinfecting swimming pool water; however, although pathogens are being killed, many toxic compounds, called disinfection by-products (DBPs, are formed. Numerous epidemiological publications have associated the chlorination of pools with dysfunctions of the respiratory system and with some other diseases. However, the findings concerning these associations are not always consistent and have not been confirmed by toxicological studies. Therefore, the health effects from swimming in chlorinated pools and the corresponding stress reactions in organisms are unclear. In this study, we show that although the growth and behaviors of experimental rats were not affected, their health, training effects and metabolic profiles were significantly affected by a 12-week swimming training program in chlorinated water identical to that of public pools. Interestingly, the eyes and skin are the organs that are more directly affected than the lungs by the irritants in chlorinated water; instead of chlorination, training intensity, training frequency and choking on water may be the primary factors for lung damage induced by swimming. Among the five major organs (the heart, liver, spleen, lungs and kidneys, the liver is the most likely target of DBPs. Through metabolomics analysis, the corresponding metabolic stress pathways and a defensive system focusing on taurine were presented, based on which the corresponding countermeasures can be developed for swimming athletes and for others who spend a lot of time in chlorinated swimming pools.
Wolfrum, Philipp; Wolff, Christian; Lücke, Jörg; von der Malsburg, Christoph
Our aim here is to create a fully neural, functionally competitive, and correspondence-based model for invariant face recognition. By recurrently integrating information about feature similarities, spatial feature relations, and facial structure stored in memory, the system evaluates face identity ("what"-information) and face position ("where"-information) using explicit representations for both. The network consists of three functional layers of processing, (1) an input layer for image representation, (2) a middle layer for recurrent information integration, and (3) a gallery layer for memory storage. Each layer consists of cortical columns as functional building blocks that are modeled in accordance with recent experimental findings. In numerical simulations we apply the system to standard benchmark databases for face recognition. We find that recognition rates of our biologically inspired approach lie in the same range as recognition rates of recent and purely functionally motivated systems.
NAESCO's Training Effectiveness Evaluation Model (TEEM) integrates existing evaluation procedures with new procedures. The new procedures are designed to measure training impact on organizational productivity. TEEM seeks to enhance organizational productivity through proactive training focused on operation results. These results can be identified and measured by establishing and tracking performance indicators. Relating training to organizational productivity is not easy. TEEM is a team process. It offers strategies to assess more effectively organizational costs and benefits of training. TEEM is one organization's attempt to refine, manage and extend its training evaluation program
Full Text Available Source and excitation modeling in FDTD formulation has a significant impact on the method performance and the required simulation time. Since the abrupt source introduction yields intensive numerical variations in whole computational domain, a generally accepted solution is to slowly introduce the source, using appropriate shaping functions in time. The main goal of the optimization presented in this paper is to find balance between two opposite demands: minimal required computation time and acceptable degradation of simulation performance. Reducing the time necessary for source activation and deactivation is an important issue, especially in design of microwave structures, when the simulation is intensively repeated in the process of device parameter optimization. Here proposed optimized source models are realized and tested within an own developed FDTD simulation environment.
Hufnagel, Heike; Pennec, Xavier; Ayache, Nicholas; Ehrhardt, Jan; Handels, Heinz
Identification of point correspondences between shapes is required for statistical analysis of organ shapes differences. Since manual identification of landmarks is not a feasible option in 3D, several methods were developed to automatically find one-to-one correspondences on shape surfaces. For unstructured point sets, however, one-to-one correspondences do not exist but correspondence probabilities can be determined. A method was developed to compute a statistical shape model based on shapes which are represented by unstructured point sets with arbitrary point numbers. A fundamental problem when computing statistical shape models is the determination of correspondences between the points of the shape observations of the training data set. In the absence of landmarks, exact correspondences can only be determined between continuous surfaces, not between unstructured point sets. To overcome this problem, we introduce correspondence probabilities instead of exact correspondences. The correspondence probabilities are found by aligning the observation shapes with the affine expectation maximization-iterative closest points (EM-ICP) registration algorithm. In a second step, the correspondence probabilities are used as input to compute a mean shape (represented once again by an unstructured point set). Both steps are unified in a single optimization criterion which depe nds on the two parameters 'registration transformation' and 'mean shape'. In a last step, a variability model which best represents the variability in the training data set is computed. Experiments on synthetic data sets and in vivo brain structure data sets (MRI) are then designed to evaluate the performance of our algorithm. The new method was applied to brain MRI data sets, and the estimated point correspondences were compared to a statistical shape model built on exact correspondences. Based on established measures of ''generalization ability'' and ''specificity'', the estimates were very satisfactory
Volodymyr V. Dyvak
Full Text Available The article is devoted to the issues of introduction of information and communication technologies in educational process of higher educational institutions in the conditions of implementation of the correspondence form of training. Examples of the use of information and communication technologies in educational process of higher educational institutions, in particular in the preparation of specialists in pedagogics of higher school in the conditions of the correspondence form of training are presented. Discussed the basic didactic principles of distance and traditional forms of education. The theoretical substantiation of a choice of a virtual learning environment compass for the needs of training of specialists in pedagogics of higher school is presented. Determined the location of independent work of students in the educational process of higher education. Outputed the main functional modules of modern management systems of distance learning.
Rodríguez-Marroyo, Jose A; Medina, Javier; García-López, Juan; García-Tormo, José V; Foster, Carl
The main aim of this study was to compare the training load (TL) executed by volleyball players with that observed by coaches. Second, we analyzed the influence of the coaches' experience in the estimated TL. Twelve female volleyball players and 4 male coaches participated in this study. During a period of 15 weeks, physical (PT) and technical-tactical training sessions and matches were monitored. In each session, the session rating of perceived exertion (sRPE) was recorded to analyze the players' exercise intensity and TL(RP)E. Coaches were present in all sessions and rated their estimate of sRPE at the same time as the players to calculate the coaches' TL(RPE). Both players' and coaches' mean sRPE (4.0 ± 1.1, 3.7 ± 1.1, and 3.8 ± 1.0 in players and expert and beginning coaches, respectively) and TLRPE (380.1 ± 106.8, 358.3 ± 110.5, and 359.7 ± 108.0 in players and expert and beginning coaches, respectively) were similar. However, a higher (p volleyball.
Hilger, Klaus Baggesen; Paulsen, Rasmus Reinhold; Larsen, Rasmus
In this paper it is described how to build a statistical shape model using a training set with a sparse of landmarks. A well defined model mesh is selected and fitted to all shapes in the training set using thin plate spline warping. This is followed by a projection of the points of the warped...
Saito, Toki; Nakajima, Yoshikazu; Sugita, Naohiko; Mitsuishi, Mamoru; Hashizume, Hiroyuki; Kuramoto, Kouichi; Nakashima, Yosio
Statistical deformable model based two-dimensional/three-dimensional (2-D/3-D) registration is a promising method for estimating the position and shape of patient bone in the surgical space. Since its accuracy depends on the statistical model capacity, we propose a method for accurately generating a statistical bone model from a CT volume. Our method employs the Sphere-Attribute-Image (SAI) and has improved the accuracy of corresponding point search in statistical model generation. At first, target bone surfaces are extracted as SAIs from the CT volume. Then the textures of SAIs are classified to some regions using Maximally-stable-extremal-regions methods. Next, corresponding regions are determined using Normalized cross-correlation (NCC). Finally, corresponding points in each corresponding region are determined using NCC. The application of our method to femur bone models was performed, and worked well in the experiments. (author)
Full Text Available Purpose: to develop organizational and methodological conditions of formation and motivation of students to determine their effectiveness. Materials and Methods: the study was conducted by third year student of the correspondence department of the Faculty of Primary Education (53 people. We used the following methods: survey of theoretical knowledge, motor tests, evaluation methods of physical health (G. Apanasenko, psychological methods of training motivation (T. Ilyina, motivation to succeed (T. Elers, rapid diagnosis empathy (I. Yusupova, methods of mathematical statistics. Results: the factors that affect the state of professionally-applied physical fitness of students of the correspondence department of the Faculty of Primary Education. Conclusions: the proposed organizational and methodological conditions activation independent of external students is the basis for providing in centives for self-study educational materials, improving theoretical knowledge in the field of physical education, increased motor activity through various forms of regular exercise.
Kamis-Gould, Edna; And Others
A model for quality assurance (QA) in psychiatric hospitals is described. Its functions (general QA, utilization review, clinical records, evaluation, management information systems, risk management, and infection control), subfunctions, and corresponding staffing requirements are reviewed. This model was designed to foster standardization in QA…
Ruben M. Smelik
Full Text Available Military training instructors increasingly often employ computer games to train soldiers in all sorts of skills and tactics. One of the difficulties instructors face when using games as a training tool is the creation of suitable content, including scenarios, entities, and corresponding terrain models. Terrain plays a key role in many military training games, as for example, in our case game Tactical Air Defense. However, current manual terrain editors are both too complex and too time-consuming to be useful for instructors; automatic terrain generation methods show a lot of potential, but still lack user control and intuitive editing capabilities. We present a novel way for instructors to model terrain for their training games: instead of constructing a terrain model using complex modeling tools, instructors can declare the required properties of their terrain using an advanced sketching interface. Our framework integrates terrain generation methods and manages dependencies between terrain features in order to automatically create a complete 3D terrain model that matches the sketch. With our framework, instructors can easily design a large variety of terrain models that meet their training requirements.
Jawad, Abdul; Debnath, Ujjal
This paper is devoted to study the scalar field dark energy models by taking its different aspects in the framework of f(R,∇R) gravity. We consider flat FRW universe to construct the equation of state parameter governed by f(R,∇R) gravity. The stability of the model is discussed with the help of squared speed of sound parameter. It is found that models show quintessence behavior of the universe in stable as well as unstable modes. We also develop the correspondence of f(R,∇R) model with some scalar field dark energy models like quintessence, tachyonic field, k-essence, dilaton, hessence, and DBI-essence. The nature of scalar fields and corresponding scalar potentials is being analyzed in f(R,∇R) gravity graphically which show consistency with the present day observations about accelerated phenomenon
Murdoch, Matt; Davies, Jim
Architectural and psychological theories posit that built environments have the potential to elicit complex psychological responses. However, few researchers have seriously explored this potential. Given the increasing importance and fidelity of virtual worlds, such research should explore whether virtual models of built environments are also capable of eliciting complex psychological responses. The goal of this study was to test these hypotheses, using a church, a corresponding virtual model, and an inclusive measure of state spirituality ("spiritual feelings"). Participants (n = 33) explored a physical church and corresponding virtual model, completing a measure of spiritual feelings after exploring the outside and inside of each version of the church. Using spiritual feelings after exploring the outside of the church as a baseline measure, change in state spirituality was assessed by taking the difference between spiritual feelings after exploring the inside and outside of the church (inside-outside) for both models. Although this change was greater in response to the physical church, there was no significant difference between the two models in eliciting such change in spiritual feelings. Despite the limitations of this exploratory study, these findings indicate that both built environments and corresponding virtual models are capable of evoking complex psychological responses.
Ma, H. -Y.; Xie, S.; Klein, S. A.; Williams, K. D.; Boyle, J. S.; Bony, S.; Douville, H.; Fermepin, S.; Medeiros, B.; Tyteca, S.; Watanabe, M.; Williamson, D.
The present study examines the correspondence between short- and long-term systematic errors in five atmospheric models by comparing the 16 five-day hindcast ensembles from the Transpose Atmospheric Model Intercomparison Project II (Transpose-AMIP II) for July–August 2009 (short term) to the climate simulations from phase 5 of the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project (CMIP5) and AMIP for the June–August mean conditions of the years of 1979–2008 (long term). Because the short-term hindcasts were conducted with identical climate models used in the CMIP5/AMIP simulations, one can diagnose over what time scale systematic errors in these climate simulations develop, thus yielding insights into their origin through a seamless modeling approach. The analysis suggests that most systematic errors of precipitation, clouds, and radiation processes in the long-term climate runs are present by day 5 in ensemble average hindcasts in all models. Errors typically saturate after few days of hindcasts with amplitudes comparable to the climate errors, and the impacts of initial conditions on the simulated ensemble mean errors are relatively small. This robust bias correspondence suggests that these systematic errors across different models likely are initiated by model parameterizations since the atmospheric large-scale states remain close to observations in the first 2–3 days. However, biases associated with model physics can have impacts on the large-scale states by day 5, such as zonal winds, 2-m temperature, and sea level pressure, and the analysis further indicates a good correspondence between short- and long-term biases for these large-scale states. Therefore, improving individual model parameterizations in the hindcast mode could lead to the improvement of most climate models in simulating their climate mean state and potentially their future projections.
Ewing, Anthony; Adams, Charles
Solar sails are being developed as a mission-enabling technology in support of future NASA science missions. Current efforts have advanced solar sail technology sufficient to justify a flight validation program. A primary objective of this activity is to test and validate solar sail models that are currently under development so that they may be used with confidence in future science mission development (e.g., scalable to larger sails). Both system and model validation requirements must be defined early in the program to guide design cycles and to ensure that relevant and sufficient test data will be obtained to conduct model validation to the level required. A process of model identification, model input/output documentation, model sensitivity analyses, and test measurement correspondence is required so that decisions can be made to satisfy validation requirements within program constraints.
Uvarov, V.M.; Barashkov, P.D.
All types of distributions, known due to the experiment, for Ee-m electric field evening-morning component along morning-evening meridian are reproduced and corresponding types of convection in polar ionosphere are calculated on the basis of model of continuous distribution of E large-scale electric fields. Two-, three- and four-whirl types of convection are realized depending on conditions in interplanetary medium
Hamilton, John Maxwell
Despite the importance of foreign news, its history, transformation and indeed its future have not been much studied. The scholarly community often calls attention to journalism's shortcomings covering the world, yet the topic has not been systematically examined across countries or over time. The need to redress this neglect and the desire to assess the impact of new media technologies on the future of journalism - including foreign correspondence - provide the motivation for this stimulating, exciting and thought-provoking book. While the old economic models supporting news have crumbled in
Murakami, Yohei; Sugimoto, Yuki; Ishida, Toru
Constructing highly realistic agents is essential if agents are to be employed in virtual training systems. In training for collaboration based on face-to-face interaction, the generation of emotional expressions is one key. In training for guidance based on one-to-many interaction such as direction giving for evacuations, emotional expressions must be supplemented by diverse agent behaviors to make the training realistic. To reproduce diverse behavior, we characterize agents by using a various combinations of operation rules instantiated by the user operating the agent. To accomplish this goal, we introduce a user modeling method based on participatory simulations. These simulations enable us to acquire information observed by each user in the simulation and the operating history. Using these data and the domain knowledge including known operation rules, we can generate an explanation for each behavior. Moreover, the application of hypothetical reasoning, which offers consistent selection of hypotheses, to the generation of explanations allows us to use otherwise incompatible operation rules as domain knowledge. In order to validate the proposed modeling method, we apply it to the acquisition of an evacuee's model in a fire-drill experiment. We successfully acquire a subject's model corresponding to the results of an interview with the subject.
Pastawski, Fernando; Yoshida, Beni [Institute for Quantum Information & Matter and Walter Burke Institute for Theoretical Physics,California Institute of Technology,1200 E. California Blvd., Pasadena CA 91125 (United States); Harlow, Daniel [Princeton Center for Theoretical Science, Princeton University,400 Jadwin Hall, Princeton NJ 08540 (United States); Preskill, John [Institute for Quantum Information & Matter and Walter Burke Institute for Theoretical Physics,California Institute of Technology,1200 E. California Blvd., Pasadena CA 91125 (United States)
We propose a family of exactly solvable toy models for the AdS/CFT correspondence based on a novel construction of quantum error-correcting codes with a tensor network structure. Our building block is a special type of tensor with maximal entanglement along any bipartition, which gives rise to an isometry from the bulk Hilbert space to the boundary Hilbert space. The entire tensor network is an encoder for a quantum error-correcting code, where the bulk and boundary degrees of freedom may be identified as logical and physical degrees of freedom respectively. These models capture key features of entanglement in the AdS/CFT correspondence; in particular, the Ryu-Takayanagi formula and the negativity of tripartite information are obeyed exactly in many cases. That bulk logical operators can be represented on multiple boundary regions mimics the Rindler-wedge reconstruction of boundary operators from bulk operators, realizing explicitly the quantum error-correcting features of AdS/CFT recently proposed in http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/JHEP04(2015)163.
Smelik, R.M.; Tutenel, T.; Kraker, J.K.. de; Bidarra, R.
Military training instructors increasingly often employ computer games to train soldiers in all sorts of skills and tactics. One of the difficulties instructors face when using games as a training tool is the creation of suitable content, including scenarios, entities, and corresponding terrain
Viswanathan, G. M.
An important problem in statistical physics concerns the fascinating connections between partition functions of lattice models studied in equilibrium statistical mechanics on the one hand and graph theoretical enumeration problems on the other hand. We investigate the nature of the relationship between the number of spanning trees and the partition function of the Ising model on the square lattice. The spanning tree generating function T (z ) gives the spanning tree constant when evaluated at z =1 , while giving the lattice green function when differentiated. It is known that for the infinite square lattice the partition function Z (K ) of the Ising model evaluated at the critical temperature K =Kc is related to T (1 ) . Here we show that this idea in fact generalizes to all real temperatures. We prove that [Z(K ) s e c h 2 K ] 2=k exp[T (k )] , where k =2 tanh(2 K )s e c h (2 K ) . The identical Mahler measure connects the two seemingly disparate quantities T (z ) and Z (K ) . In turn, the Mahler measure is determined by the random walk structure function. Finally, we show that the the above correspondence does not generalize in a straightforward manner to nonplanar lattices.
Paula Leite, Rodolfo; Santos-Flórez, Pedro Antonio; de Koning, Maurice
Using molecular dynamics simulations and nonequilibrium thermodynamic-integration techniques we compute the Helmholtz free energies of the body-centered-cubic (bcc), face-centered-cubic (fcc), hexagonal close-packed, and fluid phases of the Uhlenbeck-Ford model (UFM) and use the results to construct its phase diagram. The pair interaction associated with the UFM is characterized by an ultrasoft, purely repulsive pair potential that diverges logarithmically at the origin. We find that the bcc and fcc are the only thermodynamically stable crystalline phases in the phase diagram. Furthermore, we report the existence of two reentrant transition sequences as a function of the number density, one featuring a fluid-bcc-fluid succession and another displaying a bcc-fcc-bcc sequence near the triple point. We find strong resemblances to the phase behavior of other soft, purely repulsive systems such as the Gaussian-core model (GCM), inverse-power-law, and Yukawa potentials. In particular, we find that the fcc-bcc-fluid triple point and the phase boundaries in its vicinity are in good agreement with the prediction supplied by a recently proposed corresponding-states principle [J. Chem. Phys. 134, 241101 (2011), 10.1063/1.3605659; Europhys. Lett. 100, 66004 (2012), 10.1209/0295-5075/100/66004]. The particularly strong resemblance between the behavior of the UFM and GCM models are also discussed.
May, Jason T.; Brown, Larry R.; Rehn, Andrew C.; Waite, Ian R.; Ode, Peter R; Mazor, Raphael D; Schiff, Kenneth C
We used boosted regression trees (BRT) to model stream biological condition as measured by benthic macroinvertebrate taxonomic completeness, the ratio of observed to expected (O/E) taxa. Models were developed with and without exclusion of rare taxa at a site. BRT models are robust, requiring few assumptions compared with traditional modeling techniques such as multiple linear regression. The BRT models were constructed to provide baseline support to stressor delineation by identifying natural physiographic and human land use gradients affecting stream biological condition statewide and for eight ecological regions within the state, as part of the development of numerical biological objectives for California’s wadeable streams. Regions were defined on the basis of ecological, hydrologic, and jurisdictional factors and roughly corresponded with ecoregions. Physiographic and land use variables were derived from geographic information system coverages. The model for the entire state (n = 1,386) identified a composite measure of anthropogenic disturbance (the sum of urban, agricultural, and unmanaged roadside vegetation land cover) within the local watershed as the most important variable, explaining 56 % of the variance in O/E values. Models for individual regions explained between 51 and 84 % of the variance in O/E values. Measures of human disturbance were important in the three coastal regions. In the South Coast and Coastal Chaparral, local watershed measures of urbanization were the most important variables related to biological condition, while in the North Coast the composite measure of human disturbance at the watershed scale was most important. In the two mountain regions, natural gradients were most important, including slope, precipitation, and temperature. The remaining three regions had relatively small sample sizes (n ≤ 75 sites) and had models that gave mixed results. Understanding the spatial scale at which land use and land cover affect
Aguilar-Roca, Nancy; Williams, Adrienne; Warrior, Rahul; O'Dowd, Diane K.
Many university faculty value email as an important tool for communicating with colleagues, but express frustration with a high incidence of unprofessional email correspondence from students. The goals of this study were to document the frequency of specific formatting mistakes that contribute to faculty's unfavorable perception of student emails…
Rogers, Simon; Girolami, Mark; Kolch, Walter; Waters, Katrina M.; Liu, Tao; Thrall, Brian D.; Wiley, H. S.
Modern transcriptomics and proteomics enable us to survey the expression of RNAs and proteins at large scales. While these data are usually generated and analyzed separately, there is an increasing interest in comparing and co-analyzing transcriptome and proteome expression data. A major open question is whether transcriptome and proteome expression is linked and how it is coordinated. Results: Here we have developed a probabilistic clustering model that permits analysis of the links between transcriptomic and proteomic profiles in a sensible and flexible manner. Our coupled mixture model defines a prior probability distribution over the component to which a protein profile should be assigned conditioned on which component the associated mRNA profile belongs to. By providing probabilistic assignments this approach sits between the two extremes of concatenating the data on the assumption that mRNA and protein clusters would have a one-to-one relationship, and independent clustering where the mRNA profile provides no information on the protein profile and vice-versa. We apply this approach to a large dataset of quantitative transcriptomic and proteomic expression data obtained from a human breast epithelial cell line (HMEC) stimulated by epidermal growth factor (EGF) over a series of timepoints corresponding to one cell cycle. The results reveal a complex relationship between transcriptome and proteome with most mRNA clusters linked to at least two protein clusters, and vice versa. A more detailed analysis incorporating information on gene function from the gene ontology database shows that a high correlation of mRNA and protein expression is limited to the components of some molecular machines, such as the ribosome, cell adhesion complexes and the TCP-1 chaperonin involved in protein folding. Conclusions: The dynamic regulation of the transcriptome and proteome in mammalian cells in response to an acute mitogenic stimulus appears largely independent with very little
Treinamento de habilidades fonológicas e correspondência grafema-fonema em crianças de risco para dislexia Phonological skills and grapheme-phoneme training correspondence in children under dyslexia risk
Maryse Tomoko Matsuzawa Fukuda
Full Text Available OBJETIVO: verificar a eficácia do programa de treinamento fonológico e correspondência grafema-fonema em crianças de risco para dislexia da 1ª série. MÉTODOS: participaram deste estudo 30 crianças de 1ª série de ensino público, de ambos os gêneros, na faixa etária de 6 a 7 anos de idade. Neste estudo foi realizada a adaptação brasileira da pesquisa sobre treinamento de habilidades fonológicas e correspondência grafema-fonema composta de pré-testagem, intervenção e pós-testagem. Em situação de pré e pós-testagem, todas as crianças foram submetidas à aplicação do teste para identificação precoce dos problemas de leitura e aquelas que apresentaram desempenho inferior a 51% das provas do teste foram divididas em Grupo I (GI: composto por 15 crianças submetidas ao programa de treinamento; e em Grupo II (GII: composto por 15 crianças não submetidas ao programa de treinamento. RESULTADOS: os resultados desse estudo revelaram diferenças estatisticamente significantes, evidenciando que das 15 crianças submetidas ao programa, apenas uma não respondeu à intervenção proposta, sendo submetida, portanto, à avaliação interdisciplinar e confirmado o diagnóstico de dislexia. CONCLUSÃO: a realização do programa de treinamento das habilidades fonológicas e correspondência grafema-fonema foi eficaz para a identificação das crianças com sinais de dislexia, comprovado pela melhora das habilidades fonológicas e leitura em situação de pós-testagem em relação à pré-testagem, evidenciando que quando é fornecida a instrução formal do princípio alfabético associado ao principio de conversão letra-som da Língua Portuguesa, as crianças que não apresentam dislexia deixam de apresentar suas manifestações com resposta à instrução formal do princípio alfabético.PURPOSE: to check the efficacy of the phonological training and grapheme-phoneme correspondence program in first-grade children under dyslexia
Yamaoka, Naoto; Watanabe, Wataru; Hontani, Hidekata
Most of the time when we construct statistical point cloud model, we need to calculate the corresponding points. Constructed statistical model will not be the same if we use different types of method to calculate the corresponding points. This article proposes the effect to statistical model of human organ made by different types of method to calculate the corresponding points. We validated the performance of statistical model by registering a surface of an organ in a 3D medical image. We compare two methods to calculate corresponding points. The first, the 'Generalized Multi-Dimensional Scaling (GMDS)', determines the corresponding points by the shapes of two curved surfaces. The second approach, the 'Entropy-based Particle system', chooses corresponding points by calculating a number of curved surfaces statistically. By these methods we construct the statistical models and using these models we conducted registration with the medical image. For the estimation, we use non-parametric belief propagation and this method estimates not only the position of the organ but also the probability density of the organ position. We evaluate how the two different types of method that calculates corresponding points affects the statistical model by change in probability density of each points. (author)
OBJECTIVE: (1) Determine the flying training capacity for 6 bases: * Sheppard AFB * Randolph AFB * Moody AFB * Columbus AFB * Laughlin AFB * Vance AFB * (2) Develop versatile flying training capacity simulation model for AETC...
Nakeva von Mentzer, Cecilia; Lyxell, Björn; Sahlén, Birgitta; Wass, Malin; Lindgren, Magnus; Ors, Marianne; Kallioinen, Petter; Uhlén, Inger
Examine deaf and hard of hearing (DHH) children's phonological processing skills in relation to a reference group of children with normal hearing (NH) at two baselines pre intervention. Study the effects of computer-assisted phoneme-grapheme correspondence training in the children. Specifically analyze possible effects on DHH children's phonological processing skills. The study included 48 children who participated in a computer-assisted intervention study, which focuses on phoneme-grapheme correspondence. Children were 5, 6, and 7 years of age. There were 32 DHH children using cochlear implants (CI) or hearing aids (HA), or both in combination, and 16 children with NH. The study had a quasi-experimental design with three test occasions separated in time by four weeks; baseline 1 and 2 pre intervention, and 3 post intervention. Children performed tasks measuring lexical access, phonological processing, and letter knowledge. All children were asked to practice ten minutes per day at home supported by their parents. NH children outperformed DHH children on the majority of tasks. All children improved their accuracy in phoneme-grapheme correspondence and output phonology as a function of the computer-assisted intervention. For the whole group of children, and specifically for children with CI, a lower initial phonological composite score was associated with a larger phonological change between baseline 2 and post intervention. Finally, 18 DHH children, whereof 11 children with CI, showed specific intervention effects on their phonological processing skills, and strong effect sizes for their improved accuracy of phoneme-grapheme correspondence. For some DHH children phonological processing skills are boosted relatively more by phoneme-grapheme correspondence training. This reflects the reciprocal relationship between phonological change and exposure to and manipulations of letters. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Slizovskaia, Olga; Gómez, Emilia; Haro, Gloria
This work aims at investigating cross-modal connections between audio and video sources in the task of musical instrument recognition. We also address in this work the understanding of the representations learned by convolutional neural networks (CNNs) and we study feature correspondence between audio and visual components of a multimodal CNN architecture. For each instrument category, we select the most activated neurons and investigate exist- ing cross-correlations between neurons from the ...
Shen Xun; Hu Yiwei
Some basic concepts and formulations of two repair models of survival, the incomplete repair (IR) model and the lethal-potentially lethal (LPL) model, are introduced. An IBM-PC computer program for survival curve fitting with these models was developed and applied to fit the survivals of human melanoma cells HX118 irradiated at different dose rates. Comparison was made between the repair models and two non-repair models, the multitar get-single hit model and the linear-quadratic model, in the fitting and analysis of the survival-dose curves. It was shown that either IR model or LPL model can fit a set of survival curves of different dose rates with same parameters and provide information on the repair capacity of cells. These two mathematical models could be very useful in quantitative study on the radiosensitivity and repair capacity of cells
Oulad Naoui Noureddine; Cherif ELAmine; Djehiche Abdelkader
Water resources management includes several disciplines; the modeling of rainfall-runoff relationship is the most important discipline to prevent natural risks. There are several models to study rainfall-runoff relationship in watersheds. However, the majority of these models are not applicable in all basins of the world. In this study, a new stochastic method called The Only Corresponding Competitor method (OCC) was used for the hydrological modeling of M’ZAB Watershed (South East of Alge...
Cook, Jonathan E; Wolf, Alexander L
.... When process models and process executions diverge, something significant is happening. The authors have developed techniques for uncovering and measuring the discrepancies between models and executions, which they call process validation...
Weidlich, M.; Dijkman, R.M.; Weske, M.H.
Once multiple models of a business process are created for different purposes or to capture different variants, verification of behaviour equivalence or compatibility is needed. Equivalence verification ensures that two business process models specify the same behaviour. Since different process
Chudnovsky, D.V.; Chudnovsky, G.V.
We consider general expressions of factorized S-matrices with Abelian symmetry expressed in terms of theta-functions. These expressions arise from representations of the Heisenberg group. New examples of factorized S-matrices lead to a large class of completely integrable models of statistical mechanics which generalize the XYZ-model of the eight-vertex model. (orig.)
Stefanski Jr, B.
We define Landau-Lifshitz sigma models on general coset space $G/H$, with $H$ a maximal stability sub-group of $G$. These are non-relativistic models that have $G$-valued N\\"other charges, local $H$ invariance and are classically integrable. Using this definition, we construct the $PSU(2,2|4)/PS(U(2|2)^2)$ Landau-Lifshitz sigma-model. This sigma model describes the thermodynamic limit of the spin-chain Hamiltonian obtained from the complete one-loop dilatation operator of the N=4 super Yang-M...
The educational potentials and challenges of "flipping" a classroom are today well-documented. However, taking into account the contradictory results, literature on the benefits in using the flipped model as a socially inclusive technology-supported instructional design model is still in its infancy. This study seeks to investigate the…
Blomberg, L.G.; Marklund, G.T.
A numerical model for the calculation of ionospheric convection patterns from given distributions of field-aligned current and ionospheric conductivity is described. The model includes a coupling between the conductivity and the field-aligned current, so that the conductivity peaks in regions of upward current, as usually observed by measurements. The model is very flexible in that the input distributions, the field-aligned current and the conductivity, have been parameterized in a convenient way. From the primary model output, namely the ionospheric electrostatic potential (or convection) in the corotating frame, a number of other quantities can be computed. These include: the potential in a Sun-fixed frame, the distribution of ionospheric (horizontal) current, and the Joule heating in the ionosphere. This model has been used together with input data inferred from satellite measurements to calculate the high-latitude potential distribution prevailing during a particular event. The model potential variation along the satellite orbit was found to be in excellent agreement with the measured electric field. The model has also been used to study some fundamental properties of the electrodynamics of the high-latitude ionosphere. The results of these different applications of the model have been published separately. (With 23 refs.) (authors)
Blomberg, L.G.; Marklund, G.T.
A numerical model for the calculation of ionospheric convection patterns from given distributions of field-aligned current and ionospheric conductivity is described. The model includes a coupling between the conductivity and the field-aligned current, so that the conductivity peaks in regions of upward current, as is usually observed by measurements. The model is very flexible in that the input distributions, the field-aligned current and the conductivity, have been parametrized in a convenient way. From the primary model output, namely the ionospheric electrostatic potential (or convection) in the corotating frame, a number of other quantities can be computed. These include; the potential in the inertial frame (the transformation takes into account the non-alignment of the Earths magnetic and geographic axes), the potential in the magnetospheric equatorial plane (projected using either a dipole magnetic field model or the Tsyganenko-Usmanov model, and the assumption of either vanishing parallel electric field or a proportionality between parallel potential and upward field-aligned current), the distribution of ionospheric (horizontal) current, and the Joule heating in the ionosphere. This model has been used together with a new snapshot technique to calculate the high-latitude potential distribution prevailing during a particular event by combining information from global auroral images and local measurements of fields and particles. The model potential variation along the satellite orbit was found to be in excellent agreement with that calculated from the measured electric field. The model has also been used to study some fundamental properties of the electrodynamics of the high-latitude ionosphere. The results of these different applications of the model have been published separately. (au) (39 refs.)
Full Text Available The geometric method used in patterns design of different products categories, gives good results for garments manufacturing in industrial system, meaning type representative bodies. The quality of the results is due to the fact that in geometric method the completion of the basic patterns is achieved by prototype implementation followed by viewing the correspondence between the body and the garment, by dressing the human body or industrial mannequin. In the case that the garment, designed and manufactured for type representative bodies according to the standards is dressed by persons that do not fit the type bodies for whom the product was made, the fenomena called “draping defects” apprears. These unconcordances between wearer body and product obtained in industrial system is due to the conformational features of potential users such as: buttocks prominence and form, hips prominence and form, pelvis width and length, ratio between front and anterior-posterior diameters of the pelvis.Anthropometry researches have shown that for a standardized value of the hip perimeter the secondary dimensions of the area (posterior buttock arch, length from waist the buttock point, lower arch of torso may have different values. In this context, the paper aims to analyze the shape and size of the women’s pelvis and to develop the technical solutions to adapt the basic pattern for “trousers with adjusted silhouette” to concrete particularities of the body shape.
Simpson, Lin; Muller, Matthew; Deceglie, Michael; Miller, David; Moutinho, Helio
Decreasing LCOE with predictive soiling loss models (using site data to predict annualized energy loss), quantification of different soiling mechanisms (using AFM-based characterization), and developing standards for PV module coatings.
Belletête, J.; Gainutdinov, A. M.; Jacobsen, J. L.; Saleur, H.; Vasseur, R.
The relationship between bulk and boundary properties is one of the founding features of (rational) conformal field theory (CFT). Our goal in this paper is to explore the possibility of having an equivalent relationship in the context of lattice models. We focus on models based on the Temperley-Lieb algebra, and use the concept of ‘braid translation’, which is a natural way, in physical terms, to ‘close’ an open spin chain by adding an interaction between the first and last spins using braiding to ‘bring’ them next to each other. The interaction thus obtained is in general non-local, but has the key feature that it is expressed solely in terms of the algebra for the open spin chain—the ‘ordinary’ Temperley-Lieb algebra and its blob algebra generalization. This is in contrast with the usual periodic spin chains which involve only local interactions, and are described by the periodic Temperley-Lieb algebra. We show that for the restricted solid-on-solid models, which are known to be described by minimal unitary CFTs (with central charge ccontent in terms of the irreducibles is the same, as well as the spectrum, but the detailed structure (like logarithmic coupling) is profoundly different. This carries over to the continuum limit. The situation is similar for the sl(2\\vert 1) case. The problem of relating bulk and boundary lattice models for LCFTs thus remains open.
Gharagheizi, Farhad; Eslamimanesh, Ali; Sattari, Mehdi
include critical temperature or temperature/critical volume/acentric factor/critical pressure/reduced temperature/reduced normal boiling point temperature/molecular weight of the compounds. Around 1,300 surface tension data of 118 random compounds are used for developing the first model (a four...
El Araby, Omar; Gritsev, Vladimir; Faribault, Alexandre
In this work, we generalize the numerical approach to Gaudin models developed earlier by us [Faribault, El Araby, Sträter, and Gritsev, Phys. Rev. BPRBMDO1098-012110.1103/PhysRevB.83.235124 83, 235124 (2011)] to degenerate systems, showing that their treatment is surprisingly convenient from a numerical point of view. In fact, high degeneracies not only reduce the number of relevant states in the Hilbert space by a non-negligible fraction, they also allow us to write the relevant equations in the form of sparse matrix equations. Moreover, we introduce an inversion method based on a basis of barycentric polynomials that leads to a more stable and efficient root extraction, which most importantly avoids the necessity of working with arbitrary precision. As an example, we show the results of our procedure applied to the Richardson model on a square lattice.
Abdolalipour, Amirhossein; Nazemi, Jamshid; Eshlaghi, Abbas Toloie; Lotfi, Farhad Hosseinzadeh
In the competitive environment, minimizing time space between service failure perception and service recovery with lowest cost is one of fast responsiveness company’s requirements. In this article, modeling service failure response time is considered. It was not only service recovery chain profit optimization carefully planned but also satisfaction of consumers who disturbed by a service failure was considered profoundly. Inconsistency between optimization of service recovery chain’s total be...
A. Okhunov, A.; I. Sharrad, F.; Anwer, A. Al-Sammarraie; U. Khandaker, M.
Energy levels and the reduced probability of E2- transitions for ytterbium isotopes with proton number Z = 70 and neutron numbers between 100 and 106 have been calculated through phenomenological (PhM) and interacting boson (IBM-1) models. The predicted low-lying levels (energies, spins and parities) and the reduced probability for E2- transitions results are reasonably consistent with the available experimental data. The predicted low-lying levels (gr-, β1- and γ1- band) produced in the PhM are in good agreement with the experimental data compared with those by IBM-1 for all nuclei of interest. In addition, the phenomenological model was successful in predicting the β2-, β3-, β4-, γ2- and 1+ - band while it was a failure with IBM-1. Also, the 3+- band is predicted by the IBM-1 model for 172Yb and 174Yb nuclei. All calculations are compared with the available experimental data. Supported by Fundamental Research Grant Scheme (FRGS) of Ministry of Higher Education of Malaysia (FRGS13-074-0315), Islamic Development Bank (IDB) (36/11201905/35/IRQ/D31, 37/IRQ/P30)
Talmi, Deborah; Fuentemilla, Lluis; Litvak, Vladimir; Duzel, Emrah; Dolan, Raymond J
Optimal decision-making is guided by evaluating the outcomes of previous decisions. Prediction errors are theoretical teaching signals which integrate two features of an outcome: its inherent value and prior expectation of its occurrence. To uncover the magnetic signature of prediction errors in the human brain we acquired magnetoencephalographic (MEG) data while participants performed a gambling task. Our primary objective was to use formal criteria, based upon an axiomatic model (Caplin and Dean, 2008a), to determine the presence and timing profile of MEG signals that express prediction errors. We report analyses at the sensor level, implemented in SPM8, time locked to outcome onset. We identified, for the first time, a MEG signature of prediction error, which emerged approximately 320 ms after an outcome and expressed as an interaction between outcome valence and probability. This signal followed earlier, separate signals for outcome valence and probability, which emerged approximately 200 ms after an outcome. Strikingly, the time course of the prediction error signal, as well as the early valence signal, resembled the Feedback-Related Negativity (FRN). In simultaneously acquired EEG data we obtained a robust FRN, but the win and loss signals that comprised this difference wave did not comply with the axiomatic model. Our findings motivate an explicit examination of the critical issue of timing embodied in computational models of prediction errors as seen in human electrophysiological data. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
de Teramond, Guy
We show that the nonperturbative light-front dynamics of relativistic hadronic bound states has a dual semiclassical gravity description on a higher dimensional warped AdS space in the limit of zero quark masses. This mapping of AdS gravity theory to the boundary quantum field theory, quantized at fixed light-front time, allows one to establish a precise relation between holographic wave functions in AdS space and the light-front wavefunctions describing the internal structure of hadrons. The resulting AdS/QCD model gives a remarkably good accounting of the spectrum, elastic and transition form factors of the light-quark hadrons in terms of one parameter, the QCD gap scale. The light-front holographic approach described here thus provides a frame-independent first approximation to the light-front Hamiltonian problem for QCD. This article is based on lectures at the Niccolo Cabeo International School of Hadronic Physics, Ferrara, Italy, May 2011.
de Teramond, Guy F.; /Costa Rica U.; Brodsky, Stanley J.; /SLAC
We show that the nonperturbative light-front dynamics of relativistic hadronic bound states has a dual semiclassical gravity description on a higher dimensional warped AdS space in the limit of zero quark masses. This mapping of AdS gravity theory to the boundary quantum field theory, quantized at fixed light-front time, allows one to establish a precise relation between holographic wave functions in AdS space and the light-front wavefunctions describing the internal structure of hadrons. The resulting AdS/QCD model gives a remarkably good accounting of the spectrum, elastic and transition form factors of the light-quark hadrons in terms of one parameter, the QCD gap scale. The light-front holographic approach described here thus provides a frame-independent first approximation to the light-front Hamiltonian problem for QCD. This article is based on lectures at the Niccolo Cabeo International School of Hadronic Physics, Ferrara, Italy, May 2011.
Cavanaugh, S.; Bangs, N. L.; Hornbach, M. J.; McIntosh, K. D.
We use 3D seismic reflection data acquired in April - May 2011 by the R/V Marcus G. Langseth to extract heat flow information using the bottom-simulating reflector across the Costa Rica convergent margin. These data are part of the CRISP Project, which will image the Middle America subduction zone in 3D. The survey was conducted in an area approximately 55 x 11 km, to the northwest of the Osa Peninsula, Costa Rica. For the analysis presented here, 3D seismic data were processed with Paradigm Focus software through post-stack time migration. The bottom-simulating reflector (BSR)-a reverse polarity reflection indicating the base of the gas hydrate phase boundary-is imaged very clearly in two regions within the slope-cover sediments in the accretionary prism. In deep water environments, the BSR acts as a temperature gauge revealing subsurface temperatures across the margin. We predict BSR depth using a true 3D diffusive heat flow model combined with IODP drilling data and compare results with actual BSR depth observations to determine anomalies in heat flow. Uniform heat flow in the region should result in a deepening BSR downslope toward the trench, however our initial results indicate the BSR shoals near the trench to its shallowest level below sea floor of approximately 96 m below the sea floor, suggesting elevated heat flow towards the toe. Landward, the BSR deepens to about 333 m below the sea floor indicating lower heat flow. Both BSR segments display a trend of deepening landward from the trench, however the depth below the sea floor is greater overall for the landward segment than the segment near the toe. We suggest two regimes with differing heat flow exist across the margin that likely represent two separate fluid flow regimes - one from recently accreted sediments near the prism toe and the other through the older materials making up the prism.
Hiroshi Tenjin, M.D., Ph.D.
Full Text Available Clipping of cerebral aneurysms is still an important skill in neurosurgery. We have made a training model for the clipping of cerebral aneurysms. The concepts for the model were 1: training model for beginners, 2: three dimensional manipulation using an operating microscope, 3: the aneurysm model is to be perfused by simulated blood causing premature rupture. The correct relationship between each tissue, and softness of the brain and vessels were characteristics of the model. The skull, brain, arteries, and veins were made using a 3D printer with data from DICOM. The brain and vessels were made from polyvinyl alcohol (PVA. One training course was held and this model was useful for training of cerebral aneurysm surgery for young neurosurgeons.
Uvarov, V. M.; Barashkov, P. D.
All types of distributions known from experiment of the evening-morning component of the electric field Ee-m along the morning-evening meridian are reproduced on the basis of a model of the continuous distribution of largescale electric fields E, and the convection patterns corresponding to them, which differ appreciably from the known speculative concepts, are calculated. Two-, three-, and four-vortex convection patterns are realized, depending on the conditions in the interplanetary medium.
Uvarov, V. M.; Barashkov, P. D.
A model for the continuous distribution of large-scale electric fields is used to reproduce all the experimentally known types of distributions of the evening-morning electric field component along the morning-evening meridian. The corresponding convection patterns are then calculated, which are shown to diverge significantly from previous theoretical considerations. Depending on conditions in the interplanetary medium, two-, three-, or four-vortex convection patterns occur.
Bobele, H. Kenneth; Buchanan, Peter J.
Greater precision in appraising training needs, greater clarity in defining training objectives, and an emphasis on a practical, skills-oriented approach to management development can result from using Henry Mintzberg's model which describes managerial work in terms of 6 job characteristics and 10 interpersonal, informational, or decisional roles.…
Bruyère, Franck; Leroux, Cecile; Brunereau, Laurent; Lermusiaux, Patrick
Rapid prototyping is a technique used for creating computer images in three dimensions more efficiently than classic techniques. Percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PCNL) is a popular method to remove kidney stones; however, broader use by the urologic community has been hampered by the morbidity associated with needle puncture to gain access to the renal calix (bleeding, pneumothorax, hydrothorax, inadvertent colon injury). A training model to improve technique and understanding of renal anatomy could improve complications related to renal puncture; however, no model currently exists for resident training. We created a training model using the rapid prototyping technique based on abdominal CT images of a patient scheduled to undergo PCNL. This allowed our staff and residents to train on the model before performing the operation. This model allowed anticipation of particular difficulties inherent to the patient's anatomy. After training, the procedure proceeded without complication, and the patient was discharged at postoperative day 1 without problems. We hypothesize that rapid prototyping could be useful for resident education, allowing the creation of numerous models for research and surgical training. In addition, we anticipate that experienced urologists could find this technique helpful in preparation for difficult PCNL operations.
Greskowiak, Janek; Prommer, Henning; Massmann, Gudrun; Nützmann, Gunnar
Reactive multicomponent transport modeling was used to investigate and quantify the factors that affect redox zonation and the fate of the pharmaceutical residue phenazone during artificial recharge of groundwater at an infiltration site in Berlin, Germany. The calibrated model and the corresponding sensitivity analysis demonstrated thattemporal and spatial redox zonation at the study site was driven by seasonally changing, temperature-dependent organic matter degradation rates. Breakthrough of phenazone at monitoring wells occurred primarily during the warmer summer months, when anaerobic conditions developed. Assuming a redox-sensitive phenazone degradation behavior the model results provided an excellent agreement between simulated and measured phenazone concentrations. Therefore, the fate of phenazone was shown to be indirectly controlled by the infiltration water temperature through its effect on the aquifer's redox conditions. Other factors such as variable residence times appeared to be of less importance.
Full Text Available Training programs for open source software provide a tangible, and sellable, product. A successful training program not only builds revenue, it also adds to the overall body of knowledge available for the open source project. By gathering best practices and taking advantage of the collective expertise within a community, it may be possible for a business to partner with an open source project to build a curriculum that promotes the project and supports the needs of the company's training customers. This article describes the initial approach used by Canonical, the commercial sponsor of the Ubuntu Linux operating system, to engage the community in the creation of its training offerings. We then discuss alternate curriculum creation models and some of the conditions that are necessary for successful collaboration between creators of existing documentation and commercial training providers.
Екатерина Александровна Лежнева
Full Text Available The article explains the importance of the development of motive to succeed in adolescence. It is determined the value of the motive to achieve success in the further development of the teenager: a motive to achieve effective internal forces mobilized for the implementation of successful operation ensures the active involvement of teenagers in social and interpersonal relationships. As the primary means of motive development success is considered training. The author provides a definition of "training for success in life," creates a model of training for success in life, and describes its units (targeted, informative, technological, productive, reveals the successful development of the technology life strategy used during the training (self-presentation, targets, incentives, subject-orientation. The author pays attention to the need for a future psychologist to develop teenagers’ motive to achieve success through the mastery of competence in constructing a model of training for success in life, and its implementation in the course of professional activities. The main means of training students of psychology to the use of training success in life identified the additional educational programs and psychological section.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.12731/2218-7405-2013-9-77
Cieutat , Jean-Marc
Maritime training simulation is an important matter of maritime teaching, which requires a lot of scientific and technical skills.In this framework, where the real time constraint has to be maintained, all physical phenomena cannot be studied; the most visual physical phenomena relating to the natural elements and the ship behaviour are reproduced only. Our swell model, based on a surface wave simulation approach, permits to simulate the shape and the propagation of a regular train of waves f...
Wu, S. H.; Jansson, P.-E.
Recovery of photosynthesis and transpiration is strongly restricted by low temperatures in air and/or soil during the transition period from winter to spring in boreal zones. The extent to which air temperature (Ta) and soil temperature (Ts) influence the seasonality of photosynthesis and transpiration of a boreal spruce ecosystem was investigated using a process-based ecosystem model (CoupModel) together with eddy covariance (EC) data from one eddy flux tower and nearby soil measurements at Knottåsen, Sweden. A Monte Carlo-based uncertainty method (GLUE) provided prior and posterior distributions of simulations representing a wide range of soil conditions and performance indicators. The simulated results showed sufficient flexibility to predict the measured cold and warm Ts in the moist and dry plots around the eddy flux tower. Moreover, the model presented a general ability to describe both biotic and abiotic processes for the Norway spruce stand. The dynamics of sensible heat fluxes were well described by the corresponding latent heat fluxes and net ecosystem exchange of CO2. The parameter ranges obtained are probably valid to represent regional characteristics of boreal conifer forests, but were not easy to constrain to a smaller range than that produced by the assumed prior distributions. Finally, neglecting the soil temperature response function resulted in fewer behavioural models and probably more compensatory errors in other response functions for regulating the seasonality of ecosystem fluxes.
Sothmann, T.; Gauer, T.; Wilms, M.; Werner, R.
The purpose of this study is to introduce a novel approach to incorporate patient-specific breathing variability information into 4D dose simulation of volumetric arc therapy (VMAT)-based stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT) of extracranial metastases. Feasibility of the approach is illustrated by application to treatment planning and motion data of lung and liver metastasis patients. The novel 4D dose simulation approach makes use of a regression-based correspondence model that allows representing patient motion variability by breathing signal-steered interpolation and extrapolation of deformable image registration motion fields. To predict the internal patient motion during treatment with only external breathing signal measurements being available, the patients’ internal motion information and external breathing signals acquired during 4D CT imaging were correlated. Combining the correspondence model, patient-specific breathing signal measurements during treatment and time-resolved information about dose delivery, reconstruction of a motion variability-affected dose becomes possible. As a proof of concept, the proposed approach is illustrated by a retrospective 4D simulation of VMAT-based SBRT treatment of ten patients with 15 treated lung and liver metastases and known clinical endpoints for the individual metastases (local metastasis recurrence yes/no). Resulting 4D-simulated dose distributions were compared to motion-affected dose distributions estimated by standard 4D CT-only dose accumulation and the originally (i.e. statically) planned dose distributions by means of GTV D98 indices (dose to 98% of the GTV volume). A potential linkage of metastasis-specific endpoints to differences between GTV D98 indices of planned and 4D-simulated dose distributions was analyzed.
Borkowsky, Jeffrey; Judd, Jerry; Belblidia, Lotfi; O'farrell, David; Andersen, Peter
Modern training simulators are required to replicate plant data for both thermal-hydraulic and neutronic response. Replication is required such that reactivity manipulation on the simulator properly trains the operator for reactivity manipulation at the plant. This paper discusses advanced models which perform this function in real-time using the coupled code system THOR/S3R. This code system models the all fluids systems in detail using an advanced, two-phase thermal-hydraulic a model. The nuclear core is modeled using an advanced, three-dimensional nodal method and also by using cycle-specific nuclear data. These models are configured to run interactively from a graphical instructor station or handware operation panels. The simulator models are theoretically rigorous and are expected to replicate the physics of the plant. However, to verify replication, the models must be independently assessed. Plant data is the preferred validation method, but plant data is often not available for many important training scenarios. In the absence of data, validation may be obtained by slower-than-real-time transient analysis. This analysis can be performed by coupling a safety analysis code and a core design code. Such a coupling exists between the codes RELAP5 and SIMULATE-3K (S3K). RELAP5/S3K is used to validate the real-time model for several postulated plant events. (author)
Jellison, Holly M., Ed.
Nine successful community college programs for small business management training are described in this report in terms of their college and economic context, purpose, offerings, delivery modes, operating and marketing strategies, community outreach, support services, faculty and staff, evaluation, and future directions. The model programs are…
González-Tirados, R. M.
Education Area, we renewed the programme, content and methodology, teaching the course under the name of "Initial Teacher Training Course within the framework of the European Higher Education Area". Continuous Training means learning throughout one's life as an Engineering teacher. They are actions designed to update and improve teaching staff, and are systematically offered on the current issues of: Teaching Strategies, training for research, training for personal development, classroom innovations, etc. They are activities aimed at conceptual change, changing the way of teaching and bringing teaching staff up-to-date. At the same time, the Institution is at the disposal of all teaching staff as a meeting point to discuss issues in common, attend conferences, department meetings, etc. In this Congress we present a justification of both training models and their design together with some results obtained on: training needs, participation, how it is developing and to what extent students are profiting from it.
On the basis of a new hypothesis of thermodynamic states (the superheated wall layer is not metastable but saturated at locally elevated pressure), an analytical estimation is presented of the whole boiling curve [except critical heat flux (CHF), but fixed at this point, known by experiments or correlation]. The curvature of the boiling curve (bubbly flow) is deduced from thermodynamics of irreversible processes. The wall temperature corresponding to departure from nucleate boiling is calculated from balances of momentum at the interfaces, based on the assumption that the speed of sound may be a limit for maximum evaporation mass flux and thereby heat flux, i.e., CHF. Heat flux during transition boiling is determined from balance of energy at the rewetting front. The Leidenfrost temperature, as well as wall temperature at CHF, can be calculated analytically without using empirical coefficients. Heat flux of bubbly flow and transition boiling can be matched at any empirical CHF point. All these results are determined from properties of state alone, i.e., the models can be verified for all fluids including water and liquid metals (so far at moderate heat fluxes). 52 refs., 11 figs., 2 tabs
Full Text Available Computational modeling is increasingly used to understand the function of neural circuitsin systems neuroscience.These studies require models of individual neurons with realisticinput-output properties.Recently, it was found that spiking models can accurately predict theprecisely timed spike trains produced by cortical neurons in response tosomatically injected currents,if properly fitted. This requires fitting techniques that are efficientand flexible enough to easily test different candidate models.We present a generic solution, based on the Brian simulator(a neural network simulator in Python, which allowsthe user to define and fit arbitrary neuron models to electrophysiological recordings.It relies on vectorization and parallel computing techniques toachieve efficiency.We demonstrate its use on neural recordings in the barrel cortex andin the auditory brainstem, and confirm that simple adaptive spiking modelscan accurately predict the response of cortical neurons. Finally, we show how a complexmulticompartmental model can be reduced to a simple effective spiking model.
Berghausen, P.E. Jr.
Continued behavior observation is mandated by ANSI/ANS 3.3. This paper presents a model for behavior observation training that is in accordance with this standard and the recommendations contained in US NRC publications. The model includes seventeen major topics or activities. Ten of these are discussed: Pretesting of supervisor's knowledge of behavior observation requirements, explanation of the goals of behavior observation programs, why behavior observation training programs are needed (legal and psychological issues), early indicators of emotional instability, use of videotaped interviews to demonstrate significant psychopathology, practice recording behaviors, what to do when unusual behaviors are observed, supervisor rationalizations for noncompliance, when to be especially vigilant, and prevention of emotional instability
Sørensen, Helge Bjarup Dissing; Hartmann, Uwe; Hunnerup, Preben
This paper presents a new training algorithm for self-structuring hidden control neural (SHC) models. The SHC models were trained non-discriminatively for speech recognition applications. Better recognition performance can generally be achieved, if discriminative training is applied instead. Thus...... we developed a discriminative training algorithm for SHC models, where each SHC model for a specific speech pattern is trained with utterances of the pattern to be recognized and with other utterances. The discriminative training of SHC neural models has been tested on the TIDIGITS database...
Scanlan, Aaron T; Wen, Neal; Tucker, Patrick S; Borges, Nattai R; Dalbo, Vincent J
To compare perceptual and physiological training-load responses during various basketball training modes. Eight semiprofessional male basketball players (age 26.3 ± 6.7 y, height 188.1 ± 6.2 cm, body mass 92.0 ± 13.8 kg) were monitored across a 10-wk period in the preparatory phase of their training plan. Player session ratings of perceived exertion (sRPE) and heart-rate (HR) responses were gathered across base, specific, and tactical/game-play training modes. Pearson correlations were used to determine the relationships between the sRPE model and 2 HR-based models: the training impulse (TRIMP) and summated HR zones (SHRZ). One-way ANOVAs were used to compare training loads between training modes for each model. Stronger relationships between perceptual and physiological models were evident during base (sRPE-TRIMP r = .53, P training load than the TRIMP (15-65 AU) and SHRZ models (27-170 AU) transitioning between training modes. While the training-load models were significantly correlated during each training mode, weaker relationships were observed during specific conditioning. Comparisons suggest that the HR-based models were less effective in detecting periodized increases in training load, particularly during court-based, intermittent, multidirectional drills. The practical benefits and sensitivity of the sRPE model support its use across different basketball training modes.
Scanlan, Aaron T; Wen, Neal; Tucker, Patrick S; Dalbo, Vincent J
The present investigation described and compared the internal and external training loads during basketball training. Eight semiprofessional male basketball players (mean ± SD, age: 26.3 ± 6.7 years; stature: 188.1 ± 6.2 cm; body mass: 92.0 ± 13.8 kg) were monitored across a 7-week period during the preparatory phase of the annual training plan. A total of 44 total sessions were monitored. Player session ratings of perceived exertion (sRPE), heart rate, and accelerometer data were collected across each training session. Internal training load was determined using the sRPE, training impulse (TRIMP), and summated-heart-rate-zones (SHRZ) training load models. External training load was calculated using an established accelerometer algorithm. Pearson product-moment correlations with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were used to determine the relationships between internal and external training load models. Significant moderate relationships were observed between external training load and the sRPE (r42 = 0.49, 95% CI = 0.23-0.69, p external training load and the SHRZ model (r42 = 0.61, 95% CI = 0.38-0.77, p internal and external training load models, the magnitude of the correlations and low commonality suggest that internal training load models measure different constructs of the training process than the accelerometer training load model in basketball settings. Basketball coaching and conditioning professionals should not assume a linear dose-response between accelerometer and internal training load models during training and are recommended to combine internal and external approaches when monitoring training load in players.
Arroyo Ohori, G.A.K.; Ledoux, H.; Stoter, J.E.
3D city models of the same region at multiple LODs are encumbered by the lack of links between corresponding objects across LODs. In practice, this causes inconsistency during updates and maintenance problems. A radical solution to this problem is to model the LOD of a model as a dimension in the
Manojlović, N.; Salom, I.
The implementation of the algebraic Bethe ansatz for the XXZ Heisenberg spin chain in the case, when both reflection matrices have the upper-triangular form is analyzed. The general form of the Bethe vectors is studied. In the particular form, Bethe vectors admit the recurrent procedure, with an appropriate modification, used previously in the case of the XXX Heisenberg chain. As expected, these Bethe vectors yield the strikingly simple expression for the off-shell action of the transfer matrix of the chain as well as the spectrum of the transfer matrix and the corresponding Bethe equations. As in the XXX case, the so-called quasi-classical limit gives the off-shell action of the generating function of the corresponding trigonometric Gaudin Hamiltonians with boundary terms.
Manojlović, N.; Salom, I.
The implementation of the algebraic Bethe ansatz for the XXZ Heisenberg spin chain in the case, when both reflection matrices have the upper-triangular form is analyzed. The general form of the Bethe vectors is studied. In the particular form, Bethe vectors admit the recurrent procedure, with an appropriate modification, used previously in the case of the XXX Heisenberg chain. As expected, these Bethe vectors yield the strikingly simple expression for the off-shell action of the transfer matrix of the chain as well as the spectrum of the transfer matrix and the corresponding Bethe equations. As in the XXX case, the so-called quasi-classical limit gives the off-shell action of the generating function of the corresponding trigonometric Gaudin Hamiltonians with boundary terms.
Full Text Available The implementation of the algebraic Bethe ansatz for the XXZ Heisenberg spin chain in the case, when both reflection matrices have the upper-triangular form is analyzed. The general form of the Bethe vectors is studied. In the particular form, Bethe vectors admit the recurrent procedure, with an appropriate modification, used previously in the case of the XXX Heisenberg chain. As expected, these Bethe vectors yield the strikingly simple expression for the off-shell action of the transfer matrix of the chain as well as the spectrum of the transfer matrix and the corresponding Bethe equations. As in the XXX case, the so-called quasi-classical limit gives the off-shell action of the generating function of the corresponding trigonometric Gaudin Hamiltonians with boundary terms.
Davit, Y.; Wood, B. D.; Debenest, G.; Quintard, M.
In this work, we study the transient behavior of homogenized models for solute transport in two-region porous media. We focus on the following three models: (1) a time non-local, two-equation model (2eq-nlt). This model does not rely on time
Li Keping; Mao Bohua; Gao Ziyou
In this paper, we propose an improved walk model for simulating the train movement on railway network. In the proposed method, walkers represent trains. The improved walk model is a kind of the network-based simulation analysis model. Using some management rules for walker movement, walker can dynamically determine its departure and arrival times at stations. In order to test the proposed method, we simulate the train movement on a part of railway network. The numerical simulation and analytical results demonstrate that the improved model is an effective tool for simulating the train movement on railway network. Moreover, it can well capture the characteristic behaviors of train scheduling in railway traffic. (general)
Anatoly V. Korotkov
Full Text Available The article focuses on the modeling of series-STI formation of individual market demand. The analysis, and then sum-of three well-known inmarketing models, which exhaust the currentlyknown approaches is revised. The article shows that all three models have a signiﬁ cant difference in the number of stages and terminology. The obtained results are the basis for the developmentof the author’s model of gradual development of demand - «need - desire - requirement -demand» or abbreviated as «model NDRD» and can be considered as a contribution to the methodology of study a demand.
U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — CMS is EPA's correspondence tracking and workflow management system. It scans, logs, routes, tracks, and stores incoming and outgoing correspondence in all Program...
Full Text Available In a railroad system, train pathing is concerned with the assignment of trains to links and tracks, and train timetabling allocates time slots to trains. In this paper, we present an optimization heuristic to solve the train pathing and timetabling problem. This heuristic allows the dwell time of trains in a station or link to be dependent on the assigned tracks. It also allows the minimum clearance time between the trains to depend on their relative status. The heuristic generates a number of alternative paths for each train service in the initialization phase. Then it uses a neighborhood search approach to find good feasible combinations of these paths. A linear program is developed to evaluate the quality of each combination that is encountered. Numerical examples are provided.
Mohammed Turab, Ghaneemah; Casimir, Gian
Many organizations have invested heavily in training. However, only a small percentage of what is learnt from training is applied or transferred to the workplace. This study examines factors that influence training transfer. A conceptual model based on the Theory of Reasoned Action is hypothesized and tested. The sample consisted of 123 full-time…
In this work, we study the transient behavior of homogenized models for solute transport in two-region porous media. We focus on the following three models: (1) a time non-local, two-equation model (2eq-nlt). This model does not rely on time constraints and, therefore, is particularly useful in the short-time regime, when the timescale of interest (t) is smaller than the characteristic time (τ 1) for the relaxation of the effective macroscale parameters (i. e., when t ≤ τ 1); (2) a time local, two-equation model (2eq). This model can be adopted when (t) is significantly larger than (τ 1) (i.e., when t≫τ 1); and (3) a one-equation, time-asymptotic formulation (1eq ∞). This model can be adopted when (t) is significantly larger than the timescale (τ 2) associated with exchange processes between the two regions (i. e., when t≫τ 2). In order to obtain insight into this transient behavior, we combine a theoretical approach based on the analysis of spatial moments with numerical and analytical results in several simple cases. The main result of this paper is to show that there is only a weak asymptotic convergence of the solution of (2eq) towards the solution of (1eq ∞) in terms of standardized moments but, interestingly, not in terms of centered moments. The physical interpretation of this result is that deviations from the Fickian situation persist in the limit of long times but that the spreading of the solute is eventually dominating these higher order effects. © 2012 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.
Department of Transportation — This data set contains information on external and internal correspondence addressed to the Secretary, Deputy Secretary, or Chief of Staff. Data include information...
Unscheduled DNA synthesis was investigated in lymphocytes of patients with different inflammatory rheumatic diseases. After γ-irradiation H 3 -thymidin incorporation in DNA and DNA rejoining was reduced. After UV-irradiation the first step (90 min) of unscheduled DNA synthesis was above the controls. Some animal models for human diseases showed the same trend. An infectious ethiology was discussed for some of these diseases. (author)
V. O. Polyakov
Full Text Available Purpose. Traction force implementation (TFI by the motor of magnetic levitation train (MLT occurs in the process of electric-to-kinetic energy transformation at interaction of inductor and armature magnetic fields. Ac-cordingly, the aim of this study is to obtain a correct description of such energy transformation. Methodology. At the present stage, a mathematical and, in particular, computer simulation is the main and most universal tool for analysis and synthesis of processes and systems. At the same time, radical advantages of this tool make the precision of selection of a particular research methodology even more important. It is especially important for such a large and complex system as MLT. Therefore the special attention in the work is given to the rationale for choosing the research paradigm selective features. Findings. The analysis results of existing TFI process model versions indicate that each of them has both advantages and disadvantages. Therefore, one of the main results of this study was the creation of a mathematical model for such process that would preserve the advantages of previous versions, but would be free from their disadvantages. The work provides rationale for application (for the purposes of research of train motor TFI of the integrative holistic paradigm, which assimilates the advantages of the theory of electric circuit and magnetic field. Originality. The priority of creation of such paradigm and corresponding version of FI model constitute the originality of the research. Practical value. The main manifestation of practical value of this research in the opportunity, in case of use of its results, for significant increase in efficiency of MLT dynamic studies, on the condition that their generalized costs will not rise.
Correspondence theory originally arises as the study of the relation between modal formulas and first-order formulas interpreted over Kripke frames. We say that a modal formula and a first-order formula correspond to each other if they are valid on the same class of Kripke frames. Canonicity theory
Tu, Liyun; Styner, Martin; Vicory, Jared; Paniagua, Beatriz; Prieto, Juan Carlos; Yang, Dan; Pizer, Stephen M.
Purpose: Improving the shape statistics of medical image objects by generating correspondence of interior skeletal points. Data: Synthetic objects and real world lateral ventricles segmented from MR images. Method(s): Each object's interior is modeled by a skeletal representation called the s-rep, which is a quadrilaterally sampled, folded 2-sided skeletal sheet with spoke vectors proceeding from the sheet to the boundary. The skeleton is divided into three parts: up-side, down-side and fold-curve. The spokes on each part are treated separately and, using spoke interpolation, are shifted along their skeletal parts in each training sample so as to tighten the probability distribution on those spokes' geometric properties while sampling the object interior regularly. As with the surface-based correspondence method of Cates et al., entropy is used to measure both the probability distribution tightness and sampling regularity. The spokes' geometric properties are skeletal position, spoke length and spoke direction. The properties used to measure the regularity are the volumetric subregions bounded by the spokes, their quadrilateral sub-area and edge lengths on the skeletal surface and on the boundary. Results: Evaluation on synthetic and real world lateral ventricles demonstrated improvement in the performance of statistics using the resulting probability distributions, as compared to methods based on boundary models. The evaluation measures used were generalization, specificity, and compactness. Conclusions: S-rep models with the proposed improved correspondence provide significantly enhanced statistics as compared to standard boundary models.
Full Text Available Intracranial aneurysmal rupture is the common cause of spontaneous subarachnoid haemorrhage (SAH. This haemorrhage is typically diffuse and located in extracerebral subarachnoid space in which main cerebral arterial branches are situated. The intimate and long-term contact of arterial wall and blood products in the closed space causes the cerebral vasospasm as a serious and frequent complication of SAH. It is connected with significant morbidity and mortality due to developing of focal cerebral ischaemia and subsequently cerebral infarction. The aim of our experimental research was to create the animal model of vasospasm using the femoral artery due to examination of reduced basic dilator activity cause in arterial wall after SAH. The important characteristic of major cerebral arteries is their localization in the closed subarachnoid space which enables their to have long-term contact with blood products after haemorrhage. Thirty six femoral arteries (FA of eighteen female rats weighing about 300 g were used. In vivo, femoral arteries are microsurgically prepared in both inguinal regions in all rats. Eighteen arteries were encompassed by polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE material forming closed tube and autologous blood was injected in the tube around the arterial wall. Additional eighteen arteries, as a control group, were also put in PTFE tube but without exposing to the blood. All rats are left to live for eight days. Afterwards, rats were sacrificed and their arteries were in vitro examined including an isometric tension measurement and histological changes analysis. The tension was measured during application of vasoconstrictors and vasodilatators (nitric oxide, NO. FA exposed to periadventitial blood exhibit hyper reactivity to constrictors (KCl, phenylephrine, acetylcholine compared to control group. It was also found that NO donor (sodium nitroprusside diminished arterial spasm induced by blood and vasoconstrictors. In conclusion, FA can be
M. Erol Demirseren
Full Text Available Achieving a level of technical skill and confidence in surgical operations is the main goal of plastic surgical training. Operating rooms were accepted as the practical teaching venues of the traditional apprenticeship model. However, increased patient population, time, and ethical and legal considerations made preoperation room practical work a must for plastic surgical training. There are several plastic surgical teaching models and simulators which are very useful in preoperation room practical training and the evaluation of plastic surgery residents. The full thickness skin with its vascular network excised in abdominoplasty procedures is an easily obtainable real human tissue which could be used as a training model in plastic surgery.
Longfield, Evan A; Brickman, Todd M; Jeyakumar, Anita
Temporal bone dissection is a fundamental element of otologic training. Cadaveric temporal bones (CTB) are the gold standard surgical training model; however, many institutions do not have ready access to them and their cost can be significant: $300 to $500. Furthermore, pediatric cadaveric temporal bones are not readily available. Our objective is to develop a pediatric temporal bone model. Temporal bone model. Tertiary Children's Hospital. Pediatric patient model. We describe the novel use of a 3D printer for the generation of a plaster training model from a pediatric high- resolution CT temporal bone scan of a normal pediatric temporal bone. Three models were produced and were evaluated. The models utilized multiple colors (white for bone, yellow for the facial nerve) and were of high quality. Two models were drilled as a proof of concept and found to be an acceptable facsimile of the patient's anatomy, rendering all necessary surgical landmarks accurately. The only negative comments pertaining to the 3D printed temporal bone as a training model were the lack of variation in hardness between cortical and cancellous bone, noting a tactile variation from cadaveric temporal bones. Our novel pediatric 3D temporal bone training model is a viable, low-cost training option for previously inaccessible pediatric temporal bone training. Our hope is that, as 3D printers become commonplace, these models could be rapidly reproduced, allowing for trainees to print models of patients before performing surgery on the living patient.
Sissine, Mysha; Segan, Robert; Taylor, Mathew; Jefferson, Bobby; Borrelli, Alice; Koehler, Mohandas; Chelvayohan, Meena
Another one million community healthcare workers are needed to address the growing global population and increasing demand of health care services. This paper describes a cost comparison between two training approaches to better understand costs implications of training community health workers (CHWs) in Sub-Saharan Africa. Our team created a prospective model to forecast and compare the costs of two training methods as described in the Dalburge Report - (1) a traditional didactic training approach ("baseline") and (2) a blended eLearning training approach ("blended"). After running the model for training 100,000 CHWs, we compared the results and scaled up those results to one million CHWs. A substantial difference exists in total costs between the baseline and blended training programs. RESULTS indicate that using a blended eLearning approach for training community health care workers could provide a total cost savings of 42%. Scaling the model to one million CHWs, the blended eLearning training approach reduces total costs by 25%. The blended eLearning savings are a result of decreased classroom time, thereby reducing the costs associated with travel, trainers and classroom costs; and using a tablet with WiFi plus a feature phone rather than a smartphone with data plan. The results of this cost analysis indicate significant savings through using a blended eLearning approach in comparison to a traditional didactic method for CHW training by as much as 67%. These results correspond to the Dalberg publication which indicates that using a blended eLearning approach is an opportunity for closing the gap in training community health care workers.
Diaz, Danilo E.; Dorn, Harald
We explore the conjectured duality between the critical O(N) vector model and minimal bosonic massless higher spin (HS) theory in AdS. In the free boundary theory, the conformal partial wave expansion (CPWE) of the four-point function of the scalar singlet bilinear is reorganized to make it explicitly crossing-symmetric and closed in the singlet sector, dual to the bulk HS gauge fields. We are able to analytically establish the factorized form of the fusion coefficients as well as the two-point function coefficient of the HS currents. We insist in directly computing the free correlators from bulk graphs with the unconventional branch. The three-point function of the scalar bilinear turns out to be an 'extremal' one at d = 3. The four-point bulk exchange graph can be precisely related to the CPWs of the boundary dual scalar and its shadow. The flow in the IR by Legendre transforming at leading 1/N, following the pattern of double-trace deformations, and the assumption of degeneracy of the hologram lead to the CPWE of the scalar four-point function at IR. Here we confirm some previous results, obtained from more involved computations of skeleton graphs, as well as extend some of them from d = 3 to generic dimension 2 < d < 4
Zarrinkalam, M R; Mulaibrahimovic, A; Atkins, G J; Moore, R J
Histomorphometric assessment of trabecular bone in osteoporotic sheep showed that bone volume, osteoid surface area, bone formation rate, and osteocyte density were reduced. In contrast, eroded surface area and empty lacunae density were increased. Changes in osteocyte density correlated with changes in osteoblast and osteoclast activity. Osteocytes contribute to the regulation of the activity of osteoclasts and osteoblasts that together control bone mass. Osteocytes therefore likely play a role in the loss of bone mass associated with osteoporosis. The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationships between osteocyte lacunar density and other bone histomorphometric parameters in the iliac crest (IC) and lumbar spine (LS) of osteoporotic sheep. Osteoporosis was induced in ten mature ewes by an established protocol involving a combination of ovariectomy, dexamethasone injection, and low calcium diet for 6 months. Five ewes were used as controls. Post-mortem IC and LS biopsies were collected and processed for further histomorphometric assessment. Bone volume, osteoid surface, and bone formation rate in the IC and LS of osteoporotic sheep were reduced compared to those of the controls. In contrast, eroded surface area was increased in osteoporotic sheep. In the osteoporotic group, osteocyte density was reduced in the LS region and to a greater extent in the IC region. The empty osteocyte lacunae were increased 1.7-fold in LS and 2.1-fold in IC in the osteoporotic group. The osteocyte density correlated positively with markers of osteoblast activity and negatively with those of osteoclast activity. Depletion of osteocytes and an increase in the empty lacunae could be important factors contributing to bone loss in this model since they may adversely affect intercellular communication between osteoblasts and osteoclasts. The regional differences in histology suggest that there may be different pathological mechanisms operating at different anatomical sites.
The study investigated the Relative Effectiveness of Assertive Training (AT), modelling (M) and a combination of Assertive Training and Modelling (AT & M) techniques in improving the social skills of primary school isolates and consequently reduce their isolate behaviour. The study is a quasi experimental research that ...
Chen, Shijian; Yang, Shuhan; Li, Linyuan
The training model for Southwest University's no-fee teacher education program has taken shape over several years. Based on a review of the documentation and interviews with administrators and no-fee preservice students from different specialties, this article analyzes Southwest University's no-fee teacher-training model in terms of three main…
Bender, Carl M.; Meisinger, Peter N.; Hook, Daniel W.; Wang Qinghai
Quantum mechanics and classical mechanics are distinctly different theories, but the correspondence principle states that quantum particles behave classically in the limit of high quantum number. In recent years much research has been done on extending both quantum and classical mechanics into the complex domain. These complex extensions continue to exhibit a correspondence, and this correspondence becomes more pronounced in the complex domain. The association between complex quantum mechanics and complex classical mechanics is subtle and demonstrating this relationship requires the use of asymptotics beyond all orders.
Training simulators for nuclear power plant operating staff have gained increasing importance over the last twenty years. One of the recommendations of the 1983 IAEA Specialists' Meeting on Nuclear Power Plant Training Simulators in Helsinki was to organize a Co-ordinated Research Programme (CRP) on some aspects of training simulators. The goal statement was: ''To establish and maintain a common approach to modelling for nuclear training simulators based on defined training requirements''. Before adapting this goal statement, the participants considered many alternatives for defining the common aspects of training simulator models, such as the programming language used, the nature of the simulator computer system, the size of the simulation computers, the scope of simulation. The participants agreed that it was the training requirements that defined the need for a simulator, the scope of models and hence the type of computer complex that was required, the criteria for fidelity and verification, and was therefore the most appropriate basis for the commonality of modelling approaches. It should be noted that the Co-ordinated Research Programme was restricted, for a variety of reasons, to consider only a few aspects of training simulators. This report reflects these limitations, and covers only the topics considered within the scope of the programme. The information in this document is intended as an aid for operating organizations to identify possible modelling approaches for training simulators for nuclear power plants. 33 refs
Wentink, M; Stassen, L P S; Alwayn, I; Hosman, R J A W; Stassen, H G
Compared to aviation, where virtual reality (VR) training has been standardized and simulators have proven their benefits, the objectives, needs, and means of VR training in minimally invasive surgery (MIS) still have to be established. The aim of the study presented is to introduce Rasmussen's model of human behavior as a practical framework for the definition of the training objectives, needs, and means in MIS. Rasmussen distinguishes three levels of human behavior: skill-, rule-, and knowledge-based behaviour. The training needs of a laparoscopic novice can be determined by identifying the specific skill-, rule-, and knowledge-based behavior that is required for performing safe laparoscopy. Future objectives of VR laparoscopy trainers should address all three levels of behavior. Although most commercially available simulators for laparoscopy aim at training skill-based behavior, especially the training of knowledge-based behavior during complications in surgery will improve safety levels. However, the cost and complexity of a training means increases when the training objectives proceed from the training of skill-based behavior to the training of complex knowledge-based behavior. In aviation, human behavior models have been used successfully to integrate the training of skill-, rule-, and knowledge-based behavior in a full flight simulator. Understanding surgeon behavior is one of the first steps towards a future full-scale laparoscopy simulator.
Gargiulo, Richard M.; Swartz, Stanley L.
Project Merge is an undergraduate, preservice education program at Bowling Green University providing training and experience leading to dual or triple certification in elementary education plus educable mental retardation and/or learning disabilities behavior disorders. (MB)
Sofarelli, Theresa A; Ricks, Jane H; Anand, Rahul; Hale, Devon C
International travel plays a significant role in the emergence and redistribution of major human diseases. The importance of travel medicine clinics for preventing morbidity and mortality has been increasingly appreciated, although few studies have thus far examined the management and staff training strategies that result in successful travel-clinic operations. Here, we describe an example of travel-clinic operation and management coordinated through the University of Utah School of Medicine, Division of Infectious Diseases. This program, which involves eight separate clinics distributed statewide, functions both to provide patient consult and care services, as well as medical provider training and continuing medical education (CME). Initial training, the use of standardized forms and protocols, routine chart reviews and monthly continuing education meetings are the distinguishing attributes of this program. An Infectious Disease team consisting of one medical doctor (MD) and a physician assistant (PA) act as consultants to travel nurses who comprise the majority of clinic staff. Eight clinics distributed throughout the state of Utah serve approximately 6,000 travelers a year. Pre-travel medical services are provided by 11 nurses, including 10 registered nurses (RNs) and 1 licensed practical nurse (LPN). This trained nursing staff receives continuing travel medical education and participate in the training of new providers. All nurses have completed a full training program and 7 of the 11 (64%) of clinic nursing staff serve more than 10 patients a week. Quality assurance measures show that approximately 0.5% of charts reviewed contain a vaccine or prescription error which require patient notification for correction. Using an initial training program, standardized patient intake forms, vaccine and prescription protocols, preprinted prescriptions, and regular CME, highly trained nurses at travel clinics are able to provide standardized pre-travel care to
Kamangar, Farin; Silver, Gillian; Hohmann, Christine; Hughes-Darden, Cleo; Turner-Musa, Jocelyn; Haines, Robert Trent; Jackson, Avis; Aguila, Nelson; Sheikhattari, Payam
Undergraduate students who are interested in biomedical research typically work on a faculty member's research project, conduct one distinct task (e.g., running gels), and, step by step, enhance their skills. This "apprenticeship" model has been helpful in training many distinguished scientists over the years, but it has several potential drawbacks. For example, the students have limited autonomy, and may not understand the big picture, which may result in students giving up on their goals for a research career. Also, the model is costly and may greatly depend on a single mentor. The NIH Building Infrastructure Leading to Diversity (BUILD) Initiative has been established to fund innovative undergraduate research training programs and support institutional and faculty development of the recipient university. The training model at Morgan State University (MSU), namely " A S tudent- C entered En trepreneurship D evelopment training model" (ASCEND), is one of the 10 NIH BUILD-funded programs, and offers a novel, experimental "entrepreneurial" training approach. In the ASCEND training model, the students take the lead. They own the research, understand the big picture, and experience the entire scope of the research process, which we hypothesize will lead to a greater sense of self-efficacy and research competency, as well as an enhanced sense of science identity. They are also immersed in environments with substantial peer support, where they can exchange research ideas and share experiences. This is important for underrepresented minority students who might have fewer role models and less peer support in conducting research. In this article, we describe the MSU ASCEND entrepreneurial training model's components, rationale, and history, and how it may enhance undergraduate training in biomedical research that may be of benefit to other institutions. We also discuss evaluation methods, possible sustainability solutions, and programmatic challenges that can affect all
Full Text Available A method is presented that significantly reduces the character error rates for OCR text obtained from OCRopus models trained on early printed books when only small amounts of diplomatic transcriptions are available. This is achieved by building from already existing models during training instead of starting from scratch. To overcome the discrepancies between the set of characters of the pretrained model and the additional ground truth the OCRopus code is adapted to allow for alphabet expansion or reduction. The character set is now capable of flexibly adding and deleting characters from the pretrained alphabet when an existing model is loaded. For our experiments we use a self-trained mixed model on early Latin prints and the two standard OCRopus models on modern English and German Fraktur texts. The evaluation on seven early printed books showed that training from the Latin mixed model reduces the average amount of errors by 43% and 26%, compared to training from scratch with 60 and 150 lines of ground truth, respectively. Furthermore, it is shown that even building from mixed models trained on standard data unrelated to the newly added training and test data can lead to significantly improved recognition results.
Tan, Runhua; Zhang, Huangao
Innovation is a process of taking an original idea and converting it into a business value, in which the engineers face some inventive problems which can be solved hardly by experience. TRIZ, as a new theory for companies in China, provides both conceptual and procedural knowledge for finding and solving inventive problems. Because the government plays a leading role in the diffusion of TRIZ, too many companies from different industries are waiting to be trained, but the quantity of the trainers mastering TRIZ is incompatible with that requirement. In this context, to improve the training effect, an interactive training model of TRIZ for the mechanical engineers in China is developed and the implementation in the form of training classes is carried out. The training process is divided into 6 phases as follows: selecting engineers, training stage-1, finding problems, training stage-2, finding solutions and summing up. The government, TRIZ institutions and companies to join the programs interact during the process. The government initiates and monitors a project in form of a training class of TRIZ and selects companies to join the programs. Each selected companies choose a few engineers to join the class and supervises the training result. The TRIZ institutions design the training courses and carry out training curriculum. With the beginning of the class, an effective communication channel is established by means of interview, discussion face to face, E-mail, QQ and so on. After two years training practices, the results show that innovative abilities of the engineers to join and pass the final examinations increased distinctly, and most of companies joined the training class have taken congnizance of the power of TRIZ for product innovation. This research proposes an interactive training model of TRIZ for mechanical engineers in China to expedite the knowledge diffusion of TRIZ.
Joubert, P.Y.; Madaoui, N.
In the context of eddy current non destructive evaluation using a tomographic image reconstruction process, the success of the reconstruction depends not only on the choice of the forward model and of the inversion algorithms, but also on the ability to extract the pertinent data from the raw signal provided by the sensor. We present in this paper, an experimental device designed for imaging purposes, the corresponding forward model, and a pre-processing of the experimental data using wavelet analysis. These three steps implemented with an inversion algorithm, will allow in the future to perform image reconstruction of 3-D flaws. (authors)
Cole, Colin; Spiryagin, Maksym; Wu, Qing; Sun, Yan Quan
Significant developments in longitudinal train simulation and an overview of the approaches to train models and modelling vehicle force inputs are firstly presented. The most important modelling task, that of the wagon connection, consisting of energy absorption devices such as draft gears and buffers, draw gear stiffness, coupler slack and structural stiffness is then presented. Detailed attention is given to the modelling approaches for friction wedge damped and polymer draft gears. A significant issue in longitudinal train dynamics is the modelling and calculation of the input forces - the co-dimensional problem. The need to push traction performances higher has led to research and improvement in the accuracy of traction modelling which is discussed. A co-simulation method that combines longitudinal train simulation, locomotive traction control and locomotive vehicle dynamics is presented. The modelling of other forces, braking propulsion resistance, curve drag and grade forces are also discussed. As extensions to conventional longitudinal train dynamics, lateral forces and coupler impacts are examined in regards to interaction with wagon lateral and vertical dynamics. Various applications of longitudinal train dynamics are then presented. As an alternative to the tradition single wagon mass approach to longitudinal train dynamics, an example incorporating fully detailed wagon dynamics is presented for a crash analysis problem. Further applications of starting traction, air braking, distributed power, energy analysis and tippler operation are also presented.
Full Text Available JungHun Choi1, Kale Ravindra1, Randolph Robert1, David Drozek21Mechanical Engineering, Ohio University, Athens, OH, USA; 2College of Osteopathic Medicine, Ohio University, Athens, OH, USAAbstract: Formal colonoscopy training requires a significant amount of time and effort. In particular, it requires actual patients for a realistic learning experience. The quality of colonoscopy training varies, and includes didactic courses and procedures proctored by skilled surgeons. A colonoscopy training model is occasionally used as part of the training method, but the effects are minute due to both the simple and tedious training procedures. To enhance the educational effect of the colonoscopy training model, the Active Colonoscopy Training Model (ACTM has been developed. ACTM is an interactive colonoscopy training device which can create the environment of a real colonoscopy procedure as closely as possible. It comprises a configurable rubber colon, a human torso, sensors, a display, and the control part. The ACTM provides audio and visual interaction to the trainee by monitoring important factors, such as forces caused by the distal tip and the shaft of the colonoscope and the pressure to open up the lumen and the localization of the distal tip. On the computer screen, the trainee can easily monitor the status of the colonoscopy, which includes the localization of the distal tip, maximum forces, pressure inside the colon, and surgery time. The forces between the rubber colon and the constraints inside the ACTM are measured and the real time display shows the results to the trainee. The pressure sensors will check the pressure at different parts of the colon. The real-time localized distal tip gives the colonoscopy trainee easier and more confident operation without introducing an additional device in the colonoscope. With the current need for colonoscopists and physicians, the ACTM can play an essential role resolving the problems of the current
van de Velden, Michel; Kiers, Henk A.L.
In correspondence analysis rows and columns of a nonnegative data matrix are depicted as points in a, usually, two-dimensional plot. Although such a two-dimensional plot often provides a reasonable approximation, the situation can occur that an approximation of higher dimensionality is required.
Deepak Dhar. Keywords. Correspondence principle, hy- drogen atom, Kepler orbit. Deepak Dhar works at the. Tata Institute of Funda- mental Research,. Mumbai. His research interests are mainly in the area of statistical physics. We consider the quantum-mechanical non-relati- vistic hydrogen atom. We show that for bound.
Tang Tao; Li Keping
This paper presents a new cellular automaton (CA) model for train control system simulation. In the proposed CA model, the driver reactions to train movements are captured by some updated rules. The space-time diagram of traffic flow and the trajectory of train movement is used to obtain insight into the characteristic behavior of railway traffic flow. A number of simulation results demonstrate that the proposed CA model can be successfully used for the simulations of railway traffic. Not only the characteristic behavior of railway traffic flow can be reproduced, but also the simulation values of the minimum time headway are close to the theoretical values.
Kerbusch, P.; Schram, J.; Bosch, K. van den
Soldiers on mission in areas with unfamiliar cultures must be able to take into account the norms of the local culture when assessing a situation, and must be able to adapt their behavior accordingly. Innovative technologies provide opportunity to train the required skills in an interactive and
Bosch, K. van den; Kerbusch, P.J.M.; Schram, J.
Soldiers on mission in areas with unfamiliar cultures must be able to take into account the norms of the local culture when assessing a situation, and must be able to adapt their behavior accordingly. Innovative technologies provide opportunity to train the required skills in an interactive and
Geisler, Paul R.; Lazenby, Todd W.
Objective: To address the need for a more definitive approach to critical thinking during athletic training educational experiences by introducing the clinical reasoning model for critical thinking. Background: Educators are aware of the need to teach students how to think critically. The multiple domains of athletic training are comprehensive and…
Ricciardone, E B; Stepanovich, P H; West, V T
This article describes a model used to train radiology staff in customer service relations at a large southeastern medical center. Information about the needs of the radiology department and staff was acquired through quantitative and qualitative assessments. The primary goal of the training was twofold: 1) to develop employee awareness of customer expectations and 2) to develop problem-solving skills to respond to customer service related issues. Instructional methods compatible with adult learning were used and training results were assessed. Positive changes in employee attitudes and behaviors are described and recommendations for training development and implementation are discussed.
Vampola, Tomáš; Horáček, Jaromír; Laukkanen, Anne-Maria; Švec, Jan G
Resonance frequencies of the vocal tract have traditionally been modelled using one-dimensional models. These cannot accurately represent the events in the frequency region of the formant cluster around 2.5-4.5 kHz, however. Here, the vocal tract resonance frequencies and their mode shapes are studied using a three-dimensional finite element model obtained from computed tomography measurements of a subject phonating on vowel [a:]. Instead of the traditional five, up to eight resonance frequencies of the vocal tract were found below the prominent antiresonance around 4.7 kHz. The three extra resonances were found to correspond to modes which were axially asymmetric and involved the piriform sinuses, valleculae, and transverse vibrations in the oral cavity. The results therefore suggest that the phenomenon of speaker's and singer's formant clustering may be more complex than originally thought.
I Ketut Santra
The aim of the research is improving the teaching method in entrepreneurship subject. This research adopted the competency based training (CBT) into the entrepreneurship. The major task in this research is formulated and designed the entrepreneurship competency. Entrepreneurship competency indicated by Personal, Strategic and Situational and Business competence. All of entrepreneurship competences are described into sub topic of competence. After designing and formulating the game and simulat...
... associated with military training exercises. The model combines the business practice of Material Requirements Planning and the commercial spreadsheet software capabilities of Lotus 1-2-3 to calculate the requirements for food, consumable...
We comment on sections paragraph 3 'Correspondences' and paragraph 6 'Equivalence Relations' in chapter II of 'Elements de mathematique' by N. Bourbaki in order to simplify their comprehension. Paragraph 3 exposes the ideas of a graph, correspondence and map or of function, and their composition laws. We draw attention to the following points: 1) Adopting the convention of writting from left to right, the composition law for two correspondences (A,F,B), (U,G,V) of graphs F, G is written in full generality (A,F,B)o(U,G,V) = (A,FoG,V). It is not therefore assumed that the co-domain B of the first correspondence is identical to the domain U of the second (EII.13 D.7), (1970). 2) The axiom of choice consists of creating the Hilbert terms from the only relations admitting a graph. 3) The statement of the existence theorem of a function h such that f = goh, where f and g are two given maps having the same domain (of definition), is completed if h is more precisely an injection. Paragraph 6 considers the generalisation of equality: First, by 'the equivalence relation associated with a map f of a set E identical to (x is a member of the set E and y is a member of the set E and x:f = y:f). Consequently, every relation R(x,y) which is equivalent to this is an equivalence relation in E (symmetrical, transitive, reflexive); then R admits a graph included in E x E, etc. Secondly, by means of the Hilbert term of a relation R submitted to the equivalence. In this last case, if R(x,y) is separately collectivizing in x and y, theta(x) is not the class of objects equivalent to x for R (EII.47.9), (1970). The interest of bringing together these two subjects, apart from this logical order, resides also in the fact that the theorem mentioned in 3) can be expressed by means of the equivalence relations associated with the functions f and g. The solutions of the examples proposed reveal their simplicity [fr
Bhola, H. S.
The Action Training Model (ATM) was developed for the delivery of evaluation training to development workers in Kenya and Botswana and implemented under the aegis of the German Foundation for International Development. Training of evaluators is a challenge in any context, but in the Third World environment, evaluation training offers special…
San Hor Peay
Full Text Available In recent years, more studies had been conducted about train dwell time as it is a key parameter of rail system performance and reliability. This paper draws an overview of train dwell time models for rail passenger service from various continents, namely Asia, North America, Europe and Australia. The factors affecting train dwell time are identified and analysed across some rail network operators. The dwell time models developed by various researches are also discussed and reviewed. Finally, the contributions from the outcomes of these models are briefly addressed. In conclusion, this paper suggests that there is a need to further study the factors with strong influence upon dwell time to improve the quality of the train services.
Full Text Available We developed a train operation simulation tool to inspect a train operation plan. In applying an improved Petri Net, the train was regarded as a token, and the line and station were regarded as places, respectively, in accordance with the high-speed train operation characteristics and network function. Location change and running information transfer of the high-speed train were realized by customizing a variety of transitions. The model was built based on the concept of component combination, considering the random disturbance in the process of train running. The simulation framework can be generated quickly and the system operation can be completed according to the different test requirements and the required network data. We tested the simulation tool when used for the real-world Wuhan to Guangzhou high-speed line. The results showed that the proposed model can be developed, the simulation results basically coincide with the objective reality, and it can not only test the feasibility of the high-speed train operation plan, but also be used as a support model to develop the simulation platform with more capabilities.
Stress is an integral element of the operational conditions experienced by combat medics. The effects of stress can compromise the performance of combat medics who must reach and treat their comrades under often threatening circumstances. Examples of these effects include tunnel vision, loss of motor control, and diminished hearing, which can result in an inability to perceive further danger, satisfactorily treat the casualty, and communicate with others. While many training programs strive to recreate this stress to aid in the experiential learning process, stress inducement may not always be feasible or desired. In addition, live simulations are not always a practical, convenient, and repeatable method of training. Instead, presenting situational training on a personal computer is proposed as an effective training platform in which the effects of stress can be addressed in a different way. We explore the cognitive and motor effects of stress, as well as the benefits of training for mitigating these effects in real life. While many training applications focus on inducing stress in order to "condition" the stress response, the author explores the possibilities of modeling stress to produce a similar effect. Can presenting modeled effects of stress help prepare or inoculate soldiers for stressful situations in which they must perform at a high level? This paper investigates feasibility of modeling stress and describes the preliminary design considerations of a combat medic training system that utilizes this method of battlefield preparation.
L. V. Ursulyak
Full Text Available Purpose. Using scientific publications the paper analyzes the mathematical models developed in Ukraine, CIS countries and abroad for theoretical studies of train dynamics and also shows the urgency of their further improvement. Methodology. Information base of the research was official full-text and abstract databases, scientific works of domestic and foreign scientists, professional periodicals, materials of scientific and practical conferences, methodological materials of ministries and departments. Analysis of publications on existing mathematical models used to solve a wide range of problems associated with the train dynamics study shows the expediency of their application. Findings. The results of these studies were used in: 1 design of new types of draft gears and air distributors; 2 development of methods for controlling the movement of conventional and connected trains; 3 creation of appropriate process flow diagrams; 4 development of energy-saving methods of train driving; 5 revision of the Construction Codes and Regulations (SNiP ΙΙ-39.76; 6 when selecting the parameters of the autonomous automatic control system, created in DNURT, for an auxiliary locomotive that is part of a connected train; 7 when creating computer simulators for the training of locomotive drivers; 8 assessment of the vehicle dynamic indices characterizing traffic safety. Scientists around the world conduct numerical experiments related to estimation of train dynamics using mathematical models that need to be constantly improved. Originality. The authors presented the main theoretical postulates that allowed them to develop the existing mathematical models for solving problems related to the train dynamics. The analysis of scientific articles published in Ukraine, CIS countries and abroad allows us to determine the most relevant areas of application of mathematical models. Practicalvalue. The practical value of the results obtained lies in the scientific validity
Regelsberger, Jan; Eicker, Sven; Siasios, Ioannis; Hänggi, Daniel; Kirsch, Matthias; Horn, Peter; Winkler, Peter; Signoretti, Stefano; Fountas, Kostas; Dufour, Henry; Barcia, Juan A; Sakowitz, Oliver; Westermaier, Thomas; Sabel, Michael; Heese, Oliver
Supplemental education is desirable for neurosurgical training, and the use of human cadaver specimen and virtual reality models is routine. An in vivo porcine training model for cranial neurosurgery was introduced in 2005, and our recent experience with this unique model is outlined here. For the first time, porcine anatomy is illustrated with particular respect to neurosurgical procedures. The pros and cons of this model are described. The aim of the course was to set up a laboratory scenery imitating an almost realistic operating room in which anatomy of the brain and neurosurgical techniques in a mentored environment free from time constraints could be trained. Learning objectives of the course were to learn about the microsurgical techniques in cranial neurosurgery and the management of complications. Participants were asked to evaluate the quality and utility of the programme via standardized questionnaires by a grading scale from A (best) to E (worst). In total, 154 residents have been trained on the porcine model to date. None of the participants regarded his own residency programme as structured. The bleeding and complication management (97%), the realistic laboratory set-up (89%) and the working environment (94%) were favoured by the vast majority of trainees and confirmed our previous findings. After finishing the course, the participants graded that their skills in bone drilling, dissecting the brain and preserving cerebral vessels under microscopic magnification had improved to level A and B. In vivo hands-on courses, fully equipped with microsurgical instruments, offer an outstanding training opportunity in which bleeding management on a pulsating, vital brain represents a unique training approach. Our results have shown that education programmes still lack practical training facilities in which in vivo models may act as a complementary approach in surgical training.
Athanassopoulos, Thanassi; Loh, Charles Yuen Yung
A simple, readily available digital replantation model in the chicken foot is described. This high fidelity model will hopefully allow trainees in hand surgery to gain further experience in replant surgery prior to clinical application.
Kikko, Satoshi; Tanifuji, Katsuya; Sakanoue, Kei; Nanba, Kouichiro
In this paper, we aimed to model the aerodynamic force that acts on a train running at high speed in a tunnel. An analytical model of the aerodynamic force is developed from pressure data measured on car-body sides of a test train running at the maximum revenue operation speed. The simulation of an 8-car train running while being subjected to the modeled aerodynamic force gives the following results. The simulated car-body vibration corresponds to the actual vibration both qualitatively and quantitatively for the cars at the rear of the train. The separation of the airflow at the tail-end of the train increases the yawing vibration of the tail-end car while it has little effect on the car-body vibration of the adjoining car. Also, the effect of the moving velocity of the aerodynamic force on the car-body vibration is clarified that the simulation under the assumption of a stationary aerodynamic force can markedly increase the car-body vibration.
The overall objective of this project was to develop an updated model Energy Conservation training program for stationary engineers. This revision to the IUOE National Training Fund’s existing Energy Conservation training curriculum is designed to enable stationary engineers to incorporate essential energy management into routine building operation and maintenance tasks. The curriculum uses a blended learning approach that includes classroom, hands-on, computer simulation and web-based training in addition to a portfolio requirement for a workplace-based learning application. The Energy Conservation training program goal is development of a workforce that can maintain new and existing commercial buildings at optimum energy performance levels. The grant start date was July 6, 2010 and the project continued through September 30, 2012, including a three month non-funded extension.
Cifuentes, Ignacio J; Yañez, Ricardo A; Salisbury, Maria C; Rodriguez, José R; Varas, Julian E; Dagnino, Bruno L
Living animal models are frequently used for perforator flap dissection training, but no ex vivo models have been described. The aim of this study is to present a novel nonliving model for perforator flap training based on a constant perforator in the chicken leg. A total of 15 chicken legs were used in this study. Anatomical dissection of the perforator was performed after its identification using ink injection, and in four of these specimens a perforator-based flap was raised. The anatomical dissection revealed a constant intramuscular perforator with a median length of 5.7 cm. Median proximal and distal vessel diameters were 0.93 and 0.4 mm, respectively. The median dissection time was 77.5 minutes. This study introduces a novel, affordable, and reproducible model for the intramuscular dissection of a perforator-based flap using an ex vivo animal model. Its consistent perforator and appropriate-sized vessels make it useful for training.
Momeni, Arash; Kim, Rebecca Y.; Wan, Derrick C.; Izadpanah, Ali; Lee, Gordon K.
Background. Three educational models for plastic surgery training exist in the United States, the integrated, combined, and independent model. The present study is a comparative analysis of aesthetic surgery training, to assess whether one model is particularly suitable to provide for high-quality training in aesthetic surgery. Methods. An 18-item online survey was developed to assess residents’ perceptions regarding the quality of training in aesthetic surgery in the US. The survey had three...
Full Text Available Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui apakah model on the job training (pelatihan kerja di industri mampu meningkatkan kemampuan keterampilan mahasiswa program studi vokasi bidang manufaktur di Universitas Tujuh Belas Agustus Surabaya. Penelitian ini mengambil data pada mahasiswa di Program Studi Vokasi bidang manufaktur sejumlah 20 orang untuk menguji validitas dan reliabilitas angket dan sejumlah 30 orang mahasiswa untuk menguji pengaruh on the job training terhadap kemampuan keterampilan mahasiswa yang meliputi aspek afektif, kognitif dan psikomotorik. Pengumpulan data melalui angket, observasi, dan wawancara. Metode analisis menggunakan regresi untuk mengetahui pengaruh antara variabel on the job training terhadap variabel kemampuan keterampilan mahasiswa. Diketahui hasil persamaan regresi bahwa semakin baik model on the job training diterapkan, maka semakin baik pula peningkatan kemampuan keterampilan yang dimiliki mahasiswa. Besarnya pengaruh model on the job training terhadap keterampilan sebesar 0.701 atau 70.1%. Dihasilkan model pembelajaran on the job training yang dilakukan mampu mempengaruhi peningkatan kemampuan keterampilan calon lulusan program studi vokasi bidang manufaktur
I Ketut Santra
Full Text Available The aim of the research is improving the teaching method in entrepreneurship subject. This research adopted the competency based training (CBT into the entrepreneurship. The major task in this research is formulated and designed the entrepreneurship competency. Entrepreneurship competency indicated by Personal, Strategic and Situational and Business competence. All of entrepreneurship competences are described into sub topic of competence. After designing and formulating the game and simulation the research continuing to implement the competency based training in the real class. The time consumed to implementing the CBT one semester, starting on September 2006 to early February 2007. The lesson learnt from the implementation period, the CBT could improve the student competence in Personal, Situational Strategic and Business. The three of the competencies are important for the success entrepreneur. It is a sign of application of “Kurikulum Berbasis Kompetensi”. There are many evidences to describe the achievement of the CBT in entrepreneurship subject. Firstly, physically achievement, that all of the student’s business plan could became the real business. The evidences are presented by picture of the student’s real business. Secondly theoretically achievement, that the Personal, Situational Strategic and Business competence statistically have significant relation with Business Plan even Real Business quality. The effect of the Personal, Situational Strategic and Business competence to Business Plan quality is 84.4%. and, to the Real Business quality 77.2%. The statistic’s evidence suggests that the redesign of the entrepreneurship subject is the right way. The content of the entrepreneur competence (Personal, Situational and Strategic and Business competence have impact to the student to conduct and running for own business.
Alejandro Muñoz Moreno
Full Text Available The importance of the goalkeeper for the team performance is critical, however, publications on specific preparation are few in number, with no clear lines of work. The present study aims to analyze the different methodologies used in the specific training handball goalkeeper, by setting what the different training models as well as deepen the potential applications of each.For this purpose, it was conducted an extensive literature review, categorizing each document based on the performance factor on which prioritizes: physical-technical, perceptual and tactical. The analysis of results found that there were no other models than those categorized, being more numerous publications falling under physical and technical training, followed by the perceptive and very few exist on tactical training. In light of the results seems essential to conduct a specific training program for goalkeeper, taking into account the most relevant variables for optimal performance. No single factor seems more relevant to any stage of training, it being necessary to deepen it.Keywords: specific training, perception, decision making, tactical
Rosenberg, J; Presch, I; Pommergaard, H C
, thus complicating the procedure if operation should be done in the inguinal canal. The chain of lymph nodes resembles the human spermatic cord and can be used to perform Lichtenstein's hernia repair. RESULTS: This experimental surgical model has been tested on two adult male pigs and three adult female...... pigs, and a total of 55 surgeons have been educated to perform Lichtenstein's hernia repair in these animals. CONCLUSIONS: This new experimental surgical model for training Lichtenstein's hernia repair mimics the human inguinal anatomy enough to make it suitable as a training model. The operation...
Polson, Peter; Sherry, Lance; Feary, Michael; Palmer, Everett; Alkin, Marty; McCrobie, Dan; Kelley, Jerry; Rosekind, Mark (Technical Monitor)
This paper proposes a model-based training program for the skills necessary to operate advance avionics systems that incorporate advanced autopilots and fight management systems. The training model is based on a formalism, the operational procedure model, that represents the mission model, the rules, and the functions of a modem avionics system. This formalism has been defined such that it can be understood and shared by pilots, the avionics software, and design engineers. Each element of the software is defined in terms of its intent (What?), the rationale (Why?), and the resulting behavior (How?). The Advanced Computer Tutoring project at Carnegie Mellon University has developed a type of model-based, computer aided instructional technology called cognitive tutors. They summarize numerous studies showing that training times to a specified level of competence can be achieved in one third the time of conventional class room instruction. We are developing a similar model-based training program for the skills necessary to operation the avionics. The model underlying the instructional program and that simulates the effects of pilots entries and the behavior of the avionics is based on the operational procedure model. Pilots are given a series of vertical flightpath management problems. Entries that result in violations, such as failure to make a crossing restriction or violating the speed limits, result in error messages with instruction. At any time, the flightcrew can request suggestions on the appropriate set of actions. A similar and successful training program for basic skills for the FMS on the Boeing 737-300 was developed and evaluated. The results strongly support the claim that the training methodology can be adapted to the cockpit.
Hellard, Philippe; Avalos, Marta; Lacoste, Lucien; Barale, Frédéric; Chatard, Jean-Claude; Millet, Grégoire P.
The aim of this study was to carry out a statistical analysis of the Banister model to verify how useful it is in monitoring the training programmes of elite swimmers. The accuracy, the ill-conditioning and the stability of this model were thus investigated. Training loads of nine elite swimmers, measured over one season, were related to performances with the Banister model. Firstly, to assess accuracy, the 95% bootstrap confidence interval (95% CI) of parameter estimates and modelled performances were calculated. Secondly, to study ill-conditioning, the correlation matrix of parameter estimates was computed. Finally, to analyse stability, iterative computation was performed with the same data but minus one performance, chosen randomly. Performances were significantly related to training loads in all subjects (R2= 0.79 ± 0.13, P < 0.05) and the estimation procedure seemed to be stable. Nevertheless, the 95% CI of the most useful parameters for monitoring training were wide τa =38 (17, 59), τf =19 (6, 32), tn =19 (7, 35), tg =43 (25, 61). Furthermore, some parameters were highly correlated making their interpretation worthless. The study suggested possible ways to deal with these problems and reviewed alternative methods to model the training-performance relationships. PMID:16608765
Boone, J.; de Mooij, R.A.
This paper develops a model of search on the labour market with training. The model reveals how the tax system can restore the social optimum if the Hosios condition is not satisfied in the private equilibrium. Furthermore, the effects are explored of a second-best reform from average to marginal
Full Text Available Planetary gear train plays a significant role in a helicopter operation and its health is of great importance for the flight safety of the helicopter. This paper investigates the effects of a planet carrier plate crack on the dynamic characteristics of a planetary gear train, and thus finds an effective method to diagnose crack fault. A dynamic model is developed to analyze the torsional vibration of a planetary gear train with a cracked planet carrier plate. The model takes into consideration nonlinear factors such as the time-varying meshing stiffness, gear backlash and viscous damping. Investigation of the deformation of the cracked carrier plate under static stress is performed in order to simulate the dynamic effects of the planet carrier crack on the angular displacement of carrier posts. Validation shows good accuracy of the developed dynamic model in predicting dynamic characteristics of a planetary gear train. Fault features extracted from predictions of the model reveal the correspondence between vibration characteristic and the conditions (length and position of a planet carrier crack clearly.
Li, Jian; Fei, Ze-yuan; Xu, Yi-feng; Wang, Jie; Fan, Bing-feng; Ma, Xue-jin; Wang, Gang
Metal-organic chemical vapour deposition (MOCVD) is a key technique for fabricating GaN thin film structures for light-emitting and semiconductor laser diodes. Film uniformity is an important index to measure equipment performance and chip processes. This paper introduces a method to improve the quality of thin films by optimizing the rotation speed of different substrates of a model consisting of a planetary with seven 6-inch wafers for the planetary GaN-MOCVD. A numerical solution to the transient state at low pressure is obtained using computational fluid dynamics. To evaluate the role of the different zone speeds on the growth uniformity, single factor analysis is introduced. The results show that the growth rate and uniformity are strongly related to the rotational speed. Next, a response surface model was constructed by using the variables and the corresponding simulation results. The optimized combination of the matching of different speeds is also proposed as a useful reference for applications in industry, obtained by a response surface model and genetic algorithm with a balance between the growth rate and the growth uniformity. This method can save time, and the optimization can obtain the most uniform and highest thin film quality.
Full Text Available In this paper, the optimal planning of manpower training programmes in a manpower system with two grades is discussed. The planning of manpower training within a given organization involves a trade-off between training costs and expected return. These planning problems are examined through models that reflect the random nature of manpower movement in two grades. To be specific, the system consists of two grades, grade 1 and grade 2. Any number of persons in grade 2 can be sent for training and after the completion of training, they will stay in grade 2 and will be given promotion as and when vacancies arise in grade 1. Vacancies arise in grade 1 only by wastage. A person in grade 1 can leave the system with probability p. Vacancies are filled with persons in grade 2 who have completed the training. It is assumed that there is a perfect passing rate and that the sizes of both grades are fixed. Assuming that the planning horizon is finite and is T, the underlying stochastic process is identified as a finite state Markov chain and using dynamic programming, a policy is evolved to determine how many persons should be sent for training at any time k so as to minimize the total expected cost for the entire planning period T.
Schoorl, J. M.; Temme, A. J. A. M.; Veldkamp, A.
Rivers tend to develop towards an equilibrium length profile, independently of exogenous factors. In general, although still under debate, this so-called self-organisation is assumed to be caused by simple feedbacks between sedimentation and erosion. Erosion correlates positively with gradient and discharge and sedimentation negatively. With the LAPSUS model, which was run for the catchment of the Sabinal, a small river in the South of Spain, this interplay of erosion and sedimentation results in sediment pulses (sequences of incision and sedimentation through time). These pulses are visualised in a short movie ( see http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=V5LDUMvYZxU). In this case the LAPSUS model run did not take climate, base level nor tectonics into account. Therefore, these pulses can be considered independent of them. Furthermore, different scenarios show that the existence of the pulses is independent of precipitation, erodibility and sedimentation rate, although they control the number and shape of the pulses. A fieldwork check showed the plausibility of the occurrence of these sediment pulses. We conclude that the pulses as modelled with LAPSUS are indeed the consequence of the feedbacks between erosion and sedimentation and are not depending on exogenous factors. Keywords: Landscape self-organisation, Erosion, Deposition, LAPSUS, Modelling
1 Some basic neurophysiology 4 The neuron 1. 1 4 1. 1. 1 The axon 7 1. 1. 2 The synapse 9 12 1. 1. 3 The soma 1. 1. 4 The dendrites 13 13 1. 2 Types of neurons 2 Signals in the nervous system 14 2. 1 Action potentials as point events - point processes in the nervous system 15 18 2. 2 Spontaneous activi~ in neurons 3 Stochastic modelling of single neuron spike trains 19 3. 1 Characteristics of a neuron spike train 19 3. 2 The mathematical neuron 23 4 Superposition models 26 4. 1 superposition of renewal processes 26 4. 2 Superposition of stationary point processe- limiting behaviour 34 4. 2. 1 Palm functions 35 4. 2. 2 Asymptotic behaviour of n stationary point processes superposed 36 4. 3 Superposition models of neuron spike trains 37 4. 3. 1 Model 4. 1 39 4. 3. 2 Model 4. 2 - A superposition model with 40 two input channels 40 4. 3. 3 Model 4. 3 4. 4 Discussion 41 43 5 Deletion models 5. 1 Deletion models with 1nd~endent interaction of excitatory and inhibitory sequences 44 VI 5. 1. 1 Model 5. 1 The basic de...
Alexandre Campos Moraes Amato
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: It is indispensable that members of the medical profession receive the technical training needed to enable them to rapidly obtain effective vascular access. Training procedures should be used judiciously to familiarize students with the technique. However, existing models are expensive or ineffective, and models need to be developed that are similar to what will be encountered in real patients.OBJECTIVES: To demonstrate creation and application of a gelatin model for training ultrasound-guided puncture.METHOS: The model was made using a mixture of colorless gelatin and water in a transparent plastic receptacle with two pairs of orifices of different diameters, through which two plastic tubes were inserted, to simulate blood vessels.RESULTS: The model was a close approximation to the real medical procedure in several aspects, since gelatin has a similar consistency to human tissues, providing a more faithful reproduction of the tactile sensation at the moment when the needle reaches the interior of a vessel and its contents are aspirated.CONCLUSIONS: The method proposed here can be used to easily construct a low-cost model using everyday materials that is suitable for large-scale training of ultrasound-guided puncture.
Hiramatsu, S; Harada, Y; Arakawa, H; Komori, S [Mazda Motor Corp., Hiroshima (Japan); Sumida, S [U-Shin Corp., Tokyo (Japan)
This paper describes the simulation of power train that includes the model developed by applying the virtual prototype concept. By this concept, subsystem models which consist of functional model and mechanism models are integrated into a total system model. This peculiarity in architecture of model, which is called the hierarchical structure, enables us to model a system of large scale with many units, systems and parts easily. Two kinds of computer simulations are performed. One is engine revolution fluctuation by accessory load input, and the other is changing gears by automatic transmission. They are verified to have sufficient accuracy. 2 refs., 12 figs.
Olabe, Jon; Olabe, Javier
Microneurovascular anastomosis and aneurysm clipping require extensive training before mastering the technique and are a surgical challenge. We developed the "infused chicken wing method" to provide a simple but realistic training method minimizing animal use and need for special facilities for animal care and anesthesia. Fresh chicken wings were used in this model. The main brachial artery was cannulated, and water was infused at 140 mm Hg followed by anatomical neurovascular dissection. Multiple microsurgical training exercises were performed under microscope vision including terminoterminal, lateroterminal, laterolateral vascular anastomosis, and nerve anastomosis. Different complexity aneurysms were created using venous patches, clipping, rupture, and vascular reconstruction techniques were performed. This novel training model is inexpensive, easily obtainable, and no live animals are required. The diameter and characteristics of arteries and veins used are similar to those of the human brain. Great microsurgical technique progress may be obtained. The infused chicken wing artery model presents a realistic microvascular training method. It is inexpensive and easy to set up. Such simplicity provides the adequate environment for developing microsurgical technique. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Uden-Holman, Tanya; Bedet, Jennifer; Walkner, Laurie; Abd-Hamid, Nor Hashidah
With the current economic climate, money for training is scarce. In addition, time is a major barrier to participation in trainings. To meet the public health workforce's rising demand for training, while struggling with less time and fewer resources, the Upper Midwest Preparedness and Emergency Response Learning Center has developed a model of online training that provides the public health workforce with individually customized, needs-based training experiences. Adaptive scenarios are rooted in case-based reasoning, a learning approach that focuses on the specific knowledge needed to solve a problem. Proponents of case-based reasoning argue that learners benefit from being able to remember previous similar situations and reusing information and knowledge from that situation. Adaptive scenarios based on true-to-life job performance provide an opportunity to assess skills by presenting the user with choices to make in a problem-solving context. A team approach was used to develop the adaptive scenarios. Storylines were developed that incorporated situations aligning with the knowledge, skills, and attitudes outlined in the Public Health Preparedness and Response Core Competency Model. This article examines 2 adaptive scenarios: "Ready or Not? A Family Preparedness Scenario" and "Responding to a Crisis: Managing Emotions and Stress Scenario." The scenarios are available on Upper Midwest Preparedness and Emergency Response Learning Center's Learning Management System, the Training Source (http://training-source.org). Evaluation data indicate that users' experiences have been positive. Integrating the assessment and training elements of the scenarios so that the training experience is uniquely adaptive to each user is one of the most efficient ways to provide training. The opportunity to provide individualized, needs-based training without having to administer separate assessments has the potential to save time and resources. These adaptive scenarios continue to be
Essers, Geurt; Van Weel-Baumgarten, Evelyn; Bolhuis, Sanneke
Medical students learn professional communication through formal training and in clinical practice. Physicians working in clinical practice have a powerful influence on student learning. However, they may demonstrate communication behaviours not aligning with recommendations in training programs. This study aims to identify more precisely what differences students perceive between role model communication behaviour during clerkships and formal training. In a cross-sectional study, data were collected about physicians' communication performance as perceived by students. Students filled out a questionnaire in four different clerkships in their fourth and fifth year. Just over half of the students reported communication similar to formal training. This was especially true for students in the later clerkships (paediatrics and primary care). Good examples were seen in providing information corresponding to patients' needs and in shared decision making, although students often noted that in fact the doctor made the decision. Bad examples were observed in exploring cognitions and emotions, and in providing information meeting patient's pace. Further study is needed on actual physician behaviour in clinical practice. From our results, we conclude that students need help in reflecting on and learning from the gap in communication patterns they observe in training versus clinical practice.
Scanlan, Aaron T; Fox, Jordan L; Borges, Nattai R; Dascombe, Ben J; Dalbo, Vincent J
The influence of various factors on training-load (TL) responses in basketball has received limited attention. This study aimed to examine the temporal changes and influence of cumulative training dose on TL responses and interrelationships during basketball activity. Ten state-level Australian male junior basketball players completed 4 × 10-min standardized bouts of simulated basketball activity using a circuit-based protocol. Internal TL was quantified using the session rating of perceived exertion (sRPE), summated heart-rate zones (SHRZ), Banister training impulse (TRIMP), and Lucia TRIMP models. External TL was assessed via measurement of mean sprint and circuit speeds. Temporal TL comparisons were performed between 10-min bouts, while Pearson correlation analyses were conducted across cumulative training doses (0-10, 0-20, 0-30, and 0-40 min). sRPE TL increased (P basketball activity. sRPE TL was only significantly related to Lucia TRIMP (r = .66-.69; P basketball training doses lasting beyond 20 min. Thus, the interchangeability of commonly used internal and external TL approaches appears dose-dependent during basketball activity, with various psychophysiological mediators likely underpinning temporal changes.
Christie, Lorna; Goossens, Richard; Jakimowicz, Jack J.
Background To bridge the early learning curve for laparoscopic Nissen fundoplication from the clinical setting to a safe environment, training models can be used. This study aimed to develop a reusable, low-cost model to be used for training in laparoscopic Nissen fundoplication procedure as an alternative to the use of animal tissue models. Methods From artificial organs and tissue, an anatomic model of the human upper abdomen was developed for training in performing laparoscopic Nissen fundoplication. The 20 participants and tutors in the European Association for Endoscopic Surgery (EAES) upper gastrointestinal surgery course completed four complementary tasks of laparoscopic Nissen fundoplication with the artificial model, then compared the realism, haptic feedback, and training properties of the model with those of animal tissue models. Results The main difference between the two training models was seen in the properties of the stomach. The wrapping of the stomach in the artificial model was rated significantly lower than that in the animal tissue model (mean, 3.6 vs. 4.2; p = 0.010). The main criticism of the stomach of the artificial model was that it was too rigid for making a proper wrap. The suturing of the stomach wall, however, was regarded as fairly realistic (mean, 3.6). The crura on the artificial model were rated better (mean, 4.3) than those on the animal tissue (mean, 4.0), although the difference was not significant. The participants regarded the model as a good to excellent (mean, 4.3) training tool. Conclusion The newly developed model is regarded as a good tool for training in laparoscopic Nissen fundoplication procedure. It is cheaper, more durable, and more readily available for training and can therefore be used in every training center. The stomach of this model, however, still needs improvement because it is too rigid for making the wrap. PMID:20526629
Unger, Bertram J; Kraut, Jay; Rhodes, Charlotte; Hochman, Jordan
Physical models of complex bony structures can be used for surgical skills training. Current models focus on surface rendering but suffer from a lack of internal accuracy due to limitations in the manufacturing process. We describe a technique for generating internally accurate rapid-prototyped anatomical models with solid and hollow structures from clinical and microCT data using a 3D printer. In a face validation experiment, otolaryngology residents drilled a cadaveric bone and its corresponding printed model. The printed bone models were deemed highly realistic representations across all measured parameters and the educational value of the models was strongly appreciated.
Full Text Available Tree saps are nourishing biological media commonly used for beverage and syrup production. Although the nutritional aspect of tree saps is widely acknowledged, the exact relationship between the sap composition, origin, and effect on the metabolic rate of human cells is still elusive. Thus, we collected saps from seven different tree species and conducted composition-activity analysis. Saps from trees of Betulaceae, but not from Salicaceae, Sapindaceae, nor Juglandaceae families, were increasing the metabolic rate of HepG2 cells, as measured using tetrazolium-based assay. Content of glucose, fructose, sucrose, chlorides, nitrates, sulphates, fumarates, malates, and succinates in sap samples varied across different tree species. Grade correspondence analysis clustered trees based on the saps’ chemical footprint indicating its usability in chemotaxonomy. Multiple regression modeling showed that glucose and fumarate present in saps from silver birch (Betula pendula Roth., black alder (Alnus glutinosa Gaertn., and European hornbeam (Carpinus betulus L. are positively affecting the metabolic activity of HepG2 cells.
Uche, Greg N.
Components of a treatment model are diagnosis of offenders' work history and training needs, in relation to labor market requirements; provision of appropriate job and entrepreneurial skills; and after care services. Focus is on vocational adjustment to ensure successful rehabilitation. (SK)
Mohammadi Ziabari, S.S.; Treur, J.
In this paper the effect of a mindfulness therapy based on a Network-Oriented Modeling approach is addressed. The considered therapy is Autogenic Training, that can be used when under stress; it has as two main goals to achieve feeling heavy and warm body parts (limbs). Mantra’s have been used in
Hüttel, Hans; Gordon, Andy; Hansen, Rene Rydhof
We present a correspondence type/effect system for authenticity in a π-calculus with polarized channels, dependent pair types and effect terms and show how one may, given a process P and an a priori type environment E, generate constraints that are formulae in the Alternating Least Fixed......-Point (ALFP) logic. We then show how a reasonable model of the generated constraints yields a type/effect assignment such that P becomes well-typed with respect to E if and only if this is possible. The formulae generated satisfy a finite model property; a system of constraints is satisfiable if and only...... if it has a finite model. As a consequence, we obtain the result that type/effect inference in our system is polynomial-time decidable....
Feraco, Angela M.; Brand, Sarah R.; Mack, Jennifer W.; Kesselheim, Jennifer C.; Block, Susan D.; Wolfe, Joanne
Communication is central to pediatric oncology care. Pediatric oncologists disclose life-threatening diagnoses, explain complicated treatment options, and endeavor to give honest prognoses, to maintain hope, to describe treatment complications, and to support families in difficult circumstances ranging from loss of function and fertility to treatment-related or disease-related death. However, parents, patients, and providers report substantial communication deficits. Poor communication outcomes may stem, in part, from insufficient communication skills training, overreliance on role modeling, and failure to utilize best practices. This review summarizes evidence for existing methods to enhance communication skills and calls for revitalizing communication skills training within pediatric oncology. PMID:26822066
Chadwick CARRETO ARELLANO
Full Text Available This work shows the development of a Knowledge Management Model (MAC applied to the training process in mobile devices for ease of use and access of different types of users to relevant information (anywhere and anytime. The MAC permit to manage knowledge, so that helps in the process of collection, classification and search of information according to a profile and academic needs as well as services related to the transformation of data and information for knowledge generation. The MAC aims to provide users, tools for skills development and allow the development of the training process with the use of limited capacity device with Internet connection.
Feraco, Angela M; Brand, Sarah R; Mack, Jennifer W; Kesselheim, Jennifer C; Block, Susan D; Wolfe, Joanne
Communication is central to pediatric oncology care. Pediatric oncologists disclose life-threatening diagnoses, explain complicated treatment options, and endeavor to give honest prognoses, to maintain hope, to describe treatment complications, and to support families in difficult circumstances ranging from loss of function and fertility to treatment-related or disease-related death. However, parents, patients, and providers report substantial communication deficits. Poor communication outcomes may stem, in part, from insufficient communication skills training, overreliance on role modeling, and failure to utilize best practices. This review summarizes evidence for existing methods to enhance communication skills and calls for revitalizing communication skills training within pediatric oncology. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Martinez Fernandez, P.; Garcia Roman, C.; Insa Franco, R.
Nowadays there is an evident concern regarding the efficiency and sustainability of the transport sector due to both the threat of climate change and the current financial crisis. This concern explains the growth of railways over the last years as they present an inherent efficiency compared to other transport means. However, in order to further expand their role, it is necessary to optimise their energy consumption so as to increase their competitiveness. Improving railways energy efficiency requires both reliable data and modelling tools that will allow the study of different variables and alternatives. With this need in mind, this paper presents the development of consumption models based on neural networks that calculate the energy consumption of electric trains. These networks have been trained based on an extensive set of consumption data measured in line 1 of the Valencia Metro Network. Once trained, the neural networks provide a reliable estimation of the vehicles consumption along a specific route when fed with input data such as train speed, acceleration or track longitudinal slope. These networks represent a useful modelling tool that may allow a deeper study of railway lines in terms of energy expenditure with the objective of reducing the costs and environmental impact associated to railways. (Author)
Cacciamani, G; De Marco, V; Siracusano, S; De Marchi, D; Bizzotto, L; Cerruto, M A; Motton, G; Porcaro, A B; Artibani, W
A training model is usually needed to teach robotic surgical technique successfully. In this way, an ideal training model should mimic as much as possible the "in vivo" procedure and allow several consecutive surgical simulations. The goal of this study was to create a "wet lab" model suitable for RARP training programs, providing the simulation of the posterior fascial reconstruction. The second aim was to compare the original "Venezuelan" chicken model described by Sotelo to our training model. Our training model consists of performing an anastomosis, reproducing the surgical procedure in "vivo" as in RARP, between proventriculus and the proximal portion of the esophagus. A posterior fascial reconstruction simulating Rocco's stitch is performed between the tissues located under the posterior surface of the esophagus and the tissue represented by the serosa of the proventriculus. From 2014 to 2015, during 6 different full-immersion training courses, thirty-four surgeons performed the urethrovesical anastomosis using our model and the Sotelo's one. After the training period, each surgeon was asked to fill out a non-validated questionnaire to perform an evaluation of the differences between the two training models. Our model was judged the best model, in terms of similarity with urethral tissue and similarity with the anatomic unit urethra-pelvic wall. Our training model as reported by all trainees is easily reproducible and anatomically comparable with the urethrovesical anastomosis as performed during radical prostatectomy in humans. It is suitable for performing posterior fascial reconstruction reported by Rocco. In this context, our surgical training model could be routinely proposed in all robotic training courses to develop specific expertise in urethrovesical anastomosis with the reproducibility of the Rocco stitch.
Boote, Kenneth J.; Porter, Cheryl H.; Hargreaves, John; Hoogenboom, Gerrit; Thornburn, Peter; Mutter, Carolyn
The Agricultural Model Intercomparison and Improvement Project (AgMIP) has the goal of using multiple crop models to evaluate climate impacts on agricultural production and food security in developed and developing countries. There are several major limitations that must be overcome to achieve this goal, including the need to train AgMIP regional research team (RRT) crop modelers to use models other than the ones they are currently familiar with, plus the need to harmonize and interconvert the disparate input file formats used for the various models. Two activities were followed to address these shortcomings among AgMIP RRTs to enable them to use multiple models to evaluate climate impacts on crop production and food security. We designed and conducted courses in which participants trained on two different sets of crop models, with emphasis on the model of least experience. In a second activity, the AgMIP IT group created templates for inputting data on soils, management, weather, and crops into AgMIP harmonized databases, and developed translation tools for converting the harmonized data into files that are ready for multiple crop model simulations. The strategies for creating and conducting the multi-model course and developing entry and translation tools are reviewed in this chapter.
Research on psychoanalytical education within the IPA may be clarified by reflecting on the ethic behind each of the three main models (Eitingonian, French and Uruguayan). In fact, the ethic underpinning psychoanalytical education, whatever the model, is confronted by irreducible conflicts between transmitting psychoanalysis by means of analytical experience or by means of academic teaching. Transmission by experience is essentially based on the ethic of psychoanalytic practice, which is difficult to regulate through institutional standards, whereas the academic aspect can be evaluated by objective and public criteria. The importance of both aspects and their relative weight in the training process depend on the conception of psychoanalysis underlying each model. This paper will look primarily at the French training model, the essentially analytical aspects of which favour the transmission of the very ethical foundations of psychoanalytic practice itself: the application of the method both as a working tool and as a tool of evaluation. It presupposes expanding the observation and analysis of transference beyond the framework of treatment to that of supervision. From this analysis, the paper will attempt to demonstrate how the French model proposes dealing with the inevitable conflicts between transmission by means of analysis and training by means of apprenticeship.
Dec 14, 2011 ... achieved in Africa without an adequate health workforce . ... capacity, African countries will be unable to build and use disease surveillance ..... Laboratory epidemiologist: skilled partner in field epidemiology and disease ...
employees, and their primary obligation is to patients who use public medical services. It is therefore sheer ... state employees, some at senior consultant level, who run full-on single-handed private practices, ... altered, this must be done through proper engagement and negotiation. To do otherwise sets a dangerous ...
Finally, SAMA remains deeply concerned about the sensationalist way in which the media and government alike are dealing with this matter. Generalisations are being made and doctors are being vilified by forensic reports without the courtesy of engaging with or informing SAMA. Equally, if high-ranking officials and MECs ...
efficient healthcare across the world. The use of medical ... technologies, and particularly on the availability of specific medical devices, policies ... management of medical devices, as well as the absence of a regulatory environment, are major ...
Dec 14, 2011 ... 11Tanzania Ministry of Health and Social Welfare, P.O. Box 9083, Dar es Salam, Tanzania, 2African Field Epidemiology Network P.O. Box 12874,. Kampala, Uganda .... oversee research activities for the students and provide expertise in abstract and manuscript writing. NIMR provides the base of ...
Jul 30, 2015 ... goal of the H3A is to use data obtained from research efforts to influence and inform strategies that will address .... challenges associated with obtaining a valid informed consent [24,. 25]. Genetic studies are extremely ... Multidisciplinary approach is the silver lining in the dark cloud that has befallen genetic ...
 The treatment rate in 2012 for the public sector is essentially unchanged at 73 pmp, compared with 620 pmp (of insured persons) in the private sector. In ... of different ethnic groups, with a 64% increase in black patients accessing RRT since ...
monitors, in keeping with international quality assurance require- ments. .... reference to locally advanced breast cancer. World J Surg ... Results of an audit of mammography in women younger than 40 in a resource restricted environment.
The article claims to explore parents' views on the HIV counselling and testing campaign to be conducted in high schools, within an interpretative qualitative paradigm. This is an interesting and important topic. However, the methodology of the study is deeply flawed and unfortunately gives qualitative research a bad name.
is itself reasonable, fair and ethical. Clearly, there are glaring deficiencies in the existing coding and billing structure that do not allow for the addition of codes applicable to new procedures. Equally importantly, intertwined with a coding structure, is the billing structure. Each code has a unit value and each unit a Rand value, ...
of paediatric beds is about 40 km away, and there is no formal public transport or railway link between Mzamomhle and the hospital. In response to ... We present our positive experience as a motivation for other junior health ... All it takes is a.
conflict of interest (CoI) is a growing problem in medical publi cations. The critique ... For example, different sources cite academic commitments, personal relationships ... ecigarettes and the adoption of sugarsweetened beverage taxes, we.
REDS-II Donor Iron Status Evaluation (RISE) study documents that among frequent US ...  We were unable to find data on the prevalence of ... fatal myocardial infarction and stroke. ... had donated an average of 119 units of blood per individual (range ... patient when the 'regular blood donor' explanation is accepted as the.
regular blood donation on iron stores, and consequent risks of iron depletion and iron deficiency anaemia. There is little doubt that frequent blood donation may result in reduced iron stores. It is also important to note that haemoglobin (Hb) levels may remain relatively normal in spite of reduced iron stores, although changes.
airborne allergens, which may lead to the onset of rhinitis, pneumonia or asthma. Patients with these respiratory conditions often develop a cough, which is responsible for increased abdominal pressure. The latter promotes visceral protrusion through the collar of the hernia, and causes discomfort. The loop continues to ...
Recommendations for the handling of fluorescent lamps in public schools in. Johannesburg, South Africa. To the Editor: Fluorescent lamps are regarded as hazardous waste because of their mercury content. Mercury has toxic properties that may have acute or chronic detrimental impacts on human health and the ...
People tend to take public transportation to avoid high traffic, especially in Java. In Jakarta, the number of railway passengers is over than the capacity of the train at peak time. This is an opportunity as well as a challenge. If it is managed well then the company can get high profit. Otherwise, it may lead to disaster. This article discusses models for the train passengers, hence, finding the reasonable models to make a prediction overtimes. The Box-Jenkins method is occupied to develop a basic model. Then, this model is compared to models obtained using exponential smoothing method and regression method. The result shows that Holt-Winters model is better to predict for one-month, three-month, and six-month ahead for the passenger in Java. In addition, SARIMA(1,1,0)(2,0,0) is more accurate for nine-month and twelve-month oversee. On the other hand, for Sumatra passenger forecasting, SARIMA(1,1,1)(0,0,2) gives a better approximation for one-month ahead, and ARIMA model is best for three-month ahead prediction. The rest, Trend Seasonal and Liner Model has the least of RMSE to forecast for six-month, nine-month, and twelve-month ahead.
Full Text Available The possibility of referring of the psychological theories studying interrelation of training and mental development processes to this or that stage of scientific knowledge formation on the basis of studied objects types and corresponded determination systems as a basic criterion distinguishing the ideals of scientific rationality is justified. General characteristics of classical, non-classical and post-non-classical models, determination of the mechanisms of dissipative systems, requirements for learning and development model building in the context of post-non-classic science paradigm on the criterion of the system features of the object of cognition are described. Domestic psychological school models are compared with associanism, behaviorism, gestalt psychology and Piaget determination models on the number of options allocated to these determinants, types of causal chains and types of links between causal chains. It is shown that cultural-historical approach is situated intermediately between post-non-classical and non-classical models, while activity approach corresponds to post-non-classical understanding of the object of study as complicated self-developing "man-size" system. Determination relationships models developed by L.V.Vygotskii, S.L. Rubinstein, A.N. Leont’ev continue to play the heuristic role at the present stage of scientific development.
Szasz, P; Louridas, M; de Montbrun, S; Harris, K A; Grantcharov, T P
Surgical education is becoming competency-based with the implementation of in-training milestones. Training guidelines should reflect these changes and determine the specific procedures for such milestone assessments. This study aimed to develop a consensus view regarding operative procedures and tasks considered appropriate for junior and senior trainees, and the procedures that can be used as technical milestone assessments for trainee progression in general surgery. A Delphi process was followed where questionnaires were distributed to all 17 Canadian general surgery programme directors. Items were ranked on a 5-point Likert scale, with consensus defined as Cronbach's α of at least 0·70. Items rated 4 or above on the 5-point Likert scale by 80 per cent of the programme directors were included in the models. Two Delphi rounds were completed, with 14 programme directors taking part in round one and 11 in round two. The overall consensus was high (Cronbach's α = 0·98). The training model included 101 unique procedures and tasks, 24 specific to junior trainees, 68 specific to senior trainees, and nine appropriate to all. The assessment model included four procedures. A system of operative procedures and tasks for junior- and senior-level trainees has been developed along with an assessment model for trainee progression. These can be used as milestones in competency-based assessments. © 2016 BJS Society Ltd Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Cholewa, Jason; Guimarães-Ferreira, Lucas; da Silva Teixeira, Tamiris; Naimo, Marshall Alan; Zhi, Xia; de Sá, Rafaele Bis Dal Ponte; Lodetti, Alice; Cardozo, Mayara Quadros; Zanchi, Nelo Eidy
Human muscle hypertrophy brought about by voluntary exercise in laboratorial conditions is the most common way to study resistance exercise training, especially because of its reliability, stimulus control and easy application to resistance training exercise sessions at fitness centers. However, because of the complexity of blood factors and organs involved, invasive data is difficult to obtain in human exercise training studies due to the integration of several organs, including adipose tissue, liver, brain and skeletal muscle. In contrast, studying skeletal muscle remodeling in animal models are easier to perform as the organs can be easily obtained after euthanasia; however, not all models of resistance training in animals displays a robust capacity to hypertrophy the desired muscle. Moreover, some models of resistance training rely on voluntary effort, which complicates the results observed when animal models are employed since voluntary capacity is something theoretically impossible to measure in rodents. With this information in mind, we will review the modalities used to simulate resistance training in animals in order to present to investigators the benefits and risks of different animal models capable to provoke skeletal muscle hypertrophy. Our second objective is to help investigators analyze and select the experimental resistance training model that best promotes the research question and desired endpoints. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Natal’ja N. Jel’jash
principles of contextual training model are pointed out. The performance technique of the practical tasks which logic is close to logic of real professional work is considered. Scientific novelty. The novelty of contextual training model in relation to designing of academic and didactic materials consists in updating of practical training, corresponding coherence of theory and practice as the essential formation of professional skill and competency. The solution algorithms under the reduced or formerly known formula and functional connections are organized in such a way as to motivate the student for regular appeal to educational sources of information (such as textbooks, study guides, reference books. The author states that the uselessness and unreliability perception of theory mastering is avoided due to the proposed training; problem solving is not confined to simple mathematical calculations. Physical sense of conception and phenomenon essence occurs while performing the task. Practical significance. The research outcomes can be used while academic teaching packages designing and its implementation into educational process of high school. The research findings can help to form sustained professional competencies, students’ interest upgrading to studied disciplines, establishment of intersubject communication between the training courses provided by educational program.
Bouaziz, Maha; Yan, Ying; Kassab, Mohamed
wireless technologies, e.g. Wi-Fi and LTE. Different T2G scenarios are defined in order to evaluate the performances of the Mobile Communication Gateway (managing train communications) and Quality of Services (QoS) offered to TCMS applications in the context of various environments (regular train lines......Under the SAFE4RAIL project, we are developing a simulation platform based on a discrete-events network simulator. This platform models the Train-to-Ground (T2G) link in the framework of a system-level simulation of Train Control Management System (TCMS). The modelled T2G link is based on existing...
Parks, Connie L; Monson, Keith L
This study employed an automated facial recognition system as a means of objectively evaluating biometric correspondence between a ReFace facial approximation and the computed tomography (CT) derived ground truth skin surface of the same individual. High rates of biometric correspondence were observed, irrespective of rank class (R k ) or demographic cohort examined. Overall, 48% of the test subjects' ReFace approximation probes (n=96) were matched to his or her corresponding ground truth skin surface image at R 1 , a rank indicating a high degree of biometric correspondence and a potential positive identification. Identification rates improved with each successively broader rank class (R 10 =85%, R 25 =96%, and R 50 =99%), with 100% identification by R 57 . A sharp increase (39% mean increase) in identification rates was observed between R 1 and R 10 across most rank classes and demographic cohorts. In contrast, significantly lower (p0.05) performance differences were observed across demographic cohorts or CT scan protocols. Performance measures observed in this research suggest that ReFace approximations are biometrically similar to the actual faces of the approximated individuals and, therefore, may have potential operational utility in contexts in which computerized approximations are utilized as probes in automated facial recognition systems. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier B.V.
Moreno, Sylvain; Farzan, Faranak
Training programs aimed to improve cognitive skills have either yielded mixed results or remain to be validated. The limited benefits of such regimens are largely attributable to weak understanding of (1) how (and which) interventions provide the most cognitive improvements; and (2) how brain networks and neural mechanisms that underlie specific cognitive abilities can be modified selectively. Studies indicate that music training leads to robust and long-lasting benefits to behavior. Importantly, behavioral advantages conferred by music extend beyond perceptual abilities to even nonauditory functions, such as inhibitory control (IC) and its neural correlates. Alternative forms of arts engagement or brain training do not appear to yield such enhancements, which suggests that music uniquely taps into brain networks subserving a variety of auditory as well as domain-general mechanisms such as IC. To account for such widespread benefits of music training, we propose a framework of transfer effects characterized by three dimensions: level of processing, nature of the transfer, and involvement of executive functions. We suggest that transfer of skills is mediated through modulation of general cognitive processes, in particular IC. We believe that this model offers a viable framework to test the extent and limitations of music-related changes. © 2014 New York Academy of Sciences.
Full Text Available Model-based and model-free reinforcement learning (RL have been suggested as algorithmic realizations of goal-directed and habitual action strategies. Model-based RL is more flexible than model-free but requires sophisticated calculations using a learnt model of the world. This has led model-based RL to be identified with slow, deliberative processing, and model-free RL with fast, automatic processing. In support of this distinction, it has recently been shown that model-based reasoning is impaired by placing subjects under cognitive load--a hallmark of non-automaticity. Here, using the same task, we show that cognitive load does not impair model-based reasoning if subjects receive prior training on the task. This finding is replicated across two studies and a variety of analysis methods. Thus, task familiarity permits use of model-based reasoning in parallel with other cognitive demands. The ability to deploy model-based reasoning in an automatic, parallelizable fashion has widespread theoretical implications, particularly for the learning and execution of complex behaviors. It also suggests a range of important failure modes in psychiatric disorders.
Full Text Available In order to overcome the drawbacks in artificial horizon indicator (HI of inside-in type (a view from an aircraft (A/C, where pilots produce mistakes in maintenance of attitude orientation most of all, the authors offer a novel training method. The method is based on the hypothesis that the manipulative ability of a human visual system can be trained. A mathematical model for the data accumulation during the corresponding training procedure has been proposed. Construction, design and results of the model evaluation are presented in the article. The experimental results revealed the increase of the probability of faultless operation by the test group of up to 0,892, whereas the faultless operation probability of a control group was 0,726. Thus, the trainee-students have statistically increased the reliability for the maintenance of attitude orientation thanks to the proposed method, and the hypothesis was confirmed.
Bondareva, Evgeniya; Chistyakova, Galina; Kleshevskyi, Yury; Sergeev, Sergey; Stepanov, Aleksey
Nowadays foreign language competence is one of the main professional skills of mining engineers. Modern competitive conditions require the ability for meeting production challenges in a foreign language from specialists and managers of mining enterprises. This is the reason of high demand on foreign language training/retraining courses. Language training of adult learners fundamentally differs from children and adolescent education. The article describes the features of andragogical learning model. The authors conclude that distance learning is the most productive education form having a number of obvious advantages over traditional (in-class) one. Interactive learning method that involves active engagement of adult trainees appears to be of the greatest interest due to introduction of modern information and communication technologies for distance learning.
Di Domenico, Stefano; Santori, Gregorio; Porcile, Elisa; Licausi, Martina; Centanaro, Monica; Valente, Umberto
To test the hypothesis that low-cost homemade models may be used to acquire the basic skills for ultrasound-guided central vein puncture. Training study. University transplantation department. Training was performed using three different homemade models (A, B, and C). Segments of a common rubber tourniquet (V1) and Silastic tube (V2) were used to simulate vessels within agar-based models. Overall cost for each model was less than 5 euro (US$7). For each test (test I, A-V1; II, A-V2; III, B-V1; IV, C-V2), the number of punctures and attempts needed to locate the needle inside the lumen were recorded. Each test was considered completed when participants punctured the vessels at the first attempt for three consecutive times. In test I, the mean number of punctures and attempts were 3.85 +/- 1.26 and 4.95 +/- 3.05; in test II, 4.60 +/- 1.14 and 6.30 +/- 2.51; in test III, 4.80 +/- 1.06 and 4.65 +/- 2.21; and in test IV, 4.45 +/- 1.23 and 6.05 +/- 2.92, respectively. For each test, no statistical difference was found by comparison of number of punctures and attempts for anesthesiologists versus nonanesthesiologists, men versus women, or previous experience versus no experience with central vein cannulation (CVC). Video game users obtained better results than did nonusers in test I (punctures, P = 0.033; attempts, P = 0.038), test II (punctures, P = 0.052; attempts, P = 0.011), and test IV (punctures, P = 0.001; attempts, P = 0.003). A posttraining questionnaire showed favorable opinions about the clarity of the instructions, aptness of the models, and adequacy of the training. In our operative unit, the use of ultrasound guidance for CVC increased from 2% to 23% in the first month after training. Low-cost homemade models are useful in acquiring basic coordination skills for ultrasound-guided CVC.
Yang, Q.; Liu, X.; Wu, W.; Yang, P.; Wang, C.
Fast and accurate radiative transfer model is the key for satellite data assimilation for remote sensing application. The simulation of the satellite remote sensing radiances is very complicated since many physical processes, such as absorption, emission, and scattering, are involved due to the interactions between electromagnetic radiation and earth surface, water vapor, clouds, aerosols, and gas molecules in the sky. The principal component-based radiative transfer model (PCRTM) has been developed for various passive IR and MW instruments. In this work, we extended PCRTM to including the contribution from solar radiation. The cloud/aerosol bidirectional reflectances have been carefully calculated using the well-known Discrete-Ordinate-Method Radiative Transfer (DISORT) model under over 10 millions of diverse conditions with varying cloud particle size, wavelength, satellite viewing direction, and solar angles. The obtained results were compressed significantly using principal component analysis and used in the mono domain radiance calculation. We used 1352 different atmosphere profiles, each of them has different surface skin temperatures and surface pressures in our training. Different surface emissivity spectra were derived from ASTER database and emissivity models. Some artificially generated emissivity spectra were also used to account for diverse surface types of the earth. Concentrations of sixteen trace gases were varied systematically in the training and the remaining trace gas contributions were accounted for as a fixed gas. Training was done in both clear and cloudy skies conditions. Finally the nonlocal thermal equilibrium (NLTE) induced radiance change was included for daytime conditions. We have updated the PCRTM model for instruments such as IASI, NASTI, CrIS, AIRS, and SHIS. The training results show that the PCRTM model can calculate thousands of channel radiances by computing only a few hundreds of mono radiances. This greatly increased the
Vazquez, Roberto A.; Garro, Beatriz A.
Spiking neurons are models designed to simulate, in a realistic manner, the behavior of biological neurons. Recently, it has been proven that this type of neurons can be applied to solve pattern recognition problems with great efficiency. However, the lack of learning strategies for training these models do not allow to use them in several pattern recognition problems. On the other hand, several bioinspired algorithms have been proposed in the last years for solving a broad range of optimization problems, including those related to the field of artificial neural networks (ANNs). Artificial bee colony (ABC) is a novel algorithm based on the behavior of bees in the task of exploring their environment to find a food source. In this paper, we describe how the ABC algorithm can be used as a learning strategy to train a spiking neuron aiming to solve pattern recognition problems. Finally, the proposed approach is tested on several pattern recognition problems. It is important to remark that to realize the powerfulness of this type of model only one neuron will be used. In addition, we analyze how the performance of these models is improved using this kind of learning strategy. PMID:25709644
Questions of research ethics always arise when planning a correspondence test to study discrimination in the market place. However, the issue is addressed relatively little in published correspondence tests with authors usually referring to the two seminal articles written in this field (i.e. Banton (1997) and Riach and Rich (2004)). Since then correspondence testing has become more widespread and the technique is increasingly relying on the internet to find and send applications. It is there...
Biddle, Christopher J.
The purpose of this qualitative holistic multiple-case study was to identify the optimal theoretical approach for a Counter-Terrorism Reality-Based Training (CTRBT) model to train post-9/11 police officers to perform effectively in their counter-terrorism assignments. Post-9/11 police officers assigned to counter-terrorism duties are not trained…
Full Text Available This paper analyzes the end-to-end outage performance of high-speed-railway train-to-train communication model in high-speed railway over independent identical and nonidentical Nakagami-m channels. The train-to-train communication is inter-train communication without an aid of infrastructure (for base station. Source train uses trains on other rail tracks as relays to transmit signals to destination train on the same track. The mechanism of such communication among trains can be divided into three cases based on occurrence of possible-occurrence relay trains. We first present a new closed form for the sum of squared independent Nakagami-m variates and then derive an expression for the outage probability of the identical and non-identical Nakagami-m channels in three cases. In particular, the problem is improved by the proposed formulation that statistic for sum of squared Nakagami-m variates with identical m tends to be infinite. Numerical analysis indicates that the derived analytic results are reasonable and the outage performance is better over Nakagami-m channel in high-speed railway scenarios.
Cai, Yunliang; Leung, Stephanie; Warrington, James; Pandey, Sachin; Shmuilovich, Olga; Li, Shuo
The identification of spondylolysis and spondylolisthesis is important in spinal diagnosis, rehabilitation, and surgery planning. Accurate and automatic detection of spinal portion with spondylolisthesis problem will significantly reduce the manual work of physician and provide a more robust evaluation for the spine condition. Most existing automatic identification methods adopted the indirect approach which used vertebrae locations to measure the spondylolisthesis. However, these methods relied heavily on automatic vertebra detection which often suffered from the pool spatial accuracy and the lack of validated pathological training samples. In this study, we present a novel spondylolisthesis detection method which can directly locate the irregular spine portion and output the corresponding grading. The detection is done by a set of learning-based detectors which are discriminatively trained by synthesized spondylolisthesis image samples. To provide sufficient pathological training samples, we used a parameterized spine model to synthesize different types of spondylolysis images from real MR/CT scans. The parameterized model can automatically locate the vertebrae in spine images and estimate their pose orientations, and can inversely alter the vertebrae locations and poses by changing the corresponding parameters. Various training samples can then be generated from only a few spine MR/CT images. The preliminary results suggest great potential for the fast and efficient spondylolisthesis identification and measurement in both MR and CT spine images.
Waran, V; Pancharatnam, Devaraj; Thambinayagam, Hari Chandran; Raman, Rajagopal; Rathinam, Alwin Kumar; Balakrishnan, Yuwaraj Kumar; Tung, Tan Su; Rahman, Z A
Navigation in neurosurgery has expanded rapidly; however, suitable models to train end users to use the myriad software and hardware that come with these systems are lacking. Utilizing three-dimensional (3D) industrial rapid prototyping processes, we have been able to create models using actual computed tomography (CT) data from patients with pathology and use these models to simulate a variety of commonly performed neurosurgical procedures with navigation systems. To assess the possibility of utilizing models created from CT scan dataset obtained from patients with cranial pathology to simulate common neurosurgical procedures using navigation systems. Three patients with pathology were selected (hydrocephalus, right frontal cortical lesion, and midline clival meningioma). CT scan data following an image-guidance surgery protocol in DIACOM format and a Rapid Prototyping Machine were taken to create the necessary printed model with the corresponding pathology embedded. The ability in registration, planning, and navigation of two navigation systems using a variety of software and hardware provided by these platforms was assessed. We were able to register all models accurately using both navigation systems and perform the necessary simulations as planned. Models with pathology utilizing 3D rapid prototyping techniques accurately reflect data of actual patients and can be used in the simulation of neurosurgical operations using navigation systems. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.
Full Text Available Since 1957 the Correspondence-Education Centre Univerzum has been involved in correspondence education, which - as a matter of principle - uses the written word as a basic and predorninam medium of instruction, ensuring a two directional communication between the teacher and the student. Following the world-wide trends in adult education, the institution has gradually updated its teaching methods by incorporating correspondence-consulting and correspondence-seminar methods. As a result of the forceful development of new technologies and media the written word has become only one among many media of instruction, replacing the concept of correspon dence education with that of distance education. Although the latter hasa num ber of advantages, it is rather difficult to implement. ln view of its role and in the interese of its own development, the Correspondence-Education Centre Univerzum is forced to effect the transition to distance education. In order to be able to effectively adopt new methods, extensive training has been organised for the teaching staff, the results of which are encouraging. They enable us to plan further changes and improvements of our methods of instruction.
Zholdasbekova, Saule; Nurzhanbayeva, Zhanat; Karatayev, Galymzhan; Akhmet, Laura Smatullaevna; Anarmetov, Bahitzhan
In the article the author presents the theoretical understanding of research problems of training of the future teachers-organizers of the dual training system in vocational education & training (VET) in the conditions of the credit technology of education. The author's vision of way to solve the problem is discussed in the description of the…
Nutt, Roberta L.
The authors of the Major Contribution have developed a complex and elegant three-level training model on which they suggest advanced microskills may be built. Prior to the description of their model, they have built a case that current microskills training has proved foundationally important but insufficient to training needs. They then invite…
Full Text Available Objective: We performed a comparative study of high-fidelity training models for flexible ureteroscopy (URS. Our objective was to determine whether high-fidelity non-virtual reality (VR models are as effective as the VR model in teaching flexible URS skills. Materials and Methods: Twenty-one trained urologists without clinical experience of flexible URS underwent dry lab simulation practice. After a warm-up period of 2 h, tasks were performed on a high-fidelity non-VR (Uro-scopic Trainer TM ; Endo-Urologie-Modell TM and a high-fidelity VR model (URO Mentor TM . The participants were divided equally into three batches with rotation on each of the three stations for 30 min. Performance of the trainees was evaluated by an expert ureteroscopist using pass rating and global rating score (GRS. The participants rated a face validity questionnaire at the end of each session. Results: The GRS improved statistically at evaluation performed after second rotation (P<0.001 for batches 1, 2 and 3. Pass ratings also improved significantly for all training models when the third and first rotations were compared (P<0.05. The batch that was trained on the VR-based model had more improvement on pass ratings on second rotation but could not achieve statistical significance. Most of the realistic domains were higher for a VR model as compared with the non-VR model, except the realism of the flexible endoscope. Conclusions: All the models used for training flexible URS were effective in increasing the GRS and pass ratings irrespective of the VR status.
Kac, V.G.; Leur van de, J.W.
Since the pioneering work of Skyrme, the boson-fermion correspondence has been playing an increasingly important role in 2-dimensional quantum field theory. More recently, it has become an important ingredient in the work of the Kyoto school on the KP hierarchy of soliton equations. In the present paper we establish a super boson-fermion correspondence, having in mind its applications to super KP hierarchies
FSUTMS training is a major activity of the Systems Planning Office of the Florida Department of : Transportation (FDOT). The training aims to establish and maintain quality assurance for consistent : statewide modeling standards and provide up-to-dat...
Jarratt, Denise G.; Murphy, Tom; Lowry, Diannah
Review of the theory of relational marketing and interviews with training providers identified a training delivery model that includes elements of trust and commitment, investment by relationship partners, and knowledge exchange, supporting relationship longevity. (SK)
Antony G. Philippe
Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to test whether systems models of training effects on performance in athletes can be used to explore the responses to resistance training in rats. 11 Wistar Han rats (277 ± 15 g underwent 4 weeks of resistance training consisting in climbing a ladder with progressive loads. Training amount and performance were computed from total work and mean power during each training session. Three systems models relating performance to cumulated training bouts have been tested: (i with a single component for adaptation to training, (ii with two components to distinguish the adaptation and fatigue produced by exercise bouts, and (iii with an additional component to account for training-related changes in exercise-induced fatigue. Model parameters were fitted using a mixed-effects modeling approach. The model with two components was found to be the most suitable to analyze the training responses (R2=0.53; P<0.001. In conclusion, the accuracy in quantifying training loads and performance in a rodent experiment makes it possible to model the responses to resistance training. This modeling in rodents could be used in future studies in combination with biological tools for enhancing our understanding of the adaptive processes that occur during physical training.
Mohammed, Asadig; Murugan, Jeff; Nastase, Horatiu
We present an embedding of the three-dimensional relativistic Landau-Ginzburg model for condensed matter systems in an N = 6, U(N) × U(N) Chern-Simons-matter theory [the Aharony-Bergman-Jafferis-Maldacena model] by consistently truncating the latter to an Abelian effective field theory encoding the collective dynamics of O(N) of the O(N(2)) modes. In fact, depending on the vacuum expectation value on one of the Aharony-Bergman-Jafferis-Maldacena scalars, a mass deformation parameter μ and the Chern-Simons level number k, our Abelianization prescription allows us to interpolate between the Abelian Higgs model with its usual multivortex solutions and a Ø(4) theory. We sketch a simple condensed matter model that reproduces all the salient features of the Abelianization. In this context, the Abelianization can be interpreted as giving a dimensional reduction from four dimensions.
Matsumoto, Y.; Tabuchi, T.; Yamashita, T.; Komatsu, Y.; Tsubouchi, K.; Banka, T.; Mochizuki, T.; Nishimura, K.; Iizuka, H.
NTC makes an effort with the understanding of plant behavior of core damage accident as part of our advanced training. For the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station accident, we introduced the MAAP model into PWR operator training full scope simulator and also made the Severe Accident Visual Display unit. From 2014, we will introduce new training program for a core damage accident with PWR operator training full scope simulator incorporated the MAAP model and the Severe Accident Visual Display unit. (author)
Fei Dou Dou
Full Text Available Abstract: Purpose: The train dispatching is a crucial issue in the train operation adjustment when passenger flow outbursts. During holidays, the train dispatching is to meet passenger demand to the greatest extent, and ensure safety, speediness and punctuality of the train operation. In this paper, a fuzzy passenger demand forecasting model is put up, then a train dispatching optimization model is established based on passenger demand so as to evacuate stranded passengers effectively during holidays. Design/methodology/approach: First, the complex features and regularity of passenger flow during holidays are analyzed, and then a fuzzy passenger demand forecasting model is put forward based on the fuzzy set theory and time series theory. Next, the bi-objective of the train dispatching optimization model is to minimize the total operation cost of the train dispatching and unserved passenger volume during holidays. Finally, the validity of this model is illustrated with a case concerned with the Beijing-Shanghai high-speed railway in China. Findings: The case study shows that the fuzzy passenger demand forecasting model can predict outcomes more precisely than ARIMA model. Thus train dispatching optimization plan proves that a small number of trains are able to serve unserved passengers reasonably and effectively. Originality/value: On the basis of the passenger demand predictive values, the train dispatching optimization model is established, which enables train dispatching to meet passenger demand in condition that passenger flow outbursts, so as to maximize passenger demand by offering the optimal operation plan.
De Silva, D
Over the years, Sri Lanka has achieved remarkable health gains for the money spent on health. Currently about 1450 doctors enter the health system annually. While some advocate opening up of new medical schools to address an apparent shortage of doctors in the country, others argue against it. To identify the number of doctors Sri Lanka need. System dynamics, an analytical modelling approach and a methodology for studying complex feedback systems was used. Two sub models of “need” and “supply” were developed and simulated for a period of 15 years from 2017 to 2032 At present the doctor to population ratio is 1:671 and 91% of the need has been met. This study shows that currently there is a shortage of doctors in the country. However, the supply will match the need by 2025/26. Increasing the number of doctors, will result in oversupply of doctors towards the latter part of the next decade. There is no acute necessity to open up new Medical Schools. However comprehensive health workforce analysis needs to be done once in 5 years and the number of doctors to be trained, decided accordingly.
Full Text Available Virtual reality technology can be utilised to provide new systematic training methods for surgical procedures. Our aim is to build a simulator that allows medical students to practice the coronary stent implant procedure and avoids exposing patients to risks. The designed simulation system consists of a virtual environment and a haptic interface, in order to provide both the visualization of the coronary arteries and the tactile and force feedback generated during the interactions of the surgical instruments in the virtual environment. Since the arteries are soft tissues, their shape may change during an operation; for this reason physical modelling of the organs is necessary to render their behaviour under the influence of surgeon's instruments. The idea is to define a model that computes the displacement of the tissue versus time; from the displacement it is possible to calculate the response of the tissue to the surgical tool external stimuli. Information about tools displacements and tissue responses are also used to graphically model the artery wall and virtual surgical instrument deformations generated as a consequence of their coming into contact. In order to obtain a realistic simulation, the Finite Element Method has been used to model the soft tissues of the artery, using linear elasticity to reduce computational time and speed up interaction rates.
Herr, John E.; Yao, Kun; McIntyre, Ryker; Toth, David W.; Parkhill, John
Neural network model chemistries (NNMCs) promise to facilitate the accurate exploration of chemical space and simulation of large reactive systems. One important path to improving these models is to add layers of physical detail, especially long-range forces. At short range, however, these models are data driven and data limited. Little is systematically known about how data should be sampled, and "test data" chosen randomly from some sampling techniques can provide poor information about generality. If the sampling method is narrow, "test error" can appear encouragingly tiny while the model fails catastrophically elsewhere. In this manuscript, we competitively evaluate two common sampling methods: molecular dynamics (MD), normal-mode sampling, and one uncommon alternative, Metadynamics (MetaMD), for preparing training geometries. We show that MD is an inefficient sampling method in the sense that additional samples do not improve generality. We also show that MetaMD is easily implemented in any NNMC software package with cost that scales linearly with the number of atoms in a sample molecule. MetaMD is a black-box way to ensure samples always reach out to new regions of chemical space, while remaining relevant to chemistry near kbT. It is a cheap tool to address the issue of generalization.
teacher shortage; teacher training; university-school partnerships; workplace learning ... (Department of Higher Education & Training, Republic of South Africa, 2011:8), which is an ..... http://www.researchgate.net/profile/Lynda_Wiest/p.
Vampola, T.; Horáček, Jaromír; Laukkanen, A. M.; Švec, J. G.
Roč. 40, č. 1 (2015), s. 14-23 ISSN 1401-5439 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP101/12/1306 Institutional support: RVO:61388998 Keywords : acoustic mode shapes of vibration * speaker's and singer's formant * biomechanics of human voice * voice production modelling Subject RIV: BI - Acoustics Impact factor: 0.750, year: 2015
Sims, K; Morton, J
In previous papers (Sims, Henderson, Hulme, & Morton, 1996a; Sims, Henderson, Morton, & Hulme, 1996b) we have found that the motor skills of clumsy children are capable of significant improvement following relatively brief interventions. Most remarkably, this included a 10-minute intervention while testing the kinaesthetic acuity of the children using a staircase method (Pest). In this paper, we show that Pest testing improves the kinaesthetic acuity of normal children as well. We analyse the available data on the development and improvement of motor skills and kinaesthetic acuity and derive a causal model for the underlying skills. We show that at least three independent cognitive/biological components are required to account for the data. These three components are affected differently by the various interventions that have been tried. We deduce that improvement on a general test of motor impairment can be found as a result of training in kinaesthetic acuity or through other, independent factors.
Presents an engineering environment oriented to the development of hypermedia applications for training. Training trends are described; requirements for a computer-based training (CBT) strategy are outlined; a hypermedia course structure is examined; microinstructional events (MIEs) are explained; and technology requirements and selection are…
Martin, Meredith A.
The Training Resource Unit is a New South Wales (Australia) community services initiative that provides services such as direct client training, career training, and consultation to individuals with severe intellectual disability and severe challenging behaviors. The service is provided in the person's place of residence, workplace, or school…
Gutiérrez-Baños, J L; Ballestero-Diego, R; Truan-Cacho, D; Aguilera-Tubet, C; Villanueva-Peña, A; Manuel-Palazuelos, J C
The training and learning of residents in laparoscopic surgery has legal, financial and technological limitations. Simulation is an essential tool in the training of residents as a supplement to their training in laparoscopic surgery. The training should be structured in an appropriate environment, with previously established and clear objectives, taught by professionals with clinical and teaching experience in simulation. The training should be conducted with realistic models using animals and ex-vivo tissue from animals. It is essential to incorporate mechanisms to assess the objectives during the residents' training progress. We present the training model for laparoscopic surgery for urology residents at the University Hospital Valdecilla. The training is conducted at the Virtual Hospital Valdecilla, which is associated with the Center for Medical Simulation in Boston and is accredited by the American College of Surgeons. The model is designed in 3 blocks, basic for R1, intermediate for R2-3 and advanced for R4-5, with 9 training modules. The training is conducted in 4-hour sessions for 4 afternoons, for 3 weeks per year of residence. Residents therefore perform 240 hours of simulated laparoscopic training by the end of the course. For each module, we use structured objective assessments to measure each resident's training progress. Since 2003, 9 urology residents have been trained, in addition to the 5 who are currently in training. The model has undergone changes according to the needs expressed in the student feedback. The acquisition of skills in a virtual reality model has enabled the safe transfer of those skills to actual practice. A laparoscopic surgery training program designed in structured blocks and with progressive complexity provides appropriate training for transferring the skills acquired using this model to an actual scenario while maintaining patient safety. Copyright © 2015 AEU. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.
Near-surface or deep repositories of radioactive waste are being developed and evaluated all over the world. Also, existing repositories for low- and intermediate-level waste often need to be re-evaluated to extend their license or to obtain permission for final closure. The evaluation encompasses both a technical feasibility as well as a safety analysis. The long term safety is usually demonstrated by means of performance or safety assessment. For this purpose computer models are used that calculate the migration of radionuclides from the conditioned radioactive waste, through engineered barriers to the environment (groundwater, surface water, and biosphere). Integrated safety assessment modelling addresses all relevant radionuclide pathways from source to receptor (man), using in combination various computer codes in which the most relevant physical, chemical, mechanical, or even microbiological processes are mathematically described. SCK-CEN organizes training courses in Integrated safety assessment modelling that are intended for individuals who have either a controlling or supervising role within the national radwaste agencies or regulating authorities, or for technical experts that carry out the actual post-closure safety assessment for an existing or new repository. Courses are organised by the Department of Waste and Disposal
Van der Heijden, P.G.M.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/073087998
Correspondence analysis is an exploratory tool for the analysis of associations between categorical variables, the results of which may be displayed graphically. For longitudinal data with two time points, an analysis of the transition matrix (showing the relative frequencies for pairs of
Silva, Bruno; Ferreira, Joana; Santos, Vera; Baldaia, Cilénia; Serejo, Fátima; Faustino, Paula
Background and aims: Dietary iron absorption regulation is a key-step for the maintenance of body iron homeostasis. Besides the HFE full-length protein, the HFE gene codes for alternative splicing variants responsible for the synthesis of a soluble form of HFE protein (sHFE). Here we aimed to determine whether sHFE transcript levels respond to different iron conditions in duodenal, macrophage and hepatic cell models, as well, in vivo, in the liver. Furthermore, we determined the functional ef...
Mason, Michael J.; Nakkula, Michael J.
The need for training mental health counselors in risk and prevention is presented, and justification of the development of an innovative and integrative prevention training program is offered. Theoretical underpinnings that connect the counseling discipline to the field of prevention are described. A risk and prevention training model from…
Nadler, Joel T.; Cundiff, Nicole L.
The demand for highly trained evaluation consultants is increasing. Furthermore, the gap between job seekers' evaluation competencies and job recruiters' expectations suggests a need for providing practical training experiences. A model using a vertical practicum (advanced students assisting in the training of newer students) is suggested as an…
Full Text Available One of the main fields of training future music teachers in Ukrainian system of higher education is instrumental music one, such as skills of performing and interpretive activities. The aim of the article is to design a model of the future music teachers’ readiness to performing and interpretive activities in musical and instrumental training. The process of modelling is based on several interrelated scientific approaches, including systemic, personality-centered, reflective, competence, active and creative ones. While designing a model of music future teachers’ readinesses to musical interpretive activities, its philosophical, informative, interactive, hedonistic, creative functions are taken into account. Important theoretical and methodological factors are thought to be principles of musical and pedagogical education: culture correspondence and reflection; unity of emotional and conscious, artistic and technical items in musical education; purposeful interrelations and art and pedagogical communication between teachers and students; intensification of music and creative activity. Above-mentioned pedagogical phenomenon is subdivided into four components: motivation-oriented, cognitive-evaluating, performance-independent, creative and productive. For each component relevant criteria and indicators are identified. The stages of future music teachers’ readiness to performing interpretative activity are highlighted: information searching one, which contributes to the implementation of complex diagnostic methods (surveys, questionnaires, testing; regulative and performing one, which is characterized by future music teachers’ immersion into music performing and interpretative activities; operational and reflective stage, which involves activation of mechanisms of future music teachers’ self-knowledge, self-realization, formation of skills of independent artistic and expressive various music genres and styles interpretation; projective and
To estimate the parameters, the impulse response (IR) functions of some linear time-invariant systems generating intensity processes, in Shot-Noise-Driven Doubly Stochastic Poisson Process (SND-DSPP) in which multivariate presynaptic spike trains and postsynaptic spike trains can be assumed to be modeled by the SND-DSPPs. An explicit formula for estimating the IR functions from observations of multivariate input processes of the linear systems and the corresponding counting process (output process) is derived utilizing the expectation maximization (EM) algorithm. The validity of the estimation formula was verified through Monte Carlo simulations in which two presynaptic spike trains and one postsynaptic spike train were assumed to be observable. The IR functions estimated on the basis of the proposed identification method were close to the true IR functions. The proposed method will play an important role in identifying the input-output relationship of pre- and postsynaptic neural spike trains in practical situations.
van Zolingen, S.J.; Streumer, Jan; van der Klink, Marcel; de Jong, Rolinda
Post Offices Inc. in The Netherlands has developed and implemented a new instruction model for the training of desk employees. The quality of the new instruction model was assessed by means of the evaluation model of Jacobs and Jones for on-the-job training. It is concluded that the implementation
Lange, Katrine; Cordua, Knud Skou; Frydendall, Jan
This paper presents a Frequency Matching Method (FMM) for generation of a priori sample models based on training images and illustrates its use by an example. In geostatistics, training images are used to represent a priori knowledge or expectations of models, and the FMM can be used to generate...... new images that share the same multi-point statistics as a given training image. The FMM proceeds by iteratively updating voxel values of an image until the frequency of patterns in the image matches the frequency of patterns in the training image; making the resulting image statistically...... indistinguishable from the training image....
He, Tianxing; Zhang, Yu; Droppo, Jasha; Yu, Kai
We propose to train bi-directional neural network language model(NNLM) with noise contrastive estimation(NCE). Experiments are conducted on a rescore task on the PTB data set. It is shown that NCE-trained bi-directional NNLM outperformed the one trained by conventional maximum likelihood training. But still(regretfully), it did not out-perform the baseline uni-directional NNLM.
Behavior, Human relations, *Training, *Families(Human), Symposia, Models, Children, Psychotherapy, Problem solving, Management, Control, Learning, Skills, Decision making , Group dynamics, Military psychology, Military medicine
Brown, Richard F; Bylund, Carma L
Current research in communication in physician-patient consultations is multidisciplinary and multimethodological. As this research has progressed, a considerable body of evidence on the best practices in physician-patient communication has been amassed. This evidence provides a foundation for communication skills training (CST) at all levels of medical education. Although the CST literature has demonstrated that communication skills can be taught, one critique of this literature is that it is not always clear which skills are being taught and whether those skills are matched with those being assessed. The Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center Comskil Model for CST seeks to answer those critiques by explicitly defining the important components of a consultation, based on Goals, Plans, and Actions theories and sociolinguistic theory. Sequenced guidelines as a mechanism for teaching about particular communication challenges are adapted from these other methods. The authors propose that consultation communication can be guided by an overarching goal, which is achieved through the use of a set of predetermined strategies. Strategies are common in CST; however, strategies often contain embedded communication skills. These skills can exist across strategies, and the Comskil Model seeks to make them explicit in these contexts. Separate from the skills are process tasks and cognitive appraisals that need to be addressed in teaching. The authors also describe how assessment practices foster concordance between skills taught and those assessed through careful coding of trainees' communication encounters and direct feedback.
Belykh, Evgenii; Byvaltsev, Vadim
Microsurgical training has become an obligatory part of many neurosurgical training programs. To assess the cost and effectiveness of acquiring and maintaining microneurosurgical skills by training on an off-the-job basis using dry models. A dry off-the-job microneurosurgical training module was set up. Training exercises involved microdissection in a deep operation field, suturing and tying on gauze, untying, pushing of thread end, and microanastomosis. The time to complete the task and success rate were evaluated. The total cost of all necessary equipment and expendables for the training module was US$910. Fifteen residents participated in the continuous off-the-job training. The average time taken to perform the anastomosis decreased after the month of training from 90 to 20 minutes. Authors revealed that at 2 months, the total time and time to complete anastomosis increased significantly for the participants who discontinued practice after the first month, compared with those who just practiced suturing on gauze after the first month (P job training showed to be readily available and can be helpful for microsurgical training in the low-income regions of the world. Our data suggest that microsurgical training should be continuous and repetitive. Simulation training may benefit from models for repetitive training of relevant technical part-skills. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
We show that type and eﬀect inference is possible for a type and eﬀect system for authenticity using non-injective correspondences, opponent types and a spi-calculus with symmetric encryption. We do this by a general account of how eﬀects can be computed given knowledge of how and where they appear in type judgments.
We show that type and eﬀect inference is possible for a type and eﬀect system for authenticity using non-injective correspondences, opponent types and a spi-calculus with symmetric encryption. We do this by a general account of how eﬀects can be computed given knowledge of how and where they...... appear in type judgments. ...
The initial volume of the correspondence of Micahel Faraday (1791-1867), published in the year of the bicentenary of his birth, covers his early years up to his discovery of electromagnetic induction in 1831. Other scientific and technical topics covered include Faraday's discovery of electromagnetic rotations (in 1821), the liquefaction of gases (in 1823) and the long series of experiments in the latter part of the 1820s to improve optical glass.
Differences in the adsorption behaviour of poly(ethylene oxide) copolymers onto model polystyrene nanoparticles assessed by isothermal titration microcalorimetry correspond to the biological differences.
Stolnik, S; Heald, C R; Garnett, M G; Illum, L; Davis, S S
The adsorption behaviour of a tetrafunctional copolymer of poly (ethylene oxide)-poly (propylene oxide) ethylene diamine (commercially available as Poloxamine 908) and a diblock copolymer of poly (lactic acid)-poly (ethylene oxide) (PLA/PEG 2:5) onto a model colloidal drug carrier (156 nm sized polystyrene latex) is described. The adsorption isotherm, hydrodynamic thickness of the adsorbed layers and enthalpy of the adsorption were assessed. The close similarity in the conformation of the poly (ethylene oxide) (PEO) chains (molecular weight 5,000 Da) in the adsorbed layers of these two copolymers was demonstrated by combining the adsorption data with the adsorbed layer thickness data. In contrast, the results from isothermal titration microcalorimetry indicated a distinct difference in the interaction of the copolymers with the polystyrene colloid surface. Poloxamine 908 adsorption to polystyrene nanoparticles is dominated by an endothermic heat effect, whereas, PLA/PEG 2:5 adsorption is entirely an exothermic process. This difference in adsorption behaviour could provide an explanation for differences in the biodistribution of Poloxamine 908 and PLA/PEG 2:5 coated polystyrene nanoparticles observed in previous studies. A comparison with the interaction enthalpy for several other PEO-containing copolymers onto the same polystyrene colloid was made. The results demonstrate the importance of the nature of the anchoring moiety on the interaction of the adsorbing copolymer with the colloid surface. An endothermic contribution is found when an adsorbing molecule contains a poly (propylene oxide) (PPO) moiety (e.g. Poloxamine 908), whilst the adsorption is exothermic (i.e. enthalpy driven) for PEO copolymers with polylactide (PLA/PEG 2:5) or alkyl moieties.
Law, L A Frey; Shields, R K
Spinal cord injury (SCI) results in major musculoskeletal adaptations, including muscle atrophy, faster contractile properties, increased fatigability, and bone loss. The use of functional electrical stimulation (FES) provides a method to prevent paralyzed muscle adaptations in order to sustain force-generating capacity. Mathematical muscle models may be able to predict optimal activation strategies during FES, however muscle properties further adapt with long-term training. The purpose of this study was to compare the accuracy of three muscle models, one linear and two nonlinear, for predicting paralyzed soleus muscle force after exposure to long-term FES training. Further, we contrasted the findings between the trained and untrained limbs. The three models' parameters were best fit to a single force train in the trained soleus muscle (N=4). Nine additional force trains (test trains) were predicted for each subject using the developed models. Model errors between predicted and experimental force trains were determined, including specific muscle force properties. The mean overall error was greatest for the linear model (15.8%) and least for the nonlinear Hill Huxley type model (7.8%). No significant error differences were observed between the trained versus untrained limbs, although model parameter values were significantly altered with training. This study confirmed that nonlinear models most accurately predict both trained and untrained paralyzed muscle force properties. Moreover, the optimized model parameter values were responsive to the relative physiological state of the paralyzed muscle (trained versus untrained). These findings are relevant for the design and control of neuro-prosthetic devices for those with SCI.
Kern, Simon; Platas-Barradas, Oscar; Pörtner, Ralf; Frahm, Björn
Cell culture seed trains-the generation of a sufficient viable cell number for the inoculation of the production scale bioreactor, starting from incubator scale-are time- and cost-intensive. Accordingly, a seed train offers potential for optimization regarding its layout and the corresponding proceedings. A tool has been developed to determine the optimal points in time for cell passaging from one scale into the next and it has been applied to two different cell lines at lab scale, AGE1.HN AAT and CHO-K1. For evaluation, experimental seed train realization has been evaluated in comparison to its layout. In case of the AGE1.HN AAT cell line, the results have also been compared to the formerly manually designed seed train. The tool provides the same seed train layout based on the data of only two batches.
Traffic controllers monitor railway traffic sequencing train movements and setting routes with the aim of ensuring smooth train behaviour and limiting as much as existing delays. Due to the strict time limit available for computing a new timetable during operations, which so far is rather infeasible
the RS XO is another critical 32. function that falls into the scope of their responsibly and requires specific training in marketing and advertising . During...Phase I require a solid working knowledge of marketing and advertising . OpsO: Phase II actions require the OpsO receive advanced training in data
Choy, Sarojni; Haukka, Sandra
Childcare workers play a significant role in the learning and development of children in their care. This has major implications for the training of workers. Under new reforms of the childcare industry, the Australian government now requires all workers to obtain qualifications from a vocational education and training provider (e.g. Technical and…
André Ibrahim David
Full Text Available Objective: To present a model for research and training inmultivisceral transplantation in pigs. Methods: Eight LargeWhite pigs (four donors and four recipients were operated. Themultivisceral transplant with stomach, duodenum, pancreas,liver and intestine was performed similarly to transplantation inhumans with a few differences, described below. Anastomoseswere performed as follows: end-to-end from the supra-hepaticvena cava of the graft to the recipient juxta diaphragmatic venacava; end-to-end from the infra-hepatic vena cava of the graftto the inferior (suprarenal vena cava of the recipient; and endto-side patch of the aorta of the graft to the infrarenal aortaof the recipient plus digestive reconstruction. Results: Theperformance of the multivisceral transplantion was possible inall four animals. Reperfusions of the multivisceral graft led to asevere ischemia-reperfusion syndrome, despite flushing of thegraft. The animals presented with hypotension and the need forhigh doses of vasoactive drugs, and all of them were sacrificedafter discontinuing these drugs. Conclusion: Some alternativesto minimize the ischemia-reperfusion syndrome, such as the useof another vasoactive drug, use of a third pig merely for bloodtransfusion, presence of an anesthesia team in the operatingroom, and reduction of the graft, will be the next steps to enableexperimental studies.
A teaching model based on constructivism is proposed in this paper. The model contains five teaching steps, e.g. inter-pretation teaching, questioning-dialogue, knowledge and skills teaching, discussion-collaboration and field training. Practice proves that it can effectively improve the training efficiency of the training of English guides of stone inscription relics and en-hance their interpretation quality and English skills.
Murrihy, Rachael C; Byrne, Mitchell K; Gonsalvez, Craig J
Internationally, family doctors seeking to enhance their skills in evidence-based mental health treatment are attending brief training workshops, despite clear evidence in the literature that short-term, massed formats are not likely to improve skills in this complex area. Reviews of the educational literature suggest that an optimal model of training would incorporate distributed practice techniques; repeated practice over a lengthy time period, small-group interactive learning, mentoring relationships, skills-based training and an ongoing discussion of actual patients. This study investigates the potential role of group-based training incorporating multiple aspects of good pedagogy for training doctors in basic competencies in brief cognitive behaviour therapy (BCBT). Six groups of family doctors (n = 32) completed eight 2-hour sessions of BCBT group training over a 6-month period. A baseline control design was utilised with pre- and post-training measures of doctors' BCBT skills, knowledge and engagement in BCBT treatment. Family doctors' knowledge, skills in and actual use of BCBT with patients improved significantly over the course of training compared with the control period. This research demonstrates preliminary support for the efficacy of an empirically derived group training model for family doctors. Brief CBT group-based training could prove to be an effective and viable model for future doctor training.
Tayebi Meybodi, Ali; Lawton, Michael T; Yousef, Sonia; Mokhtari, Pooneh; Gandhi, Sirin; Benet, Arnau
Mastery of microsurgical anastomosis is key to achieving good outcomes in cerebrovascular bypass procedures. Animal models (especially rodents) provide an optimal preclinical bypass training platform. However, the existing models for practicing different anastomosis configurations have several limitations. We sought to optimize the use of the rat's abdominal aorta and common iliac arteries (CIA) for practicing the 3 main anastomosis configurations commonly used in cerebrovascular surgery. Thirteen male Sprague-Dawley rats underwent inhalant anesthesia. The abdominal aorta and the CIAs were exposed. The distances between the major branches of the aorta were measured to find the optimal location for an end-to-end anastomosis. Also, the feasibility of performing side-to-side and end-to-side anastomoses between the CIAs was assessed. All bypass configurations could be performed between the left renal artery and the CIA bifurcation. The longest segments of the aorta without major branches were 1) between the left renal and left iliolumbar arteries (16.9 mm ± 4.6), and 2) between the right iliolumbar artery and the aortic bifurcation (9.7 mm ± 4.7). The CIAs could be juxtaposed for an average length of 7.6 mm ± 1.3, for a side-to-side anastomosis. The left CIA could be successfully reimplanted on to the right CIA at an average distance of 9.1 mm ± 1.6 from the aortic bifurcation. Our results show that rat's abdominal aorta and CIAs may be effectively used for all the anastomosis configurations used in cerebral revascularization procedures. We also provide technical nuances and anatomic descriptions to plan for practicing each bypass configuration. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Ouyang, Min; Zhao, Lijing; Hong, Liu; Pan, Zhezhe
Recently numerous studies have applied complex network based models to study the performance and vulnerability of infrastructure systems under various types of attacks and hazards. But how effective are these models to capture their real performance response is still a question worthy of research. Taking the Chinese railway system as an example, this paper selects three typical complex network based models, including purely topological model (PTM), purely shortest path model (PSPM), and weight (link length) based shortest path model (WBSPM), to analyze railway accessibility and flow-based vulnerability and compare their results with those from the real train flow model (RTFM). The results show that the WBSPM can produce the train routines with 83% stations and 77% railway links identical to the real routines and can approach the RTFM the best for railway vulnerability under both single and multiple component failures. The correlation coefficient for accessibility vulnerability from WBSPM and RTFM under single station failures is 0.96 while it is 0.92 for flow-based vulnerability; under multiple station failures, where each station has the same failure probability fp, the WBSPM can produce almost identical vulnerability results with those from the RTFM under almost all failures scenarios when fp is larger than 0.62 for accessibility vulnerability and 0.86 for flow-based vulnerability
Bouma, Wobbe; Kuijpers, Michiel; Bijleveld, Aanke; De Maat, Gijs E.; Koene, Bart M.; Erasmus, Michiel E.; Natour, Ehsan; Mariani, Massimo A.
OBJECTIVES: Training models are essential in mastering the skills required for off-pump coronary artery bypass grafting (OPCAB). We describe a new, high-fidelity, effective and reproducible beating-heart OPCAB training model in human cadavers. METHODS: Human cadavers were embalmed according to the
Rogers, Sally J.; And Others
Training of early special education teams (serving 11 autistic and 10 developmentally-delayed children) to use the Playschool model resulted in: positive perception of the training's value; increases in knowledge about child development, infantile autism, and the model; increased use of Playschool techniques; and positive developmental changes in…
Pedersen, Michael Berliner; Crainic, Teodor Gabriel
We present a modeling approach for optimizing intermodal trains schedules based on an infrastructure divided into time-dependent train paths. The formulation can be generalized to a capacitated multi commodity network design model with additional design balance constraints. We present a Tabu Search...
Bu, Huabai; Bu, Shizhen
Gradual integration of synergetic technology, P2P technology and online learning community furnishes a new research field for innovation of teacher training model in a knowledge economy era. This article proposes the innovative model of "whole of three lines" in teacher training in basic education from the perspective of "blended…
Hellard, Philippe; Avalos, Marta; Millet, Gregoire; Lacoste, Lucien; Barale, Frederic; Chatard, Jean-Claude
The aim of this study was to model the residual effects of training on the swimming performance and to compare a model that includes threshold saturation (MM) with the Banister model (BM). Seven Olympic swimmers were studied over a period of 4 +/- 2 years. For 3 training loads (low-intensity w(LIT), high-intensity w(HIT), and strength training w(ST)), 3 residual training effects were determined: short-term (STE) during the taper phase (i.e., 3 weeks before the performance [weeks 0, 1, and 2]), intermediate-term (ITE) during the intensity phase (weeks 3, 4, and 5), and long-term (LTE) during the volume phase (weeks 6, 7, and 8). ITE and LTE were positive for w(HIT) and w(LIT), respectively (p measures indicated that MM compares favorably with BM. Identifying individual training thresholds may help individualize the distribution of training loads.
The Systems Analysis Research Unit at the Civil Aeromedical Institute (CAMI) has developed a generic model for Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) Academy training program evaluation. The model will serve as a basis for integrating the total data b...
Makkinejad, Nazanin; Tajbakhsh, Nima; Zarshenas, Amin; Khokhar, Ashfaq; Suzuki, Kenji
Deep learning (DL) emerged as a powerful tool for object detection and classification in medical images. Building a well-performing DL model, however, requires a huge number of images for training, and it takes days to train a DL model even on a cutting edge high-performance computing platform. This study is aimed at developing a method for selecting a "small" number of representative samples from a large collection of training samples to train a DL model for the could be used to detect polyps in CT colonography (CTC), without compromising the classification performance. Our proposed method for representative sample selection (RSS) consists of a K-means clustering algorithm. For the performance evaluation, we applied the proposed method to select samples for the training of a massive training artificial neural network based DL model, to be used for the classification of polyps and non-polyps in CTC. Our results show that the proposed method reduce the training time by a factor of 15, while maintaining the classification performance equivalent to the model trained using the full training set. We compare the performance using area under the receiveroperating- characteristic curve (AUC).
Meng, Xuelei; Xiang, Wanli; Jia, Limin; Xu, Jie
To control the chaos in the railway traffic flow and offer valuable information for the dispatchers of the railway system, an improved cellular model is presented to detect and analyze the chaos in the traffic flow. We first introduce the working mechanism of moving block system, analyzing the train flow movement characteristics. Then we improve the cellular model on the evolution rules to adjust the train flow movement. We give the train operation steps from three cases: the trains running on a railway section, a train will arrive in a station and a train will departure from a station. We simulate 4 trains to run on a high speed section fixed with moving block system and record the distances between the neighbor trains and draw the Poincare section to analyze the chaos in the train operation. It is concluded that there is not only chaos but order in the train operation system with moving blocking system and they can interconvert to each other. The findings have the potential value in train dispatching system construction and offer supporting information for the daily dispatching work.
Schmidt, Lacey; Slack, Kelley; Keeton, Kathryn; Barshi, Immanuel; Martin, Lynne; Mauro, Robert; O'Keefe, William; Baldwin, Evelyn; Huning, Therese
In late 2006, the Mission Operations Directorate (MOD) at NASA began looking at ways to make training more efficient for the flight controllers who support the International Space Station. The average certification times for flight controllers spanned from 18 months to three years and the MOD, responsible for technical training, was eager to develop creative solutions that would reduce the time to 12 months. Additionally, previously trained flight controllers sometimes participated in more than 50 very costly, eight-hour integrated simulations before becoming certified. New trainees needed to gain proficiency with far fewer lessons and training simulations than their predecessors. This poster presentation reviews the approach and the process that is currently in development to accomplish this goal.
A. M. Silvestrov
Full Text Available There are topical issues of development of the automated system intended for assessment of level of competence of industrial enterprises divisions for planning of training actions of specialists in automation of engineering processes are determined in article.
and Cyber Constructive Environment– Information Operations System ASCOT Airspace Control and Operations Trainer ASDA Advanced Seal Delivery System...Advanced Seal Delivery System ( ASDA ). Simulates a submarine training system for providing stealthy submerged transportation for insertion into Special
Hayati .; Retno Dwi Suyanti
The objective in this research: (1) Determine a better learning model to improve learning outcomes physics students among learning model Inquiry Training based multimedia and Inquiry Training learning model. (2) Determine the level of motivation to learn in affects physics student learning outcomes. (3) Knowing the interactions between the model of learning and motivation in influencing student learning outcomes. This research is a quasi experimental. The population in this research was all s...
Full Text Available The objective in this research: (1 Determine a better learning model to improve learning outcomes physics students among learning model Inquiry Training based multimedia and Inquiry Training learning model. (2 Determine the level of motivation to learn in affects physics student learning outcomes. (3 Knowing the interactions between the model of learning and motivation in influencing student learning outcomes. This research is a quasi experimental. The population in this research was all students in class XI SMA Negeri 1 T.P Sunggal Semester I 2012/2013. The sample of this research was consisted of two classes with a sample of 70 peoples who are determined by purposive sampling, the IPA XI-2 as a class experiment using a model-based multimedia learning Training Inquiry as many as 35 peoples and XI IPA-3 as a control class using learning model Inquiry Training 35 peoples. Hypotheses were analyzed using the GLM at significant level of 0.05 using SPSS 17.0 for Windows. Based on data analysis and hypothesis testing conducted found that: (1 Training Inquiry-based multimedia learning model in improving student learning outcomes rather than learning model physics Inquiry Training. (2 The results of studying physics students who have high motivation to learn better than students who have a low learning motivation. (3 From this research there was an interaction between learning model inquiry-based multimedia training and motivation to study on learning outcomes of students.
Li, Jie; Li, Juan; Thornicroft, Graham; Yang, Hui; Chen, Wen; Huang, Yuanguang
Increasing numbers of people with mental disorders receive services at primary care in China. The aims of this study are to evaluate impact of a new training course and supervision for community mental health staff to enhance their levels of mental health knowledge and to reduce their stigmatization toward people with mental illness. A total of 77 community mental health staff from eight regions in Guangzhou in China were recruited for the study.4 regions were randomly allocated to the new training model group, and 4 to the old training model group. Levels of mental health knowledge were measured by purpose-made assessment schedule and by the Mental Health Knowledge Schedule (MAKS). Stigma was evaluated by the Mental Illness: Clinicians' Attitudes Scale (MICA) and the Reported and Intended Behavior Scale (RIBS). Evaluation questionnaires were given at the beginning of course, at the end, and at 6 month and at 12 month follow-up. After the training period, the 6-month, and the 12-month, knowledge scores of the intervention group were higher than the control group. At 6-month and 12-month follow-up, means scores of MAKS of the intervention group increased more than the control group (both p training, at 6-months, and at 12-months, mean scores of RIBS of the intervention group increased more than the control (p training course and supervision, the new course improved community mental health staff knowledge of mental disorders, improving their attitudes toward people with mental disorder, and increasing their willingness to have contact with people with mental disorder.
Ye Jing-Jing; Jin Xin-Min; Li Ke-Ping
Based on the optimal velocity car-following model, in this paper, we propose an improved model for simulating train movement in an urban railway in which the regenerative energy of a train is considered. Here a new additional term is introduced into a traditional car-following model. Our aim is to analyze and discuss the dynamic characteristics of the train movement when the regenerative energy is utilized by the electric locomotive. The simulation results indicate that the improved car-following model is suitable for simulating the train movement. Further, some qualitative relationships between regenerative energy and dynamic characteristics of a train are investigated, such as the measurement data of regenerative energy presents a power-law distribution. Our results are useful for optimizing the design and plan of urban railway systems. (general)
Martin, Kenneth E.; Knabel, Steve; Mendenhall, Von
A survey showed states are adopting higher training and certification requirements for food-service workers. A train-the-trainer model was developed to prepare extension agents, health officers, and food-service managers to train others in food-safety procedures. (SK)
Premaratne, Prashan; Safaei, Farzad
Autonomous navigation is seen as a vital tool in harnessing the enormous potential of Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAV) and small robotic vehicles for both military and civilian use. Even though, laser based scanning solutions for Simultaneous Location And Mapping (SLAM) is considered as the most reliable for depth estimation, they are not feasible for use in UAV and land-based small vehicles due to their physical size and weight. Stereovision is considered as the best approach for any autonomous navigation solution as stereo rigs are considered to be lightweight and inexpensive. However, stereoscopy which estimates the depth information through pairs of stereo images can still be computationally expensive and unreliable. This is mainly due to some of the algorithms used in successful stereovision solutions require high computational requirements that cannot be met by small robotic vehicles. In our research, we implement a feature-based stereovision solution using moment invariants as a metric to find corresponding regions in image pairs that will reduce the computational complexity and improve the accuracy of the disparity measures that will be significant for the use in UAVs and in small robotic vehicles.
Flynn, C; James, J; Maxwell, P; McQuaid, S; Ervine, A; Catherwood, M; Loughrey, M B; McGibben, D; Somerville, J; McManus, D T; Gray, M; Herron, B; Salto-Tellez, M
Molecular medicine is transforming modern clinical practice, from diagnostics to therapeutics. Discoveries in research are being incorporated into the clinical setting with increasing rapidity. This transformation is also deeply changing the way we practise pathology. The great advances in cell and molecular biology which have accelerated our understanding of the pathogenesis of solid tumours have been embraced with variable degrees of enthusiasm by diverse medical professional specialties. While histopathologists have not been prompt to adopt molecular diagnostics to date, the need to incorporate molecular pathology into the training of future histopathologists is imperative. Our goal is to create, within an existing 5-year histopathology training curriculum, the structure for formal substantial teaching of molecular diagnostics. This specialist training has two main goals: (1) to equip future practising histopathologists with basic knowledge of molecular diagnostics and (2) to create the option for those interested in a subspecialty experience in tissue molecular diagnostics to pursue this training. It is our belief that this training will help to maintain in future the role of the pathologist at the centre of patient care as the integrator of clinical, morphological and molecular information. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.
The article approaches the modelling and simulation of risks in the training of the human resources, as well as the forecast of the degree of human resources training impacted by risks by applying the mathematical tools offered by the Chaos Theory and mathematical statistics. We will highlight that the level of knowledge, skills and abilities of the human resources from an organization are autocorrelated in time and they depend on the level of a previous moment of the training, as well as on ...
Definitions are provided for this section to distinguish between adaptive training and education elements and also to highlight their relationships ...illustrate this point Franke (2011) asserts that through the use of case study examples, instruction can provide the pedagogical foundation for decision...a prime example of an adaptive training and education system: a learner or trainee model, an instructional or pedagogical model, a domain model
Dorey, Patrick; Dunning, Clare; Tateo, Roberto
This paper reviews a recently discovered link between integrable quantum field theories and certain ordinary differential equations in the complex domain. Along the way, aspects of PT-symmetric quantum mechanics are discussed, and some elementary features of the six-vertex model and the Bethe ansatz are explained. (topical review)
Simmons, Robert J.; Zerny, Ian
We present a logical correspondence between natural semantics and abstract machines. This correspondence enables the mechanical and fully-correct construction of an abstract machine from a natural semantics. Our logical correspondence mirrors the Reynolds functional correspondence, but we...... manipulate semantic specifications encoded in a logical framework instead of manipulating functional programs. Natural semantics and abstract machines are instances of substructural operational semantics. As a byproduct, using a substructural logical framework, we bring concurrent and stateful models...
B. Y. Staritchenko
Full Text Available The paper deals with the urgent problem of estimating the students training quality in higher educational institutions; the authors emphasize the need for transition to the European Credit Transfer System (ECTS corresponding with the Bologna Declaration in order to provide both academic and labor mobility of students and university graduates. The system of credit accumulation is described according to the ECTS grading scale along with the specifics of its implementation in the Russian universities. However, as the statistic success criterion can not be applied to the Russian higher schools, the author recommends using the percentage of a performed task as the outcome index indicating the discipline mastering. The algorithm of academic activity and its outcome estimation is observed in the framework of the IT-educational model. The examples of planning the content of the discipline basic minimum are given along with the complexity valuation, timing and credit distribution. The formula for identifying the volume and individual task assessment are given; the possibility of combining the national assessment scale with ECTS is denoted.
Т А Соловьева
Full Text Available Training of future computer science teachers in conditions of informatization of education is analyzed. Distant educational technologies (DET and traditional process of training, their advantages and disadvantages are considered, active functions of DET as the basis of the model of training by means of DET is stressed. It is shown that mixed education combining both distant ant traditional technologies takes place on the basis of the created model. Practical use of the model is shown on the example of the course «Recursion» for future computer science teachers.
Vermeulen, B.; Boersema, M.P.; Hoitink, A.J.F.; Sieben, J.; Sloff, C.J.; Wal, van der M.F.
Replacing existing river groynes with longitudinal training dams is considered as a promising flood mitigation measure in the main Dutch rivers, which can also serve to guarantee navigability during low flows and to create conditions favourable for ecological development. Whereas the bed response in
In train collisions, multi-level rail passenger vehicles can deform in modes that are different from the behavior of single level cars. The deformation in single level cars usually occurs at the front end during a collision. In one particular inciden...
Elliott, Timothy R.
Describes a six-session psychoeducational program for training vocational rehabilitation counselors in group dynamics. Presents evaluation of program by counselors (N=15) in which leadership styles, conflict management, and typology of group tasks concepts were rated as most beneficial. (Author/ABL)
Ambrogioni, L.; Berezutskaya, Y.; Gü ç lü , U.; Borne, E.W.P. van den; Gü ç lü tü rk, Y.; Gerven, M.A.J. van; Maris, E.G.G.
In this paper we demonstrate that a recurrent neural network meta-trained on an ensemble of arbitrary classification tasks can be used as an approximation of the Bayes optimal classifier. This result is obtained by relying on the framework of e-free approximate Bayesian inference, where the Bayesian
Counseling Psychologist, 2009
Respect for diversity and for values different from one's own is a central value of counseling psychology training programs. The valuing of diversity is also consistent with the profession of psychology as mandated by the American Psychological Association's (APA's) Ethical Principles and Code of Conduct and as discussed in the Guidelines and…
Petryk, Taryn; Thompson, Monita C.; Boynton, Trelawny
The growing diversity and changing demographics within the United States increases the importance of students developing skills to engage across identity difference. The purpose of this chapter is to describe how a pre-employment course for student staff members is used as a multicultural intervention training to provide students with the…
Juan Hernández Sierra
Full Text Available The present work aims to convey the experiences on the development and application of a meso-structure of 3-4 microcycles that allowed maintaining a long state of the sport form (5-6 months on a scientific-technical and methodological basis in the planning of the Sports training of the national boxing team, who participated in the 4th World Boxing Series (WSB. The investigated sample consisted of 21 boxers, representing 58%, of a population made up of 36 athletes / students belonging to the National School of Boxing. The importance of the research is that it exposes the use of new planning concepts and the current modifications in the training structure, as well as the contribution of science to the adaptation of training loads, which allows to obtain positive results during a long period of time. state of the sport form, factors on which it is necessary to reflect for an effective planning of modern sports training.
Rock, Naomi Spickard
The purpose of this study was to develop a model for employer training to manage employees who possess counter-productive behaviors. With the increasing encouragement for employers to hire without discriminating, the number of individuals with disabilities in the workforce will rise. There is limited training in universities and businesses to…
Nickolai-Mays, Susanne; Davis, Jerry L.
Presents seven guidelines for developing effective teacher in-service training programs. Describes a training model for multicultural urban schools which addresses these topics: instructional methods; curriculum; interpersonal relations in the classroom; classroom management and discipline; parent-teacher-student involvement; and multicultural…
Stites, Shana D.; Warholic, Christina L.
Preparing students to enter the field of psychology as competent professionals requires that multicultural practices be infused into all areas of training. This article describes how the Grand Rounds model was adapted to a graduate clinical psychology training program to foster applied learning in multicultural competence. This extension of Grand…
Clarke, David C.; Skiba, Philip F.
A number of professions rely on exercise prescription to improve health or athletic performance, including coaching, fitness/personal training, rehabilitation, and exercise physiology. It is therefore advisable that the professionals involved learn the various tools available for designing effective training programs. Mathematical modeling of…
Aluko, F. R.; Shonubi, O. K.
This article emanates from a longitudinal study of the impact of a distance education programme for teacher training on graduates' job performance, in which the authors built on the findings of a previous pilot study. After using Kirkpatrick's Training Evaluation Model in a previous study, one of the authors found there to be a strong relationship…
Idawati; Mahmud, Alimuddin; Dirawan, Gufran Darma
The purpose of this research was to determine the effectiveness of a training model for capacity building of women entrepreneurship community-based. Research type approach Research and Development Model, which refers to the model of development research that developed by Romiszowki (1996) combined with a model of development Sugiono (2011) it was…
Monda, Steven M; Weese, Jonathan R; Anderson, Barrett G; Vetter, Joel M; Venkatesh, Ramakrishna; Du, Kefu; Andriole, Gerald L; Figenshau, Robert S
To provide a training tool to address the technical challenges of robot-assisted laparoscopic partial nephrectomy, we created silicone renal tumor models using 3-dimensional printed molds of a patient's kidney with a mass. In this study, we assessed the face, content, and construct validity of these models. Surgeons of different training levels completed 4 simulations on silicone renal tumor models. Participants were surveyed on the usefulness and realism of the model as a training tool. Performance was measured using operation-specific metrics, self-reported operative demands (NASA Task Load Index [NASA TLX]), and blinded expert assessment (Global Evaluative Assessment of Robotic Surgeons [GEARS]). Twenty-four participants included attending urologists, endourology fellows, urology residents, and medical students. Post-training surveys of expert participants yielded mean results of 79.2 on the realism of the model's overall feel and 90.2 on the model's overall usefulness for training. Renal artery clamp times and GEARS scores were significantly better in surgeons further in training (P ≤.005 and P ≤.025). Renal artery clamp times, preserved renal parenchyma, positive margins, NASA TLX, and GEARS scores were all found to improve across trials (P <.001, P = .025, P = .024, P ≤.020, and P ≤.006, respectively). Face, content, and construct validity were demonstrated in the use of a silicone renal tumor model in a cohort of surgeons of different training levels. Expert participants deemed the model useful and realistic. Surgeons of higher training levels performed better than less experienced surgeons in various study metrics, and improvements within individuals were observed over sequential trials. Future studies should aim to assess model predictive validity, namely, the association between model performance improvements and improvements in live surgery. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Seese, Ronald R; Wang, Kathleen; Yao, Yue Qin; Lynch, Gary; Gall, Christine M
Recent studies have shown that short, spaced trains of afferent stimulation produce much greater long-term potentiation (LTP) than that obtained with a single, prolonged stimulation episode. The present studies demonstrate that spaced training regimens, based on these LTP timing rules, facilitate learning in wild-type (WT) mice and can offset learning and synaptic signaling impairments in the fragile X mental retardation 1 (Fmr1) knockout (KO) model of fragile X syndrome. We determined that 5 min of continuous training supports object location memory (OLM) in WT but not Fmr1 KO mice. However, the same amount of training distributed across three short trials, spaced by one hour, produced robust long-term memory in the KOs. At least three training trials were needed to realize the benefit of spacing, and intertrial intervals shorter or longer than 60 min were ineffective. Multiple short training trials also rescued novel object recognition in Fmr1 KOs. The spacing effect was surprisingly potent: just 1 min of OLM training, distributed across three trials, supported robust memory in both genotypes. Spacing also rescued training-induced activation of synaptic ERK1/2 in dorsal hippocampus of Fmr1 KO mice. These results show that a spaced training regimen designed to maximize synaptic potentiation facilitates recognition memory in WT mice and can offset synaptic signaling and memory impairments in a model of congenital intellectual disability.
Tyner, C.J.; Birk, S.M.
This document is to assist in the development of the training programs required to be in place for the operating license for a low-level radioactive waste disposal facility. It consists of an introductory document and four additional appendixes of individual training program curricula. This information will provide the starting point for the more detailed facility-specific training programs that will be developed as the facility hires and trains new personnel and begins operation. This document is comprehensive and is intended as a guide for the development of a company- or facility-specific program. The individual licensee does not need to use this model training curriculum as written. Instead, this document can be used as a menu for the development, modification, or verification of customized training programs.
Tyner, C.J.; Birk, S.M.
This document is to assist in the development of the training programs required to be in place for the operating license for a low-level radioactive waste disposal facility. It consists of an introductory document and four additional appendixes of individual training program curricula. This information will provide the starting point for the more detailed facility-specific training programs that will be developed as the facility hires and trains new personnel and begins operation. This document is comprehensive and is intended as a guide for the development of a company- or facility-specific program. The individual licensee does not need to use this model training curriculum as written. Instead, this document can be used as a menu for the development, modification, or verification of customized training programs
Haughton, Betsy; Eppig, Kristen; Looney, Shannon M; Cunningham-Sabo, Leslie; Spear, Bonnie A; Spence, Marsha; Stang, Jamie S
Life course perspective, social determinants of health, and health equity have been combined into one comprehensive model, the life course model (LCM), for strategic planning by US Health Resources and Services Administration's Maternal and Child Health Bureau. The purpose of this project was to describe a faculty development process; identify strategies for incorporation of the LCM into nutrition leadership education and training at the graduate and professional levels; and suggest broader implications for training, research, and practice. Nineteen representatives from 6 MCHB-funded nutrition leadership education and training programs and 10 federal partners participated in a one-day session that began with an overview of the models and concluded with guided small group discussions on how to incorporate them into maternal and child health (MCH) leadership training using obesity as an example. Written notes from group discussions were compiled and coded emergently. Content analysis determined the most salient themes about incorporating the models into training. Four major LCM-related themes emerged, three of which were about training: (1) incorporation by training grants through LCM-framed coursework and experiences for trainees, and similarly framed continuing education and skills development for professionals; (2) incorporation through collaboration with other training programs and state and community partners, and through advocacy; and (3) incorporation by others at the federal and local levels through policy, political, and prevention efforts. The fourth theme focused on anticipated challenges of incorporating the model in training. Multiple methods for incorporating the LCM into MCH training and practice are warranted. Challenges to incorporating include the need for research and related policy development.
Macris, A.; Malamateniou, F.; Vassilacopoulos, G.
Successful business process design requires active participation of users who are familiar with organizational activities and business process modelling concepts. Hence, there is a need to provide users with reusable, flexible, agile and adaptable training material in order to enable them instil their knowledge and expertise in business process design and automation activities. Knowledge reusability is of paramount importance in designing training material on process modelling since it enables users participate actively in process design/redesign activities stimulated by the changing business environment. This paper presents a prototype approach for the design and use of training material that provides significant advantages to both the designer (knowledge - content reusability and semantic web enabling) and the user (semantic search, knowledge navigation and knowledge dissemination). The approach is based on externalizing domain knowledge in the form of ontology-based knowledge networks (i.e. training scenarios serving specific training needs) so that it is made reusable.
Full Text Available and requires funding, time and expertise. Lightly-supervised training techniques, however, provide a means to rapidly transcribe audio, thus reducing the initial resource investment to begin the modelling process. Our findings suggest that the lightly...
Swain, JaBaris D; Matousek, Alexi C; Scott, John W; Cooper, Zara; Smink, Douglas S; Bolman, Ralph Morton; Finlayson, Samuel R G; Zinner, Michael J; Riviello, Robert
Academic global surgery is a nascent field focused on improving surgical care in resource-poor settings through a broad-based scholarship agenda. Although there is increasing momentum to expand training opportunities in low-resource settings among academic surgical programs, most focus solely on establishing short-term elective rotations rather than fostering research or career development. Given the complex nature of surgical care delivery and programmatic capacity building in the resource-poor settings, many challenges remain before global surgery is accepted as an academic discipline and an established career path. Brigham and Women's Hospital has established a specialized global surgery track within the general surgery residency program to develop academic leaders in this growing area of need and opportunity. Here we describe our experience with the design and development of the program followed by practical applications and lessons learned from our early experiences. Copyright © 2015 Association of Program Directors in Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Zakondyrin, D E
The authors proposed to use a lumbar part of calf carcass as a new biological model for training of basic practical skills in order to perform the neurosurgical operative interventions on the spine. The proximity of anatomico-surgical parameters of given model and human cavader lumbar spine was estimated. The study proved the possibility of use of lumbar part of calf carcass for training techniques of transpedicular fixation and microdiskectomy in lumbar part.
Li, Wen-Jun; Nie, Lei
Urban rail transit plays an important role in the urban public traffic because of its advantages of fast speed, large transport capacity, high safety, reliability and low pollution. This study proposes an improved cellular automaton (CA) model by considering the dynamic characteristic of the train acceleration to analyze the energy consumption and train running time. Constructing an effective model for calculating energy consumption to aid train operation improvement is the basis for studying and analyzing energy-saving measures for urban rail transit system operation.
Full Text Available The problems of development of innovative learning environment of continuous education and training of skilled personnel for high-tech industry are described. Aspects of organization of ICT based learning environment of vocational and technical school on the basis of cloud computing and outsourcing are revealed. The three-stage conceptual model for perspective education and training of workers for high-tech industries is proposed. The model of cloud-based solution for design of learning environment for vocational education and training of skilled workers is introduced.
Interacción genotipo-ambiente en avena sativa l: utilizando los modelos AMMI y factorial de correspondencias Genotype-environment interaction in avena sativa l: employing AMMI and factorial correspondence models
Horacio Abel Acciaresi
Full Text Available El objetivo fue (i determinar la presencia de interacción genotipo-ambiente (IGA en la producción forrajera de avena (Avena sativa L. de genotipos tolerantes y no tolerantes a Schizaphis graminum empleando un número bajo de ambientes en la provincia de Buenos Aires (Argentina mediante los modelos de efectos principales aditivos e interacción multiplicativa (AMMI y análisis factorial de correspondencias (AFC y (ii comparar los resultados obtenidos por ambos métodos. Los ensayos se condujeron en La Dulce (Argentina y La Plata (Argentina (1993, 1994 y 1995. Se evaluaron 12 genotipos (comerciales y líneas avanzadas en 12 ambientes (combinación de localidad, años y cortes. Los factores ambiente, genotipo e interacción explicaron un 41,15% (pThe objective of this study was (i to determine the presence of genotype-environment interaction (GXE in Avena sativa l. for above dry matter yield of Schizaphis graminun tolerant and non-tolerant genotypes according to two different models: additive main effects and multiplicative interaction (AMMI and factorial correspondence analysis; and (ii to study and compare the results obtained with these models. Twelve genotypes and 12 environments were conducted at La Dulce and La Plata (Argentina during three years (1993, 1994 and 1995. The environment (E, genotype (G and GxE factors explained a 41.15%, 7.88% and 36.36% of the total sum of square, respectively. The first three axes of principal component analysis of AMMI were highly significant (p<0.001, explaining a 57.99%, 29.03% and 6.27% of interaction sum of square. The first three factorial correspondence coordinates accounted for 58.98%, 29.58% and 5.60% of the interaction sum of square. The relationships between tolerant genotypes-first clipping environments and non-tolerant genotypes-second clipping environments were reflected in the biplots of both models. The simultaneous use of AMMI and factorial correspondence analysis appeared as a useful
O. V. Lavrukhin
Full Text Available Purpose. The aim of this research work is to develop an intelligent technology for determination of the optimal route of freight trains administration on the basis of the technical and technological parameters. This will allow receiving the operational informed decisions by the station duty officer regarding to the train operation execution within the railway station. Metodology. The main elements of the research are the technical and technological parameters of the train station during the train operation. The methods of neural networks in order to form the self-teaching automated system were put in the basis of the generated model of train operation execution. Findings. The presented model of train operation execution at the railway station is realized on the basis of artificial neural networks using learning algorithm with a «teacher» in Matlab environment. The Matlab is also used for the immediate implementation of the intelligent automated control system of the train operation designed for the integration into the automated workplace of the duty station officer. The developed system is also useful to integrate on workplace of the traffic controller. This proposal is viable in case of the availability of centralized traffic control on the separate section of railway track. Originality. The model of train station operation during the train operation execution with elements of artificial intelligence was formed. It allows providing informed decisions to the station duty officer concerning a choice of rational and a safe option of reception and non-stop run of the trains with the ability of self-learning and adaptation to changing conditions. This condition is achieved by the principles of the neural network functioning. Practical value. The model of the intelligent system management of the process control for determining the optimal route receptionfor different categories of trains was formed.In the operational mode it offers the possibility
Molteni, A.; Cerri, P.; Fresca Fantoni, R.
The oil and gas industry makes extensive use of radioactive sources potentially dangerous to human health and to the environment if not properly controlled, including: industrial radiography, radioactive gauges, well logging activities, use of radiotracers. In addition, the accumulation of natural radionuclides (T.E.N.O.R.M.) may occur in the Oil and Gas extraction and treatment plants. Eni S.p.A. operates in more than 70 countries, with a staff of 79000 employees, in all climates and environments, including the most arduous conditions, and is continuously challenged to achieve high efficiency of operation while maintaining a high standard of safety, including the radiation protection aspects. Thus, in order to maintain the control over occupational exposures to radiation, to protect the public and the environment, and in order to deal with local rules and authorities, it has been developed a Radiation Protection Professional Model including three different roles (Radiation Protection Management, Radiation Protection Coordination and Operational Radiation Protection) that could be associated with the corresponding functions: Radiation Protection Expert, Radiation Protection Advisor, Radiation Protection Specialist. The Professional Model is a global Eni tool devoted to the know-how and the development of the human resources, including health, safety and environmental aspects, through the identification of detailed skills and knowledge. In order to provide the required knowledge to Eni workers all over the world, it has been developed a programme for education and training in radiation safety in collaboration with Eni Corporate University, the Eni company that manages orientation, recruitment, selection, training and Knowledge Management. Different training courses are organized to provide the training both for the Radiation Protection Coordination role (Radiation Protection Advisor course) and for the Operational Radiation Protection role (Radiation Protection
Molteni, A.; Cerri, P.; Fresca Fantoni, R. [ENI S.P.A. exploration and production division, Radiation Protection Department, Via Emilia 1, 20097 San Donato Milanese (Italy)
The oil and gas industry makes extensive use of radioactive sources potentially dangerous to human health and to the environment if not properly controlled, including: industrial radiography, radioactive gauges, well logging activities, use of radiotracers. In addition, the accumulation of natural radionuclides (T.E.N.O.R.M.) may occur in the Oil and Gas extraction and treatment plants. Eni S.p.A. operates in more than 70 countries, with a staff of 79000 employees, in all climates and environments, including the most arduous conditions, and is continuously challenged to achieve high efficiency of operation while maintaining a high standard of safety, including the radiation protection aspects. Thus, in order to maintain the control over occupational exposures to radiation, to protect the public and the environment, and in order to deal with local rules and authorities, it has been developed a Radiation Protection Professional Model including three different roles (Radiation Protection Management, Radiation Protection Coordination and Operational Radiation Protection) that could be associated with the corresponding functions: Radiation Protection Expert, Radiation Protection Advisor, Radiation Protection Specialist. The Professional Model is a global Eni tool devoted to the know-how and the development of the human resources, including health, safety and environmental aspects, through the identification of detailed skills and knowledge. In order to provide the required knowledge to Eni workers all over the world, it has been developed a programme for education and training in radiation safety in collaboration with Eni Corporate University, the Eni company that manages orientation, recruitment, selection, training and Knowledge Management. Different training courses are organized to provide the training both for the Radiation Protection Coordination role (Radiation Protection Advisor course) and for the Operational Radiation Protection role (Radiation Protection
Hellard, Philippe; Scordia, Charlotte; Avalos, Marta; Mujika, Inigo; Pyne, David B
Periodization of swim training in the final training phases prior to competition and its effect on performance have been poorly described. We modeled the relationships between the final 11 weeks of training and competition performance in 138 elite sprint, middle-distance, and long-distance swimmers over 20 competitive seasons. Total training load (TTL), strength training (ST), and low- to medium-intensity and high-intensity training variables were monitored. Training loads were scaled as a percentage of the maximal volume measured at each intensity level. Four training periods (meso-cycles) were defined: the taper (weeks 1 to 2 before competition), short-term (weeks 3 to 5), medium-term (weeks 6 to 8), and long-term (weeks 9 to 11). Mixed-effects models were used to analyze the association between training loads in each training meso-cycle and end-of-season major competition performance. For sprinters, a 10% increase between ∼20% and 70% of the TTL in medium- and long-term meso-cycles was associated with 0.07 s and 0.20 s faster performance in the 50 m and 100 m events, respectively (p training yielded faster competition performance (e.g., a 10% increase in TTL was associated with improvements of 0.1-1.0 s in 200 m events and 0.3-1.6 s in 400 m freestyle, p < 0.01). For sprinters, a 60%-70% maximal ST load 6-8 weeks before competition induced the largest positive effects on performance (p < 0.01). An increase in TTL during the medium- and long-term preparation (6-11 weeks to competition) was associated with improved performance. Periodization plans should be adapted to the specialty of swimmers.
Furuhama, Yutaka; Furuta, Kazuo; Kondo, Shunsuke [Tokyo Univ. (Japan). Faculty of Engineering
We have already proposed a knowledge model of a trainee, which model consists of two layers: hierarchical function and qualitative structure. We developed a method to generate normative operator knowledge based on this knowledge model structure, and to identify trainee`s intention by means of truth maintenance. The methods were tested by cognitive experiment using a prototype of training support system. (author)
Rosholm, Michael; Nielsen, Michael Svarer
In this paper we extend a job search-matching model with firm-specific investments in training developed by Mortensen (1998) to allow for different offer arrival rates in employment and unemployment. The model by Mortensen changes the original wage posting model (Burdett and Mortensen, 1998) in two...
NAVOP 01B7 Washington, DC 20370 Dr. Hans Crombag University of Leyden Mr. Raymond E. Christal Education Research Center AFHRL/MOE Boerhaavelaan 2 Brooks...AFB, TX 78235 2334 EN Leyden The NETHERLANDS Dr. Norman Cliff Department of Psychology CTB/McGraw-Hill Library Univ. of So. Californ.a 2500 Garden Road...Diego, CA 92152 A[USTRALIA Ms. Kathleen Moreno Dr. William L. Maloy (02) Navy Personnel R&D Center Chief of Naval Education Code 62 and Training San Diego
3T. K. Lawson Managing Editor, ―Madrid Bombing and Attacks on Trains, Subways ,‖ U.S. Department of State, Diplomatic Security Command Center (17 March...Alfred De Montesquiou, ―Official: Al-Qaeda Like A Fast Food Franchise ‗For Terrorism‘,‖ USA Today, 7 June 2009, http://www.usatoday.com/news/world/2009...Fort Leavenworth, KS, 2007): 78; De Montesquiou, ―Official: Al- Qaeda Like A Fast Food Franchise ‗For Terrorism‘.‖ 39Wilson, ―The Evolution of al
Kelz, Gerald; Hirschberg, Wolfgang [Inst. fuer Fahrzeugtechnik, Technische Univ. Graz (Austria)
The power train of a hybrid vehicle is considerably more complex than that of conventional vehicles. Whilst the topology of a conventional vehicle is normally fixed, the arrangement of the power train components for innovative propulsion systems is a flexible one. The aim is to find those topologies and configurations which are optimal for the intended use. Fuel consumption potentials can be derived with the aid of vehicle longitudinal dynamics simulation. Mostly these simulations are carried out using commercial software which is optimized for the standard topology and do not offer the flexibility to calculate arbitrary topologies. This article covers the modular modeling and the fuel consumption simulation of complex hybrid power trains for topology analysis. A component library for the development of arbitrary hybrid propulsion systems is introduced. The focus lies on an efficient and fast modeling which provides exact simulation results. Several models of power train components are introduced. (orig.)
Saggar, Manish; Zanesco, Anthony P; King, Brandon G; Bridwell, David A; MacLean, Katherine A; Aichele, Stephen R; Jacobs, Tonya L; Wallace, B Alan; Saron, Clifford D; Miikkulainen, Risto
Meditation training has been shown to enhance attention and improve emotion regulation. However, the brain processes associated with such training are poorly understood and a computational modeling framework is lacking. Modeling approaches that can realistically simulate neurophysiological data while conforming to basic anatomical and physiological constraints can provide a unique opportunity to generate concrete and testable hypotheses about the mechanisms supporting complex cognitive tasks such as meditation. Here we applied the mean-field computational modeling approach using the scalp-recorded electroencephalogram (EEG) collected at three assessment points from meditating participants during two separate 3-month-long shamatha meditation retreats. We modeled cortical, corticothalamic, and intrathalamic interactions to generate a simulation of EEG signals recorded across the scalp. We also present two novel extensions to the mean-field approach that allow for: (a) non-parametric analysis of changes in model parameter values across all channels and assessments; and (b) examination of variation in modeled thalamic reticular nucleus (TRN) connectivity over the retreat period. After successfully fitting whole-brain EEG data across three assessment points within each retreat, two model parameters were found to replicably change across both meditation retreats. First, after training, we observed an increased temporal delay between modeled cortical and thalamic cells. This increase provides a putative neural mechanism for a previously observed reduction in individual alpha frequency in these same participants. Second, we found decreased inhibitory connection strength between the TRN and secondary relay nuclei (SRN) of the modeled thalamus after training. This reduction in inhibitory strength was found to be associated with increased dynamical stability of the model. Altogether, this paper presents the first computational approach, taking core aspects of physiology and
research was to develop a business model to complement the current academic ... larger-scale potential public-private partnerships (PPPs). The model ... complementary system, which will benefit both the private and the public sectors.
Fisker, Rune; Schultz, Nette; Duta, N.
parameters, a very fast general initialization algorithm and an adaptive likelihood model based on local means. The model parameters are trained by a combination of a 2D shape learning algorithm and a maximum likelihood based criteria. The fast initialization algorithm is based on a search approach using...... for applying the general deformable template model proposed by (Grenander et al., 1991) to a new problem with minimal manual interaction, beside supplying a training set, which can be done by a non-expert user. The main contributions compared to previous work are a supervised learning scheme for the model...
Valgeirsdóttir, Dagný; Onarheim, Balder
As creativity becomes increasingly recognized as important raw material for innovation, the importance of identifying ways to increase practitioners’ creativity through rigorously designed creativity training programs is highlighted. Therefore we sat out to design a creativity training program sp...... the transdisciplinary study described in this paper. Co-creation was employed as a method to ensure the three layers of focus would be taken into consideration. The result is a program called Creative Awareness Training which is based on the new Know-Recognize-React model.......As creativity becomes increasingly recognized as important raw material for innovation, the importance of identifying ways to increase practitioners’ creativity through rigorously designed creativity training programs is highlighted. Therefore we sat out to design a creativity training program...
Kim, Kilyoo; Kang, Daeil; Kim, Wee Kyong; Do, Kyu Sik
US NRC/EPRI issued a new fire PSA method represented by NUREG/CR 6850, and have been training many operators and inspectors to widely spread the new method. However, there is a limitation in time and efficiency for many foreigners, who generally have communication problem, to participate in the EPRI/NRC training to learn the new method. Since it is about time to introduce the new fire PSA method as a regulatory requirement for the fire protection in Korea, a simple and easy-understandable base model for the fire PSA training is required, and KAERI-KINS is jointly preparing the base model for the new fire PSA training. This paper describes how the base model is developed. Using an imaginary simple NPP, a base model of fire PSA following the new fire PSA method was developed in two ways from the internal PSA model. Since we have the base model and know the process of making the fire PSA model, the training for the new fire PSA method can be in detail performed in Korea
Full Text Available Predicting antitumor activity of compounds using regression models trained on a small number of compounds with measured biological activity is an ill-posed inverse problem. Yet, it occurs very often within the academic community. To counteract, up to some extent, overfitting problems caused by a small training data, we propose to use consensus of six regression models for prediction of biological activity of virtual library of compounds. The QSAR descriptors of 22 compounds related to the opioid growth factor (OGF, Tyr-Gly-Gly-Phe-Met with known antitumor activity were used to train regression models: the feed-forward artificial neural network, the k-nearest neighbor, sparseness constrained linear regression, the linear and nonlinear (with polynomial and Gaussian kernel support vector machine. Regression models were applied on a virtual library of 429 compounds that resulted in six lists with candidate compounds ranked by predicted antitumor activity. The highly ranked candidate compounds were synthesized, characterized and tested for an antiproliferative activity. Some of prepared peptides showed more pronounced activity compared with the native OGF; however, they were less active than highly ranked compounds selected previously by the radial basis function support vector machine (RBF SVM regression model. The ill-posedness of the related inverse problem causes unstable behavior of trained regression models on test data. These results point to high complexity of prediction based on the regression models trained on a small data sample.
Saidi, Maryam; Towhidkhah, Farzad; Gharibzadeh, Shahriar; Lari, Abdolaziz Azizi
Humans perceive the surrounding world by integration of information through different sensory modalities. Earlier models of multisensory integration rely mainly on traditional Bayesian and causal Bayesian inferences for single causal (source) and two causal (for two senses such as visual and auditory systems), respectively. In this paper a new recurrent neural model is presented for integration of visual and proprioceptive information. This model is based on population coding which is able to mimic multisensory integration of neural centers in the human brain. The simulation results agree with those achieved by casual Bayesian inference. The model can also simulate the sensory training process of visual and proprioceptive information in human. Training process in multisensory integration is a point with less attention in the literature before. The effect of proprioceptive training on multisensory perception was investigated through a set of experiments in our previous study. The current study, evaluates the effect of both modalities, i.e., visual and proprioceptive training and compares them with each other through a set of new experiments. In these experiments, the subject was asked to move his/her hand in a circle and estimate its position. The experiments were performed on eight subjects with proprioception training and eight subjects with visual training. Results of the experiments show three important points: (1) visual learning rate is significantly more than that of proprioception; (2) means of visual and proprioceptive errors are decreased by training but statistical analysis shows that this decrement is significant for proprioceptive error and non-significant for visual error, and (3) visual errors in training phase even in the beginning of it, is much less than errors of the main test stage because in the main test, the subject has to focus on two senses. The results of the experiments in this paper is in agreement with the results of the neural model
Chang, Kuei-Hu; Chang, Yung-Chia; Chain, Kai; Chung, Hsiang-Yu
The advancement of high technologies and the arrival of the information age have caused changes to the modern warfare. The military forces of many countries have replaced partially real training drills with training simulation systems to achieve combat readiness. However, considerable types of training simulation systems are used in military settings. In addition, differences in system set up time, functions, the environment, and the competency of system operators, as well as incomplete information have made it difficult to evaluate the performance of training simulation systems. To address the aforementioned problems, this study integrated analytic hierarchy process, soft set theory, and the fuzzy linguistic representation model to evaluate the performance of various training simulation systems. Furthermore, importance-performance analysis was adopted to examine the influence of saving costs and training safety of training simulation systems. The findings of this study are expected to facilitate applying military training simulation systems, avoiding wasting of resources (e.g., low utility and idle time), and providing data for subsequent applications and analysis. To verify the method proposed in this study, the numerical examples of the performance evaluation of training simulation systems were adopted and compared with the numerical results of an AHP and a novel AHP-based ranking technique. The results verified that not only could expert-provided questionnaire information be fully considered to lower the repetition rate of performance ranking, but a two-dimensional graph could also be used to help administrators allocate limited resources, thereby enhancing the investment benefits and training effectiveness of a training simulation system.
Full Text Available Exercise training induces muscular adaptations that are highly specific to the type of exercise. For a systematic study of the differentiated exercise adaptations on a molecular level mouse models have been used successfully. The aim of the current study was to develop a suitable mouse model of isometric strength exercise training characterized by specific adaptations known from strength training. C57BL/6 mice performed an isometric strength training (ST for 10 weeks 5 days/week. Additionally, either a sedentary control group (CT or a regular endurance training group (ET groups were used as controls. Performance capacity was determined by maximum holding time (MHT and treadmill spirometry, respectively. Furthermore, muscle fiber types and diameter, muscular concentration of phosphofructokinase 1 (PFK, succinate dehydrogenase (SDHa, and glucose transporter type 4 (GLUT4 were determined. In a further approach, the effect of ST on glucose intolerance was tested in diabetic mice. In mice of the ST group we observed an increase of MHT in isometric strength tests, a type II fiber hypertrophy, and an increased GLUT4 protein content in the membrane fraction. In contrast, in mice of the ET group an increase of VO(2max, a shift to oxidative muscle fiber type and an increase of oxidative enzyme content was measured. Furthermore strength training was effective in reducing glucose intolerance in mice fed a high fat diet. An effective murine strength training model was developed and evaluated, which revealed marked differences in adaptations known from endurance training. This approach seems also suitable to test for therapeutical effects of strength training.
Xu Xiao-Ming; Li Ke-Ping; Yang Li-Xing
The aim of this paper is to present a discrete event model-based approach to simulate train movement with the considered energy-saving factor. We conduct extensive case studies to show the dynamic characteristics of the traffic flow and demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed approach. The simulation results indicate that the proposed discrete event model-based simulation approach is suitable for characterizing the movements of a group of trains on a single railway line with less iterations and CPU time. Additionally, some other qualitative and quantitative characteristics are investigated. In particular, because of the cumulative influence from the previous trains, the following trains should be accelerated or braked frequently to control the headway distance, leading to more energy consumption. (general)
Valgeirsdóttir, Dagný; Onarheim, Balder
As creativity becomes increasingly recognized as important raw material for innovation, the importance of identifying ways to increase practitioners’ creativity through rigorously designed creativity training programs is highlighted. Therefore we sat out to design a creativity training program...... the transdisciplinary study described in this paper. Co-creation was employed as a method to ensure the three layers of focus would be taken into consideration. The result is a program called Creative Awareness Training which is based on the new Know-Recognize-React model....
Hanley, J.; Stevens-Goodnight, S.; Kulkarni, S.; Bustamante, D.; Fytilis, N.; Goff, P.; Monroy, C.; Morrissey, L. A.; Orantes, L.; Stevens, L.; Dorn, P.; Lucero, D.; Rios, J.; Rizzo, D. M.
The goal of our NSF-sponsored Division of Behavioral and Cognitive Sciences grant is to create a multidisciplinary approach to develop spatially explicit models of vector-borne disease risk using Chagas disease as our model. Chagas disease is a parasitic disease endemic to Latin America that afflicts an estimated 10 million people. The causative agent (Trypanosoma cruzi) is most commonly transmitted to humans by blood feeding triatomine insect vectors. Our objectives are: (1) advance knowledge on the multiple interacting factors affecting the transmission of Chagas disease, and (2) provide next generation genomic and spatial analysis tools applicable to the study of other vector-borne diseases worldwide. This funding is a collaborative effort between the RSENR (UVM), the School of Engineering (UVM), the Department of Biology (UVM), the Department of Biological Sciences (Loyola (New Orleans)) and the Laboratory of Applied Entomology and Parasitology (Universidad de San Carlos). Throughout this five-year study, multi-educational groups (i.e., high school, undergraduate, graduate, and postdoctoral) will be trained in systems modeling. This systems approach challenges students to incorporate environmental, social, and economic as well as technical aspects and enables modelers to simulate and visualize topics that would either be too expensive, complex or difficult to study directly (Yasar and Landau 2003). We launch this research by developing a set of multi-scale, epidemiological models of Chagas disease risk using STELLA® software v.9.1.3 (isee systems, inc., Lebanon, NH). We use this particular system dynamics software as a starting point because of its simple graphical user interface (e.g., behavior-over-time graphs, stock/flow diagrams, and causal loops). To date, high school and undergraduate students have created a set of multi-scale (i.e., homestead, village, and regional) disease models. Modeling the system at multiple spatial scales forces recognition that
Hamdan, M F; Day, A; Millar, J; Carter, F J C; Coleman, M G; Francis, N K
The aim of this study was to explore the feasibility and safety of an outreach model of laparoscopic colorectal training of accredited specialists in advanced laparoscopic techniques and to explore the challenges of this model from the perspective of a National Training Programme (NTP) trainer. Prospective data were collected for unselected laparoscopic colorectal training procedures performed by five laparoscopic colorectal NTP trainees supervised by a single NTP trainer with an outreach model between 2009 and 2012. The operative and postoperative outcomes were compared with standard laparoscopic colorectal training procedures performed by six senior colorectal trainees under the supervision of the same NTP trainer within the same study period. The primary outcome was 30-day mortality. The Mann-Whitney test was used to compare continuous variables and the Chi squared or Fisher's exact tests were applied for the analysis of categorical variables. The level of statistical significance was set at P groups. Seventy-eight per cent of the patients operated on by the NTP trainees had had no previous abdominal surgery, compared with 50% in the supervised trainees' group (P = 0.0005). There were no significant differences in 30-day mortality or the operative and postoperative outcome between both groups. There were, however, difficulties in training an already established consultant in his or her own hospital and these were overcome by certain adjustments to the programme. Outreach laparoscopic training of colorectal surgeons is a feasible and safe model of training accredited specialists and does not compromise patient care. The challenges encountered can be overcome with optimum training and preparation. Colorectal Disease © 2015 The Association of Coloproctology of Great Britain and Ireland.
Full Text Available This paper presents an initiative developed by two partner universities from Romania and Norway entitled „Innovative Tools and models for Vocational Education and Training in Central and western Romania” (MoVE-IT financed by SEE mechanism . It has the priority to develop human resource through promotion of education and training, by means of distance learning. The objective, legal issues, outcome and results and envisaged impact of the project are presented.
Martin, Todd M; Harten, Paul; Young, Douglas M; Muratov, Eugene N; Golbraikh, Alexander; Zhu, Hao; Tropsha, Alexander
Prior to using a quantitative structure activity relationship (QSAR) model for external predictions, its predictive power should be established and validated. In the absence of a true external data set, the best way to validate the predictive ability of a model is to perform its statistical external validation. In statistical external validation, the overall data set is divided into training and test sets. Commonly, this splitting is performed using random division. Rational splitting methods can divide data sets into training and test sets in an intelligent fashion. The purpose of this study was to determine whether rational division methods lead to more predictive models compared to random division. A special data splitting procedure was used to facilitate the comparison between random and rational division methods. For each toxicity end point, the overall data set was divided into a modeling set (80% of the overall set) and an external evaluation set (20% of the overall set) using random division. The modeling set was then subdivided into a training set (80% of the modeling set) and a test set (20% of the modeling set) using rational division methods and by using random division. The Kennard-Stone, minimal test set dissimilarity, and sphere exclusion algorithms were used as the rational division methods. The hierarchical clustering, random forest, and k-nearest neighbor (kNN) methods were used to develop QSAR models based on the training sets. For kNN QSAR, multiple training and test sets were generated, and multiple QSAR models were built. The results of this study indicate that models based on rational division methods generate better statistical results for the test sets than models based on random division, but the predictive power of both types of models are comparable.
Obukhov, A. D.; Dedov, D. L.; Arkhipov, A. E.
The article considers the structural model of the adaptive training complex (ATC), which reflects the interrelations between the hardware, software and mathematical model of ATC and describes the processes in this subject area. The description of the main components of software and hardware complex, their interaction and functioning within the common system are given. Also the article scrutinizers a brief description of mathematical models of personnel activity, a technical system and influences, the interactions of which formalize the regularities of ATC functioning. The studies of main objects of training complexes and connections between them will make it possible to realize practical implementation of ATC in ergatic systems for professional use.
Catania, Cynthia N; Almeida, Daniel; Liu-Constant, Brian; DiGennaro Reed, Florence D
Three new direct-service staff participated in a program that used a video model to train target skills needed to conduct a discrete-trial session. Percentage accuracy in completing a discrete-trial teaching session was evaluated using a multiple baseline design across participants. During baseline, performances ranged from a mean of 12% to 63% accuracy. During video modeling, there was an immediate increase in accuracy to a mean of 98%, 85%, and 94% for each participant. Performance during maintenance and generalization probes remained at high levels. Results suggest that video modeling can be an effective technique to train staff to conduct discrete-trial sessions.
Pérez-Duarte, F J; Díaz-Güemes, I; Sánchez-Hurtado, M A; Cano Novillo, I; Berchi García, F J; García Vázquez, A; Sánchez-Margallo, F M
We present our experience in the design and development of a training program in paediatric and neonatal laparoscopic surgery, and the determination of face validity by the attendants. Data included in the present study was obtained from five consecutive editions of our Neonatal and Paediatric Laparoscopic Surgery Course. Our training model, with a total duration of 21 hours, begins with acquisition of knowledge in ergonomics and instrument concepts, after which the attendants develop basic laparoscopic dexterity through the performance of hands-on physical simulator tasks. During the second and third days of the course, surgeons undertook various surgical techniques hands-on animal model. At the end of the training program, a subjective evaluation questionnaire was handed out to the attendants, in which different didactic and organizational aspects were considered. We obtained a highly positive score on all questions concerning the different topics and techniques included in the training program (> or = 9 points over 10). 78,5% of the 54 attendants was in accordance with the course total duration, whilst 21,5% considered that it should be of longer duration. Regarding abilities' self assessment, 79,1% considered themselves capacitated to perform trained procedures on live patients. The presented training model has obtained a very positive valuation score, leading to an increase in the attendants' self confidence in the application of learned techniques to their clinical practice.
Seyed Mohammad Motahar
Full Text Available ERP can be called as one of the most significant contributions of computer science and particularly information systems for the business environment which can support all complicated business process of an organisation including sale, purchase, warehouse and manufacturing into a single database. For such complex system like ERP, implementation involves much collaboration which raises the concern of the success of the project. Among most significant success and failure factors of ERP implementation cited in the literature are training and consultation. For many years the majority of ERP vendors promote their product specific training models as long-term and expensive allowing the organisation to gain knowledge of the ERP system and the way it handles the business process. However, recent studies showed that ERP training can be conducted in the short term and with minimum investment and yet to be effective. Findings triggered a signal and opened a new door for research to investigate vendor-independent training models that require limited investment in training and consultancy. This paper aims to provide an overview of the literature; highlighting the research methods and theories used by authors towards building ERP training models and methods.
Hellard, Philippe; Avalos, Marta; Millet, Grégoire; Lacoste, Lucien; Barale, Frédéric; Chatard, Jean-Claude
The aim of this study was to model the residual effects of training on the swimming performance and to compare a model including threshold saturation (MM) to the Banister model (BM). Seven Olympic swimmers were studied over a period of 4 ± 2 years. For three training loads (low-intensity wLIT, high-intensity wHIT and strength training wST), three residual training effects were determined: short-term (STE) during the taper phase, i.e. three weeks before the performance (weeks 0, −1, −2), intermediate-term (ITE) during the intensity phase (weeks −3, −4 and −5) and long-term (LTE) during the volume phase (weeks −6, −7, −8). ITE and LTE were positive for wHIT and wLIT, respectively (P < 0.05). wLIT during taper was related to performances by a parabolic relationship (P < 0.05). Different quality measures indicated that MM compares favorably with BM. Identifying individual training thresholds may help individualizing the distribution of training loads. PMID:15705048
Full Text Available This paper studies the methodological essence of dangerous goods (DG training courses for drivers and dangerous goods safety advisers (DGSA. The aim of the research is to advance existing teacher-centered course model in Estonia with learner-centered methods that best suit specific objectives and meet expected learning outcomes, as well as to improve DG training model with the integrated use of interactive teaching methods. The paper presents a qualitative development research strategy based on studies regarding ADR regulations training courses in Estonia as well as on the analysis of teaching methods applied in the professional training of adults. The data is collected in two steps: firstly by implementing questionnaires for consignors/ consignees, freight forwarders carrier companies and drivers, secondly during in-depth interviews/ focus group meeting with DG regulations training companies’ providers. Implementing methodology of qualitative comparison analysis (QCA combination of best suitable teaching methods is identified. After following in-depth interviews and performing a focus group, these combinations are further used as input for developing existing course model with integrated use of blended learning alternatives, where digital media meets with traditional classroom meth-ods. Results of this research contribute coming up with interactive methodological approach within ADR regulations training courses that meet the best trainees’ expectations and fulfills the risk management aim.
Maluf, Miguel Angel; Gomes, Walter José; Bras, Ademir Massarico; Araújo, Thiago Cavalcante Vila Nova de; Mota, André Lupp; Cardoso, Caio Cesar; Coutinho, Rafael Viana dos S
Engage the UNIFESP Cardiovascular Surgery residents in coronary anastomosis, assess their skills and certify results, using the Arroyo Anastomosis Simulator and UNIFESP surgical models. First to 6th year residents attended a weekly program of technical training in coronary anastomosis, using 4 simulation models: 1. Arroyo simulator; 2. Dummy with a plastic heart; 3. Dummy with a bovine heart; and 4. Dummy with a beating pig heart. The assessment test was comprised of 10 items, using a scale from 1 to 5 points in each of them, creating a global score of 50 points maximum. The technical performance of the candidate showed improvement in all items, especially manual skill and technical progress, critical sense of the work performed, confidence in the procedure and reduction of the time needed to perform the anastomosis after 12 weeks practice. In response to the multiplicity of factors that currently influence the cardiovascular surgeon training, there have been combined efforts to reform the practices of surgical medical training. 1 - The four models of simulators offer a considerable contribution to the field of cardiovascular surgery, improving the skill and dexterity of the surgeon in training. 2 - Residents have shown interest in training and cooperate in the development of innovative procedures for surgical medical training in the art.
Full Text Available Background and Purpose: The main purpose behind the formation of leadership competency models must be the improvement of leadership. A competency model should serve as one of the tools for selecting the most suitable leaders, appraising their work, assessing training needs and preparing programmes of functional and formal education. The objective of this research is to assess the training needs of leaders in health care. A comparison of leadership competency models between different professional groups should serve as one of the tools with which to assess the training needs of various levels of leaders. Design/Methodology/Approach: A descriptive study using a survey design was conducted on 141 nurse leaders in Slovenia. Respondents indicated to what extent each of 95 different behaviours was characteristic of a person at their leadership level. Results: The most important competence dimensions (groups of behaviours for leaders in health care are (1 at the first - top leadership level: strategic thinking, openness to change and responsibility; (2 for leaders at the second - middle leadership level: relations with co-workers, animation, resistance to stress; and (3 for leaders at the third leadership level: realisation skills, execution of procedures, communication. Training needs assessments were done for three leadership levels in nursing care. Conclusions: The greatest need for training of nurse leaders can be observed at the third leadership level. Special training programmes should be organised in the competency areas of realisation skills, execution of procedures, communication, education and ethics
Lechner, Beatrice E; Shields, Robin; Tucker, Richard; Bender, G Jesse
We hypothesize that a formal simulation curriculum prepares neonatology fellows for difficult conversations better than traditional didactics. Single-center neonatology fellowship graduates from 1999 to 2013 were sent a retrospective web-based survey. Some had been exposed to a Difficult Conversations curriculum (simulation group), others had not (no simulation group). The simulation group participated in one workshop annually, consisting of lecture, simulation, and debriefing. Scenarios were customized to year of training. Epoch comparisons were made between the simulation and no simulation groups. Self-rated baseline effectiveness at discussing difficult topics was not different. The simulation group reported more supervised family meetings and feedback after fellow-led meetings. Simulations were rated very positively. The simulation group reported increased comfort levels. Strategic pause and body positioning were specific communication skills more frequently acquired in the simulation group. In both groups, the highest ranked contributors to learning were mentor observation and clinical practice. In the simulation group, simulation and debriefing outranked didactics or other experiences. Simulation-based workshops improve communication skills in high stakes conversations. However, they do not substitute for mentor observation and experience. Establishing a structured simulation-based difficult conversations curriculum refines vital communication skills necessary for the high stakes conversations neonatologists direct in clinical practice.
Awad, Zaid; Taghi, Ali; Sethukumar, Priya; Tolley, Neil S
To demonstrate construct validity of the ovine model as a tool for training in endoscopic sinus surgery (ESS). Prospective, cross-sectional evaluation study. Over 18 consecutive months, trainees and experts were evaluated in their ability to perform a range of tasks (based on previous face validation and descriptive studies conducted by the same group) relating to ESS on the sheep-head model. Anonymized randomized video recordings of the above were assessed by two independent and blinded assessors. A validated assessment tool utilizing a five-point Likert scale was employed. Construct validity was calculated by comparing scores across training levels and experts using mean and interquartile range of global and task-specific scores. Subgroup analysis of the intermediate group ascertained previous experience. Nonparametric descriptive statistics were used, and analysis was carried out using SPSS version 21 (IBM, Armonk, NY). Reliability of the assessment tool was confirmed. The model discriminated well between different levels of expertise in global and task-specific scores. A positive correlation was noted between year in training and both global and task-specific scores (P variable, and the number of ESS procedures performed under supervision had the highest impact on performance. This study describes an alternative model for ESS training and assessment. It is also the first to demonstrate construct validity of the sheep-head model for ESS training. © 2014 The American Laryngological, Rhinological and Otological Society, Inc.
Today organizations have adopted a corporate university model to meet their training requirements, a model that adds value to the business in terms of revenue and profit, improvement in customer retention, improved employee productivity, cost reduction and retention of talented employees. This paper highlights the radical change and an evolution…
Vicino, Frank L.; And Others
The model allows for the determination of the severity of the training problems, thus leading naturally to problem priority and in addition a basis for evaluation design. Results from the use of the model, in an operational setting, are presented. (Author)
Lu, Xingjiang; Yao, Chen; Zheng, Jianmin
This paper focuses on the training of undergraduate students' innovation ability. On top of the theoretical framework of the Quality Function Deployment (QFD), we propose a teaching quality management model. Based on this model, we establish a multilevel decomposition indicator system, which integrates innovation ability characterized by four…
Wildy, Helen; And Others
Presents a (Western Australian) case study of the link teacher model, a decentralized, "train the trainer" approach to inservice education. Discusses the model's perceived effectiveness, the link teachers' role, central authority support, and new experimentation opportunities. Combining centralized syllabus change with decentralized…
Raaijmakers, Steven F.; Baars, Martine; Schaap, Lydia; Paas, Fred; van Merriënboer, Jeroen; van Gog, Tamara
Self-assessment and task-selection skills are crucial in self-regulated learning situations in which students can choose their own tasks. Prior research suggested that training with video modeling examples, in which another person (the model) demonstrates and explains the cyclical process of problem-solving task performance, self-assessment, and…
Prior to beginning the development of an enhanced set of electrical plant models for several nuclear training simulators, an extensive literature search was conducted to evaluate and select rotating machine models for use on these simulators. These models include the main generator, diesel generators, in-plant electric power distribution and off-side power. Form the results of this search, various models were investigated and several were selected for further evaluation. Several computer studies were performed on the selected models in order to determine their suitability for use in a training simulator environment. One surprising result of this study was that a number of established, classical models could not be made to reproduce actual plant steady-state data over the range necessary for a training simulator. This evaluation process and its results are presented in this paper. Various historical, as well as contemporary, electrical models of rotating machines are discussed. Specific criteria for selection of rotating machine models for training simulator use are presented
This thesis focuses on developing a spreadsheet decision support model that can be used by combat engineer platoon and company commanders in determining the material requirements and estimated costs...
Full Text Available The study was to: (1 find the most effective agrobusiness technical training and education model for the Field Agricultural Extension Officers to be implemented; and (2 to identify the knowledge level, the highest agrobusiness skills and the strongest self-confidence that might be achieved by the participants through the implemented training and education patterns. The study was conducted by means of experiment method with the regular pattern of training and education program as the control and the mentoring pattern of training and education program as the treatment. The three patterns of training and education programs served as the independent variables while the knowledge, the skills and the self-confidence served as the dependent variables. The study was conducted in three locations namely: the Institution of Agricultural Human Resources Development in the Province of Yogyakarta Special Region (Balai Pengembangan Sumber Daya Manusia Pertanian Daerah Istimewa Yogyakarta – BPSMP DIY; the Institution of Agricultural Human Resources Empowerment (Balai Pemberdayaan Sumber Daya Manusia Pertanian – BPSDMTAN Soropadan Temanggung Provinsi Jawa Tengah in Soropadan, Temanggung, the Province of Central Java; and the Institution of Training and Education in Semarang, the Province of Central Java (Badan Pendidikan dan Pelatihan Semarang Provinsi Jawa Tengah. The study was conducted to all of the participants who attended the agrobusiness technical training and education program and, therefore, all of the participants became the subjects of the study. The study was conducted from October 2013 until March 2014. The results of the study showed that: (1 there had not been any significant difference on the knowledge and the skills of the participants who attended the regular pattern in training and education programs and those who attended the mentoring pattern in training and education programs; (2 the regular pattern in training and education programs
Valle, Victor M.
In designing inservice teacher training activities, it is necessary to apply educational principles and teaching and learning techniques which are suitable for adult education programs. Four models for designing inservice teacher training programs are the Malcom Knowles Model, the Leonard Nadler Model, the Cyril O. Houle Model, and the William R.…
Full Text Available Introduction: Nowadays, the employees` inservice training has become one of the core components in survival and success of any organization. Unfortunately, despite the importance of training evaluation, a small portion of resources are allocated to this matter. Among many evaluation models, the CIPP model or Context, Input, Process, Product model is a very useful approach to educational evaluation. So far, the evaluation of the training courses mostly provided information for learners but this investigation aims at evaluating the effectiveness of the experts’ training programs and identifying its pros and cons based on the 4 stages of the CIPP model. Method: In this descriptive analytical study, done in 2013, 250 employees of Shiraz University Medical Sciences (SUMS participated in inservice training courses were randomly selected. The evaluated variables were designed using CIPP model and a researcher-made questionnaire was used for data collection; the questionnaire was validated using expert opinion and its reliability was confirmed by Cronbach’s alpha (0.89. Quantitative data were analyzed using SPSS 14 and statistical tests was done as needed. Results: In the context phase, the mean score was highest in solving work problems (4.07±0.88 and lowest in focusing on learners’ learning style training courses (2.68±0.91. There is a statistically significant difference between the employees` education level and the product phase evaluation (p0.001, in contrast with the process and product phase which showed a significant deference (p<0.001. Conclusion: Considering our results, although the inservice trainings given to sums employees has been effective in many ways, it has some weaknesses as well. Therefore improving these weaknesses and reinforcing strong points within the identified fields in this study should be taken into account by decision makers and administrators.
Koyagoshi, Naoki; Sasaki, Kazuichi; Sawada, Makoto; Kawanishi, Tomotake; Yoshida, Kazuo
The prototype fast breeder reactor, Monju, has been performing deliberately the operator training which is composed of the regulated training required by the government and the self-training. The training used a full scope type simulator (MARS: Monju Advanced Reactor Simulator) plays an important role among of the above mentioned trainings and greatly contributes to the Monju operator training for Monju restarting. This report covers the activities of Monju operator training in 2002 FY, i.e. the training results and the remodeling working of the MARS in progress since 1999. (1) Eight simulator training courses were carried out 46 times and 180 trainees participated. Additionally, both the regulated training and self-training were held total 10 times by attended 34 trainees, as besides simulator training. (2) Above training data was reduced compare with the last year's data (69 times (338 trainees)) due to the indispensable training courses in Monju operator training were changed by reorganized operator's number and decreasing of training times owing to remodeling working of the simulator was conducted. (3) By means of upgrading of the MARS completed in 2002 FY, its logic arithmetic time was became speedier and its instructing function was improved remarkably, thus, the simulator training was became to be more effective. Moreover, it's planning to do both remodeling in the next year as the final working: remodeling of reactor core model with the aim of improvement simulating accuracy and corresponding to the sodium leakage measures. Regarding on the Monju training results and simulator's remodeling so far finished, please referring JNC report number of JNC TN 4410 2002-001 Translation of Monju Simulator Training owing Monju Accident and Upgrade of MARS''. (author)
Full Text Available Grapheme-color synesthesia is a neurological phenomenon in which letters and numbers (graphemes consistently evoke particular colors (e.g. A may be experienced as red. These sensations are thought to arise through the cross-activation of grapheme processing regions in the fusiform gyrus and color area V4, supported by anatomical and functional imaging. However, the developmental onset of grapheme-color synesthesia remains elusive as research in this area has largely relied on self-report of these experiences in children. One possible account suggests that synesthesia is present at or near birth and initially binds basic shapes and forms to colors, which are later refined to grapheme-color associations through experience. Consistent with this view, studies show that similarly shaped letters and numbers tend to elicit similar colors in synesthesia and that some synesthetes consciously associate basic shapes with colors; research additionally suggests that synesthetic colors can emerge for newly learned characters with repeated presentation. This model further predicts that the initial shape-color correspondences in synesthesia may persist as implicit associations, driving the acquisition of colors for novel characters. To examine the presence of latent color associations for novel characters, synesthetes and controls were trained on pre-defined associations between colors and complex shapes, on the assumption that the prescribed shape-color correspondences would on average differ from implicit synesthetic associations. Results revealed synesthetes were less accurate than controls to learn novel shape-color associations, consistent with our suggestion that implicit form-color associations conflicted with the learned pairings.
A. Y. Kuzyshyn
Full Text Available Purpose.The article is aimed to construct the mechanical model of the diesel train DTKr-2 of the Kryukivsk Railway Car Building Works based on the analysis of undercarriage construction. This model will be used in the study of dynamic properties of the vehicle. When constructing the model the design features and its loading methods should be displayed as much as possible. Methodology. When constructing the mechanical model of the diesel train DTKr-2 car, the pneumatic spring, which is the main element of the central spring suspension, was modeled using Kelvin-Voigt node. This node includes elastic and viscous element. Hydraulic shock absorbers that are used both in the central and axle-box spring suspension were modeled as a viscous element. During research, the rigidity of the pneumatic spring, which is associated with the change in its effective area under deformation, was assumed to be zero. Findings. This article analyzed the design of car undercarriage of the diesel train DTKr-2. The mathematical models of its main units were presented, namely, in the central spring suspension – the model of pneumatic spring. Taking into account the peculiarities of design of the diesel train DTKr-2 undercarriage it was developed its mechanical model, which will be used in the future when studying dynamic properties. Originality.For the first time for the diesel train DTKr-2 car it was developed its mechanical model taking into account the features of the interaction of individual elements of its design. It has been proposed as a pneumatic spring to use the Kelvin-Voigt node, which includes parallel arranged elastic and viscous elements. Practical value. On the basis of the proposed mechanical model, a system of ordinary differential equations of car undercarriage movement of the diesel train DTKr-2 (mathematical model will be compiled. This model is further planned to be used when studying dynamic interaction of the diesel train car undercarriage wheel
Gorinevsky, Dimitry; Matthews, Bryan L.; Martin, Rodney
This paper describes an application of data mining technology called Distributed Fleet Monitoring (DFM) to Flight Operational Quality Assurance (FOQA) data collected from a fleet of commercial aircraft. DFM transforms the data into aircraft performance models, flight-to-flight trends, and individual flight anomalies by fitting a multi-level regression model to the data. The model represents aircraft flight performance and takes into account fixed effects: flight-to-flight and vehicle-to-vehicle variability. The regression parameters include aerodynamic coefficients and other aircraft performance parameters that are usually identified by aircraft manufacturers in flight tests. Using DFM, the multi-terabyte FOQA data set with half-million flights was processed in a few hours. The anomalies found include wrong values of competed variables, (e.g., aircraft weight), sensor failures and baises, failures, biases, and trends in flight actuators. These anomalies were missed by the existing airline monitoring of FOQA data exceedances.
Full Text Available A purpose of work is creation of model of readiness of graduating student to implementation of official questions of guidance, organization and leadthrough of physical preparation in the process of military-professional activity. An analysis is conducted more than 40 sources and questionnaire questioning of a 21 expert. For introduction of model to the system of physical preparation of students the list of its basic constituents is certain: theoretical methodical readiness; functionally-physical readiness; organizationally-administrative readiness. It is certain that readiness of future officers to military-professional activity foresees determination of level of forming of motive capabilities, development of general physical qualities.
Yáñez-Araque, Benito; Hernández-Perlines, Felipe; Moreno-Garcia, Juan
The training of human resources improves business performance: myth or reality? While the literature has extensively addressed this issue, the transfer that occurs from training to performance still remains unresolved. The present study suggests an empirical solution to this gap, through a multiple mediation model of dynamic capabilities. Accordingly, the study makes a major contribution to the effectiveness of an organizational-level training: the "true" relationship between training and performance is mediated by absorptive and innovative capacities. It is difficult from training to directly affect the results: it must be done through a chain of intermediate variables. Training can be argued to be indirectly related to performance, through absorptive capacity in the first place, and innovative capacity in the second, sequentially in this order (three-path mediated effect). Of all immediate relationships received by performance, its explained variance is achieved partly via absorptive capacity and partly via innovation. The direct relationship through training is not significant and only explains a small percentage of the variance in performance. These results have been corroborated by combining two methods of analysis: PLS-SEM and fsQCA, using data from an online survey. This dual methodology in the study of the same phenomenon allows overcoming the limitations of each method, which would not have been possible with a single methodological approach, and confirming the findings obtained by any of them.
Fallah, Nader; Hsu, Chun L; Bolandzadeh, Niousha; Davis, Jennifer; Beattie, B Lynn; Graf, Peter; Liu-Ambrose, Teresa
We investigated: (1) the effect of different targeted exercise training on an individual's overall probability for cognitive improvement, maintenance, or decline; and (2) the simultaneous effect of targeted exercise training and baseline function on the dynamics of executive functions when a multistate transition model is used. Analyses are based on a 12-month randomized clinical trial including 155 community-dwelling women 65-75 years of age who were randomly allocated to once-weekly resistance training (1x RT; n = 54), twice-weekly resistance training (2x RT; n = 52), or twice-weekly balance and tone training (BAT; n = 49). The primary outcome measure was performance on the Stroop test, an executive cognitive test of selective attention and conflict resolution. Secondary outcomes of executive functions were set shifting and working memory. Individuals in the 1x RT or 2x RT group demonstrated a significantly greater probability for improved performance on the Stroop Test (0.49; 95% confidence interval, 0.41-0.57) compared with those in the BAT group (0.25; 95% confidence interval, 0.25-0.40). Resistance training had significant effects on transitions in selective attention and conflict resolution. Resistance training is efficacious in improving a measure of selective attention and conflict resolution in older women, probably more so among those with greater baseline cognitive function. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Journal of Modeling, Design and Management of Engineering Systems. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 5, No 1 (2007) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads.
Obuchi, Toshiro; Imakiire, Takayuki; Miyahara, Sou; Nakashima, Hiroyasu; Hamanaka, Wakako; Yanagisawa, Jun; Hamatake, Daisuke; Shiraishi, Takeshi; Moriyama, Shigeharu; Iwasaki, Akinori
We evaluated our simulated major lung resection employing anatomically correct lung models as "off-the-job training" for video-assisted thoracic surgery trainees. A total of 76 surgeons voluntarily participated in our study. They performed video-assisted thoracic surgical lobectomy employing anatomically correct lung models, which are made of sponges so that vessels and bronchi can be cut using usual surgical techniques with typical forceps. After the simulation surgery, participants answered questionnaires on a visual analogue scale, in terms of their level of interest and the reality of our training method as off-the-job training for trainees. We considered that the closer a score was to 10, the more useful our method would be for training new surgeons. Regarding the appeal or level of interest in this simulation surgery, the mean score was 8.3 of 10, and regarding reality, it was 7.0. The participants could feel some of the real sensations of the surgery and seemed to be satisfied to perform the simulation lobectomy. Our training method is considered to be suitable as an appropriate type of surgical off-the-job training.
Full Text Available Introduction: In-service training of nurses plays an indispensable role in improving the quality of inpatient care. Need to enhance the effectiveness of in-service training of nurses is an inevitable requirement. This study attempted to design a new optimal model for in-service training of nurses. Methods: This qualitative study was conducted in two stages during 2015-2016. In the first stage, the Grounded Theory was adopted to explore the process of training 35 participating nurses. The sampling was initially purposeful and then theoretically based on emerging concept. Data were collected through interview, observation and field notes. Moreover, the data were analyzed through Corbin-Strauss method and the data were coded through MAXQDA-10. In the second stage, the findings were employed through Walker and Avant’s strategy for theory construction so as to design an optimal model for in-service training of nursing staff. Results: In the first stage, there were five major themes including unsuccessful mandatory education, empowering education, organizational challenges of education, poor educational management, and educational-occupational resiliency. Empowering education was the core variable derived from the research, based on which a grounded theory was proposed. The new empowering education model was composed of self-directed learning and practical learning. There are several strategies to achieve empowering education, including the fostering of searching skills, clinical performance monitoring, motivational factors, participation in the design and implementation, and problem-solving approach. Conclusion: Empowering education is a new model for in-service training of nurses, which matches the training programs with andragogical needs and desirability of learning among the staff. Owing to its practical nature, the empowering education can facilitate occupational tasks and achieving greater mastery of professional skills among the nurses.
Chaghari, Mahmud; Saffari, Mohsen; Ebadi, Abbas; Ameryoun, Ahmad
In-service training of nurses plays an indispensable role in improving the quality of inpatient care. Need to enhance the effectiveness of in-service training of nurses is an inevitable requirement. This study attempted to design a new optimal model for in-service training of nurses. This qualitative study was conducted in two stages during 2015-2016. In the first stage, the Grounded Theory was adopted to explore the process of training 35 participating nurses. The sampling was initially purposeful and then theoretically based on emerging concept. Data were collected through interview, observation and field notes. Moreover, the data were analyzed through Corbin-Strauss method and the data were coded through MAXQDA-10. In the second stage, the findings were employed through 'Walker and Avants strategy for theory construction so as to design an optimal model for in-service training of nursing staff. In the first stage, there were five major themes including unsuccessful mandatory education, empowering education, organizational challenges of education, poor educational management, and educational-occupational resiliency. Empowering education was the core variable derived from the research, based on which a grounded theory was proposed. The new empowering education model was composed of self-directed learning and practical learning. There are several strategies to achieve empowering education, including the fostering of searching skills, clinical performance monitoring, motivational factors, participation in the design and implementation, and problem-solving approach. Empowering education is a new model for in-service training of nurses, which matches the training programs with andragogical needs and desirability of learning among the staff. Owing to its practical nature, the empowering education can facilitate occupational tasks and achieving greater mastery of professional skills among the nurses.
This book describes the fundamental building-block of many new computer vision systems: dense and robust correspondence estimation. Dense correspondence estimation techniques are now successfully being used to solve a wide range of computer vision problems, very different from the traditional applications such techniques were originally developed to solve. This book introduces the techniques used for establishing correspondences between challenging image pairs, the novel features used to make these techniques robust, and the many problems dense correspondences are now being used to solve. The book provides information to anyone attempting to utilize dense correspondences in order to solve new or existing computer vision problems. The editors describe how to solve many computer vision problems by using dense correspondence estimation. Finally, it surveys resources, code, and data necessary for expediting the development of effective correspondence-based computer vision systems. · Provides i...
Berry, Mary O'Neill; Kuriansky, Judy; Lytle, Megan; Vistman, Bozhena; Mosisili, 'Mathato S; Hlothoane, Lieketso; Matlanyane, Mapeo; Mokobori, Thabang; Mosuhli, Silas; Pebane, Jane
A Girls Empowerment Programme held in 2010 in Lesotho, Sub-Saharan Africa, focused on HIV/AIDS risk reduction and prevention, life skills and entrepreneurial training (income-generating activities). Entrepreneurial training was a crucial part of equipping the camp attendees with basic skills to help them develop sustainable livelihoods. Such skills and financial independence are essential to enable rural girls to complete their secondary schooling (in a fee-based educational system) and to pursue a career, as well as to further help them be less susceptible to transactional sex and its significant risks. The results of a brief process evaluation with some nested supporting data showed considerable improvement in the girls' knowledge about income-generating activities. In addition, almost half of the camp attendees participated in further entrepreneurial training and about half of these girls went on to develop small businesses. Replication of this model of camp training is recommended and being explored in other African countries.
Malvey, Donna M.; Neigel, Alexis R.
We describe the current state of mHealth skills acquisition, education, and training available to clinical professionals in educational programs. We discuss how telemedicine experienced exponential growth due in large part to the ubiquity of the mobile phone. An outcome of this unprecedented growth has been the emergence of the need for technology skills training programs for clinicians that address extant curricula gaps. We propose a model to guide the development of future training programs that incorporate effective training strategies across five domains: (I) digital communication skills; (II) technology literacy and usage skills; (III) deploying telehealth products and services; (VI) regulatory and compliance issues; and (V) telehealth business case. These domains are discussed within the context of interprofessional teams and broader organizational factors. PMID:28736733
Marchand, C; Gagnayre, R; d'Ivernois, J F
There are very few examples of health training assessment in developing countries. Such an undertaking faces a number of difficulties concerning the problems inherent to assessment, the particular and unstable nature of the environment, and the problems associated with humanitarian action and development aid. It is difficult to choose between a formal and a natural approach. Indeed, a dual approach, combining quantitative and qualitative data seems best suited to a variety of cultural contexts of variable stability. Faced with these difficulties, a criteria-based, formative, quality-oriented assessment aimed at improving teaching and learning methods should be able to satisfy the needs of training professionals. We propose a training assessment guide based on an assessment model which aims to improve training techniques using comprehensive, descriptive and prescriptive approaches.
Leiter, Michael P; Zanaletti, William; Argentero, Piergiorgio
This study examined occupational risk perception in relation to safety training and injuries. In a printing industry, 350 workers from 6 departments completed a survey. Data analysis showed significant differences in risk perceptions among departments. Differences in risk perception reflected the type of work and the injury incidents in the departments. A structural equation analysis confirmed a model of risk perception on the basis of employees' evaluation of the prevalence and lethalness of hazards as well as the control over hazards they gain from training. The number of injuries sustained was positively related to the perception of risk exposure and negatively related to evaluations about the safety training. The results highlight the importance of training interventions in increasing workers' adoption of safety procedures and prevention of injuries.
Mautner Markhof, F.
The Hungarian Model project (HMP) reflects the commitment to constant increase of safety and reliability of the NPP Paks, the Government of Hungary and the IAEA. It includes some of the most important nuclear power objectives of Paks NPP, namely the strengthening of NPP personnel training and competence through the application of international best practice, the systematic approach to training (SAT), for training operation and maintenance personnel; setting up a state of-the-art maintenance training center (MTC) at Paks and enhancing safety culture at Paks NPP. The IAEA supported implementation of the HMP through fellowships and scientific visits, expert missions, provision of hardware and software for SAT application, and supply od major new uncontaminated items of actual WWER equipment for the MTC
Zhang Xuetao; Jonasson, Hans; Holmberg, Kjell
A literature review of source modelling of railway noise is reported. Measurements on a special test rig at Surahammar and on the new railway line between Arlanda and Stockholm City are reported and analyzed. In the analysis the train is modelled as a number of point sources with or without directivity and each source is combined with analytical sound propagation theory to predict the sound propagation pattern best fitting the measured data. Wheel/rail rolling noise is considered to be the most important noise source. The rolling noise can be modelled as an array of moving point sources, which have a dipole-like horizontal directivity and some kind of vertical directivity. In general it is necessary to distribute the point sources on several heights. Based on our model analysis the source heights for the rolling noise should be below the wheel axles and the most important height is about a quarter of wheel diameter above the railheads. When train speeds are greater than 250 km/h aerodynamic noise will become important and even dominant. It may be important for low frequency components only if the train speed is less than 220 km/h. Little data are available for these cases. It is believed that aerodynamic noise has dipole-like directivity. Its spectrum depends on many factors: speed, railway system, type of train, bogies, wheels, pantograph, presence of barriers and even weather conditions. Other sources such as fans, engine, transmission and carriage bodies are at most second order noise sources, but for trains with a diesel locomotive engine the engine noise will be dominant if train speeds are less than about 100 km/h. The Nord 2000 comprehensive model for sound propagation outdoors, together with the source model that is based on the understandings above, can suitably handle the problems of railway noise propagation in one-third octave bands although there are still problems left to be solved.
Cheng, Ruijun; Zhou, Jin; Chen, Dewang; Song, Yongduan
This paper presents a parameter analysis method to solve the parameter uncertainty problem for hybrid system and explore the correlation of key parameters for distributed control system. For improving the reusability of control model, the proposed approach provides the support for obtaining the constraint sets of all uncertain parameters in the abstract linear hybrid automata (LHA) model when satisfying the safety requirements of the train control system. Then, in order to solve the state space explosion problem, the online verification method is proposed to monitor the operating status of high-speed trains online because of the real-time property of the train control system. Furthermore, we construct the LHA formal models of train tracking model and movement authority (MA) generation process as cases to illustrate the effectiveness and efficiency of the proposed method. In the first case, we obtain the constraint sets of uncertain parameters to avoid collision between trains. In the second case, the correlation of position report cycle and MA generation cycle is analyzed under both the normal and the abnormal condition influenced by packet-loss factor. Finally, considering stochastic characterization of time distributions and real-time feature of moving block control system, the transient probabilities of wireless communication process are obtained by stochastic time petri nets. - Highlights: • We solve the parameters uncertainty problem by using model-based method. • We acquire the parameter constraint sets by verifying linear hybrid automata models. • Online verification algorithms are designed to monitor the high-speed trains. • We analyze the correlation of key parameters and uncritical parameters. • The transient probabilities are obtained by using reliability analysis.
Full Text Available Modern train control systems rely on a dedicated radio network for train to ground communications. A number of possible alternatives have been analysed to adopt the European Rail Traffic Management System/European Train Control System (ERTMS/ETCS control system on local/regional lines to improve transport capacity. Among them, a communication system based on public networks (cellular&satellite provides an interesting, effective and alternative solution to proprietary and expensive radio networks. To analyse performance of this solution, it is necessary to model the end-to-end delay and message loss to fully characterize the message transfer process from train to ground and vice versa. Starting from the results of a railway test campaign over a 300 km railway line for a cumulative 12,000 traveled km in 21 days, in this paper, we derive a statistical model for the end-to-end delay required for delivering messages. In particular, we propose a two states model allowing for reproducing the main behavioral characteristics of the end-to-end delay as observed experimentally. Model formulation has been derived after deep analysis of the recorded experimental data. When it is applied to model a realistic scenario, it allows for explicitly accounting for radio coverage characteristics, the received power level, the handover points along the line and for the serving radio technology. As an example, the proposed model is used to generate the end-to-end delay profile in a realistic scenario.
AlReefi, Mahmoud A; Nguyen, Lily H P; Mongeau, Luc G; Haq, Bassam Ul; Boyanapalli, Siddharth; Hafeez, Nauman; Cegarra-Escolano, Francois; Tewfik, Marc A
Providing alternative training modalities may improve trainees' ability to perform septoplasty. Three-dimensional printing has been shown to be a powerful tool in surgical training. The objectives of this study were to explain the development of our 3-dimensional (3D) printed septoplasty training model, to assess its face and content validity, and to present evidence supporting its ability to distinguish between levels of surgical proficiency. Imaging data of a patient with a nasal septal deviation was selected for printing. Printing materials reproducing the mechanical properties of human tissues were selected based on literature review and prototype testing. Eight expert rhinologists, 6 senior residents, and 6 junior residents performed endoscopic septoplasties on the model and completed a postsimulation survey. Performance metrics in quality (final product analysis), efficiency (time), and safety (eg, perforation length, nares damage) were recorded and analyzed in a study-blind manner. The model was judged to be anatomically correct and the steps performed realistic, with scores of 4.05 ± 0.82 and 4.2 ± 1, respectively, on a 5-point Likert scale. Ninety-two percent of residents desired the simulator to be integrated into their teaching curriculum. There was a significant difference (p simulator training models for septoplasty. Our model incorporates 2 different materials mixed into the 3 relevant consistencies necessary to simulate septoplasty. Our findings provide evidence supporting the validity of the model. © 2016 ARS-AAOA, LLC.
Akhigbe, Taiwo; Zolnourian, Ardalan; Bulters, Diederik
Effective mentoring is an invaluable element in the development of next generation of neurosurgeons. A mentor helps to develop professional core values, technical and non-technical skills, attitudes and disposition required to be qualified and competent neurosurgeon. Giving the invaluable significance of mentoring in neurosurgery, we undertook this literature review to identify mentoring models evaluating its success and relative benefit. Literature search identified using MeSH word 'mentor', mentoring, mentorship, mentoring model, neurosurgery' in MEDLINE, EMBASE and Scopus databases from 1990 to 2016. Literature reviewed to identify status of mentoring in neurosurgery, potential barriers, pitfalls and future framework for mentoring in neurosurgery. Additional articles identified through manual search of reference lists. A total of 247 studies were obtained from electronic databases, after removing duplicates, abstracts, letters to the editor and non-neurosurgery papers. Sixteen full text articles retrieved out of which five met the inclusion criteria. Generally, there is paucity of articles regarding mentoring in neurosurgery, all included papers were written in English Language, all of them described mentoring model used including simulation, distance, collaborative, facilitative tele-mentoring and peer mentoring. Mentoring in Neurosurgery is an important aspect of personal and professional development of neurosurgical trainees, currently there is decline in traditional apprenticeship due to increase demand for modern use of specialised technology, simulation and tele-medicine in neurosurgery practice. Effective and efficient mentoring will be an interplay of six mentoring models (collaborative, facilitative, distance, simulation, tele mentoring and peer mentoring) identified. Crown Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Høyer, Anne-Sophie; Vignoli, Giulio; Mejer Hansen, Thomas; Thanh Vu, Le; Keefer, Donald A.; Jørgensen, Flemming
Most studies on the application of geostatistical simulations based on multiple-point statistics (MPS) to hydrogeological modelling focus on relatively fine-scale models and concentrate on the estimation of facies-level structural uncertainty. Much less attention is paid to the use of input data and optimal construction of training images. For instance, even though the training image should capture a set of spatial geological characteristics to guide the simulations, the majority of the research still relies on 2-D or quasi-3-D training images. In the present study, we demonstrate a novel strategy for 3-D MPS modelling characterized by (i) realistic 3-D training images and (ii) an effective workflow for incorporating a diverse group of geological and geophysical data sets. The study covers an area of 2810 km2 in the southern part of Denmark. MPS simulations are performed on a subset of the geological succession (the lower to middle Miocene sediments) which is characterized by relatively uniform structures and dominated by sand and clay. The simulated domain is large and each of the geostatistical realizations contains approximately 45 million voxels with size 100 m × 100 m × 5 m. Data used for the modelling include water well logs, high-resolution seismic data, and a previously published 3-D geological model. We apply a series of different strategies for the simulations based on data quality, and develop a novel method to effectively create observed spatial trends. The training image is constructed as a relatively small 3-D voxel model covering an area of 90 km2. We use an iterative training image development strategy and find that even slight modifications in the training image create significant changes in simulations. Thus, this study shows how to include both the geological environment and the type and quality of input information in order to achieve optimal results from MPS modelling. We present a practical workflow to build the training image and
Lic. Ramiro Gross Tur
Full Text Available The modeling method has often been developed or recognized in various processes related to training of psychologists studies. It has educational value as its application favors the appropriation of skills and capacity necessary for the performance on the student. However, the method has limitations because it does not exhaust the content praxiological psychology in the teaching-learning process. Therefore, the modeling required to be valued its limitations and potentials in order to plan actions necessary to improve or complement other methods, which serve to improve the process of scientific and professional training of psychologists, with emphasis on the labor dimension.
Manwell, J.F.; McGowan, J.G.; Abdulwahid, U.; Rogers, A. [Univ. of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA (United States); McNiff, B. [McNiff Light Industry, Blue Hill, ME (United States)
This paper presents a summary of a wind turbine drive train dynamics code that has been under development at the University of Massachusetts, under National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) support. The code is intended to be used to assist in the proper design and selection of drive train components. This work summarizes the development of the equations of motion for the model, and discusses the method of solution. In addition, a number of comparisons with analytical solutions and experimental field data are given. The summary includes conclusions and suggestions for future work on the model. 13 refs., 10 figs.
Taber, Traci A; Lambright, Nathan; Luiselli, James K
We evaluated the effects of abbreviated (i.e., one-session) video modeling on delivery of student-preferred attention by educational care-providers. The video depicted a novel care-provider interacting with and delivering attention to the student. Within a concurrent multiple baseline design, video modeling increased delivery of the targeted attention for all participants as well as their delivery of another type of attention that was not trained although these effects were variable within and between care-providers. We discuss the clinical and training implications from these findings.
Satya Murty, S.A.V.
Summary: • Modeling and Development of Neutronics, Primary & Secondary, SGDHR, Core Temperature Monitoring, Steam Water, Electrical and Fuel Handling are completed. Models have been Integrated ,Tested and ported. • Integrated performance testing under Steady State condition has been completed. • Bench Mark transients and checking of related system dynamics is completed. • Verification and Validation of all the process models has been completed by the Design Experts. • Presently, System Familiarization Training for the operators using KALBR-SIM is in progress
Chandra Ertikanto; Herpratiwi; Tina Yunarti; Post-graduate School of Mathematics Education, Faculty of Teacher Training and Education, University of Lampung, Indonesia,
A teacher training program, named Model-Supported Scientific Inquiry Training Program (MSSITP) has been successfully developed to improve the inquiry skills of Indonesian elementary teachers. The skills enhanced by MSSITP are defining problems, formulating hypotheses, planning and doing investigations, drawing conclusions, and communicating the results. This teacher training program was evaluated by 48 teachers selected by stratified random sampling technique from 48 element...
Full Text Available Background: There are several evaluation models that can be used to evaluate the effect of in-service training; one of them is the Kirkpatrick model. The aim of the present study is to assess the in-service training of cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR for nurses based on the Kirkpatrick′s model. Materials and Methods: This study is a cross-sectional study based on the Kirkpatrick′s model in which the efficacy of in-service training of CPR to nurses was assessed in the Shahadaye Lenjan Hospital in Isfahan province in 2014. 80 nurses and Nurse′s aides participated in the study after providing informed consent. The in-service training course was evaluated in reaction, learning, behavior, and results level of the Kirkpatrick model. Data were collected through a researcher-made questionnaire. Results: The mean age of the participants was 35 ± 8.5 years. The effectiveness score obtained in the reaction level (first level in the Kirkpatrick model was 4.2 ± 0.32. The effectiveness score in the second level of model or the learning level was 4.70 ± 0.09, which is statistically significant (P < 0.001. The effectiveness score at the third and fourth level were 4.1 ± 0.34 and 4.3 ± 0.12, respectively. Total effectiveness score was 4.35. Conclusions: The results of this study showed that CPR in-service training has a favorable effect on all four levels of the Kirkpatrick model for nurses and nurse′s aides.
Tube, Milton Ignacio Carvalho; Netto, Fernando Antonio Campelo Spencer; Costa, Elaine; Lafayette, Daniell de Siqueira Araújo; Lima, George Augusto da Fonseca Carvalho Antunes; Menezes, Jamile Isabela Santos de; Aires, Vinicius Gueiros Buenos; Ferraz, Álvaro Antônio Bandeira; Campos, Josemberg Marins; Moraes, Fernando Ribeiro de
Implement a constructivist approach in thoracic drainage training in surgical ex vivo pig models, to compare the acquisition of homogeneous surgical skills between medical students. Experimental study, prospective, transversal, analytical, controlled, three steps. Selection, training, evaluation. a) students without training in thoracic drainage; b) without exposure to constructivist methodology. 2) EXCLUSION CRITERIA: a) students developed surgical skills; b) a history of allergy. (N = 312). Two groups participated in the study: A and B. Lecture equal for both groups. Differentiated teaching: group A, descriptive and informative method; group B, learning method based on problems. A surgical ex vivo pig model for training the chest drain was created. Were applied pre and post-test, test goal-discursive and OSATS scale. Theoretical averages: Group A = 9.5 ± 0.5; Group B = 8.8 ± 1.1 (p = 0.006). Medium Practices: Group A = 22.8 ± 1.8; Group B = 23.0 ± 2.8 (p <0.001). Through the constructivist methodology implemented in the thoracic drainage training in surgical ex vivo pig models, has proven the acquisition of surgical skills homogeneous compared among medical students.
Alkhodary, Mohamed Ahmed; Abdelraheim, Abdelraheim Emad Eldin; Elsantawy, Abd Elaleem Hassan; Al Dahman, Yousef Hamad; Al-Mershed, Mohammed
It takes a lot of training on patients for both undergraduate to develop clinical sense as regards to the placement of dental implants in the jaw bones, also, the models provided by the dental implant companies for training are usually made of strengthened synthetic foams, which are far from the composition, and tactile sense provided by natural bone during drilling for clinical placement of dental implants. This is an in-vitro experimental study which utilized bovine femur bone, where the shaft of the femur provided the surface compact layer, and the head provided the cancellous bone layer, to provide a training model similar to jaw bones macroscopic anatomy. Both the compact and cancellous bone samples were characterized using mechanical compressive testing. The elastic moduli of the cancellous and cortical femur bone were comparable to those of the human mandible, and the prepared training model provided a more lifelike condition during the drilling and placement of dental implants. The composite bone model developed simulated the macroscopic anatomy of the jaw bones having a surface layer of compact bone, and a core of cancellous bone, and provided a better and a more natural hands-on experience for placement of dental implants as compared to plastic models made of polyurethane.
Li, Feng; Jiang, Fan; Jin, Xing-Ming; Shen, Xiao-Ming
The object of this study was to assess, in cost-effective measures, 3 different models for pediatric first-aid training among caregivers and teachers. Quasi-experimental design was used. A stratified random sampling method was used to obtain 1282 teachers working at nurseries and kindergartens in Shanghai that consists of 18 districts and 1 county. One thousand two hundred eighty-two teachers were allocated randomly to the 3 models of training: 441 to interactive training model (group A), 441 to lecture-based training model (group B), and 400 to video instruction training model (group C). The first-aid knowledge in the 3 models was evaluated before and after the training. There was a statistical significance in the results of postassessment among the 3 training models. In group A, 329 (87.3%) trainees passed the course; in group B, 294 (81.7%) passed; and in group C, 262 (79.4%) passed. The total cost of group A was ¥2361 per edition, the total cost of group B was ¥1955 per edition, and the total cost of group C was ¥1064 per edition (P training model may slightly increase the rate of trainees who passed the course, the cost-effectiveness of video instruction training model is clearly superior.
Clevin, L.; Grantcharov, T.P.
OBJECTIVE: Laparoscopic box model trainers have been used in training curricula for a long time, however data on their impact on skills acquisition is still limited. Our aim was to validate a low cost box model trainer as a tool for the training of skills relevant to laparoscopic surgery. DESIGN:...... the VR system. Trainees who used the box model trainer showed significant improvement compared to the control group. Box model trainers are valid tools for laparoscopic skills training and should be implemented in the comprehensive training curricula in gynaecology Udgivelsesdato: 2008...
E. B. Demchenko
Full Text Available Purpose. One of the priorities of station sorting complex functioning improvement is the breaking-up process energy consumptions reduction, namely: fuel consumption for train pushing and electric energy consumption for cut braking. In this regard, an effective solution of the problem of energy consumption reduction at breaking-up subsystem requires a comprehensive handling of train pushing and cut rolling down processes. At the same time, the analysis showed that the current task of pushing process improvement and cut rolling down effectiveness increase are solved separately. To solve this problem it is necessary to develop the complex simulation model of train breaking up process at humps. Methodology. Pushing process simulation was done based on adapted under the shunting conditions traction calculations. In addition, the features of shunting locomotives work at the humps were taken into account. In order to realize the current pushing mode the special algorithm of hump locomotive controlling, which along with the safety shunting operation requirements takes into account behavioral factors associated with engineer control actions was applied. This algorithm provides train smooth acceleration and further movement with speed, which is close to the set speed. Hump locomotive fuel consumptions were determined based on the amount of mechanical work performed by locomotive traction. Findings. The simulation model of train pushing process was developed and combined with existing cut rolling down model. Cut initial velocity is determined during simulation process. The obtained initial velocity is used for further cut rolling process modeling. In addition, the modeling resulted in sufficiently accurate determination of the fuel rates consumed for train breaking-up. Originality. The simulation model of train breaking-up process at the humps, which in contrast to the existing models allows reproducing complexly all the elements of this process in detail
Lichtenberger, John P; Tatum, Peter S; Gada, Satyen; Wyn, Mark; Ho, Vincent B; Liacouras, Peter
This work describes customized, task-specific simulation models derived from 3D printing in clinical settings and medical professional training programs. Simulation models/task trainers have an array of purposes and desired achievements for the trainee, defining that these are the first step in the production process. After this purpose is defined, computer-aided design and 3D printing (additive manufacturing) are used to create a customized anatomical model. Simulation models then undergo initial in-house testing by medical specialists followed by a larger scale beta testing. Feedback is acquired, via surveys, to validate effectiveness and to guide or determine if any future modifications and/or improvements are necessary. Numerous custom simulation models have been successfully completed with resulting task trainers designed for procedures, including removal of ocular foreign bodies, ultrasound-guided joint injections, nerve block injections, and various suturing and reconstruction procedures. These task trainers have been frequently utilized in the delivery of simulation-based training with increasing demand. 3D printing has been integral to the production of limited-quantity, low-cost simulation models across a variety of medical specialties. In general, production cost is a small fraction of a commercial, generic simulation model, if available. These simulation and training models are customized to the educational need and serve an integral role in the education of our military health professionals.
Beh, Eric J
A comprehensive overview of the internationalisation of correspondence analysis Correspondence Analysis: Theory, Practice and New Strategies examines the key issues of correspondence analysis, and discusses the new advances that have been made over the last 20 years. The main focus of this book is to provide a comprehensive discussion of some of the key technical and practical aspects of correspondence analysis, and to demonstrate how they may be put to use. Particular attention is given to the history and mathematical links of the developments made. These links include not just those majo
Foo Say Wei
Full Text Available Hidden Markov model (HMM has been a popular mathematical approach for sequence classification such as speech recognition since 1980s. In this paper, a novel two-channel training strategy is proposed for discriminative training of HMM. For the proposed training strategy, a novel separable-distance function that measures the difference between a pair of training samples is adopted as the criterion function. The symbol emission matrix of an HMM is split into two channels: a static channel to maintain the validity of the HMM and a dynamic channel that is modified to maximize the separable distance. The parameters of the two-channel HMM are estimated by iterative application of expectation-maximization (EM operations. As an example of the application of the novel approach, a hierarchical speaker-dependent visual speech recognition system is trained using the two-channel HMMs. Results of experiments on identifying a group of confusable visemes indicate that the proposed approach is able to increase the recognition accuracy by an average of 20% compared with the conventional HMMs that are trained with the Baum-Welch estimation.
Li, Qi; Wang, Ke; Cheng, Shili; Li, Wuqian; Song, Xiaodong
The vibration of a bridge must be determined in order to predict the bridge noise during a train pass-by. It can be generally solved with different models either in the time domain or the frequency domain. The computation cost and accuracy of these models vary a lot in a wide frequency band. This study aims to compare the results obtained from various models for recommending the most suitable model in further noise prediction. First, train-track-bridge models in the time domain are developed by using the finite element method and mode superposition method. The rails are modeled by Timoshenko beam elements and the bridge is respectively modeled by shell elements and volume elements. Second, power flow models for the coupled system are established in the frequency domain. The rails are modelled by infinite Timoshenko beams and the bridge is respectively represented by three finite element models, an infinite Kirchhoff plate, and an infinite Mindlin plate model. The vibration at given locations of the bridge and the power input to the bridges through the rail fasteners are calculated using these models. The results show that the shear deformation of the bridge deck has significant influences on the bridge vibration at medium-to-high frequencies. The Mindlin plate model can be used to represent the U-shaped girder to obtain the power input to the bridge with high accuracy and efficiency. (paper)
Enciso, Silvia; Díaz-Güemes, Idoia; Usón, Jesús; Sánchez-Margallo, Francisco Miguel
Our objective was to assess a laparoscopic training model for general surgery residents. Twelve general surgery residents carried out a training program, consisting of a theoretical session (one hour) and a hands-on session on simulator (7 h) and on animal model (13 h). For the first and last repetitions of simulator tasks and the Nissen fundoplication technique, time and scores from the global rating scale objective structured assessment of technical skills (OSATS) were registered. Before and after the course, participants performed 4 tasks on the virtual reality simulator LAPMentor™: 1) hand-eye coordination, 2) hand-hand coordination, 3) transference of objects and 4) cholecystectomy task, registering time and movement metrics. Moreover, the residents completed a questionnaire related to the training components on a 5-point rating scale. The last repetition of the tasks and the Nissen fundoplication technique were performed faster and with a higher OSATS score. After the course, the participants performed all LAPMentor™ tasks faster, increasing the speed of movements in all tasks. Number of movements decreased in tasks 2, 3 and 4; as well as path length in tasks 2 and 4. Training components were positively rated by residents, being the suture task the aspect best rated (4.90 ± 0.32). This training model in digestive laparoscopic surgery has demonstrated to be valid for the improvement of basic and advanced skills of general surgery residents. Intracorporeal suturing and the animal model were the best rated training elements. Copyright © 2015 AEC. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.
Kaux, Jean-François; Libertiaux, Vincent; Leprince, Pierre; Fillet, Marianne; Denoel, Vincent; Wyss, Clémence; Lecut, Christelle; Gothot, André; Le Goff, Caroline; Croisier, Jean-Louis; Crielaard, Jean-Michel; Drion, Pierre
The tendon is a dynamic entity that remodels permanently. Platelet-rich plasma (PRP) injection has been shown to have a beneficial effect on tendon healing after lesion in rats. Furthermore, eccentric exercise seems to improve the mechanical quality of the tendon. A combination of PRP injection and eccentric training might be more effective than either treatment alone. Controlled laboratory study. Adult male rats were anesthetized, an incision was performed in the middle of their left patellar tendon and an injection of physiological fluid (PF) or homologous PRP was randomly made at the lesion level. The rats were then divided into 2 groups: the eccentric group, undergoing eccentric training 3 times a week, and the untrained group, without any training. Thus, 4 groups were compared. After 5 weeks, the tendons were removed and their ultimate tensile strength and energy were measured. Tendons were frozen for proteomic analyses when all biomechanical tests were completed. Statistical analysis was performed with linear mixed effect models. No significant difference was found between the treatments using PF injection or PRP injection alone. However, the value of the ultimate tensile force at rupture was increased by 4.5 N (108% of control, P = .006) when eccentric training was performed. An intragroup analysis revealed that eccentric training significantly improved the ultimate force values for the PRP group. Proteomic analysis revealed that eccentric training led to an increase in abundance of several cytoskeletal proteins in the PF group, while a decrease in abundance of enzymes of the glycolytic pathway occurred in the PRP-treated groups, indicating that this treatment might redirect the exercise-driven metabolic plasticity of the tendon. Eccentric training altered the metabolic plasticity of tendon and led to an improvement of injured tendon resistance regardless of the treatment injected (PF or PRP). This study demonstrates the necessity of eccentric rehabilitation
Olivieri, Laura J; Su, Lillian; Hynes, Conor F; Krieger, Axel; Alfares, Fahad A; Ramakrishnan, Karthik; Zurakowski, David; Marshall, M Blair; Kim, Peter C W; Jonas, Richard A; Nath, Dilip S
High-fidelity simulation using patient-specific three-dimensional (3D) models may be effective in facilitating pediatric cardiac intensive care unit (PCICU) provider training for clinical management of congenital cardiac surgery patients. The 3D-printed heart models were rendered from preoperative cross-sectional cardiac imaging for 10 patients undergoing congenital cardiac surgery. Immediately following surgical repair, a congenital cardiac surgeon and an intensive care physician conducted a simulation training session regarding postoperative care utilizing the patient-specific 3D model for the PCICU team. After the simulation, Likert-type 0 to 10 scale questionnaire assessed participant perception of impact of the training session. Seventy clinicians participated in training sessions, including 22 physicians, 38 nurses, and 10 ancillary care providers. Average response to whether 3D models were more helpful than standard hand off was 8.4 of 10. Questions regarding enhancement of understanding and clinical ability received average responses of 9.0 or greater, and 90% of participants scored 8 of 10 or higher. Nurses scored significantly higher than other clinicians on self-reported familiarity with the surgery (7.1 vs. 5.8; P = .04), clinical management ability (8.6 vs. 7.7; P = .02), and ability enhancement (9.5 vs. 8.7; P = .02). Compared to physicians, nurses and ancillary providers were more likely to consider 3D models more helpful than standard hand off (8.7 vs. 7.7; P = .05). Higher case complexity predicted greater enhancement of understanding of surgery (P = .04). The 3D heart models can be used to enhance congenital cardiac critical care via simulation training of multidisciplinary intensive care teams. Benefit may be dependent on provider type and case complexity. © The Author(s) 2016.
Full Text Available Transformational learning is the focus of 21st century global educational reforms. In India there is a need to amalgamate the skills and knowledge of medical, nursing and public health practitioners and to develop robust leadership competencies among them. This initiative proposed to identify interdisciplinary leadership competencies among Indian health practitioners, and to develop a training program for interdisciplinary leadership skills through an Innovation Collaborative. Medical, nursing and public health institutions partnered in this endeavour. An exhaustive literature search was undertaken to identify leadership competencies in these three professions. Published evidence was utilized in searching for the need for interdisciplinary training of health practitioners, including current scenarios in inter-professional health education and the key competencies required. The interdisciplinary leadership competencies identified were: self-awareness, vision, self-regulation, motivation, decisiveness, integrity, interpersonal communication skills, strategic planning, team-building, innovation and being an effective change agent. Subsequently, a training program was developed and three training sessions were piloted with 66 participants. Each cohort comprised of a mix of participants from different disciplines. The pilot training guided the development of a training model for building interdisciplinary leadership skills and organizing interdisciplinary leadership workshops. The need for interdisciplinary leadership competencies is recognized. The long-term objective of the training model is integration into the regular medical, nursing and public health curricula, with the aim of developing interdisciplinary leadership skills among them. Although challenging, formal incorporation of leadership skills into health professional education is possible within the interdisciplinary classroom setting using principles of transformative learning.
Schoeff, Stephen; Hernandez, Brian; Robinson, Derek J; Jameson, Mark J; Shonka, David C
To compare the effectiveness of massed versus interval training when teaching otolaryngology residents microvascular suturing on a validated microsurgical model. Otolaryngology residents were placed into interval (n = 7) or massed (n = 7) training groups. The interval group performed three separate 30-minute practice sessions separated by at least 1 week, and the massed group performed a single 90-minute practice session. Both groups viewed a video demonstration and recorded a pretest prior to the first training session. A post-test was administered following the last practice session. At an academic medical center, 14 otolaryngology residents were assigned using stratified randomization to interval or massed training. Blinded evaluators graded performance using a validated microvascular Objective Structured Assessment of Technical Skill tool. The tool is comprised of two major components: task-specific score (TSS) and global rating scale (GRS). Participants also received pre- and poststudy surveys to compare subjective confidence in multiple aspects of microvascular skill acquisition. Overall, all residents showed increased TSS and GRS on post- versus pretest. After completion of training, the interval group had a statistically significant increase in both TSS and GRS, whereas the massed group's increase was not significant. Residents in both groups reported significantly increased levels of confidence after completion of the study. Self-directed learning using a chicken thigh artery model may benefit microsurgical skills, competence, and confidence for resident surgeons. Interval training results in significant improvement in early development of microvascular anastomosis skills, whereas massed training does not. NA. Laryngoscope, 127:2490-2494, 2017. © 2017 The American Laryngological, Rhinological and Otological Society, Inc.
Nikolaev, E. I.; Dvoryaninov, P. V.; Lensky, Y. Y.; Drozdovsky, N. S.
Deep learning has shown real promise for the classification efficiency for hand gesture recognition problems. In this paper, the authors present experimental results for a deeply-trained model for hand gesture recognition through the use of hand images. The authors have trained two deep convolutional neural networks. The first architecture produces the hand position as a 2D-vector by input hand image. The second one predicts the hand gesture class for the input image. The first proposed architecture produces state of the art results with an accuracy rate of 89% and the second architecture with split input produces accuracy rate of 85.2%. In this paper, the authors also propose using virtual data for training a supervised deep model. Such technique is aimed to avoid using original labelled images in the training process. The interest of this method in data preparation is motivated by the need to overcome one of the main challenges of deep supervised learning: using a copious amount of labelled data during training.
Henn, R. Frank; Shah, Neel; Warner, Jon J.P.; Gomoll, Andreas H.
Purpose The purpose of this study was to quantify the benefits of shoulder arthroscopy simulator training with a cadaver model of shoulder arthroscopy. Methods Seventeen first year medical students with no prior experience in shoulder arthroscopy were enrolled and completed this study. Each subject completed a baseline proctored arthroscopy on a cadaveric shoulder, which included controlling the camera and completing a standard series of tasks using the probe. The subjects were randomized, and nine of the subjects received training on a virtual reality simulator for shoulder arthroscopy. All subjects then repeated the same cadaveric arthroscopy. The arthroscopic videos were analyzed in a blinded fashion for time to task completion and subjective assessment of technical performance. The two groups were compared with students t-tests, and change over time within groups was analyzed with paired t-tests. Results There were no observed differences between the two groups on the baseline evaluation. The simulator group improved significantly from baseline with respect to time to completion and subjective performance (parthroscopy simulator training resulted in significant benefits in clinical shoulder arthroscopy time to task completion in this cadaver model. This study provides important additional evidence of the benefit of simulators in orthopaedic surgical training. Clinical Relevance There may be a role for simulator training in shoulder arthroscopy education. PMID:23591380
Henn, R Frank; Shah, Neel; Warner, Jon J P; Gomoll, Andreas H
The purpose of this study was to quantify the benefits of shoulder arthroscopy simulator training with a cadaveric model of shoulder arthroscopy. Seventeen first-year medical students with no prior experience in shoulder arthroscopy were enrolled and completed this study. Each subject completed a baseline proctored arthroscopy on a cadaveric shoulder, which included controlling the camera and completing a standard series of tasks using the probe. The subjects were randomized, and 9 of the subjects received training on a virtual reality simulator for shoulder arthroscopy. All subjects then repeated the same cadaveric arthroscopy. The arthroscopic videos were analyzed in a blinded fashion for time to task completion and subjective assessment of technical performance. The 2 groups were compared by use of Student t tests, and change over time within groups was analyzed with paired t tests. There were no observed differences between the 2 groups on the baseline evaluation. The simulator group improved significantly from baseline with respect to time to completion and subjective performance (P arthroscopy simulator training resulted in significant benefits in clinical shoulder arthroscopy time to task completion in this cadaveric model. This study provides important additional evidence of the benefit of simulators in orthopaedic surgical training. There may be a role for simulator training in shoulder arthroscopy education. Copyright © 2013 Arthroscopy Association of North America. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Training of Operational Safety at Paks NPP is described including all the features of the project including namely: description of Paks NPP, its properties and performances; reasons for establishing Hungarian Model Project, its main goals, mentioning Hungarian and IAEA experts involved in the Project, its organization, operation, budget, current status together with its short term and long term impact
Full Text Available This study aimed to enhance third and fourth graders’ text comprehension at the situation model level. Therefore, we tested a reading strategy training developed to target inference making skills, which are widely considered to be pivotal to situation model construction. The training was grounded in contemporary literature on situation model-based inference making and addressed the source (text-based versus knowledge-based, type (necessary versus unnecessary for (re-establishing coherence, and depth of an inference (making single lexical inferences versus combining multiple lexical inferences, as well as the type of searching strategy (forward versus backward. Results indicated that, compared to a control group (n = 51, children who followed the experimental training (n = 67 improved their inference making skills supportive to situation model construction. Importantly, our training also resulted in increased levels of general reading comprehension and motivation. In sum, this study showed that a ‘level of text representation’-approach can provide a useful framework to teach inference making skills to third and fourth graders.
Zhang, Yili; Smolen, Paul; Alberini, Cristina M.; Baxter, Douglas A.; Byrne, John H.
Inhibitory avoidance (IA) training in rodents initiates a molecular cascade within hippocampal neurons. This cascade contributes to the transition of short- to long-term memory (i.e., consolidation). Here, a differential equation-based model was developed to describe a positive feedback loop within this molecular cascade. The feedback loop begins…
The article deals with the study of foreign experience in training engineering educators for modeling technological processes. It has been stated that engineering education is a field that is being dramatically developed taking into account the occurring changes in educational paradigms, global higher education space, national higher education…
Rispoli, Mandy; Neely, Leslie; Healy, Olive; Gregori, Emily
The purpose of this study was to investigate the efficacy and efficiency of a training package to teach public school special educators to conduct functional analyses of challenging behavior. Six public school educators were divided into two cohorts of three and were taught two models of functional analysis of challenging behavior: traditional and…
Farrell, Gerald A; Shafiei, Touran; Salmon, Peter
This paper draws on theory and evidence to develop a conceptual staff training model for the management of 'challenging behaviour'. Staff working with clients who are experienced as challenging commonly report negative feelings such as anxiety, anger, guilt, fear, self-blame and powerlessness, as well as dissatisfaction with their jobs. Current training programmes in challenging behaviour offer a 'smorgasbord' of content, without a clearly defined conceptual framework. Medline and PsychInfo were searched for papers in English from 1998 to 2008, linking 'nurs*' to 'challenging behavio*' and its related terms. Additional hand-searching identified informative papers from disciplines outside nursing older than the search period. We developed an applied model for training educators in respect of challenging behaviours. The model directs educators to consider: the influence of the nurse, including their values, emotional processes and behavioural skills; features of the client; and features of the situation in which the behaviour occurs, including its culture and working practices and physical environment. The most striking implication of the model is that it explicitly recognizes the importance of domains of learning other than skill. This enables educators to find educationally appropriate responses to resource limitations that inevitably constrain training. Challenging behaviour should be considered as a product of several intertwined factors: the actors involved - nurses, clients and others - and the situation in which the behaviour occurs, including its culture and working practices and physical environment.
Kannan, Kalpana; Narayanan, Krishnan
This paper presents a structural equation modelling (SEM) approach for blended synchronous teacher training workshop. It examines the relationship among various factors that influence the Satisfaction (SAT) of participating teachers. Data were collected with the help of a questionnaire from about 500 engineering college teachers. These teachers…
Full Text Available Low ability of formal thinking students caused the learning outcomes they get too low. This study aims to determine the effectiveness of the inquiry learning model training in improving students' ability to think formal. The design was used quasi-experimental "non-equivalent groups pretest-posttest design". Implementation experimental class learning with inquiry learning model training, control class learning with direct instruction. Data obtained through a formal thinking ability test thinking ability. Learning model efectivity in improving formal thinking ability is determined based on the gain score average which normalized by average difference test of statistic, namely t test. The results of the reasearch found that the inquiry training learning model is more effective in improving students formal thinking ability compared with the direct instruction learning model. The N-gain percentage of formal thinking ability of students in the experiment class in the indicators of hypothetical deductive thinking, combination thinking and reflection thinking are in the medium category, just proportional thinking is the high category. N-gain average percentage of control class for the hypothesis deductive thinking is just in the low category, while the proportional thinking, combination thinking and reflection thinking are in the medium category.Rendahnya kemampuan berpikir formal siswa menyebabkan hasil belajar yang mereka peroleh juga rendah. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui efektivitas model pembelajaran inquiry training dalam meningkatkan kemampuan berpikir formal siswa. Disain yang digunakan adalah kuasi eksperimen “non-equivalent groups pretest-posttest design”. Implementasi pembelajaran kelas eksperimen dibelajarkan dengan model pembelajaran inquiry training, kelas kontrol dengan model pembelajaran direct instruction. Data kemampuan berpikir formal diperoleh melalui tes kemampuan berpikir formal. Efektivitas model
Allori, Alexander C; Marcus, Jeffrey R; Daluvoy, Sanjay; Bond, Jennifer
Objective : The learning process for intraoral procedures is arguably more difficult than for other surgical procedures because of the assistant's severely limited visibility. Consequently, trainees may not be able to adequately see and follow all steps of the procedure, and attending surgeons may be less willing to entrust trainees with critical portions of the procedure. In this report, we propose a video-assisted approach to intraoral procedures that improves lighting, visibility, and potential for effective education and training. Design : Technical report (idea/innovation). Setting : Tertiary referral hospital. Patients : Children with cleft palate and velopharyngeal insufficiency requiring surgery. Interventions : Video-assisted palatoplasty, sphincteroplasty, and pharyngoplasty. Main Outcome Measures : Qualitative and semiquantitative educational outcomes, including learner perception regarding "real-time" (video-assisted surgery) and "non-real-time" (video-library-based) surgical education. Results : Trainees were strongly in favor of the video-assisted modality in "real-time" surgical training. Senior trainees identified more opportunities in which they had been safely entrusted to perform critical portions of the procedure, corresponding with satisfaction with the learning process scores, and they showed greater comfort/confidence scores related to performing the procedure under supervision and alone. Conclusions : Adoption of the video-assisted approach can be expected to markedly improve the learning curve for surgeons in training. This is now standard practice at our institution. We are presently conducting a full educational technology assessment to better characterize the effect on knowledge acquisition and technical improvement.
Full Text Available This paper proposes a novel method to solve the problem of train communication network design. Firstly, we put forward a general description of such problem. Then, taking advantage of the bilevel programming theory, we created the cost-reliability-delay model (CRD model that consisted of two parts: the physical topology part aimed at obtaining the networks with the maximum reliability under constrained cost, while the logical topology part focused on the communication paths yielding minimum delay based on the physical topology delivered from upper level. We also suggested a method to solve the CRD model, which combined the genetic algorithm and the Floyd-Warshall algorithm. Finally, we used a practical example to verify the accuracy and the effectiveness of the CRD model and further applied the novel method on a train with six carriages.
Levin, Tomer T; Parker, Patricia A
While ethical conflicts in the provision of healthcare are common, the current third-party mediator model is limited by a lack of expert ethical mediators, who are often not on site when conflict escalates. In order to improve clinical outcomes in situations such as conflicts at the end of life, we suggest that clinicians-physicians, nurses and social workers-be trained to prevent and de-escalate emerging conflicts. This can be achieved using a mediation model framed by a communication-training approach. A case example is presented and the model is discussed. The implication of this preventative/early intervention model for improving clinical outcomes, in particular end-of life conflict, is considered. Copyright 2015 The Journal of Clinical Ethics. All rights reserved.
... would facilitate criminal activity; (ii) If the inmate is on a restricted correspondence list; (iii) If... if it might facilitate criminal activity. Correspondence which may be rejected by a Warden includes... which may lead to the use of physical violence or group disruption; (3) Information of escape plots, of...
Han, Kyongwon; Nam, Youngmi; Hwang, Ina; Lee, Jisuk; Ko, Hansuk; Lee, Taejoon
The Korean nuclear community also recognizes the importance of outreach from its experience with rad waste and nuclear power programs. Accordingly, nationwide programs dealing with public information, support for local community development, and HRD are implemented continuously involving a number of organizations concerned. The Nuclear Training and Education Center (NTC) of the Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI), with its unique function and capability as a national research organization, has needs for the enhancement of public acceptance for KAERI programs, a better contribution to the national effort, and addressing the emerging needs for international education/training on nuclear outreach. This paper presents an integrated education/training based nuclear outreach model with a set of reference program, which is developed for NTC. An integrated education/training based nuclear outreach model for NTC is developed addressing the increasing needs for public acceptance on the peaceful use of nuclear energy, in terms of supporting KAERI activities, contributing to the national nuclear outreach efforts, and promoting international education and training on nuclear outreach. The model, harmonized with the national nuclear outreach system, consists of objectives, target audiences, a set of reference program supported by infrastructure and networking, and an evaluation system. The program is further specified into sub-programs with detailed design for the respective audiences. The developed model with a reference program is characterized by its integrity in terms of encompassing the whole outreach process cycle, and setting up of a target audience based total program structure with existing and new sub-programs. Also, it intends to be sustainable by addressing future generations' needs as well as innovative in the program delivery. The model will be continuously upgraded and applied addressing respective needs of the audiences
Han, Kyongwon; Nam, Youngmi; Hwang, Ina; Lee, Jisuk; Ko, Hansuk; Lee, Taejoon [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)
The Korean nuclear community also recognizes the importance of outreach from its experience with rad waste and nuclear power programs. Accordingly, nationwide programs dealing with public information, support for local community development, and HRD are implemented continuously involving a number of organizations concerned. The Nuclear Training and Education Center (NTC) of the Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI), with its unique function and capability as a national research organization, has needs for the enhancement of public acceptance for KAERI programs, a better contribution to the national effort, and addressing the emerging needs for international education/training on nuclear outreach. This paper presents an integrated education/training based nuclear outreach model with a set of reference program, which is developed for NTC. An integrated education/training based nuclear outreach model for NTC is developed addressing the increasing needs for public acceptance on the peaceful use of nuclear energy, in terms of supporting KAERI activities, contributing to the national nuclear outreach efforts, and promoting international education and training on nuclear outreach. The model, harmonized with the national nuclear outreach system, consists of objectives, target audiences, a set of reference program supported by infrastructure and networking, and an evaluation system. The program is further specified into sub-programs with detailed design for the respective audiences. The developed model with a reference program is characterized by its integrity in terms of encompassing the whole outreach process cycle, and setting up of a target audience based total program structure with existing and new sub-programs. Also, it intends to be sustainable by addressing future generations' needs as well as innovative in the program delivery. The model will be continuously upgraded and applied addressing respective needs of the audiences.
effectiveness of such trainings or of intervention behaviors. The model is consistent with Bandura’s social cognitive theory , which posits that...interactions between environmental and personal factors influence the learning of new behav- ior ( Bandura , 2001). The model is depicted in Figure 1. In the...A., “ Social Cognitive Theory : An Agentic Perspective,” Annual Review of Clinical Psychology, Vol. 52, 2001, pp. 1–26. Bean, G., and K. M. Baber
Vasconcelos, Francisco; Barreto, Joao P; Boyer, Edmond
We propose a new method to add an uncalibrated node into a network of calibrated cameras using only pairwise point correspondences. While previous methods perform this task using triple correspondences, these are often difficult to establish when there is limited overlap between different views. In such challenging cases we must rely on pairwise correspondences and our solution becomes more advantageous. Our method includes an 11-point minimal solution for the intrinsic and extrinsic calibration of a camera from pairwise correspondences with other two calibrated cameras, and a new inlier selection framework that extends the traditional RANSAC family of algorithms to sampling across multiple datasets. Our method is validated on different application scenarios where a lack of triple correspondences might occur: addition of a new node to a camera network; calibration and motion estimation of a moving camera inside a camera network; and addition of views with limited overlap to a Structure-from-Motion model.
Beuthel, Maria Rosa; Buur, Jacob
In this position paper we show how participants in an innovation workshop employ tangible material – a toy train set – to co-construct understandings of a new business model. In multidisciplinary teams the process of developing new terms and concepts together is crucial for work to progress. Every...... to understand how they construct a concept. We observe that the final result of the workshop is indeed innovative and is co-constructed by all group members. We discuss why the toy train works: It keeps both hands and mind busy, it allows silent participation, and it expands the vocabulary of the discussion....
Iordache, F; Bucobo, J C; Devlin, D; You, K; Bergamaschi, R
There are currently no available simulation models for training in colonoscopic stent deployment. The aim of this study was to validate a cadaver model for simulation training in colonoscopy with stent deployment for colonic strictures. This was a prospective study enrolling surgeons at a single institution. Participants performed colonoscopic stenting on a cadaver model. Their performance was assessed by two independent observers. Measurements were performed for quantitative analysis (time to identify stenosis, time for deployment, accuracy) and a weighted score was devised for assessment. The Mann-Whitney U-test and Student's t-test were used for nonparametric and parametric data, respectively. Cohen's kappa coefficient was used for reliability. Twenty participants performed a colonoscopy with deployment of a self-expandable metallic stent in two cadavers (groups A and B) with 20 strictures overall. The median time was 206 s. The model was able to differentiate between experts and novices (P = 0. 013). The results showed a good consensus estimate of reliability, with kappa = 0.571 (P cadaver model described in this study has content, construct and concurrent validity for simulation training in colonoscopic deployment of self-expandable stents for colonic strictures. Further studies are needed to evaluate the predictive validity of this model in terms of skill transfer to clinical practice. Colorectal Disease © 2014 The Association of Coloproctology of Great Britain and Ireland.
Lam, K.; MacBeth, M.J.
According to expert estimate, the nuclear power installed capacity in the Pacific Basin region may reach 20 GWe by the year 2010. Facing a phenomenal growth in nuclear power development in the region, the development of high quality nuclear human resources for 'nuclear power ready' developing countries in the Pacific Basin is an important issue at this time. This paper recommends a timely and cost-effective functional training model to the Pacific Basin countries. The model utilizes high quality simulation executed on low cost and readily available PCs to deliver desktop simulator based training programs, as an efficient and economical complement to full scope simulators, which may not be available for initial training until five years after the NPP project has started. The objective is to ensure the goals of self-reliance and the transfer of necessary NPP knowledge at the onset of the project, to build up a technological infrastructure in areas vital for subsequent technical support of the NPP in design, commissioning, and operator training: comprehension of control systems; familiarization of plant responses to accident conditions; man machine interface (MMI) functions and interactions; early guide to commissioning and operating procedures; presentation to safety reviewers, etc. An example of this model is demonstrated with the use of the (1) CANDU 9 (CANada Deuterium Uranium 900 MW Pressurized Heavy Water Reactor) desktop nuclear simulator and (2) CASSIM (CASsiopeia SIMulation development system). (author)
Full Text Available Lower extremity dysfunction is often associated with hip muscle strength deficiencies. Detailed knowledge of the muscle forces generated in the hip under specific external loading conditions enables specific structures to be trained. The aim of this study was to find the most effective movement type and loading direction to enable the training of specific parts of the hip muscles using a standing posture and a pulley system. In a novel approach to release the predictive power of musculoskeletal modelling techniques based on inverse dynamics, flexion/extension and ab-/adduction movements were virtually created. To demonstrate the effectiveness of this approach, three hip orientations and an external loading force that was systematically rotated around the body were simulated using a state-of-the art OpenSim model in order to establish ideal designs for training of the anterior and posterior parts of the M. gluteus medius (GM. The external force direction as well as the hip orientation greatly influenced the muscle forces in the different parts of the GM. No setting was found for simultaneous training of the anterior and posterior parts with a muscle force higher than 50% of the maximum. Importantly, this study has demonstrated the use of musculoskeletal models as an approach to predict muscle force variations for different strength and rehabilitation exercise variations.
Brewer, Judson A; Elwafi, Hani M; Davis, Jake H
Humans suffer heavily from substance use disorders and other addictions. Despite much effort that has been put into understanding the mechanisms of the addictive process, treatment strategies have remained suboptimal over the past several decades. Mindfulness training, which is based on ancient Buddhist models of human suffering, has recently shown preliminary efficacy in treating addictions. These early models show remarkable similarity to current models of the addictive process, especially in their overlap with operant conditioning (positive and negative reinforcement). Further, they may provide explanatory power for the mechanisms of mindfulness training, including its effects on core addictive elements, such as craving, and the underlying neurobiological processes that may be active therein. In this review, using smoking as an example, we will highlight similarities between ancient and modern views of the addictive process, review studies of mindfulness training for addictions and their effects on craving and other components of this process, and discuss recent neuroimaging findings that may inform our understanding of the neural mechanisms of mindfulness training. 2013 APA, all rights reserved
Konstantinos V. Katsikopoulos
Full Text Available I show how the coherence/correspondence distinction can inform the conversation about decision methods for engineering design. Some engineers argue for the application of multi-attribute utility theory while others argue for what they call heuristics. To clarify the differences among methods, I first ask whether each method aims at achieving coherence or correspondence. By analyzing statements in the design literature, I argue that utility theory aims at achieving coherence and heuristics aim at achieving correspondence. Second, I ask if achieving coherence always implies achieving correspondence. It is important to provide an answer because while in design the objective is correspondence, it is difficult to assess it, and coherence that is easier to assess is used as a surrogate. I argue that coherence does not always imply correspondence in design and that this is also the case in problems studied in judgment and decision-making research. Uncovering the conditions under which coherence implies, or does not imply, correspondence is a topic where engineering design and judgment and decision-making research might connect.
Gilbert, W.S.; Hassenzahl, W.V.
The accepted hypothesis is that training quenches are caused by heat generation when conductors move under Lorentz force. Afterwards no conductor motion will occur until a higher field and greater Lorentz force acts. If superior heat transfer and/or greater temperature margin is provided by operating at lower bath temperature, one might expect that the heat generated by conductor motion will not cause a runaway temperature increase, or quench. To test this hypothesis, the central dipole field in SSC model magnets was ramped at 1.8 K to 7.1 tesla without the magnets' quenching. The bath was then raised to 4.4 K and the magnets quenched at their short sample limits of 6.6 tesla or higher. Comparison with similar magnets trained in He I at 4.4 K is made and the significance of the non-quench training on system operation is discussed
Juan Moreno García-Loygorri
Full Text Available Passenger trains and especially metro trains have been identified as one of the key scenarios for 5G deployments. The wireless channel inside a train car is reported in the frequency range between 26.5 GHz and 40 GHz. These bands have received a lot of interest for high-density scenarios with a high-traffic demand, two of the most relevant aspects of a 5G network. In this paper we provide a full description of the wideband channel estimating Power-Delay Profiles (PDP, Saleh-Valenzuela model parameters, time-of-arrival (TOA ranging, and path-loss results. Moreover, the performance of an automatic clustering algorithm is evaluated. The results show a remarkable degree of coherence and general conclusions are obtained.
Gilbert, W.S.; Hassenzahl, W.V.
The accepted hypothesis is that training quenches are caused by heat generation when conductors move under Lorentz force. Afterwards no conductor motion will occur until a higher field and greater Lorentz force acts. If superior heat transfer and/or greater temperature margin is provided by operating at lower bath temperature, one might expect that the heat generated by conductor motion will not cause a runaway temperature increase, or quench. To test this hypothesis, the central dipole field in SSC model magnets was ramped at 1.8 K to 7.1 tesla without the magnets' quenching. The bath was then raised to 4.4 K and the magnets quenched at their short sample limits of 6.6 tesla or higher. Comparison with similar magnets trained in He I at 4.4 K is made and the significance of the non-quench training on system operation is discussed.
Rezanova, Natalia Jurjevna; Ryan, David
The need to recover a train driver schedule occurs during major disruptions in the daily railway operations. Based on data from the Danish passenger railway operator DSB S-tog A/S, a solution method to the train driver recovery problem (TDRP) is developed. The TDRP is formulated as a set...... branching strategy using the depth-first search of the Branch & Bound tree. The LP relaxation of the TDRP possesses strong integer properties. We present test scenarios generated from the historical real-life operations data of DSB S-tog A/S. The numerical results show that all but one tested instances...... partitioning problem. We define a disruption neighbourhood by identifying a small set of drivers and train tasks directly affected by the disruption. Based on the disruption neighbourhood, the TDRP model is formed and solved. If the TDRP solution provides a feasible recovery for the drivers within...
Full Text Available Purpose: to work out and experimentally prove model of professional-applied physical training of medical higher educational establishments’ students. Material: in the research 80 students participated. In questioning physical education instructors of medical higher education establishments (n=20 participated. Results: influence of students’ professionally important characteristics on general physical fitness indicators and functional state has been shown. Directions of students’ physical fitness parameters’ individual diagnostic and control over physical education effectiveness have been offered. Volumes of physical exercises in the structure of training have been found: special training (15-20% and competition exercises (20-30%. Conclusions: the need in raising the level of professionally important for students’ abilities has been noted: speed power, static power endurance, power endurance, coordination of arms’ movements, static balance.
Ernesto Sasaki Imakuma
Full Text Available Background: Laparoscopy is a well-established alternative to open surgery for treating many diseases. Although laparoscopy has many advantages, it is also associated with disadvantages, such as slow learning curves and prolonged operation time. Fresh frozen cadavers may be an interesting resource for laparoscopic training, and many institutions have access to cadavers. One of the main obstacles for the use of cadavers as a training model is the difficulty in introducing a sufficient pneumoperitoneum to distend the abdominal wall and provide a proper working space. The purpose of this study was to describe a fresh human cadaver model for laparoscopic training without requiring a pneumoperitoneum. Materials and Methods and Results: A fake abdominal wall device was developed to allow for laparoscopic training without requiring a pneumoperitoneum in cadavers. The device consists of a table-mounted retractor, two rail clamps, two independent frame arms, two adjustable handle and rotating features, and two frames of the abdominal wall. A handycam is fixed over a frame arm, positioned and connected through a USB connection to a television and dissector; scissors and other laparoscopic materials are positioned inside trocars. The laparoscopic procedure is thus simulated. Conclusion: Cadavers offer a very promising and useful model for laparoscopic training. We developed a fake abdominal wall device that solves the limitation of space when performing surgery on cadavers and removes the need to acquire more costly laparoscopic equipment. This model is easily accessible at institutions in developing countries, making it one of the most promising tools for teaching laparoscopy.
Pumipuntu, Natawut; Kidrakarn, Pachoen; Chetakarn, Somchock
This research aimed to develop the model of Web-based Collaborative (WBC) Training model for enhancing human performances on ICT for students in Banditpattanasilpa Institute. The research is divided into three phases: 1) investigating students and teachers' training needs on ICT web-based contents and performance, 2) developing a web-based…
Malesela J. Masenya
the formal preparation of pastors; an aspect which has previously been sorely neglected. A training model is suggested to achieve this objective.Keywords: community;�training; pastors
Full Text Available Considering the issues of lower limb rehabilitation robots with single control strategies and poor training types, a training method for improving muscle strength was put forward in this paper. Patients’ muscle strength could be achieved by targeted exercises at the end of rehabilitation. This approach could be realized through programming wires’ force. On the one hand, each wires force was measured by tension sensor and force closed loop control was established to control the value of wires’ force which was acted on trainees. On the other hand, the direction of output force was changed by detecting the trainees’ state of motion and the way of putting load to patient was achieved. Finally, the target of enhancing patients’ muscle strength was realized. Dynamic model was built by means of mechanism and training types of robots. Force closed loop control strategy was established based on training pattern. In view of the characteristics of the redundance and economy of wire control, the process for simple wire's load changes was discussed. In order to confirm the characteristics of robot control system, the controller was simulated in Matlab/Simulink. It was verified that command signal could be traced by control system availably and the load during muscle training would be provided effectively.
Legrand, Sue; Freedman, Glenn
The choice of Ada for software engineering for projects such as the Space Station has resulted in government and industrial groups considering training programs that help workers become familiar with both a software culture and the intricacies of a new computer language. The questions of how much time it takes to learn software engineering with Ada, how much an organization should invest in such training, and how the training should be structured are considered. Software engineering is an emerging, dynamic discipline. It is defined by the author as the establishment and application of sound engineering environments, tools, methods, models, principles, and concepts combined with appropriate standards, guidelines, and practices to support computing which is correct, modifiable, reliable and safe, efficient, and understandable throughout the life cycle of the application. Neither the training programs needed, nor the content of such programs, have been well established. This study addresses the requirements for training for NASA personnel and recommends an implementation plan. A curriculum and a means of delivery are recommended. It is further suggested that a knowledgeable programmer may be able to learn Ada in 5 days, but that it takes 6 to 9 months to evolve into a software engineer who uses the language correctly and effectively. The curriculum and implementation plan can be adapted for each NASA Center according to the needs dictated by each project.
McCabe, O Lee; Everly, George S; Brown, Lisa M; Wendelboe, Aaron M; Abd Hamid, Nor Hashidah; Tallchief, Vicki L; Links, Jonathan M
Surges in demand for professional mental health services occasioned by disasters represent a major public health challenge. To build response capacity, numerous psychological first aid (PFA) training models for professional and lay audiences have been developed that, although often concurring on broad intervention aims, have not systematically addressed pedagogical elements necessary for optimal learning or teaching. We describe a competency-based model of PFA training developed under the auspices of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and the Association of Schools of Public Health. We explain the approach used for developing and refining the competency set and summarize the observable knowledge, skills, and attitudes underlying the 6 core competency domains. We discuss the strategies for model dissemination, validation, and adoption in professional and lay communities.
Full Text Available This study aims to improve the physics Science Process Skills Students on cognitive and psychomotor aspects by using model based Project Based Learning training.The object of this study is the Project Based Learning model used in the learning process of Computationa Physics.The method used is classroom action research through two learning cycles, each cycle consisting of the stages of planning, implementation, observation and reflection. In the first cycle of treatment with their emphasis given training in the first phase up to third in the model Project Based Learning, while the second cycle is given additional treatment with emphasis discussion is collaboration in achieving the best results for each group of products. The results of data analysis showed increased ability to think Students on cognitive and Science Process Skills in the psychomotor.
Pillow, Jonathan W; Ahmadian, Yashar; Paninski, Liam
One of the central problems in systems neuroscience is to understand how neural spike trains convey sensory information. Decoding methods, which provide an explicit means for reading out the information contained in neural spike responses, offer a powerful set of tools for studying the neural coding problem. Here we develop several decoding methods based on point-process neural encoding models, or forward models that predict spike responses to stimuli. These models have concave log-likelihood functions, which allow efficient maximum-likelihood model fitting and stimulus decoding. We present several applications of the encoding model framework to the problem of decoding stimulus information from population spike responses: (1) a tractable algorithm for computing the maximum a posteriori (MAP) estimate of the stimulus, the most probable stimulus to have generated an observed single- or multiple-neuron spike train response, given some prior distribution over the stimulus; (2) a gaussian approximation to the posterior stimulus distribution that can be used to quantify the fidelity with which various stimulus features are encoded; (3) an efficient method for estimating the mutual information between the stimulus and the spike trains emitted by a neural population; and (4) a framework for the detection of change-point times (the time at which the stimulus undergoes a change in mean or variance) by marginalizing over the posterior stimulus distribution. We provide several examples illustrating the performance of these estimators with simulated and real neural data.
Baumann, Ana A; Domenech Rodríguez, Melanie M; Amador, Nancy G; Forgatch, Marion S; Parra-Cardona, J Rubén
This article describes the process of cultural adaptation at the start of the implementation of the Parent Management Training intervention-Oregon model (PMTO) in Mexico City. The implementation process was guided by the model, and the cultural adaptation of PMTO was theoretically guided by the cultural adaptation process (CAP) model. During the process of the adaptation, we uncovered the potential for the CAP to be embedded in the implementation process, taking into account broader training and economic challenges and opportunities. We discuss how cultural adaptation and implementation processes are inextricably linked and iterative and how maintaining a collaborative relationship with the treatment developer has guided our work and has helped expand our research efforts, and how building human capital to implement PMTO in Mexico supported the implementation efforts of PMTO in other places in the United States.
Since 2008, the initial training of Geography teachers in Portugal was combined with the initial training of History teachers. This forced union has led to implications in the practices and teaching of geography. This paper intends to explore the thoughts and actions of the student teachers at the Faculty of Arts and Humanities, University of…
Takahashi, Kuniyuki; Morita, Yuka; Ohshima, Shinsuke; Izumi, Shuji; Kubota, Yamato; Yamamoto, Yutaka; Takahashi, Sugata; Horii, Arata
Making a 3-dimensional (3D) temporal bone model is simple using a plaster powder bed and an inkjet printer. However, it is difficult to reproduce air-containing spaces and precise middle ear structures. The objective of this study was to overcome these problems and create a temporal bone model that would be useful both as a training tool and for preoperative simulation. Drainage holes were made to remove excess materials from air-containing spaces, ossicle ligaments were manually changed to bony structures, and small and/or soft tissue structures were colored differently while designing the 3D models. The outcomes were evaluated by 3 procedures: macroscopic and endoscopic inspection of the model, comparison of computed tomography (CT) images of the model to the original CT, and assessment of tactile sensation and reproducibility by 20 surgeons performing surgery on the model. Macroscopic and endoscopic inspection, CT images, and assessment by surgeons were in agreement in terms of reproducibility of model structures. Most structures could be reproduced, but the stapes, tympanic sinus, and mastoid air cells were unsatisfactory. Perioperative tactile sensation of the model was excellent. Although this model still does not embody perfect reproducibility, it proved sufficiently practical for use in surgical training.
Parotto, Matteo; Jiansen, Joshua Qua; AboTaiban, Ahmed; Ioukhova, Svetlana; Agzamov, Alisher; Cooper, Richard; O'Leary, Gerald; Meineri, Massimiliano
Flexible bronchoscopy is a fundamental procedure in anaesthesia and critical care medicine. Although learning this procedure is a complex task, the use of simulation-based training provides significant advantages, such as enhanced patient safety. Access to bronchoscopy simulators may be limited in low-resource settings. We have developed a low-cost 3D-printed bronchoscopy training model. A parametric airway model was obtained from an online medical model repository and fabricated using a low-cost 3D printer. The participating physicians had no prior bronchoscopy experience. Participants received a 30-minute lecture on flexible bronchoscopy and were administered a 15-item pre-test questionnaire on bronchoscopy. Afterwards, participants were instructed to perform a series of predetermined bronchoscopy tasks on the 3D printed simulator on 4 consecutive occasions. The time needed to perform the tasks and the quality of task performance (identification of bronchial anatomy, technique, dexterity, lack of trauma) were recorded. Upon completion of the simulator tests, participants were administered the 15-item questionnaire (post-test) once again. Participant satisfaction data on the perceived usefulness and accuracy of the 3D model were collected. A statistical analysis was performed using the t-test. Data are reported as mean values (± standard deviation). The time needed to complete all tasks was 152.9 ± 71.5 sec on the 1st attempt vs. 98.7 ± 40.3 sec on the 4th attempt (P = 0.03). Likewise, the quality of performance score improved from 8.3 ± 6.7 to 18.2 ± 2.5 (P 3D-printed model for bronchoscopy training. This model improved trainee performance and may represent a valid, low-cost bronchoscopy training tool.
Hubeny, Veronika E
We give a brief review of the AdS/CFT correspondence, which posits the equivalence between a certain gravitational theory and a lower-dimensional non-gravitational one. This remarkable duality, formulated in 1997, has sparked a vigorous research program that has gained in breadth over the years, with applications to many aspects of theoretical (and even experimental) physics, not least to general relativity and quantum gravity. To put the AdS/CFT correspondence into historical context, we start by reviewing the relevant aspects of string theory (of which no prior knowledge is assumed). We then develop the statement of the correspondence, and explain how the two sides of the duality map into each other. Finally, we discuss the implications and applications of the correspondence, and indicate some of the current trends in this subject. The presentation attempts to convey the main concepts in a simple and self-contained manner, relegating supplementary remarks to footnotes. (paper)
... Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES HEALTH INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY HEALTH INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY STANDARDS, IMPLEMENTATION SPECIFICATIONS, AND CERTIFICATION CRITERIA AND CERTIFICATION PROGRAMS FOR HEALTH INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY Temporary Certification Program for HIT § 170.405 Correspondence. (a...
Del Río, Fernando
Effective hard-sphere diameters of fluids with purely repulsive interactions are derived from a generalized corresponding-states principle of Leland, Rowlinson and coworkers. Various alternative definitions are discussed and related. Virial expansions of the effective diameters and their corresponding volumes are obtained and compared with results of perturbation theory. Applications are made to inverse-power potentials, the repulsive part of the Lennard-Jones potential and hard spherocylinders and dumbells.
Caracterização de eventos extremos do nível do mar em Santos e sua correspondência com as reanálises do modelo do NCEP no sudoeste do Atlântico Sul Characterization of extreme sea level events in Santos and their correspondence with the NCEP model reanalysis in the southwest of the South Atlantic
Ricardo Martins Campos
Full Text Available Este trabalho tem como objetivo identificar a influência atmosférica em escala sinótica sobre o oceano, para eventos extremos de maré meteorológica na costa sudeste brasileira. Para isso foram utilizados dados de elevação do nível do mar do Porto de Santos-SP, campos de vento e pressão em superfície das reanálises do modelo do NCEP abrangendo o Atlântico Sul, no período de 1951 a 1990. Foi possível identificar a variabilidade sazonal e o padrão de evolução dos sistemas atmosféricos associados aos eventos extremos, de grande relevância para aplicações em prognósticos e alertas a autoridades. O outono e inverno apresentaram a maior ocorrência de extremos positivos (40,2 % e 30,8 % respectivamente, enquanto a primavera e o inverno foram as estações com maior número de extremos negativos (47,2 % e 32,3 % respectivamente. Os resultados mostram que os casos mais importantes de sobre-elevação do nível do mar ocorrem com a evolução e persistência de sistemas de baixa pressão sobre o oceano, com ventos de sudoeste acima de 8 m/s, juntamente com o anticiclone da retaguarda posicionado sobre o continente.This work aims to identify the synoptic scale atmospheric influence over the ocean for extreme events of storm surges events in the Southeastern Brazilian coast. Time series of sea surface height at the Port of Santos as well as wind and surface pressure from the NCEP reanalysis model enclosing the South Atlantic, for period 1951-1990, were used. Seasonal variability and typical evolution of atmospheric systems were found to be associated with extreme events, very relevant for applications on prognostics and warnings to authorities. Autumn and winter are seasons with the highest occurrence of positive extreme events (40.2 % and 30.8 % respectively and the spring and winter are the ones with negative extreme events (47.2 % and 32.3 % respectively. The results show that the storm surges events depend on low pressure systems
Tetiana A. Vakaliuk
Full Text Available The article summarizes the essence of the category "model". There are presented the main types of models used in educational research: structural, functional, structural and functional model as well as basic requirements for building these types of models. The national experience in building models and designing cloud-based learning environment of educational institutions (both higher and secondary is analyzed. It is presented structural and functional model of cloud-based learning environment for Bachelor of Informatics. Also we describe each component of cloud-based learning environment model for bachelors of informatics training: target, managerial, organizational, content and methodical, communication, technological and productive. It is summarized, that COLE should solve all major tasks that relate to higher education institutions.
Miller, Kellie; Tanner, Steve
During the design phases of large and complex systems such as NASA's Space Station Freedom (SSF), there are few, if any physical prototypes built. This is often due to their expense and the realization that the design is likely to change. This poses a problem for training, maintainability, and operations groups who are tasked to lay the foundation of plans for using these systems. The Virtual Reality and Visualization Laboratory at the Boeing Advanced Computing Group's Huntsville facility is supporting the use of high fidelity, detailed design models that are generated during the initial design phases, for use in training, maintainability and operations exercises. This capability was used in its non-immersive form to great effect at the SSF Critical Design Review (CDR) during February, 1993. Allowing the user to move about within a CAD design supports many efforts, including training and scenario study. We will demonstrate via a video of the Maintainability SSF CDR how this type of approach can be used and why it is so effective in conveying large amounts of information quickly and concisely. We will also demonstrate why high fidelity models are so important for this type of training system and how it's immersive aspects may be exploited as well.
Aboutalib, Sarah S.; Mohamed, Aly A.; Zuley, Margarita L.; Berg, Wendie A.; Luo, Yahong; Wu, Shandong
Digital mammography screening is an important exam for the early detection of breast cancer and reduction in mortality. False positives leading to high recall rates, however, results in unnecessary negative consequences to patients and health care systems. In order to better aid radiologists, computer-aided tools can be utilized to improve distinction between image classifications and thus potentially reduce false recalls. The emergence of deep learning has shown promising results in the area of biomedical imaging data analysis. This study aimed to investigate deep learning and transfer learning methods that can improve digital mammography classification performance. In particular, we evaluated the effect of pre-training deep learning models with other imaging datasets in order to boost classification performance on a digital mammography dataset. Two types of datasets were used for pre-training: (1) a digitized film mammography dataset, and (2) a very large non-medical imaging dataset. By using either of these datasets to pre-train the network initially, and then fine-tuning with the digital mammography dataset, we found an increase in overall classification performance in comparison to a model without pre-training, with the very large non-medical dataset performing the best in improving the classification accuracy.
Full Text Available Introduction: Microsurgery training is a key step for the young neurosurgeons. Both in vascular and peripheral nerve pathology, microsurgical techniques are useful tools for the proper treatment. Many training models have been described, including ex vivo (chicken wings and in vivo (rat, rabbit ones. Complex microsurgery training include termino-terminal vessel anastomosis and nerve repair. The aim of this study was to describe a reproducible complex microsurgery training model in rats. Materials and methods: The experimental animals were Brown Norway male rats between 10-16 weeks (average 13 and weighing between 250-400g (average 320g. We performed n=10 rat hind limb replantations. The surgical steps and preoperative management are carefully described. We evaluated the vascular patency by clinical assessment-color, temperature, capillary refill. The rats were daily inspected for any signs of infections. The nerve regeneration was assessed by foot print method. Results: There were no case of vascular compromise or autophagia. All rats had long term survival (>90 days. The nerve regeneration was clinically completed at 6 months postoperative. The mean operative time was 183 minutes, and ischemia time was 25 minutes.
Full Text Available On the sample of 32 fourth grade students of some Belgrade highs schools, who had the physical education classes carried out at the city’s swimming pools, an attempt was made to evaluate the effects of the two different programmes of swimming training in different intensity zones, defined relative to the anaerobic threshold. The subjects were divided into two sub-samples of 15 and 17 participants respectively. Before the research began there was no statistically significant difference between them, regarding the observed functional variables. The first training model consisted of swimming at the intensity level within the zone below anaerobic threshold, while the second model involved occasional swimming at a higher intensity sometimes surpassing the anaerobic threshold. The experimental programme with both sub-groups lasted 8 weeks with 3 training sessions per week, 2 of which were identical for both experimental groups, with the third one differing regarding the swimming intensity, this in the first group being still in the zone below, and in the second group occasionally in the zone above the anaerobic threshold. The amount of training and the duration were the same in both programmes. The aim of the research was to evaluate and to compare the effects of the two training models, using as the basic criteria possible changes of the 5 observed functional parameters: morning pulse, absolute and relative oxygen consumption, the heart frequency and the split time in 50 m swimming in the moment of reaching the anaerobic threshold. On the basis of the statistical analysis of the obtained data, it is possible to conclude that in both experimental groups there were statistically significant changes of average values concerning all the physiological variables. Although the difference in the efficiency of the applied experimental programmes is not determined, it can be said that both experimental treatments significantly influenced the improvement of
N. A. Rybakina
Full Text Available Introduction. The article is devoted to the problem of finding models of implementation of continuing education.Aim. The article deals with the competence and context-based model of learning and education in a comprehensive school as a part of lifelong education. The structural components of the competence-context model are described. The author also presents results of the model testing.Methodology and research methods. The competence-based approach is a methodological base of the presented research. The article carries out theoretical analysis of psychological and pedagogical literature concerning with the research problem. The author also applies such methods as: modeling of teaching objects, pedagogical experiment, quantitative and qualitative analysis.Results. The author suggests an educational model of competence formation and development in the framework of the theory of context-based education, which supports continuing personal development in the system of lifelong education. The paper describes the essence of the components of the competence-context model of training and upbringing.Scientific novelty. The research justifies the need to distinguish an invariant result of the continuing education. It is shown that competence as a combination of cognitive, social and reflective experience can act as an invariant.Practical significance. The proposed results of testing of the competencecontext model of training and education in comprehensive schools of the Samara region can be in-demand among school teachers for their educational work.
Ocampo, M.H.; DeAlbornoz, B.A.
A model for the Radiation Monitoring System of the Laguna Verde Boiling Water Reactor training simulator is presented. This model comprises enough definitions to assure interactions with the processes related, directly or indirectly, with the transport of radioisotopes. It is capable of following a dynamic behavior of the plant so an operator could be trained to become aware of nuclear radiation hazards. The model is composed of three parts: the electronics for the Process and Area Radiation Monitoring System; a lumped parameter transport model for the most representative radioisotopes; and the interactions with the modeled processes as well as with process not being simulated. The first part represents the radiation monitor controls in the vertical board panels of the nuclear station. The second part allows the carrying of nuclear isotopes between processes. The third part defines the way that the process interacts with the electronics at the point of release to environment or the point of detection. Each part of the model has been tested individually, and the transport model has been incorporated as a part of each process required to simulate nuclear radiation. The model parameters has been calculated using typical BWR nuclear radiation data, and Laguna Verde heat balance data at 100% design power. However, tunning will be necessary once the Simulator is integrated and tested. The tunning allows each detecting channel to behave as expected
D. I. Samal
Full Text Available The algorithm of preparation and sampling for training of the multiclass qualifier of support vector machines (SVM is provided. The described approach based on the modeling of possible changes of the face features of recognized person. Additional features like perspectives of shooting, conditions of lighting, tilt angles were introduced to get improved identification results. These synthetic generated changes have some impact on the classifier learning expanding the range of possible variations of the initial image. The classifier learned with such extended example is ready to recognize unknown objects better. The age, emotional looks, turns of the head, various conditions of lighting, noise, and also some combinations of the listed parameters are chosen as the key considered parameters for modeling. The third-party software ‘FaceGen’ allowing to model up to 150 parameters and available in a demoversion for free downloading is used for 3D-modeling.The SVM classifier was chosen to test the impact of the introduced modifications of training sample. The preparation and preliminary processing of images contains the following constituents like detection and localization of area of the person on the image, assessment of an angle of rotation and an inclination, extension of the range of brightness of pixels and an equalization of the histogram to smooth the brightness and contrast characteristics of the processed images, scaling of the localized and processed area of the person, creation of a vector of features of the scaled and processed image of the person by a Principal component analysis (algorithm NIPALS, training of the multiclass SVM-classifier.The provided algorithm of expansion of the training selection is oriented to be used in practice and allows to expand using 3D-models the processed range of 2D – photographs of persons that positively affects results of identification in system of face recognition. This approach allows to compensate
Ganesan, M.; Ezhilarasi, D.; Benni, Jijo
In this paper, a new approach to model reference based adaptive second-order sliding mode control together with adaptive state feedback is presented to control the longitudinal dynamic motion of a high speed train for automatic train operation with the objective of minimal jerk travel by the passengers. The nonlinear dynamic model for the longitudinal motion of the train comprises of a locomotive and coach subsystems is constructed using multiple point-mass model by considering the forces acting on the vehicle. An adaptation scheme using Lyapunov criterion is derived to tune the controller gains by considering a linear, stable reference model that ensures the stability of the system in closed loop. The effectiveness of the controller tracking performance is tested under uncertain passenger load, coupler-draft gear parameters, propulsion resistance coefficients variations and environmental disturbances due to side wind and wet rail conditions. The results demonstrate improved tracking performance of the proposed control scheme with a least jerk under maximum parameter uncertainties when compared to constant gain second-order sliding mode control.
Full Text Available Recent evidence suggests that learned self-regulation of localized brain activity in deep limbic areas such as the amygdala, may alleviate symptoms of affective disturbances. Thus far self-regulation of amygdala activity could be obtained only via fMRI guided neurofeedback, an expensive and immobile procedure. EEG on the other hand is relatively inexpensive and can be easily implemented in any location. However the clinical utility of EEG neurofeedback for affective disturbances remains limited due to low spatial resolution, which hampers the targeting of deep limbic areas such as the amygdala. We introduce an EEG prediction model of amygdala activity from a single electrode. The gold standard used for training is the fMRI-BOLD signal in the amygdala during simultaneous EEG/fMRI recording. The suggested model is based on a time/frequency representation of the EEG data with varying time-delay. Previous work has shown a strong inhomogeneity among subjects as is reflected by the models created to predict the amygdala BOLD response from EEG data. In that work, different models were constructed for different subjects. In this work, we carefully analyzed the inhomogeneity among subjects and were able to construct a single model for the majority of the subjects. We introduce a method for inhomogeneity assessment. This enables us to demonstrate a choice of subjects for which a single model could be derived. We further demonstrate the ability to modulate brain-activity in a neurofeedback setting using feedback generated by the model. We tested the effect of the neurofeedback training by showing that new subjects can learn to down-regulate the signal amplitude compared to a sham group, which received a feedback obtained by a different participant. This EEG based model can overcome substantial limitations of fMRI-NF. It can enable investigation of NF training using multiple sessions and large samples in various locations.
Felisa Irawani Hutabarat
Full Text Available This research aims to know the effect of learning model of inquiry learning results students training material measurement. This type of research is quasi experiment. Sampling done by cluster random sampling by taking 2 classes from grade 9 i.e. class X SCIENCE experiments as a class-B that add up to 35 people and class X SCIENCE-C as control classes that add up to 35 people. The instruments used to find out the results of student learning is the learning outcomes tests have been validated in multiple choice form numbered 15 reserved and activity sheets students. The results of the value obtained 37.71 pretes and postest 70.11. The t-test analysis retrieved thitung greater than ttabel so that it can be concluded no difference due to the influence of the learning model of inquiry learning results students training material measurement.
Suryanto, D. A.; Adisasmita, S. A.; Hamid, S.; Hustim, M.
Currently, Train passanger safety measures are more predominantly measurable using negative dimensions in user mode behavior, such as accident rate, accident intensity and accident impact. This condition suggests that safety improvements aim only to reduce accidents. Therefore, this study aims to measure the safety level of light train transit modes (KRL) through the dimensions of traveling safety on commuters based on positive safety indicators with severel condition departure times and returns for work purposes and long trip rates above KRL. The primary survey were used in data collection methods. Structural Equation Modeling (SEM) were used in data analysis. The results show that there are different models of the safety level of departure and return journey. The highest difference is in the security dimension which is the internal variable of KRL users.
Smith, James A.
The inversion of the leaf area index (LAI) canopy parameter from optical spectral reflectance measurements is obtained using a backpropagation artificial neural network trained using input-output pairs generated by a multiple scattering reflectance model. The problem of LAI estimation over sparse canopies (LAI 1000 percent for low LAI. Minimization methods applied to merit functions constructed from differences between measured reflectances and predicted reflectances using multiple-scattering models are unacceptably sensitive to a good initial guess for the desired parameter. In contrast, the neural network reported generally yields absolute percentage errors of <30 percent when weighting coefficients trained on one soil type were applied to predicted canopy reflectance at a different soil background.
Langebæk, Rikke; Berendt, Mette; Pedersen, Lene Tanggaard
of models were developed to be used in a basic surgical skills course for veterinary students. The models were low fidelity, having limited resemblance to real animals. The aim of the present study was to describe the students' learning experience with the models and to report their perception...... of the usefulness of the models in applying the trained skills to live animal surgery. One hundred and forty-six veterinary fourth-year students evaluated the models on a four-point Likert scale. Of these, 26 additionally participated in individual semistructured interviews. The survey results showed that 75 per...... educational tools in preparation for live animal surgery. However, there are specific features to take into account when developing models in order for students to perceive them as useful....
Fajrul Wahdi Ginting
Full Text Available The Purpose of The study: science process skills and logical thinking ability of students who use inquiry learning model training using PhET media; science process skills and logical thinking ability of students who use conventional learning model; and the difference science process skills and logical thinking ability of students to use learning model Inquiry Training using PhET media and conventional learning models. This research is a quasi experimental. Sample selection is done by cluster random sampling are two classes of classes VIII-E and class VIII-B, where the class VIII-E is taught by inquiry training model using media PhET and VIII-B with conventional learning model. The instrument used consisted of tests science process skills such as essay tests and tests of the ability to think logically in the form of multiple-choice tests. The data were analyzed using t test. The results showed that physics science process skills use Inquiry Training models using PhET media is different and showed better results compared with conventional learning model, and logical thinking skills students use Inquiry Training model using PhET media is different and show better results compared with conventional learning, and there is a difference between the ability to think logically and science process skills of students who use Inquiry Training model using PhET media and conventional learning models.
Rizzoli-Córdoba, Antonio; Delgado-Ginebra, Ismael; Cruz-Ortiz, Leopoldo Alfonso; Baqueiro-Hernández, César Iván; Martain-Pérez, Itzamara Jacqueline; Palma-Tavera, Josuha Alexander; Villasís-Keever, Miguel Ángel; Reyes-Morales, Hortensia; O'Shea-Cuevas, Gabriel; Aceves-Villagrán, Daniel; Carrasco-Mendoza, Joaquín; Antillón-Ocampo, Fátima Adriana; Villagrán-Muñoz, Víctor Manuel; Halley-Castillo, Elizabeth; Vargas-López, Guillermo; Muñoz-Hernández, Onofre
The Child Development Evaluation (CDE) Test is a screening tool designed and validated in Mexico for the early detection of child developmental problems. For professionals who will be administering the test in primary care facilities, previous acquisition of knowledge about the test is required in order to generate reliable results. The aim of this work was to evaluate the impact of a training model for primary care workers from different professions through the comparison of knowledge acquired during the training course. The study design was a before/after type considering the participation in a training course for the CDE test as the intervention. The course took place in six different Mexican states from October to December 2013. The same questions were used before and after. There were 394 participants included. Distribution according to professional profile was as follows: general physicians 73.4%, nursing 7.7%, psychology 7.1%, nutrition 6.1% and other professions 5.6%. The questions with the lowest correct answer rates were associated with the scoring of the CDE test. In the initial evaluation, 64.9% obtained a grade lower than 20 compared with 1.8% in the final evaluation. In the initial evaluation only 1.8% passed compared with 75.15% in the final evaluation. The proposed model allows the participants to acquire general knowledge about the CDE Test. To improve the general results in future training courses, it is required to reinforce during training the scoring and interpretation of the test together with the previous lecture of the material by the participants. Copyright © 2015 Hospital Infantil de México Federico Gómez. Publicado por Masson Doyma México S.A. All rights reserved.
Frey Law, L.A.; Shields, R.K.
Spinal cord injury (SCI) results in major musculoskeletal adaptations, including muscle atrophy, faster contractile properties, increased fatigability, and bone loss. The use of functional electrical stimulation (FES) provides a method to prevent paralyzed muscle adaptations in order to sustain force-generating capacity. Mathematical muscle models may be able to predict optimal activation strategies during FES, however muscle properties further adapt with long-term training. The purpose of th...
system to include the learner, domain, and pedagogical models needed to deliver this training via an ITS. 4 3.1 Self-Regulated Learning and the US...elements and also to highlight their relationships : Adaptive Tutoring: also known as intelligent tutoring; tailored instructional methods to...asserts that through the use of case study examples, instruction can provide the pedagogical foundation for decision-making under uncertainty
Ito, Katsushi; Shu, Hongfei
We study the quantum spectral curve of the Argyres-Douglas theories in the Nekrasov-Sahashvili limit of the Omega-background. Using the ODE/IM correspondence we investigate the quantum integrable model corresponding to the quantum spectral curve. We show that the models for the A 2 N -type theories are non-unitary coset models ( A 1)1 × ( A 1) L /( A 1) L+1 at the fractional level L=2/2N+1-2 , which appear in the study of the 4d/2d correspondence of N = 2 superconformal field theories. Based on the WKB analysis, we clarify the relation between the Y-functions and the quantum periods and study the exact Bohr-Sommerfeld quantization condition for the quantum periods. We also discuss the quantum spectral curves for the D and E type theories.
LePoire, D.; Cheng, J.J.; Kamboj, S.; Arnish, J.; Richmond, P.; Chen, S.Y.; Barr, C.; McKenney, C.
NRC licensees at decommissioning nuclear facilities submit License Termination Plans (LTP) or Decommissioning Plans (DP) to NRC for review and approval. To facilitate a uniform and consistent review of these plans, the NRC developed training for its staff. A live classroom course was first developed in 2005, which targeted specific aspects of the LTP and DP review process related to dose-based compliance demonstrations or modeling. A web-based training (WBT) course was developed in 2006 and 2007 to replace the classroom-based course. The advantage of the WBT is that it will allow for staff training or refreshers at any time, while the advantage of a classroom-based course is that it provides a forum for lively discussion and the sharing of experience of classroom participants. The objective of this course is to train NRC headquarters and regional office staff on how to review sections of a licensee's DP or LTP that pertain to dose modeling. The DP generally refers to the decommissioning of non-reactor facilities, while the LTP refers specifically to the decommissioning of reactors. This review is part of the NRC's licensing process, in which the NRC determines if a licensee has provided a suitable technical basis to support derived concentration guideline levels (DCGLs)1 or dose modeling analyses performed to demonstrate compliance with dose-based license termination rule criteria. This type of training is one component of an organizational management system. These systems 'use a range of practices to identify, create, represent, and distribute knowledge for reuse, awareness and learning'. This is especially important in an organization undergoing rapid change or staff turnover to retain organizational information and processes. NRC is committed to maintaining a dynamic program of training, development, and knowledge transfer to ensure that the NRC acquires and maintains the competencies needed to accomplish its mission. This paper discusses one specific project
Full Text Available The passenger travel demands for intercity rail lines fluctuate obviously during different time periods, which makes the rail departments unable to establish an even train operation scheme. This paper considers an optimization problem for train operations which respond to passenger travel demands of different periods in intercity rail lines. A satisfactory function of passenger travelling is proposed by means of analyzing the passengers’ travel choice behavior and correlative influencing factors. On this basis, the paper formulates a bilevel programming model which maximizes interests of railway enterprises and travelling satisfaction of each passenger. The trains operation in different periods can be optimized through upper layer planning of the model, while considering the passenger flow distribution problem based on the Wardrop user equilibrium principle in the lower layer planning. Then, a genetic algorithm is designed according to model features for solving the upper laying. The Frank-Wolfe algorithm is used for solving the lower layer planning. Finally, a numerical example is provided to demonstrate the application of the method proposed in this paper.
Hadi, S. A.; Susantini, E.; Agustini, R.
This research aimed at training students’ critical thinking skills through the implementation of a modified free inquiry learning model. The subjects of this research were 21 students of Mathematics Semester II. Using One-Group Pretest-Posttest Design, the data were analyzed descriptively using N-gain indicator. The results indicate that the modified free inquiry learning model was effective to train students’ critical thinking skills. The increase in the students’ critical thinking skills viewed from the value of N-Gain has a range of values with the categories of medium and high with a score between 0,25-0,95. Overall, the change in N-Gain score of each student and each indicator of critical thinking skills is as increasing with a moderate category. The increase of N-Gain value is resulted from the fact that the students were directly involved in organizing their learning process. These criteria indicate that the modified free inquiry learning model can be used to train students’ critical thinking skills on photosynthesis and cellular respiration materials. The results of this research are expected to be nationally implemented to familiarize students with andragogy learning style which places the students as the subjects of learning.
Tokdar, Surya; Xi, Peiyi; Kelly, Ryan C; Kass, Robert E
Neurons in vitro and in vivo have epochs of bursting or "up state" activity during which firing rates are dramatically elevated. Various methods of detecting bursts in extracellular spike trains have appeared in the literature, the most widely used apparently being Poisson Surprise (PS). A natural description of the phenomenon assumes (1) there are two hidden states, which we label "burst" and "non-burst," (2) the neuron evolves stochastically, switching at random between these two states, and (3) within each state the spike train follows a time-homogeneous point process. If in (2) the transitions from non-burst to burst and burst to non-burst states are memoryless, this becomes a hidden Markov model (HMM). For HMMs, the state transitions follow exponential distributions, and are highly irregular. Because observed bursting may in some cases be fairly regular-exhibiting inter-burst intervals with small variation-we relaxed this assumption. When more general probability distributions are used to describe the state transitions the two-state point process model becomes a hidden semi-Markov model (HSMM). We developed an efficient Bayesian computational scheme to fit HSMMs to spike train data. Numerical simulations indicate the method can perform well, sometimes yielding very different results than those based on PS.
Chang, Juntao; Hu, Qinghua; Yu, Daren; Bao, Wen
Start/unstart detection is one of the most important issues of hypersonic inlets and is also the foundation of protection control of scramjet. The inlet start/unstart detection can be attributed to a standard pattern classification problem, and the training sample costs have to be considered for the classifier modeling as the CFD numerical simulations and wind tunnel experiments of hypersonic inlets both cost time and money. To solve this problem, the CFD simulation of inlet is studied at first step, and the simulation results could provide the training data for pattern classification of hypersonic inlet start/unstart. Then the classifier modeling technology and maximum classifier utility theories are introduced to analyze the effect of training data cost on classifier utility. In conclusion, it is useful to introduce support vector machine algorithms to acquire the classifier model of hypersonic inlet start/unstart, and the minimum total cost of hypersonic inlet start/unstart classifier can be obtained by the maximum classifier utility theories.
V. A. Galimskyi
Full Text Available Purpose : to develop a program of physical fitness for the correction of the pre basic training on the basis of model performance. Material: 57 young karate sportsmen of 9-11 years old took part in the research. Results : the level of general and special physical preparedness of young karate 9-11 years old was determined. Classes in the control group occurred in the existing program for yous sports school Muay Thai (Thailand boxing. For the experimental group has developed a program of selective development of general and special physical qualities of model-based training sessions. Special program contains 6 direction: 1. Development of static and dynamic balance; 2. Development of vestibular stability (precision movements after rotation; 3. Development rate movements; 4. The development of the capacity for rapid restructuring movements; 5. Development capabilities to differentiate power and spatial parameters of movement; 6. Development of the ability to perform jumping movements of rotation. Development of special physical qualities continued to work to improve engineering complex shock motions on the place and with movement. Conclusions : the use of selective development of special physical qualities based models of training sessions has a significant performance advantage over the control group.
V. A. Fedorov
Full Text Available Aim. The aim of this article is to understand the current issues of pedagogical training situation of a potential employee an experienced professional when using the internal resources of micro-enterprises. The relevance of the research problem dues to the needs of the labour market, terms of developing economy situation of micro-entrepreneurship and the demands of the subject of labour activity to vocational training without discontinuing work.Methodology and research methods. A leading approach to the study of this problem is a system-activity one, which allows us to represent the process of professional training in terms of the micro-enterprise as a system activity of subjects for the development of professional competence of the employee. The following research methods are used to solve the set tasks: theoretical study and analysis of psychological, pedagogical, sociological, scientific-methodical and special literature on the problem under study; a systematic approach to the disclosure of the nature of the problem and the formation of conceptual-terminological apparatus of the research; study and analysis of legislative and normative-legal acts; empirical – pedagogical observation, generalization and study of teaching experience, pedagogical design, questionnaire, interview, interviews, analysis of results, method of expert evaluations and their generalization.Results. The results of the research showed that the process of training and professional interaction of the micro-enterprise employees will be effective if training and professional interaction of the micro-enterprise employees to be considered as a productive mutual agreed actions of subjects of labour, aimed at solving the educational and professional problems in the process of joint labour activity. Developed structural-functional model of training and professional interaction of employees of micro-enterprises allows us to introduce the process of professional training as a
In recent years, tensor network states have emerged as a very useful conceptual and simulation framework to study quantum many-body systems at low energies. In this paper, we describe a particular way in which any given tensor network can be viewed as a representation of two different quantum many-body states. The two quantum many-body states are said to correspond to each other by means of the tensor network. We apply this "tensor network state correspondence"—a correspondence between quantum many-body states mediated by tensor networks as we describe—to the multi-scale entanglement renormalization ansatz (MERA) representation of ground states of one dimensional (1D) quantum many-body systems. Since the MERA is a 2D hyperbolic tensor network (the extra dimension is identified as the length scale of the 1D system), the two quantum many-body states obtained from the MERA, via tensor network state correspondence, are seen to live in the bulk and on the boundary of a discrete hyperbolic geometry. The bulk state so obtained from a MERA exhibits interesting features, some of which caricature known features of the holographic correspondence of String theory. We show how (i) the bulk state admits a description in terms of "holographic screens", (ii) the conformal field theory data associated with a critical ground state can be obtained from the corresponding bulk state, in particular, how pointlike boundary operators are identified with extended bulk operators. (iii) We also present numerical results to illustrate that bulk states, dual to ground states of several critical spin chains, have exponentially decaying correlations, and that the bulk correlation length generally decreases with increase in central charge for these spin chains.
Macafee, David; Pranesh, Nagarajan; Horgan, Alan F.
Background: The construct validity of fresh human cadaver as a training tool has not been established previously. The aims of this study were to investigate the construct validity of fresh frozen human cadaver as a method of training in minimal access surgery and determine if novices can be rapidly trained using this model to a safe level of performance. Methods: Junior surgical trainees, novices (cadavers. Expert laparoscopists (>100 laparoscopic procedures) performed 3 repetitions of identical tasks. Performances were scored using a validated, objective Global Operative Assessment of Laparoscopic Skills scale. Scores for 3 consecutive repetitions were compared between experts and novices to determine construct validity. Furthermore, to determine if the novices reached a safe level, a trimmed mean of the experts score was used to define a benchmark. Mann-Whitney U test was used for construct validity analysis and 1-sample t test to compare performances of the novice group with the benchmark safe score. Results: Ten novices and 2 experts were recruited. Four out of 5 tasks (nondominant to dominant hand transfer; simulated appendicectomy; intracorporeal and extracorporeal knot tying) showed construct validity. Novices’ scores became comparable to benchmark scores between the eighth and tenth repetition. Conclusion: Minimal access surgical training using fresh frozen human cadavers appears to have construct validity. The laparoscopic skills of novices can be accelerated through to a safe level within 8 to 10 repetitions. PMID:23318058
Joana G. Aguiar
Full Text Available Training users in the concept mapping technique is critical for ensuring a high-quality concept map in terms of graphical structure and content accuracy. However, assessing excellence in concept mapping through structural and content features is a complex task. This paper proposes a two-step sequential training in concept mapping. The first step requires the fulfilment of low-order cognitive objectives (remember, understand and apply to facilitate novices’ development into good Cmappers by honing their knowledge representation skills. The second step requires the fulfilment of high-order cognitive objectives (analyse, evaluate and create to grow good Cmappers into excellent ones through the development of knowledge modelling skills. Based on Bloom’s revised taxonomy and cognitive load theory, this paper presents theoretical accounts to (1 identify the criteria distinguishing good and excellent concept maps, (2 inform instructional tasks for concept map elaboration and (3 propose a prototype for training users on concept mapping combining online and face-to-face activities. The proposed training application and the institutional certification are the next steps for the mature use of concept maps for educational as well as business purposes.
Bonelli, Giulio; Lisovyy, Oleg; Maruyoshi, Kazunobu; Sciarappa, Antonio; Tanzini, Alessandro
We elucidate the relation between Painlevé equations and four-dimensional rank one N = 2 theories by identifying the connection associated with Painlevé isomonodromic problems with the oper limit of the flat connection of the Hitchin system associated with gauge theories and by studying the corresponding renormalization group flow. Based on this correspondence, we provide long-distance expansions at various canonical rays for all Painlevé τ -functions in terms of magnetic and dyonic Nekrasov partition functions for N = 2 SQCD and Argyres-Douglas theories at self-dual Omega background ɛ _1 + ɛ _2 = 0 or equivalently in terms of c=1 irregular conformal blocks.
Lezin Seba MINSILI
Full Text Available The purpose of this research paper was to assess and predict the effect of vibrations induced by an underground railway on nearby-existing buildings prior to the construction of projected new railway lines of the National Railway Master Plan of Cameroon and after upgrading of the railway conceded to CAMRAIL linking the two most densely populated cities of Cameroon: Douala and Yaoundé. With the source-transmitter-receiver mathematical model as the train-soil-structure interaction model, taking into account sub-model parameters such as type of the train-railway system, typical geotechnical conditions of the ground and the sensitivity of the nearby buildings, the analysis is carried out over the entire system using the dynamic finite element method in the time domain. This subdivision of the model is a powerful tool that allows to consider different alternatives of sub-models with different characteristics, and thus to determine any critical excessive vibration impact. Based on semi-empirical analytical results obtained from presented models, the present work assesses and predicts characteristics of traffic-induced vibrations as a function of time duration, intensity and vehicle speed, as well as their influence on buildings at different levels.
Rodriguez, Jose R; Yañez, Ricardo; Cifuentes, Ignacio; Varas, Julian; Dagnino, Bruno
Currently, there are no valid training programs based solely on nonliving models. The authors aimed to develop and validate a microsurgery training program based on nonliving models and assess the transfer of skills to a live rat model. Postgraduate year-3 general surgery residents were assessed in a 17-session program, performing arterial and venous end-to-end anastomosis on ex vivo chicken models. Procedures were recorded and rated by two blinded experts using validated global and specific scales (objective structured assessment of technical skills) and a validated checklist. Operating times and patency rates were assessed. Hand-motion analysis was used to measure economy of movements. After training, residents performed an arterial and venous end-to-end anastomosis on live rats. Results were compared to six experienced surgeons in the same models. Values of p < 0.05 were considered statistically significant. Learning curves were achieved. Ten residents improved their median global and specific objective structured assessment of technical skills scores for artery [10 (range, 8 to 10) versus 28 (range, 27 to 29), p < 0.05; and 8 (range, 7 to 9) versus 28 (range, 27 to 28), p < 0.05] and vein [8 (range, 8 to 11) versus 28 (range, 27 to 28), p < 0.05; and 8 (range, 7 to 9) versus 28 (range, 27 to 29), p < 0.05]. Checklist scores also improved for both procedures (p < 0.05). Trainees were slower and less efficient than experienced surgeons (p < 0.05). In the living rat, patency rates at 30 minutes were 100 percent and 50 percent for artery and vein, respectively. Significant acquisition of microsurgical skills was achieved by trainees to a level similar to that of experienced surgeons. Acquired skills were transferred to a more complex live model.
Rosa, Benoit; Machaidze, Zurab; Shin, Borami; Manjila, Sunil; Brown, David W; Baird, Christopher W; Mayer, John E; Dupont, Pierre E
This paper provides detailed instructions for constructing low-cost bioprosthetic semilunar valves for animal research and clinical training. This work fills an important gap between existing simulator training valves and clinical valves by providing fully functioning designs that can be employed in ex vivo and in vivo experiments and can also be modified to model valvular disease. Valves are constructed in 4 steps consisting of creating a metal frame, covering it with fabric and attaching a suture ring and leaflets. Computer-aided design files are provided for making the frame from wire or by metal 3D printing. The covering fabric and suturing ring are made from materials readily available in a surgical lab, while the leaflets are made from pericardium. The entire fabrication process is described in figures and in a video. To demonstrate disease modelling, design modifications are described for producing paravalvular leaks, and these valves were evaluated in porcine ex vivo (n = 3) and in vivo (n = 6) experiments. Porcine ex vivo and acute in vivo experiments demonstrate that the valves can replicate the performance of clinical valves for research and training purposes. Surgical implantation is similar, and echocardiograms are comparable to clinical valves. Furthermore, valve leaflet function was satisfactory during acute in vivo tests with little central regurgitation, while the paravalvular leak modifications consistently produced leaks in the desired locations. The detailed design procedure presented here, which includes a tutorial video and computer-aided design files, should be of substantial benefit to researchers developing valve disease models and to clinicians developing realistic valve training systems. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Association for Cardio-Thoracic Surgery. All rights reserved.
Kim, Kon Wuk; Lee, Jae Hun; Park, Tai Jin; Song, Myung Jae [Korean Association for Radiation Application, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)
The domestic Radiation Technology is integrated into and utilized in various areas and is closely related to the industrial growth in Korea. The domestic use of radiation and RI (Radioisotope) increases in quantity every year, however the level of technology is poor when compared to other developed countries. Manpower training is essential for the development of Radiation Technology. Therefore, this study aimed to propose a methodology for designing systemic education and training model in the field of measurement and analysis of radiation. A survey was conducted to design education and training model and the training program for measurement and analysis of radiation was developed based on the survey results. The education and training program designed in this study will be utilized as a model for evaluating the professional development and effective recruitment of the professional workforce, and can be further applied to other radiation-related fields.
Kim, Kon Wuk; Lee, Jae Hun; Park, Tai Jin; Song, Myung Jae
The domestic Radiation Technology is integrated into and utilized in various areas and is closely related to the industrial growth in Korea. The domestic use of radiation and RI (Radioisotope) increases in quantity every year, however the level of technology is poor when compared to other developed countries. Manpower training is essential for the development of Radiation Technology. Therefore, this study aimed to propose a methodology for designing systemic education and training model in the field of measurement and analysis of radiation. A survey was conducted to design education and training model and the training program for measurement and analysis of radiation was developed based on the survey results. The education and training program designed in this study will be utilized as a model for evaluating the professional development and effective recruitment of the professional workforce, and can be further applied to other radiation-related fields
Cheimariotis, Grigorios-Aris; Al-Mashat, Mariam; Haris, Kostas; Aletras, Anthony H; Jögi, Jonas; Bajc, Marika; Maglaveras, Nicolaos; Heiberg, Einar
Image segmentation is an essential step in quantifying the extent of reduced or absent lung function. The aim of this study is to develop and validate a new tool for automatic segmentation of lungs in ventilation and perfusion SPECT images and compare automatic and manual SPECT lung segmentations with reference computed tomography (CT) volumes. A total of 77 subjects (69 patients with obstructive lung disease, and 8 subjects without apparent perfusion of ventilation loss) performed low-dose CT followed by ventilation/perfusion (V/P) SPECT examination in a hybrid gamma camera system. In the training phase, lung shapes from the 57 anatomical low-dose CT images were used to construct two active shape models (right lung and left lung) which were then used for image segmentation. The algorithm was validated in 20 patients, comparing its results to reference delineation of corresponding CT images, and by comparing automatic segmentation to manual delineations in SPECT images. The Dice coefficient between automatic SPECT delineations and manual SPECT delineations were 0.83 ± 0.04% for the right and 0.82 ± 0.05% for the left lung. There was statistically significant difference between reference volumes from CT and automatic delineations for the right (R = 0.53, p = 0.02) and left lung (R = 0.69, p automatic quantification of wide range of measurements.
The main points of the 26 year long correspondence between Einstein and Schroedinger are reviewed: from the de Broglie thesis and the Bose-Einstein statistics to the Schroedinger equation (1925-1926); from the EPR paradox to the cat parable (1935); a complete collaboration on unitary theories
A corresponding states approach has been applied to the two-constant equations of state by Wilson, Soave, Peng—Robinson, Hamam et al., Lu et al., Simonet—Behar, and Chaudron et al. in order to obtain the equivalent shape-factor correlations. The correlations derived are compared with the Leach...
... DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION List of Correspondence AGENCY: Office of Special Education and... [cir] Letter dated September 26, 2011, to Commonwealth of Virginia Department of Education Special... permissible for a student's individualized education program (IEP) to include a postsecondary goal or goals...
Kienstra, Natascha; van der Heijden, Peter G.M.
In qualitative research of multiple case studies, Miles and Huberman proposed to summarize the separate cases in a so-called meta-matrix that consists of cases by variables. Yin discusses cross-case synthesis to study this matrix. We propose correspondence analysis (CA) as a useful tool to study
Kienstra, N.H.H.; van der Heijden, P.G.M.
In qualitative research of multiple case studies, Miles and Huberman proposed to summarize the separate cases in a so-called meta-matrix that consists of cases by variables. Yin discusses cross-case synthesis to study this matrix. We propose correspondence analysis (CA) as a useful tool to study
... 34 Education 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Correspondence study. 686.25 Section 686.25 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education (Continued) OFFICE OF POSTSECONDARY EDUCATION, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION TEACHER EDUCATION ASSISTANCE FOR COLLEGE AND HIGHER EDUCATION (TEACH) GRANT PROGRAM...
We use the group-theoretic interpretation of the AdS/CFT correspondence which we proposed earlier in order to lift intertwining operators acting between boundary conformal representations to intertwining operators acting between bulk conformal representations. Further, we present the classification of the positive energy (lowest weight) unitary irreducible representations of the D=6 superconformal algebras osp(8*/2N). (author)
... Electronic Activities § 7.5007 Correspondent services. It is part of the business of banking for a national... of software that performs data processing functions; (d) The development, operation, management, and marketing of products and processing services for transactions conducted at electronic terminal devices; (e...
Sheet Metal and Air Conditioning Contractors National Association, Vienna, VA.
This course is designed for the use of employees of the air conditioning industry, and offers supervised correspondence instruction about solar technology. The following aspects of applied solar technology are covered: solar heating and cooling, solar radiation, solar collectors, heat storage control devices and specialty items, sizing solar…
group at the early stage, but there was an increase at the late stage of the training (6 weeks later, however the score values were lower than those in the jumping group and running group. These changes in score were originated mainly from pathological changes in the paratenon and tidemark. Conclusions Jumping training could lead to severe injury to the fiber tissue and fibrocartilage, while running training might result in severe injury to Achilles tendon insertion structure and lighter injury to the fibrocartilage part. Cyclic training model provides suffcient time for repair and reconstruction of Achilles tendon insertion structure, and decrease the severity of the injury to Achilles tendon insertion region. Therefore, use of cyclic training could not only effectively prevent training-based enthesiopathy, but also accelerate the remodeling of the tissue in the insertion region, thus strengthen the repair ability of Achilles tendon against injury.
Baty, Bonnie J; Trepanier, Angela; Bennett, Robin L; Davis, Claire; Erby, Lori; Hippman, Catriona; Lerner, Barbara; Matthews, Anne; Myers, Melanie F; Robbins, Carol B; Singletary, Claire N
There are currently multiple paths through which genetic counselors can acquire advanced knowledge and skills. However, outside of continuing education opportunities, there are few formal training programs designed specifically for the advanced training of genetic counselors. In the genetic counseling profession, there is currently considerable debate about the paths that should be available to attain advanced skills, as well as the skills that might be needed for practice in the future. The Association of Genetic Counseling Program Directors (AGCPD) convened a national committee, the Committee on Advanced Training for Certified Genetic Counselors (CATCGC), to investigate varied paths to post-master's training and career development. The committee began its work by developing three related grids that view career advancement from the viewpoints of the skills needed to advance (skills), ways to obtain these skills (paths), and existing genetic counselor positions that offer career change or advancement (positions). Here we describe previous work related to genetic counselor career advancement, the charge of the CATCGC, our preliminary work in developing a model through which to view genetic counselor advanced training and career advancement opportunities, and our next steps in further developing and disseminating the model.
Angelié, Emmanuelle; Oost, Elco R.; Hendriksen, Dennis; Lelieveldt, Boudewijn P. F.; van der Geest, Rob J.; Reiber, Johan H. C.
Definition of the optimal training set for the automated segmentation of short-axis left ventricular magnetic resonance (MR) imaging studies in clinical practice based on active appearance model (AAM). We investigated the segmentation accuracy by varying the size and composition of the training set
Wendel, Richard; Gouze, Karen R.; Lake, MaryBeth
Thirty years ago, leaders in psychiatry expressed hope for more interdisciplinary collaboration with family therapy. Since then marriage and family therapy (MFT) has entered the mainstream of clinical practice in psychiatry and psychology. It is mandated for training in psychiatry and psychology. We propose a model for collaboration, training, and…
Liu, Pengfei; Zhai, Wanming; Wang, Kaiyun
For the long heavy-haul train, the basic principles of the inter-vehicle interaction and train-track dynamic interaction are analysed firstly. Based on the theories of train longitudinal dynamics and vehicle-track coupled dynamics, a three-dimensional (3-D) dynamic model of the heavy-haul train-track coupled system is established through a modularised method. Specifically, this model includes the subsystems such as the train control, the vehicle, the wheel-rail relation and the line geometries. And for the calculation of the wheel-rail interaction force under the driving or braking conditions, the large creep phenomenon that may occur within the wheel-rail contact patch is considered. For the coupler and draft gear system, the coupler forces in three directions and the coupler lateral tilt angles in curves are calculated. Then, according to the characteristics of the long heavy-haul train, an efficient solving method is developed to improve the computational efficiency for such a large system. Some basic principles which should be followed in order to meet the requirement of calculation accuracy are determined. Finally, the 3-D train-track coupled model is verified by comparing the calculated results with the running test results. It is indicated that the proposed dynamic model could simulate the dynamic performance of the heavy-haul train well.
Full Text Available The great challenges that the treatment of children with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD present to therapists and to parents, alike, arise not only from the severity of this disability, but also from two other factors: the continuously increasing prevalence of ASD and the serious financial restraints imposed by the recent economic hardships that the Western World faces. Thus, the need for parent-training practices is more prevalent than ever. The purpose of the present study was to identify parent-training practices that encompass child-related, parent-related and parent-child-interaction related variables as a means of addressing the difficulties that arise during parent-child interactions in a systemic and systematic way. Complex phenomena, such as the parent-child interaction, need to be treated with multi-focused interventions that produce generalized, systemic outcomes that are of clinical or social significance. The changes achieved in this intervention, which was conducted within a naturalistic context, were multiple and systemic since they involve child-related (e.g., on task behavior, parent-related (e.g., provision of reinforcement, and parent-child-interaction related variables (e.g., joint attention. Those changes were obtained through the use of behavior analytic techniques, such as modeling and systematic, direct parent training. Most importantly, those changes were spread to response categories for which training was not provided, generalized to novel settings and maintained through time. We may conclude that the combination of systemic and behavior-analytic approaches and methodologies may provide a highly beneficial perspective toward designing parent-training research protocols that may also lead to improved clinical practices.
Rowe, Justin B; Chan, Vicky; Ingemanson, Morgan L; Cramer, Steven C; Wolbrecht, Eric T; Reinkensmeyer, David J
Robots that physically assist movement are increasingly used in rehabilitation therapy after stroke, yet some studies suggest robotic assistance discourages effort and reduces motor learning. To determine the therapeutic effects of high and low levels of robotic assistance during finger training. We designed a protocol that varied the amount of robotic assistance while controlling the number, amplitude, and exerted effort of training movements. Participants (n = 30) with a chronic stroke and moderate hemiparesis (average Box and Blocks Test 32 ± 18 and upper extremity Fugl-Meyer score 46 ± 12) actively moved their index and middle fingers to targets to play a musical game similar to GuitarHero 3 h/wk for 3 weeks. The participants were randomized to receive high assistance (causing 82% success at hitting targets) or low assistance (55% success). Participants performed ~8000 movements during 9 training sessions. Both groups improved significantly at the 1-month follow-up on functional and impairment-based motor outcomes, on depression scores, and on self-efficacy of hand function, with no difference between groups in the primary endpoint (change in Box and Blocks). High assistance boosted motivation, as well as secondary motor outcomes (Fugl-Meyer and Lateral Pinch Strength)-particularly for individuals with more severe finger motor deficits. Individuals with impaired finger proprioception at baseline benefited less from the training. Robot-assisted training can promote key psychological outcomes known to modulate motor learning and retention. Furthermore, the therapeutic effectiveness of robotic assistance appears to derive at least in part from proprioceptive stimulation, consistent with a Hebbian plasticity model.
Houte, U. Van; Damme, M. Van
To cope with upgrade requirements of the Full Scope training simulator of Doel 1/2 (Belgium), a 5-equation model has been implemented for mid-loop operation training. This model will permit to simulate the following conditions: (a) Normal operating conditions; Draining of the primary circuit at vacuum conditions; Venting of the primary loop with the help of a vacuum pump; Filling-up of the primely circuit, (2) Incident and Accident conditions; Loss of RHR (Cavitation of RHR pumps); Reactor heat-up and boiling. In order to simulate the pressurizer water hold-up and loss of steam generator reflux cooling, flooding correlations are used predicting steam generator U-tube and pressurizer surgeline flooding. Loss of horizontal stratification in the hot leg has been taken into account. A steam generator piston model for heat transfer has been implemented. This paper describes the mid-loop model specifications, its implementation and testing in the simulator environment. Special attention is given on how the model has been integrated within the existing simulator. (author)
Full Text Available As a certified professional, teacher forms indispensable roles in achieving the learning objectives. The complexity of teacher’s profession decidedly requires the teacher to master a number of competencies and skills. One of them is to master the basic teaching skills. Realizing the complexities of the teacher’s profession and the requirement of teacher’s profession, LPTK –Faculty of Teacher Training and Education– which produces professional teacher, requires enhancing the teacher’s quality and creativity through pre-service teaching and training. Microteaching is one of the efforts to prepare the candidate for a professional teacher in higher education. The growth of a number of students being served with the availability of micro teaching laboratories is, however, disproportionate. Consequently, the problems faced are the time management, the laboratory utilization, the availability of sufficient microteaching infrastructures as well as the implementation of micro teaching itself. One of the ways to solve the problems is to develop a microteaching model adapting the force driving sophisticated ICT named TADALURING Microteaching Learning Model (TMLM. The Instructional Systems Design (ISD made use of developing the model is Borg and Gall procedures. The cyclical phases of conducting the research were preliminary research, development, field-testing, and dissemination. The research finding indicates that the trial-tested model is stated valid, practical, and effective. The TADALURING Microteaching Learning Model (TMLM is essentially accentuated on a face-to-face classroom, online and offline practices.
Full Text Available Research and Development (R&D project was used to develop lecturers’ English competence particularly on speaking and writing at State Institute of Islamic Studies of Imam Bonjol Padang. The lecturers need to develop their competence in English in order to prepare themselves to add new information of lecturing materials and writing papers. Borg and Gall’s steps were used to develop the model. Twenty active lecturers who had s2 and s3 program, who were randomly selected, participated on this research. During the process of the research, observation, questionnaire, and TOEFL test, speaking and writing tests were used to collect the data. The experimental research type and one group pre test- post test design were used to conduct the research. The result of the research showed that 74% of respondents need intensive class training model to develop their English competence. The implementation of intensive class training model gave a significant effect toward lecturers’ English competence. It is concluded that this model is more effective to improve lecturers’ on English competences. Therefore, it is recommended that this model can be implemented at IAIN Imam Bonjol Padang in order to develop lecturers’ English competences and to enhance the quality of lecturers.
Turney, Benjamin W
Obtaining renal access is one of the most important and complex steps in learning percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PCNL). Ideally, this skill should be practiced outside the operating room. There is a need for anatomically accurate and cheap models for simulated training. The objective was to develop a cost-effective, anatomically accurate, nonbiologic training model for simulated PCNL access under fluoroscopic guidance. Collecting systems from routine computed tomography urograms were extracted and reformatted using specialized software. These images were printed in a water-soluble plastic on a three-dimensional (3D) printer to create biomodels. These models were embedded in silicone and then the models were dissolved in water to leave a hollow collecting system within a silicone model. These PCNL models were filled with contrast medium and sealed. A layer of dense foam acted as a spacer to replicate the tissues between skin and kidney. 3D printed models of human collecting systems are a useful adjunct in planning PCNL access. The PCNL access training model is relatively low cost and reproduces the anatomy of the renal collecting system faithfully. A range of models reflecting the variety and complexity of human collecting systems can be reproduced. The fluoroscopic triangulation process needed to target the calix of choice can be practiced successfully in this model. This silicone PCNL training model accurately replicates the anatomic architecture and orientation of the human renal collecting system. It provides a safe, clean, and effective model for training in accurate fluoroscopy-guided PCNL access.
Karraker, N. E.; Lofgren, I.; Druschke, C. G.; McWilliams, S. R.; Morton-Aiken, J.; Reynolds, N.
Graduate programs in the sciences generally offer minimal support for writing and communication, yet there is an increasing need for scientists to engage with the public and policymakers on technological, environmental, and health issues. The traditional focus on gaining particular discipline-related technical skills, coupled with the relegation of writing largely to the end of a student's academic tenure, falls short in equipping them to tackle these challenges. To address this problem, we launched a cross-disciplinary, National Science Foundation-funded training program in rhetoric and writing for science graduate students and faculty at the University of Rhode Island. This innovative program bases curricular and pedagogical support on three central practices, habitual writing, multiple genres, and frequent review, to offer a flexible model of writing training for science graduate students and pedagogical training for faculty that could be adopted in other institutional contexts. Key to the program, called SciWrite@URI, is a unique emphasis on rhetoric, which, we argue, is an essential—but currently lacking—component of science communication education. This new model has the potential to transform graduate education in the sciences by producing graduates who are as adept at the fundamentals of their science as they are at communicating that science to diverse audiences.
AlQahtani, Abdulaziz A; Albathi, Abeer A; Alhammad, Othman M; Alrabie, Abdulkarim S
To study the feasibility of designing a human cadaveric simulation model of real CSF leak for rhinology training. The laboratory investigation took place at the surgical academic center of Prince Sultan Military Medical City between 2016 and 2017. Five heads of human cadaveric specimens were cannulated into the intradural space through two frontal bone holes. Fluorescein-dyed fluid was injected intracranialy, then endoscopic endonasal iatrogenic skull base defect was created with observation of fluid leak, followed by skull base reconstruction. The outcome measures included subjective assessment of integrity of the design, the ability of creating real CSF leak in multiple site of skull base and the possibility of watertight closure by various surgical techniques. The fluid filled the intradural space in all specimens without spontaneous leak from skull base or extra sinus areas. Successfully, we demonstrated fluid leak from all areas after iatrogenic defect in the cribriform plate, fovea ethmoidalis, planum sphenoidale sellar and clival regions. Watertight closure was achieved in all defects using different reconstruction techniques (overly, underlay and gasket seal closure). The design is simulating the real patient with CSF leak. It has potential in the learning process of acquiring and maintaining the surgical skills of skull base reconstruction before direct involvement of the patient. This model needs further evaluation and competence measurement as training tools in rhinology training.
Heinrich, M; Tillo, N; Kirlum, H-J; Till, H
Minimally invasive surgery in small children and infants requires special skills and training. This experimental study compares the efficiency of an in vitro pelvic trainer (PT) and an a in vivo animal model (AM). For this study, 12 residents were prospectively randomized into two groups. Initially, all had to pass a basic skill assessment (3 tasks). Then endoscopic small bowel biopsy was performed (8 times) either with the in vitro PT (group A) or the in vivo AM (group B). Finally, all had to demonstrate this procedure in the in vivo AM and repeat the basic skill assessment. A quality index (complications, suture, biopsy) was evaluated. Initially, there was no difference between the two groups. Interestingly, the mean regression gradient of the index for the in vitro PT (group A) was significantly better than for the in vivo AM (group B). In the final in vivo operation, however, the mean index for the in vitro PT (group A) worsened significantly, whereas it increased for the in vivo AM (group B) (p = 0.037). Adequate training for an isolated mechanical task such as gut biopsy can be supplied using a pelvic trainer or animal model with similar effects. However in vivo performance of the same task requires secondary surgical skills, which are conveyed during live training with greater success. Consequently, stepwise teaching with both modules seems reasonable before these procedures are approached in neonates or small children.
Sinha, Maneesh; Krishnamoorthy, Venkatesh
Training residents to perform a PCNL puncture is hampered by the non-availability of a good inanimate model that can be used for demonstration and practice. The ethics of surgical training during actual surgeries is being questioned and the role of simulation is increasingly important. Virtual reality trainers, however, are prohibitively expensive and the use of animal models is fraught with regulatory and ethical concerns. We have devised a model that can be used to teach the concept of depth perception during a PCNL puncture. A bottle gourd was used to mimic the posterior abdominal wall. Cotton pledgets dipped in intravenous contrast were fitted into 4 mm holes made at staggered levels in the bottle gourd which was strapped onto the operating table with the cotton pledgets facing away from the surgeon. Surgeons with varying degrees of experience made fluoroscopy-guided punctures onto the cotton pledgets. We recorded the time taken for puncture in seconds and the distance of the needle exit site from the center of the cotton ball. Speed was measured by recording the fluoroscopy time in seconds on the C-arm. Accuracy was documented by using a Vernier caliper to measure the distance from the edge of the target to the actual puncture. One second of fluoroscopy time and 0.1 mm distance were each given one point. The total points accumulated over a set of 10 punctures was added to give a total score. Longer fluoroscopy times and inaccurate punctures resulted in higher scores. A surgeon with more than 1000 PCNLs to his credit had a score of 99. The average score of five residents was 555. The bottle gourd model provides an ethically acceptable, inexpensive, easy to replicate model that can be used to train residents in the PCNL puncture.
Educational and training aspects of new surgical techniques: experience with the endoscopic–laparoscopic interdisciplinary training entity (ELITE) model in training for a natural orifice translumenal endoscopic surgery (NOTES) approach to appendectomy.
Gillen, Sonja; Gröne, Jörn; Knödgen, Fritz; Wolf, Petra; Meyer, Michael; Friess, Helmut; Buhr, Heinz-Johannes; Ritz, Jörg-Peter; Feussner, Hubertus; Lehmann, Kai S
Natural orifice translumenal endoscopic surgery (NOTES) is a new surgical concept that requires training before it is introduced into clinical practice. The endoscopic–laparoscopic interdisciplinary training entity (ELITE) is a training model for NOTES interventions. The latest research has concentrated on new materials for organs with realistic optical and haptic characteristics and the possibility of high-frequency dissection. This study aimed to assess both the ELITE model in a surgical training course and the construct validity of a newly developed NOTES appendectomy scenario. The 70 attendees of the 2010 Practical Course for Visceral Surgery (Warnemuende, Germany) took part in the study and performed a NOTES appendectomy via a transsigmoidal access. The primary end point was the total time required for the appendectomy, including retrieval of the appendix. Subjective evaluation of the model was performed using a questionnaire. Subgroups were analyzed according to laparoscopic and endoscopic experience. The participants with endoscopic or laparoscopic experience completed the task significantly faster than the inexperienced participants (p = 0.009 and 0.019, respectively). Endoscopic experience was the strongest influencing factor, whereas laparoscopic experience had limited impact on the participants with previous endoscopic experience. As shown by the findings, 87.3% of the participants stated that the ELITE model was suitable for the NOTES training scenario, and 88.7% found the newly developed model anatomically realistic. This study was able to establish face and construct validity for the ELITE model with a large group of surgeons. The ELITE model seems to be well suited for the training of NOTES as a new surgical technique in an established gastrointestinal surgery skills course.
Hu, Haitao; Tao, Haidong; Blaabjerg, Frede
of the electric trains and traction network are equally modeled. In which, an impedance-based input behavior of the train is fully investigated with considering available controllers and their parameters in DQ-domain. While, the entire traction network, including traction transformer, catenary, supply lines......, is represented in a frequency-domain nodal matrix. Furthermore, the impedance-frequency responses of both electric train and traction network are measured and validated through frequency scan method. Finally, a generalized train-network simulation and experimental systems are proposed for verifying...
Breimer, Gerben E; Haji, Faizal A; Bodani, Vivek; Cunningham, Melissa S; Lopez-Rios, Adriana-Lucia; Okrainec, Allan; Drake, James M
The relative educational benefits of virtual reality (VR) and physical simulation models for endoscopic third ventriculostomy (ETV) have not been evaluated "head to head." To compare and identify the relative utility of a physical and VR ETV simulation model for use in neurosurgical training. Twenty-three neurosurgical residents and 3 fellows performed an ETV on both a physical and VR simulation model. Trainees rated the models using 5-point Likert scales evaluating the domains of anatomy, instrument handling, procedural content, and the overall fidelity of the simulation. Paired t tests were performed for each domain's mean overall score and individual items. The VR model has relative benefits compared with the physical model with respect to realistic representation of intraventricular anatomy at the foramen of Monro (4.5, standard deviation [SD] = 0.7 vs 4.1, SD = 0.6; P = .04) and the third ventricle floor (4.4, SD = 0.6 vs 4.0, SD = 0.9; P = .03), although the overall anatomy score was similar (4.2, SD = 0.6 vs 4.0, SD = 0.6; P = .11). For overall instrument handling and procedural content, the physical simulator outperformed the VR model (3.7, SD = 0.8 vs 4.5; SD = 0.5, P educational objectives. Training focused on learning anatomy or decision-making for anatomic cues may be aided with the VR simulation model. A focus on developing manual dexterity and technical skills using endoscopic equipment in the operating room may be better learned on the physical simulation model. Copyright © 2016 by the Congress of Neurological Surgeons
Ploch, Caitlin C; Mansi, Chris S S A; Jayamohan, Jayaratnam; Kuhl, Ellen
Three-dimensional (3D) printing holds promise for a wide variety of biomedical applications, from surgical planning, practicing, and teaching to creating implantable devices. The growth of this cheap and easy additive manufacturing technology in orthopedic, plastic, and vascular surgery has been explosive; however, its potential in the field of neurosurgery remains underexplored. A major limitation is that current technologies are unable to directly print ultrasoft materials like human brain tissue. In this technical note, the authors present a new technology to create deformable, personalized models of the human brain. The method combines 3D printing, molding, and casting to create a physiologically, anatomically, and tactilely realistic model based on magnetic resonance images. Created from soft gelatin, the model is easy to produce, cost-efficient, durable, and orders of magnitude softer than conventionally printed 3D models. The personalized brain model cost $50, and its fabrication took 24 hours. In mechanical tests, the model stiffness (E = 25.29 ± 2.68 kPa) was 5 orders of magnitude softer than common 3D printed materials, and less than an order of magnitude stiffer than mammalian brain tissue (E = 2.64 ± 0.40 kPa). In a multicenter surgical survey, model size (100.00%), visual appearance (83.33%), and surgical anatomy (81.25%) were perceived as very realistic. The model was perceived as very useful for patient illustration (85.00%), teaching (94.44%), learning (100.00%), surgical training (95.00%), and preoperative planning (95.00%). With minor refinements, personalized, deformable brain models created via 3D printing will improve surgical training and preoperative planning with the ultimate goal to provide accurate, customized, high-precision treatment. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Luisa Carolina Arévalo Herrera
Full Text Available The Peace Accords emphasized creating a new police force that would be diametrically opposite to previous security forces. This change would have to be expressed symbolically, and from the onset it would have to underscore the fact that the main weapon of the police would be intelligence. From its foundation to June 2011, a total of 30,344 people have graduated from the Academy. Currently, in the process of training new police with greater quality, and modernizing the entire police force, it faces the difficult challenge of adopting the Community Police philosophy to empower this model for action, promoting a new relationship between community and law enforcement, and between managers and operational personnel in the agency. Nevertheless,police training is not enough if there are no significantchanges in the organizational climate and culture within the law enforcement agency.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5377/rpsp.v1i1.1390
Dan Yang; Qian Yu
All motions provide sensory, motoric, and reflexive input to the central nervous system, as well as playing an important role in cerebral functional plasticity and compensation. Cerebral plasticity has become the theoretical basis of neurorehabilitation. Studies of cerebrovascular disease, in particular, demonstrate that regeneration is accompanied by multiple forms of plasticity, such as functional and structural, in different phases of stroke rehabilitation. This study was designed to measure synaptic plasticity and expression of associated proteins to analyze the effect of rehabilitation training on learning and memory in a rat model of cerebral infarction. Results suggest that rehabilitation training increases expression of nerve growth factor associated protein 43, brain-derived neurotrophic factor, and neural cell adhesion molecules, and also promotes cerebral functional plasticity.
Wang, Yu-Hui; Wu, Qing-Xian; Jiang, Chang-Sheng; Xue, Ya-Li; Fang, Wei
Generally, fuzzy approximation models require some human knowledge and experience. Operator's experience is involved in the mathematics of fuzzy theory as a collection of heuristic rules. The main goal of this paper is to present a new method for identifying unknown nonlinear dynamics such as Rössler system without any human knowledge. Instead of heuristic rules, the presented method uses the input-output data pairs to identify the Rössler chaotic system. The training algorithm is a modified Levenberg-Marquardt (L-M) method, which can adjust the parameters of each linear polynomial and fuzzy membership functions on line, and do not rely on experts' experience excessively. Finally, it is applied to training Rössler chaotic system fuzzy identification. Comparing this method with the standard L-M method, the convergence speed is accelerated. The simulation results demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed method.
Giannakakos, Antonia R; Vladescu, Jason C; Kisamore, April N; Reeve, Sharon A
Direct teaching procedures are often an important part of early intensive behavioral intervention for consumers with autism spectrum disorder. In the present study, a video model with voiceover (VMVO) instruction plus feedback was evaluated to train three staff trainees to implement a most-to-least direct (MTL) teaching procedure. Probes for generalization were conducted with untrained direct teaching procedures (i.e., least-to-most, prompt delay) and with an actual consumer. The results indicated that VMVO plus feedback was effective in training the staff trainees to implement the MTL procedure. Although additional feedback was required for the staff trainees to show mastery of the untrained direct teaching procedures (i.e., least-to-most and prompt delay) and with an actual consumer, moderate to high levels of generalization were observed.
Li, Zhencai; Wang, Yang; Liu, Zhen
The purpose of this work is to investigate the accurate trajectory tracking control of a wheeled mobile robot (WMR) based on the slip model prediction. Generally, a nonholonomic WMR may increase the slippage risk, when traveling on outdoor unstructured terrain (such as longitudinal and lateral slippage of wheels). In order to control a WMR stably and accurately under the effect of slippage, an unscented Kalman filter and neural networks (NNs) are applied to estimate the slip model in real time. This method exploits the model approximating capabilities of nonlinear state–space NN, and the unscented Kalman filter is used to train NN’s weights online. The slip parameters can be estimated and used to predict the time series of deviation velocity, which can be used to compensate control inputs of a WMR. The results of numerical simulation show that the desired trajectory tracking control can be performed by predicting the nonlinear slip model. PMID:27467703
Vladislav V. Bulgakov
Full Text Available Features of training in higher educational institutions of system of EMERCOM of Russia demand introduction of the new educational techniques and the technical means directed on intensification of educational process, providing an opportunity of preparation of cadets at any time in the independent mode and improving quality of their theoretical knowledge. The authors have developed a structural and methodological model of increasing the level of theoretical training of cadets using information and communication technologies. The proposed structural and methodological model that includes elements to stimulate and enhance cognitive activity, allows you to generate the trajectory of theoretical training of cadets for the entire period of study at the University, to organize a systematic independent work, objective, current and final control of theoretical knowledge. The structural and methodological model for improving the level of theoretical training consists of three main elements: the base of theoretical questions, functional modules "teacher" and "cadet". The basis of the structural and methodological model of increasing the level of theoretical training of cadets is the base of theoretical issues, developed in all disciplines specialty 20.05.01 – fire safety. The functional module "teacher" allows you to create theoretical questions of various kinds, edit questions and delete them from the database if necessary, as well as create tests and monitor their implementation. The functional module "cadet" provides ample opportunities for theoretical training through independent work, testing for current and final control, the implementation of the game form of training in the form of a duel, as well as for the formation of the results of the cadets in the form of statistics and rankings. Structural and methodical model of increasing the level of theoretical training of cadets is implemented in practice in the form of a multi-level automated system