Sample records for modeling co2 levels

  1. System-level modeling for geological storage of CO2


    Zhang, Yingqi; Oldenburg, Curtis M.; Finsterle, Stefan; Bodvarsson, Gudmundur S.


    One way to reduce the effects of anthropogenic greenhouse gases on climate is to inject carbon dioxide (CO2) from industrial sources into deep geological formations such as brine formations or depleted oil or gas reservoirs. Research has and is being conducted to improve understanding of factors affecting particular aspects of geological CO2 storage, such as performance, capacity, and health, safety and environmental (HSE) issues, as well as to lower the cost of CO2 capture and related p...

  2. System-level modeling for economic evaluation of geological CO2 storage in gas reservoirs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Yingqi; Oldenburg, Curtis M.; Finsterle, Stefan; Bodvarsson, Gudmundur S.


    One way to reduce the effects of anthropogenic greenhouse gases on climate is to inject carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) from industrial sources into deep geological formations such as brine aquifers or depleted oil or gas reservoirs. Research is being conducted to improve understanding of factors affecting particular aspects of geological CO 2 storage (such as storage performance, storage capacity, and health, safety and environmental (HSE) issues) as well as to lower the cost of CO 2 capture and related processes. However, there has been less emphasis to date on system-level analyses of geological CO 2 storage that consider geological, economic, and environmental issues by linking detailed process models to representations of engineering components and associated economic models. The objective of this study is to develop a system-level model for geological CO 2 storage, including CO 2 capture and separation, compression, pipeline transportation to the storage site, and CO 2 injection. Within our system model we are incorporating detailed reservoir simulations of CO 2 injection into a gas reservoir and related enhanced production of methane. Potential leakage and associated environmental impacts are also considered. The platform for the system-level model is GoldSim [GoldSim User's Guide. GoldSim Technology Group; 2006,]. The application of the system model focuses on evaluating the feasibility of carbon sequestration with enhanced gas recovery (CSEGR) in the Rio Vista region of California. The reservoir simulations are performed using a special module of the TOUGH2 simulator, EOS7C, for multicomponent gas mixtures of methane and CO 2 . Using a system-level modeling approach, the economic benefits of enhanced gas recovery can be directly weighed against the costs and benefits of CO 2 injection

  3. Modeling CO2 emissions from Arctic lakes: Model development and site-level study (United States)

    Tan, Zeli; Zhuang, Qianlai; Shurpali, Narasinha J.; Marushchak, Maija E.; Biasi, Christina; Eugster, Werner; Walter Anthony, Katey


    Recent studies indicated that Arctic lakes play an important role in receiving, processing, and storing organic carbon exported from terrestrial ecosystems. To quantify the contribution of Arctic lakes to the global carbon cycle, we developed a one-dimensional process-based Arctic Lake Biogeochemistry Model (ALBM) that explicitly simulates the dynamics of organic and inorganic carbon in Arctic lakes. By realistically modeling water mixing, carbon biogeochemistry, and permafrost carbon loading, the model can reproduce the seasonal variability of CO2 fluxes from the study Arctic lakes. The simulated area-weighted CO2 fluxes from yedoma thermokarst lakes, nonyedoma thermokarst lakes, and glacial lakes are 29.5, 13.0, and 21.4 g C m-2 yr-1, respectively, close to the observed values (31.2, 17.2, and 16.5 ± 7.7 g C m-2 yr-1, respectively). The simulations show that the high CO2 fluxes from yedoma thermokarst lakes are stimulated by the biomineralization of mobilized labile organic carbon from thawing yedoma permafrost. The simulations also imply that the relative contribution of glacial lakes to the global carbon cycle could be the largest because of their much larger surface area and high biomineralization and carbon loading. According to the model, sunlight-induced organic carbon degradation is more important for shallow nonyedoma thermokarst lakes but its overall contribution to the global carbon cycle could be limited. Overall, the ALBM can simulate the whole-lake carbon balance of Arctic lakes, a difficult task for field and laboratory experiments and other biogeochemistry models.

  4. Late Cretaceous climate simulations with different CO2 levels and subarctic gateway configurations: A model-data comparison (United States)

    Niezgodzki, Igor; Knorr, Gregor; Lohmann, Gerrit; Tyszka, Jarosław; Markwick, Paul J.


    We investigate the impact of different CO2 levels and different subarctic gateway configurations on the surface temperatures during the latest Cretaceous using the Earth System Model COSMOS. The simulated temperatures are compared with the surface temperature reconstructions based on a recent compilation of the latest Cretaceous proxies. In our numerical experiments, the CO2 level ranges from 1 to 6 times the preindustrial (PI) CO2 level of 280 ppm. On a global scale, the most reasonable match between modeling and proxy data is obtained for the experiments with 3 to 5 × PI CO2 concentrations. However, the simulated low- (high-) latitude temperatures are too high (low) as compared to the proxy data. The moderate CO2 levels scenarios might be more realistic, if we take into account proxy data and the dead zone effect criterion. Furthermore, we test if the model-data discrepancies can be caused by too simplistic proxy-data interpretations. This is distinctly seen at high latitudes, where most proxies are biased toward summer temperatures. Additional sensitivity experiments with different ocean gateway configurations and constant CO2 level indicate only minor surface temperatures changes (greenhouse worlds is best constrained by temperatures in the midlatitudes.

  5. Modeling of CO2 storage in aquifers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Savioli, Gabriela B; Santos, Juan E


    Storage of CO 2 in geological formations is a means of mitigating the greenhouse effect. Saline aquifers are a good alternative as storage sites due to their large volume and their common occurrence in nature. The first commercial CO 2 injection project is that of the Sleipner field in the Utsira Sand aquifer (North Sea). Nevertheless, very little was known about the effectiveness of CO 2 sequestration over very long periods of time. In this way, numerical modeling of CO 2 injection and seismic monitoring is an important tool to understand the behavior of CO 2 after injection and to make long term predictions in order to prevent CO 2 leaks from the storage into the atmosphere. The description of CO 2 injection into subsurface formations requires an accurate fluid-flow model. To simulate the simultaneous flow of brine and CO 2 we apply the Black-Oil formulation for two phase flow in porous media, which uses the PVT data as a simplified thermodynamic model. Seismic monitoring is modeled using Biot's equations of motion describing wave propagation in fluid-saturated poroviscoelastic solids. Numerical examples of CO 2 injection and time-lapse seismics using data of the Utsira formation show the capability of this methodology to monitor the migration and dispersal of CO 2 after injection.

  6. Thermodynamic modeling of CO2 mixtures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjørner, Martin Gamel

    Knowledge of the thermodynamic properties and phase equilibria of mixtures containing carbon dioxide (CO2) is important in several industrial processes such as enhanced oil recovery, carbon capture and storage, and supercritical extractions, where CO2 is used as a solvent. Despite this importance......, accurate predictions of the thermodynamic properties and phase equilibria of mixtures containing CO2 are challenging with classical models such as the Soave-Redlich-Kwong (SRK) equation of state (EoS). This is believed to be due to the fact, that CO2 has a large quadrupole moment which the classical models...... and with or without introducing an additional pure compound parameter. In the absence of quadrupolar compounds qCPA reduces to CPA, which itself reduces toSRK in the absence of association. As the number of adjustable parameters in thermodynamic models increase, the parameter estimation problem becomes increasingly...

  7. Photosynthesis and Plant Growth at Elevated Levels of CO_2


    Amane, Makino; Tadahiko, Mae; Department of Applied Plant Science, Graduate School of Agricultural Sciences, Tohoku University; Department of Applied Plant Science, Graduate School of Agricultural Sciences, Tohoku University


    In this review, we discuss the effects of elevated CO_2 levels on photosynthesis in relation to the whole plant growth in terrestrial higher C_3 plants. Short-term CO_2 enrichment stimulates the rate of phtosynthesis. Plant mass is also enhanced by CO_2 enrichment. However, the effects of long-term CO_2 enrichment on photosynthesis are variable. Generally, the prolonged exposure to CO_2 enrichment reduces the initial stimulation of photosynthesis in many spesies, and frequently suppresses pho...

  8. The Relationship Between CO2 Levels and CO2 Related Symptoms Reported on the ISS (United States)

    VanBaalen, M.; Law, J.; Foy, M.; Wear, M. L.; Mason, S.; Mendez, C.; Meyers, V.


    Medical Operations, Toxicology, and the Lifetime Surveillance of Astronaut Health collaborated to assess the association of CO2 levels on board the International Space Station and USOS crew reported symptoms inflight, i.e. headache and vision changes. Private Medical Conference (PMC) documents and the weekly Space Medicine Operations Team (SMOT) Notes were used to provide a robust data set of inflight medical events. All events and non-events were documented independent of CO2 levels and other potential contributors. Average (arithmetic mean) and single point maximum ppCO2 was calculated for the 24 hours and 7 days prior to the PMC or SMOT date and time provided by LSAH. Observations falling within the first 7 days of flight (147) were removed from the datasets analyzed to avoid confounding with Space Adaptation Syndrome. The final analysis was based on 1716 observations. For headache, 46 headaches were observed. CO2 level, age at launch, time inflight, and data source were all significantly associated with headache. In particular, for each 1 mmHg increase in CO2, the odds of a crewmember reporting a headache doubled. For vision changes, 29 reports of vision changes were observed. These observations were not found to be statistically associated with CO2 levels as analyzed. While the incidence of headache has was not high (3%), headaches may be an indicator of underlying increases in intracranial pressure, which may result likely from the synergy between CO2-induced cerebral vasodilatation and decreased venous drainage in microgravity. Vision changes were inconsistently reported and as a result did not align appropriately with the CO2 levels. Further analysis is needed. Our results support ongoing efforts to lower the CO2 exposure limits in spacecraft.

  9. Modelling the Martian CO2 Ice Clouds (United States)

    Listowski, Constantino; Määttänen, A.; Montmessin, F.; Lefèvre, F.


    Martian CO2 ice cloud formation represents a rare phenomenon in the Solar System: the condensation of the main component of the atmosphere. Moreover, on Mars, condensation occurs in a rarefied atmosphere (large Knudsen numbers, Kn) that limits the growth efficiency. These clouds form in the polar winter troposphere and in the mesosphere near the equator. CO2 ice cloud modeling has turned out to be challenging: recent efforts (e.g. [1]) fail in explaining typical small sizes (80 nm-130 nm) observed for mesospheric clouds [2]. Supercold pockets (TWood, S. E., (1999), Ph.D. thesis, UCLA [6] Young, J. B., J. Geophys. Res., 36, 294-2956, 1993


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    A.V.G. Chizmeshya; M.J. McKelvy; J.B. Adams


    Fossil fuels, especially coal, can support the energy demands of the world for centuries to come, if the environmental problems associated with CO{sub 2} emissions can be overcome. Permanent and safe methods for CO{sub 2} capture and disposal/storage need to be developed. Mineralization of stationary-source CO{sub 2} emissions as carbonates can provide such safe capture and long-term sequestration. Mg-rich lamellar hydroxide mineral carbonation is a leading process candidate, which generates the stable naturally occurring mineral magnesite (MgCO{sub 3}) and water. Key to process cost and viability are the carbonation reaction rate and its degree of completion. This process, which involves simultaneous dehydroxylation and carbonation is very promising, but far from optimized. In order to optimize the dehydroxylation/carbonation process, an atomic-level understanding of the mechanisms involved is needed. In this investigation Mg(OH){sub 2} was selected as a model Mg-rich lamellar hydrocide carbonation feedstock material due to its chemical and structural simplicity. Since Mg(OH){sub 2} dehydroxylation is intimately associated with the carbonation process, its mechanisms are also of direct interest in understanding and optimizing the process. The aim of the current innovative concepts project is to develop a specialized advanced computational methodology to complement the ongoing experimental inquiry of the atomic level processes involved in CO{sub 2} mineral sequestration. The ultimate goal is to integrate the insights provided by detailed predictive simulations with the data obtained from optical microscopy, FESEM, ion beam analysis, SIMS, TGA, Raman, XRD, and C and H elemental analysis. The modeling studies are specifically designed to enhance the synergism with, and complement the analysis of, existing mineral-CO{sub 2} reaction process studies being carried out under DOE UCR Grant DE-FG2698-FT40112. Direct contact between the simulations and the experimental

  11. Modeling CO2 Gas Migration of Shallow Subsurface CO2 Leakage Experiments (United States)

    Porter, M. L.; Plampin, M. R.; Pawar, R.; Illangasekare, T. H.


    Leakage of injected CO2 into shallow subsurface aquifers or back into the atmosphere at geologic carbon sequestration sites is a risk that must be minimized. One potential CO2 leakage pathway involves the transport of dissolved CO2 into a shallow aquifer where the CO2 exsolves, forming a free CO2 gas phase that subsequently migrates through the aquifer. In order to reduce the negative effects of CO2 exsolution, it is important to fully understand each of the processes controlling the movement CO2, as well as the effects of aquifer heterogeneity on the overall fate and transport of CO2. In this work, we present multiphase flow simulations of intermediate scale CO2 exsolution experiments. The multiphase flow simulations were carried out using the Finite Element Heat and Mass Transfer code (FEHM) developed at Los Alamos National Laboratory. Simulations were first designed to model experiments conducted in two different homogeneous packed sands. PEST (Parameter Estimation and Uncertainty Analysis) was used to optimize multiphase flow parameters (i.e., porosity, permeability, relative permeability, and capillary pressure) within FEHM. The optimized parameters were subsequently used to model heterogeneous experiments consisting of various packing configurations using the same sands. Comparisons of CO2 saturation between experiments and simulations will be presented and analyzed.

  12. How Accurately Do Maize Crop Models Simulate the Interactions of Atmospheric CO2 Concentration Levels With Limited Water Supply on Water Use and Yield? (United States)

    Durand, Jean-Louis; Delusca, Kenel; Boote, Ken; Lizaso, Jon; Manderscheid, Remy; Weigel, Hans Johachim; Ruane, Alexander Clark; Rosenzweig, Cynthia E.; Jones, Jim; Ahuja, Laj; hide


    This study assesses the ability of 21 crop models to capture the impact of elevated CO2 concentration [CO2] on maize yield and water use as measured in a 2-year Free Air Carbon dioxide Enrichment experiment conducted at the Thunen Institute in Braunschweig, Germany (Manderscheid et al. 2014). Data for ambient [CO2] and irrigated treatments were provided to the 21 models for calibrating plant traits, including weather, soil and management data as well as yield, grain number, above ground biomass, leaf area index, nitrogen concentration in biomass and grain, water use and soil water content. Models differed in their representation of carbon assimilation and evapotranspiration processes. The models reproduced the absence of yield response to elevated [CO2] under well-watered conditions, as well as the impact of water deficit at ambient [CO2], with 50 percent of models within a range of plus/minus 1 Mg ha(exp. -1) around the mean. The bias of the median of the 21 models was less than 1 Mg ha(exp. -1). However under water deficit in one of the two years, the models captured only 30 percent of the exceptionally high [CO2] enhancement on yield observed. Furthermore the ensemble of models was unable to simulate the very low soil water content at anthesis and the increase of soil water and grain number brought about by the elevated [CO2] under dry conditions. Overall, we found models with explicit stomatal control on transpiration tended to perform better. Our results highlight the need for model improvement with respect to simulating transpirational water use and its impact on water status during the kernel-set phase.

  13. The Flux-Anomaly-Forced Model Intercomparison Project (FAFMIP) Contribution to CMIP6: Investigation of Sea-Level and Ocean Climate Change in Response to CO2 Forcing (United States)

    Gregory, Jonathan M.; Bouttes, Nathaelle; Griffies, Stephen M.; Haak, Helmuth; Hurlin, William J.; Jungclaus, Johann; Kelley, Maxwell; Lee, Warren G.; Marshall, John; Romanou, Anastasia; hide


    The Flux-Anomaly-Forced Model Intercomparison Project (FAFMIP) aims to investigate the spread in simulations of sea-level and ocean climate change in response to CO2 forcing by atmosphere-ocean general circulation models (AOGCMs). It is particularly motivated by the uncertainties in projections of ocean heat uptake, global-mean sealevel rise due to thermal expansion and the geographical patterns of sea-level change due to ocean density and circulation change. FAFMIP has three tier-1 experiments, in which prescribed surface flux perturbations of momentum, heat and freshwater respectively are applied to the ocean in separate AOGCM simulations. All other conditions are as in the pre-industrial control. The prescribed fields are typical of pattern and magnitude of changes in these fluxes projected by AOGCMs for doubled CO2 concentration. Five groups have tested the experimental design with existing AOGCMs. Their results show diversity in the pattern and magnitude of changes, with some common qualitative features. Heat and water flux perturbation cause the dipole in sea-level change in the North Atlantic, while momentum and heat flux perturbation cause the gradient across the Antarctic Circumpolar Current. The Atlantic meridional overturning circulation (AMOC) declines in response to the heat flux perturbation, and there is a strong positive feedback on this effect due to the consequent cooling of sea-surface temperature in the North Atlantic, which enhances the local heat input to the ocean. The momentum and water flux perturbations do not substantially affect the AMOC. Heat is taken up largely as a passive tracer in the Southern Ocean, which is the region of greatest heat input, while the weakening of the AMOC causes redistribution of heat towards lower latitudes. Future analysis of these and other phenomena with the wider range of CMIP6 FAFMIP AOGCMs will benefit from new diagnostics of temperature and salinity tendencies, which will enable investigation of the model

  14. The Flux-Anomaly-Forced Model Intercomparison Project (FAFMIP contribution to CMIP6: investigation of sea-level and ocean climate change in response to CO2 forcing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. M. Gregory


    Full Text Available The Flux-Anomaly-Forced Model Intercomparison Project (FAFMIP aims to investigate the spread in simulations of sea-level and ocean climate change in response to CO2 forcing by atmosphere–ocean general circulation models (AOGCMs. It is particularly motivated by the uncertainties in projections of ocean heat uptake, global-mean sea-level rise due to thermal expansion and the geographical patterns of sea-level change due to ocean density and circulation change. FAFMIP has three tier-1 experiments, in which prescribed surface flux perturbations of momentum, heat and freshwater respectively are applied to the ocean in separate AOGCM simulations. All other conditions are as in the pre-industrial control. The prescribed fields are typical of pattern and magnitude of changes in these fluxes projected by AOGCMs for doubled CO2 concentration. Five groups have tested the experimental design with existing AOGCMs. Their results show diversity in the pattern and magnitude of changes, with some common qualitative features. Heat and water flux perturbation cause the dipole in sea-level change in the North Atlantic, while momentum and heat flux perturbation cause the gradient across the Antarctic Circumpolar Current. The Atlantic meridional overturning circulation (AMOC declines in response to the heat flux perturbation, and there is a strong positive feedback on this effect due to the consequent cooling of sea-surface temperature in the North Atlantic, which enhances the local heat input to the ocean. The momentum and water flux perturbations do not substantially affect the AMOC. Heat is taken up largely as a passive tracer in the Southern Ocean, which is the region of greatest heat input, while the weakening of the AMOC causes redistribution of heat towards lower latitudes. Future analysis of these and other phenomena with the wider range of CMIP6 FAFMIP AOGCMs will benefit from new diagnostics of temperature and salinity tendencies, which will enable

  15. CO2 dispersion modelling over Paris region within the CO2-MEGAPARIS project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Lac


    Full Text Available Accurate simulation of the spatial and temporal variability of tracer mixing ratios over urban areas is a challenging and interesting task needed to be performed in order to utilise CO2 measurements in an atmospheric inverse framework and to better estimate regional CO2 fluxes. This study investigates the ability of a high-resolution model to simulate meteorological and CO2 fields around Paris agglomeration during the March field campaign of the CO2-MEGAPARIS project. The mesoscale atmospheric model Meso-NH, running at 2 km horizontal resolution, is coupled with the Town Energy Balance (TEB urban canopy scheme and with the Interactions between Soil, Biosphere and Atmosphere CO2-reactive (ISBA-A-gs surface scheme, allowing a full interaction of CO2 modelling between the surface and the atmosphere. Statistical scores show a good representation of the urban heat island (UHI with stronger urban–rural contrasts on temperature at night than during the day by up to 7 °C. Boundary layer heights (BLH have been evaluated on urban, suburban and rural sites during the campaign, and also on a suburban site over 1 yr. The diurnal cycles of the BLH are well captured, especially the onset time of the BLH increase and its growth rate in the morning, which are essential for tall tower CO2 observatories. The main discrepancy is a small negative bias over urban and suburban sites during nighttime (respectively 45 m and 5 m, leading to a few overestimations of nocturnal CO2 mixing ratios at suburban sites and a bias of +5 ppm. The diurnal CO2 cycle is generally well captured for all the sites. At the Eiffel tower, the observed spikes of CO2 maxima occur every morning exactly at the time at which the atmospheric boundary layer (ABL growth reaches the measurement height. At suburban ground stations, CO2 measurements exhibit maxima at the beginning and at the end of each night, when the ABL is fully contracted, with a strong spatio-temporal variability. A

  16. Modeling of CO2 absorber using an AMP solution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gabrielsen, Jostein; Michelsen, Michael Locht; Stenby, Erling Halfdan


    Abstract: An explicit model for carbon dioxide (CO2) solubility in an aqueous solution of 2-amino-2-methyl-1-propanol (AMP) has been proposed and an expression for the heat of absorption of CO2 has been developed as a function of loading and temperature. A rate-based steady-state model for CO2...

  17. Rising CO2 Levels Will Intensify Phytoplankton Blooms in Eutrophic and Hypertrophic Lakes (United States)

    Verspagen, Jolanda M. H.; Van de Waal, Dedmer B.; Finke, Jan F.; Visser, Petra M.; Van Donk, Ellen; Huisman, Jef


    Harmful algal blooms threaten the water quality of many eutrophic and hypertrophic lakes and cause severe ecological and economic damage worldwide. Dense blooms often deplete the dissolved CO2 concentration and raise pH. Yet, quantitative prediction of the feedbacks between phytoplankton growth, CO2 drawdown and the inorganic carbon chemistry of aquatic ecosystems has received surprisingly little attention. Here, we develop a mathematical model to predict dynamic changes in dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC), pH and alkalinity during phytoplankton bloom development. We tested the model in chemostat experiments with the freshwater cyanobacterium Microcystis aeruginosa at different CO2 levels. The experiments showed that dense blooms sequestered large amounts of atmospheric CO2, not only by their own biomass production but also by inducing a high pH and alkalinity that enhanced the capacity for DIC storage in the system. We used the model to explore how phytoplankton blooms of eutrophic waters will respond to rising CO2 levels. The model predicts that (1) dense phytoplankton blooms in low- and moderately alkaline waters can deplete the dissolved CO2 concentration to limiting levels and raise the pH over a relatively wide range of atmospheric CO2 conditions, (2) rising atmospheric CO2 levels will enhance phytoplankton blooms in low- and moderately alkaline waters with high nutrient loads, and (3) above some threshold, rising atmospheric CO2 will alleviate phytoplankton blooms from carbon limitation, resulting in less intense CO2 depletion and a lesser increase in pH. Sensitivity analysis indicated that the model predictions were qualitatively robust. Quantitatively, the predictions were sensitive to variation in lake depth, DIC input and CO2 gas transfer across the air-water interface, but relatively robust to variation in the carbon uptake mechanisms of phytoplankton. In total, these findings warn that rising CO2 levels may result in a marked intensification of

  18. Effective CO2 lifetime and future CO2 levels based on fit function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. R. Sonnemann


    Full Text Available The estimated global CO2 emission rates and the measured atmospheric CO2 concentrations show that only a certain share of the emitted CO2 accumulates in the atmosphere. For given atmospheric emissions of CO2, the effective lifetime determines its accumulation in the atmosphere and, consequently, its impact on the future global warming. We found that on average the inferred effective lifetime of CO2 decreases as its atmospheric concentration increases, reducing the rate of its accumulation in the atmosphere. We derived a power function that fits the varying lifetimes. Based on this fitting function, we calculated the increase of CO2 for different scenarios of future global emission rates.

  19. Modeling CO2-facilitated transport across a diethanolamine liquid membrane

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lihong Bao; Michael C. Trachtenberg [Carbozyme Inc., Monmouth Junction, NJ (United States)


    We compared experimental and model data for the facilitated transport of CO2 from a CO2-air mixture across an aqueous solution of diethanolamine (DEA) via a hollow fiber, contained liquid membrane (HFCLM) permeator. A two-step carbamate formation model was devised to analyze the data instead of the one-step mechanism used by previous investigators. The effects of DEA concentration, liquid membrane thickness and feed CO2 concentration were also studied. With a 20% (wt) DEA liquid membrane and feed of 15% CO2 in CO2-air mixture at atmosphere pressure, the permeance reached 1.51E-8 mol/m{sup 2} s Pa with a CO2/N2 selectivity of 115. Model predictions compared well with the experimental results at CO2 concentrations of industrial importance. Short-term stability of the HFCLM permeator performance was examined. The system was stable during 5-days of testing.

  20. TransCom 3: Seasonal CO2 Flux Estimates from Atmospheric Inversions (Level 2) (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — ABSTRACT: This data set provides model outputs and seasonal mean CO2 fluxes from the Atmospheric Carbon Cycle Inversion Intercomparison (TransCom 3), Level 2...

  1. TransCom 3: Seasonal CO2 Flux Estimates from Atmospheric Inversions (Level 2) (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set provides model outputs and seasonal mean CO2 fluxes from the Atmospheric Carbon Cycle Inversion Intercomparison (TransCom 3), Level 2 inversion...

  2. High-resolution global CO2 modeling: a comparison to GOSAT column CO2 retrievals (United States)

    Baker, D. F.


    Over a year’s worth of column CO2 concentrations retrieved by the Japanese Greenhouse-gases Observing Satellite (GOSAT) are now available: with a global distribution and good sensitivity down to the surface, these data could provide an important new view of the functioning of the global carbon cycle. The retrievals seem to be corrupted by systematic errors with a magnitude of several ppm, however; to be truly useful, these biases must be greatly reduced before being used in atmospheric transport inversions. Here GOSAT column CO2 retrievals are compared to values from a high-resolution global atmospheric transport model; the residuals are correlated with a variety of factors (including aerosol optical depth, cloud coverage, surface type, and viewing geometry) globally, across a full year of data, to help identify systematic errors in the retrievals and attribute them to possible causes. This broad comparison to model data is meant to complement the comparison to in situ CO2 measurements and upward-looking Fourier spectrometer data currently being used to validate the retrievals at a relatively few times and locations. NASA’s GEOS5 analyzed meteorology products at 0.5° x 0.67° resolution (lat/lon) are used both to compute diurnally-varying land biospheric fluxes (with the SiB model) and to transport these fluxes through the atmosphere with the off-line PCTM model (40 vertical layers, also at 0.5° x 0.67°). Global fossil fuel fluxes with similarly-high spatial resolution, but low temporal resolution, plus monthly varying air-sea fluxes from an ocean model, are also transported. The net fluxes and CO2 fields are optimized at coarse scales in a Transcom-like time-dependent inversion to agree with data from the in situ CO2 measurement network before the GOSAT comparison is made.

  3. A model for estimating CO2 solubility in aqueous alkanolamines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gabrielsen, Jostein; Michelsen, Michael Locht; Stenby, Erling Halfdan


    Partial pressures of carbon dioxide (CO2) over aqueous solutions of monoethanolamine (MEA), diethanolamine (DEA), and N-methyldiethanolamine (MDEA) have been correlated using a simple approach where only one chemical equilibrium reaction is taken into account and assuming ideal gas and ideal liquid...... of CO2 over an aqueous alkanolamine solution. Accurate values for the partial pressure of CO2 are obtained for a limited loading, temperature, and pressure range that is useful in modeling CO2 capture from coal-fired power plants. Heat of absorption values derived from the model agree with experimental...

  4. Modeling canopy CO2 exchange in the European Russian Arctic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kiepe, Isabell; Friborg, Thomas; Herbst, Mathias


    In this study, we use the coupled photosynthesis-stomatal conductance model of Collatz et al. (1991) to simulate the current canopy carbon dioxide exchange of a heterogeneous tundra ecosystem in European Russia. For the parameterization, we used data obtained from in situ leaf level measurements...... in combination with meteorological data from 2008. The modeled CO2 fluxes were compared with net ecosystem exchange (NEE), measured by the eddy covariance technique during the snow-free period in 2008. The findings from this study indicated that the main state parameters of the exchange processes were leaf area...


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rizka Permatayakti Rasyidta Nur


    Full Text Available Most of the urban pollution is the result of carbon dioxide (CO2 emission from human activities. This research identified CO2 emission and absorption in Bogor, and also the alternatives to solve the emission problem by system model and simulation. CO2 emission and absorption system model was created using software Stella 9.0.2 based on loss-gain emission concept for 30 years prediction. Human activities that contribute to CO2 emission are transportation, industries, energy consumption such as fuel or electricity, house hold waste, and farms, while the decrease factor is green open spaces as CO2 sequester. The alternatives to solve emission problem in Bogor is created based on green city concept by including the environmental aspects in every urban activity. The result of this research, the CO2 emission of Bogor reached 20.027.878 tons and the absorption reached 93.843 tons in 2042. Combined mitigation alternatives in several sectors could reduce CO2 emission by 2.797.667 tons in 2042 and CO2 emission could be neutralized by reforestation in 2036.

  6. Absorber Model for CO2 Capture by Monoethanolamine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Faramarzi, Leila; Kontogeorgis, Georgios; Michelsen, Michael Locht


    The rate-based steady-state model proposed by Gabrielsen et al. (Gabrielsen, J.; Michelsen, M. L.; Kontogeorgis, G. M.; Stenby, E. H. AIChE J. 2006, 52, 10, 3443-3451) for the design of the CO2-2-amino-2-methylpropanol absorbers is adopted and improved for the design of the CO2-monoethanolamine......, and their impact on the model's prediction is compared. The model has been successfully applied to CO2 absorber packed columns and validated against pilot plant data with good agreement....

  7. Causes of variation among rice models in yield response to CO2 examined with Free-Air CO2 Enrichment and growth chamber experiments. (United States)

    Hasegawa, Toshihiro; Li, Tao; Yin, Xinyou; Zhu, Yan; Boote, Kenneth; Baker, Jeffrey; Bregaglio, Simone; Buis, Samuel; Confalonieri, Roberto; Fugice, Job; Fumoto, Tamon; Gaydon, Donald; Kumar, Soora Naresh; Lafarge, Tanguy; Marcaida Iii, Manuel; Masutomi, Yuji; Nakagawa, Hiroshi; Oriol, Philippe; Ruget, Françoise; Singh, Upendra; Tang, Liang; Tao, Fulu; Wakatsuki, Hitomi; Wallach, Daniel; Wang, Yulong; Wilson, Lloyd Ted; Yang, Lianxin; Yang, Yubin; Yoshida, Hiroe; Zhang, Zhao; Zhu, Jianguo


    The CO 2 fertilization effect is a major source of uncertainty in crop models for future yield forecasts, but coordinated efforts to determine the mechanisms of this uncertainty have been lacking. Here, we studied causes of uncertainty among 16 crop models in predicting rice yield in response to elevated [CO 2 ] (E-[CO 2 ]) by comparison to free-air CO 2 enrichment (FACE) and chamber experiments. The model ensemble reproduced the experimental results well. However, yield prediction in response to E-[CO 2 ] varied significantly among the rice models. The variation was not random: models that overestimated at one experiment simulated greater yield enhancements at the others. The variation was not associated with model structure or magnitude of photosynthetic response to E-[CO 2 ] but was significantly associated with the predictions of leaf area. This suggests that modelled secondary effects of E-[CO 2 ] on morphological development, primarily leaf area, are the sources of model uncertainty. Rice morphological development is conservative to carbon acquisition. Uncertainty will be reduced by incorporating this conservative nature of the morphological response to E-[CO 2 ] into the models. Nitrogen levels, particularly under limited situations, make the prediction more uncertain. Improving models to account for [CO 2 ] × N interactions is necessary to better evaluate management practices under climate change.

  8. CO2-Brine Displacement in Geological CO2 Sequestration: Microfluidic Flow Model Study (United States)

    Cao, S. C.; Jung, J.


    Geological CO2 sequestration is a promising method to reduce atmospheric CO2 and deep saline aquifers is one of the most important options due to their capacity for CO2 storage. Thus, a better understanding of two immiscible brine-CO2 mobility and its saturation, including invading patterns in deep saline aquifers as CO2 storage sites is required. Lenormand (1990) explored the invading patterns of two immiscible fluids in porous media with a transition region and three dominant regions: capillary fingering, viscous fingering, and stable displacement. These are determined by two main aspect ratios Nm and Nc through experimental studies using micromodel. Micromodel provides the opportunity to discover unrecognized processes, and test existing theories and assumptions in fluid flow through porous media. In this study, the micromodel was used to explore the effects of the scCO2 injecting velocity and ionic strength on invading patterns in geological CO2 sequestration. When scCO2 was injected into the micromodel that has already saturated with brine, the brine in the micromodel was displaced by injected scCO2. Continuous scCO2 injection into the micromodel leaded the scCO2 to pass through the micromodel. And the scCO2-brine displacement distribution in the micromodel remained constant during additional 100 PV scCO2 injection after injecting scCO2 passed through micromodel. When scCO2 passed through the porous media, the scCO2-brine displacement distribution represented the maximum displacement ratio. Results showed that scCO2-brine displacement ratios increased with: elevated pressures in the range of 3MPa~8MPa, decreased ionic strength from 5M to 1M NaCl, and increased scCO2 injecting velocity up to 40 μL/min. Also, Nm and Nc obtained in this study are located in transition region of the invading patterns suggested by Lenormand (1990).

  9. Evaluation of Deep Learning Models for Predicting CO2 Flux (United States)

    Halem, M.; Nguyen, P.; Frankel, D.


    Artificial neural networks have been employed to calculate surface flux measurements from station data because they are able to fit highly nonlinear relations between input and output variables without knowing the detail relationships between the variables. However, the accuracy in performing neural net estimates of CO2 flux from observations of CO2 and other atmospheric variables is influenced by the architecture of the neural model, the availability, and complexity of interactions between physical variables such as wind, temperature, and indirect variables like latent heat, and sensible heat, etc. We evaluate two deep learning models, feed forward and recurrent neural network models to learn how they each respond to the physical measurements, time dependency of the measurements of CO2 concentration, humidity, pressure, temperature, wind speed etc. for predicting the CO2 flux. In this paper, we focus on a) building neural network models for estimating CO2 flux based on DOE data from tower Atmospheric Radiation Measurement data; b) evaluating the impact of choosing the surface variables and model hyper-parameters on the accuracy and predictions of surface flux; c) assessing the applicability of the neural network models on estimate CO2 flux by using OCO-2 satellite data; d) studying the efficiency of using GPU-acceleration for neural network performance using IBM Power AI deep learning software and packages on IBM Minsky system.

  10. Modeling Atmospheric CO2 Processes to Constrain the Missing Sink (United States)

    Kawa, S. R.; Denning, A. S.; Erickson, D. J.; Collatz, J. C.; Pawson, S.


    We report on a NASA supported modeling effort to reduce uncertainty in carbon cycle processes that create the so-called missing sink of atmospheric CO2. Our overall objective is to improve characterization of CO2 source/sink processes globally with improved formulations for atmospheric transport, terrestrial uptake and release, biomass and fossil fuel burning, and observational data analysis. The motivation for this study follows from the perspective that progress in determining CO2 sources and sinks beyond the current state of the art will rely on utilization of more extensive and intensive CO2 and related observations including those from satellite remote sensing. The major components of this effort are: 1) Continued development of the chemistry and transport model using analyzed meteorological fields from the Goddard Global Modeling and Assimilation Office, with comparison to real time data in both forward and inverse modes; 2) An advanced biosphere model, constrained by remote sensing data, coupled to the global transport model to produce distributions of CO2 fluxes and concentrations that are consistent with actual meteorological variability; 3) Improved remote sensing estimates for biomass burning emission fluxes to better characterize interannual variability in the atmospheric CO2 budget and to better constrain the land use change source; 4) Evaluating the impact of temporally resolved fossil fuel emission distributions on atmospheric CO2 gradients and variability. 5) Testing the impact of existing and planned remote sensing data sources (e.g., AIRS, MODIS, OCO) on inference of CO2 sources and sinks, and use the model to help establish measurement requirements for future remote sensing instruments. The results will help to prepare for the use of OCO and other satellite data in a multi-disciplinary carbon data assimilation system for analysis and prediction of carbon cycle changes and carbodclimate interactions.

  11. Gaussian-Charge Polarizable and Nonpolarizable Models for CO2. (United States)

    Jiang, Hao; Moultos, Othonas A; Economou, Ioannis G; Panagiotopoulos, Athanassios Z


    A polarizable intermolecular potential model using three classical Drude oscillators on the atomic sites has been developed for CO2. The model is rigid with bond lengths and molecular geometries set to their experimental values. Electrostatic interactions are represented by three Gaussian charges connected to the molecular frame by harmonic springs. Nonelectrostatic interactions are represented by the Buckingham exponential-6 potential, with potential parameters optimized to vapor-liquid equilibria (VLE) data. A nonpolarizable CO2 model that shares the other ingredients of the polarizable model was also developed and optimized to VLE data. Gibbs ensemble Monte Carlo and molecular dynamics simulations were used to evaluate the two models with respect to a variety of thermodynamic and transport properties, including the enthalpy of vaporization, second virial coefficient, density in the one-phase fluid region, isobaric and isochoric heat capacities, radial distribution functions, self-diffusion coefficient, and shear viscosity. Excellent agreement between model predictions and experimental data was found for all properties studied. The polarizable and nonpolarizable models provide a similar representation of CO2 properties, which indicates that the properties of pure CO2 fluid are not strongly affected by polarization. The polarizable model, which has an order of magnitude higher computational cost than the nonpolarizable model, will likely be useful for the study of a mixture of CO2 and polar components for which polarization is important.

  12. Comparison of TCCON and GOSAT Column Averaged CO2 to Global Atmospheric Transport Modeling (United States)

    Liu, Y.; Kawa, S. R.; Collatz, G. J.; Wang, J. S.


    The measurements of column averaged CO2 contain ground surface CO2 flux signals. Comparing these observations to modeling results helps us to better understand the distributions and variations of CO2 sources and sinks and to evaluate the model transport. In this study, we ran a global atmospheric transport model (PCTM) from 2003 to 2011, using a near-balanced bottom up CASA/GSFC-GFED2 CO2 emissions and uptake as the biospheric part of total CO2 flux. All the transport modeling and biospheric CO2 fluxes are forced or driven by NASA MERRA reanalysis data. The PCTM model captures the observed CO2 seasonal cycles and inter-hemispheric gradients at TCCON sites well, within about a ppmv in most instances. The model also agrees very well with observations in the phase and amplitude of synoptic variations, showing high spatial and temporal correlations. These results suggest that the PCTM model has a good skill in capturing variable processes at different atmospheric levels, including the surface level CO2 signals. This study also shows that the CO2 fluxes used in the modeling (primarily the biospheric ones) provide a reasonably good prior representation of the CO2 flux distribution globally. Comparison analysis of GOSAT XCO2 data to PCTM modeling is mainly done on the monthly basis. The GOSAT XCO2 data used are from the JPL ACOS team's version 2.9. We co-sampled the modeling results with GOSAT XCO2 measurements spatially and temporally. Results show the GOSAT retrievals have the ability to capture the seasonal cycles globally, generally presenting reasonable positive correlations with modeling, with some persistent negative biases. On the synoptic scale, GOSAT XCO2 shows obvious discrepancies with modeling in some areas, suggesting possible large uncertainties in the XCO2 retrievals. We also compared the column CO2 data to output from a perturbed CO2 flux model to test the sensitivity of the observations in detecting small flux changes. These sensitivity experiments will

  13. Modelling CO2-Brine Interfacial Tension using Density Gradient Theory

    KAUST Repository

    Ruslan, Mohd Fuad Anwari Che


    Knowledge regarding carbon dioxide (CO2)-brine interfacial tension (IFT) is important for petroleum industry and Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS) strategies. In petroleum industry, CO2-brine IFT is especially importance for CO2 – based enhanced oil recovery strategy as it affects phase behavior and fluid transport in porous media. CCS which involves storing CO2 in geological storage sites also requires understanding regarding CO2-brine IFT as this parameter affects CO2 quantity that could be securely stored in the storage site. Several methods have been used to compute CO2-brine interfacial tension. One of the methods employed is by using Density Gradient Theory (DGT) approach. In DGT model, IFT is computed based on the component density distribution across the interface. However, current model is only applicable for modelling low to medium ionic strength solution. This limitation is due to the model only considers the increase of IFT due to the changes of bulk phases properties and does not account for ion distribution at interface. In this study, a new modelling strategy to compute CO2-brine IFT based on DGT was proposed. In the proposed model, ion distribution across interface was accounted for by separating the interface to two sections. The saddle point of tangent plane distance where ( ) was defined as the boundary separating the two sections of the interface. Electrolyte is assumed to be present only in the second section which is connected to the bulk liquid phase side. Numerical simulations were performed using the proposed approach for single and mixed salt solutions for three salts (NaCl, KCl, and CaCl2), for temperature (298 K to 443 K), pressure (2 MPa to 70 MPa), and ionic strength (0.085 mol·kg-1 to 15 mol·kg-1). The simulation result shows that the tuned model was able to predict with good accuracy CO2-brine IFT for all studied cases. Comparison with current DGT model showed that the proposed approach yields better match with the experiment data

  14. Global Modeling of CO2 Discharges with Aerospace Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chloe Berenguer


    Full Text Available We developed a global model aiming to study discharges in CO2 under various conditions, pertaining to a large spectrum of pressure, absorbed energy, and feeding values. Various physical conditions and form factors have been investigated. The model was applied to a case of radiofrequency discharge and to helicon type devices functioning in low and high feed conditions. In general, main charged species were found to be CO2+ for sufficiently low pressure cases and O− for higher pressure ones, followed by CO2+, CO+, and O2+ in the latter case. Dominant reaction is dissociation of CO2 resulting into CO production. Electronegativity, important for radiofrequency discharges, increases with pressure, arriving up to 3 for high flow rates for absorbed power of 250 W, and diminishes with increasing absorbed power. Model results pertaining to radiofrequency type plasma discharges are found in satisfactory agreement with those available from an existing experiment. Application to low and high flow rates feedings cases of helicon thruster allowed for evaluation of thruster functioning conditions pertaining to absorbed powers from 50 W to 1.8 kW. The model allows for a detailed evaluation of the CO2 potential to be used as propellant in electric propulsion devices.

  15. Modeling of CO2 migration injected in Weyburn oil reservoir

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou Wei; Stenhouse, M.J.; Arthur, R.


    Injecting CO 2 into oil and gas field is a way to enhance oil recovery (EOR) as well as mitigate global warming effect by permanently storing the greenhouse gas into underground. This paper details the models and results of simulating the long-term migration of CO 2 injected into the Weyburn field for both Enhanced Oil Recovery operations and CO 2 sequestration. A System Model was established to define the spatial and temporal extents of the analysis. The Base Scenario was developed to identify key processes, features, and events (FEPs) for the expected evolution of the storage system. A compositional reservoir simulator with equations-of-states (EOS) was used as the modeling tool in order to simulate multiphase, multi-component flow and transport coupled with CO 2 mass partitioning into oil, gas, and water phases. We apply a deterministic treatment to CO 2 migration in the geosphere (natural pathways), whereas the variability of abandoned wells (man-made pathways) necessitates a stochastic treatment. The simulation result was then used to carry out consequence analysis to the local environment. (authors)

  16. Model analyses for sustainable energy supply under CO2 restrictions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsuhashi, Ryuji; Ishitani, Hisashi.


    This paper aims at clarifying key points for realizing sustainable energy supply under restrictions on CO 2 emissions. For this purpose, possibility of solar breeding system is investigated as a key technology for the sustainable energy supply. The authors describe their mathematical model simulating global energy supply and demand in ultra-long term. Depletion of non-renewable resources and constraints on CO 2 emissions are taken into consideration in the model. Computed results have shown that present energy system based on non-renewable resources shifts to a system based on renewable resources in the ultra-long term with appropriate incentives

  17. Membrane-assisted CO2 liquefaction: performance modelling of CO2 capture from flue gas in cement production

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bouma, R.H.B.; Vercauteren, F.F.; Os, P.J. van; Goetheer, E.L.V.; Berstad, D.; Anantharaman, R.


    CEMCAP is an international R&D project under the Horizon 2020 Programme preparing the ground for the large-scale implementation of CO2 capture in the European cement industry. This paper concerns the performance modeling of membraneassisted CO2 liquefaction as a possible retrofit application for

  18. Modelling the supercritical CO2 extraction kinetics of soybean oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Svilović


    Full Text Available Different empirical models were used to describe the supercritical CO2 extraction of soybean oil obtained at series of operational parameters namely pressure, temperature, solvent flow rate and characteristic particle size. Process yields obtained by supercritical CO2 were up to 19.33%. Several kinetic models: Brunner, Kandiah and Spiro, Tan and Liou, Martinez et al. and Esquivel et al. were used to test the experimental yield data. All models were analysed using nonlinear regression method. Also a new model, modified Esquivel et al., was proposed and analysed using nonlinear regression method as well. According to the obtained results for extraction yield of soybean oil, the modified Esquivel et al. model show the best agreement between experimental and model calculated data.

  19. Modeling CO2 Laser Ablative Impulse with Polymers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sinko, John E.; Phipps, Claude R.; Sasoh, Akihiro


    Laser ablation vaporization models have usually ignored the spatial dependence of the laser beam. Here, we consider effects from modeling using a Gaussian beam for both photochemical and photothermal conditions. The modeling results are compared to experimental and literature data for CO 2 laser ablation of the polymer polyoxymethylene under vacuum, and discussed in terms of the ablated mass areal density and momentum coupling coefficient. Extending the scope of discussion, laser ablative impulse generation research has lacked a cohesive strategy for linking the vaporization and plasma regimes. Existing models, mostly formulated for ultraviolet laser systems or metal targets, appear to be inappropriate or impractical for applications requiring CO 2 laser ablation of polymers. A recently proposed method for linking the vaporization and plasma regimes for analytical modeling is addressed here along with the implications of its use. Key control parameters are considered, along with the major propulsion parameters needed for laser ablation propulsion modeling.

  20. Low atmospheric CO2 levels during the Permo- Carboniferous glaciation inferred from fossil lycopsids (United States)

    Beerling, D. J.


    Earth history was punctuated during the Permo-Carboniferous [300–250 million years (Myr) ago] by the longest and most severe glaciation of the entire Phanerozoic Eon. But significant uncertainty surrounds the concentration of CO2 in the atmosphere through this time interval and therefore its role in the evolution of this major prePleistocene glaciation. Here, I derive 24 Late Paleozoic CO2 estimates from the fossil cuticle record of arborsecent lycopsids of the equatorial Carboniferous and Permian swamp communities. Quantitative calibration of Late Carboniferous (330–300 Myr ago) and Permian (270–260 Myr ago) lycopsid stomatal indices yield average atmospheric CO2 concentrations of 344 ppm and 313 ppm, respectively. The reconstructions show a high degree of self-consistency and a degree of precision an order of magnitude greater than other approaches. Low CO2 levels during the Permo-Carboniferous glaciation are in agreement with glaciological evidence for the presence of continental ice and coupled models of climate and ice-sheet growth on Pangea. Moreover, the Permian data indicate atmospheric CO2 levels were low 260 Myr ago, by which time continental deglaciation was already underway. Positive biotic feedbacks on climate, and geotectonic events, therefore are implicated as mechanisms underlying deglaciation. PMID:12235372

  1. Stomatal Frequency and Atmospheric CO2: a Model Based on Photosynthesis and Gaseous Diffusion (United States)

    Roth-Nebelsick, A.; Konrad, W.


    Gaseous exchange in land plants occurs via micropores on the plant surface, the stomata. The stomatal frequency (SF) of leaves has attracted considerable interest with respect to increasing atmospheric CO2 since Woodward (1987) demonstrated that this parameter changes inversely with CO2 in various species. The response is due to 1) individual phenotypic plasticity and 2) evolutionary change, depending on the considered time scale. The SF-CO2 response is regarded to represent a valuable device for determining past atmospheric CO2 concentration and SF data from fossil plant material are therefore often used as CO2 proxies. There are, however, numerous difficulties which have to be considered, such as: 1) high variance of the data, especially for fossil material, 2) interspecific differences of the response, 3) the CO2 ceiling (= weak or no response under CO2 concentration higher than ambient) and 4) differences between short-term and long-term responses. Although processes related to plant gaseous exchange are assumed to represent the causal basis for the response, no clear explanatory model has yet been proposed and even doubts have emerged about the real existence of this phenomenon. In this contribution it is shown that results obtained with a model based on diffusion and assimilation suggest that the SF-CO2 response is a structural adjustment of maximum stomatal conductance. The results 1) offer a clear explanation for the often observed weak response of stomatal frequency to CO2 levels higher than ambient, 2) provide a simple equation for calculating ancient CO2 levels from stomatal data, and 3) can contribute to predictions concerning plant reactions to elevated CO2 levels in the future.

  2. Mesoscale modelling of atmospheric CO2 across Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lansø, Anne Sofie


    % is taken up by the global oceans, due to under-saturation of CO2 in the surface waters, while another 33 % is taken up by the terrestrial biosphere, via photosynthesis. In order to estimate the effects of increasing anthropogenic emissions of CO2 more accurately in the future, it is essential to understand....... Until the present study, no area-specific representation had been developed for the surface water pCO2 of the Baltic Sea and Danish inner waters. A surface water monthly climatology was implemented in the mesoscale modelling framework, and further improved with a near coastal climatology for the Danish...... inner waters. In the modelling framework, the heterogeneous land surfaces of Denmark were assessed by means of a detailed land surface classifications map and the inclusion of a high temporal and spatial resolution biosphere model. Available measurements of surface water pCO2, from stationary sites...

  3. Modeling and validation of on-road CO2 emissions inventories at the urban regional scale

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brondfield, Max N.; Hutyra, Lucy R.; Gately, Conor K.; Raciti, Steve M.; Peterson, Scott A.


    On-road emissions are a major contributor to rising concentrations of atmospheric greenhouse gases. In this study, we applied a downscaling methodology based on commonly available spatial parameters to model on-road CO 2 emissions at the 1 × 1 km scale for the Boston, MA region and tested our approach with surface-level CO 2 observations. Using two previously constructed emissions inventories with differing spatial patterns and underlying data sources, we developed regression models based on impervious surface area and volume-weighted road density that could be scaled to any resolution. We found that the models accurately reflected the inventories at their original scales (R 2 = 0.63 for both models) and exhibited a strong relationship with observed CO 2 mixing ratios when downscaled across the region. Moreover, the improved spatial agreement of the models over the original inventories confirmed that either product represents a viable basis for downscaling in other metropolitan regions, even with limited data. - Highlights: ► We model two on-road CO 2 emissions inventories using common spatial parameters. ► Independent CO 2 observations are used to validate the emissions models. ► The downscaled emissions models capture the urban spatial heterogeneity of Boston. ► Emissions estimates show a strong non-linear relationship with observed CO 2 . ► Our study is repeatable, even in areas with limited data. - This work presents a new, reproducible methodology for downscaling and validating on-road CO 2 emissions estimates.

  4. Analyzing impact factors of CO2 emissions using the STIRPAT model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fan Ying; Liu Lancui; Wu Gang; Wei Yiming


    Using the STIRPAT model, this paper analyzes the impact of population, affluence and technology on the total CO 2 emissions of countries at different income levels over the period 1975-2000. Our main results show at the global level that economic growth has the greatest impact on CO 2 emissions, and the proportion of the population between ages 15 and 64 has the least impact. The proportion of the population between 15 and 64 has a negative impact on the total CO 2 emissions of countries at the high income level, but the impact is positive at other income levels. This may illustrate the importance of the 'B' in the 'I = PABT'; that is to say that different behavior fashions can greatly influence environmental change. For low-income countries, the impact of GDP per capita on total CO 2 emissions is very great, and the impact of energy intensity in upper-middle income countries is very great. The impact of these factors on the total CO 2 emissions of countries at the high income level is relatively great. Therefore, these empirical results indicate that the impact of population, affluence and technology on CO 2 emissions varies at different levels of development. Thus, policy-makers should consider these matters fully when they construct their long-term strategies for CO 2 abatement

  5. A Microscale Model for Combined CO2 Diffusion and Photosynthesis in Leaves (United States)

    Ho, Quang Tri; Verboven, Pieter; Yin, Xinyou; Struik, Paul C.; Nicolaï, Bart M.


    Transport of CO2 in leaves was investigated by combining a 2-D, microscale CO2 transport model with photosynthesis kinetics in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) leaves. The biophysical microscale model for gas exchange featured an accurate geometric representation of the actual 2-D leaf tissue microstructure and accounted for diffusive mass exchange of CO2. The resulting gas transport equations were coupled to the biochemical Farquhar-von Caemmerer-Berry model for photosynthesis. The combined model was evaluated using gas exchange and chlorophyll fluorescence measurements on wheat leaves. In general a good agreement between model predictions and measurements was obtained, but a discrepancy was observed for the mesophyll conductance at high CO2 levels and low irradiance levels. This may indicate that some physiological processes related to photosynthesis are not incorporated in the model. The model provided detailed insight into the mechanisms of gas exchange and the effects of changes in ambient CO2 concentration or photon flux density on stomatal and mesophyll conductance. It represents an important step forward to study CO2 diffusion coupled to photosynthesis at the leaf tissue level, taking into account the leaf's actual microstructure. PMID:23144870

  6. Canopy development of a model herbaceous community exposed to elevated atmospheric CO2 and soil nutrients. (United States)

    Hartz-Rubin, Jennifer S.; DeLucia, Evan H.


    To test the prediction that elevated CO2 increases the maximum leaf area index (LAI) through a stimulation of photosynthesis, we exposed model herbaceous communities to two levels of CO2 crossed with two levels of soil fertility. Elevated CO2 stimulated the initial rate of canopy development and increased cumulative LAI integrated over the growth period, but it had no effect on the maximum LAI. In contrast to CO2, increased soil nutrient availability caused a substantial increase in maximum LAI. Elevated CO2 caused a slight increase in leaf area and nitrogen allocated to upper canopy layers and may have stimulated leaf turnover deep in the canopy. Gas exchange measurements of intact communities made near the time of maximum LAI indicated that soil nutrient availability, but not CO2 enrichment, caused a substantial stimulation of net ecosystem carbon exchange. These data do not support our prediction of a higher maximum LAI by elevated CO2 because the initial stimulation of LAI diminished by the end of the growth period. However, early in development, leaf area and carbon assimilation of communities may have been greatly enhanced. These results suggest that the rate of canopy development in annual communities may be accelerated with future increases in atmospheric CO2 but that maximum LAI is set by soil fertility.

  7. Effect of CO_2 levels on nutrient content of lettuce and radish (United States)

    McKeehen, J. D.; Smart, D. J.; Mackowiak, C. L.; Wheeler, R. M.; Nielsen, S. S.

    Atmospheric carbon-dioxide enrichment is known to affect the yield of lettuce and radish grown in controlled environments, but little is known about CO_2 enrichment effects on the chemical composition of lettuce and radish. These crops are useful model systems for a Controlled Ecological Life-Support System (CELSS), largely because of their relatively short production cycles. Lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) cultivar `Waldmann's Green' and radish (Raphanus sativus L.) cultivar `Giant White Globe' were grown both in the field and in controlled environments, where hydroponic nutrient solution, light, and temperature were regulated, and where CO_2 levels were controlled at 400, 1000, 5000, or 10,000 ppm. Plants were harvested at maturity, dried, and analyzed for proximate composition (protein, fat, ash, and carbohydrate), total nitrogen (N), nitrate N, free sugars, starch, total dietary fiber, and minerals. Total N, protein N, nonprotein N (NPN), and nitrate N generally increased for radish roots and lettuce leaves when grown under growth chamber conditions compared to field conditions. The nitrate-N level of lettuce leaves, as a percentage of total NPN, decreased with increasing levels of CO_2 enrichment. The ash content of radish roots and of radish and lettuce leaves decreased with increasing levels of CO_2 enrichment. The levels of certain minerals differed between field- and chamber-grown materials, including changes in the calcium (Ca) and phosphorus (P) contents of radish roots and lettuce leaves, resulting in reduced Ca/P ratio for chamber-grown materials. The free-sugar contents were similar between the field and chamber-grown lettuce leaves, but total dietary fiber content was much higher in the field-grown plant material. The starch content of growth-chamber lettuce increased with CO_2 level.

  8. Sea level fall during glaciation stabilized atmospheric CO2by enhanced volcanic degassing. (United States)

    Hasenclever, Jörg; Knorr, Gregor; Rüpke, Lars H; Köhler, Peter; Morgan, Jason; Garofalo, Kristin; Barker, Stephen; Lohmann, Gerrit; Hall, Ian R


    Paleo-climate records and geodynamic modelling indicate the existence of complex interactions between glacial sea level changes, volcanic degassing and atmospheric CO 2 , which may have modulated the climate system's descent into the last ice age. Between ∼85 and 70 kyr ago, during an interval of decreasing axial tilt, the orbital component in global temperature records gradually declined, while atmospheric CO 2 , instead of continuing its long-term correlation with Antarctic temperature, remained relatively stable. Here, based on novel global geodynamic models and the joint interpretation of paleo-proxy data as well as biogeochemical simulations, we show that a sea level fall in this interval caused enhanced pressure-release melting in the uppermost mantle, which may have induced a surge in magma and CO 2 fluxes from mid-ocean ridges and oceanic hotspot volcanoes. Our results reveal a hitherto unrecognized negative feedback between glaciation and atmospheric CO 2 predominantly controlled by marine volcanism on multi-millennial timescales of ∼5,000-15,000 years.

  9. Feedbacks of CO2 dependent dissolved organic carbon production on atmospheric CO2 in an ocean biogeochemical model (United States)

    Bordelon-Katrynski, L. A.; Schneider, B.


    We use an ocean biogeochemical model to test whether a potential CO2 dependence of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) production may have an influence on marine carbon sequestration via particle aggregation and so may represent a potentially larger ocean sink for anthropogenic CO2. The hypothesis is based on mesocosm experiments that have shown enhanced carbon uptake by phytoplankton when more CO2 is available, and where the extra carbon was probably directly routed into DOC instead of the particulate phase. Sensitivity experiments are carried out where phytoplankton exudation of DOC is systematically increased with and without a parallel rise in atmospheric CO2. We find that under a fourfold increase of the DOC formation rate, there is a slight reduction of global particle export, which results in a shallower turnover of nutrients and carbon. As a consequence, a positive feedback loop develops, such that the ocean becomes a weak source of CO2 to the atmosphere. The effect is amplified under high CO2 conditions due to the decreased CO2 buffer capacity of the ocean, however, it is rather low compared to the total anthropogenic perturbation. The positive feedback is in contrast to a very similar study, where a slight stimulation of particle export was found. Therefore, we conclude that the sign of the feedback depends on the actual pathway the extra carbon is taking and on the overall background conditions of marine primary production and ocean circulation.

  10. Simplified Predictive Models for CO2 Sequestration Performance Assessment (United States)

    Mishra, Srikanta; RaviGanesh, Priya; Schuetter, Jared; Mooney, Douglas; He, Jincong; Durlofsky, Louis


    We present results from an ongoing research project that seeks to develop and validate a portfolio of simplified modeling approaches that will enable rapid feasibility and risk assessment for CO2 sequestration in deep saline formation. The overall research goal is to provide tools for predicting: (a) injection well and formation pressure buildup, and (b) lateral and vertical CO2 plume migration. Simplified modeling approaches that are being developed in this research fall under three categories: (1) Simplified physics-based modeling (SPM), where only the most relevant physical processes are modeled, (2) Statistical-learning based modeling (SLM), where the simulator is replaced with a "response surface", and (3) Reduced-order method based modeling (RMM), where mathematical approximations reduce the computational burden. The system of interest is a single vertical well injecting supercritical CO2 into a 2-D layered reservoir-caprock system with variable layer permeabilities. In the first category (SPM), we use a set of well-designed full-physics compositional simulations to understand key processes and parameters affecting pressure propagation and buoyant plume migration. Based on these simulations, we have developed correlations for dimensionless injectivity as a function of the slope of fractional-flow curve, variance of layer permeability values, and the nature of vertical permeability arrangement. The same variables, along with a modified gravity number, can be used to develop a correlation for the total storage efficiency within the CO2 plume footprint. In the second category (SLM), we develop statistical "proxy models" using the simulation domain described previously with two different approaches: (a) classical Box-Behnken experimental design with a quadratic response surface fit, and (b) maximin Latin Hypercube sampling (LHS) based design with a Kriging metamodel fit using a quadratic trend and Gaussian correlation structure. For roughly the same number of

  11. Uncovering China’s transport CO2 emission patterns at the regional level

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo, Bin; Geng, Yong; Franke, Bernd; Hao, Han; Liu, Yaxuan; Chiu, Anthony


    With China’s rapid economic development, its transport sector has experienced a dramatic growth, leading to a large amount of related CO 2 emission. This paper aims to uncover China’s transport CO 2 emission patterns at the regional and provincial level. We first present the CO 2 emission features from transport sector in 30 Chinese provinces, including per capita emissions, emission intensities, and historical evolution of annual CO 2 emission. We then quantify the related driving forces by adopting both period-wise and time-series LMDI analysis. Results indicate that significant regional CO 2 emission disparities exist in China’s transport sector. The eastern region had higher total CO 2 emissions and per capita CO 2 emissions, but lower CO 2 emission intensities in its transport sector. The western region had higher CO 2 emission intensities and experienced a rapid CO 2 emission increase. The CO 2 emission increments in the eastern provinces were mainly contributed by both economic activity effect and population effect, while energy intensity partially offset the emission growth and energy structure had a marginal effect. However, in the central and western provinces, both economic activity effect and energy intensity effect induced the CO 2 emission increases, while the effects from population and energy structure change were limited. - Highlights: • The CO 2 emission features from transport sector in 30 Chinese provinces were presented. • The driving forces of CO 2 emissions from transport sector were quantified. • Regional disparities on China’s transport sector CO 2 emission exist. • Region-specific mitigation policies on transport sector CO 2 emission are needed

  12. Analysis on influence factors of China's CO2 emissions based on Path-STIRPAT model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Huanan; Mu Hailin; Zhang Ming; Li Nan


    With the intensification of global warming and continued growth in energy consumption, China is facing increasing pressure to cut its CO 2 (carbon dioxide) emissions down. This paper discusses the driving forces influencing China's CO 2 emissions based on Path-STIRPAT model-a method combining Path analysis with STIRPAT (stochastic impacts by regression on population, affluence and technology) model. The analysis shows that GDP per capita (A), industrial structure (IS), population (P), urbanization level (R) and technology level (T) are the main factors influencing China's CO 2 emissions, which exert an influence interactively and collaboratively. The sequence of the size of factors' direct influence on China's CO 2 emission is A>T>P>R>IS, while that of factors' total influence is A>R>P>T>IS. One percent increase in A, IS, P, R and T leads to 0.44, 1.58, 1.31, 1.12 and -1.09 percentage change in CO 2 emission totally, where their direct contribution is 0.45, 0.07, 0.63, 0.08, 0.92, respectively. Improving T is the most important way for CO 2 reduction in China. - Highlights: → We analyze the driving forces influencing China's CO 2 emissions. → Five macro factors like per capita GDP are the main influencing factors. → These factors exert an influence interactively and collaboratively. → Different factors' direct and total influence on China's CO 2 emission is different. → Improving technology level is the most important way for CO 2 reduction in China.

  13. Modelling Energy Systems and International Trade in CO2 Emission Quotas - The Kyoto Protocol and Beyond

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Persson, Tobias A.


    A transformation of the energy system in the 21st century is required if the CO 2 concentration in the atmosphere should be stabilized at a level that would prevent dangerous anthropogenic interference with the climate system. The industrialized countries have emitted most of the anthropogenic CO 2 released to the atmosphere since the beginning of the industrial era and still account for roughly two thirds of global fossil fuel related CO 2 emissions. Industrial country CO 2 emissions on a per capita basis are roughly five to ten times higher than those of developing countries. However, a global atmospheric CO 2 concentration target of 450 ppm, if adopted would require that global average per capita CO 2 emissions by the end of this century have to be comparable to those of developing countries today. The industrialized countries would have to reduce their emissions substantially and the emissions in developing countries could not follow a business-as-usual scenario. The transformation of the energy system and abatement of CO 2 emissions would need to occur in industrialized and developing countries. Energy-economy models have been developed to analyze of international trading in CO 2 emission permits. The thesis consists of three papers. The cost of meeting the Kyoto Protocol is estimated in the first paper. The Kyoto Protocol, which defines quantitative greenhouse gas emission commitments for industrialized countries over the period 2008-2012, is the first international agreement setting quantitative goals for abatement of CO 2 emissions from energy systems. The Protocol allows the creation of systems for trade in emission permits whereby countries exceeding their target levels can remain in compliance by purchasing surplus permits from other developed countries. However, a huge carbon surplus, which has been christened hot air, has been created in Russia and Ukraine since 1990 primarily because of the contraction of their economies. The current Unites States

  14. Experimental versus modelled water use in mature Norway spruce (Picea abies exposed to elevated CO2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastian eLeuzinger


    Full Text Available Rising levels of atmospheric CO2 have often been reported to reduce plant water use. Such behaviour is also predicted by standard equations relating photosynthesis, stomatal conductance, and atmospheric CO2 concentration, which form the core of global dynamic vegetation models (DGVMs. Here, we provide first results from a free air CO2 enrichment (FACE experiment with naturally growing, mature (35 m Picea abies (L. (Norway spruce and compare them to simulations by the DGVM LPJ-GUESS. We monitored sap flow, stem water deficit, stomatal conductance, leaf water potential and soil moisture in five 35-40 m tall CO2-treated (550 ppm trees over two seasons. Using LPJ-GUESS, we simulated this experiment using climate data from a nearby weather station. While the model predicted a stable reduction of transpiration of between 9 and 18 % (at concentrations of 550-700ppm atmospheric CO2, the combined evidence from various methods characterising water use in our experimental trees suggest no changes in response to future CO2 concentrations. The discrepancy between the modelled and the experimental results may be a scaling issue: while dynamic vegetation models correctly predict leaf-level responses, they may not sufficiently account for the processes involved at the canopy and ecosystem scale, which could mitigate the first-order stomatal response.

  15. Fast Atmosphere-Ocean Model Runs with Large Changes in CO2 (United States)

    Russell, Gary L.; Lacis, Andrew A.; Rind, David H.; Colose, Christopher; Opstbaum, Roger F.


    How does climate sensitivity vary with the magnitude of climate forcing? This question was investigated with the use of a modified coupled atmosphere-ocean model, whose stability was improved so that the model would accommodate large radiative forcings yet be fast enough to reach rapid equilibrium. Experiments were performed in which atmospheric CO2 was multiplied by powers of 2, from 1/64 to 256 times the 1950 value. From 8 to 32 times, the 1950 CO2, climate sensitivity for doubling CO2 reaches 8 C due to increases in water vapor absorption and cloud top height and to reductions in low level cloud cover. As CO2 amount increases further, sensitivity drops as cloud cover and planetary albedo stabilize. No water vapor-induced runaway greenhouse caused by increased CO2 was found for the range of CO2 examined. With CO2 at or below 1/8 of the 1950 value, runaway sea ice does occur as the planet cascades to a snowball Earth climate with fully ice covered oceans and global mean surface temperatures near 30 C.

  16. Inverse modeling of fossil fuel CO2 emissions at urban scale using OCO-2 retrievals of total column CO2 (United States)

    Ye, X.; Lauvaux, T.; Kort, E. A.; Lin, J. C.; Oda, T.; Yang, E.; Wu, D.


    Rapid economic development has given rise to a steady increase of global carbon emissions, which have accumulated in the atmosphere for the past 200 years. Urbanization has concentrated about 70% of the global fossil-fuel CO2 emissions in large metropolitan areas distributed around the world, which represents the most significant anthropogenic contribution to climate change. However, highly uncertain quantifications of urban CO2 emissions are commonplace for numerous cities because of poorly-documented inventories of energy consumption. Therefore, accurate estimates of carbon emissions from global observing systems are a necessity if mitigation strategies are meant to be implemented at global scales. Space-based observations of total column averaged CO2 concentration (XCO2) provide a very promising and powerful tool to quantify urban CO2 fluxes. For the first time, measurements from the Orbiting Carbon Observatory 2 (OCO-2) mission are assimilated in a high resolution inverse modeling system to quantify fossil-fuel CO2 emissions of multiple cities around the globe. The Open-source Data Inventory for Anthropogenic CO2 (ODIAC) emission inventory is employed as a first guess, while the atmospheric transport is simulated using the WRF-Chem model at 1-km resolution. Emission detection and quantification is performed with an Ensemble Kalman Filter method. We demonstrate here the potential of the inverse approach for assimilating thousands of OCO-2 retrievals along tracks near metropolitan areas. We present the detection potential of the system with real-case applications near power plants and present inverse emissions using actual OCO-2 measurements on various urban landscapes. Finally, we will discuss the potential of OCO-2-like satellite instruments for monitoring temporal variations of fossil-fuel CO2 emissions over multiple years, which can provide valuable insights for future satellite observation strategies.

  17. A new approach to model CW CO2 laser using rate equations

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Two popular methods to analyse the operation of CW CO 2 lasers use the temperature model and the rate equation model. Among the two, the latter model directly calculates the population densities in the various vibrational levels connected with the lasing action, and provides a clearer illustration of the processes involved ...

  18. Mathematical model of CO2release during milk fermentation using natural kefir grains. (United States)

    Goršek, Andreja; Ritonja, Jožef; Pečar, Darja


    Milk fermentation takes place in the presence of various micro-organisms, whereby a variety of dairy products is produced. The oldest among them is kefir, which is usually produced by fermentation of milk with kefir grains. Carbon dioxide (CO 2 ), as one of the process products, also contributes to the characteristic flavor of kefir. The amount of CO 2 generated during fermentation depends on bioprocessing conditions and may change, which is not desirable at the industrial level. In this study we developed a simplified mathematical model of CO 2 release in the milk fermentation process. An intuitive approach based on superposition and experimental analysis was used for the modeling. The chemical system studied was considered as a two-input (temperature, rotational frequency of the stirrer) one-output (CO 2 concentration) dynamic system. Based on an analysis of CO 2 release transients in the case of non-simultaneous stepwise changed input quantities, two differential equations which describe the influence of the two input quantities on the output quantity were defined. The simulation results were verified by experiments. The proposed model can be used for a comprehensive analysis of the process studied and for the design and synthesis of advanced control systems, which will assure a controlled CO 2 release at the industrial level. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  19. A liquid CO2-compatible hydrocarbon surfactant: experiment and modelling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Banerjee, S.; Kleijn, J.M.; Cohen Stuart, M.A.; Leermakers, F.A.M.


    Surfactants soluble in liquid CO2 are rare and knowledge on interfacial and self-assembly behaviour is fragmented. We found that polyoxyethylene (5) isooctylphenyl ether is interfacially active at the water–liquid CO2 interface. Water–liquid CO2 interfacial tension was measured at various surfactant

  20. High sensitivity to chronically elevated CO2 levels in a eurybathic marine sipunculid. (United States)

    Langenbuch, M; Pörtner, H O


    CO2 levels are expected to rise (a) in surface waters of the oceans as atmospheric accumulation continues or (b) in the deep sea, once industrial CO2 dumping is implemented. These scenarios suggest that CO2 will become a general stress factor in aquatic environments. The mechanisms of sensitivity to CO2 as well as adaptation capacity of marine animals are insufficiently understood. Here, we present data obtained in Sipunculus nudus, a sediment-dwelling marine worm that is able to undergo drastic metabolic depression to survive regular exposure to elevated CO2 levels within its natural habitat. We investigated animal survival and the proximate biochemical body composition during long-term CO2 exposure. Results indicate an unexpected and pronounced sensitivity characterized by the delayed onset of enhanced mortality at CO2 levels within the natural range of concentrations. Therefore, the present study contrasts the previously assumed high-CO2 tolerance of animals adapted to temporary hypercapnia. As a consequence, we expect future loss of species and, thereby, detrimental effects on marine benthic ecosystems with as yet poorly defined critical thresholds of long-term tolerance to CO2.

  1. From the low past to the high future: Plant growth across CO2 levels (United States)

    Temme, Andries; Cornwell, Will; Cornelissen, Hans; Aerts, Rien


    In today's atmosphere fossil fuel emissions and land use change since the industrial revolution have increased atmospheric CO2 concentration from 280 ppm to nearly 400 ppm, a value not experienced by plants for over 10 million years. In contrast, over the same period atmospheric CO2 levels have been much lower than preindustrial levels. Plants' recent evolutionary history has thus been under carbon starvation while over the next 90 years atmospheric CO2 is expected to rise to a bountiful ~800 ppm. Plants' response to this rapid increase is likely influenced by their long evolution in low CO2, but this has been hardly studied at all. Very little is known about how plant traits drove carbon cycling in the past and how these relationships may shift going from past to future CO2.In a climate chamber experiment we germinated and grew seedlings of 30 species (C3, C4, woody, herbaceous) at past low CO2 (150ppm), ambient CO2, and future high CO2(750ppm). Our aim was to understand how plant traits are affected by CO2 and if and why winners and losers in terms of growth performance shift going from past to future CO2 concentrations. Results show a great effect of low and high CO2 on specific leaf area, biomass and allocation shifts above and belowground but mixed results in patterns between species and plant types. Ongoing work focuses on leaf level chemistry and photosynthesis and the interaction between CO2 and drought stress with promising initial results.

  2. Elevated atmospheric CO2 levels affect community structure of rice root-associated bacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kiwamu eMinamisawa


    Full Text Available A number of studies have shown that elevated atmospheric CO2 ([CO2] affects rice yields and grain quality. However, the responses of root-associated bacteria to [CO2] elevation have not been characterized in a large-scale field study. We conducted a free-air CO2 enrichment (FACE experiment (ambient + 200 μmol⋅mol−1 using three rice cultivars (Akita 63, Takanari, and Koshihikari and two experimental lines of Koshihikari (chromosome segment substitution and near-isogenic lines to determine the effects of [CO2] elevation on the community structure of rice root-associated bacteria. Microbial DNA was extracted from rice roots at the panicle formation stage and analyzed by pyrosequencing the bacterial 16S rRNA gene to characterize the members of the bacterial community. Principal coordinate analysis of a weighted UniFrac distance matrix revealed that the community structure was clearly affected by elevated [CO2]. The predominant community members at class level were Alpha-, Beta-, and Gamma-proteobacteria in the control (ambient and FACE plots. The relative abundance of Methylocystaceae, the major methane-oxidizing bacteria in rice roots, tended to decrease with increasing [CO2] levels. Quantitative PCR revealed a decreased copy number of the methane monooxygenase (pmoA gene and increased methyl coenzyme M reductase (mcrA in elevated [CO2]. These results suggest elevated [CO2] suppresses methane oxidation and promotes methanogenesis in rice roots; this process affects the carbon cycle in rice paddy fields.

  3. Simulated response of conterminous United States ecosystems to climate change at different levels of fire suppression, CO2 emission rate, and growth response to CO2 (United States)

    James M. Lenihan; Dominique Bachelet; Ronald P. Neilson; Raymond Drapek


    A modeling experiment was designed to investigate the impact of fire management, CO2 emission rate, and the growth response to CO2 on the response of ecosystems in the conterminous United States to climate scenarios produced by three different general circulation models (GCMs) as simulated by the MCl Dynamic General...

  4. Quantification of fossil fuel CO2 at the building/street level for large US cities (United States)

    Gurney, K. R.; Razlivanov, I. N.; Song, Y.


    Quantification of fossil fuel CO2 emissions from the bottom-up perspective is a critical element in emerging plans on a global, integrated, carbon monitoring system (CMS). A space/time explicit emissions data product can act as both a verification and planning system. It can verify atmospheric CO2 measurements (in situ and remote) and offer detailed mitigation information to management authorities in order to optimize the mix of mitigation efforts. Here, we present the Hestia Project, an effort aimed at building a high resolution (eg. building and road link-specific, hourly) fossil fuel CO2 emissions data product for the urban domain as a pilot effort to a CMS. A complete data product has been built for the city of Indianapolis and preliminary quantification has been completed for Los Angeles and Phoenix (see figure). The effort in Indianapolis is now part of a larger effort aimed at a convergent top-down/bottom-up assessment of greenhouse gas emissions, called INFLUX. Our urban-level quantification relies on a mixture of data and modeling structures. We start with the sector-specific Vulcan Project estimate at the mix of geocoded and county-wide levels. The Hestia aim is to distribute the Vulcan result in space and time. Two components take the majority of effort: buildings and onroad emissions. In collaboration with our INFLUX colleagues, we are transporting these high resolution emissions through an atmospheric transport model for a forward comparison of the Hestia data product with atmospheric measurements, collected on aircraft and cell towers. In preparation for a formal urban-scale inversion, these forward comparisons offer insights into both improving our emissions data product and measurement strategies. A key benefit of the approach taken in this study is the tracking and archiving of fuel and process-level detail (eg. combustion process, other pollutants), allowing for a more thorough understanding and analysis of energy throughputs in the urban

  5. Carbon Balance at Landscape Level inferred fromTower CO2 Concentration Measurements (United States)

    Chen, J. M.; Chen, B.; Higuchi, K.; Chan, D.; Shashkov, A.; Lin, H.; Liu, J.


    Terrestrial carbon sinks are considerable in the global carbon budget, but the accumulation of carbon in terrestrial ecosystems is very small (~0.2% per year) relative to the total carbon stocks in forests. Currently, eddy-covariance instruments mounted on towers are the only reliable means to measure carbon balance of a land surface, albeit limited to small areas and not free of caveats. In our quest of understanding the collective performance of ecosystems under the changing climate, it is highly desirable to have the ability to acquire carbon cycle information for large areas (landscape) consisting of patches of different ecosystems. For this purpose we explored methodologies of inferring carbon cycle information from tower CO2 concentration measurements affected by large areas (100-10000 km2). An ecosystem model named Boreal Ecosystem Productivity Simulator (BEPS) is coupled with a carbon-specific Vertical Diffusion Scheme (VDS) in order to decipher temporal variations in CO2 for landscape-level photosynthesis and respiration information. The coupled BEPS-VDS is applied to a unique 9-year (1990-2000 with 1997-8 missing data) 5-minute CO2 record measured on a 40-m tower over boreal forests near Fraserdale, Ontario, Canada. Over the period, the mean diurnal amplitude of the measured CO2 at 40 m increased by 5.58 ppmv, or 28% in the growing season. The increase in nighttime ecosystem respiration, causing the increase in the daily maximum CO2 concentration, was responsible for 65% of the increase in the diurnal amplitude, i.e., 3.61 ppmv, corresponding to an increase in the mean daily air temperature by about 2.77 degC and precipitation by 5% over the same period. The rest (35%) is explained by the increase in ecosystem daytime photosynthesis, causing the decrease in the daily minimum CO2 concentration. As the nighttime stable boundary layer (SBL) (270-560 m) was much shallower than the daytime convective boundary layer (CBL) (1000-1600 m), the increase in

  6. Optimisation modelling predicts leaf trait variation and response to elevated CO2 (United States)

    Pepper, D. A.; McMurtrie, R. E.; Norby, R. J.


    The capacities of a plant to obtain the resources it requires and the efficiencies of use of those resources are important determinants of the rate of plant carbon production. Such capacities and efficiencies rely strongly on plant traits, across all relevant scales of plant function (molecular to whole plant). Within inherent (genetic) constraints to the expression of plant traits by any one plant species, a plant would do well to adjust its traits in such a way as to maximise production. We test this hypothesis using a simple plant carbon-nitrogen model applied to a free-air CO2 enrichment (FACE) experiment on sweetgum forest at Oak Ridge, Tennessee, USA. The sweetgum (Liquidambar styraciflua) stand, exposed to ambient atmospheric CO2 or air enriched with CO2 to 550 ppm since 1998, has shown a positive response of net primary productivity (NPP) to elevated CO2 compared to the ambient control. Experiments like this one have been conducted to gauge the response of the biosphere to the significant increase in atmospheric CO2 concentration. In this study we use optimisation modelling to maximise photosynthetic nitrogen use efficiency and output corresponding optimal leaf traits, including (on a per unit leaf area basis): leaf nitrogen content (N), leaf mass (LMA), maximum rate of CO2 assimilation (Amax), average rate of CO2 assimilation (A), and leaf respiration (R). The optimal leaf traits change under a diminishing light level with canopy depth. Integration over canopy depth provides an estimate of canopy total carbon (carbon allocated to leaves), carbon production, canopy carbon export (carbon allocation to wood, fine roots and reproductive structures), and plant N demand to support a canopy comprised of optimal leaves. Thus, simulated plant N demand depends on leaf traits and light level. When simulated plant N demand exceeds N availability, leaf area adjustment occurs, which has impacts on canopy total carbon, carbon production, and canopy carbon export (plant

  7. Growth response of Spirulina platensis PCC9108 to elevated CO2 levels and flue gas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyedmahdi Hoseini


    Full Text Available Introduction: Because their ability to capture CO2, photosynthetical microorganisms have some advantages to CO2 mitigation from high CO2 streams such as flue gases and they can use CO2 as carbon source. Recently, experts have made efforts to exploit microorganisms intended for recovering CO2 from power plants. Materials and methods: To achieve this purpose, we studied the growth response of the cyanobacterium Spirulina platensis PCC9108 under different concentrations of carbon dioxide (ranging from 0.036% to 10% and flue gas in a bench-scale system. Preparation of different concentrations of CO2 and injection into Erlenmeyer flasks was performed by a system including air compressor, CO2 capsule, pressure gauge and flow meter. Results: The main goal of studying this paper is a survey of organism's potential to grow by generated CO2 from flue gas of power plant. It already had the potential and highest biomass production recorded at 8% CO2 (v/v. Also we proved that S.platensis PCC9108 can be grown under flue gas, although biomass production decreased fairly. Total lipid content of algae interestingly enhanced with elevated CO2 levels from ambient air to 4% and 6% which ranged from 14.5 to 15.8 and 16 dry weight (wt. % respectively. In contrast, total protein content illustrated no difference between all treatment and its value was about 46 wt.%. Discussion and conclusion: The results of present study suggested that understudied S.platensis PCC9108 is appropriate for mitigating CO2 because of its carbon fixation ability. Also due to its high protein content, this cyanobacterium is a good candidate to produce SCP (single cell protein.

  8. CO2 adsorption-assisted CH4 desorption on carbon models of coal surface: A DFT study (United States)

    Xu, He; Chu, Wei; Huang, Xia; Sun, Wenjing; Jiang, Chengfa; Liu, Zhongqing


    Injection of CO2 into coal is known to improve the yields of coal-bed methane gas. However, the technology of CO2 injection-enhanced coal-bed methane (CO2-ECBM) recovery is still in its infancy with an unclear mechanism. Density functional theory (DFT) calculations were performed to elucidate the mechanism of CO2 adsorption-assisted CH4 desorption (AAD). To simulate coal surfaces, different six-ring aromatic clusters (2 × 2, 3 × 3, 4 × 4, 5 × 5, 6 × 6, and 7 × 7) were used as simplified graphene (Gr) carbon models. The adsorption and desorption of CH4 and/or CO2 on these carbon models were assessed. The results showed that a six-ring aromatic cluster model (4 × 4) can simulate the coal surface with limited approximation. The adsorption of CO2 onto these carbon models was more stable than that in the case of CH4. Further, the adsorption energies of single CH4 and CO2 in the more stable site were -15.58 and -18.16 kJ/mol, respectively. When two molecules (CO2 and CH4) interact with the surface, CO2 compels CH4 to adsorb onto the less stable site, with a resulting significant decrease in the adsorption energy of CH4 onto the surface of the carbon model with pre-adsorbed CO2. The Mulliken charges and electrostatic potentials of CH4 and CO2 adsorbed onto the surface of the carbon model were compared to determine their respective adsorption activities and changes. At the molecular level, our results showed that the adsorption of the injected CO2 promoted the desorption of CH4, the underlying mechanism of CO2-ECBM.

  9. Carbon dioxide sequestration: Modeling the diffusive and convective transport under a CO2 cap

    KAUST Repository

    Allen, Rebecca


    A rise in carbon dioxide levels from industrial emissions is contributing to the greenhouse effect and global warming. CO2 sequestration in saline aquifers is a strategy to reduce atmospheric CO2 levels. Scientists and researchers rely on numerical simulators to predict CO2 storage by modeling the fluid transport behaviour. Studies have shown that after CO2 is injected into a saline aquifer, undissolved CO2 rises due to buoyant forces and will spread laterally away from the injection site under an area of low permeability. CO2 from this ‘capped\\' region diffuses into the fluid underlying it, and the resulting CO2-fluid mixture increases in density. This increase in density leads to gravity-driven convection. Accordingly, diffusive-convective transport is important to model since it predicts an enhanced storage capacity of the saline aquifer. This work incorporates the diffusive and convective transport processes into the transport modeling equation, and uses a self-generated code. Discretization of the domain is done with a cell-centered finite difference method. Cases are set up using similar parameters from published literature in order to compare results. Enhanced storage capacity is predicted in this work, similar to work done by others. A difference in the onset of convective transport between this work and published results is noticed and discussed in this paper. A sensitivity analysis is performed on the density model used in this work, and on the diffusivity value assumed. The analysis shows that the density model and diffusivity value is a key component on simulation results. Also, perturbations are added to porosity and permeability in order to see the effect of perturbations on the onset of convection, and results agree with similar findings by others. This work provides a basis for studying other cases, such as the impact of heterogeneity on the diffusion-convective transport. An extension of this work may involve the use of an equation of state to

  10. Modeling forest C and N allocation responses to free-air CO2 enrichment (United States)

    Luus, Kristina; De Kauwe, Martin; Walker, Anthony; Werner, Christian; Iversen, Colleen; McCarthy, Heather; Medlyn, Belinda; Norby, Richard; Oren, Ram; Zak, Donald; Zaehle, Sönke


    Vegetation allocation patterns and soil-vegetation partitioning of C and N are predicted to change in response to rising atmospheric concentrations of CO2. These allocation responses to rising CO2 have been examined at the ecosystem level through through free-air CO2 enrichment (FACE) experiments, and their global implications for the timing of progressive N limitation (PNL) and C sequestration have been predicted for ~100 years using a variety of ecosystem models. However, recent FACE model-data syntheses studies [1,2,3] have indicated that ecosystem models do not capture the 5-10 year site-level ecosystem allocation responses to elevated CO2. This may be due in part to the missing representation of the rhizosphere interactions between plants and soil biota in models. Ecosystem allocation of C and N is altered by interactions between soil and vegetation through the priming effect: as plant N availability diminishes, plants respond physiologically by altering their tissue allocation strategies so as to increase rates of root growth and rhizodeposition. In response, either soil organic material begins to accumulate, which hastens the onset of PNL, or soil microbes start to decompose C more rapidly, resulting in increased N availability for plant uptake, which delays PNL. In this study, a straightforward approach for representing rhizosphere interactions in ecosystem models was developed through which C and N allocation to roots and rhizodeposition responds dynamically to elevated CO2 conditions, modifying soil decomposition rates without pre-specification of the direction in which soil C and N accumulation should shift in response to elevated CO2. This approach was implemented in a variety of ecosystem models ranging from stand (G'DAY), to land surface (CLM 4.5, O-CN), to dynamic global vegetation (LPJ-GUESS) models. Comparisons against data from three forest FACE sites (Duke, Oak Ridge & Rhinelander) indicated that representing rhizosphere interactions allowed

  11. Pursuing air pollutant co-benefits of CO2 mitigation in China: A provincial leveled analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dong, Huijuan; Dai, Hancheng; Dong, Liang; Fujita, Tsuyoshi; Geng, Yong; Klimont, Zbigniew; Inoue, Tsuyoshi; Bunya, Shintaro; Fujii, Minoru; Masui, Toshihiko


    Highlights: • China’s future CO 2 reduction and its co-benefits on air pollutants were projected. • GAINS-China and AIM/CGE models were combined for emission and cost estimation. • High GDP regions tended to have higher emission, reduction potential and co-benefit. • Coal ratio and coal quality were also key factors to affect reduction and co-benefit. • Mitigation investment to less developed western regions was more effective. - Abstract: With fast economic development, industrialization and urbanization, China faces increasing pressures on carbon emission reduction, and especially on air pollutants (SO 2 , NOx, PM) reduction, particularly the notorious haze issue caused by air pollution in recent years. Pursuing co-benefits is an effective approach to simultaneously respond to both carbon and air pollutant problems. In this paper, the AIM/CGE (Asia–Pacific Integrated Assessment Model/Computational General Equilibrium) model and GAINS (Greenhouse Gas and Air Pollution Interactions and Synergies)-China model are combined together to project future CO 2 and air pollutants emissions in China, as well as reduction costs and co-benefit effects. Considering implementation of carbon mitigation policy and air pollutant mitigation technologies, four scenarios (S1, S2, S3 and S4) are analyzed. Results indicate that by implementing both carbon and air pollutant mitigation (S4), CO 2 emission per GDP can be reduced by 41% by 2020, compared with the 2005 level, and SO 2 , NOx and PM2.5 emissions would change by a factor 0.8, 1.26 and 1.0 of the 2005 level, respectively in 2030. The real co-benefits of emission reductions (S2 minus S4) for SO 2 , NOx and PM2.5 are 2.4 Mt, 2.1 Mt and 0.3 Mt in 2020, and the corresponding cost reduction co-benefits are 4, 0.11, and 0.8 billion €, respectively. Provincial disparity analysis reveals that regions with higher co-benefits are those with higher GDP such as Guangdong, Shandong and Jiangsu, energy production bases such as

  12. Community-level sensitivity of a calcifying ecosystem to acute in situ CO2 enrichment

    KAUST Repository

    Burdett, HL


    The rate of change in ocean carbonate chemistry is a vital determinant in the magnitude of effects observed. Benthic marine ecosystems are facing an increasing risk of acute CO2 exposure that may be natural or anthropogenically derived (e.g. engineering and industrial activities). However, our understanding of how acute CO2 events impact marine life is restricted to individual organisms, with little understanding for how this manifests at the community level. Here, we investigated in situ the effect of acute CO2 enrichment on the coralline algal ecosystem—a globally ubiquitous, ecologically and economically important habitat, but one which is likely to be sensitive to CO2 enrichment due to its highly calcified reef-like structures engineered by coralline algae. Most notably, we observed a rapid community-level shift to favour net dissolution rather than net calcification. Smaller changes from net respiration to net photosynthesis were also observed. There was no effect on the net flux of DMS/DMSP (algal secondary metabolites), nor on the nutrients nitrate and phosphate. Following return to ambient CO2 levels, only a partial recovery was seen within the monitoring timeframe. This study highlights the sensitivity of biogenic carbonate marine communities to acute CO2 enrichment and raises concerns over the capacity for the system to ‘bounce back’ if subjected to repeated acute high-CO2 events.

  13. The SMAP Level 4 Carbon PRODUCT for Monitoring Terrestrial Ecosystem-Atmosphere CO2 Exchange (United States)

    Jones, L. A.; Kimball, J. S.; Madani, N.; Reichle, R. H.; Glassy, J.; Ardizzone, J/


    The NASA Soil Moisture Active Passive (SMAP) mission Level 4 Carbon (L4_C) product provides model estimates of Net Ecosystem CO2 exchange (NEE) incorporating SMAP soil moisture information as a primary driver. The L4_C product provides NEE, computed as total respiration less gross photosynthesis, at a daily time step and approximate 14-day latency posted to a 9-km global grid summarized by plant functional type. The L4_C product includes component carbon fluxes, surface soil organic carbon stocks, underlying environmental constraints, and detailed uncertainty metrics. The L4_C model is driven by the SMAP Level 4 Soil Moisture (L4_SM) data assimilation product, with additional inputs from the Goddard Earth Observing System, Version 5 (GEOS-5) weather analysis and Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) satellite data. The L4_C data record extends from March 2015 to present with ongoing production. Initial comparisons against global CO2 eddy flux tower measurements, satellite Solar Induced Canopy Florescence (SIF) and other independent observation benchmarks show favorable L4_C performance and accuracy, capturing the dynamic biosphere response to recent weather anomalies and demonstrating the value of SMAP observations for monitoring of global terrestrial water and carbon cycle linkages.

  14. Modeling of CO2 Solubility in Aqueous Potassium Lysinate Solutions at Post-Combustion CO2 Capture Conditions (United States)

    Bian, Y.; Shen, S.


    Aqueous potassium lysinate (LysK) has been proposed as an alternative to aqueous alkanolamines for CO2 capture due to fast kinetics and large absorption capacity. However, thermodynamic modeling for aqueous LysK system has not been available yet. In this work, a modified Kent-Eisenberg model with correlated equilibrium constants was developed to interpret the vapor-liquid equilibrium (VLE) data at postcombustion capture conditions. The predictions from the developed model are in good agreement with the experimental results with AAD within 19 %.

  15. Geochemical modelling of worst-case leakage scenarios at potential CO2-storage sites - CO2 and saline water contamination of drinking water aquifers (United States)

    Szabó, Zsuzsanna; Edit Gál, Nóra; Kun, Éva; Szőcs, Teodóra; Falus, György


    Carbon Capture and Storage is a transitional technology to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and to mitigate climate change. Following the implementation and enforcement of the 2009/31/EC Directive in the Hungarian legislation, the Geological and Geophysical Institute of Hungary is required to evaluate the potential CO2 geological storage structures of the country. Basic assessment of these saline water formations has been already performed and the present goal is to extend the studies to the whole of the storage complex and consider the protection of fresh water aquifers of the neighbouring area even in unlikely scenarios when CO2 injection has a much more regional effect than planned. In this work, worst-case scenarios are modelled to understand the effects of CO2 or saline water leaks into drinking water aquifers. The dissolution of CO2 may significantly change the pH of fresh water which induces mineral dissolution and precipitation in the aquifer and therefore, changes in solution composition and even rock porosity. Mobilization of heavy metals may also be of concern. Brine migration from CO2 reservoir and replacement of fresh water in the shallower aquifer may happen due to pressure increase as a consequence of CO2 injection. The saline water causes changes in solution composition which may also induce mineral reactions. The modelling of the above scenarios has happened at several methodological levels such as equilibrium batch, kinetic batch and kinetic reactive transport simulations. All of these have been performed by PHREEQC using the PHREEQC.DAT thermodynamic database. Kinetic models use equations and kinetic rate parameters from the USGS report of Palandri and Kharaka (2004). Reactive transport modelling also considers estimated fluid flow and dispersivity of the studied formation. Further input parameters are the rock and the original ground water compositions of the aquifers and a range of gas-phase CO2 or brine replacement ratios. Worst-case scenarios

  16. Expired CO2 levels indicate degree of lung aeration at birth.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stuart B Hooper

    Full Text Available As neonatal resuscitation critically depends upon lung aeration at birth, knowledge of the progression of this process is required to guide ongoing care. We investigated whether expired CO2 (ECO2 levels indicate the degree of lung aeration immediately after birth in two animal models and in preterm infants. Lambs were delivered by caesarean section and ventilated from birth. In lambs, ECO2 levels were significantly (p10 mmHg 28 (median (21-36 seconds before the heart rate increased above 100 beats per minute. These data demonstrate that ECO2 levels can indicate the relative degree of lung aeration after birth and can be used to clinically assess ventilation in the immediate newborn period.

  17. Sensitivity of Terrestrial Water and Energy Budgets to CO2-Physiological Forcing: An Investigation Using an Offline Land Model (United States)

    Gopalakrishnan, Ranjith; Bala, Govindsamy; Jayaraman, Mathangi; Cao, Long; Nemani, Ramakrishna; Ravindranath, N. H.


    Increasing concentrations of atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) influence climate by suppressing canopy transpiration in addition to its well-known greenhouse gas effect. The decrease in plant transpiration is due to changes in plant physiology (reduced opening of plant stomata). Here, we quantify such changes in water flux for various levels of CO2 concentrations using the National Center for Atmospheric Research s (NCAR) Community Land Model. We find that photosynthesis saturates after 800 ppmv (parts per million, by volume) in this model. However, unlike photosynthesis, canopy transpiration continues to decline at about 5.1% per 100 ppmv increase in CO2 levels. We also find that the associated reduction in latent heat flux is primarily compensated by increased sensible heat flux. The continued decline in canopy transpiration and subsequent increase in sensible heat flux at elevated CO2 levels implies that incremental warming associated with the physiological effect of CO2 will not abate at higher CO2 concentrations, indicating important consequences for the global water and carbon cycles from anthropogenic CO2 emissions. Keywords: CO2-physiological effect, CO2-fertilization, canopy transpiration, water cycle, runoff, climate change 1.

  18. Triple oxygen isotope evidence for elevated CO2 levels after a Neoproterozoic glaciation. (United States)

    Bao, Huiming; Lyons, J R; Zhou, Chuanming


    Understanding the composition of the atmosphere over geological time is critical to understanding the history of the Earth system, as the atmosphere is closely linked to the lithosphere, hydrosphere and biosphere. Although much of the history of the lithosphere and hydrosphere is contained in rock and mineral records, corresponding information about the atmosphere is scarce and elusive owing to the lack of direct records. Geologists have used sedimentary minerals, fossils and geochemical models to place constraints on the concentrations of carbon dioxide, oxygen or methane in the past. Here we show that the triple oxygen isotope composition of sulphate from ancient evaporites and barites shows variable negative oxygen-17 isotope anomalies over the past 750 million years. We propose that these anomalies track those of atmospheric oxygen and in turn reflect the partial pressure of carbon dioxide (P(CO2)) in the past through a photochemical reaction network linking stratospheric ozone to carbon dioxide and to oxygen. Our results suggest that P(CO2) was much higher in the early Cambrian than in younger eras, agreeing with previous modelling results. We also find that the (17)O isotope anomalies of barites from Marinoan (approximately 635 million years ago) cap carbonates display a distinct negative spike (around -0.70 per thousand), suggesting that by the time barite was precipitating in the immediate aftermath of a Neoproterozoic global glaciation, the P(CO2) was at its highest level in the past 750 million years. Our finding is consistent with the 'snowball Earth' hypothesis and/or a massive methane release after the Marinoan glaciation.

  19. CO2 and nutrient-driven changes across multiple levels of organization in Zostera noltii ecosystems (United States)

    Martínez-Crego, B.; Olivé, I.; Santos, R.


    Increasing evidence emphasizes that the effects of human impacts on ecosystems must be investigated using designs that incorporate the responses across levels of biological organization as well as the effects of multiple stressors. Here we implemented a mesocosm experiment to investigate how the individual and interactive effects of CO2 enrichment and eutrophication scale-up from changes in primary producers at the individual (biochemistry) or population level (production, reproduction, and/or abundance) to higher levels of community (macroalgae abundance, herbivory, and global metabolism), and ecosystem organization (detritus release and carbon sink capacity). The responses of Zostera noltii seagrass meadows growing in low- and high-nutrient field conditions were compared. In both meadows, the expected CO2 benefits on Z. noltii leaf production were suppressed by epiphyte overgrowth, with no direct CO2 effect on plant biochemistry or population-level traits. Multi-level meadow response to nutrients was faster and stronger than to CO2. Nutrient enrichment promoted the nutritional quality of Z. noltii (high N, low C : N and phenolics), the growth of epiphytic pennate diatoms and purple bacteria, and shoot mortality. In the low-nutrient meadow, individual effects of CO2 and nutrients separately resulted in reduced carbon storage in the sediment, probably due to enhanced microbial degradation of more labile organic matter. These changes, however, had no effect on herbivory or on community metabolism. Interestingly, individual effects of CO2 or nutrient addition on epiphytes, shoot mortality, and carbon storage were attenuated when nutrients and CO2 acted simultaneously. This suggests CO2-induced benefits on eutrophic meadows. In the high-nutrient meadow, a striking shoot decline caused by amphipod overgrazing masked the response to CO2 and nutrient additions. Our results reveal that under future scenarios of CO2, the responses of seagrass ecosystems will be complex and

  20. Relationship between sea level and climate forcing by CO2 on geological timescales. (United States)

    Foster, Gavin L; Rohling, Eelco J


    On 10(3)- to 10(6)-year timescales, global sea level is determined largely by the volume of ice stored on land, which in turn largely reflects the thermal state of the Earth system. Here we use observations from five well-studied time slices covering the last 40 My to identify a well-defined and clearly sigmoidal relationship between atmospheric CO(2) and sea level on geological (near-equilibrium) timescales. This strongly supports the dominant role of CO(2) in determining Earth's climate on these timescales and suggests that other variables that influence long-term global climate (e.g., topography, ocean circulation) play a secondary role. The relationship between CO(2) and sea level we describe portrays the "likely" (68% probability) long-term sea-level response after Earth system adjustment over many centuries. Because it appears largely independent of other boundary condition changes, it also may provide useful long-range predictions of future sea level. For instance, with CO(2) stabilized at 400-450 ppm (as required for the frequently quoted "acceptable warming" of 2 °C), or even at AD 2011 levels of 392 ppm, we infer a likely (68% confidence) long-term sea-level rise of more than 9 m above the present. Therefore, our results imply that to avoid significantly elevated sea level in the long term, atmospheric CO(2) should be reduced to levels similar to those of preindustrial times.

  1. Future Climate CO2 Levels Mitigate Stress Impact on Plants: Increased Defense or Decreased Challenge? (United States)

    AbdElgawad, Hamada; Zinta, Gaurav; Beemster, Gerrit T S; Janssens, Ivan A; Asard, Han


    Elevated atmospheric CO2 can stimulate plant growth by providing additional C (fertilization effect), and is observed to mitigate abiotic stress impact. Although, the mechanisms underlying the stress mitigating effect are not yet clear, increased antioxidant defenses, have been held primarily responsible (antioxidant hypothesis). A systematic literature analysis, including "all" papers [Web of Science (WoS)-cited], addressing elevated CO2 effects on abiotic stress responses and antioxidants (105 papers), confirms the frequent occurrence of the stress mitigation effect. However, it also demonstrates that, in stress conditions, elevated CO2 is reported to increase antioxidants, only in about 22% of the observations (e.g., for polyphenols, peroxidases, superoxide dismutase, monodehydroascorbate reductase). In most observations, under stress and elevated CO2 the levels of key antioxidants and antioxidant enzymes are reported to remain unchanged (50%, e.g., ascorbate peroxidase, catalase, ascorbate), or even decreased (28%, e.g., glutathione peroxidase). Moreover, increases in antioxidants are not specific for a species group, growth facility, or stress type. It seems therefore unlikely that increased antioxidant defense is the major mechanism underlying CO2-mediated stress impact mitigation. Alternative processes, probably decreasing the oxidative challenge by reducing ROS production (e.g., photorespiration), are therefore likely to play important roles in elevated CO2 (relaxation hypothesis). Such parameters are however rarely investigated in connection with abiotic stress relief. Understanding the effect of elevated CO2 on plant growth and stress responses is imperative to understand the impact of climate changes on plant productivity.

  2. Physiological responses of the calcifying rhodophyte, Corallina officinalis (L.), to future CO2 levels


    Hofmann, Laurie C.; Yildiz, Gamze; Hanelt, Dieter; Bischof, Kai


    Future atmospheric CO2 levels will most likely have complex consequences for marine organisms, particulary photosynthetic calcifying organisms. Corallina officinalis L. is an erect calcifying macroalga found in the inter- and subtidal regions of temperate rocky coastlines and provides important substrate and refugia for marine meiofauna. The main goal of the current study was to determine the physiological responses of C. officinalis to increased CO2 concentrations expected to occur within th...

  3. Thermogravimetric and model-free kinetic studies on CO2 ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    some low-quality NER Indian coal samples in CO2 atmosphere, and also to evaluate the effect of coal properties on gasification reactivity. These results generated will be useful in formulating the gasifi- cation technology not only for NER coals but also for other low-quality coals of the world. 2. Materials and methods.

  4. Energy from CO2 using capacitive electrodes – A model for energy extraction cycles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Paz-García, J.M.; Dykstra, J.E.; Biesheuvel, P.M.; Hamelers, H.V.M.


    A model is presented for the process of harvesting electrical energy from CO2 emissions using capacitive cells. The principle consists of controlling the mixing process of a concentrated CO2 gas stream with a dilute CO2 gas stream (as, for example, exhaust gas and air), thereby converting part of

  5. Gas Exchange Characteristics in Tectona grandis L. Clones under Varying Concentrations of CO2 Levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Saravanan


    Full Text Available The Institute of Forest Genetics and Tree Breeding, Coimbatore, India functioning under the Indian Council of Forestry Research and Education, Dehara Dun, has a long term systematic tree improvement program for Tectona grandis aimed to enhancing productivity and screening of clones for site specific. In the process, twenty clones of T. grandis L. were studied for the physiological parameters and water use efficiency with reference to the elevated CO2 levels. CO2 enrichment studies in special chambers help in understanding the changes at individual level, and also at physiological, biochemical and genetic level. It also provides valuable information for establishing plantations at different geographic locations. Considerable variations were observed when the selected 20 clones of T. grandis were subjected to physiological studies under elevated CO2 conditions (600 and 900 mol mol-1. Eight clones exhibited superior growth coupled with favorable physiological characteristics including high photosynthetic rate, carboxylation and water use efficiency under elevated CO2 levels. Clones with minimal variation in physiological characteristics under elevated levels of CO2 suggest their ability to overcome physiological stresses and adapt to varying climatic conditions.

  6. Probabilistic modeling and global sensitivity analysis for CO 2 storage in geological formations: a spectral approach

    KAUST Repository

    Saad, Bilal Mohammed


    This work focuses on the simulation of CO2 storage in deep underground formations under uncertainty and seeks to understand the impact of uncertainties in reservoir properties on CO2 leakage. To simulate the process, a non-isothermal two-phase two-component flow system with equilibrium phase exchange is used. Since model evaluations are computationally intensive, instead of traditional Monte Carlo methods, we rely on polynomial chaos (PC) expansions for representation of the stochastic model response. A non-intrusive approach is used to determine the PC coefficients. We establish the accuracy of the PC representations within a reasonable error threshold through systematic convergence studies. In addition to characterizing the distributions of model observables, we compute probabilities of excess CO2 leakage. Moreover, we consider the injection rate as a design parameter and compute an optimum injection rate that ensures that the risk of excess pressure buildup at the leaky well remains below acceptable levels. We also provide a comprehensive analysis of sensitivities of CO2 leakage, where we compute the contributions of the random parameters, and their interactions, to the variance by computing first, second, and total order Sobol’ indices.

  7. An anti-herbivore defense mutualism under elevated CO2 levels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marks, S.; Lincoln, D.E. (Winthrop Univ., Rock Hill, SC (United States))


    Previous studies have shown that insects typically consume more when fed leaf tissue grown under CO2 enrichment, but with few negative effects on growth. On the other hand, Lepidopteran larvae fed tissue infected with Balansiae fungal endophytes (which produce toxic alkaloids) typically eat less but suffer negative effects on growth and survival. This study was carried out to see how these two factors would interact to affect consumption and growth of Fall Armyworm larvae (Spodoptera frugiperda). Infected and uninfected ramets of a single genotype of tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea) were grown under CO2 concentrations of 400 and 700 ul/L. Larvae had increased relative growth in the high CO2 treatment, but decreased growth when fed infected tissue. Relative consumption of leaf tissue was greater in the high CO2 treatment, but was not effected by infection. CO2 level, infection, and their interaction all significantly reduced the efficiency of conversion of food ingested (ECI). It appears that tall fescue may not be as well defended against herbivores under CO2 enrichment, although insects may still avoid and be negatively effected by endophyte infected plants.

  8. Assessing filtering of mountaintop CO2 mole fractions for application to inverse models of biosphere-atmosphere carbon exchange

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. L. Heck


    Full Text Available There is a widely recognized need to improve our understanding of biosphere-atmosphere carbon exchanges in areas of complex terrain including the United States Mountain West. CO2 fluxes over mountainous terrain are often difficult to measure due to unusual and complicated influences associated with atmospheric transport. Consequently, deriving regional fluxes in mountain regions with carbon cycle inversion of atmospheric CO2 mole fraction is sensitive to filtering of observations to those that can be represented at the transport model resolution. Using five years of CO2 mole fraction observations from the Regional Atmospheric Continuous CO2 Network in the Rocky Mountains (Rocky RACCOON, five statistical filters are used to investigate a range of approaches for identifying regionally representative CO2 mole fractions. Test results from three filters indicate that subsets based on short-term variance and local CO2 gradients across tower inlet heights retain nine-tenths of the total observations and are able to define representative diel variability and seasonal cycles even for difficult-to-model sites where the influence of local fluxes is much larger than regional mole fraction variations. Test results from two other filters that consider measurements from previous and following days using spline fitting or sliding windows are overly selective. Case study examples showed that these windowing-filters rejected measurements representing synoptic changes in CO2, which suggests that they are not well suited to filtering continental CO2 measurements. We present a novel CO2 lapse rate filter that uses CO2 differences between levels in the model atmosphere to select subsets of site measurements that are representative on model scales. Our new filtering techniques provide guidance for novel approaches to assimilating mountain-top CO2 mole fractions in carbon cycle inverse models.

  9. Response of Photosynthesis and Yield of Sweetpotato and Peanut to Super-optimal CO2 levels (United States)

    Bonsi, C.; Bullard, J.; Hileman, D.; Mortley, D.; Hill, J.; Hill, W.; Morrris, C.

    The fate of persons involved in long-term space travel and habitation will depend greatly on the ability to provide food and a livable environment for them In the National Aeronautics and Space Administration NASA Advanced Life Support ALS program photosynthesis of higher plants will be utilized to provide food and oxygen while removing carbon dioxide produced by humans and other heterotrophs as well as transpiring water that can be recycled for drinking This plant-mediated process is collectively referred to as Bioregenerative Life Support Carbon dioxide concentrations on board a space shuttle cabin atmosphere range between 4000 and 6000 mu mol mol -1 CO 2 but with large crews may exceed 10 000- mu mol mol -1 CO 2 Thus it is critical to evaluate the responses of candidate crops to super optimal levels of CO 2 Soybean and potato have been exposed to CO 2 concentrations up to 5000 and 10 000- mu mol mol -1 Very little research has been published about the effects of super-optimal CO 2 levels on sweetpotato and peanut growth and physiology thus indicating a need for extensive research on these plants The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of super-optimal CO 2 enrichment on growth of TU-82-155 sweetpotato and Georgia Red peanut in a Microporous Tube Membrane MPT using Turface Media and Nutrient Film Technique NFT nutrient delivery systems Sweetpotato Ipomoea batatas L Lam and peanut Arachis hypogaea L were exposed to three CO 2 levels of 400

  10. CO2 sequestration in two mediterranean dune areas subjected to a different level of anthropogenic disturbance (United States)

    Bonito, Andrea; Ricotta, Carlo; Iberite, Mauro; Gratani, Loretta; Varone, Laura


    Coastal sand dunes are among the most threatened habitats, especially in the Mediterranean Basin, where the high levels of human pressure impair the presence of plant species, putting at risk the maintenance of the ecosystem services, such as CO2 sequestration provided by these habitats. The aim of this study was to analyze how disturbance-induced changes in plant species abundance patterns account for variations in annual CO2 sequestration flow (CS) of Mediterranean sand dune areas. Two sites characterized by a high (site HAD) and a lower (site LAD) anthropogenic disturbance level were selected. At both sites, plant species number, cover, height and CS based on net photosynthesis measurements were sampled. At the plant species level, our results highlighted that Ammophila arenaria and Pancratium maritimum, had a key role in CS. Moreover, the results revealed a patchy species assemblage in both sites. In particular, HAD was characterized by a higher extension of the anthropogenic aphytoic zone (64% of the total transect length) than LAD. In spite of the observed differences in plant species composition, there were not significant differences between HAD and LAD in structural and functional traits, such as plant height and net photosynthesis. As a consequence, HAD and LAD had a similar CS (443 and 421 Mg CO2 ha-1 y-1, respectively). From a monetary point of view, our estimates based on the social costs of carbon revealed that the flow of sequestered CO2 valued on an average 3181 ± 114 ha-1 year-1 (mean value for the two sites). However, considering also the value of the CO2 negative flow related to loss of vegetated area, the annual net benefit arising from CO2 sequestration amounted to 1641 and 1772 for HAD and LAD, respectively. Overall, the results highlighted the importance to maximize the efforts to preserve dune habitats by applying an effective management policy, which could allow maintaining also a regulatory ecosystem service such as CO2 sequestration.

  11. Relationship between urbanization and CO2 emissions depends on income level and policy. (United States)

    Ponce de Leon Barido, Diego; Marshall, Julian D


    We investigate empirically how national-level CO2 emissions are affected by urbanization and environmental policy. We use statistical modeling to explore panel data on annual CO2 emissions from 80 countries for the period 1983-2005. Random- and fixed-effects models indicate that, on the global average, the urbanization-emission elasticity value is 0.95 (i.e., a 1% increase in urbanization correlates with a 0.95% increase in emissions). Several regions display a statistically significant, positive elasticity for fixed- and random-effects models: lower-income Europe, India and the Sub-Continent, Latin America, and Africa. Using two proxies for environmental policy/outcomes (ratification status for the Kyoto Protocol; the Yale Environmental Performance Index), we find that in countries with stronger environmental policy/outcomes, urbanization has a more beneficial (or, a less negative) impact on emissions. Specifically, elasticity values are -1.1 (0.21) for higher-income (lower-income) countries with strong environmental policy, versus 0.65 (1.3) for higher-income (lower-income) countries with weak environmental policies. Our finding that the urbanization-emissions elasticity may depend on the strength of a country's environmental policy, not just marginal increases in income, is in contrast to the idea of universal urban scaling laws that can ignore local context. Most global population growth in the coming decades is expected to occur in urban areas of lower-income countries, which underscores the importance of these findings.

  12. The importance of geomagnetic field changes versus rising CO2 levels for long-term change in the upper atmosphere

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cnossen Ingrid


    Full Text Available The Earth’s upper atmosphere has shown signs of cooling and contraction over the past decades. This is generally attributed to the increasing level of atmospheric CO2, a coolant in the upper atmosphere. However, especially the charged part of the upper atmosphere, the ionosphere, also responds to the Earth’s magnetic field, which has been weakening considerably over the past century, as well as changing in structure. The relative importance of the changing geomagnetic field compared to enhanced CO2 levels for long-term change in the upper atmosphere is still a matter of debate. Here we present a quantitative comparison of the effects of the increase in CO2 concentration and changes in the magnetic field from 1908 to 2008, based on simulations with the Thermosphere-Ionosphere-Electrodynamics General Circulation Model (TIE-GCM. This demonstrates that magnetic field changes contribute at least as much as the increase in CO2 concentration to changes in the height of the maximum electron density in the ionosphere, and much more to changes in the maximum electron density itself and to low-/mid-latitude ionospheric currents. Changes in the magnetic field even contribute to cooling of the thermosphere at ~300 km altitude, although the increase in CO2 concentration is still the dominant factor here. Both processes are roughly equally important for long-term changes in ion temperature.

  13. Effects of ERV Filter Degradation on Indoor CO2 Levels of a Classroom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jae-Sol Choi


    Full Text Available Energy recovery ventilators (ERVs are widely used to reduce energy losses caused by ventilation and improve indoor air quality for recently-constructed buildings. It is important for spaces with high occupancy density and longer residence times, such as classrooms. In classrooms, the ERV size is typically estimated by the target number of students in the design phase, but the design air volume flow rates (m3/h of the ERV can decrease over time owing to filter degradation such as increased dust loading. In this study, field tests are conducted in a classroom to investigate filter degradation through a visual inspection and by measuring the air volume flow rates at the diffusers connected to the ERV. In addition, variations in carbon dioxide (CO2 concentrations are also measured to verify the effects of filter degradation on the indoor CO2 levels over the entire test period, which includes filter replacement, as well. As the tests are conducted during classes, several adjusting methodologies are proposed to match the different test conditions. The results show that the total air volume flow rate of the ERV increases after the filter replacement (546 to 766 m3/h, but it again decreases as time elapses (659 m3/h. Accordingly, the indoor CO2 concentration decreases after the filter replacement by more than 300 ppm (1404 to 1085 ppm, clearly showing the effect of filter degradation. However, this CO2 concentration remains similar for four months after the replacement, and the total air volume rate decreases again. An interpretation is made using computational fluid dynamics analysis that the measured CO2 concentrations are affected by airflow patterns. The airflow in the cooling system may dilute CO2 concentrations at the measuring location. Thus, periodic filter replacement and management are important to ensure the desired ERV air volume rates and consequently the desired indoor CO2 concentrations.

  14. Elevated CO2 stimulates marsh elevation gain, counterbalancing sea-level rise (United States)

    Langley, J.A.; McKee, K.L.; Cahoon, D.R.; Cherry, J.A.; Megonigala, J.P.


    Tidal wetlands experiencing increased rates of sea-level rise (SLR) must increase rates of soil elevation gain to avoid permanent conversion to open water. The maximal rate of SLR that these ecosystems can tolerate depends partly on mineral sediment deposition, but the accumulation of organic matter is equally important for many wetlands. Plant productivity drives organic matter dynamics and is sensitive to global change factors, such as rising atmospheric CO2 concentration. It remains unknown how global change will influence organic mechanisms that determine future tidal wetland viability. Here, we present experimental evidence that plant response to elevated atmospheric [CO2] stimulates biogenic mechanisms of elevation gain in a brackish marsh. Elevated CO2 (ambient + 340 ppm) accelerated soil elevation gain by 3.9 mm yr−1in this 2-year field study, an effect mediated by stimulation of below-ground plant productivity. Further, a companion greenhouse experiment revealed that the CO2 effect was enhanced under salinity and flooding conditions likely to accompany future SLR. Our results indicate that by stimulating biogenic contributions to marsh elevation, increases in the greenhouse gas, CO2, may paradoxically aid some coastal wetlands in counterbalancing rising seas.

  15. Assessment of CO 2 emission level in urban transport of Mekelle ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Transport plays a crucial role in accelerating development and improving quality of life by allowing ease transfer of people, goods and services. It is also one of the important preconditions for achieving developmental goals. This study therefore intends to assess the level of CO2 emissions in urban transport of Mekelle city.


    African Journals Online (AJOL)



    Nov 6, 2016 ... Abstract. Transport plays a crucial role in accelerating development and improving quality of life by allowing ease transfer of people, goods and services. It is also one of the important preconditions for achieving developmental goals. This study therefore intends to assess the level of CO2 emissions in urban ...

  17. Multi-model comparison of CO2 emissions peaking in China: Lessons from CEMF01 study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oleg Lugovoy


    Full Text Available The paper summarizes results of the China Energy Modeling Forum's (CEMF first study. Carbon emissions peaking scenarios, consistent with China's Paris commitment, have been simulated with seven national and industry-level energy models and compared. The CO2 emission trends in the considered scenarios peak from 2015 to 2030 at the level of 9–11 Gt. Sector-level analysis suggests that total emissions pathways before 2030 will be determined mainly by dynamics of emissions in the electric power industry and transportation sector. Both sectors will experience significant increase in demand, but have low-carbon alternative options for development. Based on a side-by-side comparison of modeling input and results, conclusions have been drawn regarding the sources of emissions projections differences, which include data, views on economic perspectives, or models' structure and theoretical framework. Some suggestions have been made regarding energy models' development priorities for further research. Keywords: Carbon emissions projections, Climate change, CO2 emissions peak, China's Paris commitment, Top-Down energy models, Bottom-Up energy models, Multi model comparative study, China Energy Modeling Forum (CEMF

  18. Modeling permeation of CO2/CH4, N2/CH4, and CO2/air mixtures across a DD3R zeolite membrane

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Bergh, J.; Mittelmeijer-Hazeleger, M.; Kapteijn, F.


    Single component (CO2, CH4, and N2) and equimolar binary mixture (CO2/CH4, N2/CH4, and CO2/Air) permeation data across a disk-shaped all-silica DDR zeolite membrane have been the subject of a thorough modeling study over a challenging broad temperature (220−373 K) and feed pressure (101−1500 kPa)

  19. CO2 Fluxes Monitoring at the Level of Field Agroecosystem in Moscow Region of Russia (United States)

    Meshalkina, Joulia; Mazirov, Ilya; Samardzic, Miljan; Yaroslavtsev, Alexis; Valentini, Riccardo; Vasenev, Ivan


    The Central Russia is still one of the less GHG-investigated European areas especially in case of agroecosystem-level carbon dioxide fluxes monitoring by eddy covariance method. The eddy covariance technique is a statistical method to measure and calculate vertical turbulent fluxes within atmospheric boundary layers. The major assumption of the metod is that measurements at a point can represent an entire upwind area. Eddy covariance researches, which could be considered as repeated for the same area, are very rare. The research has been carried out on the Precision Farming Experimental Field of the Russian Timiryazev State Agricultural University (Moscow, Russia) in 2013 under the support of RF Government grant No. 11.G34.31.0079. Arable derno-podzoluvisls have around 1 The results have shown high daily and seasonal dynamic of agroecosystem CO2 emission. Sowing activates soil microbiological activity and the average soil CO2 emission and adsorption are rising at the same time. CO2 streams are intensified after crop emerging from values of 3 to 7 μmol/s-m2 for emission, and from values of 5 to 20 μmol/s-m2 for adsorption. Stabilization of the flow has come at achieving plants height of 10-12 cm. The vegetation period is characterized by high average soil CO2 emission and adsorption at the same time, but the adsorption is significantly higher. The resulted CO2 absorption during the day is approximately 2-5 times higher than emissions at night. For example, in mid-June, the absorption value was about 0.45 mol/m2 during the day-time, and the emission value was about 0.1 mol/m2 at night. After harvesting CO2 emission is becoming essentially higher than adsorption. Autumn and winter data are fluctuate around zero, but for some periods a small predominance of CO2 emissions over the absorption may be observed. The daily dynamics of CO2 emissions depends on the air temperature with the correlation coefficient changes between 0.4 and 0.8. Crop stage, agrotechnological

  20. Estimation of CO2 Transport Costs in South Korea Using a Techno-Economic Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kwangu Kang


    Full Text Available In this study, a techno–economic model was used to calculate the costs of CO2 transport and specify the major equipment required for transport in order to demonstrate and implement CO2 sequestration in the offshore sediments of South Korea. First, three different carbon capture and storage demonstration scenarios were set up involving the use of three CO2 capture plants and one offshore storage site. Each transport scenario considered both the pipeline transport and ship transport options. The temperature and pressure conditions of CO2 in each transport stage were determined from engineering and economic viewpoints, and the corresponding specifications and equipment costs were calculated. The transport costs for a 1 MtCO2/year transport rate were estimated to be US$33/tCO2 and US$28/tCO2 for a pipeline transport of ~530 km and ship transport of ~724 km, respectively. Through the economies of scale effect, the pipeline and ship transport costs for a transport rate of 3 MtCO2/year were reduced to approximately US$21/tCO2 and US$23/tCO2, respectively. A CO2 hub terminal did not significantly reduce the cost because of the short distance from the hub to the storage site and the small number of captured sources.

  1. A new approach to model CW CO2 laser using rate equations

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)


    Nov 11, 2016 ... Theoretical modelling; diffusion-cooled CW CO2 laser; rate equation model; simultaneous linear equations; matrix solution. PACS Nos 42.55. ... In this paper, we extend the application of this model to a CW CO2 laser. However, we should ... mines the output power. Our results agree with the experimentally ...

  2. Tidal marsh plant responses to elevated CO2 , nitrogen fertilization, and sea level rise. (United States)

    Adam Langley, J; Mozdzer, Thomas J; Shepard, Katherine A; Hagerty, Shannon B; Patrick Megonigal, J


    Elevated CO2 and nitrogen (N) addition directly affect plant productivity and the mechanisms that allow tidal marshes to maintain a constant elevation relative to sea level, but it remains unknown how these global change drivers modify marsh plant response to sea level rise. Here we manipulated factorial combinations of CO2 concentration (two levels), N availability (two levels) and relative sea level (six levels) using in situ mesocosms containing a tidal marsh community composed of a sedge, Schoenoplectus americanus, and a grass, Spartina patens. Our objective is to determine, if elevated CO2 and N alter the growth and persistence of these plants in coastal ecosystems facing rising sea levels. After two growing seasons, we found that N addition enhanced plant growth particularly at sea levels where plants were most stressed by flooding (114% stimulation in the + 10 cm treatment), and N effects were generally larger in combination with elevated CO2 (288% stimulation). N fertilization shifted the optimal productivity of S. patens to a higher sea level, but did not confer S. patens an enhanced ability to tolerate sea level rise. S. americanus responded strongly to N only in the higher sea level treatments that excluded S. patens. Interestingly, addition of N, which has been suggested to accelerate marsh loss, may afford some marsh plants, such as the widespread sedge, S. americanus, the enhanced ability to tolerate inundation. However, if chronic N pollution reduces the availability of propagules of S. americanus or other flood-tolerant species on the landscape scale, this shift in species dominance could render tidal marshes more susceptible to marsh collapse. © 2013 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  3. The effect of PaCO2 on cerebral perfusion: an experimental swine model. (United States)

    Trowbridge, C C; Stammers, A H; Niimi, K S; Glogowski, K R; Tremain, K D; Muhle, M L


    Adequate cerebral perfusion is of particular concern to the clinician and is a major factor in postoperative morbidity. Cerebral circulation has the ability to autoregulate blood flow in order to maintain nutrient delivery and prevent high intravascular pressures. The focus of this study was to characterize the impact of gradually changing arterial CO2 levels on cerebral perfusion. A total of eight porcine subjects were placed into either a normothermic group (NG, N = 4, rectal temperature = 35.4+/-1.2 degrees C) or a hypothermic group (HG, N = 4, 30.6+/-0.6 degrees C). After initiation of cardiopulmonary bypass, the PaCO2 values sequentially varied between 24 and 56 mmHg. Arterial, venous, and internal jugular blood gas data were collected at 4 mmHg increments, and relative cerebral blood flow was calculated as CBF = 1 (CarterialO2-CjugularO2)(-1) Physiological parameters were similar in both groups across all test conditions: mean arterial pressure-NG 81.6+/-11.9 mmHg versus HG 73.4+/-7.0 mmHg, p = NS, and systemic oxygen consumption-HG 110.6+/-30.0 mL min versus NG 136.4+/-37.9 mL min(-1), p = NS. No significant differences were found in CBF in the NG (21.8+/-4.4 mL min(-1) 100 gL at PaCO2 = 56 mmHg versus 20.5+/-5.0 mL min(-1) 100 g(-1) at PaCO2 = 24 mmHg) or the HG (24.3+/-9.5 mL min(-1) 100 g(-1) at PaCO2 = 56 mmHg versus 25.6+/-12.0 mL min(-1) 100 g(-1) at PaCO2 = 24 mmHg). In conclusion, the alteration of PaCO2 under both hypothermic and normothermic conditions resulted in no significant differences in 1 (CarterialO2 - CjugularO2)(-1) in this model.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhu, Chen


    An important question for the Carbon Capture, Storage, and Utility program is “can we adequately predict the CO2 plume migration?” For tracking CO2 plume development, the Sleipner project in the Norwegian North Sea provides more time-lapse seismic monitoring data than any other sites, but significant uncertainties still exist for some of the reservoir parameters. In Part I, we assessed model uncertainties by applying two multi-phase compositional simulators to the Sleipner Benchmark model for the uppermost layer (Layer 9) of the Utsira Sand and calibrated our model against the time-lapsed seismic monitoring data for the site from 1999 to 2010. Approximate match with the observed plume was achieved by introducing lateral permeability anisotropy, adding CH4 into the CO2 stream, and adjusting the reservoir temperatures. Model-predicted gas saturation, CO2 accumulation thickness, and CO2 solubility in brine—none were used as calibration metrics—were all comparable with the interpretations of the seismic data in the literature. In Part II & III, we evaluated the uncertainties of predicted long-term CO2 fate up to 10,000 years, due to uncertain reaction kinetics. Under four scenarios of the kinetic rate laws, the temporal and spatial evolution of CO2 partitioning into the four trapping mechanisms (hydrodynamic/structural, solubility, residual/capillary, and mineral) was simulated with ToughReact, taking into account the CO2-brine-rock reactions and the multi-phase reactive flow and mass transport. Modeling results show that different rate laws for mineral dissolution and precipitation reactions resulted in different predicted amounts of trapped CO2 by carbonate minerals, with scenarios of the conventional linear rate law for feldspar dissolution having twice as much mineral trapping (21% of the injected CO2) as scenarios with a Burch-type or Alekseyev et al.–type rate law for feldspar dissolution (11%). So far, most reactive transport modeling (RTM) studies for

  5. Thermodynamic modeling of CO2 absorption in aqueous N-Methyldiethanolamine using Extended UNIQUAC model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sadegh, Negar; Stenby, Erling Halfdan; Thomsen, Kaj


    A Thermodynamic model that can predict the behavior of the gas sweetening process over the applicable conditions is of vital importance in industry. In this work, Extended UNIQUAC model parameters optimized for the CO2-MDEA-H2O system are presented. Different types of experimental data consisting...... model accurately represents thermodynamic and thermal properties of the studied systems. The model parameters are valid in the temperature range from -15 to 200 °C, MDEA mass% of 5-75 and CO2 partial pressure of 0-6161.5 kPa....

  6. A microscale model for combined CO2 diffusion and photosynthesis in leaves

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ho, Q.T.; Verboven, P.; Yin, X.; Struik, P.C.; Nicolaï, B.M.


    Transport of CO2 in leaves was investigated by combining a 2-D, microscale CO2 transport model with photosynthesis kinetics in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) leaves. The biophysical microscale model for gas exchange featured an accurate geometric representation of the actual 2-D leaf tissue

  7. Model-Based Assessment of the CO2 Sequestration Potential of Coastal Ocean Alkalinization (United States)

    Feng, E. Y.; Koeve, W.; Keller, D. P.; Oschlies, A.


    The potential of coastal ocean alkalinization (COA), a carbon dioxide removal (CDR) climate engineering strategy that chemically increases ocean carbon uptake and storage, is investigated with an Earth system model of intermediate complexity. The CDR potential and possible environmental side effects are estimated for various COA deployment scenarios, assuming olivine as the alkalinity source in ice-free coastal waters (about 8.6% of the global ocean's surface area), with dissolution rates being a function of grain size, ambient seawater temperature, and pH. Our results indicate that for a large-enough olivine deployment of small-enough grain sizes (10 µm), atmospheric CO2 could be reduced by more than 800 GtC by the year 2100. However, COA with coarse olivine grains (1000 µm) has little CO2 sequestration potential on this time scale. Ambitious CDR with fine olivine grains would increase coastal aragonite saturation Ω to levels well beyond those that are currently observed. When imposing upper limits for aragonite saturation levels (Ωlim) in the grid boxes subject to COA (Ωlim = 3.4 and 9 chosen as examples), COA still has the potential to reduce atmospheric CO2 by 265 GtC (Ωlim = 3.4) to 790 GtC (Ωlim = 9) and increase ocean carbon storage by 290 Gt (Ωlim = 3.4) to 913 Gt (Ωlim = 9) by year 2100.

  8. Modeling and Simulation of Nanoparticle Transport in Multiphase Flows in Porous Media: CO2 Sequestration

    KAUST Repository

    El-Amin, Mohamed


    Geological storage of anthropogenic CO2 emissions in deep saline aquifers has recently received tremendous attention in the scientific literature. Injected CO2 plume buoyantly accumulates at the top part of the deep aquifer under a sealing cap rock, and some concern that the high-pressure CO2 could breach the seal rock. However, CO2 will diffuse into the brine underneath and generate a slightly denser fluid that may induce instability and convective mixing. Onset times of instability and convective mixing performance depend on the physical properties of the rock and fluids, such as permeability and density contrast. The novel idea is to adding nanoparticles to the injected CO2 to increase density contrast between the CO2-rich brine and the underlying resident brine and, consequently, decrease onset time of instability and increase convective mixing. As far as it goes, only few works address the issues related to mathematical and numerical modeling aspects of the nanoparticles transport phenomena in CO2 storages. In the current work, we will present mathematical models to describe the nanoparticles transport carried by injected CO2 in porous media. Buoyancy and capillary forces as well as Brownian diffusion are important to be considered in the model. IMplicit Pressure Explicit Saturation-Concentration (IMPESC) scheme is used and a numerical simulator is developed to simulate the nanoparticles transport in CO2 storages.

  9. Validation on wheat response to irrigation, CO2 and nitrogen fertilization in the Community Land Model (United States)

    Lu, Y.


    Wheat is a staple crop for global food security, and is the dominant vegetation cover for a significant fraction of earth's croplands. As such, it plays an important role in soil carbon balance, and land-atmosphere interactions in these key regions. Understanding whether the Community Land Model (CLM) appropriate response to elevated CO2 and different levels of nitrogen fertilization and irrigation is a crucial question. We participated the AgMIP-wheat project and run 72 simulations at Maricopa spring wheat FACE sites and five winter wheat sites in North America forcing with site observed meteorology data. After calibration on the phenology, carbon allocation, and soil hydrology parameters, wheat in CLM45 has reasonable response to irrigation and elevated CO2. However, wheat in CLM45 has no response to low or high N fertilization because the low amount of N fertilization is sufficient for wheat growth in CLM45. We plan to further extend the same simulations for CLM5 (will release in Fall 2016), which has substantial improvements on soil hydrology (improved soil evaporation and plant hydraulic parameterization) and nitrogen dynamics (flexible leaf CN ratio and Vcmax25, plant pays for carbon to get nitrogen). We will evaluate the uncertainties of wheat response to nitrogen fertilization, irrigation, CO2 due to model improvements.

  10. Localization of (photorespiration and CO2 re-assimilation in tomato leaves investigated with a reaction-diffusion model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Herman N C Berghuijs

    Full Text Available The rate of photosynthesis depends on the CO2 partial pressure near Rubisco, Cc, which is commonly calculated by models using the overall mesophyll resistance. Such models do not explain the difference between the CO2 level in the intercellular air space and Cc mechanistically. This problem can be overcome by reaction-diffusion models for CO2 transport, production and fixation in leaves. However, most reaction-diffusion models are complex and unattractive for procedures that require a large number of runs, like parameter optimisation. This study provides a simpler reaction-diffusion model. It is parameterized by both leaf physiological and leaf anatomical data. The anatomical data consisted of the thickness of the cell wall, cytosol and stroma, and the area ratios of mesophyll exposed to the intercellular air space to leaf surfaces and exposed chloroplast to exposed mesophyll surfaces. The model was used directly to estimate photosynthetic parameters from a subset of the measured light and CO2 response curves; the remaining data were used for validation. The model predicted light and CO2 response curves reasonably well for 15 days old tomato (cv. Admiro leaves, if (photorespiratory CO2 release was assumed to take place in the inner cytosol or in the gaps between the chloroplasts. The model was also used to calculate the fraction of CO2 produced by (photorespiration that is re-assimilated in the stroma, and this fraction ranged from 56 to 76%. In future research, the model should be further validated to better understand how the re-assimilation of (photorespired CO2 is affected by environmental conditions and physiological parameters.

  11. Numerical investigation of CO2 storage in hydrocarbon field using a geomechanical-fluid coupling model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guang Li


    Full Text Available Increasing pore pressure due to CO2 injection can lead to stress and strain changes of the reservoir. One of the safely standards for long term CO2 storage is whether stress and strain changes caused by CO2 injection will lead to irreversible mechanical damages of the reservoir and impact the integrity of caprock which could lead to CO2 leakage through previously sealing structures. Leakage from storage will compromise both the storage capacity and the perceived security of the project, therefore, a successful CO2 storage project requires large volumes of CO2 to be injected into storage site in a reliable and secure manner. Yougou hydrocarbon field located in Orods basin was chosen as storage site based on it's stable geological structure and low leakage risks. In this paper, we present a fluid pressure and stress-strain variations analysis for CO2 geological storage based on a geomechanical-fluid coupling model. Using nonlinear elasticity theory to describe the geomechanical part of the model, while using the Darcy's law to describe the fluid flow. Two parts are coupled together using the poroelasticity theory. The objectives of our work were: 1 evaluation of the geomechanical response of the reservoir to different CO2 injection scenarios. 2 assessment of the potential leakage risk of the reservoir caused by CO2 injection.

  12. Simulation of atmospheric CO2 over Europe and western Siberia using the regional scale model REMO

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chevillard, A.; Ciais, P.; Lafont, S.


    The spatial distribution and the temporal variability of atmospheric CO 2 over Europe and western Siberia are investigated using the regional atmospheric model, REMO. The model, of typical horizontal resolution 50 km, is part of a nested modelling framework that has been established as a concerted action during the EUROSIBERIAN CARBONFLUX project. In REMO, the transport of CO 2 is simulated together with climate variables, which offers the possibility of calculating at each time step the land atmosphere CO 2 fluxes as driven by the modelled meteorology. The uptake of CO 2 by photosynthesis is calculated using a light use efficiency formulation, where the absorbed photosynthetically active solar radiation is inferred from satellite measurements. The release of CO 2 from plant and soil respiration is driven by the simulated climate and assumed to be in equilibrium with photosynthesis over the course of one year. Fossil CO 2 emissions and air-sea fluxes within the model domain are prescribed, whereas the influence of sources outside the model domain is computed from as a boundary condition CO 2 fields determined a global transport model. The modelling results are compared against pointwise eddy covariance fluxes, and against atmospheric CO 2 records. We show that a necessary condition to simulate realistically the variability of atmospheric CO 2 over continental Europe is to account for the diurnal cycle of biospheric exchange. Overall, for the study period of July 1998, REMO realistically simulates the short-term variability of fluxes and of atmospheric mixing ratios. However, the mean CO 2 gradients from western Europe to western Siberia are not correctly reproduced. This latter deficiency points out the key role of boundary conditions in a limited-area model, as well as the need for using more realistic geographic mean patterns of biospheric carbon fluxes

  13. Statistical Evaluation of the Emissions Level Of CO, CO2 and HC Generated by Passenger Cars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudiu Ursu


    Full Text Available This paper aims to make an evaluation of differences emission level of CO, CO2 and HC generated by passenger cars in different walking regimes and times, to identify measures of reducing pollution. Was analyzed a sample of Dacia Logan passenger cars (n = 515, made during the period 2004-2007, equipped with spark ignition engines, assigned to emission standards EURO 3 (E3 and EURO4 (E4. These cars were evaluated at periodical technical inspection (ITP by two times in the two walk regimes (slow idle and accelerated idle. Using the t test for paired samples (Paired Samples T Test, the results showed that there are significant differences between emissions levels (CO, CO2, HC generated by Dacia Logan passenger cars at both assessments, and regression analysis showed that these differences are not significantly influenced by turnover differences.

  14. A STELLA model to estimate soil CO2 emissions from a short-rotation woody crop (United States)

    Ying Ouyang; Theodor D. Leininger; Jeff Hatten; Prem B. Parajuli


    The potential for climatic factors as well as soil–plant–climate interactions to change as a result of rising levels of atmospheric CO2 concentration is an issue of increasing international environmental concern. Agricultural and forest practices and managements may be important contributors to mitigating elevated atmospheric CO2...

  15. Three dimensional global modeling of atmospheric CO2. Final technical report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fung, I.; Hansen, J.; Rind, D.


    A modeling effort has been initiated to study the prospects of extracting information on carbon dioxide sources and sinks from observed CO 2 variations. The approach uses a three-dimensional global transport model, based on winds from a 3-D general circulation model (GCM), to advect CO 2 noninteractively, i.e., as a tracer, with specified sources and sinks of CO 2 at the surface. This report identifies the 3-D model employed in this study and discusses biosphere, ocean and fossil fuel sources and sinks. Some preliminary model results are presented. 14 figures

  16. Enhanced abundance of tintinnids under elevated CO2 level from coastal Bay of Bengal

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Biswas, H.; Gadi, S.D.; Venkataramana, V.; Bharathi, M.D.; Priyan, R.K.; Manjari, D.T.; DileepKumar, M.

    College of Arts, Science and Commerce for Women, Nuvem, Goa – 403 601, India 3 National Institute of Oceanography, Doan Paula, Goa 43004, India Address for correspondence: Dr. Haimanti Biswas, Regional Center, National Institute of Oceanography, 176... group. The present study was conducted to understand the responses of microzooplankton and phytoplankton community and their interactive effects under future predicted CO 2 level. Methods Between May 20 th and June 1 st 2010 surface seawater...

  17. Accounting for geochemical alterations of caprock fracture permeability in basin-scale models of leakage from geologic CO2 reservoirs (United States)

    Guo, B.; Fitts, J. P.; Dobossy, M.; Bielicki, J. M.; Peters, C. A.


    Climate mitigation, public acceptance and energy, markets demand that the potential CO2 leakage rates from geologic storage reservoirs are predicted to be low and are known to a high level of certainty. Current approaches to predict CO2 leakage rates assume constant permeability of leakage pathways (e.g., wellbores, faults, fractures). A reactive transport model was developed to account for geochemical alterations that result in permeability evolution of leakage pathways. The one-dimensional reactive transport model was coupled with the basin-scale Estimating Leakage Semi-Analytical (ELSA) model to simulate CO2 and brine leakage through vertical caprock pathways for different CO2 storage reservoir sites and injection scenarios within the Mt. Simon and St. Peter sandstone formations of the Michigan basin. Mineral dissolution in the numerical reactive transport model expands leakage pathways and increases permeability as a result of calcite dissolution by reactions driven by CO2-acidified brine. A geochemical model compared kinetic and equilibrium treatments of calcite dissolution within each grid block for each time step. For a single fracture, we investigated the effect of the reactions on leakage by performing sensitivity analyses of fracture geometry, CO2 concentration, calcite abundance, initial permeability, and pressure gradient. Assuming that calcite dissolution reaches equilibrium at each time step produces unrealistic scenarios of buffering and permeability evolution within fractures. Therefore, the reactive transport model with a kinetic treatment of calcite dissolution was coupled to the ELSA model and used to compare brine and CO2 leakage rates at a variety of potential geologic storage sites within the Michigan basin. The results are used to construct maps based on the susceptibility to geochemically driven increases in leakage rates. These maps should provide useful and easily communicated inputs into decision-making processes for siting geologic CO2

  18. Phase equilibrium of (CO2 + 1-aminopropyl-3-methylimidazolium bromide + water) electrolyte system and effects of aqueous medium on CO2 solubility: Experiment and modeling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Ying; Guo, Kaihua; Bi, Yin; Zhou, Lan


    Highlights: • Phase and chemical equilibrium data for (CO 2 + [APMIm]Br + H 2 O) electrolyte system. • A modified eNRTL model for CO 2 solubility in the amino-based IL aqueous solution. • Effects of aqueous medium on both chemical and physical dissolution of CO 2 . • The correlative coefficient, R s ∗ , for the Henry’s constant of the solution. • New parameters for the segments interaction and the chemical equilibrium constants. - Abstract: New experimental data for solubility of carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) in the aqueous solution of 1-aminopropyl-3-methylimidazolium bromide ([APMIm]Br) with four different water mass fractions (0.559, 0.645, 0.765 and 0.858) at T = (278.15–348.15) K with an interval of T = 10 K and p = (0.1237–6.9143) MPa were presented. The electrolyte nonrandom two-liquid (eNRTL) model was modified to be applicable for an ionic liquid (IL) aqueous solution system, by introducing an idle factor β to illustrate the association effect of IL molecules. A solution Henry’s constant for CO 2 solubility in the IL aqueous solution was defined by introducing a correlative coefficient R s ∗ . The vapor-liquid phase equilibrium of the [APMIm]Br-H 2 O-CO 2 ternary system was successfully calculated with the modified eNRTL model. The chemical and physical mechanisms for the ionized CO 2 formation and the molecular CO 2 dissolved in the solution were identified. The effects of aqueous medium on both chemical and physical dissolution of CO 2 in the [APMIm]Br aqueous solution were studied, and a considerable enhancement of the solubility of CO 2 with increase of the water content in the solution was observed.

  19. Bias and uncertainty of δ13CO2 isotopic mixing models (United States)

    Zachary E. Kayler; Lisa Ganio; Mark Hauck; Thomas G. Pypker; Elizabeth W. Sulzman; Alan C. Mix; Barbara J. Bond


    The goal of this study was to evaluate how factorial combinations of two mixing models and two regression approaches (Keeling-OLS, Miller—Tans-OLS, Keeling-GMR, Miller—Tans-GMR) compare in small [CO2] range versus large[CO2] range regimes, with different combinations of...

  20. Molecular level investigation of CH4 and CO2 adsorption in hydrated Ca-Montmorillonite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Mal Soon; McGrail, Bernard P.; Rousseau, Roger J.; Glezakou, Vassiliki-Alexandra


    We have studied the mechanism of intercalation and methane adsorption from a H2O/CH4/CO2 mixture on a prototypical shale component, Ca-montmorillonite. We employed ab initio molecular dynamics simulations at 323 K and 90 bar to obtain molecular level information of adsorption energetics, speciation, and structural and thermodynamic properties. Interaction of CH4 with surface Lewis acidic sites (Ca2+, surface OH) results in large induced dipoles (~1 D) that lead to relatively strong adsorption energies that level off once a full CH4 layer is formed. Intercalated CH4, also exhibits induced dipoles at low hydration levels, when the interaction with Ca2+ cations are less hindered. CO2 displaces CH4 in the coordination sphere of the cations (in the interlayer) or in the surface, thereby driving CH4 extraction. Our simulations indicate that there is a Goldilocks pressure range (~60-100 bar) where scCO2 –facilitated CH4 extraction will be maximized.

  1. Application of simplified models to CO2 migration and immobilization in large-scale geological systems

    KAUST Repository

    Gasda, Sarah E.


    Long-term stabilization of injected carbon dioxide (CO 2) is an essential component of risk management for geological carbon sequestration operations. However, migration and trapping phenomena are inherently complex, involving processes that act over multiple spatial and temporal scales. One example involves centimeter-scale density instabilities in the dissolved CO 2 region leading to large-scale convective mixing that can be a significant driver for CO 2 dissolution. Another example is the potentially important effect of capillary forces, in addition to buoyancy and viscous forces, on the evolution of mobile CO 2. Local capillary effects lead to a capillary transition zone, or capillary fringe, where both fluids are present in the mobile state. This small-scale effect may have a significant impact on large-scale plume migration as well as long-term residual and dissolution trapping. Computational models that can capture both large and small-scale effects are essential to predict the role of these processes on the long-term storage security of CO 2 sequestration operations. Conventional modeling tools are unable to resolve sufficiently all of these relevant processes when modeling CO 2 migration in large-scale geological systems. Herein, we present a vertically-integrated approach to CO 2 modeling that employs upscaled representations of these subgrid processes. We apply the model to the Johansen formation, a prospective site for sequestration of Norwegian CO 2 emissions, and explore the sensitivity of CO 2 migration and trapping to subscale physics. Model results show the relative importance of different physical processes in large-scale simulations. The ability of models such as this to capture the relevant physical processes at large spatial and temporal scales is important for prediction and analysis of CO 2 storage sites. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.

  2. Controlling the temperature of bones using pulsed CO2 lasers: observations and mathematical modeling. (United States)

    Lévesque, Luc; Noël, Jean-Marc; Scott, Calum


    Temperature of porcine bone specimens are investigated by aiming a pulsed CO2 laser beam at the bone-air surface. This method of controlling temperature is believed to be flexible in medical applications as it avoids the uses of thermal devices, which are often cumbersome and generate rather larger temperature variations with time. The control of temperature using this method is modeled by the heat-conduction equation. In this investigation, it is assumed that the energy delivered by the CO2 laser is confined within a very thin surface layer of roughly 9 μm. It is shown that temperature can be maintained at a steady temperature using a CO2 laser and we demonstrate that the method can be adapted to be used in tandem with another laser beam. This method to control the temperature is believed to be useful in de-contamination of bone during the implantation treatment, in bone augmentation when using natural or synthetic materials and in low-level laser therapy.

  3. CO2-level Dependent Effects of Ocean Acidification on Squid, Doryteuthis pealeii, Early Life History

    KAUST Repository

    Zakroff, Casey J.


    Ocean acidification is predicted to lead to global oceanic decreases in pH of up to 0.3 units within the next 100 years. However, those levels are already being reached currently in coastal regions due to natural CO2 variability. Squid are a vital component of the pelagic ecosystem, holding a unique niche as a highly active predatory invertebrate and major prey stock for upper trophic levels. This study examined the effects of a range of ocean acidification regimes on the early life history of a coastal squid species, the Atlantic longfin squid, Doryteuthis pealeii. Eggs were raised in a flow-through ocean acidification system at CO2 levels ranging from ambient (400ppm) to 2200ppm. Time to hatching, hatching efficiency, and hatchling mantle lengths, yolk sac sizes, and statoliths were all examined to elucidate stress effects. Delays in hatching time of at least a day were seen at exposures above 1300ppm in all trials under controlled conditions. Mantle lengths were significantly reduced at exposures above 1300 ppm. Yolk sac sizes varied between CO2 treatments, but no distinct pattern emerged. Statoliths were increasingly porous and malformed as CO2 exposures increased, and were significantly reduced in surface area at exposures above 1300ppm. Doryteuthis pealeii appears to be able to withstand acidosis stress without major effects up to 1300ppm, but is strongly impacted past that threshold. Since yolk consumption did not vary among treatments, it appears that during its early life stages, D. pealeii reallocates its available energy budget away from somatic growth and system development in order to mitigate the stress of acidosis.

  4. One-Dimensional Reactive Transport Modeling of CO2 Storage Systems - Change in Cap Rock Porosity Triggered by Pressure and Temperature Dependent CO2-Water-Rock Interactions (United States)

    Hemme, C.; van Berk, W.


    In carbon capture and storage (CCS) systems supercritical CO2 is injected into a reservoir and dissolves in the reservoir brine. Subsequently, CO2(aq) diffuses into the cap rock to regions of lower total pressure and temperature and triggers CO2-water-rock interactions that are coupled with mass transport and result in precipitation and/or dissolution of minerals along the CO2 migration path. Such hydrogeochemical interactions change porosities and are responsible for the improvement or deterioration of the long term integrity of the system. This study presents a semi-generic hydrogeochemical model based on chemical equilibrium thermodynamics, data from several CO2 storage systems, and plausible assumptions regarding non-available data. One-dimensional reactive transport modeling is performed by using the U.S.G.S. PHREEQC code (3.1.4-8929; phreeqc.dat database) to identify and quantify the loss or gain of total porosity affected by hydrogeochemical reactions driven by diffusive mass transport exposed to pressure and temperature gradients. A fine spatial and temporal discretization, the use of non-reactive tracers, and a broad variety of modeling scenarios enable the calculation of the relevant timescale for simulations of long-term storage of CO2 and the consideration of the pressure dependent mass action law constants along the CO2 migration path. Modeling results show that the relevant timescale for simulations of long-term storage of CO2 is in the range of 106 years, and that pressure/temperature conditions, heterogeneities (veins and fractures) and the mineralogical composition of the cap rock have the strongest influence on the increase in cap rock porosity (maximum increase from initial 5 % to 7.5 %). Critical parameter combinations - total pressure effects are crucial - could put long-term integrity at risks. Nevertheless, a wide range of conditions and parameter combinations for safe CO2 storage is identified by other modeling scenarios.

  5. Gasification under CO2–Steam Mixture: Kinetic Model Study Based on Shared Active Sites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xia Liu


    Full Text Available In this work, char gasification of two coals (i.e., Shenfu bituminous coal and Zunyi anthracite and a petroleum coke under a steam and CO2 mixture (steam/CO2 partial pressures, 0.025–0.075 MPa; total pressures, 0.100 MPa and CO2/steam chemisorption of char samples were conducted in a Thermogravimetric Analyzer (TGA. Two conventional kinetic models exhibited difficulties in exactly fitting the experimental data of char–steam–CO2 gasification. Hence, a modified model based on Langmuir–Hinshelwood model and assuming that char–CO2 and char–steam reactions partially shared active sites was proposed and had indicated high accuracy for estimating the interactions in char–steam–CO2 reaction. Moreover, it was found that two new model parameters (respectively characterized as the amount ratio of shared active sites to total active sites in char–CO2 and char–steam reactions in the modified model hardly varied with gasification conditions, and the results of chemisorption indicate that these two new model parameters mainly depended on the carbon active sites in char samples.

  6. Sensitivity study of optimal CO2 emission paths using a simplified structural integrated assessment model (SIAM)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hasselmann, K.; Hasselmann, S.; Giering, R.; Ocana, V.; Storch, H. von


    A structurally highly simplified, globally integrated coupled climate-economic costs model SIAM (Structural Integrated Assessment Model) is used to compute optimal paths of global CO 2 emissions that minimize the net sum of climate damage and mitigation costs. It studies the sensitivity of the computed optimal emission paths. The climate module is represented by a linearized impulse-response model calibrated against a coupled ocean-atmosphere general circulation climate model and a three-dimensional global carbon-cycle model. The cost terms are presented by expressions designed with respect to input assumptions. These include the discount rates for mitigation and damage costs, the inertia of the socio-economic system, and the dependence of climate damages on the changes in temperature and the rate of change of temperature. Different assumptions regarding these parameters are believed to cause the marked divergences of existing cost-benefit analyses. The long memory of the climate system implies that very long time horizons of several hundred years need to be considered to optimize CO 2 emissions on time scales relevant for a policy of sustainable development. Cost-benefit analyses over shorter time scales of a century or two can lead to dangerous underestimates of the long term climate impact of increasing greenhouse-gas emissions. To avert a major long term global warming, CO 2 emissions need to be reduced ultimately to very low levels. This may be done slowly but should not be interpreted as providing a time cushion for inaction: the transition becomes more costly the longer the necessary mitigation policies are delayed. However, the long time horizon provides adequate flexibility for later adjustments. Short term energy conservation alone is insufficient and can be viewed only as a useful measure in support of the necessary long term transition to carbon-free energy technologies. 46 refs., 9 figs., 2 tabs

  7. Analytical model for screening potential CO2 repositories (United States)

    Okwen, R.T.; Stewart, M.T.; Cunningham, J.A.


    Assessing potential repositories for geologic sequestration of carbon dioxide using numerical models can be complicated, costly, and time-consuming, especially when faced with the challenge of selecting a repository from a multitude of potential repositories. This paper presents a set of simple analytical equations (model), based on the work of previous researchers, that could be used to evaluate the suitability of candidate repositories for subsurface sequestration of carbon dioxide. We considered the injection of carbon dioxide at a constant rate into a confined saline aquifer via a fully perforated vertical injection well. The validity of the analytical model was assessed via comparison with the TOUGH2 numerical model. The metrics used in comparing the two models include (1) spatial variations in formation pressure and (2) vertically integrated brine saturation profile. The analytical model and TOUGH2 show excellent agreement in their results when similar input conditions and assumptions are applied in both. The analytical model neglects capillary pressure and the pressure dependence of fluid properties. However, simulations in TOUGH2 indicate that little error is introduced by these simplifications. Sensitivity studies indicate that the agreement between the analytical model and TOUGH2 depends strongly on (1) the residual brine saturation, (2) the difference in density between carbon dioxide and resident brine (buoyancy), and (3) the relationship between relative permeability and brine saturation. The results achieved suggest that the analytical model is valid when the relationship between relative permeability and brine saturation is linear or quasi-linear and when the irreducible saturation of brine is zero or very small. ?? 2011 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.

  8. Evidence from mathematical modeling that carbonic anhydrase II and IV enhance CO2 fluxes across Xenopus oocyte plasma membranes. (United States)

    Occhipinti, Rossana; Musa-Aziz, Raif; Boron, Walter F


    Exposing an oocyte to CO2/HCO3 (-) causes intracellular pH (pHi) to decline and extracellular-surface pH (pHS) to rise to a peak and decay. The two companion papers showed that oocytes injected with cytosolic carbonic anhydrase II (CA II) or expressing surface CA IV exhibit increased maximal rate of pHi change (dpHi/dt)max, increased maximal pHS changes (ΔpHS), and decreased time constants for pHi decline and pHS decay. Here we investigate these results using refinements of an earlier mathematical model of CO2 influx into a spherical cell. Refinements include 1) reduced cytosolic water content, 2) reduced cytosolic diffusion constants, 3) refined CA II activity, 4) layer of intracellular vesicles, 5) reduced membrane CO2 permeability, 6) microvilli, 7) refined CA IV activity, 8) a vitelline membrane, and 9) a new simulation protocol for delivering and removing the bulk extracellular CO2/HCO3 (-) solution. We show how these features affect the simulated pHi and pHS transients and use the refined model with the experimental data for 1.5% CO2/10 mM HCO3 (-) (pHo = 7.5) to find parameter values that approximate ΔpHS, the time to peak pHS, the time delay to the start of the pHi change, (dpHi/dt)max, and the change in steady-state pHi. We validate the revised model against data collected as we vary levels of CO2/HCO3 (-) or of extracellular HEPES buffer. The model confirms the hypothesis that CA II and CA IV enhance transmembrane CO2 fluxes by maximizing CO2 gradients across the plasma membrane, and it predicts that the pH effects of simultaneously implementing intracellular and extracellular-surface CA are supra-additive. Copyright © 2014 the American Physiological Society.

  9. Terrestrial biosphere models underestimate photosynthetic capacity and CO2 assimilation in the Arctic. (United States)

    Rogers, Alistair; Serbin, Shawn P; Ely, Kim S; Sloan, Victoria L; Wullschleger, Stan D


    Terrestrial biosphere models (TBMs) are highly sensitive to model representation of photosynthesis, in particular the parameters maximum carboxylation rate and maximum electron transport rate at 25°C (V c,max.25 and J max.25 , respectively). Many TBMs do not include representation of Arctic plants, and those that do rely on understanding and parameterization from temperate species. We measured photosynthetic CO 2 response curves and leaf nitrogen (N) content in species representing the dominant vascular plant functional types found on the coastal tundra near Barrow, Alaska. The activation energies associated with the temperature response functions of V c,max and J max were 17% lower than commonly used values. When scaled to 25°C, V c,max.25 and J max.25 were two- to five-fold higher than the values used to parameterize current TBMs. This high photosynthetic capacity was attributable to a high leaf N content and the high fraction of N invested in Rubisco. Leaf-level modeling demonstrated that current parameterization of TBMs resulted in a two-fold underestimation of the capacity for leaf-level CO 2 assimilation in Arctic vegetation. This study highlights the poor representation of Arctic photosynthesis in TBMs, and provides the critical data necessary to improve our ability to project the response of the Arctic to global environmental change. No claim to original US Government works. New Phytologist © 2017 New Phytologist Trust.

  10. Reduction of CO2 emission by INCAM model in Malaysia biomass power plants during the year 2016. (United States)

    Amin, Nor Aishah Saidina; Talebian-Kiakalaieh, Amin


    As the world's second largest palm oil producer and exporter, Malaysia could capitalize on its oil palm biomass waste for power generation. The emission factors from this renewable energy source are far lower than that of fossil fuels. This study applies an integrated carbon accounting and mitigation (INCAM) model to calculate the amount of CO 2 emissions from two biomass thermal power plants. The CO 2 emissions released from biomass plants utilizing empty fruit bunch (EFB) and palm oil mill effluent (POME), as alternative fuels for powering steam and gas turbines, were determined using the INCAM model. Each section emitting CO 2 in the power plant, known as the carbon accounting center (CAC), was measured for its carbon profile (CP) and carbon index (CI). The carbon performance indicator (CPI) included electricity, fuel and water consumption, solid waste and waste-water generation. The carbon emission index (CEI) and carbon emission profile (CEP), based on the total monthly carbon production, were determined across the CPI. Various innovative strategies resulted in a 20%-90% reduction of CO 2 emissions. The implementation of reduction strategies significantly reduced the CO 2 emission levels. Based on the model, utilization of EFB and POME in the facilities could significantly reduce the CO 2 emissions and increase the potential for waste to energy initiatives. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Fast Cloud Adjustment to Increasing CO2 in a Superparameterized Climate Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marat Khairoutdinov


    Full Text Available Two-year simulation experiments with a superparameterized climate model, SP-CAM, are performed to understand the fast tropical (30S-30N cloud response to an instantaneous quadrupling of CO2 concentration with SST held fixed at present-day values.The greenhouse effect of the CO2 perturbation quickly warms the tropical land surfaces by an average of 0.5 K. This shifts rising motion, surface precipitation, and cloud cover at all levels from the ocean to the land, with only small net tropical-mean cloud changes. There is a widespread average reduction of about 80 m in the depth of the trade inversion capping the marine boundary layer (MBL over the cooler subtropical oceans.One apparent contributing factor is CO2-enhanced downwelling longwave radiation, which reduces boundary-layer radiative cooling, a primary driver of turbulent entrainment through the trade inversion. A second contributor is a slight CO2-induced heating of the free troposphere above the MBL, which strengthens the trade inversion and also inhibits entrainment. There is a corresponding downward displacement of MBL clouds with a very slight decrease in mean cloud cover and albedo.Two-dimensional cloud-resolving model (CRM simulations of this MBL response are run to steady state using composite SP-CAM simulated thermodynamic and wind profiles from a representative cool subtropical ocean regime, for the control and 4xCO2 cases. Simulations with a CRM grid resolution equal to that of SP-CAM are compared with much finer resolution simulations. The coarse-resolution simulations maintain a cloud fraction and albedo comparable to SP-CAM, but the fine-resolution simulations have a much smaller cloud fraction. Nevertheless, both CRM configurations simulate a reduction in inversion height comparable to SP-CAM. The changes in low cloud cover and albedo in the CRM simulations are small, but both simulations predict a slight reduction in low cloud albedo as in SP-CAM.

  12. South polar permanent CO2 ice cap presentation in the Global Mars Multiscale Model (United States)

    Fazel-Rastgar, Farahnaz


    The atmospheric influence caused by the Martian permanent south CO2 ice cap is examined to improve the Global Mars Multiscale Model (GM3) to see if it can significantly improve the representation of south polar meteorology. However, the seasonal carbon dioxide ice in the polar regions is presented in the surface ice simulation by the Global Mars Multiscale Model but the model does not produce a permanent south CO2 ice cap, and the physics code must modify to capture the realistic physical such as ice process detail; probably makes a bias in terms of total CO2 ice and meteorological processes in the model aside from ice formation. The permanent south CO2 ice cap in the model can significantly improve the representation of south polar meteorology for example in predicted surface temperatures, surface pressures, horizontal and zonal winds over the south cap and possible initiation of dust storms at south polar region during the southern summer period.

  13. Soil and biomass carbon pools in model communities of tropical plants under elevated CO2. (United States)

    Arnone, J A; Körner, Ch


    The experimental data presented here relate to the question of whether terrestrial ecosystems will sequester more C in their soils, litter and biomass as atmospheric CO 2 concentrations rise. Similar to our previous study with relatively fertile growth conditions (Körner and Arnone 1992), we constructed four rather nutrient-limited model communities of moist tropical plant species in greenhouses (approximately 7 m 2 each). Plant communities were composed of seven species (77 individuals per community) representing major taxonomic groups and various life forms found in the moist tropics. Two ecosystems were exposed to 340 μl CO 2 l -1 and two to 610 μl l -1 for 530 days of humid tropical growth conditions. In order to permit precise determination of C deposition in the soil, plant communities were initially established in C-free unwashed quartz sand. Soils were then amended with known amounts of organic matter (containing C and nutrients). Mineral nutrients were also supplied over the course of the experiment as timed-release full-balance fertilizer pellets. Soils represented by far the largest repositories for fixed C in all ecosystems. Almost 5 times more C (ca. 80% of net C fixation) was sequestered in the soil than in the biomass, but this did not differ between CO 2 treatments. In addition, at the whole-ecosystem level we found a remarkably small and statistically non-significant increase in C sequestration (+4%; the sum of C accretion in the soil, biomass, litter and necromass). Total community biomass more than quadrupled during the experiment, but at harvest was, on average, only 8% greater (i.e. 6% per year; n.s.) under elevated CO 2 , mainly due to increased root biomass (+15%, P=0.12). Time courses of leaf area index of all ecosystems suggested that canopy expansion was approaching steady state by the time systems were harvested. Net primary productivity (NPP) of all ecosystems-i.e. annual accumulation of biomass, necromass, and leaf litter (but not

  14. End-Tidal CO2-Guided Chest Compression Delivery Improves Survival in a Neonatal Asphyxial Cardiac Arrest Model. (United States)

    Hamrick, Justin T; Hamrick, Jennifer L; Bhalala, Utpal; Armstrong, Jillian S; Lee, Jeong-Hoo; Kulikowicz, Ewa; Lee, Jennifer K; Kudchadkar, Sapna R; Koehler, Raymond C; Hunt, Elizabeth A; Shaffner, Donald H


    To determine whether end-tidal CO2-guided chest compression delivery improves survival over standard cardiopulmonary resuscitation after prolonged asphyxial arrest. Preclinical randomized controlled study. University animal research laboratory. 1-2-week-old swine. After undergoing a 20-minute asphyxial arrest, animals received either standard or end-tidal CO2-guided cardiopulmonary resuscitation. In the standard group, chest compression delivery was optimized by video and verbal feedback to maintain the rate, depth, and release within published guidelines. In the end-tidal CO2-guided group, chest compression rate and depth were adjusted to obtain a maximal end-tidal CO2 level without other feedback. Cardiopulmonary resuscitation included 10 minutes of basic life support followed by advanced life support for 10 minutes or until return of spontaneous circulation. Mean end-tidal CO2 at 10 minutes of cardiopulmonary resuscitation was 34 ± 8 torr in the end-tidal CO2 group (n = 14) and 19 ± 9 torr in the standard group (n = 14; p = 0.0001). The return of spontaneous circulation rate was 7 of 14 (50%) in the end-tidal CO2 group and 2 of 14 (14%) in the standard group (p = 0.04). The chest compression rate averaged 143 ± 10/min in the end-tidal CO2 group and 102 ± 2/min in the standard group (p tidal CO2-guided chest compression delivery. The response of the relaxation arterial pressure and cerebral perfusion pressure to the initial epinephrine administration was greater in the end-tidal CO2 group than in the standard group (p = 0.01 and p = 0.03, respectively). The prevalence of resuscitation-related injuries was similar between groups. End-tidal CO2-guided chest compression delivery is an effective resuscitation method that improves early survival after prolonged asphyxial arrest in this neonatal piglet model. Optimizing end-tidal CO2 levels during cardiopulmonary resuscitation required that chest compression delivery rate exceed current guidelines

  15. Modelling the Response of Energy, Water and CO2 Fluxes Over Forests to Climate Variability (United States)

    Ju, W.; Chen, J.; Liu, J.; Chen, B.


    Understanding the response of energy, water and CO2 fluxes of terrestrial ecosystems to climate variability at various temporal scales is of interest to climate change research. To simulate carbon (C) and water dynamics and their interactions at the continental scale with high temporal and spatial resolutions, the remote sensing driven BEPS (Boreal Ecosystem Productivity Simulator) model was updated to couple with the soil model of CENTURY and a newly developed biophysical model. This coupled model separates the whole canopy into two layers. For the top layer, the leaf-level conductance is scaled up to canopy level using a sunlit and shaded leaf separation approach. Fluxes of water, and CO{2} are simulated as the sums of those from sunlit and shaded leaves separately. This new approach allows for close coupling in modeling these fluxes. The whole profile of soil under a seasonal snowpack is split into four layers for estimating soil moisture and temperature. Long-term means of the vegetation productivity and climate are employed to initialize the carbon pools for the computation of heterotrophic respiration. Validated against tower data at four forested sites, this model is able to describe these fluxes and their response to climate variability. The model captures over 55% of year-round half/one hourly variances of these fluxes. The highest agreement of model results with tower data was achieved for CO2 flux at Southern Old Aspen (SOA) (R2>0.85 and RMSE<2.37 μ mol C m-2 s-1, N=17520). However, the model slightly overestimates the diurnal amplitude of sensible heat flux in winter and sometimes underestimates that of CO2 flux in the growing season. Model simulations suggest that C uptakes of forests are controlled by climate variability and the response of C cycle to climate depends on forest type. For SOA, the annual NPP (Net Primary Productivity) is more sensitive to temperature than to precipitation. This forest usually has higher NPP in warm years than in cool

  16. CO2FIX V 3.1 A modelling framework for quantifying carbon sequestration in forest ecosystems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schelhaas, M.J.; Esch, van P.W.; Groen, T.A.; Jong, de B.H.J.; Kanninen, M.; Liski, J.; Masera, O.; Mohren, G.M.J.; Nabuurs, G.J.; Palosuo, T.; Pedroni, L.; Vallejo, A.; Vilén, T.


    This report describes the conceptual approach of the CO2FIX V 3.1 model, as well as its implementation and numerous examples. This stand level simulation model is a tool which quantifies the C stocks and fluxes in the forest biomass, the soil organic matter and the wood products chain. Included are

  17. CO2 conversion by plasma technology: insights from modeling the plasma chemistry and plasma reactor design (United States)

    Bogaerts, A.; Berthelot, A.; Heijkers, S.; Kolev, St.; Snoeckx, R.; Sun, S.; Trenchev, G.; Van Laer, K.; Wang, W.


    In recent years there has been growing interest in the use of plasma technology for CO2 conversion. To improve this application, a good insight into the underlying mechanisms is of great importance. This can be obtained from modeling the detailed plasma chemistry in order to understand the chemical reaction pathways leading to CO2 conversion (either in pure form or mixed with another gas). Moreover, in practice, several plasma reactor types are being investigated for CO2 conversion, so in addition it is essential to be able to model these reactor geometries so that their design can be improved, and the most energy efficient CO2 conversion can be achieved. Modeling the detailed plasma chemistry of CO2 conversion in complex reactors is, however, very time-consuming. This problem can be overcome by using a combination of two different types of model: 0D chemical reaction kinetics models are very suitable for describing the detailed plasma chemistry, while the characteristic features of different reactor geometries can be studied by 2D or 3D fluid models. In the first instance the latter can be developed in argon or helium with a simple chemistry to limit the calculation time; however, the ultimate aim is to implement the more complex CO2 chemistry in these models. In the present paper, examples will be given of both the 0D plasma chemistry models and the 2D and 3D fluid models for the most common plasma reactors used for CO2 conversion in order to emphasize the complementarity of both approaches. Furthermore, based on the modeling insights, the paper discusses the possibilities and limitations of plasma-based CO2 conversion in different types of plasma reactors, as well as what is needed to make further progress in this field.

  18. Modeling the response of forest isoprene emissions to future increases in atmospheric CO2 concentration and changes in climate (Invited) (United States)

    Monson, R. K.; Heald, C. L.; Guenther, A. B.; Wilkinson, M.


    Isoprene emissions from plants to the atmosphere are sensitive to changes in temperature, light and atmospheric CO2 concentration in both the short- (seconds-to-minutes) and long-term (hours-to-months). We now understand that the different time constants for these responses are due to controls by different sets of biochemical and physiological processes n leaves. Progress has been made in the past few years toward converting this process-level understanding into quantitative models. In this talk, we consider this progress with special emphasis on the short- and long-term responses to atmospheric CO2 concentration and temperature. A new biochemically-based model is presented for describing the CO2 responses, and the model is deployed in a global context to predict interactions between the influences of temperature and CO2 on the global isoprene emission rate. The model is based on the theory of enzyme-substrate kinetics, particularly with regard to those reactions that produce puruvate or glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate, the two chloroplastic substrates for isoprene biosynthesis. In the global model, when we accounted for CO2 inhibition of isoprene emission in the long-term response, we observed little impact on present-day global isoprene emission (increase from 508 to 523 Tg C yr-1). However, the large increases in future isoprene emissions predicted from past models which are due to a projected warmer climate, were entirely offset by including the CO2 effects. The isoprene emission response to CO2 was dominated by the long-term growth environment effect, with modulations of 10% or less from the short-term effect. We use this analysis as a framework for grounding future global models of isoprene emission in biochemical and physiological observations.

  19. Model-dependence of the CO2 threshold for melting the hard Snowball Earth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. R. Peltier


    Full Text Available One of the critical issues of the Snowball Earth hypothesis is the CO2 threshold for triggering the deglaciation. Using Community Atmospheric Model version 3.0 (CAM3, we study the problem for the CO2 threshold. Our simulations show large differences from previous results (e.g. Pierrehumbert, 2004, 2005; Le Hir et al., 2007. At 0.2 bars of CO2, the January maximum near-surface temperature is about 268 K, about 13 K higher than that in Pierrehumbert (2004, 2005, but lower than the value of 270 K for 0.1 bar of CO2 in Le Hir et al. (2007. It is found that the difference of simulation results is mainly due to model sensitivity of greenhouse effect and longwave cloud forcing to increasing CO2. At 0.2 bars of CO2, CAM3 yields 117 Wm−2 of clear-sky greenhouse effect and 32 Wm−2 of longwave cloud forcing, versus only about 77 Wm−2 and 10.5 Wm−2 in Pierrehumbert (2004, 2005, respectively. CAM3 has comparable clear-sky greenhouse effect to that in Le Hir et al. (2007, but lower longwave cloud forcing. CAM3 also produces much stronger Hadley cells than that in Pierrehumbert (2005. Effects of pressure broadening and collision-induced absorption are also studied using a radiative-convective model and CAM3. Both effects substantially increase surface temperature and thus lower the CO2 threshold. The radiative-convective model yields a CO2 threshold of about 0.21 bars with surface albedo of 0.663. Without considering the effects of pressure broadening and collision-induced absorption, CAM3 yields an approximate CO2 threshold of about 1.0 bar for surface albedo of about 0.6. However, the threshold is lowered to 0.38 bars as both effects are considered.

  20. Long-term surface pCO2 trends from observations and models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jerry F. Tjiputra


    Full Text Available We estimate regional long-term surface ocean pCO2 growth rates using all available underway and bottled biogeochemistry data collected over the past four decades. These observed regional trends are compared with those simulated by five state-of-the-art Earth system models over the historical period. Oceanic pCO2 growth rates faster than the atmospheric growth rates indicate decreasing atmospheric CO2 uptake, while ocean pCO2 growth rates slower than the atmospheric growth rates indicate increasing atmospheric CO2 uptake. Aside from the western subpolar North Pacific and the subtropical North Atlantic, our analysis indicates that the current observation-based basin-scale trends may be underestimated, indicating that more observations are needed to determine the trends in these regions. Encouragingly, good agreement between the simulated and observed pCO2 trends is found when the simulated fields are subsampled with the observational coverage. In agreement with observations, we see that the simulated pCO2 trends are primarily associated with the increase in surface dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC associated with atmospheric carbon uptake, and in part by warming of the sea surface. Under the RCP8.5 future scenario, DIC continues to be the dominant driver of pCO2 trends, with little change in the relative contribution of SST. However, the changes in the hydrological cycle play an increasingly important role. For the contemporary (1970–2011 period, the simulated regional pCO2 trends are lower than the atmospheric growth rate over 90% of the ocean. However, by year 2100 more than 40% of the surface ocean area has a higher oceanic pCO2 trend than the atmosphere, implying a reduction in the atmospheric CO2 uptake rate. The fastest pCO2 growth rates are projected for the subpolar North Atlantic, while the high-latitude Southern Ocean and eastern equatorial Pacific have the weakest growth rates, remaining below the atmospheric pCO2 growth rate. Our work

  1. Thermodynamic Data for Geochemical Modeling of Carbonate Reactions Associated with CO2 Sequestration – Literature Review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krupka, Kenneth M. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Cantrell, Kirk J. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); McGrail, B. Peter [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)


    Permanent storage of anthropogenic CO2 in deep geologic formations is being considered as a means to reduce the concentration of atmospheric CO2 and thus its contribution to global climate change. To ensure safe and effective geologic sequestration, numerous studies have been completed of the extent to which the CO2 migrates within geologic formations and what physical and geochemical changes occur in these formations when CO2 is injected. Sophisticated, computerized reservoir simulations are used as part of field site and laboratory CO2 sequestration studies. These simulations use coupled multiphase flow-reactive chemical transport models and/or standalone (i.e., no coupled fluid transport) geochemical models to calculate gas solubility, aqueous complexation, reduction/oxidation (redox), and/or mineral solubility reactions related to CO2 injection and sequestration. Thermodynamic data are critical inputs to modeling geochemical processes. The adequacy of thermodynamic data for carbonate compounds has been identified as an important data requirement for the successful application of these geochemical reaction models to CO2 sequestration. A review of thermodynamic data for CO2 gas and carbonate aqueous species and minerals present in published data compilations and databases used in geochemical reaction models was therefore completed. Published studies that describe mineralogical analyses from CO2 sequestration field and natural analogue sites and laboratory studies were also reviewed to identify specific carbonate minerals that are important to CO2 sequestration reactions and therefore require thermodynamic data. The results of the literature review indicated that an extensive thermodynamic database exists for CO2 and CH4 gases, carbonate aqueous species, and carbonate minerals. Values of ΔfG298° and/or log Kr,298° are available for essentially all of these compounds. However, log Kr,T° or heat capacity values at temperatures above 298 K exist for less than

  2. Thermodynamic Data for Geochemical Modeling of Carbonate Reactions Associated with CO2 Sequestration - Literature Review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krupka, Kenneth M.; Cantrell, Kirk J.; McGrail, B. Peter


    Permanent storage of anthropogenic CO 2 in deep geologic formations is being considered as a means to reduce the concentration of atmospheric CO 2 and thus its contribution to global climate change. To ensure safe and effective geologic sequestration, numerous studies have been completed of the extent to which the CO 2 migrates within geologic formations and what physical and geochemical changes occur in these formations when CO 2 is injected. Sophisticated, computerized reservoir simulations are used as part of field site and laboratory CO 2 sequestration studies. These simulations use coupled multiphase flow-reactive chemical transport models and/or standalone (i.e., no coupled fluid transport) geochemical models to calculate gas solubility, aqueous complexation, reduction/oxidation (redox), and/or mineral solubility reactions related to CO 2 injection and sequestration. Thermodynamic data are critical inputs to modeling geochemical processes. The adequacy of thermodynamic data for carbonate compounds has been identified as an important data requirement for the successful application of these geochemical reaction models to CO 2 sequestration. A review of thermodynamic data for CO 2 gas and carbonate aqueous species and minerals present in published data compilations and databases used in geochemical reaction models was therefore completed. Published studies that describe mineralogical analyses from CO 2 sequestration field and natural analogue sites and laboratory studies were also reviewed to identify specific carbonate minerals that are important to CO 2 sequestration reactions and therefore require thermodynamic data. The results of the literature review indicated that an extensive thermodynamic database exists for CO 2 and CH 4 gases, carbonate aqueous species, and carbonate minerals. Values of Δ f G 298 o and/or log K r,298 o are available for essentially all of these compounds. However, log K r,T o or heat capacity values at temperatures above 298 K exist

  3. Gravity monitoring of CO2 movement during sequestration: Model studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gasperikova, E.; Hoversten, G.M.


    We examine the relative merits of gravity measurements as a monitoring tool for geological CO{sub 2} sequestration in three different modeling scenarios. The first is a combined CO{sub 2} enhanced oil recovery (EOR) and sequestration in a producing oil field, the second is sequestration in a brine formation, and the third is for a coalbed methane formation. EOR/sequestration petroleum reservoirs have relatively thin injection intervals with multiple fluid components (oil, hydrocarbon gas, brine, and CO{sub 2}), whereas brine formations usually have much thicker injection intervals and only two components (brine and CO{sub 2}). Coal formations undergoing methane extraction tend to be thin (3-10 m), but shallow compared to either EOR or brine formations. The injection of CO{sub 2} into the oil reservoir produced a bulk density decrease in the reservoir. The spatial pattern of the change in the vertical component of gravity (G{sub z}) is directly correlated with the net change in reservoir density. Furthermore, time-lapse changes in the borehole G{sub z} clearly identified the vertical section of the reservoir where fluid saturations are changing. The CO{sub 2}-brine front, on the order of 1 km within a 20 m thick brine formation at 1900 m depth, with 30% CO{sub 2} and 70% brine saturations, respectively, produced a -10 Gal surface gravity anomaly. Such anomaly would be detectable in the field. The amount of CO{sub 2} in a coalbed methane test scenario did not produce a large enough surface gravity response; however, we would expect that for an industrial size injection, the surface gravity response would be measurable. Gravity inversions in all three scenarios illustrated that the general position of density changes caused by CO{sub 2} can be recovered, but not the absolute value of the change. Analysis of the spatial resolution and detectability limits shows that gravity measurements could, under certain circumstances, be used as a lower-cost alternative to seismic

  4. CO2 release experiment in the shallow subsurface at the Brackenridge Field Laboratory and numerical modeling (United States)

    Yang, C.; Romanak, K.; Hovorka, S.


    Soil gas monitoring is one cost-effective approach to detect CO2 leak at geological sequestration sites. Therefore understanding CO2 gas transport in soil zones is important for detection of CO2 leaks. A field experiment of a small CO2 release was conducted at the Brackenridge Field Laboratory, the University of Texas at Austin. The field site consists of one injection well, two sensor wells and one gas station well (Figure 1). The injection well was completed with a PVC pipe to a depth of 1.1 m below surface. CO2 sensors were deployed in sensor wells about 42 cm from the injection well at depths of 1.1 m having no subsurface PVC pipes but only a PVC protector cap at the surface. The gas monitoring station about 72 cm away from the injection well contains 3 copper tubes each set at different depths in sand pack isolated with bentonite clay. The CO2 release experiment started on March 4, 2009. A total 36.76 liters of CO2 were injected at 1 m depth at a rate of 100 ml/minute for 6 hours. Subsurface CO2 gas concentrations (before, during, and after the injection) were continuously monitored in sensor wells. Real-time CO2 concentrations were monitored at the gas station using an SRI 8610 gas chromatograph (GC) fitted with flame ionization detector (FID) and a thermal conductivity detector (TCD). A numerical model was constructed to simulate CO2 release experiments. The model takes into account CO2 diffusion and dissolution in pore water. Air in the pore space is assumed stagnant. Model domain consists of four soil layers and one atmospheric layer. The groundwater table is about 2.4 meters below ground surface. The model was calibrated with respect to diffusion coefficient (transport parameter) and the injection rate (mass parameter). Model results fit well with CO2 measurements at the sensor wells and the gas station. However, the calibrated injection rate underestimates measured injection rate.

  5. Modeling of CO2 Adsorption on Activated Carbon and 13X Zeolite via Vacuum Swing Adsorption (United States)

    Zarghampoor, M. H.; Mozaffarian, M.; Soleimani, M.; Takht Ravanchi, M.


    Due to carbon dioxide role in global warming, low CO2 emission limits have been established in recent years. This has led to a variety of studies on CO2 removal approaches. In this study, a VSA cycle consisting of two packed beds is considered for CO2 removal from flue gas. An atmospheric stream containing 20 CO2 and 80 N2 is fed to the beds at 50°C. Two adsorbents, namely Zeolite 13X and activated carbon were selected to compare their performance. Due to the monolayer adsorption of CO2 and N2 on these adsorbents, the Toth isotherm was used for equilibrium adsorption estimation. A quasi-second order model was considered for the mass transfer rate prediction due to low CO2 concentration. The modeling results showed that the average absolute deviation for equilibrium adsorption capacity prediction was 2, and the CO2 breakthrough time curve was predicted with less than 2.5 deviation. Based on the results, the VSA cycle time for zeolite 13X bed will be 3.5 times of the activated carbon bed. Another advantage of Zeolite 13X is that in each process cycle, 80 of adsorbent will be used, while only 74 of activated carbon in beds is used. The advantage of activated carbon bed is its better regeneration capability, since the activated carbon will be regenerated 5 more than zeolite 13X at a vacuum pressure of 0.02bar.

  6. Large divergence of satellite and Earth system model estimates of global terrestrial CO2 fertilization (United States)

    Smith, W. Kolby; Reed, Sasha C.; Cleveland, Cory C.; Ballantyne, Ashley P; Anderegg, William R. L.; Wieder, William R.; Liu, Yi Y; Running, Steven W.


    Atmospheric mass balance analyses suggest that terrestrial carbon (C) storage is increasing, partially abating the atmospheric [CO2] growth rate, although the continued strength of this important ecosystem service remains uncertain. Some evidence suggests that these increases will persist owing to positive responses of vegetation growth (net primary productivity; NPP) to rising atmospheric [CO2] (that is, ‘CO2 fertilization’). Here, we present a new satellite-derived global terrestrial NPP data set, which shows a significant increase in NPP from 1982 to 2011. However, comparison against Earth system model (ESM) NPP estimates reveals a significant divergence, with satellite-derived increases (2.8 ± 1.50%) less than half of ESM-derived increases (7.6  ±  1.67%) over the 30-year period. By isolating the CO2 fertilization effect in each NPP time series and comparing it against a synthesis of available free-air CO2 enrichment data, we provide evidence that much of the discrepancy may be due to an over-sensitivity of ESMs to atmospheric [CO2], potentially reflecting an under-representation of climatic feedbacks and/or a lack of representation of nutrient constraints. Our understanding of CO2 fertilization effects on NPP needs rapid improvement to enable more accurate projections of future C cycle–climate feedbacks; we contend that better integration of modelling, satellite and experimental approaches offers a promising way forward.

  7. Microzooplankton grazing and phytoplankton growth in marine mesocosms with increased CO2 levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Carotenuto


    Full Text Available Microzooplankton grazing and algae growth responses to increasing pCO2 levels (350, 700 and 1050 μatm were investigated in nitrate and phosphate fertilized mesocosms during the PeECE III experiment 2005. Grazing and growth rates were estimated by the dilution technique combined with taxon specific HPLC pigment analysis. Microzooplankton composition was determined by light microscopy. Despite a range of up to 3 times the present CO2 levels, there were no clear differences in any measured parameter between the different CO2 treatments. During days 3–9 of the experiment the algae community standing stock, measured as chlorophyll a (Chl-a, showed the highest instantaneous grow rates (k=0.37–0.99 d−1 and increased from ca. 2–3 to 6–12 μg l−1, in all mesocosms. Afterwards the phytoplankton standing stock decreased in all mesocosms until the end of the experiment. The microzooplankton standing stock, that was mainly constituted by dinoflagellates and ciliates, varied between 23 and 130 μg C l−1 (corresponding to 1.9 and 10.8 μmol C l−1, peaking on day 13–15, apparently responding to the phytoplankton development. Instantaneous Chl-a growth rates were generally higher than the grazing rates, indicating only a limited overall effect of microzooplankton grazing on the most dominant phytoplankton. Diatoms and prymnesiophytes were significantly grazed (12–43% of the standing stock d−1 only in the pre-bloom phase when they were in low numbers, and in the post-bloom phase when they were already affected by low nutrients and/or viral lysis. The cyanobacteria populations appeared more affected by microzooplankton grazing which generally removed 20–65% of the standing stock per day.

  8. Species and gamete-specific fertilization success of two sea urchins under near future levels of pCO2 (United States)

    Sung, Chan-Gyung; Kim, Tae Won; Park, Young-Gyu; Kang, Seong-Gil; Inaba, Kazuo; Shiba, Kogiku; Choi, Tae Seob; Moon, Seong-Dae; Litvin, Steve; Lee, Kyu-Tae; Lee, Jung-Suk


    Since the Industrial Revolution, rising atmospheric CO2 concentration has driven an increase in the partial pressure of CO2 in seawater (pCO2), thus lowering ocean pH. We examined the separate effects of exposure of gametes to elevated pCO2 and low pH on fertilization success of the sea urchin Strongylocentrotus nudus. Sperm and eggs were independently exposed to seawater with pCO2 levels ranging from 380 (pH 7.96-8.3) to 6000 ppmv (pH 7.15-7.20). When sperm were exposed, fertilization rate decreased drastically with increased pCO2, even at a concentration of 450 ppmv (pH range: 7.94 to 7.96). Conversely, fertilization of Hemicentrotus pulcherrimus was not significantly changed even when sperm was exposed to pCO2 concentrations as high as 750 ppmv. Exposure of S. nudus eggs to seawater with high pCO2 did not affect fertilization success, suggesting that the effect of increased pCO2 on sperm is responsible for reduced fertilization success. Surprisingly, this result was not related to sperm motility, which was insensitive to pCO2. When seawater was acidified using HCl, leaving pCO2 constant, fertilization success in S. nudus remained high (> 80%) until pH decreased to 7.3. While further studies are required to elucidate the physiological mechanism by which elevated pCO2 impairs sperm and reduces S. nudus fertilization, this study suggests that in the foreseeable future, sea urchin survival may be threatened due to lower fertilization success driven by elevated pCO2 rather than by decreased pH in seawater.

  9. Modeling radical edge-site reactions of biochar in CO2/water solution under ultrasonic treatment (United States)

    Zubatiuk, Tetiana; Sajjadi, Baharak; Hill, Glake; Leszczynska, Danuta; Chen, Wei-Yin; Leszczynski, Jerzy


    We report results of theoretical evaluation of the mechanisms of possible radical reactions on the edge-site of biochar with CO2,SUP>·-, OH ˙ , and H ˙ in irradiated aqueous solution. The computational studies were performed for model poly aromatic systems. Obtained mechanisms reflect one of the routes of the oxygen loss accompanied by increase of hydrogen content, as observed in photochemical experiment. The reaction of CO2·- with the edge site of biochar mainly leads to reduced rather than oxidized products. The mechanism of CO2 capturing is mapped by different routes of one-electron reduction and radical addition to the aromatic ring.

  10. Application of conifer needles in the reconstruction of Holocene CO2 levels

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kouwenberg, L.L.R.


    To clarify the nature of the link between CO2 and climate on relatively short time-scales, precise, high-resolution reconstructions of the pre-industrial evolution of atmospheric CO2 are required. Adjustment of stomatal frequency to changes in atmospheric CO2 allows plants of many species to retain

  11. A Comparative Data-Based Modeling Study on Respiratory CO2 Gas Exchange during Mechanical Ventilation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chang-Sei eKim


    Full Text Available The goal of this study is to derive a minimally complex but credible model of respiratory CO2 gas exchange that may be used in systematic design and pilot testing of closed-loop end-tidal CO2 controllers in mechanical ventilation. We first derived a candidate model that captures the essential mechanisms involved in the respiratory CO2 gas exchange process. Then, we simplified the candidate model to derive two lower-order candidate models. We compared these candidate models for predictive capability and reliability using experimental data collected from 25 pediatric subjects undergoing dynamically varying mechanical ventilation during surgical procedures. A two-compartment model equipped with transport delay to account for CO2 delivery between the lungs and the tissues showed modest but statistically significant improvement in predictive capability over the same model without transport delay. Aggregating the lungs and the tissues into a single compartment further degraded the predictive fidelity of the model. In addition, the model equipped with transport delay demonstrated superior reliability to the one without transport delay. Further, the respiratory parameters derived from the model equipped with transport delay, but not the one without transport delay, were physiologically plausible. The results suggest that gas transport between the lungs and the tissues must be taken into account to accurately reproduce the respiratory CO2 gas exchange process under conditions of wide-ranging and dynamically varying mechanical ventilation conditions.

  12. Investigating Mars South Residual CO2 Cap with a Global Climate Model (United States)

    Kahre, M. A.; Dequaire, J.; Hollingsworth, J. L.; Haberle, R. M.


    The CO2 cycle is one of the three controlling climate cycles on Mars. One aspect of the CO2 cycle that is not yet fully understood is the existence of a residual CO2 ice cap that is offset from the south pole. Previous investigations suggest that the atmosphere may control the placement of the south residual cap (e.g., Colaprete et al., 2005). These investigations show that topographically forced stationary eddies in the south during southern hemisphere winter produce colder atmospheric temperatures and increased CO2 snowfall over the hemisphere where the residual cap resides. Since precipitated CO2 ice produces higher surface albedos than directly deposited CO2 ice, it is plausible that CO2 snowfall resulting from the zonally asymmetric atmospheric circulation produces surface ice albedos high enough to maintain a residual cap only in one hemisphere. The goal of the current work is to further evaluate Colaprete et al.'s hypothesis by investigating model-predicted seasonally varying snowfall patterns in the southern polar region and the atmospheric circulation components that control them.

  13. Mass transport modelling for the electroreduction of CO2 on Cu nanowires (United States)

    Raciti, David; Mao, Mark; Wang, Chao


    Mass transport plays an important role in CO2 reduction electrocatalysis. Albeit being more pronounced on nanostructured electrodes, the studies of mass transport for CO2 reduction have yet been limited to planar electrodes. We report here the development of a mass transport model for the electroreduction of CO2 on Cu nanowire electrodes. Fed with the experimental data from electrocatalytic studies, the local concentrations of CO2, {{{{HCO}}}3}-,{{{{CO}}}3}2- and OH- on the nanostructured electrodes are calculated by solving the diffusion equations with spatially distributed electrochemical reaction terms incorporated. The mass transport effects on the catalytic activity and selectivity of the Cu nanowire electrocatalysts are thus discussed by using the local pH as the descriptor. The established correlations between the electrocatalytic performance and the local pH shows that, the latter does not only determine the acid-base reaction equilibrium, but also regulates the mass transport and reaction kinetics. Based on these findings, the optimal range of local pH for CO2 reduction is discussed in terms of a fine balance among the suppression of hydrogen evolution, improvement of C2 product selectivity and limitation of CO2 supply. Our work highlights the importance of understanding the mass transport effects in interpretation of CO2 reduction electrocatalysis on high-surface-area catalysts.

  14. Quantification of temperature, CO2, and light effects on crop photosynthesis as a basis for model-based greenhouse climate control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Körner, O.; Heuvelink, E.; Niu, Q.


    Detailed measurements of crop photosynthesis at supra-optimal temperatures and high CO2 levels, to validate models for use in model-based greenhouse climate control, are still lacking. We performed CO2 gas exchange measurements to estimate gross crop photosynthesis (Pgc) from measured net crop gas

  15. Modeled CO2 Emissions from Coastal Wetland Transitions to Other Land Uses: Tidal Marshes, Mangrove Forests, and Seagrass Beds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine E. Lovelock


    Full Text Available The sediments of coastal wetlands contain large stores of carbon which are vulnerable to oxidation once disturbed, resulting in high levels of CO2 emissions that may be avoided if coastal ecosystems are conserved or restored. We used a simple model to estimate CO2 emissions from mangrove forests, seagrass beds, and tidal marshes based on known decomposition rates for organic matter in these ecosystems under either oxic or anoxic conditions combined with assumptions of the proportion of sediment carbon being deposited in either oxic or anoxic environments following a disturbance of the habitat. Our model found that over 40 years after disturbance the cumulative CO2 emitted from tidal marshes, mangrove forests, and seagrass beds were ~70–80% of the initial carbon stocks in the top meter of the sediment. Comparison of our estimates of CO2 emissions with empirical studies suggests that (1 assuming 50% of organic material moves to an oxic environment after disturbance gives rise to estimates that are similar to CO2 emissions reported for tidal marshes; (2 field measurements of CO2 emissions in disturbed mangrove forests were generally higher than our modeled emissions that assumed 50% of organic matter was deposited in oxic conditions, suggesting higher proportions of organic matter may be exposed to oxic conditions after disturbance in mangrove ecosystems; and (3 the generally low observed rates of CO2 emissions from disturbed seagrasses compared to our estimates, assuming removal of 50% of the organic matter to oxic environments, suggests that lower proportions may be exposed to oxic conditions in seagrass ecosystems. There are significant gaps in our knowledge of the fate of wetland sediment carbon in the marine environment after disturbance. Greater knowledge of the distribution, form, decomposition, and emission rates of wetland sediment carbon after disturbance would help to improve models.

  16. Modelling Plant and Soil Nitrogen Feedbacks Affecting Forest Carbon Gain at High CO2 (United States)

    McMurtrie, R. E.; Norby, R. J.; Franklin, O.; Pepper, D. A.


    Short-term, direct effects of elevated atmospheric CO2 concentrations on plant carbon gain are relatively well understood. There is considerable uncertainty, however, about longer-term effects, which are influenced by various plant and ecosystem feedbacks. A key feedback in terrestrial ecosystems occurs through changes in plant carbon (C) allocation patterns. For instance, if high CO2 were to increase C allocation to roots, then plants may experience positive feedback through improved plant nutrition. A second type of feedback, associated with decomposition of soil-organic matter, may reduce soil-nutrient availability at high CO2. This paper will consider mechanistic models of both feedbacks. Effects of high CO2 on plant C allocation will be investigated using a simple model of forest net primary production (NPP) that incorporates the primary mechanisms of plant carbon and nitrogen (N) balance. The model called MATE (Model Any Terrestrial Ecosystem) includes an equation for annual C balance that depends on light- saturated photosynthetic rate and therefore on [CO2], and an equation for N balance incorporating an expression for N uptake as a function of root mass. The C-N model is applied to a Free Air CO2 Exchange (FACE) experiment at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) in Tennessee, USA, where closed-canopy, monoculture stands of the deciduous hardwood sweetgum ( Liquidambar styraciflua) have been growing at [CO2] of 375 and 550 ppm for ten years. Features of this experiment are that the annual NPP response to elevated CO2 has averaged approximately 25% over seven years, but that annual fine-root production has almost doubled on average, with especially large increases in later years of the experiment (Norby et al. 2006). The model provides a simple graphical approach for analysing effects of elevated CO2 and N supply on leaf/root/wood C allocation and productivity. It simulates increases in NPP and fine-root production at the ORNL FACE site that are consistent

  17. An energy balance perspective on regional CO2-induced temperature changes in CMIP5 models


    Räisänen, Jouni


    An energy balance decomposition of temperature changes is conducted for idealized transient CO2-only simulations in the fifth phase of the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project. The multimodel global mean warming is dominated by enhanced clear-sky greenhouse effect due to increased CO2 and water vapour, but other components of the energy balance substantially modify the geographical and seasonal patterns of the change. Changes in the net surface energy flux are important over the oceans, bein...

  18. Carbon isotopic evidence for the associations of decreasing atmospheric CO2 level with the Frasnian-Famennian mass extinction (United States)

    Xu, Bing; Gu, Zhaoyan; Wang, Chengyuan; Hao, Qingzhen; Han, Jingtai; Liu, Qiang; Wang, Luo; Lu, Yanwu


    A perturbation of the global carbon cycle has often been used for interpreting the Frasnian-Famennian (F-F) mass extinction. However, the changes of atmospheric CO2 level (pCO2) during this interval are much debatable. To illustrate the carbon cycle during F-F transition, paired inorganic (δ13Ccarb) and organic (δ13Corg) carbon isotope analyses were carried out on two late Devonian carbonate sequences (Dongcun and Yangdi) from south China. The larger amplitude shift of δ13Corg compared to δ13Ccarb and its resultant Δ13C (Δ13C = δ13Ccarb - δ13Corg) decrease indicate decreased atmospheric CO2level around the F-F boundary. The onset ofpCO2 level decrease predates that of marine regressions, which coincide with the beginning of conodont extinctions, suggesting that temperature decrease induced by decreased greenhouse effect of atmospheric CO2might have contributed to the F-F mass extinction.

  19. Effect of Nocturnal Low-level Jet on Nighttime CO2 Concentrations and Fluxes: a Numerical Sensitive Study (United States)

    Sogachev, A.; Jørgensen, H.; Leclerc, M. Y.; Duarte, H. F.; Durden, D.; Pingintha, N.; Zhang, G.


    It has been shown recently that net ecosystem exchange is impacted by nocturnal low-level jets (LLJs). The presence of a LLJ impedes vertical gaseous dispersion and facilitates gas accumulation, often to the level of the wind maximum, which can be well below the temperature inversion level (Mathieu et al., 2005; Karipot et al., 2006; 2007; 2008; 2009). The present study uses the numerical atmospheric boundary-layer (ABL) model SCADIS described by Sogachev et al. (2002) in its one-dimensional mode to examine specific effects of the structure of nocturnal jets on nighttime CO2 concentrations and fluxes. From a variety of mechanisms suggested for formation of LLJs, such as inertial oscillations, baroclinicity over sloping terrain, and land-sea breeze effects (Stull, 1988), the one-dimensional ABL model is capable of simulating only the first one. The unique feature of the SCADIS model, based on a two-equation closure approach, is the treatment of buoyancy and plant drag effects in a way that does not require a predefined mixing length (Sogachev, 2009). Although pure inertial oscillations attributed only to the diurnal oscillation of eddy viscosity are rare and are typically intertwined with other contributing factors, they constitute an important cause of jet formation. Sensitive tests were carried out with SCADIS to examine the response of nighttime CO2 concentrations and fluxes to low-level jet structural changes caused by different forcing at the air-forest interface. Results show that the model captures the most prominent features of both the LLJ, including its vertical structure as well as its diurnal phase and amplitude, and the conceptual model for nocturnal accumulation of gases beneath a LLJ suggested by Mathieu et al. (2005). Primarily, that gas accumulation is stronger beneath LLJs that are decoupled from the surface than those that are coupled since the latter allow turbulent mixing down to the surface. Both the structure of the LLJ and CO2 concentration

  20. Estimation of CO2 emission from water treatment plant--model development and application. (United States)

    Kyung, Daeseung; Kim, Dongwook; Park, Nosuk; Lee, Woojin


    A comprehensive mathematical model developed for this study was used to compare estimates of on-site and off-site CO2 emissions, from conventional and advanced water treatment plants (WTPs). When 200,000 m(3) of raw water at 10 NTU (Nepthelometric Turbidity Unit) was treated by a conventional WTP to 0.1 NTU using aluminum sulfate as a coagulant, the total CO2 emissions were estimated to be 790 ± 228 (on-site) and 69,596 ± 3950 (off-site) kg CO2e/d. The emissions from an advanced WTP containing micro-filtration (MF) membrane and ozone disinfection processes; treating the same raw water to 0.005 NTU, were estimated to be 395 ± 115 (on-site) and 38,197 ± 2922 (off-site) kg CO2e/d. The on-site CO2 emissions from the advanced WTP were half that from the conventional WTP due to much lower use of coagulant. On the other hand, off-site CO2 emissions due to consumption of electricity were 2.14 times higher for the advanced WTP, due to the demands for operation of the MF membrane and ozone disinfection processes. However, the lower use of chemicals in the advanced WTP decreased off-site CO2 emissions related to chemical production and transportation. Overall, total CO2 emissions from the conventional WTP were 1.82 times higher than that from the advanced WTP. A sensitivity analysis was performed for the advanced WTP to suggest tactics for simultaneously reducing CO2 emissions further and enhancing water quality. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Simplified models of transport and reactions in conditions of CO2 storage in saline aquifers (United States)

    Suchodolska, Katarzyna; Labus, Krzysztof


    Simple hydrogeochemical models may serve as tools of preliminary assessment of CO2 injection and sequestraton impact on the aquifer and cap-rocks. In order to create models of reaction and transport in conditions of CO2 injection and storage, the TOUGHREACT simulator, and the Geochemist's Workbench software were applied. The chemical composition of waters for kinetic transport models based on the water - rock equilibrium calculations. Analyses of reaction and transport of substances during CO2 injection and storage period were carried out in three scenarios: one-dimensional radial model, and two-dimensional model of CO2 injection and sequestration, and one-dimensional model of aquifer - cap-rock interface. Modeling was performed in two stages. The first one simulated the immediate changes in the aquifer and insulating rocks impacted by CO2 injection (100 days in case of reaction model and 30 years in transport and reaction model), the second - enabled assessment of long-term effects of sequestration (20000 years). Reactions' quality and progress were monitored and their effects on formation porosity and sequestration capacity in form of mineral, residual and free phase of CO2 were calculated. Calibration of numerical models (including precipitation of secondary minerals, and correction of kinetics parameters) describing the initial stage of injection, was based on the experimental results. Modeling allowed to evaluate the pore space saturation with gas, changes in the composition and pH of pore waters, relationships between porosity and permeability changes and crystallization or dissolution minerals. We assessed the temporal and spatial extent of crystallization processes, and the amount of carbonates trapping. CO2 in mineral form. The calculated sequestration capacity of analyzed formations reached n·100 kg/m3 for the: dissolved phase - CO(aq), gas phase - CO2(g) and mineral phase, but as much as 101 kg/m3 for the supercritical phase - SCCO2. Processes of gas

  2. Modelling of electricity generation of large interconnected power systems: How can a CO2 tax influence the European generation mix

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Voorspools, Kris R.; D'haeseleer, William D.


    This paper discusses a methodology for detailed modelling of electricity generation of large interconnected power systems in a liberalised market. The resulting model, called E-Simulate, respects the technological restrictions and boundary conditions inherent to power generation and simulates the power generation and cross border trade on an hourly basis and on a power plant level. Nevertheless, E-Simulate is sufficiently flexible, transparent and fast. It is a valid, objective and useful tool in the simulation of the impact of power generation topics in the context of liberalised markets and GHG emission reduction. As a comprehensive example of the use and the strength of E-Simulate, we study the effect of a CO 2 tax on power generation and electricity trade in and between eight interconnected European zones: The Netherlands, Belgium/Luxemburg, France, Germany, Spain, Portugal, Switzerland and Italy. A CO 2 tax of 10 Euro /ton CO 2 causes an overall CO 2 emission reduction of about 6%. We notice an overall increase in gas fired generation and a corresponding reduction of coal and lignite fired generation on a trans-national level. In some zones (The Netherlands, Belgium/Luxemburg and Italy), the emissions will rise. In others (France, Germany and Spain), emissions will decrease. This is a result of the CO 2 tax that not only causes a shift towards fuels with lower carbon content but also, and correspondingly, leads to a redistribution of cross border trade

  3. Cheminformatics Modeling of Amine Solutions for Assessing their CO2 Absorption Properties. (United States)

    Kuenemann, Melaine A; Fourches, Denis


    As stricter regulations on CO 2 emissions are adopted worldwide, identifying efficient chemical processes to capture and recycle CO 2 is of critical importance for industry. The most common process known as amine scrubbing suffers from the lack of available amine solutions capable of capturing CO 2 efficiently. Tertiary amines characterized by low heats of reaction are considered good candidates but their absorption properties can significantly differ from one analogue to another despite high structural similarity. Herein, after collecting and curating experimental data from the literature, we have built a modeling set of 41 amine structures with their absorption properties. Then we analyzed their chemical composition using molecular descriptors and non-supervised clustering. Furthermore, we developed a series of quantitative structure-property relationships (QSPR) to assess amines' CO 2 absorption properties from their structural characteristics. These models afforded reasonable prediction performances (e. g., Q 2 LOO =0.63 for CO 2 absorption amount) even though they are solely based on 2D chemical descriptors and individual machine learning techniques (random forest and neural network). Overall, we believe the chemical analysis and the series of QSPR models presented in this proof-of-concept study represent new knowledge and innovative tools that could be very useful for screening and prioritizing hypothetical amines to be synthesized and tested experimentally for their CO 2 absorption properties. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  4. Lattice-Boltzmann modeling of experimental fluid displacement patterns, interfacial area and capillary trapped CO2 (United States)

    Porter, M. L.; Kang, Q.; Tarimala, S.; Abdel-Fattah, A.; Backhaus, S.; Carey, J. W.


    Successful sequestration of CO2 into deep saline aquifers presents an enormous challenge that requires fundamental understanding of reactive-multiphase flow and transport across many temporal and spatial scales. Of critical importance is accurately predicting the efficiency of CO2 trapping mechanisms. At the pore scale (e.g., microns to millimeters) the interfacial area between CO2 and brine, as well as CO2 and the solid phase, directly influences the amount of CO2 trapped due to capillary forces, dissolution and mineral precipitation. In this work, we model immiscible displacement micromodel experiments using the lattice-Boltzmann (LB) method. We focus on quantifying interfacial area as a function of capillary numbers and viscosity ratios typically encountered in CO2 sequestration operations. We show that the LB model adequately predicts the steady-state experimental flow patterns and interfacial area measurements. Based on the steady-state agreement, we use the LB model to investigate interfacial dynamics (e.g., fluid-fluid interfacial velocity and the rate of production of fluid-fluid interfacial area). In addition, we quantify the amount of interfacial area and the interfacial dynamics associated with the capillary trapped nonwetting phase. This is expected to be important for predicting the amount of nonwetting phase subsequently trapped due to dissolution and mineral precipitation.

  5. Elementary reaction modeling of reversible CO/CO2 electrochemical conversion on patterned nickel electrodes (United States)

    Luo, Yu; Shi, Yixiang; Li, Wenying; Cai, Ningsheng


    CO/CO2 are the major gas reactant/product in the fuel electrode of reversible solid oxide cells (RSOC). This study proposes a two-charge-transfer-step mechanism to describe the reaction and transfer processes of CO-CO2 electrochemical conversion on a patterned Ni electrode of RSOC. An elementary reaction model is developed to couple two charge transfer reactions, C(Ni)+O2-(YSZ) ↔ CO(Ni)+(YSZ) +2e- and CO(Ni)+O2-(YSZ) ↔ CO2(Ni)+(YSZ)+2e-, with adsorption/desorption, surface chemical reactions and surface diffusion. This model well validates in both solid oxide electrolysis cell (SOEC) and solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) modes by the experimental data from a patterned Ni electrode with 10 μm stripe width at different pCO (0-0.25 atm), pCO2 (0-0.35 atm) and operating temperature (600-700 °C). This model indicates SOEC mode is dominated by charge transfer step C(Ni)+O2-(YSZ)↔CO(Ni)+(YSZ) +2e-, while SOFC mode by CO(Ni)+ O2-(YSZ)↔CO2(Ni)+(YSZ)+2e- on the patterned Ni electrode. The sensitivity analysis shows charge transfer step is the major rate-determining step for RSOC, besides, surface diffusion of CO and CO2 as well as CO2 adsorption also plays a significant role in the electrochemical reaction of SOEC while surface diffusion of CO and CO2 desorption could be co-limiting in SOFC.

  6. CO2 Mass transfer model for carbonic anhydrase-enhanced aqueous MDEA solutions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gladis, Arne Berthold; Deslauriers, Maria Gundersen; Neerup, Randi


    In this study a CO2 mass transfer model was developed for carbonic anhydrase-enhanced MDEA solutions based on a mechanistic kinetic enzyme model. Four different enzyme models were compared in their ability to predict the liquid side mass transfer coefficient at temperatures in the range of 298...... the SP model is limited to applications with low CO2 partial pressure such as CCS from coal burning power plants. Two other models that were also investigated are not suitable for implementation into an absorber column simulation, as they cannot describe the influence of changing solvent loading...

  7. The Influence of Internal Model Variability in GEOS-5 on Interhemispheric CO2 Exchange (United States)

    Allen, Melissa; Erickson, David; Kendall, Wesley; Fu, Joshua; Ott, Leslie; Pawson, Steven


    An ensemble of eight atmospheric CO2 simulations was completed employing the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Goddard Earth Observation System, Version 5 (GEOS-5) for the years 2000-2001, each with initial meteorological conditions corresponding to different days in January 2000 to examine internal model variability. Globally, the model runs show similar concentrations of CO2 for the two years, but in regions of high CO2 concentrations due to fossil fuel emissions, large differences among different model simulations appear. The phasing and amplitude of the CO2 cycle at Northern Hemisphere locations in all of the ensemble members is similar to that of surface observations. In several southern hemisphere locations, however, some of the GEOS-5 model CO2 cycles are out of phase by as much as four months, and large variations occur between the ensemble members. This result indicates that there is large sensitivity to transport in these regions. The differences vary by latitude-the most extreme differences in the Tropics and the least at the South Pole. Examples of these differences among the ensemble members with regard to CO2 uptake and respiration of the terrestrial biosphere and CO2 emissions due to fossil fuel emissions are shown at Cape Grim, Tasmania. Integration-based flow analysis of the atmospheric circulation in the model runs shows widely varying paths of flow into the Tasmania region among the models including sources from North America, South America, South Africa, South Asia and Indonesia. These results suggest that interhemispheric transport can be strongly influenced by internal model variability.

  8. Modeling experimental stable isotope results from CO2 adsorption and diffusion experiments (United States)

    Larson, T. E.


    steadily increased and became constant after two pore volumes of CO2 flushed through the column. Carbon and oxygen isotope values of the front of the peak (first pore volume) are 2‰ and 5‰ lower than the injected CO2 values, respectively. These results are fit very well using a mass transfer model that only includes binary diffusion between CO2 and helium that account for isotope substitution in the reduced mass coefficient. In contrast to these diffusion-dominated systems, CO2 break through curves from the illite packed column show strong adsorption effects that include a +180‰ increase in the carbon isotope ratio at the front of the peak followed by a 20‰ decrease. Up to 20 pore volumes of CO2 were flushed through the column before the carbon and oxygen isotope values stabilized to their starting values. These adsorption effects cannot be modeled using mass isotope effects alone, and instead must include additional parameters such as volume effects. These results demonstrate the importance of understanding the isotopic effects of CO2 in different substrates, and potentially offers a tracer tool that can be used to quantify surface area, transport distance, and surface reactivity of CO2. Additional applications may include more affectively determining transfer rates of CO2 across low permeability zones.

  9. Global Monthly CO2 Flux Inversion Based on Results of Terrestrial Ecosystem Modeling (United States)

    Deng, F.; Chen, J.; Peters, W.; Krol, M.


    Most of our understanding of the sources and sinks of atmospheric CO2 has come from inverse studies of atmospheric CO2 concentration measurements. However, the number of currently available observation stations and our ability to simulate the diurnal planetary boundary layer evolution over continental regions essentially limit the number of regions that can be reliably inverted globally, especially over continental areas. In order to overcome these restrictions, a nested inverse modeling system was developed based on the Bayesian principle for estimating carbon fluxes of 30 regions in North America and 20 regions for the rest of the globe. Inverse modeling was conducted in monthly steps using CO2 concentration measurements of 5 years (2000 - 2005) with the following two models: (a) An atmospheric transport model (TM5) is used to generate the transport matrix where the diurnal variation n of atmospheric CO2 concentration is considered to enhance the use of the afternoon-hour average CO2 concentration measurements over the continental sites. (b) A process-based terrestrial ecosystem model (BEPS) is used to produce hourly step carbon fluxes, which could minimize the limitation due to our inability to solve the inverse problem in a high resolution, as the background of our inversion. We will present our recent results achieved through a combination of the bottom-up modeling with BEPS and the top-down modeling based on TM5 driven by offline meteorological fields generated by the European Centre for Medium Range Weather Forecast (ECMFW).

  10. Progress in Modeling Global Atmospheric CO2 Fluxes and Transport: Results from Simulations with Diurnal Fluxes (United States)

    Collatz, G. James; Kawa, R.


    Progress in better determining CO2 sources and sinks will almost certainly rely on utilization of more extensive and intensive CO2 and related observations including those from satellite remote sensing. Use of advanced data requires improved modeling and analysis capability. Under NASA Carbon Cycle Science support we seek to develop and integrate improved formulations for 1) atmospheric transport, 2) terrestrial uptake and release, 3) biomass and 4) fossil fuel burning, and 5) observational data analysis including inverse calculations. The transport modeling is based on meteorological data assimilation analysis from the Goddard Modeling and Assimilation Office. Use of assimilated met data enables model comparison to CO2 and other observations across a wide range of scales of variability. In this presentation we focus on the short end of the temporal variability spectrum: hourly to synoptic to seasonal. Using CO2 fluxes at varying temporal resolution from the SIB 2 and CASA biosphere models, we examine the model's ability to simulate CO2 variability in comparison to observations at different times, locations, and altitudes. We find that the model can resolve much of the variability in the observations, although there are limits imposed by vertical resolution of boundary layer processes. The influence of key process representations is inferred. The high degree of fidelity in these simulations leads us to anticipate incorporation of realtime, highly resolved observations into a multiscale carbon cycle analysis system that will begin to bridge the gap between top-down and bottom-up flux estimation, which is a primary focus of NACP.

  11. Comparing Global Atmospheric CO2 Flux and Transport Models with Remote Sensing (and Other) Observations (United States)

    Kawa, S. R.; Collatz, G. J.; Pawson, S.; Wennberg, P. O.; Wofsy, S. C.; Andrews, A. E.


    We report recent progress derived from comparison of global CO2 flux and transport models with new remote sensing and other sources of CO2 data including those from satellite. The overall objective of this activity is to improve the process models that represent our understanding of the workings of the atmospheric carbon cycle. Model estimates of CO2 surface flux and atmospheric transport processes are required for initial constraints on inverse analyses, to connect atmospheric observations to the location of surface sources and sinks, to provide the basic framework for carbon data assimilation, and ultimately for future projections of carbon-climate interactions. Models can also be used to test consistency within and between CO2 data sets under varying geophysical states. Here we focus on simulated CO2 fluxes from terrestrial vegetation and atmospheric transport mutually constrained by analyzed meteorological fields from the Goddard Modeling and Assimilation Office for the period 2000 through 2009. Use of assimilated meteorological data enables direct model comparison to observations across a wide range of scales of variability. The biospheric fluxes are produced by the CASA model at 1x1 degrees on a monthly mean basis, modulated hourly with analyzed temperature and sunlight. Both physiological and biomass burning fluxes are derived using satellite observations of vegetation, burned area (as in GFED-3), and analyzed meteorology. For the purposes of comparison to CO2 data, fossil fuel and ocean fluxes are also included in the transport simulations. In this presentation we evaluate the model's ability to simulate CO2 flux and mixing ratio variability in comparison to remote sensing observations from TCCON, GOSAT, and AIRS as well as relevant in situ observations. Examples of the influence of key process representations are shown from both forward and inverse model comparisons. We find that the model can resolve much of the synoptic, seasonal, and interannual

  12. Decarbonizing the European electricity sector. Modeling and policy analysis for electricity and CO2 infrastructure networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oei, Pao-Yu Charly Robin


    This dissertation uses three models to analyze different decarbonization strategies for combating global climate change: The cost minimizing mixed-integer model CCTS-Mod examines the economics of Carbon Capture, Transport, and Storage (CCTS) for the electricity and industry sector; the welfare maximizing quadratically constrained model ELMOD focuses on different trajectories for renewable energy sources (RES) and transmission grid expansions; and the equilibrium model ELCO combines the insights of the individual sectors to a combined CCTS and electricity investment and dispatch model. Modeling results show that an investment in CCTS is beneficial for the iron and steel sector once the CO 2 certificate price exceeds 50 Euros/t CO 2 . The threshold is 75 Euros/t CO 2 for the cement industry and 100 Euros/t CO 2 for the electricity sector. Additional revenues from using CO 2 for enhanced oil recovery (CO 2 -EOR) lead to an earlier adoption of CCTS in the North Sea region. The lack of economies of scale results in increasing CO 2 storage costs of more than 30%, while transport costs even double. Research from the last years, however, indicates that CCTS is unlikely to play an important role in decarbonizing the electricity sector. The identified reasons for this are incumbents' resistance to structural change, wrong technology choices, over-optimistic cost estimates, a premature focus on energy projects instead of industry, and the underestimation of transport and storage issues. Keeping global temperature rise below 2 C therefore implies the phase-out of fossilfueled power plants and, in particular, of CO 2 -intensive coal power plants. The low CO 2 price established by the European Emissions Trading Scheme is insufficient to induce a fuel switch in the medium term. Therefore, supplementary national measures are necessary to reduce coal-based power generation; i.a. feed-in tariffs for RES, minimum CO 2 prices, or emissions performance standards. Analyses for

  13. Industrial point source CO2 emission strength estimation with aircraft measurements and dispersion modelling. (United States)

    Carotenuto, Federico; Gualtieri, Giovanni; Miglietta, Franco; Riccio, Angelo; Toscano, Piero; Wohlfahrt, Georg; Gioli, Beniamino


    CO 2 remains the greenhouse gas that contributes most to anthropogenic global warming, and the evaluation of its emissions is of major interest to both research and regulatory purposes. Emission inventories generally provide quite reliable estimates of CO 2 emissions. However, because of intrinsic uncertainties associated with these estimates, it is of great importance to validate emission inventories against independent estimates. This paper describes an integrated approach combining aircraft measurements and a puff dispersion modelling framework by considering a CO 2 industrial point source, located in Biganos, France. CO 2 density measurements were obtained by applying the mass balance method, while CO 2 emission estimates were derived by implementing the CALMET/CALPUFF model chain. For the latter, three meteorological initializations were used: (i) WRF-modelled outputs initialized by ECMWF reanalyses; (ii) WRF-modelled outputs initialized by CFSR reanalyses and (iii) local in situ observations. Governmental inventorial data were used as reference for all applications. The strengths and weaknesses of the different approaches and how they affect emission estimation uncertainty were investigated. The mass balance based on aircraft measurements was quite succesful in capturing the point source emission strength (at worst with a 16% bias), while the accuracy of the dispersion modelling, markedly when using ECMWF initialization through the WRF model, was only slightly lower (estimation with an 18% bias). The analysis will help in highlighting some methodological best practices that can be used as guidelines for future experiments.

  14. Column-averaged CO2 concentrations in the subarctic from GOSAT retrievals and NIES transport model simulations (United States)

    Belikov, D. A.; Bril, A.; Maksyutov, S.; Oshchepkov, S.; Saeki, T.; Takagi, H.; Yoshida, Y.; Ganshin, A.; Zhuravlev, R.; Aoki, S.; Yokota, T.


    The distribution of atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) in the subarctic was investigated using the National Institute for Environmental Studies (NIES) three-dimensional transport model (TM) and retrievals from the Greenhouse gases Observing SATellite (GOSAT). Column-averaged dry air mole fractions of subarctic atmospheric CO2 (XCO2) from the NIES TM for four flux combinations were analyzed. Two flux datasets were optimized using only surface observations and two others were optimized using both surface and GOSAT Level 2 data. Two inverse modeling approaches using GOSAT data were compared. In the basic approach adopted in the GOSAT Level 4 product, the GOSAT observations are aggregated into monthly means over 5° × 5° grids. In the alternative method, the model-observation misfit is estimated for each observation separately. The XCO2 values simulated with optimized fluxes were validated against Total Carbon Column Observing Network (TCCON) ground-based high-resolution Fourier Transform Spectrometer (FTS) measurements. Optimized fluxes were applied to study XCO2 seasonal variability over the period 2009-2010 in the Arctic and subarctic regions. The impact on CO2 levels of emissions from enhancement of biospheric respiration induced by the high temperature and strong wildfires occurring in the summer of 2010 was analyzed. Use of GOSAT data has a substantial impact on estimates of the level of CO2 interanual variability.

  15. Coupled Model for CO2 Leaks from Geological Storage: Geomechanics, Fluid Flow and Phase Transitions (United States)

    Gor, G.; Prevost, J.


    Deep saline aquifers are considered as a promising option for long-term storage of carbon dioxide. However, risk of CO2 leakage from the aquifers through faults, natural or induced fractures or abandoned wells cannot be disregarded. Therefore, modeling of various leakage scenarios is crucial when selecting a site for CO2 sequestration and choosing proper operational conditions. Carbon dioxide is injected into wells at supercritical conditions (t > 31.04 C, P > 73.82 bar), and these conditions are maintained in the deep aquifers (at 1-2 km depth) due to hydrostatic pressure and geothermal gradient. However, if CO2 and brine start to migrate from the aquifer upward, both pressure and temperature will decrease, and at the depth of 500-750 m, the conditions for CO2 will become subcritical. At subcritical conditions, CO2 starts boiling and the character of the flow changes dramatically due to appearance of the third (vapor) phase and latent heat effects. When modeling CO2 leaks, one needs to couple the multiphase flow in porous media with geomechanics. These capabilities are provided by Dynaflow, a finite element analysis program [1]; Dynaflow has already showed to be efficient for modeling caprock failure causing CO2 leaks [2, 3]. Currently we have extended the capabilities of Dynaflow with the phase transition module, based on two-phase and three-phase isenthalpic flash calculations [4]. We have also developed and implemented an efficient method for solving heat and mass transport with the phase transition using our flash module. Therefore, we have developed a robust tool for modeling CO2 leaks. In the talk we will give a brief overview of our method and illustrate it with the results of simulations for characteristic test cases. References: [1] J.H. Prevost, DYNAFLOW: A Nonlinear Transient Finite Element Analysis Program. Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ. (last update 2013

  16. Modelling CO2 emissions from water surface of a boreal hydroelectric reservoir. (United States)

    Wang, Weifeng; Roulet, Nigel T; Kim, Youngil; Strachan, Ian B; Del Giorgio, Paul; Prairie, Yves T; Tremblay, Alain


    To quantify CO 2 emissions from water surface of a reservoir that was shaped by flooding the boreal landscape, we developed a daily time-step reservoir biogeochemistry model. We calibrated the model using the measured concentrations of dissolved organic and inorganic carbon (C) in a young boreal hydroelectric reservoir, Eastmain-1 (EM-1), in northern Quebec, Canada. We validated the model against observed CO 2 fluxes from an eddy covariance tower in the middle of EM-1. The model predicted the variability of CO 2 emissions reasonably well compared to the observations (root mean square error: 0.4-1.3gCm -2 day -1 , revised Willmott index: 0.16-0.55). In particular, we demonstrated that the annual reservoir surface effluxes were initially high, steeply declined in the first three years, and then steadily decreased to ~115gCm -2 yr -1 with increasing reservoir age over the estimated "engineering" reservoir lifetime (i.e., 100years). Sensitivity analyses revealed that increasing air temperature stimulated CO 2 emissions by enhancing CO 2 production in the water column and sediment, and extending the duration of open water period over which emissions occur. Increasing the amount of terrestrial organic C flooded can enhance benthic CO 2 fluxes and CO 2 emissions from the reservoir water surface, but the effects were not significant over the simulation period. The model is useful for the understanding of the mechanism of C dynamics in reservoirs and could be used to assist the hydro-power industry and others interested in the role of boreal hydroelectric reservoirs as sources of greenhouse gas emissions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Projected near-future CO2 levels increase activity and alter defensive behaviours in the tropical squid Idiosepius pygmaeus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blake L. Spady


    Full Text Available Carbon dioxide (CO2 levels projected to occur in the oceans by the end of this century cause a range of behavioural effects in fish, but whether other highly active marine organisms, such as cephalopods, are similarly affected is unknown. We tested the effects of projected future CO2 levels (626 and 956 µatm on the behaviour of male two-toned pygmy squid, Idiosepius pygmaeus. Exposure to elevated CO2 increased the number of active individuals by 19–25% and increased movement (number of line-crosses by nearly 3 times compared to squid at present-day CO2. Squid vigilance and defensive behaviours were also altered by elevated CO2 with >80% of individuals choosing jet escape responses over defensive arm postures in response to a visual startle stimulus, compared with 50% choosing jet escape responses at control CO2. In addition, more escape responses were chosen over threat behaviours in body pattern displays at elevated CO2 and individuals were more than twice as likely to use ink as a defence strategy at 956 µatm CO2, compared with controls. Increased activity could lead to adverse effects on energy budgets as well as increasing visibility to predators. A tendency to respond to a stimulus with escape behaviours could increase survival, but may also be energetically costly and could potentially lead to more chases by predators compared with individuals that use defensive postures. These results demonstrate that projected future ocean acidification affects the behaviours of a tropical squid species.

  18. Toward verifying fossil fuel CO2 emissions with the CMAQ model: motivation, model description and initial simulation. (United States)

    Liu, Zhen; Bambha, Ray P; Pinto, Joseph P; Zeng, Tao; Boylan, Jim; Huang, Maoyi; Lei, Huimin; Zhao, Chun; Liu, Shishi; Mao, Jiafu; Schwalm, Christopher R; Shi, Xiaoying; Wei, Yaxing; Michelsen, Hope A


    Motivated by the question of whether and how a state-of-the-art regional chemical transport model (CTM) can facilitate characterization of CO2 spatiotemporal variability and verify CO2 fossil-fuel emissions, we for the first time applied the Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) model to simulate CO2. This paper presents methods, input data, and initial results for CO2 simulation using CMAQ over the contiguous United States in October 2007. Modeling experiments have been performed to understand the roles of fossil-fuel emissions, biosphere-atmosphere exchange, and meteorology in regulating the spatial distribution of CO2 near the surface over the contiguous United States. Three sets of net ecosystem exchange (NEE) fluxes were used as input to assess the impact of uncertainty of NEE on CO2 concentrations simulated by CMAQ. Observational data from six tall tower sites across the country were used to evaluate model performance. In particular, at the Boulder Atmospheric Observatory (BAO), a tall tower site that receives urban emissions from Denver CO, the CMAQ model using hourly varying, high-resolution CO2 fossil-fuel emissions from the Vulcan inventory and Carbon Tracker optimized NEE reproduced the observed diurnal profile of CO2 reasonably well but with a low bias in the early morning. The spatial distribution of CO2 was found to correlate with NO(x), SO2, and CO, because of their similar fossil-fuel emission sources and common transport processes. These initial results from CMAQ demonstrate the potential of using a regional CTM to help interpret CO2 observations and understand CO2 variability in space and time. The ability to simulate a full suite of air pollutants in CMAQ will also facilitate investigations of their use as tracers for CO2 source attribution. This work serves as a proof of concept and the foundation for more comprehensive examinations of CO2 spatiotemporal variability and various uncertainties in the future. Atmospheric CO2 has long been modeled

  19. Optimal plant nitrogen use improves model representation of vegetation response to elevated CO2 (United States)

    Caldararu, Silvia; Kern, Melanie; Engel, Jan; Zaehle, Sönke


    Existing global vegetation models often cannot accurately represent observed ecosystem behaviour under transient conditions such as elevated atmospheric CO2, a problem that can be attributed to an inflexibility in model representation of plant responses. Plant optimality concepts have been proposed as a solution to this problem as they offer a way to represent plastic plant responses in complex models. Here we present a novel, next generation vegetation model which includes optimal nitrogen allocation to and within the canopy as well as optimal biomass allocation between above- and belowground components in response to nutrient and water availability. The underlying hypothesis is that plants adjust their use of nitrogen in response to environmental conditions and nutrient availability in order to maximise biomass growth. We show that for two FACE (Free Air CO2 enrichment) experiments, the Duke forest and Oak Ridge forest sites, the model can better predict vegetation responses over the duration of the experiment when optimal processes are included. Specifically, under elevated CO2 conditions, the model predicts a lower optimal leaf N concentration as well as increased biomass allocation to fine roots, which, combined with a redistribution of leaf N between the Rubisco and chlorophyll components, leads to a continued NPP response under high CO2, where models with a fixed canopy stoichiometry predict a quick onset of N limitation.Existing global vegetation models often cannot accurately represent observed ecosystem behaviour under transient conditions such as elevated atmospheric CO2, a problem that can be attributed to an inflexibility in model representation of plant responses. Plant optimality concepts have been proposed as a solution to this problem as they offer a way to represent plastic plant responses in complex models. Here we present a novel, next generation vegetation model which includes optimal nitrogen allocation to and within the canopy as well as

  20. A reaction-diffusion model of CO2 influx into an oocyte (United States)

    Somersalo, Erkki; Occhipinti, Rossana; Boron, Walter F.; Calvetti, Daniela


    We have developed and implemented a novel mathematical model for simulating transients in surface pH (pHS) and intracellular pH (pHi) caused by the influx of carbon dioxide (CO2) into a Xenopus oocyte. These transients are important tools for studying gas channels. We assume that the oocyte is a sphere surrounded by a thin layer of unstirred fluid, the extracellular unconvected fluid (EUF), which is in turn surrounded by the well-stirred bulk extracellular fluid (BECF) that represents an infinite reservoir for all solutes. Here, we assume that the oocyte plasma membrane is permeable only to CO2. In both the EUF and intracellular space, solute concentrations can change because of diffusion and reactions. The reactions are the slow equilibration of the CO2 hydration-dehydration reactions and competing equilibria among carbonic acid (H2CO3)/bicarbonate ( HCO3-) and a multitude of non-CO2/HCO3- buffers. Mathematically, the model is described by a coupled system of reaction-diffusion equations that—assuming spherical radial symmetry—we solved using the method of lines with appropriate stiff solvers. In agreement with experimental data (Musa-Aziz et al, PNAS 2009, 106:5406–5411), the model predicts that exposing the cell to extracellular 1.5% CO2/10 mM HCO3- (pH 7.50) causes pHi to fall and pHS to rise rapidly to a peak and then decay. Moreover, the model provides insights into the competition between diffusion and reaction processes when we change the width of the EUF, membrane permeability to CO2, native extra-and intracellular carbonic anhydrase-like activities, the non-CO2/HCO3- (intrinsic) intracellular buffering power, or mobility of intrinsic intracellular buffers. PMID:22728674

  1. Modeling and optimal design of CO2 Direct Air Capture systems in large arrays (United States)

    Sadri Irani, Samaneh; Luzzatto-Fegiz, Paolo


    As noted by the 2014 IPCC report, while the rise in atmospheric CO2 would be slowed by emissions reductions, removing atmospheric CO2 is an important part of possible paths to climate stabilization. Direct Air Capture of CO2 with chemicals (DAC) is one of several proposed carbon capture technologies. There is an ongoing debate on whether DAC is an economically viable approach to alleviate climate change. In addition, like all air capture strategies, DAC is strongly constrained by the net-carbon problem, namely the need to control CO2 emissions associated with the capture process (for example, if DAC not powered by renewables). Research to date has focused on the chemistry and economics of individual DAC devices. However, the fluid mechanics of their large-scale deployment has not been examined in the literature, to the best of our knowledge. In this presentation, we develop a model for flow through an array of DAC devices, varying their lateral extent and their separation. We build on a recent theory of canopy flows, introducing terms for CO2 entrainment into the array boundary layer, and transport into the farm. In addition, we examine the possibility of driving flow passively by wind, thereby reducing energy consumption. The optimal operational design is established considering the total cost, drag force, energy consumption and total CO2 capture.

  2. CO2 adsorption on carbon models of organic constituents of gas shale and coal. (United States)

    Liu, Yangyang; Wilcox, Jennifer


    Imperfections of the organic matrix in coal and gas shales are modeled using defective and defect-free graphene surfaces to represent the structural heterogeneity and related chemical nature of these complex systems. Based upon previous experimental investigations that have validated the stability and existence of defect sites in graphene, plane-wave electronic density functional theory (DFT) calculations have been performed to investigate the mechanisms of CO(2) adsorption. The interactions of CO(2) with different surfaces have been compared, and the physisorption energy of CO(2) on the defective graphene adsorption site with one carbon atom missing (monovacancy) is approximately 4 times as strong as that on a perfect defect-free graphene surface, specifically, with a physisorption energy of ∼210 meV on the monovacancy site compared to ∼50 meV on a perfect graphene surface. The energy associated with the chemisorption of CO(2) on the monovacancy site is substantially stronger at ∼1.72 eV. Bader charge, density of states, and vibrational frequency estimations were also carried out and the results indicate that the CO(2) molecule binds to the surface becoming more stable upon physisorption onto the monovacancy site followed by the original C═O bonds weakening upon CO(2) chemisorption onto the vacancy site.

  3. Evaluating Potential for Large Releases from CO2 Storage Reservoirs: Analogs, Scenarios, and Modeling Needs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Birkholzer, Jens; Pruess, Karsten; Lewicki, Jennifer; Tsang, Chin-Fu; Karimjee, Anhar


    While the purpose of geologic storage of CO 2 in deep saline formations is to trap greenhouse gases underground, the potential exists for CO 2 to escape from the target reservoir, migrate upward along permeable pathways, and discharge at the land surface. Such discharge is not necessarily a serious concern, as CO 2 is a naturally abundant and relatively benign gas in low concentrations. However, there is a potential risk to health, safety and environment (HSE) in the event that large localized fluxes of CO 2 were to occur at the land surface, especially where CO 2 could accumulate. In this paper, we develop possible scenarios for large CO 2 fluxes based on the analysis of natural analogues, where large releases of gas have been observed. We are particularly interested in scenarios which could generate sudden, possibly self-enhancing, or even eruptive release events. The probability for such events may be low, but the circumstances under which they might occur and potential consequences need to be evaluated in order to design appropriate site selection and risk management strategies. Numerical modeling of hypothetical test cases is needed to determine critical conditions for such events, to evaluate whether such conditions may be possible at designated storage sites, and, if applicable, to evaluate the potential HSE impacts of such events and design appropriate mitigation strategies

  4. Error characterization of CO2 vertical mixing in the atmospheric transport model WRF-VPRM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    U. Karstens


    Full Text Available One of the dominant uncertainties in inverse estimates of regional CO2 surface-atmosphere fluxes is related to model errors in vertical transport within the planetary boundary layer (PBL. In this study we present the results from a synthetic experiment using the atmospheric model WRF-VPRM to realistically simulate transport of CO2 for large parts of the European continent at 10 km spatial resolution. To elucidate the impact of vertical mixing error on modeled CO2 mixing ratios we simulated a month during the growing season (August 2006 with different commonly used parameterizations of the PBL (Mellor-Yamada-Janjić (MYJ and Yonsei-University (YSU scheme. To isolate the effect of transport errors we prescribed the same CO2 surface fluxes for both simulations. Differences in simulated CO2 mixing ratios (model bias were on the order of 3 ppm during daytime with larger values at night. We present a simple method to reduce this bias by 70–80% when the true height of the mixed layer is known.

  5. Characterisation, quantification and modelling of CO2 transport and interactions in a carbonate vadose zone: application to a CO2 diffusive leakage in a geological sequestration context

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cohen, Gregory


    Global warming is related to atmospheric greenhouse gas concentration increase and especially anthropogenic CO 2 emissions. Geologic sequestration has the potential capacity and the longevity to significantly diminish anthropogenic CO 2 emissions. This sequestration in deep geological formation induces leakage risks from the geological reservoir. Several leakage scenarios have been imagined. Since it could continue for a long period, inducing environmental issues and risks for human, the scenario of a diffusive leakage is the most worrying. Thus, monitoring tools and protocols are needed to set up a near-surface monitoring plan. The present thesis deals with this problematic. The aims are the characterisation, the quantification and the modelling of transport and interactions of CO 2 in a carbonate unsaturated zone. This was achieved following an experimental approach on a natural pilot site in Saint-Emilion (Gironde, France), where diffusive gas leakage experiments were set up in a carbonate unsaturated zone. Different aspects were investigated during the study: natural pilot site description and instrumentation; the physical and chemical characterisation of carbonate reservoir heterogeneity; the natural functioning of the carbonate unsaturated zone and especially the set-up of a CO 2 concentrations baseline; the characterisation of gas plume extension following induced diffusive leakage in the carbonate unsaturated zone and the study of gas-water-rock interactions during a CO 2 diffusive leakage in a carbonate unsaturated zone through numerical simulations. The results show the importance of the carbonate reservoir heterogeneity characterisation as well as the sampling and analysing methods for the different phases. The baseline set-up is of main interest since it allows discrimination between the induced and the natural CO 2 concentrations variations. The transfer of CO 2 in a carbonate unsaturated zone is varying in function of physical and chemical properties

  6. Thermodynamic modelling of a recompression CO2 power cycle for low temperature waste heat recovery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Banik, Shubham; Ray, Satyaki; De, Sudipta


    Highlights: • Thermodynamic model for recompression T-CO 2 is developed. • Energetic and exergetic analysis compared with S-CO 2 and Reg. Brayton cycle. • Maximum efficiency of 13.6% is obtained for T-CO 2 cycle. • Optimum recompression ratio of 0.48 is obtained for minimum irreversibility. • Reg. Brayton has better efficiency, T-CO 2 offers minimum irreversibility. - Abstract: Due to the rising prices of conventional fossil fuels, increasing the overall thermal efficiency of a power plant is essential. One way of doing this is waste heat recovery. This recovery is most difficult for low temperature waste heat, below 240 °C, which also covers majority of the waste heat source. Carbon dioxide, with its low critical temperature and pressure, offers an advantage over ozone-depleting refrigerants used in Organic Rankine Cycles (ORCs) and hence is most suitable for the purpose. This paper introduces parametric optimization of a transcritical carbon dioxide (T-CO 2 ) power cycle which recompresses part of the total mass flow of working fluid before entering the precooler, thereby showing potential for higher cycle efficiency. Thermodynamic model for a recompression T-CO 2 power cycle has been developed with waste heat source of 2000 kW and at a temperature of 200 °C. Results obtained from this model are analysed to estimate effects on energetic and exergetic performances of the power cycle with varying pressure and mass recompression ratio. Higher pressure ratio always improves thermodynamic performance of the cycle – both energetic and exergetic. Higher recompression ratio also increases exergetic efficiency of the cycle. However, it increases energy efficiency, only if precooler inlet temperature remains constant. Maximum thermal efficiency of the T-CO 2 cycle with a recompression ratio of 0.26 has been found to be 13.6%. To minimize total irreversibility of the cycle, an optimum ratio of 0.48 was found to be suitable.

  7. Modelling regional scale surface fluxes, meteorology and CO2 mixing ratios for the Cabauw tower in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tolk, L.F.; Peters, W.; Meesters, A.G.C.A.; Groenendijk, M.; Vermeulen, A.T.; Steeneveld, G.J.; Dolman, A.J.


    We simulated meteorology and atmospheric CO2 transport over the Netherlands with the mesoscale model RAMS-Leaf3 coupled to the biospheric CO2 flux model 5PM. The results were compared with meteorological and CO2 observations, with emphasis on the tall tower of Cabauw. An analysis of the coupled

  8. A locational gaming model with CO2 emission tax and limits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu, Z.; Preckel, P.V.; Nderitu, G.; Sparrow, F.T.


    This paper presents a locational (spatial) gaming model with CO 2 emission and transmission capacity limits. It is developed for simulating strategic behavior of electricity producers in deregulated electricity markets. The model has multiple players, each maximizing their individual profit with a CO 2 emission tax included to reflect the societal cost of environment damages caused by CO 2 emission from different locations. In the paper, the multiple-producer profits are converted into a set of Lagrangian functions with power production and supply as the primary control variables, resulting in a set of unconstrained, individual profit maximization equations. The Karush-Kuhn-Tucker necessary conditions are then derived and solved simultaneously incorporating Cournot gaming strategy. Case studies show the successful application of the model. (author)

  9. Taxing CO2 and subsidising biomass: Analysed in a macroeconomic and sectoral model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klinge Jacobsen, Henrik


    This paper analyses the combination of taxes and subsidies as an instrument to enable a reduction in CO2 emission. The objective of the study is to compare recycling of a CO2 tax revenue as a subsidy for biomass use as opposed to traditional recycling such as reduced income or corporate taxation....... A model of Denmark's energy supply sector is used to analyse the e€ect of a CO2 tax combined with using the tax revenue for biomass subsidies. The energy supply model is linked to a macroeconomic model such that the macroeconomic consequences of tax policies can be analysed along with the consequences...... for speci®c sectors such as agriculture. Electricity and heat are produced at heat and power plants utilising fuels which minimise total fuel cost, while the authorities regulate capacity expansion technologies. The e€ect of fuel taxes and subsidies on fuels is very sensitive to the fuel substitution...

  10. AIRS/Aqua Level 3 Monthly CO2 in the free troposphere (AIRS-only) V005 (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This is the AIRS mid-tropospheric Carbon Dioxide (CO2) Level 3 Monthly Gridded Retrieval, from the AIRS instrument on board of Aqua satellite. It is a monthly...

  11. AFSC/RACE/FBEP/Hurst: Effects of elevated CO2 levels on eggs and larvae of a North Pacific flatfish (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset is from a laboratory study that examined the growth responses of northern rock sole eggs and larvae across a range of CO2 levels to evaluate the...

  12. Effect of recent observations on Asian CO2 flux estimates by transport model inversions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maksyutov, Shamil; Patra, Prabir K.; Machida, Toshinobu; Mukai, Hitoshi; Nakazawa, Takakiyo; Inoue, Gen


    We use an inverse model to evaluate the effects of the recent CO 2 observations over Asia on estimates of regional CO 2 sources and sinks. Global CO 2 flux distribution is evaluated using several atmospheric transport models, atmospheric CO 2 observations and a 'time-independent' inversion procedure adopted in the basic synthesis inversion by the Transcom-3 inverse model intercomparison project. In our analysis we include airborne and tower observations in Siberia, continuous monitoring and airborne observations over Japan, and airborne monitoring on regular flights on Tokyo-Sydney route. The inclusion of the new data reduces the uncertainty of the estimated regional CO 2 fluxes for Boreal Asia (Siberia), Temperate Asia and South-East Asia. The largest effect is observed for the emission/sink estimate for the Boreal Asia region, where introducing the observations in Siberia reduces the source uncertainty by almost half. It also produces an uncertainty reduction for Boreal North America. Addition of the Siberian airborne observations leads to projecting extra sinks in Boreal Asia of 0.2 Pg C/yr, and a smaller change for Europe. The Tokyo-Sydney observations reduce and constrain the Southeast Asian source

  13. Modeling CO2 emissions from fossil fuel combustion using the logistic equation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meng, Ming; Niu, Dongxiao


    CO 2 emissions from fossil fuel combustion have been known to contribute to the greenhouse effect. Research on emission trends and further forecasting their further values is important for adjusting energy policies, particularly those relative to low carbon. Except for a few countries, the main figures of CO 2 emission from fossil fuel combustion in other countries are S-shaped curves. The logistic function is selected to simulate the S-shaped curve, and to improve the goodness of fit, three algorithms were provided to estimate its parameters. Considering the different emission characteristics of different industries, the three algorithms estimated the parameters of CO 2 emission in each industry separately. The most suitable parameters for each industry are selected based on the criterion of Mean Absolute Percentage Error (MAPE). With the combined simulation values of the selected models, the estimate of total CO 2 emission from fossil fuel combustion is obtained. The empirical analysis of China shows that our method is better than the linear model in terms of goodness of fit and simulation risk. -- Highlights: → Figures of CO 2 emissions from fossil fuel combustion in most countries are S-shape curves. → Using the logistic function to model the S-shape curve. → Three algorithms are offered to estimate the parameters of the logistic function. → The empirical analysis from China shows that the logistic equation has satisfactory simulation results.

  14. Measurement and modeling of CO2 diffusion coefficient in Saline Aquifer at reservoir conditions (United States)

    Azin, Reza; Mahmoudy, Mohamad; Raad, Seyed; Osfouri, Shahriar


    Storage of CO2 in deep saline aquifers is a promising techniques to mitigate global warming and reduce greenhouse gases (GHG). Correct measurement of diffusivity is essential for predicting rate of transfer and cumulative amount of trapped gas. Little information is available on diffusion of GHG in saline aquifers. In this study, diffusivity of CO2 into a saline aquifer taken from oil field was measured and modeled. Equilibrium concentration of CO2 at gas-liquid interface was determined using Henry's law. Experimental measurements were reported at temperature and pressure ranges of 32-50°C and 5900-6900 kPa, respectively. Results show that diffusivity of CO2 varies between 3.52-5.98×10-9 m2/s for 5900 kPa and 5.33-6.16×10-9 m2/s for 6900 kPa initial pressure. Also, it was found that both pressure and temperature have a positive impact on the measures of diffusion coefficient. Liquid swelling due to gas dissolution and variations in gas compressibility factor as a result of pressure decay was found negligible. Measured diffusivities were used model the physical model and develop concentration profile of dissolved gas in the liquid phase. Results of this study provide unique measures of CO2 diffusion coefficient in saline aquifer at high pressure and temperature conditions, which can be applied in full-field studies of carbon capture and sequestration projects.

  15. PmaCO2 Project: Porosity and CO2 Trapping Mechanisms The Utrillas Formation in SD-1 borehole (Tejada - Burgos): Porosity and Porous Media Modelling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campos, R.; Barrios, I.; Gonzalez, A. M.


    The aim of PmaCO 2 project, supported by the Secretary of State and Research MINECO (CGL2011-24768) is to increase the knowledge of the microstructure of porous storage formations and thus contribute to the viability of CO 2 sequestration in geological formations. The microporous structure plays an important role not only in the prevalence of a particular trapping mechanism, but also on the amount of CO 2 immobilized. Utrillas facies are investigated in this project as representatives of a deep saline aquifer storage. This publication is a summary of the work done in the first year of the project. We present a study on microstructure of sandstones Utrillas, sampled in borehole, by applying the mercury intrusion porosimetry technique for the experimental determination of porosity and associated parameters. The porous medium was modeled with the PoreCor simulation code based in intrusion-extrusion curves. (Author) 78 refs.

  16. Stable isotope reactive transport modeling in water-rock interactions during CO2 injection (United States)

    Hidalgo, Juan J.; Lagneau, Vincent; Agrinier, Pierre


    Stable isotopes can be of great usefulness in the characterization and monitoring of CO2 sequestration sites. Stable isotopes can be used to track the migration of the CO2 plume and identify leakage sources. Moreover, they provide unique information about the chemical reactions that take place on the CO2-water-rock system. However, there is a lack of appropriate tools that help modelers to incorporate stable isotope information into the flow and transport models used in CO2 sequestration problems. In this work, we present a numerical tool for modeling the transport of stable isotopes in groundwater reactive systems. The code is an extension of the groundwater single-phase flow and reactive transport code HYTEC [2]. HYTEC's transport module was modified to include element isotopes as separate species. This way, it is able to track isotope composition of the system by computing the mixing between the background water and the injected solution accounting for the dependency of diffusion on the isotope mass. The chemical module and database have been expanded to included isotopic exchange with minerals and the isotope fractionation associated with chemical reactions and mineral dissolution or precipitation. The performance of the code is illustrated through a series of column synthetic models. The code is also used to model the aqueous phase CO2 injection test carried out at the Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory site (Palisades, New York, USA) [1]. References [1] N. Assayag, J. Matter, M. Ader, D. Goldberg, and P. Agrinier. Water-rock interactions during a CO2 injection field-test: Implications on host rock dissolution and alteration effects. Chemical Geology, 265(1-2):227-235, July 2009. [2] Jan van der Lee, Laurent De Windt, Vincent Lagneau, and Patrick Goblet. Module-oriented modeling of reactive transport with HYTEC. Computers & Geosciences, 29(3):265-275, April 2003.

  17. Potassium starvation limits soybean growth more than the photosynthetic processes across CO2 levels (United States)

    Potassium (K) deficiency might alter plant response to rising atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) and influence growth, and photosynthetic processes differently. To evaluate the combined effects of K and CO2 on soybean photosynthesis, growth, biomass partitioning, and yields, plants were grown under co...

  18. Regional impacts of climate change and atmospheric CO2 on future ocean carbon uptake: a multi model linear feedback analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roy, Tilla; Bopp, Laurent; Gehlen, Marion; Cadule, Patricia


    The increase in atmospheric CO 2 over this century depends on the evolution of the oceanic air-sea CO 2 uptake, which will be driven by the combined response to rising atmospheric CO 2 itself and climate change. Here, the future oceanic CO 2 uptake is simulated using an ensemble of coupled climate-carbon cycle models. The models are driven by CO 2 emissions from historical data and the Special Report on Emissions Scenarios (SRES) A2 high-emission scenario. A linear feedback analysis successfully separates the regional future (2010-2100) oceanic CO 2 uptake into a CO 2 -induced component, due to rising atmospheric CO 2 concentrations, and a climate-induced component, due to global warming. The models capture the observation based magnitude and distribution of anthropogenic CO 2 uptake. The distributions of the climate-induced component are broadly consistent between the models, with reduced CO 2 uptake in the sub-polar Southern Ocean and the equatorial regions, owing to decreased CO 2 solubility; and reduced CO 2 uptake in the mid latitudes, owing to decreased CO 2 solubility and increased vertical stratification. The magnitude of the climate-induced component is sensitive to local warming in the southern extra tropics, to large freshwater fluxes in the extra tropical North Atlantic Ocean, and to small changes in the CO 2 solubility in the equatorial regions. In key anthropogenic CO 2 uptake regions, the climate-induced component offsets the CO 2 - induced component at a constant proportion up until the end of this century. This amounts to approximately 50% in the northern extra tropics and 25% in the southern extra tropics and equatorial regions. Consequently, the detection of climate change impacts on anthropogenic CO 2 uptake may be difficult without monitoring additional tracers, such as oxygen. (authors)

  19. Regional impacts of climate change and atmospheric CO2 on future ocean carbon uptake: a multi model linear feedback analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roy, Tilla; Bopp, Laurent; Gehlen, Marion; Cadule, Patricia; Schneider, Birgit; Frolicher, Thomas L.; Segschneider, Joachim; Tjiputra, Jerry; Heinze, Christoph; Joos, Fortunat


    The increase in atmospheric CO 2 over this century depends on the evolution of the oceanic air-sea CO 2 uptake, which will be driven by the combined response to rising atmospheric CO 2 itself and climate change. Here, the future oceanic CO 2 uptake is simulated using an ensemble of coupled climate-carbon cycle models. The models are driven by CO 2 emissions from historical data and the Special Report on Emissions Scenarios (SRES) A2 high-emission scenario. A linear feedback analysis successfully separates the regional future (2010-2100) oceanic CO 2 uptake into a CO 2 -induced component, due to rising atmospheric CO 2 concentrations, and a climate-induced component, due to global warming. The models capture the observation based magnitude and distribution of anthropogenic CO 2 uptake. The distributions of the climate-induced component are broadly consistent between the models, with reduced CO 2 uptake in the sub polar Southern Ocean and the equatorial regions, owing to decreased CO 2 solubility; and reduced CO 2 uptake in the mid-latitudes, owing to decreased CO 2 solubility and increased vertical stratification. The magnitude of the climate-induced component is sensitive to local warming in the southern extra-tropics, to large freshwater fluxes in the extra-tropical North Atlantic Ocean, and to small changes in the CO 2 solubility in the equatorial regions. In key anthropogenic CO 2 uptake regions, the climate-induced component offsets the CO 2 - induced component at a constant proportion up until the end of this century. This amounts to approximately 50% in the northern extra-tropics and 25% in the southern extra-tropics and equatorial regions. Consequently, the detection of climate change impacts on anthropogenic CO 2 uptake may be difficult without monitoring additional tracers, such as oxygen. (authors)

  20. Modeling light use efficiency in a subtropical mangrove forest equipped with CO2 eddy covariance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. G. Barr


    Full Text Available Despite the importance of mangrove ecosystems in the global carbon budget, the relationships between environmental drivers and carbon dynamics in these forests remain poorly understood. This limited understanding is partly a result of the challenges associated with in situ flux studies. Tower-based CO2 eddy covariance (EC systems are installed in only a few mangrove forests worldwide, and the longest EC record from the Florida Everglades contains less than 9 years of observations. A primary goal of the present study was to develop a methodology to estimate canopy-scale photosynthetic light use efficiency in this forest. These tower-based observations represent a basis for associating CO2 fluxes with canopy light use properties, and thus provide the means for utilizing satellite-based reflectance data for larger scale investigations. We present a model for mangrove canopy light use efficiency utilizing the enhanced green vegetation index (EVI derived from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS that is capable of predicting changes in mangrove forest CO2 fluxes caused by a hurricane disturbance and changes in regional environmental conditions, including temperature and salinity. Model parameters are solved for in a Bayesian framework. The model structure requires estimates of ecosystem respiration (RE, and we present the first ever tower-based estimates of mangrove forest RE derived from nighttime CO2 fluxes. Our investigation is also the first to show the effects of salinity on mangrove forest CO2 uptake, which declines 5% per each 10 parts per thousand (ppt increase in salinity. Light use efficiency in this forest declines with increasing daily photosynthetic active radiation, which is an important departure from the assumption of constant light use efficiency typically applied in satellite-driven models. The model developed here provides a framework for estimating CO2 uptake by these forests from reflectance data and

  1. Modeling light use efficiency in a subtropical mangrove forest equipped with CO2 eddy covariance (United States)

    Barr, J.G.; Engel, V.; Fuentes, J.D.; Fuller, D.O.; Kwon, H.


    Despite the importance of mangrove ecosystems in the global carbon budget, the relationships between environmental drivers and carbon dynamics in these forests remain poorly understood. This limited understanding is partly a result of the challenges associated with in situ flux studies. Tower-based CO2 eddy covariance (EC) systems are installed in only a few mangrove forests worldwide, and the longest EC record from the Florida Everglades contains less than 9 years of observations. A primary goal of the present study was to develop a methodology to estimate canopy-scale photosynthetic light use efficiency in this forest. These tower-based observations represent a basis for associating CO2 fluxes with canopy light use properties, and thus provide the means for utilizing satellite-based reflectance data for larger scale investigations. We present a model for mangrove canopy light use efficiency utilizing the enhanced green vegetation index (EVI) derived from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) that is capable of predicting changes in mangrove forest CO2 fluxes caused by a hurricane disturbance and changes in regional environmental conditions, including temperature and salinity. Model parameters are solved for in a Bayesian framework. The model structure requires estimates of ecosystem respiration (RE), and we present the first ever tower-based estimates of mangrove forest RE derived from nighttime CO2 fluxes. Our investigation is also the first to show the effects of salinity on mangrove forest CO2 uptake, which declines 5% per each 10 parts per thousand (ppt) increase in salinity. Light use efficiency in this forest declines with increasing daily photosynthetic active radiation, which is an important departure from the assumption of constant light use efficiency typically applied in satellite-driven models. The model developed here provides a framework for estimating CO2 uptake by these forests from reflectance data and information about

  2. Modeling of CO2 plasma: effect of uncertainties in the plasma chemistry (United States)

    Berthelot, Antonin; Bogaerts, Annemie


    Low-temperature plasma chemical kinetic models are particularly important to the plasma community. These models typically require dozens of inputs, especially rate coefficients. The latter are not always precisely known and it is not surprising that the error on the rate coefficient data can propagate to the model output. In this paper, we present a model that uses N = 400 different combinations of rate coefficients based on the uncertainty attributed to each rate coefficient, giving a good estimation of the uncertainty on the model output due to the rate coefficients. We demonstrate that the uncertainty varies a lot with the conditions and the type of output. Relatively low uncertainties (about 15%) are found for electron density and temperature, while the uncertainty can reach more than an order of magnitude for the population of the vibrational levels in some cases and it can rise up to 100% for the CO2 conversion. The reactions that are mostly responsible for the largest uncertainties are identified. We show that the conditions of pressure, gas temperature and power density have a great effect on the uncertainty and on which reactions lead to this uncertainty. In all the cases tested here, while the absolute values may suffer from large uncertainties, the trends observed in previous modeling work are still valid. Finally, in accordance with the work of Turner, a number of ‘good practices’ is recommended.

  3. Measurement and modeling of CO2 mass transfer in brine at reservoir conditions (United States)

    Shi, Z.; Wen, B.; Hesse, M. A.; Tsotsis, T. T.; Jessen, K.


    In this work, we combine measurements and modeling to investigate the application of pressure-decay experiments towards delineation and interpretation of CO2 solubility, uptake and mass transfer in water/brine systems at elevated pressures of relevance to CO2 storage operations in saline aquifers. Accurate measurements and modeling of mass transfer in this context are crucial to an improved understanding of the longer-term fate of CO2 that is injected into the subsurface for storage purposes. Pressure-decay experiments are presented for CO2/water and CO2/brine systems with and without the presence of unconsolidated porous media. We demonstrate, via high-resolution numerical calculations in 2-D, that natural convection will complicate the interpretation of the experimental observations if the particle size is not sufficiently small. In such settings, we demonstrate that simple 1-D interpretations can result in an overestimation of the uptake (diffusivity) by two orders of magnitude. Furthermore, we demonstrate that high-resolution numerical calculations agree well with the experimental observations for settings where natural convection contributes substantially to the overall mass transfer process.

  4. Impact of capillary hysteresis and trapping on vertically integrated models for CO2 storage (United States)

    Doster, F.; Nordbotten, J. M.; Celia, M. A.


    Vertically integrated models are frequently applied to study subsurface flow related to CO2 storage scenarios in saline aquifers. In this paper, we study the impact of capillary-pressure hysteresis and CO2 trapping on the integrated constitutive parameter functions. Our results show that for the initial drainage and a subsequent imbibition, trapping is the dominant contributor to hysteresis in integrated models. We also find that for advective processes like injection and plume migration in a sloped aquifer the correct treatment of the hysteretic nature of the capillary fringe is likely of secondary importance. However, for diffusive/dispersive processes such as a redistribution of the CO2 plume due to buoyancy and capillary forces, the hysteretic nature of the capillary fringe may significantly impact the final distribution of the fluids and the timescale of the redistribution.

  5. Modelling the aqueous and nonaqueous interfaces for CO2 electro-reduction over Sn catalysts (United States)

    Sheng, Tian; Sun, Shi-Gang


    In CO2 electroreduction, Sn catalysts with a high overpotential for hydrogen evolution reaction and a high selectivity towards formic acid formation are very attractive. Many efforts have been made for improving the catalytic performance and for understanding the mechanisms. In electrochemistry, the role of solvents for surface reactions was deserved to be investigated, in particular for some nonaqueous solvents. Here, we have modeled the aqueous (water) and nonaqueous (acetonitrile and dichloromethane) for investigation of CO2 electroreduction on Sn surface, by constrained ab initio molecular dynamics simulations and thermodynamic integrations, including a number of explicit solvent molecules in computational models. It was found that CO2 reduction is initiated from formate formation and solvents, in particular, water can effectively facilitate the reaction.

  6. Optimized CO2-flue gas separation model for a coal fired power plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arachchige, Udara S.P.R. [Telemark University College, Porsgrunn (Norway); Mohsin, Muhammad [Telemark University College, Porsgrunn (Norway); Melaaen, Morten C. [Telemark University College, Porsgrunn (Norway); Tel-Tek, Porsgrunn (Norway)


    The detailed description of the CO2 removal process using mono-ethylamine (MEA) as a solvent for coal-fired power plant is present in this paper. The rate based Electrolyte NRTL activity coefficient model was used in the Aspen Plus. The complete removal process with re-circulating solvent back to the absorber was implemented with the sequential modular method in Aspen Plus. The most significant cost related to CO2 capture is the energy requirement for re-generating solvent, i.e. re-boiler duty. Parameters’ effects on re-boiler duty were studied, resulting decreased re-boiler duty with the packing height and absorber packing diameter, absorber pressure, solvent temperature, stripper packing height and diameter. On the other hand, with the flue gas temperature, re-boiler duty is increased. The temperature profiles and CO2 loading profiles were used to check the model behavior.

  7. Modeling of Gas Diffusion in Ni/YSZ Electrodes in CO2 and Co-electrolysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Duhn, Jakob Dragsbæk; Jensen, Anker Degn; Wedel, Stig


    to prevent its formation. For prediction of carbon formation, the gas composition in the electrode must be known. In this work, the diffusion of gases in the electrode has been modeled with the dusty gas model in 1 and 2 dimensions, and the effect of tortuosity, porosity, temperature, electrode thickness......Carbon formation may occur during CO2 and CO2/H2O electrolysis using solid oxide electrolyzer cells due to the Boudouard reaction (2CO →  CO2 + C(s)). Formed carbon may disintegrate the cell structure and it is therefore of importance to be able to predict when carbon is formed, and take actions......, pore diameter, current density, pitch and rib width has been investigated. It is shown that diffusion limitations on reactant/product transport may lead to carbon formation. The parameters describing the microstructure and the dimensions of the cathode channels and interconnect ribs are found to have...

  8. Simple model to estimate the contribution of atmospheric CO2 to the Earth's greenhouse effect (United States)

    Wilson, Derrek J.; Gea-Banacloche, Julio


    We show how the CO2 contribution to the Earth's greenhouse effect can be estimated from relatively simple physical considerations and readily available spectroscopic data. In particular, we present a calculation of the "climate sensitivity" (that is, the increase in temperature caused by a doubling of the concentration of CO2) in the absence of feedbacks. Our treatment highlights the important role played by the frequency dependence of the CO2 absorption spectrum. For pedagogical purposes, we provide two simple models to visualize different ways in which the atmosphere might return infrared radiation back to the Earth. The more physically realistic model, based on the Schwarzschild radiative transfer equations, uses as input an approximate form of the atmosphere's temperature profile, and thus includes implicitly the effect of heat transfer mechanisms other than radiation.

  9. Modeling Karst Ecosystem-Atmosphere CO2 Exchange: The Importance of Ventilation for Carbonate Geochemistry (United States)

    Roland, M.; Serrano-Ortiz, P.; Godderis, Y.; Kowalski, A. S.; Janssens, I.


    Global carbonate weathering is considered a small carbon flux when compared with biogenic CO2 fluxes. This is, however, a question of time and space. In karst regions, it has been shown that biogenic fluxes are not always dominant. CO2 exchange patterns have been reported there that cannot be explained by biological processes: disproportionate outgassing during daytime or nighttime CO2 uptake during periods when all vegetation is senescent. These phenomena have previously been attributed to carbonate weathering reactions or biocrust activity, but their associated CO2 exchange rates are considered too small [Serrano-Ortiz et al., 2010]. Here, we report a novel mechanism through which carbonate weathering, exacerbated by subterranean ventilation, dominates the diel pattern of land-atmosphere CO2 exchange in karst areas. Ventilation is an efficient air mass transfer process (including pressure pumping, deep penetration of eddies and thermal expansion of air) that occurs in all porous media, when pores are connected and not blocked by water. Due to its high porosity and the presence of caves, fissures and cracks, karts systems are very prone to ventilation. When soil CO2 concentrations are rapidly brought into disequilibrium by ventilation, CO2 fluxes associated with carbonate weathering can exceed those associated with biological activity. The biology-based standardized partitioning schemes that are used by a large community of scientists, are then no longer applicable and gas exchange measurements fail to reveal any information on the biological activity. By incorporating ventilation processes into the mineral weathering model WITCH [Goddéris et al., 2006], we were able to quantify the contribution of carbonate geochemistry to the synoptic CO2 fluxes on karst ecosystems. [1] Goddéris, Y., L. M. Francois, A. Probst, J. Schott, D. Moncoulon, D. Labat, and D. Viville (2006), Modelling weathering processes at the catchment scale: The WITCH numerical model, Geochim

  10. Using satellite fluorescence data to drive a global carbon cycle model: Impacts on atmospheric CO2. (United States)

    Collatz, G. J.; Joiner, J.; Kawa, S. R.; Ivanoff, A.; Liu, Y.; Yoshida, Y.; Berry, J. A.; Badgley, G. M.


    Atmospheric CO2 variability is markedly influenced by biospheric fluxes (photosynthesis and respiration) from the land surface at seasonal, to annual, to decadal time scales. Process models of photosynthesis and respiration have considerable uncertainty as only the sum of these fluxes can be constrained on the bases of atmospheric CO2 measurements alone. An independent proxy for photosynthesis or gross primary productivity (GPP) has recently become available from measurement of solar induced fluorescence (SIF). We report here on the first (to our knowledge) simulations of global atmospheric CO2 concentration driven by GPP estimated from observations of SIF. A baseline model uses satellite derived FPAR, incident solar radiation, temperature, and moisture stress scalars to estimate net primary productivity (NPP). The fluorescence driven model uses only fluorescence from GOME-2 scaled to the mean annual NPP at every grid cell and assumes a constant NPP/GPP ratio. Respiration was modeled identically in the two simulations. This preserves the spatial distribution of production capacity but allows for independent seasonal cycle and interannual variability from the baseline model. The flux models were run at ½ degree monthly resolution for 2007-2012 and fluxes were reaggregated along with fossil fuel and ocean fluxes to 3-hourly, 1 x 1.25 degree resolution for the atmospheric transport model. Here, we compare the model's skill at predicting CO2 variability at 40 NOAA CO2 flask network sites. The baseline model shows good skill at matching the seasonal cycle at the flask sites but is not as good at producing monthly and interannual anomalies. The fluorescence model shows similar (or even improved) performance even though solar radiation, FPAR, precipitation and temperature effects on GPP are not included in the simulation. The results demonstrate the capability of the fluorescence data to integrate physiological and biophysical controls on GPP into a single measured

  11. EuCo2P2 : A model molecular-field helical Heisenberg antiferromagnet (United States)

    Sangeetha, N. S.; Cuervo-Reyes, Eduardo; Pandey, Abhishek; Johnston, D. C.


    The metallic compound EuCo2P2 with the body-centered tetragonal ThCr2Si2 structure containing Eu spins-7/2 was previously shown from single-crystal neutron diffraction measurements to exhibit a helical antiferromagnetic (AFM) structure below TN=66.5 K with the helix axis along the c axis and with the ordered moments aligned within the a b plane. Here we report crystallography, electrical resistivity, heat capacity, magnetization, and magnetic susceptibility measurements on single crystals of this compound. We demonstrate that EuCo2P2 is a model molecular-field helical Heisenberg antiferromagnet from comparisons of the anisotropic magnetic susceptibility χ , high-field magnetization, and magnetic heat capacity of EuCo2P2 single crystals at temperature T ≤TN with the predictions of our recent formulation of molecular-field theory. Values of the Heisenberg exchange interactions between the Eu spins are derived from the data. The low-T magnetic heat capacity ˜T3 arising from spin-wave excitations with no anisotropy gap is calculated and found to be comparable to the lattice heat capacity. The density of states at the Fermi energy of EuCo2P2 and the related compound BaCo2P2 are found from the heat capacity data to be large, 10 and 16 states/eV per formula unit for EuCo2P2 and BaCo2P2 , respectively. These values are enhanced by a factor of ˜2.5 above those found from DFT electronic structure calculations for the two compounds. The calculations also find ferromagnetic Eu-Eu exchange interactions within the a b plane and AFM interactions between Eu spins in nearest- and next-nearest planes, in agreement with the MFT analysis of χa b(T ≤TN) .

  12. Numerical modelling of CO2 migration in saline reservoirs using geoelectric and seismic techniques - first results (United States)

    Hagrey, S. A. Al; Strahser, M. H. P.; Rabbel, W.


    The research project "CO2 MoPa" (modelling and parameterisation of CO2 storage in deep saline formations for dimensions and risk analysis) has been initiated in 2008 by partners from different disciplines (e.g. geology, hydrogeology, geochemistry, geophysics, geomechanics, hydraulic engineering and law). It deals with the parameterisation of virtual subsurface storage sites to characterise rock properties, with high pressure-temperature experiments to determine in situ hydro-petrophysical and mechanical parameters, and with modelling of processes related to CCS in deep saline reservoirs. One objective is the estimation of the sensitivity and the resolution of reflection seismic and geoelectrical time-lapse measurements in order to determine the underground distribution of CO2. Compared with seismic, electric resistivity tomography (ERT) has lower resolution, but its permanent installation and continuous monitoring can make it an economical alternative or complement. Seismic and ERT (in boreholes) applications to quantify changes of intrinsic aquifers properties with time are justified by the velocity and resistivity decrease related to CO2 injection. Our numerical 2D/3D modelling reveals the capability of the techniques to map CO2 plumes and changes as a function of thickness, concentration, receiver/electrode configuration, aspect ratio and modelling and inversion constraint parameters. Depending on these factors, some configurations are favoured due to their better spatial resolution and lower artefacts. Acknowledgements This work has been carried out in the framework of "CO2 MoPa" research project funded by the Federal German Ministry of Education and Research (BMBF) and a consortium of energy companies (E.ON Energy, EnBW AG, RWE Dea AG, Stadtwerke Kiel AG, Vattenfall Europe Technology Research GmbH and Wintershall Holding AG).

  13. Experimental and Numerical Modelling of CO2 Atmospheric Dispersion in Hazardous Gas Emission Sites. (United States)

    Gasparini, A.; sainz Gracia, A. S.; Grandia, F.; Bruno, J.


    Under stable atmospheric conditions and/or in presence of topographic depressions, CO2 concentrations can reach high values resulting in lethal effect to living organisms. The distribution of denser than air gases released from the underground is governed by gravity, turbulence and dispersion. Once emitted, the gas distribution is initially driven by buoyancy and a gas cloud accumulates on the ground (gravitational phase); with time the density gradient becomes less important due to dispersion or mixing and gas distribution is mainly governed by wind and atmospheric turbulence (passive dispersion phase). Natural analogues provide evidences of the impact of CO2 leakage. Dangerous CO2 concentration in atmosphere related to underground emission have been occasionally reported although the conditions favouring the persistence of such a concentration are barely studied.In this work, the dynamics of CO2 in the atmosphere after ground emission is assessed to quantify their potential risk. Two approaches have been followed: (1) direct measurement of air concentration in a natural emission site, where formation of a "CO2 lake" is common and (2) numerical atmospheric modelling. Two sites with different morphology were studied: (a) the Cañada Real site, a flat terrain in the Volcanic Field of Campo de Calatrava (Spain); (b) the Solforata di Pomezia site, a rough terrain in the Alban Hills Volcanic Region (Italy). The comparison between field data and model calculations reveal that numerical dispersion models are capable of predicting the formation of CO2 accumulation over the ground as a consequence of underground gas emission. Therefore, atmospheric modelling could be included as a valuable methodology in the risk assessment of leakage in natural degassing systems and in CCS projects. Conclusions from this work provide clues on whether leakage may be a real risk for humans and under which conditions this risk needs to be included in the risk assessment.

  14. The Impact of Prior Biosphere Models in the Inversion of Global Terrestrial CO2 Fluxes by Assimilating OCO-2 Retrievals (United States)

    Philip, Sajeev; Johnson, Matthew S.


    Atmospheric mixing ratios of carbon dioxide (CO2) are largely controlled by anthropogenic emissions and biospheric fluxes. The processes controlling terrestrial biosphere-atmosphere carbon exchange are currently not fully understood, resulting in terrestrial biospheric models having significant differences in the quantification of biospheric CO2 fluxes. Atmospheric transport models assimilating measured (in situ or space-borne) CO2 concentrations to estimate "top-down" fluxes, generally use these biospheric CO2 fluxes as a priori information. Most of the flux inversion estimates result in substantially different spatio-temporal posteriori estimates of regional and global biospheric CO2 fluxes. The Orbiting Carbon Observatory 2 (OCO-2) satellite mission dedicated to accurately measure column CO2 (XCO2) allows for an improved understanding of global biospheric CO2 fluxes. OCO-2 provides much-needed CO2 observations in data-limited regions facilitating better global and regional estimates of "top-down" CO2 fluxes through inversion model simulations. The specific objectives of our research are to: 1) conduct GEOS-Chem 4D-Var assimilation of OCO-2 observations, using several state-of-the-science biospheric CO2 flux models as a priori information, to better constrain terrestrial CO2 fluxes, and 2) quantify the impact of different biospheric model prior fluxes on OCO-2-assimilated a posteriori CO2 flux estimates. Here we present our assessment of the importance of these a priori fluxes by conducting Observing System Simulation Experiments (OSSE) using simulated OCO-2 observations with known "true" fluxes.

  15. Evaluation of Diagnostic CO2 Flux and Transport Modeling in NU-WRF and GEOS-5 (United States)

    Kawa, S. R.; Collatz, G. J.; Tao, Z.; Wang, J. S.; Ott, L. E.; Liu, Y.; Andrews, A. E.; Sweeney, C.


    We report on recent diagnostic (constrained by observations) model simulations of atmospheric CO2 flux and transport using a newly developed facility in the NASA Unified-Weather Research and Forecast (NU-WRF) model. The results are compared to CO2 data (ground-based, airborne, and GOSAT) and to corresponding simulations from a global model that uses meteorology from the NASA GEOS-5 Modern Era Retrospective analysis for Research and Applications (MERRA). The objective of these intercomparisons is to assess the relative strengths and weaknesses of the respective models in pursuit of an overall carbon process improvement at both regional and global scales. Our guiding hypothesis is that the finer resolution and improved land surface representation in NU-WRF will lead to better comparisons with CO2 data than those using global MERRA, which will, in turn, inform process model development in global prognostic models. Initial intercomparison results, however, have generally been mixed: NU-WRF is better at some sites and times but not uniformly. We are examining the model transport processes in detail to diagnose differences in the CO2 behavior. These comparisons are done in the context of a long history of simulations from the Parameterized Chemistry and Transport Model, based on GEOS-5 meteorology and Carnegie Ames-Stanford Approach-Global Fire Emissions Database (CASA-GFED) fluxes, that capture much of the CO2 variation from synoptic to seasonal to global scales. We have run the NU-WRF model using unconstrained, internally generated meteorology within the North American domain, and with meteorological 'nudging' from Global Forecast System and North American Regional Reanalysis (NARR) in an effort to optimize the CO2 simulations. Output results constrained by NARR show the best comparisons to data. Discrepancies, of course, may arise either from flux or transport errors and compensating errors are possible. Resolving their interplay is also important to using the data in

  16. Dry (CO2) reforming of methane over Pt catalysts studied by DFT and kinetic modeling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niu, Juntian; Du, Xuesen; Ran, Jingyu; Wang, Ruirui


    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • CH appears to be the most abundant species on Pt(1 1 1) surface in CH 4 dissociation. • CO 2 * + H* → COOH* + * → CO* + OH* is the dominant reaction pathway in CO 2 activation. • Major reaction pathway in CH oxidation: CH* + OH* → CHOH* + * → CHO* + H* → CO* + 2H*. • C* + OH* → COH* + * → CO* + H* is the dominant reaction pathway in C oxidation. - Abstract: Dry reforming of methane (DRM) is a well-studied reaction that is of both scientific and industrial importance. In order to design catalysts that minimize the deactivation and improve the selectivity and activity for a high H 2 /CO yield, it is necessary to understand the elementary reaction steps involved in activation and conversion of CO 2 and CH 4 . In our present work, a microkinetic model based on density functional theory (DFT) calculations is applied to explore the reaction mechanism for methane dry reforming on Pt catalysts. The adsorption energies of the reactants, intermediates and products, and the activation barriers for the elementary reactions involved in the DRM process are calculated over the Pt(1 1 1) surface. In the process of CH 4 direct dissociation, the kinetic results show that CH dissociative adsorption on Pt(1 1 1) surface is the rate-determining step. CH appears to be the most abundant species on the Pt(1 1 1) surface, suggesting that carbon deposition is not easy to form in CH 4 dehydrogenation on Pt(1 1 1) surface. In the process of CO 2 activation, three possible reaction pathways are considered to contribute to the CO 2 decomposition: (I) CO 2 * + * → CO* + O*; (II) CO 2 * + H* → COOH* + * → CO* + OH*; (III) CO 2 * + H* → mono-HCOO* + * → bi-HCOO* + * [CO 2 * + H* → bi-HCOO* + *] → CHO* + O*. Path I requires process to overcome the activation barrier of 1.809 eV and the forward reaction is calculated to be strongly endothermic by 1.430 eV. In addition, the kinetic results also indicate this process is not easy

  17. Correlation of Amine Swingbed On-Orbit CO2 Performance with a Hardware Independent Predictive Model (United States)

    Papale, William; Sweterlitsch, Jeffery


    The Amine Swingbed Payload is an experimental system deployed on the International Space Station (ISS) that includes a two-bed, vacuum regenerated, amine-based carbon dioxide (CO2) removal subsystem as the principal item under investigation. The aminebased subsystem, also described previously in various publications as CAMRAS 3, was originally designed, fabricated and tested by Hamilton Sundstrand Space Systems International, Inc. (HSSSI) and delivered to NASA in November 2008. The CAMRAS 3 unit was subsequently designed into a flight payload experiment in 2010 and 2011, with flight test integration activities accomplished on-orbit between January 2012 and March 2013. Payload activation was accomplished in May 2013 followed by a 1000 hour experimental period. The experimental nature of the Payload and the interaction with the dynamic ISS environment present unique scientific and engineering challenges, in particular to the verification and validation of the expected Payload CO2 removal performance. A modeling and simulation approach that incorporates principles of chemical reaction engineering has been developed for the amine-based system to predict the dynamic cabin CO2 partial pressure with given inputs of sorbent bed size, process air flow, operating temperature, half-cycle time, CO2 generation rate, cabin volume and the magnitude of vacuum available. Simulation runs using the model to predict ambient CO2 concentrations show good correlation to on-orbit performance measurements and ISS dynamic concentrations for the assumed operating conditions. The dynamic predictive modelling could benefit operational planning to help ensure ISS CO2 concentrations are maintained below prescribed limits and for the Orion vehicle to simulate various operating conditions, scenarios and transients.

  18. Evaluation of Thermodynamic Models for Predicting Phase Equilibria of CO2 + Impurity Binary Mixture (United States)

    Shin, Byeong Soo; Rho, Won Gu; You, Seong-Sik; Kang, Jeong Won; Lee, Chul Soo


    For the design and operation of CO2 capture and storage (CCS) processes, equation of state (EoS) models are used for phase equilibrium calculations. Reliability of an EoS model plays a crucial role, and many variations of EoS models have been reported and continue to be published. The prediction of phase equilibria for CO2 mixtures containing SO2, N2, NO, H2, O2, CH4, H2S, Ar, and H2O is important for CO2 transportation because the captured gas normally contains small amounts of impurities even though it is purified in advance. For the design of pipelines in deep sea or arctic conditions, flow assurance and safety are considered priority issues, and highly reliable calculations are required. In this work, predictive Soave-Redlich-Kwong, cubic plus association, Groupe Européen de Recherches Gazières (GERG-2008), perturbed-chain statistical associating fluid theory, and non-random lattice fluids hydrogen bond EoS models were compared regarding performance in calculating phase equilibria of CO2-impurity binary mixtures and with the collected literature data. No single EoS could cover the entire range of systems considered in this study. Weaknesses and strong points of each EoS model were analyzed, and recommendations are given as guidelines for safe design and operation of CCS processes.

  19. Optimized CO2-flue gas separation model for a coal fired power plant


    Udara S. P. R. Arachchige, Muhammad Mohsin, Morten C. Melaaen


    The detailed description of the CO2 removal process using mono-ethylamine (MEA) as a solvent for coal-fired power plant is present in this paper. The rate based Electrolyte NRTL activity coefficient model was used in the Aspen Plus. The complete removal process with re-circulating solvent back to the absorber was implemented with the sequential modular method in Aspen Plus. The most significant cost related to CO2 capture is the energy requirement for re-generating solvent, i.e. re-boiler dut...

  20. Vertically-Integrated Dual-Continuum Models for CO2 Injection in Fractured Aquifers (United States)

    Tao, Y.; Guo, B.; Bandilla, K.; Celia, M. A.


    Injection of CO2 into a saline aquifer leads to a two-phase flow system, with supercritical CO2 and brine being the two fluid phases. Various modeling approaches, including fully three-dimensional (3D) models and vertical-equilibrium (VE) models, have been used to study the system. Almost all of that work has focused on unfractured formations. 3D models solve the governing equations in three dimensions and are applicable to generic geological formations. VE models assume rapid and complete buoyant segregation of the two fluid phases, resulting in vertical pressure equilibrium and allowing integration of the governing equations in the vertical dimension. This reduction in dimensionality makes VE models computationally more efficient, but the associated assumptions restrict the applicability of VE model to formations with moderate to high permeability. In this presentation, we extend the VE and 3D models for CO2 injection in fractured aquifers. This is done in the context of dual-continuum modeling, where the fractured formation is modeled as an overlap of two continuous domains, one representing the fractures and the other representing the rock matrix. Both domains are treated as porous media continua and can be modeled by either a VE or a 3D formulation. The transfer of fluid mass between rock matrix and fractures is represented by a mass transfer function connecting the two domains. We have developed a computational model that combines the VE and 3D models, where we use the VE model in the fractures, which typically have high permeability, and the 3D model in the less permeable rock matrix. A new mass transfer function is derived, which couples the VE and 3D models. The coupled VE-3D model can simulate CO2 injection and migration in fractured aquifers. Results from this model compare well with a full-3D model in which both the fractures and rock matrix are modeled with 3D models, with the hybrid VE-3D model having significantly reduced computational cost. In

  1. Secondary scintillation yield of xenon with sub-percent levels of CO2 additive for rare-event detection (United States)

    Henriques, C. A. O.; Freitas, E. D. C.; Azevedo, C. D. R.; González-Díaz, D.; Mano, R. D. P.; Jorge, M. R.; Fernandes, L. M. P.; Monteiro, C. M. B.; Gómez-Cadenas, J. J.; Álvarez, V.; Benlloch-Rodríguez, J. M.; Borges, F. I. G. M.; Botas, A.; Cárcel, S.; Carríon, J. V.; Cebrían, S.; Conde, C. A. N.; Díaz, J.; Diesburg, M.; Esteve, R.; Felkai, R.; Ferrario, P.; Ferreira, A. L.; Goldschmidt, A.; Gutiérrez, R. M.; Hauptman, J.; Hernandez, A. I.; Hernando Morata, J. A.; Herrero, V.; Jones, B. J. P.; Labarga, L.; Laing, A.; Lebrun, P.; Liubarsky, I.; López-March, N.; Losada, M.; Martín-Albo, J.; Martínez-Lema, G.; Martínez, A.; McDonald, A. D.; Monrabal, F.; Mora, F. J.; Moutinho, L. M.; Muñoz Vidal, J.; Musti, M.; Nebot-Guinot, M.; Novella, P.; Nygren, D. R.; Palmeiro, B.; Para, A.; Pérez, J.; Querol, M.; Renner, J.; Ripoll, L.; Rodríguez, J.; Rogers, L.; Santos, F. P.; dos Santos, J. M. F.; Simón, A.; Sofka, C.; Sorel, M.; Stiegler, T.; Toledo, J. F.; Torrent, J.; Tsamalaidze, Z.; Veloso, J. F. C. A.; Webb, R.; White, J. T.; Yahlali, N.; NEXT Collaboration


    Xe-CO2 mixtures are important alternatives to pure xenon in Time Projection Chambers (TPC) based on secondary scintillation (electroluminescence) signal amplification with applications in the important field of rare event detection such as directional dark matter, double electron capture and double beta decay detection. The addition of CO2 to pure xenon at the level of 0.05-0.1% can reduce significantly the scale of electron diffusion from 10 mm /√{m} to 2.5 mm /√{m}, with high impact on the discrimination efficiency of the events through pattern recognition of the topology of primary ionization trails. We have measured the electroluminescence (EL) yield of Xe-CO2 mixtures, with sub-percent CO2 concentrations. We demonstrate that the EL production is still high in these mixtures, 70% and 35% relative to that produced in pure xenon, for CO2 concentrations around 0.05% and 0.1%, respectively. The contribution of the statistical fluctuations in EL production to the energy resolution increases with increasing CO2 concentration, being smaller than the contribution of the Fano factor for concentrations below 0.1% CO2.

  2. Secondary scintillation yield of xenon with sub-percent levels of CO2 additive for rare-event detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.A.O. Henriques


    Full Text Available Xe–CO2 mixtures are important alternatives to pure xenon in Time Projection Chambers (TPC based on secondary scintillation (electroluminescence signal amplification with applications in the important field of rare event detection such as directional dark matter, double electron capture and double beta decay detection. The addition of CO2 to pure xenon at the level of 0.05–0.1% can reduce significantly the scale of electron diffusion from 10 mm/m to 2.5 mm/m, with high impact on the discrimination efficiency of the events through pattern recognition of the topology of primary ionization trails. We have measured the electroluminescence (EL yield of Xe–CO2 mixtures, with sub-percent CO2 concentrations. We demonstrate that the EL production is still high in these mixtures, 70% and 35% relative to that produced in pure xenon, for CO2 concentrations around 0.05% and 0.1%, respectively. The contribution of the statistical fluctuations in EL production to the energy resolution increases with increasing CO2 concentration, being smaller than the contribution of the Fano factor for concentrations below 0.1% CO2.

  3. Surface energy balances of three general circulation models: Current climate and response to increasing atmospheric CO2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gutowski, W.J.; Gutzler, D.S.; Portman, D.; Wang, W.C.


    The surface energy balance simulated by state-of-the-art general circulation models at GFDL, GISS and NCAR for climates with current levels of atmospheric CO 2 concentration (control climate) and with twice the current levels. The work is part of an effort sponsored by the US Department of Energy to assess climate simulations produced by these models. The surface energy balance enables us to diagnose differences between models in surface temperature climatology and sensitivity to doubling CO 2 in terms of the processes that control surface temperature. Our analysis compares the simulated balances by averaging the fields of interest over a hierarchy of spatial domains ranging from the entire globe down to regions a few hundred kilometers across

  4. Toward Verifying Fossil Fuel CO2 Emissions with the CMAQ Model: Motivation, Model Description and Initial Simulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Zhen; Bambha, Ray P.; Pinto, Joseph P.; Zeng, Tao; Boylan, Jim; Huang, Maoyi; Lei, Huimin; Zhao, Chun; Liu, Shishi; Mao, Jiafu; Schwalm, Christopher R.; Shi, Xiaoying; Wei, Yaxing; Michelsen, Hope A.


    Motivated by the urgent need for emission verification of CO2 and other greenhouse gases, we have developed regional CO2 simulation with CMAQ over the contiguous U.S. Model sensitivity experiments have been performed using three different sets of inputs for net ecosystem exchange (NEE) and two fossil fuel emission inventories, to understand the roles of fossil fuel emissions, atmosphere-biosphere exchange and transport in regulating the spatial and diurnal variability of CO2 near the surface, and to characterize the well-known ‘signal-to-noise’ problem, i.e. the interference from the biosphere on the interpretation of atmospheric CO2 observations. It is found that differences in the meteorological conditions for different urban areas strongly contribute to the contrast in concentrations. The uncertainty of NEE, as measured by the difference among the three different NEE inputs, has notable impact on regional distribution of CO2 simulated by CMAQ. Larger NEE uncertainty and impact are found over eastern U.S. urban areas than along the western coast. A comparison with tower CO2 measurements at Boulder Atmospheric Observatory (BAO) shows that the CMAQ model using hourly varied and high-resolution CO2 emission from the Vulcan inventory and CarbonTracker optimized NEE reasonably reproduce the observed diurnal profile, whereas switching to different NEE inputs significantly degrades the model performance. Spatial distribution of CO2 is found to correlate with NOx, SO2 and CO, due to their similarity in emission sources and transport processes. These initial results from CMAQ demonstrate the power of a state-of-the art CTM in helping interpret CO2 observations and verify fossil fuel emissions. The ability to simulate CO2 in CMAQ will also facilitate investigations of the utility of traditionally regulated pollutants and other species as tracers to CO2 source attribution.

  5. CO2-Induced Ocean Warming of the Antarctic Continental Shelf in an Eddying Global Climate Model (United States)

    Goddard, Paul B.; Dufour, Carolina O.; Yin, Jianjun; Griffies, Stephen M.; Winton, Michael


    Ocean warming near the Antarctic ice shelves has critical implications for future ice sheet mass loss and global sea level rise. A global climate model with an eddying ocean is used to quantify the mechanisms contributing to ocean warming on the Antarctic continental shelf in an idealized 2xCO2 experiment. The results indicate that relatively large warm anomalies occur both in the upper 100 m and at depths above the shelf floor, which are controlled by different mechanisms. The near-surface ocean warming is primarily a response to enhanced onshore advective heat transport across the shelf break. The deep shelf warming is initiated by onshore intrusions of relatively warm Circumpolar Deep Water (CDW), in density classes that access the shelf, as well as the reduction of the vertical mixing of heat. CO2-induced shelf freshening influences both warming mechanisms. The shelf freshening slows vertical mixing by limiting gravitational instabilities and the upward diffusion of heat associated with CDW, resulting in the buildup of heat at depth. Meanwhile, freshening near the shelf break enhances the lateral density gradient of the Antarctic Slope Front (ASF) and disconnect isopycnals between the shelf and CDW, making cross-ASF heat exchange more difficult. However, at several locations along the ASF, the cross-ASF heat transport is less inhibited and heat can move onshore. Once onshore, lateral and vertical heat advection work to disperse the heat anomalies across the shelf region. Understanding the inhomogeneous Antarctic shelf warming will lead to better projections of future ice sheet mass loss.

  6. Modeling CO2 laser ablation impulse of polymers in vapor and plasma regimes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sinko, John E.; Phipps, Claude R.


    An improved model for CO 2 laser ablation impulse in polyoxymethylene and similar polymers is presented that describes the transition effects from the onset of vaporization to the plasma regime in a continuous fashion. Several predictions are made for ablation behavior.

  7. Evaluation and selection of sensing materials for carbon dioxide (CO 2) sensor by molecular modeling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chen, X.P.; Wong, C.K.Y.; Yuan, C.A.; Zhang, G.Q.


    We report a molecular modeling study to evaluate and select conducting polymers (CPs) as the sensing materials of carbon dioxide (CO2) sensor. The interaction between polymer and gas and the adsorption of the gas molecules in the polymer matrix are investigated. Polymers considered for this work

  8. Evaluation and selection of sensing materials for carbon dioxide (CO2) sensor by molecular modeling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chen, X.P.; Wong, C.K.Y.; Yuan, C.A.; Zhang, G.Q.


    We report a molecular modeling study to evaluate and select conducting polymers (CPs) as the sensing materials of carbon dioxide (CO2) sensor. The interaction between polymer and gas and the adsorption of the gas molecules in the polymer matrix are investigated. Polymers considered for this work

  9. Utilization of Integrated Assessment Modeling for determining geologic CO2 storage security (United States)

    Pawar, R.


    Geologic storage of carbon dioxide (CO2) has been extensively studied as a potential technology to mitigate atmospheric concentration of CO2. Multiple international research & development efforts, large-scale demonstration and commercial projects are helping advance the technology. One of the critical areas of active investigation is prediction of long-term CO2 storage security and risks. A quantitative methodology for predicting a storage site's long-term performance is critical for making key decisions necessary for successful deployment of commercial scale projects where projects will require quantitative assessments of potential long-term liabilities. These predictions are challenging given that they require simulating CO2 and in-situ fluid movements as well as interactions through the primary storage reservoir, potential leakage pathways (such as wellbores, faults, etc.) and shallow resources such as groundwater aquifers. They need to take into account the inherent variability and uncertainties at geologic sites. This talk will provide an overview of an approach based on integrated assessment modeling (IAM) to predict long-term performance of a geologic storage site including, storage reservoir, potential leakage pathways and shallow groundwater aquifers. The approach utilizes reduced order models (ROMs) to capture the complex physical/chemical interactions resulting due to CO2 movement and interactions but are computationally extremely efficient. Applicability of the approach will be demonstrated through examples that are focused on key storage security questions such as what is the probability of leakage of CO2 from a storage reservoir? how does storage security vary for different geologic environments and operational conditions? how site parameter variability and uncertainties affect storage security, etc.

  10. Inferring CO2 Fluxes from OCO-2 for Assimilation into Land Surface Models to Calculate Net Ecosystem Exchange (United States)

    Prouty, R.; Radov, A.; Halem, M.; Nearing, G. S.


    Investigations of mid to high latitude atmospheric CO2 show a growing seasonal amplitude. Land surface models poorly predict net ecosystem exchange (NEE) and are unable to substantiate these sporadic observations. An investigation of how the biosphere has reacted to changes in atmospheric CO2 is essential to our understanding of potential climate-vegetation feedbacks. A global, seasonal investigation of CO2-flux is then necessary in order to assimilate into land surface models for improving the prediction of annual NEE. The Atmospheric Radiation Measurement program (ARM) of DOE collects CO2-flux measurements (in addition to CO2 concentration and various other meteorological quantities) at several towers located around the globe at half hour temporal frequencies. CO2-fluxes are calculated via the eddy covariance technique, which utilizes CO2-densities and wind velocities to calculate CO2-fluxes. The global coverage of CO2 concentrations as provided by the Orbiting Carbon Observatory (OCO-2) provide satellite-derived CO2 concentrations all over the globe. A framework relating the satellite-inferred CO2 concentrations collocated with the ground-based ARM as well as Ameriflux stations would enable calculations of CO2-fluxes far from the station sites around the entire globe. Regression techniques utilizing deep-learning neural networks may provide such a framework. Additionally, meteorological reanalysis allows for the replacement of the ARM multivariable meteorological variables needed to infer the CO2-fluxes. We present the results of inferring CO2-fluxes from OCO-2 CO2 concentrations for a two year period, Sept. 2014- Sept. 2016 at the ARM station located near Oklahoma City. A feed-forward neural network (FFNN) is used to infer relationships between the following data sets: F([ARM CO2-density], [ARM Meteorological Data]) = [ARM CO2-Flux] F([OCO-2 CO2-density],[ARM Meteorological Data]) = [ARM CO2-Flux] F([ARM CO2-density],[Meteorological Reanalysis]) = [ARM CO2-Flux

  11. Solubility of grape seed oil in supercritical CO2: Experiments and modeling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duba, Kurabachew Simon; Fiori, Luca


    Highlights: • Solubility of grape seed oil in SC-CO 2 for P: 20–50 MPa and T: 313–343 K. • Experimental procedure: dynamic method and oil dispersed on the surface of glass beads. • Eight density-based models and a thermodynamic model to fit the experimental data. • All the models predict the solubility of grape seed oil in SC-CO 2 to a reasonable degree. • Models by Chrastil, del Valle and Aguilera, Kumar and Johnston, and the thermodynamic model are preferable. - Abstract: The solubility of grape (Vitis vinifera L.) seed oil in supercritical CO 2 was measured in the temperature range 313–343 K and pressure range 20–50 MPa using the dynamic technique. Several data and global trends were reported. The results show that, at constant temperature, the solubility increases with the increase in pressure, while the effect of the temperature is different for low and high pressure. The experimental data were modeled by eight density-based models and a thermodynamic model based on the Peng-Robinson equation of state. By best fitting procedures, the “free parameters” of the various models were calculated: in general, all the tested models have proved to be able to predict the solubility of grape seed oil in supercritical CO 2 . Differences in model capabilities have been discussed based on the main characteristics of the various models, evidencing their distinct and common features. The predictive capability of the thermodynamic model was comparable to that of the density-based models.

  12. An Analysis Based on SD Model for Energy-Related CO2 Mitigation in the Chinese Household Sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xingpeng Chen


    Full Text Available Reducing carbon dioxide (CO2 emissions has become a global consensus in response to global warming and climate change, especially to China, the largest CO2 emitter in the world. Most studies have focused on CO2 emissions from the production sector, however, the household sector plays an important role in the total energy-related CO2 emissions. This study formulates an integrated model based on logarithmic mean Divisia index methodology and a system dynamics model to dynamically simulate household energy consumption and CO2 emissions under different conditions. Results show the following: (1 the integrated model performs well in calculating the contribution of influencing factors on household CO2 emissions and analyzing the options for CO2 emission mitigation; (2 the increase in income is the dominant driving force of household CO2 emissions, and as a result of the improved standard of living in China a sustained increase in household CO2 emissions can be expected; (3 with decreasing energy intensity, CO2 emissions will decrease to 404.26 Mt-CO2 in 2020, which is 9.84% lower than the emissions in 2014; (4 the reduction potential by developing non-fossil energy sources is limited, and raising the rate of urbanization cannot reduce the household CO2 emission under the comprehensive influence of other factors.

  13. Atmospheric CO2 observations and models suggest strong carbon uptake by forests in New Zealand (United States)

    Steinkamp, Kay; Mikaloff Fletcher, Sara E.; Brailsford, Gordon; Smale, Dan; Moore, Stuart; Keller, Elizabeth D.; Baisden, W. Troy; Mukai, Hitoshi; Stephens, Britton B.


    A regional atmospheric inversion method has been developed to determine the spatial and temporal distribution of CO2 sinks and sources across New Zealand for 2011-2013. This approach infers net air-sea and air-land CO2 fluxes from measurement records, using back-trajectory simulations from the Numerical Atmospheric dispersion Modelling Environment (NAME) Lagrangian dispersion model, driven by meteorology from the New Zealand Limited Area Model (NZLAM) weather prediction model. The inversion uses in situ measurements from two fixed sites, Baring Head on the southern tip of New Zealand's North Island (41.408° S, 174.871° E) and Lauder from the central South Island (45.038° S, 169.684° E), and ship board data from monthly cruises between Japan, New Zealand, and Australia. A range of scenarios is used to assess the sensitivity of the inversion method to underlying assumptions and to ensure robustness of the results. The results indicate a strong seasonal cycle in terrestrial land fluxes from the South Island of New Zealand, especially in western regions covered by indigenous forest, suggesting higher photosynthetic and respiratory activity than is evident in the current a priori land process model. On the annual scale, the terrestrial biosphere in New Zealand is estimated to be a net CO2 sink, removing 98 (±37) Tg CO2 yr-1 from the atmosphere on average during 2011-2013. This sink is much larger than the reported 27 Tg CO2 yr-1 from the national inventory for the same time period. The difference can be partially reconciled when factors related to forest and agricultural management and exports, fossil fuel emission estimates, hydrologic fluxes, and soil carbon change are considered, but some differences are likely to remain. Baseline uncertainty, model transport uncertainty, and limited sensitivity to the northern half of the North Island are the main contributors to flux uncertainty.

  14. Biogeochemical modeling of CO2 and CH4 production in anoxic Arctic soil microcosms (United States)

    Tang, Guoping; Zheng, Jianqiu; Xu, Xiaofeng; Yang, Ziming; Graham, David E.; Gu, Baohua; Painter, Scott L.; Thornton, Peter E.


    Soil organic carbon turnover to CO2 and CH4 is sensitive to soil redox potential and pH conditions. However, land surface models do not consider redox and pH in the aqueous phase explicitly, thereby limiting their use for making predictions in anoxic environments. Using recent data from incubations of Arctic soils, we extend the Community Land Model with coupled carbon and nitrogen (CLM-CN) decomposition cascade to include simple organic substrate turnover, fermentation, Fe(III) reduction, and methanogenesis reactions, and assess the efficacy of various temperature and pH response functions. Incorporating the Windermere Humic Aqueous Model (WHAM) enables us to approximately describe the observed pH evolution without additional parameterization. Although Fe(III) reduction is normally assumed to compete with methanogenesis, the model predicts that Fe(III) reduction raises the pH from acidic to neutral, thereby reducing environmental stress to methanogens and accelerating methane production when substrates are not limiting. The equilibrium speciation predicts a substantial increase in CO2 solubility as pH increases, and taking into account CO2 adsorption to surface sites of metal oxides further decreases the predicted headspace gas-phase fraction at low pH. Without adequate representation of these speciation reactions, as well as the impacts of pH, temperature, and pressure, the CO2 production from closed microcosms can be substantially underestimated based on headspace CO2 measurements only. Our results demonstrate the efficacy of geochemical models for simulating soil biogeochemistry and provide predictive understanding and mechanistic representations that can be incorporated into land surface models to improve climate predictions.

  15. Atmosphere-soil-vegetation model including CO2 exchange processes: SOLVEG2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagai, Haruyasu


    A new atmosphere-soil-vegetation model named SOLVEG2 (SOLVEG version 2) was developed to study the heat, water, and CO 2 exchanges between the atmosphere and land-surface. The model consists of one-dimensional multilayer sub-models for the atmosphere, soil, and vegetation. It also includes sophisticated processes for solar and long-wave radiation transmission in vegetation canopy and CO 2 exchanges among the atmosphere, soil, and vegetation. Although the model usually simulates only vertical variation of variables in the surface-layer atmosphere, soil, and vegetation canopy by using meteorological data as top boundary conditions, it can be used by coupling with a three-dimensional atmosphere model. In this paper, details of SOLVEG2, which includes the function of coupling with atmosphere model MM5, are described. (author)

  16. Signals of ENSO related precipitation changes and atmospheric CO2 levels in Florida wetland vegetation (United States)

    Wagner, F.


    Trees are equipped with a plastic phenotype, capable of sustained adjustment of leaf stomata to changes in atmospheric [CO2] concentration. With high temporal resolution and accuracy, stomatal frequency data demonstrate that Holocene climate evolution has been influenced by century-scale [CO2] fluctuations. Apart from adapting to changes in [CO2], leaf-epidermal properties are known to be sensitive to environmental factors such as water availability. In long-lived hygrophilous plants, epidermal tissue expansion is likely to be significantly influenced by changes in water availability. Synchronous analysis of the leaf-morphology in [CO2] sensitive trees and water-stress sensitive fern species from leaf assemblages preserved in peat deposits in Florida (USA), reveals distinct temporal changes in epidermal properties over the past 100 years. Stomatal frequency changes in the deciduous trees reflects the human induced [CO2] increase. Epidermal-cell density changes in fern leaves, could well be interpreted in terms of El Niño / La Niña related precipitation trends. By quantifying the leaf morphological adaptation to known environmental conditions during historical times, a new palaeobotanical proxy for past precipitation changes is introduced. Hence, in El Niño sensitive regions, analysis of buried leaf assemblages offers the unique possibility of a direct recognition of time-equivalent leaf-based signals of palaeo-atmospheric [CO2] and El Niño variability.

  17. Phase equilibrium modeling of gas hydrate systems for CO2 capture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Herslund, Peter Jørgensen; Thomsen, Kaj; Abildskov, Jens


    Two thermodynamic models capable of describing dissociation pressures of mixed gas clathrate hydrates formed from ternary mixtures of CO2, N2 and liquid water, are presented. Both of the models utilize the Cubic-Plus-Association (CPA) equation of state (EOS) for the thermodynamic description...... literature data for this system, it was not possible to determine unequivocally, which of the two models perform better....

  18. Pore-scale modeling of wettability effects on CO2-brine displacement during geological storage (United States)

    Basirat, Farzad; Yang, Zhibing; Niemi, Auli


    Wetting properties of reservoir rocks and caprocks can vary significantly, and they strongly influence geological storage of carbon dioxide in deep saline aquifers, during which CO2 is supposed to displace the resident brine and to become permanently trapped. Fundamental understanding of the effect of wettability on CO2-brine displacement is thus important for improving storage efficiency and security. In this study, we investigate the influence of wetting properties on two-phase flow of CO2 and brine at the pore scale. A numerical model based on the phase field method is implemented to simulate the two-phase flow of CO2-brine in a realistic pore geometry. Our focus is to study the pore-scale fluid-fluid displacement mechanisms under different wetting conditions and to quantify the effect of wettability on macroscopic parameters such as residual brine saturation, capillary pressure, relative permeability, and specific interfacial area. Our simulation results confirm that both the trapped wetting phase saturation and the normalized interfacial area increase with decreasing contact angle. However, the wetting condition does not appear to influence the CO2 breakthrough time and saturation. We also show that the macroscopic capillary pressures based on the pressure difference between inlet and outlet can differ significantly from the phase averaging capillary pressures for all contact angles when the capillary number is high (log Ca > -5). This indicates that the inlet-outlet pressure difference may not be a good measure of the continuum-scale capillary pressure. In addition, the results show that the relative permeability of CO2 can be significantly lower in strongly water-wet conditions than in the intermediate-wet conditions.

  19. Analysis of GHG Emission Reduction in South Korea Using a CO2 Transportation Network Optimization Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suk Ho Jin


    Full Text Available Korea’s national carbon capture and storage (CCS master plan aims to commercialize CCS projects by 2030. Furthermore, the Korean government is forced to reduce emissions from various sectors, including industries and power generation, by 219 million tons by 2030. This study analyzes a few scenarios of Korean CCS projects with a CO2 pipeline transportation network optimization model for minimizing the total facility cost and pipeline cost. Our scenarios are based on the “2030 asic roadmap for reducing greenhouse gases” established by the government. The results for each scenario demonstrate that the effective design and implementation of CO2 pipeline network enables the lowering of CO2 units cost. These suggest that CO2 transportation networks, which connect the capture and sequestration parts, will be more important in the future and can be used to substitute and supplement the emission reduction target in case the execution of other reduction options faces uncertainty. Our mathematical model and scenario designs will be helpful for various countries which plan to introduce CCS technology.

  20. Geochemical modeling of fluid-fluid and fluid-mineral interactions during geological CO2 storage (United States)

    Zhu, C.; Ji, X.; Lu, P.


    The long time required for effective CO2 storage makes geochemical modeling an indispensable tool for CCUS. One area of geochemical modeling research that is in urgent need is impurities in CO2 streams. Permitting impurities, such as H2S, in CO2 streams can lead to potential capital and energy savings. However, predicting the consequences of co-injection of CO2 and impurities into geological formations requires the understanding of the phase equilibrium and fluid-fluid interactions. To meet this need, we developed a statistical associating fluid theory (SAFT)-based equation of state (EOS) for the H2S-CO2-H2O-NaCl system at 373.15 concentration of NaCl up to 6 mol/kgH2O. The EoS allows us to predict equilibrium composition in both liquid and vapor phases, fugacity coefficients of components, and phase densities. Predictions show that inclusion of H2S in CO2 streams may lead to two-phase flow in pipelines. For H2S-CO2 mixtures at a given temperature the bubble and dew pressures decrease with increasing H2S content, while the mass density increases at low pressures and decreases at high pressures. Furthermore, the EoS can be incorporated into reservoir simulators so that the dynamic development of mixed fluid plumes in the reservoir can be simulated. Accurate modeling of fluid-mineral interactions must confront unresolved uncertainties of silicate dissolution - precipitation reaction kinetics. Most prominent among these uncertainties is the well-known lab-field apparent discrepancy in dissolution rates. Although reactive transport models that simulate the interactions between reservoir rocks and brine, and their attendant effects on porosity and permeability changes, have proliferated, whether these results have acceptable uncertainties are unknown. We have conducted a series of batch experiments at elevated temperatures and numerical simulations of coupled dissolution and precipitation reactions. The results show that taking into account of reaction coupling is able

  1. Applicability of aquifer impact models to support decisions at CO2 sequestration sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keating, Elizabeth; Bacon, Diana; Carroll, Susan; Mansoor, Kayyum; Sun, Yunwei; Zheng, Liange; Harp, Dylan; Dai, Zhenxue


    The National Risk Assessment Partnership has developed a suite of tools to assess and manage risk at CO2 sequestration sites ( This capability includes polynomial or look-up table based reduced-order models (ROMs) that predict the impact of CO2 and brine leaks on overlying aquifers. The development of these computationally-efficient models and the underlying reactive transport simulations they emulate has been documented elsewhere (Carroll et al., 2014, Dai et al., 2014, Keating et al., 2015). The ROMs reproduce the ensemble behavior of large numbers of simulations and are well-suited to applications that consider a large number of scenarios to understand parameter sensitivity and uncertainty on the risk of CO2 leakage to groundwater quality. In this paper, we seek to demonstrate applicability of ROM-based ensemble analysis by considering what types of decisions and aquifer types would benefit from the ROM analysis. We present four hypothetical four examples where applying ROMs, in ensemble mode, could support decisions in the early stages in a geologic CO2 sequestration project. These decisions pertain to site selection, site characterization, monitoring network evaluation, and health impacts. In all cases, we consider potential brine/CO2 leak rates at the base of the aquifer to be uncertain. We show that derived probabilities provide information relevant to the decision at hand. Although the ROMs were developed using site-specific data from two aquifers (High Plains and Edwards), the models accept aquifer characteristics as variable inputs and so they may have more broad applicability. We conclude that pH and TDS predictions are the most transferable to other aquifers based on the analysis of the nine water quality metrics (pH, TDS, 4 trace metals, 3 organic compounds). Guidelines are presented for determining the aquifer types for which the ROMs should be applicable.

  2. Effects of free-air CO2 enrichment on adventitious root development of rice under low and normal soil nitrogen levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chengming Sun


    Full Text Available Free air CO2 enrichment (FACE and nitrogen (N have marked effects on rice root growth, and numerical simulation can explain these effects. To further define the effects of FACE on root growth of rice, an experiment was performed, using the hybrid indica cultivar Xianyou 63. The effects of increasing atmospheric CO2 concentration [CO2], 200 μmol mol− 1 higher than ambient, on the growth of rice adventitious roots were evaluated, with two levels of N: low (LN, 125 kg ha− 1 and normal (NN, 250 kg ha− 1. The results showed a significant increase in both adventitious root number (ARN and adventitious root length (ARL under FACE treatment. The application of nitrogen also increased ARN and ARL, but these increases were smaller than that under FACE treatment. On the basis of the FACE experiment, numerical models for rice adventitious root number and length were constructed with time as the driving factor. The models illustrated the dynamic development of rice adventitious root number and length after transplanting, regulated either by atmospheric [CO2] or by N application. The simulation result was supported by statistical tests comparing experimental data from different years, and the model yields realistic predictions of root growth. These results suggest that the models have strong predictive potential under conditions of atmospheric [CO2] rises in the future.

  3. Impact of global warming and rising CO2 levels on coral reef fishes: what hope for the future? (United States)

    Munday, Philip L; McCormick, Mark I; Nilsson, Göran E


    Average sea-surface temperature and the amount of CO(2) dissolved in the ocean are rising as a result of increasing concentrations of atmospheric CO(2). Many coral reef fishes appear to be living close to their thermal optimum, and for some of them, even relatively moderate increases in temperature (2-4°C) lead to significant reductions in aerobic scope. Reduced aerobic capacity could affect population sustainability because less energy can be devoted to feeding and reproduction. Coral reef fishes seem to have limited capacity to acclimate to elevated temperature as adults, but recent research shows that developmental and transgenerational plasticity occur, which might enable some species to adjust to rising ocean temperatures. Predicted increases in P(CO(2)), and associated ocean acidification, can also influence the aerobic scope of coral reef fishes, although there is considerable interspecific variation, with some species exhibiting a decline and others an increase in aerobic scope at near-future CO(2) levels. As with thermal effects, there are transgenerational changes in response to elevated CO(2) that could mitigate impacts of high CO(2) on the growth and survival of reef fishes. An unexpected discovery is that elevated CO(2) has a dramatic effect on a wide range of behaviours and sensory responses of reef fishes, with consequences for the timing of settlement, habitat selection, predator avoidance and individual fitness. The underlying physiological mechanism appears to be the interference of acid-base regulatory processes with brain neurotransmitter function. Differences in the sensitivity of species and populations to global warming and rising CO(2) have been identified that will lead to changes in fish community structure as the oceans warm and becomes more acidic; however, the prospect for acclimation and adaptation of populations to these threats also needs to be considered. Ultimately, it will be the capacity for species to adjust to environmental

  4. Elevated CO2 enhances biological contributions to elevation change in coastal wetlands by offsetting stressors associated with sea-level rise (United States)

    Cherry, J.A.; McKee, K.L.; Grace, J.B.


    1. Sea-level rise, one indirect consequence of increasing atmospheric CO2, poses a major challenge to long-term stability of coastal wetlands. An important question is whether direct effects of elevated CO 2 on the capacity of marsh plants to accrete organic material and to maintain surface elevations outweigh indirect negative effects of stressors associated with sea-level rise (salinity and flooding). 2. In this study, we used a mesocosm approach to examine potential direct and indirect effects of atmospheric CO2 concentration, salinity and flooding on elevation change in a brackish marsh community dominated by a C3 species, Schoenoplectus americanus, and a C4 grass, Spartina patens. This experimental design permitted identification of mechanisms and their role in controlling elevation change, and the development of models that can be tested in the field. 3. To test hypotheses related to CO2 and sea-level rise, we used conventional anova procedures in conjunction with structural equation modelling (SEM). SEM explained 78% of the variability in elevation change and showed the direct, positive effect of S. americanus production on elevation. The SEM indicated that C3 plant response was influenced by interactive effects between CO2 and salinity on plant growth, not a direct CO2 fertilization effect. Elevated CO2 ameliorated negative effects of salinity on S. americanus and enhanced biomass contribution to elevation. 4. The positive relationship between S. americanus production and elevation change can be explained by shoot-base expansion under elevated CO 2 conditions, which led to vertical soil displacement. While the response of this species may differ under other environmental conditions, shoot-base expansion and the general contribution of C3 plant production to elevation change may be an important mechanism contributing to soil expansion and elevation gain in other coastal wetlands. 5. Synthesis. Our results revealed previously unrecognized interactions and

  5. Data and modelling requirements for CO2 inversions using high-frequency data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Law, R.M.; Rayner, P.J.; Steele, L.P.; Enting, I.G.


    We explore the future possibilities for CO 2 source estimation from atmospheric concentration data by performing synthetic data experiments. Synthetic data are used to test seasonal CO 2 inversions using high-frequency data. Monthly CO 2 sources over the Australian region are calculated for inversions with data at 4-hourly frequency and averaged over 1 d, 2.5 d, 5 d, 12.17 d and 1 month. The inversion quality, as determined by bias and uncertainty, is degraded when averaging over longer periods. This shows the value of the strong but relatively short-lived signals present in high-frequency records that are removed in averaged and particularly filtered records. Sensitivity tests are performed in which the synthetic data are 'corrupted' to simulate systematic measurement errors such as intercalibration differences or to simulate transport modelling errors. The inversion is also used to estimate the effect of calibration offsets between sites. We find that at short data-averaging periods the inversion is reasonably robust to measurement-type errors. For transport-type errors, the best results are achieved for synoptic (2-5 d) timescales. Overall the tests indicate that improved source estimates should be possible by incorporating continuous measurements into CO 2 inversions

  6. Modeling of Single and Dual Reservoir Porous Media Compressed Gas (Air and CO2) Storage Systems (United States)

    Oldenburg, C. M.; Liu, H.; Borgia, A.; Pan, L.


    Intermittent renewable energy sources are causing increasing demand for energy storage. The deep subsurface offers promising opportunities for energy storage because it can safely contain high-pressure gases. Porous media compressed air energy storage (PM-CAES) is one approach, although the only facilities in operation are in caverns (C-CAES) rather than porous media. Just like in C-CAES, PM-CAES operates generally by injecting working gas (air) through well(s) into the reservoir compressing the cushion gas (existing air in the reservoir). During energy recovery, high-pressure air from the reservoir is mixed with fuel in a combustion turbine to produce electricity, thereby reducing compression costs. Unlike in C-CAES, the storage of energy in PM-CAES occurs variably across pressure gradients in the formation, while the solid grains of the matrix can release/store heat. Because air is the working gas, PM-CAES has fairly low thermal efficiency and low energy storage density. To improve the energy storage density, we have conceived and modeled a closed-loop two-reservoir compressed CO2 energy storage system. One reservoir is the low-pressure reservoir, and the other is the high-pressure reservoir. CO2 is cycled back and forth between reservoirs depending on whether energy needs to be stored or recovered. We have carried out thermodynamic and parametric analyses of the performance of an idealized two-reservoir CO2 energy storage system under supercritical and transcritical conditions for CO2 using a steady-state model. Results show that the transcritical compressed CO2 energy storage system has higher round-trip efficiency and exergy efficiency, and larger energy storage density than the supercritical compressed CO2 energy storage. However, the configuration of supercritical compressed CO2 energy storage is simpler, and the energy storage densities of the two systems are both higher than that of PM-CAES, which is advantageous in terms of storage volume for a given

  7. Laser plant "Iguana" for transmyocardial revascularization based on kW-level waveguide CO2 laser (United States)

    Panchenko, Vladislav Y.; Bockeria, L. A.; Berishvili, I. I.; Vasiltsov, Victor V.; Golubev, Vladimir S.; Ul'yanov, Valery A.


    For many years the Institute on Laser and Information Technologies RAN has been developing a concept of high-power industrial CO2 lasers with diffusion cooling of the working medium. The paper gives a description of the laser medical system Iguana for transmyocardial laser revascularization (TMLR) as an example of various applications of high-power waveguide CO2 lasers. The clinical results of the TMLR method application in surgical treatment are presented. The methods of determination of the time, when the laser beam passes through the demarcation line between myocardium tissue and blood, are discussed.

  8. TransCom model simulations of hourly atmospheric CO2: Experimental overview and diurnal cycle results for 2002

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Law, R. M.; Peters, W.; Roedenbeck, C.; Aulagnier, C.; Baker, I.; Bergmann, D. J.; Bousquet, P.; Brandt, J.; Bruhwiler, L.; Cameron-Smith, P. J.; Christensen, J. H.; Delage, F.; Denning, A. S.; Fan, S.; Geels, C.; Houweling, S.; Imasu, R.; Karstens, U.; Kawa, S. R.; Kleist, J.; Krol, M. C.; Lin, S. -J.; Lokupitiya, R.; Maki, T.; Maksyutov, S.; Niwa, Y.; Onishi, R.; Parazoo, N.; Patra, P. K.; Pieterse, G.; Rivier, L.; Satoh, M.; Serrar, S.; Taguchi, S.; Takigawa, M.; Vautard, R.; Vermeulen, A. T.; Zhu, Z.


    [1] A forward atmospheric transport modeling experiment has been coordinated by the TransCom group to investigate synoptic and diurnal variations in CO2. Model simulations were run for biospheric, fossil, and air-sea exchange of CO2 and for SF6 and radon for 2000-2003. Twenty-five models or model

  9. TransCom model simulations of hourly atmospheric CO2: Experimental overview and diurnal cycle results for 2002

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Law, R. M.; Peters, W.; RöDenbeck, C.; Aulagnier, C.; Baker, I.; Bergmann, D. J.; Bousquet, P.; Brandt, J.; Bruhwiler, L.; Cameron-Smith, P. J.; Christensen, J. H.; Delage, F.; Denning, A. S.; Fan, S.; Geels, C.; Houweling, S.; Imasu, R.; Karstens, U.; Kawa, S. R.; Kleist, J.; Krol, M. C.; Lin, S.-J.; Lokupitiya, R.; Maki, T.; Maksyutov, S.; Niwa, Y.; Onishi, R.; Parazoo, N.; Patra, P. K.; Pieterse, G.; Rivier, L.; Satoh, M.; Serrar, S.; Taguchi, S.; Takigawa, M.; Vautard, R.; Vermeulen, A. T.; Zhu, Z.


    A forward atmospheric transport modeling experiment has been coordinated by the TransCom group to investigate synoptic and diurnal variations in CO2. Model simulations were run for biospheric, fossil, and air-sea exchange of CO2 and for SF6 and radon for 2000-2003. Twenty-five models or model

  10. Modeling Diffusion and Buoyancy-Driven Convection with Application to Geological CO2 Storage

    KAUST Repository

    Allen, Rebecca


    ABSTRACT Modeling Diffusion and Buoyancy-Driven Convection with Application to Geological CO2 Storage Rebecca Allen Geological CO2 storage is an engineering feat that has been undertaken around the world for more than two decades, thus accurate modeling of flow and transport behavior is of practical importance. Diffusive and convective transport are relevant processes for buoyancy-driven convection of CO2 into underlying fluid, a scenario that has received the attention of numerous modeling studies. While most studies focus on Darcy-scale modeling of this scenario, relatively little work exists at the pore-scale. In this work, properties evaluated at the pore-scale are used to investigate the transport behavior modeled at the Darcy-scale. We compute permeability and two different forms of tortuosity, namely hydraulic and diffusive. By generating various pore ge- ometries, we find hydraulic and diffusive tortuosity can be quantitatively different in the same pore geometry by up to a factor of ten. As such, we emphasize that these tortuosities should not be used interchangeably. We find pore geometries that are characterized by anisotropic permeability can also exhibit anisotropic diffusive tortuosity. This finding has important implications for buoyancy-driven convection modeling; when representing the geological formation with an anisotropic permeabil- ity, it is more realistic to also account for an anisotropic diffusivity. By implementing a non-dimensional model that includes both a vertically and horizontally orientated 5 Rayleigh number, we interpret our findings according to the combined effect of the anisotropy from permeability and diffusive tortuosity. In particular, we observe the Rayleigh ratio may either dampen or enhance the diffusing front, and our simulation data is used to express the time of convective onset as a function of the Rayleigh ratio. Also, we implement a lattice Boltzmann model for thermal convective flows, which we treat as an analog for

  11. Assessment of model estimates of land-atmosphere CO2 exchange across Northern Eurasia (United States)

    Rawlins, M. A.; McGuire, A. D.; Kimball, J. S.; Dass, P.; Lawrence, D.; Burke, E.; Chen, X.; Delire, C.; Koven, C.; MacDougall, A.; Peng, S.; Rinke, A.; Saito, K.; Zhang, W.; Alkama, R.; Bohn, T. J.; Ciais, P.; Decharme, B.; Gouttevin, I.; Hajima, T.; Ji, D.; Krinner, G.; Lettenmaier, D. P.; Miller, P.; Moore, J. C.; Smith, B.; Sueyoshi, T.


    A warming climate is altering land-atmosphere exchanges of carbon, with a potential for increased vegetation productivity as well as the mobilization of permafrost soil carbon stores. Here we investigate land-atmosphere carbon dioxide (CO2) cycling through analysis of net ecosystem productivity (NEP) and its component fluxes of gross primary productivity (GPP) and ecosystem respiration (ER) and soil carbon residence time, simulated by a set of land surface models (LSMs) over a region spanning the drainage basin of Northern Eurasia. The retrospective simulations cover the period 1960-2009 at 0.5° resolution, which is a scale common among many global carbon and climate model simulations. Model performance benchmarks were drawn from comparisons against both observed CO2 fluxes derived from site-based eddy covariance measurements as well as regional-scale GPP estimates based on satellite remote-sensing data. The site-based comparisons depict a tendency for overestimates in GPP and ER for several of the models, particularly at the two sites to the south. For several models the spatial pattern in GPP explains less than half the variance in the MODIS MOD17 GPP product. Across the models NEP increases by as little as 0.01 to as much as 0.79 g C m-2 yr-2, equivalent to 3 to 340 % of the respective model means, over the analysis period. For the multimodel average the increase is 135 % of the mean from the first to last 10 years of record (1960-1969 vs. 2000-2009), with a weakening CO2 sink over the latter decades. Vegetation net primary productivity increased by 8 to 30 % from the first to last 10 years, contributing to soil carbon storage gains. The range in regional mean NEP among the group is twice the multimodel mean, indicative of the uncertainty in CO2 sink strength. The models simulate that inputs to the soil carbon pool exceeded losses, resulting in a net soil carbon gain amid a decrease in residence time. Our analysis points to improvements in model elements

  12. Hybrid modeling of CO2 sequestration processes using the lattice-Boltzmann method and PFLOTRAN (United States)

    Porter, M. L.; Coon, E. T.; Kang, Q.; Lichtner, P. C.; Carey, J. W.


    Successful CO2 injection and sequestration requires fundamental understanding of many complex processes encountered in multiphase flow and reactive transport through porous media. Although these processes are inherently governed by microscopic interfacial phenomena, they must be described at much larger scales for many practical engineering applications. In this work we present a parallel hybrid modeling scheme that couples a lattice-Boltzmann (LB) simulator for porescale multiphase flow to PFLOTRAN for continuum (Darcy) scale multiphase flow and both continuum and porescale reactive transport. We discuss details regarding the LB method, PFLOTRAN, and the coupling of the two simulators. In addition, we present a number of simulations that validate and highlight both the porescale and hybrid modeling capabilities for applications involving CO2 sequestration.

  13. A data-model synthesis to explain variability in calcification observed during a CO2 perturbation mesocosm experiment (United States)

    Krishna, Shubham; Schartau, Markus


    The effect of ocean acidification on growth and calcification of the marine algae Emiliania huxleyi was investigated in a series of mesocosm experiments where enclosed water volumes that comprised a natural plankton community were exposed to different carbon dioxide (CO2) concentrations. Calcification rates observed during those experiments were found to be highly variable, even among replicate mesocosms that were subject to similar CO2 perturbations. Here, data from an ocean acidification mesocosm experiment are reanalysed with an optimality-based dynamical plankton model. According to our model approach, cellular calcite formation is sensitive to variations in CO2 at the organism level. We investigate the temporal changes and variability in observations, with a focus on resolving observed differences in total alkalinity and particulate inorganic carbon (PIC). We explore how much of the variability in the data can be explained by variations of the initial conditions and by the level of CO2 perturbation. Nine mesocosms of one experiment were sorted into three groups of high, medium, and low calcification rates and analysed separately. The spread of the three optimised ensemble model solutions captures most of the observed variability. Our results show that small variations in initial abundance of coccolithophores and the prevailing physiological acclimation states generate differences in calcification that are larger than those induced by ocean acidification. Accordingly, large deviations between optimal mass flux estimates of carbon and of nitrogen are identified even between mesocosms that were subject to similar ocean acidification conditions. With our model-based data analysis we document how an ocean acidification response signal in calcification can be disentangled from the observed variability in PIC.

  14. Probabilistic modelling of rock damage: application to geological storage of CO2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guy, N.


    The storage of CO 2 in deep geological formations is considered as a possible way to reduce emissions of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere. The condition of the rocks constituting the reservoir is a key parameter on which rely both storage safety and efficiency. The objective of this thesis is to characterize the risks generated by a possible change of mechanical and transfer properties of the material of the basement after an injection of CO 2 . Large-scale simulations aiming at representing the process of injection of CO 2 at the supercritical state into an underground reservoir were performed. An analysis of the obtained stress fields shows the possibility of generating various forms of material degradation for high injection rates. The work is devoted to the study of the emergence of opened cracks. Following an analytical and simplified study of the initiation and growth of opened cracks based on a probabilistic model, it is shown that the formation of a crack network is possible. The focus is then to develop in the finite element code Code Aster a numerical tool to simulate the formation of crack networks. A nonlocal model based on stress regularization is proposed. A test on the stress intensity factor is used to describe crack propagation. The initiation of new cracks is modeled by a Poisson-Weibull process. The used parameters are identified by an experimental campaign conducted on samples from an actual geological site for CO 2 storage. The model developed is then validated on numerical cases, and also against experimental results carried out herein. (author)

  15. A new approach to model CW CO2 laser using rate equations

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)


    Nov 11, 2016 ... (2016) 87: 97 c Indian Academy of Sciences. DOI 10.1007/s12043-016-1303-x. A new approach to model CW CO2 laser using rate equations. UTPAL NUNDY1,∗, SUNIL DAGA2 and MANOJ KUMAR3. 1BH-2-76, Kendriya Vihar, Kharghar, Sector-11, Navi Mumbai 410 210, India. 2Laser and Plasma ...

  16. Evaluating the uncertainty in geochemical modelling for CO2 storage. The example of Ketzin. (United States)

    De Lucia, Marco; Audigane, Pascal; Jacquemet, Nicolas; Kühn, Michael


    Several sources of uncertainty are associated with geochemical modelling of reservoirs considered for CO2 storage : on one hand only few available data are generally available for a particular reservoir, which are affected by measure errors, and whose representativity is in most cases questionable; on the other hand, the phenomenological description itself of the chemical fluid-rock interactions relies heavily on experimental determination of physical observables, which are summarized in a thermodynamical and chemical databases used by the numerical simulators. The latter is for example the case of the CO2 disposal in saline aquifer, where the high ionic strength of the formation fluid requires a Pitzer ion interaction model to evaluate with sufficient accuracy the activities of the considered species. Typically, parameters for Pitzer model are discordant following different authors and data related to a conspicous number of relevant ions are often unavailable or unreliable -i.e. derived for different P/T conditions or ionic strength of the solution -, which makes very difficult to estimate the accuracy of the predictions. This contribution presents our effort in evaluating the reliability of chemical simulations in the case of Ketzin on-shore CO2 storage project. Based on available fluid and mineralogic analysis, an initial equilibrium model was determined, i.e. matching both the observed fluid composition and the saturation with the mineral phases present in the sandstone layer of the Stuttgart formation which constitutes the reservoir. A sensitivity analisys based on small perturbations of such initial model was then performed, in order to assess the influence of measurement errors and possibly define a compositional range which can be assumed in spatially variable simulations. This step is then followed by the sensitivity to the Pitzer parameters that are collected in the chemical database used throughout this study; both the parameters themselves and their

  17. A data driven model for the impact of IFT and density variations on CO2 sequestration in porous media (United States)

    Nomeli, Mohammad; Riaz, Amir


    CO2 storage in geological formations is one of the most promising solutions for mitigating the amount of greenhouse gases released into the atmosphere. One of the important issues for CO2 storage in subsurface environments is the sealing efficiency of low-permeable cap-rocks overlying potential CO2 storage reservoirs. A novel model is proposed to find the IFT of the systems (CO2/brine-salt) in a range of temperatures (300-373 K), pressures (50-250 bar), and up to 6 molal salinity applicable to CO2 storage in geological formations through a machine learning-assisted modeling of experimental data. The IFT between mineral surfaces and CO2/brine-salt solutions determines the efficiency of enhanced oil or gas recovery operations as well as our ability to inject and store CO2 in geological formations. Finally, we use the new model to evaluate the effects of formation depth on the actual efficiency of CO2 storage. The results indicate that, in the case of CO2 storage in deep subsurface environments as a global-warming mitigation strategy, CO2 storage capacity are improved with reservoir depth.

  18. Experimental characterization and modelling of the alteration of fractured cement under CO2 storage conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdoulghafour, Halidi


    The main purpose of this thesis was to characterize and to model the hydrodynamic and thermochemical processes leading to the alteration of the wellbore cement materials under borehole conditions. Percolation experiments were performed on fractured cement samples under CO 2 storage conditions (60 C and 10 MPa). Injection flow rate was dictated by the fracture aperture of each sample. CO 2 enriched brine was flowed along the fracture aperture, and permeability changes as well as chemical evolution of major cations were continuously acquired during the experiment time. Reaction paths developed by the alteration of the cement were characterized using microtomography and ESEM images. The experiments conducted using samples presenting large fracture apertures during 5 h showed that permeability was maintained constant during the experiment time. Three reacted layers were displaying by the alteration of portlandite and CSH. Long term experiment (26 h) conducted with large initial fracture aperture showed a decrease of the permeability after 15 hours of CO 2 exposure. Otherwise, experiments performed on samples presenting narrow apertures indicated the conversion of portlandite and CSH to calcite leading to the permeability reduction and the fracture clogging. Assemblages of phases and chemical changes were modelled using GEMS-PSI speciation code. We studied also using a coupled transport-reactive model the conditions leading to the cement alteration and the formation of associated layers. (author)

  19. Evaluation of simplified analytical models for CO2 plume movement and pressure buildup (United States)

    Oruganti, Y.; Mishra, S.


    CO2 injection into the sub-surface is emerging as a viable technology for reducing anthropogenic CO2 emissions into the atmosphere. When large amounts of CO2 are sequestered, pressure buildup is an associated risk, along with plume movement beyond the injected domain. In this context, simple modeling tools become valuable assets in preliminary CO2 injection project screening and implementation phases. This study presents an evaluation of two commonly used simplified analytical models for plume movement and pressure buildup, (1) the sharp interface model of Nordbotten et al. (2005), and the corresponding pressure distribution solution of Mathias et al. (2008), and (2) the 3-region model of Burton et al. (2008) based on fractional flow and steady-state pressure gradient considerations. The three-region model of Burton et al. assumes a constant pressure outer boundary. In this study, we incorporate the radius of investigation of the pressure front as the transient pressure boundary, in order to represent an infinite-acting system. The sharp-interface model also assumes the system to be infinite-acting. Temperature and pressure conditions used in these models correspond to the "warm, shallow" and "cold, deep" aquifer conditions as defined by Nordbotten et al. The saturation and pressure profiles as well as injection-well pressure buildup predicted by the analytical models are compared with those from the numerical simulator STOMP in order to provide a verification of the simplified modeling assumptions. Both the STOMP results and the three-region model show two sharp fronts (the drying and two-phase fronts), and a good match is obtained between the front positions at any time. For the sharp interface model, the vertically averaged gas saturation does not exhibit two sharp fronts as seen in the STOMP simulations, but shows a gradual change in saturation with radial distance over the two-phase region. The pressure profiles from STOMP and the analytical model are

  20. Experimental Investigation and Simplistic Geochemical Modeling of CO2 Mineral Carbonation Using the Mount Tawai Peridotite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omeid Rahmani


    Full Text Available In this work, the potential of CO2 mineral carbonation of brucite (Mg(OH2 derived from the Mount Tawai peridotite (forsterite based (Mg2SiO4 to produce thermodynamically stable magnesium carbonate (MgCO3 was evaluated. The effect of three main factors (reaction temperature, particle size, and water vapor were investigated in a sequence of experiments consisting of aqueous acid leaching, evaporation to dryness of the slurry mass, and then gas-solid carbonation under pressurized CO2. The maximum amount of Mg converted to MgCO3 is ~99%, which occurred at temperatures between 150 and 175 °C. It was also found that the reduction of particle size range from >200 to <75 µm enhanced the leaching rate significantly. In addition, the results showed the essential role of water vapor in promoting effective carbonation. By increasing water vapor concentration from 5 to 10 vol %, the mineral carbonation rate increased by 30%. This work has also numerically modeled the process by which CO2 gas may be sequestered, by reaction with forsterite in the presence of moisture. In both experimental analysis and geochemical modeling, the results showed that the reaction is favored and of high yield; going almost to completion (within about one year with the bulk of the carbon partitioning into magnesite and that very little remains in solution.

  1. Model calculations of competing climatic effects of SO2 and CO2 in fossil fuel combustion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rajeevan, M.; Sinha Ray, K.C.; Srivastava, H.N.


    Fossil fuel combustion has two competing effects on the climate system, a warming due to the emission of CO 2 and other trace gases and a cooling due to sulphate particles formed from the SO 2 emission. A detailed parameterization of the relationship between fossil fuel burning and the SO 2 effect on backscattering and cloud albedo is implemented in a one-dimensional radiative-convective model for assessing the climatic impact. The results show that at present the cooling induced by the combined effect of SO 2 completely counteracts the CO 2 greenhouse warming. The model predicts that by the year 2060 the SO 2 -induced cooling reduces warming due to CO 2 by 66% in the Intergovernmental Panel for Climate Change (IPCC) scenario Business-as-Usual (BAU) and by 27% in the IPCC scenario D. Attempts to slow-pace the fossil fuel burning will decrease the SO 2 concentration, which could further increase global warming. (author). 26 refs., 7 figs

  2. Dispersion of light and heavy pollutants in urban scale models: CO(2) laser photoacoustic studies. (United States)

    Zelinger, Z; Strizík, M; Kubát, P; Civis, S; Grigorová, E; Janecková, R; Zavila, O; Nevrlý, V; Herecová, L; Bailleux, S; Horká, V; Ferus, M; Skrínský, J; Kozubková, M; Drábková, S; Janour, Z


    The distribution of pollutants in two urban scale models (point emission source and street canyon with extensive transport) was investigated by means of CO(2) laser photoacoustic spectroscopy in the region of the atmospheric window (9-10 mum). The experimental results of physical modeling are in a good agreement with the numerical calculations performed in the frame of computational fluid dynamic (CFD) modeling. Methanol, ethanol, and ozone (examples of light pollutants), as well as sulfur hexafluoride and 1,2 dichlorethane (examples of heavy pollutants), were selected on the basis of their high resolution spectra acquired by Fourier transform and laser diode spectroscopy.

  3. Estimation of CO2 baseline level using a statistical approach for near-road vehicle emission measurements (United States)

    Wong, Ka Chun; Ning, Zhi; Chan, Ka Lok


    Vehicle emission is widely accepted as one of the major air pollution problems in metropolitan. Many different experimental setups have been designed to measure the direct emission from vehicles in order to study their impact to local air quality. Near-road/roadside in-situ measurement is one of the most common methods for vehicle emission measurement, providing emission data of vehicle under real driving conditions. In addition, the measurement system can be fully automatized and provides a better way to collect vehicular emission data. Previous studies show that 5% of the total vehicles contribute 50% of the total vehicle emission. In this study, we use the roadside measurement data for the fuel-based emission factor calculation in order to identify heavy emitters. The emission factor calculation uses CO2 as an indicator for the fuel consumption rate. However, this measurement technique suffers from high detection limit and large uncertainty of the CO2 measurement. As a result, heavy emitters with low fuel consumption rate cannot be easily detected. A new data analysis algorithm is developed to estimate the CO2 baseline for near-road/roadside vehicle emission measurements. We investigated the error distribution of the CO2 measurement and use a statistical approach to identify the baseline levels. Our study provides an alternative solution for the CO2 concentration baseline calculation.

  4. Changes in the Arctic Ocean CO2 sink (1996-2007): A regional model analysis (United States)

    Manizza, M.; Follows, M. J.; Dutkiewicz, S.; Menemenlis, D.; Hill, C. N.; Key, R. M.


    The rapid recent decline of Arctic Ocean sea ice area increases the flux of solar radiation available for primary production and the area of open water for air-sea gas exchange. We use a regional physical-biogeochemical model of the Arctic Ocean, forced by the National Centers for Environmental Prediction/National Center for Atmospheric Research atmospheric reanalysis, to evaluate the mean present-day CO2 sink and its temporal evolution. During the 1996-2007 period, the model suggests that the Arctic average sea surface temperature warmed by 0.04°C a-1, that sea ice area decreased by ˜0.1 × 106 km2 a-1, and that the biological drawdown of dissolved inorganic carbon increased. The simulated 1996-2007 time-mean Arctic Ocean CO2 sink is 58 ± 6 Tg C a-1. The increase in ice-free ocean area and consequent carbon drawdown during this period enhances the CO2 sink by ˜1.4 Tg C a-1, consistent with estimates based on extrapolations of sparse data. A regional analysis suggests that during the 1996-2007 period, the shelf regions of the Laptev, East Siberian, Chukchi, and Beaufort Seas experienced an increase in the efficiency of their biological pump due to decreased sea ice area, especially during the 2004-2007 period, consistent with independently published estimates of primary production. In contrast, the CO2 sink in the Barents Sea is reduced during the 2004-2007 period due to a dominant control by warming and decreasing solubility. Thus, the effect of decreasing sea ice area and increasing sea surface temperature partially cancel, though the former is dominant.

  5. Simulation and modeling CO2 absorption in biogas with DEA promoted K2CO3 solution in packed column (United States)

    Nurkhamidah, Siti; Altway, Ali; Airlangga, Bramantyo; Emilia, Dwi Putri


    Absorption of carbon dioxide (CO2) using potassium carbonate (K2CO3) is one of biogas purification method. However, K2CO3 have slow mass transfer in liquid phase. So it is necessary to eliminate the disadvantage of CO2 absorption using K2CO3 by adding promotor (activator). Diethanol amine (DEA) is one of promotor which can increase its reaction rate. Simulation and modeling research of the CO2 absorption from biogas with DEA promoted K2CO3 solution has not been conducted. Thus, the main goal of this research is create model and simulation for the CO2 absorption from biogas with DEA promoted K2CO3 solution, then observe the influence of promoter concentration. DEA concentration varies between 1-5 %wt. From the simulation, we concluded that the CO2 removal rise with the increasing of promoter concentration. The highest CO2 removal is 54.5318 % at 5 % wt DEA concentration.

  6. Marine CDOM accumulation during a coastal Arctic mesocosm experiment: No response to elevated pCO2 levels

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pavlov, A.K.; Silyakova, A.; Granskog, M.A.; Bellerby, R.G.J.; Engel, A.; Schulz, K.G.; Brussaard, C.P.D.


    A large-scale multidisciplinary mesocosm experiment in an Arctic fjord (Kongsfjorden, Svalbard; 78°56.2′N) was used to study Arctic marine food webs and biogeochemical elements cycling at natural and elevated future carbon dioxide (CO2) levels. At the start of the experiment, marine-derived

  7. Transpiration and CO2 fluxes of a pine forest: modelling the undergrowth effect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Rivalland


    Full Text Available A modelling study is performed in order to quantify the relative effect of allowing for the physiological properties of an undergrowth grass sward on total canopy water and carbon fluxes of the Le-Bray forest (Les-Landes, South-western France. The Le-Bray forest consists of maritime pine and an herbaceous undergrowth (purple moor-grass, which is characterised by a low stomatal control of transpiration, in contrast to maritime pine. A CO2-responsive land surface model is used that includes responses of woody and herbaceous species to water stress. An attempt is made to represent the properties of the undergrowth vegetation in the land surface model Interactions between Soil, Biosphere, and Atmosphere, CO2-responsive, ISBA-A-gs. The new adjustment allows for a fairly different environmental response between the forest canopy and the understory in a simple manner. The model's simulations are compared with long term (1997 and 1998 micro-meteorological measurements over the Le-Bray site. The fluxes of energy, water and CO2, are simulated with and without the improved representation of the undergrowth vegetation, and the two simulations are compared with the observations. Accounting for the undergrowth permits one to improve the model's scores. A simple sensitivity experiment shows the behaviour of the model in response to climate change conditions, and the understory effect on the water balance and carbon storage of the forest. Accounting for the distinct characteristics of the undergrowth has a substantial and positive effect on the model accuracy and leads to a different response to climate change scenarios.

  8. Improved model calculation of atmospheric CO2 increment in affecting carbon stock of tropical mangrove forest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raghab Ray


    Full Text Available Because of the difficulties in setting up arrangements in the intertidal zone for free-air carbon dioxide enrichment experimentation, the responses to increasing atmospheric carbon dioxide in mangrove forests are poorly studied. This study applied box model to overcome this limitation, and the relative changes in present level of reservoirs organic carbon contents in response to the future increase of atmospheric carbon dioxide were examined in the Avicennia-dominated mangrove forest at the land–ocean boundary of the northeast coast of the Bay of Bengal. The above- and below-ground biomass (AGB+BGB and sediment held different carbon stock (53.20±2.87Mg C ha−1 (mega gram carbon per hectare versus 18.52±2.77Mg C ha−1. Carbon uptake (0.348mg C m−2s−1 is more than offset by losses from plant emission (0.257mg C m−2s−1, and litter fall (13.52µg C m−2s−1 was more than soil CO2 and CH4 emission (8.36 and 1.39µg C m−2s−1, respectively. Across inventory plots, Sundarban mangrove forest carbon storage in above- and below-ground live trees and soil increased by 18.89 and 5.94Mg C ha−1 between June 2009 and December 2011. Box model well predicted the dynamics of above- and below-ground biomass and soil organic carbon, and increasing atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations could be the cause of 1.1- and 1.57-fold increases in carbon storage in live biomass and soil, respectively, across Sundarban mangrove forest rather than recovery from past disturbances.

  9. Zeolitic Imidazolate Framework-8 Membrane for H2/CO2 Separation: Experimental and Modeling (United States)

    Lai, L. S.; Yeong, Y. F.; Lau, K. K.; Azmi, M. S.; Chew, T. L.


    In this work, ZIF-8 membrane synthesized through solvent evaporation secondary seeded growth was tested for single gas permeation and binary gases separation of H2 and CO2. Subsequently, a modified mathematical modeling combining the effects of membrane and support layers was applied to represent the gas transport properties of ZIF-8 membrane. Results showed that, the membrane has exhibited H2/CO2 ideal selectivity of 5.83 and separation factor of 3.28 at 100 kPa and 303 K. Besides, the experimental results were fitted well with the simulated results by demonstrating means absolute error (MAE) values ranged from 1.13 % to 3.88 % for single gas permeation and 10.81 % to 21.22 % for binary gases separation. Based on the simulated data, most of the H2 and CO2 gas molecules have transported through the molecular pores of membrane layer, which was up to 70 %. Thus, the gas transport of the gases is mainly dominated by adsorption and diffusion across the membrane.

  10. A coupled model study on the Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation under extreme atmospheric CO2 conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rita Lecci


    Full Text Available This study investigates the climate sensitivity to a strong CO2 atmospheric forcing focusing on the North Atlantic Ocean (NA. The analysis is based on a set of 600 years long experiments performed with a state-of-the-art coupled general circulation model (CGCM with the 1990 reference value of atmospheric CO2 multiplied by 4, 8 and 16. Extreme increases in atmospheric CO2 concentration have been applied to force the climate system towards stable states with different thermo-dynamical properties and analyze how the different resulting oceanic stratification and diffusion affect the Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation (AMOC. The AMOC weakens in response to the induced warming with distinctive features in the extreme case: a southward shift of convective sites and the formation of a density front at mid-latitudes. The analysis of the density fluxes reveals that NA loses density at high latitudes and gains it southward of 40°N mainly due to the haline contribution. Our results indicate that the most important processes that control the AMOC are active in the high latitudes and are related to the stability of the water column. The increased ocean stratification stabilizes the ocean interior leading to a decreased vertical diffusivity, a reduction in the formation of deep water and a weaker circulation. In particular, the deep convection collapses mainly in the Labrador Sea as a consequence of the water column stratification under high latitudes freshening.

  11. Hollow Fiber Membrane Contactors for CO2 Capture: Modeling and Up-Scaling to CO2 Capture for an 800 MWe Coal Power Station

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kimball Erin


    Full Text Available A techno-economic analysis was completed to compare the use of Hollow Fiber Membrane Modules (HFMM with the more conventional structured packing columns as the absorber in amine-based CO2 capture systems for power plants. In order to simulate the operation of industrial scale HFMM systems, a two-dimensional model was developed and validated based on results of a laboratory scale HFMM. After successful experiments and validation of the model, a pilot scale HFMM was constructed and simulated with the same model. The results of the simulations, from both sizes of HFMM, were used to assess the feasibility of further up-scaling to a HFMM system to capture the CO2 from an 800 MWe power plant. The system requirements – membrane fiber length, total contact surface area, and module volume – were determined from simulations and used for an economic comparison with structured packing columns. Results showed that a significant cost reduction of at least 50% is required to make HFMM competitive with structured packing columns. Several factors for the design of industrial scale HFMM require further investigation, such as the optimal aspect ratio (module length/diameter, membrane lifetime, and casing material and shape, in addition to the need to reduce the overall cost. However, HFMM were also shown to have the advantages of having a higher contact surface area per unit volume and modular scale-up, key factors for applications requiring limited footprints or flexibility in configuration.

  12. Modeling the CO2-effects of forest management and wood usage on a regional basis. (United States)

    Knauf, Marcus; Köhl, Michael; Mues, Volker; Olschofsky, Konstantin; Frühwald, Arno


    At the 15 th Conference of Parties of the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change, Copenhagen, 2009, harvested wood products were identified as an additional carbon pool. This modification eliminates inconsistencies in greenhouse gas reporting by recognizing the role of the forest and timber sector in the global carbon cycle. Any additional CO 2 -effects related to wood usage are not considered by this modification. This results in a downward bias when the contribution of the forest and timber sector to climate change mitigation is assessed. The following article analyses the overall contribution to climate protection made by the forest management and wood utilization through CO 2 -emissions reduction using an example from the German state of North Rhine-Westphalia. Based on long term study periods (2011 to 2050 and 2100, respectively). Various alternative scenarios for forest management and wood usage are presented. In the mid- to long-term (2050 and 2100, respectively) the net climate protection function of scenarios with varying levels of wood usage is higher than in scenarios without any wood usage. This is not observed for all scenarios on short and mid term evaluations. The advantages of wood usage are evident although the simulations resulted in high values for forest storage in the C pools. Even the carbon sink effect due to temporal accumulation of deadwood during the period from 2011 to 2100 is outbalanced by the potential of wood usage effects. A full assessment of the CO 2 -effects of the forest management requires an assessment of the forest supplemented with an assessment of the effects of wood usage. CO 2 -emission reductions through both fuel and material substitution as well as CO 2 sink in wood products need to be considered. An integrated assessment of the climate protection function based on the analysis of the study's scenarios provides decision parameters for a strategic approach to climate protection with regard to forest management and

  13. Amazon rainforest responses to elevated CO2: Deriving model-based hypotheses for the AmazonFACE experiment (United States)

    Rammig, A.; Fleischer, K.; Lapola, D.; Holm, J.; Hoosbeek, M.


    Increasing atmospheric CO2 concentration is assumed to have a stimulating effect ("CO2 fertilization effect") on forest growth and resilience. Empirical evidence, however, for the existence and strength of such a tropical CO2 fertilization effect is scarce and thus a major impediment for constraining the uncertainties in Earth System Model projections. The implications of the tropical CO2 effect are far-reaching, as it strongly influences the global carbon and water cycle, and hence future global climate. In the scope of the Amazon Free Air CO2 Enrichment (FACE) experiment, we addressed these uncertainties by assessing the CO2 fertilization effect at ecosystem scale. AmazonFACE is the first FACE experiment in an old-growth, highly diverse tropical rainforest. Here, we present a priori model-based hypotheses for the experiment derived from a set of 12 ecosystem models. Model simulations identified key uncertainties in our understanding of limiting processes and derived model-based hypotheses of expected ecosystem responses to elevated CO2 that can directly be tested during the experiment. Ambient model simulations compared satisfactorily with in-situ measurements of ecosystem carbon fluxes, as well as carbon, nitrogen, and phosphorus stocks. Models consistently predicted an increase in photosynthesis with elevated CO2, which declined over time due to developing limitations. The conversion of enhanced photosynthesis into biomass, and hence ecosystem carbon sequestration, varied strongly among the models due to different assumptions on nutrient limitation. Models with flexible allocation schemes consistently predicted an increased investment in belowground structures to alleviate nutrient limitation, in turn accelerating turnover rates of soil organic matter. The models diverged on the prediction for carbon accumulation after 10 years of elevated CO2, mainly due to contrasting assumptions in their phosphorus cycle representation. These differences define the expected

  14. A data driven model for the impact of IFT and density variations on CO2 storage capacity in geologic formations (United States)

    Nomeli, Mohammad A.; Riaz, Amir


    Carbon dioxide (CO2) storage in depleted hydrocarbon reservoirs and deep saline aquifers is one of the most promising solutions for decreasing CO2 concentration in the atmosphere. One of the important issues for CO2 storage in subsurface environments is the sealing efficiency of low-permeable cap-rocks overlying potential CO2 storage reservoirs. Though we focus on the effect of IFT in this study as a factor influencing sealing efficiency or storage capacity, other factors such as interfacial interactions, wettability, pore radius and interfacial mass transfer also affect the mobility and storage capacity of CO2 phase in the pore space. The study of the variation of IFT is however important because the pressure needed to penetrate a pore depends on both the pore size and the interfacial tension. Hence small variations in IFT can affect flow across a large population of pores. A novel model is proposed to find the IFT of the ternary systems (CO2/brine-salt) in a range of temperatures (300-373 K), pressures (50-250 bar), and up to 6 molal salinity applicable to CO2 storage in geological formations through a multi-variant non-linear regression of experimental data. The method uses a general empirical model for the quaternary system CO2/brine-salts that can be made to coincide with experimental data for a variety of solutions. We introduce correction parameters into the model, which compensates for uncertainties, and enforce agreement with experimental data. The results for IFT show a strong dependence on temperature, pressure, and salinity. The model has been found to describe the experimental data in the appropriate parameter space with reasonable precision. Finally, we use the new model to evaluate the effects of formation depth on the actual efficiency of CO2 storage. The results indicate that, in the case of CO2 storage in deep subsurface environments as a global-warming mitigation strategy, CO2 storage capacity increases with reservoir depth.

  15. PC-SAFT Modeling of CO2 Solubilities in Deep Eutectic Solvents. (United States)

    Zubeir, Lawien F; Held, Christoph; Sadowski, Gabriele; Kroon, Maaike C


    Perturbed-Chain Statistical Associating Fluid Theory (PC-SAFT), a physically based model that accounts for different molecular interactions explicitly, was applied to describe for the first time the phase behavior of deep eutectic solvents (DESs) with CO2 at temperatures from 298.15 to 318.15 K and pressures up to 2 MPa. DESs are mixtures of two solid compounds, a hydrogen bond donor (HBD) and a hydrogen bond acceptor (HBA), which form liquids upon mixing with melting points far below that of the individual compounds. In this work, the HBD is lactic acid and the HBAs are tetramethylammonium chloride, tetraethylammonium chloride, and tetrabutylammonium chloride. Two different modeling strategies were considered for the PC-SAFT modeling. In the first strategy, the so-called pseudo-pure component approach, a DES was considered as a pseudo-pure compound, and its pure-component parameters were obtained by fitting to pure DES density data. In the second strategy, the so-called individual-component approach, a DES was considered to consist of two individual components (HBA and HBD), and the pure-component parameters of the HBA and HBD were obtained by fitting to the density of aqueous solutions containing only the individual compounds of the DES. In order to model vapor-liquid equilibria (VLE) of DES + CO2 systems, binary interaction parameters were adjusted to experimental data from the literature and to new data measured in this work. It was concluded that the individual-component strategy allows quantitative prediction of the phase behavior of DES + CO2 systems containing those HBD:HBA molar ratios that were not used for k(ij) fitting. In contrast, applying the pseudo-pure component strategy required DES-composition specific k(ij) parameters.

  16. A two-fluid model for vertical flow applied to CO2 injection wells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Linga, Gaute; Lund, Halvor


    to thermal stresses and subsequent loss of well integrity, and it is therefore crucial to employ models that can predict this accurately. In this work, we present a model for vertical well flow that includes both two-phase flow and heat conduction. The flow is described by a two-fluid model, where mass...... robust transition from two-phase to single-phase flow than the previous formulation. The model predicts which flow regimes are present downhole, and calculates friction and heat transfer depending on this. Moreover, the flow model is coupled with a heat conduction model for the layers that comprise......Flow of CO2 in wells is associated with substantial variations in thermophysical properties downhole, due to the coupled transient processes involved: complex flow patterns, density changes, phase transitions, and heat transfer to and from surroundings. Large temperature variations can lead...

  17. Relation between the occurence of major glaciations of Antarctica and Greenland and the atmospheric CO2: a modelling approach (United States)

    Bonelli, S.; Ramstein, G.; Donnadieu, Y.; Dumas, C.; Ritz, C.; Waldman, R.


    The main purpose of the studies presented here is to investigate the relationship between the occurrence of major glaciations of Antarctica and Greenland and the atmospheric CO_2 through modelling approach. We use a Climate Model of Intermediate Complexity^1 coupled with two ice sheet models GRISLI^2 for Antarctica ice sheet and GREMLINS^3 for Greenland. Our study focuses on the two extremities of Cenozoic(Palaeocene / Eocene glaciation of Antarctica 34My BP) and Pliocene (3My) glaciation of Greenland. Using such a tool enable to explore the different forcing factors (CO_2 , insolation, tectonics) and more interestingly to capture the CO2 threshold that corresponds to ice sheet build-up. Our results compare well with CO_2 reconstructions for instance from Pagani M., 2005^4 for Paleocene / Eocene and with Kürschner, W.^5 for glaciation of Greenland. Moreover, these results^6 are in good agreement with previous studies of Antarctica glaciation^7,8, and with the recent study of D. Lunt^9 for Greenland. Major finding is that CO_2 decrease is indeed the basic tempo for explaining ice sheet, but the real value of CO_2 which will trigger the onset of glaciation are deeply modulated by changes in paleogeography, tectonic, ocean dynamics and insolation. 1. Bonelli S., Charbit S., Kageyama M., Woillez M.N., Ramstein G., Dumas C., Quiquet A., 2009. Investigating the evolution of major Northern Hemisphere ice sheets during the last glacial-interglacial cycle.Clim. Past 5, 329-345 2. Ritz, C., Rommelaere, V., and Dumas, C.: Modeling the evolution of Antarctic ice sheet over the last 420,000 years: Implications for altitude changes in the Vostok region, J. Geophys. Res.-Atmos., 106(D23), 31943¿31964, 2001 3. Ritz, C., Fabre, A., and Letreguilly, A.: Sensitivity of a Greenland ice sheet model to ice flow and ablation parameters: consequences for the evolution through the last climatic cycle, Clim. Dynam., (13), 11¿24, 1997. 4. Pagani, M., J. C. Zachos, et al. (2005). "Marked

  18. Regional-scale geostatistical inverse modeling of North American CO2 fluxes: a synthetic data study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. M. Michalak


    Full Text Available A series of synthetic data experiments is performed to investigate the ability of a regional atmospheric inversion to estimate grid-scale CO2 fluxes during the growing season over North America. The inversions are performed within a geostatistical framework without the use of any prior flux estimates or auxiliary variables, in order to focus on the atmospheric constraint provided by the nine towers collecting continuous, calibrated CO2 measurements in 2004. Using synthetic measurements and their associated concentration footprints, flux and model-data mismatch covariance parameters are first optimized, and then fluxes and their uncertainties are estimated at three different temporal resolutions. These temporal resolutions, which include a four-day average, a four-day-average diurnal cycle with 3-hourly increments, and 3-hourly fluxes, are chosen to help assess the impact of temporal aggregation errors on the estimated fluxes and covariance parameters. Estimating fluxes at a temporal resolution that can adjust the diurnal variability is found to be critical both for recovering covariance parameters directly from the atmospheric data, and for inferring accurate ecoregion-scale fluxes. Accounting for both spatial and temporal a priori covariance in the flux distribution is also found to be necessary for recovering accurate a posteriori uncertainty bounds on the estimated fluxes. Overall, the results suggest that even a fairly sparse network of 9 towers collecting continuous CO2 measurements across the continent, used with no auxiliary information or prior estimates of the flux distribution in time or space, can be used to infer relatively accurate monthly ecoregion scale CO2 surface fluxes over North America within estimated uncertainty bounds. Simulated random transport error is shown to decrease the quality of flux estimates in under-constrained areas at the ecoregion scale, although the uncertainty bounds remain realistic. While these synthetic

  19. Modeling and Evaluation of Geophysical Methods for Monitoring and Tracking CO2 Migration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daniels, Jeff


    Geological sequestration has been proposed as a viable option for mitigating the vast amount of CO{sub 2} being released into the atmosphere daily. Test sites for CO{sub 2} injection have been appearing across the world to ascertain the feasibility of capturing and sequestering carbon dioxide. A major concern with full scale implementation is monitoring and verifying the permanence of injected CO{sub 2}. Geophysical methods, an exploration industry standard, are non-invasive imaging techniques that can be implemented to address that concern. Geophysical methods, seismic and electromagnetic, play a crucial role in monitoring the subsurface pre- and post-injection. Seismic techniques have been the most popular but electromagnetic methods are gaining interest. The primary goal of this project was to develop a new geophysical tool, a software program called GphyzCO2, to investigate the implementation of geophysical monitoring for detecting injected CO{sub 2} at test sites. The GphyzCO2 software consists of interconnected programs that encompass well logging, seismic, and electromagnetic methods. The software enables users to design and execute 3D surface-to-surface (conventional surface seismic) and borehole-to-borehole (cross-hole seismic and electromagnetic methods) numerical modeling surveys. The generalized flow of the program begins with building a complex 3D subsurface geological model, assigning properties to the models that mimic a potential CO{sub 2} injection site, numerically forward model a geophysical survey, and analyze the results. A test site located in Warren County, Ohio was selected as the test site for the full implementation of GphyzCO2. Specific interest was placed on a potential reservoir target, the Mount Simon Sandstone, and cap rock, the Eau Claire Formation. Analysis of the test site included well log data, physical property measurements (porosity), core sample resistivity measurements, calculating electrical permittivity values, seismic data

  20. Reactive and multiphase modelling for the identification of monitoring parameters to detect CO2 intrusion into freshwater aquifers (United States)

    Fahrner, S.; Schaefer, D.; Wiegers, C.; Köber, R.; Dahmke, A.


    A monitoring at geological CO2 storage sites has to meet environmental, regulative, financial and public demands and thus has to enable the detection of CO2 leakages. Current monitoring concepts for the detection of CO2 intrusion into freshwater aquifers located above saline storage formations in course of leakage events lack the identification of monitoring parameters. Their response to CO2 intrusion still has to be enlightened. Scenario simulations of CO2 intrusion in virtual synthetic aquifers are performed using the simulators PhreeqC and TOUGH2 to reveal relevant CO2-water-mineral interactions and multiphase behaviour on potential monitoring parameters. The focus is set on pH, total dissolved inorganic carbon (TIC) and the hydroelectric conductivity (EC). The study aims at identifying at which conditions the parameters react rapidly, durable and in a measurable degree. The depth of the aquifer, the mineralogy, the intrusion rates, the sorption specification and capacities, and groundwater flow velocities are varied in the course of the scenario modelling. All three parameters have been found suited in most scenarios. However, in case of a lack of calcite combined with low saturation of the water with respect to CO2 and shallow conditions, changes are close to the measurement resolution. Predicted changes in EC result from the interplay between carbonic acid production and its dissociation, and pH buffering by mineral dissolution. The formation of a discrete gas phase in cases of full saturation of the groundwater in confined aquifers illustrates the potential bipartite resistivity response: An increased hydroelectric conductivity at locations with dissolved CO2, and a high resistivity where the gas phase dominates the pore volume occupation. Increased hydrostatic pressure with depth and enhanced groundwater flow velocities enforce gas dissolution and diminish the formation of a discrete gas phase. Based on the results, a monitoring strategy is proposed which

  1. Characterization and modelling of a naturally fractured reservoir-caprock unit targeted for CO2 storage in arctic Norway

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Senger, K.; Mulrooney, M.; Schaaf, N.; Tveranger, J.; Braathen, A.; Ogata, K.; Olaussen, S.


    Successfully storing CO2 underground requires a good understanding of the subsurface at the storage site, and its robust representation in geological models. Geological models, and related simulations, provide important quantitative information on critical parameters for the optimal utilisation of

  2. Atmospheric CO2 modeling at the regional scale: an intercomparison of 5 meso-scale atmospheric models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sarrat, C.; Noilhan, J.; Dolman, A.J.; Gerbig, C.; Ahmadov, R.; Tolk, L.F.; Meesters, A.G.C.A.; Hutjes, R.W.A.; Maat, ter H.W.; Pérez-Landa, G.; Donier, S.


    Atmospheric CO2 modeling in interaction with the surface fluxes, at the regional scale is developed within the frame of the European project CarboEurope-IP and its Regional Experiment component. In this context, five meso-scale meteorological models participate in an intercomparison exercise. Using

  3. High-performance modeling of CO2 sequestration by coupling reservoir simulation and molecular dynamics

    KAUST Repository

    Bao, Kai


    The present work describes a parallel computational framework for CO2 sequestration simulation by coupling reservoir simulation and molecular dynamics (MD) on massively parallel HPC systems. In this framework, a parallel reservoir simulator, Reservoir Simulation Toolbox (RST), solves the flow and transport equations that describe the subsurface flow behavior, while the molecular dynamics simulations are performed to provide the required physical parameters. Numerous technologies from different fields are employed to make this novel coupled system work efficiently. One of the major applications of the framework is the modeling of large scale CO2 sequestration for long-term storage in the subsurface geological formations, such as depleted reservoirs and deep saline aquifers, which has been proposed as one of the most attractive and practical solutions to reduce the CO2 emission problem to address the global-warming threat. To effectively solve such problems, fine grids and accurate prediction of the properties of fluid mixtures are essential for accuracy. In this work, the CO2 sequestration is presented as our first example to couple the reservoir simulation and molecular dynamics, while the framework can be extended naturally to the full multiphase multicomponent compositional flow simulation to handle more complicated physical process in the future. Accuracy and scalability analysis are performed on an IBM BlueGene/P and on an IBM BlueGene/Q, the latest IBM supercomputer. Results show good accuracy of our MD simulations compared with published data, and good scalability are observed with the massively parallel HPC systems. The performance and capacity of the proposed framework are well demonstrated with several experiments with hundreds of millions to a billion cells. To our best knowledge, the work represents the first attempt to couple the reservoir simulation and molecular simulation for large scale modeling. Due to the complexity of the subsurface systems

  4. Modeling a CO2 mineralization experiment of fractured peridotite from the Semail ophiolite/ Oman (United States)

    Muller, Nadja; Zhang, Guoxiang; van Noort, Reinier; Spiers, Chris; Ten Grotenhuis, Saskia; Hoedeman, Gerco


    cell of the cold seal vessel than comparative experiments in large volume autoclaves and bench acid bath vials under lower and atmospheric pressure conditions. We attributed this observation to the limited water availability in the cold seal vessel, limiting the aqueous reaction of bi-carbonate formation and magnesite precipitation. To test this hypothesis, one of the cold seal vessel experiments at 20 MPa and 100°C was simulated with a reactive transport model, using TOUGHREACT. To simulate the actual experimental conditions, the model used a grid on mm and 100's of μm scale and a fractured peridotite medium with serpentine filling the fractures. The simulation produced dissolution comparable to the experiment and showed an effective shut down of the bi-carbonation reaction within one day after the start of the experiment. If the conditions of limited water supply seen in our experiments are applicable in a field setting, we could expect dissolution may be limited by the buffering of the pH and shut down of the bi-carbonate formation. Under field conditions water and CO2 will only flow in hydraulic induced fractures and the natural fracture network that is filled with serpentine and some carbonate. The simulation result and potential implication for the field application will require further experimental investigation in the lab or field in the future.

  5. The global pyrogenic carbon cycle and its impact on the level of atmospheric CO2 over past and future centuries. (United States)

    Landry, Jean-Sébastien; Matthews, H Damon


    The incomplete combustion of vegetation and dead organic matter by landscape fires creates recalcitrant pyrogenic carbon (PyC), which could be consequential for the global carbon budget if changes in fire regime, climate, and atmospheric CO 2 were to substantially affect gains and losses of PyC on land and in oceans. Here, we included global PyC cycling in a coupled climate-carbon model to assess the role of PyC in historical and future simulations, accounting for uncertainties through five sets of parameter estimates. We obtained year-2000 global stocks of (Central estimate, likely uncertainty range in parentheses) 86 (11-154), 47 (2-64), and 1129 (90-5892) Pg C for terrestrial residual PyC (RPyC), marine dissolved PyC, and marine particulate PyC, respectively. PyC cycling decreased atmospheric CO 2 only slightly between 1751 and 2000 (by 0.8 Pg C for the Central estimate) as PyC-related fluxes changed little over the period. For 2000 to 2300, we combined Representative Concentration Pathways (RCPs) 4.5 and 8.5 with stable or continuously increasing future fire frequencies. For the increasing future fire regime, the production of new RPyC generally outpaced the warming-induced accelerated loss of existing RPyC, so that PyC cycling decreased atmospheric CO 2 between 2000 and 2300 for most estimates (by 4-8 Pg C for Central). For the stable fire regime, however, PyC cycling usually increased atmospheric CO 2 (by 1-9 Pg C for Central), and only the most extreme choice of parameters maximizing PyC production and minimizing PyC decomposition led to atmospheric CO 2 decreases under RCPs 4.5 and 8.5 (by 5-8 Pg C). Our results suggest that PyC cycling will likely reduce the future increase in atmospheric CO 2 if landscape fires become much more frequent; however, in the absence of a substantial increase in fire frequency, PyC cycling might contribute to, rather than mitigate, the future increase in atmospheric CO 2 . © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Measurements and models of CO2 and CH4 Flux in the Baltimore/Washington area. (United States)

    Dickerson, R. R.; Ren, X.; Salawitch, R. J.; Ahn, D.; Karion, A.; Shepson, P. B.; Whetstone, J. R.; Martin, C.


    Direct measurements of concentrations of pollutants such as CO2 and CH4 can be combined with wind fields to determine the flux of these species and to evaluate emissions inventories or models. The mass balance approach, assumng linear flow into and out of a volume set over a city, works best where wind fields are simplest. Over typical American east coast cities, upwind sources and complex circulation (e.g., the sea breeze) complicate such analyses. We will present findings from a coupled measurement and modeling project involving a network of surface-based tower measurements, aircraft observations, and remote sensing that constrain model calculations. Summer and winter scenarios are contrasted, and results help evaluate the emissions of short-lived pollutants. Determinations are compared to several emissions inventories and are being used to help States evaluate evaluate plans for pollution control.

  7. Consistent phase-change modeling for CO2-based heat mining operation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Singh, Ashok Kumar; Veje, Christian


    –gas phase transition with more accuracy and consistency. Calculation of fluid properties and saturation state were based on the volume translated Peng–Robinson equation of state and results verified. The present model has been applied to a scenario to simulate a CO2-based heat mining process. In this paper......The accuracy of mathematical modeling of phase-change phenomena is limited if a simple, less accurate equation of state completes the governing partial differential equation. However, fluid properties (such as density, dynamic viscosity and compressibility) and saturation state are calculated using...... a highly accurate, complex equation of state. This leads to unstable and inaccurate simulation as the equation of state and governing partial differential equations are mutually inconsistent. In this study, the volume-translated Peng–Robinson equation of state was used with emphasis to model the liquid...

  8. Combining Off-the-Job Productivity Regression Model with EPA’s NONROAD Model in Estimating CO2 Emissions from Bulldozer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Apif M. Hajji


    Full Text Available Heavy duty diesel (HDD construction equipment which includes bulldozer is important in infrastructure development. This equipment consumes large amount of diesel fuel and emits high level of carbon dioxide (CO2. The total emissions are dependent upon the fuel use, and the fuel use is dependent upon the productivity of the equipment. This paper proposes a methodology and tool for estimating CO2 emissions from bulldozer based on the productivity rate. The methodology is formulated by using the result of multiple linear regressions (MLR of CAT’s data for obtaining the productivity model and combined with the EPA’s NONROAD model. The emission factors from NONROAD model were used to quantify the CO2 emissions. To display the function of the model, a case study and sensitivity analysis for a bulldozer’s activity is also presented. MLR results indicate that the productivity model generated from CAT’s data can be used as the basis for quantifying the total CO2 emissions for an earthwork activity.

  9. CO{sub 2}MPARE. CO2 Model for Operational Programme Assessment in EU Regions. User Tutorial

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hekkenberg, M. [ECN Policy Studies, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Vincent-Genod, C. [Energies Demain, Montreuil Sous Bois (France); Regina, P. [Italian National Agency for New Technologies, Energy and Sustainable Economic Development ENEA, Rome (Italy); Keppo, I. [University College London UCL, London (United Kingdom); Papagianni, S. [Centre for Renewable Energy Sources and Saving CRES, Pikermi Attiki (Greece); Harnych, J. [ENVIROS, Prague (Czech Republic)


    The CO2MPARE model supports national and regional authorities in making balanced decisions for their investment portfolio under their regional development programmes, in particular under their Operational Programmes of EU Regional Policy. This document is a tutorial for users of the CO2MPARE model and provides step by step guidance on the different functionalities of the model for both basic and expert users.

  10. Molecular simulation and mathematical modelling of glass transition temperature depression induced by CO2 plasticization in Polysulfone membranes (United States)

    Lock, S. S. M.; Lau, K. K.; Lock Sow Mei, Irene; Shariff, A. M.; Yeong, Y. F.; Bustam, A. M.


    A sequence of molecular modelling procedure has been proposed to simulate experimentally validated membrane structure characterizing the effect of CO2 plasticization, whereby it can be subsequently employed to elucidate the depression in glass transition temperature (Tg ). Based on the above motivation, unswollen and swollen Polysulfone membrane structures with different CO2 loadings have been constructed, whereby the accuracy has been validated through good compliance with experimentally measured physical properties. It is found that the presence of CO2 constitutes to enhancement in polymeric chain relaxation, which consequently promotes the enlargement of molecular spacing and causes dilation in the membrane matrix. A series of glass transition temperature treatment has been conducted on the verified molecular structure to elucidate the effect of CO2 loadings to the depression in Tg induced by plasticization. Subsequently, a modified Michealis-Menten (M-M) function has been implemented to quantify the effect of CO2 loading attributed to plasticization towards Tg .

  11. Prediction models for CO2 emission in Malaysia using best subsets regression and multi-linear regression (United States)

    Tan, C. H.; Matjafri, M. Z.; Lim, H. S.


    This paper presents the prediction models which analyze and compute the CO2 emission in Malaysia. Each prediction model for CO2 emission will be analyzed based on three main groups which is transportation, electricity and heat production as well as residential buildings and commercial and public services. The prediction models were generated using data obtained from World Bank Open Data. Best subset method will be used to remove irrelevant data and followed by multi linear regression to produce the prediction models. From the results, high R-square (prediction) value was obtained and this implies that the models are reliable to predict the CO2 emission by using specific data. In addition, the CO2 emissions from these three groups are forecasted using trend analysis plots for observation purpose.

  12. An energy balance perspective on regional CO2-induced temperature changes in CMIP5 models (United States)

    Räisänen, Jouni


    An energy balance decomposition of temperature changes is conducted for idealized transient CO2-only simulations in the fifth phase of the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project. The multimodel global mean warming is dominated by enhanced clear-sky greenhouse effect due to increased CO2 and water vapour, but other components of the energy balance substantially modify the geographical and seasonal patterns of the change. Changes in the net surface energy flux are important over the oceans, being especially crucial for the muted warming over the northern North Atlantic and for the seasonal cycle of warming over the Arctic Ocean. Changes in atmospheric energy flux convergence tend to smooth the gradients of temperature change and reduce its land-sea contrast, but they also amplify the seasonal cycle of warming in northern North America and Eurasia. The three most important terms for intermodel differences in warming are the changes in the clear-sky greenhouse effect, clouds, and the net surface energy flux, making the largest contribution to the standard deviation of annual mean temperature change in 34, 29 and 20 % of the world, respectively. Changes in atmospheric energy flux convergence mostly damp intermodel variations of temperature change especially over the oceans. However, the opposite is true for example in Greenland and Antarctica, where the warming appears to be substantially controlled by heat transport from the surrounding sea areas.

  13. Multi-scales modeling of reactive transport mechanisms. Impact on petrophysical properties during CO2 storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Varloteaux, C.


    The geo-sequestration of carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) is an attractive option to reduce the emission of greenhouse gases. Within carbonate reservoirs, acidification of brine in place can occur during CO 2 injection. This acidification leads to mineral dissolution which can modify the transport properties of a solute in porous media. The aim of this study is to quantify the impact of reactive transport on a solute distribution and on the structural modification induced by the reaction from the pore to the reservoir scale. This study is focused on reactive transport problem in the case of single phase flow in the limit of long time. To do so, we used a multi-scale up-scaling method that takes into account (i) the local scale, where flow, reaction and transport are known; (ii) the pore scale, where the reactive transport is addressed by using averaged formulation of the local equations; (iii) the Darcy scale (also called core scale), where the structure of the rock is taken into account by using a three-dimensions network of pore-bodies connected by pore-throats; and (iv) the reservoir scale, where physical phenomenon, within each cell of the reservoir model, are taken into account by introducing macroscopic coefficients deduced from the study of these phenomenon at the Darcy scale, such as the permeability, the apparent reaction rate, the solute apparent velocity and dispersion. (author)

  14. Simulation of spring wheat responses to elevated CO2 and temperature by using CERES-wheat crop model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available The CERES-wheat crop simulation model was used to estimate the changes in phenological development and yield production of spring wheat (Triticum aestivum L., cv. Polkka under different temperature and CO2 growing conditions. The effects of elevated temperature (3-4°C and CO2 concentration (700 ppm as expected for Finland in 2100 were simulated. The model was calibrated for long-day growing conditions in Finland. The CERES-wheat genetic coefficients for cv. Polkka were calibrated by using the MTT Agrifood Research Finland (MTT official variety trial data (1985-1990. Crop phenological development and yield measurements from open-top chamber experiments with ambient and elevated temperature and CO2 treatments were used to validate the model. Simulated mean grain yield under ambient temperature and CO2 conditions was 6.16 t ha-1 for potential growth (4.49 t ha-1 non-potential and 5.47 t ha-1 for the observed average yield (1992-1994 in ambient open-top chamber conditions. The simulated potential grain yield increased under elevated CO2 (700 ppm to 142% (167% non-potential from the simulated reference yield (100%, ambient temperature and CO2 350 ppm. Simulations for current sowing date and elevated temperature (3°C indicate accelerated anthesis and full maturity. According to the model estimations, potential yield decreased on average to 80.4% (76.8% non-potential due to temperature increase from the simulated reference. When modelling the concurrent elevated temperature and CO2 interaction, the increase in grain yield due to elevated CO2 was reduced by the elevated temperature. The combined CO2 and temperature effect increased the grain yield to 106% for potential growth (122% non-potential compared to the reference. Simulating the effects of earlier sowing, the potential grain yield increased under elevated temperature and CO2 conditions to 178% (15 days earlier sowing from 15 May, 700 ppm CO2, 3°C from the reference. Simulation results suggest

  15. The model for solubility of CO2 in saline groundwater with complex ions and the application on Erdos basin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Lu; Yu Qingchun


    To obtain accurate solubility of CO 2 is one of problems that need solutions urgently in CO 2 sequestration within saline groundwater. However, there are few data published for solubility of CO 2 under geological sequestration conditions. In order to fill the gap of the experimental study, the solubility of CO 2 in five formations of Erdos Basin was explored in this research. Groundwater samples in five reservoirs were carried out through an observation well in the Erdos Basin. The chemical composition was determined and experiments measuring CO 2 solubility were carried out in the synthetic water samples. Krichevsky-Kasarnovsky equation was established to analyze the experimental data. The relationship between concentration of K + , Na + , Ca 2+ , Mg 2+ and the solubility of CO 2 was analyzed and an excellent liner fit was found, which quantifies the impact of ions on the solubility of cO 2 . Solubility data were compared to the model prediction over the temperature and pressure ranges of 318 ∼ 348 K and 8 ∼ 11 MPa. The average absolute deviation is 2.11%. The results can be used as a parameter for the evaluation of the CO 2 storage capacity in deep saline aquifer of Erdos Basin. (authors)

  16. Kinetic models for supercritical CO2 extraction of oilseeds - a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Nagy


    Full Text Available The supercritical fluid extraction of oilseeds is gaining increasing interest in commercial application for the last few decades, most particularly thanks to technical and environmental advantages of supercritical fluid extraction technology compared to current extraction methods with organic solvents. Furthermore, CO2 as a solvent is generally recognized as safe (GRAS. At present moment, supercritical fluid extractions on a commercial scale are limited to decaffeination, production of soluble hops extracts, sesame seed oil production and extraction of certain petroleum products. When considering industrial application, it is essential to test the applicability of the appropriate model for supercritical fluid extraction of oilseeds used for scale up of laboratory data to industrial design purposes. The aim of this paper is to review the most significant kinetic models reported in the literature for supercritical fluid extraction.

  17. Particle-in-cell modeling of streamer branching in CO2 gas

    KAUST Repository

    Levko, Dmitry


    The mechanism of streamer branching remains one of the unsolved problems of low-temperature plasma physics. The understanding of this phenomenon requires very high-fidelity models that include, for instance, the kinetic description of electrons. In this paper, we use a two-dimensional particle-in-cell Monte Carlo collisional model to study the branching of anode-directed streamers propagating through short cathode-anode gap filled with atmospheric-pressure CO2 gas. We observe three key phenomena leading to the streamer branching at the considered conditions: flattening of the streamer head, the decrease of the streamer head thickness, and the generation at the streamer head of electrons having the energy larger than 50 eV. For the conditions of our studies, the non-homogeneous distribution of such energetic electrons at the streamer head is probably the primary mechanism responsible for the streamer branching.

  18. Research on CO2 ejector component efficiencies by experiment measurement and distributed-parameter modeling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zheng, Lixing; Deng, Jianqiang


    Highlights: • The ejector distributed-parameter model is developed to study ejector efficiencies. • Feasible component and total efficiency correlations of ejector are established. • New efficiency correlations are applied to obtain dynamic characteristics of EERC. • More suitable fixed efficiency value can be determined by the proposed correlations. - Abstract: In this study we combine the experimental measurement data and the theoretical model of ejector to determine CO 2 ejector component efficiencies including the motive nozzle, suction chamber, mixing section, diffuser as well as the total ejector efficiency. The ejector is modeled utilizing the distributed-parameter method, and the flow passage is divided into a number of elements and the governing equations are formulated based on the differential equation of mass, momentum and energy conservation. The efficiencies of ejector are investigated under different ejector geometric parameters and operational conditions, and the corresponding empirical correlations are established. Moreover, the correlations are incorporated into a transient model of transcritical CO 2 ejector expansion refrigeration cycle (EERC) and the dynamic simulations is performed based on variable component efficiencies and fixed values. The motive nozzle, suction chamber, mixing section and diffuser efficiencies vary from 0.74 to 0.89, 0.86 to 0.96, 0.73 to 0.9 and 0.75 to 0.95 under the studied conditions, respectively. The response diversities of suction flow pressure and discharge pressure are obvious between the variable efficiencies and fixed efficiencies referring to the previous studies, while when the fixed value is determined by the presented correlations, their response differences are basically the same.

  19. Nitrous Oxide Emissions in a Managed Grassland are Strongly Influenced by CO2 Concentrations Across a Range of Soil Moisture Levels (United States)

    Brown, Z. A.; Hovenden, M. J.; Hunt, M.


    Though the atmosphere contains less nitrous oxide (N2O, 324 ppb) than carbon dioxide (CO2, 400 ppm­), N2O has 298 times the global warming potential of CO2 on a 100-year horizon. Nitrous oxide emissions tend to be greater in moist soils because denitrification is an anaerobic process. The rising concentration of CO2 in the atmosphere reduces plant stomatal aperture, thereby slowing transpiration and water use and leading to higher soil moisture levels. Thus, the rising CO2 concentration could stimulate N2O emissions indirectly via increasing soil moisture. Further, results from field experiments in which CO2 is elevated have demonstrated nitrification is accelerated at elevated CO2 concentrations (eCO2). Hence, N2O emissions could be substantially increased by the impacts of rising CO2 concentrations on plant and ecosystem physiology. However, the scale of this impact could be influenced by the amount of water supplied through irrigation or rainfall since both nitrification and denitrification are sensitive to soil moisture. Here, we use measurements of CO2 and N2O emissions from the TasFACE2 experiment to explore the ways in which the impact of CO2 concentration on greenhouse gas emissions is influenced by water supply in a managed temperate pasture. TasFACE2 is the world's only experiment that explicitly controls soil water availability at three different CO2 concentrations. Application of chemical nitrification inhibitor severely reduces N2O flux from soils regardless of CO2 level, water treatment and time following urea application. This inhibitor reduced soil respiration in plots exposed to ambient CO2 plots but not in eCO2 plots. N2O flux is stimulated by eCO2 but not consistently among watering treatments or seasons. Soil respiration is strongly enhanced by CO2 effect regardless of watering treatment. The results demonstrate that CO2 concentration has a sustained impact on CO2 and N2O flux across a range of water availabilities in this fertilised, ryegrass

  20. Strategic planning for minimizing CO2 emissions using LP model based on forecasted energy demand by PSO Algorithm and ANN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yousefi, M.; Omid, M.; Rafiee, Sh. [Department of Agricultural Machinery Engineering, University of Tehran, Karaj (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Ghaderi, S.F. [Department of Industrial Engineering, University of Tehran, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)


    Iran's primary energy consumption (PEC) was modeled as a linear function of five socioeconomic and meteorological explanatory variables using particle swarm optimization (PSO) and artificial neural networks (ANNs) techniques. Results revealed that ANN outperforms PSO model to predict test data. However, PSO technique is simple and provided us with a closed form expression to forecast PEC. Energy demand was forecasted by PSO and ANN using represented scenario. Finally, adapting about 10% renewable energy revealed that based on the developed linear programming (LP) model under minimum CO2 emissions, Iran will emit about 2520 million metric tons CO2 in 2025. The LP model indicated that maximum possible development of hydropower, geothermal and wind energy resources will satisfy the aim of minimization of CO2 emissions. Therefore, the main strategic policy in order to reduce CO2 emissions would be exploitation of these resources.

  1. Modeling of solubility of CO2 in 1-butylpyridinium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide ionic liquid using UNIFAC (United States)

    Yunus, Normawati M.; Abdul Mutalib, M. I.; Murugesan, T.


    The solubility of CO2 in 1-butylpyridinium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide [C4py][Tf2N] ionic liquid has been determined using Magnetic Suspension Balance instrument at 298.15 K and in the pressures up to about 27 bar. A group contribution method, namely UNIFAC has been used to fit the experimental data. The interaction parameters of the model were estimated. The predicted CO2 solubility data by the model shows good agreement with the experimental data.

  2. Net sea-air CO2 fluxes and modelled pCO2 in the southwestern subtropical Atlantic continental shelf during spring 2010 and summer 2011 (United States)

    Ito, Rosane Gonçalves; Garcia, Carlos Alberto Eiras; Tavano, Virginia Maria


    Sea-air CO2 fluxes over continental shelves vary substantially in time on both seasonal and sub-seasonal scales, driven primarily by variations in surface pCO2 due to several oceanic mechanisms. Furthermore, coastal zones have not been appropriately considered in global estimates of sea-air CO2 fluxes, despite their importance to ecology and to productivity. In this work, we aimed to improve our understanding of the role played by shelf waters in controlling sea-air CO2 fluxes by investigating the southwestern Atlantic Ocean (21-35°S) region, where physical, chemical and biological measurements were made on board the Brazilian R. V. Cruzeiro do Sul during late spring 2010 and early summer 2011. Features such as discharge from the La Plata River, intrusions of tropical waters on the outer shelf due to meandering and flow instabilities of the Brazil Current, and coastal upwelling in the Santa Marta Grande Cape and São Tomé Cape were detected by both in situ measurements and ocean colour and thermal satellite imagery. Overall, shelf waters in the study area were a source of CO2 to the atmosphere, with an average of 1.2 mmol CO2 m-2 day-1 for the late spring and 11.2 mmol CO2 m-2 day-1 for the early summer cruises. The spatial variability in ocean pCO2 was associated with surface ocean properties (temperature, salinity and chlorophyll-a concentration) in both the slope and shelf waters. Empirical algorithms for predicting temperature-normalized surface ocean pCO2 as a function of surface ocean properties were shown to perform well in both shelf and slope waters, except (a) within cyclonic eddies produced by baroclinic instability of the Brazil Current as detected by satellite SST imagery and (b) in coastal upwelling regions. In these regions, surface ocean pCO2 values were higher as a result of upwelled CO2-enriched subsurface waters. Finally, a pCO2 algorithm based on both sea surface temperature and surface chlorophyll-a was developed that enabled the spatial

  3. A Multi-Objective Unit Commitment Model for Setting Carbon Tax to Reduce CO2 Emission: Thailand's Electricity Generation Case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nuchjarin Intalar


    Full Text Available Carbon tax policy is a cost-effective instrument for emission reduction. However, setting the carbon tax is one of the challenging task for policy makers as it will lead to higher price of emission-intensive sources especially the utility price. In a large-scale power generation system, minimizing the operational cost and the environmental impact are conflicting objectives and it is difficult to find the compromise solution. This paper proposes a methodology of finding a feasible carbon tax rate on strategic level using the operational unit commitment model. We present a multi-objective mixed integer linear programming model to solve the unit commitment problem and consider the environmental impacts. The methodology of analyzing of the effect of carbon tax rates on the power generation, operating cost, and CO2 emission is also provided. The trade-off relationship between total operating cost and total CO2 emission is presented in the Pareto-optimal curve to analyze the feasible carbon tax rate that is influencing on electricity operating cost. The significant outcome of this paper is a modeling framework for the policy makers to determine the possible carbon tax that can be imposed on the electricity generation.

  4. Spectroscopy, modeling and computation of metal chelate solubility in supercritical CO2. 1998 annual progress report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brennecke, J.F.; Chateauneuf, J.E.; Stadtherr, M.A.


    'This report summarizes work after 1 year and 8 months (9/15/96-5/14/98) of a 3 year project. Thus far, progress has been made in: (1) the measurement of the solubility of metal chelates in SC CO 2 with and without added cosolvents, (2) the spectroscopic determination of preferential solvation of metal chelates by cosolvents in SC CO 2 solutions, and (3) the development of a totally reliable computational technique for phase equilibrium computations. An important factor in the removal of metals from solid matrices with CO 2 /chelate mixtures is the equilibrium solubility of the metal chelate complex in the CO 2 .'

  5. Fluctuating seawater pH/pCO2regimes are more energetically expensive than static pH/pCO2levels in the musselMytilus edulis. (United States)

    Mangan, Stephanie; Urbina, Mauricio A; Findlay, Helen S; Wilson, Rod W; Lewis, Ceri


    Ocean acidification (OA) studies typically use stable open-ocean pH or CO 2 values. However, species living within dynamic coastal environments can naturally experience wide fluctuations in abiotic factors, suggesting their responses to stable pH conditions may not be reflective of either present or near-future conditions. Here we investigate the physiological responses of the mussel Mytilus edulis to variable seawater pH conditions over short- (6 h) and medium-term (2 weeks) exposures under both current and near-future OA scenarios. Mussel haemolymph pH closely mirrored that of seawater pH over short-term changes of 1 pH unit with acidosis or recovery accordingly, highlighting a limited capacity for acid-base regulation. After 2 weeks, mussels under variable pH conditions had significantly higher metabolic rates, antioxidant enzyme activities and lipid peroxidation than those exposed to static pH under both current and near-future OA scenarios. Static near-future pH conditions induced significant acid-base disturbances and lipid peroxidation compared with the static present-day conditions but did not affect the metabolic rate. These results clearly demonstrate that living in naturally variable environments is energetically more expensive than living in static seawater conditions, which has consequences for how we extrapolate future OA responses in coastal species. © 2017 The Authors.

  6. Explaining CO2 fluctuations observed in snowpacks (United States)

    Graham, Laura; Risk, David


    Winter soil carbon dioxide (CO2) respiration is a significant and understudied component of the global carbon (C) cycle. Winter soil CO2 fluxes can be surprisingly variable, owing to physical factors such as snowpack properties and wind. This study aimed to quantify the effects of advective transport of CO2 in soil-snow systems on the subdiurnal to diurnal (hours to days) timescale, use an enhanced diffusion model to replicate the effects of CO2 concentration depletions from persistent winds, and use a model-measure pairing to effectively explore what is happening in the field. We took continuous measurements of CO2 concentration gradients and meteorological data at a site in the Cape Breton Highlands of Nova Scotia, Canada, to determine the relationship between wind speeds and CO2 levels in snowpacks. We adapted a soil CO2 diffusion model for the soil-snow system and simulated stepwise changes in transport rate over a broad range of plausible synthetic cases. The goal was to mimic the changes we observed in CO2 snowpack concentration to help elucidate the mechanisms (diffusion, advection) responsible for observed variations. On subdiurnal to diurnal timescales with varying winds and constant snow levels, a strong negative relationship between wind speed and CO2 concentration within the snowpack was often identified. Modelling clearly demonstrated that diffusion alone was unable to replicate the high-frequency CO2 fluctuations, but simulations using above-atmospheric snowpack diffusivities (simulating advective transport within the snowpack) reproduced snow CO2 changes of the observed magnitude and speed. This confirmed that wind-induced ventilation contributed to episodic pulsed emissions from the snow surface and to suppressed snowpack concentrations. This study improves our understanding of winter CO2 dynamics to aid in continued quantification of the annual global C cycle and demonstrates a preference for continuous wintertime CO2 flux measurement systems.

  7. What observations of atmospheric CO2 are needed to constrain processes represented in terrestrial carbon cycle models? (United States)

    Collatz, G. J.; Kawa, S. R.; Liu, Y.; Ivanoff, A.


    Terrestrial net carbon fluxes play a dominant role in the seasonality, interannual variability and long term accumulation of CO2 in the atmosphere. The expansion of atmospheric CO2 measurements, including those from satellite based observations, should provide strong constraints on process models that attempt to explain these observed variabilities. Here we evaluate the ability of the current surface co2 observation network to distinguish between different model formulations and we identify the locations and timing of CO2 observations needed to resolve important carbon cycle processes. The standard CASA-GFEDv3 terrestrial carbon flux model is driven by NDVI and MERRA meteorology, and CO2 is distributed in the atmosphere using transport from MERRA. The standard model is then modified to include lags in the seasonal cycle of gross fluxes, different magnitudes of gross fluxes, imposition of a global 2 PgC/yr carbon sink, and the absence of fire emissions. Comparisons of the predicted CO2 mixing ratios with observations show that the standard model does a good job at capturing the daily variability and seasonal cycles but not the observed interannual variability. Lagged gross fluxes and increased magnitude of the gross fluxes have large impacts on the CO2 seasonal cycle while the imposed net carbon sink is difficult to discern. Global fires are not detectible in the current surface observations network. Maps of modeled surface and column CO2 mixing ratio differences help to identify where, when, and at what precision and accuracy observations need to be made in order to constrain modeled processes.

  8. Estimates of CO2 fluxes over the city of Cape Town, South Africa, through Bayesian inverse modelling (United States)

    Nickless, Alecia; Rayner, Peter J.; Engelbrecht, Francois; Brunke, Ernst-Günther; Erni, Birgit; Scholes, Robert J.


    We present a city-scale inversion over Cape Town, South Africa. Measurement sites for atmospheric CO2 concentrations were installed at Robben Island and Hangklip lighthouses, located downwind and upwind of the metropolis. Prior estimates of the fossil fuel fluxes were obtained from a bespoke inventory analysis where emissions were spatially and temporally disaggregated and uncertainty estimates determined by means of error propagation techniques. Net ecosystem exchange (NEE) fluxes from biogenic processes were obtained from the land atmosphere exchange model CABLE (Community Atmosphere Biosphere Land Exchange). Uncertainty estimates were based on the estimates of net primary productivity. CABLE was dynamically coupled to the regional climate model CCAM (Conformal Cubic Atmospheric Model), which provided the climate inputs required to drive the Lagrangian particle dispersion model. The Bayesian inversion framework included a control vector where fossil fuel and NEE fluxes were solved for separately.Due to the large prior uncertainty prescribed to the NEE fluxes, the current inversion framework was unable to adequately distinguish between the fossil fuel and NEE fluxes, but the inversion was able to obtain improved estimates of the total fluxes within pixels and across the domain. The median of the uncertainty reductions of the total weekly flux estimates for the inversion domain of Cape Town was 28 %, but reach as high as 50 %. At the pixel level, uncertainty reductions of the total weekly flux reached up to 98 %, but these large uncertainty reductions were for NEE-dominated pixels. Improved corrections to the fossil fuel fluxes would be possible if the uncertainty around the prior NEE fluxes could be reduced. In order for this inversion framework to be operationalised for monitoring, reporting, and verification (MRV) of emissions from Cape Town, the NEE component of the CO2 budget needs to be better understood. Additional measurements of Δ14C and δ13C isotope

  9. Interannual Variability In the Atmospheric CO2 Rectification Over Boreal Forests Based On A Coupled Ecosystem-Atmosphere Model (United States)

    Chen, B.; Chen, J. M.; Worthy, D.


    Ecosystem CO2 exchange and the planetary boundary layer (PBL) are correlated diurnally and seasonally. The simulation of this atmospheric rectifier effect is important in understanding the global CO2 distribution pattern. A 12-year (1990-1996, 1999-2003), continuous CO2 measurement record from Fraserdale, Ontario (located ~150 km north of Timmons), along with a coupled Vertical Diffusion Scheme (VDS) and ecosystem model (Boreal Ecosystem Productivity Simulator, BEPS), is used to investigate the interannual variability in this effect over a boreal forest region. The coupled model performed well in simulating CO2 vertical diffusion processes. Simulated annual atmospheric rectifier effects, (including seasonal and diurnal), quantified as the variation in the mean CO2 concentration from the surface to the top of the PBL, varied from 2.8 to 4.1 ppm, even though the modeled seasonal variations in the PBL depth were similar throughout the 12-year period. The differences in the interannual rectifier effect primarily resulted from changes in the biospheric CO2 uptake and heterotrophic respiration. Correlations in the year-to year variations of the CO2 rectification were found with mean annual air temperatures, simulated gross primary productivity (GPP) and heterotrophic respiration (Rh) (r2=0.5, 0.46, 0.42, respectively). A small increasing trend in the CO2 rectification was also observed. The year-to-year variation in the vertical distribution of the monthly mean CO2 mixing ratios (reflecting differences in the diurnal rectifier effect) was related to interannual climate variability, however, the seasonal rectifier effects were found to be more sensitive to climate variability than the diurnal rectifier effects.

  10. Modeling mineral alterations in shale reservoirs in contact with CO2 (United States)

    Maier, Uli; Tatomir, Alexandru; Sauter, Martin


    Hydraulic fracturing as well as CO2 storage, if in contact with cap rocks, can lead to alterations of the mineral phase of shale reservoirs driven by the changes in fluid composition and pressure. Underlying concepts describing the shifts in geochemical equilibria are discussed for typical shale gas mineral compositions using the geochemical codes Phreeqc and MIN3P, which have recently been upgraded to cope with the conditions of pressure and temperature in deep reservoirs. Models using field data from Heletz oil field (Israel) and the North-west-German sedimentary basins are presented. Alterations of the mineral phase over time are elucidated and their consequences on flow and transport properties of the shale gas formation.

  11. Equality and CO2 emissions distribution in climate change integrated assessment modelling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cantore, Nicola; Padilla, Emilio


    The equity implications of alternative climate policy measures are an essential issue to be considered in the design of future international agreements to tackle global warming. This paper specifically analyses the future path of emissions and income distribution and its determinants in different scenarios. Whereas our analysis is driven by tools which are typically applied in the income distribution literature and which have recently been applied to the analysis of CO 2 emissions distribution, a new methodological approach is that our study is driven by simulations run with the popular regionalised optimal growth climate change model RICE99 over the 1995-2105 period. We find that the architecture of environmental policies, the implementation of flexible mechanisms and income concentration are key determinants of emissions distribution over time. In particular we find a robust positive relationship between measures of inequalities in the distribution of emissions and income and that their magnitude will essentially depend on technological change. (author)

  12. A Gross-Margin Model for Defining Technoeconomic Benchmarks in the Electroreduction of CO2. (United States)

    Verma, Sumit; Kim, Byoungsu; Jhong, Huei-Ru Molly; Ma, Sichao; Kenis, Paul J A


    We introduce a gross-margin model to evaluate the technoeconomic feasibility of producing different C1 -C2 chemicals such as carbon monoxide, formic acid, methanol, methane, ethanol, and ethylene through the electroreduction of CO2 . Key performance benchmarks including the maximum operating cell potential (Vmax ), minimum operating current density (jmin ), Faradaic efficiency (FE), and catalyst durability (tcatdur ) are derived. The Vmax values obtained for the different chemicals indicate that CO and HCOOH are the most economically viable products. Selectivity requirements suggest that the coproduction of an economically less feasible chemical (CH3 OH, CH4 , C2 H5 OH, C2 H4 ) with a more feasible chemical (CO, HCOOH) can be a strategy to offset the Vmax requirements for individual products. Other performance requirements such as jmin and tcatdur are also derived, and the feasibility of alternative process designs and operating conditions are evaluated. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  13. A Consideration on Service Business Model for Saving Energy and Reduction of CO2 Emissions Using Inverters (United States)

    Kosaka, Michitaka; Yabutani, Takashi

    This paper considers the effectiveness of service business approach for reducing CO2 emission. “HDRIVE” is a service business using inverters to reduce energy consumption of motor drive. The business model of this service is changed for finding new opportunities of CO2 emission reduction by combining various factors such as financial service or long-term service contract. Risk analysis of this business model is very important for giving stable services to users for long term. HDRIVE business model is found to be suitable for this objective. This service can be applied to the industries such as chemical or steel industry effectively, where CO2 emission is very large, and has the possibility of creating new business considering CDM or trading CO2 emission right. The effectiveness of this approach is demonstrated through several examples in real business.

  14. Modeling the operation of a three-stage fluidized bed reactor for removing CO2 from flue gases. (United States)

    Mohanty, C R; Meikap, B C


    A bubbling counter-current multistage fluidized bed reactor for the sorption of carbon dioxide (CO(2)) by hydrated lime particles was simulated employing a two-phase model, with the bubble phase assumed to be in plug flow, and the emulsion phase in plug flow and perfectly mixed flow conditions. To meet prescribed permissible limit to emit carbon dioxide from industrial flue gases, dry scrubbing of CO(2) was realized. For the evaluation, a pilot plant was built, on which also the removal efficiency of CO(2) was verified at different solids flow rates. The model results were compared with experimental data in terms of percentage removal efficiency of carbon dioxide. The comparison showed that the EGPF model agreed well with the experimental data satisfactorily. The removal efficiency was observed to be mainly influenced by flow rates of adsorbent and CO(2) concentration. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Modeling the operation of a three-stage fluidized bed reactor for removing CO2 from flue gases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohanty, C.R.; Meikap, B.C.


    A bubbling counter-current multistage fluidized bed reactor for the sorption of carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) by hydrated lime particles was simulated employing a two-phase model, with the bubble phase assumed to be in plug flow, and the emulsion phase in plug flow and perfectly mixed flow conditions. To meet prescribed permissible limit to emit carbon dioxide from industrial flue gases, dry scrubbing of CO 2 was realized. For the evaluation, a pilot plant was built, on which also the removal efficiency of CO 2 was verified at different solids flow rates. The model results were compared with experimental data in terms of percentage removal efficiency of carbon dioxide. The comparison showed that the EGPF model agreed well with the experimental data satisfactorily. The removal efficiency was observed to be mainly influenced by flow rates of adsorbent and CO 2 concentration.

  16. Quantification of fossil fuel CO2 at the building/street level for the LA Megacity (United States)

    Gurney, K. R.; Razlivanov, I. N.; Patarasuk, R.; Song, Y.; O'Keeffe, D.; Duren, R. M.; Eldering, A.


    Quantification of fossil fuel CO2 emissions from the bottom-up perspective is a critical element in emerging plans on a global, integrated, carbon monitoring system (CMS). A space/time explicit emissions data product can act as both verification and guidance to emissions mitigation. We have progress on applying our Hestia approach to the entire LA Basin. Here, we present these initial results focusing on a few points of progress worthy of dissemination. Geocoding of the original point sources are inaccurate, placing point sources in the wrong physical position. Sometimes these errors are many kilometers. We have corrected the majority of these point through a variety of techniques. The LAX airport and the LA Port pose large unique sources in the Basin and we have taken novel approaches to characterizing the space/time distribution of these emission sources. We have used AADT and hourly traffic data to best distribute emissions in the onroad sector. This has required both extrapolation and interpolation techniques to fully cover all road types other than local roads. Finally, we have updated the emission product to the year 2012 using a variety of scaling arguments. Work on greenhouse gas emissions has been accomplished by others, though these efforts typically go down to only the county spatial scale. However, these offer numerous opportunities to potentially calibrate or explore alternative methods and results. We will review these efforts and what benefit they are provided thus far. Finally, we will review our attempts to quantify uncertainty at the space/time scales attempted here. Uncertainty quantification remains challenging due to a variety of reasons. First, bottom-up source data is often produced by a regulatory agency, which has strict legal limits to the amount and type of information available. Even in cases where legal limitations are not at work, there is no standard for uncertainty reporting and hence, little reliable uncertainty estimation is made

  17. Improving ecophysiological simulation models to predict the impact of elevated atmospheric CO(2) concentration on crop productivity. (United States)

    Yin, Xinyou


    Process-based ecophysiological crop models are pivotal in assessing responses of crop productivity and designing strategies of adaptation to climate change. Most existing crop models generally over-estimate the effect of elevated atmospheric [CO2], despite decades of experimental research on crop growth response to [CO2]. A review of the literature indicates that the quantitative relationships for a number of traits, once expressed as a function of internal plant nitrogen status, are altered little by the elevated [CO2]. A model incorporating these nitrogen-based functional relationships and mechanisms simulated photosynthetic acclimation to elevated [CO2], thereby reducing the chance of over-estimating crop response to [CO2]. Robust crop models to have small parameterization requirements and yet generate phenotypic plasticity under changing environmental conditions need to capture the carbon-nitrogen interactions during crop growth. The performance of the improved models depends little on the type of the experimental facilities used to obtain data for parameterization, and allows accurate projections of the impact of elevated [CO2] and other climatic variables on crop productivity.

  18. Stable large-scale CO2 storage in defiance of an energy system based on renewable energy - Modelling the impact of varying CO2 injection rates on reservoir behavior (United States)

    Bannach, Andreas; Hauer, Rene; Martin, Streibel; Stienstra, Gerard; Kühn, Michael


    The IPCC Report 2014 strengthens the need for CO2 storage as part of CCS or BECCS to reach ambitious climate goals despite growing energy demand in the future. The further expansion of renewable energy sources is a second major pillar. As it is today in Germany the weather becomes the controlling factor for electricity production by fossil fuelled power plants which lead to significant fluctuations of CO2-emissions which can be traced in injection rates if the CO2 were captured and stored. To analyse the impact of such changing injection rates on a CO2 storage reservoir. two reservoir simulation models are applied: a. An (smaller) reservoir model approved by gas storage activities for decades, to investigate the dynamic effects in the early stage of storage filling (initial aquifer displacement). b. An anticline structure big enough to accommodate a total amount of ≥ 100 Mega tons CO2 to investigate the dynamic effects for the entire operational life time of the storage under particular consideration of very high filling levels (highest aquifer compression). Therefore a reservoir model was generated. The defined yearly injection rate schedule is based on a study performed on behalf of IZ Klima (DNV GL, 2014). According to this study the exclusive consideration of a pool of coal-fired power plants causes the most intensive dynamically changing CO2 emissions and hence accounts for variations of a system which includes industry driven CO2 production. Besides short-term changes (daily & weekly cycles) seasonal influences are also taken into account. Simulation runs cover a variation of injection points (well locations at the top vs. locations at the flank of the structure) and some other largely unknown reservoir parameters as aquifer size and aquifer mobility. Simulation of a 20 year storage operation is followed by a post-operational shut-in phase which covers approximately 500 years to assess possible effects of changing injection rates on the long-term reservoir

  19. Fluidized-Bed Heat Transfer Modeling for the Development of Particle/Supercritical-CO2 Heat Exchanger

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ma, Zhiwen [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Martinek, Janna G [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)


    Concentrating solar power (CSP) technology is moving toward high-temperature and high-performance design. One technology approach is to explore high-temperature heat-transfer fluids and storage, integrated with a high-efficiency power cycle such as the supercritical carbon dioxide (s-CO2) Brayton power cycle. The s-CO2 Brayton power system has great potential to enable the future CSP system to achieve high solar-to-electricity conversion efficiency and to reduce the cost of power generation. Solid particles have been proposed as a possible high-temperature heat-transfer medium that is inexpensive and stable at high temperatures above 1,000 degrees C. The particle/heat exchanger provides a connection between the particles and s-CO2 fluid in the emerging s-CO2 power cycles in order to meet CSP power-cycle performance targets of 50% thermal-to-electric efficiency, and dry cooling at an ambient temperature of 40 degrees C. The development goals for a particle/s-CO2 heat exchanger are to heat s-CO2 to =720 degrees C and to use direct thermal storage with low-cost, stable solid particles. This paper presents heat-transfer modeling to inform the particle/s-CO2 heat-exchanger design and assess design tradeoffs. The heat-transfer process was modeled based on a particle/s-CO2 counterflow configuration. Empirical heat-transfer correlations for the fluidized bed and s-CO2 were used in calculating the heat-transfer area and optimizing the tube layout. A 2-D computational fluid-dynamics simulation was applied for particle distribution and fluidization characterization. The operating conditions were studied from the heat-transfer analysis, and cost was estimated from the sizing of the heat exchanger. The paper shows the path in achieving the cost and performance objectives for a heat-exchanger design.

  20. Global CO2 flux inversions from remote-sensing data with systematic errors using hierarchical statistical models (United States)

    Zammit-Mangion, Andrew; Stavert, Ann; Rigby, Matthew; Ganesan, Anita; Rayner, Peter; Cressie, Noel


    The Orbiting Carbon Observatory-2 (OCO-2) satellite was launched on 2 July 2014, and it has been a source of atmospheric CO2 data since September 2014. The OCO-2 dataset contains a number of variables, but the one of most interest for flux inversion has been the column-averaged dry-air mole fraction (in units of ppm). These global level-2 data offer the possibility of inferring CO2 fluxes at Earth's surface and tracking those fluxes over time. However, as well as having a component of random error, the OCO-2 data have a component of systematic error that is dependent on the instrument's mode, namely land nadir, land glint, and ocean glint. Our statistical approach to CO2-flux inversion starts with constructing a statistical model for the random and systematic errors with parameters that can be estimated from the OCO-2 data and possibly in situ sources from flasks, towers, and the Total Column Carbon Observing Network (TCCON). Dimension reduction of the flux field is achieved through the use of physical basis functions, while temporal evolution of the flux is captured by modelling the basis-function coefficients as a vector autoregressive process. For computational efficiency, flux inversion uses only three months of sensitivities of mole fraction to changes in flux, computed using MOZART; any residual variation is captured through the modelling of a stochastic process that varies smoothly as a function of latitude. The second stage of our statistical approach is to simulate from the posterior distribution of the basis-function coefficients and all unknown parameters given the data using a fully Bayesian Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) algorithm. Estimates and posterior variances of the flux field can then be obtained straightforwardly from this distribution. Our statistical approach is different than others, as it simultaneously makes inference (and quantifies uncertainty) on both the error components' parameters and the CO2 fluxes. We compare it to more classical

  1. The doubled CO2 climate and the sensitivity of the modeled hydrologic cycle (United States)

    Rind, D.


    Four doubled CO2 experiments with the GISS general circulation model are compared to investigate the consistency of changes in water availability over the United States. The experiments compare the influence of model sensitivity, model resolution, and the sea-surface temperature gradient. The results show that the general mid-latitude drying over land is dependent upon the degree of mid-latitude eddy energy decrease, and thus the degree of high-latitude temperature change amplification. There is a general tendency in the experiments for the northern and western United States to become wetter, while the southern and eastern portions dry. However, there is much variability from run to run, with different regions showing different degrees of sensitivity to the parameters tested. The results for the western United States depend most on model resolution; those for the central United States, on the sea-surface temperature gradient and the degree of mid-latitude ocean warming; and those for the eastern United States, on model sensitivity. The changes in particular seasons depend on changes in other seasons, and will therefore be sensitive to the realism of the ground hydrology parameterization.

  2. Explaining CO2 fluctuations observed in snowpacks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Graham


    Full Text Available Winter soil carbon dioxide (CO2 respiration is a significant and understudied component of the global carbon (C cycle. Winter soil CO2 fluxes can be surprisingly variable, owing to physical factors such as snowpack properties and wind. This study aimed to quantify the effects of advective transport of CO2 in soil–snow systems on the subdiurnal to diurnal (hours to days timescale, use an enhanced diffusion model to replicate the effects of CO2 concentration depletions from persistent winds, and use a model–measure pairing to effectively explore what is happening in the field. We took continuous measurements of CO2 concentration gradients and meteorological data at a site in the Cape Breton Highlands of Nova Scotia, Canada, to determine the relationship between wind speeds and CO2 levels in snowpacks. We adapted a soil CO2 diffusion model for the soil–snow system and simulated stepwise changes in transport rate over a broad range of plausible synthetic cases. The goal was to mimic the changes we observed in CO2 snowpack concentration to help elucidate the mechanisms (diffusion, advection responsible for observed variations. On subdiurnal to diurnal timescales with varying winds and constant snow levels, a strong negative relationship between wind speed and CO2 concentration within the snowpack was often identified. Modelling clearly demonstrated that diffusion alone was unable to replicate the high-frequency CO2 fluctuations, but simulations using above-atmospheric snowpack diffusivities (simulating advective transport within the snowpack reproduced snow CO2 changes of the observed magnitude and speed. This confirmed that wind-induced ventilation contributed to episodic pulsed emissions from the snow surface and to suppressed snowpack concentrations. This study improves our understanding of winter CO2 dynamics to aid in continued quantification of the annual global C cycle and demonstrates a preference for continuous wintertime CO2 flux

  3. Development and modelling of a steel slag filter effluent neutralization process with CO2-enriched air from an upstream bioprocess. (United States)

    Bove, Patricia; Claveau-Mallet, Dominique; Boutet, Étienne; Lida, Félix; Comeau, Yves


    The main objective of this project was to develop a steel slag filter effluent neutralization process by acidification with CO 2 -enriched air coming from a bioprocess. Sub-objectives were to evaluate the neutralization capacity of different configurations of neutralization units in lab-scale conditions and to propose a design model of steel slag effluent neutralization. Two lab-scale column neutralization units fed with two different types of influent were operated at hydraulic retention time of 10 h. Tested variables were mode of flow (saturated or percolating), type of media (none, gravel, Bionest and AnoxKaldnes K3), type of air (ambient or CO 2 -enriched) and airflow rate. One neutralization field test (saturated and no media, 2000-5000 ppm CO 2 , sequential feeding, hydraulic retention time of 7.8 h) was conducted for 7 days. Lab-scale and field-scale tests resulted in effluent pH of 7.5-9.5 when the aeration rate was sufficiently high. A model was implemented in the PHREEQC software and was based on the carbonate system, CO 2 transfer and calcite precipitation; and was calibrated on ambient air lab tests. The model was validated with CO 2 -enriched air lab and field tests, providing satisfactory validation results over a wide range of CO 2 concentrations. The flow mode had a major impact on CO 2 transfer and hydraulic efficiency, while the type of media had little influence. The flow mode also had a major impact on the calcite surface concentration in the reactor: it was constant in saturated mode and was increasing in percolating mode. Predictions could be made for different steel slag effluent pH and different operation conditions (hydraulic retention time, CO 2 concentration, media and mode of flow). The pH of the steel slag filter effluent and the CO 2 concentration of the enriched air were factors that influenced most the effluent pH of the neutralization process. An increased concentration in CO 2 in the enriched air reduced calcite precipitation

  4. A reduced order model to analytically infer atmospheric CO2 concentration from stomatal and climate data (United States)

    Konrad, Wilfried; Katul, Gabriel; Roth-Nebelsick, Anita; Grein, Michaela


    To address questions related to the acceleration or deceleration of the global hydrological cycle or links between the carbon and water cycles over land, reliable data for past climatic conditions based on proxies are required. In particular, the reconstruction of palaeoatmospheric CO2 content (Ca) is needed to assist the separation of natural from anthropogenic Ca variability and to explore phase relations between Ca and air temperature Ta time series. Both Ta and Ca are needed to fingerprint anthropogenic signatures in vapor pressure deficit, a major driver used to explain acceleration or deceleration phases in the global hydrological cycle. Current approaches to Ca reconstruction rely on a robust inverse correlation between measured stomatal density in leaves (ν) of many plant taxa and Ca. There are two methods that exploit this correlation: The first uses calibration curves obtained from extant species assumed to represent the fossil taxa, thereby restricting the suitable taxa to those existing today. The second is a hybrid eco-hydrological/physiological approach that determines Ca with the aid of systems of equations based on quasi-instantaneous leaf-gas exchange theories and fossil stomatal data collected along with other measured leaf anatomical traits and parameters. In this contribution, a reduced order model (ROM) is proposed that derives Ca from a single equation incorporating the aforementioned stomatal data, basic climate (e.g. temperature), estimated biochemical parameters of assimilation and isotope data. The usage of the ROM is then illustrated by applying it to isotopic and anatomical measurements from three extant species. The ROM derivation is based on a balance between the biochemical demand and atmospheric supply of CO2 that leads to an explicit expression linking stomatal conductance to internal CO2 concentration (Ci) and Ca. The resulting expression of stomatal conductance from the carbon economy of the leaf is then equated to another

  5. Modeling some long-term implications of CO2 fertilization for global forests and forest industries (United States)

    Joseph Buongiorno


    Background: This paper explored the long-term, ceteris-paribus effects of potential CO2 fertilization on the globalforest sector. Based on the findings of Norby et al. (PNAS 2005, 102(50)) about forest response to elevated [CO2].Methods:...

  6. Global Monthly CO2 Flux Inversion Based on Results of Terrestrial Ecosystem Modeling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Deng, F.; Chen, J.; Peters, W.; Krol, M.


    Most of our understanding of the sources and sinks of atmospheric CO2 has come from inverse studies of atmospheric CO2 concentration measurements. However, the number of currently available observation stations and our ability to simulate the diurnal planetary boundary layer evolution over

  7. Modelling of accidental releases from a high pressure CO2 pipelines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Molag, M.; Dam, C.


    In the near future large quantities of CO2 will be transported over a large distance from Carbon dioxide Capture plants to onshore and off-shore underground Storage (CCS) sites. The risk assessments for the existing CO2 pipelines show distances to harmful threshold concentrations from 1 to 7.2 km.

  8. Los Angeles megacity: a high-resolution land–atmosphere modelling system for urban CO2 emissions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Feng


    Full Text Available Megacities are major sources of anthropogenic fossil fuel CO2 (FFCO2 emissions. The spatial extents of these large urban systems cover areas of 10 000 km2 or more with complex topography and changing landscapes. We present a high-resolution land–atmosphere modelling system for urban CO2 emissions over the Los Angeles (LA megacity area. The Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF-Chem model was coupled to a very high-resolution FFCO2 emission product, Hestia-LA, to simulate atmospheric CO2 concentrations across the LA megacity at spatial resolutions as fine as  ∼  1 km. We evaluated multiple WRF configurations, selecting one that minimized errors in wind speed, wind direction, and boundary layer height as evaluated by its performance against meteorological data collected during the CalNex-LA campaign (May–June 2010. Our results show no significant difference between moderate-resolution (4 km and high-resolution (1.3 km simulations when evaluated against surface meteorological data, but the high-resolution configurations better resolved planetary boundary layer heights and vertical gradients in the horizontal mean winds. We coupled our WRF configuration with the Vulcan 2.2 (10 km resolution and Hestia-LA (1.3 km resolution fossil fuel CO2 emission products to evaluate the impact of the spatial resolution of the CO2 emission products and the meteorological transport model on the representation of spatiotemporal variability in simulated atmospheric CO2 concentrations. We find that high spatial resolution in the fossil fuel CO2 emissions is more important than in the atmospheric model to capture CO2 concentration variability across the LA megacity. Finally, we present a novel approach that employs simultaneous correlations of the simulated atmospheric CO2 fields to qualitatively evaluate the greenhouse gas measurement network over the LA megacity. Spatial correlations in the atmospheric CO2 fields reflect the coverage of

  9. Interactions of radionuclides and CO2 with clays: elucidating mechanisms at nano-scale level

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Wei


    In order to predict and regulate the environmental impact of human activities such as uranium mining and radioactive waste disposal, it is necessary to understand the behavior of actinides in the environment because their interaction with clay mineral is an important factor to control the migration of radionuclide in the environment. The behavior of actinides in the soil is mainly the surface adsorption interactions, which change the forms of radioactive elements and reduces the mobility of actinides in the natural systems. Therefore, it is important to search how the actinides interact with clay mineral such as the fundamental process of surface precipitation. Uranium is the predominant heavy metal content of the final waste in the nuclear fuel cycle (≥95% UO 2 ). In addition, uranium is a major contaminant in the soil, subsurface and groundwater as a result of human activity. Under standard environmental conditions, the most stable chemical form of U(VI) is the uranyl ion UO 2 2+ , which is potentially very mobile and readily complexes with organic and inorganic matter. On the other hand, carbon dioxide is an important greenhouse gas, warming the earth's surface to a higher temperature by reducing outward radiation. However, problems may occur when the atmospheric concentration of greenhouse gases increases. Amounts of carbon dioxide were produced since the industrial revolution, which is behind the significant global warming and rising sea level. Clay minerals are of great practical importance here, in storage of carbon dioxide due to its hydraulic permeability and ability to retain mobile species. We have chosen kaolinite and montmorillonite as prototypes of clay minerals of 1:1 and 2:1. Classical Monte Carlo (MC) and molecular dynamics (MD) methods have been used in this work in order to understand the adsorption behaviour of radionuclide and carbon dioxide in clays surface. In this thesis, we will investigate first the adsorption of uranyl on kaolinite

  10. Modelling the impact of EVs on electricity generation, costs and CO2 emissions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calnan, P.; Deane, J.P.; Ó Gallachóir, B.P.


    This paper focuses on the impact of electric vehicles on electricity generation in Ireland in 2025 based on five alternative generation portfolios. The year 2025 was selected for assessment due to the information on the composition of the five generation portfolios from Eirgrid the system operator in Ireland being provided. Detailed market simulations were undertaken on the five possible generation portfolios to assess the impact of the Government targets for electric vehicles on the generation costs, emissions, generation stack and the cost to load of this additional demand. This paper also studied the impact between a standard and least cost electric vehicle loading regime to ascertain the benefits that could be achieved. The results show that gas will be the dominant source of electricity generation to load electric vehicles and that wind as an electricity source will experience a minor reduction in curtailment, with the least cost charging profile showing a more pronounced reduction. The capital benefits of the Standard and Least Cost EV load are found to be negligible. The portfolios studied generated CO 2 emissions per kilometre between 52 and 70 gCO 2 /km. All portfolios with the exception of coal were found to comply with EU regulation 443/2009. - Highlights: • This paper focuses on the impact of electric vehicles on electricity generation in Ireland in 2025. • It uses the PLEXOS software package by Energy Exemplar to model the Irish electricity market. • Government targets for electric vehicle penetration have a limited impact on the power system. • Electric vehicles will meet EU requirements in terms of emissions created per kilometre

  11. Greenhouse Gas (CH4, CO2 and N2O) Emission Levels by Wastewater Treatment Plant (WWTP) Ponds in Brazil (United States)

    Rossete, A. L. M.; Sundefeld Junior, G.; Aparicio, C.; Baldi, G. G.; Montes, C. R.; Piveli, R. P.; Melfi, A. J.


    This study measured greenhouse gas emissions (GHG) by Facultative Ponds on Wastewater Treatment Plants. The most studied GHGs include CO2, CH4and N2O. The level of GHG (CO2, CH4 and N2O) emissions by WWTPs in Australian-type stabilization ponds was measured in the city of Lins (22º21'S, 49º50'W), state of São Paulo (SP), Brazil. GHG collection was carried outusing a collection chamber installed at the center of the facultative pond's final third. The effluent's pH and temperature (ET) were registered by probes, and meteorological information regarding air temperature (AT) and solar radiation (SR) were obtained from INMET, Brazil. GHG collection was carried out for 72 consecutive hours in June 2014, on an hourly basis, once every 5 minutes, for the first 30 minutes, and once every 10 minutes from 30 to 50 minutesand subsequently analyzed by gas chromatograph (GC).After three days of data collection, the average AT, SR, ET and pH values were, respectively, 18oC, 2583kJm-2, 23oC and 8.2. Average values for GHG emission levels (CH4, CO2 and N2O) were 79.01; 100.65 and 0.0 mg m-2 h-1, respectively. GHG emission levels were divided into light periods (morning, afternoon and evening)in order to verify the periods with the highest GHG emissions.The highest CH4 emission levels were measured between morning and early afternoon. The maximum CO2 emissions were observed from evening to early morning. N2O emissions were constant and values were close to the ones found in the atmosphere, which shows the emission of N2O by facultative ponds does not contribute to greenhouse gases emissions.The results enabled us to characterize and quantify GHG emission levels per Facultative Pond on Wastewater Treatment Plant. Acknowledgment to FAPESP and SABESP, Brazil.

  12. Role of CO2-forced Antarctic shelf freshening on local shelf warming in an eddying global climate model (United States)

    Goddard, P.; Dufour, C.; Yin, J.; Griffies, S. M.; Winton, M.


    Ocean warming near the Antarctic ice shelves has critical implications for future ice sheet mass loss and global sea level rise. A global climate model (GFDL CM2.6) with an eddying ocean is used to quantify and better understand the mechanisms contributing to ocean warming on the Antarctic continental shelf in an idealized 2xCO2 experiment. The results indicate that the simulated shelf region warming varies in magnitude at different locations. Relatively large warm anomalies occur both in the upper 100 m and at depth, which are controlled by different mechanisms. Here, we focus on the deep shelf warming and its relationship to shelf freshening. Under CO2-forcing, enhanced runoff from Antarctica, more regional precipitation, and reduction of sea ice contribute to the shelf freshening. The freshening increases the lateral density gradient of the Antarctic Slope Front, which can limit along-isopycnal onshore transport of heat from the Circumpolar Deep Water across the shelf break. Thus, the magnitude and location of the freshening anomalies govern the magnitude and location of onshore heat transport and deep warm anomalies. Additionally, the freshening increases vertical stratification on the shelf. The enhanced stratification reduces vertical mixing of heat associated with diffusion and gravitational instabilities, further contributing to the build-up of temperature anomalies at depth. Freshening is a crucial driver of the magnitude and location of the warming; however, other drivers influence the warming such as CO2-forced weakening of the easterly wind stress and associated shoaling of isotherms. Understanding the relative role of freshening in the inhomogeneous ocean warming of the Antarctic continental shelf would lead to better projections of future ice sheet mass loss, especially near the most vulnerable calving fronts.

  13. Impact of nuclear power plant construction relative to decommissioning fossil fuel plants in order to reduce CO2 emissions using a modified Nordhaus Vensim DICE model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tokuhiro, A.; Colpetzer, J.


    The current levels of CO 2 emissions and high levels accumulating in the atmosphere have climate scientists concerned. The Dynamic Integrated Climate Economy Model or 'DICE' is a model that is used to simulate climate change and evaluate factors to address global warming. The model was developed by Nordhaus and collaborators. The DICE model uses current economic and environmental data to predict potential climate change as a result of an increase in CO 2 in the atmosphere. The authors recreated the Fiddaman DICE model using Vensim and modified it to evaluate the use of nuclear power plants (NPPs) as a means to counter climate change, as characterize by temperature increases in the atmosphere and oceans and the associated cost of damages. The amount of GHG emissions from a NPP are about 6% per MWe, as that from a fossil-fueled power plant (FFPP). Based on this fact, a model was developed to simulate construction of NPPs with subsequent decommissioning of FFPPs with an equivalent power output. The study looked at extended periods into the future; that is, up to year 2300. Based on the results produced from this study it can be concluded that using NPPs in the U.S. to address climate change will provide a small benefit, but ultimately will not be enough to reduce CO 2 emissions nor atmospheric CO 2 to mitigate global warming. The amount of CO 2 in the atmosphere is predicted to be 1055 parts per million even in the best case scenario by year 2300. This far exceeds the often quoted 350 ppm concentration. The results may have policy ramifications as well as significance with respect to the seriousness of continuing increase in CO 2 concentration. The paper will discuss results and implications. (author)

  14. Effects of elevated CO2 on the photosynthesis and nitrate reductase activity of Pyropia haitanensis (Bangiales, Rhodophyta) grown at different nutrient levels (United States)

    Liu, Chunxiang; Zou, Dinghui


    Pyropia haitanensis, a commercially important species, was cultured at two CO2 concentrations (390×10-6 and 700×10-6 (parts per million)) and at low and high nutrient levels, to explore the effect of elevated CO2 on the species under nutrient enrichment. Results show that in CO2-enriched thalli, relative growth rate (RGR) was enhanced under nutrient enrichment. Elevated CO2 decreased phycobiliprotein (PB) contents, but increased the contents of soluble carbohydrates. Nutrient enrichment increased the contents of chlorophyll a (Chl a) and PB, while soluble carbohydrate content decreased. CO2 enrichment enhanced the relative maximum electronic transport rate and light saturation point. In nutrient-enriched thalli the activity of nitrate reductase (NRA) increased under elevated CO2. An instantaneous pH change in seawater (from 8.1 to 9.6) resulted in reduction of NRA, and the thalli grown under both elevated CO2 and nutrient enrichment exhibited less pronounced reduction than in algae grown at the ambient CO2. The thermal optima of NRA under elevated CO2 and/or nutrient enrichment shifted to a lower temperature (10-15°C) compared to that in ambient conditions (20°C). We propose that accelerated photosynthesis could result in growth increment. N assimilation remained high in acidified seawater and reflected increased temperature sensitivity in response to elevated CO2 and eutrophication.

  15. Utility of multiple tracer distributions in calibrating models for uptake of anthropogenic CO2 by the ocean thermocline

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peng, T.H.; Broecker, W.S.


    Two-dimensional thermocline ventilation models for the temperate North Atlantic with differing circulation patterns were calibrated to yield a tritium distribution similar to that observed during the GEOSECS survey. These models were then run for 3 He, bomb-produced 14 C, radiokrypton, and freons. They were also run for the uptake of fossil fuel CO 2 . While the models differ significantly in their ability to match the observed 3 He and 14 C distributions, these differences are not large enough to clearly single out one model as superior. This insensitivity of tracer-to-tracer ratio to model design is reflected by the near identity of the fossil fuel CO 2 uptake by the various models. This result suggests that the uptake of CO 2 by the sea is limited more by the rates of physical mixing within the sea than by gas exchange across the sea surface. If so, then the hope that models employing outcropping isopycnals will enhance the CO 2 uptake by the sea and thereby lead to a narrowing in the gap that exists for anthropogenic CO 2 budgets is not well founded. The interim strategy of using reservoir models calibrated by tracer distributions appears to be sound. 20 references, 19 figures, 5 tables

  16. TransCom 3: Annual Mean CO2 Flux Estimates from Atmospheric Inversions (Level 1) (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Atmospheric Tracer Transport Model Intercomparison Project (TransCom) was created to quantify and diagnose the uncertainty in inversion calculations of the...

  17. TransCom 3: Annual Mean CO2 Flux Estimates from Atmospheric Inversions (Level 1) (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — ABSTRACT: The Atmospheric Tracer Transport Model Intercomparison Project (TransCom) was created to quantify and diagnose the uncertainty in inversion calculations of...

  18. Sensitivity of burned area in Europe to climate change, atmospheric CO2 levels, and demography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wu, Minchao; Knorr, Wolfgang; Thonicke, Kirsten


    -European scale, and we investigate uncertainties in the relative importance of the determining factors. We simulated future burned area with LPJ-GUESS-SIMFIRE, a patch-dynamic global vegetation model with a semiempirical fire model, and LPJmL-SPITFIRE, a dynamic global vegetation model with a process-based fire...... differed notably with respect to the dominating drivers and underlying processes. Fire-vegetation interactions and socioeconomic effects emerged as important uncertainties for future burned area in some European regions. Burned area of eastern Europe increased in both models, pointing at an emerging new......Global environmental changes and human activity influence wildland fires worldwide, but the relative importance of the individual factors varies regionally and their interplay can be difficult to disentangle. Here we evaluate projected future changes in burned area at the European and sub...

  19. A Model for Interpreting High-Tower CO2 Concentration Records for the Surface Carbon Balance Information (United States)

    Chen, B.; Chen, J. M.; Higuchi, K.; Chan, D.; Shashkov, A.


    Atmospheric CO2 concentration measurements have been made by scientists of Meteorological Service of Canada on a 40 m tower for the last 10 years at 15 minute intervals over a mostly intact boreal forest near Fraserdale (50N, 81W), Ontario, Canada. The long time records of CO2 as well as basic meteorological variables provide a unique opportunity to investigate any potential changes in the ecosystem in terms of carbon balance. A model is needed to decipher the carbon cycle signals from the diurnal and seasonal variation patterns in the CO2 record. For this purpose, the Boreal Ecosystem Productivity Simulator (BEPS) is expanded to include a one-dimensional CO2 vertical transfer model involving the interaction between plant canopies and the atmosphere in the surface layer and the diurnal dynamics of the mixed layer. An analytical solution of the scalar transfer equation within the surface layer is found using an assumption that the diurnal oscillation of CO2 concentration at a given height is sinusoidal, which is suitable for the investigation of the changes in diurnal variation pattern over the 10 year period. The complex interactions between the daily cycle of the atmosphere and vegetation CO2 exchange and the daily evolution of mixed layer entrainment of CO2 determines the CO2 variation pattern at a given height. The expanded BEPS can simulate within ñ2 ppm the hourly CO2 records at the 40 m measurement height. The annual totals of gross primary productivity (GPP), net primary productivity (NPP) and net ecosystem productivity (NEP), summed up from the hourly results, agree within 5% of previous estimates of BEPS at daily steps, indicating the internal consistency of the hourly model. The model is therefore ready for exploring changes in the CO2 record as affected by changes in the forest ecosystems upwind of the tower. Preliminary results indicate that the diurnal variation amplitude of CO2 has increased by 10-20% over the 10 years period, and this change can

  20. Model Simulations of the Competing Climatic Effects of SO2 and CO2. (United States)

    Kaufman, Yoram J.; Chou, Ming-Dah


    Sulfur dioxide-derived cloud condensation nuclei are expected to enhance the planetary albedo, thereby cooling the planet. This effect might counteract the global warming expected from enhanced greenhouse gases. A detailed treatment of the relationship between fossil fuel burning and the SO2 effect on cloud albedo is implemented in a two-dimensional model for assessing the climate impact. Although there are large gaps in our knowledge of the atmospheric sources and sinks of sulfate aerosol, it is possible to reach some general conclusions. Using a conservative approach, results show that the cooling induced by the SO2 emission can presently counteract 50% of the CO2 greenhouse warming. Since 1980, a strong warming trend has been predicted by the model, 0.15°C, during the 1980-1990 period alone. The model predicts that by the year 2060 the SO2 cooling reduces climate warming by 0.5°C or 25% for the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) business as usual (BAU) scenario and 0.2°C or 20% for scenario D (for a slow pace of fossil fuel burning). The hypothesis is examined that the different responses between the Northern Hemisphere (NH) and the Southern Hemisphere (SH) can be used to validate the presence of the SO2-induced cooling. Despite the fact that most of the SO2-induced cooling takes place in the Northern Hemispheric continents, the model-predicted difference in the temperature response between the NH and the SH of 0.2°C in 1980 is expected to remain about the same at least until 2060. This result is a combined effect of the much faster response of the continents than the oceans and of the larger forcing due to CO2 than due to the SO2. The climatic response to a complete filtering of SO2 from the emission products in order to reduce acid rain is also examined. The result is a warming surge of 0.4°C in the first few years after the elimination of the SO2 emission.

  1. Marine CDOM accumulation during a coastal Arctic mesocosm experiment: No response to elevated pCO2 levels (United States)

    Pavlov, Alexey K.; Silyakova, Anna; Granskog, Mats A.; Bellerby, Richard G. J.; Engel, Anja; Schulz, Kai G.; Brussaard, Corina P. D.


    A large-scale multidisciplinary mesocosm experiment in an Arctic fjord (Kongsfjorden, Svalbard; 78°56.2'N) was used to study Arctic marine food webs and biogeochemical elements cycling at natural and elevated future carbon dioxide (CO2) levels. At the start of the experiment, marine-derived chromophoric dissolved organic matter (CDOM) dominated the CDOM pool. Thus, this experiment constituted a convenient case to study production of autochthonous CDOM, which is typically masked by high levels of CDOM of terrestrial origin in the Arctic Ocean proper. CDOM accumulated during the experiment in line with an increase in bacterial abundance; however, no response was observed to increased pCO2 levels. Changes in CDOM absorption spectral slopes indicate that bacteria were most likely responsible for the observed CDOM dynamics. Distinct absorption peaks (at 330 and 360 nm) were likely associated with mycosporine-like amino acids (MAAs). Due to the experimental setup, MAAs were produced in absence of ultraviolet exposure providing evidence for MAAs to be considered as multipurpose metabolites rather than simple photoprotective compounds. We showed that a small increase in CDOM during the experiment made it a major contributor to total absorption in a range of photosynthetically active radiation (PAR, 400-700 nm) and, therefore, is important for spectral light availability and may be important for photosynthesis and phytoplankton groups composition in a rapidly changing Arctic marine ecosystem.

  2. CO2 taxes, double dividend and competition in the energy sector: Applications of the Danish CGE model ECOSMEC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goertz, M.; Hansen, J.V.; Larsen, M.


    In this paper we develop a new CGE model of the Danish economy with the acronym ECOSMEC (Economic COuncil Simulation Model with Energy markets and Carbon taxation). The model is a hybrid of two existing static models developed by respectively the Secretariat of the Danish Economic Council and by the MobiDK model project in the Ministry of Business and Industry. Distinct features of the ECOSMEC models are a rather disaggregated modelling of energy demand and supply, introduction of various market structures in the energy sector, and a consistent specification of different household types. The simulations presented in the paper have the following implications: Firstly, a uniform CO 2 tax of approximately 300 DKK per ton could reduce emissions by 20 per cent in a scenario with perfect competition in the energy sector. Secondly, a double dividend (reduced emissions and increased welfare) could be gained by using the CO 2 tax revenue for reducing distorting income taxes. However, the double dividend result depends decisively on the applied elasticity of substitution between consumption and leisure. Thirdly, assuming different market structures in the energy sector influences the uniform CO 2 tax needed to reach a given emission target. Fourthly, the empirical aguments for differentiated CO 2 taxes motivated by imperfect energy markets are weak. Fifthly, the Danish economy could benefit from a deregulation of the electricity and district heating sector with respect to welfare and economic activity. This result holds also if CO 2 emissions are kept constant. (au)

  3. Regional-scale brine migration along vertical pathways due to CO2 injection - Part 1: The participatory modeling approach (United States)

    Scheer, Dirk; Konrad, Wilfried; Class, Holger; Kissinger, Alexander; Knopf, Stefan; Noack, Vera


    Saltwater intrusion into potential drinking water aquifers due to the injection of CO2 into deep saline aquifers is one of the potential hazards associated with the geological storage of CO2. Thus, in a site selection process, models for predicting the fate of the displaced brine are required, for example, for a risk assessment or the optimization of pressure management concepts. From the very beginning, this research on brine migration aimed at involving expert and stakeholder knowledge and assessment in simulating the impacts of injecting CO2 into deep saline aquifers by means of a participatory modeling process. The involvement exercise made use of two approaches. First, guideline-based interviews were carried out, aiming at eliciting expert and stakeholder knowledge and assessments of geological structures and mechanisms affecting CO2-induced brine migration. Second, a stakeholder workshop including the World Café format yielded evaluations and judgments of the numerical modeling approach, scenario selection, and preliminary simulation results. The participatory modeling approach gained several results covering brine migration in general, the geological model sketch, scenario development, and the review of the preliminary simulation results. These results were included in revised versions of both the geological model and the numerical model, helping to improve the analysis of regional-scale brine migration along vertical pathways due to CO2 injection.

  4. Regional-scale brine migration along vertical pathways due to CO2 injection – Part 1: The participatory modeling approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Scheer


    Full Text Available Saltwater intrusion into potential drinking water aquifers due to the injection of CO2 into deep saline aquifers is one of the potential hazards associated with the geological storage of CO2. Thus, in a site selection process, models for predicting the fate of the displaced brine are required, for example, for a risk assessment or the optimization of pressure management concepts. From the very beginning, this research on brine migration aimed at involving expert and stakeholder knowledge and assessment in simulating the impacts of injecting CO2 into deep saline aquifers by means of a participatory modeling process. The involvement exercise made use of two approaches. First, guideline-based interviews were carried out, aiming at eliciting expert and stakeholder knowledge and assessments of geological structures and mechanisms affecting CO2-induced brine migration. Second, a stakeholder workshop including the World Café format yielded evaluations and judgments of the numerical modeling approach, scenario selection, and preliminary simulation results. The participatory modeling approach gained several results covering brine migration in general, the geological model sketch, scenario development, and the review of the preliminary simulation results. These results were included in revised versions of both the geological model and the numerical model, helping to improve the analysis of regional-scale brine migration along vertical pathways due to CO2 injection.

  5. The other GHG : steps taken to reduce CO2 emissions may contribute to increased levels of water vapour in the atmosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Collison, M.


    As a result of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), the Canadian oil and gas industry and government are now in the midst of a massive overhaul of hydrocarbon energy use and carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) management. However, human-enhanced water evaporation (HEWE) may also be a significant contributor to global climate warming. Human-caused distortions of the hydrological cycle can cause multiple localized weather disturbances. There is currently a thousand times more water vapor being emitted than CO 2 , and this is contributing to increased rainfall levels around the world. Expansion of the agriculture and growth of industry has caused significant diversions and redistributions of water. Most of the water used is evaporated in the northern hemisphere. Climate modellers are needed to analyze the impacts of human-enhanced water evaporation local climates and weather. The main sources of water emissions are government-controlled energy projects and subsidized irrigation projects. Current levels of water vapour emissions are between 10 and 100 times the value of warming per tonne as CO 2 . Details of various research projects to use salt water as a fuel for vehicles was provided, as well as methods of improving the water-gas shift reaction method of hydrogen production. 2 figs

  6. Computational Modeling of Mixed Solids for CO2 CaptureSorbents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duan, Yuhua


    Since current technologies for capturing CO2 to fight global climate change are still too energy intensive, there is a critical need for development of new materials that can capture CO2 reversibly with acceptable energy costs. Accordingly, solid sorbents have been proposed to be used for CO2 capture applications through a reversible chemical transformation. By combining thermodynamic database mining with first principles density functional theory and phonon lattice dynamics calculations, a theoretical screening methodology to identify the most promising CO2 sorbent candidates from the vast array of possible solid materials has been proposed and validated. The calculated thermodynamic properties of different classes of solid materials versus temperature and pressure changes were further used to evaluate the equilibrium properties for the CO2 adsorption/desorption cycles. According to the requirements imposed by the pre- and post- combustion technologies and based on our calculated thermodynamic properties for the CO2 capture reactions by the solids of interest, we were able to screen only those solid materials for which lower capture energy costs are expected at the desired pressure and temperature conditions. Only those selected CO2 sorbent candidates were further considered for experimental validations. The ab initio thermodynamic technique has the advantage of identifying thermodynamic properties of CO2 capture reactions without any experimental input beyond crystallographic structural information of the solid phases involved. Such methodology not only can be used to search for good candidates from existing database of solid materials, but also can provide some guidelines for synthesis new materials. In this presentation, we apply our screening methodology to mixing solid systems to adjust the turnover temperature to help on developing CO2 capture Technologies.

  7. Evaluating Anthropogenic Carbon Emissions in the Urban Salt Lake Valley through Inverse Modeling: Combining Long-term CO2 Observations and an Emission Inventory using a Multiple-box Atmospheric Model (United States)

    Catharine, D.; Strong, C.; Lin, J. C.; Cherkaev, E.; Mitchell, L.; Stephens, B. B.; Ehleringer, J. R.


    The rising level of atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2), driven by anthropogenic emissions, is the leading cause of enhanced radiative forcing. Increasing societal interest in reducing anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions call for a computationally efficient method of evaluating anthropogenic CO2 source emissions, particularly if future mitigation actions are to be developed. A multiple-box atmospheric transport model was constructed in conjunction with a pre-existing fossil fuel CO2 emission inventory to estimate near-surface CO2 mole fractions and the associated anthropogenic CO2 emissions in the Salt Lake Valley (SLV) of northern Utah, a metropolitan area with a population of 1 million. A 15-year multi-site dataset of observed CO2 mole fractions is used in conjunction with the multiple-box model to develop an efficient method to constrain anthropogenic emissions through inverse modeling. Preliminary results of the multiple-box model CO2 inversion indicate that the pre-existing anthropogenic emission inventory may over-estimate CO2 emissions in the SLV. In addition, inversion results displaying a complex spatial and temporal distribution of urban emissions, including the effects of residential development and vehicular traffic will be discussed.

  8. Analysis of anthropogenic CO2 signal in ICARTT using a regional chemical transport model and observed tracers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campbell, J.E.; Carmichael, G.R.; Tang, Y.; Chai, T.; Stanier, C.O.; Schnoor, J.L.; Vay, S.A.; Choi, Y.H.; Sachse, G.W.; Singh, H.B.; Woo, J.; Vukovich, J.M.; Streets, D.G.; Huey, L.G.


    Atmospheric CO 2 inversion studies infer surface sources and sinks from observations and models. These studies usually require determination of the fossil fuel component of the observation, which can be estimated using anthropogenic tracers such as CO. The objective of this study is to demonstrate a new CO tracer method that accounts for overlapping forest fire and photochemical CO influences, and to quantify several aspects of the uncertainty in the CO tracer technique. Photochemistry model results and observations from the International Consortium for Atmospheric Research on Transport and Transformation experiment are used to quantify changes in the fossil fuel CO 2 prediction from the CO tracer method with and without the inclusion of CO from biomass burning and photochemistry. Although the chemical sources and sinks tend to offset each other, there are regions where the chemical reactions change fossil fuel CO 2 predictions by up to ±4 ppm. Including biomass burning lowers fossil fuel CO 2 by an average of 12 ppm in plumes heavily influenced by long-range transport of forest fire CO. An alternate fossil fuel CO 2 calculation is done in a power plant plume using SO 2 as a tracer, giving a change in 20 ppm from the CO method, indicative of uncertainty in the assumed CO:CO 2 ratio

  9. Modeling CO2-Water-Mineral Wettability and Mineralization for Carbon Geosequestration. (United States)

    Liang, Yunfeng; Tsuji, Shinya; Jia, Jihui; Tsuji, Takeshi; Matsuoka, Toshifumi


    Carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) capture and storage (CCS) is an important climate change mitigation option along with improved energy efficiency, renewable energy, and nuclear energy. CO 2 geosequestration, that is, to store CO 2 under the subsurface of Earth, is feasible because the world's sedimentary basins have high capacity and are often located in the same region of the world as emission sources. How CO 2 interacts with the connate water and minerals is the focus of this Account. There are four trapping mechanisms that keep CO 2 in the pores of subsurface rocks: (1) structural trapping, (2) residual trapping, (3) dissolution trapping, and (4) mineral trapping. The first two are dominated by capillary action, where wettability controls CO 2 and water two-phase flow in porous media. We review state-of-the-art studies on CO 2 /water/mineral wettability, which was found to depend on pressure and temperature conditions, salt concentration in aqueous solutions, mineral surface chemistry, and geometry. We then review some recent advances in mineral trapping. First, we show that it is possible to reproduce the CO 2 /water/mineral wettability at a wide range of pressures using molecular dynamics (MD) simulations. As the pressure increases, CO 2 gas transforms into a supercritical fluid or liquid at ∼7.4 MPa depending on the environmental temperature. This transition leads to a substantial decrease of the interfacial tension between CO 2 and reservoir brine (or pure water). However, the wettability of CO 2 /water/rock systems depends on the type of rock surface. Recently, we investigated the contact angle of CO 2 /water/silica systems with two different silica surfaces using MD simulations. We found that contact angle increased with pressure for the hydrophobic (siloxane) surface while it was almost constant for the hydrophilic (silanol) surface, in excellent agreement with experimental observations. Furthermore, we found that the CO 2 thin films at the CO 2 -hydrophilic

  10. A mechanistic diagnosis of the simulation of soil CO2 efflux of the ACME Land Model (United States)

    Liang, J.; Ricciuto, D. M.; Wang, G.; Gu, L.; Hanson, P. J.; Mayes, M. A.


    Accurate simulation of the CO2 efflux from soils (i.e., soil respiration) to the atmosphere is critical to project global biogeochemical cycles and the magnitude of climate change in Earth system models (ESMs). Currently, the simulated soil respiration by ESMs still have a large uncertainty. In this study, a mechanistic diagnosis of soil respiration in the Accelerated Climate Model for Energy (ACME) Land Model (ALM) was conducted using long-term observations at the Missouri Ozark AmeriFlux (MOFLUX) forest site in the central U.S. The results showed that the ALM default run significantly underestimated annual soil respiration and gross primary production (GPP), while incorrectly estimating soil water potential. Improved simulations of soil water potential with site-specific data significantly improved the modeled annual soil respiration, primarily because annual GPP was simultaneously improved. Therefore, accurate simulations of soil water potential must be carefully calibrated in ESMs. Despite improved annual soil respiration, the ALM continued to underestimate soil respiration during peak growing seasons, and to overestimate soil respiration during non-peak growing seasons. Simulations involving increased GPP during peak growing seasons increased soil respiration, while neither improved plant phenology nor increased temperature sensitivity affected the simulation of soil respiration during non-peak growing seasons. One potential reason for the overestimation of the soil respiration during non-peak growing seasons may be that the current model structure is substrate-limited, while microbial dormancy under stress may cause the system to become decomposer-limited. Further studies with more microbial data are required to provide adequate representation of soil respiration and to understand the underlying reasons for inaccurate model simulations.

  11. Development of a mechanistic model for prediction of CO2 capture from gas mixtures by amine solutions in porous membranes. (United States)

    Ghadiri, Mehdi; Marjani, Azam; Shirazian, Saeed


    A mechanistic model was developed in order to predict capture and removal of CO 2 from air using membrane technology. The considered membrane was a hollow-fiber contactor module in which gas mixture containing CO 2 was assumed as feed while 2-amino-2-metyl-1-propanol (AMP) was used as an absorbent. The mechanistic model was developed according to transport phenomena taking into account mass transfer and chemical reaction between CO 2 and amine in the contactor module. The main aim of modeling was to track the composition and flux of CO 2 and AMP in the membrane module for process optimization. For modeling of the process, the governing equations were computed using finite element approach in which the whole model domain was discretized into small cells. To confirm the simulation findings, model outcomes were compared with experimental data and good consistency was revealed. The results showed that increasing temperature of AMP solution increases CO 2 removal in the hollow-fiber membrane contactor.

  12. Uncertainty in measurements of the photorespiratory CO2compensation point and its impact on models of leaf photosynthesis. (United States)

    Walker, Berkley J; Orr, Douglas J; Carmo-Silva, Elizabete; Parry, Martin A J; Bernacchi, Carl J; Ort, Donald R


    Rates of carbon dioxide assimilation through photosynthesis are readily modeled using the Farquhar, von Caemmerer, and Berry (FvCB) model based on the biochemistry of the initial Rubisco-catalyzed reaction of net C 3 photosynthesis. As models of CO 2 assimilation rate are used more broadly for simulating photosynthesis among species and across scales, it is increasingly important that their temperature dependencies are accurately parameterized. A vital component of the FvCB model, the photorespiratory CO 2 compensation point (Γ * ), combines the biochemistry of Rubisco with the stoichiometry of photorespiratory release of CO 2 . This report details a comparison of the temperature response of Γ * measured using different techniques in three important model and crop species (Nicotiana tabacum, Triticum aestivum, and Glycine max). We determined that the different Γ * determination methods produce different temperature responses in the same species that are large enough to impact higher-scale leaf models of CO 2 assimilation rate. These differences are largest in N. tabacum and could be the result of temperature-dependent increases in the amount of CO 2 lost from photorespiration per Rubisco oxygenation reaction.

  13. Seasonal & Daily Amazon Column CO2 & CO Observations from Ground & Space Used to Evaluate Tropical Ecosystem Models (United States)

    Dubey, M. K.; Parker, H. A.; Wennberg, P. O.; Wunch, D.; Jacobson, A. R.; Kawa, S. R.; Keppel-Aleks, G.; Basu, S.; O'Dell, C.; Frankenberg, C.; Michalak, A. M.; Baker, D. F.; Christofferson, B.; Restrepo-Coupe, N.; Saleska, S. R.; De Araujo, A. C.; Miller, J. B.


    The Amazon basin stores 150-200 PgC, exchanges 18 PgC with the atmosphere every year and has taken up 0.42-0.65 PgC/y over the past two decades. Despite its global significance, the response of the tropical carbon cycle to climate variability and change is ill constrained as evidenced by the large negative and positive feedbacks in future climate simulations. The complex interplay of radiation, water and ecosystem phenology remains unresolved in current tropical ecosystem models. We use high frequency regional scale TCCON observations of column CO2, CO and CH4 near Manaus, Brazil that began in October 2014 to understand the aforementioned interplay of processes in regulating biosphere-atmosphere exchange. We observe a robust daily column CO2 uptake of about 2 ppm (4 ppm to 0.5 ppm) over 8 hours and evaluate how it changes as we transition to the dry season. Back-trajectory calculations show that the daily CO2 uptake footprint is terrestrial and influenced by the heterogeneity of the Amazon rain forests. The column CO falls from above 120 ppb to below 80 ppb as we transition from the biomass burning to wet seasons. The daily mean column CO2 rises by 3 ppm from October through June. Removal of biomass burning, secular CO2 increase and variations from transport (by Carbon tracker simulations) implies an increase of 2.3 ppm results from tropical biospheric processes (respiration and photosynthesis). This is consistent with ground-based remote sensing and eddy flux observations that indicate that leaf development and demography drives the tropical carbon cycle in regions that are not water limited and is not considered in current models. We compare our observations with output from 7 CO2 inversion transport models with assimilated meteorology and find that while 5 models reproduce the CO2 seasonal cycle all of them under predict the daily drawdown of CO2 by a factor of 3. This indicates that the CO2 flux partitioning between photosynthesis and respiration is incorrect

  14. Phase equilibrium measurements and thermodynamic modelling for the system (CO2 + ethyl palmitate + ethanol) at high pressures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaschi, Priscilla S.; Mafra, Marcos R.; Ndiaye, Papa M.; Corazza, Marcos L.


    Graphical abstract: Ethyl palmitate and biodiesel comparison in a pressure–composition diagram for the systems (CO 2 + ethyl palmitate + biodiesel), at different temperatures. Highlights: ► We measured VLE, LLE, and VLLE for the system (CO 2 + ethyl palmitate + ethanol). ► The saturation pressures were obtained using a variable-volume view cell. ► Phase envelope of (CO 2 + ethyl palmitate) is different that (CO 2 + soybean oil biodiesel). ► The experimental data were modeled using PR-vdW2 and PR–WS equations of state. - Abstract: This work reports phase equilibrium measurements for the binary {CO 2 (1) + ethyl palmitate(2)} and ternary {CO 2 (1) + ethyl palmitate(2) + ethanol(3)} systems at high pressures. There is currently great interest in biodiesel production processes involving supercritical and/or pressurized solvents, such as non-catalytic supercritical biodiesel production and enzyme-catalysed biodiesel production. Also, supercritical CO 2 can offer an interesting alternative for glycerol separation in the biodiesel purification step in a water-free process. In this context, the main goal of this work was to investigate the phase behaviour of binary and ternary systems involving CO 2 , a pure constituent of biodiesel ethyl palmitate and ethanol. Experiments were carried out in a high-pressure variable-volume view cell with operating temperatures ranging from (303.15 to 353.15) K and pressures up to 21 MPa. The CO 2 mole fraction ranged from 0.5033 to 0.9913 for the binary {CO 2 (1) + ethyl palmitate(2)} system and from 0.4436 to 0.9712 for ternary system {CO 2 (1) + ethyl palmitate(2) + ethanol(3)} system with ethyl ester to ethanol molar ratios of (1:6), (1:3), and (1:1). For the systems investigated, vapour–liquid (VL), liquid–liquid (LL) and vapour–liquid–liquid (VLL) phase transitions were observed. The experimental data sets were successfully modeled using the Peng–Robinson equation of state with the classical van der Waals

  15. CARVE: Monthly Atmospheric CO2 Concentrations (2009-2013) and Modeled Fluxes, Alaska (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set reports monthly averages of atmospheric CO2 concentration from satellite and airborne observations between 2009 and 2013 and simulated present and...

  16. CARVE Modeled Gross Ecosystem CO2 Exchange and Respiration, Alaska, 2012-2014 (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set provides 3-hourly estimates of gross ecosystem CO2 exchange (GEE) and respiration (autotrophic and heterotrophic) for the state of Alaska from 2012 to...

  17. Experimental and CFD modelling for thermal comfort and CO2 concentration in office building (United States)

    Kabrein, H.; Hariri, A.; Leman, A. M.; Yusof, M. Z. M.; Afandi, A.


    Computational fluid dynamic CFD was used for simulating air flow, indoor air distribution and contamination concentration. Gases pollution and thermal discomfort affected occupational health and productivity of work place. The main objectives of this study are to investigate the impact of air change rate in CO2 concentration and to estimate the profile of CO2 concentration in the offices building. The thermal comfort and gases contamination are investigated by numerical analysis CFD which was validated by experiment. Thus the air temperature, air velocity and CO2 concentration were measured at several points in the chamber with four occupants. Comparing between experimental and numerical results showed good agreement. In addition, the CO2 concentration around human recorded high, compared to the other area. Moreover, the thermal comfort in this study is within the ASHRAE standard 55-2004.

  18. Measurement and modeling of high-pressure (vapour + liquid) equilibria of (CO2 + alcohol) binary systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gutierrez, Jorge E.; Bejarano, Arturo; Fuente, Juan C. de la


    An apparatus based on a static-analytic method assembled in this work was utilized to perform high pressure (vapour + liquid) equilibria measurements with uncertainties estimated at 2 + 1-propanol), (CO 2 + 2-methyl-1-propanol), (CO 2 + 3-methyl-1-butanol), and (CO 2 + 1-pentanol) binary systems at temperatures of (313, 323, and 333) K, and at pressure range of (2 to 12) MPa. For all the (CO 2 + alcohol) systems, it was visually monitored to insure that there was no liquid immiscibility at the temperatures and pressures studied. The experimental results were correlated with the Peng-Robinson equation of state using the quadratic mixing rules of van der Waals with two adjustable parameters. The calculated (vapour + liquid) equilibria compositions were found to be in good agreement with the experimental values with deviations for the mol fractions <0.12 and <0.05 for the liquid and vapour phase, respectively.

  19. Coupling of heterotrophic bacteria to phytoplankton bloom development at different pCO2 levels: a mesocosm study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Thyrhaug


    Full Text Available The predicted rise in anthropogenic CO2 emissions will increase CO2 concentrations and decrease seawater pH in the upper ocean. Recent studies have revealed effects of pCO2 induced changes in seawater chemistry on a variety of marine life forms, in particular calcifying organisms. To test whether the predicted increase in pCO2 will directly or indirectly (via changes in phytoplankton dynamics affect abundance, activities, and community composition of heterotrophic bacteria during phytoplankton bloom development, we have aerated mesocosms with CO2 to obtain triplicates with three different partial pressures of CO2 (pCO2: 350 μatm (1×CO2, 700 μatm (2×CO2 and 1050 μatm (3×CO2. The development of a phytoplankton bloom was initiated by the addition of nitrate and phosphate. In accordance to an elevated carbon to nitrogen drawdown at increasing pCO2, bacterial production (BPP of free-living and attached bacteria as well as cell-specific BPP (csBPP of attached bacteria were related to the C:N ratio of suspended matter. These relationships significantly differed among treatments. However, bacterial abundance and activities were not statistically different among treatments. Solely community structure of free-living bacteria changed with pCO2 whereas that of attached bacteria seemed to be independent of pCO2 but tightly coupled to phytoplankton bloom development. Our findings imply that changes in pCO2, although reflected by changes in community structure of free-living bacteria, do not directly affect bacterial activity. Furthermore, bacterial activity and dynamics of heterotrophic bacteria, especially of attached bacteria, were tightly correlated to phytoplankton development and, hence, may also potentially depend on changes in pCO2.

  20. Modeling and Simulation of CO2 Absorption into Promoted Aqueous Potassium Carbonate Solution in Industrial Scale Packed Column

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Altway


    Full Text Available This paper aims to develop mathematical model for investigating the CO2 absorption into promoted hot potassium carbonate solution in industrial scale packed column. The absorber is used in a large-scale ammonia plant to remove CO2 from the process gas stream. The CO2 is removed from the gas stream by counter-current absorption in two stages column. Lean solution and semi lean solution were fed into the top of upper part column and lower part column, respectively. To represent the gas-liquid system, a rigorous mathematical model based on the two-film theory is considered. The heat effects are taken into account. The model consists of differential mass and heat balance and considers the interactions between mass-transfer and chemical kinetics using enhancement factor concept. The chemical reaction in the liquid phase is based on the bicarbonate ion formation from CO2 as the rate-determining step. Gas solubility, mass and heat transfer coefficients, reaction kinetics and equilibrium were estimated using correlations from literatures.Therefore, multi-component absorption phenomena were considered in the mathematical model. The model was validated using plant data and was used to compute temperature and concentration profiles in the absorber. The variation in percent CO2 recovery with respect to changes in some operating variables is evaluated. The effect of various kinds of promoters added into potassium carbonate solution on the carbon dioxide recovery was also investigated.

  1. Using eddy covariance of CO2, 13CO2 and CH4, continuous soil respiration measurements, and PhenoCams to constrain a process-based biogeochemical model for carbon market-funded wetland restoration (United States)

    Oikawa, P. Y.; Baldocchi, D. D.; Knox, S. H.; Sturtevant, C. S.; Verfaillie, J. G.; Dronova, I.; Jenerette, D.; Poindexter, C.; Huang, Y. W.


    We use multiple data streams in a model-data fusion approach to reduce uncertainty in predicting CO2 and CH4 exchange in drained and flooded peatlands. Drained peatlands in the Sacramento-San Joaquin River Delta, California are a strong source of CO2 to the atmosphere and flooded peatlands or wetlands are a strong CO2 sink. However, wetlands are also large sources of CH4 that can offset the greenhouse gas mitigation potential of wetland restoration. Reducing uncertainty in model predictions of annual CO2 and CH4 budgets is critical for including wetland restoration in Cap-and-Trade programs. We have developed and parameterized the Peatland Ecosystem Photosynthesis, Respiration, and Methane Transport model (PEPRMT) in a drained agricultural peatland and a restored wetland. Both ecosystem respiration (Reco) and CH4 production are a function of 2 soil carbon (C) pools (i.e. recently-fixed C and soil organic C), temperature, and water table height. Photosynthesis is predicted using a light use efficiency model. To estimate parameters we use a Markov Chain Monte Carlo approach with an adaptive Metropolis-Hastings algorithm. Multiple data streams are used to constrain model parameters including eddy covariance of CO2, 13CO2 and CH4, continuous soil respiration measurements and digital photography. Digital photography is used to estimate leaf area index, an important input variable for the photosynthesis model. Soil respiration and 13CO2 fluxes allow partitioning of eddy covariance data between Reco and photosynthesis. Partitioned fluxes of CO2 with associated uncertainty are used to parametrize the Reco and photosynthesis models within PEPRMT. Overall, PEPRMT model performance is high. For example, we observe high data-model agreement between modeled and observed partitioned Reco (r2 = 0.68; slope = 1; RMSE = 0.59 g C-CO2 m-2 d-1). Model validation demonstrated the model's ability to accurately predict annual budgets of CO2 and CH4 in a wetland system (within 14% and 1

  2. A Study on the Applicability of Kinetic Models for Shenfu Coal Char Gasification with CO2 at Elevated Temperatures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinsheng Gao


    Full Text Available In this paper, measurements of the CO2 gasification kinetics for two types of Shenfu coal chars, which were respectively prepared by slow and rapid pyrolysis at temperatures of 950 °C and 1,400 °C, were performed by an isothermal thermo-gravimetric analysis under ambient pressure and elevated temperature conditions. Simultaneously, the applicability of the kinetic model for the CO2 gasification reaction of Shenfu coal chars was discussed. The results showed: (i the shrinking un-reacted core model was not appropriate to describe the gasification reaction process of Shenfu coal chars with CO2 in the whole experimental temperature range; (ii at the relatively low temperatures, the modified volumetric model was as good as the random pore model to simulate the CO2 gasification reaction of Shenfu coal chars, while at the elevated temperatures, the modified volumetric model was superior to the random pore model for this process; (iii the integral expression of the modified volumetric model was more favorable than the differential expression of that for fitting the experimental data. Moreover, by simply introducing a function: A = A★exp(ft, it was found that the extensive model of the modified volumetric model could make much better predictions than the modified volumetric model. It was recommended as a convenient empirical model for comprehensive simulation of Shenfu coal char gasification with under conditions close to those of entrained flow gasification.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Febriana


    Full Text Available Bed active carbon is one of the most important materials that had great impact in determining level of impurities in production of CO2 gas. In this particular factory case, there is unavailability of standard duration time of heating and cooling and steam flow rate for the re-generation process of bed active carbon. The paper discusses the fuzzy inference system for modeling of re-generation process of bed active carbon to find the optimum setting parameter. The fuzzy inference system was build using real historical daily processing data. After validation process, surface plot analysis was performed to find the optimum setting. The result of re-generation parameter setting is 9-10 hours of heating process, 4.66-5.32 hours of cooling process, and 1500-2500 kg/hr of steam flow rate.

  4. Robust Hadley Circulation Changes and Increasing Global Dryness Due to CO2 Warming from CMIP-5 Model Projections (United States)

    Lau, William K. M.; Kim, K. M.


    In this paper, we investigate changes in the Hadley Circulation (HC) and their connections to increased global dryness under CO2 warming from CMIP-5 model projections. We find a strengthening of the ascending branch of the HC manifested in a deep-tropics squeeze (DTS), i.e., a deepening and narrowing of the convective zone, increased high clouds, and a rise of the level of maximum meridional mass outflow in the upper troposphere (200-100 hectopascals) of the deep tropics. The DTS induces atmospheric moisture divergence, reduces tropospheric relative humidity in the tropics and subtropics, in conjunction with a widening of the subsiding branches of the HC, resulting in increased frequency of dry events in preferred geographic locations worldwide. Among water cycle parameters examined, global dryness has the highest signal-to-noise ratio. Our results provide scientific bases for inferring that the observed tend of prolonged droughts in recent decades is likely attributable to greenhouse warming.

  5. Partitioning CO2 fluxes with isotopologue measurements and modeling to understand mechanisms of forest carbon sequestration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saleska, Scott [Univ. of Arizona, Tucson, AZ (United States); Davidson, Eric [Univ. of Arizona, Tucson, AZ (United States); Finzi, Adrien [Boston Univ., MA (United States); Wehr, Richdard [Harvard Univ., Cambridge, MA (United States); Moorcroft, Paul [Harvard Univ., Cambridge, MA (United States)


    1. Objectives This project combines automated in situ observations of the isotopologues of CO2 with root observations, novel experimental manipulations of belowground processes, and isotope-enabled ecosystem modeling to investigate mechanisms of below- vs. aboveground carbon sequestration at the Harvard Forest Environmental Measurements Site (EMS). The proposed objectives, which have now been largely accomplished, include: A. Partitioning of net ecosystem CO2 exchange (NEE) into photosynthesis and respiration using long-term continuous observations of the isotopic composition of NEE, and analysis of their dynamics ; B. Investigation of the influence of vegetation phenology on the timing and magnitude of carbon allocated belowground using measurements of root growth and indices of belowground autotrophic vs. heterotrophic respiration (via trenched plots and isotope measurements); C. Testing whether plant allocation of carbon belowground stimulates the microbial decomposition of soil organic matter, using in situ rhizosphere simulation experiments wherein realistic quantities of artificial isotopically-labeled exudates are released into the soil; and D. Synthesis and interpretation of the above data using the Ecosystem Demography Model 2 (ED2). 2. Highlights Accomplishments: • Our isotopic eddy flux record has completed its 5th full year and has been used to independently estimate ecosystem-scale respiration and photosynthesis. • Soil surface chamber isotopic flux measurements were carried out during three growing seasons, in conjunction with a trenching manipulation. Key findings to date (listed by objective): A. Partitioning of Net Ecosystem Exchange: 1. Ecosystem respiration is lower during the day than at night—the first robust evidence of the inhibition of leaf respiration by light (the “Kok effect”) at the ecosystem scale. 2. Because it neglects the Kok effect, the standard NEE partitioning approach overestimates ecosystem photosynthesis (by ~25%) and

  6. Vapor-Liquid equilibrium in DEEA/H2O/CO2 system; Experiments and modeling


    Zaidy, Syed Amjad Hussain


    Experiment data for vapor-liquid equilibrium (VLE) of CO2 were conducted for DEEA 5M and 2M.The study was performed in two VLE apparatuses from 40 to 120 °C with atmospheric VLE apparatus and high pressure VLE apparatus. The extended UNIQUAC model framework was applied and the model parameters were fitted with experimental data with partial pressure of CO2 for atmospheric VLE and total pressure with high pressure VLE apparatus. Modfit was applied for further optimization. The model prediction...

  7. Investing in an coal power plant and CO2 constraints. What do risk decision-making models tell us?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taverdet-Popiolek, N.


    Face with the challenge of climate change, Europe implemented a CO 2 quota market in 2005, in order to encourage industries to reduce their emissions. The first operating phase of that market was not a constraint for them, as quotas were generously allocated and prices relatively low. However it looks as though the second phase (2013-2020, will be more of an incitement as the quota allocation will not be free and market prices will probably be higher. So, faced with the CO 2 price risk, is there any point in European electricity companies investing in coal plants that emit huge amounts of CO 2 , per kWh produced? Or is it preferable for them to wait, even though it would meat making no profit for four years, for the second phase of the quota market, in order to become more familiar with the rules? To provide answers to those questions, we have modelled both scenarios: investing immediately (irreversible decision) or waiting for 2013 (decision that implies the possibility of choosing in full knowledge of the facts). The models we chose are very simple (two periods only, with stable prices within them) and place the risk mainly in the price of CO 2 , for which two scenarios are considered in the second period: price of CO 2 , low high. They show that the expected price of CO 2 has a strong influence on the decision to invest and that industries take a stance based on their anticipation of that price and the likeliness of the scenarios. The profitability of the coal industry is weakened by the CO 2 price risk, unless the price of electricity follows that of carbon (which was not considered in the model) although the electricity price scenario is a relatively favourable one. (author)

  8. Processes regulating pCO2 in the surface waters of the central eastern Gotland Sea: a model study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernd Schneider


    Full Text Available This work presents a one-dimensional simulation of the seasonal changes in CO2 partial pressure (pCO2. The results of the model were constrained using data from observations, which improved the model's ability to estimate nitrogen fixation in the central Baltic Sea and allowed the impact of nitrogen fixation on the ecological state of the Baltic Sea to be studied. The model used here is the public domain water-column model GOTM (General Ocean Turbulence Model, which in this study was coupled with a modifed Baltic Sea ecosystem model, ERGOM (The Baltic Sea Research Institute's ecosystem model. To estimate nitrogen fixation rates in the Gotland Sea, the ERGOM model was modified by including an additional cyanobacteria group able to fix nitrogen from March to June. Furthermore, the model was extended by a simple CO2 cycle. Variable C:P and N:P ratios, controlled by phosphate concentrations in ambient water, were used to represent cyanobacteria, detritus and sediment detritus. This approach improved the model's ability to reproduce sea-surface phosphate and pCO2 dynamics. The resulting nitrogen fixation rates in 2005 for the two simulations, with and without the additional cyanobacteria group, were 259 and 278 mmol N m-2 year-1respectively.

  9. Hollow fiber membrane contactors for CO2 capture: modeling and up-scaling to CO2 capture for an 800 MWe coal power station

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kimball, E.; Al-Azki, A.; Gomez, A.; Goetheer, E.L.V.; Booth, N.; Adams, D.; Ferre, D.


    A techno-economic analysis was completed to compare the use of Hollow Fiber Membrane Modules (HFMM) with the more conventional structured packing columns as the absorber in amine-based CO2capture systems for power plants. In order to simulate the operation of industrial scale HFMMsystems, a

  10. Injeção de CO2 e lâminas de irrigação em tomateiro sob estufa CO2 injection and irrigation levels in greenhouse tomatoes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denis Cesar Cararo


    -se os dados a funções quadráticas, foram de 78,82 t.ha-1 e 86,36 t.ha-1, correspondentes à aplicação de 335,2 mm e 333,6 mm de água para as estufas sem e com aplicação de CO2, respectivamente. Para uma faixa de variação do produto físico marginal de 0 a 1, as lâminas economicamente ótimas variaram de 335,2 mm a 322,4 mm em ausência de CO2 e de 333,6 mm a 323,8 mm com utilização do gás.The application of appropriate amounts of water and the usage of associated techniques improve the yield and quality of tomato fruits, assuring better profits to the farmer. We studied the effect of different water depth applications and carbon dioxide (CO2 injection in the irrigation system of a tomato crop, cv. Débora-Plus. An experiment was conducted in Piracicaba, São Paulo State (Brazil, under two greenhouses, using 40; 60; 80; 100; 120 and 140% of the water depth needed by the crop and C0 = 0 g of CO2.L-1 of water and C1 = 7.73 g.L-1 of CO2 concentrations were applied through irrigation water during 1999. The experiment was conducted in completely randomized blocks, with four replications. The CO2 treatments were applied in separate greenhouses. The irrigation was accomplished by using a drip irrigation system, based on reduced evaporimeters and tensiometers. The gas application was accomplished using a commercial cylinder and a Venturi type injector during the period necessary to reach the minimum water level. The application of CO2 through irrigation water increased the yield by 8.2%, raised the weight of small size fruits by 13% and the dry matter content of fruits by 8.5%. However, CO2 injection was ineffective in increasing the number and weight of medium sized fruits. The soil solution analysis indicated that CO2 possibly contributes to the improvement of the nutritional conditions of the tomato crop. The gas injection was economically feasible. The water depth did not have any significant effect on the yield, on total number of fruits, medium fruit weight

  11. Modeling char conversion under suspension fired conditions in O2/N2 and O2/CO2 atmospheres

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brix, Jacob; Jensen, Peter Arendt; Jensen, Anker Degn


    The aim of this investigation has been to model combustion under suspension fired conditions in O2/N2 and O2/CO2 mixtures. Experiments used for model validation have been carried out in an electrically heated Entrained Flow Reactor (EFR) at temperatures between 1173 K and 1673 K with inlet O2...... concentrations between 5 and 28 vol.%. The COal COmbustion MOdel, COCOMO, includes the three char morphologies: cenospheric char, network char and dense char each divided between six discrete particle sizes. Both combustion and gasification with CO2 are accounted for and reaction rates include thermal char...... deactivation, which was found to be important for combustion at high reactor temperatures and high O2 concentrations. COCOMO show in general good agreement with experimental char conversion profiles at conditions covering zone I–III. From the experimental profiles no effect of CO2 gasification on char...

  12. Measurement and modeling of high-pressure (vapor + liquid) equilibria of (CO2 + alkanol) binary systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bejarano, Arturo; Gutierrez, Jorge E.; Araus, Karina A.; Fuente, Juan C. de la


    Research highlights: → (Vapor + liquid) equilibria of three (CO 2 + C 5 alcohol) binary systems were measured. → Complementary data are reported at (313, 323 and 333) K and from (2 to 11) MPa. → No liquid immiscibility was observed at the temperatures and pressures studied. → Experimental data were correlated with the PR-EoS and the van de Waals mixing rules. → Correlation results showed relative deviations ≤8 % (liquid) and ≤2 % (vapor). - Abstract: Complementary isothermal (vapor + liquid) equilibria data are reported for the (CO 2 + 3-methyl-2-butanol), (CO 2 + 2-pentanol), and (CO 2 + 3-pentanol) binary systems at temperatures of (313, 323, and 333) K, and at pressure range of (2 to 11) MPa. For all (CO 2 + alcohol) systems, it was visually monitored that there was no liquid immiscibility at the temperatures and pressures studied. The experimental data were correlated with the Peng-Robinson equation of state using the quadratic mixing rules of van der Waals with two adjustable parameters. The calculated (vapor + liquid) equilibria compositions were found to be in good agreement with the experimental data with deviations for the mole fractions <8% and <2% for the liquid and vapor phase, respectively.

  13. Evolution and challenges of dynamic global vegetation models for some aspects of plant physiology and elevated atmospheric CO2. (United States)

    Rezende, L F C; Arenque, B C; Aidar, S T; Moura, M S B; Von Randow, C; Tourigny, E; Menezes, R S C; Ometto, J P H B


    Dynamic global vegetation models (DGVMs) simulate surface processes such as the transfer of energy, water, CO2, and momentum between the terrestrial surface and the atmosphere, biogeochemical cycles, carbon assimilation by vegetation, phenology, and land use change in scenarios of varying atmospheric CO2 concentrations. DGVMs increase the complexity and the Earth system representation when they are coupled with atmospheric global circulation models (AGCMs) or climate models. However, plant physiological processes are still a major source of uncertainty in DGVMs. The maximum velocity of carboxylation (Vcmax), for example, has a direct impact over productivity in the models. This parameter is often underestimated or imprecisely defined for the various plant functional types (PFTs) and ecosystems. Vcmax is directly related to photosynthesis acclimation (loss of response to elevated CO2), a widely known phenomenon that usually occurs when plants are subjected to elevated atmospheric CO2 and might affect productivity estimation in DGVMs. Despite this, current models have improved substantially, compared to earlier models which had a rudimentary and very simple representation of vegetation-atmosphere interactions. In this paper, we describe this evolution through generations of models and the main events that contributed to their improvements until the current state-of-the-art class of models. Also, we describe some main challenges for further improvements to DGVMs.

  14. Effects of elevated CO2 and drought on wheat : testing crop simulation models for different experimental and climatic conditions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ewert, F.; Rodriguez, D.; Jamieson, P.; Semenov, M.A.; Mitchell, R.A.C.; Goudriaan, J.; Porter, J.R.; Kimball, B.A.; Pinter, P.J.; Manderscheid, R.; Weigel, H.J.; Fangmeier, A.; Fereres, E.; Villalobos, F.


    Effects of increasing carbon dioxide concentration [CO2] on wheat vary depending on water supply and climatic conditions, which are difficult to estimate. Crop simulation models are often used to predict the impact of global atmospheric changes on food production. However, models have rarely been

  15. A modeling framework for estimating energy demand and CO2 emissions from energy intensive industries in India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Das, A.; Kandpal, T.C.


    This paper presents a modeling framework for estimating energy demand and CO 2 emissions from process industries. The model has been used to project the same for four energy-intensive industries steel, cement, fertilizer, and aluminum in India, which account for nearly 50% of the energy consumed in the industrial sector. (author)

  16. Carbon inequality at the sub-national scale: A case study of provincial-level inequality in CO2 emissions in China 1997-2007

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clarke-Sather, Afton; Qu Jiansheng; Wang Qin; Zeng Jingjing; Li Yan


    This study asks whether sub-national inequalities in carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) emissions mirror international patterns in carbon inequality using the case study of China. Several studies have examined global-level carbon inequality; however, such approaches have not been used on a sub-national scale. This study examines inter-provincial inequality in CO 2 emissions within China using common measures of inequality (coefficient of variation, Gini Index, Theil Index) to analyze provincial-level data derived from the IPCC reference approach for the years 1997-2007. It decomposes CO 2 emissions inequality into its inter-regional and intra-regional components. Patterns of per capita CO 2 emissions inequality in China appear superficially similar to, though slightly lower than, per capita income inequality. However, decomposing these inequalities reveals different patterns. While inter-provincial income inequality is highly regional in character, inter-provincial CO 2 emissions inequality is primarily intra-regional. While apparently similar, global patterns in CO 2 emissions are not mirrored at the sub-national scale. - Highlights: → Carbon inequality is different in character within China than at global scale. → Interprovincial CO 2 emissions inequality in China is slightly lower than income inequality. → Interprovincial GDP inequality in China is regional in character. → Interprovincial CO 2 emissions inequality in China is not regional in character.

  17. The difference of level CO2 emissions from the transportation sector between weekdays and weekend days on the City Centre of Pemalang (United States)

    Sawitri, E.; Hardiman, G.; Buchori, I.


    The high growth of human activity potentially increases the number of vehicles and the use of fossil fuels that contribute the increase of CO2 emissions in atmosphere. Controlling CO2 emission that causes greenhouse effect becomes the main agenda of Indonesian Government. The first step control CO2 emissions is by measuring the level of CO2 emissions, especially CO2 emissions from fossil fuel consumption in the transport sector. This research aims to assess the level of CO2 emissions from transportation sector on the main roads in the city centre of Pemalang both in weekdays and weekend days. The methods applied to calculate CO2 emissions using Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) 2006 method. For this, a survey on the number of vehicles passing through the main roads using hand tally counter is firstly done. The results, CO2 emissions in working day, i.e. 49,006.95 tons/year compared to weekend i.e. 38,865.50 tons/year.

  18. Evaluating the Capacity of Global CO2 Flux and Atmospheric Transport Models to Incorporate New Satellite Observations (United States)

    Kawa, S. R.; Collatz, G. J.; Erickson, D. J.; Denning, A. S.; Wofsy, S. C.; Andrews, A. E.


    As we enter the new era of satellite remote sensing for CO2 and other carbon cyclerelated quantities, advanced modeling and analysis capabilities are required to fully capitalize on the new observations. Model estimates of CO2 surface flux and atmospheric transport are required for initial constraints on inverse analyses, to connect atmospheric observations to the location of surface sources and sinks, and ultimately for future projections of carbon-climate interactions. For application to current, planned, and future remotely sensed CO2 data, it is desirable that these models are accurate and unbiased at time scales from less than daily to multi-annual and at spatial scales from several kilometers or finer to global. Here we focus on simulated CO2 fluxes from terrestrial vegetation and atmospheric transport mutually constrained by analyzed meteorological fields from the Goddard Modeling and Assimilation Office for the period 1998 through 2006. Use of assimilated meteorological data enables direct model comparison to observations across a wide range of scales of variability. The biospheric fluxes are produced by the CASA model at lxi degrees on a monthly mean basis, modulated hourly with analyzed temperature and sunlight. Both physiological and biomass burning fluxes are derived using satellite observations of vegetation, burned area (as in GFED-2), and analyzed meteorology. For the purposes of comparison to CO2 data, fossil fuel and ocean fluxes are also included in the transport simulations. In this presentation we evaluate the model's ability to simulate CO2 flux and mixing ratio variability in comparison to in situ observations at sites in Northern mid latitudes and the continental tropics. The influence of key process representations is inferred. We find that the model can resolve much of the hourly to synoptic variability in the observations, although there are limits imposed by vertical resolution of boundary layer processes. The seasonal cycle and its

  19. CO2 emissions, energy consumption and economic growth nexus in MENA countries: Evidence from simultaneous equations models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Omri, Anis


    This paper examines the nexus between CO 2 emissions, energy consumption and economic growth using simultaneous-equations models with panel data of 14 MENA countries over the period 1990–2011. Our empirical results show that there exists a bidirectional causal relationship between energy consumption and economic growth. However, the results support the occurrence of unidirectional causality from energy consumption to CO 2 emissions without any feedback effects, and there exists a bidirectional causal relationship between economic growth and CO 2 emissions for the region as a whole. The study suggests that environmental and energy policies should recognize the differences in the nexus between energy consumption and economic growth in order to maintain sustainable economic growth in the MENA region. - Graphical abstract: Interaction between CO 2 , energy and GDP for MENA countries. - Highlights: • We investigate the energy–environment–GDP nexus for 14 MENA countries. • We have used simultaneous equations models estimated by the GMM-estimator. • Results show bi-directional causal relationship between energy consumption and economic growth. • There is uni-directional causality from energy consumption to CO 2 . • There exists bi-directional causal relationship between economic growth and pollutant emissions

  20. Integrated model for assessing the cost and CO2 emission (IMACC) for sustainable structural design in ready-mix concrete. (United States)

    Hong, Taehoon; Ji, Changyoon; Park, Hyoseon


    Cost has traditionally been considered the most important factor in the decision-making process. Recently, along with the consistent interest in environmental problems, environmental impact has also become a key factor. Accordingly, there is a need to develop a method that simultaneously reflects the cost and environmental impact in the decision-making process. This study proposed an integrated model for assessing the cost and CO(2) emission (IMACC) at the same time. IMACC is a model that assesses the cost and CO(2) emission of the various structural-design alternatives proposed in the structural-design process. To develop the IMACC, a standard on assessing the cost and CO(2) emission generated in the construction stage was proposed, along with the CO(2) emission factors in the structural materials, based on such materials' strengths. Moreover, using the economic and environmental scores that signify the cost and CO(2) emission reduction ratios, respectively, a method of selecting the best design alternative was proposed. To verify the applicability of IMACC, practical application was carried out. Structural designs were assessed, each of which used 21, 24, 27, and 30 MPa ready-mix concrete (RMC). The use of IMACC makes it easy to verify what the best design is. Results show the one that used 27 MPa RMC was the best design. Therefore, the proposed IMACC can be used as a tool for supporting the decision-making process in selecting the best design alternative. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Surrogate gas proxy prediction model for Delta 14C-based measurements of fossil fuel-CO2 (United States)

    Coakley, K. J.; Miller, J. B.; Montzka, S. A.; Sweeney, C.; Miller, B.


    The measured {}14}C {:12} {C isotopic ratio ofatmospheric CO2 (and its associated derived Δ 14Cvalue) is an ideal tracer for determination of the fossil fuelderived CO2 enhancement contributing to any atmosphericCO2 measurement (Cff). Given enough such measurements,independent top-down estimation of US fossil fuel- CO2emissions should be possible. However, the number of Δ 14Cmeasurements is presently constrained by cost, available samplevolume, and availability of mass spectrometer measurement facilities.Δ 14C is therefore measured in just a small fraction ofsamples obtained by flask air sampling networks around the world.Here, we develop a Projection Pursuit Regression model topredict Cff as a function of multiple surrogate gases acquiredwithin the NOAA/ESRL Global Greenhouse Gas Reference Network (GGGRN).The surrogates consist of measured enhancements of various anthropogenictrace gases, including CO, SF6, and halo- andhydro-carbons acquired in vertical airborne sampling profiles nearCape May, NJ and Portsmouth, NH from 2005 through 2010. Modelperformance is quantified based on predicted values correspondingto test data excluded from the model building process. Chi-squarehypothesis test analysis indicates that these predictions andcorresponding observations are consistent given our uncertaintybudget which accounts for random effects and one particular systematiceffect. To account for the possibility of additional systematiceffects, we incorporate another component of uncertainty into ourbudget. Provided that these estimates are of comparable qualityto Δ 14C -based estimates, we expect an improved determinationof fossil fuel-CO2 emissions.

  2. North American CO2 fluxes for 2007-2015 from NOAA's CarbonTracker-Lagrange Regional Inverse Modeling Framework (United States)

    Andrews, A. E.; Hu, L.; Thoning, K. W.; Nehrkorn, T.; Mountain, M. E.; Jacobson, A. R.; Michalak, A.; Dlugokencky, E. J.; Sweeney, C.; Worthy, D. E. J.; Miller, J. B.; Fischer, M. L.; Biraud, S.; van der Velde, I. R.; Basu, S.; Tans, P. P.


    CarbonTracker-Lagrange (CT-L) is a new high-resolution regional inverse modeling system for improved estimation of North American CO2 fluxes. CT-L uses footprints from the Stochastic Time-Inverted Lagrangian Transport (STILT) model driven by high-resolution (10 to 30 km) meteorological fields from the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model. We performed a suite of synthetic-data experiments to evaluate a variety of inversion configurations, including (1) solving for scaling factors to an a priori flux versus additive corrections, (2) solving for fluxes at 3-hrly resolution versus at coarser temporal resolution, (3) solving for fluxes at 1o × 1o resolution versus at large eco-regional scales. Our framework explicitly and objectively solves for the optimal solution with a full error covariance matrix with maximum likelihood estimation, thereby enabling rigorous uncertainty estimates for the derived fluxes. In the synthetic-data inversions, we find that solving for weekly scaling factors of a priori Net Ecosystem Exchange (NEE) at 1o × 1o resolution with optimization of diurnal cycles of CO2 fluxes yields faithful retrieval of the specified "true" fluxes as those solved at 3-hrly resolution. In contrast, a scheme that does not allow for optimization of diurnal cycles of CO2 fluxes suffered from larger aggregation errors. We then applied the optimal inversion setup to estimate North American fluxes for 2007-2015 using real atmospheric CO2 observations, multiple prior estimates of NEE, and multiple boundary values estimated from the NOAA's global Eulerian CarbonTracker (CarbonTracker) and from an empirical approach. Our derived North American land CO2 fluxes show larger seasonal amplitude than those estimated from the CarbonTracker, removing seasonal biases in the CarbonTracker's simulated CO2 mole fractions. Independent evaluations using in-situ CO2 eddy covariance flux measurements and independent aircraft profiles also suggest an improved estimation on North

  3. Elevated CO2 levels affect the activity of nitrate reductase and carbonic anhydrase in the calcifying rhodophyte Corallina officinalis


    Hofmann, Laurie C.; Straub, Sandra; Bischof, Kai


    The concentration of CO2 in global surface ocean waters is increasing due to rising atmospheric CO2 emissions, resulting in lower pH and a lower saturation state of carbonate ions. Such changes in seawater chemistry are expected to impact calcification in calcifying marine organisms. However, other physiological processes related to calcification might also be affected, including enzyme activity. In a mesocosm experiment, macroalgal communities were exposed to three CO2 concentrations (380, 6...

  4. Interactive effects of elevated temperature and CO(2) levels on metabolism and oxidative stress in two common marine bivalves (Crassostrea virginica and Mercenaria mercenaria). (United States)

    Matoo, Omera B; Ivanina, Anna V; Ullstad, Claus; Beniash, Elia; Sokolova, Inna M


    Marine bivalves such as the hard shell clams Mercenaria mercenaria and eastern oysters Crassostrea virginica are affected by multiple stressors, including fluctuations in temperature and CO2 levels in estuaries, and these stresses are expected to be exacerbated by ongoing global climate change. Hypercapnia (elevated CO2 levels) and temperature stress can affect survival, growth and development of marine bivalves, but the cellular mechanisms of these effects are not yet fully understood. In this study, we investigated whether oxidative stress is implicated in cellular responses to elevated temperature and CO2 levels in marine bivalves. We measured the whole-organism standard metabolic rate (SMR), total antioxidant capacity (TAOC), and levels of oxidative stress biomarkers in the muscle tissues of clams and oysters exposed to different temperatures (22 and 27°C) and CO2 levels (the present day conditions of ~400ppm CO2 and 800ppm CO2 predicted by a consensus business-as-usual IPCC emission scenario for the year 2100). SMR was significantly higher and the antioxidant capacity was lower in oysters than in clams. Aerobic metabolism was largely temperature-independent in these two species in the studied temperature range (22-27°C). However, the combined exposure to elevated temperature and hypercapnia led to elevated SMR in clams indicating elevated costs of basal maintenance. No persistent oxidative stress signal (measured by the levels of protein carbonyls, and protein conjugates with malondialdehyde and 4-hydroxynonenal) was observed during the long-term exposure to moderate warming (+5°C) and hypercapnia (~800ppm CO2). This indicates that long-term exposure to moderately elevated CO2 and temperature minimally affects the cellular redox status in these bivalve species and that the earlier observed negative physiological effects of elevated CO2 and temperature must be explained by other cellular mechanisms. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Measurement and Modelling of the Piperazine Potassium Carbonate Solutions for CO2 Capture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fosbøl, Philip Loldrup; Thomsen, Kaj; Waseem Arshad, Muhammad

    The climate is in a critical state due to the impact of pollution by CO2 and similar greenhouse gasses. Action needs to be taken in order reduce the emission of harmful components. CO2 capture is one process to help the world population back on track in order to return to normal condition....... Interesting and difficult phenomena has been observed in the analysis of the piperazine solvent. Various hydrates and complexes are formed. The loaded solutions are analysed using the same techniques. Guidelines for solvent handling are set up. These define a simple boundary for safe solvent handling in order...

  6. Uncertainty in geochemical modelling of CO2 and calcite dissolution in NaCl solutions due to different modelling codes and thermodynamic databases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haase, Christoph; Dethlefsen, Frank; Ebert, Markus; Dahmke, Andreas


    Highlights: • CO 2 and calcite dissolution is calculated. • The codes PHREEQC, Geochemist’s Workbench, EQ3/6, and FactSage are used. • Comparison with Duan and Li (2008) shows lowest deviation using phreeqc.dat and wateq4f.dat. • Using Pitzer databases does not improve accurate calculations. • Uncertainty in dissolved CO 2 is largest using the geochemical models. - Abstract: A prognosis of the geochemical effects of CO 2 storage induced by the injection of CO 2 into geologic reservoirs or by CO 2 leakage into the overlaying formations can be performed by numerical modelling (non-invasive) and field experiments. Until now the research has been focused on the geochemical processes of the CO 2 reacting with the minerals of the storage formation, which mostly consists of quartzitic sandstones. Regarding the safety assessment the reactions between the CO 2 and the overlaying formations in the case of a CO 2 leakage are of equal importance as the reactions in the storage formation. In particular, limestone formations can react very sensitively to CO 2 intrusion. The thermodynamic parameters necessary to model these reactions are not determined explicitly through experiments at the total range of temperature and pressure conditions and are thus extrapolated by the simulation code. The differences in the calculated results lead to different calcite and CO 2 solubilities and can influence the safety issues. This uncertainty study is performed by comparing the computed results, applying the geochemical modelling software codes The Geochemist’s Workbench, EQ3/6, PHREEQC and FactSage/ChemApp and their thermodynamic databases. The input parameters (1) total concentration of the solution, (2) temperature and (3) fugacity are varied within typical values for CO 2 reservoirs, overlaying formations and close-to-surface aquifers. The most sensitive input parameter in the system H 2 O–CO 2 –NaCl–CaCO 3 for the calculated range of dissolved calcite and CO 2 is the

  7. Experimental study and thermodynamic modeling of CO2 gas hydrate formation in presence of zinc oxide nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohammadi, Mohsen; Haghtalab, Ali; Fakhroueian, Zahra


    Highlights: • Nanofluids enhance heat and mass transfer and affect on kinetic and thermodynamics. • The ZnO nanoparticles in liquid affect on kinetics and P-T curve of CO 2 hydrate. • ZnO nanoparticles enhance the growth rate and gas storage in CO 2 hydrate. • A thermodynamic modeling of CO 2 hydrate proposed in the presence of nanoparticles. • Water activity in ZnO + nanofluid was affected by enhancement of the CO 2 solubility. - Abstract: The effect of synthesized zinc oxide (ZnO) nanoparticles was investigated on the kinetic and thermodynamic equilibrium conditions of CO 2 hydrate formation. The amount of the gas consumption was measured and compared for the four sample fluids: pure water, aqueous solution of sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS), water-based ZnO-nanofluid and water-based ZnO-nanofluid in the presence of SDS (0.001 mass fraction). The time of hydrate growth decreased and the amount of the storage gas enhanced in the presence of nanoparticles. Moreover, the nanoparticles size effect besides the CO 2 solubility enhancement in ZnO-nanofluid led to the reduction of water activity, so that the equilibrium curve of hydrate formation was shifted to higher pressures. A new correlation for Henry’s law constant was obtained using CO 2 -solubility data in ZnO-nanofluid. Finally using this correlation, the water activity was calculated through the Chen–Guo approach to propose a thermodynamic method for prediction of the equilibrium hydrate formation conditions in the presence of the nanoparticles.

  8. Two-Phase Reactive Transport Model CO2-Brine at Hontomín Technological Development Plant (Burgos)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodrigo-Naharro, J.; Recreo-Jiménez, F.


    The option of storing CO2 in carbonate formations is a minority in the literature on CO2 Deep Geological Storage (CO2-DGS). However, there is sufficient bibliography on systems where CO2 natural accumulations have remained for centuries in carbonate formations (e.g. McElmo Dome, USA), as well as projects related to the enhanced oil recovery (Weyburn Project, Canada). Both cases can represent natural or industrial analogues of a CO2-DGS. The Technological Development Plant (TDP) at Hontomín (Burgos) was initially designed to inject supercritical CO2 or dissolved CO2 in a Lower Jurassic limestone-dolomite formation of the Burgos Platform, at 1500 m depth approximately. The Dogger Aquifer in the Paris Basin, together with the overlying Albian aquifer, is one of these potential analogues of the Underground Structure of Hontomín due to their stratigraphic, lithological and hydrogeological similarities. However, the drilling of the wells HI (injection) and HA (auscultation) in the TDP at Hontomín in 2014, which have allowed to access to the storage and seal formations, as well as the petrophysical measurements performed by CIUDEN and Fundación Instituto Petrofísico on core samples from both wells, and the hydraulic tests for the dynamic reservoir characterisation, have advised to include the more permeable formation levels of the Norian-Rhaetian “carniolas” in the initially selected storage formation. This formation is located at the bottom of the Sopeña dolomitic Fm., at a depth of 1595-1605 m in the well HI. The existence of sulphates (anhydrite and gypsum) in these levels introduces lithological and geochemical features not present in the Dogger aquifer of the Paris Basin which, in turn, advises to consider the lessons learned from the Weyburn Project. In this report a study of the system CO2–brine–storage rock, close to the well HI, is presented, where the deep aquifer of the Underground Structure of Hontomín could be affected in the chemical

  9. A comparative approach for modeling of CO2 storage capacity and associated pressure response - analysis of data from South Scania site, Sweden (United States)

    Tian, Liang; Yang, Zhibing; Jung, Byeongju; Joodaki, Saba; Niemi, Auli; Fagerlund, Fritjof; Erlström, Mikael


    Comprehensive modeling with models of varying level of accuracy can give valuable information for the appraisal of CO2 storage potential and the assessment of risks for a given site. Here, we present a comparative modeling approach/workflow where a sequence of mathematical models of different levels of complexity are applied. These models span from semi-analytical solution to three-dimensional (3D) numerical simulator. The Scania Site, southwest Sweden where the geological model was developed within the MUSTANG project activities is selected for an example study. Initially, a semi-analytical approach is used to investigate pressure increase induced by CO2 injection so as to determine a viable injection strategy (including injection rate and number of injection wells) and parameter sensitivity. The result is then used as a starting point in subsequent numerical simulations with TOUGH2/ECO2N for 2D and 3D simulations. At the same time a simplified numerical model with the vertical equilibrium (VE) approach is also implemented. A systematic comparison is done between the different methods in terms of pressure response. CO2 spreading during both the injection and post-injection phase is also carefully compared between the 2D, VE and 3D numerical simulations. Through these comparisons we can thus identify a model with the appropriate level of complexity according to the objectives of the modeling study. Given the data available, we show an effective modeling strategy in achieving order-of-magnitude estimates on the behavior of the identified CO2 traps during and after the injection.

  10. Modeling and optimization of CO2 capture processes by chemical absorption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neveux, Thibaut


    CO 2 capture processes by chemical absorption lead to a large energy penalty on efficiency of coal-fired power plants, establishing one of the main bottleneck to its industrial deployment. The objective of this thesis is the development and validation of a global methodology, allowing the precise evaluation of the potential of a given amine capture process. Characteristic phenomena of chemical absorption have been thoroughly studied and represented with state-of-the-art models. The e-UNIQUAC model has been used to describe vapor-liquid and chemical equilibria of electrolyte solutions and the model parameters have been identified for four solvents. A rate-based formulation has been adopted for the representation of chemically enhanced heat and mass transfer in columns. The absorption and stripping models have been successfully validated against experimental data from an industrial and a laboratory pilot plants. The influence of the numerous phenomena has been investigated in order to highlight the most limiting ones. A methodology has been proposed to evaluate the total energy penalty resulting from the implementation of a capture process on an advanced supercritical coal-fired power plant, including thermal and electric consumptions. Then, the simulation and process evaluation environments have been coupled with a non-linear optimization algorithm in order to find optimal operating and design parameters with respect to energetic and economic performances. This methodology has been applied to optimize five process flow schemes operating with an monoethanolamine aqueous solution at 30% by weight: the conventional flow scheme and four process modifications. The performance comparison showed that process modifications using a heat pump effect give the best gains. The use of technical-economic analysis as an evaluation criterion of a process performance, coupled with a optimization algorithm, has proved its capability to find values for the numerous operating and design

  11. Elevated CO2 levels increase the toxicity of ZnO nanoparticles to goldfish (Carassius auratus) in a water-sediment ecosystem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yin, Ying; Hu, Zhengxue; Du, Wenchao; Ai, Fuxun; Ji, Rong; Gardea-Torresdey, Jorge L.; Guo, Hongyan


    Highlights: • Elevated CO 2 increased the Zn content in suspension by reducing pH value. • Elevated CO 2 led to higher Zn accumulation in fish tissues. • Elevated CO 2 also intensified the oxidative damage to fish induced by nZnO. - Abstract: Concerns about the environmental safety of metal-based nanoparticles (MNPs) in aquatic ecosystems are increasing. Simultaneously, elevated atmospheric CO 2 levels are a serious problem worldwide, making it possible for the combined exposure of MNPs and elevated CO 2 to the ecosystem. Here we studied the toxicity of nZnO to goldfish in a water-sediment ecosystem using open-top chambers flushed with ambient (400 ± 10 μL/L) or elevated (600 ± 10 μL/L) CO 2 for 30 days. We measured the content of Zn in suspension and fish, and analyzed physiological and biochemical changes in fish tissues. Results showed that elevated CO 2 increased the Zn content in suspension by reducing the pH value of water and consequently enhanced the bioavailability and toxicity of nZnO. Elevated CO 2 led to higher accumulation of Zn in fish tissues (increased by 43.3%, 86.4% and 22.5% in liver, brain and muscle, respectively) when compared to ambient. Elevated CO 2 also intensified the oxidative damage to fish induced by nZnO, resulting in higher ROS intensity, greater contents of MDA and MT and lower GSH content in liver and brain. Our results suggest that more studies in natural ecosystems are needed to better understand the fate and toxicity of nanoparticles in future CO 2 levels.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhu, Junfeng; Harris, David; Leetaru, Hannes


    Understanding potential long-term impacts of CO2 impurities, such as sulfur and nitrogen compounds, on deep carbon storage reservoirs is of considerable interest because co-injection of the impurities with CO2 can bring significant economic and environmental benefits. The Cambrian–Ordovician Knox Group, a thick sequence of dolostone (Beekmantown Dolomite) with minor dolomitic sandstone (Gunter Sandstone), in western Kentucky, USA, has been evaluated as a prospective CO2 sequestration target. In this study, TOUGHREACT was used to build 1-D radial models to simulate the potential impacts of co-injected CO2 and SO2 on minerals, pore fluids, and porosity and permeability in the Beekmantown Dolomite and the Gunter Sandstone. Co-injection of a mass ratio of 2.5 percent SO2 and 97.5 percent CO2, representative of flue gas from coal-fired plants, was simulated and the co-injection simulations were compared to models with CO2 only injections. The model results suggest that the major impacts of added SO2 for both the Beekmantown and the Gunter rocks were significant enhancement of dissolution of dolomite and precipitation of anhydrite, leading to noticeable increases in porosity and permeability. The Gunter Sandstone appeared to be more active with SO2 than the Beekmantown Dolomite. More dolomite was dissolved in the Gunter than in the Beekmantown with the same SO2 impurity. Consequently, porosity was raised more in the Gunter than in the Beekmantown. On the other hand, the impacts on aluminosilicate minerals appeared to be insignificant in both reservoirs, slightly changing the rates of precipitation/dissolution but the overall reaction paths remained the same.

  13. Clayey cap-rocks reactivity in presence of CO2 in deep geological storage conditions: experimentation/modeling integrated approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Credoz, A.


    CO 2 capture, transport and geological storage is one of the main solutions considered in the short and medium term to reduce CO 2 and others greenhouse gases emissions towards the atmosphere, by storing CO 2 in deeper geological reservoirs during 100 to 10 000 years. This Ph-D study offers a multi-scale vision of complex clayey cap-rocks reactivity and evolution. These formations are identified for the CO 2 containment and sealing into the reservoir. From the experimental scale on purified clay minerals to integrative modeling at high space and time scales, the strategy developed allowed identifying the main geochemical processes, to check the good agreement between experiment and modeling, and to lay emphasis the operational impacts on long-term cap-rocks integrity. Carbonated cements alteration is likely to open cap-rock porosity and to create preferential reactive pathway for reactive fluid flow. Besides, this could alter the cap-rock structure and the global geo-mechanic properties. Clay minerals alteration, including the illitization process, reduces the clay fraction volume but considerably limits the porosity increase. The illitization process in acidic conditions determined experimentally and by modeling at low and high scale, is coupled with silica precipitation. The final porosity increase control results of these two reactive processes balance. By a fundamental side, this study reveals new kinetic parameters of clay minerals and highlights new structural transformations. By an operational side, this study contributes to the acquisition of qualitative data (long-term reactive pathways of clayey cap-rocks, coupled reactivity carbonates/clays) and quantitative data (CO 2 penetration distance into the cap-rock) to partly answer to the performance and safety assessment CO 2 capture and geological storage. (author)

  14. Climate change due to the gradual increase in atmospheric CO2: a climate system model sensitivity study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, H.S.; Joh, M.


    A numerical experiment investigating climate change due to the gradual increase in atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) has been performed with the community climate system model (CCSM) developed by National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR). Composed of four independent component models simulating the Earth's atmosphere, ocean, land surface, and sea-ice and one central coupler, the CCSM is used to simulate and understand the Earth's past, present and future climate states. The model experiment consists of a control run with a fixed atmospheric CO 2 concentration at a standardized value for 1990 to 2000 (355 ppmv) and a transient run with a gradually increased atmospheric CO 2 at the rate of 1% per year. ja The initial CO 2 concentration of the transient run is 355 ppmv. Each run has been performed for 80 simulated years. In this experiment, climate change due to the gradually increased atmospheric CO 2 is defined as the difference between the results from the transient and control runs. At the time of CO 2 doubling (about year 70), the globally averaged surface air temperature increases by 1.25 C. The surface air temperature increases are more predominant over the higher-latitude land areas than over other areas, especially in boreal winter. With an increase in the surface air temperature, there is a decrease in the diurnal temperature range, with the nighttime minimum temperature increasing more than the daytime maximum temperature. And air temperature shows tropospheric warming and stratospheric cooling causing the strong temperature gradient and polar jet intensifications. (orig.)

  15. Evaluating a 3-D transport model of atmospheric CO2 using ground-based, aircraft, and space-borne data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.-D. Paris


    Full Text Available We evaluate the GEOS-Chem atmospheric transport model (v8-02-01 of CO2 over 2003–2006, driven by GEOS-4 and GEOS-5 meteorology from the NASA Goddard Global Modeling and Assimilation Office, using surface, aircraft and space-borne concentration measurements of CO2. We use an established ensemble Kalman Filter to estimate a posteriori biospheric+biomass burning (BS + BB and oceanic (OC CO2 fluxes from 22 geographical regions, following the TransCom-3 protocol, using boundary layer CO2 data from a subset of GLOBALVIEW surface sites. Global annual net BS + BB + OC CO2 fluxes over 2004–2006 for GEOS-4 (GEOS-5 meteorology are −4.4 ± 0.9 (−4.2 ± 0.9, −3.9 ± 0.9 (−4.5 ± 0.9, and −5.2 ± 0.9 (−4.9 ± 0.9 PgC yr−1, respectively. After taking into account anthropogenic fossil fuel and bio-fuel emissions, the global annual net CO2 emissions for 2004–2006 are estimated to be 4.0 ± 0.9 (4.2 ± 0.9, 4.8 ± 0.9 (4.2 ± 0.9, and 3.8 ± 0.9 (4.1 ± 0.9 PgC yr−1, respectively. The estimated 3-yr total net emission for GEOS-4 (GEOS-5 meteorology is equal to 12.5 (12.4 PgC, agreeing with other recent top-down estimates (12–13 PgC. The regional a posteriori fluxes are broadly consistent in the sign and magnitude of the TransCom-3 study for 1992–1996, but we find larger net sinks over northern and southern continents. We find large departures from our a priori over Europe during summer 2003, over temperate Eurasia during 2004, and over North America during 2005, reflecting an incomplete description of terrestrial carbon dynamics. We find GEOS-4 (GEOS-5 a posteriori CO2 concentrations reproduce the observed surface trend of 1.91–2.43 ppm yr−1 (parts per million per year, depending on latitude, within 0.15 ppm yr−1 (0.2 ppm yr−1 and the seasonal cycle within 0.2 ppm (0.2 ppm at all latitudes. We find the a posteriori model reproduces the aircraft vertical profile measurements of CO2 over North America and Siberia generally within 1

  16. Estimating surface pCO2 in the northern Gulf of Mexico: Which remote sensing model to use? (United States)

    Chen, Shuangling; Hu, Chuanmin; Cai, Wei-Jun; Yang, Bo


    Various approaches and models have been proposed to remotely estimate surface pCO2 in the ocean, with variable performance as they were designed for different environments. Among these, a recently developed mechanistic semi-analytical approach (MeSAA) has shown its advantage for its explicit inclusion of physical and biological forcing in the model, yet its general applicability is unknown. Here, with extensive in situ measurements of surface pCO2, the MeSAA, originally developed for the summertime East China Sea, was tested in the northern Gulf of Mexico (GOM) where river plumes dominate water's biogeochemical properties during summer. Specifically, the MeSAA-predicted surface pCO2 was estimated by combining the dominating effects of thermodynamics, river-ocean mixing and biological activities on surface pCO2. Firstly, effects of thermodynamics and river-ocean mixing (pCO2@Hmixing) were estimated with a two-endmember mixing model, assuming conservative mixing. Secondly, pCO2 variations caused by biological activities (ΔpCO2@bio) was determined through an empirical relationship between sea surface temperature (SST)-normalized pCO2 and MODIS (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer) 8-day composite chlorophyll concentration (CHL). The MeSAA-modeled pCO2 (sum of pCO2@Hmixing and ΔpCO2@bio) was compared with the field-measured pCO2. The Root Mean Square Error (RMSE) was 22.94 μatm (5.91%), with coefficient of determination (R2) of 0.25, mean bias (MB) of - 0.23 μatm and mean ratio (MR) of 1.001, for pCO2 ranging between 316 and 452 μatm. To improve the model performance, a locally tuned MeSAA was developed through the use of a locally tuned ΔpCO2@bio term. A multi-variate empirical regression model was also developed using the same dataset. Both the locally tuned MeSAA and the regression models showed improved performance comparing to the original MeSAA, with R2 of 0.78 and 0.84, RMSE of 12.36 μatm (3.14%) and 10.66 μatm (2.68%), MB of 0.00 μatm and - 0

  17. Inverse modeling of GOSAT-retrieved ratios of total column CH4 and CO2 for 2009 and 2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Pandey


    Full Text Available This study investigates the constraint provided by greenhouse gas measurements from space on surface fluxes. Imperfect knowledge of the light path through the atmosphere, arising from scattering by clouds and aerosols, can create biases in column measurements retrieved from space. To minimize the impact of such biases, ratios of total column retrieved CH4 and CO2 (Xratio have been used. We apply the ratio inversion method described in Pandey et al. (2015 to retrievals from the Greenhouse Gases Observing SATellite (GOSAT. The ratio inversion method uses the measured Xratio as a weak constraint on CO2 fluxes. In contrast, the more common approach of inverting proxy CH4 retrievals (Frankenberg et al., 2005 prescribes atmospheric CO2 fields and optimizes only CH4 fluxes. The TM5–4DVAR (Tracer Transport Model version 5–variational data assimilation system inverse modeling system is used to simultaneously optimize the fluxes of CH4 and CO2 for 2009 and 2010. The results are compared to proxy inversions using model-derived CO2 mixing ratios (XCO2model from CarbonTracker and the Monitoring Atmospheric Composition and Climate (MACC Reanalysis CO2 product. The performance of the inverse models is evaluated using measurements from three aircraft measurement projects. Xratio and XCO2model are compared with TCCON retrievals to quantify the relative importance of errors in these components of the proxy XCH4 retrieval (XCH4proxy. We find that the retrieval errors in Xratio (mean  =  0.61 % are generally larger than the errors in XCO2model (mean  =  0.24 and 0.01 % for CarbonTracker and MACC, respectively. On the annual timescale, the CH4 fluxes from the different satellite inversions are generally in agreement with each other, suggesting that errors in XCO2model do not limit the overall accuracy of the CH4 flux estimates. On the seasonal timescale, however, larger differences are found due to uncertainties in XCO2model, particularly

  18. Inverse modeling of GOSAT-retrieved ratios of total column CH4 and CO2 for 2009 and 2010 (United States)

    Pandey, Sudhanshu; Houweling, Sander; Krol, Maarten; Aben, Ilse; Chevallier, Frédéric; Dlugokencky, Edward J.; Gatti, Luciana V.; Gloor, Emanuel; Miller, John B.; Detmers, Rob; Machida, Toshinobu; Röckmann, Thomas


    This study investigates the constraint provided by greenhouse gas measurements from space on surface fluxes. Imperfect knowledge of the light path through the atmosphere, arising from scattering by clouds and aerosols, can create biases in column measurements retrieved from space. To minimize the impact of such biases, ratios of total column retrieved CH4 and CO2 (Xratio) have been used. We apply the ratio inversion method described in Pandey et al. (2015) to retrievals from the Greenhouse Gases Observing SATellite (GOSAT). The ratio inversion method uses the measured Xratio as a weak constraint on CO2 fluxes. In contrast, the more common approach of inverting proxy CH4 retrievals (Frankenberg et al., 2005) prescribes atmospheric CO2 fields and optimizes only CH4 fluxes. The TM5-4DVAR (Tracer Transport Model version 5-variational data assimilation system) inverse modeling system is used to simultaneously optimize the fluxes of CH4 and CO2 for 2009 and 2010. The results are compared to proxy inversions using model-derived CO2 mixing ratios (XCO2model) from CarbonTracker and the Monitoring Atmospheric Composition and Climate (MACC) Reanalysis CO2 product. The performance of the inverse models is evaluated using measurements from three aircraft measurement projects. Xratio and XCO2model are compared with TCCON retrievals to quantify the relative importance of errors in these components of the proxy XCH4 retrieval (XCH4proxy). We find that the retrieval errors in Xratio (mean = 0.61 %) are generally larger than the errors in XCO2model (mean = 0.24 and 0.01 % for CarbonTracker and MACC, respectively). On the annual timescale, the CH4 fluxes from the different satellite inversions are generally in agreement with each other, suggesting that errors in XCO2model do not limit the overall accuracy of the CH4 flux estimates. On the seasonal timescale, however, larger differences are found due to uncertainties in XCO2model, particularly over Australia and in the tropics. The

  19. Laboratory Modeling of Space experiments on Expulsion of CO2 ions. Application to Global Warming. (United States)

    Wong, A. Y.


    An approach to expel minority species which can contribute to global warming from the upper atmosphere in the Arctic region by the use of HF electromagnetic waves has been proposed [1]. Laboratory plasma experiments have been designed to model various aspects of this concept - from the acquisiton of negative charges by green house gases such as CO2 to their ascent to the upper atmosphere and their acceleration and expulsion along the open magnetic field lines. Laboratory results are presented which confirmed the efficient gyro-resonance acceleration of minority ion species made possible through the space charge cancellation by majority species. The outflow of CO2 ions from the divergent magnetic field of a laboratory plasma device is measured at various background neutral pressures and for different amount of currents along the axial magnetic field. The central idea is to impart perpendicular energy to a selective ion species gyrating around the geomagnetic field at its cyclotron resonance. The wave field is produced by either modulating the auroral electrojet or from the nonlinear interaction between two electron plasma resonances. In the presence of the divergent polar geomagnetic field the accelerated perpendicular ion velocity is converted into an upward motion along open magnetic field lines. The ions thus removed will unlikely find their way back to the lower atmosphere. Negatively charged particles move upward by the fair-weather electric field and by atmospheric convection. When these ions reach above 120 km altitude where the ion gyro frequency is comparable to or greater than the ion- neutral collision frequency, they can be accelerated by EM fields through the gyro resonance interaction. The propagation of these low frequency waves to the upper atmosphere along the earth's magnetic field is permitted by the plasma dispersion relation. Laboratory experiments play an important role in confirming the theoretical prediction that ion cyclotron waves can grow

  20. Grafting of carboxyl groups using CO2/C2H4/Ar pulsed plasma: Theoretical modeling and XPS derivatization (United States)

    Manakhov, Anton; Kiryukhantsev-Korneev, Philip; Michlíček, Miroslav; Permyakova, Elizaveta; Dvořáková, Eva; Polčák, Josef; Popov, Zakhar; Visotin, Maxim; Shtansky, Dmitry V.


    The grafting of carboxyl groups enhances cell adhesion and can be used for immobilization of different biomolecules onto plasma-treated materials. The process, however, was not well optimized due to lack of clear understanding of the mechanisms of carboxylic group incorporation into plasma and their grafting to polymer surface. In this work the deposition of COOH plasma polymers from CO2/C2H4/Ar pulsed discharge has been studied depending on the gas mixture and duty cycle. We have demonstrated that the CO2/C2H4/Ar plasma with adjustable thickness of COOH functionalized layer and high stability of the grafted functions in water is a better solution for the COOH surface functionalization compared to the thoroughly analyzed CO2 plasma. The concentration of different carbon environments and the density of COOH groups have been measured by using chemical derivatization combined with X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. It has been found that the CO2/C2H4/Ar plasma mainly contains ester groups (COOC), the COOH/COOC ratio being between 0.03 and 0.08. The water stability of the COOH groups was significantly higher compared to ester environment, so immersing in water for 24 h allowed to increase the COOH/COOC ratio by a factor of 3. The mechanisms of the CO2 molecule attachment to hydrocarbon chains on the polymer surface and those located inside the plasma were modeled using ab initio calculations.

  1. Modeling and optimization of a concentrated solar supercritical CO2 power plant (United States)

    Osorio, Julian D.

    Renewable energy sources are fundamental alternatives to supply the rising energy demand in the world and to reduce or replace fossil fuel technologies. In order to make renewable-based technologies suitable for commercial and industrial applications, two main challenges need to be solved: the design and manufacture of highly efficient devices and reliable systems to operate under intermittent energy supply conditions. In particular, power generation technologies based on solar energy are one of the most promising alternatives to supply the world energy demand and reduce the dependence on fossil fuel technologies. In this dissertation, the dynamic behavior of a Concentrated Solar Power (CSP) supercritical CO2 cycle is studied under different seasonal conditions. The system analyzed is composed of a central receiver, hot and cold thermal energy storage units, a heat exchanger, a recuperator, and multi-stage compression-expansion subsystems with intercoolers and reheaters between compressors and turbines respectively. The effects of operating and design parameters on the system performance are analyzed. Some of these parameters are the mass flow rate, intermediate pressures, number of compression-expansion stages, heat exchangers' effectiveness, multi-tank thermal energy storage, overall heat transfer coefficient between the solar receiver and the environment and the effective area of the recuperator. Energy and exergy models for each component of the system are developed to optimize operating parameters in order to lead to maximum efficiency. From the exergy analysis, the components with high contribution to exergy destruction were identified. These components, which represent an important potential of improvement, are the recuperator, the hot thermal energy storage tank and the solar receiver. Two complementary alternatives to improve the efficiency of concentrated solar thermal systems are proposed in this dissertation: the optimization of the system's operating

  2. Modelling land surface fluxes of CO2 in response to climate change and nitrogen deposition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Kristina; Ambelas Skjøth, Carsten; Geels, Camilla

    Climate change, land use variations, and impacts of atmospheric nitrogen (N) deposition represent uncertainties for the prediction of future greenhouse gas exchange between land surfaces and the atmosphere as the mechanisms describing nutritional effects are not well developed in climate...... climate feedback mechanisms of CO2 between changes in management, land use practise, and climate change....

  3. Comparison of the Design of CO2-Capture Processes Using Equilibrium and Rate Based Models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arendsen, A. R J; Versteeg, G. F.; Van Der Lee, J.; Cota, R.; Satyro, M. A.


    The design of absorption processes with complex aqueous chemical reactions such as CO2-capture, selective H2S-removal as well as rate-limited physical separations like LNG pre-treatment is not simple or straightforward. Reaction kinetics, mass transfer, and thermodynamic-driven processes are coupled

  4. Experime