WorldWideScience

Sample records for modeling control room

  1. Control room habitability system review models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gilpin, H.

    1990-12-01

    This report provides a method of calculating control room operator doses from postulated reactor accidents and chemical spills as part of the resolution of TMI Action Plan III.D.3.4. The computer codes contained in this report use source concentrations calculated by either TACT5, FPFP, or EXTRAN, and transport them via user-defined flow rates to the control room envelope. The codes compute doses to six organs from up to 150 radionuclides (or 1 toxic chemical) for time steps as short as one second. Supporting codes written in Clipper assist in data entry and manipulation, and graphically display the results of the FORTRAN calculations. 7 refs., 22 figs

  2. An alternative atmospheric diffusion model for control room habitability assessments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramsdell, J.V. Jr.

    1990-01-01

    The US Nuclear Regulatory (NRC) staff uses procedures to evaluate control room designs for compliance with General Design Criterion 19 of the Code of Federal Regulations, Appendix A, 10 CRF Part 50. These procedures deal primarily with radiation protection. However, other hazardous materials, for example, chlorine, pose a potential threat to control room habitability. The NRC is considering changes in their current procedures to update methods and extend their applicability. Two changes to the current procedures are suggested: using a puff diffusion model to estimate concentrations at air intakes and using a new method to estimate diffusion coefficients

  3. A model of a control-room crew

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spurgin, A.J.; Beveridge, R.L.

    1986-01-01

    This paper discusses the development of a model of a control-room crew based on observations of crews and concepts developed by cognitive psychologists. The model can help define, among other things, the requirements for SPDS or other operator aids. The paper discusses the relationship of the shift supervisor, the control board operators, the control and instrumentation systems and the written procedures in the control of the plant during normal and abnormal plant transients. These relationships cover the communications between crew members, use of the control equipment by the board operators, use of information, such as the SPDS, by the shift supervisor and integration of crew actions by the use of the procedures. Also discussed are the potential causes of erroneous actions by the crew in accident situations. The model is at this time purely qualitative, but it can be considered to be the basis for the development of a mathematical model

  4. Multinodal control room envelope model used for habitability analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blumberg, W.M.; Gore, D.E.

    1995-01-01

    This work analyzes the habitability of the control room envelope (CRE) during an off-normal ventilation system condition. The most limiting design basis accident utilized for this analysis is the postulated loss-of-coolant accident. The off-normal condition assumes two rooms within the CRE are at pressures that are lower than adjoining rooms outside the CRE. This pressure differential allows unfiltered in-leakage to enter the CRE through the doors and penetrations in these rooms. This paper quantifies the maximum unfiltered in-leakage

  5. Atmospheric diffusion model for control room habitability assessments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramsdell, J.V.; Lee, J.Y.

    1993-01-01

    General Design Criterion 19 for nuclear power plants (Appendix A to 10CFR50) requires control room radiation protection adequate to limit radiation exposures to control room personnel. Murphy and Campe proposed the procedure currently used in evaluating control room habitability. However, data from building-wake diffusion experiments at nuclear power plants indicate that the Murphy-Campe procedure tends to overestimate concentrations, particularly during low wind speeds. This paper describes an alternative procedure developed by the Pacific Northwest Laboratory that is acceptable to U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) staff. The procedure estimates control room air intake concentrations that are generally lower than those estimated by the Murphy-Campe procedure, yet are still conservative

  6. FRAMEWORK AND APPLICATION FOR MODELING CONTROL ROOM CREW PERFORMANCE AT NUCLEAR POWER PLANTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ronald L Boring; David I Gertman; Tuan Q Tran; Brian F Gore

    2008-09-01

    This paper summarizes an emerging project regarding the utilization of high-fidelity MIDAS simulations for visualizing and modeling control room crew performance at nuclear power plants. The key envisioned uses for MIDAS-based control room simulations are: (i) the estimation of human error associated with advanced control room equipment and configurations, (ii) the investigative determination of contributory cognitive factors for risk significant scenarios involving control room operating crews, and (iii) the certification of reduced staffing levels in advanced control rooms. It is proposed that MIDAS serves as a key component for the effective modeling of cognition, elements of situation awareness, and risk associated with human performance in next generation control rooms.

  7. FRAMEWORK AND APPLICATION FOR MODELING CONTROL ROOM CREW PERFORMANCE AT NUCLEAR POWER PLANTS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ronald L Boring; David I Gertman; Tuan Q Tran; Brian F Gore

    2008-01-01

    This paper summarizes an emerging project regarding the utilization of high-fidelity MIDAS simulations for visualizing and modeling control room crew performance at nuclear power plants. The key envisioned uses for MIDAS-based control room simulations are: (1) the estimation of human error associated with advanced control room equipment and configurations, (2) the investigative determination of contributory cognitive factors for risk significant scenarios involving control room operating crews, and (3) the certification of reduced staffing levels in advanced control rooms. It is proposed that MIDAS serves as a key component for the effective modeling of cognition, elements of situation awareness, and risk associated with human performance in next generation control rooms

  8. Control rooms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Preuss, W.

    1990-01-01

    The current state of knowledge about screen systems for application in traffic (e.g., flight control), process control, and production is presented. The 29 lectures, 5 of which relate to aviation, deal with the optimization of the man-machine interface with respect to unusual operating situations and adequate presentation and action methods on the basis of taks and event analyses integrating the users. (DG) [de

  9. The development of a model of control room operator cognition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harrison, C. Felicity

    1998-01-01

    The nuclear generation station CRO is one of the main contributors to plant performance and safety. In the past, studies of operator behaviour have been made under emergency or abnormal situations, with little consideration being given to the more routine aspects of plant operation. One of the tasks of the operator is to detect the early signs of a problem, and to take steps to prevent a transition to an abnormal plant state. In order to do this CRO must determine that plant indications are no longer in the normal range, and take action to prevent a further move away from normal. This task is made more difficult by the extreme complexity of the control room, and by the may hindrances that the operator must face. It would therefore be of great benefit to understand CRO cognitive performance, especially under normal operating conditions. Through research carried out at several Canadian nuclear facilities we were able to develop a deeper understanding of CRO monitoring of highly automated systems during normal operations, and specifically to investigate the contributions of cognitive skills to monitoring performance. The consultants were asked to develop a deeper understanding of CRO monitoring during normal operations, and specifically to investigate the contributions of cognitive skills to monitoring performance. The overall objective of this research was to develop and validate a model of CRO monitoring. The findings of this research have practical implications for systems integration, training, and interface design. The result of this work was a model of operator monitoring activities. (author)

  10. Model predictive control of room temperature with disturbance compensation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurilla, Jozef; Hubinský, Peter

    2017-08-01

    This paper deals with temperature control of multivariable system of office building. The system is simplified to several single input-single output systems by decoupling their mutual linkages, which are separately controlled by regulator based on generalized model predictive control. Main part of this paper focuses on the accuracy of the office temperature with respect to occupancy profile and effect of disturbance. Shifting of desired temperature and changing of weighting coefficients are used to achieve the desired accuracy of regulation. The final structure of regulation joins advantages of distributed computing power and possibility to use network communication between individual controllers to consider the constraints. The advantage of using decoupled MPC controllers compared to conventional PID regulators is demonstrated in a simulation study.

  11. Study on comprehensive evaluation model for nuclear power plant control room layout

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu Yiming; Liu Yuan; Fan Huixian

    2010-01-01

    A comprehensive evaluation model for layout of the main control room of nuclear power plants was proposed. Firstly the design scope and principle for the layout of the main control room were defined based on the standards, and then the index system for the comprehensive evaluation was established. Finally, comprehensive evaluation was carried out for the layout design by applying the fuzzy comprehensive evaluation method in the index system. (authors)

  12. Control room design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zinke, H.

    1980-01-01

    To control a 1300 megawatt nuclear power plant, about 15000 plant parameters must be collected together to control and operate the plant. The control room design therefore is of particular importance. The main design criteria are: Required functions of the power plant process - Level of Automation - Ergonomics - Available Technology. Extensive analysis has resulted in a control room design method. This ensures that an objective solution will be reached. Resulting from this methodical approach are: 1. Scope, position and appearance of the instrumentation. 2. Scope, position and appearance of the operator controls. Process analysis dictates what instrumentation and operator controls are needed. The priority and importance of the control and instrumentation (this we define as the utilisation areas), dictates the rough layout of the control room. (orig./RW)

  13. PS Control Room

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN PhotoLab

    1963-01-01

    The good old PS Control Room, all manual. For each parameter, a knob or a button to control it; for each, a light or meter or oscilloscope to monitor it; carefully written pages serve as the data bank; phones and intercom for communication. D.Dekkers is at the microphone, M.Valvini sits in front.

  14. Local control room

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN PhotoLab

    1972-01-01

    Local control room in the ejection building : all electronics pertaining to proton distribution and concomitants such as beam gymnastics and diagnostics at high energies will eventually be gathered here. Shown is the first of two rows of fast ejection electronic racks. It includes only what is necessary for operation.

  15. Research on cognitive reliability model for main control room considering human factors in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiang Jianjun; Zhang Li; Wang Yiqun; Zhang Kun; Peng Yuyuan; Zhou Cheng

    2012-01-01

    Facing the shortcomings of the traditional cognitive factors and cognitive model, this paper presents a Bayesian networks cognitive reliability model by taking the main control room as a reference background and human factors as the key points. The model mainly analyzes the cognitive reliability affected by the human factors, and for the cognitive node and influence factors corresponding to cognitive node, a series of methods and function formulas to compute the node cognitive reliability is proposed. The model and corresponding methods can be applied to the evaluation of cognitive process for the nuclear power plant operators and have a certain significance for the prevention of safety accidents in nuclear power plants. (authors)

  16. A HUMAN FACTORS META MODEL FOR U.S. NUCLEAR POWER PLANT CONTROL ROOM MODERNIZATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joe, Jeffrey C.

    2017-03-01

    Over the last several years, the United States (U.S.) Department of Energy (DOE) has sponsored human factors research and development (R&D) and human factors engineering (HFE) activities through its Light Water Reactor Sustainability (LWRS) program to modernize the main control rooms (MCR) of commercial nuclear power plants (NPP). Idaho National Laboratory (INL), in partnership with numerous commercial nuclear utilities, has conducted some of this R&D to enable the life extension of NPPs (i.e., provide the technical basis for the long-term reliability, productivity, safety, and security of U.S. NPPs). From these activities performed to date, a human factors meta model for U.S. NPP control room modernization can now be formulated. This paper discusses this emergent HFE meta model for NPP control room modernization, with the goal of providing an integrated high level roadmap and guidance on how to perform human factors R&D and HFE for those in the U.S. nuclear industry that are engaging in the process of upgrading their MCRs.

  17. CEBAF Control Room Renovation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Michael Spata; Thomas Oren

    2005-01-01

    The Machine Control Center (MCC) at Jefferson Lab's Continuous Electron Beam Accelerator Facility (CEBAF) was initially constructed in the early 1990s and based on proven technology of that era. Through our experience over the last 15 years and in our planning for the facility's 12 GeV upgrade we reevaluated the control room environment to capitalize on emerging visualization and display technologies and improve workflow processes and ergonomic attributes. This effort also sets the foundation for the redevelopment of the accelerator's control system to deliver high reliability performance with improvements in beam specifications management and information flow. The complete renovation was performed over a three-week maintenance period with no interruption to beam operations. We present the results of this effort

  18. CEBAF Control Room Renovation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Michael Spata; Thomas Oren

    2005-01-01

    The Machine Control Center at Jefferson Lab's Continuous Electron Beam Accelerator Facility was initially constructed in the early 1990s and based on proven technology of that era. Through our experience over the last 15 years and in our planning for the facilities 12 GeV upgrade we reevaluated the control room environment to capitalize on emerging visualization and display technologies and improve on workflow processes and ergonomic attributes. This effort also sets the foundation for the redevelopment of the accelerator's control system to deliver high reliability performance with improvements in beam specifications management and information flow. The complete renovation was performed over a three-week period with no interruption to beam operations. We present the results of this effort

  19. CEBAF Control Room Renovation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Michael Spata; Anthony Cuffe; Thomas Oren

    2005-01-01

    The Machine Control Center (MCC) at Jefferson Lab's Continuous Electron Beam Accelerator Facility (CEBAF) was constructed in the early 1990s and based on proven technology of that era. Through our experience over the last 15 years and in our planning for the facilities 12 GeV upgrade we reevaluated the control room environment to capitalize on emerging visualization and display technologies and improve on work-flow processes and ergonomic attributes. The renovation was performed in two phases during the summer of 2004, with one phase occurring during machine operations and the latter, more extensive phase, occurring during our semi-annual shutdown period. The new facility takes advantage of advances in display technology, analog and video signal management, server technology, ergonomic workspace design, lighting engineering, acoustic ceilings and raised flooring solutions to provide a marked improvement in the overall environment of machine operations

  20. Controlling the clean room atmosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meeks, R.F.

    1979-01-01

    Several types of clean rooms are commonly in use. They include the conventional clean room, the horizontal laminar flow clean room, the vertical laminar flow clean room and a fourth type that incorporates ideas from the previous types and is known as a clean air bench or hood. These clean rooms are briefly described. The origin of contamination and methods for controlling the contamination are discussed

  1. Cognitive models and computer aids for nuclear plant control room operators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sheridan, T.B.

    1982-01-01

    This paper reviews what is usually meant by a cognitive model of a control room operator in a nuclear power plant. It emphasizes the idea of internal (that is, mental) representation of external events and the use of such representation for the cognitive steps of attending, recognizing or learning, assessing and deciding. As computers play an increasingly important role in nuclear power plants, especially as cognitive aids to human supervisors of highly automated control systems, it is important that the software and computer interface characteristics be compatible with the operator's internal model. Specific examples discussed in this paper are in the monitoring and prediction of the plant state and in the detection and diagnosis of failures. Current trends in SPDS (safety parameter display system) and failure detection/location systems will be discussed in this regard

  2. Modeling Human Error Mechanism for Soft Control in Advanced Control Rooms (ACRs)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aljneibi, Hanan Salah Ali; Ha, Jun Su; Kang, Seongkeun; Seong, Poong Hyun

    2015-01-01

    To achieve the switch from conventional analog-based design to digital design in ACRs, a large number of manual operating controls and switches have to be replaced by a few common multi-function devices which is called soft control system. The soft controls in APR-1400 ACRs are classified into safety-grade and non-safety-grade soft controls; each was designed using different and independent input devices in ACRs. The operations using soft controls require operators to perform new tasks which were not necessary in conventional controls such as navigating computerized displays to monitor plant information and control devices. These kinds of computerized displays and soft controls may make operations more convenient but they might cause new types of human error. In this study the human error mechanism during the soft controls is studied and modeled to be used for analysis and enhancement of human performance (or human errors) during NPP operation. The developed model would contribute to a lot of applications to improve human performance (or reduce human errors), HMI designs, and operators' training program in ACRs. The developed model of human error mechanism for the soft control is based on assumptions that a human operator has certain amount of capacity in cognitive resources and if resources required by operating tasks are greater than resources invested by the operator, human error (or poor human performance) is likely to occur (especially in 'slip'); good HMI (Human-machine Interface) design decreases the required resources; operator's skillfulness decreases the required resources; and high vigilance increases the invested resources. In this study the human error mechanism during the soft controls is studied and modeled to be used for analysis and enhancement of human performance (or reduction of human errors) during NPP operation

  3. Modeling Human Error Mechanism for Soft Control in Advanced Control Rooms (ACRs)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aljneibi, Hanan Salah Ali [Khalifa Univ., Abu Dhabi (United Arab Emirates); Ha, Jun Su; Kang, Seongkeun; Seong, Poong Hyun [KAIST, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-10-15

    To achieve the switch from conventional analog-based design to digital design in ACRs, a large number of manual operating controls and switches have to be replaced by a few common multi-function devices which is called soft control system. The soft controls in APR-1400 ACRs are classified into safety-grade and non-safety-grade soft controls; each was designed using different and independent input devices in ACRs. The operations using soft controls require operators to perform new tasks which were not necessary in conventional controls such as navigating computerized displays to monitor plant information and control devices. These kinds of computerized displays and soft controls may make operations more convenient but they might cause new types of human error. In this study the human error mechanism during the soft controls is studied and modeled to be used for analysis and enhancement of human performance (or human errors) during NPP operation. The developed model would contribute to a lot of applications to improve human performance (or reduce human errors), HMI designs, and operators' training program in ACRs. The developed model of human error mechanism for the soft control is based on assumptions that a human operator has certain amount of capacity in cognitive resources and if resources required by operating tasks are greater than resources invested by the operator, human error (or poor human performance) is likely to occur (especially in 'slip'); good HMI (Human-machine Interface) design decreases the required resources; operator's skillfulness decreases the required resources; and high vigilance increases the invested resources. In this study the human error mechanism during the soft controls is studied and modeled to be used for analysis and enhancement of human performance (or reduction of human errors) during NPP operation.

  4. Modeling of a dependence between human operators in advanced main control rooms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Seung Jun; Kim, Jaewhan; Jang, Seung-Cheol; Shin, Yeong Cheol

    2009-01-01

    For the human reliability analysis of main control room (MCR) operations, not only parameters such as the given situation and capability of the operators but also the dependence between the actions of the operators should be considered because MCR operations are team operations. The dependence between operators might be more prevalent in an advanced MCR in which operators share the same information using a computerized monitoring system or a computerized procedure system. Therefore, this work focused on the computerized operation environment of advanced MCRs and proposed a model to consider the dependence representing the recovery possibility of an operator error by another operator. The proposed model estimates human error probability values by considering adjustment values for a situation and dependence values for operators during the same operation using independent event trees. This work can be used to quantitatively calculate a more reliable operation failure probability for an advanced MCR. (author)

  5. Leadership in the control room

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McDougall, S.J.

    2006-01-01

    This paper discusses the importance of leadership within the control rooms at nuclear power facilities. the leadership capability of control room staff has a significant influence over the improvement of human performance and the development of an 'event free' culture within the business. The development of leadership competency in the control room must be an important part of any nuclear power utility business improvement plan. (author)

  6. Leadership in the control room

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McDougall, S.J. [Bruce Power, Bruce B Operations Div., Tiverton, Ontario (Canada)

    2006-07-01

    This paper discusses the importance of leadership within the control rooms at nuclear power facilities. the leadership capability of control room staff has a significant influence over the improvement of human performance and the development of an 'event free' culture within the business. The development of leadership competency in the control room must be an important part of any nuclear power utility business improvement plan. (author)

  7. Modern control room for AHWR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Verghese, Clement C.; Joseph, Jose; Biswas, B.B.; Patil, R.K.

    2005-01-01

    Advanced Heavy Water Reactor (AHWR) is a next generation nuclear power plant being developed by Bhabha Atomic Research Centre. A modern control room has been conceived for operation and monitoring of the plant in tune with the advanced features of the reactor. A state of the art C and I architecture based on extensive use of computers and networking has been conceived for this plant. This architecture enables the implementation of a fully computerised operator friendly control room with soft HMIs. Features of the modern control room and control room and concept of soft HMI based operator interfaces have been described in the paper. (author)

  8. A control room lighting study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vaidya, V.V.; Iwasa-Madge, K.M.; Howard, B.; Willson, R.B.

    1984-01-01

    Operators at a Heavy Water Plant in Ontario, Canada complained about lighting-related difficulties in the control room. The Human Factors Engineering Unit was requested to perform a lighting survey and make recommendations to improve the control centre lighting conditions. This paper describes the control room, the operator tasks, the procedures used for the lighting survey, the findings, and the changes recommended

  9. Control room lay-out

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toma, Violeta

    2004-01-01

    TRIUMF (Tri-University Meson Facility) is Canada's national laboratory for particle and nuclear physics. There are 6 accelerators and 3 Control Rooms at TRIUMF. The main control room serves the big cyclotron, the 500 MeV, and the adjacent experiment. The 42 MeV and two 32 MeV ones are production dedicated. These cyclotrons belong to a private company but are operated by TRIUMF staff from ATG (Applied Technology Group) Control Room. The last is ISAC (Isotope Acceleration and Separation) Control Room, from which the LINAC is controlled. Research areas cover theoretical (2 subjects), pure (5 subjects) and applied (8 subjects) physics. In the early '70s, as the 500 MeV was being completed, the first Control Room was built in the main accelerator building. The recent topics covered by this paper are proton and pion therapy, what are the operator's duties?, the CP42, TR30 and TR13 cyclotron control rooms, the ISAC control systems including control room modification. Due to the nature of an operator's job, the Control Room layout is pretty important. This is true for any work environment, but when working shifts it becomes essential. Lots of time and effort, not to mention money, were spent to figure out the optimum configuration. It seems to me that the key factor in the control room layout is versatility, and this is because it has to keep happy a group of people with different inclinations, which have a tendency to become quite moody after the second night shift. No matter what, there will still be unhappy people, but we are trying our best. (Y. Tanaka)

  10. In the LEAR control room

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN PhotoLab

    1983-01-01

    View into the control room of the Low Energy Antiproton Ring (LEAR). Edgar Asseo (sitting) and Dieter Möhl and Georges Carron reflecting upon some beam dynamics (or hardware?) problem. Vassilis Agoritsas, in the background, leaning over a plan or a keyboard. LEAR in its early years (1982 to about 1990) was run from this local control room in building 363 close to the end of the PS South Hall, where the ring was installed. Later-on the operation was surveyed from the PS main control room.

  11. Control room philosophy: Principles of control room design and control room work

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skriver, Jan; Ramberg, Jasmine; Allwin, Pernilla

    2006-01-01

    In order to provide insights for improvement of work in control rooms several factors have to be considered. Knowledge of principles including control room philosophies will guide the recommended improvements. In addition to knowledge about specific principles an advantage for an organization can be an understanding of similarities and policies used in other high risk industry. The report has been developed on the basis of a document analysis of international standards and other guiding documents. (NUREG 0711, ISO 11064, ISO 6385, IEC 60964). In addition to the document analysis which has strived to compare the documents to see similarities in important principals, experience from working with control room design, modifications and evaluations in other high risk industries has pervaded the report. Important principles have been identified which are recommended to be included in a control room philosophy. Many of these are similar to the principles identified in the international standards. An additional principal which is regarded as important is the utilization of Key Performance Indicators (KPI) which can be used as a measure to target preventative means. Further more it is critical that the control room philosophy is easy to access and comprehend for all users. One of the challenges that remain after having developed a control room philosophy is how to utilize it in the daily work situation. It is vital that the document remains as a living document, guiding the continual improvement of the control room in the various life cycle stages

  12. The conference hybrid control room

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gieci, A.; Caucik, J.; Macko, J.

    2008-01-01

    An original concept of a hybrid control room was developed for the Mochovce-3 and Mochovce-4 reactor units which are under construction. The basic idea underlying the concept is that the control room should be a main working place for the operators (reactor operator and turbine operator) and for the shift supervisor, designed as a comprehensive unit desk shaped so that all members of the control room crew are in a face-to-face contact constantly. The main desk consists of three clearly identified areas serving the operators and the unit supervisor as their main working places. A soft control system is installed at the main working places. A separate safety-related working place, designed as a panel with classical instrumentations at the conference hybrid control room, is provided in case of abnormal conditions or emergency situation. Principles of ergonomics and cognitive engineering were taken into account when designing the new conference hybrid control room for the Mochovce-3 and -4 reactor units. The sizes, propositions, shapes and disposition of the equipment at the control room have been created and verified by using virtual reality tools. (orig.)

  13. Nuclear reactor control room construction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lamuro, R.C.; Orr, R.

    1993-01-01

    A control room for a nuclear plant is disclosed. In the control room, objects labelled 12, 20, 22, 26, 30 in the drawing are no less than four inches from walls labelled 10.2. A ceiling contains cooling fins that extend downwards toward the floor from metal plates. A concrete slab is poured over the plates. Studs are welded to the plates and are encased in the concrete. 6 figures

  14. Future control room design (modernization of control room systems)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reischl, Ludwig; Freitag, Timo; Dergel, Rene

    2009-01-01

    In the frame of lifetime extension for nuclear power plants the modernization of the complete safety and operational control technology will be digitalized. It is also recommended to modernize the operator facilities, monitoring systems in the control room, the back-up shut-down center and the local control stations. The authors summarize the reasons for the modernization recommendations and discuss possible solutions for display-oriented control rooms. A concept for control room backfitting includes generic requirements, requirements of the local authorities, ergonomic principles information content and information density, and the design process. The backfitting strategy should include a cooperation with the operational personnel, The quality assurance and training via simulator needs sufficient timing during the implementation of the backfitting.

  15. Control room and ergonomic design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hinz, W.

    1984-01-01

    The important basis for the configuration of the control room of a nuclear power station is the concept for controlling a fault and that for controlling normal operation. The tasks resulting from this for the control room personnel are decided by the control room concept. In this configuration process (from the division of process control tasks between the system components operators and control technology to the configuration of individual means of operation) the characteristics and capabilities of the personnel, which are subject to special requirements as regards their qualifications, are observed. New concepts which are only now technically feasible are therefore being developed for information processing and display, in order to give the personnel a better oversight of the state and trends of the plant. (orig./DG) [de

  16. Thermal room modelling adapted to the test of HVAC control systems; Modele de zone adapte aux essais de regulateurs de systemes de chauffage et de climatisation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Riederer, P.

    2002-01-15

    Room models, currently used for controller tests, assume the room air to be perfectly mixed. A new room model is developed, assuming non-homogeneous room conditions and distinguishing between different sensor positions. From measurement in real test rooms and detailed CFD simulations, a list of convective phenomena is obtained that has to be considered in the development of a model for a room equipped with different HVAC systems. The zonal modelling approach that divides the room air into several sub-volumes is chosen, since it is able to represent the important convective phenomena imposed on the HVAC system. The convective room model is divided into two parts: a zonal model, representing the air at the occupant zone and a second model, providing the conditions at typical sensor positions. Using this approach, the comfort conditions at the occupant zone can be evaluated as well as the impact of different sensor positions. The model is validated for a test room equipped with different HVAC systems. Sensitivity analysis is carried out on the main parameters of the model. Performance assessment and energy consumption are then compared for different sensor positions in a room equipped with different HVAC systems. The results are also compared with those obtained when a well-mixed model is used. A main conclusion of these tests is, that the differences obtained, when changing the position of the controller's sensor, is a function of the HVAC system and controller type. The differences are generally small in terms of thermal comfort but significant in terms of overall energy consumption. For different HVAC systems the cases are listed, in which the use of a simplified model is not recommended. (author)

  17. Strategies of modeling the cognitive tasks of human operators for accident scenarios in nuclear power plant control rooms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheon, Se Woo; Sur, Sang Moon; Lee, Yong Hee; Lee, Jeong Wun

    1993-01-01

    This paper presents the development strategies of cognitive task network modeling for accident scenarios in nuclear power plant control rooms. Task network modeling is used to provide useful predictions of operator's performance times and error rates, based upon plant procedures and/or control room changes. Two accident scenarios, small-break loss of coolant accident (LOCA) and steam generator tube rupture (SGTR), are selected for task simulation. To obtain the input data for the model, task elements are extracted by the task analysis of emergency operating procedures. The input data include task performance time, communication ink, panel location, component operating mode, and data for performance shaping factors (PSFs). Operator's verbs are categorized according to the elements of cognitive behavior. The simulation of the task network for the small-break LOCA scenario is presented in this paper. (Author)

  18. New technologies for control room habitability assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lahti, G.P.; Muraida, J.E.; Perchiazzi, W.T.; Harden, P.A.

    1994-01-01

    Older nuclear power plants typically considered only a nominal amount of unfiltered inleakage (typically 10 cfm) impacting their postaccident control room habitability. However, recent measurements of unfiltered inleakage show values in excess of the nominal 10 cfm. A reassessment for two of these ''older'' stations has been completed recently to show that the measured inleakage did not jeopardize the safety of the control room occupants. Recent concerns at the Zion Station and the Palisades Station about control room habitability in the event of a loss-of-coolant accident have led to an extensive effort to increase control room habitability margin. The heating, ventilating and air-conditioning (HVAC) system servicing each of the control rooms has the potential for unfiltered in-leakage through many locations. For example, at the Palisades Station, the current limiting control room habitability analysis allows for 25 cfm unfiltered in-leakage through its normal outside air intake louvered isolation dampers during emergency mode into the control room envelope. This leakage value was not thought to be achievable with the existing as-built configuration. Repairing the system was considered a potential solution; however, this would be costly and could negatively affect plant operation. In addition, the system would still be required to meet the low specified unfiltered in-leakage. An alternate approach was to review the analysis and reassess the most important parameters. The key effort was to determine the atmospheric dispersion factors (χ/Qs) through wind tunnel tests using scale models of the stations. The results of the wind tunnel testing could yield more realistic χ/Qs for control room habitability than previously employed methods. The wind tunnel study options were selected based on their ease of implementation, realistic results, and low cost. More importantly, the results of the studies would allow more realistic values of unfiltered inleakage

  19. Application of ARCON96 in NPP control room habitability assessment and its comparison with composite wake model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fang Sheng; Li Hong; Fang Dong

    2012-01-01

    ARCON96 is the current NRC-recommended atmospheric dispersion model that may be used to estimate atmospheric relative concentration in assessing the habitability of a NPP control room during design basis radiological events. Based on meteorological data from a NPP site in China, the atmospheric relative concentration was calculated and analyzed using ARCON96, and then compared with calculations by the composite wake model. Results demonstrated that ARCON96 is feasible for atmospheric relative concentration estimation and its estimate is more conservative than the composite wake model. (authors)

  20. Organic titanates: a model for activating rapid room-temperature synthesis of shape-controlled CsPbBr3 nanocrystals and their derivatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Shaofan; Li, Guangshe; Li, Huixia; Lu, Yantong; Li, Liping

    2018-04-12

    The application of lead halide perovskite nanocrystals is challenged by the lack of strategies in rapid room-temperature synthesis with controlled morphologies. Here, we report on an initial study of adopting organic titanates as a model activator that promotes rapid room-temperature synthesis of shape-controlled, highly luminescent CsPbBr3 nanocrystals and their derivatives.

  1. At ISR Main Control Room

    CERN Multimedia

    1983-01-01

    After 13 years the exploitation of the Intersecting Storage Rings as a beam-beam collider went to an end. In this last year the demands were very exacting, both in terms of operating time and diversified running conditions (Annual Report 1983 p. 123). Before dismantelement the photographer made a last tour, see photos 8310889X --> 8310667X. This photo shows the Main Control Room.

  2. Implementation of an operator model with error mechanisms for nuclear power plant control room operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suh, Sang Moon; Cheon, Se Woo; Lee, Yong Hee; Lee, Jung Woon; Park, Young Taek

    1996-01-01

    SACOM(Simulation Analyser with Cognitive Operator Model) is being developed at Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute to simulate human operator's cognitive characteristics during the emergency situations of nuclear power plans. An operator model with error mechanisms has been developed and combined into SACOM to simulate human operator's cognitive information process based on the Rasmussen's decision ladder model. The operational logic for five different cognitive activities (Agents), operator's attentional control (Controller), short-term memory (Blackboard), and long-term memory (Knowledge Base) have been developed and implemented on blackboard architecture. A trial simulation with a scenario for emergency operation has been performed to verify the operational logic. It was found that the operator model with error mechanisms is suitable for the simulation of operator's cognitive behavior in emergency situation

  3. Ergonomics and control room design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, J.C.; Story, D.T.

    1987-01-01

    The application of ergonomic principles to the design process and some aspects of the Sizewell B control room is discussed. Also outlined is the management process which ensures that these principles are applied systematically throughout the design development activity and highlights the functional requirements which must also be met in the creation of a total man-machine system package which meets all the technical design criteria. The ergonomics requirements are part of this process and extend into all aspects of design ranging from such matters as workplace organization to environmental factors, social engineering, communications and aesthetics. (author)

  4. Guidelines for control room design reviews

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-09-01

    The control room design review is part of a broad program being undertaken by the nuclear industry and the government to ensure consideration of human factors in nuclear power plant design and operation. The purpose of the control room design review described by these guidelines is to (1) review and evaluate the control room workspace, instrumentation, controls, and other equipment from a human factors engineering point of view that takes into account both system demands and operator capabilities; and (2) to identify, assess, and implement control room design modifications that correct inadequate or unsuitable items. The scope of the control room design review described by these guidelines covers the human engineering review of completed control rooms; i.e., operational control rooms or those at that stage of the licensing process where control room design and equipment selection are committed. These guidelines should also be of use during the design process for new control rooms. However, additional analyses to optimize the allocation of functions to man and machine, and further examination of advanced control system technology, are recommended for new control rooms. Guidelines and references for comprehensive system analyses designed to incorporate human factors considerations into the design and development of new control rooms are presented in Appendix B. Where possible, a generic approach to the control room design review process is encouraged; for example, when control room designs are replicated wholly or in part in two or more units. Even when designs are not replicated exactly, generic reviews which can be modified to account for specific differences in particular control rooms should be considered. Industry organizations and owners groups are encouraged to coordinate joint efforts and share data to develop generic approaches to the design review process. The control room design review should accomplish the following specific objectives. To determine

  5. Improvement of main control room

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chae, Sung Ki; Ham, Chang Sik; Kwon, Ki Chun

    1991-07-01

    Information display system, advanced alarm system and fiber optical communication system were developed to improve the main control room in nuclear power plant. Establishing the new hierachical information structure of plant operation data, plant overview status board(POSB) and digital indicator(DI) were designed and manufactured. The prototype advanced alarm system which employed the new alarm logics and algorithm compared with the conventional alarm system were developed and its effectiveness was proved. Optical communication system which has multi-drop feature and capability of upgrading to large-scale system by using BITBUS communication protocol which is proven technology, were developed. Reliability of that system was enhanced by using distributed control. (Author)

  6. Mathematical Models for Room Air Distribution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Peter V.

    1982-01-01

    A number of different models on the air distribution in rooms are introduced. This includes the throw model, a model on penetration length of a cold wall jet and a model for maximum velocity in the dimensioning of an air distribution system in highly loaded rooms and shows that the amount of heat...... removed from the room at constant penetration length is proportional to the cube of the velocities in the occupied zone. It is also shown that a large number of diffusers increases the amount of heat which may be removed without affecting the thermal conditions. Control strategies for dual duct and single...... duct systems are given and the paper is concluded by mentioning a computer-based prediction method which gives the velocity and temperature distribution in the whole room....

  7. Mathematical Models for Room Air Distribution - Addendum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Peter V.

    1982-01-01

    A number of different models on the air distribution in rooms are introduced. This includes the throw model, a model on penetration length of a cold wall jet and a model for maximum velocity in the dimensioning of an air distribution system in highly loaded rooms and shows that the amount of heat...... removed from the room at constant penetration length is proportional to the cube of the velocities in the occupied zone. It is also shown that a large number of diffusers increases the amount of heat which may be removed without affecting the thermal conditions. Control strategies for dual duct and single...... duct systems are given and the paper is concluded by mentioning a computer-based prediction method which gives the velocity and temperature distribution in the whole room....

  8. Nuclear power station main control room habitability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paschal, W.B.; Knous, W.S.

    1989-01-01

    The main control room at a nuclear power station must remain habitable during a variety of plant conditions and postulated events. The control room habitability requirement and the function of the heating, ventilating, air-conditioning, and air treatment system are to control environmental factors, such as temperature, pressure, humidity, radiation, and toxic gas. Habitability requirements provide for the safety of personnel and enable operation of equipment required to function in the main control room. Habitability as an issue has been gaining prominence with the Advisor Committee of Reactor Safeguards and the Nuclear Regulatory Commission since the incident at Three Mile Island. Their concern is the ability of the presently installed habitability systems to control the main control room environment after an accident. This paper discusses main control room HVAC systems; the concern, requirements, and results of NRC surveys and notices; and an approach to control room habitability reviews

  9. Advanced control room caters for the operator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    George, C.R.; Rygg, D.E.

    1980-01-01

    In existing control rooms the operators' efficiency is often limited by widely scattered and sometimes illogically arranged controls which tend to increase the potential for outages or equipment damage. The advanced control room described allows instant and ready access to preselected information and control by one or two operators from a seated or standing position. (author)

  10. Simulation of a model predictive room temperature control by use of an ideal weather forecast; Simulation einer praediktiven Raumtemperaturregelung unter Verwendung einer idealen Wettervorhersage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goertler, Gregor [Fachhochschulstudiengaenge Burgenland GesmbH, Pinkafeld (Austria). Kernkompetenzbereich Energie- und Umweltmanagement; Beigelboeck, Barbara

    2010-12-15

    Due to the use of MPC (Model Predictive Control) for room heating applications users and constructors expect nameable energy savings. By usage of a simulation for a special case the energy saving potential of predictive control algorithm for room temperature control in connection with an ideal weather forecast, in comparison to established algorithms (PI-control, two level controller) is estimated. The controlled system with the control variable room temperature is a room with floor heating which was modelled in TRNSYS. A linear state space model of the controlled system was derived with suitable identification methods. This model was used by the predictive control algorithm, which was programmed in MATLAB. The weather data was taken from the TRNSYS library and has been made available also for the control algorithm, so that an ideal weather forecast was established. For the example considered in this paper, the amount of energy saving was 10 % per year with the MPC-controller compared to a PI-controller. (Copyright copyright 2010 Ernst and Sohn Verlag fuer Architektur und technische Wissenschaften GmbH and Co. KG, Berlin)

  11. The collaborative tokamak control room

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schissel, D.P.

    2006-01-01

    Magnetic fusion experiments keep growing in size and complexity resulting in a concurrent growth in collaborations between experimental sites and laboratories worldwide. In the US, the National Fusion Collaboratory Project is developing a persistent infrastructure to enable scientific collaboration for all aspects of magnetic fusion energy research by creating a robust, user-friendly collaborative environment and deploying this to the more than 1000 US fusion scientists in 40 institutions who perform magnetic fusion research. This paper reports on one aspect of the project which is the development of the collaborative tokamak control room to enhance both collocated and remote scientific participation in experimental operations. This work includes secured computational services that can be scheduled as required, the ability to rapidly compare experimental data with simulation results, a means to easily share individual results with the group by moving application windows to a shared display, and the ability for remote scientists to be fully engaged in experimental operations through shared audio, video, and applications. The project is funded by the USDOE Office of Science, Scientific Discovery through Advanced Computing (SciDAC) Program and unites fusion and computer science researchers to directly address these challenges

  12. Control room habitability during severe accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siu, R.P.

    1989-01-01

    The requirements for protection of control room personnel against radiation hazards are specified in 10CFR50, Appendix A, GDC 19. The conventional approach involves a mechanistic evaluation of the radiation doses to control room personnel during design-basis accidents. In this study, an assessment of control room habitability during severe accidents is conducted. The potential levels of radiation hazards to control room personnel are evaluated in terms of both magnitude and probability of occurrence. The expected values for the probabilities of exceeding GDC-19 limits and the cumulative probability distributions of control room doses are determined. In this study, a pressurized water reactor with a large dry containment has been selected for analysis. The types of control rooms evaluated in this study include designs with: (a) filtered local intakes only, (b) filtered recirculation only, (c) filtered local intakes and recirculation, and (d) filtered dual remote intakes and recirculation. From the observations, it is concluded that, except for control room D, all other control room designs may require improvements in order to provide adequate radiation protection during severe accidents, particularly in terms of reducing whole-body gamma doses and skin doses. Potential design improvements include reduction of intake flows for concepts relying on pressurization, reduction in overall leakages, and control room pressurization through the use of bottled air supply

  13. Human Factors and Modeling Methods in the Development of Control Room Modernization Concepts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hugo, Jacques V.; Slay III, Lorenzo

    2017-06-01

    nuclear power plants. Although the nuclear industry has made steady improvement in outage optimization, each day of a refueling outage still represents an opportunity to save millions of dollars and each day an outage extends past its planned end date represents millions of dollars that may have been spent unnecessarily. Reducing planned outage duration or preventing outage extensions requires careful management of the outage schedule as well as constant oversight and monitoring of work completion during the outage execution. During a typical outage, there are typically more than 10,000 activities on the schedule that, if not managed efficiently, may cause expensive outage delays. Management of outages currently relies largely on paper-based resources and general-purpose office software. A typical tool currently used to monitor work performance is a burn-down curve, where total remaining activities are plotted against the baseline schedule to track bulk work completion progress. While these tools are useful, there is still considerable uncertainty during a typical outage that bulk work progress is adequate and therefore a lot of management time is spent analyzing the situation on a daily basis. This paper describes recent advances made in developing a framework for the design of visual outage information presentation, as well as an overview of the scientific principles that informed the development of the visualizations. To test the utility of advanced visual outage information presentation, an outage management dashboard software application was created as part of the Department of Energy’s Advanced Outage Control Center project. This dashboard is intended to present all the critical information an outage manager would need to understand the current status of a refueling outage. The dashboard presents the critical path, bulk work performance, key performance indicators, outage milestones and metrics relating current performance to historical performance

  14. Control room philosophy: Principles of control room design and control room work; Kontrollrumsfilosofi: Principer foer kontrollrumsutformning och kontrollrumsarbete

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skriver, Jan; Ramberg, Jasmine; Allwin, Pernilla [Scandpower Risk Management AB, Uppsala (Sweden)

    2006-01-15

    In order to provide insights for improvement of work in control rooms several factors have to be considered. Knowledge of principles including control room philosophies will guide the recommended improvements. In addition to knowledge about specific principles an advantage for an organization can be an understanding of similarities and policies used in other high risk industry. The report has been developed on the basis of a document analysis of international standards and other guiding documents. (NUREG 0711, ISO 11064, ISO 6385, IEC 60964). In addition to the document analysis which has strived to compare the documents to see similarities in important principals, experience from working with control room design, modifications and evaluations in other high risk industries has pervaded the report. Important principles have been identified which are recommended to be included in a control room philosophy. Many of these are similar to the principles identified in the international standards. An additional principal which is regarded as important is the utilization of Key Performance Indicators (KPI) which can be used as a measure to target preventative means. Further more it is critical that the control room philosophy is easy to access and comprehend for all users. One of the challenges that remain after having developed a control room philosophy is how to utilize it in the daily work situation. It is vital that the document remains as a living document, guiding the continual improvement of the control room in the various life cycle stages.

  15. Ergonomics influence on control room layout

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hartfiel, H.D.

    1984-01-01

    Nowadays, human factors has become an important aspect of the design of work places. Since the control room in a nuclear power plant is a work place, too, its layout is also influenced by ergonomics. With the KWU control room concept for the 1300 MW PWR as an example, we show how assured and applicable ergonomic findings enter into the control room design. On the basis of general design principles for work places, specific methods for control room planning have been developed. By working with these methods a concept that makes it possible to build a man-machine interface able to fulfill the process control tasks with all their underlying conditions has been derived. (author)

  16. Discussion on control room habitability assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Bing; Chen Yingying; Xiao Jun; Yang Duanjie; Cui Hao

    2014-01-01

    The discussion on control room envelope integrity, source term analysis in habitability assessments and other impact factors for dose consequence is provided combined with regulatory requirements and the current status of domestic NPPs. Considering that the infiltration is an important factor for control room habitability assessment, CRE integrity test should be performed to demonstrate the CRE's infiltration characteristics. The consequence assessment should be performed based on different DBAs and different pathways, such as pathways internal to the plant. (authors)

  17. Control rooms in German nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoffmann, E.

    1999-01-01

    The paper explains and illustrates the dissimilarity in design and equipment of control rooms in German NPPs, as well as a historical survey of the general principles and approaches applied in the evolution of control room technology, including backfitting activities. Experience obtained from daily operation as well training at the simulators is taken as a basis to formulate fundamental requirements for modification or novel design approaches. (orig./CB) [de

  18. Models of human operators: Their need and usefulness for improvement of advanced control systems and control rooms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knee, H.E.; Schryver, J.C.

    1991-01-01

    Models of human behavior and cognition (HB ampersand C) are necessary for understanding the total response of complex systems. Many such model have come available over the past thirty years for various applications. Many potential model users remain skeptical about their practically, acceptability, and usefulness. Such hesitancy stems in part from disbelief in the ability to model complex cognitive processes, and a belief that relevant human behavior can be adequately accounted for through the use of common-sense heuristics. This paper will highlight several models of HB ampersand C and identify existing and potential applications in attempt to dispel such notions. 26 refs

  19. Guidelines on ergonomic aspects of control rooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, C. M.; Bocast, A. K.; Stewart, L. J.

    1983-01-01

    The anthropometry, workstation design, and environmental design of control rooms are outlined. The automated interface and VDTs and displays and various modes of communication between the system and the human operator using VDTs are discussed. The man in the loop is examined, the single controller single task framework and multiple controller multiple tasks issues are considered.

  20. Control room habitability study: findings and recommendations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Driscoll, J.W.

    1986-01-01

    The Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS) has raised a number of concerns related to control room habitability and has recommended actions which they believe could alleviate these concerns. As a result of the ACRS's concerns, the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission's (NRC) Office of Nuclear Reactor Regulation (NRR) in conjunction with the Offices of Research and Inspection and Enforcement, and the NRC regional offices, embarked upon a program to reevaluate Control Room Habitability. Argonne National Laboratory was contracted by the NRC to perform a Control Room Habitability Study on twelve licensed power reactors. The plants selected for the study were chosen based upon architect engineer, nuclear steam system supplier, utility, and plant location. Participants in the study review the plant design as contained in the Updated Safety Analysis Report, Technical Specifications, Three Mile Island action item III.D.3.4 submittal on Control Room Habitability, NRC staff evaluation of the III.D.3.4 submittal, appropriate plant operating procedures, system drawings, and significant Licensee Event Reports on Loss of Cooling to the Control Room Envelope. A two-day visit is then made to the plant to determine if the as-built systems are built, operated, and surveillance performed as described in the documentation reviewed prior to the visit. The major findings of this study are included in this report along with generic recommendations of the review team that apply to control room HVAC systems. Although the study is not complete, at the time of publication of this report, the results obtained to date should be useful to persons responsible for Control Room Habitability in evaluating their own systems

  1. Engineering Process Monitoring for Control Room Operation

    CERN Document Server

    Bätz, M

    2001-01-01

    A major challenge in process operation is to reduce costs and increase system efficiency whereas the complexity of automated process engineering, control and monitoring systems increases continuously. To cope with this challenge the design, implementation and operation of process monitoring systems for control room operation have to be treated as an ensemble. This is only possible if the engineering of the monitoring information is focused on the production objective and is lead in close collaboration of control room teams, exploitation personnel and process specialists. In this paper some principles for the engineering of monitoring information for control room operation are developed at the example of the exploitation of a particle accelerator at the European Laboratory for Nuclear Research (CERN).

  2. Control room habitability study - findings and recommendations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Driscoll, J.W.

    1987-01-01

    The Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS) has raised a number of concerns related to control room habitability and has recommended actions which they believe could alleviate these concerns. As a result of the ACRS's concerns, the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission's (NRC) Office of Nuclear Reactor Regulation (NRR) in conjunction with the Offices of Research and Inspection and Enforcement, and the NRC regional offices, embarked upon a program to reevaluate Control Room Habitability. Argonne National Laboratory was contracted by the NRC to perform a Control Room Habitability Study on twelve licensed power reactors. The plants selected for the study were chosen based upon architect engineer, nuclear steam system supplier, utility, and plant location. The major findings of this study are included in this report along with generic recommendations of the review team that apply to control room HVAC systems. Although the study is not complete, at the time of publication of this report, the results obtained to date should be useful to persons responsible for Control Room Habitability in evaluating their own systems

  3. Gaining control room habitability margin at the Palisades Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harden, P.A.

    1993-01-01

    The bounding design-basis accident for control room habitability is the loss-of-coolant accident (LOCA). At Palisades, very little margin existed between the calculated control room operator thyroid dose and the 0.3-Sv (30-rem) limit of Standard Review Plan (SRP) 6.4. Also, a low rate of unfiltered air leakage into the control room during the emergency mode of operation, 5.5 x 10 -3 m 3 /s (11.6 ft 3 /min), was accounted for in the control room habitability analysis. The control room heating, ventilating and air-conditioning system at Palisades has louvered isolation dampers for the normal air intake that are exposed to a negative pressure. Considering the small margin to the thyroid dose limits and the leakage characteristics of louvered dampers, a low allowable rate of unfiltered air in-leakage raised some concern. A significant effort has been initiated to alleviate control room habitability concerns at Palisades. The first step in this effort was to evaluate the calculational models for control room habitability and gain margin through updated analytical methods. To accomplish this, a new radiological consequence analysis for the LOCA was completed

  4. Study on the main control room design for Hamaoka Unit No.5

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsuruta, Tadakazu; Sakamoto, Minoru; Maruyama, Tohru; Saito, Tadashi

    2000-01-01

    The main control room of nuclear power station is important to operate the power station and to promote public acceptance of nuclear power station. To enhance them, there is an idea of high ceiling control room with a gallery room located in backside middle upper floor. The control room is expected to enhance habitability and to offer visitors the fine view of the control room. In this study, psychological and physiological influence of such a high ceiling control room design on operators was investigated first. And then some human engineering requirements for desirable main control room were identified. A control room (ceiling height: about 5 meters) adequate to the requirements was designed, and finally the validity of the design was verified by means of full mockup model room tests. The results of this study are applied to the main control room design of Hamaoka Nuclear Power Station Unit No.5 (Chubu Electric Power Co., Inc.) (author)

  5. Modern control room design experience and speculation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, J.E.

    1993-01-01

    Can operators trained to use conventional control panels readily adapt to CRT based control rooms? Does automation make the design of good man-machine interfaces more or less difficult? In a conventional, hard-wired control room is the operator's peripheral vision always an asset and how can one do better in a CRT based control room? Are Expert System assisted man-machine interfaces a boon or a bust? This paper explores these questions in the light of actual experience with advanced power plant control environments. This paper discusses how automation has in fact simplified the problem of ensuring that the operator has at all times a clear understanding of the plant state. The author contends that conventional hard-wired control rooms are very poor at providing the operator with a good overview of the plant status particularly under startup, or upset conditions and that CRT-based control rooms offer an opportunity for improvement. Experience with some early attempts at this are discussed together with some interesting proposals from other authors. Finally the paper discusses the experience to date with expert system assisted man-machine interfaces. Although promising for the future progress has been slow. The amount of knowledge research required is often formidable and consequently costly. Often when an adequate knowledge base is finally acquired it turns out to be better to use it to increase the level of automation and thus simplify the operator's task. The risks are not any greater and automation offers more consistent operation. It is important also to carefully distinguish between expert system assisted display selection and expert system operator guidance. The first is intended to help the operator in his quest for information. The second attempts to guide the operator actions. The good and the bad points of each of these approaches is discussed

  6. Survey of licensee control room habitability practices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boland, J.F.; Brookshire, R.L.; Danielson, W.F.; Driscoll, J.W.; Graham, E.D.; McConnell, R.J.; Thompson, V.N.

    1985-04-01

    This document presents the results of a survey of Licensee control-room-habitability practices. The survey is part of a comprehensive program plan instituted in August 1983 by the NRC to respond to ongoing questions from the Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS). The emphasis of this survey was to determine by field review the control-room habitability practices at three different plants, one of which is still under construction and scheduled to receive an operating license in 1986. The other two plants are currently operating, having received operating licenses in the mid-1970's and early 1980's. The major finding of this survey is that despite the fact that the latest control-room-habitability systems have become larger and more complex than earlier systems surveyed, the latest systems do not appear to be functionally superior. The major recommendation of this report is to consolidate into a single NRC document, based upon a comprehensive systems engineering approach, the pertinent criteria for control-room-habitability design

  7. Enhancing training in the main control room

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McGuigan, K.; O'Leary, K.; Canavan, K.

    2004-01-01

    In 2003 Pickering B Nuclear of Ontario Power Generation installed a Desktop Simulator (DTS) in the Main Control Room (MCR) for training purposes. This paper will outline why this training enhancement was undertaken and the approach taken to secure its use in an active MCR environment while minimizing distractions to plant operations. (author)

  8. Developing control room operator selection procedures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bosshardt, M.J.; Bownas, D.A.

    1979-01-01

    PDRI is performing a two-year study to identify the tasks performed and attributes required in electric power generating plant operating jobs, and focusing on the control room operator position. Approximately 65 investor-owned utilities are participating in the study

  9. Evaporation Controlled Emission in Ventilated Rooms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Topp, Claus; Nielsen, Peter V.; Heiselberg, Per

    -scale ventilated room when the emission is fully or partly evaporation controlled. The objective of the present research work has been to investigate the change of emission rates from small-scale experiments to full-scale ventilated rooms and to investigate the influence of the local air velocity field near......Emission of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from materials is traditionally determined from tests carried out in small-scale test chambers. However, a difference in scale may lead to a difference in the measured emission rate in a small-scale test chamber and the actual emission rate in a full...

  10. HAMMLAB 1999 experimental control room: design - design rationale - experiences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foerdestroemmen, N. T.; Meyer, B. D.; Saarni, R.

    1999-01-01

    A presentation of HAMMLAB 1999 experimental control room, and the accumulated experiences gathered in the areas of design and design rationale as well as user experiences. It is concluded that HAMMLAB 1999 experimental control room is a realistic, compact and efficient control room well suited as an Advanced NPP Control Room (ml)

  11. PS Main Control Room (partial view)

    CERN Multimedia

    1974-01-01

    Jean-Pierre Potier (turning buttons) and Bertran Frammery (telephoning) on shift. The 26 GeV Synchrotron and later also its related machines (Linacs 1,2,3; PS-Booster; LEP-Injector Linacs and Electron-Positron Accumulator; Antiproton Accumulator, Antiproton Collector, Low Energy Antiproton Ring and more recently Antiproton Decelerator) were all controlled from the PS control room situated on the Meyrin site. The SPS and LEP were controlled from a separat control centre on the Prevessin site. In 2005 all controls were transferred to the Prevessin centre.

  12. Wind tunnel testing to predict control room atmospheric dispersion factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holmquist, L.J.; Harden, P.A.; Muraida, J.E.

    1993-01-01

    Recent concerns at Palisades about control room habitability in the event of a loss-of-coolant accident have led to an extensive effort to increase control room habitability margin. The heating, ventilating and air-conditioning (HVAC) system servicing the control room has the potential for unfiltered in-leakage through its normal outside air intake louvered isolation dampers during emergency mode. The current limiting control room habitability analysis allows for 1.2 x 10 -2 m 3 /s (25 ft 3 /min) unfiltered in-leakage into the control room envelope. This leakage value was not thought to be achievable with the existing as-built configuration. Repairing the system was considered as a potential solution; however, this would be costly and could negatively affect plant operation. In addition, the system would still be required to meet the low specified unfiltered in-leakage. A second approach to this problem was to determine the atmospheric dispersion factors (x/Q's) through a wind tunnel test using a scale model of Palisades. The results of the wind tunnel testing could yield more realistic x/Q's for control room habitability than previously employed methods. Palisades selected the wind tunnel study option based on its ease of implementation, realistic results, and low cost. More importantly, the results of the study could increase the allowable unfiltered in-leakage

  13. Engineering Process Monitoring for Control Room Operation

    OpenAIRE

    Bätz, M

    2001-01-01

    A major challenge in process operation is to reduce costs and increase system efficiency whereas the complexity of automated process engineering, control and monitoring systems increases continuously. To cope with this challenge the design, implementation and operation of process monitoring systems for control room operation have to be treated as an ensemble. This is only possible if the engineering of the monitoring information is focused on the production objective and is lead in close coll...

  14. Data for Room Fire Model Comparisons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peacock, Richard D; Davis, Sanford; Babrauskas, Vytenis

    1991-01-01

    With the development of models to predict fire growth and spread in buildings, there has been a concomitant evolution in the measurement and analysis of experimental data in real-scale fires. This report presents the types of analyses that can be used to examine large-scale room fire test data to prepare the data for comparison with zone-based fire models. Five sets of experimental data which can be used to test the limits of a typical two-zone fire model are detailed. A standard set of nomenclature describing the geometry of the building and the quantities measured in each experiment is presented. Availability of ancillary data (such as smaller-scale test results) is included. These descriptions, along with the data (available in computer-readable form) should allow comparisons between the experiment and model predictions. The base of experimental data ranges in complexity from one room tests with individual furniture items to a series of tests conducted in a multiple story hotel equipped with a zoned smoke control system.

  15. Data for Room Fire Model Comparisons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peacock, Richard D.; Davis, Sanford; Babrauskas, Vytenis

    1991-01-01

    With the development of models to predict fire growth and spread in buildings, there has been a concomitant evolution in the measurement and analysis of experimental data in real-scale fires. This report presents the types of analyses that can be used to examine large-scale room fire test data to prepare the data for comparison with zone-based fire models. Five sets of experimental data which can be used to test the limits of a typical two-zone fire model are detailed. A standard set of nomenclature describing the geometry of the building and the quantities measured in each experiment is presented. Availability of ancillary data (such as smaller-scale test results) is included. These descriptions, along with the data (available in computer-readable form) should allow comparisons between the experiment and model predictions. The base of experimental data ranges in complexity from one room tests with individual furniture items to a series of tests conducted in a multiple story hotel equipped with a zoned smoke control system. PMID:28184121

  16. The role of the control room operator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, M.C.

    A control room operator at an Ontario Hydro nuclear power plant operates a reactor-turbine unit according to approved procedures within imposed constraints to meet the objectives of the organization. A number of operating and administrative tasks make up this role. Control room operators spend approximately six percent of their time physically operating equipment exclusive of upset conditions, and another one percent operating in upset conditions. Testing occupies five percent of an operator's time. Operators must be trained to recognize the entire spectrum of inputs available to them and use them all effectively. Any change in system or unit state is always made according to an approved procedure. Extensive training is required; operators must be taught and pracised in what to do, and must know the reasons behind their actions. They are expected to memorize emergency procedures, to know when to consult operating procedures, and to have sufficient understanding and practice to perform these procedures reliably

  17. Palo Verde receives new control room simulator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1993-01-01

    A new control room simulator was delivered to Arizona Public Service Company's Palo Verde nuclear generating station in late August. The system, the second simulator on site, will be used for training beginning in January 1994, said David C. Brown, manager of the simulator upgrade project. Having two simulators will ease the current tight training schedule, and allow expansion of instruction to personnel other than licensed operators

  18. White Paper for Virtual Control Room

    Science.gov (United States)

    Little, William; Tully-Hanson, Benjamin

    2015-01-01

    The Virtual Control Room (VCR) Proof of Concept (PoC) project is the result of an award given by the Fourth Annual NASA T&I Labs Challenge Project Call. This paper will outline the work done over the award period to build and enhance the capabilities of the Augmented/Virtual Reality (AVR) Lab at NASA's Kennedy Space Center (KSC) to create the VCR.

  19. Method for control-room display design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Montmayeul, R.

    1988-01-01

    This document describes a method for control-room displays design. It can be used either for isolated display to add to an existing system either for the design of a full system of operator aids. The method is a top-down design with steps of possible iteration. The emphasis is put on display design rather than on system design; system aspects are just mentioned. Advantages of using a method are described [fr

  20. NRC study of control room habitability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayes, J.J. Jr.; Muller, D.R.; Gammill, W.P.

    1985-01-01

    Since 1980, the Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS) has held several meetings with the NRC staff to discuss the subject of control room habitability. Several meetings between the ACRS and the staff have resulted in ACRS letters that express specific concerns, and the staff has provided responses in reports and meetings. In June of 1983, the NRC Executive Director for Operations directed the Offices of Nuclear Reactor Regulation and Inspection and Enforcement to develop a plan to handle the issues raised by the ACRS and to report to him specific proposed courses of action to respond to the ACRS's concerns. The NRC control room habitability working group has reviewed the subject in such areas as NRR review process, transformation of control room habitability designs to as-built systems, and determination of testing protocol. The group has determined that many of the ACRS concerns and recommendations are well founded, and has recommended actions to be taken to address these as well as other concerns which were raised independent of the ACRS. The review has revealed significant areas where the approach presently utilized in reviews should be altered

  1. Recent Development in the ATLAS Control Room

    CERN Document Server

    Armen Vartapetian

    Only recently the name ATLAS Control Room (ACR) was more associated with the building at Point 1 (SCX1) than with the real thing. But just within the last several months, with the installation of the ACR hardware, that perception has changed significantly. The recently furnished ATLAS control room. But first of all, if you are not familiar with the ATLAS experimental site and are interested in visiting the ATLAS control room to see the place that in the near future will become the brain of the detector operations, it is quite easy to do so. You don't even need safety helmet or shoes! The ACR is located on the ground floor of a not so typical, glass-covered building in Point 1. The building number on the CERN map is 3162, or SCX1 as we call it. It is also easy to recognize that building by its shiny appearance within the cluster of Point 1 buildings if you are driving from Geneva. Final design and prototyping of the ACR hardware started at the beginning of 2006. Evaluation of the chosen hardware confi...

  2. Advanced tools for enhancing control room collaborations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abla, G.; Flanagan, S.M.; Peng, Q.; Burruss, J.R.; Schissel, D.P.

    2006-01-01

    The US National Fusion Collaboratory (NFC) project has been exploring a variety of computer and network technologies to develop a persistent, efficient, reliable and convenient collaborative environment for magnetic fusion research. One goal is to enhance remote and collocated team collaboration by integrating collaboration software tools into control room operations as well as with data analysis tools. To achieve this goal, the NFC recently introduced two new collaboration technologies into the DIII-D tokamak control room. The first technology is a high-resolution, large format Shared Display Wall (SDW). By creating a shared public display space and providing real time visual information about the multiple aspects of complex experiment activity, the large SDW plays an important role in increasing the rate of information dissemination and promoting interaction among team members. The second technology being implemented is the 'tokamak control room aware' Instant Messaging (IM) service. In addition to providing text-chat capabilities for research scientists, it enables them to automatically receive information about experiment operations and data analysis processes to remotely monitor the status of ongoing tokamak experiment. As a result, the IM service has become a unified portal interface for team collaboration and remote participation

  3. Advanced tools for enhancing control room collaborations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abla, G. [General Atomics, P.O. Box 85608, San Diego, CA 92186 5608 (United States)]. E-mail: abla@fusion.gat.com; Flanagan, S.M. [General Atomics, P.O. Box 85608, San Diego, CA 92186 5608 (United States); Peng, Q. [General Atomics, P.O. Box 85608, San Diego, CA 92186 5608 (United States); Burruss, J.R. [General Atomics, P.O. Box 85608, San Diego, CA 92186 5608 (United States); Schissel, D.P. [General Atomics, P.O. Box 85608, San Diego, CA 92186 5608 (United States)

    2006-07-15

    The US National Fusion Collaboratory (NFC) project has been exploring a variety of computer and network technologies to develop a persistent, efficient, reliable and convenient collaborative environment for magnetic fusion research. One goal is to enhance remote and collocated team collaboration by integrating collaboration software tools into control room operations as well as with data analysis tools. To achieve this goal, the NFC recently introduced two new collaboration technologies into the DIII-D tokamak control room. The first technology is a high-resolution, large format Shared Display Wall (SDW). By creating a shared public display space and providing real time visual information about the multiple aspects of complex experiment activity, the large SDW plays an important role in increasing the rate of information dissemination and promoting interaction among team members. The second technology being implemented is the 'tokamak control room aware' Instant Messaging (IM) service. In addition to providing text-chat capabilities for research scientists, it enables them to automatically receive information about experiment operations and data analysis processes to remotely monitor the status of ongoing tokamak experiment. As a result, the IM service has become a unified portal interface for team collaboration and remote participation.

  4. Skill retention and control room operator competency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stammers, R.B.

    1981-12-01

    The problem of skill retention in relation to the competency of control room operators is addressed. Although there are a number of related reviews of the literature, this particular topic has not been examined in detail before. The findings of these reviews are summarised and their implications for the area discussed. The limited research on skill retention in connection with process control is also reviewed. Some topics from cognitive and instructional psychology are also raised. In particular overlearning is tackled and the potential value of learning strategies is assessed. In conclusion the important topic of measurement of performance is introduced and a number of potentially valuable training approaches are outlined. (author)

  5. Future control room design (modernization of control room systems); Zukuenftiges Wartendesign (Modernisierung von Warteneinrichtungen)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reischl, Ludwig; Freitag, Timo; Dergel, Rene [AREVA NP (Germany). NLLR-G ' ' Reactor I and C' '

    2009-07-01

    In the frame of lifetime extension for nuclear power plants the modernization of the complete safety and operational control technology will be digitalized. It is also recommended to modernize the operator facilities, monitoring systems in the control room, the back-up shut-down center and the local control stations. The authors summarize the reasons for the modernization recommendations and discuss possible solutions for display-oriented control rooms. A concept for control room backfitting includes generic requirements, requirements of the local authorities, ergonomic principles information content and information density, and the design process. The backfitting strategy should include a cooperation with the operational personnel, The quality assurance and training via simulator needs sufficient timing during the implementation of the backfitting.

  6. A Control Room Design Support system using virtual reality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakuma, Akira; Fukumoto, Akira; Hatanaka, Takahiro; Saijou, Nobuyuki; Masugi, Tsuyoshi

    1999-01-01

    To enhance the efficiency of design and evaluation of the control and monitoring system in the main control room of nuclear power plants, we have been developing a COntrol Room Design Support system (CORDS) using virtual reality technology. Using CORDS, vendor designers and customers can visually check and review human interface design of the proposed control and monitoring systems. The geometry of panels and consoles of the control and monitoring system represented as 3-dimensional static CG (computer graphics) models. Dynamic components, such as control switches, CRT displays and so on, are modeled as dynamic objects in the geometric CG model environment. CORDS is linked with real-time plant simulator. The dynamic objects respond to the corresponding process variables in the simulator, which enables visual evaluation of the response of the control and monitoring system for the various normal and abnormal plant status. The behavior of plant operators can be simulated in 3-dimensional CG control room environment. The operators can be displayed as CG figures and their motions are modeled and controlled based on plant operation manuals. A prototype of CORDS has constructed on a graphics workstation and two engineering workstations. (author)

  7. Subjective task complexity in the control room

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Braarud, Per Oeivind

    2000-05-01

    Understanding of what makes a control room situation difficult to handle is important when studying operator performance, both with respect to prediction as well as improvement of the human performance. Previous exploratory work on complexity showed a potential for prediction and explanation of operator performance. This report investigates in further detail the theoretical background and the structure of operator rated task complexity. The report complements the previous work on complexity to make a basis for development of operator performance analysis tools. The first part of the report outlines an approach for studying the complexity of the control room crew's work. The approach draws upon man-machine research as well as problem solving research. The approach identifies five complexity-shaping components: 'task work characteristics', 'teamwork characteristics', 'individual skill', 'teamwork skill', and 'interface and support systems'. The crew's work complexity is related to concepts of human performance quality and human error. The second part of the report is a post-hoc exploratory analysis of four empirical HRP studies, where operators' conception of the complexity of control room work is assessed by questionnaires. The analysis deals with the structure of complexity questionnaire ratings, and the relationship between complexity ratings and human performance measures. The main findings from the analysis of structure was the identification of three task work factors which were named Masking, Information load and Temporal demand, and in addition the identification of one interface factor which was named Navigation. Post-hoc analysis suggests that operator's subjective complexity, which was assessed by questionnaires, is related to workload, task and system performance, and operator's self-rated performance. (Author). 28 refs., 47 tabs

  8. Stress, performance, and control room operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fontaine, C.W.

    1990-01-01

    The notion of control room operator performance being detrimentally affected by stress has long been the focus of considerable conjecture. It is important to gain a better understanding of the validity of this concern for the development of effective severe-accident management approaches. This paper illustrates the undeniable negative impact of stress on a wide variety of tasks. A computer-controlled simulated work environment was designed in which both male and female operators were closely monitored during the course of the study for both stress level (using the excretion of the urine catecholamines epinephrine and norepinephrine as an index) and job performance. The experimental parameters employed by the study when coupled with the subsequent statistical analyses of the results allow one to make some rather striking comments with respect to how a given operator might respond to a situation that he or she perceives to be psychologically stressful (whether the stress be externally or internally generated). The findings of this study clearly indicated that stress does impact operator performance on tasks similar in nature to those conducted by control room operators and hence should be seriously considered in the development of severe-accident management strategies

  9. Nuclear power plant control room operator control and monitoring tasks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bovell, C.R.; Beck, M.G.; Carter, R.J.

    1998-01-01

    Oak Ridge National Laboratory is conducting a research project the purpose of which is to develop the technical bases for regulatory review criteria for use in evaluating the safety implications of human factors associated with the use of artificial intelligence and expert systems, and with advanced instrumentation and control (I and C) systems in nuclear power plants (NPP). This report documents the results from Task 8 of that project. The primary objectives of the task was to identify the scope and type of control and monitoring tasks now performed by control-room operators. Another purpose was to address the types of controls and safety systems needed to operate the nuclear plant. The final objective of Task 8 was to identify and categorize the type of information and displays/indicators required to monitor the performance of the control and safety systems. This report also discusses state-of-the-art controls and advanced display devices which will be available for use in control-room retrofits and in control room of future plants. The fundamental types of control and monitoring tasks currently conducted by operators can be divided into four classifications: function monitoring tasks, control manipulation tasks, fault diagnostic tasks, and administrative tasks. There are three general types of controls used in today's NPPs, switches, pushbuttons, and analog controllers. Plant I and C systems include components to achieve a number of safety-related functions: measuring critical plant parameters, controlling critical plant parameters within safety limits, and automatically actuating protective devices if safe limits are exceeded. The types of information monitored by the control-room operators consist of the following parameters: pressure, fluid flow and level, neutron flux, temperature, component status, water chemistry, electrical, and process and area radiation. The basic types of monitoring devices common to nearly all NPP control rooms include: analog meters

  10. Hybrid control rooms: the effects of introducing new technology into existing control rooms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morisseau, Dolores S.

    2001-02-01

    The goal of this part of the Hybrid Control Room Project is to gain a perspective on the issues and problems that are an integral part of introducing new technology, automated systems, or support systems into nuclear power plant (NPP) control rooms, particularly when they are introduced on a system-by-system basis. For purposes of this project, hybrid control rooms are defined as those into which new technology, such as digital and computer-based controls are gradually incorporated as opposed to those that are completely, or nearly completely, refitted with new technology. Although the focus of this project is the introduction of computer based, digital systems into NPP control rooms, it is not possible to exclude the effects throughout the process that are inevitable when new technology is introduced anywhere in complex process control systems. Thus, this document examines the effects of such changes within the context of the organisation in which they occur, including the management of change, work procedures and work methods, communications and crew interaction, training, and the interdependent functions in the operational context. (Author)

  11. [Controlling systems for operating room managers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schüpfer, G; Bauer, M; Scherzinger, B; Schleppers, A

    2005-08-01

    Management means developing, shaping and controlling of complex, productive and social systems. Therefore, operating room managers also need to develop basic skills in financial and managerial accounting as a basis for operative and strategic controlling which is an essential part of their work. A good measurement system should include financial and strategic concepts for market position, innovation performance, productivity, attractiveness, liquidity/cash flow and profitability. Since hospitals need to implement a strategy to reach their business objectives, the performance measurement system has to be individually adapted to the strategy of the hospital. In this respect the navigation system developed by Gälweiler is compared to the "balanced score card" system of Kaplan and Norton.

  12. Modelling aerosol transfer in a ventilated room

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nerisson, Ph.

    2009-02-01

    When particulate radioactive contamination is likely to become airborne in a ventilated room, assessment of aerosol concentration in every point of this room is important, in order to ensure protection of operators and supervision of workspaces. Thus, a model of aerosol transport and deposition has been developed as part of a project started with IRSN, EDF and IMFT. A simplified Eulerian model, called 'diffusion-inertia model' is used for particle transport. It contains a single transport equation of aerosol concentration. The specific study of deposition on walls has permitted to develop a boundary condition approach, which determines precisely the particle flux towards the wall in the boundary layer, for any deposition regime and surface orientation.The final transport and deposition models retained have been implemented in a CFD code called Code-Saturne. These models have been validated according to literature data in simple geometries and tracing experiments in ventilated rooms, which have been carried out in 30 m 3 and 1500 m 3 laboratory rooms. (author)

  13. Guidelines for control room systems design. Working material. Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    This report contains comprehensive technical and methodological information and recommendations for the benefit of Member States for advice and assistance in ''NPP control room systems'' design backfitting existing nuclear power plants and design for future stations. The term ''Control Room Systems'' refers to the entire human/machine interface for the nuclear stations - including the main control room, back-ups control room and the emergency control rooms, local panels, technical support centres, operating staff, operating procedures, operating training programs, communications, etc. Refs, figs and tabs

  14. Requirements for Control Room Computer-Based Procedures for use in Hybrid Control Rooms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Le Blanc, Katya Lee [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Oxstrand, Johanna Helene [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Joe, Jeffrey Clark [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2015-05-01

    Many plants in the U.S. are currently undergoing control room modernization. The main drivers for modernization are the aging and obsolescence of existing equipment, which typically results in a like-for-like replacement of analogue equipment with digital systems. However, the modernization efforts present an opportunity to employ advanced technology that would not only extend the life, but enhance the efficiency and cost competitiveness of nuclear power. Computer-based procedures (CBPs) are one example of near-term advanced technology that may provide enhanced efficiencies above and beyond like for like replacements of analog systems. Researchers in the LWRS program are investigating the benefits of advanced technologies such as CBPs, with the goal of assisting utilities in decision making during modernization projects. This report will describe the existing research on CBPs, discuss the unique issues related to using CBPs in hybrid control rooms (i.e., partially modernized analog control rooms), and define the requirements of CBPs for hybrid control rooms.

  15. Evaluation of main control room habitability in Japanese LWR (2). Evaluation for applicability of existing atmospheric dispersion models to building wake dispersion by using wind tunnel experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fukuda, Ryo; Fujita, Yuko; Yoneda, Jiro; Okabayashi, Kazuki; Tabuse, Shigehiko; Watada, Masayuki

    2009-01-01

    It is necessary to predict the concentration field behind the containment vessel building for the evaluation of main control room habitability in case of the emergency. The concentration field behind the building is very complicated phenomena and the exact prediction of concentration would be very difficult even if philosophical numerical simulation was used. Instead the simple and analytical prediction models (ARCON96, Gifford and Murphy-Campe etc.) have been used for the assessment of main control room habitability. In order to evaluate the previous models, the wind tunnel experiment was carried out. Recent regulatory models of ADMS4 developed by UK-CERC and AERMOD by US-EPA were also compared with this experimental data. Only both the containment vessel and reactor buildings of the typical PWR plant was scaled in 1/200 and the atmospheric stability C-D between C and D of Pasquill-Gifford categories was reproduced as a neutral condition in the wind tunnel experiment. In the wind experiment, the meandering effect for 1 hour was taken into consideration by the so-called overlapping method that a scaled model in the test section of a wind tunnel was rotated. By the rotation of the scaled model, wind directional fluctuations were relatively generated in the test section. The model was rotated at a various speed which was inversely proportional to each frequency of occurrence of a wind direction. Tracer gas was sampled during the rotation of the building model. As a result, we got the 1 hr.-averaged concentration taking a meandering effect into consideration. In this experiment, it is assumed that the frequency distribution of wind direction is Gaussian and horizontal plume width for 1 hr. was expanded to about 1.8 times of plume width based on Pasquill-Gifford chart by 1/5 power law due to the meandering effect. From the experiment, it was found as follows; It seems that meandering effect was not important in the near field behind a building, because strong

  16. Improving 900 MW(e) PWR control rooms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bouat, M.; Marcille, R.

    1983-01-01

    Analyses of the behaviour of operators during operating tests on PWR units and the lessons learned from the TMI-2 accident have demonstrated the need to improve the interface between operators and the facilities they control. To that end, and to complement its establishment of safety panels, Electricite de France (EDF) embarked upon a study on the ''Modification of Control Desks and Boards'' in control rooms. This study, involving twenty-eight 900 MW(e) units, almost all of which are currently in service, began with an ergonomic analysis of control rooms by an external consultant, the ADERSA GERBIOS Association. This analysis was based on interviews with simulator instructors and operators, a study of the operation of the unit, and a general review of previous studies. The analysis began in October 1980 and resulted, in April 1981, in a critical report and a proposal to create a full-scale mock-up of a 900 MW(e) control room. Improvements to this were subsequently proposed, enabling options to be made between, among other things, active overall control panels and function-by-function control panels. Finally, a number of general principles, which largely encompass the operators' suggestions, were defined. The alterations to be made will make it necessary to revamp the control panels completely. The work and tests involved should match the duration of refuelling shut-downs. Audio-visual training programmes are planned (portable model). (author)

  17. Considerations concerning the ergonomics of power plant control rooms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herbst, L.; Hinz, W.

    1981-01-01

    Modern control rooms for the monitoring and control of large power plants have a high degree of automation. However, it is the responsibility of the control room personnel to ensure optimum process control during all operational states. The proper ergonomic design of a control room is one of the prerequisites to ensure that the operators are able to perceive the often large flow of current information and, after processing, to respond properly. (orig.) [de

  18. Information presentation in power plant control rooms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kautto, A.

    1984-11-01

    The objective of this study is to support operators' work especially in the control rooms of power plant. The exemplified process is a pressurized water (nuclear) reactor (PWR). The man-process interface is an information system that covers information refining, information presentation, information system handling, and process control. THe emphasis in this study is on the organization and presentation of information and on the alert function that is part of the information system. Another goal is to design the alert function so as to radically reduce the number of alarms during plant shutdown, e.g. during the refuelling or maintenance period and during a disturbance. Further, the experimental validation of CFMS (Critical Function Monitoring System), developed by Combustion Engineering, Inc. in the U.S.A. is described briefly. The validation was made at the Loviisa training simulator in the autumn of 1982. CFMS is a safety-related functional alarm system. The functional decomposition of information has turned out to be successful and it is helpful in designing displays. Preliminary criteria for designing displays, the structure of the information presentation system and the illustration of main interactions are presented. General practical ideas on designing the alert function seem very promising. Preliminary results of the CFMS validation are presented. Further, some ideas are presented on how to carry out the analysis and how to make such validations in the future. A new idea for the evaluation of core safety is presented, based on control theory concepts

  19. Occurrences in control room equipment, procedures and personnel performances: IRS control room events

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tolstykh, V.

    1994-01-01

    The IAEA/NEA Incident Reporting System (IRS) was established in the early 1980, its objective being to gain from operating experience achieved in countries with nuclear power programmes by means of exchanging information on events relevant to safety. Among the 2171 events in the database, 175 events (i.e. 8%) were identified as ''control room events''. It was decided to group these into three sets for further study: 65 events with common mode/cause failures (CCFs), 22 events with cognitive errors and 30 events with unforeseen interaction between NPP systems. It is expected that the pitfalls experienced in the IRS and the questions derived from this study will help to gain a better understanding of the needs and interests of specialists in advanced information methods and artificial intelligence in NPP control rooms. (author)

  20. Creys-Malville control room and data processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Decuyper, J.

    1984-01-01

    After a brief definition of the control of a plant, this article presents the Creys-Malville control room: control means display and considerations on ergonomy and specific features in respect of the PWR control room. The Creys-Malville data processing is then rapidly presented with a brief description, the different data treatments and the specificity of the centralised data computer [fr

  1. EDP supported control room simulation for training of fault cases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weber, P.

    1984-01-01

    The picture used for simulation was the model of a power station control room designed by KWU for the German Museum, the cooling water circuit of which is illustrated, in order to avoid long training times by a manageable problem setting. A process video system equipped with a light pen made by KRUPP ATLAS was available for the VDU representation of simulation, which is used in industry, for the control and supervision of technical system. This process video system was controlled by a Digital PDP 11/40, which has several great advantages over stand-alone operation. (orig./DG) [de

  2. Operation Aspect of the Main Control Room of NPP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sahala M Lumbanraja

    2009-01-01

    The main control room of Nuclear Power Plant (NPP) is operational centre to control all of the operation activity of NPP. NPP must be operated carefully and safely. Many aspect that contributed to operation of NPP, such as man power whose operated, technology type used, ergonomic of main control room, operational management, etc. The disturbances of communication in control room must be anticipated so the high availability of NPP can be achieved. The ergonomic of the NPP control room that will be used in Indonesia must be designed suitable to anthropometric of Indonesia society. (author)

  3. Human reliability analysis of control room operators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, Isaac J.A.L.; Carvalho, Paulo Victor R.; Grecco, Claudio H.S. [Instituto de Engenharia Nuclear (IEN), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2005-07-01

    Human reliability is the probability that a person correctly performs some system required action in a required time period and performs no extraneous action that can degrade the system Human reliability analysis (HRA) is the analysis, prediction and evaluation of work-oriented human performance using some indices as human error likelihood and probability of task accomplishment. Significant progress has been made in the HRA field during the last years, mainly in nuclear area. Some first-generation HRA methods were developed, as THERP (Technique for human error rate prediction). Now, an array of called second-generation methods are emerging as alternatives, for instance ATHEANA (A Technique for human event analysis). The ergonomics approach has as tool the ergonomic work analysis. It focus on the study of operator's activities in physical and mental form, considering at the same time the observed characteristics of operator and the elements of the work environment as they are presented to and perceived by the operators. The aim of this paper is to propose a methodology to analyze the human reliability of the operators of industrial plant control room, using a framework that includes the approach used by ATHEANA, THERP and the work ergonomics analysis. (author)

  4. Human Factors Engineering Aspects of Modifications in Control Room Modernization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hugo, Jacques [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Clefton, Gordon [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Joe, Jeffrey [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2017-06-01

    This report describes the basic aspects of control room modernization projects in the U.S. nuclear industry and the need for supplementary guidance on the integration of human factors considerations into the licensing and regulatory aspects of digital upgrades. The report pays specific attention to the integration of principles described in NUREG-0711 (Human Factors Engineering Program Review Model) and how supplementary guidance can help to raise general awareness in the industry regarding the complexities of control room modernization projects created by many interdependent regulations, standards and guidelines. The report also describes how human factors engineering principles and methods provided by various resources and international standards can help in navigating through the process of licensing digital upgrades. In particular, the integration of human factors engineering guidance and requirements into the process of licensing digital upgrades can help reduce uncertainty related to development of technical bases for digital upgrades that will avoid the introduction of new failure modes.

  5. Virtual reality applied in the ergonomic evaluation of nuclear power plant control room

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gatto, Leandro Barbosa da Silveira

    2012-01-01

    A nuclear power plant control room is a complex system that controls a nuclear and thermodynamic process used to produce electrical energy. The operators interact with the control room through interfaces that have significant implications to nuclear power plant safety and influence the operator activity. The operator activity presents complexity features and shows a series of mechanisms absents from the human factors guidelines, important to the evaluation and update of control rooms. The ergonomics approach considers the operation strategies, the interaction between the operators, the operator-system interaction, and interaction between operators and support groups. The main objective of this paper is propose the modeling of a nuclear control room, with the support of a game engine core. This tool will be used in the ergonomic evaluation of nuclear control room, generating information and data that will make possible the adequacy of control rooms features to the legal requirements of the regulating agency, assisting the nuclear licensing. (author)

  6. Three-dimensional point-cloud room model in room acoustics simulations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Markovic, Milos; Olesen, Søren Krarup; Hammershøi, Dorte

    2013-01-01

    acquisition and its representation with a 3D point-cloud model, as well as utilization of such a model for the room acoustics simulations. A room is scanned with a commercially available input device (Kinect for Xbox360) in two different ways; the first one involves the device placed in the middle of the room...... and rotated around the vertical axis while for the second one the device is moved within the room. Benefits of both approaches were analyzed. The device's depth sensor provides a set of points in a three-dimensional coordinate system which represents scanned surfaces of the room interior. These data are used...... to build a 3D point-cloud model of the room. Several models are created to meet requirements of different room acoustics simulation algorithms: plane fitting and uniform voxel grid for geometric methods and triangulation mesh for the numerical methods. Advantages of the proposed method over the traditional...

  7. Three-dimensional point-cloud room model for room acoustics simulations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Markovic, Milos; Olesen, Søren Krarup; Hammershøi, Dorte

    2013-01-01

    acquisition and its representation with a 3D point-cloud model, as well as utilization of such a model for the room acoustics simulations. A room is scanned with a commercially available input device (Kinect for Xbox360) in two different ways; the first one involves the device placed in the middle of the room...... and rotated around the vertical axis while for the second one the device is moved within the room. Benefits of both approaches were analyzed. The device's depth sensor provides a set of points in a three-dimensional coordinate system which represents scanned surfaces of the room interior. These data are used...... to build a 3D point-cloud model of the room. Several models are created to meet requirements of different room acoustics simulation algorithms: plane fitting and uniform voxel grid for geometric methods and triangulation mesh for the numerical methods. Advantages of the proposed method over the traditional...

  8. Control room habitability in Spanish Nuclear Power Plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mediavilla, F.; Sierra, J. J.

    2007-01-01

    Since the NRC published in 2003 the Generic Letter 2003-01 Control room Habitability and the Regulatory guide 1.197 Demonstrating Control Room Envelope Integrity at Nuclear Power Reactors, where it is emphasized the importance of verifying the control room habitability by means of alternative methods, Spanish Nuclear Power Plants are undertaking the different necessary activities to fulfill the requirements of the regulatory commission. This paper describes the main mechanisms included in NEI 99-03 Nuclear Energy Institute publication Control room Habitability Assessment guidance, to demonstrate and maintain Control room Habitability. In addition, in this article it Ds shown the theoretical principle of the test used to quantify air in-leakage in a control room envelope by using tracer gas techniques. The necessary activities to perform the initial in leakage testing are also put forward. Since 2006 Tecnatom, S. A. has performed the baseline testing in four Spanish Units, all of them with successful results. The rest of the Plants are scheduled to perform the tests during the second half of this year. Finally, this document summarises the more important aspects to be taken into account in the development of control room Habitability Programs, which are expected to ensure the integral maintenance of the Control room Envelope during the life a plant. (Author)

  9. A new main control room for the AGS complex

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ingrassia, P.F.; Zaharatos, R.M.; Dyling, O.H.

    1991-01-01

    A new Main Control Room (MCR) has been built to control the accelerators of the AGS Complex. A new physical environment was produced to better control light, sound, temperature, and traffic. New control consoles were built around the work-stations that make up the distributed control system. Equipment placement within consoles and console placement within the room reflect attention to the ''human factors'' needs of the operator. 1 ref., 2 figs

  10. A new Main Control Room for the AGS complex

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ingrassia, P.F.; Zaharatos, R.M.; Dyling, O.H.

    1991-01-01

    A new Main Control Room (MCR) has been built to control the accelerators of the AGS Complex. A new physical environment was produced to better control light, sound, temperature, and traffic. New control consoles were built around the work-stations that make up the distributed control system. Equipment placement within consoles and console placement within the room reflect attention to the 'human factors' needs of the operator

  11. Control room human engineering influences on operator performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Finlayson, F.C.

    1977-01-01

    Three general groups of factors influence operator performance in fulfilling their responsibilities in the control room: (1) control room and control system design, informational data displays (operator inputs) as well as control board design (for operator output); (2) operator characteristics, including those skills, mental, physical, and emotional qualities which are functions of operator selection, training, and motivation; (3) job performance guides, the prescribed operating procedures for normal and emergency operations. This paper presents some of the major results of an evaluation of the effect of human engineering on operator performance in the control room. Primary attention is given to discussion of control room and control system design influence on the operator. Brief observations on the influences of operator characteristics and job performance guides (operating procedures) on performance in the control room are also given. Under the objectives of the study, special emphasis was placed on the evaluation of the control room-operator relationships for severe emergency conditions in the power plant. Consequently, this presentation is restricted largely to material related to emergency conditions in the control room, though it is recognized that human engineering of control systems is of equal (or greater) importance for many other aspects of plant operation

  12. Overview of the LHD central control room data monitoring environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Emoto, M.; Yoshinuma, M.; Yoshida, M.; Nakanishi, H.; Iwata, C.; Ohsuna, M.; Nonomura, M.; Imazu, S.; Yokota, M.; Aoyagi, M.; Ogawa, H.; Ida, K.; Watanabe, K.; Kaneko, O.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • In this paper, the data monitoring environments in the LHD central control room, for example, summary data graph and video monitoring tools are introduced. Also, the environments for the remote participants are introduced. - Abstract: During the Large Helical Device (LHD) experiments, many scientists and technical staff are working in the central control room to operate the experiment. They must manage the diagnostics and controlling devices referring to the results of the last plasma shot. Also, the experiment coordinator must decide the conditions for the subsequent experiments using the results. Furthermore, many scientists are participating in the experiment from remote sites. Therefore, it is important to share the information in the control room quickly, such as the results of the last plasma discharge, with the remote user as well as with the staff in the room. In this paper, the data monitoring environment in the LHD central control room is introduced.

  13. Overview of the LHD central control room data monitoring environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Emoto, M., E-mail: emoto.masahiko@nifs.ac.jp; Yoshinuma, M.; Yoshida, M.; Nakanishi, H.; Iwata, C.; Ohsuna, M.; Nonomura, M.; Imazu, S.; Yokota, M.; Aoyagi, M.; Ogawa, H.; Ida, K.; Watanabe, K.; Kaneko, O.

    2016-11-15

    Highlights: • In this paper, the data monitoring environments in the LHD central control room, for example, summary data graph and video monitoring tools are introduced. Also, the environments for the remote participants are introduced. - Abstract: During the Large Helical Device (LHD) experiments, many scientists and technical staff are working in the central control room to operate the experiment. They must manage the diagnostics and controlling devices referring to the results of the last plasma shot. Also, the experiment coordinator must decide the conditions for the subsequent experiments using the results. Furthermore, many scientists are participating in the experiment from remote sites. Therefore, it is important to share the information in the control room quickly, such as the results of the last plasma discharge, with the remote user as well as with the staff in the room. In this paper, the data monitoring environment in the LHD central control room is introduced.

  14. A remote control room at DIII-D

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abla, G.; Schissel, D.P.; Penaflor, B.G.; Wallace, G.

    2008-01-01

    This paper describes a remote control room built at DIII-D to support remote participation activities of DIII-D research staff. In order to create a persistent, efficient, and reliable remote participation environment for DIII-D scientists, a remote control room has been built in a 640-ft 2 dedicated area. The purpose of this room is to experiment and define a remote control room framework that can facilitate the remote participation needs of current and future fusion experiments such as ITER. A variety of hardware equipment has been installed and several remote participation and collaboration technologies have been deployed. Objectivity and practical consideration has been the key while designing the room and deploying the technologies. Although, the DIII-D remote control room is still a work in progress and new software tools are being implemented, it has been already useful for a number of international remote participation activities. For example, it has been used for remote support of the EAST Tokamak in China during the start up operation and proven effective for other collaborative experiment activities. The description of the remote control room design is given along with technologies deployed for remote collaboration needs. We will also discuss our recent experiences involving the DIII-D remote control room as well as future plans for improvements

  15. Single room control for user-optimised room air conditions; Einzelraumregelung fuer nutzungsoptimiertes Raumklima

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lezius, A. [Staefa Control System GmbH, Leinfelden-Echterdingen (Germany)

    1995-12-31

    In chapter 14 of the anthology about building control the single room control for achieving user-optimised room air conditions is described. The following aspects are discussed: What is comfort? What is economic efficiency? Systems for secondary air treatment, adapted functions of the measurement and control technique, management functions, orientation of the demand at the use, investment and amortisation. (BWI) [Deutsch] Kapitel 14 des Sammelbandes ueber Building control ist dem Thema der Einzelraumregelung zur Erzielung eines nutzungsoptimierten Raumklimas gewidmet. In diesem Zusammenhang werden folgende Themenbereiche angesprochen: Was ist Komfort? Was ist Wirtschaftlichkeit? Systeme fuer sekundaere Luftbehandlung; Angepasste Funktionen der MSR-Technik; Managementfunktionen; Bedarfsorientierung an der Nutzung; Investition und Amortisation. (BWI)

  16. Control console of the gamma calibration room

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vilchis P, A.E.; Romero G, M.

    1999-01-01

    The Nuclear Centre of Mexico has a Ionizing Radiation Metrology Center (CMRI). This is in charge of the calibration in Mexico and Latin America of equipment dedicated to radiation measurement as industrial, medical as other fields. The importance to ensure that the equipment stay justly calibrated, it is imposed the necessity of automating the different rooms which the CMRI has. in this case it will be exposed the Calibration room for gamma radiation type. The operation of this application was carried out with the LabVIEW development platform and also in C language. The hardware associated is: personal computer with two cards using the 8255 device, 16 channels with optical isolation to manage input/output TTL type, 16 channels with optical isolation to management of charges to 127 V a.c., and 2 channels for 90V d.c. motors. (Author)

  17. Auditory modelling for assessing room acoustics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Dorp Schuitman, J.

    2011-01-01

    The acoustics of a concert hall, or any other room, are generally assessed by measuring room impulse responses for one or multiple source and receiver location(s). From these responses, objective parameters can be determined that should be related to various perceptual attributes of room acoustics.

  18. Room acoustics modeling using a point-cloud representation of the room geometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Markovic, Milos; Olesen, Søren Krarup; Hammershøi, Dorte

    2013-01-01

    Room acoustics modeling is usually based on the room geometry that is parametrically described prior to a sound transmission calculation. This is a highly room-specific task and rather time consuming if a complex geometry is to be described. Here, a run time generic method for an arbitrary room...... geometry acquisition is presented. The method exploits a depth sensor of the Kinect device that provides a point based information of a scanned room interior. After post-processing of the Kinect output data, a 3D point-cloud model of the room is obtained. Sound transmission between two selected points...... level of user immersion by a real time acoustical simulation of a dynamic scenes....

  19. Use of task analysis in control room evaluations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ross, K.C.

    1981-01-01

    Responding to recently formulated regulatory requirements, the BWR Owners' Group, working in conjunction with General Electric, has formulated a method for performing human factors design reviews of nuclear power plant control rooms. This process incorporates task analyses to analyze operational aspects of panel layout and design. Correlation of operator functions defined by emergency procedures against required controls and displays has proven successful in identifying instrumentation required in the control room to adequately respond to transient conditions, and in evaluating the effectiveness of panel design and physical arrangement. Extensions of the analysis have provided information on operator response paths, frequency of use of instruments, and control room layout. The techniques used were based on a need to identify primary controls and indications required by the operator in performing each step of the applicable procedure. The relative locations of these instruments were then analyzed for information on the adequacy of the control room design for those conditions

  20. Waste isolation pilot plant disposal room model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Butcher, B.M.

    1997-08-01

    This paper describes development of the conceptual and mathematical models for the part of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) repository performance assessment that is concerned with what happens to the waste over long times after the repository is decommissioned. These models, collectively referred to as the {open_quotes}Disposal Room Model,{close_quotes} describe the repository closure process during which deformation of the surrounding salt consolidates the waste. First, the relationship of repository closure to demonstration of compliance with the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) standard (40 CFR 191 Appendix C) and how sensitive performance results are to it are examined. Next, a detailed description is provided of the elements of the disposal region, and properties selected for the salt, waste, and other potential disposal features such as backfill. Included in the discussion is an explanation of how the various models were developed over time. Other aspects of closure analysis, such as the waste flow model and method of analysis, are also described. Finally, the closure predictions used in the final performance assessment analysis for the WIPP Compliance Certification Application are summarized.

  1. Waste isolation pilot plant disposal room model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Butcher, B.M.

    1997-08-01

    This paper describes development of the conceptual and mathematical models for the part of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) repository performance assessment that is concerned with what happens to the waste over long times after the repository is decommissioned. These models, collectively referred to as the open-quotes Disposal Room Model,close quotes describe the repository closure process during which deformation of the surrounding salt consolidates the waste. First, the relationship of repository closure to demonstration of compliance with the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) standard (40 CFR 191 Appendix C) and how sensitive performance results are to it are examined. Next, a detailed description is provided of the elements of the disposal region, and properties selected for the salt, waste, and other potential disposal features such as backfill. Included in the discussion is an explanation of how the various models were developed over time. Other aspects of closure analysis, such as the waste flow model and method of analysis, are also described. Finally, the closure predictions used in the final performance assessment analysis for the WIPP Compliance Certification Application are summarized

  2. HABIT, Toxic and Radioactive Release Hazards in Reactor Control Room

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stage, S.A.

    2005-01-01

    1 - Description of program or function: HABIT is a package of computer codes designed to be used for the evaluation of control room habitability in the event of an accidental release of toxic chemicals or radioactive materials. 2 - Methods: Given information about the design of a nuclear power plant, a scenario for the release of toxic or radionuclides, and information about the air flows and protection systems of the control room, HABIT can be used to estimate the chemical exposure or radiological dose to control room personnel

  3. Preliminary considerations on safety of computerized control rooms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vittet, J.

    1983-02-01

    Safety problems are analyzed in this report by the study of the interaction: ''human behavior in a rigid environment/information overload in perturbed situation''. For pedagogy the study is presented as a research of factors influencing operator performance in a control room and a dialogue between an analyst and a conceiving engineer. Danger of all control room where the strategy for data acquisition is too rigid and without spatial reference is stressed in conclusion. Orientations for an advanced control room are outlined [fr

  4. Control Room Habitability for Accidental Sulfuric Acid Release

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, Sungmin; Lee, Heedo; Song, Dongsoo

    2006-01-01

    The 10 CFR 50 Appendix A Criterion 19, 'Control Room', requires that a control room be provided from which actions can be taken to operate the nuclear power unit safely under normal conditions and to maintain it in a safe condition under accident conditions. For compliance with the requirement, the control room of a nuclear power plant should be appropriately protected from hazardous chemicals that may be discharged as a result of equipment failures, operator errors, or events and conditions outside the control of the nuclear power plant. We have excluded sulfuric acid from a target of estimation for control room habitability merely because its boiling point is too high; qualitative analysis in this paper shows that we can exclude sulfuric acid from the target of habitability estimation

  5. Design of a multisystem remote maintenance control room

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Draper, J.V.; Handel, S.J.; Kring, C.T.; Kawatsuma, S.

    1988-01-01

    The Remote Systems Development Section of the Consolidated Fuel Reprocessing Program at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and Japan's Power Reactor and Nuclear Fuel Development Corporation (PNC) recently collaborated in the development of a control room concept for remote operations. This report describes design methods and the resulting control room concept. The design project included five stages. The first was compilation of a complete function list; functions are tasks performed by operators in the control room while operating equipment located in the remote area. The second step was organization of the function list into ''function groups;'' function groups are sets of functions that operate one piece of equipment. The third stage was determination of crew size and requirements for supervision. The fourth stage was development of conceptual designs of displays and controls. The fifth stage was development of plans for placement of crew stations within the control room. 5 figs., 1 tab

  6. Re-envisioning the operator consoles for Dhruva control room

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaur, S.; Sridharan, P.; Nair, P.M.; Diwakar, M.P.; Gohel, N.; Pithawa, C.K.

    2012-01-01

    Control Room design is undergoing rapid changes with the progressive adoption of computerization and Automation. Advances in man-machine interfaces have further accelerated this trend. This paper presents the design and main features of Operator consoles (OC) for Dhruva control room developed using new technologies. The OCs have been designed so as not to burden the operator with information overload but to help him quickly assess the situation and timely take appropriate steps. The consoles provide minimalistic yet intuitive interfaces, context sensitive navigation, display of important information and progressive disclosure of situation based information. The use of animations, 3D graphics, and real time trends with the benefit of hardware acceleration to provide a resolution independent rich user experience. The use of XAML, an XML based Mark-up Language for User Interface definition and C for application logic resulted in complete separation of visual design, content, and logic. This also resulted in a workflow where separate teams could work on the UI and the logic of an application. The introduction of Model View View-Model has led to more testable and maintainable software. (author)

  7. Perception of tomorrow's nuclear power plant control rooms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meyer, O.R.

    1986-01-01

    Major development programs are upgrading today's light water reactor nuclear power plant (NPP) control rooms. These programs involve displays, control panel architecture, procedures, staffing, and training, and are supported by analytical efforts to refine the definitions of the dynamics and the functional requirements of NPP operation. These programs demonstrate that the NPP control room is the visible command/control/communications center of the complex man/machine system that operates the plant. These development programs are primarily plant specific, although the owners' groups and the Institute of Nuclear Power Operations (INPO) do provide some standardization. The Idaho National Engineering Laboratory recently completed a project to categorize control room changes and estimate the degree of change. That project, plus related studies, provides the basis for this image of the next generation of NPP control rooms. The next generation of NPP control rooms is envisioned as being dominated by three current trends: (1) application of state-of-the-art computer hardware and software; (2) use of NPP dynamic analyses to provide the basis for the control room man/machine system design; and (3) application of empirical principles of human performance

  8. Using a Research Simulator for Validating Control Room Modernization Concepts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boring, Ronald L.; Agarwal, Vivek; Persensky, Julius J.; Joe, Jeffrey C.

    2012-01-01

    The Light Water Reactor Sustainability Program is a research, development, and deployment program sponsored by the United States Department of Energy. The program is operated in close collaboration with industry research and development programs to provide the technical foundations for licensing and managing the long-term, safe, and economical operation of nuclear power plants that are currently in operation. Advanced instrumentation and control (I and C) technologies are needed to support the continued safe and reliable production of power from nuclear energy systems during sustained periods of operation up to and beyond their expected licensed lifetime. This requires that new capabilities to achieve process control be developed and eventually implemented in existing nuclear control rooms. It also requires that approaches be developed and proven to achieve sustainability of I and C systems throughout the period of extended operation. Idaho National Laboratory (INL) is working closely with nuclear utilities to develop technologies and solutions to help ensure the safe life extension of current reactors. One of the main areas of focus is control room modernization. Current analog control rooms are growing obsolete, and it is difficult for utilities to maintain them. Using its reconfigurable control room simulator adapted from a training simulator, INL serves as a neutral test bed for implementing new control room system technologies and assisting in control room modernization efforts across. (author)

  9. Using a Research Simulator for Validating Control Room Modernization Concepts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ronald L. Boring; Vivek Agarwal; Julius J. Persensky; Jeffrey C. Joe

    2012-05-01

    The Light Water Reactor Sustainability Program is a research, development, and deployment program sponsored by the United States Department of Energy. The program is operated in close collaboration with industry research and development programs to provide the technical foundations for licensing and managing the long-term, safe, and economical operation of nuclear power plants that are currently in operation. Advanced instrumentation and control (I&C) technologies are needed to support the continued safe and reliable production of power from nuclear energy systems during sustained periods of operation up to and beyond their expected licensed lifetime. This requires that new capabilities to achieve process control be developed and eventually implemented in existing nuclear control rooms. It also requires that approaches be developed and proven to achieve sustainability of I&C systems throughout the period of extended operation. Idaho National Laboratory (INL) is working closely with nuclear utilities to develop technologies and solutions to help ensure the safe life extension of current reactors. One of the main areas of focus is control room modernization. Current analog control rooms are growing obsolete, and it is difficult for utilities to maintain them. Using its reconfigurable control room simulator adapted from a training simulator, INL serves as a neutral test bed for implementing new control room system technologies and assisting in control room modernization efforts across.

  10. The measure and control system of mini-type radon room based on PC104

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou Shumin; East China Inst. of Technology, Fuzhou; Tang Bin; Sun Yamin

    2005-01-01

    Radon room is one of the standard equipment which demarcates radon measure instrument. The paper discusses the dynamic method and mathematic model which keeps the radon consistence stability in radon room. The system is developed on PC104. The system can monitor the radon consistence and replenishment radon according the radon control parameter. (authors)

  11. Virtual Training of Compressor Control Room, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — MYMIC will analyze, design, develop and evaluate the Virtual Control Room – Compressor Station (VCoR-CS) training system. VCoR-CS will provide procedural training to...

  12. Taking account of human factors in control-room design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dien, Y.; Montmayeul, R.

    1995-07-01

    Since the Three Mile Island accident two ways for improving the Human-Machine Interface have mainly been followed: the development of computerized operator aids in existing control-rooms and the design of advanced control-rooms. Insufficient attention paid to human factors in the design of operator aids has generally led to these aids being neglected or unused by their potential users. While for the design of advanced control-rooms efforts have been made for dealing with human factors in more extensive way. Based upon this experience, a general method for taking account of human factors in a control-room design has been devised and is described in this paper. (author)

  13. Human factors methods for nuclear control room design. Volume 2. Human factors survey of control room design practices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seminara, J.L.; Parsons, S.O.

    1979-11-01

    An earlier review of the control rooms of operating nuclear power plants identified many design problems having potential for degrading operator performance. As a result, the formal application of human factors principles was found to be needed. This report demonstrates the use of human factors in the design of power plant control rooms. The approaches shown in the report can be applied to operating power plants, as well as to those in the design stage. This study documents human factors techniques required to provide a sustained concern for the man-machine interface from control room concept definition to system implementation

  14. The application of human engineering in control room of HFETR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Shuchun; Shan Songlin

    2003-01-01

    The human-machine system for improving the working environment in the control room of HFETR is described. The reliability of the equipment, instruments and operation by human engineering is increased. The relations between human engineering and lowering human failure in HFETR are also discussed. It is concluded that the further application of human engineering can increase interaction of the human and machine in the control room and provide assurances for the safe and reliable operation of reactor. (authors)

  15. Responsibilities for control room design in the USA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leary, J.E.; Barnhart, C.G.

    1980-01-01

    In the design and construction of nuclear power plants in the United States, the architect-engineering firm usually serves as the principal co-ordinator for the various parties involved. Recent events such as the Three Mile Island accident have focused attention on operability and human factors engineering in the design of the control room. This article describes current trends in control room design and the division of responsibility between the plant owner, the reactor vendor, and the architect-engineer. (author)

  16. Control room concept for remote maintenance in high radiation areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clarke, M.M.; Kreifeldt, J.G.

    1984-01-01

    This paper summarizes the design of a control room concept for an operator interface with remote maintenance equipment consisting of force-reflecting manipulators, tools, hoists, cranes, cameras, and lights. The design development involved two major activities. First, detailed requirements were defined for foreseeable functions that will be performed by the control room operators. Second, concepts were developed, tested, and refined to meet these requirements. Each of these activities is summarized below. 6 references, 3 figures

  17. Control room concept for remote maintenance in high radiation areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clarke, M.M.; Kreifeldt, J.G.

    1984-01-01

    This paper summarizes the design of a control room concept for an operator interface with remote maintenance equipment consisting of force-reflecting manipulators, tools, hoists, cranes, cameras, and lights. The design development involved two major activities. First, detailed requirements were defined for foreseeable functions that will be performed by the control room operators. Second, concepts were developed, tested, and refined to meet these requirements. 6 references, 3 figures

  18. The application of human engineering in control room of HFETR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shuchun, Yang; Songlin, Shan [Nuclear Power Inst. of China, Chengdu (China)

    2003-07-01

    The human-machine system for improving the working environment in the control room of HFETR is described. The reliability of the equipment, instruments and operation by human engineering is increased. The relations between human engineering and lowering human failure in HFETR are also discussed. It is concluded that the further application of human engineering can increase interaction of the human and machine in the control room and provide assurances for the safe and reliable operation of reactor. (authors)

  19. Advanced display concepts in nuclear control rooms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clark, M.T.; Banks, W.W.; Blackman, H.S.; Gertman, D.I.

    1982-01-01

    Precursors necessary for the development of a full-scale predictor display/control system have been under development since the mid 1940's. The predictor display itself has been available for use in manual control systems since 1958. However, the nuclear industry has not yet explored the uses and benefits of predictor systems. The purpose of this paper is to provide information on the application of this technology to the nuclear industry. The possibility of employing a simulation-based control system for nuclear plant systems that currently use conventional auto/manual schemes is discussed. By employing simulation-based systems, a predictor display could be made available to the operator during manual operations, thus facilitating control without outwardly affecting the overall control scheme

  20. 75 FR 67450 - Pipeline Safety: Control Room Management Implementation Workshop

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-02

    ... regulations to address human factors and other aspects of control room management for certain pipelines where controllers use supervisory control and data acquisition (SCADA) systems. Under the final rule, pipeline... Washington, DC on October 22, 2010. Jeffrey D. Wiese, Associate Administrator for Pipeline Safety. [FR Doc...

  1. Control room MMI 2000 for NORS simulator in HAMMLAB

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saarni, R.; Foerdestroemmen, N.T.; Meyer, B.D.; Skjerve, A.B.M.

    2001-03-01

    The report presents the control room MMI as of year 2000 for the NORS simulator in HAMMLAB. It consists of two main parts: NORS Reference Control Room MMI and NORS Experimental Control Room MMI. They are both utilised in human factors experiments in HAMMLAB. The HAMMLAB Experimental Control Room 2000 is presented together with the NORS Reference CR MMI, which includes the following display types: Overview displays, process and control displays, trend displays, supplementary alarm displays and logic displays for the protection system and other automatic control systems. User experiences based on feedback from professional Loviisa NPP operators are also given. For the Experimental Control Room MMI, main emphasis is on presenting the design of a new large screen overview display called; experimental Automatic Information Presentation (AIP) display. It was used for the first time last year in the HCA-2000 experiment in HAMMLAB. The design is quite different from previous overview displays being developed and used in HAMMLAB. The display presents the overall dynamic status of both the process and the automatic systems. The plans for the future include to develop and user test an upgraded AIP overview display, and to enhance and user test a limited set of task-based display prototypes. (Author)

  2. Cognitive allocation and the control room

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paradies, M.W.

    1985-01-01

    One of the weakest links in the design of nuclear power plants is the inattention to the needs and capabilities of the operators. This flaw causes decreased plant reliability and reduced plant safety. To solve this problem the designer must, in the earliest stages of the design process, consider the operator's abilities. After the system requirements have been established, the designer must consider what functions to allocate to each part of the system. The human must be considered as part of this system. The allocation of functions needs to consider not only the mechanical tasks to be performed, but also the control requirements and the overall control philosophy. In order for the designers to consider the control philosophy, they need to know what control decisions should be automated and what decisions should be made by an operator. They also need to know how these decisions will be implemented: by an operator or by automation. ''Cognitive Allocation'' is the allocation of the decision making process between operators and machines. It defines the operator's role in the system. When designing a power plant, a cognitive allocation starts the process of considering the operator's abilities. This is the first step to correcting the weakest link in the current plant design

  3. Revised accident source terms and control room habitability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lahti, G.P.; Hubner, R.S.; Johnson, W.J.; Schwartz, B.C.

    1993-01-01

    In April 1992, the NRC staff presented to the Commissioners the draft NUREG open-quotes Revised Accident Source Terms for Light-Water Nuclear Power Plants.close quotes This document is the culmination of more than ten years of NRC-sponsored research and represents the first change in the NRC's position on source terms since TID-14844 was issued in 1962. The purpose of this paper is to investigate the impact of the revised source terms on the current approach to analyzing control room habitability as required by 10 CFR 50. Sample calculations are presented that identify aspects of the model requiring clarification before the implementation of the revised source terms. 6 refs., 4 tabs

  4. ARCON96, Radioactive Plume Concentration in Reactor Control Rooms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramsdell, J.V.; Simonen, C.A.

    2003-01-01

    1 - Description of program or function: ARCON96 was developed to calculate relative concentrations in plumes from nuclear power plants at control room air intakes in the vicinity of the release point. 2 - Methods: ARCON96 implements a straight-line Gaussian dispersion model with dispersion coefficients that are modified to account for low wind meander and building wake effects. Hourly, normalized concentrations (X/Q) are calculated from hourly meteorological data. The hourly values are averaged to form X/Qs for periods ranging from 2 to 720 hours in duration. The calculated values for each period are used to form cumulative frequency distributions. 3 - Restriction on the complexity of the problem: ARCON96 is a single user program. If expanded output is selected by the user, the file includes the hourly input and X/Qs and the intermediate computational results. The output file may exceed a megabyte size

  5. New technologies for a postaccident control room habitability assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lahti, G.P.; Perchiazzi, W.T.

    1993-01-01

    Older nuclear power plants typically considered only a nominal amount of unfiltered in-leakage (typically 10 ft 3 /min) affecting their postaccident habitability. However, recent measurements of unfiltered in-leakage show leakages in excess of the nominal 10 ft 3 /m in. The assessment of postaccident doses in control rooms is done in a number of well-defined steps: (1) Determine the initial release of radioactivity to the containment (the open-quotes source termclose quotes). (2) Determine the release of radioactivity to the environment. (3) Determine the atmospheric dispersion and the concentration at the control room air intake. (4) Determine within-building dilution (if any). (5) Determine unfiltered in-leakage. (6) Determine the concentration of radioactivity in the control room. (7) Determine the dose to control room occupants. The prescriptive methodology of the Murphy-Campe paper and Standard Review Plan (SRP) 6.4 has been used by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) to assess control room designs. However, a number of new technologies have been employed to reevaluate an existing pressurized water reactor plant design

  6. Control console for the X-ray room

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia H, J.M.; Aguilar B, M.A.; Torres B, M.A.

    1998-01-01

    It is presented the design and construction of Control console for the X-ray room of Metrology Center for ionizing radiations at National Institute of Nuclear Research (ININ). This system controls the positioning of 6 different filters for an X-ray beam. Also it controls a shutter which blockades the beam during periods established by user, these periods can be fixed from hours until tenth of second. The shutter opening periods, as well as the X-ray beam filter are establish and monitoring from a Personal computer outside of room. (Author)

  7. Nuclear power plant control room ventilation system design for meeting general criterion 19

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murphy, K.G.; Campe, K.M.

    1975-01-01

    The requirement for protection of control room personnel against radiation is specified in General Design Criterion 19 of Appendix A, 10 CFR Part 50. The evaluation of a control room design, especially its emergency ventilation system, with respect to radiation protection primarily consists of determining the radiation doses to control room personnel under accident conditions. The accident dose assessment involves modeling and evaluation of radiological source terms, atmospheric transport of airborne activity, and protection features of the control room ventilation system. Some of the assumptions and conservatisms used in the dose analyses are based on the technical review experience of existing or proposed control room designs. A review of over 50 control room designs has revealed a great variety of design concepts, not all of which seem to have been based on radiation protection criteria. A summary of the basic control room protection requirements, design features, dose acceptance criteria, and an outline of the methods used by the Regulatory staff for accident dose evaluation are presented. (U.S.)

  8. Decision making in the reactor control room

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nelson, W.R.

    1982-01-01

    One of the most important roles of the nuclear reactor operator is that of decision maker. This paper discusses a simple model of the decision process used by the reactor operator. Resources that must be available so that he can perform the decision process are presented. Decision aids which have been investigated at EG and G Idaho, Inc., as part of the LOFT Augmented Operator Capability Program are briefly discussed. Some general concepts of computerized decision aiding are developed, and the promises and pitfalls of such decision aids are explored

  9. Intelligent systems supporting the control room operators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berger, E.

    1997-01-01

    The operational experience obtained with the various applications of the systems discussed in this paper shows that more consequent use of the systems will make detection and management of disturbances still more efficient and faster. This holds true both for a low level of process automation and for power plants with a high level of automation. As for conventional power plants, the trend clearly is towards higher degrees of automation and consequent application of supporting systems. Thus, higher availability and rapid failure management are achieved, at low effects on normal operation. These systems are monitoring and process control systems, expert systems, and systems for optimal use of the equipment, or systems for post-incident analyses and computer-assisted on-shift protocols, or operating manuals. (orig./CB) [de

  10. 49 CFR 192.631 - Control room management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... control room who monitors and controls all or part of a pipeline facility through a SCADA system. Each... sections 1, 4, 8, 9, 11.1, and 11.3 of API RP 1165 are not practical for the SCADA system used; (2) Conduct... or SCADA displays; (3) Test and verify an internal communication plan to provide adequate means for...

  11. Research on design method of main control room intake air radioactive monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Lei; Sun Yu; Wang Jiaoya; Liu Hongtao

    2014-01-01

    According to the design of the main control room intake gamma radiation dose rate monitoring channels in CPR1000 project and the study of relevant regulations and standards, a design method of main control room air inlet radioactive monitoring was presented. The measured object, equipment layout and chain operation were described. The threshold setting was explored using a calculation model established by MCNP software. The advantages, disadvantages and improvement ideas of this design were presented on the basis of calculation results. (authors)

  12. Replacement of the Advanced Test Reactor control room

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Durney, J.L.; Klingler, W.B.

    1989-01-01

    The control room for the Advanced Test Reactor has been replaced to provide modern equipment utilizing current standards and meeting the current human factors requirements. The control room was designed in the early 1960 era and had not been significantly upgraded since the initial installation. The replacement did not change any of the safety circuits or equipment but did result in replacement of some of the recorders that display information from the safety systems. The replacement was completed in concert with the replacement of the control room simulator which provided important feedback on the design. The design successfully incorporates computer-based systems into the display of the plant variables. This improved design provides the operator with more information in a more usable form than was provided by the original design. The replacement was successfully completed within the scheduled time thereby minimizing the down time for the reactor. 1 fig., 1 tab

  13. Replacement of the Advanced Test Reactor control room

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Durney, J.L.; Klingler, W.B.

    1990-01-01

    The control room for the Advanced Test Reactor has been replaced to provide modern equipment utilizing current standards and meeting the current human factors requirements. The control room was designed in the early 1960 era and had not been significantly upgraded since the initial installation. The replacement did not change any of the safety circuits or equipment but did result in replacement of some of the recorders that display information from the safety systems. The replacement was completed in concert with the replacement of the control room simulator which provided important feedback on the design. The design successfully incorporates computer-based systems into the display of the plant variables. This improved design provides the operator with more information in a more usable form than was provided by the original design. The replacement was successfully completed within the scheduled time thereby minimizing the down time for the reactor

  14. Teamwork and problem solving in the control room

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nygard, F.I.; Dedon, J.M.; Fuld, R.B.

    1989-01-01

    The importance of teamwork and communications in the control room of a nuclear power plant has been the subject of significant attention during the 10 yr since the Three Mile Island accident. The ability to conduct effective problem solving, especially under unexpected conditions, requires that the control room crew be well trained in techniques that produce synergism and avoid ambiguous or conflicting interactions. This paper describes the foundations of a training program developed and conducted by Combustion Engineering to produce a winning team in the control room. The complete licensed operations staffs of three utilities, Florida Power ampersand Light, Louisiana Power ampersand Light, and Omaha Public Power District, have completed this program. Thus, the results of the experience of ∼150 licensed operators is reported

  15. Room Thermostat with Servo Controlled by PIC Microcontroller

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Skapa

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the design of room thermostat with Microchip PIC microcontroller. Thermostat is designated for two-pipe heating system. The microprocessor controls thermostatic valve via electric actuator with mechanical gear unit. The room thermostat uses for its activity measurements of air temperature in the room and calorimetric measurement of heat, which is served to the radiator. These features predestinate it mainly for underfloor heating regulation. The thermostat is designed to work in a network. Communication with heating system's central control unit is proceeded via RS485 bus with proprietary communication protocol. If the communication failure occurs the thermostat is able to work separately. The system uses its own real time clock circuit and memory with heating programs. These programs are able to cover the whole heating season. The method of position discontinuous PSD control is used in this equipment.

  16. Assessment of control rooms of nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Norros, L.; Ranta, J.; Wahlstroem, B.

    1983-05-01

    To identify and correct the lacks in control rooms of operating power plants and plants under construction an extensive program has been started in the USA. In Finland as in other countries using nuclear power, the development in the USA particularly with regard to the requirements imposed on nuclear power plants is carefully followed. The changes in these requirements are sooner or later also reflected in the guidelines given by the Finnish authorities. It is therefore important to be able to form a notion of how the new requirements apply to Finnish conditions. Especially it is important to review the latest assessment guidelines for control room implementation (NUREG-0700). Thus we can avoid possible over hasty conclusions. The aim of the analysis of the method and experiments presented in NUREG 0700 report was to create a basis for assessment of the suitability of the method for Finnish control room implementation. The task group has made a general methodical analysis of the method, and partly tried it in assessment of the TVO2 control room. It is obvious that direct conclusions from the American situation are misleading. It can be considered unfeasible to follow the American requirements as such, because they can lead to unwanted results. If the review is limited to control room details, the NRC program (checklist) can be considered successful. It can also be used during planning to observation of small discrepancies. However, we can question the applicability of some requirements. It is, though, more essential that the control room entity has neither in this nor in several other programs been reached or standardized. In spite of the difficulties we should try to reach this most important goal. (author)

  17. Control room systems design for nuclear power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-07-01

    This publication provides a resource for those who are involved in researching, managing, conceptualizing, designing, manufacturing or backfitting power plant control room systems. It will also be useful to those responsible for performing reviews or evaluations of the design and facilities associated with existing power plant control room systems. The ultimate worth of the publication, however, will depend upon how well it can support its users. Readers are invited to provide comments and observations to the IAEA, Division of Nuclear Power. If appropriate, the report will subsequently be re-issued, taking such feedback into account. Refs, figs and tabs.

  18. Control room systems design for nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-07-01

    This publication provides a resource for those who are involved in researching, managing, conceptualizing, designing, manufacturing or backfitting power plant control room systems. It will also be useful to those responsible for performing reviews or evaluations of the design and facilities associated with existing power plant control room systems. The ultimate worth of the publication, however, will depend upon how well it can support its users. Readers are invited to provide comments and observations to the IAEA, Division of Nuclear Power. If appropriate, the report will subsequently be re-issued, taking such feedback into account. Refs, figs and tabs

  19. The development of an advanced computerised control room

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haugset, K.

    1988-01-01

    Control room improvements by use of computer technology is a major activity within the OECD Halden Reactor Project. The goal is to improve operational efficiency and safety by supplying the operator with the information relevant for the specific operational situation, assisting him both in identifying plant state, plan operational strategies and implement such plans. The research activity consists of development of specific operator support systems, validation of such systems under realistic conditions and integration under the scope of an advanced control room concept. The work is carried out in close cooperation with the many member organisations. (author) 2 figs., 8 refs

  20. Advanced control room design for nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scarola, K.

    1987-01-01

    The power industry has seen a continuous growth of size and complexity of nuclear power plants. Accompanying these changes have been extensive regulatory requirements resulting in significant construction, operation and maintenance costs. In response to related concerns raised by industry members, Combustion Engineering developed the NUPLEX 80 Advanced Control Room. The goal of NUPLEX 80 TM is to: reduce design and construction costs; increase plant safety and availability through improvements in the man-machine interface; and reduce maintenance costs. This paper provides an overview of the NUPLEX 80 Advanced Control Room and explains how the stated goals are achieved. (author)

  1. A new remote control room for tokamak operations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schissel, D.P., E-mail: schissel@fusion.gat.com [General Atomics, P.O. Box 85608, San Diego, CA (United States); Abla, G.; Flanagan, S.; Kim, E.N. [General Atomics, P.O. Box 85608, San Diego, CA (United States)

    2012-12-15

    This paper presents a summary of a new remote tokamak control room constructed near the offices of DIII-D's scientific staff. This integrated system combines hardware, software, data, and control of the room (R-232) into a unified package that has been designed and constructed in a generic fashion so that it can be used with any tokamak operating worldwide. The room is approximately 300 ft{sup 2} and can accommodate up to 12 seated participants. Mounted on the wall facing each scientist are five 52 Double-Prime LCD televisions and mounted to the wall on their right are six 24 Double-Prime LCD monitors. Each seat has associated with it a 24 Double-Prime monitor, network connection, and power and the scientist is either provided with a computer or they can use their own. The room has been used for operation of DIII-D, EAST, and KSTAR. Due to the long distances, data from EAST and KSTAR was brought back to local DIII-D computers in one large parallel network transfer and subsequently served to scientists in the remote control room to other US collaborators. This parallel data transfer allowed the data to be available to US participants between pulses making remote experimental participation highly effective.

  2. Cooperative research for human factors review of advanced control rooms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Jung Woon; Park, Jae Chang; Lee, Yong Hee; Oh, In Seok; Lee, Hyun Chul

    2000-12-01

    This project has been performed as cooperative research between KAERI and USNRC. Human factors issues related to soft controls, which is one of key features of advanced HSI, are identified in this project. The issues are analyzed for the evaluation approaches in either experimental or analytical ways. Also, issues requiring additional researches for the evaluation of advanced HSI are identified in the areas of advanced information systems design, computer-based procedure systems, soft controls, human systems interface and plant modernization process, and maintainability of digital systems. The issues are analyzed to discriminate the urgency of researches on it to high, medium, and low levels in consideration of advanced HSI development status in Korea, and some of the issues that can be handled by experimental researches are identified. Additionally, an experimental study is performed to compare operator's performance on human error detection in advanced control rooms vs. in conventional control rooms. It is found that advanced control rooms have several design characteristics hindering operator's error detection performance compared to conventional control rooms.

  3. Cooperative research for human factors review of advanced control rooms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Jung Woon; Park, Jae Chang; Lee, Yong Hee; Oh, In Seok; Lee, Hyun Chul

    2000-12-01

    This project has been performed as cooperative research between KAERI and USNRC. Human factors issues related to soft controls, which is one of key features of advanced HSI, are identified in this project. The issues are analyzed for the evaluation approaches in either experimental or analytical ways. Also, issues requiring additional researches for the evaluation of advanced HSI are identified in the areas of advanced information systems design, computer-based procedure systems, soft controls, human systems interface and plant modernization process, and maintainability of digital systems. The issues are analyzed to discriminate the urgency of researches on it to high, medium, and low levels in consideration of advanced HSI development status in Korea, and some of the issues that can be handled by experimental researches are identified. Additionally, an experimental study is performed to compare operator's performance on human error detection in advanced control rooms vs. in conventional control rooms. It is found that advanced control rooms have several design characteristics hindering operator's error detection performance compared to conventional control rooms

  4. Review of Methods Related to Assessing Human Performance in Nuclear Power Plant Control Room Simulations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Katya L Le Blanc; Ronald L Boring; David I Gertman

    2001-11-01

    With the increased use of digital systems in Nuclear Power Plant (NPP) control rooms comes a need to thoroughly understand the human performance issues associated with digital systems. A common way to evaluate human performance is to test operators and crews in NPP control room simulators. However, it is often challenging to characterize human performance in meaningful ways when measuring performance in NPP control room simulations. A review of the literature in NPP simulator studies reveals a variety of ways to measure human performance in NPP control room simulations including direct observation, automated computer logging, recordings from physiological equipment, self-report techniques, protocol analysis and structured debriefs, and application of model-based evaluation. These methods and the particular measures used are summarized and evaluated.

  5. Controlling allergens in animal rooms by using curtains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krohn, Thomas Cæcius; Itter, Gabi; Fosse, Richard

    2006-01-01

    The reduction and control of allergens in the animal facility is important for staff working with laboratory animals. This study was designed to evaluate the efficiency of perforated Makrolon curtains in front of racks as a method to reduce the amount of allergen in the animal room. The experimen......The reduction and control of allergens in the animal facility is important for staff working with laboratory animals. This study was designed to evaluate the efficiency of perforated Makrolon curtains in front of racks as a method to reduce the amount of allergen in the animal room....... The experimental situation we studied provides some information regarding allergen disposition in animal rooms but is clearly artificial and does not reflect a typical, ‘real-world’ environment in terms of preventing exposure of workers to allergens. Plastic curtains with holes were placed in front of racks......, and a corridor between the racks and a curtain was present. The room was ventilated with air, which was blown into the room through the middle of the corridor, flowing downstream and passing through the holes in the curtain. This set-up resulted in air flow from the corridor through the curtain. Air samples were...

  6. Ergonomic requirements to control room design - evaluation method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hinz, W.

    1985-01-01

    The method of evaluation introduced is the result of work carried out by the sub-committee 'Control Room Design' of the Engineering Standards Committee in DIN Standards, Ergonomy. This committee compiles standards for the design of control rooms (instrumentation and control) for the monitoring and operation of process engineering cycles. With the agreement of the committee - whom we wish to take the opportunity of thanking at this point for their constructive collaboration - a planned partial standard will be introduced thematically in the following, in order that knowledge gained from the discussion can be included in further work on the subject. The matter in question is a procedure for the qualitative evaluation of the duties to be performed under the control of operators in order that an assessment can be made of existing control concepts or such concepts as are to be found in the draft phase. (orig./GL) [de

  7. Low frequency sound field control for loudspeakers in rectangular rooms using CABS (Controlled Acoustical Bass System)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Sofus Birkedal; Celestinos, Adrian

    2010-01-01

    Rectangular rooms are the most common shape for sound reproduction, but at low frequencies the reflections from the boundaries of the room cause large spatial variations in the sound pressure level.  Variations up to 30 dB are normal, not only at the room modes, but basically at all frequencies....... As sound propagates in time, it seems natural that the problems can best be analyzed and solved in the time domain. A time based room correction system named CABS (Controlled Acoustical Bass System) has been developed for sound reproduction in rectangular listening rooms. It can control the sound...... sound field in the whole room, and short impulse response.  In a standard listening room (180 m3) only 4 loudspeakers are needed, 2 more than a traditional stereo setup. CABS is controlled by a developed DSP system. The time based approached might help with the understanding of sound field control...

  8. Computer codes for evaluation of control room habitability (HABIT)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stage, S.A.

    1996-06-01

    This report describes the Computer Codes for Evaluation of Control Room Habitability (HABIT). HABIT is a package of computer codes designed to be used for the evaluation of control room habitability in the event of an accidental release of toxic chemicals or radioactive materials. Given information about the design of a nuclear power plant, a scenario for the release of toxic chemicals or radionuclides, and information about the air flows and protection systems of the control room, HABIT can be used to estimate the chemical exposure or radiological dose to control room personnel. HABIT is an integrated package of several programs that previously needed to be run separately and required considerable user intervention. This report discusses the theoretical basis and physical assumptions made by each of the modules in HABIT and gives detailed information about the data entry windows. Sample runs are given for each of the modules. A brief section of programming notes is included. A set of computer disks will accompany this report if the report is ordered from the Energy Science and Technology Software Center. The disks contain the files needed to run HABIT on a personal computer running DOS. Source codes for the various HABIT routines are on the disks. Also included are input and output files for three demonstration runs

  9. An electronic logbook for the HEP control room

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roediger, G.; Pomatto, P.; Kyriakopulos, J.; Panacek, S.; Canal, P.; Kubarovsky, A.

    2001-01-01

    The Control Room Logbook (CRL) is designed to improve and replace the paper logbooks traditionally used in the HEP accelerator control room. Its features benefit the on-line coordinator, the shift operators, and the remote observers. The author explains some of the most attractive features for each of these roles. The features include the ability to configure the logbook for the specific needs of a collaboration, a large variety of entry types an operator can add by simply clicking and dragging, and a flexible web interface for the remote observer to keep up with control room activities. The entries and saved as UTF-8 based XML files, which allowed us to give the data structure and meaning such that it can easily be parsed in the present and far into the future. The XML tag data is also indexed in a relational database, making queries on dates, keywords, entry type and other criteria feasible and fast. The CRL is used in the D0 control room. This presentation also discusses our experience with deployment, platform independence and other interesting issues that arose with the installation and use of logbook

  10. An Electronic Logbook for the HEP Control Room

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gary Roediger

    2001-01-01

    The Control Room Logbook (CRL) is designed to improve and replace the paper logbooks traditionally used in the HEP accelerator control room. Its features benefit the on-line coordinator, the shift operators, and the remote observers. This paper explains some of the most attractive features for each of these roles. The features include the ability to configure the logbook for the specific needs of a collaboration, a large variety of entry types an operator can add by simply clicking and dragging, and a flexible web interface for the remote observer to keep up with control room activities. The entries are saved as UTF-8 based XML files, which allowed us to give the data structure and meaning such that it can easily be parsed in the present and far into the future. The XML tag data is also indexed in a relational database, making queries on dates, keywords, entry type and other criteria feasible and fast. The CRL is used in the D0 control room. This presentation also discusses our experience with deployment, platform independence and other interesting issues that arose with the installation and use of the logbook

  11. Inside the LEP control room at start-up

    CERN Multimedia

    1989-01-01

    Physicists grouped around a screen in the LEP control room at the strat-up of LEP on 14 July 1989. The emotion of the moment is clear. Carlo Rubbia, Director-General of CERN at the time, is in the centre and on his left, Herwig Schopper, former Director-General of the Organization.

  12. Response Times of Operators in a Control Room

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Platz, O.; Rasmussen, Jens; Skanborg, Preben Zacho

    A statistical analysis was made of operator response times recorded in the control room of a research reactor during the years 1972-1974. A homogeneity test revealed that the data consist of a mixture of populations. A small but statistically significant difference is found between day and night...

  13. Information Foraging in Nuclear Power Plant Control Rooms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boring, R.L.

    2011-01-01

    nformation foraging theory articulates the role of the human as an 'informavore' that seeks information and follows optimal foraging strategies (i.e., the 'information scent') to find meaningful information. This paper briefly reviews the findings from information foraging theory outside the nuclear domain and then discusses the types of information foraging strategies operators employ for normal and off-normal operations in the control room. For example, operators may employ a predatory 'wolf' strategy of hunting for information in the face of a plant upset. However, during routine operations, the operators may employ a trapping 'spider' strategy of waiting for relevant indicators to appear. This delineation corresponds to information pull and push strategies, respectively. No studies have been conducted to determine explicitly the characteristics of a control room interface that is optimized for both push and pull information foraging strategies, nor has there been empirical work to validate operator performance when transitioning between push and pull strategies. This paper explores examples of control room operators as wolves vs. spiders and con- cludes by proposing a set of research questions to investigate information foraging in control room settings.

  14. Control room envelope unfiltered air inleakage test protocols

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lagus, P.L.; Grot, R.A.

    1997-01-01

    In 1983, the Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS) recommended that the US NRC develop a control room HVAC performance testing protocol. To date no such protocol has been forthcoming. Beginning in mid-1994, an effort was funded by NRC under a Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) grant to develop several simplified test protocols based on the principles of tracer gas testing in order to measure the total unfiltered inleakage entering a CRE during emergency mode operation of the control room ventilation system. These would allow accurate assessment of unfiltered air inleakage as required in SRP 6.4. The continuing lack of a standard protocol is unfortunate since one of the significant parameters required to calculate operator dose is the amount of unfiltered air inleakage into the control room. Often it is assumed that, if the Control Room Envelope (CRE) is maintained at +1/8 in. w.g. differential pressure relative to the surroundings, no significant unfiltered inleakage can occur it is further assumed that inleakage due to door openings is the only source of unfiltered air. 23 refs., 13 figs., 2 tabs

  15. Information Foraging in Nuclear Power Plant Control Rooms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    R.L. Boring

    2011-09-01

    nformation foraging theory articulates the role of the human as an 'informavore' that seeks information and follows optimal foraging strategies (i.e., the 'information scent') to find meaningful information. This paper briefly reviews the findings from information foraging theory outside the nuclear domain and then discusses the types of information foraging strategies operators employ for normal and off-normal operations in the control room. For example, operators may employ a predatory 'wolf' strategy of hunting for information in the face of a plant upset. However, during routine operations, the operators may employ a trapping 'spider' strategy of waiting for relevant indicators to appear. This delineation corresponds to information pull and push strategies, respectively. No studies have been conducted to determine explicitly the characteristics of a control room interface that is optimized for both push and pull information foraging strategies, nor has there been empirical work to validate operator performance when transitioning between push and pull strategies. This paper explores examples of control room operators as wolves vs. spiders and con- cludes by proposing a set of research questions to investigate information foraging in control room settings.

  16. Control room envelope unfiltered air inleakage test protocols

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lagus, P.L. [Lagus Applied Technology, San Diego, CA (United States); Grot, R.A. [Lagus Applied Technology, Olney, MD (United States)

    1997-08-01

    In 1983, the Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS) recommended that the US NRC develop a control room HVAC performance testing protocol. To date no such protocol has been forthcoming. Beginning in mid-1994, an effort was funded by NRC under a Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) grant to develop several simplified test protocols based on the principles of tracer gas testing in order to measure the total unfiltered inleakage entering a CRE during emergency mode operation of the control room ventilation system. These would allow accurate assessment of unfiltered air inleakage as required in SRP 6.4. The continuing lack of a standard protocol is unfortunate since one of the significant parameters required to calculate operator dose is the amount of unfiltered air inleakage into the control room. Often it is assumed that, if the Control Room Envelope (CRE) is maintained at +1/8 in. w.g. differential pressure relative to the surroundings, no significant unfiltered inleakage can occur it is further assumed that inleakage due to door openings is the only source of unfiltered air. 23 refs., 13 figs., 2 tabs.

  17. Game-based training environment for nuclear plant control room

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hung Tamin; Sun Tienlung; Yang Chihwei; Yang Lichen; Cheng Tsungchieh; Wang Jyhgang

    2011-01-01

    Nuclear power plant's safety is very important problem. In this very conscientious environment if operator has a little mistake, they may threaten with many people influence their safety. Therefore, operating training of control room is very important. However, the operator training is in limited space and time. Each operator must go to simulative control room do some training. If we can let each trainee having more time to do training and does not go to simulative control room. It may have some advantages for trainee. Moreover, in the traditional training ways, each operator may through the video, teaching manual or through the experienced instructor to learn the knowledge. This training way may let operator feel bored and stressful. So, in this paper aims, we hope utilizing virtual reality technology developing a game-based virtual training environment of control room. Finally, we will use presence questionnaire evaluating realism and feasibility of our virtual training environment. Expecting this initial concept of game-based virtual training environment can attract trainees having more learning motivation to do training in off-hour. (author)

  18. Use of 2.5-D and 3-D technology to evaluate control room upgrades

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hanes, L. F.; Naser, J.

    2006-01-01

    This paper describes an Electric Power Research Inst. (EPRI) study in which 2.5-D and 3-D visualization technology was applied to evaluate the design of a nuclear power plant control room upgrade. The study involved converting 3-D CAD flies of a planned upgrade into a photo-realistic appearing virtual model, and evaluating the value and usefulness of the model. Nuclear utility and EPRI evaluators viewed and interacted with the control room virtual model with both 2.5-D and 3-D representations. They identified how control room and similar virtual models may be used by utilities for design and evaluation purposes; assessed potential economic and other benefits; and identified limitations, potential problems, and other issues regarding use of visualization technology for this and similar applications. In addition, the Halden CREATE (Control Room Engineering Advanced Tool-kit Environment) Verification Tool was applied to evaluate features of the virtual model against US NRC NUREG 0700 Revision 2 human factors engineering guidelines (NUREG 0700) [1]. The study results are very favorable for applying 2.5-D visualization technology to support upgrading nuclear power plant control rooms and other plant facilities. Results, however, show that today's 3-D immersive viewing systems are difficult to justify based on cost, availability and value of information provided for this application. (authors)

  19. Control room design and human engineering in power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herbst, L.; Hinz, W.

    1982-01-01

    The concept for modern plant control rooms is primary influenced by: The automation of protection, binary control and closed loop control functions; organization employing functional areas; computer based information processing; human engineered design. Automation reduces the human work load. Employment of functional areas permits optimization of operational sequences. Computer based information processing makes it possible to output information in accordance with operating requirements. Design based on human engineering principles assures the quality of the interaction between the operator and the equipment. The degree to which these conceptional features play a role in design of power plant control rooms depends on the unit rating, the mode of operation and on the requirements respecting safety and availability of the plant. (orig.)

  20. Look into the PS Main Control Room (partial view)

    CERN Multimedia

    1974-01-01

    Jean-Pierre Potier at work. The 26 GeV Synchrotron and later also its related machines (Linacs 1,2,3; PS-Booster, LEP-Injector Linacs and Electron-Positron Accumulator; Antiproton Accumulator, Antiproton Collector, Low Energy Antiproton Ring and more recently Antiproton Decelerator) were all controlled from the PS control room situated at the Meyrin site. The SPS and LEP were controlled from a separat control centre on the Prevessin site. In 2005 all controls were transferred to the Prevessin centre.

  1. Feasibility of touch-less control of operating room lights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartmann, Florian; Schlaefer, Alexander

    2013-03-01

    Today's highly technical operating rooms lead to fairly complex surgical workflows where the surgeon has to interact with a number of devices, including the operating room light. Hence, ideally, the surgeon could direct the light without major disruption of his work. We studied whether a gesture tracking-based control of an automated operating room light is feasible. So far, there has been little research on control approaches for operating lights. We have implemented an exemplary setup to mimic an automated light controlled by a gesture tracking system. The setup includes a articulated arm to position the light source and an off-the-shelf RGBD camera to detect the user interaction. We assessed the tracking performance using a robot-mounted hand phantom and ran a number of tests with 18 volunteers to evaluate the potential of touch-less light control. All test persons were comfortable with using the gesture-based system and quickly learned how to move a light spot on flat surface. The hand tracking error is direction-dependent and in the range of several centimeters, with a standard deviation of less than 1 mm and up to 3.5 mm orthogonal and parallel to the finger orientation, respectively. However, the subjects had no problems following even more complex paths with a width of less than 10 cm. The average speed was 0.15 m/s, and even initially slow subjects improved over time. Gestures to initiate control can be performed in approximately 2 s. Two-thirds of the subjects considered gesture control to be simple, and a majority considered it to be rather efficient. Implementation of an automated operating room light and touch-less control using an RGBD camera for gesture tracking is feasible. The remaining tracking error does not affect smooth control, and the use of the system is intuitive even for inexperienced users.

  2. Room air conditioner load control under summer comfort constraint

    OpenAIRE

    Da Silva , David; Brancaccio , M; Duplessis , Bruno; Adnot , J

    2010-01-01

    International audience; Load control options interest is growing because it can represent a response to future network investments and to congestion problems. In this frame, the present paper gives a methodology to quantify the value of load control for heat pumps (room air conditioners), in small tertiary and residential buildings, considering the occupant's comfort and the electrical grid needs for load shift. This methodology was applied to a small office building where simulations were ma...

  3. Dose assessment method for control room habitability in accident condition in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Dong; Tang Shaohua; Wang Jianhua

    2012-01-01

    Based on the NRC. technical requirements on NPP control room habitability assessment, and considering the characteristics of the improved second generation NPPs in China, this paper developed a complete dose assessment model for control room habitability. Contrasting to the existing model in China, this model is applicable for DBA and sever accident, and the short term atmospheric diffusion factor can be calculated using the combined wake mode. By considering the zoning of habitable area and the design characteristics of the ventilation system, the effects of un-filtrated air leakage from the building and the ventilation system on the assessment calculation can be considered. (authors)

  4. A computerized main control room for NPP: Development and investigation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anokhin, A. N.; Marshall, E. C.; Rakitin, I. D.; Slonimsky, V. M.

    2006-01-01

    An ergonomics assessment of the control room at Leningrad Nuclear Power Plant has been undertaken as part of an international project funded by the EU TACIS program. The project was focused on the upgrading of the existing control facilities and the installation of a validation facility to evaluate candidate refurbishment proposals before their implementation at the plant. The ergonomics methodology applied in the investigation was wide ranging and included an analysis of reported events, extensive task analysis (including novel techniques) and validation studies using experienced operators. The paper addresses the potential difficulties for the human operator associated with fully computerized interfaces and shows how the validation facility and the outcomes from ergonomics assessment will be used to minimise any adverse impact on performance that may be caused by proposed control room changes. (authors)

  5. CERN opens up its control rooms to youngsters

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Bulletin

    2011-01-01

    CERN is inviting 13 to 18 year-olds to come and spend a couple of hours in the control rooms of the LHC and its experiments. Registration is now open.   Is your neighbour's kid eager to come and see what's going on in the CERN control rooms for himself? Is your niece from Germany fascinated by the famous accelerator near Geneva that she's heard about and asking to know more? Then Researchers Night is for them! From 6.00 p.m. on Friday 23 September until 1.00 a.m. the following morning, the LHC and its experiments will open their doors to 13 to 18 year-olds. They are invited to come and spend a couple of hours in the control rooms watching the physicists and taking part in various activities. ALICE, ATLAS, CMS, LHCb, TOTEM, and the CERN Control Centre (CCC) will all be welcoming visitors. For this second year of CERN's involvement in European Researchers Night, the CERN exhibitions will be open late and special activities will be organised in Microcosm....

  6. Control room habitability Analysis and Testing for Wolsong Unit 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, J. B. [KHNP Central Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-05-15

    In response to this recommendation, KHNP has established CRH program and performed tracer gas in leakage tests. These activities are described herein including the emergency ventilation system analysis, acceptance criteria calculation for the test and Control Room Envelope (CRE) discrimination, and the results of the tracer gas tests are presented. CRH analysis including unfiltered in leakage tests according to the methodology in ASTM E741 was performed for Wolsong Unit 1. The results show that the integrity of the control room of Wolsong Unit 1 is in good condition to maintain the reactor in a safe condition under accident conditions, which complies with the US NRC regulatory guides 1.78, 1.196 and 1.197.

  7. Advanced control room evaluation: General approach and rationale

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Hara, J.M.; Wachtel, J.

    1991-01-01

    Advanced control rooms (ACRs) for future nuclear power plants (NPPs) are being designed utilizing computer-based technologies. The US Nuclear Regulatory Commission reviews the human engineering aspects of such control rooms to ensure that they are designed to good human factors engineering principles and that operator performance and reliability are appropriately supported in order to protect public health and safety. This paper describes the rationale and general approach to the development of a human factors review guideline for ACRs. The factors influencing the guideline development are discussed, including the review environment, the types of advanced technologies being addressed, the human factors issues associated with advanced technology, and the current state-of-the-art of human factors guidelines for advanced human-system interfaces (HSIs). The proposed approach to ACR review would track the design and implementation process through the application of review guidelines reflecting four review modules: planning, design process analysis, human factors engineering review, and dynamic performance evaluation. 21 refs

  8. Control room annunciation - problem assessment and selection of improvement priorities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hartley, P.; Yaraskavitch, E.; Davey, E.

    1998-01-01

    In 1997, Pickering B undertook a project to examine current annunciation practice and identify improvement opportunities and priorities. The objectives and scope of the study were to: document the deficiencies with control room annunciation and the subsequent operational and financial impacts to station operations, develop an operations-based definition of the requirements for annunciation to adequately support control room staff, propose annunciation improvements based on a comparison of the annunciation deficiencies identified and the operational needs to be met, assess the relative operational impact, and financial benefits and costs of the improvement initiatives proposed, and recommend annunciation improvement priorities that offer a mix of operational and financial return for improvement investment. This paper discusses the rationale for the project, outlines the approaches applied in achieving the assessment objectives, reviews the key assessment findings and describes the improvement initiatives recommended. (author)

  9. Empirical investigation of workloads of operators in advanced control rooms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Yochan; Jung, Wondea; Kim, Seunghwan

    2014-01-01

    This paper compares the workloads of operators in a computer-based control room of an advanced power reactor (APR 1400) nuclear power plant to investigate the effects from the changes in the interfaces in the control room. The cognitive-communicative-operative activity framework was employed to evaluate the workloads of the operator's roles during emergency operations. The related data were obtained by analyzing the tasks written in the procedures and observing the speech and behaviors of the reserved operators in a full-scope dynamic simulator for an APR 1400. The data were analyzed using an F-test and a Duncan test. It was found that the workloads of the shift supervisors (SSs) were larger than other operators and the operative activities of the SSs increased owing to the computer-based procedure. From these findings, methods to reduce the workloads of the SSs that arise from the computer-based procedure are discussed. (author)

  10. Human factors evaluation of the engineering test reactor control room

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Banks, W.W.; Boone, M.P.

    1981-03-01

    The Reactor and Process Control Rooms at the Engineering Test Reactor were evaluated by a team of human factors engineers using available human factors design criteria. During the evaluation, ETR, equipment and facilities were compared with MIL-STD-1472-B, Human Engineering design Criteria for Military Systems. The focus of recommendations centered on: (a) displays and controls; placing displays and controls in functional groups; (b) establishing a consistent color coding (in compliance with a standard if possible); (c) systematizing annunciator alarms and reducing their number; (d) organizing equipment in functional groups; and (e) modifying labeling and lines of demarcation

  11. The Prevessin Control Room during LEP's start up in 1989.

    CERN Multimedia

    1989-01-01

    The Prévessin Control Room saw its first momentous event when the 400 GeV beam for the SPS was commissioned in the presence of Project Leader John Adams. It was also here that the first proton-antiproton collisions were observed, in 1981. Eight years later, in 1989, operators and directors alike jumped for joy at the announcement of the first electron-positron collisions at the start up of LEP, the biggest accelerator in the world.

  12. Response times of operators in a control room

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Platz, O.; Rasmussen, J.; Skanborg, P.Z.

    1982-12-01

    A statistical analysis was made of operator response times recorded in the control room of a research reactor during the years 1972-1974. A homogeneity test revealed that the data consist of a mixture of populations. A small but statistically significant difference is found between day and night response times. Lognormal distributions are found to provide the best fit of the day and the night response times. (author)

  13. Ergonomic configuration of control rooms in nuclear power stations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Becker, G.

    1984-01-01

    Human possibilities and limits of performance can be taken into account by work configuration measures, in order to make the optimum contribution to the total output of the human being/machine system. The results of and considerations for the level ergonomic configuration of the control room, for the elements of the information carrier, for the structuring of the work field and for communication centres are introduced. (DG) [de

  14. Improvement on main control room for Japanese PWR plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsumiya, Masayuki

    1996-01-01

    The main control room which is the information center of nuclear power plant has been continuously improved utilizing the state of the art ergonomics, a high performance computer, computer graphic technologies, etc. For the latest Japanese Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR) plant, the CRT monitoring system is applied as the major information source for facilitating operators' plant monitoring tasks. For an operating plant, enhancement of monitoring and logging functions has been made adopting a high performance computer

  15. Engineering human factors into the Westinghouse advanced control room

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Easter, J.R.

    1987-01-01

    By coupling the work of the Riso Laboratory in Denmark on human behaviour with new digital computation and display technology, Westinghouse has developed a totally new control room design. This design features a separate, co-ordinated work station to support the systems management role in decision making, as well as robust alarm and display systems. This coupling of the functional and physical data presentation is now being implemented in test facilities. (author)

  16. Modelling: The elephant in the room

    OpenAIRE

    Tsanakas, A.

    2012-01-01

    In an insurance world preoccupied with Solvency II, internal models have increased in both complexity and business significance. Nonetheless, actuaries are painfully aware of models’ limitations in representing the economic world, not least because of their reliance on often arbitrary assumptions. It is commonplace to say “all models are wrong but some are useful”. But in what sense might an internal model be wrong? If a model is wrong, how can it be useful? Significantly, what incentives doe...

  17. First-of-A-Kind Control Room Modernization Project Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomas, Kenneth David [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2016-02-01

    This project plan describes a comprehensive approach to the design of an end-state concept for a modernized control room for Palo Verde. It describes the collaboration arrangement between the DOE LWRS Program Control Room Modernization Project and the APS Palo Verde Nuclear Generating Station. It further describes the role of other collaborators, including the Institute for Energy Technology (IFE) and the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI). It combines advanced tools, methodologies, and facilities to enable a science-based approach to the validation of applicable engineering and human factors principles for nuclear plant control rooms. It addresses the required project results and documentation to demonstrate compliance with regulatory requirements. It describes the project tasks that will be conducted in the project, and the deliverable reports that will be developed through these tasks. This project plan will be updated as new tasks are added and as project milestones are completed. It will serve as an ongoing description on the project both for project participants and for industry stakeholders.

  18. The Halden Reactor Project workshop meeting on control room development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miberg, Ann Britt; Green, Marie; Haukenes, Hanne; Larsen, Marit; Seim, Lars Aage; Veland, Oeystein

    1999-03-01

    The 'Control Room Development' workshop was organised in. Halden, November 5-6, 1998. The purpose of the workshop was to bring forward recommendations for the future use of HAMMLAB with respect to control room development. The workshop comprised thirteen presentations summarising current issues and status in control room development projects and related projects. Following the presentations, five working groups were formed. The purpose of the working groups was to establish a set of recommendations for the future use of HAMMLAB. Each working group developed a set of recommendations. The outcomes of the working groups' discussions were summarised in plenum by the working group chairs. During the workshop, all participants excluding the Halden Project staff were asked to fill in a questionnaire indicating which research topics they found most interesting to pursue in future HAMMLAB research. The purpose of this report is to summarise the workshop participants' presentations, the working groups' discussions, and the recommendations given by the workshop participants concerning the future use of HAMMLAB (author) (ml)

  19. Changes in control room at Swedish nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kecklund, Lena

    2005-09-01

    The Swedish nuclear power plants were commissioned during a period between 1972 and 1985 and the instrumentation and control equipment are basically from that period. For several years there have been plans made for changes in all the nuclear power plants and to a certain extent the changes in control equipment and monitoring rooms have also been implemented. The object of this project was to make a comprehensive review of the changes in control room design implemented in the Swedish nuclear power plants and to describe how the MTO- (Man-Technology-Organisation) and (Man-Machine-Interface) -issues have been integrated in the process. The survey is intended to give an overall picture of the changes in control room design and man-machine-interface made in the Swedish control rooms, in order to get a deeper knowledge of the change management process and its results as well as of the management of MTO-issues in these projects. The units included in this survey are: Oskarhamn reactor 2 and 3; Ringhals reactor 2, 3 and 4; Forsmark reactor 1, 2 and 3. The Oskarshamn 1 unit has not been included in this report as it has recently undergone an extensive modernisation program as well as a detailed inspection by the SKI (Swedish Nuclear Power Inspectorate). At Ringhals 2 the modernisation work is carried out at present and the unit is also subjected to extensive inspection activities carried out by SKI and is therefore not part of this survey. This report also includes a short description of relevant standards and requirements. Then follows a presentation of the results of the plant survey, presented as case studies for three companies OKG, Ringhals and FKA. Control room changes are summarized as well as the results on specific MTO issues which has been surveyed. In all the power companies there is a joint way of working with projects concerning plant modifications. This process is described for each company separately. In the concluding of the report the strengths and

  20. Computational model of gamma irradiation room at ININ

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Romo, Suemi; Patlan-Cardoso, Fernando; Ibáñez-Orozco, Oscar; Vergara Martínez, Francisco Javier

    2018-03-01

    In this paper, we present a model of the gamma irradiation room at the National Institute of Nuclear Research (ININ is its acronym in Spanish) in Mexico to improve the use of physics in dosimetry for human protection. We deal with air-filled ionization chambers and scientific computing made in house and framed in both the GEANT4 scheme and our analytical approach to characterize the irradiation room. This room is the only secondary dosimetry facility in Mexico. Our aim is to optimize its experimental designs, facilities, and industrial applications of physical radiation. The computational results provided by our model are supported by all the known experimental data regarding the performance of the ININ gamma irradiation room and allow us to predict the values of the main variables related to this fully enclosed space to within an acceptable margin of error.

  1. Uncertainty analysis for parameters of CFAST in the main control room fire scenario

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Wanhong; Guo, Yun; Peng, Changhong [Univ. of Science and Technology of China No. 96, Anhui (China). School of Nuclear Science and Technology

    2017-07-15

    The fire accident is one of important initial events in the nuclear power plant. Moreover, the fire development process is extremely difficult and complex to predict accurately. As a result, the plant internal fire accidents have become one of the most realistic threat on the safety of the nuclear power plants. The main control room contains all the control and monitoring equipment that operators need. Once it is on fire, hostile environments would greatly impact on the safety of human operations. Therefore, fire probability safety analysis on the main control room has become a significant task. By using CFAST and Monte Carlo sampling method as a tool for fire modeling to simulate main control room on fire, we can examine uncertainty analysis for the important parameters of CFAST.

  2. Verification and Validation of Digitally Upgraded Control Rooms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boring, Ronald [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Lau, Nathan [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2015-09-01

    As nuclear power plants undertake main control room modernization, a challenge is the lack of a clearly defined human factors process to follow. Verification and validation (V&V) as applied in the nuclear power community has tended to involve efforts such as integrated system validation, which comes at the tail end of the design stage. To fill in guidance gaps and create a step-by-step process for control room modernization, we have developed the Guideline for Operational Nuclear Usability and Knowledge Elicitation (GONUKE). This approach builds on best practices in the software industry, which prescribe an iterative user-centered approach featuring multiple cycles of design and evaluation. Nuclear regulatory guidance for control room design emphasizes summative evaluation—which occurs after the design is complete. In the GONUKE approach, evaluation is also performed at the formative stage of design—early in the design cycle using mockups and prototypes for evaluation. The evaluation may involve expert review (e.g., software heuristic evaluation at the formative stage and design verification against human factors standards like NUREG-0700 at the summative stage). The evaluation may also involve user testing (e.g., usability testing at the formative stage and integrated system validation at the summative stage). An additional, often overlooked component of evaluation is knowledge elicitation, which captures operator insights into the system. In this report we outline these evaluation types across design phases that support the overall modernization process. The objective is to provide industry-suitable guidance for steps to be taken in support of the design and evaluation of a new human-machine interface (HMI) in the control room. We suggest the value of early-stage V&V and highlight how this early-stage V&V can help improve the design process for control room modernization. We argue that there is a need to overcome two shortcomings of V&V in current practice

  3. Verification and Validation of Digitally Upgraded Control Rooms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boring, Ronald; Lau, Nathan

    2015-01-01

    As nuclear power plants undertake main control room modernization, a challenge is the lack of a clearly defined human factors process to follow. Verification and validation (V&V) as applied in the nuclear power community has tended to involve efforts such as integrated system validation, which comes at the tail end of the design stage. To fill in guidance gaps and create a step-by-step process for control room modernization, we have developed the Guideline for Operational Nuclear Usability and Knowledge Elicitation (GONUKE). This approach builds on best practices in the software industry, which prescribe an iterative user-centered approach featuring multiple cycles of design and evaluation. Nuclear regulatory guidance for control room design emphasizes summative evaluation - which occurs after the design is complete. In the GONUKE approach, evaluation is also performed at the formative stage of design - early in the design cycle using mockups and prototypes for evaluation. The evaluation may involve expert review (e.g., software heuristic evaluation at the formative stage and design verification against human factors standards like NUREG-0700 at the summative stage). The evaluation may also involve user testing (e.g., usability testing at the formative stage and integrated system validation at the summative stage). An additional, often overlooked component of evaluation is knowledge elicitation, which captures operator insights into the system. In this report we outline these evaluation types across design phases that support the overall modernization process. The objective is to provide industry-suitable guidance for steps to be taken in support of the design and evaluation of a new human-machine interface (HMI) in the control room. We suggest the value of early-stage V&V and highlight how this early-stage V&V can help improve the design process for control room modernization. We argue that there is a need to overcome two shortcomings of V&V in current practice

  4. A demonstrated method for upgrading existing control room interiors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brice, R.M.; Terrill, D.; Brice, R.M.

    1991-01-01

    The main control room (MCR) of any nuclear power plant can justifiably be called the most important area staffed by personnel in the entire facility. The interior workstation configuration, equipment arrangement, and staff placement all affect the efficiency and habitability of the room. There are many guidelines available that describe various human factor principles to use when upgrading the environment of the MCR. These involve anthropometric standards and rules for placement of peripheral equipment. Due to the variations in plant design, however, hard-and-fast rules have not and cannot be standardized for retrofits in any significant way. How then does one develop criteria for the improvement of a MCR? The purpose of this paper is to discuss, from the designer's point of view, a method for the collection of information, development of criteria, and creation of a final design for a MCR upgrade. This method is best understood by describing the successful implementation at Tennessee Valley Authority's Sequoyah nuclear plant

  5. Design of control rooms and ergonomics in power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herbst, L.; Hinz, W.

    1981-01-01

    Modern power plant control rooms are characterized by automation of protection and control functions, subdivision according to functions, computer-aided information processing, and ergonomic design. Automation relieves the personnel of stress. Subdivision according to functions permits optimized procedures. Computer-aided information processing results in variable information output tailored to the actual needs. Ergonomic design assures qualified man-machine interaction. Of course, these characteristics will vary between power plants in dependence of unit power, mode of operation, and safety and availability requirements. (orig.) [de

  6. Simon van der Meer in the AA Control Room

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN PhotoLab

    1984-01-01

    Simon van der Meer, spiritus rector of the Antiproton Accumulator, in the AA Control Room. Inventor of stochastic cooling, on which the AA was based, and of the magnetic horn, with which the antiprotons were focused, he also wrote most of the software with which the AA was controlled, and spent uncountable numbers of hours in this chair to tickle the AA to top performance. 8 months after this picture was taken, he received, in October 1984, the Nobel prize, together with Carlo Rubbia, the moving force behind the whole Proton-Antiproton Collider project that led to the discovery, in 1983, of the W and Z intermediate bosons.

  7. Job satisfaction among control room operators of electrical systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macaia, Amanda A Silva; Marqueze, Elaine C; Rotenberg, Lúcia; Fischer, Frida Marina; Moreno, Claudia R C

    2012-01-01

    Shift workers from control centers of electrical systems are a group that has received little attention in Brazil. This study aimed to compare workers' job satisfaction at five control centers of a Brazilian company electrical system, and according to their job titles. The Organization Satisfaction Index (OSI) questionnaire to assess job satisfaction was used. ANOVA was used to compare OSI means, according to job title and control center. The results showed that there is no difference in job satisfaction among job titles, but a significant difference was found according to the control center. A single organizational culture cannot be applied to several branches. It is required to implement actions that would result in job satisfaction improvements among workers of all studied control rooms centers. The high level of education of operators working in all centers might have contributed to the similar values of perceived satisfaction among distinct job titles.

  8. Multichannel active control of random noise in a small reverberant room

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laugesen, Søren; Elliott, Stephen J.

    1993-01-01

    An algorithm for multichannel adaptive IIR (infinite impulse response) filtering is presented and applied to the active control of broadband random noise in a small reverberant room. Assuming complete knowledge of the primary noise, the theoretically optimal reductions of acoustic energy are init...... with the primary noise field generated by a panel excited by a loudspeaker in an adjoining room. These results show that far better performances are provided by IIR and FIR filters when the primary source has a lightly damped dynamic behavior which the active controller must model...

  9. Low frequency sound reproduction in irregular rooms using CABS (Control Acoustic Bass System)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Celestinos, Adrian; Nielsen, Sofus Birkedal

    2011-01-01

    of an irregular room model using the FDTD (Finite Difference Time Domain) method has been presented. CABS has been simulated in the irregular room model. Measurements of CABS in a real irregular room have been performed. The performance of CABS was affected by the irregular shape of the room due to the corner...

  10. Advanced control rooms and crew performance issues: Implications for human reliability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Hara, J.M.; Hall, R.E.

    1991-01-01

    Recent trends in advanced control room (ACR) design are considered with respect to their impact on human performance. It is concluded that potentially negative influences exist, however, a variety of factors make it difficult to model, analyze, and quantify these effects for human reliability analyses (HRAs)

  11. modelling room cooling capacity with fuzzy logic procedure

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The primary aim of this study is to develop a model for estimation of the cooling requirement of residential rooms. Fuzzy logic was employed to model four input variables (window area (m2), roof area (m2), external wall area (m2) and internal load (Watt). The algorithm of the inference engine applied sets of 81 linguistic ...

  12. Light Water Reactor Sustainability Program A Reference Plan for Control Room Modernization: Planning and Analysis Phase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jacques Hugo; Ronald Boring; Lew Hanes; Kenneth Thomas

    2013-09-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy’s Light Water Reactor Sustainability (LWRS) program is collaborating with a U.S. nuclear utility to bring about a systematic fleet-wide control room modernization. To facilitate this upgrade, a new distributed control system (DCS) is being introduced into the control rooms of these plants. The DCS will upgrade the legacy plant process computer and emergency response facility information system. In addition, the DCS will replace an existing analog turbine control system with a display-based system. With technology upgrades comes the opportunity to improve the overall human-system interaction between the operators and the control room. To optimize operator performance, the LWRS Control Room Modernization research team followed a human-centered approach published by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission. NUREG-0711, Rev. 3, Human Factors Engineering Program Review Model (O’Hara et al., 2012), prescribes four phases for human factors engineering. This report provides examples of the first phase, Planning and Analysis. The three elements of Planning and Analysis in NUREG-0711 that are most crucial to initiating control room upgrades are: • Operating Experience Review: Identifies opportunities for improvement in the existing system and provides lessons learned from implemented systems. • Function Analysis and Allocation: Identifies which functions at the plant may be optimally handled by the DCS vs. the operators. • Task Analysis: Identifies how tasks might be optimized for the operators. Each of these elements is covered in a separate chapter. Examples are drawn from workshops with reactor operators that were conducted at the LWRS Human System Simulation Laboratory HSSL and at the respective plants. The findings in this report represent generalized accounts of more detailed proprietary reports produced for the utility for each plant. The goal of this LWRS report is to disseminate the technique and provide examples sufficient to

  13. Control room design and human factors using a virtual reality based tool for design, test and training

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lirvall, Peter

    1998-02-01

    This report describes a user-centred approach to control room design adopted by IFE for the nuclear industry. The novelty of this approach is the development of a Control Room Philosophy, and the use of Virtual Reality (VR) technology as a tool in the design process, integrated with a specially developed Design Documentation System (DDS) and a process display prototyping tool PICASSO-3. The control room philosophy identifies all functional aspects of a control centre, to define the baseline principles and guidelines for the design. The use of VR technology enables end-users of the control room design (e.g. control room operators) to specify their preferred design of the new control room, and to replace the need for a physical mock-up to test and evaluate the proposed design. The DDS, integrated with the VR design tool, guides the control room operators, through a structured approach, to document the proposed design in a complete design specification. The VR tool, specially developed by IFE, is called the VR based Design, Test and Training tool (VR DTandT). It is not only intended to visualise the design, but also to test and evaluate the design. When the design is implemented, the same model is re-used as a VR based training simulator for operators. A special feature in the VR DTandT tool is that the verification and validation (VandV) tests, concerning human factors, are according to the regulative standards for nuclear control rooms

  14. Qualified operator training in the simulated control room environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ionescu, Teodor; Studineanu, Emil; Radulescu, Catalina; Bolocan, Gabriel

    2005-01-01

    Full text: Mainly designed for the training of the Cernavoda NPP Unit 2 operators, the virtual simulated environment allows the training of the already qualified operators for Cernavoda NPP Unit 1, adding to the already trained knowledge, the differences which has occurred in the Unit 2 design. Using state-of-the-art computers and displays and qualified software, the virtual simulated panels could offer a viable alternative to classic hardware-based training. This approach allows quick training of the new procedures required by the new configuration of the re-designed operator panels in the main control room of Cernavoda NPP Unit 2. (authors)

  15. Qualified operator training in the simulated control room environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ionescu, Teodor; Studineanu, Emil; Radulescu, Catalina; Bolocan, Gabriel

    2005-01-01

    Mainly designed for the training of the Cernavoda NPP Unit 2 operators, the virtual simulated environment allows the training of the already qualified operators for Cernavoda NPP Unit 1, adding to the already trained knowledge, the differences which have occurred in the Unit 2 design. Using state-of-the-art computers and displays and qualified software, the virtual simulated panels could offer a viable alternative to classic hardware-based training. This approach allows quick training of the new procedures required by the new configuration of the re-designed operator panels in the main control room of Cernavoda NPP Unit 2. (authors)

  16. Control room design and human engineering in power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herbst, L.; Hinz, W.

    1981-01-01

    Automation reduces the human work load. Employment of functional areas permits optimization of operational sequences. Computer based information processing makes it possible to output information in accordance with operating requirements. Design based on human engineering principles assures the quality of the interaction between the operator and the equipment. The degree to which these conceptional features play a role in design of power plant control rooms depends on the unit rating, the mode of operation and on the requirements respecting safety and availability of the plant. (orig./RW)

  17. Results of control-room annunciator-systems evaluations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Banks, W.W.

    1981-01-01

    Annunciator systems in nuclear power plants tax the operator's ability to cope with large amounts of information. Conventional annunciators do not provide the information in an acceptable way for efficient response, but computer-generated CRT displays have the potential for rectifying this situation. A multidisciplinary team of human factors engineers from EG and G Idaho conducted a study to (a) identify problem areas in reactor control rooms associated with annunciator display systems, (b) provide specific and generic solutions to the problems identified, and (c) provide recommendations and direction for future improvements and research focused on the man/display interface from a human factors engineering perspective

  18. Evaluation of team skills for control room crews

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaddy, C.D.; Koontz, J.L.

    1987-01-01

    Although team training has received considerable attention throughout industry, a systematic approach to team skills training has only recently been proposed for control room crews. One important step of the approach to team skills training is evaluation of team skills. This paper describes methods and resources, and program considerations in team skills evaluation. The three areas pertaining to methods and resources are: development of evaluation criteria, preparation of event scenarios, and instructor training and additional resources. The program considerations include sequencing and coordination of team skills evaluation in the context of an overall operator training program

  19. Nuclear power plant control room operators' performance research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gray, L.H.; Haas, P.M.

    1984-01-01

    A research program is being conducted to provide information on the performance of nuclear power plant control room operators when responding to abnormal/emergency events in the plants and in full-scope training simulators. The initial impetus for this program was the need for data to assess proposed design criteria for the choice of manual versus automatic action for accomplishing safety-related functions during design basis accidents. The program also included studies of training simulator capabilities, of procedures and data for specifying and verifying simulator performance, and of methods and applications of task analysis

  20. Communications involving the control room of a nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MacGregor, J.; Cunningham, B.; Safayeni, F.; Duimering, R.

    1992-04-01

    This study investigated communications within the operations component of a nuclear power plant, with a primary emphasis on control room communications. A structured interview technique was developed following preliminary interviews at the plant, and pretested at AECB headquarters. Patterns were identified from questions asked on communications links, work relationships, miscommunications, procedures, instrumentation and responses to problems. The study was an exploratory one, conducted under a limited budget, to provide background information and to identify areas for further investigation. The report offers recommendations about areas for further research

  1. NFL Films music scoring stage and control room space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berger, Russ; Schrag, Richard C.; Ridings, Jason J.

    2003-04-01

    NFL Films' new 200,000 sq. ft. corporate headquarters is home to an orchestral scoring stage used to record custom music scores to support and enhance their video productions. Part of the 90,000 sq. ft. of sound critical technical space, the music scoring stage and its associated control room are at the heart of the audio facilities. Driving the design were the owner's mandate for natural light, wood textures, and an acoustical environment that would support small rhythm sections, soloists, and a full orchestra. Being an industry leader in cutting-edge video and audio formats, the NFLF required that the technical spaces allow the latest in technology to be continually integrated into the infrastructure. Never was it more important for a project to hold true to the adage of ``designing from the inside out.'' Each audio and video space within the facility had to stand on its own with regard to user functionality, acoustical accuracy, sound isolation, noise control, and monitor presentation. A detailed look at the architectural and acoustical design challenges encountered and the solutions developed for the performance studio and the associated control room space will be discussed.

  2. Baseline Evaluations to Support Control Room Modernization at Nuclear Power Plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boring, Ronald L.; Joe, Jeffrey C.

    2015-02-01

    For any major control room modernization activity at a commercial nuclear power plant (NPP) in the U.S., a utility should carefully follow the four phases prescribed by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission in NUREG-0711, Human Factors Engineering Program Review Model. These four phases include Planning and Analysis, Design, Verification and Validation, and Implementation and Operation. While NUREG-0711 is a useful guideline, it is written primarily from the perspective of regulatory review, and it therefore does not provide a nuanced account of many of the steps the utility might undertake as part of control room modernization. The guideline is largely summative—intended to catalog final products—rather than formative—intended to guide the overall modernization process. In this paper, we highlight two crucial formative sub-elements of the Planning and Analysis phase specific to control room modernization that are not covered in NUREG-0711. These two sub-elements are the usability and ergonomics baseline evaluations. A baseline evaluation entails evaluating the system as-built and currently in use. The usability baseline evaluation provides key insights into operator performance using the control system currently in place. The ergonomics baseline evaluation identifies possible deficiencies in the physical configuration of the control system. Both baseline evaluations feed into the design of the replacement system and subsequent summative benchmarking activities that help ensure that control room modernization represents a successful evolution of the control system.

  3. Baseline Evaluations to Support Control Room Modernization at Nuclear Power Plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boring, Ronald L.; Joe, Jeffrey C.

    2015-01-01

    For any major control room modernization activity at a commercial nuclear power plant (NPP) in the U.S., a utility should carefully follow the four phases prescribed by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission in NUREG-0711, Human Factors Engineering Program Review Model. These four phases include Planning and Analysis, Design, Verification and Validation, and Implementation and Operation. While NUREG-0711 is a useful guideline, it is written primarily from the perspective of regulatory review, and it therefore does not provide a nuanced account of many of the steps the utility might undertake as part of control room modernization. The guideline is largely summative–intended to catalog final products–rather than formative–intended to guide the overall modernization process. In this paper, we highlight two crucial formative sub-elements of the Planning and Analysis phase specific to control room modernization that are not covered in NUREG-0711. These two sub-elements are the usability and ergonomics baseline evaluations. A baseline evaluation entails evaluating the system as-built and currently in use. The usability baseline evaluation provides key insights into operator performance using the control system currently in place. The ergonomics baseline evaluation identifies possible deficiencies in the physical configuration of the control system. Both baseline evaluations feed into the design of the replacement system and subsequent summative benchmarking activities that help ensure that control room modernization represents a successful evolution of the control system.

  4. Performance evaluation of control room HVAC and air cleaning systems under accident conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Almerico, F.; Machiels, A.J.; Ornberg, S.C.; Lahti, G.P.

    1985-01-01

    In light water reactors, control rooms and technical support centers must be designed to provide habitable environments in accordance with the requirements specified in General Design Criterion 19 of Appendix A, 10 CFR Part 50. Therefore, the effectiveness of HVAC and air cleaning system designs with respect to plant operator protection has to be evaluated by the system designer. Guidance for performing the analysis has been previously given in ANSI/ASME N509-1980 as well as in presentations at past Air Cleaning Conferences. The previous work is extended and the methodology used in a generic, interactive computer program that performs Main Control Room and Technical Support Center (TSC) habitability analyses for LWR nuclear power plants is presented. For given accident concentrations of radionuclides or hazardous gases in the outdoor air intakes and plant spaces surrounding the Main Control Room (or TSC), the program models the performance of the HVAC and air cleaning system designs, and determines control room (or TSC) contaminant concentrations and plant operator protection factors. Calculated or actual duct leakage, air cleaning efficiency, and airborne contamination are taken into account. Flexibility of the model allows for the representation of most control rooms (or TSC) and associated HVAC and air cleaning system conceptual designs that have been used by the US architect/engineers. The program replaced tedious calculations to determine the effects of HVAC ductwork and equipment leakage and permits (1) parametric analyses of various HVAC system design options early in the conceptual phase of a project, and (2) analysis of the effects of leakage test results on contaminant room concentrations, and therefore operator doses

  5. Numerical simulation of manual operation at MID stand control room

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doca, C.; Dobre, A.; Predescu, D.; Mielcioiu, A.

    2003-01-01

    Since 2000 at INR Pitesti a package of software products devoted to numerical simulation of manual operations at fueling machine control room was developed. So far, specified, designed, worked out and implemented was the PUPITRU code. The following issues were solved: graphical aspects of specific computer - human operator interface; functional and graphical simulation of the whole associated equipment of the control desk components; implementation of the main notation as used in the automated schemes of the control desk in view of the fast identification of the switches, lamps, instrumentation, etc.; implementation within PUPITRU code of the entire data base used in the frame of MID tests; implementation of a number of about 1000 numerical simulation equations describing specific operational MID testing situations

  6. CERN'S TECHNICAL CONTROL ROOM (TCR) A CENTRAL SERVICE FOR EVERYONE

    CERN Multimedia

    Mario Batz / TCR Responsible

    2000-01-01

    The Technical Control Room (TCR) monitors and operates the entire technical infrastructure of CERN 24 hours a day, 365 days a year. It registers and dispatches troubleshooting requests to the appropriate equipment services. In addition, the TCR executes first-line interventions on the entire CERN site. Troubleshooting requests are transmitted to the TCR either via a computerised control system or via the phone number 72201. More than 10'000 such requests are dispatched and dealt with every year. The TCR's diverse field of activity concerns the following systems: electrical and fluid distribution networks, heating, cooling, ventilation, air-conditioning and gas equipment, safety and communication installations, electromechanical systems (e.g. lifts, cranes, machine tools, motorised doors), sanitary systems (leaks, sewage), control and monitoring infrastructure equipment, buildings. These systems can either be part of the administrative infrastructure, such as offices or restaurants, or part of the tec...

  7. CERN'S TECHNICAL CONTROL ROOM (TCR) A CENTRAL SERVICE FOR EVERYONE

    CERN Document Server

    Mario Batz

    2002-01-01

    The Technical Control Room (TCR) monitors and operates the entire technical infrastructure of CERN 24 hours a day, 365 days a year. It registers and dispatches troubleshooting requests to the appropriate equipment services. In addition, the TCR executes first-line interventions on the entire CERN site. Troubleshooting requests are transmitted to the TCR either via a computerised control system or via the phone number '72201'. More than 10'000 such requests are dispatched and dealt with every year. The TCR's diverse field of activity concerns the following systems: electrical and fluid distribution networks, heating, cooling, ventilation, air-conditioning and gas equipment, safety and communication installations, electromechanical systems (e.g. lifts, cranes, machine tools, motorised doors), sanitary systems (leaks, sewage), control and monitoring infrastructure equipment, buildings. These systems can either be part of the administrative infrastructure, such as offices or restaurants, or part of the t...

  8. CERN'S TECHNICAL CONTROL ROOM (TCR) A CENTRAL SERVICE FOR EVERYONE

    CERN Multimedia

    Mario Batz (TCR Responsible)

    2001-01-01

    The Technical Control Room (TCR) monitors and operates the entire technical infrastructure of CERN 24 hours a day, 365 days a year. It registers and dispatches troubleshooting requests to the appropriate equipment services. In addition, the TCR executes first-line interventions on the entire CERN site. Troubleshooting requests are transmitted to the TCR either via a computerised control system or via the phone number '72201'. More than 10'000 such requests are dispatched and dealt with every year. The TCR's diverse field of activity concerns the following systems: electrical and fluid distribution networks, heating, cooling, ventilation, air-conditioning and gas equipment, safety and communication installations, electromechanical systems (e.g. lifts, cranes, machine tools, motorised doors), sanitary systems (leaks, sewage), control and monitoring infrastructure equipment, buildings. These systems can either be part of the administrative infrastructure, such as offices or restaurants, or part of the t...

  9. CERN'S TECHNICAL CONTROL ROOM (TCR) A CENTRAL SERVICE FOR EVERYONE

    CERN Document Server

    Mario Batz

    2002-01-01

    The Technical Control Room (TCR) monitors and operates the entire technical infrastructure of CERN 24 hours a day, 365 days a year. It registers and dispatches troubleshooting requests to the appropriate CERN equipment services or contractors. In addition, the TCR executes first-line interventions on the entire CERN site. Troubleshooting requests are transmitted to the TCR either via a computerised control system or via the phone number '72201'. More than 10'000 such requests are dispatched and dealt with every year. The TCR's diverse field of activity covers the following systems: electrical and fluid distribution networks, heating, cooling, ventilation, air-conditioning and gas equipment, safety and communication installations, electromechanical systems (e.g. lifts, cranes, machine tools, motorised doors), sanitary systems (leaks, sewage), control and monitoring infrastructure equipment, and buildings. These systems can either be part of the administrative infrastructure, such as offices or restaur...

  10. CERN's Technical Control Room (TCR) A Central Service for Everyone

    CERN Document Server

    Mario Batz

    2001-01-01

    The Technical Control Room (TCR) monitors and operates the entire technical infrastructure of CERN 24 hours a day, 365 days a year. It registers and dispatches troubleshooting requests to the appropriate equipment services. In addition, the TCR executes first-line interventions on the entire CERN site. Troubleshooting requests are transmitted to the TCR either via a computerised control system or via the phone number '72201'. More than 10'000 such requests are dispatched and dealt with every year. The TCR's diverse field of activity concerns the following systems: electrical and fluid distribution networks, heating, cooling, ventilation, air-conditioning and gas equipment, safety and communication installations, electromechanical systems (e.g. lifts, cranes, machine tools, motorised doors), sanitary systems (leaks, sewage), control and monitoring infrastructure equipment, buildings. These systems can either be part of the administrative infrastructure, such as offices or restaurants, or part of the t...

  11. CERN'S TECHNICAL CONTROL ROOM (TCR) A CENTRAL SERVICE FOR EVERYONE

    CERN Multimedia

    Mario Batz (TCR Responsible)

    2001-01-01

    The Technical Control Room (TCR) monitors and operates the entire technical infrastructure of CERN 24 hours a day, 365 days a year. It registers and dispatches troubleshooting requests to the appropriate equipment services. In addition, the TCR executes first-line interventions on the entire CERN site. Troubleshooting requests are transmitted to the TCR either via a computerised control system or via the phone number 72201. More than 10'000 such requests are dispatched and dealt with every year. The TCR's diverse field of activity concerns the following systems: electrical and fluid distribution networks, heating, cooling, ventilation, air-conditioning and gas equipment, safety and communication installations, electromechanical systems (e.g. lifts, cranes, machine tools, motorised doors), sanitary systems (leaks, sewage), control and monitoring infrastructure equipment, buildings. These systems can either be part of the administrative infrastructure, such as offices or restaurants, or part of the tec...

  12. CERN'S TECHNICAL CONTROL ROOM (TCR) A CENTRALSERVICE FOR EVERYONE

    CERN Multimedia

    Mario Batz / TCR Responsible

    2001-01-01

    The Technical Control Room (TCR) monitors and operates the entire technical infrastructure of CERN 24 hours a day, 365 days a year. It registers and dispatches troubleshooting requests to the appropriate equipment services. In addition, the TCR executes first-line interventions on the entire CERN site. Troubleshooting requests are transmitted to the TCR either via a computerised control system or via the phone number '72201'. More than 10'000 such requests are dispatched and dealt with every year. The TCR's diverse field of activity concerns the following systems: electrical and fluid distribution networks, heating, cooling, ventilation, air-conditioning and gas equipment, safety and communication installations, electromechanical systems (e.g. lifts, cranes, machine tools, motorised doors), sanitary systems (leaks, sewage), control and monitoring infrastructure equipment, buildings. These systems can either be part of the administrative infrastructure, such as offices or restaurants, or part of the t...

  13. Baseline Study Methodology for Future Phases of Research on Nuclear Power Plant Control Room Technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Le Blanc, Katya Lee [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Bower, Gordon Ross [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Hill, Rachael Ann [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Spielman, Zachary Alexander [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Rice, Brandon Charles [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2016-07-01

    In order to provide a basis for industry adoption of advanced technologies, the Control Room Upgrades Benefits Research Project will investigate the benefits of including advanced technologies as part of control room modernization This report describes the background, methodology, and research plan for the first in a series of full-scale studies to test the effects of advanced technology in NPP control rooms. This study will test the effect of Advanced Overview Displays in the partner Utility’s control room simulator

  14. Design process and philosophy of TVA's latest advance control room complex

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Owens, G.R.; Masters, D.W.

    1979-01-01

    TVA's latest nuclear power plant control room design includes a greater emphasis on human factors as compared to their earlier plant designs. This emphasis has resulted in changes in the overall design philosophy and design process. This paper discusses some of the prominent design features of both the control room and the surrounding control room complex. In addition, it also presents some of the important activities involved in the process of developing the advanced control room design

  15. Bridging the gap: adapting advanced display technologies for use in hybrid control rooms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jokstad, Håkon; Boring, Ronald

    2015-01-01

    The Institute for Energy Technology (IFE), runs the OECD Halden Reactor Project (HRP), featuring a state-of-the-art research simulator facility in Halden, Norway, called HAMMLAB. HAMMLAB serves two main purposes: the study of human behaviour in interaction with complex process systems; and the development, test and evaluation of prototype control centres and their individual systems. By studying operator performance in HAMMLAB and integrating the knowledge gained into new designs, the HRP contributes to improving operational safety, reliability, efficiency and productivity. The U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Light Water Reactor Sustainability (LWRS) Program has contracted IFE to assist DOE national laboratory staff at Idaho National Laboratory (INL) in adapting HAMMLAB design concepts for the purpose of control room modernization at nuclear power plants in the U.S. In support of this effort, the DOE has built a simulator research facility at INL called the Human Systems Simulation Laboratory (HSSL). The HSSL is centered on control room modernization, in which industry provided plant instrumentation and controls are modified for upgrade opportunities. The HSSL houses the LWRS simulator, which is a reconfigurable full-scale and full-scope control room simulator. Consisting of 45 large touchscreens on 15 panels, the LWRS simulator is currently using this glass top technology to digitally represent and replicate the functionality of the analog I&C systems in existing control rooms. The LWRS simulator is reconfigurable in that different plant training simulator models obtained from the utilities can be run on the panels, and the panels can be physically moved and arranged to mimic the layout of those control rooms. The glass top technology and reconfigurability capabilities allow the LWRS simulator to be the research platform that is necessary to design, prototype, and validate human-system interface (HSI) technologies that can replace existing analog I&C. IFE

  16. Bridging the gap: adapting advanced display technologies for use in hybrid control rooms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jokstad, Håkon [Inst. for Energy Technology, Halden (Norway); Boring, Ronald [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2015-02-01

    The Institute for Energy Technology (IFE), runs the OECD Halden Reactor Project (HRP), featuring a state-of-the-art research simulator facility in Halden, Norway, called HAMMLAB. HAMMLAB serves two main purposes: the study of human behaviour in interaction with complex process systems; and the development, test and evaluation of prototype control centres and their individual systems. By studying operator performance in HAMMLAB and integrating the knowledge gained into new designs, the HRP contributes to improving operational safety, reliability, efficiency and productivity. The U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) Light Water Reactor Sustainability (LWRS) Program has contracted IFE to assist DOE national laboratory staff at Idaho National Laboratory (INL) in adapting HAMMLAB design concepts for the purpose of control room modernization at nuclear power plants in the U.S. In support of this effort, the DOE has built a simulator research facility at INL called the Human Systems Simulation Laboratory (HSSL). The HSSL is centered on control room modernization, in which industry provided plant instrumentation and controls are modified for upgrade opportunities. The HSSL houses the LWRS simulator, which is a reconfigurable full-scale and full-scope control room simulator. Consisting of 45 large touchscreens on 15 panels, the LWRS simulator is currently using this glass top technology to digitally represent and replicate the functionality of the analog I&C systems in existing control rooms. The LWRS simulator is reconfigurable in that different plant training simulator models obtained from the utilities can be run on the panels, and the panels can be physically moved and arranged to mimic the layout of those control rooms. The glass top technology and reconfigurability capabilities allow the LWRS simulator to be the research platform that is necessary to design, prototype, and validate human-system interface (HSI) technologies that can replace existing analog I&C. IFE has

  17. Control Room Tasks During Refueling in Ringhals 1 Nuclear Power Plant - Operator performance during refuelling outages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stroebeck, Einar; Olausson, Jesper; Van Gemst, Paul

    1998-01-01

    This paper discusses the performance and tasks of the operators in the control room during refuelling outages. Analyses of such events have, during the last years, shown that the risk for nuclear accidents is not negligible compared with the risk at higher reactor power levels. Some experts have the opinion that, due to mistakes during an outage, the risk for such accidents during the outage and other accidents later on during power operation is higher than in other plant situations. The high risk level is mainly a result of errors at maintenance actions and supervision of lining up of safety systems. Most of the control rooms in existing NPPs were designed more than 10 years ago. At that time the activities and the tasks for the operators were not very well understood. Procedures for refuelling and other activities during the outages were not described very well. Often the utility organisation for refuelling outages was not established at the start of the control room design. Experience from operation during many years has shown that the performance of operators can be improved in existing plant, and thus risks be reduced, by upgrading the control room. These issues have been studied as a part of the modernisation project for Ringhals 1, an ABB Atom BWR owned by Vattenfall AB in Sweden. The paper will describe the working model for upgrading the control room and important issues to take care of with respect to refuelling outages. The identified issues will be used as the input for improving control room philosophy and the individual technical systems. (authors)

  18. 76 FR 35130 - Pipeline Safety: Control Room Management/Human Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-16

    ...: Control Room Management/Human Factors AGENCY: Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration... the Control Room Management/Human Factors regulations in order to realize the safety benefits sooner... FR 5536). By this amendment to the Control Room Management/Human Factors (CRM) rule, an operator must...

  19. 75 FR 69912 - Pipeline Safety: Control Room Management/Human Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-16

    ... 192 and 195 [Docket ID PHMSA-2007-27954] RIN 2137-AE64 Pipeline Safety: Control Room Management/Human... Control Room Management/Human Factors rule at 49 CFR 192.631 and 195.446. The NPRM proposes to expedite... rule and to engage in open discussions with the agency at PHMSA's Control Room Management...

  20. A work process and information flow description of control room operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davey, E.; Matthews, G.

    2007-01-01

    The control room workplace is the location from which all plant operations are supervised and controlled on a shift-to-shift basis. The activities comprising plant operations are structured into a number of work processes, and information is the common currency that is used to convey work requirements, communicate business and operating decisions, specify work practice, and describe the ongoing plant and work status. This paper describes the motivation for and early experience with developing a work process and information flow model of CANDU control room operations, and discusses some of the insights developed from model examination that suggest ways in which changes in control centre work specification, organization of resources, or asset layout could be undertaken to achieve operational improvements. (author)

  1. Virtual reality verification of workplace design guidelines for the process plant control room

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Droeivoldsmo, Asgeir; Nystad, Espen; Helgar, Stein

    2001-02-01

    Early identification of potential human factors guideline-violations and corrective input into the design process is desired for efficient and cost-effective control room design. Virtual reality (VR) technology makes it possible to perform evaluation of the design of the control room at an early stage of the design process, but can we trust the results from such evaluations? This paper describes an experimental validation of a VR model against the real world in five different guideline verification tasks. Results indicate that guideline verification in the VR model can be done with satisfactory accuracy for a number of evaluations. However, some guideline categories require further development of measurement tools and use of a model with higher resolution than the model used in this study. (Author). 30 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab

  2. Cognitive requirements in the redesign of a TRIGA RC-1 control room: The role of the operators' evaluations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Visciola, M.; Bagnara, S.; Ruggeri, R.

    1986-01-01

    When a control room undergoes to a redesign process it is of crucial importance to analyze how operators critically review it and which improvements they suggest. This is even more critical when presumably the same people will operate in the new 'redesigned' control room: Consistency in the mental models possessed by the operators of the plant functions and of their control should be emphasized. Consistency in the mental models can be assumed when redesign follows well-established guidelines drawn from experiences and studies carried out in very similar situations. However, this condition is not fulfilled when a nuclear research control room has to be redesigned, since available guidelines (e.g.; NUREG-0700) are based on studies conducted on nuclear power plant control rooms. These two types of facilities are of much difference as for activities performed in the control room, goals to be aimed at, costs and risks. As a consequence, the available guidelines cannot be safely applied to such a situation as the redesign of a TRIGA RC-1 control room. So, data have to be collected in order to allow the operators to efficiently and easily adapt to the new control room by consistently 'updating' their mental models. In the present study, these data have been collected through structured interviews, which consisted of a modified version of EPRI. The results can be summarized as follows: 1) The operators critically reviewed the present control room and underlined the lack of 'transparency' of the control system as for the plant's conditions and for the feedbacks about their own activities. 2) The operators' work analysis showed that they spend much of their time out of the control room. This means that, if the operators have to stay in the control room, they should be allowed to perform more and higher-level activities than those presently required, to prevent understimulation. So, the redesign should or allow and support the central control and maintenance, and other

  3. Optimizing the human engineering design of control panels in nuclear power plant control rooms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Behrendt, V.; Krehbiehl, T.; Hartfiel, H.D.; Mannhaupt, H.R.

    1986-12-01

    The study contains two parts. In the first part an analytical procedure is developed to logically and reproducibly subdivide the control room personnel tasks resulting in a list of the elements (operations) and the structure (operations scheme) of a task. The second part lists together all knowledge of and influences on human engineering which are known at this time and which should be taken into account in designing control rooms. The content of this catalogue can best be used and presented by using a personal computer. Two fundamental different ways are possible to use the catalogue. Designing new control rooms or new parts of control rooms the results of the task analysis which should be done first, should guide the search in the catalogue to find the right human engineering factors. For assessing existing control room panels the performance shaping factors which are establishing the table of content, permit a quick access to the catalogue. Both the specific procedure of the task analysis and the different ways of access to the catalogue of human engineering knowledge for designing nuclear power plant control rooms have been proven by experienced system engineers and safety experts. The results are presented. They have been considered in this version of the study. (orig.) [de

  4. Diffusion and Evaporation-Controlled Emission in Ventilated Rooms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Topp, Claus

    and sources. This work provides an investigation based on fundamental fluid dynamics and mass transfer theory to obtain a general understanding of the mechanisms involved in the emission from building materials in ventilated rooms. In addition, a generally applicable model for prediction of surface emission...... is proposed. The interest has been focused on the emission of vapours and gases as no particulate emissions have been considered. The methods used are numerical calculations by computational fluid dynamics (CFD) and full-scale laboratory experiments. It was found that the emission is a strong function of air......In emission studies reported in literature little effort has been made to investigate the emission from building materials in ventilated enclosures from a fluid dynamics point of view. Furthermore, most of the existing emission models are empirical relations that are based on specific pollutants...

  5. Consequences of modern information display technologies in power plant control rooms. What has changed in control rooms?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kruip, Jochen

    2007-01-01

    Control rooms of power plants have undergone major developments and changes, some of them considerable, over the past few years. The most visible change has been the display of information on a variety of video screens and projectors. The question examined in the article is whether the visible or invisible changes in power plant control rooms have any influence on the training of operators. In a contribution coming from the Simulator Center, this question naturally focuses on simulator training, which is to be discussed in the light of the basic objectives of this type of training. The main duty of the Essen Simulator Center is to offer first training and in-career training to the licensed operators of nuclear power plants. The experience accumulated in nearly thirty years of simulator training has been laid down in the 'Kompendium der Simulatorschulung' (Handbook of Simulator Training). Simulator training, as referred to above, is a major component of all training programs. The two main objectives of simulator training are 'reliability in operation' and 'experience' in handling the new information systems and digital I and C systems. In the future, simulators can also be used for advanced developments and for advance testing and training. (orig.)

  6. Current Approaches for Control Room I and C Modernization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lopez, Alberto; Jimenez, Alfonso

    2002-01-01

    In general, instrumentation and control (I and C) systems for nuclear power plants were made using analogic systems and relays, since this was the only technology available by the time these systems were designed. This fact impacts on the operational and maintenance capabilities required to these systems. For this reason, nuclear power plants are facing nowadays two challenges: on one hand, the obsolescence of these systems contributes to the increase in the operation and maintenance costs - due to the difficulties for getting spare parts and support from the system vendors -. On the other hand, there has been an increase in the utilities competitiveness due to the electric power market liberalization. All this, of course, along with the commitment to maintain the current safety levels and meet the new requirements and standards that may arise in the near future. The application of current technologies, especially digital technology, solves the obsolescence problems and allows for a more functional and updated human-machine interface. Nevertheless, the cost associated to these modifications makes it necessary to develop strategies to determine which systems need to be modified and how to implement modifications effectively, so that these systems can work jointly with others using different technologies. Other issues inherent to digital technology must be considered, such as verification and validation of the software and of the human-machine interface, which are required for its licensing. This presentation describes the current approaches for I and C modernization, the main reasons, technologies and implementation plans, focusing on the control room and on the impact on operations. The main issues to be considered for developing a specific modernization plan are analysed. The goals and status of the 'Feasibility Study of the Control Room I and C Modernization' are described. This study is currently being developed by Endesa, Iberdrola and Tecnatom, and is included

  7. Evaluation of new control rooms by operator performance analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mori, M; Tomizawa, T.; Tai, I.; Monta, K.; Yoshimura, S.; Hattori, Y.

    1987-01-01

    An advanced supervisory and control system called PODIA TM (Plant Operation by Displayed Information and Automation) was developed by Toshiba. Since this system utilizes computer driven CRTs as a main device for information transfer to operators, thorough system integration tests were performed at the factory and evaluations were made of operators' assessment from the initial experience of the system. The PODIA system is currently installed at two BWR power plants. Based on the experiences from the development of PODIA, a more advanced man-machine interface, Advanced-PODIA (A-PODIA), is developed. A-PODIA enhances the capabilities of PODIA in automation, diagnosis, operational guidance and information display. A-PODIA has been validated by carrying out systematic experiments with a full-scope simulator developed for the validation. The results of the experiments have been analyzed by the method of operator performance analysis and applied to further improvement of the A-PODIA system. As a feedback from actual operational experience, operator performance data in simulator training is an important source of information to evaluate human factors of a control room. To facilitate analysis of operator performance, a performance evaluation system has been developed by applying AI techniques. The knowledge contained in the performance evaluation system was elicited from operator training experts and represented as rules. The rules were implemented by employing an object-oriented paradigm to facilitate knowledge management. In conclusion, it is stated that the feedback from new control room operation can be obtained at an early stage by validation tests and also continuously by comprehensive evaluation (with the help of automated tools) of operator performance in simulator training. The results of operator performance analysis can be utilized for improvement of system design as well as operator training. (author)

  8. An expert display system and nuclear power plant control rooms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beltracchi, L.

    1988-01-01

    An expert display system controls automatically the display of segments on a cathode ray tube's screen to form an image of plant operations. The image consists of an icon of: 1) the process (heat engine cycle), 2) plant control systems, and 3) safety systems. A set of data-driven, forward-chaining computer stored rules control the display of segments. As plant operation changes, measured plant data are processed through the rules, and the results control the deletion and addition of segments to the display format. The icon contains information needed by control rooms operators to monitor plant operations. One example of an expert display is illustrated for the operator's task of monitoring leakage from a safety valve in a steam line of a boiling water reactor (BWR). In another example, the use of an expert display to monitor plant operations during pre-trip, trip, and post-trip operations is discussed as a universal display. The viewpoints and opinions expressed herein are the author's personal ones, and they are not to be interpreted as Nuclear Regulatory Commission criteria, requirements, or guidelines

  9. A Business Case for Nuclear Plant Control Room Modernization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, Ken; Lawrie, Sean; Niedermuller, Josef M.

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents a generic business case for implementation of technology that supports Control Room Modernization (CRM). The analysis presented in two forms; 1) a standalone technology upgrade, and 2) a technology upgrade that is built upon and incremental to a prior business case created for Mobile Work Packages (MWP). The business case contends that advanced communication and networking and analytical technologies will allow NPP to conduct control room operations with improved focus by reducing human factors and redundant manpower, and therefore operate with fewer errors. While some labor savings can be harvested in terms of overtime, the majority of savings are demonstrated as reduced time to take the plant off line and bring back on line in support of outages. The benefits are quantified to a rough order of magnitude that provides directional guidance to NPPs that are interested in developing a similar business case. This business case focuses on modernization of the operator control room and does not consider a complete overhaul and modernization of a plants instrument and control systems. While operators may be considering such an investment at their plants, the sizable capital investment required is not likely supported by a cost/benefit analysis alone. More likely, it is driven by obsolescence and reliability issues, and requires consideration of mechanical condition of plant systems, capital depreciation, financing, relicensing and overall viability of the plant asset over a 20-year horizon in a competitive market. Prior studies [REF] have indicated that such a modernization of plant I&C systems, alone or as part of a larger modernization effort, can yield very significant reductions in O&M costs. However, the depth of research and analysis required to develop a meaningful business case for a plant modernization effort is well beyond the scope of this study. While CRM as considered in this study can be easily integrated as part of grander plant

  10. A Business Case for Nuclear Plant Control Room Modernization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomas, Ken [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Lawrie, Sean [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Niedermuller, Josef M. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2016-06-01

    This paper presents a generic business case for implementation of technology that supports Control Room Modernization (CRM). The analysis presented in two forms; 1) a standalone technology upgrade, and 2) a technology upgrade that is built upon and incremental to a prior business case created for Mobile Work Packages (MWP). The business case contends that advanced communication and networking and analytical technologies will allow NPP to conduct control room operations with improved focus by reducing human factors and redundant manpower, and therefore operate with fewer errors. While some labor savings can be harvested in terms of overtime, the majority of savings are demonstrated as reduced time to take the plant off line and bring back on line in support of outages. The benefits are quantified to a rough order of magnitude that provides directional guidance to NPPs that are interested in developing a similar business case. This business case focuses on modernization of the operator control room and does not consider a complete overhaul and modernization of a plants instrument and control systems. While operators may be considering such an investment at their plants, the sizable capital investment required is not likely supported by a cost/benefit analysis alone. More likely, it is driven by obsolescence and reliability issues, and requires consideration of mechanical condition of plant systems, capital depreciation, financing, relicensing and overall viability of the plant asset over a 20-year horizon in a competitive market. Prior studies [REF] have indicated that such a modernization of plant I&C systems, alone or as part of a larger modernization effort, can yield very significant reductions in O&M costs. However, the depth of research and analysis required to develop a meaningful business case for a plant modernization effort is well beyond the scope of this study. While CRM as considered in this study can be easily integrated as part of grander plant

  11. How does a change in the control room design affect diagnostic strategies in nuclear power plants?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Dong Young; Kim, Jonghyun

    2014-01-01

    Recently, main control rooms have been considerably changed by modern computer techniques. Some of the features that distinguish digital control rooms from conventional, analog rooms in nuclear power plants include advanced alarm systems, graphic information display systems, computerized procedure systems, and soft control. These features can bring changes in operator tasks, changing the characteristics of tasks or creating new tasks for operators. It is especially expected that these features may bring out changes in the operator's diagnostic tasks and strategies in a digital control room as compared with an analog control room. This study investigates the differences in the operator's diagnostic tasks and strategies in analog and digital control rooms. This study also attempts to evaluate how new systems in a digital control room affect diagnostic strategies. Three different approaches, which are complementary, are used to identify diagnostic strategies in the digital control room and in the analog control room: (1) observation in the simulator, (2) interview with operators, and (3) a literature review. The results show that the digital control room introduces new diagnosis strategies compared with the analog control room while also changing the characteristics of the strategies, mostly by gaining more support from the computerized system. (author)

  12. The using of the control room automation against human errors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kautto, A.

    1993-01-01

    The control room automation has developed very strongly during the 80's in IVO (Imatran Voima Oy). The former work expanded strongly with building of the full scope training simulator to the Loviisa plant. The important milestones has been, for example the testing of the Critical Function Monitoring System, a concept developed by Combustion Eng. Inc., in Loviisa training simulator 1982, the replacing of the process and simulator computers in Loviisa 1989, and 1990 and the presenting the use of the computer based procedures in training of operators 1993. With developing of automation and procedures it is possible to minimize the probability of human error. However, it is not possible totally eliminate the risks caused by human errors. (orig.)

  13. Advanced control room design review guidelines: Merging old and new

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carter, R.J.; Wachtel, J.A.

    1992-01-01

    The nuclear power industry is currently developing operator interface systems based on innovative applications of digital computers. To assure that this advanced technology is incorporated in a way that maximizes the potential safety benefits of the technology and minimizes the potential negative effects on human performance, human factors principles must be considered. NUREG-0700 contains guidelines for the review of operator interfaces. However, in light of the rapid technological advances in digital technology which have taken place in the eleven years since its publication, it is no longer adequate to assess the rapidly changing human-system interfaces. A research program, the purpose of which is to upgrade NUREG-0700, has been initiated. Thus far a set of draft advanced control room design review (ACRDR) guidelines has been complied. Three tasks, which were oriented towards integrating the applicable guidelines in NUREG-0700 into the ACRDR document, are described in the paper

  14. LOFT advanced control room operator diagnostic and display system (ODDS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Larsen, D.G.; Robb, T.C.

    1980-01-01

    The Loss-of-Fluid Test (LOFT) Reactor Facility in Idaho includes a highly instrumented nuclear reactor operated by the Department of Energy for the purpose of establishing nuclear safety requirements. The results of the development and installation into LOFT of an Operator Diagnostic and Display System (ODDS) are presented. The ODDS is a computer-based graphics display system centered around a PRIME 550 computer with several RAMTEK color graphic display units located within the control room and available to the reactor operators. Use of computer-based color graphics to aid the reactor operator is discussed. A detailed hardware description of the LOFT data system and the ODDS is presented. Methods and problems of backfitting the ODDS equipment into the LOFT plant are discussed

  15. An approach to enhanced control room crew performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frye, S.R.

    1988-01-01

    The function of a nuclear power plant control room team is similar to that of an airline cockpit crew or a critical task military team such as a flight crew, tank crew, combat squad or platoon. These teams encounter many of the same problems or challenges in their environments when dealing with abnormal or emergency situations. The competency of these teams in bringing about successful conclusions in situations depends on their ability to coordinate their actions. This is often referred to as teamwork and includes the interactions between team members which must occur during highly critical situations. The purpose of this paper is to present team skills training and the advances made in this crucial area by utilizing both classroom and high fidelity simulator training

  16. Dynamic room pricing model for hotel revenue management systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heba Abdel Aziz

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper addresses the problem of room pricing in hotels. We propose a hotel revenue management model based on dynamic pricing to provide hotel managers with a flexible and efficient decision support tool for room revenue maximization. The two pillars of the proposed framework are a novel optimization model, and a multi-class scheme similar to the one implemented in airlines. Our hypothesis is that this framework can overcome the limitations associated with the research gaps in pricing literature; and can also contribute significantly in increasing the revenue of hotels. We test this hypothesis on three different approaches, and the results show an increase in revenue compared to the classical model used in literature.

  17. Shaking table test of a base isolated model in main control room of nuclear power plant using LRB (lead rubber bearing)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ham, K. W.; Lee, K. J.; Suh, Y. P.

    2005-01-01

    LRB(Lead Rubber Bearing) is a widely used isolation system which is installed between equipment and foundation to reduce seismic vibration from ground. LRB is consist of bearings which are resistant to lateral motion and torsion and has a high vertical stiffness. For that reason, several studies are conducted to apply LRB to the nuclear power plant. In this study, we designed two types of main control floor systems (type I, type II) and a number of shaking table tests with and without isolation system were conducted to evaluate floor isolation effectiveness of LRB

  18. Migration of Older to New Digital Control Systems in Nuclear Power Plant Main Control Rooms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kovesdi, Casey Robert [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Joe, Jeffrey Clark [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2016-04-01

    The United States (U.S.) Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Nuclear Energy (NE) has the primary mission to advance nuclear power by resolving socio-technical issues through research and development (R&D). One DOE-NE activity supporting this mission is the Light Water Reactor Sustainability (LWRS) program. LWRS has the overall objective to sustain the operation of existing commercial nuclear power plants (NPPs) through conducting R&D across multiple “pathways,” or R&D focus areas. The Advanced Instrumentation, Information, and Control (II&C) Systems Technologies pathway conducts targeted R&D to address aging and reliability concerns with the legacy instrumentation and control (I&C) and related information systems in operating U.S. NPPs. This work involves (1) ensuring that legacy analog II&C systems are not life-limiting issues for the LWR fleet, and (2) implementing digital II&C technology in a manner that enables broad innovation and business improvement in the NPP operating model. Under the LWRS Advanced II&C pathway, Human Factors experts at Idaho National Laboratory (INL) have been conducting R&D in support of NPP main control room (MCR) modernization activities. Work in prior years has focused on migrating analog I&C systems to new digital I&C systems (). In fiscal year 2016 (FY16), one new focus area for this research is migrating older digital I&C systems to new and advanced digital I&C systems. This report summarizes a plan for conducting a digital-to-digital migration of a legacy digital I&C system to a new digital I&C system in support of control room modernization activities.

  19. Migration of Older to New Digital Control Systems in Nuclear Power Plant Main Control Rooms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kovesdi, Casey Robert; Joe, Jeffrey Clark

    2016-01-01

    The United States (U.S.) Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Nuclear Energy (NE) has the primary mission to advance nuclear power by resolving socio-technical issues through research and development (R&D). One DOE-NE activity supporting this mission is the Light Water Reactor Sustainability (LWRS) program. LWRS has the overall objective to sustain the operation of existing commercial nuclear power plants (NPPs) through conducting R&D across multiple ''pathways,'' or R&D focus areas. The Advanced Instrumentation, Information, and Control (II&C) Systems Technologies pathway conducts targeted R&D to address aging and reliability concerns with the legacy instrumentation and control (I&C) and related information systems in operating U.S. NPPs. This work involves (1) ensuring that legacy analog II&C systems are not life-limiting issues for the LWR fleet, and (2) implementing digital II&C technology in a manner that enables broad innovation and business improvement in the NPP operating model. Under the LWRS Advanced II&C pathway, Human Factors experts at Idaho National Laboratory (INL) have been conducting R&D in support of NPP main control room (MCR) modernization activities. Work in prior years has focused on migrating analog I&C systems to new digital I&C systems (). In fiscal year 2016 (FY16), one new focus area for this research is migrating older digital I&C systems to new and advanced digital I&C systems. This report summarizes a plan for conducting a digital-to-digital migration of a legacy digital I&C system to a new digital I&C system in support of control room modernization activities.

  20. Control room inleakage testing using tracer gases at Zion Generating station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lagus, P.L.; Brown, J.H.; Dubois, L.J.; Fleming, K.M.

    1993-01-01

    In order to assess the amount of air inleakage into the Control Room Envelope at Zion Generating Station (ZGS), a series of tracer gas tests using sulfur hexafluoride (SF 6 ) were performed on the Control Room ventilation system (PV system) and the Computer Room/Miscellaneous Area ventilation system (OV system) during February, 1991. Two redundant trains, denoted A and B comprise the PV system. Inleakage was measured for each train. An OV supply duct passes through the Control Room Envelope. Leakage from this duct into the Control Room would constitute air leakage into the Control room Envelope and hence any potential leakage had to be quantified. Each test attempted to measure the contribution (if any) of a particular section of PV return duct or OV supply duct to the total air inleakage into the Control Room. This paper reviews the tracer gas tests. Described here are the control room inleakage testing, HVAC equipment room duct inleakage, purge plenum inleakage, OV duct leakage into the control room envelope, vestibule PV return inleakage, TSC duct inleakage, and cable spreading room inleakage. Conclusions from the testing are presented. 5 refs., 4 figs., 7 tabs

  1. Digitized operator evaluation system for main control room of nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Yu; Yan Shengyuan; Chen Wenlong

    2014-01-01

    In order to evaluate the human-machine system matching relation of main control room in nuclear power plant accurately and efficiently, the expression and parameters of operator human body model were analyzed, and the evaluation required function of digital operator was determined. Based on the secondary development technology, the digital operator evaluation body model was developed. It could choose generation, gender, operation posture, single/eyes horizon, and left/right hand up to the domain according to the needs of specific evaluation, it was used to evaluate whether display information can be visible and equipment can be touch, and it also has key evaluation functions such as workspace and character visibility at the same time. The examples show that this method can complete the evaluation work of human-machine matching relation for main control room of nuclear power plant accurately, efficiently and quickly, and achieve the most optimal human-machine coordination relationship. (authors)

  2. 3D visualization based customer experiences of nuclear plant control room

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun Tienlung; Chou Chinmei; Hung Tamin; Cheng Tsungchieh; Yang Chihwei; Yang Lichen

    2011-01-01

    This paper employs virtual reality (VR) technology to develop an interactive virtual nuclear plant control room in which the general public could easily walk into the 'red zone' and play with the control buttons. The VR-based approach allows deeper and richer customer experiences that the real nuclear plant control room could not offer. When people know more about the serious process control procedures enforced in the nuclear plant control room, they will appropriate more about the safety efforts imposed by the nuclear plant and become more comfortable about the nuclear plant. The virtual nuclear plant control room is built using a 3D game development tool called Unity3D. The 3D scene is connected to a nuclear plant simulation system through Windows API programs. To evaluate the usability of the virtual control room, an experiment will be conducted to see how much 'immersion' the users could feel when they played with the virtual control room. (author)

  3. ISACS-1, a limited prototype of an advanced control room

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Follesoe, K.; Foerdestroemmen, N.; Haugset, K.; Holmstroem, C.

    1994-01-01

    The concept of an Integrated Surveillance And Control System (ISACS) has been developed into a prototype, ISACS-1, which presently is in operation at the simulator-based experimental control room HAMMLAB of the OECD Halden Reactor Project. Characteristics of ISACS is that it covers the whole interface between the process and the operator, and this interface is fully computerized using tools like Cathode Ray Tubes (CRTs) and dynamic keyboards. In addition, a large number of computerized operator support systems (COSSs) are included in ISACS, assisting the operator in functions like disturbance detection and diagnosis, identification of relevant actions, and implementation of procedures. An information coordinator called ''Intelligent Coordinator'' (IC) in ISACS observes the information received from the process and the COSSs, generates new high-level information and structures and prioritizes information to be presented to the operator. The limited ISACS-1 prototype was completed in early 1991. An extensive evaluation programme is in progress. This paper will describe main features of the system and some of the conclusions to be drawn from the evaluation programme. (author). 5 refs, 2 figs

  4. Ergonomics in the licensing and evaluation of nuclear reactors control room

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santos, Isaac Jose Antonio Luquetti dos; Vidal, Mario Cesar Rodriguez

    2002-01-01

    A nuclear control room is a complex system that controls a thermodynamic process used to produce electrical energy. The operators interact with the control room through interfaces that have significant implications to nuclear plant safety and influence the operator activity. The TMI (Three Mile Island) accident demonstrated that only the anthropometric aspects were not enough for an adequate nuclear control room design. The studies showed that the accident was aggravated because the designers had not considered adequately human factor aspects. After TMI accident, the designers introduce in the nuclear control room development only human factors standards and human factors guidelines. The ergonomics approaches was not considered. Our objective is introduce in nuclear control room design and nuclear control room evaluation, a methodology that. includes human factors standards, human factors guidelines and ergonomic approaches, the operator activity analysis. (author)

  5. Evaluation of main control room habitability in Japanese LWR (1). Outline of evaluation method and conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujita, Yuko; Yoneda, Jiro; Okabayashi, Kazuki; Fukuda, Ryo

    2009-01-01

    among current licensing evaluation in Japan. The characteristics of atmospheric dispersion calculation for CRH evaluation is that downdraft effect that should be taken into account if the building exists near the release point of radioactive gas. In order to simply simulate this effect, it is assumed that released gas is dispersed immediately and uniformly behind the downwind side of the building. A wind tunnel experiment with small-scaled containment vessel and reactor building confirms this effect. The regulatory model in Japan, which is current licensing model for evaluation at still further distance, is extendedly applied for evaluation at short distance like CRH and the model relatively well predicts an averaged concentration on the surface of the building around control room for PWR LOCA. Based on this result, regulatory model with coefficient 0.5 was selected from 'Meteorological Guideline for Safety Analysis of Light Water Reactor Facilities, ' (Nuclear Safety Commission of Japan, 2001) for CRH evaluation of PWR LOCA, in couple with other various conservative conditions such as hypothetical source term and calculation of centerline concentration for all wind directions. The method of this paper for CRH involves enough margins as a total evaluation, compared with worldwide standard method. For the future, however, further investigations are to be continued for extended model both for source term and atmospheric dispersion with more accuracy and with moderate margin. (author)

  6. Design of control rooms. Collaboration between different actors during the design of new and modernized control rooms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johansson, Bjoern J. E.; Gonzalez, Natalia

    2012-01-01

    Swedish nuclear power industry is currently undergoing, as well as planning, a number of upgrades of their control rooms. When changes are made to an NPP, they are conducted within the frame of a design process. The design process controls a number of different domains, such as technical solutions etc, but also affects and is affected by the interactions between Man, Technology and Organisation (MTO). MTO is central for creating safe system solutions. However, in the design process, unplanned events often occur in comparison to what was originally planned. This work aimed to analyse the design process and the involved actors' roles using activity theory with the purpose of creating an understanding of the design process. Activity theory can be seen as a way of understanding individuals and groups and the context they create by analysing the structure and process that their activities are part of. It can therefore be a good tool for analysing the complexity of the design process of a control room. The study has shown that many actors are involved in the design process and that all of them partly drive their own agendas, which may lead to contradictions within the design process. Important conclusions are that it perhaps not is necessary to eliminate all contradictions, but it is important to be aware of them. It is considered, among the informants in the study, that a working communication exists between the actors in the design process, but it is also evident that there is no given method for this, something that also counts for MTO-questions and the communication regarding those. A number of recommendations on how to support the communication process are given. Although there were some difficulties in using activity theory, it is believed that it could be useful for creating an overview of the design process and its actors from different organisations. Activity networks could be bound together in different ways and this provided opportunities to identify possible

  7. Criteria for the design of the control room complex for a nuclear power generating station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1981-01-01

    This Standard addresses the central control room of a nuclear power generating station and the overall complex in which this room is housed. It is not intended to cover special or normally unattended control rooms, such as those provided for radioactive waste handling or for emergency shutdown operations. The nuclear power generating station control room complex provides a protective envelope for plant operating personnel and for instrument and control equipment vital to the operation of the plant during normal and abnormal conditions. In this capacity, the control room complex must be designed and constructed to meet the following criteria contained in Appendix A of 10CFR50, General Design criteria for Nuclear Power Plants: (1) Criterion 2: design bases for protection against natural phenomena; (2) Criterion 3: fire protection; (3) Criterion 4: environmental and missile design bases; (4) Criterion 5: sharing of structures, systems and components (multiunit stations only); and (5) Criterion 19: control room

  8. Analysis on nuclear power plant control room system design and improvement based on human factor engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gao Feng; Liu Yanzi; Sun Yongbin

    2014-01-01

    The design of nuclear power plant control room system is a process of improvement with the implementation of human factor engineering theory and guidance. The method of implementation human factor engineering principles into the nuclear power plant control room system design and improvement was discussed in this paper. It is recommended that comprehensive address should be done from control room system function, human machine interface, digital procedure, control room layout and environment design based on the human factor engineering theory and experience. The main issues which should be paid more attention during the control room system design and improvement also were addressed in this paper, and then advices and notices for the design and improvement of the nuclear power plant control room system were afforded. (authors)

  9. Exploring Bridge-Engine Control Room Collaborative Team Communication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aditi Kataria

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The EC funded CyClaDes research project is designed to promote the increased impact of the human element in shipping across the design and operational lifecycle. It addresses the design and operation of ships and ship systems. One of the CyClaDes’ tasks is to create a crew-centered design case-study examination of the information that is shared between the Bridge and Engine Control Room that helps the crew co-ordinate to ensure understanding and complete interconnected tasks. This information can be provided in various ways, including communication devices or obtained from a common database, display, or even the ship environment (e.g., the roll of the ship. A series of semi-structured interviews were conducted with seafarers of diverse ranks to get a better idea of what communication does, or should, take place and any problems or challenges existing in current operations, as seen from both the bridge and ECR operators’ perspectives. Included in the interview were both the standard communications and information shared during planning and executing a voyage, as well as special situations such as safety/casualty tasks or heavy weather. The results were analyzed in terms of the goals of the communication, the primary situations of interest for communication and collaboration, the communication media used, the information that is shared, and the problems experienced. The results of seafarer interviews are presented in the paper to explore on-board inter-departmental communication.

  10. Signal validation with control-room information-processing computers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belblidia, L.A.; Carlson, R.W.; Russell, J.L. Jr.

    1985-01-01

    One of the 'lessons learned' from the Three Mile Island accident focuses upon the need for a validated source of plant-status information in the control room. The utilization of computer-generated graphics to display the readings of the major plant instrumentation has introduced the capability of validating signals prior to their presentation to the reactor operations staff. The current operations philosophies allow the operator a quick look at the gauges to form an impression of the fraction of full scale as the basis for knowledge of the current plant conditions. After the introduction of a computer-based information-display system such as the Safety Parameter Display System (SPDS), operational decisions can be based upon precise knowledge of the parameters that define the operation of the reactor and auxiliary systems. The principal impact of this system on the operator will be to remove the continuing concern for the validity of the instruments which provide the information that governs the operator's decisions. (author)

  11. MIDA - Optimizing control room performance through multi-modal design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ronan, A. M.

    2006-01-01

    Multi-modal interfaces can support the integration of humans with information processing systems and computational devices to maximize the unique qualities that comprise a complex system. In a dynamic environment, such as a nuclear power plant control room, multi-modal interfaces, if designed correctly, can provide complementary interaction between the human operator and the system which can improve overall performance while reducing human error. Developing such interfaces can be difficult for a designer without explicit knowledge of Human Factors Engineering principles. The Multi-modal Interface Design Advisor (MIDA) was developed as a support tool for system designers and developers. It provides design recommendations based upon a combination of Human Factors principles, a knowledge base of historical research, and current interface technologies. MIDA's primary objective is to optimize available multi-modal technologies within a human computer interface in order to balance operator workload with efficient operator performance. The purpose of this paper is to demonstrate MIDA and illustrate its value as a design evaluation tool within the nuclear power industry. (authors)

  12. Automatic radiological control of the working room air at Valduc

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herve, J.Y.; Camus, L.; Leroux, J.C.

    1991-01-01

    The facilities of the Centre d'etudes de Valduc, require air control in the different rooms where a radiological hazard exists. To this purpose, every day, the radiation protection technicians put 230 filters on the sampling heads in the working places proximity. To measure any radioactivity retained by the filters, the Valduc Radiation protection service uses an automated system, which identifies the filter origin, carries out the measurements and produces the results. Filters are identified by bar code labels, which are red by an optical reader located in each of the two measurement lines. These are Nu-16 (Numelec Ins.) type low α-and β-activity counting sets, equipped with proportional mode circulation counters. An IBM-PC type microcomputer is used for the whole assembly monitoring and the data centralization. Results can be edited in different forms: daily, monthly, trimestrial or annual results. The system operating mode is satisfying, and has allowed to clear an one-man equivalent work-load [fr

  13. Design And Implementation Of Smart Living Room Wireless Control For Safety Purpose

    OpenAIRE

    Aeindra Myint Lwin; Zaw Min Min Htun; Hla Myo Tun

    2015-01-01

    Abstract This research presents the microcontroller controlled smart living room system using Bluetooth wireless technology from mobile phone.An android apk is created in mobile for controlling the living room system. A 16F877A microcontroller is interfaced serially to a bluetooth module transceiver. It is used for controlling fan speed control dim light control lighting ONOFF and window angle control. An arduino controller is used for keypad control door security. It is connected to DC motor...

  14. Emergency control room design of a nuclear reactor used to produce radioisotope

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, Isaac J.A.L. dos; Farias, Larissa P. de; Ponte, Luana T.L.; Goncalves, Gabriel L.; Castro, Heraclito M.; Farias, Marcos S.; Carvalho, Paulo V.R. de; Vianna Filho, Alfredo M.V., E-mail: luquetti@ien.gov.br [Instituto Engenharia Nuclear (IEN/CNEN-RJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Departamento Engenharia Nuclear

    2015-07-01

    A control room is defined as a functional entity with an associated physical structure, where the operators carry out the centralized control, monitoring and administrative responsibilities. Emergency control room acts as an alternative control room for the purpose of shutting down or maintaining the facility in a safe shutdown state when the main control room is uninhabitable. The mission of emergency control room is to provide the resources to bring the plant to a safe shutdown condition after an evacuation of the main control room. An evacuation of the main control room is assumed when there is no possibility to accomplish tasks involved in the shutdown except reactor trip. The purpose of this paper is to present a specific approach for the design of the emergency control room of a nuclear reactor used to produce radioisotope. The approach is based on human factors standards and the participation of a multidisciplinary team in the development phase of the design. Using the information gathered from standards and from the multidisciplinary team a 3D Sketch and a 3D printing of the emergency control room were created. (author)

  15. Emergency control room design of a nuclear reactor used to produce radioisotope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santos, Isaac J.A.L. dos; Farias, Larissa P. de; Ponte, Luana T.L.; Goncalves, Gabriel L.; Castro, Heraclito M.; Farias, Marcos S.; Carvalho, Paulo V.R. de; Vianna Filho, Alfredo M.V.

    2015-01-01

    A control room is defined as a functional entity with an associated physical structure, where the operators carry out the centralized control, monitoring and administrative responsibilities. Emergency control room acts as an alternative control room for the purpose of shutting down or maintaining the facility in a safe shutdown state when the main control room is uninhabitable. The mission of emergency control room is to provide the resources to bring the plant to a safe shutdown condition after an evacuation of the main control room. An evacuation of the main control room is assumed when there is no possibility to accomplish tasks involved in the shutdown except reactor trip. The purpose of this paper is to present a specific approach for the design of the emergency control room of a nuclear reactor used to produce radioisotope. The approach is based on human factors standards and the participation of a multidisciplinary team in the development phase of the design. Using the information gathered from standards and from the multidisciplinary team a 3D Sketch and a 3D printing of the emergency control room were created. (author)

  16. Fire environment determination in the LaSalle NPP control room

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Usher, J.L.; Boccio, J.L.; Singhal, A.K.; Tam, L.T.

    1986-01-01

    One objective of NRC's Fire Protection Research Program (FPRP) is to improve the modeling of environments caused by fires in typical nuclear power plant enclosures. A three-dimensional fluid dynamics computer code (PHOENICS) has been adapted as a field-model fire code (SAFFIRE) for this purpose. The model has been applied to simulate two distinct fires in the control room of the LaSalle County power plant. The environments determined illustrate hazardous potential for both personnel and equipment.

  17. Optimization of the main control room habitability system in nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zheng Guanghui; Zhao Xinyan

    2013-01-01

    This article describes the optimization of main control room habitability system in nuclear power plant. It also describes the design shortage in terms of habitability in the main control room. Through modification and optimization, habitable conditions are met for personnel staying in the emergency area of the main control room for a period of time, with an aim to take accident intervention measures smoothly and reduce the accident loss and radioactive contamination as low as possible. (authors)

  18. Function analysis and function assignment of NPP advanced main control room

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zheng Mingguang; Xu Jijun

    2001-01-01

    The author addresses the requirements of function analysis and function assignment, which should be carried out in the design of main control room in nuclear power plant according to the design research of advanced main control room, then states its contents, functions, importance and necessity as well as how to implement these requirements and how to do design verification and validation in the design of advanced main control room of nuclear power plant

  19. Human factors design review guidelines for advanced nuclear control room technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Hara, J.; Brown, W.; Granda, T.; Baker, C.

    1991-01-01

    Advanced control rooms (ACRs) for future nuclear power plants are being designed utilizing computer-based technologies. The US Nuclear Regulatory Commission reviews the human engineering aspects of such control rooms to ensure that they are designed to good human factors engineering principles and that operator performance and reliability are appropriately supported in order to protect public health and safety. This paper describes the rationale, general approach, and initial development of an NRC Advanced Control Room Design Review Guideline. 20 refs., 1 fig

  20. Development of control room design in French PWR nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guesnier, G.

    1996-01-01

    The layouts of the control rooms of the French nuclear power stations have undergone great development in the period 1970-1990. The control rooms, with an architecture similar to that of the oil fired power stations, were similar to those of the 1300 MW blocks in which the human factor was emphasised. For the selection of a computerised control room for the N4 series, comprehensive functional and ergonomical validation on a full simulator was required. (author) 3 figs., 7 refs

  1. Uncertainty Analysis of In leakage Test for Pressurized Control Room Envelop

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, J. B. [KHNP Central Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-10-15

    In leakage tests for control room envelops(CRE) of newly constructed nuclear power plants are required to prove the control room habitability. Results of the in leakage tests should be analyzed using an uncertainty analysis. Test uncertainty can be an issue if the test results for pressurized CREs show low in leakage. To have a better knowledge of the test uncertainty, a statistical model for the uncertainty analysis is described here and a representative uncertainty analysis of a sample in leakage test is presented. A statistical method for analyzing the uncertainty of the in leakage test is presented here and a representative uncertainty analysis of a sample in leakage test was performed. By using the statistical method we can evaluate the test result with certain level of significance. This method can be more helpful when the difference of the two mean values of the test result is small.

  2. Uncertainty Analysis of In leakage Test for Pressurized Control Room Envelop

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, J. B.

    2013-01-01

    In leakage tests for control room envelops(CRE) of newly constructed nuclear power plants are required to prove the control room habitability. Results of the in leakage tests should be analyzed using an uncertainty analysis. Test uncertainty can be an issue if the test results for pressurized CREs show low in leakage. To have a better knowledge of the test uncertainty, a statistical model for the uncertainty analysis is described here and a representative uncertainty analysis of a sample in leakage test is presented. A statistical method for analyzing the uncertainty of the in leakage test is presented here and a representative uncertainty analysis of a sample in leakage test was performed. By using the statistical method we can evaluate the test result with certain level of significance. This method can be more helpful when the difference of the two mean values of the test result is small

  3. EXTRAN: A computer code for estimating concentrations of toxic substances at control room air intakes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramsdell, J.V.

    1991-03-01

    This report presents the NRC staff with a tool for assessing the potential effects of accidental releases of radioactive materials and toxic substances on habitability of nuclear facility control rooms. The tool is a computer code that estimates concentrations at nuclear facility control room air intakes given information about the release and the environmental conditions. The name of the computer code is EXTRAN. EXTRAN combines procedures for estimating the amount of airborne material, a Gaussian puff dispersion model, and the most recent algorithms for estimating diffusion coefficients in building wakes. It is a modular computer code, written in FORTRAN-77, that runs on personal computers. It uses a math coprocessor, if present, but does not require one. Code output may be directed to a printer or disk files. 25 refs., 8 figs., 4 tabs

  4. Using micro saint to predict performance in a nuclear power plant control room

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lawless, M.T.; Laughery, K.R.; Persenky, J.J.

    1995-09-01

    The United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) requires a technical basis for regulatory actions. In the area of human factors, one possible technical basis is human performance modeling technology including task network modeling. This study assessed the feasibility and validity of task network modeling to predict the performance of control room crews. Task network models were built that matched the experimental conditions of a study on computerized procedures that was conducted at North Carolina State University. The data from the open-quotes paper proceduresclose quotes conditions were used to calibrate the task network models. Then, the models were manipulated to reflect expected changes when computerized procedures were used. These models' predictions were then compared to the experimental data from the open-quotes computerized conditionsclose quotes of the North Carolina State University study. Analyses indicated that the models predicted some subsets of the data well, but not all. Implications for the use of task network modeling are discussed

  5. Safety aspects on the Asea-Atom BWR 75 control room design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gemst, Paul van; Pedersen, Tor.

    1978-01-01

    The control room is an integrated part of the total plant layout and is located in a special building, known as the control building. The problems of designing a control room meeting all safety requirements and at the same time allowing for modifications to meet special customer specifications are described. (author)

  6. Description of Supply Openings in Numerical Models for Room Air Distribution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Peter V.

    This paper discusses various possibilities for describing supply openings in numerical models of room air distribution.......This paper discusses various possibilities for describing supply openings in numerical models of room air distribution....

  7. A Research Framework for Demonstrating Benefits of Advanced Control Room Technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Le Blanc, Katya [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Boring, Ronald [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Joe, Jeffrey [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Hallbert, Bruce [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Thomas, Kenneth [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2014-12-01

    Control Room modernization is an important part of life extension for the existing light water reactor fleet. None of the 99 currently operating commercial nuclear power plants in the U.S. has completed a full-scale control room modernization to date. A full-scale modernization might, for example, entail replacement of all analog panels with digital workstations. Such modernizations have been undertaken successfully in upgrades in Europe and Asia, but the U.S. has yet to undertake a control room upgrade of this magnitude. Instead, nuclear power plant main control rooms for the existing commercial reactor fleet remain significantly analog, with only limited digital modernizations. Previous research under the U.S. Department of Energy’s Light Water Reactor Sustainability Program has helped establish a systematic process for control room upgrades that support the transition to a hybrid control. While the guidance developed to date helps streamline the process of modernization and reduce costs and uncertainty associated with introducing digital control technologies into an existing control room, these upgrades do not achieve the full potential of newer technologies that might otherwise enhance plant and operator performance. The aim of the control room benefits research presented here is to identify previously overlooked benefits of modernization, identify candidate technologies that may facilitate such benefits, and demonstrate these technologies through human factors research. This report serves as an outline for planned research on the benefits of greater modernization in the main control rooms of nuclear power plants.

  8. A Research Framework for Demonstrating Benefits of Advanced Control Room Technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Le Blanc, Katya; Boring, Ronald; Joe, Jeffrey; Hallbert, Bruce; Thomas, Kenneth

    2014-01-01

    Control Room modernization is an important part of life extension for the existing light water reactor fleet. None of the 99 currently operating commercial nuclear power plants in the U.S. has completed a full-scale control room modernization to date. A full-scale modernization might, for example, entail replacement of all analog panels with digital workstations. Such modernizations have been undertaken successfully in upgrades in Europe and Asia, but the U.S. has yet to undertake a control room upgrade of this magnitude. Instead, nuclear power plant main control rooms for the existing commercial reactor fleet remain significantly analog, with only limited digital modernizations. Previous research under the U.S. Department of Energy's Light Water Reactor Sustainability Program has helped establish a systematic process for control room upgrades that support the transition to a hybrid control. While the guidance developed to date helps streamline the process of modernization and reduce costs and uncertainty associated with introducing digital control technologies into an existing control room, these upgrades do not achieve the full potential of newer technologies that might otherwise enhance plant and operator performance. The aim of the control room benefits research presented here is to identify previously overlooked benefits of modernization, identify candidate technologies that may facilitate such benefits, and demonstrate these technologies through human factors research. This report serves as an outline for planned research on the benefits of greater modernization in the main control rooms of nuclear power plants.

  9. Low frequency sound field control in rectangular listening rooms using CABS (Controlled Acoustic Bass System) will also reduce sound transmission to neighbor rooms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Sofus Birkedal; Celestinos, Adrian

    2011-01-01

    Sound reproduction is often taking place in small and medium sized rectangular rooms. As rectangular rooms have 3 pairs of parallel walls the reflections at especially low frequencies will cause up to 30 dB spatial variations of the sound pressure level in the room. This will take place not only...... at resonance frequencies, but more or less at all frequencies. A time based room correction system named CABS (Controlled Acoustic Bass System) has been developed and is able to create a homogeneous sound field in the whole room at low frequencies by proper placement of multiple loudspeakers. A normal setup...... from the rear wall, and thereby leaving only the plane wave in the room. With a room size of (7.8 x 4.1 x 2.8) m. it is possible to prevent modal frequencies up to 100 Hz. An investigation has shown that the sound transmitted to a neighbour room also will be reduced if CABS is used. The principle...

  10. Ergonomic evaluation model of operational room based on team performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    YANG Zhiyi

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available A theoretical calculation model based on the ergonomic evaluation of team performance was proposed in order to carry out the ergonomic evaluation of the layout design schemes of the action station in a multitasking operational room. This model was constructed in order to calculate and compare the theoretical value of team performance in multiple layout schemes by considering such substantial influential factors as frequency of communication, distance, angle, importance, human cognitive characteristics and so on. An experiment was finally conducted to verify the proposed model under the criteria of completion time and accuracy rating. As illustrated by the experiment results,the proposed approach is conductive to the prediction and ergonomic evaluation of the layout design schemes of the action station during early design stages,and provides a new theoretical method for the ergonomic evaluation,selection and optimization design of layout design schemes.

  11. Human factors engineering control-room-design review/audit report: Palo Verde Nuclear Generating Station, Arizona Public Service Company

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Savage, J.W.; Lappa, D.A.

    1981-01-01

    A human factors engineering design review of the Palo Verde control room simulator was performed at the site on September 15 through September 17, 1981. Observed human factors design discrepancies were given priority ratings. This report summarizes the team's observations of the control room design and layout and of the control room operators' interface with the control room environment. A list of the human factors strengths observed in the Palo Verde control room simulator is given

  12. Toxic vapor concentrations in the control room following a postulated accidental release

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wing, J.

    1979-05-01

    An acceptable method is presented for calculating the vapor concentrations in a control room as a function of time after a postulated accidental release. Included are the mathematical formulas for computing the rates of vaporization and evaporation of liquid spills, the vapor dispersion in air, and the control room air exchange. A list of toxic chemicals and their physical properties is also given

  13. Control of the Environment in the Operating Room.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katz, Jonathan D

    2017-10-01

    There is a direct relationship between the quality of the environment of a workplace and the productivity and efficiency of the work accomplished. Components such as temperature, humidity, ventilation, drafts, lighting, and noise each contribute to the quality of the overall environment and the sense of well-being of those who work there.The modern operating room is a unique workplace with specific, and frequently conflicting, environmental requirements for each of the inhabitants. Even minor disturbances in the internal environment of the operating room can have serious ramifications on the comfort, effectiveness, and safety of each of the inhabitants. A cool, well-ventilated, and dry climate is optimal for many members of the surgical team. Any significant deviation from these objectives raises the risk of decreased efficiency and productivity and adverse surgical outcomes. A warmer, more humid, and quieter environment is necessary for the patient. If these requirements are not met, the risk of surgical morbidity and mortality is increased. An important task for the surgical team is to find the correct balance between these 2 opposed requirements. Several of the components of the operating room environment, especially room temperature and airflow patterns, are easily manipulated by the members of the surgical team. In the following discussion, we will examine these elements to better understand the clinical ramifications of adjustments and accommodations that are frequently made to meet the requirements of both the surgical staff and the patient.

  14. Climate control of a bulk storage room for foodstuffs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mourik, van S.; Zwart, H.; Keesman, K.J.

    2006-01-01

    A storage room contains a bulk of agricultural products, such as potatoes, onions, fruits, etcetera. The products produce heat due to respiration, see for example [1, 2]. A ventilator blows cooled air around to keep the products at a steady temperature and prevent spoilage. The aim is to design a

  15. A room acoustical computer model for industrial environments - the model and its verification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Claus Lynge; Foged, Hans Torben

    1998-01-01

    This paper presents an extension to the traditional room acoustic modelling methods allowing computer modelling of huge machinery in industrial spaces. The program in question is Odeon 3.0 Industrial and Odeon 3.0 Combined which allows the modelling of point sources, surface sources and line...... of an omnidirectional sound source and a microphone. This allows the comparison of simulated results with the ones measured in real rooms. However when simulating the acoustic environment in industrial rooms, the sound sources are often far from being point like, as they can be distributed over a large space...

  16. Reviewing the impact of advanced control room technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilhelmsen, C.A.; Gertman, D.I.; Ostrom, L.T.; Nelson, W.R.; Galyean, W.J.; Byers, J.C.

    1992-01-01

    Progress to date on assessing the nature of the expected changes in human performance and risk associated with the introduction of digital control, instrumentation, and display systems is presented. Expected changes include the shift toward more supervisory tasks, development of intervention strategies, and reallocation of function between human and machine. Results are reported in terms of the scope of new technology, human performance issues, and crews experience with digital control systems in a variety of industries petrochemical and aerospace. Plans to conduct a limited Probabilistic Risk Assessment/Human Reliability Assessment (PRA/HRA) comparison between a conventional NUREG-1150 series plant and that same plant retrofit with distributed control and advanced instrumentation and display are also presented. Changes needed to supplement existing HRA modeling methods and quantification techniques are discussed

  17. OVERVIEW OF A RECONFIGURABLE SIMULATOR FOR MAIN CONTROL ROOM UPGRADES IN NUCLEAR POWER PLANTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ronald L. Boring

    2012-10-01

    This paper provides background on a reconfigurable control room simulator for nuclear power plants. The main control rooms in current nuclear power plants feature analog technology that is growing obsolete. The need to upgrade control rooms serves the practical need of maintainability as well as the opportunity to implement newer digital technologies with added functionality. There currently exists no dedicated research simulator for use in human factors design and evaluation activities for nuclear power plant modernization in the U.S. The new research simulator discussed in this paper provides a test bed in which operator performance on new control room concepts can be benchmarked against existing control rooms and in which new technologies can be validated for safety and usability prior to deployment.

  18. Human error mode identification for NPP main control room operations using soft controls

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Seung Jun; Kim, Jaewhan; Jang, Seung-Cheol

    2011-01-01

    The operation environment of main control rooms (MCRs) in modern nuclear power plants (NPPs) has considerably changed over the years. Advanced MCRs, which have been designed by adapting digital and computer technologies, have simpler interfaces using large display panels, computerized displays, soft controls, computerized procedure systems, and so on. The actions for the NPP operations are performed using soft controls in advanced MCRs. Soft controls have different features from conventional controls. Operators need to navigate the screens to find indicators and controls and manipulate controls using a mouse, touch screens, and so on. Due to these different interfaces, different human errors should be considered in the human reliability analysis (HRA) for advanced MCRs. In this work, human errors that could occur during operation executions using soft controls were analyzed. This work classified the human errors in soft controls into six types, and the reasons that affect the occurrence of the human errors were also analyzed. (author)

  19. Integration of analog and digital instrumentation and control systems in hybrid control rooms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-01-01

    he IAEA's activities in the area of nuclear power plant operating performance and life cycle management are aimed at increasing Member State capabilities in utilizing good engineering and management practices as developed and transferred by the IAEA. In particular, the IAEA supports the improvement of nuclear power plant performance, plant life management, training, power uprating, operational license renewal, and the modernization of instrumentation and control (I and C) systems of plants. The issue of the integration of analog and digital I and C systems in hybrid control rooms was suggested by the IAEA Technical Working Group on Nuclear Power Plant Control and Instrumentation (TWG-NPPCI) at its meetings in 2003 and 2005. The subject was then approved by the IAEA and included in its work programmes for 2006-2009. The purpose of this report is to help nuclear utilities in planning control room and other human system interface (HSI) changes, making appropriate use of modern technologies. These technologies would aid in managing ageing and obsolescence, and facilitate improvements in plant performance and safety. This report covers a broad spectrum of potential changes to the control room ranging from the replacement of a few obsolete components with newer digital devices to a fully computerized control room. New digital technologies offer significant opportunities to improve access to and presentation of information to the user, e.g. operators, maintenance staff and management. However, this technology should be used prudently. In some cases, modernization is undertaken to resolve ageing and obsolescence or to meet regulatory requirements for license renewal. The integration of new technologies during main control room (MCR) modernizations should be performed cautiously and all affected aspects of plant maintenance, and operation should be carefully considered, paying particular attention to the human factors elements of these aspects. This report describes a

  20. Multi-compartment Fire Modeling for Switchgear Room using CFAST

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han, Kiyoon; Kang, Dae Il; Lim, Ho Gon

    2015-01-01

    In this study, multi-compartment fire modeling for fire propagation scenario from SWGR A to SWGR B is performed using CFAST. New fire PSA method (NUREG/CR-6850) requires that the severity factor is to be calculated by fire modeling. If fire modeling is not performed, the severity factor should be estimated as one conservatively. Also, the possibility of the damages of components and cables located at adjacent compartments should be considered. Detailed fire modeling of multi-compartment fires refers to the evaluation of fire-generated conditions in one compartment that spread to adjacent ones. In general, the severity factor for multi-compartment fire scenario is smaller than that of single compartment scenario. Preliminary quantification of Hanul Unit 3 fire PSA was performed without fire modeling. As a result of quantification, multi-compartment scenario, fire propagation scenario from switchgear room (SWGR) A to SWGR B, is one of significant contributor to the CDF. In this study, fire modeling of multi-compartment was performed by Consolidated Fire Growth and Smoke Transport (CFAST) to identify the possibility of fire propagation. As a result of fire simulation, it is identified that fire propagation has little influences

  1. Multi-compartment Fire Modeling for Switchgear Room using CFAST

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Han, Kiyoon; Kang, Dae Il; Lim, Ho Gon [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-10-15

    In this study, multi-compartment fire modeling for fire propagation scenario from SWGR A to SWGR B is performed using CFAST. New fire PSA method (NUREG/CR-6850) requires that the severity factor is to be calculated by fire modeling. If fire modeling is not performed, the severity factor should be estimated as one conservatively. Also, the possibility of the damages of components and cables located at adjacent compartments should be considered. Detailed fire modeling of multi-compartment fires refers to the evaluation of fire-generated conditions in one compartment that spread to adjacent ones. In general, the severity factor for multi-compartment fire scenario is smaller than that of single compartment scenario. Preliminary quantification of Hanul Unit 3 fire PSA was performed without fire modeling. As a result of quantification, multi-compartment scenario, fire propagation scenario from switchgear room (SWGR) A to SWGR B, is one of significant contributor to the CDF. In this study, fire modeling of multi-compartment was performed by Consolidated Fire Growth and Smoke Transport (CFAST) to identify the possibility of fire propagation. As a result of fire simulation, it is identified that fire propagation has little influences.

  2. Controlled laser biochemistry in room-temperature polar liquids by ultrashort laser pulses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gruzdev, Vitaly; Korkin, Dmitry; Mooney, Brian P.

    2018-01-01

    Traditional laser methods to control chemical modifications of biomolecules are not applicable under biologically relevant conditions. We report controlled modifications of peptides and insulin by femtosecond laser in water, methanol, and acetonitrile at room temperature...

  3. A computerized diagnostic system for nuclear plant control rooms based on statistical quality control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heising, C.D.; Grenzebach, W.S.

    1990-01-01

    In engineering science, statistical quality control techniques have traditionally been applied to control manufacturing processes. An application to commercial nuclear power plant maintenance and control is presented that can greatly improve safety. As a demonstration of such an approach to plant maintenance and control, a specific system is analyzed: the reactor coolant pumps of the St. Lucie Unit 2 nuclear power plant located in Florida. A 30-day history of the four pumps prior to a plant shutdown caused by pump failure and a related fire within the containment was analyzed. Statistical quality control charts of recorded variables were constructed for each pump, which were shown to go out of statistical control many days before the plant trip. The analysis shows that statistical process control methods can be applied as an early warning system capable of identifying significant equipment problems well in advance of traditional control room alarm indicators

  4. Report for Task 8.4: Development of Control Room Layout Recommendations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McDonald, Robert

    2016-01-01

    Idaho National Laboratory (INL) has contracted Institutt for Energiteknikk (IFE) to support in the development of an end state vision for the US Nuclear industry and in particular for a utility that is currently moving forward with a control room modernization project. This support includes the development of an Overview display and technical support in conducting an operational study. Development of operational scenarios to be conducted using a full scope simulator at the INL HSSL. Additionally IFE will use the CREATE modelling tool to provide 3-D views of the potential and possible end state view after the completion of digital upgrade project.

  5. Report for Task 8.4: Development of Control Room Layout Recommendations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McDonald, Robert [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2016-09-01

    Idaho National Laboratory (INL) has contracted Institutt for Energiteknikk (IFE) to support in the development of an end state vision for the US Nuclear industry and in particular for a utility that is currently moving forward with a control room modernization project. This support includes the development of an Overview display and technical support in conducting an operational study. Development of operational scenarios to be conducted using a full scope simulator at the INL HSSL. Additionally IFE will use the CREATE modelling tool to provide 3-D views of the potential and possible end state view after the completion of digital upgrade project.

  6. Analysis of Human Error Types and Performance Shaping Factors in the Next Generation Main Control Room

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sin, Y. C.; Jung, Y. S.; Kim, K. H.; Kim, J. H.

    2008-04-01

    Main control room of nuclear power plants has been computerized and digitalized in new and modernized plants, as information and digital technologies make great progresses and become mature. Survey on human factors engineering issues in advanced MCRs: Model-based approach, Literature survey-based approach. Analysis of human error types and performance shaping factors is analysis of three human errors. The results of project can be used for task analysis, evaluation of human error probabilities, and analysis of performance shaping factors in the HRA analysis

  7. Concept of Advanced Back-up Control Panel Design of Digital Main Control Room

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiang, Guo Jin; Sun, Yong Bin; Tan, Ke; Zhang, Li Ming; Shi, Ji; Zhang, Xue Gang; Huang, Wei Jun; Mao, Ting; Liu Yanzi

    2011-01-01

    Back-up control panel (BCP) of digital main control room (DMCR) is the backup means for main computerized control means (MCM). This paper focus on technical issues for advanced design of Backup Panel (BCP) for CPR1000 using qualified computer-based video display unit to display plant process indication and alarms. HFE issues also have been considered in the BCP design. Then, mean to fulfill safety target of NPP, best ergonomic effect has been described. At last conclusion on advanced BCP design is provided

  8. Concept of Advanced Back-up Control Panel Design of Digital Main Control Room

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jiang, Guo Jin; Sun, Yong Bin; Tan, Ke; Zhang, Li Ming; Shi, Ji; Zhang, Xue Gang; Huang, Wei Jun; Mao, Ting; Liu Yanzi [China Nuclear Power Engineering Company, Shenzen (China)

    2011-08-15

    Back-up control panel (BCP) of digital main control room (DMCR) is the backup means for main computerized control means (MCM). This paper focus on technical issues for advanced design of Backup Panel (BCP) for CPR1000 using qualified computer-based video display unit to display plant process indication and alarms. HFE issues also have been considered in the BCP design. Then, mean to fulfill safety target of NPP, best ergonomic effect has been described. At last conclusion on advanced BCP design is provided.

  9. Design for the human-machine interface of a digitalized reactor control-room

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qu Ronghong; Zhang Liangju; Li Duo; Yu Hui

    2005-01-01

    Digitalized technology is implemented in the instrumentation and control system of an in-construction research reactor, which advances information display in both contents and styles in a nuclear reactor control-room, and greatly improves human-machine interface. In the design for a digitalized nuclear reactor control-room there are a series of new problems and technologies should be considered seriously. This paper mainly introduces the design for the digitalized control-room of the research nuclear reactor and covered topics include design principle of human-machine interface, organization and classification of interface graphics, technologies and principles based on human factors engineering and implemented in the graphics design. (authors)

  10. Review of international standards related to the design for control rooms on nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kitamura, Masashi; Yoshikawa, Hidekazu; Fujita, Yushi

    2005-01-01

    The improvement of Human-Machine Interface (HMI) design for control rooms on nuclear power plants (NPP) has been accomplished world wide, especially after the TMI-2 accident. The design process and guidelines are standardized in IEC60964 and supplemental standards as international standard. However, technological update is required due to the increased use of computerized control and monitoring equipment and systems in control rooms on NPP in recent years. Standards are becoming more important for computerized control rooms because there is more freedom to design than conventional hardware based system. For computerized control rooms, standards for hardware and software of HMI systems should be also considered. Standards and guidelines for computerized control rooms on NPP have been developed recently in each body such as IEC, ISO, and IEEE etc. Therefore, reviewing these standards and guidelines related to control rooms design of NPP can be useful not only for revision of the international standards such as IEC60964, but also for users of the standards and guidelines. In this paper, we reviewed the international standards related to the design for control rooms, in the two aspects of HMI design and hardware and software design, considering the undergoing revision work and their application. (author)

  11. Have it your way. A modular approach to custom compact control rooms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harmon, Daryl; Scarola, Ken

    2003-01-01

    In spite of the recent lack of growth in the nuclear power industry, a transition is taking place to compact main control rooms as the design of choice for power generating facilities. This is evident in the design and construction of new facilities, including Advanced Light Water Reactors such as the Korean Shin Kori 3 and 4 units, as well as Generation IV reactors. Also, compact control rooms are increasingly preferred for the modernization of current generation plants. This shift reflects that compact control rooms combine cost savings through equipment reduction and standardization with operability improvements through increased functionality and flexibility and improved presentation. Though compact control rooms feature significantly fewer Human Machine Interface (HMI) devices than their conventional counterparts, customers still require a wide variety of different configurations to accommodate their individual operations philosophies, cultural norms, licensing regulations and physical constraints. To meet this need, Westinghouse Electric Company has developed an innovative, modular approach to designing compact control rooms for nuclear power plants. This approach features a small set of standard HMI devices serving as building blocks for all compact control room functions. The building blocks include qualified and non-safety video devices for implementing displays, alarms, multi-channel soft controls, computerized procedures, etc. These building blocks can be used for (1) large screen overview displays, (2) console-based control and monitoring and (3) HMI devices for conventional, benchboard-style control panels. Their modular design allows these building blocks to be arranged in various physical configurations to meet a wide variety of customer's control room preferences and constraints. For example, a compact control room could use the qualified building blocks (1) to configure a dedicated safety panel independent of the normal operational consoles, or (2

  12. Assessment of control room habitability and unfiltered air inleakage test of the OPR 1000 NPP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song, Dong Soo; Lee, Jong Beom; Ha, Sang Jun; Huh, Seong Cheol

    2015-01-01

    The assessment of control room habitability for Hanbit unit 5 was performed based on GL 2003-01 and Regulatory Guide 1.197. The integrated control room envelope (CRE) test was performed utilizing ASTM E741. Four tests were performed using each of the control room HVAC subtrains. The control room heating, ventilating, and air conditioning (HVAC) system lineup of pressurization mode test was based upon a lineup that encompassed the design basis radiological analyses. The other control room HVAC system lineup of isolation mode test was based on an operation mode that considers toxic gas. The measured inleakage for the isolation test mode remains within the toxicity limit. Radiation effect analysis showed that the measured inleakage satisfied the regulatory criteria, and the inleakage would not result in control room operator dose exceeding 50 mSv whole body and 500 mSv thyroid except train A pressurization test mode. The thyroid dose due to maximum measured unfiltered inleakage of 8976 lpm for train A is corresponding to 700 mSv. Modifications to the CRE boundary and control room HVAC system should be done to demonstrate that the measured unfiltered inleakage for train A pressurization test mode is bounded by the regulatory criteria assumed in the design basis radiological analyses. (author)

  13. Use of the Human Centered Design concept when designing ergonomic NPP control rooms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skrehot, Petr A.; Houser, Frantisek; Riha, Radek; Tuma, Zdenek

    2015-01-01

    Human-Centered Design is a concept aimed at reconciling human needs on the one hand and limitations posed by the design disposition of the room being designed on the other hand. This paper describes the main aspects of application of the Human-Centered Design concept to the design of nuclear power plant control rooms. (orig.)

  14. Simulating wall and corner fire tests on wood products with the OSU room fire model

    Science.gov (United States)

    H. C. Tran

    1994-01-01

    This work demonstrates the complexity of modeling wall and corner fires in a compartment. The model chosen for this purpose is the Ohio State University (OSU) room fire model. This model was designed to simulate fire growth on walls in a compartment and therefore lends itself to direct comparison with standard room test results. The model input were bench-scale data...

  15. Control room design with new automation structures. Leitwartengestaltung bei neuen Automatisierungsstrukturen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gilson, W

    1984-01-01

    This brochure is concerned with the configuration of modern control rooms, taking new automation structures into account. The configuration of control rooms is treated taking note of new process control systems from the point of view of the requirements and performance, which is well known from process and powerstation technology. Apart from general technical and ergonomic considerations, aspects of work load and work stress are dealt with in detail.

  16. Measuring Human Performance in Simulated Nuclear Power Plant Control Rooms Using Eye Tracking

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kovesdi, Casey Robert [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Rice, Brandon Charles [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Bower, Gordon Ross [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Spielman, Zachary Alexander [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Hill, Rachael Ann [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); LeBlanc, Katya Lee [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2015-11-01

    Control room modernization will be an important part of life extension for the existing light water reactor fleet. As part of modernization efforts, personnel will need to gain a full understanding of how control room technologies affect performance of human operators. Recent advances in technology enables the use of eye tracking technology to continuously measure an operator’s eye movement, which correlates with a variety of human performance constructs such as situation awareness and workload. This report describes eye tracking metrics in the context of how they will be used in nuclear power plant control room simulator studies.

  17. Measuring Human Performance in Simulated Nuclear Power Plant Control Rooms Using Eye Tracking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kovesdi, Casey Robert; Rice, Brandon Charles; Bower, Gordon Ross; Spielman, Zachary Alexander; Hill, Rachael Ann; LeBlanc, Katya Lee

    2015-01-01

    Control room modernization will be an important part of life extension for the existing light water reactor fleet. As part of modernization efforts, personnel will need to gain a full understanding of how control room technologies affect performance of human operators. Recent advances in technology enables the use of eye tracking technology to continuously measure an operator's eye movement, which correlates with a variety of human performance constructs such as situation awareness and workload. This report describes eye tracking metrics in the context of how they will be used in nuclear power plant control room simulator studies.

  18. Control room design of a nuclear reactor used to produce radioisotope

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, Isaac Jose Antonio Luquetti dos; Carvalho, Paulo Vitor R.; Lacerda, Fabio de; Szabo, Andre P.; Vianna Filho, Alfredo Marques, E-mail: luquetti@ien.gov.br [Instituto Engenharia Nuclear (IEN/CNEN-RJ), Rio Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Divisao de Instrumentacao e Confiabilidade Humana; Falcao, Mariana A. [Escola de Belas Artes da Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    A control room is defined as a functional entity with an associated physical structure, where the operators carry out the centralized control, monitoring and administrative responsibilities. Inadequate integration between control room and operators reduces safety, increases the operation complexity, complicates operator training and increases the likelihood of human errors occurrence. The purpose of this paper is to present a specific approach for the design of the main control room of a nuclear reactor used to produce radioisotope. The approach is based on human factors standards and the participation of a multidisciplinary team in the conceptual and basic phases of the design. Using the information gathered from standards and from the multidisciplinary an initial sketch 3D of the main control room is being developed. (author)

  19. Control room design of a nuclear reactor used to produce radioisotope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santos, Isaac Jose Antonio Luquetti dos; Carvalho, Paulo Vitor R.; Lacerda, Fabio de; Szabo, Andre P.; Vianna Filho, Alfredo Marques

    2011-01-01

    A control room is defined as a functional entity with an associated physical structure, where the operators carry out the centralized control, monitoring and administrative responsibilities. Inadequate integration between control room and operators reduces safety, increases the operation complexity, complicates operator training and increases the likelihood of human errors occurrence. The purpose of this paper is to present a specific approach for the design of the main control room of a nuclear reactor used to produce radioisotope. The approach is based on human factors standards and the participation of a multidisciplinary team in the conceptual and basic phases of the design. Using the information gathered from standards and from the multidisciplinary an initial sketch 3D of the main control room is being developed. (author)

  20. Research on control function switch of nuclear power plant control room

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mei Shibo; Mao Ting; Cheng Bo; Zhang Gang

    2014-01-01

    The nuclear power plant provides main control room (MCR) to the unit operators for the plant monitoring and control, and provides the remote shutdown station (RSS) as the back-up control room, which is used only when MCR is unavailable. The RSS could be used to monitor and control the plant, bring the plant into shutdown state and remove the residual heat. The command from MCR and RSS is blocked by each other and can not be executed at the same time. The operation mode switch function between MCR and RSS is carried out by MCR/RSS mode switches. The operation mode switch scheme of CPR1000, ERP and AP1000 were compared and researched, and some design bases for new nuclear power plant were submitted in this paper. These design bases could be referred during the design of control function switch for the new nuclear power plants, in order to put forward a more practical, simple, safe and convenient scheme. (authors)

  1. Improving safety through an integrated approach for advanced control room development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haugset, K.; Berg, O.; Foerdestroemmen, N.T.; Kvalem, J.; Nelson, W.R.

    1990-01-01

    With the fast development of computer technology, the potential exists for improving operational safety of nuclear plants by using advanced operator tools in the control room. Specific systems are being introduced, such as systems for alarm handling, failure detection, disturbance diagnosis, procedural advice and others, often based on process modeling techniques or expert system technology. To ensure a maximum benefit from the new technology, a careful integration of the various systems must, however, take place, resulting in a well coordinated interface between the operator and the process. The OECD Halden Reactor Project has started the development of an Integrated Surveillance And Control System (ISACS). The basis for the activity is the experience at Halden in developing specific Computerized Operator Support Systems (COSSs), and the activity around the experimental control room HAMMLAB where detailed validations of operator tools have been performed for a number of years. The first goal in the ISACS project is to have a first, limited prototype in operation at the end of 1990. Validation experiments will follow

  2. Improving safety through an integrated approach for advanced control room development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haugset, K.; Berg, O.; Bologna, S.; Foerdestroemmen, N.T.; Kvalem, J.; Nelson, W.R.; Yamane, N.

    1992-01-01

    With the fast development of computer technology, the potential exists for improving operational safety of nuclear plants by using advanced operator tools in the control room. Specific systems are being introduced, such as systems for alarm handling, failure detection, disturbance diagnosis, procedural advice and others, often based on process modeling techniques or expert system technology. To ensure a maximum benefit from the new technology, a careful integration of the various systems must, however, take place, resulting in a well coordinated interface between the operator and the process. The OECD Halden Reactor Project has started the development of an Integrated Surveillance And Control System (ISACS). The basis for the activity is the experience at Halden in developing specific Computerized Operator Support Systems (COSSs), and the activity around the experimental control room HAMMLAB where detailed validations of operator tools have been performed for a number of years. The first goal in the ISACS project is to have a first, limited prototype in operation at the end of 1990. Validation experiments will follow. (orig.)

  3. Verbal Communication in the APR1400 Advanced Control Room

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jong Hyun; Shin, Young Cheol

    2007-01-01

    This paper introduces the characteristics of communication in advanced main controlghd rooms (MCRs) and some observations from a case study performed for APR1400 MCR. In advanced MCRs, operators need not maintain the same communication patterns as they do in conventional ones. For example, a senior reactor operator (SRO) does not have to rely on board operators for information acquisition and can get any information from his/her own workstation. This situation may also bring about new problems in MCRs such as lack of shared situation awareness and collaboration between MCR operators. To cope with these problems, the APR1400 MCR adapts several approaches in design and training for encouraging operators to communicate with each other. This paper introduces the possible changes of communication patterns and the countermeasures in design and training. Some findings from an integrated system validation for Shin Kori Units 3 and 4 are also presented

  4. Mathemetical performance analysis of a temperature controlled bulk storage room

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mourik, van S.; Ploegaert, J.P.M.; Zwart, H.; Keesman, K.J.

    2007-01-01

    Usually, control design takes place after the plant has been designed. However, the performance of the plant connected to the controller might be improved by simultaneous design of the plant and the controller. In this paper, expressions are deduced that describe the dynamics of a controlled plant

  5. The Control Room Upgrade in Oskarshamn 2 Modernization Project Lesson Learned from Ongoing Human Factor design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, Gunnarsson; Magnus, Eliasson

    2011-01-01

    Due to recent changes in Swedish commercial nuclear safety system requirements, OKG decided to make the changes required by the new safety requirements, apply for a 30-year license extension, and to concurrently make changes for a major power uprate; this project is called the Plant Life Extension project (PLEX). It was decided, in addition to several plant modifications, to re build the old control room to a new modern screen-based control room located in the same space as the old one, and with the same number of operators. This paper explains the approach taken when modernizing the control room as a part of the Oskarshamn 2 Modernization project PLEX, the results, and the lessons learned from this ongoing work. The combination of changes results in a modernization project that is expected to increase output power by approximately 50 MWe through increased efficiency and to result in an increase in thermal power from 1800 MWt to 2300 MWt (28%) and electrical power from 620 MWe to 840 MWe due to the power uprate. The license to operate OKG2 expires in 2012 The PLEX project is one of the most ambitious nuclear power plant modernization projects ever implemented, world-wide. The application of human factors engineering (HFE) and control room and HSI design is a complex challenge. The original main control room from 1975 in Oskarshamn 2, was quite compact and provided a fairly good overview of the process. New requirements for enhanced safety and other design changes in the process systems and instrumentation led to a step-wise installation of new information and control equipment in the control room. Since the control room was quite limited in space, the control room grew larger, and the new equipment was installed farther away from the operator workplaces into an adjacent control room. This was even the case for the new safety systems. These systems were functioning well separately as such, but in some cases their interfaces were inconsistent, leading to increased

  6. Nuclear power plant control room task analysis. Pilot study for pressurized water reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barks, D.B.; Kozinsky, E.J.; Eckel, S.

    1982-05-01

    The purposes of this nuclear plant task analysis pilot study: to demonstrate the use of task analysis techniques on selected abnormal or emergency operation events in a nuclear power plant; to evaluate the use of simulator data obtained from an automated Performance Measurement System to supplement and validate data obtained by traditional task analysis methods; and to demonstrate sample applications of task analysis data to address questions pertinent to nuclear power plant operational safety: control room layout, staffing and training requirements, operating procedures, interpersonal communications, and job performance aids. Five data sources were investigated to provide information for a task analysis. These sources were (1) written operating procedures (event-based); (2) interviews with subject matter experts (the control room operators); (3) videotapes of the control room operators (senior reactor operators and reactor operators) while responding to each event in a simulator; (4) walk-/talk-throughs conducted by control room operators for each event; and (5) simulator data from the PMS

  7. Near-term improvements for nuclear power plant control room annunciator systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rankin, W.L.; Duvernoy, E.G.; Ames, K.R.; Morgenstern, M.H.; Eckenrode, R.J.

    1983-04-01

    This report sets forth a basic design philosophy with its associated functional criteria and design principles for present-day, hard-wired annunciator systems in the control rooms of nuclear power plants. It also presents a variety of annunciator design features that are either necessary for or useful to the implementation of the design philosophy. The information contained in this report is synthesized from an extensive literature review, from inspection and analysis of control room annunciator systems in the nuclear industry and in related industries, and from discussions with a variety of individuals who are knowledgeable about annunciator systems, nuclear plant control rooms, or both. This information should help licensees and license applicants in improving their hard-wired, control room annunciator systems as outlined by NUREG-0700

  8. 75 FR 5536 - Pipeline Safety: Control Room Management/Human Factors, Correction

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-03

    ... DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration 49 CFR Parts...: Control Room Management/Human Factors, Correction AGENCY: Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety... following correcting amendments: PART 192--TRANSPORTATION OF NATURAL AND OTHER GAS BY PIPELINE: MINIMUM...

  9. What's getting in the way of teamwork in our nuclear control rooms?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harrington, D.K.

    1991-01-01

    Nuclear control room crews, like teams of any kind, develop their own unique personalities, or ways of getting things done. These personalities contain both good news and bad news when it comes to teamwork, and evolve from the beliefs and attitudes of the individual supervisors and operators. These beliefs and attitudes translate into behaviors that contribute to, or become barriers to, the teamwork so vital in today's modem nuclear control room. The writer, a consultant who has worked with control room crews at twelve US nuclear plants over the past five years in developing teamwork skills, describes his experiences, observations, and successes with the use of videotape to help operators change or modify their behavior to make them more effective as members of a control room team

  10. Experience in the review of utility control room design review and safety parameter display system programs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moore, V.A.

    1985-01-01

    The Detailed Control Room Design Review (DCRDR) and the Safety Parameter Display System (SPDS) had their origins in the studies and investigations conducted as the result of the TMI-2 accident. The President's Commission (Kemeny Commission) critized NRC for not examining the man-machine interface, over-emphasizing equipment, ignoring human beings, and tolerating outdated technology in control rooms. The Commission's Special Inquiry Group (Rogovin Report) recommended greater application of human factors engineering including better instrumentation displays and improved control room design. The NRC Lessons Learned Task Force concluded that licensees should review and improve control rooms using NRC Human engineering guidelines, and install safety parameter display systems (then called the safety staff vector). The TMI Action Plan Item I.D.1 and I.D.2 were based on these recommendations

  11. Human-factors engineering-control-room design review: Shoreham Nuclear Power Station. Draft audit report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peterson, L.R.; Preston-Smith, J.; Savage, J.W.; Rousseau, W.F.

    1981-01-01

    A human factors engineering preliminary design review of the Shoreham control room was performed at the site on March 30 through April 3, 1981. This design review was carried out by a team from the Human Factors Engineering Branch, Division of Human Factors Safety. This report was prepared on the basis of the HFEB's review of the applicant's Preliminary Design Assessment and the human factors engineering design review/audit performed at the site. The presented sections are numbered to conform to the guidelines of the draft version of NUREG-0700. They summarize the teams's observations of the control room design and layout, and of the control room operators' interface with the control room environment

  12. Three alternatives to a full scope control room simulator for nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roman, C.P.

    1988-01-01

    Many utilities are purchasing full scope control room simulators for training purposes. But, depending upon training requirements and finances, an alternative to a full scope control room simulator may be a viable option. Westinghouse has recently built and delivered two styles of alternative simulators. This paper discusses the design and operation of both of these simulators, including advantages and limitations of each design. In addition, the design of a hybrid system which combines features from both of these designs is presented

  13. Study on the task categorization of main control room in NPP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fang Zhou; Ma Zhicai; Ma Xusheng; Zheng Mingguang

    2005-01-01

    The paper states the importance and trendy requirements of Main Control Room (MCR) in nuclear power plant and introduces how to implement the human factor engineering principle in the design of advanced main control room. It mainly focuses on the purpose and functions, strategy and methodology, scope and contents of the MCR task categorization. The preliminary MCR task categorization is performed according to these principles. (authors)

  14. Research study on the effects of illumination on performance of control room tasks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silverman, E.B.; Horst, R.L.; Parris, H.L.; O'Brien, J.

    1990-01-01

    The illumination in the control rooms of many operating nuclear plants falls below the levels specified in the NUREG-0700 guidelines. However, these guidelines are based on human perception and performance data which were acquired under laboratory conditions and with tasks very different from those typically found in control rooms. The objective of the present studies was to gather empirical data regarding the levels of illumination sufficient for performing tasks analogous to those performed in control rooms. Several tasks were designed to engage the perceptual and cognitive processes that are representative of actual control room performance. In a computerized laboratory test-bed, subjects scanned edgewise meters, examined hard-copy X-Y plots to discern the value of the displayed function at specific coordinates, and proofread hard-copy plant procedures. In a power plant control room simulator, data were likewise collected in a meter reading task and similar tasks representing elements of specific job-performance measures. For each task, response time and accuracy were measured under a range of illumination levels. Subjective comfort ratings were also obtained for each illumination level. The results from both settings indicated that with decreasing illumination, increased errors and/or longer response times occurred only for levels below ten footcandles, if at all. These data suggest that adequate performance in control room tasks can be achieved at illumination levels below those recommended in NUREG-0700

  15. Software Development for Remote Control and Firing Room Displays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zambrano Pena, Jessica

    2014-01-01

    The Launch Control System (LCS) developed at NASA's Kennedy Space Center (KSC) will be used to launch future spacecraft. Two of the many components of this system are the Application Control Language (ACL) and remote displays. ACL is a high level domain specific language that is used to write remote control applications for LCS. Remote displays are graphical user interfaces (GUIs) developed to display vehicle and Ground Support Equipment (GSE) data, they also provide the ability to send commands to control GSE and the vehicle. The remote displays and the control applications have many facets and this internship experience dealt with several of them.

  16. DHM simulation in virtual environments: a case-study on control room design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zamberlan, M; Santos, V; Streit, P; Oliveira, J; Cury, R; Negri, T; Pastura, F; Guimarães, C; Cid, G

    2012-01-01

    This paper will present the workflow developed for the application of serious games in the design of complex cooperative work settings. The project was based on ergonomic studies and development of a control room among participative design process. Our main concerns were the 3D human virtual representation acquired from 3D scanning, human interaction, workspace layout and equipment designed considering ergonomics standards. Using Unity3D platform to design the virtual environment, the virtual human model can be controlled by users on dynamic scenario in order to evaluate the new work settings and simulate work activities. The results obtained showed that this virtual technology can drastically change the design process by improving the level of interaction between final users and, managers and human factors team.

  17. Advantages and Disadvantages of Physiological Assessment For Next Generation Control Room Design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tuan Q. Tran; Ronald L. Boring; Donald D. Dudenhoeffer; Bruce P Hallbert; M. David Keller; Tessa M. Anderson

    2007-08-01

    Abstract - We propose using non-obtrusive physiological assessment (e.g., eye tracking,) to assess human information processing errors (e.g., loss of vigilance) and limitations (e.g., workload) for advanced energy systems early in the design process. This physiological approach for assessing risk will circumvent many limitations of current risk methodologies such as subjective rating (e.g., rater’s biases) and performance modeling (e.g., risk assessment is scripted and is based upon the individual modeler’s judgment). Key uses will be to evaluate (early in the design process) novel control room equipment and configurations as well as newly developed automated systems that will inevitably place a high information load on operators. The physiological risk assessment tool will allow better precision in pinpointing problematic design issues and will provide a “real-time” assessment of risk. Furthermore, this physiological approach would extend the state-of-the-art of human reliability methods from a “static” measure to more “dynamic.” This paper will discuss a broad range of the current popular online performance gauges as well as its advantages and disadvantages for use in next generation control room.

  18. Computer modeling and design of diagnostic workstations and radiology reading rooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratib, Osman M.; Amato, Carlos L.; Balbona, Joseph A.; Boots, Kevin; Valentino, Daniel J.

    2000-05-01

    We used 3D modeling techniques to design and evaluate the ergonomics of diagnostic workstation and radiology reading room in the planning phase of building a new hospital at UCLA. Given serious space limitations, the challenge was to provide more optimal working environment for radiologists in a crowded and busy environment. A particular attention was given to flexibility, lighting condition and noise reduction in rooms shared by multiple users performing diagnostic tasks as well as regular clinical conferences. Re-engineering workspace ergonomics rely on the integration of new technologies, custom designed cabinets, indirect lighting, sound-absorbent partitioning and geometric arrangement of workstations to allow better privacy while optimizing space occupation. Innovations included adjustable flat monitors, integration of videoconferencing and voice recognition, control monitor and retractable keyboard for optimal space utilization. An overhead compartment protecting the monitors from ambient light is also used as accessory lightbox and rear-view projection screen for conferences.

  19. Analysis of the operator's tasks: An aid to control room design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blanc, P.; Guesnier, G.P.; Heilbronn, B.; Monnier, B.

    1983-01-01

    The control room designer usually has no knowledge of the tasks performed by the operator in the control room since an overall picture of the situation only becomes available once the whole facility has been constructed. In order to study and design control rooms for its future PWR units, Electricite de France (EDF) felt it was essential to analyse these tasks: the work was facilitated by the existence of 900 MW PWR units which were already in operation and which are controlled in much the same manner as future units of the same type. Accordingly, by analysing the control procedures of these 900 MW PWR units, a data base describing the control and monitoring tasks performed by operators in normal, incident and accident situations has been built up. The data-base files, which were established from a study of 130 control procedures, record all the commands given and data available in the control room (about 7000), describe the tasks connected with these commands and data, and identify the times at which they are made use of by the operator. Using this data base, the principle of operator-system communication and of data processing in the control room of the future has been established: in such a control room, most controls and data will be accessible through computer communication systems to ensure that control and monitoring systems are closely integrated under normal operating conditions as well as in incident and post-accident situations and to enable the plant to be controlled by one or two operators in a seated position. (author)

  20. Design of a Control Room for Jordan Research and Training Reactor (JRTR)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Yong Jun; Suh, Sang Moon; Lee, Hyun Chul; Park, Je Yun [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-05-15

    Since the main role of JRTR(Jordan Research and Training Reactor) operating personnel is safe and reliable operation of the reactor, MCR(Main Control Room) and SCR(Supplementary Control Room) must provide them with sufficient information and controls needed to optimize their performance. Before the TMI accident, control room were generally designed just with intuitive common sense, without using any proper HFE(human factors engineering) practices. Many results derived from the analysis of TMI accident showed that a more comprehensive and systematic approaches to develop MCR design requirements were needed. Moreover changes of operators' role as a decision maker from a physical controller in rapid improvement of control system which resulted in higher automation clearly needed more featured regulatory requirements and guidelines. So many regulatory and industrial guidance for control room design have been developed by relevant institution and regulatory bodies. In this paper, a conceptual design of the JRTR control room in the effort of satisfying current regulatory requirements and guidelines are presented. And some information display design is also presented

  1. Physical environment design criteria for the new control room in the ENEA TRIGA-RC1 plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alberti, M.; Di Giulio, A.

    1986-01-01

    Parallelly to the plant modifications, many changes of the instrumentation in the Control Room (CR) were necessary in order to deal with the various aged components and the completion and integration needs turning out from the experience in reactor running. In the room, besides the control activity of the RC1 plant, continuous training and updating activities are currently performed which are intended for the operators working in the control rooms of nuclear power plants. The design of the physical environment of the new CR - carried out in a more general research project between ENEA and Politecnico di Milano - was based on the following fundamental criteria: - to ensure conditions fit for the performance of the suspervision, diagnosis and control tasks the operators are entrusted with; - to set up a model of control room for the more complex power plants. First of all a detailed analysis of the environmental conditions relating to microclimate, lighting and noise was accomplished. Afterwards, the goals to be attained were defined as well as the technical means necessary for providing the operators with comfortable working conditions

  2. Digital Full-Scope Simulation of a Conventional Nuclear Power Plant Control Room, Phase 2: Installation of a Reconfigurable Simulator to Support Nuclear Plant Sustainability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ronald L. Boring; Vivek Agarwal; Kirk Fitzgerald; Jacques Hugo; Bruce Hallbert

    2013-03-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy’s Light Water Reactor Sustainability program has developed a control room simulator in support of control room modernization at nuclear power plants in the U.S. This report highlights the recent completion of this reconfigurable, full-scale, full-scope control room simulator buildout at the Idaho National Laboratory. The simulator is fully reconfigurable, meaning it supports multiple plant models developed by different simulator vendors. The simulator is full-scale, using glasstop virtual panels to display the analog control boards found at current plants. The present installation features 15 glasstop panels, uniquely achieving a complete control room representation. The simulator is also full-scope, meaning it uses the same plant models used for training simulators at actual plants. Unlike in the plant training simulators, the deployment on glasstop panels allows a high degree of customization of the panels, allowing the simulator to be used for research on the design of new digital control systems for control room modernization. This report includes separate sections discussing the glasstop panels, their layout to mimic control rooms at actual plants, technical details on creating a multi-plant and multi-vendor reconfigurable simulator, and current efforts to support control room modernization at U.S. utilities. The glasstop simulator provides an ideal testbed for prototyping and validating new control room concepts. Equally importantly, it is helping create a standardized and vetted human factors engineering process that can be used across the nuclear industry to ensure control room upgrades maintain and even improve current reliability and safety.

  3. Control room habitability assessment and in-leakage test for Korean NPP - 15510

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song, D.S.; Lee, J.B.; Ha, S.J.; Seong, J.J.

    2015-01-01

    The assessment of control room habitability for Wolsung unit 1 was performed based on GL 2003-01 and Reg. Guide 1.197. The control room habitability program including Control Room Envelope (CRE) in-leakage test procedures, self assessment guidance, CRE boundary control program, CRE maintenance/sealing program was developed for Wolsung unit 1. The integrated CRE test was performed utilizing ASTM E741. There are two operating modes of pressurization and isolation for CRE ventilation test, and four tests were performed using each of the control room HVAC sub-trains. The control room HVAC system lineup of pressurization mode test was based upon a lineup that encompassed the design basis radiological analyses. The other control room HVAC system lineup of isolation mode test was based on an operation mode that considers toxic gas. The in-leakage testing was performed in accordance with CRE in-leakage test procedures. In the pressurization mode, measured unfiltered in-leakage rates for train A and train B were 0 CFM and 405 CFM respectively. In the isolation mode, measured unfiltered in-leakage rates for train A and train B were 1,739 CFM and 1,502 CFM, respectively. Maximum concentration of ammonia at the control room HVAC intake is calculated to be 0.027 g/m 3 (39 ppm), and satisfied the toxicity limit of 300 ppm. The test result shows that the measured unfiltered in-leakage is bounded by the regulatory criteria assumed in the design basis radiological analyses. (authors)

  4. Human factors methods for nuclear control room design. Volume I. Human factors enhancement of existing nuclear control rooms. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seminara, J.L.; Seidenstein, S.; Eckert, S.K.; Smith, D.L.

    1979-11-01

    Human factors engineering is an interdisciplinary specialty concerned with influencing the design of equipment systems, facilities, and operational environments to promote safe, efficient, and reliable operator performance. Human factors approaches were applied in the design of representative nuclear power plant control panels. First, methods for upgrading existing operational control panels were examined. Then, based on detailed human factors analyses of operator information and control requirements, designs of reactor, feedwater, and turbine-generator control panels were developed to improve the operator-control board interface, thereby reducing the potential for operator errors. In addition to examining present-generation concepts, human factors aspects of advanced systems and of hybrid combinations of advanced and conventional designs were investigated. Special attention was given to warning system designs. Also, a survey was conducted among control board designers to (1) develop an overview of design practices in the industry, and (2) establish appropriate measures leading to a more systematic concern for human factors in control board design

  5. HuRECA: Human Reliability Evaluator for Computer-based Control Room Actions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jae Whan; Lee, Seung Jun; Jang, Seung Cheol

    2011-01-01

    As computer-based design features such as computer-based procedures (CBP), soft controls (SCs), and integrated information systems are being adopted in main control rooms (MCR) of nuclear power plants, a human reliability analysis (HRA) method capable of dealing with the effects of these design features on human reliability is needed. From the observations of human factors engineering verification and validation experiments, we have drawn some major important characteristics on operator behaviors and design-related influencing factors (DIFs) from the perspective of human reliability. Firstly, there are new DIFs that should be considered in developing an HRA method for computer-based control rooms including especially CBP and SCs. In the case of the computer-based procedure rather than the paper-based procedure, the structural and managerial elements should be considered as important PSFs in addition to the procedural contents. In the case of the soft controllers, the so-called interface management tasks (or secondary tasks) should be reflected in the assessment of human error probability. Secondly, computer-based control rooms can provide more effective error recovery features than conventional control rooms. Major error recovery features for computer-based control rooms include the automatic logic checking function of the computer-based procedure and the information sharing feature of the general computer-based designs

  6. Man-machine considerations in nuclear power plant control room design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tennant, D.V.

    1987-01-01

    Although human factors is a subject that has been around for a number of years, this area of design has only recently become known to the power industry. As power plants have grown in size and complexity, the instrumentation required to control and monitor plant processes has increased tremendously. This has been especially true in nuclear power facilities. Although operators are better trained and qualified, very little consideration has been devoted to man-machine interface and the limitations of human operators. This paper explores the historic aspects and design philosophy associated with nuclear plant control rooms. Current problems and solutions are explored along with the components of a control room review. Finally, a survey of future advances in control room design are offered. This paper is concerned with instrumentation, controls, and displays

  7. Comprehensive Surgical Coaching Enhances Surgical Skill in the Operating Room: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonrath, Esther M; Dedy, Nicolas J; Gordon, Lauren E; Grantcharov, Teodor P

    2015-08-01

    The aim of the study was to determine whether individualized coaching improved surgical technical skill in the operating room to a higher degree than current residency training. Clinical training in the operating room is a valuable opportunity for surgeons to acquire skill and knowledge; however, it often remains underutilized. Coaching has been successfully used in various industries to enhance performance, but its role in surgery has been insufficiently investigated. This randomized controlled trial was conducted at one surgical training program. Trainees undergoing a minimally invasive surgery rotation were randomized to either conventional training (CT) or comprehensive surgical coaching (CSC). CT included ward and operating room duties, and regular departmental teaching sessions. CSC comprised performance analysis, debriefing, feedback, and behavior modeling. Primary outcome measures were technical performance as measured on global and procedure-specific rating scales, and surgical safety parameters, measured by error count. Operative performance was assessed by blinded video analysis of the first and last cases recorded by the participants during their rotation. Twenty residents were randomized and 18 completed the study. At posttraining the CSC group (n = 9) scored significantly higher on a procedure-specific skill scale compared with the CT group (n = 9) [median, 3.90 (interquartile range, 3.68-4.30) vs 3.60 (2.98-3.70), P = 0.017], and made fewer technical errors [10 (7-13) vs 18 (13-21), P = 0.003]. Significant within-group improvements for all skill metrics were only noted in the CSC group. Comprehensive surgical coaching enhances surgical training and results in skill acquisition superior to conventional training.

  8. Influence of room heating on ambulatory blood pressure in winter: a randomised controlled study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saeki, Keigo; Obayashi, Kenji; Iwamoto, Junko; Tanaka, Yuu; Tanaka, Noriyuki; Takata, Shota; Kubo, Hiroko; Okamoto, Nozomi; Tomioka, Kimiko; Nezu, Satoko; Kurumatani, Norio

    2013-06-01

    Previous studies have proposed that higher blood pressure (BP) in winter is an important cause of increased mortality from cardiovascular disease during the winter. Some observational and physiological studies have shown that cold exposure increases BP, but evidence from a randomised controlled study assessing the effectiveness of intensive room heating for lowering BP was lacking. The present study aimed to determine whether intensive room heating in winter decreases ambulatory BP as compared with weak room heating resulting in a 10°C lower target room temperature when sufficient clothing and bedclothes are available. We conducted a parallel group, assessor blinded, simple randomised controlled study with 1:1 allocation among 146 healthy participants in Japan from November 2009 to March 2010. Ambulatory BP was measured while the participants stayed in single experimental rooms from 21:00 to 8:00. During the session, participants could adjust the amount of clothing and bedclothes as required. Compared with the weak room heating group (mean temperature ± SD: 13.9 ± 3.3°C), systolic morning BP (mean BP 2 h after getting out of bed) of the intensive room heating group (24.2 ± 1.7°C) was significantly lower by 5.8 mm Hg (95% CI 2.4 to 9.3). Sleep-trough morning BP surges (morning BP minus lowest night-time BP) in the intensive room heating group were significantly suppressed to about two thirds of the values in the weak room heating group (14.3 vs 21.9 mm Hg; pheating decreased morning BP and the morning BP surge in winter.

  9. Human-machine interface aspects and use of computer-based operator support systems in control room upgrades and new control room designs for nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berg, O.

    1997-01-01

    At the Halden Project efforts are made to explore the possibilities through design, development and validation of Computer-based Operator Support Systems (COSSes) which can assist the operators in different operational situations, ranging from normal operation to disturbance and accident conditions. The programme comprises four main activities: 1) verification and validation of safety critical software systems; 2) man-machine interaction research emphasizing improvements in man-machine interfaces on the basis of human factors studies; 3) computerized operator support systems assisting the operator in fault detection/diagnosis and planning of control actions; and 4) control room development providing a basis for retrofitting of existing control rooms and for the design of advanced concepts. The paper presents the status of this development programme, including descriptions of specific operator support functions implemented in the simulator-based, experimental control room at Halden (HAMMLAB, HAlden Man-Machine LABoratory). These operator aids comprise advanced alarms systems, diagnostic support functions, electronic procedures, critical safety functions surveillance and accident management support systems. The different operator support systems development at the Halden Project are tested and evaluated in HAMMLAB with operators from the Halden Reactor, and occasionally from commercial NPPs, as test subjects. These evaluations provide data on the merits of different operator support systems in an advanced control room setting, as well as on how such systems should be integrated to enhance operator performance. The paper discusses these aspects and the role of computerized operator support systems in plant operation based on the experience from this work at the Halden Project. 15 refs, 5 figs

  10. Human-machine interface aspects and use of computer-based operator support systems in control room upgrades and new control room designs for nuclear power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berg, O [Institutt for Energiteknikk, OECD Halden Reactor Project (Netherlands)

    1997-07-01

    At the Halden Project efforts are made to explore the possibilities through design, development and validation of Computer-based Operator Support Systems (COSSes) which can assist the operators in different operational situations, ranging from normal operation to disturbance and accident conditions. The programme comprises four main activities: 1) verification and validation of safety critical software systems; 2) man-machine interaction research emphasizing improvements in man-machine interfaces on the basis of human factors studies; 3) computerized operator support systems assisting the operator in fault detection/diagnosis and planning of control actions; and 4) control room development providing a basis for retrofitting of existing control rooms and for the design of advanced concepts. The paper presents the status of this development programme, including descriptions of specific operator support functions implemented in the simulator-based, experimental control room at Halden (HAMMLAB, HAlden Man-Machine LABoratory). These operator aids comprise advanced alarms systems, diagnostic support functions, electronic procedures, critical safety functions surveillance and accident management support systems. The different operator support systems development at the Halden Project are tested and evaluated in HAMMLAB with operators from the Halden Reactor, and occasionally from commercial NPPs, as test subjects. These evaluations provide data on the merits of different operator support systems in an advanced control room setting, as well as on how such systems should be integrated to enhance operator performance. The paper discusses these aspects and the role of computerized operator support systems in plant operation based on the experience from this work at the Halden Project. 15 refs, 5 figs.

  11. 49 CFR 195.446 - Control room management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... for the safe operation of a pipeline facility. (e) Alarm management. Each operator using a SCADA... controls all or part of a pipeline facility through a SCADA system. Each operator must have and follow... certain provisions of API RP 1165 are not practical for the SCADA system used; (2) Conduct a point-to...

  12. The development of KNGR control room man-machine interface design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sung-Jae Cho; Yeong-Cheol Shin

    2000-01-01

    KNGR MMI design has been developed for the last 7 years as a part of Korea Next Generation Reactor (KNGR) design development. The KNGR control room has the common features of advanced control room such as large display panel, redundant compact workstations, soft control, and computerized procedure system. A conventional type safety console is provided as a backup when operation at the workstations is impossible. The strong points of an advanced control room are based on the powerful information processing and flexible graphic presentation capability of computer technology. On the other hand, workstation based design has a weak point that the amount of information to be presented in one VDU is limited. This can cause navigational overload and inconsistent interfaces and provide chances for performance errors/failures, if not designed carefully. From this background, the regulators require licensees to follow strict top-down human factor engineering design process. Analysis of operating experiences and iterative evaluations are used to address the potential problems of the KNGR advanced control room MMI design. But, further study is necessary in design area like CPS design, where experiences or design guidance is insufficient. Further study topics for KNGR advanced control room MMI design development are discussed briefly in this paper. (author)

  13. Survey of control-room design practices with respect to human factors engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seminara, J.L.; Parsons, S.O.

    1980-01-01

    Human factors engineering is an interdisciplinary speciality concerned with influencing the design of equipment systems, facilities, and operational environments to promote safe, efficient, and reliable operator performance. This emphasis has been applied to most military and space systems in the past 30 y. A review of five nuclear power-plant control rooms, reported in the November-December 1977 issue of Nuclear Safety, revealed that human factors principles of design have generally not been incorporated in present-generation control rooms. This article summarizes the findings of a survey of 20 control-board designers from a mix of nuclear steam-supply system and architect-engineering firms. The interviews with these designers probed design methods currently used in developing control rooms. From these data it was concluded that there is currently no consistent, formal, uniform concern for the human factors aspects of control-room design on the part of the design organizations, the utilities, or the Nuclear Regulatory Commission. Although all the parties involved are concerned with human factors issues, this responsibility is not focused, and human factors yardsticks, or design standards, specific to power plants have not been evolved and applied in the development and verification of control-room designs from the standpoint of the man-machine interface

  14. Modeling of Heat Transfer in Rooms in the Modelica "Buildings" Library

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wetter, Michael [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Zuo, Wangda [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Nouidui, Thierry Stephane [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2011-11-01

    This paper describes the implementation of the room heat transfer model in the free open-source Modelica \\Buildings" library. The model can be used as a single room or to compose a multizone building model. We discuss how the model is decomposed into submodels for the individual heat transfer phenomena. We also discuss the main physical assumptions. The room model can be parameterized to use different modeling assumptions, leading to linear or non-linear differential algebraic systems of equations. We present numerical experiments that show how these assumptions affect computing time and accuracy for selected cases of the ANSI/ASHRAE Standard 140- 2007 envelop validation tests.

  15. Task analysis methods applicable to control room design review (CDR)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moray, N.P.; Senders, J.W.; Rhodes, W.

    1985-06-01

    This report presents the results of a research study conducted in support of the human factors engineering program of the Atomic Energy Control Board in Canada. It contains five products which may be used by the Atomic Enegy Control Board in relation to Task Analysis of jobs in CANDU nuclear power plants: 1. a detailed method for preparing for a task analysis; 2. a Task Data Form for recording task analysis data; 3. a detailed method for carrying out task analyses; 4. a guide to assessing alternative methods for performing task analyses, if such are proposed by utilities or consultants; and 5. an annotated bibliography on task analysis. In addition, a short explanation of the origins, nature and uses of task analysis is provided, with some examples of its cost effectiveness. 35 refs

  16. Role Allocations and Communications of Operators during Emergency Operation in Advanced Main Control Rooms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, June Seung

    2009-01-01

    The advanced main control room (MCR) in GEN III + nuclear power plants has been designed by adapting modern digital I and C techniques and an advanced man machine interface system (MMIS). Large Display Panels (LDPs) and computer based workstations are installed in the MCR. A Computerized Procedure System (CPS) and Computerized Operation Support System (COSS) with high degrees of automation are supplied to operators. Therefore, it is necessary to set up new operation concepts in advanced MCRs that are different from those applied in conventional MCRs regarding role allocations and communications of operators. The following presents a discussion of the main differences between advanced MCRs and conventional MCRs from the viewpoint of role allocations and communications. Efficient models are then proposed on the basis of a task analysis on a series of emergency operation steps

  17. Risk Assessment of the Main Control Room Fire Using Fire Simulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, Dae Il; Kim, Kilyoo; Jang, Seung Cheol

    2013-01-01

    KAERI is performing a fire PSA for a reference plant, Ulchin Unit 3, as part of developing the Korean site risk profile (KSRP). Fire simulations of the MCR fire were conducted using the CFAST (Consolidated Fire Growth and Smoke Transport) model and FDS (fire dynamic simulator) to improve the uncertainty in the MCR fire risk analysis. Using the fire simulation results, the MCR abandonment risk was evaluated. Level 1 PSA (probabilistic safety assessment) results of Ulchin Unit 3 using the EPRI PRA (probabilistic risk assessment) implementation guide showed that the MCR (main control room) fire was the main contributor to the core damage frequency. Recently, U. S. NRC and EPRI developed NUREG/CR-6850 to provide state-of-the-art methods, tools, and data for the conduct of a fire PSA for a commercial NPP

  18. Improving safety margins for control room habitability, through heating/ventilation/air conditioning modifications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beach, D.R.; Fillingim, W.; Bell, G.; Eurich, R.G.

    1989-01-01

    The Fort Calhoun power station began operation in September 1973. Since that time, modifications to the plant have required the addition of a substantial number of electrical and control components in the control room, which has resulted in an increased heat load in this area. Additionally, NUREG-0737, Item III.D.3.4, imposed requirements on the ventilating system related to protection of personnel from the effects of toxic and radioactive gas releases, which were not considered in the original design. Omaha Public Power District (OPPD) has recently undertaken a major modification to the Fort Calhoun station control room ventilating system to improve the safety margins for control room habitability. The goals of the modification were to achieve adequate cooling capacity with fully redundant equipment, improve habitability under accident conditions, and eliminate several potential problems related to steam line break and equipment qualification. Additionally, the scope of the project grew as design problems emerged

  19. HYBRID ALARM SYSTEMS: COMBINING SPATIAL ALARMS AND ALARM LISTS FOR OPTIMIZED CONTROL ROOM OPERATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ronald L. Boring; J.J. Persensky

    2012-07-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) is sponsoring research, development, and deployment on Light Water Reactor Sustainability (LWRS), in which the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) is working closely with nuclear utilities to develop technologies and solutions to help ensure the safe operational life extension of current nuclear power plants. One of the main areas of focus is control room modernization. Within control room modernization, alarm system upgrades present opportunities to meet the broader goals of the LWRS project in demonstrating the use and safety of the advanced instrumentation and control (I&C) technologies and the short-term and longer term objectives of the plant. In this paper, we review approaches for and human factors issues behind upgrading alarms in the main control room of nuclear power plants.

  20. Noble gas control room accident filtration system for severe accident conditions (N-CRAFT)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hill, Axel; Stiepani, Cristoph; Drechsler, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Severe accidents might cause the release of airborne radioactive substances to the environment of the NPP either due to containment leakages or due to intentional filtered containment venting. In the latter case aerosols and iodine are retained, however noble gases are not retainable by the FCVS or by conventional air filtration systems like HEPA filters and iodine absorbers. Radioactive noble gases nevertheless dominate the activity release depending on the venting procedure and the weather conditions. To prevent unacceptable contamination of the control room atmosphere by noble gases, AREVA GmbH has developed a noble gas control room accident filtration system (CRAFT) which can supply purified fresh air to the control room without time limitation. The retention process is based on dynamic adsorption of noble gases on activated carbon. The system consists of delay lines (carbon columns) which are operated by a continuous and simultaneous adsorption and desorption process. CRAFT allows minimization of the dose rate inside the control room and ensures low radiation exposure to the staff by maintaining the control room environment suitable for prolonged occupancy throughout the duration of the accident. CRAFT consists of a proven modular design either transportable or permanently installed. (author)

  1. Relation Between Job Stress Dimensions and Job Satisfaction in Workers of a Refinery Control Room

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehdi Behjati Ardakani

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Job stress can result from an imbalance between job demands and the abilities to cope them. Stress can affect individuals and lead to job dissatisfaction. This study was conducted to assess the influence of different job stress dimensions on job satisfaction in workers of a refinery control room located at the south of Iran. Materials & Methods: In this cross sectional study all 100 workers of an oil refinery control room were studied. Job stress and job satisfaction was measured using standard questionnaires provided by national institute of mental health (NIMH and Robbins respectively. After collecting, data were analyzed using SPSS ver.16 software. A general linear model was used to estimate the effect of different job stress dimensions on the job satisfaction. Results: In this study 62.08 percent of workers were categorized as having high level of stress. In job satisfaction case, 9.2, 27.6, 28.7, 16.1 and 18.4 of workers were classified as totally dissatisfied, dissatisfied, not satisfied nor dissatisfied, satisfied and totally satisfied, respectively. A Pearson correlation test revealed a significant negative correlation between job satisfaction and all studied dimensions of job stress (p= 0.01. In the general regression model, partial Eta squared was 0.03, 0.3 and 0.23 for respectively interpersonal relationships, physical conditions of work and job interest. Conclusion: This study showed that job satisfaction is mostly influenced by physical conditions and job interest dimensions of job stress. Therefore, for improvement of job satisfaction in workers, different parameters of these two dimensions of job stress should be considered.

  2. Statistical Modeling of Ultrawideband Body-Centric Wireless Channels Considering Room Volume

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miyuki Hirose

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the results of a statistical modeling of onbody ultrawideband (UWB radio channels for wireless body area network (WBAN applications. Measurements were conducted in five different rooms. A measured delay profile can be divided into two domains; in the first domain (04 ns has multipath components that are dominant and dependent on room volume. The first domain was modeled with a conventional power decay law model, and the second domain with a modified Saleh-Valenzuela model considering the room volume. Realizations of the impulse responses are presented based on the composite model and compared with the measured average power delay profiles.

  3. Evaluation of shielding capability of controlled area for CT examination room

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuki, Shoichi; Asada, Yasuki; Nakai, Takayo; Takeuchi, Kichito; Kinoshita, Kazuo; Watanabe, Nobuyuki; Koga, Sukehiko

    2002-01-01

    With the revision of the law in April, 2001, the effective dose at the boundary of the controlled area was set at 1.3 mSv/3M. Whether the shielding capability of the CT room satisfied the provisions of the law or not was confirmed by actual measurements. Both thermo luminescence dosemeter (TLD) and electronic dosemeter were used to measure the radiation doses. The shielding capability of the gantry was studied both inside and outside the room for a week as a basic experiment. On the basis of the data thus obtained doses accumulated in 3 months were estimated. According to the results of 3 month-measurement, the doses outside the wall of the CT room were about 200μ Sv. This numerical value was comparable to the background level of the evaluation point. The results above assured that the shielding capability of the CT room satisfied the provisions of the law well. (author)

  4. Demonstration of visualization techniques for the control room engineer in 2030

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marinelli, Mattia; Heussen, Kai; Strasser, Thomas

    2017-01-01

    Deliverable 8.1 reports results on analytics and visualizations of real time flexibility in support of voltage and frequency control in 2030+ power system. The investigation is carried out by means of relevant control room scenarios in order to derive the appropriate analytics needed for each spe...

  5. The design and operation of the THORP central control room: a human factors perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reed, Julie.

    1996-01-01

    The new Thermal Oxide Reprocessing Plant (THORP) at British Nuclear Fuels (BNFL) Sellafield Site is now operational. This paper describes the Central Control Room (CCR), focusing on the control system components. Throughout the design, commissioning and operation of THORP, human factors played an important part. (author)

  6. A model for generating master surgical schedules to allow cyclic scheduling in operating room departments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Oostrum, J.M.; van Houdenhoven, M.; Hurink, Johann L.; Hans, Elias W.; Wullink, Gerhard; Kazemier, G.

    2005-01-01

    This paper addresses the problem of operating room scheduling at the tactical level of hospital planning and control. Hospitals repetitively construct operating room schedules, which is a time consuming tedious and complex task. The stochasticity of the durations of surgical procedures complicates

  7. Condition-based Human Reliability Assessment for digitalized control room

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, H. G.; Jang, S. C.; Eom, H. S.; Ha, J. J.

    2005-04-01

    In safety-critical systems, the generation failure of an actuation signal is caused by the concurrent failures of the automated systems and an operator action. These two sources of safety signals are complicatedly correlated. The failures of sensors or automated systems will cause a lack of necessary information for a human operator and result in error-forcing contexts such as the loss of corresponding alarms and indications. In the conventional analysis, the Human Error Probabilities (HEP) are estimated based on the assumption of 'normal condition of indications and alarms'. In order to construct a more realistic signal-generation failure model, we have to consider more complicated conditions in a more realistic manner. In this study, we performed two kinds of investigation for addressing this issue. We performed the analytic calculations for estimating the effect of sensors failures on the system unavailability and plant risk. For the single-parameter safety signals, the analysis result reveals that the quantification of the HEP should be performed by focusing on the 'no alarm from the automatic system and corresponding indications unavailable' situation. This study also proposes a Condition-Based Human Reliability Assessment (CBHRA) method in order to address these complicated conditions in a practical way. We apply the CBHRA method to the manual actuation of the safety features such as a reactor trip and auxiliary feedwater actuation in Korean Standard Nuclear Power Plants. In the case of conventional single HEP method, it is very hard to consider the multiple HE conditions. The merit of CBHRA is clearly shown in the application to the AFAS generation where no dominating HE condition exits. In this case, even if the HE conditions are carefully investigated, the single HEP method cannot accommodate the multiple conditions in a fault tree. On the other hand, the application result of the reactor trip in SLOCA shows that if there is a dominating condition, the use

  8. Reliability analysis of operator's monitoring behavior in digital main control room of nuclear power plants and its application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Li; Hu Hong; Li Pengcheng; Jiang Jianjun; Yi Cannan; Chen Qingqing

    2015-01-01

    In order to build a quantitative model to analyze operators' monitoring behavior reliability of digital main control room of nuclear power plants, based on the analysis of the design characteristics of digital main control room of a nuclear power plant and operator's monitoring behavior, and combining with operators' monitoring behavior process, monitoring behavior reliability was divided into three parts including information transfer reliability among screens, inside-screen information sampling reliability and information detection reliability. Quantitative calculation model of information transfer reliability among screens was established based on Senders's monitoring theory; the inside screen information sampling reliability model was established based on the allocation theory of attention resources; and considering the performance shaping factor causality, a fuzzy Bayesian method was presented to quantify information detection reliability and an example of application was given. The results show that the established model of monitoring behavior reliability gives an objective description for monitoring process, which can quantify the monitoring reliability and overcome the shortcomings of traditional methods. Therefore, it provides theoretical support for operator's monitoring behavior reliability analysis in digital main control room of nuclear power plants and improves the precision of human reliability analysis. (authors)

  9. Game theory in models of pedestrian room evacuation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouzat, S.; Kuperman, M. N.

    2014-03-01

    We analyze the pedestrian evacuation of a rectangular room with a single door considering a lattice gas scheme with the addition of behavioral aspects of the pedestrians. The movement of the individuals is based on random and rational choices and is affected by conflicts between two or more agents that want to advance to the same position. Such conflicts are solved according to certain rules closely related to the concept of strategies in game theory, cooperation and defection. We consider game rules analogous to those from the Prisoner's Dilemma and Stag Hunt games, with payoffs associated to the probabilities of the individuals to advance to the selected site. We find that, even when defecting is the rational choice for any agent, under certain conditions, cooperators can take advantage from mutual cooperation and leave the room more rapidly than defectors.

  10. Main Control Room Upgrade for Kori Unit 1 in Korea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ha, Jae Taeg; Choi, Moon Jae

    2014-01-01

    Kori Unit 1 is a 30 years old nuclear power plant and its MCR and MCB was upgraded based on the latest Human Factors Engineering (HFE) principles. The objectives of applying the Human Factors Engineering (HFE) principles are to minimize the human errors and to enhance the safe operation of the plant. In order to systematically incorporate the HFE design principles into the Human System Interface (HSI) design, HFE Program Plan (HFEPP) for Kori Unit 1 was developed and the plan provided an overview of the HSI design process along with detailed methods and results. The upgrade includes addition of Bypassed and Inoperable Status Indication System (BISI) and the replacement of the conventional MMI devices such as hardwired hand switches, recorders and indicators with new advanced control and display devices using VDUs (Video Display Units). The VDUs significantly improve the effectiveness and efficiency of the monitoring function. Plant Monitoring System (PMS) and Plant Annunciator System (PAS) were upgraded also by replacing the outdated systems with advanced digital systems with future expansion capability. In addition, the MCR related equipment and/or facilities were replaced or improved. Some of these include the enhancement of MCR interior designs for better working environment, dimmable ceiling lighting, aesthetically pleasing decor of ceiling, wall and floor as well as ergonomically improved operator consoles

  11. Evaluation of information display at advanced main control room

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Min, Dae Hwan; Yu, Seon Jae; Choi, Eui Sun [Korea Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2000-03-15

    This year we plan to survey information in order to have basic understanding of digital information display and control at the advanced MCR. At first we collect different ways of presenting information at the advanced MCR. Secondly, we conduct literature survey on studies that have investigated information representation techniques and their effects. Then, we need compare differences between conventional NPPs and advanced NPPs. Thirdly, we need to check HMI styles and evaluation techniques that are used currently at foreign NPPs. Indeed, HMI at the advanced MCR is quite different from that at a conventional MCR. It is not desirable to apply the same evaluation technique that has veen used at the conventional MCR. We need to develop an evaluation technique that is valid in theory and applicable in practice. Finally, we identify the requirements for a support system for an HMI evaluator, since it is not easy to carry out an evaluation task even though one has firm background on cognitive engineering theories and practical experiences.

  12. Main Control Room Upgrade for Kori Unit 1 in Korea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ha, Jae Taeg; Choi, Moon Jae [KEPCO, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-08-15

    Kori Unit 1 is a 30 years old nuclear power plant and its MCR and MCB was upgraded based on the latest Human Factors Engineering (HFE) principles. The objectives of applying the Human Factors Engineering (HFE) principles are to minimize the human errors and to enhance the safe operation of the plant. In order to systematically incorporate the HFE design principles into the Human System Interface (HSI) design, HFE Program Plan (HFEPP) for Kori Unit 1 was developed and the plan provided an overview of the HSI design process along with detailed methods and results. The upgrade includes addition of Bypassed and Inoperable Status Indication System (BISI) and the replacement of the conventional MMI devices such as hardwired hand switches, recorders and indicators with new advanced control and display devices using VDUs (Video Display Units). The VDUs significantly improve the effectiveness and efficiency of the monitoring function. Plant Monitoring System (PMS) and Plant Annunciator System (PAS) were upgraded also by replacing the outdated systems with advanced digital systems with future expansion capability. In addition, the MCR related equipment and/or facilities were replaced or improved. Some of these include the enhancement of MCR interior designs for better working environment, dimmable ceiling lighting, aesthetically pleasing decor of ceiling, wall and floor as well as ergonomically improved operator consoles.

  13. Evaluation of information display at advanced main control room

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Min, Dae Hwan; Yu, Seon Jae; Choi, Eui Sun

    2000-03-01

    This year we plan to survey information in order to have basic understanding of digital information display and control at the advanced MCR. At first we collect different ways of presenting information at the advanced MCR. Secondly, we conduct literature survey on studies that have investigated information representation techniques and their effects. Then, we need compare differences between conventional NPPs and advanced NPPs. Thirdly, we need to check HMI styles and evaluation techniques that are used currently at foreign NPPs. Indeed, HMI at the advanced MCR is quite different from that at a conventional MCR. It is not desirable to apply the same evaluation technique that has veen used at the conventional MCR. We need to develop an evaluation technique that is valid in theory and applicable in practice. Finally, we identify the requirements for a support system for an HMI evaluator, since it is not easy to carry out an evaluation task even though one has firm background on cognitive engineering theories and practical experiences

  14. Is function-based control room design human-centered?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Norros, L.; Savioja, P.

    2006-01-01

    Function-based approaches to system interface design appears an appealing possibility in helping designers and operators to cope with the vast amount of information needed to control complex processes. In this paper we provide evidence of operator performance analyses showing that outcome-centered performance measures may not be sufficiently informative for design. We need analyses indicating habitual patterns of using information, operator practices. We argue that practices that portray functional orienting to the task support mastery of the process. They also create potential to make use of function-based information presentation. We see that functional design is not an absolute value. Instead, such design should support communication of the functional significance of the process information to the operators in variable situations. Hence, it should facilitate development of practices that focus to interpreting this message. Successful function-based design facilitates putting operations into their contexts and is human-centered in an extended sense: It aids making sense in the complex, dynamic and uncertain environment. (authors)

  15. Human reliability analysis for advanced control room of KNGR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Myung-Ro; Park, Seong-Kyu

    2000-01-01

    There are two purposes in Human Reliability Analysis (HRA) which was performed during Korean Next Generation Reactor (KNGR) Phase 2 research project. One is to present the human error probability quantification results for Probabilistic Safety Assessment (PSA) and the other is to provide a list of the critical operator actions for Human Factor Engineering (HFE). Critical operator actions were identified from the KNGR HRA/RSA based on selection criteria and incorporated in the MMI Task Analysis, where they receive additional treatment. The use of HRA/PSA results in design, procedure development, and training was ensured by their incorporation in the MMI task analysis and MCR design such as fixed position alarms, displays and controls. Any dominant PSA sequence that takes credit for human performance to achieve acceptable results was incorporated in MMIS validation activities through the PSA-based critical operator actions. The integration of KNGR HRA into MMI design was sufficiently addressed all applicable review criteria of NUREG-0800, Chapter 18, Section 2 F and NUREG-0711. (S.Y.)

  16. Enhancing the NCSU PULSTAR reactor control room with human factors considerations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glover, B.L.; Pupons, D.E.; Perez, P.B.

    1993-01-01

    The North Carolina PULSTAR research reactor was constructed to support teaching, training, and research. The training provided is not limited to academic students but encompasses plant operators, managers, engineers, designers, and supporting organizations in the nuclear industry. Our facility is under-going design changes to maximize teaching effectiveness and continued safe operation by providing current technology in the control room. The opportunity for the enhancements is a result of the generosity of neighboring utilities and the US Department of Energy instrumentation upgrade funds. Our objective, to provide a control room environment that conforms to selected industry practices, required human factors input. A human factors course, offered jointly between the industrial engineering and the psychology departments, included the PULSTAR control room enhancement as a case study

  17. Control rooms and man-machine interface in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-08-01

    The importance of man-machine interface for ensuring safe and reliable operation of nuclear power plants has always been recognized. Since the early 1970's, the concepts of operator support and human factors have been increasingly used to better define the role of control rooms. In the late 1970's, the lessons learned from experience considerably accelerated the development of recommendations and regulatory requirements governing the resources and data available to operators in nuclear power plant control rooms, and specified the expertise required to assist them in case of need. This document summarizes the steps which have been taken and are being planned around the world to improve the man-machine interface for safe and economic power generation. It intends to present to the reader useful examples on some selected control room design and man-machine interface practices for operation and surveillance of nuclear power plants. 53 refs, 94 figs, 27 tabs

  18. Operational Strategy of CBPs for load balancing of Operators in Advanced Main Control Room

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Seunghwan; Kim, Yochan; Jung, Wondea

    2014-01-01

    With the using of a computer-based control room in an APR1400 (Advanced Pressurized Reactor-1400), the operators' behaviors in the main control room had changed. However, though the working environment of operators has been changed a great deal, digitalized interfaces can also change the cognitive tasks or activities of operators. First, a shift supervisor (SS) can confirm/check the conduction of the procedures and the execution of actions of board operators (BOs) while confirming directly the operation variables without relying on the BOs. Second, all operators added to their work the use of a new CBP and Soft Controls, increasing their procedural workload. New operational control strategies of CBPs are necessary for load balancing of operator's task load in APR1400. In this paper, we compared the workloads of operators in an APR1400 who work with two different usages of the CBP. They are SS oriented usage and SS-BO collaborative usage. In this research, we evaluated the workloads of operators in an advanced main control room by the COCOA method. Two types of CBP usages were defined and the effects of these usages on the workloads were investigated. The obtained results showed that the workloads between operators in a control room can be balanced according to the CBP usages by assigning control authority to the operators

  19. Operational Strategy of CBPs for load balancing of Operators in Advanced Main Control Room

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Seunghwan; Kim, Yochan; Jung, Wondea [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-05-15

    With the using of a computer-based control room in an APR1400 (Advanced Pressurized Reactor-1400), the operators' behaviors in the main control room had changed. However, though the working environment of operators has been changed a great deal, digitalized interfaces can also change the cognitive tasks or activities of operators. First, a shift supervisor (SS) can confirm/check the conduction of the procedures and the execution of actions of board operators (BOs) while confirming directly the operation variables without relying on the BOs. Second, all operators added to their work the use of a new CBP and Soft Controls, increasing their procedural workload. New operational control strategies of CBPs are necessary for load balancing of operator's task load in APR1400. In this paper, we compared the workloads of operators in an APR1400 who work with two different usages of the CBP. They are SS oriented usage and SS-BO collaborative usage. In this research, we evaluated the workloads of operators in an advanced main control room by the COCOA method. Two types of CBP usages were defined and the effects of these usages on the workloads were investigated. The obtained results showed that the workloads between operators in a control room can be balanced according to the CBP usages by assigning control authority to the operators.

  20. Mathematical modelling of a steam boiler room to research thermal efficiency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bujak, J.

    2008-01-01

    This paper introduces a mathematical model of a boiler room to research its thermal efficiency. The model is regarded as an open thermodynamic system exchanging mass, energy, and heat with the atmosphere. On those grounds, the energy and energy balance were calculated. Here I show several possibilities concerning how this model may be applied. Test results of the coefficient of thermal efficiency were compared to a real object, i.e. a steam boiler room of the Provincial Hospital in Wloclawek (Poland). The tests were carried out for 18 months. The results obtained in the boiler room were used for verification of the mathematical model

  1. ANS main control complex three-dimensional computer model development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cleaves, J.E.; Fletcher, W.M.

    1993-01-01

    A three-dimensional (3-D) computer model of the Advanced Neutron Source (ANS) main control complex is being developed. The main control complex includes the main control room, the technical support center, the materials irradiation control room, computer equipment rooms, communications equipment rooms, cable-spreading rooms, and some support offices and breakroom facilities. The model will be used to provide facility designers and operations personnel with capabilities for fit-up/interference analysis, visual ''walk-throughs'' for optimizing maintain-ability, and human factors and operability analyses. It will be used to determine performance design characteristics, to generate construction drawings, and to integrate control room layout, equipment mounting, grounding equipment, electrical cabling, and utility services into ANS building designs. This paper describes the development of the initial phase of the 3-D computer model for the ANS main control complex and plans for its development and use

  2. Safety review for human factors engineering and control rooms of nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Mengzhuo

    1998-01-01

    Safety review for human factors engineering and control rooms of nuclear power plants (NPP) is in a forward position of science and technology, which began at American TMI severe accident and had been implemented in China. The importance and the significance of the safety review are expounded, the requirements of its scope and profundity are explained in detail. In addition, the situation of the technical document system for nuclear safety regulation on human factors engineering and control rooms of NPP in China is introduced briefly, on which the safety review is based

  3. Large screen mimic display design research for advanced main control room in nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zheng Mingguang; Yang Yanhua; Xu Jijun; Zhang Qinshun; Ning Zhonghe

    2002-01-01

    Firstly the evolution of mimic diagrams or displays used in the main control room of nuclear power plant was introduced. The active functions of mimic diagrams were analyzed on the release of operator psychological burden and pressure, the assistance of operator for the information searching, status understanding, manual actuation, correct decision making as well as the safe and reliable operation of the nuclear power plant. The importance and necessity to use the (large screen) mimic diagrams in advanced main control room of nuclear power plant, the design principle, design details and verification measures of large screen mimic display are also described

  4. Design and modernization of the control room with of the new digital I and C systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernandez, L. A.; Ortega, F.; Rejas, L.

    2011-01-01

    The use of the new digital I and c systems in the design of the new nuclear power plants, as well as the modernization of the existing ones, implies relevant changes in the control room design. New I and C systems provide new features that affect the control room operating concept, therefore a detailed analysis is required to take into consideration all the operating and human factor aspects. based on Tecnatom's experience, this article presents the methodological approach used as well as the most relevant aspects of this kind of project. (Author)

  5. Design of a Clean Room for Quality Control of an Environmental Sampling in KINAC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoon, Jongho; Ahn, Gil Hoon; Seo, Hana; Han, Kitek; Park, Il Jin

    2014-01-01

    The objective of environmental sampling and analysis for safeguards is to characterize the nuclear materials handled and the activities conducted at the specific locations. The KINAC is responsible for the conclusions drawn from the analytical results provided by the analytical laboratories. To assure the KINAC of the continuity of the quality of the analytical results provided by the laboratories, the KINAC will implement a quality control(QC) programme. One of the QC programme is to prepare QC samples. The establishment of a clean room is needed to handle QC samples due to stringent control of contamination. The KINAC designed a clean facility with cleanliness of ISO Class 6, the Clean Room for Estimation and Assay of trace Nuclear materials(CREAN) to meet conflicting requirements of a clean room and for handling of nuclear materials according to Korean laws. The clean room will be expected to acquire of a radiation safety license under these conditions in this year and continue to improve it. The construction of the CREAN facility will be completed by the middle of 2015. In terms of QC programme, the establishment of a clean room is essential and will be not only very helpful for setting of quality control system for the national environmental sampling programme but also be applied for the environmental sample analysis techniques to the nuclear forensics

  6. Study of the thermal comfort, of the energy consumption and of the indoor environment control in surgery rooms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Melhado, M.D.A.; Beyer, P.O.; Hensen, J.L.M.; Siqueira, L.F.G.

    2005-01-01

    In this research were investigated the influence of different layouts of operating rooms on thermal comfort, on the indoor environment control and on energy consumption. The layouts studied were: Case 1 (a surgery room and a hallway); Case 2 (a surgery room and two hallways); and Case 3 (a surgery

  7. Microstructure evolution during cyclic tests on EUROFER 97 at room temperature. TEM observation and modelling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giordana, M.F., E-mail: giordana@ifir-conicet.gov.ar [Instituto de Fisica Rosario, CONICET-UNR, Bv. 27 de Febrero 210 Bis, 2000 Rosario (Argentina); Giroux, P.-F. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, DEN/DANS/DMN/SRMA, 91191 Gif-sur-Yvette Cedex (France); Alvarez-Armas, I. [Instituto de Fisica Rosario, CONICET-UNR, Bv. 27 de Febrero 210 Bis, 2000 Rosario (Argentina); Sauzay, M. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, DEN/DANS/DMN/SRMA, 91191 Gif-sur-Yvette Cedex (France); Armas, A. [Instituto de Fisica Rosario, CONICET-UNR, Bv. 27 de Febrero 210 Bis, 2000 Rosario (Argentina); Kruml, T. [CEITEC IPM, Institute of Physics of Materials, Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, Zizkova 22, Brno, 616 62 (Czech Republic)

    2012-07-30

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Low cycle fatigue test are carried out on EUROFER 97 at room temperature. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer EUROFER 97 shows a pronounced cyclic softening accompanied by microstructural changes. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Cycling induces a decrement in dislocation density and subgrain growth. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A simple mean-field model based on crystalline plasticity is proposed. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The mean subgrain size evolution is predicted by modelling. - Abstract: The 9% Cr quenched and tempered reduced-activation ferritic/martensitic steel EUROFER 97 is one of the candidates for structural components of fusion reactors. Isothermal, plastic strain-controlled, low-cycle fatigue tests are performed. Tested at room temperature, this steel suffers a cyclic softening effect linked to microstructural changes observed by transmission electron microscopy, such as the decrease of dislocation density inside subgrains or the growth of subgrain size. From the assumed mechanisms of softening a simple mean-field model based on crystalline plasticity is proposed to predict these microstructure evolutions during cycling and monotonic deformation.

  8. GUIDANCE FOR NUCLEAR POWER PLANT CONTROL ROOM AND HUMAN-SYSTEM INTERFACE MODERNIZATION

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naser, J.; Morris, G.

    2004-01-01

    Several nuclear power plants in the United States are starting instrumentation and control (I and C) modernization programs using digital equipment to address obsolescence issues and the need to improve plant performance while maintaining high levels of safety. As an integral part of the I and C modernization program at a nuclear power plant, the control room and other human-system interfaces (HSIs) are also being modernized. To support safe and effective operation, it is critical to plan, design, implement, train for, operate, and maintain the control room and HSI changes to take advantage of human cognitive processing abilities. A project, jointly funded by the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) and the United States Department of Energy (DOE) under the Nuclear Energy Plant Optimization (NEPO) Program, is developing guidance for specifying and designing control rooms, remote shut-down panels, HSIs etc. The guidance is intended for application by utilities and suppliers of control room and HSI modernization. The guidance will facilitate specification, design, implementation, operations, maintenance, training, and licensing activities. This guidance will be used to reduce the likelihood of human errors and licensing risk, to gain maximum benefit of implemented technology, and to increase performance. The guidance is of five types. The first is planning guidance to help a utility develop its plant-specific control room operating concepts, its plant-specific endpoint vision for the control room, its migration path to achieve that endpoint vision, and its regulatory, licensing, and human factors program plans. The second is process guidance for general HSI design and integration, human factors engineering analyses, verification and validation, in-service monitoring processes, etc. The third is detailed human factors engineering guidance for control room and HSI technical areas. The fourth is guidance for licensing. The fifth is guidance for special topics

  9. Evaluation for the habitability of the main control room and the performance of the smoke control system at NPP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ji, M. H.; Hong, S. R.; Sung, C. K.

    2002-01-01

    In addition to the indoor air conditioning, the habitability of the main control room for the operators at Nuclear Power Plants (NPP) has to be ensured with a strict design requirements to protect the workers from the radiation exposure, hazardous chemicals, and the smoke with toxic combustion products. With this context, the internal pressure of the control room envelope shall be sustained at slightly higher pressure than the atmospheric pressure. At this paper, the internal pressure of the control room envelope was analyzed by use of the evaluation program, CONTANW that was developed by the NIST. On the basis of design values, the performance status of the smoke control system was also checked by the program, CFAST that was released by the NIST to confirm the dynamic smoke behaviors

  10. Statistical process control as a tool for controlling operating room performance: retrospective analysis and benchmarking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Tsung-Tai; Chang, Yun-Jau; Ku, Shei-Ling; Chung, Kuo-Piao

    2010-10-01

    There is much research using statistical process control (SPC) to monitor surgical performance, including comparisons among groups to detect small process shifts, but few of these studies have included a stabilization process. This study aimed to analyse the performance of surgeons in operating room (OR) and set a benchmark by SPC after stabilized process. The OR profile of 499 patients who underwent laparoscopic cholecystectomy performed by 16 surgeons at a tertiary hospital in Taiwan during 2005 and 2006 were recorded. SPC was applied to analyse operative and non-operative times using the following five steps: first, the times were divided into two segments; second, they were normalized; third, they were evaluated as individual processes; fourth, the ARL(0) was calculated;, and fifth, the different groups (surgeons) were compared. Outliers were excluded to ensure stability for each group and to facilitate inter-group comparison. The results showed that in the stabilized process, only one surgeon exhibited a significantly shorter total process time (including operative time and non-operative time). In this study, we use five steps to demonstrate how to control surgical and non-surgical time in phase I. There are some measures that can be taken to prevent skew and instability in the process. Also, using SPC, one surgeon can be shown to be a real benchmark. © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  11. Concept and design of a fully computerized control room for future nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hinz, W.; Kollmannsberger, J.

    1991-01-01

    The development of digital process control equipment and of safety engineering equipment together with the CRT - based information visualization systems is advanced to a state allowing process control of nuclear power plant to be done by these equipments. The systems have been tested in the control room of the fossil-fuel Staudinger reactor station, unit 5, and the computer-assisted PRISCA process information system has been tested in the Konvoi-type nuclear reactor series. These tests serve as a basis for further process control system development by Siemens KWU, to be used in their future nuclear power plants. The advantages of digital process control and CRT-based information display are intended to be used for further optimization of the man-machine interface in nuclear power plant. One important aspect is to give the control room personnel complete insight into the operational processes of the entire plant, and to establish for detail recognition for process monitoring a very close mental link between operators and the system processes. In addition, the control room operator has to be given appropriate means and tools for process monitoring and control, fulfilling the requirements of guaranteeing the plant's availability and safety. These requirements put very high demands on the process monitoring and control equipment. (orig.) [de

  12. Control console for the X-ray room; Consola de control para la sala de rayos X

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia H, J.M.; Aguilar B, M.A.; Torres B, M.A

    1998-07-01

    It is presented the design and construction of Control console for the X-ray room of Metrology Center for ionizing radiations at National Institute of Nuclear Research (ININ). This system controls the positioning of 6 different filters for an X-ray beam. Also it controls a shutter which blockades the beam during periods established by user, these periods can be fixed from hours until tenth of second. The shutter opening periods, as well as the X-ray beam filter are establish and monitoring from a Personal computer outside of room. (Author)

  13. A virtual control room with an embedded, interactive nuclear reactor simulator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Markidis, S.; Rizwan, U.

    2006-01-01

    The use of virtual nuclear control room can be an effective and powerful tool for training personnel working in the nuclear power plants. Operators could experience and simulate the functioning of the plant, even in critical situations, without being in a real power plant or running any risk. 3D models can be exported to Virtual Reality formats and then displayed in the Virtual Reality environment providing an immersive 3D experience. However, two major limitations of this approach are that 3D models exhibit static textures, and they are not fully interactive and therefore cannot be used effectively in training personnel. In this paper we first describe a possible solution for embedding the output of a computer application in a 3D virtual scene, coupling real-world applications and VR systems. The VR system reported here grabs the output of an application running on an X server; creates a texture with the output and then displays it on a screen or a wall in the virtual reality environment. We then propose a simple model for providing interaction between the user in the VR system and the running simulator. This approach is based on the use of internet-based application that can be commanded by a laptop or tablet-pc added to the virtual environment. (authors)

  14. Psychological factors of professional success of nuclear power plant main control room operators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kosenkov A.A.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Aim: to conduct a comparative analysis of the psychological characteristics of the most and least successful main control room operators. Material and Methods. Two NPP staff groups: the most and least successful main control room operators, who worked in routine operating conditions, were surveyed. Expert evaluation method has been applied to identify the groups. The subjects were administered the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI, Cattell's Sixteen Personality Factor Questionnaire (16PF form A and Raven's Progressive Matrices test. Results. Numerous significant psychological differences between the groups of most and least successful control room operators were obtained: the best operators were significantly more introverted and correctly solved more logical tasks with smaller percentage of mistakes under time pressure than worst ones. Conclusions: 1. The psychodiagnostic methods used in the study were adequate to meet research objective 2. Tendency to introversion, as well as developed the ability to solve logic problems undertime pressure, apparently, are important professional qualities for control room operators. These indicators should be considered in the process of psychological selection and professional guidance of nuclear power plant operators.

  15. Design of nuclear power plant control rooms: some findings and possible improvements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bohr, E.

    1984-01-01

    Major findings are described of a study on the present status and possible improvements in the design of nuclear power plant control rooms according to ergonomic principles and criteria. The findings have been acquired by observing the performance of control room operators, by interviewing operators and management personnel, and by analysing major characteristics of the man-machine interface. The methods currently used for developing and designing control rooms have also been examined. The results of the study indicate that there is a growing awareness and consideration of physical factors affecting performance. More attention should be paid to the essential cognitive characteristics of work in the control room with the aim of avoiding unnecessary hindrances and possible errors. Examples are given of some of these problems, and approaches, ways and means for solving or mitigating them are indicated. A more deliberate consideration of factors affecting operator performance and reliability is suggested, based on a systems ergonomics approach. Analyses of critical tasks would be a major feature of this approach. Its main objective is to ensure that operators are able to carry out their tasks reliably. (author)

  16. Use of control room simulators for training of nuclear power plant personnel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-09-01

    Safety analysis and operational experience consistently indicate that human error is the greatest contributor to the risk of a severe accident in a nuclear power plant. Subsequent to the Three Mile Island accident, major changes were made internationally in reducing the potential for human error through improved procedures, information presentation, and training of operators. The use of full scope simulators in the training of operators is an essential element of these efforts to reduce human error. The operators today spend a large fraction of their time training and retraining on the simulator. As indicated in the IAEA Safety Guide on Recruitment, Qualification and Training of Personnel for Nuclear Power Plants, NS-G-2.8, 2002, representative simulator facilities should be used for training of control room operators and shift supervisors. Simulator training should incorporate normal, abnormal and accident conditions. The ability of the simulator to closely represent the actual conditions and environment that would be experienced in a real situation is critical to the value of the training received. The objective of this report is to provide nuclear power plant (NPP) managers, training centre managers and personnel involved with control room simulator training with practical information they can use to improve the performance of their personnel. While the emphasis in this publication is on simulator training of control room personnel using full scope simulators, information is also provided on how organizations have effectively used control room simulators for training of other NPP personnel, including simulators other than full-scope simulators

  17. Ergonomic principles of control rooms in nuclear power plants. Vol. 1 and 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Becker, G.; Bohr, E.; Thau, G.

    1983-03-01

    This report describes the findings of a study on the present status and possible improvements in the design of nuclear power plant control rooms according to ergonomic principles and criteria. The findings have been acquired by observing the performance of control room operators, by interviewing operators and management personnel, and by analyzing major characteristics of the man-machine interface. The methods currently used for developing and designing control rooms have also been examined, and the pertinent scientific and technical literature has been reviewed. The results of the study indicate that there is a growing awareness and consideration of physical factors affecting operator performance and reliability whereas less attention is paid to the essential cognitive characteristics of work in the control room. The tasks of operators thus may contain avoidable hindrances and error possibilities that may adversely affect their contribution to reliable plant operation. Major areas of possible ergonomic advancements are set out in the study, and most of them are discussed in depth. Ergonomic requirements are identified for further improving the situation, and approaches, ways and means for solving of mitigating individual problems are indicated wherever possible. A more deliberate consideration of factors affecting operator performance and reliability is suggested, based on a systems ergonomics approach. Design objectives and criteria as well as specific design recommendations for individual areas are given separately. In conclusion, gaps in our existing knowledge are identified which require further research. (orig.) [de

  18. Towards a model of surgeons' leadership in the operating room.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henrickson Parker, Sarah; Yule, Steven; Flin, Rhona; McKinley, Aileen

    2011-07-01

    There is widespread recognition that leadership skills are essential for effective performance in the workplace, but the evidence detailing effective leadership behaviours for surgeons during operations is unclear. Boolean searches of four on-line databases and detailed hand search of relevant references were conducted. A four stage screening process was adopted stipulating that articles presented empirical data on surgeons' intraoperative leadership behaviours. Ten relevant articles were identified and organised by method of investigation into (i) observation, (ii) questionnaire and (iii) interview studies. This review summarises the limited literature on surgeons' intraoperative leadership, and proposes a preliminary theoretically based structure for intraoperative leadership behaviours. This structure comprises seven categories with corresponding leadership components and covers two overarching themes related to task- and team-focus. Selected leadership theories which may be applicable to the operating room environment are also discussed. Further research is required to determine effective intraoperative leadership behaviours for safe surgical practice.

  19. Treatment of early and late reflections in a hybrid computer model for room acoustics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Naylor, Graham

    1992-01-01

    The ODEON computer model for acoustics in large rooms is intended for use both in design (by predicting room acoustical indices quickly and easily) and in research (by forming the basis of an auralization system and allowing study of various room acoustical phenomena). These conflicting demands...... preclude the use of both ``pure'' image source and ``pure'' particle tracing methods. A hybrid model has been developed, in which rays discover potential image sources up to a specified order. Thereafter, the same ray tracing process is used in a different way to rapidly generate a dense reverberant decay...

  20. Control room, emergency control system and local control panels in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-01-01

    The requirements on planning and construction of control boards including ergonomic-technical designing are specified in this rule. The specifications put the requirements on the design of place, process and environment of work, which are mentioned in the sections 90 and 91 of the labor-management relations act, into more concrete terms for the safety-relevant control panels as work places in a nuclear power station. The work places at control panels are not considered as video workstations in the sense of the 'Safety Rules for Video Workstations in the Office Sector' published by the General Association of the Industrial Trade Associations. The requirements are based on the operation and information technology realized at present in control panels of stationary nuclear power plants. (orig./HP) [de

  1. New thinking for the boiler room.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, Wayne

    2008-09-01

    Wayne Rose, marketing manager at integrated plant room manufacturer Armstrong Integrated Systems, explains how increasing use of off-site manufacture, the latest 3D modelling technology, and advances in control technology, are revolutionising boiler room design and construction.

  2. Data collection on the unit control room simulator as a method of operator reliability analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holy, J.

    1998-01-01

    The report consists of the following chapters: (1) Probabilistic assessment of nuclear power plant operation safety and human factor reliability analysis; (2) Simulators and simulations as human reliability analysis tools; (3) DOE project for using the collection and analysis of data from the unit control room simulator in human factor reliability analysis at the Paks nuclear power plant; (4) General requirements for the organization of the simulator data collection project; (5) Full-scale simulator at the Nuclear Power Plants Research Institute in Trnava, Slovakia, used as a training means for operators of the Dukovany NPP; (6) Assessment of the feasibility of quantification of important human actions modelled within a PSA study by employing simulator data analysis; (7) Assessment of the feasibility of using the various exercise topics for the quantification of the PSA model; (8) Assessment of the feasibility of employing the simulator in the analysis of the individual factors affecting the operator's activity; and (9) Examples of application of statistical methods in the analysis of the human reliability factor. (P.A.)

  3. Application of process computers and colour CRT displays in the plant control room of a BWR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Itoh, M.; Hayakawa, H.; Kawahara, H.; Neda, T.; Wakabayashi, Y.

    1983-01-01

    The recent application of a CRT display system in an 1100-MW(e) BWR plant control room and the design features of a new control room whose installation is planned for the next generation are discussed. As reactor unit capacity and the need for plant safety and reliability continue to increase, instrumentation and control equipment is growing in number and complexity. In consequence, control and supervision of plant operations require improvement. Thus, because of recent progress in the field of process computers and display equipment (colour CRTs), efficient improvements of the control room are under way in the Japanese BWR plant. In the recently constructed BWR plant (1100 MW(e)), five CRTs on the bench board and two process computers were additionally installed in the control room during the construction stage to improve plant control and supervisory functions by implementing the lessons learned from the Three Mile Island incident. The major functions of the new computers and display systems are to show integrated graphic displays of the plant status, to monitor the standby condition of the safety system, to show the condition of the integrated alarm system, etc. In practice, in the actual plant, this newly installed system performs well. On the basis of the experience gained in these activities, a new computerized control and monitoring system is now being designed for subsequent domestic BWR plants. This advanced system will incorporate not only the functions already mentioned, but also a surveillance guide system and plant automation. For future plants, a diagnostic system and an instructional system that can analyse a disturbance and give operational guidance to the plant operator are being developed in a government-sponsored programme. (author)

  4. A sensitivity analysis of the WIPP disposal room model: Phase 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Labreche, D.A.; Beikmann, M.A. [RE/SPEC, Inc., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Osnes, J.D. [RE/SPEC, Inc., Rapid City, SD (United States); Butcher, B.M. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1995-07-01

    The WIPP Disposal Room Model (DRM) is a numerical model with three major components constitutive models of TRU waste, crushed salt backfill, and intact halite -- and several secondary components, including air gap elements, slidelines, and assumptions on symmetry and geometry. A sensitivity analysis of the Disposal Room Model was initiated on two of the three major components (waste and backfill models) and on several secondary components as a group. The immediate goal of this component sensitivity analysis (Phase I) was to sort (rank) model parameters in terms of their relative importance to model response so that a Monte Carlo analysis on a reduced set of DRM parameters could be performed under Phase II. The goal of the Phase II analysis will be to develop a probabilistic definition of a disposal room porosity surface (porosity, gas volume, time) that could be used in WIPP Performance Assessment analyses. This report documents a literature survey which quantifies the relative importance of the secondary room components to room closure, a differential analysis of the creep consolidation model and definition of a follow-up Monte Carlo analysis of the model, and an analysis and refitting of the waste component data on which a volumetric plasticity model of TRU drum waste is based. A summary, evaluation of progress, and recommendations for future work conclude the report.

  5. Human factors verification and validation of the advanced nuclear plant control room design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gutierrez, Richard; Zizzo, David; Yu, Kim

    2005-01-01

    The GE Advanced Boiling Water Reactor (ABWR) design has implemented the applicable human factors engineering (HFE) principles in the design of human-system interfaces (HSI). The ABWR uses unique features such as large mimic and touch-screen technology to present plant overviews and system operating details to the control room operating staff. The HSI designs, both in the console panels and the software generated graphical user interfaces, have been developed and evaluated using HFE guidelines. In addition to HFE guidelines reviews performed during design and implementation, broader reviews have been performed under the HFE Verification and Validation Implementation Plan (HFE V and VIP). Based upon the NUREG-0711, Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) HFE Program Review Model (HFE PRM) (Reference 1), the HFE V and VIP, hereafter also referred to as V and V, has provided feedback during the various phases of design, implementation, and integration of the HSI. As one of the ten elements of the HFE PRM, the V and V activities reaffirm that the design of the HSI conforms to the HFE design principles and that the plant operating staff in the control room can perform their assigned tasks. This rigorous HFE V and V process is now being applied in the implementation of the ABWR design for Taiwan Power Company's Lungmen Power Station. Two 1350 MWe ABWR units are currently under construction at Lungmen. The HFE V and V ensures that the process for the design is compliant with the HFE principles. An important aspect of the Lungmen HFE program has been the direct involvement of the end user, Taiwan Power Company (TPC), throughout the design development and implementation. These HFE V and V activities, performed in three phases, ensures that the necessary displays, control, and alarms are provided to support the identified personnel tasks. The HFE V and V also checks to determine that the design of each identified component is compliant with the HFE principles. The V and V ensures

  6. Technical and regulatory challenges for digital instrumentation and control and control room systems in nuclear plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Torok, R.; Naser, J.; Harris, T.; Keithline, K.

    2006-01-01

    There are several unsettled technical and licensing issues in the areas of instrumentation and control (I and C), human factors, and updated control room designs that need coordinated, proactive industry attention. Some of these issues are already causing protracted regulatory reviews for existing plants, and left untreated, may cause substantial delays and increased costs for new plant combined construction and operating license approvals. Both industry and the NRC will have roles in resolving the key issues and addressing them in future design efforts and regulatory reviews. Where action is needed, the industry will want to minimize costs and risks by defining industry consensus solutions with corresponding technical bases. NEI has formed a working group to coordinate industry efforts and communications with NRC staff. The working group will also help determine priorities and coordinate both new and existing plant resources. EPRI will provide technical input and guidance for the working group. In order to be able to conduct reviews in a timely fashion, the NRC will likely need to enhance and expand staff resources as existing plants are upgraded and new plant reviews become more active. The industry initiative began with a workshop sponsored by EPRI and NEI on March 28-29, 2006, which led to the creation of the NEI working group. The working group has now identified and prioritized important generic issues, established resolution paths and schedules, and identified the roles of various stakeholders including utility companies, EPRI, NEI, vendors and the NRC. Through the course of this initiative I and C issues for both existing and new plants are being addressed. This paper describes the key I and C related technical and regulatory issues and their implications for new and operating plants, and provides a status report on the efforts to resolve them. (authors)

  7. new developments for control room habitability evaluation and analysis. Panel Discussion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cozens, Kurt O.; Harvey, Robert B. Jr.; Hayes, John J. Jr.; Jarosz, Gregory; Lagus, Peter L.; Taplett, Kenneth J.; Schultz, Stephen P.

    2001-01-01

    In 2000, the Nuclear Energy Institute (NEI), nuclear utilities, and the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) embarked on a series of working meetings designed to develop means to assess the post-accident performance of control room ventilation systems to ensure required control room habitability (CRH). Through monthly meeting interactions beginning in January 2000, teams from the industry and the NRC have been working to develop an industry approach for assessment of existing systems. New system evaluation techniques are being developed that will allow for evaluation and/or identification of potential performance improvement options. NRC review of the documentation of this approach, as well as broad industry comment, was performed in the first part of 2001. This session will examine technical development topics covering licensing, analysis, testing, and control room refurbishment. NRC, NEI, utility, vendor, and consultant presentations will be followed by a panel session that will explore both process and technical recommendations for improvements. Since the mid-1980's, the NRC has communicated concerns on the inadequacies of control room designs relating to CRH requirements. In the mid-1990's, testing of some control room envelopes indicated that key assumptions supporting the radiological dose analysis might be incorrect. In 1998, the NRC held a public workshop to address CRH concerns. In late 1999, the NRC and the industry agreed to work together on issues affecting CRH and develop the NEI 99-03 guidance document for resolving those issues. This NEI 99-03 industry document defines a process for licensees to assess a plant's design and licensing bases for CRH to ensure that they are established and maintained throughout the life of the plant. The assessment process describes a comparative approach to determine if the plant configuration and operation are consistent with the CRH licensing basis and analysis. The process includes evaluation, testing, and

  8. Evaluation of control room habitability in case of LOCA for Maanshan NPP using codes RADTRAD, HABIT and ALOHA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hsu, Wen-Sheng; Wang, Jong-Rong; Chen, Hsiung-Chih; Chiang, Yu; Chen, Shao-Wen; Shih, Chunkuan

    2018-01-01

    The method for the evaluation of the control room habitability is presented in this paper with focus on Maanshan PWR nuclear power plant (NPP) using the codes RADTRAD, HABIT, and ALOHA. Therefore, this paper is divided into two parts: The first part is the evaluation of the cumulative dose at the control room, the exclusion area boundary (EAB) and the low population zone (LPZ) in case of an design basis loss of coolant accident (DBA/LOCA). For this first part, the Maanshan NPP models of the code RADTRAD/SNAP were used for the analysis. The second part is the evaluation of the control room habitability under the assumption of CO 2 storage burst. For this part, the HABIT and ALOHA codes were used. As result it was seen that the RADTRAD calculation results are below the failure criteria of standard review plan (SRP) and 10 CFR 100.11. The HABIT and ALOHA results are below the R.G. 1.78 failure criteria. These results indicate that Maanshan NPP' habitability can be maintained under the above conditions.

  9. Development of staffing evaluation principle for advanced main control room and the effect on situation awareness and mental workload

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin, Chiuhsiang Joe; Hsieh, Tsung-Ling; Lin, Shiau-Feng

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • A staffing evaluation principle was developed for the advanced main control room. • The principle proposed to improve situation awareness and mental workload. • The principle has good validity that was examined by experimental design. - Abstract: Situation awareness and mental workload, both of which influence operator performance in the advanced main control room of a nuclear power plant, can be affected by staffing level. The key goal of staffing is to ensure the proper number of personnel to support plant operations and events. If the staffing level is not adaptive, the operators may have low situation awareness and an excessive mental workload, which lead to human error. Accordingly, this study developed a staffing evaluation principle based on CPM-GOMS modeling for operations in the advanced main control room. A within-subject experiment was designed to examine the validity of the staffing evaluation principle. The results indicated that the situation awareness, mental workload, and operating performance of the staffing level determined by the staffing evaluation principle was significantly better than that of the non-evaluated staffing level; thus, the validity of the staffing evaluation technique is acceptable. The implications of the findings of this study on managerial practice are discussed

  10. Development of staffing evaluation principle for advanced main control room and the effect on situation awareness and mental workload

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin, Chiuhsiang Joe, E-mail: cjoelin@mail.ntust.edu.tw [Department of Industrial Management, National Taiwan University of Science and Technology, 43, Section 4, Keelung Road, Taipei 10607, Taiwan (China); Hsieh, Tsung-Ling, E-mail: bm1129@gmail.com [Institute of Nuclear Energy Research, 1000, Wenhua Road, Chiaan Village, Lungtan 32546, Taiwan (China); Lin, Shiau-Feng, E-mail: g9602411@cycu.edu.tw [Department of Industrial Engineering, Chung-Yuan Christian University, 200, Chung Pei Road, Chung-Li 32023, Taiwan (China)

    2013-12-15

    Highlights: • A staffing evaluation principle was developed for the advanced main control room. • The principle proposed to improve situation awareness and mental workload. • The principle has good validity that was examined by experimental design. - Abstract: Situation awareness and mental workload, both of which influence operator performance in the advanced main control room of a nuclear power plant, can be affected by staffing level. The key goal of staffing is to ensure the proper number of personnel to support plant operations and events. If the staffing level is not adaptive, the operators may have low situation awareness and an excessive mental workload, which lead to human error. Accordingly, this study developed a staffing evaluation principle based on CPM-GOMS modeling for operations in the advanced main control room. A within-subject experiment was designed to examine the validity of the staffing evaluation principle. The results indicated that the situation awareness, mental workload, and operating performance of the staffing level determined by the staffing evaluation principle was significantly better than that of the non-evaluated staffing level; thus, the validity of the staffing evaluation technique is acceptable. The implications of the findings of this study on managerial practice are discussed.

  11. The use of operator surveys by the CEGB to evaluate nuclear control room design and initiatives in the design of alarm systems and control room operating procedures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jackson, A.R.G.

    1988-01-01

    This paper reports on the use of operator surveys and trip report analysis methods which the Central Electricity Generating Board has developed to assess the extent and adequacy of operator support systems currently installed on its four twin-reactor, first generation Advanced Gas Cooled Reactor nuclear power plants. The survey consisted of a programme of structured interviews with control room engineers. The scope of the questions addressed; working environment, communications, man-machine interface, procedural information, and the diagnostic and predictive support system. The analysis of trip reports was targetted at identifying aspects of the performance of the operator support systems which might have been contributory to the cause of reactor trip. The results of this work are being used to assist in determining guidelines for the development of operator support systems, computerised controls and the structure of station operating procedures

  12. Analysis of man-machine interaction for control and display system in main control room of light water reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santosa, Kussigit; Supriatna, Piping; Karlina, Itjeu; Widagdo, Suharyo; Darlis; Sudiono, Bambang

    1998-01-01

    One of potential hazard in Nuclear Power Plant is the failure of its operation. The accident or operation failure in the reactor must be concerned event its probability is low. The important thing should be concerned is 'Analysis of Man-Machine Interaction (MMI) for Control and Display System in Main Control Room (MCR) of Nuclear Power Reactor', especially LWR type. Control and Display System in MCR of Reactor is the main part of MMI link process in Reactor MCR work system. Signal from display system showed performance process in reactor, while this signal will be received by operator. This signal will be described through central nerve for making decision what kind must be done. Then the operator manage the next process of reactor operation through control system. So by knowing Analysis of Man-Machine Interaction for Control and Display System in Main Control Room of Power Reactor, we can understand human error probability of the operator in reactor operation

  13. Analysis results for the stereotypes regarding colors applied to the nuclear power plant control room

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Jung Woon; Oh, In Seok; Lee, Yong Hee; Lee, Hyun Chul [KAERI, Taejon (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Dhong Ha [Suwon Univ., Suwon (Korea, Republic of)

    2003-01-01

    The general public not engaged in the nuclear power plant industry have no idea of the color usage in the nuclear control room. So we converted the specific color usage situation into similar but general situations. In questionnaire, we gave subjects the general situation where color coding is applied and alternative colors which were applied to the HF010 guidelines. And we asked the subjects to choose the colors proper to the situation and to rank the colors according to the degree of suitability. Two hundred fifty college students participated in the experiment. The results suggest that we can use any color coding system in the conventional control room and the CRT in the control deck because most people have no special previous color-meaning association but red-emergency relation.

  14. Performance-based evaluation of graphic displays for nuclear-power-plant control rooms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petersen, R.J.; Banks, W.W.; Gertman, D.I.

    1982-01-01

    This paper reports several methodologies for evaluating the perceptual and perceptual/decision making aspects of displays used in the control rooms of nuclear power plants. This NRC funded study focuses upon the Safety Parameter Display System (SPDS) and relates the utility of the display to objective performance and preference measures obtained in experimental conditions. The first condition is a traditional laboratory setting where classical experimental methodologies can be employed. The second condition is an interactive control room simulation where the operator's performance is assessed while he/she operates the simulator. The third condition is a rating scale designed to assess operator preferences and opinions regarding a variety of display formats. The goal of this study is the development of a cost-efficient display evaluation methodology which correlates highly with the operator's ability to control a plant

  15. Quality control, mean glandular dose estimate and room shielding calculation in mammography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rakotomalala, H.M.

    2014-01-01

    This study focuses in the importance of Radiation Protection in mammography. A good control of the radiological risk depends on the dose optimization, room shielding calculation and the quality of equipment. The work was carried out in the three private medical centers called A, B, and C. Dosimetry estimates were made on the equipment of the three centers. Values has been compared with the Diagnostic Reference Levels established by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA). Conformity control of the radiological devices has also been done with the Mammographic Quality Control Kit of the INSTN-Madagascar. Verifications of shields of the room containing the mammography equipment were done by theoretical calculations using the method provided by NCRP 147. [fr

  16. Analysis results for the stereotypes regarding colors applied to the nuclear power plant control room

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Jung Woon; Oh, In Seok; Lee, Yong Hee; Lee, Hyun Chul; Lee, Dhong Ha

    2003-01-01

    The general public not engaged in the nuclear power plant industry have no idea of the color usage in the nuclear control room. So we converted the specific color usage situation into similar but general situations. In questionnaire, we gave subjects the general situation where color coding is applied and alternative colors which were applied to the HF010 guidelines. And we asked the subjects to choose the colors proper to the situation and to rank the colors according to the degree of suitability. Two hundred fifty college students participated in the experiment. The results suggest that we can use any color coding system in the conventional control room and the CRT in the control deck because most people have no special previous color-meaning association but red-emergency relation

  17. Evaluation of human factors in interface design in main control rooms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hwang, S.-L.; Liang, S.-F.M.; Liu, T.-Y.Y.; Yang, Y.-J.; Chen, P.-Y.; Chuang, C.-F.

    2009-01-01

    An evaluation of human factors in a new nuclear power plant was conducted prior to the beginning of any business operations. After the task analysis and observation of training, two stages of interviews were carried out with the operators in the Fourth Nuclear Power Plant (NPP4). The main concerns identified were problems resulting from the operating interface of the display and controls in the main control room, usability of procedures, and the layout of the main control room. The latent human errors and suggestions were listed, and the top three problems were analyzed. The operators indicated that the alarm design issues and the critical problem of the operating mode with the VDU were worth further study in order to provide suggestions for a new interface design for future power plants.

  18. Integrated application of human factors to a power plant control room information system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fish, H.C. Jr.; Gutierrez, R.

    1988-01-01

    The human factors plan was developed as a methodology to apply human factors from the conceptual design of the EPIC system to the functional verification conducted at the plant. An integral part of the Human Factors Plan was the Functional Verification Plan. Developed in parallel, this second plan and its resultant programs verified functional appropriateness of the SPDS display, NSSS displays, EOP displays, man-machine interfaces (MMI), and workstation designs. The functional verification process was performed at the hardware/software developer's factory and at the JAFNPP, following installation of the EPIC system. Because the EPIC system replaces existing control room equipment, it is important that human factors be applied in a systematic manner consistent with other control room displays and controls. To ensure that this goal was met, a human factors plan was developed

  19. Randomized controlled trial on promoting influenza vaccination in general practice waiting rooms.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christophe Berkhout

    Full Text Available Most of general practitioners (GPs use advertising in their waiting rooms for patient's education purposes. Patients vaccinated against seasonal influenza have been gradually lessening. The objective of this trial was to assess the effect of an advertising campaign for influenza vaccination using posters and pamphlets in GPs' waiting rooms.Registry based 2/1 cluster randomized controlled trial, a cluster gathering the enlisted patients of 75 GPs aged over 16 years. The trial, run during the 2014-2015 influenza vaccination campaign, compared patient's awareness from being in 50 GPs' standard waiting rooms (control group versus that of waiting in 25 rooms from GPs who had received and exposed pamphlets and one poster on influenza vaccine (intervention group, in addition to standard mandatory information. The main outcome was the number of vaccination units delivered in pharmacies. Data were extracted from the SIAM-ERASME claim database of the Health Insurance Fund of Lille-Douai (France. The association between the intervention (yes/no and the main outcome was assessed through a generalized estimating equation. Seventy-five GPs enrolled 10,597 patients over 65 years or suffering from long lasting diseases (intervention/control as of 3781/6816 patients from October 15, 2014 to February 28, 2015. No difference was found regarding the number of influenza vaccination units delivered (Relative Risk (RR = 1.01; 95% Confidence interval: 0.97 to 1.05; p = 0.561.Effects of the monothematic campaign promoting vaccination against influenza using a poster and pamphlets exposed in GPs' waiting rooms could not be demonstrated.

  20. Active low frequency sound field control in a listening room using CABS (Controlled Acoustic Bass System) will also reduce the sound transmitted to neighbour rooms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Sofus Birkedal; Celestinos, Adrian

    2012-01-01

    Sound in rooms and transmission of sound between rooms gives the biggest problems at low frequencies. Rooms with rectangular boundaries have strong resonance frequencies and will give big spatial variations in sound pressure level (SPL) in the source room, and an increase in SPL of 20 dB at a wall...... Bass System) is a time based room correction system for reproduced sound using loudspeakers. The system can remove room modes at low frequencies, by active cancelling the reflection from at the rear wall to a normal stereo setup. Measurements in a source room using CABS and in two neighbour rooms have...... shown a reduction in sound transmission of up to 10 dB at resonance frequencies and a reduction at broadband noise of 3 – 5 dB at frequencies up to 100 Hz. The ideas and understanding of the CABS system will also be given....

  1. The Selection of Turbulence Models for Prediction of Room Airflow

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Peter V.

    This paper discusses the use of different turbulence models and their advantages in given situations. As an example, it is shown that a simple zero-equation model can be used for the prediction of special situations as flow with a low level of turbulence. A zero-equation model with compensation...

  2. Human factors design of nuclear power plant control rooms including computer-based operator aids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bastl, W.; Felkel, L.; Becker, G.; Bohr, E.

    1983-01-01

    The scientific handling of human factors problems in control rooms began around 1970 on the basis of safety considerations. Some recent research work deals with the development of computerized systems like plant balance calculation, safety parameter display, alarm reduction and disturbance analysis. For disturbance analysis purposes it is necessary to homogenize the information presented to the operator according to the actual plant situation in order to supply the operator with the information he most urgently needs at the time. Different approaches for solving this problem are discussed, and an overview is given on what is being done. Other research projects concentrate on the detailed analysis of operators' diagnosis strategies in unexpected situations, in order to obtain a better understanding of their mental processes and the influences upon them when such situations occur. This project involves the use of a simulator and sophisticated recording and analysis methods. Control rooms are currently designed with the aid of mock-ups. They enable operators to contribute their experience to the optimization of the arrangement of displays and controls. Modern control rooms are characterized by increasing use of process computers and CRT (Cathode Ray Tube) displays. A general concept for the integration of the new computerized system and the conventional control panels is needed. The technical changes modify operators' tasks, and future ergonomic work in nuclear plants will need to consider the re-allocation of function between man and machine, the incorporation of task changes in training programmes, and the optimal design of information presentation using CRTs. Aspects of developments in control room design are detailed, typical research results are dealt with, and a brief forecast of the ergonomic contribution to be made in the Federal Republic of Germany is given

  3. Benefits of Advanced Control Room Technologies: Phase One Upgrades to the HSSL, Research Plan, and Performance Measures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Le Blanc, Katya [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Joe, Jeffrey [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Rice, Brandon [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Ulrich, Thomas [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Boring, Ronald [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2015-05-01

    Control Room modernization is an important part of life extension for the existing light water reactor fleet. None of the 99 currently operating commercial nuclear power plants in the U.S. has completed a full-scale control room modernization to date. A full-scale modernization might, for example, entail replacement of all analog panels with digital workstations. Such modernizations have been undertaken successfully in upgrades in Europe and Asia, but the U.S. has yet to undertake a control room upgrade of this magnitude. Instead, nuclear power plant main control rooms for the existing commercial reactor fleet remain significantly analog, with only limited digital modernizations. Previous research under the U.S. Department of Energy’s Light Water Reactor Sustainability Program has helped establish a systematic process for control room upgrades that support the transition to a hybrid control room. While the guidance developed to date helps streamline the process of modernization and reduce costs and uncertainty associated with introducing digital control technologies into an existing control room, these upgrades do not achieve the full potential of newer technologies that might otherwise enhance plant and operator performance. The aim of the control room benefits research is to identify previously overlooked benefits of modernization, identify candidate technologies that may facilitate such benefits, and demonstrate these technologies through human factors research. This report describes the initial upgrades to the HSSL and outlines the methodology for a pilot test of the HSSL configuration.

  4. Room acoustic analysis of blower unit and noise control plan in the typical steel industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: In the steel industry,air blowers used to supply compressed air are considered as sources of annoying noise. This study aims to acoustics analysis of theairblower workroomand sound source characteristics in order to present noise controlmeasuresinthe steel industry. .Material and Method: Measurement of noiselevel and its frequency analysis was performed usingsound levelmetermodelof CASELLA-Cell.450. Distribution of noise level in the investigated workroom in form of noise map was provided using Surfer software. In addition, acoustic analysis of workroom and control room was performed in view point of soundabsorption andinsulation. Redesignofdoor and window of controlroom and installation of soundabsorbing materialson theceiling of the workroom were proposed and the efficiency of these interventionswasestimated. .Result: The totalsound pressurelevelin the blower workroom was 95.4 dB(L and the dominant frequency was 2000Hz. Sound pressure level inside the room control was 80.1dB(A. The average absorption coefficient and reverberation time in the blower workroom was estimated equal to 0.082 Sab.m2 and 3.9 seconds respectively. These value in control room was 0.04 Sab.m2 and 3/4 seconds respectively. In control room, sound transmission loss between the two parts of the wall dividing was 13.7 dB(A. The average of noise dose in blower operators was 230%. With the installation of sound absorber on ceiling of workroom, average of absorption coefficient can increase to 0.33 Sab.m2 and sound transmission loss of the new designed door and window was estimated equal to 20dB. . Conclusion: The main cause of noise leakage in the control room was insufficient insulation properties of door and windows. By replacing the door and window and installation of sound absorbing on ceiling of workroom, the noise dose can reduce to 49.6%. New Improved door and window of control room can reduce noise dose to 69.65% solely.

  5. Design And Implementation Of Smart Living Room Wireless Control For Safety Purpose

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aeindra Myint Lwin

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This research presents the microcontroller controlled smart living room system using Bluetooth wireless technology from mobile phone.An android apk is created in mobile for controlling the living room system. A 16F877A microcontroller is interfaced serially to a bluetooth module transceiver. It is used for controlling fan speed control dim light control lighting ONOFF and window angle control. An arduino controller is used for keypad control door security. It is connected to DC motor control circuit and switching circuit for opening and closing of the door keypad for entering password and serial LCD for displaying the update status of the door.User can control the home appliances by using bluetooth connection from mobile phone in its range. User can adjust the dim light fan speed window angle and light bulbs from android apk. An internal EEPROM is built in 16F877A microcontroller and it stores the last requested data of the appliances. If userwants to recover the former conditions of the appliances he can recall them from android apk.

  6. Anthropometric Considerations in the Modernized Main Control Room: Application to a Virtual Nuclear Power Plant Control Panel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Chih Wei; Cheng, Tsung Chieh; Lin, Chiuhsiang Joe

    2011-01-01

    This study investigates the anthropometric considerations in the main control room (MCR) application to a virtual nuclear power plant (NPP) control panel. Influences of working postures and physical demands on the operational performance are also discussed. Finally, the present research provides a case example to illustrate the influences of anthropometric considerations on the control panel design for MCR operators by applying virtual reality (VR) technology. The MCR design primarily evolved in different countries. The datasets available is usually insufficient or inconsistent for the end users. To solve the upper mentioned problem, this study put emphasis on applying VR technology to anthropometric considerations support control panel design in the modernized MCR. Although the concept of applying VR technology on anthropometric considerations in this paper is related to the MCR in NPPs, it could be easily applied for the purposes of any type of control room in a similar manner

  7. Anthropometric Considerations in the Modernized Main Control Room: Application to a Virtual Nuclear Power Plant Control Panel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Chih Wei; Cheng, Tsung Chieh [Institute of Nuclear Energy Research, Taoyuan (China); Lin, Chiuhsiang Joe [Chung-Yuan Christian University, Chung Li (China)

    2011-08-15

    This study investigates the anthropometric considerations in the main control room (MCR) application to a virtual nuclear power plant (NPP) control panel. Influences of working postures and physical demands on the operational performance are also discussed. Finally, the present research provides a case example to illustrate the influences of anthropometric considerations on the control panel design for MCR operators by applying virtual reality (VR) technology. The MCR design primarily evolved in different countries. The datasets available is usually insufficient or inconsistent for the end users. To solve the upper mentioned problem, this study put emphasis on applying VR technology to anthropometric considerations support control panel design in the modernized MCR. Although the concept of applying VR technology on anthropometric considerations in this paper is related to the MCR in NPPs, it could be easily applied for the purposes of any type of control room in a similar manner.

  8. NKA/KRU project on operator training, control room designing and human reliability. Summary report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-06-01

    A Nordic integrated project on human reliability in the conditions of new advanced technology seeks to establish: - The actual repertoire of activities and tasks performed by the operating staff of a nuclear power plant and its dependence on the present and future levels of automation. - The knowledge required for these activities and appropriate means for training plant operators and for competence evaluation and retraining in coping with the rare events. - Models of human operator performance; how do operators read information and make decisions under normal and abnormal plant conditions and how does their performance depend upon control room design. - The typical limits of human capabilities and mechanisms of human errors as they are represented in existing records of incidents and accidents in industrial plants. - The use of process computers for improved design of data presentation and operator support systems, especially for disturbance analysis and diagnosis during infrequent plant disturbance. - Development of experimental techniques to validate research results and proposals for improved man/machine interfaces and other computer-based support systems. (EG)

  9. The gas grid control room, provider of external and internal services; Die Gasnetzleitwarte. Ein Dienstleister nach innen und aussen?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brychcy, Andreas [NBB Netzgesellschaft Berlin-Brandenburg mbH und Co. KG, Berlin (Germany)

    2010-05-15

    The main task of the control room is the maintenance and extension of competence in a dynamically developing market environment. Grid control rooms must be able to react flexibly to changes in the market and accompany them in an active manner. (orig.)

  10. Redesigning a control room from an ergonomic point of view : a case study of user participation in a chemical plant

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schaaf, van der T.W.; Kragt, H.; Kragt, H.

    1992-01-01

    A field study in a chemical industry was conducted to redesign a control room with panel instrumentation into one with visual display units (VDUs). The authors had been asked to advise the project team and to participate in the application. First, a general evaluation of the central control room

  11. Differences in directional sound source behavior and perception between assorted computer room models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vigeant, Michelle C.; Wang, Lily M.; Rindel, Jens Holger

    2004-01-01

    considering reverberation time. However, for the three other parameters evaluated (sound pressure level, clarity index and lateral fraction), the changing diffusivity of the room does not diminish the importance of the directivity. The study therefore shows the importance of considering source directivity......Source directivity is an important input variable when using room acoustic computer modeling programs to generate auralizations. Previous research has shown that using a multichannel anechoic recording can produce a more natural sounding auralization, particularly as the number of channels...

  12. Design and Validation of Control Room Upgrades Using a Research Simulator Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ronald L. Boring; Vivek Agarwal; Jeffrey C. Joe; Julius J. Persensky

    2012-11-01

    Since 1981, the United States (U.S.) Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) [1] requires a plant- specific simulator facility for use in training at U.S. nuclear power plants (NPPs). These training simulators are in near constant use for training and qualification of licensed NPP operators. In the early 1980s, the Halden Man-Machine Laboratory (HAMMLab) at the Halden Reactor Project (HRP) in Norway first built perhaps the most well known set of research simulators. The HRP offered a high- fidelity simulator facility in which the simulator is functionally linked to a specific plant but in which the human-machine interface (HMI) may differ from that found in the plant. As such, HAMMLab incorporated more advanced digital instrumentation and controls (I&C) than the plant, thereby giving it considerable interface flexibility that researchers took full advantage of when designing and validating different ways to upgrade NPP control rooms. Several U.S. partners—the U.S. NRC, the Electrical Power Research Institute (EPRI), Sandia National Laboratories, and Idaho National Laboratory (INL) – as well as international members of the HRP, have been working with HRP to run control room simulator studies. These studies, which use crews from Scandinavian plants, are used to determine crew behavior in a variety of normal and off-normal plant operations. The findings have ultimately been used to guide safety considerations at plants and to inform advanced HMI design—both for the regulator and in industry. Given the desire to use U.S. crews of licensed operators on a simulator of a U.S. NPP, there is a clear need for a research simulator facility in the U.S. There is no general-purpose reconfigurable research oriented control room simulator facility in the U.S. that can be used for a variety of studies, including the design and validation of control room upgrades.

  13. NRC Information No. 89-44: Hydrogen storage on the roof of the control room

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rossi, C.E.

    1992-01-01

    During the Region V Chemistry Team Inspection at the Trojan Nuclear Plant the week of April 17, 1989, the inspectors identified a potential safety problem concerning the location of the hydrogen storage facility. Hydrogen is used on pressurized water reactor (PWR) plants for (1) providing a cover gas in the volume control tank, and (2) for cooling the main turbine generator. At boiling water reactor (BWR) plants, hydrogen is also used for cooling the main turbine generator and for injection into the feed system for plants which have implemented hydrogen water chemistry. The Trojan hydrogen storage facility is located on the control room roof which is 30-inch-thick reinforced concrete. The Trojan plant hydrogen facility does not meet guidelines from the standpoint of (1) the separation distance needed between a hydrogen pipe break and the control room ventilation intake to prevent buildup of a flammable or explosive gas mixture inside the control room, and (2) the separation distance needed to prevent damage to safety-related structures resulting from the explosion of an 8,000-scf hydrogen tank

  14. Human factors inspection of current control room panel in Jose Cabrera NPP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Almeida, P.; O'Hara, J.; Higgins, J.

    2002-01-01

    Within the process of renewal of Exploitation Permit of Jose Cabrera Nuclear Power Plant, UNION FENOSA GENERACIO, S. A. (UFG) has carried out an analysis and evaluation project regarding human factors implications of current control room panel arrangement. The project has been developed in two phases. In the first phase, leaded by EPRI and carried out by experts from SAIC, an independent review from a double viewpoint of human reliability and human factors was developed. In the second phase, a multidisciplinary team (composed by human factors, risk analysis, operation, engineering, training and instrumentation and controls experts) has developed a study on human factors implications of current panel arrangement, following the methodology pointed out in NUREG-0711. The project has been developed under the direction of Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL), organisation that has authored the aforementioned methodology, with the participation of UFG and SOLUZIONA Ingenieria. For the development of the second study the following steps were taken: Firstly, the potential effects of panel arrangement on crew performance were identified its real evidence was analysed and the goals for the improvement of control room operation were established; following NUREG-0711. After this, several design alternatives that addressed these goals were identified and were analysed along three dimensions: human factors, risk analysis and economic costs. Finally the results of these evaluations were combined using a multi-attribute decision method to arrive at a recommended alternative as he best proposal to incorporate human factors criteria and good practices in the design of control room panels. (Author)

  15. Model for the Path Loss of In-room Reverberant Channels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steinböck, Gerhard; Pedersen, Troels; Fleury, Bernard Henri

    2011-01-01

    A general path loss model for in-room radio channels is proposed. The model is based on experimental observations of the behavior of the delay power spectrum in closed rooms. In a given closed room, the early part of the spectrum observed at different positions typically consists of a dominant...... allows for the prediction of path loss, mean delay, and RMS delay spread versus distance. We use measurements to validate the proposed model and we observe good agreement of the model prediction for mean delay and RMS delay spread....... component (peak) that vanishes as the transmitter-receiver distance increases, while the late part decays versus distance according to the same exponential law regardless of this distance. These observations motivate the proposed model of the delay power spectrum with an early dominant component...

  16. Ergonomics in the licensing and evaluation of nuclear reactors control room; A ergonomia no licenciamento e na avaliacao de salas de controle de reatores nucleares

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, Isaac Jose Antonio Luquetti dos [Instituto de Engenharia Nuclear (IEN), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Vidal, Mario Cesar Rodriguez [Universidade Federal, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-graduacao de Engenharia. Programa de Engenharia de Producao

    2002-07-01

    A nuclear control room is a complex system that controls a thermodynamic process used to produce electrical energy. The operators interact with the control room through interfaces that have significant implications to nuclear plant safety and influence the operator activity. The TMI (Three Mile Island) accident demonstrated that only the anthropometric aspects were not enough for an adequate nuclear control room design. The studies showed that the accident was aggravated because the designers had not considered adequately human factor aspects. After TMI accident, the designers introduce in the nuclear control room development only human factors standards and human factors guidelines. The ergonomics approaches was not considered. Our objective is introduce in nuclear control room design and nuclear control room evaluation, a methodology that. includes human factors standards, human factors guidelines and ergonomic approaches, the operator activity analysis. (author)

  17. The design process and the use of computerized tools in control room design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wahlstroem, B.; Heinonen, R.; Ranta, J.; Haarla, J.

    1985-09-01

    Control room design has proven an important component when the safety and availability of a complex industrial process plant are considered. Many control room deficiencies can be traced back to oversights and other errors during the design process. The introduction of powerful computers and software for computer-aided design (CAD) offers one possibility when tools for improving the quality of design are being selected. The report gives a broad assessment of problems of design and the benefits of using computer-aided design. One proposal for a structure of a computer-aided design system is considered in more detail. In this system special emphasis has been laid on dealing with requirements during design process. A demonstration system has been built and sample system user dialogues are described. The report is the final report of the LIT3.1 project of the Nordic cooperation on human reliability in the energy production field. (author)

  18. Team interaction skills evaluation criteria for nuclear power plant control room operators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Montgomery, J.; Gaddy, C.; Toquam, J.

    1991-01-01

    This paper reports on previous research which has shown the value of good team interaction skills to group performance, yet little progress has been made in measuring such skills. Dimensions of team interaction skills developed in an earlier study were extensively revised and cast into a Behaviorally anchored Rating scales (BARS) and a Behavioral Frequency scale format. Rating data were collected using training instructors at a nuclear plant, who rated videotape scenarios of control room performance and later rated control room crews during requalification training. High levels of interrater agreement on both rating scales was, although the hypothesized factor structure did not emerge. Analysis of ratings of the videotapes using Cronbach's components of accuracy indicted that BARS ratings generally exhibited less error than did the Behavioral Frequency ratings. This paper discusses results in terms of both field and research implications

  19. BEYOND INTEGRATED SYSTEM VALIDATION: USE OF A CONTROL ROOM TRAINING SIMULATOR FOR PROOF-OF-CONCEPT INTERFACE DEVELOPMENT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ronald Boring; Vivek Agarwal

    2012-07-01

    This paper provides background on a reconfigurable control room simulator for nuclear power plants. The main control rooms in current nuclear power plants feature analog technology that is growing obsolete. The need to upgrade control rooms serves the practical need of maintainability as well as the opportunity to implement newer digital technologies with added functionality. There currently exists no dedicated research simulator for use in human factors design and evaluation activities for nuclear power plants in the US. The new research simulator discussed in this paper provides a test bed in which operator performance on new control room concepts can be benchmarked against existing control rooms and in which new technologies can be validated for safety and usability prior to deployment.

  20. The role of 'no-touch' automated room disinfection systems in infection prevention and control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otter, J A; Yezli, S; Perl, T M; Barbut, F; French, G L

    2013-01-01

    Surface contamination in hospitals is involved in the transmission of pathogens in a proportion of healthcare-associated infections. Admission to a room previously occupied by a patient colonized or infected with certain nosocomial pathogens increases the risk of acquisition by subsequent occupants; thus, there is a need to improve terminal disinfection of these patient rooms. Conventional disinfection methods may be limited by reliance on the operator to ensure appropriate selection, formulation, distribution and contact time of the agent. These problems can be reduced by the use of 'no-touch' automated room disinfection (NTD) systems. To summarize published data related to NTD systems. Pubmed searches for relevant articles. A number of NTD systems have emerged, which remove or reduce reliance on the operator to ensure distribution, contact time and process repeatability, and aim to improve the level of disinfection and thus mitigate the increased risk from the prior room occupant. Available NTD systems include hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)) vapour systems, aerosolized hydrogen peroxide (aHP) and ultraviolet radiation. These systems have important differences in their active agent, delivery mechanism, efficacy, process time and ease of use. Typically, there is a trade-off between time and effectiveness among NTD systems. The choice of NTD system should be influenced by the intended application, the evidence base for effectiveness, practicalities of implementation and cost constraints. NTD systems are gaining acceptance as a useful tool for infection prevention and control. Copyright © 2012 The Healthcare Infection Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Investigations of incorporating source directivity into room acoustics computer models to improve auralizations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vigeant, Michelle C.

    Room acoustics computer modeling and auralizations are useful tools when designing or modifying acoustically sensitive spaces. In this dissertation, the input parameter of source directivity has been studied in great detail to determine first its effect in room acoustics computer models and secondly how to better incorporate the directional source characteristics into these models to improve auralizations. To increase the accuracy of room acoustics computer models, the source directivity of real sources, such as musical instruments, must be included in the models. The traditional method for incorporating source directivity into room acoustics computer models involves inputting the measured static directivity data taken every 10° in a sphere-shaped pattern around the source. This data can be entered into the room acoustics software to create a directivity balloon, which is used in the ray tracing algorithm to simulate the room impulse response. The first study in this dissertation shows that using directional sources over an omni-directional source in room acoustics computer models produces significant differences both in terms of calculated room acoustics parameters and auralizations. The room acoustics computer model was also validated in terms of accurately incorporating the input source directivity. A recently proposed technique for creating auralizations using a multi-channel source representation has been investigated with numerous subjective studies, applied to both solo instruments and an orchestra. The method of multi-channel auralizations involves obtaining multi-channel anechoic recordings of short melodies from various instruments and creating individual channel auralizations. These auralizations are then combined to create a total multi-channel auralization. Through many subjective studies, this process was shown to be effective in terms of improving the realism and source width of the auralizations in a number of cases, and also modeling different

  2. A flexible dialogue with the computer in the control room of the Saclay's linac

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bianchi, G.; Gourcy, G.; Gournay, J.F.; Jablonka, M.

    1976-01-01

    In the Control Room of the 600 MeV Electron Linac of Saclay (ALS) the use of a powerful visual display (including its own computer) allows to make very simple and flexible the dialogue of the operators with the main computer. As an example we describe a program permitting to select every number of parameters among 320 in order to assign them to one of the functions of the system. (author)

  3. Biased Decision Making in Realistic Extra-Procedural Nuclear Control Room Scenarios

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Emil; Kozin, Igor; Maier, Anja

    In normal operations and emergency situations, operators of nuclear control rooms rely on procedures to guide their decision making. However, in emergency situations, where several interacting problems can cause unpredictable adverse effects, these procedures may be insufficient in guiding...... improve safety by creating procedures that bear the risks of these biases in mind, or by specifically aiming to debias the users. Avenues for debiasing through design are discussed....

  4. An Overview of the Application of Human Factors Guidance to Control Room Design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yondola, Paul R.; Karlewicz, George T.

    2002-01-01

    A new power plant design has the goal of making major improvements in cost and ease of operation over previous designs. Improvements in the way information is organized and presented to control room operators based on established Human Factors Engineering (HFE) criteria is key to achieving these goals. An overview of the process and methods being employed in an ongoing design effort will be discussed, including the ways in which current Human Factors guidance is being applied in a unique operating environment

  5. modelling room cooling capacity with fuzzy logic procedure

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    The human calculation and model results were observed to be strongly correlated ... questions and; provide information to aid in the design and development of the ..... Journal on Computer Science and Engineering, Vol., 3. Number 2, 2011.

  6. Further improvement of human-machine interface for ABWR main control room

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Makino, S.

    2001-01-01

    Tokyo Electric Power Company (TEPCO) has developed main control room panels based on progress in C and I technology. ABWR type main control room panels (ABWR MCR PNLs) are categorized as third generation type domestic BWR MCR, that is, they are were developed step by step based on operating experience with the first and the second generation BWR. ABWR type main control room panels were applied to Kashiwazaki-Kariwa Nuclear Power Station Units Number 6 and 7 (K-6/7) for the first time. K-6/7 are the first advanced BWR (ABWR), which started commercial operation in November 1996 and July 1997, respectively. The concept of ABWR MCR design was verified through wooden mock-up panels, start-up tests and commercial operation. Though the K-6/7 design has borne fruit, we are planning to refine and standardize the design based on the following concepts: to maintain the plant operation and monitoring style of ABWR MCR PNLs; to introduce brand-new HMI technology and devices; to incorporate operators' advice in the design. This paper outlines the features and improvements of the K6/7 MCR PNLs design. (author)

  7. Changes in control room at Swedish nuclear power plants; Kontrollrumsfoeraendringar vid svenska kaernkraftverk

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kecklund, Lena [MTO Psykologi, Huddinge (Sweden)

    2005-09-15

    The Swedish nuclear power plants were commissioned during a period between 1972 and 1985 and the instrumentation and control equipment are basically from that period. For several years there have been plans made for changes in all the nuclear power plants and to a certain extent the changes in control equipment and monitoring rooms have also been implemented. The object of this project was to make a comprehensive review of the changes in control room design implemented in the Swedish nuclear power plants and to describe how the MTO- (Man-Technology-Organisation) and (Man-Machine-Interface) -issues have been integrated in the process. The survey is intended to give an overall picture of the changes in control room design and man-machine-interface made in the Swedish control rooms, in order to get a deeper knowledge of the change management process and its results as well as of the management of MTO-issues in these projects. The units included in this survey are: Oskarhamn reactor 2 and 3; Ringhals reactor 2, 3 and 4; Forsmark reactor 1, 2 and 3. The Oskarshamn 1 unit has not been included in this report as it has recently undergone an extensive modernisation program as well as a detailed inspection by the SKI (Swedish Nuclear Power Inspectorate). At Ringhals 2 the modernisation work is carried out at present and the unit is also subjected to extensive inspection activities carried out by SKI and is therefore not part of this survey. This report also includes a short description of relevant standards and requirements. Then follows a presentation of the results of the plant survey, presented as case studies for three companies OKG, Ringhals and FKA. Control room changes are summarized as well as the results on specific MTO issues which has been surveyed. In all the power companies there is a joint way of working with projects concerning plant modifications. This process is described for each company separately. In the concluding of the report the strengths and

  8. Controlled Acoustic Bass System (CABS) A Method to Achieve Uniform Sound Field Distribution at Low Frequencies in Rectangular Rooms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Celestinos, Adrian; Nielsen, Sofus Birkedal

    2008-01-01

    The sound field produced by loudspeakers at low frequencies in small- and medium-size rectangular listening rooms is highly nonuniform due to the multiple reflections and diffractions of sound on the walls and different objects in the room. A new method, called controlled acoustic bass system (CA......-frequency range. CABS has been simulated and measured in two different standard listening rooms with satisfactory results....

  9. Detailed measurements and modelling of thermo active components using a room size test facility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weitzmann, Peter; Svendsen, Svend

    2005-01-01

    measurements in an office sized test facility with thermo active ceiling and floor as well as modelling of similar conditions in a computer program designed for analysis of building integrated heating and cooling systems. A method for characterizing the cooling capacity of thermo active components is described...... typically within 1-2K of the measured results. The simulation model, whose room model splits up the radiative and convective heat transfer between room and surfaces, can also be used to predict the dynamical conditions, where especially the temperature rise during the day is important for designing...

  10. Comparison of the inspection practices in relation to the control room operator and shift supervisor licenses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aro, Ilari; Koizumi, Hiroyoshi; Manzella, Pietro

    1998-01-01

    The CNRA believes that safety inspections are a major element in the regulatory authority's efforts to ensure the safe operation of nuclear facilities. Considering the importance of these issues, the Committee has established a special Working Group on Inspection Practices (WGIP). The purpose of WGIP, is to facilitate the exchange of information and experience related to regulatory safety inspections between CNRA Member countries In 1996, members of WGIP discussed various ways in which regulatory inspectors look at and evaluate how licenses are given to control room operators and shift supervisors in the Member countries. As a result of these discussions it was proposed to put together a short comparison report on this issue. The CNRA approved work on this at its annual meeting that year. This CNRA/WGIP study concentrates on the regulatory inspection of control room operator competence and authorisation. As noted in the text, fourteen Member countries supplied input by responding to the questionnaire. This report presents a comparison of inspection practices in participating OECD countries relating to control room operator and shift supervisor licenses. The report has been derived from answers to a questionnaire on the basis of guidance given in Appendix 1.1 with the detailed answers being given in Appendix 1. Key questions for this comparison were 'What are the regulatory or licensee requirements for holding and up-keeping a license or authorisation' and 'How does the regulatory body inspect the training and competence of shift teams and individual operators'. The main conclusion from the comparison is that the general practice within the participating countries for ensuring the competence of operators is broadly similar although regulatory practices differ markedly. For example, the regulatory bodies in some countries are actively involved in the examination and licensing process of individual operators whereas other regulatory bodies

  11. Deployment of a Full-Scope Commercial Nuclear Power Plant Control Room Simulator at the Idaho National Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boring, Ronald; Persensky, Julius; Thomas, Kenneth

    2011-01-01

    The INL operates the HSSL to conduct research in the design and evaluation of advanced reactor control rooms, integration of intelligent support systems to assist operators, development and assessment of advanced human performance models, and visualizations to assess advanced operational concepts across various infrastructures. This advanced facility consists of a reconfigurable simulator and a virtual reality capability (known as the Computer-Aided Virtual Environment (CAVE)) (Figure 2). It supports human factors research, including human-in-the-loop performance, HSI, and analog and digital hybrid control displays. It can be applied to the development and evaluation of control systems and displays for complex systems such as existing and advanced NPP control rooms, command and control systems, and advance emergency operations centers. The HSSL incorporates a reconfigurable control room simulator, which is currently housed in the Center for Advanced Energy Studies (CAES), a joint venture of the DOE and the Idaho University System. The simulator is a platform- and plant-neutral environment intended for full-scope and part-task testing of operator performance in various control room configurations. The simulator is not limited to a particular plant or even simulator architecture. It can support engineering simulator platforms from multiple vendors using digital interfaces. Due to its ability to be reconfigured, it is possible to switch the HSI - not just to digital panels but also to different control modalities such as those using greater plant automation or intelligent alarm filtering. The simulator currently includes three operator workstations, each capable of driving up to eight 30-inch monitors. The size and number of monitors varies depending on the particular front-end simulator deployed for a simulator study. These operator workstations would typically be used for the shift supervisor or senior reactor operator, reactor operator, and assistant reactor

  12. Deployment of a Full-Scope Commercial Nuclear Power Plant Control Room Simulator at the Idaho National Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ronald Boring; Julius Persensky; Kenneth Thomas

    2011-09-01

    The INL operates the HSSL to conduct research in the design and evaluation of advanced reactor control rooms, integration of intelligent support systems to assist operators, development and assessment of advanced human performance models, and visualizations to assess advanced operational concepts across various infrastructures. This advanced facility consists of a reconfigurable simulator and a virtual reality capability (known as the Computer-Aided Virtual Environment (CAVE)) (Figure 2). It supports human factors research, including human-in-the-loop performance, HSI, and analog and digital hybrid control displays. It can be applied to the development and evaluation of control systems and displays for complex systems such as existing and advanced NPP control rooms, command and control systems, and advance emergency operations centers. The HSSL incorporates a reconfigurable control room simulator, which is currently housed in the Center for Advanced Energy Studies (CAES), a joint venture of the DOE and the Idaho University System. The simulator is a platform- and plant-neutral environment intended for full-scope and part-task testing of operator performance in various control room configurations. The simulator is not limited to a particular plant or even simulator architecture. It can support engineering simulator platforms from multiple vendors using digital interfaces. Due to its ability to be reconfigured, it is possible to switch the HSI - not just to digital panels but also to different control modalities such as those using greater plant automation or intelligent alarm filtering. The simulator currently includes three operator workstations, each capable of driving up to eight 30-inch monitors. The size and number of monitors varies depending on the particular front-end simulator deployed for a simulator study. These operator workstations would typically be used for the shift supervisor or senior reactor operator, reactor operator, and assistant reactor

  13. A study on dynamic evaluation methods for human-machine interfaces in advanced control rooms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Jin Kyun

    1998-02-01

    Extensive efforts have been performed to reveal factors that largely affect to the safety of nuclear power plants (NPPs). Among them, human factors were known as a dominant cause of a severe accident, such as Three Mile Island and Chernobyl accidents. Thus a lot of efforts to resolve human factors related problems have been spent, and one of these efforts is an advanced control room (ACR) design to enhance human performance and the safety of NPPs. There are two important trends in the design of ACRs. The first one is increasing automation level, and the second one is the development of computer based compact workstations for control room operations including intelligent operator aid systems. However, several problems have been reported when another factors are not properly incorporated into the design of ACRs. Among them, one of the most important factors that significantly affect to operator performance is the design of human machine interfaces (HMIs). Thus, HMI evaluation should be emphasized to ensure appropriateness of HMI designs and the safety of NPPs. In general, two kinds of evaluations have been frequently used to assess appropriateness of the proposed HMI design. The one is the static evaluation and the other is the dynamic evaluation. Here, the static evaluation is the one based on guidelines that are extracted from various researches on HMI designs. And the dynamic evaluation generally attempts to evaluate and predict human performance through a model that can describe cognitive behaviors of human or interactions between HMIs and human. However, the static evaluation seems to be inappropriate because it can't properly capture context of task environment that strongly affects to human performance. In addition, in case of dynamic evaluations, development of a model that can sufficiently describe interactions or cognitive behaviors of human operators is very arduous and laborious. To overcome these problems, dynamic evaluation methods that can

  14. Two aspects of the technical and ergonomical evaluation of the advanced control-room of the new French PWR units

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Montmayeul, R.; Lestien, A.; Dien, Y.; Bozec, J.

    1987-01-01

    In 1981 EDF decided to design a computerized control-room to improve operations. The first unit will be put on the grid in 1991. In order to get a rapid feed-back of operating experience from the design of the new control-room, a full scope simulator has been built for validation by operating teams in 1987-1988. An evaluation plan has been designed. The evaluation goal is to show operation feasibility under any condition and evaluate ergonomy of the control-room. Various aspects have been defined for evaluation: workstation ergonomy, man-machine dialogue and workstation management, work distribution within an operating team, visual and medical aspects, work place and physical environment of the control-room. For each aspect hypothesis have been set up and will be validated. Validation is based on record of operators'actions, observations of behaviour during simulations and interviews. Several series of simulations under normal, incidental and accidental situations are planned. One of the most specific aspects of the new control-room is the computerized man-machine dialogue which needs workstation management actions to get information and actuate controls. Hypothesis concerning this aspect of the validation have been set up from design documentation, before any observation of work was possible, and was based on knowledge of potential problems of this kind of interface in process-control. The validation method is comparative between various simulations, between operators, between a computerized control-room and a classical one. Another aspect concerns the tasks allocation between shifts members and work organization in the control-room. For this part of the evaluation, hypothesis and experimental protocoles were made on the basis of a detailed analysis of work conditions in the present control-rooms. These two aspects of the control-room evaluation are presented. (author)

  15. Resource Room Model for Inclusive Education in China: Practitioners' Conceptualisation and Contextualisation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poon-McBrayer, Kim Fong

    2016-01-01

    China launched the "learning in a regular classroom" (LRC) model for inclusive education in the 1980s. In late 1990s, a few major cities of China began to adopt the resource room model as a key feature of the LRC to improve instructional qualities. This exploratory study examined resource teachers' (RTs) attitude towards inclusive…

  16. Numerical modeling of cold room's hinged door opening and closing processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carneiro, R.; Gaspar, P. D.; Silva, P. D.; Domingues, L. C.

    2016-06-01

    The need of rationalize energy consumption in agrifood industry has fasten the development of methodologies to improve the thermal and energy performances of cold rooms. This paper presents a three-dimensional (3D) transient Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) modelling of a cold room to evaluate the air infiltration rate through hinged doors. A species transport model is used for modelling the tracer gas concentration decay technique. Numerical predictions indicate that air temperature difference between spaces affects the air infiltration. For this case study, the infiltration rate increases 0.016 m3 s-1 per K of air temperature difference. The knowledge about the evolution of air infiltration during door opening/closing times allows to draw some conclusions about its influence on the air conditions inside the cold room, as well as to suggest best practices and simple technical improvements that can minimize air infiltration, and consequently improve thermal performance and energy consumption rationalization.

  17. Defect controlled room temperature ferromagnetism in Co-doped barium titanate nanocrystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ray, Sugata; Kolen'ko, Yury V; Watanabe, Tomoaki; Yoshimura, Masahiro; Itoh, Mitsuru; Kovnir, Kirill A; Lebedev, Oleg I; Turner, Stuart; Erni, Rolf; Tendeloo, Gustaaf Van; Chakraborty, Tanushree

    2012-01-01

    Defect mediated high temperature ferromagnetism in oxide nanocrystallites is the central feature of this work. Here, we report the development of room temperature ferromagnetism in nanosized Co-doped barium titanate particles with a size of around 14 nm, synthesized by a solvothermal drying method. A combination of x-ray diffraction with state-of-the-art electron microscopy techniques confirms the intrinsic doping of Co into BaTiO 3 . The development of the room temperature ferromagnetism was tracked down to the different donor defects, namely hydroxyl groups at the oxygen site and oxygen vacancies and their relative concentrations at the surface and the core of the nanocrystal, which could be controlled by post-synthesis drying and thermal treatments.

  18. Limitation for performance of jobs in power unit control room of nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Janas, D.

    1988-01-01

    The procedure is described for an analysis of the somatic and mental health condition of operating personnel in the unit control room of a nuclear power plant. It was divided into three stages, viz.: (1) determination of adverse and favorable effects of work; (2) the recording of social, psychological, physiological and biochemical changes in the personnel; (3) determination of possibilities of controlling the limit for performance of a job. The analysis showed that the problem is complex and should permanently remain in the centre of attention. (J.B.). 3 refs

  19. Work Analysis of the nuclear power plant control room operators (II): The classes of situation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alengry, P.

    1989-03-01

    This report presents a work analysis of nuclear power plant control room operators focused on the classes of situation they can meet during their job. Each class of situation is first described in terms of the process variables states. We then describe the goals of the operators and the variables they process in each class of situation. We report some of the most representative difficulties encountered by the operators in each class of situation. Finally, we conclude on different topics: the nature of the mental representations, the temporal dimension, the monitoring activity, and the role of the context in the work of controlling a nuclear power plant [fr

  20. Concepts of analytical user interface evaluation method for continuous work in NPP main control room

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, S. J.; Heo, G. Y.; Jang, S. H.

    2003-01-01

    This paper describes a conceptual study of analytical evaluation method for computer-based user interface in the main control room of advanced nuclear power plant. User interfaces can classify them into two groups as static interface and dynamic interface. Existing evaluation and design methods of user interface have been mainly performed for the static user interface. But, it is useful for the dynamic user interface to control the complex system, and proper evaluation method for this is seldom. Therefore an evaluation method for dynamic user interface is proper for continuous works by standards of the load of cognition and the similarity of an interface

  1. The Ergonomically Principle Application On The Main Control Room At Modified Research Reactor TRIGA Mark II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santoso, Kussigit; Itjeu K; Piping S; Sudarmin; Bambang S; Suharyo W

    2000-01-01

    The main control room analysis has been done by using the application of ergonomically principle. The analysis has been stressed on the controller position and noisiness and lightness. The instrumentation position has been analyzed by using software DAP (Display Analysis Program) and noisiness and brightness has been measured by direct measurement at definite point. From the result, it is known that the analog panel display is not good, then it is advised to rearrange the data element and the character vertically or horizontally for reducing the position character complexities. From the noisiness and brightness measurement, it is know that it still fulfills the safety standard

  2. Modeling brine inflow to Room Q: A numerical investigation of flow mechanisms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freeze, G.A.; Christian-Frear, T.L.; Webb, S.W.

    1997-04-01

    A hydrologic modeling study was performed to gain insight into the flow mechanisms around Room Q. A summary of hydrologic and structural data and of predictive fluid flow models from Room Q are provided. Six years of measured data are available from the time of excavation. No brine accumulation in Room Q was measured in the first two years following excavation. However, there is considerable uncertainty associated with this early-time data due to inadequate sealing of the room. Brine may have been lost to evaporation or it may have flowed into newly created disturbed rock zone (DRZ) porosity resulting from excavation. Non-zero brine accumulation rates were measured from 2--5 years, but brine accumulation within the room dropped to zero after 5.5 years. A conceptual model for brine inflow to Room Q was developed which assumes far-field Darcy flow combined with an increasing DRZ pore volume. Numerical simulations employed TOUGH28W and used predictive DRZ porosity increase with time from SPECTROM-32 rock deformation simulations. Simulated brine inflow showed good agreement with measured brine accumulation rates for the first five years. Two important conclusions were drawn from the simulation results: (1) early-time brine inflow to the room can be reduced to zero if the DRZ pore volume increases with time, and (2) brine accumulation (inflow) rates from 2 to 5 years suggest a far-field permeability of 5 x 10 -22 m 2 with a bulk rock compressibility of 5.4 x 10 -12 Pa -1

  3. Design of the control room of the N4-type PWR: main features and feedback operating experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peyrouton, J.M.; Guillas, J.; Nougaret, Ch.

    2004-01-01

    This article presents the design, specificities and innovating features of the control room of the N4-type PWR. A brief description of control rooms of previous 900 MW and 1300 MW -type PWR allows us to assess the change. The design of the first control room dates back to 1972, at that time 2 considerations were taken into account: first the design has to be similar to that of control rooms for thermal plants because plant operators were satisfied with it and secondly the normal operating situation has to be privileged to the prejudice of accidental situations just as it was in a thermal plant. The turning point was the TMI accident that showed the weight of human factor in accidental situations in terms of pilot team, training, procedures and the ergonomics of the work station. The impact of TMI can be seen in the design of 1300 MW-type PWR. In the beginning of the eighties EDF decided to launch a study for a complete overhaul of the control room concept, the aim was to continue reducing the human factor risk and to provide a better quality of piloting the plant in any situation. The result is the control room of the N4-type PWR. Today the cumulated feedback experience of N4 control rooms represents more than 20 years over a wide range of situations from normal to incidental, a survey shows that the N4 design has fulfilled its aims. (A.C.)

  4. Control console of the gamma calibration room; Consola de control de la Sala de Calibracion Gamma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vilchis P, A.E.; Romero G, M. [Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares, Ingenieria Electronica, A.P. 18-1027, 11801 Mexico D.F. (Mexico)

    1999-07-01

    The Nuclear Centre of Mexico has a Ionizing Radiation Metrology Center (CMRI). This is in charge of the calibration in Mexico and Latin America of equipment dedicated to radiation measurement as industrial, medical as other fields. The importance to ensure that the equipment stay justly calibrated, it is imposed the necessity of automating the different rooms which the CMRI has. in this case it will be exposed the Calibration room for gamma radiation type. The operation of this application was carried out with the LabVIEW development platform and also in C language. The hardware associated is: personal computer with two cards using the 8255 device, 16 channels with optical isolation to manage input/output TTL type, 16 channels with optical isolation to management of charges to 127 V a.c., and 2 channels for 90V d.c. motors. (Author)

  5. System design description for the CPDF Cascade Control Room: SDD-7

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-05-01

    The Cascade Control Room (CCR) is the nerve center of the Centrifuge Plant Demonstration Facility (CPDF). The components within the CCR monitor and control those variables necessary for the safe and efficient operation of the cascade during normal and emergency operation. The CCR interfaces with all the process systems and most of the support systems, receiving and transmitting data signals at frequent intervals during all phases of cascade operation. The main component in the CCR is the control room computer (CRC), which serves as the primary interface between the CCR and the process and support systems. The other components in the CCR are: (1) instrumentation cabinets; (2) operator control panel; (3) mass spectrometer - tails (MST); (4) mass spectrometer - product (MSP); (5) product light gas analyzer (PLGA); and (6) the operator. CCR instrumentation provides audible and visual alarms of abnormal events detected by process and utilities instrumentation or by the CRC. Records of alarms and process and utility variables are continuously generated in the CCR. Operator control functions are performed through the CRC or at the various instrument cabinets. Analysis of the current operating status of the plant is aided by the CRC and CCR instrumentation. 14 figs., 2 tabs

  6. A Distributed Control System Prototyping Environment to Support Control Room Modernization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lew, Roger Thomas [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Boring, Ronald Laurids [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Ulrich, Thomas Anthony [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2014-12-01

    platform independent and can communicate with popular full-scope process control simulator vendor plant models and DCS platforms.

  7. Control room modernization at Finnish nuclear power plants - Two projects compared

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laarni, J.; Norros, L.

    2006-01-01

    The modernization of automation systems and human-machine interfaces is a current issue at both of the two nuclear power plants (i.e., Fortum's Loviisa plant and TVO's Olkiluoto plant) in Finland. Since the plants have been launched in the 1970's or 1980's, technology is in part old-fashioned and needs to be renewed. At Olkiluoto upgrades of the turbine operator systems have already been conducted; at Loviisa the first phase of the modernization project has just started. Basically, there is a question of the complete digitalization of the information streams at the two plants, and transition from a conventional hard-wired or hybrid control room to a screen-based one. The new human-machine interfaces will comprise new technology, such as PC workstations, soft control, touch screens and large-screen overall displays. The modernization of human-system interfaces is carried out in a stepwise manner at both plants. At both plants the main driver has not been the need to renew the user interfaces of the control room, but the need to upgrade the automation systems. In part because of this, there is a lack of a systematic top-down approach in which different aspects of human factors (HF) engineering are considered in relationship to higher level goals. Our aim here is to give an overview description of the control room modernization projects at the two plants and provide a preliminary evaluation of their progress to date. The projects are also compared, for example, in terms of duration, scope and phasing, and who is responsible for the realization of the project. In addition, we also compare experiences from the Finnish projects to experiences from similar projects abroad. The main part of the data used in this study is based on designers' and project members' interviews. (authors)

  8. Design and implementation of new control room system in Damavand tokamak

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasouli, H.; Zamanian, H.; Gheidi, M.; Kheiri-Fard, M.; Kouhi, A.

    2017-07-01

    The aim of this paper is design and implementation of an up-to-date control room. The previous control room had a lot of constraints and it was not apposite to the sophisticated diagnostic systems as well as to the modern control and multivariable systems. Although it provided the best output for the considered experiments and implementing offline algorithms among all similar plants, it needed to be developed to provide more capability for complex algorithm mechanisms and this work introduces our efforts in this area. Accordingly, four leading systems were designed and implemented, including real-time control system, online Data Acquisition System (DAS), offline DAS, monitoring and data transmission system. In the control system, three real-time control modules were established based on Digital Signal Processor (DSP). Thanks to them, implementation of the classic and linear and nonlinear intelligent controllers was possible to control the plasma position and its elongation. Also, online DAS was constructed in two modules. Using them, voltages and currents of charge for the capacitor banks and pressure of different parts in vacuum vessel were measured and monitored. Likewise, by real-time processing of the online data, the safety protocol of plant performance was accomplished. In addition, the offline DAS was organized in 13 modules based on Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA). This system can be used for gathering all diagnostic, control, and performance data in 156 channels. Data transmission system and storing mechanism in the server was provided by data transmitting network and MDSplus standard protocol. Moreover, monitoring software was designed so that it could display the required plots for physical analyses. Taking everything into account, this new platform can improve the quality and quantity of research activities in plasma physics for Damavand tokamak.

  9. Human factors engineering evaluation of the Advanced Test Reactor Control Room

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boone, M.P.; Banks, W.W.

    1980-12-01

    The information presented here represents preliminary findings related to an ongoing human engineering evaluation of the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) Control Room. Although many of the problems examined in this report have been previously noted by ATR operations personnel, the systematic approach used in this investigation produced many new insights. While many violations of Human Engineering military standards (MIL-STD) are noted, and numerous recommendations made, the recommendations should be examined cautiously. The reason for our suggested caution lies in the fact that many ATR operators have well over 10-years experience in operating the controls, meters, etc. Hence, it is assumed adaptation to the existing system is quite developed and the introduction of hardware/control changes, even though the changes enhance the system, may cause short-term (or long-term, depending upon the amount of operator experience and training) adjustment problems for operators adapting to the new controls/meters and physical layout

  10. Control Technologies for Room Air-conditioner and Packaged Air-conditioner

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, Nobuhisa

    Trends of control technologies about air-conditioning machineries, especially room or packaged air conditioners, are presented in this paper. Multiple air conditioning systems for office buildings are mainly described as one application of the refrigeration cycle control technologies including sensors for thermal comfort and heating/ cooling loads are also described as one of the system control technologies. Inverter systems and related technologies for driving variable speed compressors are described in both case of including induction motors and brushless DC motors. Technologies for more accurate control to meet various kind of regulations such as ozone layer destruction, energy saving and global warming, and for eliminating harmonic distortion of power source current, as a typical EMC problem, will be urgently desired.

  11. Demand control on room level of the supply air temperature in an air heating and ventilation system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Polak, Joanna; Afshari, Alireza; Bergsøe, Niels Christian

    2017-01-01

    air heating and ventilation system in a high performance single family house using BSim simulation software. The provision of the desired thermal conditions in different rooms was examined. Results show that the new control strategy can facilitate maintaining of desired temperatures in various rooms......The aim of this study was to investigate a new strategy for control of supply air temperature in an integrated air heating and ventilation system. The new strategy enables demand control of supply air temperature in individual rooms. The study is based on detailed dynamic simulations of a combined....... Moreover, this control strategy enables controlled temperature differentiation between rooms within the house and therefore provides flexibility and better balance in heat delivery. Consequently, the thermal conditions in the building can be improved....

  12. Mass Alarms in Main Control Room Caused Condensate on the Instrumentation and Control Cards in Turbine Building

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goo, Cheol-Soo

    2015-01-01

    A bunch of alarms and trouble lights on the main control room simultaneously turned on during inspection and exchange of the coolers of the turbine building at pressurized water reactor of the Hanbit nuclear power plant No. 6. The main cause was condensate on instrumentation cards of plant control system (PCS) installed at enclosures in the turbine building which have MUX cabinets to transmit signals between the main control room and local equipment. To control the temperature and humidity of the MUX cabinets, two coolers of the plant chilled water system supply air to the compact enclosures at turbine building where temperature and humidity is high in the summer. It is an unusual experience that mass alarms abnormally were occurred in the main control room during normal plant operation phases. Spurious signals with unknown cause at control and instrumentation system occasionally may have an unnecessary actuation of monitoring equipment and a plant scram even. One of the main causes is humidity by a rapid temperature change of the control and instrumentation cards. Dew on the instrumentation cards could form an abnormal short circuit in printed circuit board with the compact circuits and make any malfunction of the related system. Instrumentation and control cards with integrated circuits are vulnerable to high humidity and temperature where the system is enclosed in a small housing or enclosure surrounding with hash environment such as a turbine building. It was found that there was no functional degradation of the safety systems and no outsides releases of radioactive materials by this occurrence. (author)

  13. Demonstration of Intelligent Control and Fan Improvements in Computer Room Air Handlers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coles, Henry [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Environmental Energy Technologies Division; Greenberg, Steve [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Environmental Energy Technologies Division; Vita, Corinne [Vigilent, Oakland, CA (United States)

    2012-11-30

    This report documents a demonstration of the energy-efficiency improvement provided by a new control system for computer room air handling devices. It also analyzes measured and reported air handling device fan power associated with changing the fan type. A 135,000 square foot commercial data center was used for the demonstration. All air handling units were upgraded with improved efficiency fans, and a control system that automatically adjusts the fan speed for the air handling units was added. Power measurements were collected for a baseline and for a period with the fan speed control system active. Changing the fan type resulted in a savings of 47 percent of energy used by the air handling equipment and associated chiller plant energy needed to cool the air handlers themselves. The addition of the fan speed control resulted in an additional 37 percent savings in the same two categories. The combined savings for the two improvements for the same categories was 66 percent compared to the data center fitted with the original fans without a control system. The energy use reduction provided by the complete air handling device improvement program for the whole data center site is estimated to be 2.9 million kilowatt hours per year—an overall data center site savings of 8.0 percent. The reduced electrical energy use at the site provides a 1.9 million pound yearly reduction of carbon dioxide emissions. This demonstration showed that fan upgrades and a control system addition provide cost-effective improvements for data centers, with a payback reported to be under two years without utility incentives. In addition to the control system providing energy savings, the data collection and visual analysis capabilities provided immediate and long-term benefits. It is recommended that data center operators consider investing in fan upgrades and/or adding fan speed control for computer room air handlers.

  14. Evaluation of the revised training program for senior control room staff: science fundamentals and equipment principles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jervis, R.E.; Evans, G.J.

    1996-10-01

    Canadian nuclear utilities have formed an Inter-Utility Working Group to revise their program for training nuclear generating station senior control room staff, namely Control Room Operators and Shift Supervisors, in Science Fundamentals and Equipment Principles. This report documents the findings of an external review of this revision process, addressing, amongst other topics, the process of revision undertaken by the Working Group, their outline of topics to be included, and, the pertinence and comprehensiveness of the detailed training objectives identified for two of the courses. The approach to revising the program being followed by the Working Group appears to be reasonable insomuch that some training needs have been identified and used to construct detailed sets of training objectives. However, as assessed by the consultants without full documentation being available, some important steps appear to have been missed. Specifically, much of the basis of the revision process has not been documented, neither has the approach selected for the revision process, nor has any justification for not performing a CANDU specific job and task analysis been offered. Furthermore, the Working Group has not yet proposed any criteria for evaluation of the program or provided any test items. As a result, the consultants have had to develop criteria for evaluation of the overall program and of individual courses. These criteria were applied in a more detailed review of the training objectives for two particular courses: Plant Chemistry, and Nuclear Physics and Reactor Theory. Many of the training objectives for these courses were found to be too qualitative or ones that require trainees to memorize blocks of information rather than develop in them an ability to arrive at conclusions about scientific phenomena using principles and reasoning. This assessment indicates that the training objectives are designed to achieve too low a level of cognition, inconsistent with developing an

  15. Human factors review of nuclear power plant control room design. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seminara, J.L.; Gonzalez, W.R.; Parsons, S.O.

    1976-11-01

    The human factors aspects of five representative nuclear power plant control rooms were evaluated using such methods as a checklist guided observation system, structured interviews with operators and trainers, direct observations of operator behavior, task analyses and procedure evaluation, and historical error analyses. The human factors aspects of design practices are illustrated, and many improvements in current practices are suggested. The study recommends that a detailed set of applicable human factors standards be developed to stimulate a uniform and systematic concern for human factors in design considerations

  16. Duct corrosion in the ventilating air conditioning system for Main Control Room

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamada, Kohei; Kobayashi, Takashi; Minami, Akiko; Fukuba, Kazushi

    2014-01-01

    Higashidori Nuclear Power Station, start-of-operation in December 2005, is a relatively new plant. We decided to get original data of air duct condition to determine maintenance policy of air duct, because planned maintenance of air duct has never been done and the corrosion of air duct has occurred in other plant. In January 2014, we found a corrosion-hole at the downstream of the inlet damper in the ventilating air conditioning system for Main Control Room (MCR). We supposed that the cause of rapid corrosion is related to the characteristic environment of this site. (author)

  17. Display device for technical processes, particularly in control rooms of nuclear power stations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aleite, W.

    1982-01-01

    Measuring equipment for displaying pictures of process parameters is used as the display device for technical processes. There are also visual indicators mounted next to each other to reproduce process parameters using a computer. According to the invention, a large number of visual indicators are supplied via a picture repeat computer and a multicomputer picture generating system in a redundancy circuit, which makes it possible to produce a coherent representation of process parameters via several visual indicators situated next to each other. The invention is particularly suitable for assessing developments over a time period in the control rooms of nuclear powerstations. (orig.) [de

  18. Mental workload measurement in operator control room using NASA-TLX

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugarindra, M.; Suryoputro, M. R.; Permana, A. I.

    2017-12-01

    The workload, encountered a combination of physical workload and mental workload, is a consequence of the activities for workers. Central control room is one department in the oil processing company, employees tasked with monitoring the processing unit for 24 hours nonstop with a combination of 3 shifts in 8 hours. NASA-TLX (NASA Task Load Index) is one of the subjective mental workload measurement using six factors, namely the Mental demand (MD), Physical demand (PD), Temporal demand (TD), Performance (OP), Effort (EF), frustration levels (FR). Measurement of a subjective mental workload most widely used because it has a high degree of validity. Based on the calculation of the mental workload, there at 5 units (DTU, NPU, HTU, DIST and OPS) at the control chamber (94; 83.33; 94.67; 81, 33 and 94.67 respectively) that categorize as very high mental workload. The high level of mental workload on the operator in the Central Control Room is a requirement to have high accuracy, alertness and can make decisions quickly

  19. Development of a framework to estimate human error for diagnosis tasks in advanced control room

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Ar Ryum; Jang, In Seok; Seong, Proong Hyun

    2014-01-01

    In the emergency situation of nuclear power plants (NPPs), a diagnosis of the occurring events is crucial for managing or controlling the plant to a safe and stable condition. If the operators fail to diagnose the occurring events or relevant situations, their responses can eventually inappropriate or inadequate Accordingly, huge researches have been performed to identify the cause of diagnosis error and estimate the probability of diagnosis error. D.I Gertman et al. asserted that 'the cognitive failures stem from erroneous decision-making, poor understanding of rules and procedures, and inadequate problem solving and this failures may be due to quality of data and people's capacity for processing information'. Also many researchers have asserted that human-system interface (HSI), procedure, training and available time are critical factors to cause diagnosis error. In nuclear power plants, a diagnosis of the event is critical for safe condition of the system. As advanced main control room is being adopted in nuclear power plants, the operators may obtain the plant data via computer-based HSI and procedure. Also many researchers have asserted that HSI, procedure, training and available time are critical factors to cause diagnosis error. In this regards, using simulation data, diagnosis errors and its causes were identified. From this study, some useful insights to reduce diagnosis errors of operators in advanced main control room were provided

  20. Development of contextual task analysis for NPP control room operators' work

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hukki, K.

    1998-01-01

    The paper introduces a contextual approach to task analysis concerning control room operators' tasks and task conditions in nuclear power plants. The approach is based on the ecological concept of the situational appropriateness of activity. The task demands are dependent on the ultimate task of the operators which is to maintain the critical safety functions of the process. The context also sets boundary conditions to the fulfilment of these demands. The conceptualisation of the context affords possibilities to comprehend and make visible the core demands of the operators' work. Characteristic to the approach is that the conceptualisation is made both from the point of the operators who are making interpretations of the situation and from the point of the process to be controlled. The context is described as a world of operators' possibilities and constraints and, at the same time, in relation to the demands set by the nature of the process. The method is under development and has been applied in simulator training, in the evaluation of the control room information and in the integrated development of reliability analysis. The method emphasizes the role of explicit conceptualisation of the task situations. Explicity enhances its role as a conceptual tool and, therefore, promotes common awareness in these domains. (orig.)

  1. Control room unfiltered in-leakage limit analysis of design-basis LOCA for Lungmen ABWR plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsai Chihming; Chang Chinjang; Yuann Yngruey

    2014-01-01

    In USNRC's Generic Letter 2003-01, 'Control Room Habitability,' it requests utilities provide information to demonstrate that the control room at each of their respective facilities complies with the current licensing and design bases, and applicable regulatory requirements, and that suitable design, maintenance and testing control measures are in place for maintaining this compliance. In particular, each utility is required to perform the control room in-leakage test to demonstrate that the unfiltered in-leakage rate is within that assumed in the licensing analyses. It must be ensured that the control room envelope habitability, in terms of radiation dose, is maintained during normal operations as well as design basis accidents. In view of this, a dose analysis has been performed to establish the control room unfiltered in-leakage limit which can be used as an acceptance criterion for the in-leakage test. The analysis in this study is for Lungmen ABWR plant. The plant has twin units, with each unit having its own control room. The TID-4844 source terms and associated methodology are used. The USNRC RADTRAD v3.03 code is employed for the transport calculation of radioactive materials in different paths, including control room in-leakage path. The radiological criterion on protection of the operators specified in 10 CFR 50, Appendix A, General Design Criterion 19 is followed. It's demonstrated that the performance of Lungmen control room with 500 cfm unfiltered in-leakage air could meet the radiological habitability acceptance criteria in case of radiation hazards. (author)

  2. A simplified heat transfer model for predicting temperature change inside food package kept in cold room.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raval, A H; Solanki, S C; Yadav, Rajvir

    2013-04-01

    A simple analytical heat flow model for a closed rectangular food package containing fruits or vegetables is proposed for predicting time temperature distribution during transient cooling in a controlled environment cold room. It is based on the assumption of only conductive heat transfer inside a closed food package with effective thermal properties, and convective and radiative heat transfer at the outside of the package. The effective thermal conductivity of the food package is determined by evaluating its effective thermal resistance to heat conduction in the packages. Food packages both as an infinite slab and a finite slab have been investigated. The finite slab solution has been obtained as the product of three infinite slab solutions describe in ASHRAE guide and data book. Time temperature variation has been determined and is presented graphically. The cooling rate and the half cooling time were also obtained. These predicted values, are compared with the experimentally measured values for both the finite and infinite closed packages containing oranges. An excellent agreement between them validated the simple proposed model.

  3. Human Factors Guidance for Control Room and Digital Human-System Interface Design and Modification, Guidelines for Planning, Specification, Design, Licensing, Implementation, Training, Operation and Maintenance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    R. Fink, D. Hill, J. O' Hara

    2004-11-30

    Nuclear plant operators face a significant challenge designing and modifying control rooms. This report provides guidance on planning, designing, implementing and operating modernized control rooms and digital human-system interfaces.

  4. Human Factors Guidance for Control Room and Digital Human-System Interface Design and Modification. Guidelines for Planning, Specification, Design, Licensing, Implementation, Training, Operation and Maintenance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fink, R.; Hill, D.; O'Hara, J.

    2004-01-01

    Nuclear plant operators face a significant challenge designing and modifying control rooms. This report provides guidance on planning, designing, implementing and operating modernized control rooms and digital human-system interfaces

  5. Differences in directional sound source behavior and perception between assorted computer room models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vigeant, M. C.; Wang, L. M.; Rindel, Jens Holger

    2004-01-01

    time. However, for the three other parameters evaluated (sound-pressure level, clarity index, and lateral fraction), the changing diffusivity of the room does not diminish the importance of the directivity. The study therefore shows the importance of considering source directivity when using computer......Source directivity is an important input variable when using room acoustic computer modeling programs to generate auralizations. Previous research has shown that using a multichannel anechoic recording can produce a more natural sounding auralization, particularly as the number of channels...

  6. A Pilot Study Investigating the Effects of Advanced Nuclear Power Plant Control Room Technologies: Methods and Qualitative Results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    BLanc, Katya Le [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Powers, David [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Joe, Jeffrey [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Spielman, Zachary [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Rice, Brandon [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Fitzgerald, Kirk [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2015-08-01

    Control room modernization is an important part of life extension for the existing light water reactor fleet. None of the 99 currently operating commercial nuclear power plants in the U.S. has completed a full-scale control room modernization to date. Nuclear power plant main control rooms for the existing commercial reactor fleet remain significantly analog, with only limited digital modernizations. Upgrades in the U.S. do not achieve the full potential of newer technologies that might otherwise enhance plant and operator performance. The goal of the control room upgrade benefits research is to identify previously overlooked benefits of modernization, identify candidate technologies that may facilitate such benefits, and demonstrate these technologies through human factors research. This report describes a pilot study to test upgrades to the Human Systems Simulation Laboratory at INL.

  7. Development of a basic questionnaire for human-factors applications in nuclear-power-plant control rooms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Friar, D.E.; Fowler, D.R.; Brown, W.R.

    1982-11-01

    This paper analyzes the efforts of a study team in developing an assessment instrument. Principles are outlined for development of any questionnaire or control room survey and some of the actual processes used in the FFTF project are described

  8. Comparison of turbulence models for numerical calculation of airflow in an annex 20 room

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Voigt, Lars P. K.

    2000-01-01

    The report deals with 2-D numerical calculation of room airflow in an isothermal annex 20 room. The report documents the ability of the flow solver EllipSys2D to give results in good agreement with measurements for the specified test case. The flow solver is a finite volume code solving the Reyno.......Applying theory for a two-dimensional wall jet, measurements are compared with calculated values of the turbulent kinetic energy....... the Reynolds Averaged Navier Stokes equations.Five two-equation turbulence models were tested. These are the standard k-epsilon model, the low-Reynolds number k-epison model by Launder & Sharma, the k-omega model by Wilcox, the k-omega baseline (BSL) model by Menter and the k-omega Shear Stress Transport (SST...

  9. Commentary on nuclear power plant control room habitability - including a review of related LERs (1981-1983)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moeller, D.W.; Kotra, J.P.

    1985-01-01

    A review of Licensee Event Reports filed by the operator of commercial nuclear power plants from 1981 through 1983 has revealed that approximately 3% pertain to systems that maintain or monitor control room habitability. Dominant contributors were deficiencies in normal and emergency trains of heating, ventilation, air conditioning and air cleaning systems (45%), deficiencies in atmospheric monitors for toxic and radioactive substances (27%) and deficiencies in fire protection systems (13%). To correct the situation revealed by these analyses and by information provided from other sources, it is recommended that the NRC incorporate into its program plan the development of information that anticipates the conditions within a control room during emergencies, and that criteria for habitability within the control room be better defined. In addition, it is suggested than an improved protocol for testing control room air-related systems be developed, that the required thickness and number of layers of charcoal adsorption beds for control room air cleaning systems be re-evaluated, and that steps be taken to improve the quality of heating, ventilating, air conditioning and air cleaning components. It is also recommended that greater emphasis be placed on maintaining nuclear power plant control rooms in a habitable condition during emergencies so that the operators can remain there and safely shut down the plant, in contrast to placing reliance on the use of remote shutdown panels or auxiliary control facilities

  10. Automation inflicted differences on operator performance in nuclear power plant control rooms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andersson, Jonas; Osvalder, A.L.

    2007-03-01

    Today it is possible to automate almost any function in a human-machine system. Therefore it is important to find a balance between automation level and the prerequisites for the operator to maintain safe operation. Different human factors evaluation methods can be used to find differences between automatic and manual operations that have an effect on operator performance; e.g. Predictive Human Error Analysis (PHEA), NASA Task Load Index (NASA-TLX), Halden Questionnaire, and Human Error Assessment and Reduction Technique (HEART). Results from an empirical study concerning automation levels, made at Ringhals power plant, showed that factors as time pressure and criticality of the work situation influenced the operator's performance and mental workload more than differences in level of automation. The results indicate that the operator's attention strategies differ between the manual and automatic sequences. Independently of level of automation, it is essential that the operator retains control and situational understanding. When performing a manual task, the operator is 'closer' to the process and in control with sufficient situational understanding. When the level of automation increases, the demands on information presentation increase to ensure safe plant operation. The need for control can be met by introducing 'control gates' where the operator has to accept that the automatic procedures are continuing as expected. Situational understanding can be established by clear information about process status and by continuous feedback. A conclusion of the study was that a collaborative control room environment is important. Rather than allocating functions to either the operator or the system, a complementary strategy should be used. Key parameters to consider when planning the work in the control room are time constraints and task criticality and how they affect the performance of the joint cognitive system.However, the examined working situations were too different

  11. Control room habitability survey of licensed commercial nuclear power generating stations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Driscoll, J.W.

    1988-10-01

    This document presents the results of a survey of control room habitability systems at twelve commercial nuclear generating stations. The survey, conducted by Argonne National Laboratory (ANL), is part of an NRC program initiated in response to concerns and recommendations of the Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS). The major conclusion of the report is that the numerous types of potentially significant discrepancies found among the surveyed plants may be indicative of similar discrepancies throughout the industry. The report provides plant-specific and generalized findings regarding safety functions with respect to the consistency of the design, construction, operation and testing of control room habitability systems and corresponding Technical Specifications compared with descriptions provided in the license basis documentation including assumptions in the operator toxic gas concentration and radiation dose calculations. Calculations of operator toxic gas concentrations and radiation doses were provided in the license basis documentation and were not performed by the ANL survey team. Recommendation for improvements are provided in the report

  12. Procedure and information displays in advanced nuclear control rooms: experimental evaluation of an integrated design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yue; Gao, Qin; Song, Fei; Li, Zhizhong; Wang, Yufan

    2017-08-01

    In the main control rooms of nuclear power plants, operators frequently have to switch between procedure displays and system information displays. In this study, we proposed an operation-unit-based integrated design, which combines the two displays to facilitate the synthesis of information. We grouped actions that complete a single goal into operation units and showed these operation units on the displays of system states. In addition, we used different levels of visual salience to highlight the current unit and provided a list of execution history records. A laboratory experiment, with 42 students performing a simulated procedure to deal with unexpected high pressuriser level, was conducted to compare this design against an action-based integrated design and the existing separated-displays design. The results indicate that our operation-unit-based integrated design yields the best performance in terms of time and completion rate and helped more participants to detect unexpected system failures. Practitioner Summary: In current nuclear control rooms, operators frequently have to switch between procedure and system information displays. We developed an integrated design that incorporates procedure information into system displays. A laboratory study showed that the proposed design significantly improved participants' performance and increased the probability of detecting unexpected system failures.

  13. A HUMAN AUTOMATION INTERACTION CONCEPT FOR A SMALL MODULAR REACTOR CONTROL ROOM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Le Blanc, Katya; Spielman, Zach; Hill, Rachael

    2017-06-01

    Many advanced nuclear power plant (NPP) designs incorporate higher degrees of automation than the existing fleet of NPPs. Automation is being introduced or proposed in NPPs through a wide variety of systems and technologies, such as advanced displays, computer-based procedures, advanced alarm systems, and computerized operator support systems. Additionally, many new reactor concepts, both full scale and small modular reactors, are proposing increased automation and reduced staffing as part of their concept of operations. However, research consistently finds that there is a fundamental tradeoff between system performance with increased automation and reduced human performance. There is a need to address the question of how to achieve high performance and efficiency of high levels of automation without degrading human performance. One example of a new NPP concept that will utilize greater degrees of automation is the SMR concept from NuScale Power. The NuScale Power design requires 12 modular units to be operated in one single control room, which leads to a need for higher degrees of automation in the control room. Idaho National Laboratory (INL) researchers and NuScale Power human factors and operations staff are working on a collaborative project to address the human performance challenges of increased automation and to determine the principles that lead to optimal performance in highly automated systems. This paper will describe this concept in detail and will describe an experimental test of the concept. The benefits and challenges of the approach will be discussed.

  14. Human Factors methods concerning integrated validation of nuclear power plant control rooms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oskarsson, Per-Anders; Johansson, Bjoern J.E.; Gonzalez, Natalia

    2010-02-01

    The frame of reference for this work was existing recommendations and instructions from the NPP area, experiences from the review of the Turbic Validation and experiences from system validations performed at the Swedish Armed Forces, e.g. concerning military control rooms and fighter pilots. These enterprises are characterized by complex systems in extreme environments, often with high risks, where human error can lead to serious consequences. A focus group has been performed with representatives responsible for Human Factors issues from all Swedish NPP:s. The questions that were discussed were, among other things, for whom an integrated validation (IV) is performed and its purpose, what should be included in an IV, the comparison with baseline measures, the design process, the role of SSM, which methods of measurement should be used, and how the methods are affected of changes in the control room. The report brings different questions to discussion concerning the validation process. Supplementary methods of measurement for integrated validation are discussed, e.g. dynamic, psychophysiological, and qualitative methods for identification of problems. Supplementary methods for statistical analysis are presented. The study points out a number of deficiencies in the validation process, e.g. the need of common guidelines for validation and design, criteria for different types of measurements, clarification of the role of SSM, and recommendations for the responsibility of external participants in the validation process. The authors propose 12 measures for taking care of the identified problems

  15. Team interaction skills evaluation criteria for nuclear power plant control room operators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Montgomery, J.C.; Hauth, J.T.

    1991-01-01

    Team interaction skills are an essential aspect of safe nuclear power plant control room operations. Previous research has shown that, when a group works together, rather than as individuals, more effective operations are possible. However, little research has addressed how such team interaction skills can be measured. In this study rating scales were developed specifically for such a measurement purpose. Dimensions of team skill performance were identified from previous research and experience in the area, incorporating the input of Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) contract operator licensing examiners. Rating scales were developed on the basis of these dimensions, incorporating a modified Behaviorally Anchored Rating Scale (BARS) as well as Behavioral Frequency formats. After a pilot-testing/revision process, rating data were collected using 11 control room crews responding to simulator scenarios at a boiling water and a pressurized water reactor. Statistical analyses of the resulting data revealed moderate inter-rater reliability using the Behavioral Frequency scales, relatively low inter-rater reliability using the BARS, and moderate support for convergent and discriminant validity of the scales. It was concluded that the scales show promise psychometrically and in terms of user acceptability, but that additional scale revision is needed before field implementation. Recommendations for scale revision and directions for future research were presented

  16. Metal-Controlled Magnetoresistance at Room Temperature in Single-Molecule Devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aragonès, Albert C; Aravena, Daniel; Valverde-Muñoz, Francisco J; Real, José Antonio; Sanz, Fausto; Díez-Pérez, Ismael; Ruiz, Eliseo

    2017-04-26

    The appropriate choice of the transition metal complex and metal surface electronic structure opens the possibility to control the spin of the charge carriers through the resulting hybrid molecule/metal spinterface in a single-molecule electrical contact at room temperature. The single-molecule conductance of a Au/molecule/Ni junction can be switched by flipping the magnetization direction of the ferromagnetic electrode. The requirements of the molecule include not just the presence of unpaired electrons: the electronic configuration of the metal center has to provide occupied or empty orbitals that strongly interact with the junction metal electrodes and that are close in energy to their Fermi levels for one of the electronic spins only. The key ingredient for the metal surface is to provide an efficient spin texture induced by the spin-orbit coupling in the topological surface states that results in an efficient spin-dependent interaction with the orbitals of the molecule. The strong magnetoresistance effect found in this kind of single-molecule wire opens a new approach for the design of room-temperature nanoscale devices based on spin-polarized currents controlled at molecular level.

  17. Design concepts for an integrated control room used as a site-wide operations facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simon, B.H.; Raghavan, R.; Ujita, H.; Utena, S.; Sakuma, A.; Itoh, T.; Fukura, M.; Ono, I.

    1995-01-01

    The concept of an Integrated Main Control Room (IMCR) evolved from surveys conducted by Tokyo Electric Power Company (TEPCO) with plant managers and workers as their existing GE-type boiling water reactors (BWRs) on the need for improved operating conditions in a new generation of reactors being developed for the next century (around 2010). These reactors will be a further enhancement of the advanced boiling water reactors (ABWRs) now being constructed at the Kashiwazaki-Kariwa site in Japan (no.6 and no.7). TEPCO also saw a need for new thinking on control room design because of projected social conditions in Japan for the 21st century. These projections forecast a smaller number of skilled engineering graduates and those graduates less willing to work in nuclear power because such work is seen as unappealing, conducted in remote geographical locations, and requiring extensive night duty. As one solution to reducing operator burden and decreasing the night shift staff, while making nuclear plant operation more interesting for the operators and reducing labor and construction costs, the IMCR was conceived. (author)

  18. ATLAS Virtual Visits: Bringing the World into the ATLAS Control Room

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goldfarb, S

    2012-01-01

    The newfound ability of Social Media to transform public communication back to a conversational nature provides HEP with a powerful tool for Outreach and Communication. By far, the most effective component of nearly any visit or public event is that fact that the students, teachers, media, and members of the public have a chance to meet and converse with real scientists. While more than 30,000 visitors passed through the ATLAS Visitor Centre in 2011, nearly 7 billion did not have a chance to make the trip. Clearly this is not for lack of interest. Rather, the costs of travel, in terms of time and money, and limited parking, put that number somewhat out of reach. On the other hand, during the LHC “First Physics” event of 2010, more than 2 million visitors joined the experiment control rooms via webcast for the celebration. This document presents a project developed for the ATLAS Experiment's Outreach and Education program that complements the webcast infrastructure with video conferencing and wireless sound systems, allowing the public to interact with hosts in the control room with minimal disturbance to the shifters. These “Virtual Visits” have included high school classes, LHC Masterclasses, conferences, expositions and other events in Europe, USA, Japan and Australia, to name a few. We discuss the technology used, potential pitfalls (and ways to avoid them), and our plans for the future.

  19. Human Factors methods concerning integrated validation of nuclear power plant control rooms; Metodutveckling foer integrerad validering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oskarsson, Per-Anders; Johansson, Bjoern J.E.; Gonzalez, Natalia (Swedish Defence Research Agency, Information Systems, Linkoeping (Sweden))

    2010-02-15

    The frame of reference for this work was existing recommendations and instructions from the NPP area, experiences from the review of the Turbic Validation and experiences from system validations performed at the Swedish Armed Forces, e.g. concerning military control rooms and fighter pilots. These enterprises are characterized by complex systems in extreme environments, often with high risks, where human error can lead to serious consequences. A focus group has been performed with representatives responsible for Human Factors issues from all Swedish NPP:s. The questions that were discussed were, among other things, for whom an integrated validation (IV) is performed and its purpose, what should be included in an IV, the comparison with baseline measures, the design process, the role of SSM, which methods of measurement should be used, and how the methods are affected of changes in the control room. The report brings different questions to discussion concerning the validation process. Supplementary methods of measurement for integrated validation are discussed, e.g. dynamic, psychophysiological, and qualitative methods for identification of problems. Supplementary methods for statistical analysis are presented. The study points out a number of deficiencies in the validation process, e.g. the need of common guidelines for validation and design, criteria for different types of measurements, clarification of the role of SSM, and recommendations for the responsibility of external participants in the validation process. The authors propose 12 measures for taking care of the identified problems

  20. Human-system interface evaluation system for advanced control room based on SQL database

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Yan; Zhou Zhiwei; Bian Zhiqiang; Xu Li

    2005-01-01

    User Interface (UI) plays an important role in the advanced control room (ACR) of a nuclear power plant (NPP). In this paper, we present a rule-based ACR Human-system Interface Evaluation System (AHSIES) using expert system technology, which can evaluate UI design shortcomings, propose modification suggestions, and help designer improve the ACR interface design. AHSIES consists of four programs: the UI Editor, the Operation Procedure Manager, the Operation Simulator and the UI Design Evaluator. These four parts respectively function for: editing a set of UI icons employed as the operation screens of an advanced control room; for editing operation procedures aiming at any specified operation with simple language; for simulate the operation sequences dynamically and recording the relevant information for design performance of the UIs; and for evaluating both static and dynamic performance of the ACR UI design according to well established design guidelines and criteria with the information gained from the first three programs. Microsoft SQL Server 2000 DBMS is adopted to manage the voluminous data and its complex relationships. The preliminary test application of AHSIES for a simplified ACR UI design of a PWR NPP has shown that the expert evaluation system is capable of achieving satisfactory evaluation results. (authors)