WorldWideScience

Sample records for modeling assembly phenomena

  1. Modelling of Transport Phenomena

    OpenAIRE

    K., Itoh; S.-I., Itoh; A., Fukuyama

    1993-01-01

    In this review article, we discuss key features of the transport phenomena and theoretical modelling to understand them. Experimental observations have revealed the nature of anomalous transport, i.e., the enhancement of the transport coefficients by the gradients of the plasma profiles, the pinch phenomena, the radial profile of the apomalous transport coefficients, the variation of the transport among the Bohm diffusion, Pseudo-classical confinement, L-mode and variety of improved confineme...

  2. New phenomena observed during fuel assemblies testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tzotcheva, V.

    2001-01-01

    The paper presents a new attempt to explain inexplicable increase of specific activity for some of the fuel assemblies during the fuel tightness testing procedures on Kozloduy NPP. A brief description of established procedure for fuel tightness control is presented in the paper. Special emphasis is given on a hypothesis that explains the fact of existence of deviation in Iodine activity more than usual, which have no reasonable interpretation. The reasons for uniform high Iodine activity for reloaded assemblies, that have kept in the open measuring can for a long time (1-3 hours), is found to be the process of Iodine dissolving in the water and the accelerated process of natural degassing. A proposal to use the 134 Cs and 137 Cs as stand-alone criteria for more precise results is made in respect to increase the reliability of fuel reloading and storage procedures

  3. Modelling of condensation phenomena

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeong, Jae Jun; Chang, Won Pyo

    1996-07-01

    Condensation occurs when vapor is cooled sufficiently below the saturation temperature to induce the nucleation of droplets. Such nucleation may occur homogeneously within the vapor or heterogeneously on entrained particular matter. Heterogeneous nucleation may occur on the walls of the system, where the temperature is below the saturation temperature. There are two forms of heterogeneous condensation, drop-wise and film-wise. Another form of condensation occurs when vapor directly contacts to subcooled liquid. In nuclear power plant systems, all forms of condensation may occur during normal operation or accident conditions. In this work the modelling of condensation is surveyed, including the Nusselts' laminar film condensation theory in 1916, Rohsenow's turbulent film condensation model in 1950s, and Chen's models in 1987. Major attention is paid on the film condensation models among various research results because of its importance in engineering applications. It is found that theory, experiment, and empirical correlations for film condensation are well established, but research for drop-wise and direct-contact condensation are not sufficient yet. Condensation models in the best-estimate system codes such as RELAP5/MOD3 and CATHARE2 are also investigated. 3 tabs., 11 figs., 36 refs. (Author)

  4. Mathematical Modeling of Diverse Phenomena

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, J. C.

    1979-01-01

    Tensor calculus is applied to the formulation of mathematical models of diverse phenomena. Aeronautics, fluid dynamics, and cosmology are among the areas of application. The feasibility of combining tensor methods and computer capability to formulate problems is demonstrated. The techniques described are an attempt to simplify the formulation of mathematical models by reducing the modeling process to a series of routine operations, which can be performed either manually or by computer.

  5. Multiscale Modeling of Mesoscale and Interfacial Phenomena

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petsev, Nikolai Dimitrov

    we provide a novel and general framework for multiscale modeling of systems featuring one or more dissolved species. This makes it possible to retain molecular detail for parts of the problem that require it while using a simple, continuum description for parts where high detail is unnecessary, reducing the number of degrees of freedom (i.e. number of particles) dramatically. This opens the possibility for modeling ion transport in biological processes and biomolecule assembly in ionic solution, as well as electrokinetic phenomena at interfaces such as corrosion. The number of particles in the system is further reduced through an integrated boundary approach, which we apply to colloidal suspensions. In this thesis, we describe this general framework for multiscale modeling single- and multicomponent systems, provide several simple equilibrium and non-equilibrium case studies, and discuss future applications.

  6. GIS and dynamic phenomena modeling

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Klimešová, Dana

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 4, č. 4 (2006), s. 11-15 ISSN 0139-570X Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10750506 Keywords : dynamic modelling * temporal analysis * dynamics evaluation * temporal space Subject RIV: BC - Control Systems Theory

  7. Extending reference assembly models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Church, Deanna M.; Schneider, Valerie A.; Steinberg, Karyn Meltz

    2015-01-01

    The human genome reference assembly is crucial for aligning and analyzing sequence data, and for genome annotation, among other roles. However, the models and analysis assumptions that underlie the current assembly need revising to fully represent human sequence diversity. Improved analysis tools...... and updated data reporting formats are also required....

  8. Geochemical modelling: what phenomena are missing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jacquier, P.

    1989-12-01

    In the framework of safety assessment of radioactive waste disposal, retention phenomena are usually taken into account by the Kd concept. It is well recognized that this concept is not enough for safety assessment models, because of the several and strong assumptions which are involved in this kind of representation. One way to have a better representation of the retention phenomena, is to substitute for this Kd concept an explicit description of geochemical phenomena and then couple transport codes with geochemical codes in a fully or a two-step procedure. We use currently such codes, but the scope of this paper is to display the limits today of the geochemical modelling in connection with sites analysis for deep disposal. In this paper, we intend to give an overview of phenomena which are missing in the geochemical models, or which are not completely introduced in the models. We can distinguish, on one hand phenomena for which modelling concepts exist such as adsorption/desorption and, on the other hand, phenomena for which modelling concepts do not exist for the moment such as colloids, and complexation by polyelectrolyte solutions (organics). Moreover we have to take care of very low concentrations of radionuclides, which can be expected from the leaching processes in the repository. Under those conditions, some reactions may not occur. After a critical review of the involved phenomena, we intend to stress the main directions of the wishful evolution of the geochemical modelling. This evolution should improve substantially the quality of the above-mentioned site assessments

  9. Modelling of flow phenomena during DC casting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zuidema, J.

    2005-01-01

    Modelling of Flow Phenomena during DC Casting Jan Zuidema The production of aluminium ingots, by semi-continuous casting, is a complex process. DC Casting stands for direct chill casting. During this process liquid aluminium transforms to solid aluminium while cooling down. This is not an

  10. Advances in modelling of condensation phenomena

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, W.S.; Zaltsgendler, E. [Ontario Hydro Nuclear, Toronto (Canada); Hanna, B. [Atomic Energy of Canada Limited, Pinawa, Manitoba (Canada)

    1997-07-01

    The physical parameters in the modelling of condensation phenomena in the CANDU reactor system codes are discussed. The experimental programs used for thermal-hydraulic code validation in the Canadian nuclear industry are briefly described. The modelling of vapour generation and in particular condensation plays a key role in modelling of postulated reactor transients. The condensation models adopted in the current state-of-the-art two-fluid CANDU reactor thermal-hydraulic system codes (CATHENA and TUF) are described. As examples of the modelling challenges faced, the simulation of a cold water injection experiment by CATHENA and the simulation of a condensation induced water hammer experiment by TUF are described.

  11. A LCIA Model Considering Pollution Transfer Phenomena

    OpenAIRE

    Yu, Xi; Sekhari, Aicha; Nongaillard, Antoine; Bouras, Abdelaziz; Yu, Suiran; Yang, Qingyan

    2013-01-01

    Part 7: PLM and Influence of/from Social Networks; International audience; Due to market pressure and government regulations, environmental consciousness in manufacturing is becoming increasingly important. Currently, the global environmental impact (EI) of a product is a crucial criterion to judge its environmental performance. Many models were proposed in the last three decades to evaluate the global EI of products, but none of them considers the pollution transfer phenomena (PTP) of produc...

  12. Simple models of equilibrium and nonequilibrium phenomena

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lebowitz, J.L.

    1987-01-01

    This volume consists of two chapters of particular interest to researchers in the field of statistical mechanics. The first chapter is based on the premise that the best way to understand the qualitative properties that characterize many-body (i.e. macroscopic) systems is to study 'a number of the more significant model systems which, at least in principle are susceptible of complete analysis'. The second chapter deals exclusively with nonequilibrium phenomena. It reviews the theory of fluctuations in open systems to which they have made important contributions. Simple but interesting model examples are emphasised

  13. Modelling of thermohydraulic emergency core cooling phenomena

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yadigaroglu, G.; Andreani, M.; Lewis, M.J.

    1990-10-01

    The codes used in the early seventies for safety analysis and licensing were based either on the homogeneous model of two-phase flow or on the so-called separate-flow models, which are mixture models accounting, however, for the difference in average velocity between the two phases. In both cases the behavior of the mixture is prescribed a priori as a function of local parameters such as the mass flux and the quality. The modern best-estimate codes used for analyzing LWR LOCA's and transients are often based on a two-fluid or 6-equation formulation of the conservation equations. In this case the conservation equations are written separately for each phase; the mixture is allowed to evolve on its own, governed by the interfacial exchanges of mass, momentum and energy between the phases. It is generally agreed that such relatively sophisticated 6-equation formulations of two-phase flow are necessary for the correct modelling of a number of phenomena and situations arising in LWR accidental situations. They are in particular indispensible for the analysis of stratified or countercurrent flows and of situations in which large departures from thermal and velocity equilibrium exist. This report will be devoted to a discussion of the need for, the capacity and the limitations of the two-phase flow models (with emphasis on the 6-equation formulations) in modelling these two-phase flow and heat transfer phenomena and/or different core cooling situations. 18 figs., 1 tab., 72 refs

  14. Modeling electrical dispersion phenomena in Earth materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Patella

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available It is illustrated that IP phenomena in rocks can be described using conductivity dispersion models deduced as solutions to a 2nd-order linear differential equation describing the motion of a charged particle immersed in an external electrical field. Five dispersion laws are discussed, namely: the non-resonant positive IP model, which leads to the classical Debye-type dispersion law and by extension to the Cole-Cole model, largely used in current practice; the non-resonant negative IP model, which allows negative chargeability values, known in metals at high frequencies, to be explained as an intrinsic physical property of earth materials in specific field cases; the resonant flat, positive or negative IP models, which can explain the presence of peak effects at specific frequencies superimposed on flat, positive or negative dispersion spectra.

  15. Two-Stage Modelling Of Random Phenomena

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barańska, Anna

    2015-12-01

    The main objective of this publication was to present a two-stage algorithm of modelling random phenomena, based on multidimensional function modelling, on the example of modelling the real estate market for the purpose of real estate valuation and estimation of model parameters of foundations vertical displacements. The first stage of the presented algorithm includes a selection of a suitable form of the function model. In the classical algorithms, based on function modelling, prediction of the dependent variable is its value obtained directly from the model. The better the model reflects a relationship between the independent variables and their effect on the dependent variable, the more reliable is the model value. In this paper, an algorithm has been proposed which comprises adjustment of the value obtained from the model with a random correction determined from the residuals of the model for these cases which, in a separate analysis, were considered to be the most similar to the object for which we want to model the dependent variable. The effect of applying the developed quantitative procedures for calculating the corrections and qualitative methods to assess the similarity on the final outcome of the prediction and its accuracy, was examined by statistical methods, mainly using appropriate parametric tests of significance. The idea of the presented algorithm has been designed so as to approximate the value of the dependent variable of the studied phenomenon to its value in reality and, at the same time, to have it "smoothed out" by a well fitted modelling function.

  16. Modeling in transport phenomena a conceptual approach

    CERN Document Server

    Tosun, Ismail

    2007-01-01

    Modeling in Transport Phenomena, Second Edition presents and clearly explains with example problems the basic concepts and their applications to fluid flow, heat transfer, mass transfer, chemical reaction engineering and thermodynamics. A balanced approach is presented between analysis and synthesis, students will understand how to use the solution in engineering analysis. Systematic derivations of the equations and the physical significance of each term are given in detail, for students to easily understand and follow up the material. There is a strong incentive in science and engineering to

  17. Social phenomena from data analysis to models

    CERN Document Server

    Perra, Nicola

    2015-01-01

    This book focuses on the new possibilities and approaches to social modeling currently being made possible by an unprecedented variety of datasets generated by our interactions with modern technologies. This area has witnessed a veritable explosion of activity over the last few years, yielding many interesting and useful results. Our aim is to provide an overview of the state of the art in this area of research, merging an extremely heterogeneous array of datasets and models. Social Phenomena: From Data Analysis to Models is divided into two parts. Part I deals with modeling social behavior under normal conditions: How we live, travel, collaborate and interact with each other in our daily lives. Part II deals with societal behavior under exceptional conditions: Protests, armed insurgencies, terrorist attacks, and reactions to infectious diseases. This book offers an overview of one of the most fertile emerging fields bringing together practitioners from scientific communities as diverse as social sciences, p...

  18. Using Spatial Gradients to Model Localization Phenomena

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D.J.Bammann; D.Mosher; D.A.Hughes; N.R.Moody; P.R.Dawson

    1999-07-01

    We present the final report on a Laboratory-Directed Research and Development project, Using Spatial Gradients to Model Localization Phenomena, performed during the fiscal years 1996 through 1998. The project focused on including spatial gradients in the temporal evolution equations of the state variables that describe hardening in metal plasticity models. The motivation was to investigate the numerical aspects associated with post-bifurcation mesh dependent finite element solutions in problems involving damage or crack propagation as well as problems in which strain Localizations occur. The addition of the spatial gradients introduces a mathematical length scale that eliminates the mesh dependency of the solution. In addition, new experimental techniques were developed to identify the physical mechanism associated with the numerical length scale.

  19. Self-Assembly, Pattern Formation and Growth Phenomena in Nano-Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Nepomnyashchy, Alexander A

    2006-01-01

    Nano-science and nano-technology are rapidly developing scientific and technological areas that deal with physical, chemical and biological processes that occur on nano-meter scale – one millionth of a millimeter. Self-organization and pattern formation play crucial role on nano-scales and promise new, effective routes to control various nano-scales processes. This book contains lecture notes written by the lecturers of the NATO Advanced Study Institute "Self-Assembly, Pattern Formation and Growth Phenomena in Nano-Systems" that took place in St Etienne de Tinee, France, in the fall 2004. They give examples of self-organization phenomena on micro- and nano-scale as well as examples of the interplay between phenomena on nano- and macro-scales leading to complex behavior in various physical, chemical and biological systems. They discuss such fascinating nano-scale self-organization phenomena as self-assembly of quantum dots in thin solid films, pattern formation in liquid crystals caused by light, self-organi...

  20. Exploring carrier transport phenomena in a CVD-assembled graphene FET on hexagonal boron nitride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Edwin; Jai, Nikhil; Jacobs-Gedri, Robin; Xu, Yang; Yu, Bin

    2012-03-30

    The supporting substrate plays a crucial role in preserving the superb electrical characteristicsof an atomically thin 2D carbon system. We explore carrier transport behavior in achemical-vapor-deposition- (CVD-) assembled graphene monolayer on hexagonal boron nitride (h-BN) substrate. Graphene-channel field-effect transistors (GFETs) were fabricated on ultra-thin h-BN multilayers to screen out carrier scattering from the underlying SiO2 substrate. To explore the transport phenomena, we use three different approaches to extract carrier mobility, namely, effective carrier mobility (μFE), intrinsic carrier mobility (μ), and field-effect mobility (μFE). A comparative study has been conducted based on the electrical characterization results, uncovering the impacts of supporting substrate material and device geometry scaling on carrier mobility in GFETs with CVD-assembled graphene as the active channel.

  1. On Process Modelling Using Physical Oriented And Phenomena Based Principles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihai Culea

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available This work presents a modelling framework based on phenomena description of the process. The approach is taken to easy understand and construct process model in heterogeneous possible distributed modelling and simulation environments. A simplified case study of a heat exchanger is considered and Modelica modelling language to check the proposed concept. The partial results are promising and the research effort will be extended in a computer aided modelling environment based on phenomena.

  2. Numerical modeling transport phenomena in proton exchange membrane fuel cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suh, DongMyung

    To study the coupled phenomena occurring in proton exchange membrane fuel cells, a two-phase, one-dimensional, non-isothermal model is developed in the chapter 1. The model includes water phase change, proton transport in the membrane and electro-osmotic effect. The thinnest, but most complex layer in the membrane electrode assembly, catalyst layer, is considered an interfacial boundary between the gas diffusion layer and the membrane. Mass and heat transfer and electro-chemical reaction through the catalyst layer are formulated into equations, which are applied to boundary conditions for the gas diffusion layer and the membrane. Detail accounts of the boundary equations and the numerical solving procedure used in this work are given. The polarization curve is calculated at different oxygen pressures and compared with the experimental results. When the operating condition is changed along the polarization curve, the change of physicochemical variables in the membrane electrode assembly is studied. In particular, the over-potential diagram presents the usage of the electrochemical energy at each layer of the membrane electrode assembly. Humidity in supplying gases is one of the most important factors to consider for improving the performance of PEMFE. Both high and low humidity conditions can result in a deteriorating cell performance. The effect of humidity on the cell performance is studied in the chapter 2. First, a numerical model based on computational fluid dynamics is developed. Second, the cell performances are simulated, when the relative humidity is changed from 0% to 100% in the anode and the cathode channel. The simulation results show how humidity in the reactant gases affects the water content distribution in the membrane, the over-potential at the catalyst layers and eventually the cell performance. In particular, the rapid enhancement in the cell performance caused by self-hydrating membrane is captured by the simulation. Fully humidifying either H2

  3. Nonlinear structural mechanics theory, dynamical phenomena and modeling

    CERN Document Server

    Lacarbonara, Walter

    2013-01-01

    Nonlinear Structural Mechanics: Theory, Dynamical Phenomena and Modeling offers a concise, coherent presentation of the theoretical framework of nonlinear structural mechanics, computational methods, applications, parametric investigations of nonlinear phenomena and their mechanical interpretation towards design. The theoretical and computational tools that enable the formulation, solution, and interpretation of nonlinear structures are presented in a systematic fashion so as to gradually attain an increasing level of complexity of structural behaviors, under the prevailing assumptions on the geometry of deformation, the constitutive aspects and the loading scenarios. Readers will find a treatment of the foundations of nonlinear structural mechanics towards advanced reduced models, unified with modern computational tools in the framework of the prominent nonlinear structural dynamic phenomena while tackling both the mathematical and applied sciences. Nonlinear Structural Mechanics: Theory, Dynamical Phenomena...

  4. Nonlinear dynamic phenomena in the beer model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mosekilde, Erik; Laugesen, Jakob Lund

    2007-01-01

    The production-distribution system or "beer game" is one of the most well-known system dynamics models. Notorious for the complex dynamics it produces, the beer game has been used for nearly five decades to illustrate how structure generates behavior and to explore human decision making. Here we ...... in models that use piecewise-linear functions to represent nonlinearities are likely to show similar qualitative differences from the bifurcations known from smooth systems.......The production-distribution system or "beer game" is one of the most well-known system dynamics models. Notorious for the complex dynamics it produces, the beer game has been used for nearly five decades to illustrate how structure generates behavior and to explore human decision making. Here we...... present a formal bifurcation analysis to analyse the complex dynamics produced by the model. Consistent with the rules of the game, the model constitutes a piecewise-linear map with nonlinearities arising from non-negativity constraints. The bifurcations that occur in piecewise-linear systems...

  5. Foam rheology: a model of viscous phenomena

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kraynik, A.M.; Hansen, M.G.

    1987-01-01

    A theoretical model for foam rheology that includes viscous forces is developed by considering the deformation of two-dimensional, spatially periodic cells in simple shearing and planar extensional flow. The undeformed hexagonal cells are separated by thin liquid films. Plateau border curvature and liquid drainage between films is neglected. Interfacial tension and viscous tractions due to stretching lamellar liquid determine the individual film tensions. The network motion is described by a system of nonlinear ordinary differential equations for which numerical solutions are obtained. Coalescense and disproportionation of Plateau borders results in the relative separation of cells and provides a mechanism for yielding and flow. This process is assumed to occur when a film's length reduces to its thickness. The time and position dependence of the cell-scale dynamics are computed explicitly. The effective continuum stress of the foam is described by instantaneous and time-averaged quantities. The capillary number, a dimensionless deformation rate, represents the relative importance of viscous and surface tension effects. The small-capillary-number or quasistatic response determines a yield stress. The dependence of the shear and normal stress material functions upon deformation rate, foam structure and physical properties is determined. A plausible mechanism for shear-induced material failure, which would determine a shear strength, is revealed for large capillary numbers. The mechanism involves large cell distortion and film thinning, which provide favorable conditions for film rupture

  6. Clear and fuzzy fractal models of spreading dangerous environmental phenomena

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.E. Guy

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available  This article is devoted to investigation of possibility of widening models of spreading dangerous environmental phenomena, in particular Grassberger’s models, on the base of notion of fuzzy fractal sets introduced by one of the authors. Basic concepts from the theory of fuzzy fractals are considered.

  7. Modelling of transport phenomena and defects in crystal growth ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A brief review of single crystal growth techniques and the associated problems is presented. Emphasis is placed on models for various transport and defect phenomena involoved in the growth process with the ultimate aim of integrating them into a comprehensive numerical model. The sources of dislocation nucleation in ...

  8. Magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) modelling of solar active phenomena via numerical methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, S. T.

    1988-01-01

    Numerical ideal MHD models for the study of solar active phenomena are summarized. Particular attention is given to the following physical phenomena: (1) local heating of a coronal loop in an isothermal and stratified atmosphere, and (2) the coronal dynamic responses due to magnetic field movement. The results suggest that local heating of a magnetic loop will lead to the enhancement of the density of the neighboring loops through MHD wave compression. It is noted that field lines can be pinched off and may form a self-contained magnetized plasma blob that may move outward into interplanetary space.

  9. Mesoscopic Modeling of Multiphysicochemical Transport Phenomena in Porous Media

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qinjun Kang

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available We present our recent progress on mesoscopic modeling of multiphysicochemical transport phenomena in porous media based on the lattice Boltzmann method. Simulation examples include injection of CO2-saturated brine into a limestone rock, two-phase behavior and flooding phenomena in polymer electrolyte fuel cells, and electroosmosis in homogeneously charged porous media. It is shown that the lattice Boltzmann method can account for multiple, coupled physicochemical processes in these systems and can shed some light on the underlying physics occurring at the fundamental scale. Therefore, it can be a potential powerful numerical tool to analyze multiphysicochemical processes in various energy, earth, and environmental systems.

  10. Searches for phenomena beyond the Standard Model at the Large ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Keywords. LHC; ATLAS; CMS; BSM; supersymmetry; exotic. Abstract. The LHC has delivered several fb-1 of data in spring and summer 2011, opening new windows of opportunity for discovering phenomena beyond the Standard Model. A summary of the searches conducted by the ATLAS and CMS experiments based on ...

  11. Searches for phenomena beyond the Standard Model at the Large

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The LHC has delivered several fb-1 of data in spring and summer 2011, opening new windows of opportunity for discovering phenomena beyond the Standard Model. A summary of the searches conducted by the ATLAS and CMS experiments based on about 1 fb-1 of data is presented.

  12. Modeling and simulation of transport phenomena in ionic gels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leichsenring, Peter; Wallmersperger, Thomas

    2015-04-01

    Ionic hydrogels belong to the class of polyelectrolyte gels or ionic gels. Their ability to swell or shrink under different environmental conditions such as change of pH, ion concentration or temperature make them promising materials, e.g. for microsensoric or microactuatoric devices. The hydrogel swelling exhibits nonlinear effects due to the occurrence of different interacting transport phenomena. Numerical simulations are an essential part in the ongoing development of microsensors and microactuators. In order to determine transport effects due to diffusion, migration and convection a multiphase mesoscale model based on the Theory of Porous Media is applied. The governing field equations are solved in the transient regime by applying the Finite Element Method. By means of the derived numerical framework a detailed investigation of the different transport phenomena is carried out. Numerical experiments are performed to characterize the dominating transfer phenomena for ionic gels under chemical stimulation.

  13. Combing and self-assembly phenomena in dry films of Taxol-stabilized microtubules

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rose Franck

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available AbstractMicrotubules are filamentous proteins that act as a substrate for the translocation of motor proteins. As such, they may be envisioned as a scaffold for the self-assembly of functional materials and devices. Physisorption, self-assembly and combing are here investigated as a potential prelude to microtubule-templated self-assembly. Dense films of self-assembled microtubules were successfully produced, as well as patterns of both dendritic and non-dendritic bundles of microtubules. They are presented in the present paper and the mechanism of their formation is discussed.

  14. Nonlinear Modeling by Assembling Piecewise Linear Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Weigang; Liou, Meng-Sing

    2013-01-01

    To preserve nonlinearity of a full order system over a parameters range of interest, we propose a simple modeling approach by assembling a set of piecewise local solutions, including the first-order Taylor series terms expanded about some sampling states. The work by Rewienski and White inspired our use of piecewise linear local solutions. The assembly of these local approximations is accomplished by assigning nonlinear weights, through radial basis functions in this study. The efficacy of the proposed procedure is validated for a two-dimensional airfoil moving at different Mach numbers and pitching motions, under which the flow exhibits prominent nonlinear behaviors. All results confirm that our nonlinear model is accurate and stable for predicting not only aerodynamic forces but also detailed flowfields. Moreover, the model is robustness-accurate for inputs considerably different from the base trajectory in form and magnitude. This modeling preserves nonlinearity of the problems considered in a rather simple and accurate manner.

  15. Possilibity of estimating payoff matrix from model for hit phenomena

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishii, Akira; Sakaidani, Shota; Iwanaga, Saori

    2016-01-01

    The conflicts of topics on social media is considered using an extended mathematical model based on the mathematical model for hit phenomena that has been used to analyze entertainment hits. The social media platform used in this study was blog. The calculation results shows examples of strong conflict, weak conflict, and no conflict cases. Since the conflict of two topics can be considered in the framework of game theory, the results can be used to determine each matrix element of the payoff matrix of game theory.

  16. Simulation of thermohydraulic phenomena and model test for FBR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Satoh, Kazuziro

    1994-01-01

    This paper summarizes the major thermohydraulic phenomena of FBRs and the conventional ways of their model tests, and introduces the recent findings regarding measurement technology and computational science. In the future commercial stage of FBRs, the design optimization will becomes important to improve economy and safety more and more. It is indispensable to use computational science to the plant design and safety evaluation. The most of the model tests will be replaced by the simulation analyses based on computational science. The measurement technology using ultrasonic and the numerical simulation with super parallel computing are considered to be the key technology to realize the design by analysis method. (author)

  17. Modeling as an Anchoring Scientific Practice for Explaining Friction Phenomena

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neilson, Drew; Campbell, Todd

    2017-12-01

    Through examining the day-to-day work of scientists, researchers in science studies have revealed how models are a central sense-making practice of scientists as they construct and critique explanations about how the universe works. Additionally, they allow predictions to be made using the tenets of the model. Given this, alongside research suggesting that engaging students in developing and using models can have a positive effect on learning in science classrooms, the recent national standards documents in science education have identified developing and using models as an important practice students should engage in as they apply and refine their ideas with peers and teachers in explaining phenomena or solving problems in classrooms. This article details how students can be engaged in developing and using models to help them make sense of friction phenomena in a high school conceptual physics classroom in ways that align with visions for teaching and learning outlined in the Next Generation Science Standards. This particular unit has been refined over several years to build on what was initially an inquiry-based unit we have described previously. In this latest iteration of the friction unit, students developed and refined models through engaging in small group and whole class discussions and investigations.

  18. Modeling transport phenomena and uncertainty quantification in solidification processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fezi, Kyle S.

    Direct chill (DC) casting is the primary processing route for wrought aluminum alloys. This semicontinuous process consists of primary cooling as the metal is pulled through a water cooled mold followed by secondary cooling with a water jet spray and free falling water. To gain insight into this complex solidification process, a fully transient model of DC casting was developed to predict the transport phenomena of aluminum alloys for various conditions. This model is capable of solving mixture mass, momentum, energy, and species conservation equations during multicomponent solidification. Various DC casting process parameters were examined for their effect on transport phenomena predictions in an alloy of commercial interest (aluminum alloy 7050). The practice of placing a wiper to divert cooling water from the ingot surface was studied and the results showed that placement closer to the mold causes remelting at the surface and increases susceptibility to bleed outs. Numerical models of metal alloy solidification, like the one previously mentioned, are used to gain insight into physical phenomena that cannot be observed experimentally. However, uncertainty in model inputs cause uncertainty in results and those insights. The analysis of model assumptions and probable input variability on the level of uncertainty in model predictions has not been calculated in solidification modeling as yet. As a step towards understanding the effect of uncertain inputs on solidification modeling, uncertainty quantification (UQ) and sensitivity analysis were first performed on a transient solidification model of a simple binary alloy (Al-4.5wt.%Cu) in a rectangular cavity with both columnar and equiaxed solid growth models. This analysis was followed by quantifying the uncertainty in predictions from the recently developed transient DC casting model. The PRISM Uncertainty Quantification (PUQ) framework quantified the uncertainty and sensitivity in macrosegregation, solidification

  19. Modelling transport phenomena in a multi-physics context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marra, Francesco

    2015-01-01

    Innovative heating research on cooking, pasteurization/sterilization, defrosting, thawing and drying, often focuses on areas which include the assessment of processing time, evaluation of heating uniformity, studying the impact on quality attributes of the final product as well as considering the energy efficiency of these heating processes. During the last twenty years, so-called electro-heating-processes (radio-frequency - RF, microwaves - MW and ohmic - OH) gained a wide interest in industrial food processing and many applications using the above mentioned technologies have been developed with the aim of reducing processing time, improving process efficiency and, in many cases, the heating uniformity. In the area of innovative heating, electro-heating accounts for a considerable portion of both the scientific literature and commercial applications, which can be subdivided into either direct electro-heating (as in the case of OH heating) where electrical current is applied directly to the food or indirect electro-heating (e.g. MW and RF heating) where the electrical energy is firstly converted to electromagnetic radiation which subsequently generates heat within a product. New software packages, which make easier solution of PDEs based mathematical models, and new computers, capable of larger RAM and more efficient CPU performances, allowed an increasing interest about modelling transport phenomena in systems and processes - as the ones encountered in food processing - that can be complex in terms of geometry, composition, boundary conditions but also - as in the case of electro-heating assisted applications - in terms of interaction with other physical phenomena such as displacement of electric or magnetic field. This paper deals with the description of approaches used in modelling transport phenomena in a multi-physics context such as RF, MW and OH assisted heating.

  20. Modelling transport phenomena in a multi-physics context

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marra, Francesco [Dipartimento di Ingegneria Chimica e Alimentare - Università degli studi di Salerno Via Ponte Don Melillo - 84084 Fisciano SA (Italy)

    2015-01-22

    Innovative heating research on cooking, pasteurization/sterilization, defrosting, thawing and drying, often focuses on areas which include the assessment of processing time, evaluation of heating uniformity, studying the impact on quality attributes of the final product as well as considering the energy efficiency of these heating processes. During the last twenty years, so-called electro-heating-processes (radio-frequency - RF, microwaves - MW and ohmic - OH) gained a wide interest in industrial food processing and many applications using the above mentioned technologies have been developed with the aim of reducing processing time, improving process efficiency and, in many cases, the heating uniformity. In the area of innovative heating, electro-heating accounts for a considerable portion of both the scientific literature and commercial applications, which can be subdivided into either direct electro-heating (as in the case of OH heating) where electrical current is applied directly to the food or indirect electro-heating (e.g. MW and RF heating) where the electrical energy is firstly converted to electromagnetic radiation which subsequently generates heat within a product. New software packages, which make easier solution of PDEs based mathematical models, and new computers, capable of larger RAM and more efficient CPU performances, allowed an increasing interest about modelling transport phenomena in systems and processes - as the ones encountered in food processing - that can be complex in terms of geometry, composition, boundary conditions but also - as in the case of electro-heating assisted applications - in terms of interaction with other physical phenomena such as displacement of electric or magnetic field. This paper deals with the description of approaches used in modelling transport phenomena in a multi-physics context such as RF, MW and OH assisted heating.

  1. Modelling transport phenomena in a multi-physics context

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marra, Francesco

    2015-01-01

    Innovative heating research on cooking, pasteurization/sterilization, defrosting, thawing and drying, often focuses on areas which include the assessment of processing time, evaluation of heating uniformity, studying the impact on quality attributes of the final product as well as considering the energy efficiency of these heating processes. During the last twenty years, so-called electro-heating-processes (radio-frequency - RF, microwaves - MW and ohmic - OH) gained a wide interest in industrial food processing and many applications using the above mentioned technologies have been developed with the aim of reducing processing time, improving process efficiency and, in many cases, the heating uniformity. In the area of innovative heating, electro-heating accounts for a considerable portion of both the scientific literature and commercial applications, which can be subdivided into either direct electro-heating (as in the case of OH heating) where electrical current is applied directly to the food or indirect electro-heating (e.g. MW and RF heating) where the electrical energy is firstly converted to electromagnetic radiation which subsequently generates heat within a product. New software packages, which make easier solution of PDEs based mathematical models, and new computers, capable of larger RAM and more efficient CPU performances, allowed an increasing interest about modelling transport phenomena in systems and processes - as the ones encountered in food processing - that can be complex in terms of geometry, composition, boundary conditions but also - as in the case of electro-heating assisted applications - in terms of interaction with other physical phenomena such as displacement of electric or magnetic field. This paper deals with the description of approaches used in modelling transport phenomena in a multi-physics context such as RF, MW and OH assisted heating

  2. Fundamentals of Cryobiology Physical Phenomena and Mathematical Models

    CERN Document Server

    Zhmakin, Alexander I

    2009-01-01

    The book gives a summary of the state-of-the-art of cryobiology and its applications. The accent is on the underlying physical phenomena, which are common in such opposite applications as cryosurgery and cryoconservation, and the corresponding mathematical models, including numerical ones. The treatment of some more special issues is moved to the appendices. The glossary contains definitions and explanations of the major entities. All the topics considered are well referenced. The book is useful to both biologists and physicits of different level including practioners and graduate students.

  3. CFD modelling of insulation debris transport phenomena in water flow

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krepper, Eeckhard; Cartland-Glover, Gregory; Grahn, Alexander [Forschungszentrum Rossendorf e.V., Dresden (Germany). Inst. fuer Sicherheitsforschung

    2009-11-15

    The investigation of insulation debris generation, transport and sedimentation becomes important with regard to reactor safety research for PWR and BWR, when considering the long-term behaviour of emergency core cooling systems during all types of loss of coolant accidents. A joint research project on such questions is being performed in cooperation between the University of Applied Sciences Zittau/Goerlitz and the Forschungszentrum Dresden-Rossendorf. The project deals with the experimental investigation of particle transport phenomena in coolant flow and the development of CFD models for its description. While the experiments are performed at the University at Zittau/Goerlitz, the theoretical modelling efforts are concentrated at Forschungszentrum Dresden-Rossendorf. In the current paper the basic concepts for CFD modelling are described and feasibility studies are presented. (orig.)

  4. Assembly line performance and modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rane, Arun B.; Sunnapwar, Vivek K.

    2017-09-01

    Automobile sector forms the backbone of manufacturing sector. Vehicle assembly line is important section in automobile plant where repetitive tasks are performed one after another at different workstations. In this thesis, a methodology is proposed to reduce cycle time and time loss due to important factors like equipment failure, shortage of inventory, absenteeism, set-up, material handling, rejection and fatigue to improve output within given cost constraints. Various relationships between these factors, corresponding cost and output are established by scientific approach. This methodology is validated in three different vehicle assembly plants. Proposed methodology may help practitioners to optimize the assembly line using lean techniques.

  5. Polar Coordinate Lattice Boltzmann Kinetic Modeling of Detonation Phenomena

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin Chuan-Dong; Li Ying-Jun; Xu Ai-Guo; Zhang Guang-Cai

    2014-01-01

    A novel polar coordinate lattice Boltzmann kinetic model for detonation phenomena is presented and applied to investigate typical implosion and explosion processes. In this model, the change of discrete distribution function due to local chemical reaction is dynamically coupled into the modified lattice Boltzmann equation which could recover the Navier—Stokes equations, including contribution of chemical reaction, via the Chapman—Enskog expansion. For the numerical investigations, the main focuses are the nonequilibrium behaviors in these processes. The system at the disc center is always in its thermodynamic equilibrium in the highly symmetric case. The internal kinetic energies in different degrees of freedom around the detonation front do not coincide. The dependence of the reaction rate on the pressure, influences of the shock strength and reaction rate on the departure amplitude of the system from its local thermodynamic equilibrium are probed. (electromagnetism, optics, acoustics, heat transfer, classical mechanics, and fluid dynamics)

  6. Macroscopic Modeling of Transport Phenomena in Direct Methanol Fuel Cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Anders Christian

    An increasing need for energy efficiency and high energy density has sparked a growing interest in direct methanol fuel cells for portable power applications. This type of fuel cell directly generates electricity from a fuel mixture consisting of methanol and water. Although this technology...... for studying their transport. In this PhD dissertation the macroscopic transport phenomena governing direct methanol fuel cell operation are analyzed, discussed and modeled using the two-fluid approach in the computational fluid dynamics framework of CFX 14. The overall objective of this work is to extend...... the present fundamental understanding of direct methanol fuel cell operation by developing a three-dimensional, two-phase, multi-component, non-isotherm mathematical model including detailed non-ideal thermodynamics, non-equilibrium phase change and non-equilibrium sorption-desorption of methanol and water...

  7. Modelling of particular phenomena observed in PANDA with Gothic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bandurski, Th.; Putz, F.; Andreani, M.; Analytis, M.

    2000-01-01

    PANDA is a large scale facility for investigating the long-term decay heat removal from the containment of a next generation 'passive' Advanced Light Water Reactor (ALWR). The first test series was aimed at the investigation of the long-term LOCA response of the Passive Containment Cooling System (PCCS) for the General Electric (GE) Simplified Boiling Water Reactor (SBWR). Recently, the facility is used in the framework of two European projects for investigating the performance of four passive cooling systems, i.e. the Building Condenser (BC) designed by Siemens for the SWR-1000 long-term containment cooling, the Passive Containment Cooling System for the European Simplified Boiling Water Reactor (ESBWR), the Containment Plate Condenser (CPC) and the Isolation Condenser (IC) for cooling of a BWR core. The PANDA tests have the dual objectives of improving confidence in the performance of the passive heat removal mechanisms underlying the design of the tested safety systems and extending the data base available for containment analysis code qualification. Among others, the containment analysis code Gothic was chosen for the analysis of particular phenomena observed during the PANDA tests. Ibis paper presents selected safety relevant phenomena observed in the PANDA tests and identified for the analyses and possible approaches for their modeling with Gothic. (author)

  8. Structural Investigations of Surfaces and Orientation-SpecificPhenomena in Nanocrystals and Their Assemblies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aruguete, Deborah Michiko [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2006-01-01

    Studies of colloidal nanocrystals and their assemblies are presented. Two of these studies concern the atomic-level structural characterization of the surfaces, interfaces, and interiors present in II-VI semiconductor nanorods. The third study investigates the crystallographic arrangement of cobalt nanocrystals in self-assembled aggregates. Crystallographically-aligned assemblies of colloidal CdSe nanorods are examined with linearly-polarized Se-EXAFS spectroscopy, which probes bonding along different directions in the nanorod. This orientation-specific probe is used, because it is expected that the presence of specific surfaces in a nanorod might cause bond relaxations specific to different crystallographic directions. Se-Se distances are found to be contracted along the long axis of the nanorod, while Cd-Se distances display no angular dependence, which is different from the bulk. Ab-initio density functional theory calculations upon CdSe nanowires indicate that relaxations on the rod surfaces cause these changes. ZnS/CdS-CdSe core-shell nanorods are studied with Se, Zn, Cd, and S X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS). It is hypothesized that there are two major factors influencing the core and shell structures of the nanorods: the large surface area-to-volume ratio, and epitaxial strain. The presence of the surface may induce bond rearrangements or relaxations to minimize surface energy; epitaxial strain might cause the core and shell lattices to contract or expand to minimize strain energy. A marked contraction of Zn-S bonds is observed in the core-shell nanorods, indicating that surface relaxations may dominate the structure of the nanorod (strain might otherwise drive the Zn-S lattice to accommodate the larger CdS or CdSe lattices via bond expansion). EXAFS and X-ray diffraction (XRD) indicate that Cd-Se bond relaxations might be anisotropic, an expected phenomenon for a rod-shaped nanocrystal. Ordered self-assembled aggregates of cobalt nanocrystals are

  9. Stochastic modeling of virus capsid assembly pathways

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Russell

    2009-03-01

    Virus capsids have become a key model system for understanding self-assembly due to their high complexity, robust and efficient assembly processes, and experimental tractability. Our ability to directly examine and manipulate capsid assembly kinetics in detail nonetheless remains limited, creating a need for computer models that can infer experimentally inaccessible features of the assembly process and explore the effects of hypothetical manipulations on assembly trajectories. We have developed novel algorithms for stochastic simulation of capsid assembly [1,2] that allow us to model capsid assembly over broad parameter spaces [3]. We apply these methods to study the nature of assembly pathway control in virus capsids as well as their sensitivity to assembly conditions and possible experimental interventions. [4pt] [1] F. Jamalyaria, R. Rohlfs, and R. Schwartz. J Comp Phys 204, 100 (2005). [0pt] [2] N. Misra and R. Schwartz. J Chem Phys 129, in press (2008). [0pt] [3] B. Sweeney, T. Zhang, and R. Schwartz. Biophys J 94, 772 (2008).

  10. Modelling high strain rate phenomena in metal cutting simulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wedberg, Dan; Svoboda, Ales; Lindgren, Lars-Erik

    2012-01-01

    Chip formation in metal cutting is associated with large strains and high strain rates, concentrated locally to deformation zones in front of the tool and beneath the cutting edge. Furthermore, dissipative plastic work and friction work generate high local temperatures. These phenomena together with numerical complications make modelling of metal cutting difficult. Material models, which are crucial in metal cutting simulations, are usually calibrated based on data from material testing. Nevertheless, the magnitude of strains and strain rates involved in metal cutting are several orders higher than those generated from conventional material testing. A highly desirable feature is therefore a material model that can be extrapolated outside the calibration range. In this study, two variants of a flow stress model based on dislocation density and vacancy concentration are used to simulate orthogonal metal cutting of AISI 316L stainless steel. It is found that the addition of phonon drag improves the results somewhat but the addition of this phenomenon still does not make it possible to extrapolate the constitutive model reliably outside its calibration range. (paper)

  11. STAGE MODEL FOR GONDWANA ASSEMBLY

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    and the Kalahari craton (IMSLEK terranes) with the Congo craton and the Arabian Nubian Shield (ANS). The younger granulite event recorded in the Kitumbi area could then mark a younger collision between Australo-Antarctica and the combined IMSLEK-Conga. ANS collage marking the final assembly of Gondwana.

  12. Nuclear fuel: modelling the advanced plutonium assembly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaoua, Th.; Lenain, R.

    2004-01-01

    The benefits of modeling in the nuclear sector are illustrated by the example of the design study for a new plutonium fuel assembly, APA, capable of ensuring maximum consumption of this fuel in pressurized-water reactors. Beyond the physical design of the assembly and its integration into the reactor, this serves for the working out of a complete materials flow and assists in modeling production from the entire inventory of nuclear power stations. (authors)

  13. Modeling brain resonance phenomena using a neural mass model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas Spiegler

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Stimulation with rhythmic light flicker (photic driving plays an important role in the diagnosis of schizophrenia, mood disorder, migraine, and epilepsy. In particular, the adjustment of spontaneous brain rhythms to the stimulus frequency (entrainment is used to assess the functional flexibility of the brain. We aim to gain deeper understanding of the mechanisms underlying this technique and to predict the effects of stimulus frequency and intensity. For this purpose, a modified Jansen and Rit neural mass model (NMM of a cortical circuit is used. This mean field model has been designed to strike a balance between mathematical simplicity and biological plausibility. We reproduced the entrainment phenomenon observed in EEG during a photic driving experiment. More generally, we demonstrate that such a single area model can already yield very complex dynamics, including chaos, for biologically plausible parameter ranges. We chart the entire parameter space by means of characteristic Lyapunov spectra and Kaplan-Yorke dimension as well as time series and power spectra. Rhythmic and chaotic brain states were found virtually next to each other, such that small parameter changes can give rise to switching from one to another. Strikingly, this characteristic pattern of unpredictability generated by the model was matched to the experimental data with reasonable accuracy. These findings confirm that the NMM is a useful model of brain dynamics during photic driving. In this context, it can be used to study the mechanisms of, for example, perception and epileptic seizure generation. In particular, it enabled us to make predictions regarding the stimulus amplitude in further experiments for improving the entrainment effect.

  14. Spectroscopic imaging studies of nanoscale polarity and mass transport phenomena in self-assembled organic nanotubes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Hao; Nagasaka, Shinobu; Kameta, Naohiro; Masuda, Mitsutoshi; Ito, Takashi; Higgins, Daniel A

    2017-08-02

    Synthetic organic nanotubes self-assembled from bolaamphiphile surfactants are now being explored for use as drug delivery vehicles. In this work, several factors important to their implementation in drug delivery are explored. All experiments are performed with the nanotubes immersed in ethanol. First, Nile Red (NR) and a hydroxylated Nile Red derivative (NR-OH) are loaded into the nanotubes and spectroscopic fluorescence imaging methods are used to determine the apparent dielectric constant of their local environment. Both are found in relatively nonpolar environments, with the NR-OH molecules preferring regions of relatively higher dielectric constant compared to NR. Unique two-color imaging fluorescence correlation spectroscopy (imaging FCS) measurements are then used along with the spectroscopic imaging results to deduce the dielectric properties of the environments sensed by mobile and immobile populations of probe molecules. The results reveal that mobile NR molecules pass through less polar regions, likely within the nanotube walls, while immobile NR molecules are found in more polar regions, possibly near the nanotube surfaces. In contrast, mobile and immobile NR-OH molecules are found to locate in environments of similar polarity. The imaging FCS results also provide quantitative data on the apparent diffusion coefficient for each dye. The mean diffusion coefficient for the NR dye was approximately two-fold larger than that of NR-OH. Slower diffusion by the latter could result from its additional hydrogen bonding interactions with polar triglycine, amine, and glucose moieties near the nanotube surfaces. The knowledge gained in these studies will allow for the development of nanotubes that are better engineered for applications in the controlled transport and release of uncharged, dipolar drug molecules.

  15. MODELING THE SELF-ASSEMBLY OF ORDERED NANOPOROUS MATERIALS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Monson, Peter [University of Massachusetts; Auerbach, Scott [University of Massachusetts

    2017-11-13

    This report describes progress on a collaborative project on the multiscale modeling of the assembly processes in the synthesis of nanoporous materials. Such materials are of enormous importance in modern technology with application in the chemical process industries, biomedicine and biotechnology as well as microelectronics. The project focuses on two important classes of materials: i) microporous crystalline materials, such as zeolites, and ii) ordered mesoporous materials. In the first case the pores are part of the crystalline structure, while in the second the structures are amorphous on the atomistic length scale but where surfactant templating gives rise to order on the length scale of 2 - 20 nm. We have developed a modeling framework that encompasses both these kinds of materials. Our models focus on the assembly of corner sharing silica tetrahedra in the presence of structure directing agents. We emphasize a balance between sufficient realism in the models and computational tractibility given the complex many-body phenomena. We use both on-lattice and off-lattice models and the primary computational tools are Monte Carlo simulations with sampling techniques and ensembles appropriate to specific situations. Our modeling approach is the first to capture silica polymerization, nanopore crystallization, and mesopore formation through computer-simulated self assembly.

  16. Magnetic control assembly qualification model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, R. C.; Fleming, R.; Rutkowski, M. Z.; Fowler, R. Z.

    1972-01-01

    Fabrication and testing of the magnetic control assembly (MCA) are summarized. The MCA was designed as an add-on unit for certain existing components of the Nimbus and ERTS attitude control system. The MCA system consists of three orthogonal electromagnets; a magnetometer probe capable of sensing external fields in the X, Y, and Z axes; and the control electronics. An operational description of the system is given along with all major drawings and photographs. Manufacturing and inspection procedures are outlined and a chronological list of events is included with the fabrication summary.

  17. Modelling high density phenomena in hydrogen fibre Z-pinches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chittenden, J.P.

    1990-09-01

    The application of hydrogen fibre Z-pinches to the study of the radiative collapse phenomenon is studied computationally. Two areas of difficulty, the formation of a fully ionized pinch from a cryogenic fibre and the processes leading to collapse termination, are addressed in detail. A zero-D model based on the energy equation highlights the importance of particle end losses and changes in the Coulomb logarithm upon collapse initiation and termination. A 1-D Lagrangian resistive MHD code shows the importance of the changing radial profile shapes, particularly in delaying collapse termination. A 1-D, three fluid MHD code is developed to model the ionization of the fibre by thermal conduction from a high temperature surface corona to the cold core. Rate equations for collisional ionization, 3-body recombination and equilibration are solved in tandem with fluid equations for the electrons, ions and neutrals. Continuum lowering is found to assist ionization at the corona-core interface. The high density plasma phenomena responsible for radiative collapse termination are identified as the self-trapping of radiation and free electron degeneracy. A radiation transport model and computational analogues for the effects of degeneracy upon the equation of state, transport coefficients and opacity are implemented in the 1-D, single fluid model. As opacity increases the emergent spectrum is observed to become increasingly Planckian and a fall off in radiative cooling at small radii and low frequencies occurs giving rise to collapse termination. Electron degeneracy terminates radiative collapse by supplementing the radial pressure gradient until the electromagnetic pinch force is balanced. Collapse termination is found to be a hybrid process of opacity and degeneracy effects across a wide range of line densities with opacity dominant at large line densities but with electron degeneracy becoming increasingly important at lower line densities. (author)

  18. Transport phenomena in the human nasal cavity: a computational model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naftali, S; Schroter, R C; Shiner, R J; Elad, D

    1998-01-01

    Nasal inspiration is important for maintaining the internal milieu of the lung, since ambient air is conditioned to nearly alveolar conditions (body temperature and fully saturated with water vapor) on reaching the nasopharynx. We conducted a two-dimensional computational study of transport phenomena in model transverse cross sections of the nasal cavity of normal and diseased human noses for inspiration under various ambient conditions. The results suggest that during breathing via the normal human nose there is ample time for heat and water exchange to enable equilibration to near intraalveolar conditions. A normal nose can maintain this equilibrium under extreme environments (e.g., hot/humid, cold/dry, cold/humid). The turbinates increase the rate of local heat and moisture transport by narrowing the passageways for air and by induction of laminar swirls downstream of the turbinate wall. However, abnormal blood supply or mucous generation may reduce the rate of heat or moisture flux into the inspired air, and thereby affect the efficacy of the process.

  19. Natural Circulation Phenomena and Modelling for Advanced Water Cooled Reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-03-01

    The role of natural circulation in advanced water cooled reactor design has been extended with the adoption of passive safety systems. Some designs utilize natural circulation to remove core heat during normal operation. Most passive safety systems used in evolutionary and innovative water cooled reactor designs are driven by natural circulation. The use of passive systems based on natural circulation can eliminate the costs associated with the installation, maintenance and operation of active systems that require multiple pumps with independent and redundant electric power supplies. However, considering the weak driving forces of passive systems based on natural circulation, careful design and analysis methods must be employed to ensure that the systems perform their intended functions. Several IAEA Member States with advanced reactor development programmes are actively conducting investigations of natural circulation to support the development of advanced water cooled reactor designs with passive safety systems. To foster international collaboration on the enabling technology of passive systems that utilize natural circulation, in 2004 the IAEA initiated a coordinated research project (CRP) on Natural Circulation Phenomena, Modelling and Reliability of Passive Systems that Utilize Natural Circulation. Three reports were published within the framework of this CRP. The first report (IAEA-TECDOC-1474) contains the material developed for the first IAEA training course on natural circulation in water cooled nuclear power plants. The second report (IAEA-TECDOC-1624) describes passive safety systems in a wide range of advanced water cooled nuclear power plant designs, with the goal of gaining insights into system design, operation and reliability. This third, and last, report summarizes the research studies completed by participating institutes during the CRP period.

  20. New tools for generation IV assemblies modelling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sylvie Aniel-Buchheit; Edwige Richebois

    2005-01-01

    Full text of publication follows: In the framework of the development of generation IV concepts, the need of new assembly modelling tools arises. These concepts present more geometrical and spectral heterogeneities (radially and axially). Moreover thermal-hydraulics and neutronics aspects are so closely related that coupled computations are necessary. That raises the need for more precise and flexible tools presenting 3D features. The 3D-coupling of the thermal-hydraulic code FLICA4 with the Monte-Carlo neutronics code TRIPOLI4 was developed in that frame. This new tool enables for the first time to obtain realistic axial and radial power profiles with real feedback effects in an assembly where thermal-hydraulics and neutronics effects are closely related. The BWR is the existing concept presenting the closest heterogeneous characteristics to the various new proposed concepts. This assembly design is thus chosen to compare this new tool, presenting real 3D characteristics, to the existing ones. For design studies, the evaluation of the assembly behavior, currently necessitate a depletion scheme using a 3D thermal-hydraulics assembly calculation coupled with a 1D axial neutronics deterministic calculation (or an axial power profile chosen as a function of the assembly averaged burn-up). The 3D neutronics code (CRONOS2) uses neutronic data built by 2D deterministic assembly calculations without feedback. These cross section libraries enable to take feedbacks into account via parameters such as fuel temperature, moderator density and temperature (history parameters such as void and control rod are not useful in design evaluation). Recently, the libraries build-up has been replaced by on line multi-2D deterministic assembly calculations performed by a cell code (APOLLO2). That avoids interpolation between pre-determined parameters in the cross-section data used by the 1D axial neutronics calculation and enable to give a radial power map to the 3D thermal

  1. A continuum model for hierarchical fibril assembly

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Lith, B. S.; Muntean, A.; Storm, C.

    2014-06-01

    Most of the biological polymers that make up our cells and tissues are hierarchically structured. For biopolymers ranging from collagen, to actin, to fibrin and amyloid fibrils this hierarchy provides vitally important versatility. The structural hierarchy must be encoded in the self-assembly process, from the earliest stages onward, in order to produce the appropriate substructures. In this letter, we explore the kinetics of multistage self-assembly processes in a model system which allows comparison to bulk probes such as light scattering. We apply our model to recent turbidimetry data on the self-assembly of collagen fibrils. Our analysis suggests a connection between diffusion-limited aggregation kinetics and fibril growth, supported by slow, power-law growth at very long time scales.

  2. 3D unified CFD to modeling of bubbles phenomena

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vladimir V Chudanov; Anna E Aksenova; Valerii A Pervichko

    2005-01-01

    Full text of publication follows: During of the last ten years the developed numerical methods and algorithms for solving of heat and mass transfer problems in compressible/incompressible fluids were successfully tested at simulation of interaction of two immiscible liquids. Now these computing tools are extended on a case of two-phase flows, such as a liquids-gas system as follows: outside of bubbles the non-stationary incompressible Navier-Stokes equations in the primitive variables coupled with the heat transfer equation are used; inside of bubble a compressible medium model with low Mach limit is applied. To observe of an interface of liquid-gas system we use the modified level set method and three-dimensional advective schemes of TVD-type with small scheme diffusion with use of sub-grid simulation. These schemes with small diffusion were already applied by us under using of sub-grid simulation for interface transfer in case of two non-mixing liquids. For bubble phenomena a numerical technique based on the developed algorithms with a small scheme diffusion, for which the discrete approximations are constructed using the finite-volume methods and fully staggered grids is adapted. Testing of the developed approach is carried out on the set of test problems and a good agreement is obtained between numerical predictions and experimental data. The numerical technique was successfully utilized for numerical support of 3D experiment financed by Nuclear Energy Agency at the Organization economic cooperation and development within the framework of MASKA Project, where computational fluid dynamics of two non-mixing fluids such as corium and steel was investigated. In this paper there is application of developed approach for simulation of bubble flows, in particular, for study of coalescence of two drops. The developed technique has a high degree of efficiency and allows on a personal computer (3 GHz and 2 Gbytes RAM) to carry out CFD calculations on a grid with 10 7

  3. Modeling of Parameters of Subcritical Assembly SAD

    CERN Document Server

    Petrochenkov, S; Puzynin, I

    2005-01-01

    The accepted conceptual design of the experimental Subcritical Assembly in Dubna (SAD) is based on the MOX core with a nominal unit capacity of 25 kW (thermal). This corresponds to the multiplication coefficient $k_{\\rm eff} =0.95$ and accelerator beam power 1 kW. A subcritical assembly driven with the existing 660 MeV proton accelerator at the Joint Institute for Nuclear Research has been modelled in order to make choice of the optimal parameters for the future experiments. The Monte Carlo method was used to simulate neutron spectra, energy deposition and doses calculations. Some of the calculation results are presented in the paper.

  4. Markov State Model of Ion Assembling Process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shevchuk, Roman

    2016-05-12

    We study the process of ion assembling in aqueous solution by means of molecular dynamics. In this article, we present a method to study many-particle assembly using the Markov state model formalism. We observed that at NaCl concentration higher than 1.49 mol/kg, the system tends to form a big ionic cluster composed of roughly 70-90% of the total number of ions. Using Markov state models, we estimated the average time needed for the system to make a transition from discorded state to a state with big ionic cluster. Our results suggest that the characteristic time to form an ionic cluster is a negative exponential function of the salt concentration. Moreover, we defined and analyzed three different kinetic states of a single ion particle. These states correspond to a different particle location during nucleation process.

  5. Modeling Solar Atmospheric Phenomena with AtomDB and PyAtomDB

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dupont, Marcus; Foster, Adam

    2018-01-01

    Taking advantage of the modeling tools made available by PyAtomDB (Foster 2015), we evaluated the impact of changing atomic data on solar phenomena, in particular their effects on models of coronal mass ejections (CME). Intitially, we perform modifications to the canonical SunNEI code (Murphy et al. 2011) in order to include non-equilibrium ionization (NEI) processes that occur in the CME modeled in SunNEI. The methods used involve the consideration of radiaitive cooling as well as ion balance calculations. These calculations were subsequently implemented within the SunNEI simulation. The insertion of aforementioned processes and parameter customizaton produced quite similar results of the original except for the case of iron. These differences were traced to inconsistencies in the recombination rates for Argon-like iron ions between the CHIANTI and AtomDB databases, even though they in theory use the same data. The key finding was that theoretical models are greatly impacted by the relative atomic database update cycles.Following the SunNEI comparison, we then use the AtomDB database to model the time depedencies of intensity flux spikes produced by a coronal shock wave (Ma et al. 2011). We produced a theretical representation for an ionizing plasma that interpolated over the intensity in four Astronomical Imaging Assembly (AIA) filters. Specifically, the 171 A (Fe IX) ,193 A (Fe XII, FeXXIV),211 A (Fe XIV),and 335 A (Fe XVI) wavelengths in order to assess the comparative spectral emissions between AtomDB and the observed data. The results of the theoretical model, in principle, shine light on both the equilibrium conditions before the shock and the non-equilibrium response to the shock front, as well as discrepancies introduced by changing the atomic data.

  6. Fluid models and simulations of biological cell phenomena

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenspan, H. P.

    1982-01-01

    The dynamics of coated droplets are examined within the context of biofluids. Of specific interest is the manner in which the shape of a droplet, the motion within it as well as that of aggregates of droplets can be controlled by the modulation of surface properties and the extent to which such fluid phenomena are an intrinsic part of cellular processes. From the standpoint of biology, an objective is to elucidate some of the general dynamical features that affect the disposition of an entire cell, cell colonies and tissues. Conventionally averaged field variables of continuum mechanics are used to describe the overall global effects which result from the myriad of small scale molecular interactions. An attempt is made to establish cause and effect relationships from correct dynamical laws of motion rather than by what may have been unnecessary invocation of metabolic or life processes. Several topics are discussed where there are strong analogies droplets and cells including: encapsulated droplets/cell membranes; droplet shape/cell shape; adhesion and spread of a droplet/cell motility and adhesion; and oams and multiphase flows/cell aggregates and tissues. Evidence is presented to show that certain concepts of continuum theory such as suface tension, surface free energy, contact angle, bending moments, etc. are relevant and applicable to the study of cell biology.

  7. Modeling of transport phenomena in concrete porous media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plecas, Ilija

    2014-02-01

    Two fundamental concerns must be addressed when attempting to isolate low-level waste in a disposal facility on land. The first concern is isolating the waste from water, or hydrologic isolation. The second is preventing movement of the radionuclides out of the disposal facility, or radionuclide migration. Particularly, we have investigated here the latter modified scenario. To assess the safety for disposal of radioactive waste-concrete composition, the leakage of 60Co from a waste composite into a surrounding fluid has been studied. Leakage tests were carried out by the original method, developed at the Vinča Institute. Transport phenomena involved in the leaching of a radioactive material from a cement composite matrix are investigated using three methods based on theoretical equations. These are: the diffusion equation for a plane source: an equation for diffusion coupled to a first-order equation, and an empirical method employing a polynomial equation. The results presented in this paper are from a 25-y mortar and concrete testing project that will influence the design choices for radioactive waste packaging for a future Serbian radioactive waste disposal center.

  8. Multiobjective Fuzzy Mixed Assembly Line Sequencing Optimization Model

    OpenAIRE

    Tahriri, Farzad; Zawiah Md Dawal, Siti; Taha, Zahari

    2014-01-01

    It can be deduced from previous studies that there exists a research gap in assembly line sequencing optimization model for mixed-model production lines. In particular, there is a lack of studies which focus on the integration between job shop and assembly lines using fuzzy techniques. Hence, this paper is aimed at addressing the multiobjective mixed-model assembly line sequencing problem by integrating job shop and assembly production lines for factories with modular layouts. The primary go...

  9. Artificially Structured Semiconductors to Model Novel Quantum Phenomena

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pinczuk, Aron [Columbia Univ., New York, NY (United States). Dept. of Applied Physics and Applied Mathematics; Wind, Shalom J. [Columbia Univ., New York, NY (United States). Dept. of Applied Physics and Applied Mathematics

    2018-01-13

    Award Period: September 1st, 2013 through February 15th, 2017 Submitted to the USDOE Office of Basic Energy Sciences By Aron Pinczuk and Shalom J. Wind Department of Applied Physics and Applied Mathematics Columbia University New York, NY 10027 January 2017 Award # DE-SC0010695 ABSTRACT Research in this project seeks to design, create and study a class of tunable artificial quantum structures in order to extend the range and scope of new and exciting physical phenomena and to explore the potential for new applications. Advanced nanofabrication was used to create an external potential landscape that acts as a lattice of confinement sites for electrons (and/or holes) in a two-dimensional electron gas in a high perfection semiconductor in such a manner that quantum interactions between different sites dictate the significant physics. Our current focus is on ‘artificial graphene’ (AG) in which a set of quantum dots (or sites) are patterned in a honeycomb lattice. The combination of leading edge nanofabrication with ultra-pure semiconductor materials in this project extends the frontier for small period, low-disorder AG systems, enabling the exploration of graphene physics in a semiconductor platform. TECHNICAL DESCRIPTION Contemporary condensed matter science has entered an era of discovery of new low-dimensional materials, such as graphene and other atomically thin materials, that exhibit exciting new physical phenomena that were previously inaccessible. Concurrent with the discovery and development of these new materials are impressive advancements in nanofabrication, which offer an ever-expanding toolbox for creating a myriad of high quality patterns at nanoscale dimensions. This project started about four years ago. Among its major achievements are the realizations of very small period artificial lattices with honeycomb topology in GaAs quantum wells. In our most recent work the periods of the ‘artificial graphene’ (AG) lattices extend down to 40 nm. These

  10. Mathematical modeling of transport phenomena in porous SOFC anodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hussain, M.M.; Li, X. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Waterloo, Waterloo, Ontario N2L 3G1 (Canada); Dincer, I. [Faculty of Engineering and Applied Science, University of Ontario Institute of Technology (UOIT) Oshawa, Ontario L1H 7K4 (Canada)

    2007-01-15

    In the present study, a mathematical model describing the transport of multi-component species inside porous SOFC anodes is developed. The model considers the reaction zone layer as a distinct volume rather than a mere mathematical surface (boundary condition) as treated in the existing models. The reaction zone layer is a relatively thin layer in the vicinity of electrolyte where electrochemical H{sub 2} oxidation takes place to produce electrons and water vapor. The model also incorporates the effect of Knudsen diffusion in the porous electrode and reaction zone layers. Simulations are performed using multi-component ethanol reformate fuel to predict the distribution of multi-component species in the electrode and reaction zone layers at different loads (current densities). In addition, the effect of shift reaction on the concentration over-potential is examined. Moreover, the effect of treating reaction zone layer as a discrete volume is investigated. (author)

  11. Going Multi-viral: Synthedemic Modelling of Internet-based Spreading Phenomena

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marily Nika

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Epidemics of a biological and technological nature pervade modern life. For centuries, scientific research focused on biological epidemics, with simple compartmental epidemiological models emerging as the dominant explanatory paradigm. Yet there has been limited translation of this effort to explain internet-based spreading phenomena. Indeed, single-epidemic models are inadequate to explain the multimodal nature of complex phenomena. In this paper we propose a novel paradigm for modelling internet-based spreading phenomena based on the composition of multiple compartmental epidemiological models. Our approach is inspired by Fourier analysis, but rather than trigonometric wave forms, our components are compartmental epidemiological models. We show results on simulated multiple epidemic data, swine flu data and BitTorrent downloads of a popular music artist. Our technique can characterise these multimodal data sets utilising a parsimonous number of subepidemic models.

  12. FDTD modelling of induced polarization phenomena in transient electromagnetics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Commer, Michael; Petrov, Peter V.; Newman, Gregory A.

    2017-04-01

    The finite-difference time-domain scheme is augmented in order to treat the modelling of transient electromagnetic signals containing induced polarization effects from 3-D distributions of polarizable media. Compared to the non-dispersive problem, the discrete dispersive Maxwell system contains costly convolution operators. Key components to our solution for highly digitized model meshes are Debye decomposition and composite memory variables. We revert to the popular Cole-Cole model of dispersion to describe the frequency-dependent behaviour of electrical conductivity. Its inversely Laplace-transformed Debye decomposition results in a series of time convolutions between electric field and exponential decay functions, with the latter reflecting each Debye constituents' individual relaxation time. These function types in the discrete-time convolution allow for their substitution by memory variables, annihilating the otherwise prohibitive computing demands. Numerical examples demonstrate the efficiency and practicality of our algorithm.

  13. Calibrating emergent phenomena in stock markets with agent based models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fievet, Lucas; Sornette, Didier

    2018-01-01

    Since the 2008 financial crisis, agent-based models (ABMs), which account for out-of-equilibrium dynamics, heterogeneous preferences, time horizons and strategies, have often been envisioned as the new frontier that could revolutionise and displace the more standard models and tools in economics. However, their adoption and generalisation is drastically hindered by the absence of general reliable operational calibration methods. Here, we start with a different calibration angle that qualifies an ABM for its ability to achieve abnormal trading performance with respect to the buy-and-hold strategy when fed with real financial data. Starting from the common definition of standard minority and majority agents with binary strategies, we prove their equivalence to optimal decision trees. This efficient representation allows us to exhaustively test all meaningful single agent models for their potential anomalous investment performance, which we apply to the NASDAQ Composite index over the last 20 years. We uncover large significant predictive power, with anomalous Sharpe ratio and directional accuracy, in particular during the dotcom bubble and crash and the 2008 financial crisis. A principal component analysis reveals transient convergence between the anomalous minority and majority models. A novel combination of the optimal single-agent models of both classes into a two-agents model leads to remarkable superior investment performance, especially during the periods of bubbles and crashes. Our design opens the field of ABMs to construct novel types of advanced warning systems of market crises, based on the emergent collective intelligence of ABMs built on carefully designed optimal decision trees that can be reversed engineered from real financial data.

  14. Calibrating emergent phenomena in stock markets with agent based models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sornette, Didier

    2018-01-01

    Since the 2008 financial crisis, agent-based models (ABMs), which account for out-of-equilibrium dynamics, heterogeneous preferences, time horizons and strategies, have often been envisioned as the new frontier that could revolutionise and displace the more standard models and tools in economics. However, their adoption and generalisation is drastically hindered by the absence of general reliable operational calibration methods. Here, we start with a different calibration angle that qualifies an ABM for its ability to achieve abnormal trading performance with respect to the buy-and-hold strategy when fed with real financial data. Starting from the common definition of standard minority and majority agents with binary strategies, we prove their equivalence to optimal decision trees. This efficient representation allows us to exhaustively test all meaningful single agent models for their potential anomalous investment performance, which we apply to the NASDAQ Composite index over the last 20 years. We uncover large significant predictive power, with anomalous Sharpe ratio and directional accuracy, in particular during the dotcom bubble and crash and the 2008 financial crisis. A principal component analysis reveals transient convergence between the anomalous minority and majority models. A novel combination of the optimal single-agent models of both classes into a two-agents model leads to remarkable superior investment performance, especially during the periods of bubbles and crashes. Our design opens the field of ABMs to construct novel types of advanced warning systems of market crises, based on the emergent collective intelligence of ABMs built on carefully designed optimal decision trees that can be reversed engineered from real financial data. PMID:29499049

  15. Vacuum spark breakdown model based on exploding metal wire phenomena

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haaland, J.

    1984-06-01

    Spark source mass spectra (SSMS) indicates that ions are extracted from an expanding and decaying plasma. The intensity distribution shows no dependance on vaporization properties of individual elements which indicates explosive vapour formation. This seems further to be a requirement for bridging a vacuum gap. A model including plasma ejection from a superheated anode spot by a process similar to that of an exploding metal wire is proposed. The appearance of hot plasma points in low inductance vacuum sparks can then be explained as exploding micro particles ejected from a final central anode spot. The phenomenological model is compared with available experimental results from literature, but no extensive quantification is attempted

  16. Air flow phenomena in the model of the blind drift

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaszczur Marek

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In the presented paper, Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV has been used to investigate flow pattern and turbulent structure in the model of blind drift. The presented model exist in mining, and has been analyzed to resolve ventilation issues. Blind region is particularly susceptible to unsafe methane accumulation. The measurement system allows us to evaluate all components of the velocity vector in channel cross-section simultaneously. First order and second order statistic of the velocity fields from different channel cross-section are computed and analyzed.

  17. Modelling toluene oxidation : Incorporation of mass transfer phenomena

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoorn, J.A.A.; van Soolingen, J.; Versteeg, G. F.

    The kinetics of the oxidation of toluene have been studied in close interaction with the gas-liquid mass transfer occurring in the reactor. Kinetic parameters for a simple model have been estimated on basis of experimental observations performed under industrial conditions. The conclusions for the

  18. Searches for phenomena beyond the Standard Model at the Large ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    metry searches at the LHC is thus the channel with large missing transverse momentum and jets of high transverse momentum. No excess above the expected SM background is observed and limits are set on supersymmetric models. Figures 1 and 2 show the limits from ATLAS [11] and CMS [12]. In addition to setting limits ...

  19. Constructive Models of Discrete and Continuous Physical Phenomena

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-02-08

    time. The hardware description language VHDL has a related model of time, where time is a member of N×N, and the second value is used in a manner...behaviors. Tech. Rep. RR 95–52, rev. RR (96–56), I3S, April 1996. 4. ARMSTRONG, J. R., AND GRAY, F. G. VHDL Design Representation and Synthesis, sec- ond

  20. Modelling of Transport Phenomena at Cement Matrix—Aggregate Interfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van Breugel, Klaas; Koenders, Eddie; Ye, Guang

    2004-01-01

    The performance of a heterogeneous material like concrete is largely determined by the many interfaces in this material. This contribution focuses on the potential of numerical simulation models to investigate the character of the matrix-aggregate interfacial zone and to simulate hydration-induce...

  1. Modeling of Multi-Scale Channeling Phenomena in Porous Flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Räss, Ludovic; Omlin, Samuel; Yarushina, Viktoriya; Simon, Nina; Podladchikov, Yuri

    2015-04-01

    Predictive modeling of fluid percolation through tight porous rocks is critical to evaluate environmental risks associated with waste storage and reservoir operations. To understand the evolution of two-phase mixtures of fluid and solid it is insufficient to only combine single-phase fluid flow methods and solid mechanics. A proper coupling of these two different multi-scales physical processes is required to describe the complex evolution of permeability and porosity in space and in time. We conduct numerical modeling experiments in geometrically simple but physically complex systems of stressed rocks containing self-focusing porous flow. Our model is physically and thermodynamically consistent and describes the formation and evolution of fluid pathways. The model consists of a system of coupled equations describing poro-elasto-viscous deformation and flow. Nonlinearity of the solid rheology is also taken into account. We have developed a numerical application based on an iterative finite difference scheme that runs on mutli-GPUs cluster in parallel. In order to validate these models, we consider the largest CO2 sequestration project in operation at the Sleipner field in the Norwegian North Sea. Attempts to match the observations at Sleipner using conventional reservoir simulations fail to capture first order observations, such as the seemingly effortless vertical flow of CO2 through low permeability shale layers and the formation of focused flow channels or chimneys. Conducted high-resolution three-dimensional numerical simulations predict the formation of dynamically evolving high porosity and permeability pathways as a natural outcome of porous flow nonlinearly coupled with rock deformation, which may trigger leakage through low permeability barriers.

  2. Model based on diffuse logic for the construction of indicators of urban vulnerability in natural phenomena

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia L, Carlos Eduardo; Hurtado G, Jorge Eduardo

    2003-01-01

    Upon considering the vulnerability of a urban system in a holistic way and taking into account some natural, technological and social factors, a model based upon a system of fuzzy logic, allowing to estimate the vulnerability of any system under natural phenomena potentially catastrophic is proposed. The model incorporates quantitative and qualitative variables in a dynamic system, in which variations in one of them have a positive or negative impact over the rest. An urban system model and an indicator model to determine the vulnerability due to natural phenomena were designed

  3. Two-fluid modeling of thermal-hydraulic phenomena for best-estimate LWR safety analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yadigaroglu, G.; Andreani, M.

    1989-01-01

    Two-fluid formulation of the conservation equations has allowed modelling of the two-phase flow and heat transfer phenomena and situations involving strong departures in thermal and velocity equilibrium between the phases. The paper reviews the state of the art in modelling critical flows, and certain phase separation phenomena, as well as post-dryout heat transfer situations. Although the two-fluid models and the codes have the potential for correctly modelling such situations, this potential has not always been fully used in practice. (orig.)

  4. Model Reduction and Coarse-Graining Approaches for Multiscale Phenomena

    CERN Document Server

    Gorban, Alexander N; Theodoropoulos, Constantinos; Kazantzis, Nikolaos K; Öttinger, Hans Christian

    2006-01-01

    Model reduction and coarse-graining are important in many areas of science and engineering. How does a system with many degrees of freedom become one with fewer? How can a reversible micro-description be adapted to the dissipative macroscopic model? These crucial questions, as well as many other related problems, are discussed in this book. Specific areas of study include dynamical systems, non-equilibrium statistical mechanics, kinetic theory, hydrodynamics and mechanics of continuous media, (bio)chemical kinetics, nonlinear dynamics, nonlinear control, nonlinear estimation, and particulate systems from various branches of engineering. The generic nature and the power of the pertinent conceptual, analytical and computational frameworks helps eliminate some of the traditional language barriers, which often unnecessarily impede scientific progress and the interaction of researchers between disciplines such as physics, chemistry, biology, applied mathematics and engineering. All contributions are authored by ex...

  5. Modelling of Electrodynamic Phenomena in Slowly Moving Media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rozov, Andrey Leonidovich

    2017-08-01

    We discuss the feasibility of using, along with Minkowski equations obtained on the basis of the theory of relativity and used at present in electrodynamics, alternative methods of describing the processes of interaction between electromagnetic fields and moving media. In this article, a way of describing electromagnetic fields in terms of classical mechanics is offered. A system of electrodynamic equations for slowly moving media was derived on the basis of Maxwell's theory within the framework of classical mechanics using Wilsons' experimental data with dielectrics in a previous article [A. Rozov, Z. Naturforsch. 70, 1019 (2015)]. This article puts forward a physical model that explains the features of the derived equations. The offered model made it possible to suggest a new approach to the derivation of electrodynamic equations for slowly moving media. A variant of Galileo's relativity principle, in accordance with which the electrodynamic equations for slowly moving media should be considered as Galilean-invariant, is laid down on the basis of both the interpretation of Galileo's concept following from Galileo's works and Pauli's concept of postulate of relativity within the framework of the represented physical model.

  6. Modeling of transport phenomena in tokamak plasmas with neural networks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meneghini, O., E-mail: meneghini@fusion.gat.com [Oak Ridge Associated Universities, 120 Badger Ave, Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37830 (United States); Luna, C. J. [Arizona State University, 411 N. Central Ave, Phoenix, Arizona 85004 (United States); Smith, S. P.; Lao, L. L. [General Atomics, San Diego, California 92186-5608 (United States)

    2014-06-15

    A new transport model that uses neural networks (NNs) to yield electron and ion heat flux profiles has been developed. Given a set of local dimensionless plasma parameters similar to the ones that the highest fidelity models use, the NN model is able to efficiently and accurately predict the ion and electron heat transport profiles. As a benchmark, a NN was built, trained, and tested on data from the 2012 and 2013 DIII-D experimental campaigns. It is found that NN can capture the experimental behavior over the majority of the plasma radius and across a broad range of plasma regimes. Although each radial location is calculated independently from the others, the heat flux profiles are smooth, suggesting that the solution found by the NN is a smooth function of the local input parameters. This result supports the evidence of a well-defined, non-stochastic relationship between the input parameters and the experimentally measured transport fluxes. The numerical efficiency of this method, requiring only a few CPU-μs per data point, makes it ideal for scenario development simulations and real-time plasma control.

  7. CAD Parts-Based Assembly Modeling by Probabilistic Reasoning

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Kai-Ke

    2016-04-11

    Nowadays, increasing amount of parts and sub-assemblies are publicly available, which can be used directly for product development instead of creating from scratch. In this paper, we propose an interactive design framework for efficient and smart assembly modeling, in order to improve the design efficiency. Our approach is based on a probabilistic reasoning. Given a collection of industrial assemblies, we learn a probabilistic graphical model from the relationships between the parts of assemblies. Then in the modeling stage, this probabilistic model is used to suggest the most likely used parts compatible with the current assembly. Finally, the parts are assembled under certain geometric constraints. We demonstrate the effectiveness of our framework through a variety of assembly models produced by our prototype system. © 2015 IEEE.

  8. Mass segregation phenomena using the Hamiltonian Mean Field model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steiner, J. R.; Zolacir, T. O.

    2018-02-01

    Mass segregation problem is thought to be entangled with the dynamical evolution of young stellar clusters (Olczak, 2011 [1]). This is a common sense in the astrophysical community. In this work, the Hamiltonian Mean Field (HMF) model with different masses is studied. A mass segregation phenomenon (MSP) arises from this study as a dynamical feature. The MSP in the HMF model is a consequence of the Landau damping (LD) and it appears in systems that the interactions belongs to a long range regime. Actually HMF is a toy model known to show up the main characteristics of astrophysical systems due to the mean field character of the potential and for different masses, as stellar and galaxies clusters, also exhibits MSP. It is in this sense that computational simulations focusing in what happens over the mass distribution in the phase space are performed for this system. What happens through the violent relaxation period and what stands for the quasi-stationary states (QSS) of this dynamics is analyzed. The results obtained support the fact that MSP is observed already in the violent relaxation time and is maintained during the QSS. Some structures in the mass distribution function are observed. As a result of this study the mass distribution is determined by the system dynamics and is independent of the dimensionality of the system. MSP occurs in a one dimensional system as a result of the long range forces that acts in the system. In this approach MSP emerges as a dynamical feature. We also show that for HMF with different masses, the dynamical time scale is N.

  9. Fine numerical modelling of thermohydraulic phenomena in EDF PWR reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boulot, F.

    1993-01-01

    Over the last 20 years, EDF has developed a family of 2D and 3D industrial thermohydraulics software to solve problems encountered in existing PWR power plants and to design new reactors for the future. The equations used in the models are the averaged Navier-Stokes and energy equations. A brief description is given of the four main codes developed for single-phase and two-phase water-steam flows, some of which use finite differences or finite volumes methods, while others make use of finite elements methods. An example of application is given for each code. (author). 4 figs., 4 refs

  10. Characterization of thermal-hydraulic and ignition phenomena in prototypic, full-length boiling water reactor spent fuel pool assemblies after a complete loss-of-coolant accident.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lindgren, Eric Richard; Durbin, Samuel G

    2007-04-01

    The objective of this project was to provide basic thermal-hydraulic data associated with a SFP complete loss-of-coolant accident. The accident conditions of interest for the SFP were simulated in a full-scale prototypic fashion (electrically-heated, prototypic assemblies in a prototypic SFP rack) so that the experimental results closely represent actual fuel assembly responses. A major impetus for this work was to facilitate code validation (primarily MELCOR) and reduce questions associated with interpretation of the experimental results. It was necessary to simulate a cluster of assemblies to represent a higher decay (younger) assembly surrounded by older, lower-power assemblies. Specifically, this program provided data and analysis confirming: (1) MELCOR modeling of inter-assembly radiant heat transfer, (2) flow resistance modeling and the natural convective flow induced in a fuel assembly as it heats up in air, (3) the potential for and nature of thermal transient (i.e., Zircaloy fire) propagation, and (4) mitigation strategies concerning fuel assembly management.

  11. Modeling of deformation phenomena in volume label during its operation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svitlana Sheludko

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available BIt was considered in the article the research of physical and mechanical properties of materials based on PVC film ORACAL and RITRAMA that used in the production of volume labels. In particular, it was shown the changes of dependences between linear deformation of printed and unprinted films and the value of stress with regard to their minimum and maximum values. It was also established that deformation properties of the films are different in the transverse and longitudinal directions, which should be considered when producing labels. It was conducted the modeling of stress-strain state of volume label when gluing it to the surfaces of various shapes. We considered the boundary conditions for displacement and stress of labels layer components with regard to the chemical structure of epoxy resins and their physical and mechanical characteristics.

  12. Modeling of the Transport Phenomena in Passive Direct Methanol Fuel Cells Using a Two-Phase Anisotropic Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zheng Miao

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The transport phenomena in a passive direct methanol fuel cell (DMFC were numerically simulated by the proposed two-dimensional two-phase nonisothermal mass transport model. The anisotropic transport characteristic and deformation of the gas diffusion layer (GDL were considered in this model. The natural convection boundary conditions were adopted for the transport of methanol, oxygen, and heat at the GDL outer surface. The effect of methanol concentration in the reservoir on cell performance was examined. The distribution of multiphysical fields in the membrane electrode assembly (MEA, especially in the catalyst layers (CLs, was obtained and analyzed. The results indicated that transport resistance for the methanol mainly existed in the MEA while that for oxygen and heat was primarily due to natural convection at the GDL outer surface. Because of the relatively high methanol concentration, the local reaction rate in CLs was mainly determined by the overpotential. Methanol concentration between 3 M and 4 M was recommended for passive liquid feed DMFC in order to achieve a balance between the cell performance and the methanol crossover.

  13. Modelling the self-assembly of virus capsids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, Iain G.; Louis, Ard A.; Doye, Jonathan P. K.

    2010-03-01

    We use computer simulations to study a model, first proposed by Wales (2005 Phil. Trans. R. Soc. A 363 357), for the reversible and monodisperse self-assembly of simple icosahedral virus capsid structures. The success and efficiency of assembly as a function of thermodynamic and geometric factors can be qualitatively related to the potential energy landscape structure of the assembling system. Even though the model is strongly coarse-grained, it exhibits a number of features also observed in experiments, such as sigmoidal assembly dynamics, hysteresis in capsid formation and numerous kinetic traps. We also investigate the effect of macromolecular crowding on the assembly dynamics. Crowding agents generally reduce capsid yields at optimal conditions for non-crowded assembly, but may increase yields for parameter regimes away from the optimum. Finally, we generalize the model to a larger triangulation number T = 3, and observe assembly dynamics more complex than that seen for the original T = 1 model.

  14. Modelling of CRUD growth phenomena on PWR fuel rods under nucleate boiling conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferrer, A.; Dacquait, F.; Gall, B.; Ranchoux, G.; Riot, G.

    2012-09-01

    PWR primary circuit materials undergo general corrosion leading to a release of metallic element release and subsequent process of particle deposition and ion precipitation on the primary circuit surfaces. The species accumulated on fuel rods are activated by neutron flux. Consequently, crud erosion and dissolution induce primary coolant contamination. In French PWRs, 58 Co volume activity is generally low and almost constant (< 30 MBq.m -3 ) throughout an ordinary operating cycle. In some specific cases, a significant increase in volume activity is observed after the middle of a cycle (100-1000 MBq.m -3 for 58 Co) when conditions for nucleate boiling are locally reached in certain fuel assemblies. Indeed, it is well known that nucleate boiling intensifies the deposition process. The thickness of the crud layer can reach some micrometers in non-boiling areas, whereas it can reach 100 micrometers in boiling areas. Crud growth in boiling conditions can be related to three phenomena: bubble growth induces deposition process (called boiling deposition), bubbles induce concentration increase at crud-coolant interface (called enrichment and modelled by the enrichment factor, the ratio between the wall concentration and the bulk concentration) and vaporisation induces concentration increase inside the crud. A literature review on the modelling of these phenomena and on the crud structure in nucleate boiling conditions has been carried out. The OSCAR [1] calculation code developed by the CEA to predict surface and volume activities in a single phase PWR primary circuit was chosen as a basis for present study. Ability to describe local nucleate boiling conditions was added to this code leading to realistic modelling of subsequent volume activity increase. In this article, we present the results obtained using a modified version of the OSCAR PC V1.2 calculation code including: - A double phase thermal-hydraulic module, - A model of boiling crud growth, able to calculate

  15. An Equilibrium Assembly Model Applied to Murine Polyomavirus

    OpenAIRE

    Keef, T.

    2005-01-01

    In Keef et al., Assembly Models for Papovaviridae based on Tiling Theory (submitted to J. Phys. Biol.), 2005 [1] we extended an equilibrium assembly model to the (pseudo–)T = 7 viral capsids in the family of Papovaviridae providing assembly pathways for the most likely or primary intermediates and computing their concentrations. Here this model is applied to Murine Polyomavirus based on the association energies provided by the VIPER web page Reddy et al.“Virus particle explorer (VIPER), a web...

  16. Probabilistic reasoning for assembly-based 3D modeling

    KAUST Repository

    Chaudhuri, Siddhartha

    2011-01-01

    Assembly-based modeling is a promising approach to broadening the accessibility of 3D modeling. In assembly-based modeling, new models are assembled from shape components extracted from a database. A key challenge in assembly-based modeling is the identification of relevant components to be presented to the user. In this paper, we introduce a probabilistic reasoning approach to this problem. Given a repository of shapes, our approach learns a probabilistic graphical model that encodes semantic and geometric relationships among shape components. The probabilistic model is used to present components that are semantically and stylistically compatible with the 3D model that is being assembled. Our experiments indicate that the probabilistic model increases the relevance of presented components. © 2011 ACM.

  17. Motion Planning of Bimanual Robot Using Adaptive Model of Assembly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Myun Joong; Lee, Doo Yong; Chung, Seong Youb

    This paper presents a motion planning method for a bimanual robot for executing assembly tasks. The method employs an adaptive modeling which can automatically generate an assembly model and modify the model during actual assembly. Bimanual robotic assembly is modeled at the task-level using contact states of workpieces and their transitions. The lower-level velocity commands of the workpieces are automatically derived by solving optimization problem formulated with assembly constraints, position of the workpieces, and kinematics of manipulators. Motion requirements of the workpieces are transformed to motion commands of the bimanual robot. The proposed approach is evaluated with experiments on peg-in-hole assembly with an L-shaped peg.

  18. Assembly modeling for plan generation and DFA analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neelamkavil, Joseph

    2000-10-01

    Assembly in the state when a product really comes to life and is able to function; a product achieves its functionality by the concerted efforts of its components. Assembling consists of the act of putting two or more components together; but behind the scenes work includes many activities necessary to realize a complete product, repair it, disassemble it for recycling or disposal and so on. During the past two decades or so, several methodologies- graph theory, matrix algebra, knowledge-based, object-oriented, etc. - have evolved for the modeling of assemblies. Each method has its own merit; but the suitability and practicality of a method often depends on the computer hardware capability and the state of available software language features (expression capability and libraries). Generally speaking, the modeling of assemblies involves a two step process: component relationship modeling and detailed CAD modeling. Product designers use the components relationship models, often informally, to complete their design. This paper describes the modeling techniques and implementation details pertaining to the component relations. Matrix algebra-based modeling framework that is used in this work is capable of representing product final assemblies, sub-assemblies and individual components. The framework has the required expression capability that may be used to perform bill of materials calculations, material requirements planning, the creation of assembly liaison or mating information, design for assembly (DFA) analysis and the generation of assembly plans/sequences.

  19. Mesoscopic modeling of multi-physicochemical transport phenomena in porous media

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Qinjin [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Wang, Moran [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Mukherjee, Partha P [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Lichtner, Peter C [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2009-01-01

    We present our recent progress on mesoscopic modeling of multi-physicochemical transport phenomena in porous media based on the lattice Boltzmann method. Simulation examples include injection of CO{sub 2} saturated brine into a limestone rock, two-phase behavior and flooding phenomena in polymer electrolyte fuel cells, and electroosmosis in homogeneously charged porous media. It is shown that the lattice Boltzmann method can account for multiple, coupled physicochemical processes in these systems and can shed some light on the underlying physics occuning at the fundamental scale. Therefore, it can be a potential powerful numerical tool to analyze multi-physicochemical processes in various energy, earth, and environmental systems.

  20. Self assembly of rectangular shapes on concentration programming and probabilistic tile assembly models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kundeti, Vamsi; Rajasekaran, Sanguthevar

    2012-06-01

    Efficient tile sets for self assembling rectilinear shapes is of critical importance in algorithmic self assembly. A lower bound on the tile complexity of any deterministic self assembly system for an n × n square is [Formula: see text] (inferred from the Kolmogrov complexity). Deterministic self assembly systems with an optimal tile complexity have been designed for squares and related shapes in the past. However designing [Formula: see text] unique tiles specific to a shape is still an intensive task in the laboratory. On the other hand copies of a tile can be made rapidly using PCR (polymerase chain reaction) experiments. This led to the study of self assembly on tile concentration programming models. We present two major results in this paper on the concentration programming model. First we show how to self assemble rectangles with a fixed aspect ratio ( α:β ), with high probability, using Θ( α + β ) tiles. This result is much stronger than the existing results by Kao et al. (Randomized self-assembly for approximate shapes, LNCS, vol 5125. Springer, Heidelberg, 2008) and Doty (Randomized self-assembly for exact shapes. In: proceedings of the 50th annual IEEE symposium on foundations of computer science (FOCS), IEEE, Atlanta. pp 85-94, 2009)-which can only self assembly squares and rely on tiles which perform binary arithmetic. On the other hand, our result is based on a technique called staircase sampling . This technique eliminates the need for sub-tiles which perform binary arithmetic, reduces the constant in the asymptotic bound, and eliminates the need for approximate frames (Kao et al. Randomized self-assembly for approximate shapes, LNCS, vol 5125. Springer, Heidelberg, 2008). Our second result applies staircase sampling on the equimolar concentration programming model (The tile complexity of linear assemblies. In: proceedings of the 36th international colloquium automata, languages and programming: Part I on ICALP '09, Springer-Verlag, pp 235

  1. Numerical modelling of tools steel hardening. A thermal phenomena and phase transformations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Domański

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper the model hardening of tool steel takes into considerations of thermal phenomena and phase transformations in the solid state are presented. In the modelling of thermal phenomena the heat equations transfer has been solved by Finite Elements Method. The graph of continuous heating (CHT and continuous cooling (CCT considered steel are used in the model of phase transformations. Phase altered fractions during the continuous heating austenite and continuous cooling pearlite or bainite are marked in the model by formula Johnson-Mehl and Avrami. For rate of heating >100 K/s the modified equation Koistinen and Marburger is used. Modified equation Koistinen and Marburger identify the forming fraction of martensite.

  2. Scale breaking effects in the quark-parton model for large P perpendicular phenomena

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baier, R.; Petersson, B.

    1977-01-01

    We discuss how the scaling violations suggested by an asymptotically free parton model, i.e., the Q 2 -dependence of the transverse momentum of partons within hadrons may affect the parton model description of large p perpendicular phenomena. We show that such a mechanism can provide an explanation for the magnitude of the opposite side correlations and their dependence on the trigger momentum. (author)

  3. Computational Modelling of a Tangentially Fired Boiler With Deposit Formation Phenomena

    OpenAIRE

    Modliński Norbert J.

    2014-01-01

    Any complete CFD model of pulverised coal-fired boiler needs to consider ash deposition phenomena. Wall boundary conditions (temperature and emissivity) should be temporally corrected to account for the effects of deposit growth on the combustion conditions. At present voluminous publications concerning ash related problems are available. The current paper presents development of an engineering tool integrating deposit formation models with the CFD code. It was then applied to two tangentiall...

  4. Review on modeling development for multiscale chemical reactions coupled transport phenomena in solid oxide fuel cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andersson, Martin; Yuan, Jinliang; Sunden, Bengt [Department of Energy Sciences, Lund University, SE-221 00 Lund (Sweden)

    2010-05-15

    A literature study is performed to compile the state-of-the-art, as well as future potential, in SOFC modeling. Principles behind various transport processes such as mass, heat, momentum and charge as well as for electrochemical and internal reforming reactions are described. A deeper investigation is made to find out potentials and challenges using a multiscale approach to model solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) and combine the accuracy at microscale with the calculation speed at macroscale to design SOFCs, based on a clear understanding of transport phenomena, chemical reactions and functional requirements. Suitable methods are studied to model SOFCs covering various length scales. Coupling methods between different approaches and length scales by multiscale models are outlined. Multiscale modeling increases the understanding for detailed transport phenomena, and can be used to make a correct decision on the specific design and control of operating conditions. It is expected that the development and production costs will be decreased and the energy efficiency be increased (reducing running cost) as the understanding of complex physical phenomena increases. It is concluded that the connection between numerical modeling and experiments is too rare and also that material parameters in most cases are valid only for standard materials and not for the actual SOFC component microstructures. (author)

  5. Multiobjective Fuzzy Mixed Assembly Line Sequencing Optimization Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farzad Tahriri

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available It can be deduced from previous studies that there exists a research gap in assembly line sequencing optimization model for mixed-model production lines. In particular, there is a lack of studies which focus on the integration between job shop and assembly lines using fuzzy techniques. Hence, this paper is aimed at addressing the multiobjective mixed-model assembly line sequencing problem by integrating job shop and assembly production lines for factories with modular layouts. The primary goal is to minimize the make-span, setup time, and cost simultaneously in mixed-model assembly lines. Such conflicting goals arise when switching between different products. A genetic algorithm (GA approach is used to solve this problem, in which trapezoidal fuzzy numbers are implemented for variables such as operation and travelling time in order to generate results with higher accuracy and representative of real-case data.

  6. Quantitative physical models of volcanic phenomena for hazards assessment of critical infrastructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Antonio

    2016-04-01

    Volcanic hazards may have destructive effects on economy, transport, and natural environments at both local and regional scale. Hazardous phenomena include pyroclastic density currents, tephra fall, gas emissions, lava flows, debris flows and avalanches, and lahars. Volcanic hazards assessment is based on available information to characterize potential volcanic sources in the region of interest and to determine whether specific volcanic phenomena might reach a given site. Volcanic hazards assessment is focussed on estimating the distances that volcanic phenomena could travel from potential sources and their intensity at the considered site. Epistemic and aleatory uncertainties strongly affect the resulting hazards assessment. Within the context of critical infrastructures, volcanic eruptions are rare natural events that can create severe hazards. In addition to being rare events, evidence of many past volcanic eruptions is poorly preserved in the geologic record. The models used for describing the impact of volcanic phenomena generally represent a range of model complexities, from simplified physics based conceptual models to highly coupled thermo fluid dynamical approaches. Modelling approaches represent a hierarchy of complexity, which reflects increasing requirements for well characterized data in order to produce a broader range of output information. In selecting models for the hazard analysis related to a specific phenomenon, questions that need to be answered by the models must be carefully considered. Independently of the model, the final hazards assessment strongly depends on input derived from detailed volcanological investigations, such as mapping and stratigraphic correlations. For each phenomenon, an overview of currently available approaches for the evaluation of future hazards will be presented with the aim to provide a foundation for future work in developing an international consensus on volcanic hazards assessment methods.

  7. 3D numerical modeling of coupled phenomena in induced processes of heat treatment with malice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Triwong Peeteenut

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes a multi-method Malice package for three dimension coupled phenomena in induced processes of heat treatment by an algorithm weakly coupled with the Migen package integral method defining the electromagnetic model and the Flux-Expert package finite element method defining the thermal model. The integral method is well suited to inductive systems undergoing sinusoidal excitation at midrange or high frequency. The unknowns of both models are current density, scalar potential and temperature. Joule power in the electromagnetic model is generated by Eddy currents. It becomes the heat source in the thermal model.

  8. Discussion of heat transfer phenomena in fluids at supercritical pressure with the aid of CFD models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharabi, Medhat; Ambrosini, Walter

    2009-01-01

    The paper discusses heat transfer enhancement and deterioration phenomena observed in experimental data for fluids at supercritical pressure. The results obtained by the application of various CFD turbulence models in the prediction of experimental data for water and carbon dioxide flowing in circular tubes are firstly described. On this basis, the capabilities of the addressed models in predicting the observed phenomena are shortly discussed. Then, the analysis focuses on further results obtained by a low-Reynolds number k - ε model addressing one of the considered experimental apparatuses by changing the operating conditions. In particular, the usual imposed heat flux boundary condition is changed to assigned wall temperature, in order to highlight effects otherwise impossible to point out. The obtained results, supported by considerations drawn from experimental information, allow comparing the trends observed for heat transfer deterioration at supercritical pressure with those typical of the thermal crisis in boiling systems, clarifying old concepts of similarity among them

  9. Continuum modelling of pedestrian flows - Part 2: Sensitivity analysis featuring crowd movement phenomena

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duives, Dorine C.; Daamen, Winnie; Hoogendoorn, Serge P.

    2016-04-01

    In recent years numerous pedestrian simulation tools have been developed that can support crowd managers and government officials in their tasks. New technologies to monitor pedestrian flows are in dire need of models that allow for rapid state-estimation. Many contemporary pedestrian simulation tools model the movements of pedestrians at a microscopic level, which does not provide an exact solution. Macroscopic models capture the fundamental characteristics of the traffic state at a more aggregate level, and generally have a closed form solution which is necessary for rapid state estimation for traffic management purposes. This contribution presents a next step in the calibration and validation of the macroscopic continuum model detailed in Hoogendoorn et al. (2014). The influence of global and local route choice on the development of crowd movement phenomena, such as dissipation, lane-formation and stripe-formation, is studied. This study shows that most self-organization phenomena and behavioural trends only develop under very specific conditions, and as such can only be simulated using specific parameter sets. Moreover, all crowd movement phenomena can be reproduced by means of the continuum model using one parameter set. This study concludes that the incorporation of local route choice behaviour and the balancing of the aptitude of pedestrians with respect to their own class and other classes are both essential in the correct prediction of crowd movement dynamics.

  10. Modeling the assembly order of multimeric heteroprotein complexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Lenna X; Togawa, Yoichiro; Esquivel-Rodriguez, Juan; Terashi, Genki; Christoffer, Charles; Roy, Amitava; Shin, Woong-Hee; Kihara, Daisuke

    2018-01-01

    Protein-protein interactions are the cornerstone of numerous biological processes. Although an increasing number of protein complex structures have been determined using experimental methods, relatively fewer studies have been performed to determine the assembly order of complexes. In addition to the insights into the molecular mechanisms of biological function provided by the structure of a complex, knowing the assembly order is important for understanding the process of complex formation. Assembly order is also practically useful for constructing subcomplexes as a step toward solving the entire complex experimentally, designing artificial protein complexes, and developing drugs that interrupt a critical step in the complex assembly. There are several experimental methods for determining the assembly order of complexes; however, these techniques are resource-intensive. Here, we present a computational method that predicts the assembly order of protein complexes by building the complex structure. The method, named Path-LzerD, uses a multimeric protein docking algorithm that assembles a protein complex structure from individual subunit structures and predicts assembly order by observing the simulated assembly process of the complex. Benchmarked on a dataset of complexes with experimental evidence of assembly order, Path-LZerD was successful in predicting the assembly pathway for the majority of the cases. Moreover, when compared with a simple approach that infers the assembly path from the buried surface area of subunits in the native complex, Path-LZerD has the strong advantage that it can be used for cases where the complex structure is not known. The path prediction accuracy decreased when starting from unbound monomers, particularly for larger complexes of five or more subunits, for which only a part of the assembly path was correctly identified. As the first method of its kind, Path-LZerD opens a new area of computational protein structure modeling and will be

  11. Modeling the assembly order of multimeric heteroprotein complexes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lenna X Peterson

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Protein-protein interactions are the cornerstone of numerous biological processes. Although an increasing number of protein complex structures have been determined using experimental methods, relatively fewer studies have been performed to determine the assembly order of complexes. In addition to the insights into the molecular mechanisms of biological function provided by the structure of a complex, knowing the assembly order is important for understanding the process of complex formation. Assembly order is also practically useful for constructing subcomplexes as a step toward solving the entire complex experimentally, designing artificial protein complexes, and developing drugs that interrupt a critical step in the complex assembly. There are several experimental methods for determining the assembly order of complexes; however, these techniques are resource-intensive. Here, we present a computational method that predicts the assembly order of protein complexes by building the complex structure. The method, named Path-LzerD, uses a multimeric protein docking algorithm that assembles a protein complex structure from individual subunit structures and predicts assembly order by observing the simulated assembly process of the complex. Benchmarked on a dataset of complexes with experimental evidence of assembly order, Path-LZerD was successful in predicting the assembly pathway for the majority of the cases. Moreover, when compared with a simple approach that infers the assembly path from the buried surface area of subunits in the native complex, Path-LZerD has the strong advantage that it can be used for cases where the complex structure is not known. The path prediction accuracy decreased when starting from unbound monomers, particularly for larger complexes of five or more subunits, for which only a part of the assembly path was correctly identified. As the first method of its kind, Path-LZerD opens a new area of computational protein structure

  12. Revising explanatory models to accommodate anomalous genetic phenomena: Problem solving in the context of discovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hafner, Robert; Stewart, Jim

    Past problem-solving research has provided a basis for helping students structure their knowledge and apply appropriate problem-solving strategies to solve problems for which their knowledge (or mental models) of scientific phenomena is adequate (model-using problem solving). This research examines how problem solving in the domain of Mendelian genetics proceeds in situations where solvers' mental models are insufficient to solve problems at hand (model-revising problem solving). Such situations require solvers to use existing models to recognize anomalous data and to revise those models to accommodate the data. The study was conducted in the context of 9-week high school genetics course and addressed: the heuristics charactenstic of successful model-revising problem solving: the nature of the model revisions, made by students as well as the nature of model development across problem types; and the basis upon which solvers decide that a revised model is sufficient (that t has both predictive and explanatory power).

  13. Molecular modelling studies of clay-exopolysaccharide complexes: Soil aggregation and water retention phenomena

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Henao, Lina J. [Centre de Recherches sur les Macromolecules Vegetales (CERMAV-CNRS), BP53, 38041 Grenoble cedex 9 (France); Mazeau, Karim, E-mail: karim.mazeau@cermav.cnrs.fr [Centre de Recherches sur les Macromolecules Vegetales (CERMAV-CNRS), BP53, 38041 Grenoble cedex 9 (France)

    2009-10-15

    In soils, the bacterial exopolysaccharides (EPS) aggregate mineral particles, enhancing their cohesion and their ability to retain water. These phenomena have been studied at the atomic scale by molecular modelling; we have considered seven rhizospheric polysaccharides interacting with the basal surfaces of montmorillonite. Models accounted for the aggregation phenomena induced by EPS: some segments of the polysaccharide were adsorbed on the mineral surfaces while others formed loops and bridges linking two surfaces. Adsorption energies were favourable and depended mostly on the interacting area. Cohesion of aggregates was estimated by the adhesion work, predicted values differed from one EPS to the other, suggesting that the chemical structure influences interaction strength with the mineral surface. Mechanisms of water uptake and release have also been investigated: hydration energies revealed that EPS strongly retain water at low water concentrations.

  14. Modelling of Mass Transfer Phenomena in Chemical and Biochemical Reactor Systems using Computational Fluid Dynamics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsson, Hilde Kristina

    Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) is the application of numerical methods to solve systems of partial differential equations related to fluid dynamics. The continuity and the momentum equations are the most commonly applied equations within CFD, and together they can be used to calculate...... the velocity and pressure distributions in a fluid. CFD also enables the modelling of several fluids simultaneously, e.g. gas bubbles in a liquid, as well as the presence of turbulence and dissolved chemicals in a fluid, and many other phenomena. This makes CFD an appreciated tool for studying flow structures...... and an ion-exchange reaction are also modelled and compared to experimental data. The thesis includes a comprehensive overview of the fundamentals behind a CFD software, as well as a more detailed review of the fluid dynamic phenomena investigated in this project. The momentum and continuity equations...

  15. Simulations of Heat Transport Phenomena in a Three-Dimensional Model of Knitted Fabric

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Puszkarz A.K.

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The main goal of the current work is to analyse the three-dimensional approach for modelling knitted fabric structures for future analysis of physical properties and thermal phenomena. The introduced model assumes some simplification of morphology. First, fibres in knitted fabrics are described as monofilaments characterized by isotropic thermal properties. The current form of the considered knitted fabric is determined by morphological properties of the used monofilament and simplification of the stitch shape. This simplification was based on a particular technology for the knitting process that introduces both geometric parameters and physical material properties. Detailed descriptions of heat transfer phenomena can also be considered. A sensitivity analysis of the temperature field with respect to selected structural parameters was also performed.

  16. Numerical modelling of thermal and fluid flow phenomena in the mould channel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Sowa

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available In the paper, a mathematical and a numerical model of the solidification of a cylindrical slender shaped casting, which take into account the process of filling the mould cavity with molten metal, has been proposed. Pressure and velocity fields were obtained by solving the momentum equations and the continuity equation, while the thermal fields were obtained by solving the heat conduction equation containing the convection term. Next, the numerical analysis of the solidification process of metals alloy in a cylindrical mould channel has been made. In the model one takes into account interdependence the heat transfer and fluid flow phenomena. Coupling of the thermal and fluid flow phenomena has been taken into consideration by the changes of the fluidity function and thermophysical parameters of alloy with respect to the temperature. The influence of the pressure and the temperature of metal pouring on the solid phase growth kinetics were estimated. The problem has been solved by the finite element method.

  17. Mathematical and physical modeling of thermal stratification phenomena in steel ladles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Putan, V.; Vilceanu, L.; Socalici, A.; Putan, A.

    2018-01-01

    By means of CFD numerical modeling, a systematic analysis of the similarity between steel ladles and hot-water model regarding natural convection phenomena was studied. The key similarity criteria we found to be dependent on the dimensionless numbers Fr and βΔT. These similarity criteria suggested that hot-water models with scale in the range between 1/5 and 1/3 and using hot water with temperature of 45 °C or higher are appropriate for simulating natural convection in steel ladles. With this physical model, thermal stratification phenomena due to natural convection in steel ladles were investigated. By controlling the cooling intensity of water model to correspond to the heat loss rate of steel ladles, which is governed by Fr and βΔT, the temperature profiles measured in the water bath of the model were to deduce the extent of thermal stratification in liquid steel bath in the ladles. Comparisons between mathematically simulated temperature profiles in the prototype steel ladles and those physically simulated by scaling-up the measured temperatures profiles in the water model showed good agreement. This proved that it is feasible to use a 1/5 scale water model with 45 °C hot water to simulate natural convection in steel ladles. Therefore, besides mathematical CFD models, the physical hot-water model provided an additional means of studying fluid flow and heat transfer in steel ladles.

  18. Modeling the Collision Phenomena of Ø11X19 Size Rolls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiberiu Manescu jr.

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a numerical comparison using dynamic modeling techniques, of physical phenomena occurring at collisions between two rollers in a lot of distinct situations: impact on the edge at angles of 0°, 10°, 20°, 30°, 40°, 50°, 60°, 70°, 80° and impact on generator. These situations occur frequently in the manufacturing process of small cylindrical rollers.

  19. Radiation transport phenomena and modeling. Part A: Codes; Part B: Applications with examples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lorence, L.J. Jr.; Beutler, D.E. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States). Simulation Technology Research Dept.

    1997-09-01

    This report contains the notes from the second session of the 1997 IEEE Nuclear and Space Radiation Effects Conference Short Course on Applying Computer Simulation Tools to Radiation Effects Problems. Part A discusses the physical phenomena modeled in radiation transport codes and various types of algorithmic implementations. Part B gives examples of how these codes can be used to design experiments whose results can be easily analyzed and describes how to calculate quantities of interest for electronic devices.

  20. Comparison of molecular mechanisms mediating cell contact phenomena in model developmental systems: an exploration of universality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowers-Morrow, Vivienne M; Ali, Sinan O; Williams, Keith L

    2004-08-01

    Are there universal molecular mechanisms associated with cell contact phenomena during metazoan ontogenesis? Comparison of adhesion systems in disparate model systems indicates the existence of unifying principles. Requirements for multicellularity are (a) the construction of three-dimensional structures involving a crucial balance between adhesiveness and motility; and (b) the establishment of integration at molecular, cellular, tissue, and organismal levels of organization. Mechanisms for (i) cell-cell and cell-substrate adhesion, (ii) cell movement, (iii) cell-cell communication, (iv) cellular responses, (v) regulation of these processes, and (vi) their integration with patterning, growth, and other developmental processes are all crucial to metazoan development, and must have been present for the emergence and radiation of Metazoa. The principal unifying themes of this review are the dynamics and regulation of cell contact phenomena. Our knowledge of the dynamic molecular mechanisms underlying cell contact phenomena remains fragmentary. Here we examine the molecular bases of cell contact phenomena using extant model developmental systems (representing a wide range of phyla) including the simplest i.e. sponges, and the eukaryotic protist Dictyostelium discoideum, the more complex Drosophila melanogaster, and vertebrate systems. We discuss cell contact phenomena in a broad developmental context. The molecular language of cell contact phenomena is complex; it involves a plethora of structurally and functionally diverse molecules, and diverse modes of intermolecular interactions mediated by protein and/or carbohydrate moieties. Reasons for this are presumably the necessity for a high degree of specificity of intermolecular interactions, the requirement for a multitude of different signals, and the apparent requirement for an increasingly large repertoire of cell contact molecules in more complex developmental systems, such as the developing vertebrate nervous

  1. Fuel assembly bow: analytical modeling and resulting design improvements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stabel, J.; Huebsch, H.P.

    1995-01-01

    The bowing of fuel assemblies may result in a contact between neighbouring fuel assemblies and in connection with a vibration to a resulting wear or even perforation at the corners of the spacer grids of neighbouring assemblies. Such events allowed reinsertion of a few fuel assemblies in Germany only after spacer repair. In order to identify the most sensitive parameters causing the observed bowing of fuel assemblies a new computer model was develop which takes into a account the highly nonlinear behaviour of the interaction between fuel rods and spacers. As a result of the studies performed with this model, design improvements such as a more rigid connection between guide thimbles and spacer grids, could be defined. First experiences with this improved design show significantly better fuel behaviour. (author). 5 figs., 1 tabs

  2. Lattice Boltzmann modeling of transport phenomena in fuel cells and flow batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Ao; Shyy, Wei; Zhao, Tianshou

    2017-06-01

    Fuel cells and flow batteries are promising technologies to address climate change and air pollution problems. An understanding of the complex multiscale and multiphysics transport phenomena occurring in these electrochemical systems requires powerful numerical tools. Over the past decades, the lattice Boltzmann (LB) method has attracted broad interest in the computational fluid dynamics and the numerical heat transfer communities, primarily due to its kinetic nature making it appropriate for modeling complex multiphase transport phenomena. More importantly, the LB method fits well with parallel computing due to its locality feature, which is required for large-scale engineering applications. In this article, we review the LB method for gas-liquid two-phase flows, coupled fluid flow and mass transport in porous media, and particulate flows. Examples of applications are provided in fuel cells and flow batteries. Further developments of the LB method are also outlined.

  3. Modeling community succession and assembly: A novel method for network evolution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    WenJun Zhang

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The process of modeling community succession and assembly is in some sense a method for network evolution, as done by Barabasi and Albert (1999. It is also one of the methods to create a sample networkfrom the statistic network I proposed earlier. I think that the mechanism of network evolution supposed by Barabasi and Albert is most likely applicable to the natural phenomena with emergency property. For natural phenomena without emergency property, the present study indicated that a scale-free network may be produced through a new mechanism, i.e., whether the connection of a taxon x occurs, dependent on the type and property of taxon y (in particular, the degree of its direct correlation with x to be connected but not necessarily the existing number of connections of taxon y, as proposed in present study.

  4. University Physics Students' Use of Models in Explanations of Phenomena Involving Interaction between Metals and Electromagnetic Radiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redfors, Andreas; Ryder, Jim

    2001-01-01

    Examines third year university physics students' use of models when explaining familiar phenomena involving interaction between metals and electromagnetic radiation. Concludes that few students use a single model consistently. (Contains 27 references.) (DDR)

  5. The Model of Temperature Dynamics of Pulsed Fuel Assembly

    CERN Document Server

    Bondarchenko, E A; Popov, A K

    2002-01-01

    Heat exchange process differential equations are considered for a subcritical fuel assembly with an injector. The equations are obtained by means of the use of the Hermit polynomial. The model is created for modelling of temperature transitional processes. The parameters and dynamics are estimated for hypothetical fuel assembly consisting of real mountings: the powerful proton accelerator and the reactor IBR-2 core at its subcritica l state.

  6. Model and numerical analysis of mechanical phenomena of tools steel hardening

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Bokota

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper the model hardening of tool steel takes into considerations of mechanical phenomena is presented. Fields stresses and strains are obtained from solutions by FEM equilibrium equations in rate form. The stresses generated during hardening were assumed to result from thermal load, structural deformation, and plastic deformation and transformation plasticity. Thermophysical values in the constitutive relations are depended upon both the temperature and the phase composition. Condition Huber-Misses with the isotropic strengthening for the creation of plastic strains is used. However model Leblond to determined transformations plasticity applied. The analysis of stresses associated of the elements hardening made of tool steel was done.

  7. Computational Modelling of a Tangentially Fired Boiler With Deposit Formation Phenomena

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Modliński Norbert J.

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Any complete CFD model of pulverised coal-fired boiler needs to consider ash deposition phenomena. Wall boundary conditions (temperature and emissivity should be temporally corrected to account for the effects of deposit growth on the combustion conditions. At present voluminous publications concerning ash related problems are available. The current paper presents development of an engineering tool integrating deposit formation models with the CFD code. It was then applied to two tangentially-fired boilers. The developed numerical tool was validated by comparing it with boiler evaporator power variation based on the on-line diagnostic system with the results from the full CFD simulation.

  8. [OsF6]x−: Molecular Models for Spin-Orbit Entangled Phenomena

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Kasper Steen; Woodruff, Daniel N.; Singh, Saurabh Kumar

    2017-01-01

    . Herein, two molecular osmate analogues, [OsF6]2− and [OsF6]−, are reported as model systems for Os4+ and Os5+ centers found in oxides. Using X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) and X-ray magnetic circular dichroism (XMCD) techniques, combined with state-of-the-art ab initio calculations, their ground...... state was elucidated; mirroring the osmium electronic structure in osmates. The realization of such molecular model systems provides a unique chemical playground to engineer materials exhibiting spin-orbit entangled phenomena....

  9. Fluid structure interaction modeling of liquid sloshing phenomena in flexible tanks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nicolici, S.; Bilegan, R.M.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► We used Ansys Workbench package to study sloshing phenomena in liquid containers. ► The interaction liquid–structure is modeled considering full and one-way coupling. ► The results obtained with the FSI models were compared against design codes. ► The results have shown that the sloshing is influenced by tank wall elasticity. -- Abstract: The present paper is concerned with the problem of modeling the fluid–structure interaction (FSI) in partially filled liquid containers. The study focuses on the sloshing phenomena and on the coupling computational fluid dynamics (CFD) analysis with the finite element stress analysis (FEA) used to predict the sloshing wave amplitude, convective mode frequency, pressure exerted on the walls and the effect of sloshing on the anchoring points forces. The interaction between fluids (water and air) and tank wall is modeled considering full and one-way coupling. Using the time history of an earthquake excitation, the results of the FSI model are compared with those obtained employing simplified mechanical models given in design codes. The coupling phenomenon was found to influence the sloshing effect, the impulsive pressure being amplified by the wall elasticity. The applied FSI methodology proves to be feasible in analyzing a 3D full coupled CFD/FEA storage tank subjected to a long time history excitation

  10. A Novel Multi-Phase Stochastic Model for Lithium-Ion Batteries’ Degradation with Regeneration Phenomena

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianxun Zhang

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available A lithium-Ion battery is a typical degradation product, and its performance will deteriorate over time. In its degradation process, regeneration phenomena have been frequently encountered, which affect both the degradation state and rate. In this paper, we focus on how to build the degradation model and estimate the lifetime. Toward this end, we first propose a multi-phase stochastic degradation model with random jumps based on the Wiener process, where the multi-phase model and random jumps at the changing point are used to describe the variation of degradation rate and state caused by regeneration phenomena accordingly. Owing to the complex structure and random variables, the traditional Maximum Likelihood Estimation (MLE is not suitable for the proposed model. In this case, we treat these random variables as latent parameters, and then develop an approach for model identification based on expectation conditional maximum (ECM algorithm. Moreover, depending on the proposed model, how to estimate the lifetime with fixed changing point is presented via the time-space transformation technique, and the approximate analytical solution is derived. Finally, a numerical simulation and a practical case are provided for illustration.

  11. Hierarchical modeling of plasma and transport phenomena in a dielectric barrier discharge reactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bali, N.; Aggelopoulos, C. A.; Skouras, E. D.; Tsakiroglou, C. D.; Burganos, V. N.

    2017-12-01

    A novel dual-time hierarchical approach is developed to link the plasma process to macroscopic transport phenomena in the interior of a dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) reactor that has been used for soil remediation (Aggelopoulos et al 2016 Chem. Eng. J. 301 353–61). The generation of active species by plasma reactions is simulated at the microseconds (µs) timescale, whereas convection and thermal conduction are simulated at the macroscopic (minutes) timescale. This hierarchical model is implemented in order to investigate the influence of the plasma DBD process on the transport and reaction mechanisms during remediation of polluted soil. In the microscopic model, the variables of interest include the plasma-induced reactive concentrations, while in the macroscopic approach, the temperature distribution, and the velocity field both inside the discharge gap and within the polluted soil material as well. For the latter model, the Navier–Stokes and Darcy Brinkman equations for the transport phenomena in the porous domain are solved numerically using a FEM software. The effective medium theory is employed to provide estimates of the effective time-evolving and three-phase transport properties in the soil sample. Model predictions considering the temporal evolution of the plasma remediation process are presented and compared with corresponding experimental data.

  12. High-order Boussinesq-type modelling of nonlinear wave phenomena in deep and shallow water

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Per A.; Fuhrman, David R.

    2010-01-01

    In this work, we start with a review of the development of Boussinesq theory for water waves covering the period from 1872 to date. Previous reviews have been given by Dingemans,1 Kirby,2,3 and Madsen & Schäffer.4 Next, we present our most recent high-order Boussinesq-type formulation valid...... for fully nonlinear and highly dispersive waves traveling over a rapidly varying bathymetry. Finally, we cover applications of this Boussinesq model, and we study a number of nonlinear wave phenomena in deep and shallow water. These include (1) Kinematics in highly nonlinear progressive deep-water waves; (2...

  13. Code package {open_quotes}SVECHA{close_quotes}: Modeling of core degradation phenomena at severe accidents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Veshchunov, M.S.; Kisselev, A.E.; Palagin, A.V. [Nuclear Safety Institute, Moscow (Russian Federation)] [and others

    1995-09-01

    The code package SVECHA for the modeling of in-vessel core degradation (CD) phenomena in severe accidents is being developed in the Nuclear Safety Institute, Russian Academy of Science (NSI RAS). The code package presents a detailed mechanistic description of the phenomenology of severe accidents in a reactor core. The modules of the package were developed and validated on separate effect test data. These modules were then successfully implemented in the ICARE2 code and validated against a wide range of integral tests. Validation results have shown good agreement with separate effect tests data and with the integral tests CORA-W1/W2, CORA-13, PHEBUS-B9+.

  14. Computational fluid dynamics modeling of two-phase flow in a BWR fuel assembly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andrey Ioilev; Maskhud Samigulin; Vasily Ustinenko; Simon Lo; Adrian Tentner

    2005-01-01

    Full text of publication follows: The goal of this project is to develop an advanced Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) computer code (CFD-BWR) that allows the detailed analysis of the two-phase flow and heat transfer phenomena in a Boiling Water Reactor (BWR) fuel bundle under various operating conditions. This code will include more fundamental physical models than the current generation of sub-channel codes and advanced numerical algorithms for improved computational accuracy, robustness, and speed. It is highly desirable to understand the detailed two-phase flow phenomena inside a BWR fuel bundle. These phenomena include coolant phase changes and multiple flow regimes which directly influence the coolant interaction with fuel assembly and, ultimately, the reactor performance. Traditionally, the best analysis tools for the analysis of two-phase flow phenomena inside the BWR fuel assembly have been the sub-channel codes. However, the resolution of these codes is still too coarse for analyzing the detailed intra-assembly flow patterns, such as flow around a spacer element. Recent progress in Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD), coupled with the rapidly increasing computational power of massively parallel computers, shows promising potential for the fine-mesh, detailed simulation of fuel assembly two-phase flow phenomena. However, the phenomenological models available in the commercial CFD programs are not as advanced as those currently being used in the sub-channel codes used in the nuclear industry. In particular, there are no models currently available which are able to reliably predict the nature of the flow regimes, and use the appropriate sub-models for those flow regimes. The CFD-BWR code is being developed as a customized module built on the foundation of the commercial CFD Code STAR-CD which provides general two-phase flow modeling capabilities. The paper describes the model development strategy which has been adopted by the development team for the

  15. Two-dimensional modeling of electrochemical and transport phenomena in the porous structures of a PEMFC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sahraoui, Melik [Institut Preparatoire aux Etudes d' Ingenieurs de Tunis (IPEIT) (Tunisia); Kharrat, Chafik; Halouani, Kamel [UR: Micro-Electro-Thermal Systems (METS-ENIS), Industrial Energy Systems Group, Institut Preparatoire aux Etudes d' Ingenieurs de Sfax (IPEIS), University of Sfax, B.P: 1172, 3018 Sfax (Tunisia)

    2009-04-15

    A two-dimensional CFD model of PEM fuel cell is developed by taking into account the electrochemical, mass and heat transfer phenomena occurring in all of its regions simultaneously. The catalyst layers and membrane are each considered as distinct regions with finite thickness and calculated properties such as permeability, local protonic conductivity, and local dissolved water diffusion. This finite thickness model enables to model accurately the protonic current in these regions with higher accuracy than using an infinitesimal interface. In addition, this model takes into account the effect of osmotic drag in the membrane and catalyst layers. General boundary conditions are implemented in a way taking into consideration any given species concentration at the fuel cell inlet, such as water vapor which is a very important parameter in determining the efficiency of fuel cells. Other operating parameters such as temperature, pressure and porosity of the porous structure are also investigated to characterize their effect on the fuel cell efficiency. (author)

  16. Assembly models for Papovaviridae based on tiling theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keef, T; Taormina, A; Twarock, R

    2005-09-13

    A vital constituent of a virus is its protein shell, called the viral capsid, that encapsulates and hence provides protection for the viral genome. Assembly models are developed for viral capsids built from protein building blocks that can assume different local bonding structures in the capsid. This situation occurs, for example, for viruses in the family of Papovaviridae, which are linked to cancer and are hence of particular interest for the health sector. More specifically, the viral capsids of the (pseudo-) T = 7 particles in this family consist of pentamers that exhibit two different types of bonding structures. While this scenario cannot be described mathematically in terms of Caspar-Klug theory (Caspar D L D and Klug A 1962 Cold Spring Harbor Symp. Quant. Biol. 27 1), it can be modelled via tiling theory (Twarock R 2004 J. Theor. Biol. 226 477). The latter is used to encode the local bonding environment of the building blocks in a combinatorial structure, called the assembly tree, which is a basic ingredient in the derivation of assembly models for Papovaviridae along the lines of the equilibrium approach of Zlotnick (Zlotnick A 1994 J. Mol. Biol. 241 59). A phase space formalism is introduced to characterize the changes in the assembly pathways and intermediates triggered by the variations in the association energies characterizing the bonds between the building blocks in the capsid. Furthermore, the assembly pathways and concentrations of the statistically dominant assembly intermediates are determined. The example of Simian virus 40 is discussed in detail.

  17. The role of fractional calculus in modeling biological phenomena: A review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ionescu, C.; Lopes, A.; Copot, D.; Machado, J. A. T.; Bates, J. H. T.

    2017-10-01

    This review provides the latest developments and trends in the application of fractional calculus (FC) in biomedicine and biology. Nature has often showed to follow rather simple rules that lead to the emergence of complex phenomena as a result. Of these, the paper addresses the properties in respiratory lung tissue, whose natural solutions arise from the midst of FC in the form of non-integer differ-integral solutions and non-integer parametric models. Diffusion of substances in human body, e.g. drug diffusion, is also a phenomena well known to be captured with such mathematical models. FC has been employed in neuroscience to characterize the generation of action potentials and spiking patters but also in characterizing bio-systems (e.g. vegetable tissues). Despite the natural complexity, biological systems belong as well to this class of systems, where FC has offered parsimonious yet accurate models. This review paper is a collection of results and literature reports who are essential to any versed engineer with multidisciplinary applications and bio-medical in particular.

  18. Assembly and annotation of a non-model gastropod (Nerita melanotragus) transcriptome: a comparison of de novo assemblers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amin, Shorash; Prentis, Peter J; Gilding, Edward K; Pavasovic, Ana

    2014-08-01

    The sequencing, de novo assembly and annotation of transcriptome datasets generated with next generation sequencing (NGS) has enabled biologists to answer genomic questions in non-model species with unprecedented ease. Reliable and accurate de novo assembly and annotation of transcriptomes, however, is a critically important step for transcriptome assemblies generated from short read sequences. Typical benchmarks for assembly and annotation reliability have been performed with model species. To address the reliability and accuracy of de novo transcriptome assembly in non-model species, we generated an RNAseq dataset for an intertidal gastropod mollusc species, Nerita melanotragus, and compared the assembly produced by four different de novo transcriptome assemblers; Velvet, Oases, Geneious and Trinity, for a number of quality metrics and redundancy. Transcriptome sequencing on the Ion Torrent PGM™ produced 1,883,624 raw reads with a mean length of 133 base pairs (bp). Both the Trinity and Oases de novo assemblers produced the best assemblies based on all quality metrics including fewer contigs, increased N50 and average contig length and contigs of greater length. Overall the BLAST and annotation success of our assemblies was not high with only 15-19% of contigs assigned a putative function. We believe that any improvement in annotation success of gastropod species will require more gastropod genome sequences, but in particular an increase in mollusc protein sequences in public databases. Overall, this paper demonstrates that reliable and accurate de novo transcriptome assemblies can be generated from short read sequencers with the right assembly algorithms.

  19. Macromolecular symmetric assembly prediction using swarm intelligence dynamic modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Degiacomi, Matteo T; Dal Peraro, Matteo

    2013-07-02

    Proteins often assemble in multimeric complexes to perform a specific biologic function. However, trapping these high-order conformations is difficult experimentally. Therefore, predicting how proteins assemble using in silico techniques can be of great help. The size of the associated conformational space and the fact that proteins are intrinsically flexible structures make this optimization problem extremely challenging. Nonetheless, known experimental spatial restraints can guide the search process, contributing to model biologically relevant states. We present here a swarm intelligence optimization protocol able to predict the arrangement of protein symmetric assemblies by exploiting a limited amount of experimental restraints and steric interactions. Importantly, within this scheme the native flexibility of each protein subunit is taken into account as extracted from molecular dynamics (MD) simulations. We show that this is a key ingredient for the prediction of biologically functional assemblies when, upon oligomerization, subunits explore activated states undergoing significant conformational changes.

  20. PSI-BOIL, a building block towards the multi-scale modeling of flow boiling phenomena

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niceno, Bojan; Andreani, Michele; Prasser, Horst-Michael

    2008-01-01

    Full text of publication follows: In these work we report the current status of the Swiss project Multi-scale Modeling Analysis (MSMA), jointly financed by PSI and Swissnuclear. The project aims at addressing the multi-scale (down to nano-scale) modelling of convective boiling phenomena, and the development of physically-based closure laws for the physical scales appropriate to the problem considered, to be used within Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) codes. The final goal is to construct a new computational tool, called Parallel Simulator of Boiling phenomena (PSI-BOIL) for the direct simulation of processes all the way down to the small-scales of interest and an improved CFD code for the mechanistic prediction of two-phase flow and heat transfer in the fuel rod bundle of a nuclear reactor. An improved understanding of the physics of boiling will be gained from the theoretical work as well as from novel small- and medium scale experiments targeted to assist the development of closure laws. PSI-BOIL is a computer program designed for efficient simulation of turbulent fluid flow and heat transfer phenomena in simple geometries. Turbulence is simulated directly (DNS) and its efficiency plays a vital role in a successful simulation. Having high performance as one of the main prerequisites, PSIBOIL is tailored in such a way to be as efficient a tool as possible, relying on well-established numerical techniques and sacrificing all the features which are not essential for the success of this project and which might slow down the solution procedure. The governing equations are discretized in space with orthogonal staggered finite volume method. Time discretization is performed with projection method, the most obvious a the most widely used choice for DNS. Systems of linearized equation, stemming from the discretization of governing equations, are solved with the Additive Correction Multigrid (ACM). methods. Two distinguished features of PSI-BOIL are the possibility to

  1. Uncertainty propagation through dynamic models of assemblies of mechanical structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daouk, Sami

    2016-01-01

    When studying the behaviour of mechanical systems, mathematical models and structural parameters are usually considered deterministic. Return on experience shows however that these elements are uncertain in most cases, due to natural variability or lack of knowledge. Therefore, quantifying the quality and reliability of the numerical model of an industrial assembly remains a major question in low-frequency dynamics. The purpose of this thesis is to improve the vibratory design of bolted assemblies through setting up a dynamic connector model that takes account of different types and sources of uncertainty on stiffness parameters, in a simple, efficient and exploitable in industrial context. This work has been carried out in the framework of the SICODYN project, led by EDF R and D, that aims to characterise and quantify, numerically and experimentally, the uncertainties in the dynamic behaviour of bolted industrial assemblies. Comparative studies of several numerical methods of uncertainty propagation demonstrate the advantage of using the Lack-Of-Knowledge theory. An experimental characterisation of uncertainties in bolted structures is performed on a dynamic test rig and on an industrial assembly. The propagation of many small and large uncertainties through different dynamic models of mechanical assemblies leads to the assessment of the efficiency of the Lack-Of-Knowledge theory and its applicability in an industrial environment. (author)

  2. Exploring large-scale phenomena in composite membranes through an efficient implicit-solvent model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laradji, Mohamed; Kumar, P. B. Sunil; Spangler, Eric J.

    2016-07-01

    Several microscopic and mesoscale models have been introduced in the past to investigate various phenomena in lipid membranes. Most of these models account for the solvent explicitly. Since in a typical molecular dynamics simulation, the majority of particles belong to the solvent, much of the computational effort in these simulations is devoted for calculating forces between solvent particles. To overcome this problem, several implicit-solvent mesoscale models for lipid membranes have been proposed during the last few years. In the present article, we review an efficient coarse-grained implicit-solvent model we introduced earlier for studies of lipid membranes. In this model, lipid molecules are coarse-grained into short semi-flexible chains of beads with soft interactions. Through molecular dynamics simulations, the model is used to investigate the thermal, structural and elastic properties of lipid membranes. We will also review here few studies, based on this model, of the phase behavior of nanoscale liposomes, cytoskeleton-induced blebbing in lipid membranes, as well as nanoparticles wrapping and endocytosis by tensionless lipid membranes. Topical Review article submitted to the Journal of Physics D: Applied Physics, May 9, 2016

  3. Exploring large-scale phenomena in composite membranes through an efficient implicit-solvent model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laradji, Mohamed; Sunil Kumar, P B; Spangler, Eric J

    2016-01-01

    Several microscopic and mesoscale models have been introduced in the past to investigate various phenomena in lipid membranes. Most of these models account for the solvent explicitly. Since in a typical molecular dynamics simulation, the majority of particles belong to the solvent, much of the computational effort in these simulations is devoted for calculating forces between solvent particles. To overcome this problem, several implicit-solvent mesoscale models for lipid membranes have been proposed during the last few years. In the present article, we review an efficient coarse-grained implicit-solvent model we introduced earlier for studies of lipid membranes. In this model, lipid molecules are coarse-grained into short semi-flexible chains of beads with soft interactions. Through molecular dynamics simulations, the model is used to investigate the thermal, structural and elastic properties of lipid membranes. We will also review here few studies, based on this model, of the phase behavior of nanoscale liposomes, cytoskeleton-induced blebbing in lipid membranes, as well as nanoparticles wrapping and endocytosis by tensionless lipid membranes. (topical review)

  4. Crises and Collective Socio-Economic Phenomena: Simple Models and Challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouchaud, Jean-Philippe

    2013-05-01

    Financial and economic history is strewn with bubbles and crashes, booms and busts, crises and upheavals of all sorts. Understanding the origin of these events is arguably one of the most important problems in economic theory. In this paper, we review recent efforts to include heterogeneities and interactions in models of decision. We argue that the so-called Random Field Ising model ( rfim) provides a unifying framework to account for many collective socio-economic phenomena that lead to sudden ruptures and crises. We discuss different models that can capture potentially destabilizing self-referential feedback loops, induced either by herding, i.e. reference to peers, or trending, i.e. reference to the past, and that account for some of the phenomenology missing in the standard models. We discuss some empirically testable predictions of these models, for example robust signatures of rfim-like herding effects, or the logarithmic decay of spatial correlations of voting patterns. One of the most striking result, inspired by statistical physics methods, is that Adam Smith's invisible hand can fail badly at solving simple coordination problems. We also insist on the issue of time-scales, that can be extremely long in some cases, and prevent socially optimal equilibria from being reached. As a theoretical challenge, the study of so-called "detailed-balance" violating decision rules is needed to decide whether conclusions based on current models (that all assume detailed-balance) are indeed robust and generic.

  5. Exploring SMBH assembly with semi-analytic modelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ricarte, Angelo; Natarajan, Priyamvada

    2018-02-01

    We develop a semi-analytic model to explore different prescriptions of supermassive black hole (SMBH) fuelling. This model utilizes a merger-triggered burst mode in concert with two possible implementations of a long-lived steady mode for assembling the mass of the black hole in a galactic nucleus. We improve modelling of the galaxy-halo connection in order to more realistically determine the evolution of a halo's velocity dispersion. We use four model variants to explore a suite of observables: the M•-σ relation, mass functions of both the overall and broad-line quasar population, and luminosity functions as a function of redshift. We find that `downsizing' is a natural consequence of our improved velocity dispersion mappings, and that high-mass SMBHs assemble earlier than low-mass SMBHs. The burst mode of fuelling is sufficient to explain the assembly of SMBHs to z = 2, but an additional steady mode is required to both assemble low-mass SMBHs and reproduce the low-redshift luminosity function. We discuss in detail the trade-offs in matching various observables and the interconnected modelling components that govern them. As a result, we demonstrate the utility as well as the limitations of these semi-analytic techniques.

  6. Meso-scale Modeling of Block Copolymers Self-Assembly in Casting Solutions for Membrane Manufacture

    KAUST Repository

    Moreno Chaparro, Nicolas

    2016-05-01

    Isoporous membranes manufactured from diblock copolymer are successfully produced at laboratory scale under controlled conditions. Because of the complex phenomena involved, membrane preparation requires trial and error methodologies to find the optimal conditions, leading to a considerable demand of resources. Experimental insights demonstrate that the self-assembly of the block copolymers in solution has an effect on the final membrane structure. Nevertheless, the complete understanding of these multi-scale phenomena is elusive. Herein we use the coarse-grained method Dissipative Particle Dynamics to study the self-assembly of block copolymers that are used for the preparation of the membranes. To simulate representative time and length scales, we introduce a framework for model reduction of polymer chain representations for dissipative particle dynamics, which preserves the properties governing the phase equilibria. We reduce the number of degrees of freedom by accounting for the correlation between beads in fine-grained models via power laws and the consistent scaling of the simulation parameters. The coarse-graining models are consistent with the experimental evidence, showing a morphological transition of the aggregates as the polymer concentration and solvent affinity change. We show that hexagonal packing of the micelles can occur in solution within different windows of polymer concentration depending on the solvent affinity. However, the shape and size dispersion of the micelles determine the characteristic arrangement. We describe the order of crew-cut micelles using a rigid-sphere approximation and propose different phase parameters that characterize the emergence of monodisperse-spherical micelles in solution. Additionally, we investigate the effect of blending asymmetric diblock copolymers (AB/AC) over the properties of the membranes. We observe that the co-assembly mechanism localizes the AC molecules at the interface of A and B domains, and induces

  7. High-order Boussinesq-type modelling of nonlinear wave phenomena in deep and shallow water

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Per A.; Fuhrman, David R.

    2010-01-01

    In this work, we start with a review of the development of Boussinesq theory for water waves covering the period from 1872 to date. Previous reviews have been given by Dingemans,1 Kirby,2,3 and Madsen & Schäffer.4 Next, we present our most recent high-order Boussinesq-type formulation valid...... for fully nonlinear and highly dispersive waves traveling over a rapidly varying bathymetry. Finally, we cover applications of this Boussinesq model, and we study a number of nonlinear wave phenomena in deep and shallow water. These include (1) Kinematics in highly nonlinear progressive deep-water waves; (2......) Kinematics in progressive solitary waves; (3) Reflection of solitary waves from a vertical wall; (4) Reflection and diffraction around a vertical plate; (5) Quartet and quintet interactions and class I and II instabilities; (6) Extreme events from focused directionally spread waveelds; (7) Bragg scattering...

  8. Modeling the self-assembly of clathrin coats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Giani, Matteo

    2017-01-01

    The assembly of clathrin coats in the presence of adaptor proteins was studied through computer simulations using coarse-grained models and through statistical mechanics. Adopting a reductionist approach based on recent experimental results, we aimed at reproducing and studying the minimal

  9. Mathematical modeling of HIV-like particle assembly in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yuewu; Zou, Xiufen

    2017-06-01

    In vitro, the recombinant HIV-1 Gag protein can generate spherical particles with a diameter of 25-30 nm in a fully defined system. It has approximately 80 building blocks, and its intermediates for assembly are abundant in geometry. Accordingly, there are a large number of nonlinear equations in the classical model. Therefore, it is difficult to compute values of geometry parameters for intermediates and make the mathematical analysis using the model. In this work, we develop a new model of HIV-like particle assembly in vitro by using six-fold symmetry of HIV-like particle assembly to decrease the number of geometry parameters. This method will greatly reduce computational costs and facilitate the application of the model. Then, we prove the existence and uniqueness of the positive equilibrium solution for this model with 79 nonlinear equations. Based on this model, we derive the interesting result that concentrations of all intermediates at equilibrium are independent of three important parameters, including two microscopic on-rate constants and the size of nucleating structure. Before equilibrium, these three parameters influence the concentration variation rates of all intermediates. We also analyze the relationship between the initial concentration of building blocks and concentrations of all intermediates. Furthermore, the bounds of concentrations of free building blocks and HIV-like particles are estimated. These results will be helpful to guide HIV-like particle assembly experiments and improve our understanding of the assembly dynamics of HIV-like particles in vitro. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Plantagora: modeling whole genome sequencing and assembly of plant genomes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roger Barthelson

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Genomics studies are being revolutionized by the next generation sequencing technologies, which have made whole genome sequencing much more accessible to the average researcher. Whole genome sequencing with the new technologies is a developing art that, despite the large volumes of data that can be produced, may still fail to provide a clear and thorough map of a genome. The Plantagora project was conceived to address specifically the gap between having the technical tools for genome sequencing and knowing precisely the best way to use them. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: For Plantagora, a platform was created for generating simulated reads from several different plant genomes of different sizes. The resulting read files mimicked either 454 or Illumina reads, with varying paired end spacing. Thousands of datasets of reads were created, most derived from our primary model genome, rice chromosome one. All reads were assembled with different software assemblers, including Newbler, Abyss, and SOAPdenovo, and the resulting assemblies were evaluated by an extensive battery of metrics chosen for these studies. The metrics included both statistics of the assembly sequences and fidelity-related measures derived by alignment of the assemblies to the original genome source for the reads. The results were presented in a website, which includes a data graphing tool, all created to help the user compare rapidly the feasibility and effectiveness of different sequencing and assembly strategies prior to testing an approach in the lab. Some of our own conclusions regarding the different strategies were also recorded on the website. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Plantagora provides a substantial body of information for comparing different approaches to sequencing a plant genome, and some conclusions regarding some of the specific approaches. Plantagora also provides a platform of metrics and tools for studying the process of sequencing and assembly

  11. Finite element modeling of heating phenomena of cracks excited by high-intensity ultrasonic pulses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Zhao-Jiang; Zheng Jiang; Zhang Shu-Yi; Mi Xiao-Bing; Zheng Kai

    2010-01-01

    A three-dimensional thermo-mechanical coupled finite element model is built up to simulate the phenomena of dynamical contact and frictional heating of crack faces when the plate containing the crack is excited by high-intensity ultrasonic pulses. In the finite element model, the high-power ultrasonic transducer is modeled by using a piezoelectric thermal-analogy method, and the dynamical interaction between both crack faces is modeled using a contact-impact theory. In the simulations, the frictional heating taking place at the crack faces is quantitatively calculated by using finite element thermal-structural coupling analysis, especially, the influences of acoustic chaos to plate vibration and crack heating are calculated and analysed in detail. Meanwhile, the related ultrasonic infrared images are also obtained experimentally, and the theoretical simulation results are in agreement with that of the experiments. The results show that, by using the theoretical method, a good simulation of dynamic interaction and friction heating process of the crack faces under non-chaotic or chaotic sound excitation can be obtained

  12. Transient vibration phenomena in deep mine hoisting cables. Part 1: Mathematical model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaczmarczyk, S.; Ostachowicz, W.

    2003-04-01

    The classical moving co-ordinate frame approach and Hamilton's principle are employed to derive a distributed-parameter mathematical model to investigate the dynamic behaviour of deep mine hoisting cables. This model describes the coupled lateral-longitudinal dynamic response of the cables in terms of non-linear partial differential equations that accommodate the non-stationary nature of the system. Subsequently, the Rayleigh-Ritz procedure is applied to formulate a discrete mathematical model. Consequently, a system of non-linear non-stationary coupled second order ordinary differential equations arises to govern the temporal behaviour of the cable system. This discrete model with quadratic and cubic non-linear terms describes the modal interactions between lateral oscillations of the catenary cable and longitudinal oscillations of the vertical rope. It is shown that the response of the catenary-vertical rope system may feature a number of resonance phenomena, including external, parametric and autoparametric resonances. The parameters of a typical deep mine winder are used to identify the depth locations of the resonance regions during the ascending cycles with various winding velocities.

  13. Squeezout phenomena and boundary layer formation of a model ionic liquid under confinement and charging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capozza, R.; Vanossi, A.; Benassi, A.; Tosatti, E.

    2015-02-01

    Electrical charging of parallel plates confining a model ionic liquid down to nanoscale distances yields a variety of charge-induced changes in the structural features of the confined film. That includes even-odd switching of the structural layering and charging-induced solidification and melting, with important changes of local ordering between and within layers, and of squeezout behavior. By means of molecular dynamics simulations, we explore this variety of phenomena in the simplest charged Lennard-Jones coarse-grained model including or excluding the effect a neutral tail giving an anisotropic shape to one of the model ions. Using these models and open conditions permitting the flow of ions in and out of the interplate gap, we simulate the liquid squeezout to obtain the distance dependent structure and forces between the plates during their adiabatic approach under load. Simulations at fixed applied force illustrate an effective electrical pumping of the ionic liquid, from a thick nearly solid film that withstands the interplate pressure for high plate charge to complete squeezout following melting near zero charge. Effective enthalpy curves obtained by integration of interplate forces versus distance show the local minima that correspond to layering and predict the switching between one minimum and another under squeezing and charging.

  14. Anisotropic Constitutive Model of Strain-Induced Phenomena in Stainless Steels at Cryogenic Temperatures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garion, C.; Skoczen, B.

    2004-01-01

    A majority of the thin-walled components subjected to intensive plastic straining at cryogenic temperatures are made of stainless steels. The examples of such components can be found in the interconnections of particle accelerators, containing the superconducting magnets, where the thermal contraction is absorbed by thin-walled, axisymmetric shells called bellows expansion joints. The stainless steels show three main phenomena induced by plastic strains at cryogenic temperatures: serrated (discontinuous) yielding, γ→α' phase transformation and anisotropic ductile damage. In the present paper, a coupled constitutive model of γ→α' phase transformation and orthotropic ductile damage is presented. A kinetic law of phase transformation, and a kinetic law of evolution of orthotropic damage are presented. The model is extended to anisotropic plasticity comprising a constant anisotropy (texture effect), which can be classically taken into account by the Hill yield surface, and plastic strain induced anisotropy. For such a model the shape of the yield surface in the stress space varies as a function of the plastic strains. The constitutive model creates a bridge between material science (experiments) and structural analysis. It has been used to predict the response of beam vacuum and cryogenic bellows to monotonic and cyclic loads developed in the interconnections of the Large Hadron Collider at CERN

  15. Modeling diffusion-governed solidification of ternary alloys - Part 2: Macroscopic transport phenomena and macrosegregation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, M; Li, J; Ludwig, A; Kharicha, A

    2014-09-01

    Part 1 of this two-part investigation presented a multiphase solidification model incorporating the finite diffusion kinetics and ternary phase diagram with the macroscopic transport phenomena (Wu et al., 2013). In Part 2, the importance of proper treatment of the finite diffusion kinetics in the calculation of macrosegregation is addressed. Calculations for a two-dimensional (2D) square casting (50 × 50 mm 2 ) of Fe-0.45 wt.%C-1.06 wt.%Mn considering thermo-solutal convection and crystal sedimentation are performed. The modeling result indicates that the infinite liquid mixing kinetics as assumed by classical models (e.g., the Gulliver-Scheil or lever rule), which cannot properly consider the solute enrichment of the interdendritic or inter-granular melt at the early stage of solidification, might lead to an erroneous estimation of the macrosegregation. To confirm this statement, further theoretical and experimental evaluations are desired. The pattern and intensity of the flow and crystal sedimentation are dependent on the crystal morphologies (columnar or equiaxed); hence, the potential error of the calculated macrosegregation caused by the assumed growth kinetics depends on the crystal morphology. Finally, an illustrative simulation of an engineering 2.45-ton steel ingot is performed, and the results are compared with experimental results. This example demonstrates the model applicability for engineering castings regarding both the calculation efficiency and functionality.

  16. Generalized Modeling of the Human Lower Limb Assembly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cofaru, Ioana; Huzu, Iulia

    2014-11-01

    The main reason for creating a generalized assembly of the main bones of the lower human member is to create the premises of realizing a biomechanic assisted study which could be used for the study of the high range of varieties of pathologies that exist at this level. Starting from 3D CAD models of the main bones of the lower human member, which were realized in previous researches, in this study a generalized assembly system was developed, system in which are highlighted both the situation of an healthy subject and the situation of the situation of a subject affected by axial deviations. In order to achieve these purpose reference systems were created, systems that are in accordance with the mechanical axes and the anatomic axes of the lower member, which were later generally assembled in a manner that provides an easy customization option

  17. Rigorous Multicomponent Reactive Separations Modelling: Complete Consideration of Reaction-Diffusion Phenomena

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmadi, A.; Meyer, M.; Rouzineau, D.; Prevost, M.; Alix, P.; Laloue, N.

    2010-01-01

    This paper gives the first step of the development of a rigorous multicomponent reactive separation model. Such a model is highly essential to further the optimization of acid gases removal plants (CO 2 capture, gas treating, etc.) in terms of size and energy consumption, since chemical solvents are conventionally used. Firstly, two main modelling approaches are presented: the equilibrium-based and the rate-based approaches. Secondly, an extended rate-based model with rigorous modelling methodology for diffusion-reaction phenomena is proposed. The film theory and the generalized Maxwell-Stefan equations are used in order to characterize multicomponent interactions. The complete chain of chemical reactions is taken into account. The reactions can be kinetically controlled or at chemical equilibrium, and they are considered for both liquid film and liquid bulk. Thirdly, the method of numerical resolution is described. Coupling the generalized Maxwell-Stefan equations with chemical equilibrium equations leads to a highly non-linear Differential-Algebraic Equations system known as DAE index 3. The set of equations is discretized with finite-differences as its integration by Gear method is complex. The resulting algebraic system is resolved by the Newton- Raphson method. Finally, the present model and the associated methods of numerical resolution are validated for the example of esterification of methanol. This archetype non-electrolytic system permits an interesting analysis of reaction impact on mass transfer, especially near the phase interface. The numerical resolution of the model by Newton-Raphson method gives good results in terms of calculation time and convergence. The simulations show that the impact of reactions at chemical equilibrium and that of kinetically controlled reactions with high kinetics on mass transfer is relatively similar. Moreover, the Fick's law is less adapted for multicomponent mixtures where some abnormalities such as counter

  18. CFD-modeling of insulation debris transport phenomena in water flow

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krepper, Eckhard, E-mail: E.Krepper@fzd.d [Forschungszentrum Dresden-Rossendorf, Institute of Safety Research, Bautzner Landstrasse 128, 01328 Dresden (Germany); Cartland-Glover, Gregory; Grahn, Alexander; Weiss, Frank-Peter [Forschungszentrum Dresden-Rossendorf, Institute of Safety Research, Bautzner Landstrasse 128, 01328 Dresden (Germany); Alt, Soeren; Hampel, Rainer; Kaestner, Wolfgang; Seeliger, Andre [University of Applied Sciences Zittau/Goerlitz (FH), Theodor-Koerner-Allee 16, 02763 Zittau (Germany)

    2010-09-15

    The investigation of insulation debris generation, transport and sedimentation becomes important with regard to reactor safety research for PWR and BWR, when considering the long-term behavior of emergency core cooling systems during all types of loss of coolant accidents (LOCA). The insulation debris released near the break during a LOCA incident consists of a mixture of disparate particle population that varies with size, shape, consistency and other properties. Some fractions of the released insulation debris can be transported into the reactor sump, where it may perturb/impinge on the emergency core cooling systems. Open questions of generic interest are the sedimentation of the insulation debris in a water pool, its possible re-suspension and transport in the sump water flow and the particle load on strainers and corresponding pressure drop. A joint research project on such questions is being performed in cooperation between the University of Applied Sciences Zittau/Goerlitz and the Forschungszentrum Dresden-Rossendorf. The project deals with the experimental investigation of particle transport phenomena in coolant flow and the development of CFD models for its description. While the experiments are performed at the University at Zittau/Goerlitz, the theoretical modeling efforts are concentrated at Forschungszentrum Dresden-Rossendorf. In the current paper the basic concepts for CFD-modeling are described and feasibility studies including the conceptual design of the experiments are presented.

  19. Marriage of Electromagnetism and Gravity in an Extended Space Model and Astrophysical Phenomena

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreev, V. A.; Tsipenyuk, D. Yu.

    2013-09-01

    The generalization of Einstein's special theory of relativity (SRT) is proposed. In this model the possibility of unification of scalar gravity and electromagnetism into a single unified field is considered. Formally, the generalization of the SRT is that instead of (1+3)-dimensional Minkowski space the (1+4)-dimensional extension G is considered. As a fifth additional coordinate the interval S is used. This value is saved under the usual Lorentz transformations in Minkowski space M, but it changes when the transformations in the extended space G are used. We call this model the extended space model (ESM). From a physical point of view our expansion means that processes in which the rest mass of the particles changes are acceptable now. If the rest mass of a particle does not change and the physical quantities do not depend on an additional variable S, then the electromagnetic and gravitational fields exist independently of each other. But if the rest mass is variable and there is a dependence on S, then these two fields are combined into a single unified field. In the extended space model a photon can have a nonzero mass and this mass can be either positive or negative. The gravitational effects such as the speed of escape, gravitational red shift and detection of light can be analyzed in the frame of the extended space model. In this model all these gravitational effects can be found algebraically by the rotations in the (1+4) dimensional space. Now it becomes possible to predict some future results of visible size of supermassive objects in our Universe due to new stage of experimental astronomy development in the RadioAstron Project and analyze phenomena is an explosion of the star V838 Mon.

  20. MODELLING OF SCENARIOS OF THE CRISIS PHENOMENA TRANSFER AMONG FINANCIAL MARKETS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inna Strelchenko

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The phenomenon of crisis transference among financial markets in different countries is especially evident during the global financial crisis of 2007-2009. Abnormal imbalances emerged in the market of secondary financial instruments in the United States in the second half of 2006 and quickly spread to the financial markets of most countries of the world. However, the rate of fall of the main macroeconomic indicators, the duration of the latent period (the time between the date of the beginning of the financial crisis in the source country and date of the recorded fall in GDP of the country that is subjected to “contagion” (Strelchenko, 2016, and recovery period are substantially different. To generate an effective economic policy actually, there is a task of determining the possible scenarios of transferring crisis. The research subject is a process of transfer of the crisis phenomena among the financial markets of countries with different levels of economic development. Methodology. The paper presents the results of a study on the differentiation of the financial markets reactions to the crisis transfer. To build the corresponding classification model, self-organization Kohonen neural networks are used. The purpose of this work is to build a neural network model for clustering economies according to the response to external financial shocks. This model allows predicting the scenarios of transferring crisis among financial markets. Conclusion. As a result of the study, there is built a neural network with the architecture of the Kohonen map. The neural network has one hidden layer consisting of six neurons and has a hexagonal structure. Six clusters describe six possible scenarios of the economy dynamics under the impact of the transfer of crises. Cluster number one and two unite countries characterized by a short period of economic recovery and return of the main macroeconomic indicators to the precrisis levels. A longer recovery period and

  1. Experimental study and modeling of degradation phenomena in HTPEM fuel cell stacks for use in CHP systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Mads Pagh; Andreasen, Søren Juhl; Rasmussen, Peder Lund

    2009-01-01

    Degradation phenomena in HTPEM fuel cells for use in CHP systems were investigated experimentally and by modeling. It was found that the two main degradation mechanisms in HTPEM fuel cells are carbon corrosion and Pt agglomeration. On basis of this conclusion a mechanistic model, describing the d...

  2. Hierarchical Self Assembly of Patterns from the Robinson Tilings: DNA Tile Design in an Enhanced Tile Assembly Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padilla, Jennifer E.; Liu, Wenyan; Seeman, Nadrian C.

    2012-01-01

    We introduce a hierarchical self assembly algorithm that produces the quasiperiodic patterns found in the Robinson tilings and suggest a practical implementation of this algorithm using DNA origami tiles. We modify the abstract Tile Assembly Model, (aTAM), to include active signaling and glue activation in response to signals to coordinate the hierarchical assembly of Robinson patterns of arbitrary size from a small set of tiles according to the tile substitution algorithm that generates them. Enabling coordinated hierarchical assembly in the aTAM makes possible the efficient encoding of the recursive process of tile substitution. PMID:23226722

  3. Hierarchical Self Assembly of Patterns from the Robinson Tilings: DNA Tile Design in an Enhanced Tile Assembly Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padilla, Jennifer E; Liu, Wenyan; Seeman, Nadrian C

    2012-06-01

    We introduce a hierarchical self assembly algorithm that produces the quasiperiodic patterns found in the Robinson tilings and suggest a practical implementation of this algorithm using DNA origami tiles. We modify the abstract Tile Assembly Model, (aTAM), to include active signaling and glue activation in response to signals to coordinate the hierarchical assembly of Robinson patterns of arbitrary size from a small set of tiles according to the tile substitution algorithm that generates them. Enabling coordinated hierarchical assembly in the aTAM makes possible the efficient encoding of the recursive process of tile substitution.

  4. A model for the sustainable selection of building envelope assemblies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huedo, Patricia; Mulet, Elena; López-Mesa, Belinda

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this article is to define an evaluation model for the environmental impacts of building envelopes to support planners in the early phases of materials selection. The model is intended to estimate environmental impacts for different combinations of building envelope assemblies based on scientifically recognised sustainability indicators. These indicators will increase the amount of information that existing catalogues show to support planners in the selection of building assemblies. To define the model, first the environmental indicators were selected based on the specific aims of the intended sustainability assessment. Then, a simplified LCA methodology was developed to estimate the impacts applicable to three types of dwellings considering different envelope assemblies, building orientations and climate zones. This methodology takes into account the manufacturing, installation, maintenance and use phases of the building. Finally, the model was validated and a matrix in Excel was created as implementation of the model. - Highlights: • Method to assess the envelope impacts based on a simplified LCA • To be used at an earlier phase than the existing methods in a simple way. • It assigns a score by means of known sustainability indicators. • It estimates data about the embodied and operating environmental impacts. • It compares the investment costs with the costs of the consumed energy.

  5. Point reflector model for the simulation of radar target glint and Doppler phenomena

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grubeck, H.

    1995-02-01

    This report describes the mathematics of a radar model for the simulation of glint and Doppler phenomena. Glint is an unwanted phenomenon, which deteriorates radar tracking performance. The term denotes a fluctuation of the target direction, experienced by a radar, tracking a complex target. Doppler shift refers to the frequency change of a radar wave, due to the reflection against a moving target. It can be used by modern so-called coherent radar systems for velocity determination. A three-dimensional space is modeled, containing a rigid body of point scattering reflectors (the target) and a point of measuring (the radar). The target and the radar can move freely and independently in the space. The movement of the target and the radar is described with a number of coordinate systems, which are presented in this report. Some simple simulations are also presented in this report. A simulation tool is available for interested users and the purpose of this report is to announce its existence. The program is written in MATLAB Simulink.

  6. Nonlinear continuum mechanical model for investigating plasmonic oscillations phenomena in nanostructured metals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serebrennikov, Aleksey M.

    2014-09-01

    Here, we introduce a nonlinear continuum mechanical theoretical model of dissipative plasmonic oscillations relying on the principle of least action. The proposed theory has allowed obtaining the expression of a stress tensor for an “electron gas-ionic frame” system. In parallel, an initial boundary value problem for nonlinear integrodifferential equations constituting the model has been formulated. On the basis of a finite-difference approach the iterative solution method, algorithm and solver have been worked out. Thereby we have investigated the phenomena of harmonic multiples generation by a cluster of metal nanoparticles. Also by using these tools the estimate of the density function parameter satisfying the requirement of regular oscillations has been obtained numerically. On the ground of extensive numerical runs it was found that for a given set of parameters the system response turned out to be mainly linear, however the contributions of the closest odd harmonic multiples (third and fifth) were well resolved under quantitative analysis. This result allows the nonlinearity governable by the principal equation of motion to be associated with Kerr's type nonlinearity.

  7. Train-Network Interactions and Stability Evaluation in High-Speed Railways--Part I: Phenomena and Modeling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hu, Haitao; Tao, Haidong; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2018-01-01

    This paper presents an impedance-based model to systematically investigate the interaction performance of multiple trains and traction network interaction system, aiming to evaluate the serious phenomena, including low-frequency oscillation (LFO), harmonic resonance and resonance instability....... The train-network interaction mechanism is therefore studied and one presents a detailed coupling model for investigating the three interactive phenomena and their characteristics, influential factors, analysis methods and possible mitigation schemes. In the Part I of the two-part paper, the measured...

  8. Analysis and modeling of coupled thermo-hydro-mechanical phenomena in 3D fractured media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Canamon Valera, I.

    2006-11-01

    This doctoral research was conducted as part of a joint France-Spain co-tutelage PhD thesis in the framework of a bilateral agreement between two universities, the Institut National Polytechnique de Toulouse (INPT) and the Universidad Politecnica de Madrid (UPM). It concerns a problem of common interest at the national and international levels, namely, the disposal of radioactive waste in deep geological repositories. The present work is devoted, more precisely, to near-field hydrogeological aspects involving mass and heat transport phenomena. The first part of the work is devoted to a specific data interpretation problem (pressures, relative humidities, temperatures) in a multi-barrier experimental system at the scale of a few meters - the 'Mock-Up Test' of the FEBEX project, conducted in Spain. Over 500 time series are characterized in terms of spatial, temporal, and/or frequency/scale-based statistical analysis techniques. The time evolution and coupling of physical phenomena during the experiment are analyzed, and conclusions are drawn concerning the behavior and reliability of the sensors. The second part of the thesis develops in more detail the 3-Dimensional (3D) modeling of coupled Thermo-Hydro-Mechanical phenomena in a fractured porous rock, this time at the scale of a hundred meters, based on the data of the 'In-Situ Test' of the FEBEX project conducted at the Grimsel Test Site in the Swiss Alps. As a first step, a reconstruction of the 3D fracture network is obtained by Monte Carlo simulation, taking into account through optimization the geomorphological data collected around the FEBEX gallery. The heterogeneous distribution of traces observed on the cylindrical wall of the tunnel is fairly well reproduced in the simulated network. In a second step, we develop a method to estimate the equivalent permeability of a many-fractured block by extending the superposition method of Ababou et al. [1994] to the case where the permeability of the rock matrix is not

  9. Modeling interfacial slag layer phenomena in the shell/mold gap in continuous casting of steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Ya

    A new lubrication and friction model of slag in the interfacial gap was combined into an existing 1-D heat transfer model, CON1D. Analytical transient models of liquid slag flow and solid slag stress have been coupled with a finite-difference model of heat transfer in the mold, gap and steel shell to predict transient shear stress, friction, slip and fracture of the slag layers. Experimental work was conducted to measure the properties of slag powder, including the friction coefficient at elevated temperatures and viscosity near solidification temperature. Tests with wide cooling rates range were conducted to construct CCT curves and to predict critical cooling rates of two slags with different crystallization tendencies. Slag composition and microstructure were analyzed by XRD and SEM. The CON1D model predicts shell thickness, temperature distributions in the mold and shell, slag layers thickness, heat flux profiles down the mold, cooling water temperature rise, ideal taper of the mold walls, and other related phenomena. Plants measurements from operating casters were collected to calibrate the model. The model was then applied to study the effect of casting speed and powder viscosity properties on slag layer behavior. The study finds that liquid slag lubrication would produce negligible stresses. Lower mold slag consumption rate leads to higher solid friction and results in solid slag layer fracture and movement if it falls below a critical value. Mold friction and fracture are governed by lubrication consumption rate. The high measured friction force in operating casters could be due to three sources: an intermittent moving solid slag layer, excessive mold taper or mold misalignment. The model was also applied to interpret the crystallization behavior of slag. A mechanism for the formation of this crystalline layer was proposed that combined the effects of a shift in the viscosity curve, a decrease in the liquid slag conductivity due to partial crystallization

  10. Experimental study and modelling of degradation phenomena in HTPEM fuel cell stacks for use in CHP systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreasen, Søren Juhl

    2009-01-01

    Degradation phenomena in HTPEM fuel cells for use in CHP systems were investigated experimentally and by modelling. It was found that the two main degradation mechanisms in HTPEM fuel cells are carbon corrosion and Pt agglomeration. On basis of this conclusion a mechanistic model, describing...... the degradation caused by these phenomena, is suggested. Using the proposed model, information about optimum operational temperatures is derived. To investigate how the degradation propagates on stack level, a simplified stack model is developed. The model is 1-dimensional, non-isothermal, and semi......-transient (considering degradation with time). The model shows that the degradation in a stack will not progress uniformly, but occurs faster in the hot end of the stack. Furthermore, the model shows that the degradation is very dependent on stack temperature control scheme. Two experiments were conducted; a 500 hours...

  11. Assembly Models for Papovaviridae based on Tiling Theory

    OpenAIRE

    Keef, T.; Taormina, A.; Twarock, R.

    2005-01-01

    A vital constituent of a virus is its protein shell, called the viral capsid, that encapsulates and hence provides protection for the viral genome. Assembly models are developed for viral capsids built from protein building blocks that can assume different local bonding structures in the capsid. This situation occurs, for example, for viruses in the family of Papovaviridae, which are linked to cancer and are hence of particular interest for the health sector. More specifically, the viral caps...

  12. Towards an Advanced Modelling of Complex Economic Phenomena Pretopological and Topological Uncertainty Research Tools

    CERN Document Server

    Aluja, Jaime Gil

    2012-01-01

    Little by little we are being provided with an arsenal of operative instruments of a non-numerical nature, in the shape of models and algorithms, capable of providing answers to the “aggressions” which our economics and management systems must withstand, coming from an environment full of turmoil.   In the work which we are presenting, we dare to propose a set of elements from which we hope arise focuses capable of renewing those structures of economic thought which are upheld by the geometrical idea.   The concepts of pretopology and topology, habitually marginalized in economics and management studies, have centred our interest in recent times.  We consider that it is not possible to conceive formal structures capable of representing the Darwinism concept of economic behaviour today without recurring to this fundamental generalisation of metric spaces.   In our attempts to find a solid base to the structures proposed for the treatment of economic phenomena, we have frequently resorted to the theory ...

  13. CAD ACTIVE MODELS: AN INNOVATIVE METHOD IN ASSEMBLY ENVIRONMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NADDEO Alessandro

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work is to show the use and the versatility of the active models in different applications. It has been realized an active model of a cylindrical spring and it has been applied in two mechanisms, different for typology and for backlash loads. The first example is a dynamometer in which nthe cylindrical spring is loaded by traction forces, while the second example is made up from a pressure valve in which the cylindrical-conic spring works under compression. The imposition of the loads in both cases, has allowed us to evaluate the model of the mechanism in different working conditions, also in assembly environment.

  14. A Model for Transport Phenomena in a Cross-Flow Ultrafiltration Module with Microchannels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shiro Yoshikawa

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Cross-flow ultrafiltration of macromolecular solutions in a module with microchannels is expected to have the advantages of fast diffusion from the membrane surface and a high ratio of membrane surface area to feed liquid volume. Cross-flow ultrafiltration modules with microchannels are expected to be used for separation and refining and as membrane reactors in microchemical processes. Though these modules can be applied as a separator connected with a micro-channel reactor or a membrane reactor, there have been few papers on their performance. The purpose of this study was to clarify the relationship between operational conditions and performance of cross-flow ultrafiltration devices with microchannels. In this study, Poly Vinyl Pyrrolidone (PVP aqueous solution was used as a model solute of macromolecules such as enzymes. Cross-flow ultrafiltration experiments were carried out under constant pressure conditions, varying other operational conditions. The permeate flux decreased in the beginning of each experiment. After enough time passed, the permeate flux reached a constant value. The performance of the module was discussed based on the constant values of the flux. It was observed that the permeate flux increased with increasing transmembrane pressure (TMP and feed flow rate, and decreased with an increase of feed liquid concentration. A model of the transport phenomena in the feed liquid side channel and the permeation through the membrane was developed based on the concentration and velocity distributions in the feed side channel. The experimental results were compared with those based on the model and the performance of the ultrafiltration module is discussed.

  15. A model for transport phenomena in a cross-flow ultrafiltration module with microchannels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishimoto, Aiko; Yoshikawa, Shiro; Ookawara, Shinichi

    2010-12-16

    Cross-flow ultrafiltration of macromolecular solutions in a module with microchannels is expected to have the advantages of fast diffusion from the membrane surface and a high ratio of membrane surface area to feed liquid volume. Cross-flow ultrafiltration modules with microchannels are expected to be used for separation and refining and as membrane reactors in microchemical processes. Though these modules can be applied as a separator connected with a micro-channel reactor or a membrane reactor, there have been few papers on their performance. The purpose of this study was to clarify the relationship between operational conditions and performance of cross-flow ultrafiltration devices with microchannels. In this study, Poly Vinyl Pyrrolidone (PVP) aqueous solution was used as a model solute of macromolecules such as enzymes. Cross-flow ultrafiltration experiments were carried out under constant pressure conditions, varying other operational conditions. The permeate flux decreased in the beginning of each experiment. After enough time passed, the permeate flux reached a constant value. The performance of the module was discussed based on the constant values of the flux. It was observed that the permeate flux increased with increasing transmembrane pressure (TMP) and feed flow rate, and decreased with an increase of feed liquid concentration. A model of the transport phenomena in the feed liquid side channel and the permeation through the membrane was developed based on the concentration and velocity distributions in the feed side channel. The experimental results were compared with those based on the model and the performance of the ultrafiltration module is discussed.

  16. Optimizing DNA assembly based on statistical language modelling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Gang; Zhang, Shemin; Dong, Yafei

    2017-12-15

    By successively assembling genetic parts such as BioBrick according to grammatical models, complex genetic constructs composed of dozens of functional blocks can be built. However, usually every category of genetic parts includes a few or many parts. With increasing quantity of genetic parts, the process of assembling more than a few sets of these parts can be expensive, time consuming and error prone. At the last step of assembling it is somewhat difficult to decide which part should be selected. Based on statistical language model, which is a probability distribution P(s) over strings S that attempts to reflect how frequently a string S occurs as a sentence, the most commonly used parts will be selected. Then, a dynamic programming algorithm was designed to figure out the solution of maximum probability. The algorithm optimizes the results of a genetic design based on a grammatical model and finds an optimal solution. In this way, redundant operations can be reduced and the time and cost required for conducting biological experiments can be minimized. © The Author(s) 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.

  17. An assembly process model based on object-oriented hierarchical time Petri Nets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jiapeng; Liu, Shaoli; Liu, Jianhua; Du, Zenghui

    2017-04-01

    In order to improve the versatility, accuracy and integrity of the assembly process model of complex products, an assembly process model based on object-oriented hierarchical time Petri Nets is presented. A complete assembly process information model including assembly resources, assembly inspection, time, structure and flexible parts is established, and this model describes the static and dynamic data involved in the assembly process. Through the analysis of three-dimensional assembly process information, the assembly information is hierarchically divided from the whole, the local to the details and the subnet model of different levels of object-oriented Petri Nets is established. The communication problem between Petri subnets is solved by using message database, and it reduces the complexity of system modeling effectively. Finally, the modeling process is presented, and a five layer Petri Nets model is established based on the hoisting process of the engine compartment of a wheeled armored vehicle.

  18. Transport Phenomena.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, D. B.

    1984-01-01

    Describes a course designed to achieve a balance between exposing students to (1) advanced topics in transport phenomena, pointing out similarities and differences between three transfer processes and (2) common methods of solving differential equations. (JN)

  19. Anomalous transport phenomena in Weyl metal beyond the Drude model for Landau's Fermi liquids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Ki-Seok; Kim, Heon-Jung; Sasaki, M; Wang, J-F; Li, L

    2014-12-01

    Landau's Fermi-liquid theory is the standard model for metals, characterized by the existence of electron quasiparticles near a Fermi surface as long as Landau's interaction parameters lie below critical values for instabilities. Recently this fundamental paradigm has been challenged by the physics of strong spin-orbit coupling, although the concept of electron quasiparticles remains valid near the Fermi surface, where Landau's Fermi-liquid theory fails to describe the electromagnetic properties of this novel metallic state, referred to as Weyl metal. A novel ingredient is that such a Fermi surface encloses a Weyl point with definite chirality, referred to as a chiral Fermi surface, which can arise from breaking of either time reversal or inversion symmetry in systems with strong spin-orbit coupling, responsible for both the Berry curvature and the chiral anomaly. As a result, electromagnetic properties of the Weyl metallic state are described not by conventional Maxwell equations but by axion electrodynamics, where Maxwell equations are modified with a topological-in-origin spatially modulated [Formula: see text] term. This novel metallic state was realized recently in Bi[Formula: see text]Sb x around [Formula: see text] under magnetic fields, where the Dirac spectrum appears around the critical point between the normal semiconducting ([Formula: see text]) and topological semiconducting phases ([Formula: see text]) and the time reversal symmetry breaking perturbation causes the Dirac point to split into a pair of Weyl points along the direction of the applied magnetic field for a very strong spin-orbit coupled system. In this review article, we discuss how the topological structure of both the Berry curvature and the chiral anomaly (axion electrodynamics) gives rise to anomalous transport phenomena in [Formula: see text]Sb x around [Formula: see text] under magnetic fields, thus modifying the Drude model of Landau's Fermi liquids.

  20. Improved Statistical Fault Detection Technique and Application to Biological Phenomena Modeled by S-Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansouri, Majdi; Nounou, Mohamed N; Nounou, Hazem N

    2017-09-01

    In our previous work, we have demonstrated the effectiveness of the linear multiscale principal component analysis (PCA)-based moving window (MW)-generalized likelihood ratio test (GLRT) technique over the classical PCA and multiscale principal component analysis (MSPCA)-based GLRT methods. The developed fault detection algorithm provided optimal properties by maximizing the detection probability for a particular false alarm rate (FAR) with different values of windows, and however, most real systems are nonlinear, which make the linear PCA method not able to tackle the issue of non-linearity to a great extent. Thus, in this paper, first, we apply a nonlinear PCA to obtain an accurate principal component of a set of data and handle a wide range of nonlinearities using the kernel principal component analysis (KPCA) model. The KPCA is among the most popular nonlinear statistical methods. Second, we extend the MW-GLRT technique to one that utilizes exponential weights to residuals in the moving window (instead of equal weightage) as it might be able to further improve fault detection performance by reducing the FAR using exponentially weighed moving average (EWMA). The developed detection method, which is called EWMA-GLRT, provides improved properties, such as smaller missed detection and FARs and smaller average run length. The idea behind the developed EWMA-GLRT is to compute a new GLRT statistic that integrates current and previous data information in a decreasing exponential fashion giving more weight to the more recent data. This provides a more accurate estimation of the GLRT statistic and provides a stronger memory that will enable better decision making with respect to fault detection. Therefore, in this paper, a KPCA-based EWMA-GLRT method is developed and utilized in practice to improve fault detection in biological phenomena modeled by S-systems and to enhance monitoring process mean. The idea behind a KPCA-based EWMA-GLRT fault detection algorithm is to

  1. Power Electronic Packaging Design, Assembly Process, Reliability and Modeling

    CERN Document Server

    Liu, Yong

    2012-01-01

    Power Electronic Packaging presents an in-depth overview of power electronic packaging design, assembly,reliability and modeling. Since there is a drastic difference between IC fabrication and power electronic packaging, the book systematically introduces typical power electronic packaging design, assembly, reliability and failure analysis and material selection so readers can clearly understand each task's unique characteristics. Power electronic packaging is one of the fastest growing segments in the power electronic industry, due to the rapid growth of power integrated circuit (IC) fabrication, especially for applications like portable, consumer, home, computing and automotive electronics. This book also covers how advances in both semiconductor content and power advanced package design have helped cause advances in power device capability in recent years. The author extrapolates the most recent trends in the book's areas of focus to highlight where further improvement in materials and techniques can d...

  2. Film models for transport phenomena with fog formation: The classical film model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brouwers, Jos; Chesters, A.K.

    1992-01-01

    In the present analysis the classical film model (or film theory) is reviewed and extended. First, on the basis of a thorough analysis, the governing equations of diffusion, energy and momentum of a stagnant film are derived and solved. Subsequently, the well-known correction factors for the effect

  3. Development of whole core thermal-hydraulic analysis program ACT. 4. Simplified fuel assembly model and parallelization by MPI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohshima, Hiroyuki

    2001-10-01

    A whole core thermal-hydraulic analysis program ACT is being developed for the purpose of evaluating detailed in-core thermal hydraulic phenomena of fast reactors including the effect of the flow between wrapper-tube walls (inter-wrapper flow) under various reactor operation conditions. As appropriate boundary conditions in addition to a detailed modeling of the core are essential for accurate simulations of in-core thermal hydraulics, ACT consists of not only fuel assembly and inter-wrapper flow analysis modules but also a heat transport system analysis module that gives response of the plant dynamics to the core model. This report describes incorporation of a simplified model to the fuel assembly analysis module and program parallelization by a message passing method toward large-scale simulations. ACT has a fuel assembly analysis module which can simulate a whole fuel pin bundle in each fuel assembly of the core and, however, it may take much CPU time for a large-scale core simulation. Therefore, a simplified fuel assembly model that is thermal-hydraulically equivalent to the detailed one has been incorporated in order to save the simulation time and resources. This simplified model is applied to several parts of fuel assemblies in a core where the detailed simulation results are not required. With regard to the program parallelization, the calculation load and the data flow of ACT were analyzed and the optimum parallelization has been done including the improvement of the numerical simulation algorithm of ACT. Message Passing Interface (MPI) is applied to data communication between processes and synchronization in parallel calculations. Parallelized ACT was verified through a comparison simulation with the original one. In addition to the above works, input manuals of the core analysis module and the heat transport system analysis module have been prepared. (author)

  4. Evaluating the Effectiveness of Modelling-Oriented Workshops for Engineering Undergraduates in the Field of Thermally Activated Phenomena

    Science.gov (United States)

    Battaglia, Onofrio Rosario; Di Paola, Benedetto; Persano Adorno, Dominique; Pizzolato, Nicola; Fazio, Claudio

    2017-09-01

    Two 20-h modelling-based workshops focused on the explanation of thermally activated phenomena were held at the University of Palermo, Italy, during the Academic Year 2014-2015. One of them was conducted by applying an inquiry-based approach, while the other, still based on laboratory and modelling activities, was not focused on inquiry. Seventy-two students belonging to the Undergraduate Program for Chemical Engineering attended the two workshops. The related content was focused on an à la Feynman unifying approach to thermally activated phenomena. Questionnaires were administered to the students of both groups, before and post instruction. Responses were analysed using k-means cluster analysis and students' inferred lines of reasoning about the description and explanation of phenomena were studied in both groups. We find that both workshops can be considered effective in improving student's reasoning skills. However, the inquiry-based approach revealed to be more effective than the traditional one in helping students to build mechanisms of functioning and explicative models and to identify common aspects in apparently different phenomena.

  5. Predictive modelling of edge transport phenomena in ELMy H-mode tokamak fusion plasmas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loennroth, J.-S.

    2009-07-01

    This thesis discusses a range of work dealing with edge plasma transport in magnetically confined fusion plasmas by means of predictive transport modelling, a technique in which qualitative predictions and explanations are sought by running transport codes equipped with models for plasma transport and other relevant phenomena. The focus is on high confinement mode (H-mode) tokamak plasmas, which feature improved performance thanks to the formation of an edge transport barrier. H-mode plasmas are generally characterized by the occurrence of edge localized modes (ELMs), periodic eruptions of particles and energy, which limit confinement and may turn out to be seriously damaging in future tokamaks. The thesis introduces schemes and models for qualitative study of the ELM phenomenon in predictive transport modelling. It aims to shed new light on the dynamics of ELMs using these models. It tries to explain various experimental observations related to the performance and ELM-behaviour of H-mode plasmas. Finally, it also tries to establish more generally the potential effects of ripple-induced thermal ion losses on H-mode plasma performance and ELMs. It is demonstrated that the proposed ELM modelling schemes can qualitatively reproduce the experimental dynamics of a number of ELM regimes. Using a theory-motivated ELM model based on a linear instability model, the dynamics of combined ballooning-peeling mode ELMs is studied. It is shown that the ELMs are most often triggered by a ballooning mode instability, which renders the plasma peeling mode unstable, causing the ELM to continue in a peeling mode phase. Understanding the dynamics of ELMs will be a key issue when it comes to controlling and mitigating the ELMs in future large tokamaks. By means of integrated modelling, it is shown that an experimentally observed increase in the ELM frequency and deterioration of plasma confinement triggered by external neutral gas puffing might be due to a transition from the second to

  6. Predictive modelling of edge transport phenomena in ELMy H-mode tokamak fusion plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loennroth, J.-S.

    2009-01-01

    This thesis discusses a range of work dealing with edge plasma transport in magnetically confined fusion plasmas by means of predictive transport modelling, a technique in which qualitative predictions and explanations are sought by running transport codes equipped with models for plasma transport and other relevant phenomena. The focus is on high confinement mode (H-mode) tokamak plasmas, which feature improved performance thanks to the formation of an edge transport barrier. H-mode plasmas are generally characterized by the occurrence of edge localized modes (ELMs), periodic eruptions of particles and energy, which limit confinement and may turn out to be seriously damaging in future tokamaks. The thesis introduces schemes and models for qualitative study of the ELM phenomenon in predictive transport modelling. It aims to shed new light on the dynamics of ELMs using these models. It tries to explain various experimental observations related to the performance and ELM-behaviour of H-mode plasmas. Finally, it also tries to establish more generally the potential effects of ripple-induced thermal ion losses on H-mode plasma performance and ELMs. It is demonstrated that the proposed ELM modelling schemes can qualitatively reproduce the experimental dynamics of a number of ELM regimes. Using a theory-motivated ELM model based on a linear instability model, the dynamics of combined ballooning-peeling mode ELMs is studied. It is shown that the ELMs are most often triggered by a ballooning mode instability, which renders the plasma peeling mode unstable, causing the ELM to continue in a peeling mode phase. Understanding the dynamics of ELMs will be a key issue when it comes to controlling and mitigating the ELMs in future large tokamaks. By means of integrated modelling, it is shown that an experimentally observed increase in the ELM frequency and deterioration of plasma confinement triggered by external neutral gas puffing might be due to a transition from the second to

  7. Equilibrium model for agglomeration phenomena in solid polydispersions subject to adsorption from liquid solution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mezzasalma, Stefano A.

    1997-06-01

    A general thermodynamic-electrochemical model, supported by an experimental titration procedure, is proposed to determine the number of solid aggregates of a polydispersed (and/or colloidal) system in a liquid medium subject to simultaneous agglomeration phenomena and adsorption of H+ and/or OH- ions from solution and endowed with an interparticle potential which is not strongly attractive. In a previous work [D. Beruto, S. Mezzasalma, and D. Baldovino, J. Chem. Soc. Faraday Trans. 2 91, 323 (1995)] adsorptions of protons and/or oxidryles onto the solid surfaces of monomodal silicon nitride aqueous dispersions were obtained by titration measurements made with a metal-oxide-semiconductor ion-sensitive field-effect transistor pH-meter device and employed to obtain the number of solid aggregates from the thermodynamic equilibrium state of the slurries, derived from the total Gibbs function. More generally, to apply the same titration procedure to liquid dispersions involving many solid phases, it is shown here that a simple partition criterion can be defined to obtain the experimental adsorption data related to each solid phase of the polydispersed system. Theoretically, the equilibrium state is achieved from the total Gibbs free function of the slurries with respect to each single solid aggregate species and to the ``mixed'' aggregates, containing all solid phases. To this end, following the Derjaguin-Landau-Verwey-Overbeek theory, Coulombic charge-charge interactions and dispersion-force effects, other than general multipole contributions among mixed clusters, are considered as not too strong perturbations of the ideal Gibbs free energy. By inserting the titration data in the physico-chemical condition theoretically derived, it is possible to obtain all numbers of solid aggregates as a function of the electrolyte concentration (pH) in the liquid solution.

  8. Current status of models for transient phenomena in dopant diffusion and activation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pichler, P.; Stiebel, D.

    2002-01-01

    Transient phenomena caused by ion-implantation processes have been studied for more than 25 years now with a continuously increasing number of research articles published in this field per year. One driving force of this research is the ongoing miniaturization of ULSI MOS and bipolar technology which uses extensively the capabilities of technology-computer-aided-design (TCAD). The other driving force which attracts also academic institutions and research institutes is the high complexity of the phenomena, involving the interaction of dopants, intrinsic point defects, extended defects and impurities like carbon as well as the interactions of mobile defects with surfaces and interfaces and their redistribution in multilayer structures. This paper outlines some recent advances towards a quantitative description of such phenomena

  9. A thermodynamic model of microtubule assembly and disassembly.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernard M A G Piette

    Full Text Available Microtubules are self-assembling polymers whose dynamics are essential for the normal function of cellular processes including chromosome separation and cytokinesis. Therefore understanding what factors effect microtubule growth is fundamental to our understanding of the control of microtubule based processes. An important factor that determines the status of a microtubule, whether it is growing or shrinking, is the length of the GTP tubulin microtubule cap. Here, we derive a Monte Carlo model of the assembly and disassembly of microtubules. We use thermodynamic laws to reduce the number of parameters of our model and, in particular, we take into account the contribution of water to the entropy of the system. We fit all parameters of the model from published experimental data using the GTP tubulin dimer attachment rate and the lateral and longitudinal binding energies of GTP and GDP tubulin dimers at both ends. Also we calculate and incorporate the GTP hydrolysis rate. We have applied our model and can mimic published experimental data, which formerly suggested a single layer GTP tubulin dimer microtubule cap, to show that these data demonstrate that the GTP cap can fluctuate and can be several microns long.

  10. A Computer Model for Analyzing Volatile Removal Assembly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Boyun

    2010-01-01

    A computer model simulates reactional gas/liquid two-phase flow processes in porous media. A typical process is the oxygen/wastewater flow in the Volatile Removal Assembly (VRA) in the Closed Environment Life Support System (CELSS) installed in the International Space Station (ISS). The volatile organics in the wastewater are combusted by oxygen gas to form clean water and carbon dioxide, which is solved in the water phase. The model predicts the oxygen gas concentration profile in the reactor, which is an indicator of reactor performance. In this innovation, a mathematical model is included in the computer model for calculating the mass transfer from the gas phase to the liquid phase. The amount of mass transfer depends on several factors, including gas-phase concentration, distribution, and reaction rate. For a given reactor dimension, these factors depend on pressure and temperature in the reactor and composition and flow rate of the influent.

  11. Using LabVIEW for Applying Mathematical Models in Representing Phenomena

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faraco, G.; Gabriele, L.

    2007-01-01

    Simulations make it possible to explore physical and biological phenomena, where conducting the real experiment is impracticable or difficult. The implementation of a software program describing and simulating a given physical situation encourages the understanding of a phenomenon itself. Fifty-nine students, enrolled at the Mathematical Methods…

  12. AN INTEGRATED COMPUTER-AIDED APPROACH FOR MODELING DISINTEGRATION-RELATED PHENOMENA

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    CARAMELLA, C.; FERRARI, F.; RONCHI, M.; Smilde, A. K.

    1990-01-01

    Two phenomena have frequently been related to tablet disintegration: water uptake and disintegrating force development. The combination of these two measures allowed a step forward to understanding disintegration mechanisms. In the present work, multiple linear regression analysis was used to relate

  13. Dynamic colloidal assembly pathways via low dimensional models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Yuguang; Bevan, Michael A., E-mail: mabevan@jhu.edu [Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland 21218 (United States); Thyagarajan, Raghuram; Ford, David M. [Chemical Engineering, University of Massachusetts, Amherst, Massachusetts 01003 (United States)

    2016-05-28

    Here we construct a low-dimensional Smoluchowski model for electric field mediated colloidal crystallization using Brownian dynamic simulations, which were previously matched to experiments. Diffusion mapping is used to infer dimensionality and confirm the use of two order parameters, one for degree of condensation and one for global crystallinity. Free energy and diffusivity landscapes are obtained as the coefficients of a low-dimensional Smoluchowski equation to capture the thermodynamics and kinetics of microstructure evolution. The resulting low-dimensional model quantitatively captures the dynamics of different assembly pathways between fluid, polycrystal, and single crystals states, in agreement with the full N-dimensional data as characterized by first passage time distributions. Numerical solution of the low-dimensional Smoluchowski equation reveals statistical properties of the dynamic evolution of states vs. applied field amplitude and system size. The low-dimensional Smoluchowski equation and associated landscapes calculated here can serve as models for predictive control of electric field mediated assembly of colloidal ensembles into two-dimensional crystalline objects.

  14. Bi-frequency pendulum on a rotary platform: modeling various optical phenomena

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zel'dovich, Boris Ya; Soileau, Marion J

    2004-01-01

    The teaching of optical phenomena can be enhanced through the use of analogies to the motion of a bi-freguency pendulum. In this text we target demonstrations to four groups of students and scientists: younger schoolchildren to high school seniors; 7th graders to college juniors; college juniors to final-year graduate students in physics, optics and engineering; and college seniors to research scientists. The main defference between the groups is in the level of mathematics required to make the analogy to optical phenomena. Most of the physical ideas may be understood and appreciated even in junior high school and serve as a motivation for deeper study of mathematics and science. (methodological notes)

  15. The numerical modelling of mixing phenomena of nanofluids in passive micromixers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milotin, R.; Lelea, D.

    2018-01-01

    The paper deals with the rapid mixing phenomena in micro-mixing devices with four tangential injections and converging tube, considering nanoparticles and water as the base fluid. Several parameters like Reynolds number (Re = 6 – 284) or fluid temperature are considered in order to optimize the process and obtain fundamental insight in mixing phenomena. The set of partial differential equations is considered based on conservation of momentum and species. Commercial package software Ansys-Fluent is used for solution of differential equations, based on a finite volume method. The results reveal that mixing index and mixing process is strongly dependent both on Reynolds number and heat flux. Moreover there is a certain Reynolds number when flow instabilities are generated that intensify the mixing process due to the tangential injections of the fluids.

  16. Prediction and Uncertainty in Computational Modeling of Complex Phenomena: A Whitepaper

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trucano, T.G.

    1999-01-20

    This report summarizes some challenges associated with the use of computational science to predict the behavior of complex phenomena. As such, the document is a compendium of ideas that have been generated by various staff at Sandia. The report emphasizes key components of the use of computational to predict complex phenomena, including computational complexity and correctness of implementations, the nature of the comparison with data, the importance of uncertainty quantification in comprehending what the prediction is telling us, and the role of risk in making and using computational predictions. Both broad and more narrowly focused technical recommendations for research are given. Several computational problems are summarized that help to illustrate the issues we have emphasized. The tone of the report is informal, with virtually no mathematics. However, we have attempted to provide a useful bibliography that would assist the interested reader in pursuing the content of this report in greater depth.

  17. Statistical Model for Predicting Weather Through Lunar Phase - Meteorological Phenomena Relationships in Makassar City

    OpenAIRE

    Hasanah, Nur

    2012-01-01

    ome scientist had made an evidence to proof the relationship between lunar phase and meteorological phenomena in their own area. Here we also did the assignment statistically in the case of Makassar City, Indonesia. We were using official meteorologist data, such as rainfall, clouds, and temperature, covering a period 28 years from January 1984 to December 2011. The statistical analyses were done using discriminant analysis and persistence. Further, we tested the result with cross validation ...

  18. Physical model of lean suppression pressure oscillation phenomena: steam condensation in the light water reactor pressure suppression system (PSS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCauley, E.W.; Holman, G.S.; Aust, E.; Schwan, H.; Vollbrandt, J.

    1980-01-01

    Using the results of large scale multivent tests conducted by GKSS, a physical model of chugging is developed. The unique combination of accurate digital data and cinematic data has provided the derivation of a detailed, quantified correlation between the dynamic physical variables and the associated two-phase thermo-hydraulic phenomena occurring during lean suppression (chugging) phases of the loss-of-coolant accident in a boiling water reactor pressure suppression system

  19. NASA 3D Models: Vehicle Assembly Building (VAB)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Vehicle Assembly Building (VAB) is one of the largest buildings in the world. It was originally built for assembly of Apollo/Saturn vehicles and was later...

  20. A three-dimensional mixed-domain PEM fuel cell model with fully-coupled transport phenomena

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meng, Hua [Center for Engineering and Scientific Computation, College of Computer Science, P.O. Box 1455, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, Zhejiang 310027 (China)

    2007-02-10

    A three-dimensional mixed-domain PEM fuel cell model with fully-coupled transport phenomena has been developed in this paper. In this model, after fully justified simplifications, only one set of interfacial boundary conditions is required to connect the water content equation inside the membrane and the equation of the water mass fraction in the other regions. All the other conservation equations are still solved in the single-domain framework. Numerical results indicate that although the fully-coupled transport phenomena produce only minor effects on the overall PEM fuel cell performance, i.e. average current density, they impose significant effects on current distribution, net water transfer coefficient, velocity and density variations, and species distributions. Intricate interactions of the mass transfer across the membrane, electrochemical kinetics, density and velocity variations, and species distributions dictate the detailed cell performances. Therefore, for accurate PEM fuel cell modeling and simulation, the effects of the fully-coupled transport phenomena could not be neglected. (author)

  1. Reliability models applicable to space telescope solar array assembly system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patil, S. A.

    1986-01-01

    A complex system may consist of a number of subsystems with several components in series, parallel, or combination of both series and parallel. In order to predict how well the system will perform, it is necessary to know the reliabilities of the subsystems and the reliability of the whole system. The objective of the present study is to develop mathematical models of the reliability which are applicable to complex systems. The models are determined by assuming k failures out of n components in a subsystem. By taking k = 1 and k = n, these models reduce to parallel and series models; hence, the models can be specialized to parallel, series combination systems. The models are developed by assuming the failure rates of the components as functions of time and as such, can be applied to processes with or without aging effects. The reliability models are further specialized to Space Telescope Solar Arrray (STSA) System. The STSA consists of 20 identical solar panel assemblies (SPA's). The reliabilities of the SPA's are determined by the reliabilities of solar cell strings, interconnects, and diodes. The estimates of the reliability of the system for one to five years are calculated by using the reliability estimates of solar cells and interconnects given n ESA documents. Aging effects in relation to breaks in interconnects are discussed.

  2. Thermal-hydraulic process modeling in risk analysis: an assessment of the relevant systems, structures, and phenomena

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-08-01

    The MELCOR project is developing a new generation of risk assessment computer programs for analysis of severe accidents at nuclear power plants. This document details the findings in the thermal-hydraulic areas for PWRs and areas common to both PWRs and BWRs. The study was performed by specialists from each of the various nuclear plant design or analysis areas where thermal-hydraulics is important. The study found that the current level of thermal-hydraulic modeling that exists for performing risk assessments is typified by the modeling in the MARCH code. This level of modeling was found to be inadequate for MELCOR because of inconsistent or nonexistent modeling of important phenomena, particularly invessel phenomena, systems, and structures. Pressurized water reactor modeling was found to be more complete than modeling for boiling water reactor designs, particularly in containment. Finally, although reactor cavity modeling was considered essential for risk assessments, the lack of adequate modeling found for the cavity was identified as a serious impediment to the development of second-generation risk codes

  3. Modelling high frequency phenomena in the rotor of induction motors under no-load test conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boglietti, Aldo; Bottauscio, Oriano.; Chiampi, Mario; Lazzari, Mario

    2003-01-01

    The paper aims to deep the electromagnetic phenomena in the rotor of induction motors produced during the no-load test by the high-order harmonics of the spatial distribution of magnetic flux. The analysis is carried out by a flux driven finite element procedure, which can take into account the hysteresis of magnetic material, the induced currents in rotor cage and the eddy currents in the laminations. The computed results, including losses and local waveforms of electrical and magnetic quantities, are finally discussed

  4. Finite Element Modelling of Mechanical Phenomena Connected to the Technological Process of Continuous Casting of Steel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Heger

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available A finite element method algorithm is presented that enables numerical simulation of real phenomena that take place during an industrial process of continuous casting of steel. The algorithm takes into account all known kinds of nonlinearities: material nonlinearity connected to the nonlinear temperature dependence of material properties, large deformations from the process of material forming and contacts between the slab and rollers of the strand. Received results describe the sensitivity of the product to crack initiation, not only during the process of continuous casting itself but also in the finished and cooled slab.

  5. Comparative performance of transcriptome assembly methods for non-model organisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Xin; Chen, Xiao-Guang; Armbruster, Peter A

    2016-07-27

    The technological revolution in next-generation sequencing has brought unprecedented opportunities to study any organism of interest at the genomic or transcriptomic level. Transcriptome assembly is a crucial first step for studying the molecular basis of phenotypes of interest using RNA-Sequencing (RNA-Seq). However, the optimal strategy for assembling vast amounts of short RNA-Seq reads remains unresolved, especially for organisms without a sequenced genome. This study compared four transcriptome assembly methods, including a widely used de novo assembler (Trinity), two transcriptome re-assembly strategies utilizing proteomic and genomic resources from closely related species (reference-based re-assembly and TransPS) and a genome-guided assembler (Cufflinks). These four assembly strategies were compared using a comprehensive transcriptomic database of Aedes albopictus, for which a genome sequence has recently been completed. The quality of the various assemblies was assessed by the number of contigs generated, contig length distribution, percent paired-end read mapping, and gene model representation via BLASTX. Our results reveal that de novo assembly generates a similar number of gene models relative to genome-guided assembly with a fragmented reference, but produces the highest level of redundancy and requires the most computational power. Using a closely related reference genome to guide transcriptome assembly can generate biased contig sequences. Increasing the number of reads used in the transcriptome assembly tends to increase the redundancy within the assembly and decrease both median contig length and percent identity between contigs and reference protein sequences. This study provides general guidance for transcriptome assembly of RNA-Seq data from organisms with or without a sequenced genome. The optimal transcriptome assembly strategy will depend upon the subsequent downstream analyses. However, our results emphasize the efficacy of de novo assembly

  6. Improvement of the design model for SMART fuel assembly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zee, Sung Kyun; Yim, Jeong Sik

    2001-04-01

    A Study on the design improvement of the TEP, BEP and Hoddown spring of a fuel assembly for SMART was performed. Cut boundary Interpolation Method was applied to get more accurate results of stress and strain distribution from the results of the coarse model calculation. The improved results were compared with that of a coarse one. The finer model predicted slightly higher stress and strain distribution than the coarse model, which meant the results of the coarse model was not converged. Considering that the test results always showed much less stress than the FEM and the location of the peak stress of the refined model, the pressure stress on the loading point seemed to contribute significantly to the stresses. Judging from the fact that the peak stress appeared only at the local area, the results of the refined model were considered enough to be a conservative prediction of the stress levels. The slot of the guide thimble screw was ignored to get how much thickness of the flow plate can be reduced in case of optimization of the thickness and also cut off the screw dent hole was included for the actual geometry. For the BEP, the leg and web were also included in the model and the results with and without the leg alignment support were compared. Finally, the holddown spring which is important during the in-reactor behavior of the FA was modeled more realistic and improved to include the effects of the friction between the leaves and the loading surface. Using this improved model, it was possible that the spring characteristics were predicted more accurate to the test results. From the analysis of the spring characteristics, the local plastic area controled the characteristics of the spring dominantly which implied that it was necessary for the design of the leaf to be optimized for the improvement of the plastic behavior of the leaf spring

  7. Modeling self-assembly and phase behavior in complex mixtures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balazs, Anna C

    2007-01-01

    Using a variety of computational techniques, I investigate how the self-assembly of complex mixtures can be guided by surfaces or external stimuli to form spatially regular or temporally periodic patterns. Focusing on mixtures in confined geometries, I examine how thermodynamic and hydrodynamic effects can be exploited to create regular arrays of nanowires or monodisperse, particle-filled droplets. I also show that an applied light source and chemical reaction can be harnessed to create hierarchically ordered patterns in ternary, phase-separating mixtures. Finally, I consider the combined effects of confining walls and a chemical reaction to demonstrate that a swollen polymer gel can be driven to form dynamically periodic structures. In addition to illustrating the effectiveness of external factors in directing the self-organization of multicomponent mixtures, the selected examples illustrate how coarse-grained models can be used to capture both the equilibrium phase behavior and the dynamics of these complex systems.

  8. Modelling DNA origami self-assembly at the domain level

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dannenberg, Frits; Kwiatkowska, Marta [Department of Computer Science, University of Oxford, Wolfson Building, Parks Road, Oxford OX1 3QD (United Kingdom); Dunn, Katherine E. [Department of Physics, University of Oxford, Clarendon Laboratory, Parks Road, Oxford OX1 3PU (United Kingdom); Department of Electronics, University of York, York YO10 5DD (United Kingdom); Bath, Jonathan; Turberfield, Andrew J. [Department of Physics, University of Oxford, Clarendon Laboratory, Parks Road, Oxford OX1 3PU (United Kingdom); Ouldridge, Thomas E. [Department of Physics, University of Oxford, Rudolf Peierls Centre for Theoretical Physics, 1 Keble Road, Oxford OX1 3NP (United Kingdom); Department of Mathematics, Imperial College, 180 Queen’s Gate, London SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom)

    2015-10-28

    We present a modelling framework, and basic model parameterization, for the study of DNA origami folding at the level of DNA domains. Our approach is explicitly kinetic and does not assume a specific folding pathway. The binding of each staple is associated with a free-energy change that depends on staple sequence, the possibility of coaxial stacking with neighbouring domains, and the entropic cost of constraining the scaffold by inserting staple crossovers. A rigorous thermodynamic model is difficult to implement as a result of the complex, multiply connected geometry of the scaffold: we present a solution to this problem for planar origami. Coaxial stacking of helices and entropic terms, particularly when loop closure exponents are taken to be larger than those for ideal chains, introduce interactions between staples. These cooperative interactions lead to the prediction of sharp assembly transitions with notable hysteresis that are consistent with experimental observations. We show that the model reproduces the experimentally observed consequences of reducing staple concentration, accelerated cooling, and absent staples. We also present a simpler methodology that gives consistent results and can be used to study a wider range of systems including non-planar origami.

  9. Modelling DNA origami self-assembly at the domain level

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dannenberg, Frits; Kwiatkowska, Marta; Dunn, Katherine E.; Bath, Jonathan; Turberfield, Andrew J.; Ouldridge, Thomas E.

    2015-01-01

    We present a modelling framework, and basic model parameterization, for the study of DNA origami folding at the level of DNA domains. Our approach is explicitly kinetic and does not assume a specific folding pathway. The binding of each staple is associated with a free-energy change that depends on staple sequence, the possibility of coaxial stacking with neighbouring domains, and the entropic cost of constraining the scaffold by inserting staple crossovers. A rigorous thermodynamic model is difficult to implement as a result of the complex, multiply connected geometry of the scaffold: we present a solution to this problem for planar origami. Coaxial stacking of helices and entropic terms, particularly when loop closure exponents are taken to be larger than those for ideal chains, introduce interactions between staples. These cooperative interactions lead to the prediction of sharp assembly transitions with notable hysteresis that are consistent with experimental observations. We show that the model reproduces the experimentally observed consequences of reducing staple concentration, accelerated cooling, and absent staples. We also present a simpler methodology that gives consistent results and can be used to study a wider range of systems including non-planar origami

  10. AN APPROACH THAT AUTOMATICALLY DETERMINES PART CONTACT RELATIONS IN COMPUTER AIDED ASSEMBLY MODELING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cem SİNANOĞLU

    2002-03-01

    Full Text Available This study describes an approach for modeling of an assembly system which is, one of the main problems encountered during assembly. In this approach the wire-frame modeling of the assembly system is used. In addition, each part is drawn in a different color. Assembly drawing and its various approaches are scanned along three different (-x, -y, -z axis. Scanning is done automatically the software developed. The color codes obtained by scanning and representing different assembly parts are assessed by the software along the six axes of Cartesian coordinate. Then contact matrices are formed to represent the relations among the assembly parts. These matrices are complete enough to represent an assembly modeling. This approach was applied for various assembly systems. These assembly systems are as follows; pincer, hinge and clutch systems. One of the basic advantages of this approach is that the wire-frame modeling of the assembly system can be formed through various CAD programs; and it can be applied to assembly systems contain many parts.

  11. Modelling of melting and solidification transport phenomena during hypothetical NPP severe accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sarler, B.

    1992-01-01

    A physical and mathematical framework to deal with the transport phenomena occuring during melting and solidification of the hypothetical NPP severe accidents is presented. It concentrates on the transient temperature, velocity, and species concentration distributions during such events. The framework is based on the Mixture Continuum Formulation of the components and phases, cast in the boundary-domain integral shape structured by the fundamental solution of the Laplace equation. The formulation could cope with various solid-liquid sub-systems through the inclusion of the specific closure relations. The deduced system of boundary-domain integral equations for conservation of mass, energy, momentum, and species could be solved by the boundary element discrete approximative method. (author) [sl

  12. Modelling of transport phenomena in 3D GMAW of thick metals with V groove

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hu, J [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Bridgeport, Bridgeport, CT 06604 (United States); Tsai, H L [Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Missouri University of Science and Technology, 1870 Miner Circle, Rolla, MO 65409 (United States)

    2008-03-21

    This paper analyses the dynamic process of groove filling and the resulting weld pool fluid flow in gas metal arc welding of thick metals with V groove. Filler droplets carrying mass, momentum, thermal energy and sulfur species are periodically impinged onto the workpiece. The complex transport phenomena in the weld pool, caused by the combined effect of droplet impingement, gravity, electromagnetic force, surface tension and plasma arc pressure, were investigated to determine the transient weld pool shape and distributions of velocity, temperature and sulfur species in the weld pool. It was found that the groove provides a channel which can smooth the flow in the weld pool, leading to poor mixing between the filler metal and the base metal.

  13. In-silico modeling of the mitotic spindle assembly checkpoint.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bashar Ibrahim

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available The Mitotic Spindle Assembly Checkpoint ((MSAC is an evolutionary conserved mechanism that ensures the correct segregation of chromosomes by restraining cell cycle progression from entering anaphase until all chromosomes have made proper bipolar attachments to the mitotic spindle. Its malfunction can lead to cancer.We have constructed and validated for the human (MSAC mechanism an in silico dynamical model, integrating 11 proteins and complexes. The model incorporates the perspectives of three central control pathways, namely Mad1/Mad2 induced Cdc20 sequestering based on the Template Model, MCC formation, and APC inhibition. Originating from the biochemical reactions for the underlying molecular processes, non-linear ordinary differential equations for the concentrations of 11 proteins and complexes of the (MSAC are derived. Most of the kinetic constants are taken from literature, the remaining four unknown parameters are derived by an evolutionary optimization procedure for an objective function describing the dynamics of the APC:Cdc20 complex. MCC:APC dissociation is described by two alternatives, namely the "Dissociation" and the "Convey" model variants. The attachment of the kinetochore to microtubuli is simulated by a switching parameter silencing those reactions which are stopped by the attachment. For both, the Dissociation and the Convey variants, we compare two different scenarios concerning the microtubule attachment dependent control of the dissociation reaction. Our model is validated by simulation of ten perturbation experiments.Only in the controlled case, our models show (MSAC behaviour at meta- to anaphase transition in agreement with experimental observations. Our simulations revealed that for (MSAC activation, Cdc20 is not fully sequestered; instead APC is inhibited by MCC binding.

  14. Critical phenomena with renormalization group analysis of a hierarchical model of financial crashes

    OpenAIRE

    Wu, Tiankuang Tim

    2012-01-01

    Financial market models are able to help the investors foresee the risk of a financial market crash and reduce the probability of its occurrence. Modelling in financial markets is categorized into microscopic models and macroscopic models. The microscopic models study the mechanisms behind the market and their behaviour. These models assist in an understanding of the causes of financial market crashes. Macroscopic models find the disciplines and rules from the historical macroscopic data for ...

  15. New reduced-dimensionality models for efficient quantum-mechanical description of ultrafast strong-field phenomena

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silaev, A.A.; Ryabikin, M.Yu.; Vvedenskii, N.V.

    2010-01-01

    Complete text of publication follows. The development of theoretical approaches to the description of strong-field phenomena caused by ultrashort laser pulses is optical for studying the interaction of atoms and molecules with intense laser fields. In this work, we address two phenomena which attract much attention and can be observed under similar experimental conditions, namely, when a gas is ionized by ultrashort laser pulse. The first phenomenon is the excitation of high-order harmonics of the driving field frequency in the electron current, which leads to the generation of vacuum ultraviolet and soft X-ray radiation, as well as the attosecond pulse production. The second phenomenon is the excitation of a quasi-dc residual current in the laser-produced plasma, which results in the generation of radiation having a frequency below the laser one, e.g., terahertz waves. We present new one-dimensional (1D) and two-dimensional (2D) quantum-mechanical models for the description of such phenomena for the case a hydrogen (H) atom, and the generalization of these models to the case of various noble-gas atoms. The shape of the electrostatic potential produced by an atomic ion is shown to influence significantly the rates of the processes in the dynamics of atomic electron, and even more, the rates of the tunneling and above-barrier ionization, which is of utmost importance for the considered phenomena. The results of solving the time-dependent Schroedinger equation with the 1D and 2D potentials, which we propose, are compared with the results of the ab initio three-dimensional calculations for the H atom. We find the regions of laser pulse parameters, where the results obtained with proposed models have much better accuracy than the results provided by the models used earlier. Acknowledgements. This work was supported by the Russian Foundation for Basic Research, the Presidential Council on Grants of the Russian Federation, the Ministry of Education and Science of the

  16. Mathematical modeling of mixing phenomena in ladles of aluminium equipped with impeller and gas purging for degassing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramirez-Argaez, M. A.; Conteras, F.; Gonzalez, C.

    2006-01-01

    In this work a fundamental Eulerian mathematical model was developed to study fluid flow and mixing phenomena in aluminium ladles equipped with impeller for deshidrogenization treatment. The effect of critical process parameters such as rotor speed, depth of immersion, gas flow rate, and type of rotor on the mixing behavior and vortex formation was analyzed with this model. The model simulates operation with and without gas injection and it was developed on the commercial CFD code PHOENICS 3.4 in order to solve all conservation equations governing the process, i. e. continuity, 3D turbulent Navier-Stockers and the kε turbulence model for a two-phase fluid flow problem using the Inter Phase Slip Algorithm (IPSA). (Author). 20 refs

  17. Multiscale modeling and simulation of microtubule-motor-protein assemblies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Tong; Blackwell, Robert; Glaser, Matthew A.; Betterton, M. D.; Shelley, Michael J.

    2015-12-01

    Microtubules and motor proteins self-organize into biologically important assemblies including the mitotic spindle and the centrosomal microtubule array. Outside of cells, microtubule-motor mixtures can form novel active liquid-crystalline materials driven out of equilibrium by adenosine triphosphate-consuming motor proteins. Microscopic motor activity causes polarity-dependent interactions between motor proteins and microtubules, but how these interactions yield larger-scale dynamical behavior such as complex flows and defect dynamics is not well understood. We develop a multiscale theory for microtubule-motor systems in which Brownian dynamics simulations of polar microtubules driven by motors are used to study microscopic organization and stresses created by motor-mediated microtubule interactions. We identify polarity-sorting and crosslink tether relaxation as two polar-specific sources of active destabilizing stress. We then develop a continuum Doi-Onsager model that captures polarity sorting and the hydrodynamic flows generated by these polar-specific active stresses. In simulations of active nematic flows on immersed surfaces, the active stresses drive turbulent flow dynamics and continuous generation and annihilation of disclination defects. The dynamics follow from two instabilities, and accounting for the immersed nature of the experiment yields unambiguous characteristic length and time scales. When turning off the hydrodynamics in the Doi-Onsager model, we capture formation of polar lanes as observed in the Brownian dynamics simulation.

  18. Advanced modelling of the transport phenomena across horizontal clothing microclimates with natural convection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayor, T S; Couto, S; Psikuta, A; Rossi, R M

    2015-12-01

    The ability of clothing to provide protection against external environments is critical for wearer's safety and thermal comfort. It is a function of several factors, such as external environmental conditions, clothing properties and activity level. These factors determine the characteristics of the different microclimates existing inside the clothing which, ultimately, have a key role in the transport processes occurring across clothing. As an effort to understand the effect of transport phenomena in clothing microclimates on the overall heat transport across clothing structures, a numerical approach was used to study the buoyancy-driven heat transfer across horizontal air layers trapped inside air impermeable clothing. The study included both the internal flow occurring inside the microclimate and the external flow occurring outside the clothing layer, in order to analyze the interdependency of these flows in the way heat is transported to/from the body. Two-dimensional simulations were conducted considering different values of microclimate thickness (8, 25 and 52 mm), external air temperature (10, 20 and 30 °C), external air velocity (0.5, 1 and 3 m s(-1)) and emissivity of the clothing inner surface (0.05 and 0.95), which implied Rayleigh numbers in the microclimate spanning 4 orders of magnitude (9 × 10(2)-3 × 10(5)). The convective heat transfer coefficients obtained along the clothing were found to strongly depend on the transport phenomena in the microclimate, in particular when natural convection is the most important transport mechanism. In such scenario, convective coefficients were found to vary in wavy-like manner, depending on the position of the flow vortices in the microclimate. These observations clearly differ from data in the literature for the case of air flow over flat-heated surfaces with constant temperature (which shows monotonic variations of the convective heat transfer coefficients, along the length of the surface). The flow

  19. Advanced modelling of the transport phenomena across horizontal clothing microclimates with natural convection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayor, T. S.; Couto, S.; Psikuta, A.; Rossi, R. M.

    2015-12-01

    The ability of clothing to provide protection against external environments is critical for wearer's safety and thermal comfort. It is a function of several factors, such as external environmental conditions, clothing properties and activity level. These factors determine the characteristics of the different microclimates existing inside the clothing which, ultimately, have a key role in the transport processes occurring across clothing. As an effort to understand the effect of transport phenomena in clothing microclimates on the overall heat transport across clothing structures, a numerical approach was used to study the buoyancy-driven heat transfer across horizontal air layers trapped inside air impermeable clothing. The study included both the internal flow occurring inside the microclimate and the external flow occurring outside the clothing layer, in order to analyze the interdependency of these flows in the way heat is transported to/from the body. Two-dimensional simulations were conducted considering different values of microclimate thickness (8, 25 and 52 mm), external air temperature (10, 20 and 30 °C), external air velocity (0.5, 1 and 3 m s-1) and emissivity of the clothing inner surface (0.05 and 0.95), which implied Rayleigh numbers in the microclimate spanning 4 orders of magnitude (9 × 102-3 × 105). The convective heat transfer coefficients obtained along the clothing were found to strongly depend on the transport phenomena in the microclimate, in particular when natural convection is the most important transport mechanism. In such scenario, convective coefficients were found to vary in wavy-like manner, depending on the position of the flow vortices in the microclimate. These observations clearly differ from data in the literature for the case of air flow over flat-heated surfaces with constant temperature (which shows monotonic variations of the convective heat transfer coefficients, along the length of the surface). The flow patterns and

  20. One-Dimensional, Two-Phase Flow Modeling Toward Interpreting Motor Slag Expulsion Phenomena

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kibbey, Timothy P.

    2012-01-01

    Aluminum oxide slag accumulation and expulsion was previously shown to be a player in various solid rocket motor phenomena, including the Space Shuttle's Reusable Solid Rocket Motor (RSRM) pressure perturbation, or "blip," and phantom moment. In the latter case, such un ]commanded side accelerations near the end of burn have also been identified in several other motor systems. However, efforts to estimate the mass expelled during a given event have come up short. Either bulk calculations are performed without enough physics present, or multiphase, multidimensional Computational Fluid Dynamic analyses are performed that give a snapshot in time and space but do not always aid in grasping the general principle. One ]dimensional, two ]phase compressible flow calculations yield an analytical result for nozzle flow under certain assumptions. This can be carried further to relate the bulk motor parameters of pressure, thrust, and mass flow rate under the different exhaust conditions driven by the addition of condensed phase mass flow. An unknown parameter is correlated to airflow testing with water injection where mass flow rates and pressure are known. Comparison is also made to full ]scale static test motor data where thrust and pressure changes are known and similar behavior is shown. The end goal is to be able to include the accumulation and flow of slag in internal ballistics predictions. This will allow better prediction of the tailoff when much slag is ejected and of mass retained versus time, believed to be a contributor to the widely-observed "flight knockdown" parameter.

  1. PIV Experiments to Measure Flow Phenomena in a Scaled Model of a VHTR Lower Plenum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hugh M. McIlroy, Jr.; Donald M. McEligot; Richard R. Schultz; Daniel Christensen; Robert J. Pink; Ryan C. Johnson

    2006-09-01

    A report of experimental data collected at the Matched-Index-of-Refraction (MIR) Laboratory in support of contract DE-AC07-05ID14517 and the INL Standard Problem on measurements of flow phenomena occurring in a lower plenum of a typical prismatic VHTR concept reactor to assess CFD code is presented. Background on the experimental setup and procedures is provided along with several samples of data obtained from the 3-D PIV system and an assessment of experimental uncertainty is provided. Data collected in this study include 3-dimensional velocity-field descriptions of the flow in all four inlet jets and the entire lower plenum with inlet jet Reynolds numbers (ReJet) of approximately 4300 and 12,400. These investigations have generated over 2 terabytes of data that has been processed to describe the various velocity components in formats suitable for external release and archived on removable hard disks. The processed data from both experimental studies are available in multi-column text format.

  2. A constraint programming model for mixed model type 2 assembly line balancing problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hacı Mehmet Alağaş

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a new constraint programming model for mixed-model assembly line balancing problem. The proposed model minimizes the cycle time for a given number of stations. The proposed model is tested with literature problems and its performance is evaluated by comparing to mathematical model. Best obtained solution and elapsed CPU time are used as performance criteria. The experimental results show that the proposed constraint programming model performs well and can be used as an alternative modeling technique to solve the problem.

  3. Numerical Modelling Of Thermal And Structural Phenomena In Yb:YAG Laser Butt-Welded Steel Elements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kubiak M.

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The numerical model of thermal and structural phenomena is developed for the analysis of Yb:YAG laser welding process with the motion of the liquid material in the welding pool taken into account. Temperature field and melted material velocity field in the fusion zone are obtained from the numerical solution of continuum mechanics equations using Chorin projection method and finite volume method. Phase transformations in solid state are analyzed during heating and cooling using classical models of the kinetics of phase transformations as well as CTA and CCT diagrams for welded steel. The interpolated heat source model is developed in order to reliably reflect the real distribution of Yb:YAG laser power obtained by experimental research on the laser beam profile.

  4. Modeling pressure-driven assembly of polymer coated nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lane, J. Matthew D.; Salerno, K. Michael; Grest, Gary S.; Fan, Hongyou

    2017-06-01

    High-pressure experiments have successfully produced a variety of gold nanostructures by compressing polymer coated spherical nanoparticles. We apply atomistic simulation to understand the role of the soft polymer response in determining the pressure-driven assembly of gold nanostructures. Quasi-isentropic experiments have shown that 1D, 2D and 3D nanostructures can be formed and recovered from dynamic compression of fcc superlattices of alkanethiol-coated gold nanocrystals on Sandia's Veloce pulsed power accelerator. Molecular modeling has shown that the dimensionality of the final structures depends on the orientation of the superlattice and the uniaxial loading. We describe the role of coating ligand length and grafting density, on ligand migration and deformation processes during pressure-driven coalescence of the cores into permanent nanowires, nanosheets and 3D structures. The role of uniaxial vs isotropic pressure and the effects of compression along various superlattice orientations will be discussed. Sandia National Laboratories is a multi-mission laboratory managed and operated by Sandia Corporation, a wholly owned subsidiary of Lockheed Martin Corporation, for the U.S. Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration under contract DE-AC04-94AL85000.

  5. Efficient material flow in mixed model assembly lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alnahhal, Mohammed; Noche, Bernd

    2013-01-01

    In this study, material flow from decentralized supermarkets to stations in mixed model assembly lines using tow (tugger) trains is investigated. Train routing, scheduling, and loading problems are investigated in parallel to minimize the number of trains, variability in loading and in routes lengths, and line-side inventory holding costs. The general framework for solving these problems in parallel contains analytical equations, Dynamic Programming (DP), and Mixed Integer Programming (MIP). Matlab in conjunction with LP-solve software was used to formulate the problem. An example was presented to explain the idea. Results which were obtained in very short CPU time showed the effect of using time buffer among routes on the feasible space and on the optimal solution. Results also showed the effect of the objective, concerning reducing the variability in loading, on the results of routing, scheduling, and loading. Moreover, results showed the importance of considering the maximum line-side inventory beside the capacity of the train in the same time in finding the optimal solution.

  6. Opaque models: Using drugs and dreams to explore the neurobiological basis of mental phenomena.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langlitz, Nicolas

    2017-01-01

    On the basis of four historical and ethnographic case studies of modeling in neuroscience laboratories, this chapter introduces a distinction between transparent and opaque models. A transparent model is a simplified representation of a real world phenomenon. If it is not patently clear, it is at least much better comprehended than its objects of representation. An opaque model, by contrast, looks at one only partially understood phenomenon to stand in for another partially understood phenomenon. Here, the model is often just as complex as its target. Examples of such opaque models discussed in this chapter are the use of hallucinogen intoxication in humans and animals as well as the dreaming brain as models of psychosis as well as the dreaming brain as a model of consciousness in general. Several functions of opaque models are discussed, ranging from the generation of funding to the formulation of new research questions. While science studies scholars have often emphasized the epistemic fertility of failures of representation, the opacity of hallucinogen intoxications and dreams seems to have diminished the potential to produce positive knowledge from the representational relationship between the supposed models and their targets. Bidirectional comparisons between inebriation, dreaming, and psychosis, however, proved to be generative on the level of basic science. Moreover, the opaque models discussed in this chapter implicated cosmologies that steered research endeavors into certain directions rather than others. © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Modeling the Structure of Helical Assemblies with Experimental Constraints in Rosetta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    André, Ingemar

    2018-01-01

    Determining high-resolution structures of proteins with helical symmetry can be challenging due to limitations in experimental data. In such instances, structure-based protein simulations driven by experimental data can provide a valuable approach for building models of helical assemblies. This chapter describes how the Rosetta macromolecular package can be used to model homomeric protein assemblies with helical symmetry in a range of modeling scenarios including energy refinement, symmetrical docking, comparative modeling, and de novo structure prediction. Data-guided structure modeling of helical assemblies with experimental information from electron density, X-ray fiber diffraction, solid-state NMR, and chemical cross-linking mass spectrometry is also described.

  8. Modelling characteristics of photovoltaic panels with thermal phenomena taken into account

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krac, Ewa; Górecki, Krzysztof

    2016-01-01

    In the paper a new form of the electrothermal model of photovoltaic panels is proposed. This model takes into account the optical, electrical and thermal properties of the considered panels, as well as electrical and thermal properties of the protecting circuit and thermal inertia of the considered panels. The form of this model is described and some results of measurements and calculations of mono-crystalline and poly-crystalline panels are presented

  9. Modeling of the anode of a liquid-feed DMFC: Inhomogeneous compression effects and two-phase transport phenomena

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Salaberri, Pablo A.; Vera, Marcos; Iglesias, Immaculada

    2014-01-01

    An isothermal two-phase 2D/1D across-the-channel model for the anode of a liquid-feed Direct Methanol Fuel Cell (DMFC) is presented. The model takes into account the effects of the inhomogeneous assembly compression of the Gas Diffusion Layer (GDL), including the spatial variations of porosity, diffusivity, permeability, capillary pressure, and electrical conductivity. The effective anisotropic properties of the GDL are evaluated from empirical data reported in the literature corresponding to Toray carbon paper TGP-H series. Multiphase transport is modeled according to the classical theory of porous media (two-fluid model), considering the effect of non-equilibrium evaporation and condensation of methanol and water. The numerical results evidence that the hydrophobic Leverett J-function approach is physically inconsistent to describe capillary transport in the anode of a DMFC when assembly compression effects are considered. In contrast, more realistic results are obtained when GDL-specific capillary pressure curves reflecting the mixed-wettability characteristics of GDLs are taken into account. The gas coverage factor at the GDL/channel interface also exhibits a strong influence on the gas-void fraction distribution in the GDL, which in turn depends on the relative importance between the capillary resistance induced by the inhomogeneous compression, Rc(∝ ∂pc / ∂ ε) , and the capillary diffusivity, Dbarc(∝ ∂pc / ∂ s) .

  10. Mechanisms for improving mass transfer in food with ultrasound technology: Describing the phenomena in two model cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miano, Alberto Claudio; Ibarz, Albert; Augusto, Pedro Esteves Duarte

    2016-03-01

    The aim of this work was to demonstrate how ultrasound mechanisms (direct and indirect effects) improve the mass transfer phenomena in food processing, and which part of the process they are more effective in. Two model cases were evaluated: the hydration of sorghum grain (with two water activities) and the influx of a pigment into melon cylinders. Different treatments enabled us to evaluate and discriminate both direct (inertial flow and "sponge effect") and indirect effects (micro channel formation), alternating pre-treatments and treatments using an ultrasonic bath (20 kHz of frequency and 28 W/L of volumetric power) and a traditional water-bath. It was demonstrated that both the effects of ultrasound technology are more effective in food with higher water activity, the micro channels only forming in moist food. Moreover, micro channel formation could also be observed using agar gel cylinders, verifying the random formation of these due to cavitation. The direct effects were shown to be important in mass transfer enhancement not only in moist food, but also in dry food, this being improved by the micro channels formed and the porosity of the food. In conclusion, the improvement in mass transfer due to direct and indirect effects was firstly discriminated and described. It was proven that both phenomena are important for mass transfer in moist foods, while only the direct effects are important for dry foods. Based on these results, better processing using ultrasound technology can be obtained. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Scrap melting model for steel converter founded on interfacial solid/liquid phenomena

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kruskopf, Ari; Holappa, Lauri

    2017-12-01

    The primary goal in steel converter operation is the removal of carbon from the hot metal. This is achieved by blowing oxygen into the melt. The oxidation of carbon produces a lot of heat. To avoid too high temperatures in the melt cold scrap (recycled steel) is charged into the converter. The melting rate is affected by heat and carbon mass transfer. A process model for steel converter is in development. This model is divided into several modules, which are fluid dynamics, heat- and mass-transfer, scrap melting and chemical reactions. This article focuses on the development of the scrap melting module. A numerical model for calculating temperature and carbon concentration in the melt is presented. The melt model is connected with the solid scrap model via solid/liquid interface. The interface model can take into account solidification of iron melt, melting of solidified layer, a situation without such phase changes, and scrap melting. The aim is to predict the melting rate of the scrap including the properties of the hot metal. The model is tested by calculating the melting rates for different scrap thicknesses. All of the stages in the interface model were taking place in the test calculations.

  12. Asymptotic modeling of transport phenomena at the interface between a fluid and a porous layer: Jump conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angot, Philippe; Goyeau, Benoît; Ochoa-Tapia, J. Alberto

    2017-06-01

    We develop asymptotic modeling for two- or three-dimensional viscous fluid flow and convective transfer at the interface between a fluid and a porous layer. The asymptotic model is based on the fact that the thickness d of the interfacial transition region Ωfp of the one-domain representation is very small compared to the macroscopic length scale L . The analysis leads to an equivalent two-domain representation where transport phenomena in the transition layer of the one-domain approach are represented by algebraic jump boundary conditions at a fictive dividing interface Σ between the homogeneous fluid and porous regions. These jump conditions are thus stated up to first-order in O (d /L ) with d /L ≪1 . The originality and relevance of this asymptotic model lies in its general and multidimensional character. Indeed, it is shown that all the jump interface conditions derived for the commonly used 1D-shear flow are recovered by taking the tangential component of the asymptotic model. In that case, the comparison between the present model and the different models available in the literature gives explicit expressions of the effective jump coefficients and their associated scaling. In addition for multi-dimensional flows, the general asymptotic model yields the different components of the jump conditions including a new specific equation for the cross-flow pressure jump on Σ .

  13. A Comparison of Numerical Strategies for Modeling the Transport Phenomena in High-Energy Laser Surface Alloying Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dipankar Chatterjee

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available A comparative assessment is done on the effectiveness of some developed and reported macroscopic and mesoscopic models deployed for addressing the three-dimensional thermo-fluidic transport during high-power laser surface alloying process. The macroscopic models include the most celebrated k–ε turbulence model and the large eddy simulation (LES model, whereas a kinetic theory-based lattice Boltzmann (LB approach is invoked under the mesoscopic paradigm. The time-dependent Navier–Stokes equations are transformed into the k–ε turbulence model by performing the Reynolds averaging technique, whereas a spatial filtering operation is used to produce the LES model. The models are suitably modified to address the turbulent melt-pool convection by using a modified eddy viscosity expression including a damping factor in the form of square root of the liquid fraction. The LB scheme utilizes three separate distribution functions to monitor the underlying hydrodynamic, thermal and compositional fields. Accordingly, the kinematic viscosity, thermal and mass diffusivities are adjusted independently. A single domain fixed-grid enthalpy-porosity approach is utilized to model the phase change phenomena in conjunction with an appropriate enthalpy updating closure scheme. The performance of these models is recorded by capturing the characteristic nature of the thermo-fluidic transport during the laser material processing. The maximum values of the pertinent parameters in the computational domain obtained from several modeling efforts are compared to assess their capabilities. The comparison shows that the prediction from the k–ε turbulence model is higher than the LES and LB models. In addition, the results from all three models are compared with the available experimental results in the form of dimensionless composition of the alloyed layer along the dimensionless depth of the pool. The comparison reveals that the LB and the LES approaches are better

  14. Mathematical modelling of transport phenomena in radioactive waste-cement-bentonite matrix

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Plecas, Ilija; Dimovic, Slavko

    2010-01-01

    Document available in extended abstract form only. The leaching rate of 137 Cs from spent mix bead (anion and cation) exchange resins in a cement-bentonite matrix has been studied. Transport phenomena involved in the leaching of a radioactive material from a cement-bentonite matrix are investigated using three methods based on theoretical equations. These are: the diffusion equation for a plane source an equation for diffusion coupled to a first-order equation and an empirical method employing a polynomial equation. The results presented in this paper are from a 25-year mortar and concrete testing project that will influence the design choices for radioactive waste packaging for a future Serbian radioactive waste disposal center. Radioactive waste is waste material containing radioactive chemical elements which does not have a practical purpose. It is often the product of a nuclear process, such as nuclear fission. Waste can also be generated from the processing of fuel for nuclear reactors or nuclear weapons. The main objective in managing and disposing of radioactive (or other) waste is to protect people and the environment. This means isolating or diluting the waste so that the rate or concentration of any radionuclides returned to the biosphere is harmless. Storage as the placement of waste in a nuclear facility where isolation, environmental protection and human control are provided with the intent that the waste will be retrieved at a later time. Disposal as the emplacement of waste in an approved, specified facility (e.g. near surface or geological repository) without the intention of retrieval. The processing of radioactive wastes may be done for economic reasons (e.g. to reduce the volume for storage or disposal, or to recover a 'resource' from the waste), or safety reasons (e.g. converting the waste to a more 'stable' form, such as one that will contain the radionuclide inventory for a long time). Typically processing involves reducing

  15. Mathematical Modeling of Transport Phenomena in Polymer Electrolyte and Direct Methanol Fuel Cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Birgersson, Erik

    2004-02-01

    This thesis deals with modeling of two types of fuel cells: the polymer electrolyte fuel cell (PEFC) and the direct methanol fuel cell (DMFC), for which we address four major issues: a) mass transport limitations; b) water management (PEFC); c) gas management (DMFC); d) thermal management. Four models have been derived and studied for the PEFC, focusing on the cathode. The first exploits the slenderness of the cathode for a two-dimensional geometry, leading to a reduced model, where several non dimensional parameters capture the behavior of the cathode. The model was extended to three dimensions, where four different flow distributors were studied for the cathode. A quantitative comparison shows that the interdigitated channels can sustain the highest current densities. These two models, comprising isothermal gas phase flow, limit the studies to (a). Returning to a two-dimensional geometry of the PEFC, the liquid phase was introduced via a separate flow model approach for the cathode. In addition to conservation of mass, momentum and species, the model was extended to consider simultaneous charge and heat transfer for the whole cell. Different thermal, flow fields, and hydrodynamic conditions were studied, addressing (a), (b) and (d). A scale analysis allowed for predictions of the cell performance prior to any computations. Good agreement between experiments with a segmented cell and the model was obtained. A liquid-phase model, comprising conservation of mass, momentum and species, was derived and analyzed for the anode of the DMFC. The impact of hydrodynamic, electrochemical and geometrical features on the fuel cell performance were studied, mainly focusing on (a). The slenderness of the anode allows the use of a narrow-gap approximation, leading to a reduced model, with benefits such as reduced computational cost and understanding of the physical trends prior to any numerical computations. Adding the gas-phase via a multiphase mixture approach, the gas

  16. Ion exchange phenomena

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bourg, I.C.; Sposito, G.

    2011-05-01

    Ion exchange phenomena involve the population of readily exchangeable ions, the subset of adsorbed solutes that balance the intrinsic surface charge and can be readily replaced by major background electrolyte ions (Sposito, 2008). These phenomena have occupied a central place in soil chemistry research since Way (1850) first showed that potassium uptake by soils resulted in the release of an equal quantity of moles of charge of calcium and magnesium. Ion exchange phenomena are now routinely modeled in studies of soil formation (White et al., 2005), soil reclamation (Kopittke et al., 2006), soil fertilitization (Agbenin and Yakubu, 2006), colloidal dispersion/flocculation (Charlet and Tournassat, 2005), the mechanics of argillaceous media (Gajo and Loret, 2007), aquitard pore water chemistry (Tournassat et al., 2008), and groundwater (Timms and Hendry, 2007; McNab et al., 2009) and contaminant hydrology (Chatterjee et al., 2008; van Oploo et al., 2008; Serrano et al., 2009).

  17. Modeling spontaneous chiral symmetry breaking and deracemization phenomena: discrete versus continuum approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanco, Celia; Ribó, Josep M; Hochberg, David

    2015-02-01

    We derive the class of population balance equations (PBE), recently applied to model the Viedma deracemization experiment, from an underlying microreversible kinetic reaction scheme. The continuum limit establishing the relationship between the micro- and macroscopic processes and the associated particle fluxes erases the microreversible nature of the molecular interactions in the population growth rate functions and limits the scope of such PBE models to strict kinetic control. The irreversible binary agglomeration processes modeled in those PBEs contribute an additional source of kinetic control. These limitations are crucial regarding the question of the origin of biological homochirality, where the interest in any model lies precisely in its ability for absolute asymmetric synthesis and the amplification of the tiny inherent statistical chiral fluctuations about the ideal racemic composition up to observable enantiometric excess levels.

  18. Mathematical interpretation of Brownian motor model: Limit cycles and directed transport phenomena

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jianqiang; Ma, Hong; Zhong, Suchuang

    2018-03-01

    In this article, we first suggest that the attractor of Brownian motor model is one of the reasons for the directed transport phenomenon of Brownian particle. We take the classical Smoluchowski-Feynman (SF) ratchet model as an example to investigate the relationship between limit cycles and directed transport phenomenon of the Brownian particle. We study the existence and variation rule of limit cycles of SF ratchet model at changing parameters through mathematical methods. The influences of these parameters on the directed transport phenomenon of a Brownian particle are then analyzed through numerical simulations. Reasonable mathematical explanations for the directed transport phenomenon of Brownian particle in SF ratchet model are also formulated on the basis of the existence and variation rule of the limit cycles and numerical simulations. These mathematical explanations provide a theoretical basis for applying these theories in physics, biology, chemistry, and engineering.

  19. Simulink library project for modeling and simulation of dynamic phenomena in rotating power transmission systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomasz MATYJA

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the concept and an example of usage of Simulink blocks library with which dynamic simulation of complex systems with rotating shafts, rigid rotors, bearings and couplings, general rotating power transmission systems of any configuration can be performed. The assumption is that library is modular and expandable. The main part of the library currently being developed is rigid rotor model with 6 degrees of freedom of the static and dynamic imbalance. Other components are: block modeling the bearing with mounting stiffness, damping and inertia; linear elastic-damping element and rigid beam finite element (RFEM. Also in preparation are: block modeling shaft with Timoshenko beam elements and Rayleigh damping, block modeling clutch.

  20. Modelling the intra-particle transport phenomena and chemical reactions of olive kernel fast pyrolysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zabaniotou, A.; Damartzis, Th. [Department of Chemical Engineering, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, University Box 455, 24154 Thessaloniki (Greece)

    2007-08-15

    In the present study, the development of a mathematical model for the description of the pyrolysis of a single solid olive kernel particle and the prediction of the fast pyrolysis product yields, is presented. Kinetic model is coupled with heat transfer model. The global degradation of biomass is based on Koufopanos et al. mechanism and described by two parallel 1-order reactions. The analysis is focused on primary degradation for small particle and simulations have been carried out for a spherical particle, with radius of 175 {mu}m. The model has been validated against experiments carried out in a laboratory wire mesh reactor, for temperature range from 573 K to 873 K and a heating rate of 200 K/s. The results of the simulation are in good agreement with the experimental data, regarding temperature, conversion histories and product distribution of olive kernel fast pyrolysis. The numerical method applied was finite difference for the heat transfer model and Runge-Kutta 4th order method for chemical kinetics model equations. (author)

  1. Modeling of condensation, stratification, and mixing phenomena in a pool of water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, H.; Kudinov, P.; Villanueva, W.

    2010-12-01

    This work pertains to the research program on Containment Thermal-Hydraulics at KTH. The objective is to evaluate and improve performance of methods, which are used to analyze thermal-hydraulics of steam suppression pools in a BWR plant under different abnormal transient and accident conditions. As a passive safety system, the function of steam pressure suppression pools is paramount to the containment performance. In the present work, the focus is on apparently-benign but intricate and potentially risk-significant scenarios in which thermal stratification could significantly impede the pool's pressure suppression capacity. For the case of small flow rates of steam influx, the steam condenses rapidly in the pool and the hot condensate rises in a narrow plume above the steam injection plane and spreads into a thin layer at the pool's free surface. When the steam flow rate increases significantly, momentum introduced by the steam injection and/or periodic expansion and shrink of large steam bubbles due to direct contact condensation can cause breakdown of the stratified layers and lead to mixing of the pool water. Accurate prediction of the pool thermal-hydraulics in such scenarios presents a computational challenge. Lumped-parameter models have no capability to predict temperature distribution of water pool during thermal stratification development. While high-order-accurate CFD (RANS, LES) methods are not practical due to excessive computing power needed to calculate 3D high-Rayleighnumber natural circulation flow in long transients. In the present work, a middleground approach is used, namely CFD-like model of the general purpose thermalhydraulic code GOTHIC. Each cell of 3D GOTHIC grid uses lumped parameter volume type closures for modeling of various heat and mass transfer processes at subgrid scale. We use GOTHIC to simulate POOLEX/PPOOLEX experiment, in order to (a) quantify errors due to GOTHIC's physical models and numerical schemes, and (b) propose

  2. Forty years of 9Sr in situ migration: importance of soil characterization in modeling transport phenomena

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernandez, J.M.; Piault, E.; Macouillard, D.; Juncos, C.

    2006-01-01

    In 1960 experiments were carried out on the transfer of 9 Sr between soil, grapes and wine. The experiments were conducted in situ on a piece of land limited by two control strips. The 9 Sr migration over the last 40 years was studied by performing radiological and physico-chemical characterizations of the soil on eight 70 cm deep cores. The vertical migration modeling of 9 Sr required the definition of a triple layer conceptual model integrating the rainwater infiltration at constant flux as the only external factor of influence. Afterwards the importance of a detailed soil characterization for modeling was discussed and satisfactory simulation of the 9 Sr vertical transport was obtained and showed a calculated migration rate of about 1.0 cm year -1 in full agreement with the in situ measured values. The discussion was regarding some of the key parameters such as granulometry, organic matter content (in the Van Genuchten parameter determination), Kd and the efficient rainwater infiltration. Besides the experimental data, simplifying assumptions in modeling such as water-soil redistribution calculation and factual discontinuities in conceptual model were examined

  3. Modeling the phenomena of dehydration and flooding of a polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerteisen, Dietmar; Heilmann, Timothy; Ziegler, Christoph

    A one-dimensional, two-phase, transient PEM fuel cell model including gas diffusion layer, cathode catalyst layer and membrane is developed. The electrode is assumed to consist of a network of dispersed Pt/C forming spherically shaped agglomerated zones that are filled with electrolyte. Water is modeled in all three phases: vapor, liquid and dissolved in the ionomer to capture the effect of dehydration of the ionomer as well as flooding of the porous media. The anode is modeled as a sophisticated spatially reduced interface. Motivated by environmental scanning electron microscope (ESEM) images of contact angles for microscopic water droplets on fibers of the gas diffusion layer, we introduce the feature of immobile saturation. A step change of the saturation between the catalyst layer and the gas diffusion layer is modeled based on the assumption of a continuous capillary pressure at the interface. The model is validated against voltammetry experiments under various humidification conditions which all show hysteresis effects in the mass transport limited region. The transient saturation profiles clearly show that insufficient liquid water removal causes pore flooding, which is responsible for the oxygen mass transport limitation at high current density values. The simulated and measured current responses from chronoamperometry experiments are compared and analyzed.

  4. Modelling of phenomena in solid state for the steel casting cooled by liquid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Kulawik

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available In this paper a mathematical model of cooling process for steel castings is presented. Effect of convective motion of the coolant onmaterial structure after cooling process is investigated. Mathematical and numerical model based on Generalized Difference Method for axysimmertric elements is used. To solve the Navier-Stokes equation the characteristic based split scheme (CBS has been applied. The solution of the heat transport equation with the convective term has been obtained by a stabilized meshless method. To determine of the phase transformation the macroscopic model built on the basis of Time Temperature Transformation diagrams for continuous cooling of medium-carbon steel has been used. The temporary temperature fields, the phase transformation, thermal and structural strains for the cooled element and the fields of temperature and velocity for the coolant have been determined.

  5. Agent-Based Model Approach to Complex Phenomena in Real Economy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iyetomi, H.; Aoyama, H.; Fujiwara, Y.; Ikeda, Y.; Souma, W.

    An agent-based model for firms' dynamics is developed. The model consists of firm agents with identical characteristic parameters and a bank agent. Dynamics of those agents are described by their balance sheets. Each firm tries to maximize its expected profit with possible risks in market. Infinite growth of a firm directed by the ``profit maximization" principle is suppressed by a concept of ``going concern". Possibility of bankruptcy of firms is also introduced by incorporating a retardation effect of information on firms' decision. The firms, mutually interacting through the monopolistic bank, become heterogeneous in the course of temporal evolution. Statistical properties of firms' dynamics obtained by simulations based on the model are discussed in light of observations in the real economy.

  6. A Reduced-Order Model of Transport Phenomena for Power Plant Simulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paul Cizmas; Brian Richardson; Thomas Brenner; Raymond Fontenot

    2009-09-30

    A reduced-order model based on proper orthogonal decomposition (POD) has been developed to simulate transient two- and three-dimensional isothermal and non-isothermal flows in a fluidized bed. Reduced-order models of void fraction, gas and solids temperatures, granular energy, and z-direction gas and solids velocity have been added to the previous version of the code. These algorithms are presented and their implementation is discussed. Verification studies are presented for each algorithm. A number of methods to accelerate the computations performed by the reduced-order model are presented. The errors associated with each acceleration method are computed and discussed. Using a combination of acceleration methods, a two-dimensional isothermal simulation using the reduced-order model is shown to be 114 times faster than using the full-order model. In the pursue of achieving the objectives of the project and completing the tasks planned for this program, several unplanned and unforeseen results, methods and studies have been generated. These additional accomplishments are also presented and they include: (1) a study of the effect of snapshot sampling time on the computation of the POD basis functions, (2) an investigation of different strategies for generating the autocorrelation matrix used to find the POD basis functions, (3) the development and implementation of a bubble detection and tracking algorithm based on mathematical morphology, (4) a method for augmenting the proper orthogonal decomposition to better capture flows with discontinuities, such as bubbles, and (5) a mixed reduced-order/full-order model, called point-mode proper orthogonal decomposition, designed to avoid unphysical due to approximation errors. The limitations of the proper orthogonal decomposition method in simulating transient flows with moving discontinuities, such as bubbling flows, are discussed and several methods are proposed to adapt the method for future use.

  7. Ordering phenomena and non-equilibrium properties of lattice gas models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fiig, T.

    1994-03-01

    This report falls within the general field of ordering processes and non-equilibrium properties of lattice gas models. The theory of diffuse scattering of lattice gas models originating from a random distribution of clusters is considered. We obtain relations between the diffuse part of the structure factor S dif (q), the correlation function C(r), and the size distribution of clusters D(n). For a number of distributions we calculate S dif (q) exactly in one dimension, and discuss the possibility for a Lorentzian and a Lorentzian square lineshape to arise. We discuss the two- and three-dimensional oxygen ordering processes in the high T c superconductor YBa 2 Cu 3 O 6+x based on a simple anisotropic lattice gas model. We calculate the structural phase diagram by Monte Carlo simulation and compared the results with experimental data. The structure factor of the oxygen ordering properties has been calculated in both two and three dimensions by Monte Carlo simulation. We report on results obtained from large scale computations on the Connection Machine, which are in excellent agreement with recent neutron diffraction data. In addition we consider the effect of the diffusive motion of metal-ion dopants on the oxygen ordering properties on YBa 2 Cu 3 O 6+x . The stationary properties of metastability in long-range interaction models are studied by application of a constrained transfer matrix (CTM) formalism. The model considered, which exhibits several metastable states, is an extension of the Blume Capel model to include weak long-range interactions. We show, that the decay rate of the metastable states is closely related to the imaginary part of the equilibrium free-energy density obtained from the CTM formalism. We discuss a class of lattice gas model for dissipative transport in the framework of a Langevin description, which is capable of producing power law spectra for the density fluctuations. We compare with numerical results obtained from simulations of a

  8. Model development and calibration for the coupled thermal, hydraulic and mechanical phenomena of the bentonite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chijimatsu, M.; Borgesson, L.; Fujita, T.; Jussila, P.; Nguyen, S.; Rutqvist, J.; Jing, L.; Hernelind, J.

    2009-02-01

    In Task A of the international DECOVALEX-THMC project, five research teams study the influence of thermal-hydro-mechanical (THM) coupling on the safety of a hypothetical geological repository for spent fuel. In order to improve the analyses, the teams calibrated their bentonite models with results from laboratory experiments, including swelling pressure tests, water uptake tests, thermally gradient tests, and the CEA mock-up THM experiment. This paper describes the mathematical models used by the teams, and compares the results of their calibrations with the experimental data.

  9. Quantitative computational models of molecular self-assembly in systems biology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Marcus; Schwartz, Russell

    2017-06-01

    Molecular self-assembly is the dominant form of chemical reaction in living systems, yet efforts at systems biology modeling are only beginning to appreciate the need for and challenges to accurate quantitative modeling of self-assembly. Self-assembly reactions are essential to nearly every important process in cell and molecular biology and handling them is thus a necessary step in building comprehensive models of complex cellular systems. They present exceptional challenges, however, to standard methods for simulating complex systems. While the general systems biology world is just beginning to deal with these challenges, there is an extensive literature dealing with them for more specialized self-assembly modeling. This review will examine the challenges of self-assembly modeling, nascent efforts to deal with these challenges in the systems modeling community, and some of the solutions offered in prior work on self-assembly specifically. The review concludes with some consideration of the likely role of self-assembly in the future of complex biological system models more generally.

  10. Quantitative computational models of molecular self-assembly in systems biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Marcus; Schwartz, Russell

    2017-05-23

    Molecular self-assembly is the dominant form of chemical reaction in living systems, yet efforts at systems biology modeling are only beginning to appreciate the need for and challenges to accurate quantitative modeling of self-assembly. Self-assembly reactions are essential to nearly every important process in cell and molecular biology and handling them is thus a necessary step in building comprehensive models of complex cellular systems. They present exceptional challenges, however, to standard methods for simulating complex systems. While the general systems biology world is just beginning to deal with these challenges, there is an extensive literature dealing with them for more specialized self-assembly modeling. This review will examine the challenges of self-assembly modeling, nascent efforts to deal with these challenges in the systems modeling community, and some of the solutions offered in prior work on self-assembly specifically. The review concludes with some consideration of the likely role of self-assembly in the future of complex biological system models more generally.

  11. Modeling Complex Dynamic Interactions of Nonlinear, Aeroelastic, Multistage, and Localization Phenomena in Turbine Engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-25

    wavelet analyses, evolutionary algorithms, Ritz or stochastic methods, and others. These techniques are designed for linear vibrations while far...and selecting DOF of FE models have been extensively studied by var - ious methods and distinct perspectives, such as the reduction of the interface DOF

  12. Modeling of condensation, stratification, and mixing phenomena in a pool of water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, H.; Kudinov, P.; Villanueva, W. (Royal Institute of Technology (KTH). Div. of Nuclear Power Safety, Stockholm (Sweden))

    2010-12-15

    This work pertains to the research program on Containment Thermal-Hydraulics at KTH. The objective is to evaluate and improve performance of methods, which are used to analyze thermal-hydraulics of steam suppression pools in a BWR plant under different abnormal transient and accident conditions. As a passive safety system, the function of steam pressure suppression pools is paramount to the containment performance. In the present work, the focus is on apparently-benign but intricate and potentially risk-significant scenarios in which thermal stratification could significantly impede the pool's pressure suppression capacity. For the case of small flow rates of steam influx, the steam condenses rapidly in the pool and the hot condensate rises in a narrow plume above the steam injection plane and spreads into a thin layer at the pool's free surface. When the steam flow rate increases significantly, momentum introduced by the steam injection and/or periodic expansion and shrink of large steam bubbles due to direct contact condensation can cause breakdown of the stratified layers and lead to mixing of the pool water. Accurate prediction of the pool thermal-hydraulics in such scenarios presents a computational challenge. Lumped-parameter models have no capability to predict temperature distribution of water pool during thermal stratification development. While high-order-accurate CFD (RANS, LES) methods are not practical due to excessive computing power needed to calculate 3D high-Rayleighnumber natural circulation flow in long transients. In the present work, a middleground approach is used, namely CFD-like model of the general purpose thermalhydraulic code GOTHIC. Each cell of 3D GOTHIC grid uses lumped parameter volume type closures for modeling of various heat and mass transfer processes at subgrid scale. We use GOTHIC to simulate POOLEX/PPOOLEX experiment, in order to (a) quantify errors due to GOTHIC's physical models and numerical schemes, and (b

  13. Multiphysical Modeling of Transport Phenomena During Laser Welding of Dissimilar Steels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Métais, A.; Matteï, S.; Tomashchuk, I.; Gaied, S.

    The success of new high-strength steels allows attaining equivalent performances with lower thicknesses and significant weight reduction. The welding of new couples of steel grades requires development and control of joining processes. Thanks to high precision and good flexibility, laser welding became one of the most used processes for joining of dissimilar welded blanks. The prediction of the local chemical composition in the weld formed between dissimilar steels in function of the welding parameters is essential because the dilution rate and the distribution of alloying elements in the melted zone determines the final tensile strength of the weld. The goal of the present study is to create and to validate a multiphysical numerical model studying the mixing of dissimilar steels in laser weld pool. A 3D modelling of heat transfer, turbulent flow and transport of species provides a better understanding of diffusion and convective mixing in laser weld pool. The present model allows predicting the weld geometry and element distribution. The model has been developed based on steady keyhole approximation and solved in quasi-stationary form in order to reduce the computation time. Turbulent flow formulation was applied to calculate velocity field. Fick law for diluted species was used to simulate the transport of alloying elements in the weld pool. To validate the model, a number of experiments have been performed: tests using pure 100 μm thick Ni foils like tracer and weld between a rich and poor manganese steels. SEM-EDX analysis of chemical composition has been carried out to obtain quantitative mapping of Ni and Mn distributions in the melted zone. The results of simulations have been found in good agreement with experimental data.

  14. Understanding and modelling Neo-proterozoic glaciations and their associated phenomena

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Le Hir, Guillaume

    2007-01-01

    The objective of this research thesis is to provide a consistent image of extreme glaciations which occurred during the Neo-proterozoic era. By using climate and carbon cycle models (or model of bio-geochemical cycles), the author aims at answering various scientific questions raised by the Snowball Earth hypothesis. After a description of the main geological features which characterize the Proterozoic, scientific problems are presented. The author then reports the study of carbon cycle during glaciation in order to understand its operation. Based on this constraint, a consistent scenario of exit from glaciation is defined. The physical-chemical evolution of the ocean during and after a global glaciation is then quantified in order to assess its potential effects on the environment and on the Precambrian biosphere. The last part focuses on the post-glacial evolution to establish the delay for a return to equilibrium of climate after such an extreme event [fr

  15. cDF Theory Software for mesoscopic modeling of equilibrium and transport phenomena

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2015-12-01

    The approach is based on classical Density Functional Theory ((cDFT) coupled with the Poisson-Nernst-Planck (PNP) transport kinetics model and quantum mechanical description of short-range interaction and elementary transport processes. The model we proposed and implemented is fully atomistic, taking into account pairwise short-range and manybody long-range interactions. But in contrast to standard molecular dynamics (MD) simulations, where long-range manybody interactions are evaluated as a sum of pair-wise atom-atom contributions, we include them analytically based on wellestablished theories of electrostatic and excluded volume interactions in multicomponent systems. This feature of the PNP/cDFT approach allows us to reach well beyond the length-scales accessible to MD simulations, while retaining the essential physics of interatomic interactions from first principles and in a parameter-free fashion.

  16. A state of the art on the flooding phenomena and countercurrent flow limiting modeling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeong, Young Jong; Chang, Won Pyo [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1996-07-01

    Countercurrent flow limiting phenomenon and its modeling for vertical and nearly horizontal pipes has been reviewed in two phase flow. A number of analytical and empirical model have been developed for flooding in the vertical pipes and annulars. These may be classified as stability theory, envelope theory, static equilibrium theory, slug formation theory, Wallis correlation, and Kutateladze correlation. The theories and empirical correlations are reviewed and comparison with the various experimental data. The scatter of the experimental data is large because of the different flooding condition and because of the influence of the experimental conditions. Application of flooding for PWR best estimate system codes is reviewed. The codes provide the user options to implement CCFL correlation for the specific geometry. The codes can accommodate generally Wallis, Kutateladze, or Bankoff correlation. 4 tabs., 36 figs., 52 refs. (Author).

  17. Design issues of time-based phenomena and the notion of a persistent model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Peters, Brady

    2012-01-01

    This chapter reflects on how sound can become part the architectural design process. Sound is a complex phenomenon that traditional architectural drawing tools do not capture well. Parametric tools allow for the encoding of relationships between material, geometry, and acoustic performance...... in a digital model. Computational simulation tools can give visual and aural feedback on how designs perform. These tools give architects the ability to contemplate the sound of architectural propositions. Different sounds, sound positions, and listener positions can be tested, as can different geometric...... and material configurations. Using these tools architects can design for sound. Sound should be a part of the architectural design process and in order for it to be a useful design parameter; it must be able to be considered in the digital modeling environment. We form a spatial impression of our surroundings...

  18. Modeling studies of transport bifurcation phenomena in a collisional drift wave turbulence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hajjar, Rima; Diamond, Patrick; Tynan, Georges; Ashourvan, Arash

    2016-10-01

    Self-organization of drift wave turbulence via particle transport and Reynolds stresses is a mechanism for turbulence suppression and reduction of cross field transport. This energy transfer mechanism between microscale drift waves and mesoscale zonal flows can create a transport bifurcation and trigger the formation of an internal transport barrier. We report here on studies investigating transport bifurcation dynamics in the CSDX linear device using a 1D reduced turbulence and mean field evolution model. This two-mixing scale Hasegawa-Wakatani based model evolves spatio-temporal variations of three plasma fields: the mean density n, the mean vorticity u and the turbulent potential enstrophy e. The model adopts inhomogeneous potential vorticity mixing on a mixing length the expression of which is related to the Rhines' scale and to the mode scale (i.e. is ∇n and ∇u dependent). The model is based on expressions for turbulent fluxes of n, u and e derived from mixing length concepts. Turbulent particle and enstrophy transport are written as diffusive, but a residual stress part is included in the expression for the vorticity flux. Mixed boundary conditions are used at both ends of the domain and an external boundary fueling source is added. Simulation results show a steepening in the particle density profiles with B along with the formation of a net flow shear layer resulting from the vorticity mixing. These results suggest that the system dynamic is capable of sustaining the plasma core by means of a purely diffusive particle flux, without any explicit inward particle pinch.

  19. A Mind/Brain/Matter Model Consistent with Quantum Physics and UFO phenomena

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-01-01

    realities of a second type (E.P. Wigr, ,.’ "Two Kinds of Reality," The Monist , Vol. 48, No. 2, April 1964). Note that the modei -eing c dvanced by the...biological organism, including egos of "dead" biosystems. Note also that the wave-packet reduction (collapse of the wave function) is not a relativistically ...new fourth law of logic, which is briefly described and summarized. A new photon interaction model. of quantized observable changc is also presented

  20. Investigation of Multicritical Phenomena in ANNNI Model by Monte Carlo Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. K. Murtazaev

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The anisotropic Ising model with competing interactions is investigated in wide temperature range and |J1/J| parameters by means of Monte Carlo methods. Static critical exponents of the magnetization, susceptibility, heat capacity, and correlation radius are calculated in the neighborhood of Lifshitz point. According to obtained results, a phase diagram is plotted, the coordinates of Lifshitz point are defined, and a character of multicritical behavior of the system is detected.

  1. Efficient Simulation and Abuse Modeling of Mechanical-Electrochemical-Thermal Phenomena in Lithium-Ion Batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santhanagopalan, Shriram [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Smith, Kandler A [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Graf, Peter A [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Pesaran, Ahmad A [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Zhang, Chao [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Lamb, Joshua [Sandia National Laboratories; Abraham, Daniel [Argonne National Laboratory; Dees, Dennis [Argonne National Laboratory; Yao, Pierre [Argonne National Laboratory

    2017-08-08

    NREL's Energy Storage team is exploring the effect of mechanical crush of lithium ion cells on their thermal and electrical safety. PHEV cells, fresh as well as ones aged over 8 months under different temperatures, voltage windows, and charging rates, were subjected to destructive physical analysis. Constitutive relationship and failure criteria were developed for the electrodes, separator as well as packaging material. The mechanical models capture well, the various modes of failure across different cell components. Cell level validation is being conducted by Sandia National Laboratories.

  2. Mathematical models of non-linear phenomena, processes and systems: from molecular scale to planetary atmosphere

    CERN Document Server

    2013-01-01

    This book consists of twenty seven chapters, which can be divided into three large categories: articles with the focus on the mathematical treatment of non-linear problems, including the methodologies, algorithms and properties of analytical and numerical solutions to particular non-linear problems; theoretical and computational studies dedicated to the physics and chemistry of non-linear micro-and nano-scale systems, including molecular clusters, nano-particles and nano-composites; and, papers focused on non-linear processes in medico-biological systems, including mathematical models of ferments, amino acids, blood fluids and polynucleic chains.

  3. Modeling sorption phenomena and moisture migration rates in paprika (Capsicum annuumL.) using physicochemical characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirkole, S S; Sutar, P P

    2018-02-01

    In the present study, the GAB and moisture migration rate models were used to predict the shelf life of paprika under domestic (40 °C and 90% RH) and industrial (5, 10, 15 and 20 °C with 70% RH) storage conditions. The correlations between physicochemical characteristics and moisture content of paprika were developed to estimate the stability of the paprika. The estimated shelf life of low moisture paprika (4.40% dry basis) was found to be 101 and 31 days in HDPE and LDPE packages, respectively when stored in domestic condition. In industrial storage condition, the shelf life prediction was 5.47 years in HDPE and 1.68 years in LDPE packages. The first order kinetic models of extractable color (ASTA) and degree of caking described the quality degradation of paprika during storage. The relative humidity and temperature of the storage environment were significant parameters affecting the stability of paprika. The shelf life of paprika can be extended by storage at or below monolayer moisture content and low temperature.

  4. Experimental Measurement of Flow Phenomena in a VHTR Lower Plenum Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hugh M. McIlroy Jr.; Keith G. Condie; Glenn E. McCreery; Donald M. McEligot; Robert J. Pink

    2006-06-01

    The Very-High-Temperature Reactor (VHTR) is one of six reactor technologies chosen for further development by the Generation IV International Forum. In addition this system is the leading candidate for the Next Generation Nuclear Power (NGNP) Project in the U.S which has the goal of demonstrating the production of emissions free electricity and hydrogen by 2015. In preparation for the thermal-hydraulics and safety analyses that will be required to confirm the performance of the NGNP, work has begun on readying the computational tools that will be needed to predict the thermal-hydraulics conditions and safety margins of the reactor design. Meaningful feasibility studies for VHTR designs will require accurate, reliable predictions of material temperatures which depend upon the thermal convection in the coolant channels of the core and other components. Unfortunately, one-dimensional system codes for gas-cooled reactors typically underpredict these temperatures, particularly for reduced power operations and hypothesized accident scenarios. Likewise, most turbulence models in general-purpose CFD codes also underpredict these temperatures. Matched-Index-of-Refraction (MIR) fluid dynamics experiments have been designed and built to develop benchmark databases for the assessment of CFD solutions of the momentum equations, scalar mixing and turbulence models for typical VHTR plenum geometries in the limiting case of negligible buoyancy and constant fluid properties.

  5. Assembly goal inference using geometric modeling facilities of EusLisp

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsui, Toshihiro; Sakane, Shigeyuki; Hirukawa, Hirohisa

    1995-01-01

    In order for an assembly planner to generate assembling sequences, the goal state which describes locations and orientations of each component in the assembly must be given. However, specifying 6 translational and rotational coordinates for each of them is a delicate and error-prone task for mechanical assembly designers. What we propose in this paper is a way to automatically infer those parameters in a plausible goal state. The planner generates candidates of combination of two parts based on fastenermatching and cylindrical matching and evaluates their utilities by interference, area of contact, and degrees of freedom constrained. A realistic demonstration of this method is shown using an assembly of a model aircraft engine. Geometric modeling facilities of the robot-oriented programming language, EusLisp, which enabled above application, is also discussed. (author)

  6. Three-Dimensional Assembly Tolerance Analysis Based on the Jacobian-Torsor Statistical Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peng Heping

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The unified Jacobian-Torsor model has been developed for deterministic (worst case tolerance analysis. This paper presents a comprehensive model for performing statistical tolerance analysis by integrating the unified Jacobian-Torsor model and Monte Carlo simulation. In this model, an assembly is sub-divided into surfaces, the Small Displacements Torsor (SDT parameters are used to express the relative position between any two surfaces of the assembly. Then, 3D dimension-chain can be created by using a surface graph of the assembly and the unified Jacobian-Torsor model is developed based on the effect of each functional element on the whole functional requirements of products. Finally, Monte Carlo simulation is implemented for the statistical tolerance analysis. A numerical example is given to demonstrate the capability of the proposed method in handling three-dimensional assembly tolerance analysis.

  7. Investigation of high-p{sub T} phenomena within a partonic transport model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fochler, Oliver

    2011-10-26

    In the work presented herein the microscopic transport model BAMPS (Boltzmann Approach to Multi-Parton Scatterings) is applied to simulate the time evolution of the hot partonic medium that is created in Au+Au collisions at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) and in Pb+Pb collisions at the recently started Large Hadron Collider (LHC). The study is especially focused on the investigation of the nuclear modification factor R{sub AA}, that quantifies the suppression of particle yields at large transverse momentum with respect to a scaled proton+proton reference, and the simultaneous description of the collective properties of the medium in terms of the elliptic flow v{sub 2} within a common framework. (orig.)

  8. Status of the phenomena representation, 3D modeling, and cloud-based software architecture development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, Curtis L.; Prescott, Steven; Kvarfordt, Kellie; Sampath, Ram; Larson, Katie

    2015-01-01

    Early in 2013, researchers at the Idaho National Laboratory outlined a technical framework to support the implementation of state-of-the-art probabilistic risk assessment to predict the safety performance of advanced small modular reactors. From that vision of the advanced framework for risk analysis, specific tasks have been underway in order to implement the framework. This report discusses the current development of a several tasks related to the framework implementation, including a discussion of a 3D physics engine that represents the motion of objects (including collision and debris modeling), cloud-based analysis tools such as a Bayesian-inference engine, and scenario simulations. These tasks were performed during 2015 as part of the technical work associated with the Advanced Reactor Technologies Program.

  9. Adaptive Decentralized Control of Mobile Underwater Sensor Networks and Robots for Modeling Underwater Phenomena

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carrick Detweiler

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Understanding the dynamics of bodies of water and their impact on the global environment requires sensing information over the full volume of water. In this article, we develop a gradient-based decentralized controller that dynamically adjusts the depth of a network of underwater sensors to optimize sensing for computing maximally detailed volumetric models. We prove that the controller converges to a local minimum and show how the controller can be extended to work with hybrid robot and sensor network systems. We implement the controller on an underwater sensor network with depth adjustment capabilities. Through simulations and in-situ experiments, we verify the functionality and performance of the system and algorithm.

  10. Status of the phenomena representation, 3D modeling, and cloud-based software architecture development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, Curtis L. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Prescott, Steven [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Kvarfordt, Kellie [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Sampath, Ram [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Larson, Katie [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2015-09-01

    Early in 2013, researchers at the Idaho National Laboratory outlined a technical framework to support the implementation of state-of-the-art probabilistic risk assessment to predict the safety performance of advanced small modular reactors. From that vision of the advanced framework for risk analysis, specific tasks have been underway in order to implement the framework. This report discusses the current development of a several tasks related to the framework implementation, including a discussion of a 3D physics engine that represents the motion of objects (including collision and debris modeling), cloud-based analysis tools such as a Bayesian-inference engine, and scenario simulations. These tasks were performed during 2015 as part of the technical work associated with the Advanced Reactor Technologies Program.

  11. Transport phenomena and fouling in vacuum enhanced direct contact membrane distillation: Experimental and modelling

    KAUST Repository

    Naidu, Gayathri

    2016-08-27

    The application of vacuum to direct contact membrane distillation (vacuum enhanced direct contact membrane distillation, V-DCMD) removed condensable gasses and reduced partial pressure in the membrane pores, achieving 37.6% higher flux than DCMD at the same feed temperature. Transfer mechanism and temperature distribution profile in V-DCMD were studied. The empirical flux decline (EFD) model represented fouling profiles of V-DCMD. In a continuous V-DCMD operation with moderate temperature (55 degrees C) and permeate pressure (300 mbar) for treating wastewater ROC, a flux of 16.0 +/- 0.3 L/m(2) h and high quality distillate were achieved with water flushing, showing the suitability of V-DCMD for ROC treatment. (C) 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Friction phenomena in a two-dimensional Frenkel–Kontorova model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mai-Mai, Lin; Wen-Shan, Duan; Jian-Min, Chen

    2010-01-01

    By using the molecular dynamic simulation method with a fourth-order Runge–Kutta algorithm, a two-dimensional dc- and ac-driven Frenkel–Kontorova (FK) model with a square symmetry substrate potential for a square lattice layer has been investigated in this paper. For this system, the effects of many different parameters on the average velocity and the static friction force have been studied. It is found that not only the amplitude and frequency of ac-driven force, but also the direction of the external driving force and the misfit angle between two layers have some strong influences on the static friction force. It can be concluded that the superlubricity phenomenon appears easily with a larger ac amplitude and lower ac frequency for some special direction of the external force and misfit angle. (condensed matter: structure, thermal and mechanical properties)

  13. Reaction path analysis of sodium-water reaction phenomena in support of chemical reaction model development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kikuchi, Shin; Ohshima, Hiroyuki; Hashimoto, Kenro

    2011-01-01

    Computational study of the sodium-water reaction at the gas (water) - liquid (sodium) interface has been carried out using ab initio (first-principle) method. A possible reaction channel has been identified for the stepwise OH bond dissociations of a single water molecule. The energetics including the binding energy of a water molecule to the sodium surface, the activation energies of the bond cleavages, and the reaction energies, have been evaluated, and the rate constants of the first and second OH bond-breakings have been compared. The results are used as the basis for constructing the chemical reaction model used in a multi-dimensional sodium-water reaction code, SERAPHIM, being developed by JAEA toward the safety assessment of the steam generator (SG) in a sodium-cooled fast reactor (SFR). (author)

  14. Modelling of electrokinetic phenomena involving confined polymers: Applications to DNA separation and electroosmotic flow control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tessier, Frederic

    Microfluidic and nanofluidic technology is revolutionizing experimental practices in analytical chemistry, molecular biology and medicine. Indeed, the development of systems of small dimensions for the processing of fluids heralds the miniaturization of traditional, cumbersome laboratory equipment onto robust, portable and efficient microchip devices (similar to the electronic microchips found in computers). Moreover, the conjunction of scale between the smallest man-made device and the largest macromolecules evolved by Nature is fertile ground for the blooming of our knowledge about the key processes of life. In fact, the conjunction is threefold, because modern computational resources also allow us to contemplate a rather explicit modelling of physical systems between the nanoscale and the microscale. In the five articles comprising this thesis, we present the results of computer simulations that address specific questions concerning the operation of two different model systems relevant to the development of small-scale fluidic devices for the manipulation and analysis of biomolecules. First, we use a Bond-Fluctuation Monte Carlo approach to study the electrophoretic drift of macromolecules across an entropic trap array built for the length separation of long, double-stranded DNA molecules. We show that the motion of the molecules is consistent with a simple balance between electric and entropic forces, in terms of a single characteristic parameter. We also extract detailed information on polymer deformation during migration, predict the separation of topoisomers, and investigate innovative ratchet driving regimes. Secondly, we present theoretical derivations, numerical calculations and Molecular Dynamics simulation results for an electrolyte confined in a capillary of nanoscopic dimensions. In particular, we study the effectiveness of neutral grafted polymer chains in reducing the magnitude of electroosmotic flow (fluid flow induced by an external electric field

  15. Modelling psychiatric and cultural possession phenomena with suggestion and fMRI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deeley, Quinton; Oakley, David A; Walsh, Eamonn; Bell, Vaughan; Mehta, Mitul A; Halligan, Peter W

    2014-04-01

    Involuntary movements occur in a variety of neuropsychiatric disorders and culturally influenced dissociative states (e.g., delusions of alien control and attributions of spirit possession). However, the underlying brain processes are poorly understood. We combined suggestion and fMRI in 15 highly hypnotically susceptible volunteers to investigate changes in brain activity accompanying different experiences of loss of self-control of movement. Suggestions of external personal control and internal personal control over involuntary movements modelled delusions of control and spirit possession respectively. A suggestion of impersonal control by a malfunctioning machine modelled technical delusions of control, where involuntary movements are attributed to the influence of machines. We found that (i) brain activity and/or connectivity significantly varied with different experiences and attributions of loss of agency; (ii) compared to the impersonal control condition, both external and internal personal alien control were associated with increased connectivity between primary motor cortex (M1) and brain regions involved in attribution of mental states and representing the self in relation to others; (iii) compared to both personal alien control conditions, impersonal control of movement was associated with increased activity in brain regions involved in error detection and object imagery; (iv) there were no significant differences in brain activity, and minor differences in M1 connectivity, between the external and internal personal alien control conditions. Brain networks supporting error detection and object imagery, together with representation of self and others, are differentially recruited to support experiences of impersonal and personal control of involuntary movements. However, similar brain systems underpin attributions and experiences of external and internal alien control of movement. Loss of self-agency for movement can therefore accompany different kinds of

  16. Dynamics of assembly production flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ezaki, Takahiro; Yanagisawa, Daichi; Nishinari, Katsuhiro

    2015-06-01

    Despite recent developments in management theory, maintaining a manufacturing schedule remains difficult because of production delays and fluctuations in demand and supply of materials. The response of manufacturing systems to such disruptions to dynamic behavior has been rarely studied. To capture these responses, we investigate a process that models the assembly of parts into end products. The complete assembly process is represented by a directed tree, where the smallest parts are injected at leaves and the end products are removed at the root. A discrete assembly process, represented by a node on the network, integrates parts, which are then sent to the next downstream node as a single part. The model exhibits some intriguing phenomena, including overstock cascade, phase transition in terms of demand and supply fluctuations, nonmonotonic distribution of stockout in the network, and the formation of a stockout path and stockout chains. Surprisingly, these rich phenomena result from only the nature of distributed assembly processes. From a physical perspective, these phenomena provide insight into delay dynamics and inventory distributions in large-scale manufacturing systems.

  17. Theory of threshold phenomena

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hategan, Cornel

    2002-01-01

    Theory of Threshold Phenomena in Quantum Scattering is developed in terms of Reduced Scattering Matrix. Relationships of different types of threshold anomalies both to nuclear reaction mechanisms and to nuclear reaction models are established. Magnitude of threshold effect is related to spectroscopic factor of zero-energy neutron state. The Theory of Threshold Phenomena, based on Reduced Scattering Matrix, does establish relationships between different types of threshold effects and nuclear reaction mechanisms: the cusp and non-resonant potential scattering, s-wave threshold anomaly and compound nucleus resonant scattering, p-wave anomaly and quasi-resonant scattering. A threshold anomaly related to resonant or quasi resonant scattering is enhanced provided the neutron threshold state has large spectroscopic amplitude. The Theory contains, as limit cases, Cusp Theories and also results of different nuclear reactions models as Charge Exchange, Weak Coupling, Bohr and Hauser-Feshbach models. (author)

  18. Cell survivor: Modeling radiobiological phenomena with a new kind of simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spencer, Melissa A.

    Despite widespread societal fear of radiation, whether justified or unjustified, and whether related to medicine (e.g., CT scans) or other forms of nuclear and atomic radiation (e.g., nuclear power) there is a fundamental lack of basic understanding of radiation effects on the human body. Different types of radiation are psychologically grouped into the same general fear category irrespective of their different potential to do harm, and this fear is not balanced by their potential beneficial effects. By modeling certain types of radiation biology experiments within a game engine, it is possible to enhance the player's intuitive understanding of radiobiology, both the effects of different types of radiation as well as different environmental factors that can enhance or suppress repair. For this dissertation, a game/simulation has been developed that intends to narrow the gap between public perception and the reality of these physical processes. The building blocks of this simulation are cells, which are damaged by incident radiation, accumulating either single or double strand breaks. They grow and reproduce, and are especially vulnerable during certain phases of the cell cycle (e.g. mitosis). Two dominant damage mechanisms are modeled, along with multiple repair mechanisms, for example, double strand breaks can be repaired by either non-homologous end joining or homologous repair. The output of the developed simulation was compared to data collected in experimental studies and the simulation appears to be a valid representation of the dominant mechanisms of radiobiology, as far as can be determined within the scope of this dissertation. Cell survival curves generated from playtest data display shoulders that depend on the LET of incident radiation, and rest time restores repair capability. In addition to public outreach, the presented code can be used to aid investigators by collecting data during play that can be used as a distributed Monte Carlo simulation

  19. Modeling of polarization phenomena due to RF sheaths and electron beams in magnetized plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faudot, E.

    2005-01-01

    This work investigates the problematic of hot spots induced by accelerated particle fluxes in tokamaks. It is shown that the polarization due to sheaths in the edge plasma in which an electron beam at a high level of energy is injected, can reach several hundreds volts and thus extend the deposition area. The notion of obstructed sheath is introduced and explains the acceleration of energy deposition by the decreasing of the sheath potential. Then, a 2-dimensional fluid modeling of flux tubes in front of ICRF antennae allows us to calculate the rectified potentials taking into account RF polarization currents transverse to magnetic field lines. The 2-dimensional fluid code designed validates the analytical results which show that the DC rectified potential is 50% greater with polarization currents than without. Finally, the simultaneous application of an electron beam and a RF potential reveals that the potentials due to each phenomenon are additives when RF potential is much greater than beam polarization. The density depletion of polarized flux tubes in 2-dimensional PIC (particles in cells) simulations is characterized but not yet explained. (author)

  20. Self-Assembly of Mono- and Dinuclear Metal Complexes; Oxidation Catalysis and Metalloenzyme Models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gelling, Onko-Jan; Rispens, Minze T.; Lubben, Marcel; Feringa, Bernard

    1994-01-01

    In this chapter several approaches to achieve assembly of mono- and dinuclear metal complexes, which can be considered structural and functional models for metalloenzymes, are described. The emphasis lies on oxidation chemistry, summarizing O2 binding, hydroxylation, demethylation, dehalogenation

  1. Development and validation of effective models for simulation of stratification and mixing phenomena in a pool of water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, H.; Kudinov, P.; Villanueva, W.

    2011-06-01

    This work pertains to the research program on Containment Thermal-Hydraulics at KTH. The objective is to evaluate and improve performance of methods, which are used to analyze thermal-hydraulics of steam suppression pools in a BWR plant under different abnormal transient and accident conditions. The pressure suppression pool was designed to have the capability as a heat sink to cool and condense steam released from the core vessel and/or main steam line during loss of coolant accident (LOCA) or opening of safety relief valve in normal operation of BWRs. For the case of small flow rates of steam influx, thermal stratification could develop on the part above the blowdown pipe exit and significantly impede the pool's pressure suppression capacity. Once steam flow rate increases significantly, momentum introduced by the steam injection and/or periodic expansion and collapse of large steam bubbles due to direct contact condensation can destroy stratified layers and lead to mixing of the pool water. We use CFD-like model of the general purpose thermal-hydraulic code GOTHIC for addressing the issues of stratification and mixing in the pool. In the previous works we have demonstrated that accurate and computationally efficient prediction of the pool thermal-hydraulics in the scenarios with transition between thermal stratification and mixing, presents a computational challenge. The reason is that direct contact condensation phenomena, which drive oscillatory motion of the water in the blowdown pipes, are difficult to simulate with original GOTHIC models because of appearance of artificial oscillations due to numerical disturbances. To resolve this problem we propose to model the effect of steam injection on the mixing and stratification with the Effective Heat Source (EHS) model and the Effective Momentum Source (EMS) model. We use POOLEX/PPOOLEX experiment (Lappeenranta University of Technology in Finland), in order to (a) quantify errors due to GOTHIC's physical models

  2. Development and validation of effective models for simulation of stratification and mixing phenomena in a pool of water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, H.; Kudinov, P.; Villanueva, W. (Royal Institute of Technology (KTH). Div. of Nuclear Power Safety (Sweden))

    2011-06-15

    This work pertains to the research program on Containment Thermal-Hydraulics at KTH. The objective is to evaluate and improve performance of methods, which are used to analyze thermal-hydraulics of steam suppression pools in a BWR plant under different abnormal transient and accident conditions. The pressure suppression pool was designed to have the capability as a heat sink to cool and condense steam released from the core vessel and/or main steam line during loss of coolant accident (LOCA) or opening of safety relief valve in normal operation of BWRs. For the case of small flow rates of steam influx, thermal stratification could develop on the part above the blowdown pipe exit and significantly impede the pool's pressure suppression capacity. Once steam flow rate increases significantly, momentum introduced by the steam injection and/or periodic expansion and collapse of large steam bubbles due to direct contact condensation can destroy stratified layers and lead to mixing of the pool water. We use CFD-like model of the general purpose thermal-hydraulic code GOTHIC for addressing the issues of stratification and mixing in the pool. In the previous works we have demonstrated that accurate and computationally efficient prediction of the pool thermal-hydraulics in the scenarios with transition between thermal stratification and mixing, presents a computational challenge. The reason is that direct contact condensation phenomena, which drive oscillatory motion of the water in the blowdown pipes, are difficult to simulate with original GOTHIC models because of appearance of artificial oscillations due to numerical disturbances. To resolve this problem we propose to model the effect of steam injection on the mixing and stratification with the Effective Heat Source (EHS) model and the Effective Momentum Source (EMS) model. We use POOLEX/PPOOLEX experiment (Lappeenranta University of Technology in Finland), in order to (a) quantify errors due to GOTHIC

  3. A Study on the Development of Simplified Fuel Assembly SSE/LOCA Analysis Model using Optimization Technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Kyou Seok; Jeon, Sang Youn; Kim, Hyeong Koo

    2009-01-01

    Under the Safe Shutdown Earthquake (SSE) and Loss of Coolant Accident (LOCA) events, the fuel assembly deflection and impact force between fuel assemblies are obtained by the dynamic transient analysis for the reactor core model. The impact behavior between fuel assemblies shows non-linear characteristics, because fuel assembly shows non-linearly dynamic characteristics and its geometry is complicated. Furthermore, since a reactor core consists of a large number of fuel assemblies, the dynamic behavior of the core under the postulated events is very difficult to analyze. Therefore, it is necessary that fuel assembly model be simplified considering dynamic non-linear characteristics in core analysis. In this study, a simplified fuel assembly finite element model for 17 Type RFA has been developed using optimization technique. To obtain the simplified model, the optimization algorithm of ANSYS was used, and the model was verified by comparison with fuel assembly mechanical test results

  4. A Study on the Development of Simplified Fuel Assembly SSE/LOCA Analysis Model using Optimization Technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Kyou Seok; Jeon, Sang Youn; Kim, Hyeong Koo [Korea Nuclear Fuel, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2009-05-15

    Under the Safe Shutdown Earthquake (SSE) and Loss of Coolant Accident (LOCA) events, the fuel assembly deflection and impact force between fuel assemblies are obtained by the dynamic transient analysis for the reactor core model. The impact behavior between fuel assemblies shows non-linear characteristics, because fuel assembly shows non-linearly dynamic characteristics and its geometry is complicated. Furthermore, since a reactor core consists of a large number of fuel assemblies, the dynamic behavior of the core under the postulated events is very difficult to analyze. Therefore, it is necessary that fuel assembly model be simplified considering dynamic non-linear characteristics in core analysis. In this study, a simplified fuel assembly finite element model for 17 Type RFA has been developed using optimization technique. To obtain the simplified model, the optimization algorithm of ANSYS was used, and the model was verified by comparison with fuel assembly mechanical test results.

  5. Transient phenomena in bounded fast multiplying assemblies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kraft, T.E.

    1976-01-01

    A generalized dispersion formalism is developed in the context of time-, space-, and energy-dependent transport theory. The evolution of the neutron population in a fast multiplying system following an initial burst of neutrons is examined. The generalized dispersion law obtained is an integral equation, in one variable, for the Laplace and Fourier transformed time- and space-dependent sources of fission neutrons. An approximation technique is shown to generate solutions which converge in L 2 norm to the exact solution for exact elastic, exact inelastic, Goertzel-Grueling or Wigner scattering kernels, and any reasonable fission spectrum

  6. Analysis of flashing and swelling phenomena in tanks of nuclear power plants; the importance of bubble growth dynamics and bubble transport models with size tracking

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cerezo A, E. [University of Caribe, Department of Basics Sciences and Engineering, Lote 1, Manzana 1, Region 78, esq. Fracc. Tabachines, 77500 Cancun, Quintana Roo (Mexico)]. E-mail: ecerezo@unicaribe.edu.mx; Munoz C, J.L. [Department of Chemical and Nuclear Engineering, Polytechnic University of Valencia, Camino de Vera 14, 46022 Valencia (Spain)

    2004-07-01

    This paper presents a non-equilibrium model to describe flashing phenomena in tanks and cooling pools. The present model is based on Watanabe's work that we have extended by developing a realistic model for the growth of bubbles. We have made the corresponding venting model, continuity equation, gas and liquid phase energy conservation equations for the model. This model takes into account both drag and virtual mass force. The dynamics of bubble growth plays an important role in two-phase phenomena such as flashing. In our model the growth rate is assumed to be limited by the heat conduction in the liquid. The results of the analytic model were compared with the experimental data of Watanabe [1]. The results have shown that the present model evaluates fairly accurately the pressure evolution, the void fraction and the swelling level of a tank.

  7. Analysis of flashing and swelling phenomena in tanks of nuclear power plants; the importance of bubble growth dynamics and bubble transport models with size tracking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cerezo A, E.; Munoz C, J.L.

    2004-01-01

    This paper presents a non-equilibrium model to describe flashing phenomena in tanks and cooling pools. The present model is based on Watanabe's work that we have extended by developing a realistic model for the growth of bubbles. We have made the corresponding venting model, continuity equation, gas and liquid phase energy conservation equations for the model. This model takes into account both drag and virtual mass force. The dynamics of bubble growth plays an important role in two-phase phenomena such as flashing. In our model the growth rate is assumed to be limited by the heat conduction in the liquid. The results of the analytic model were compared with the experimental data of Watanabe [1]. The results have shown that the present model evaluates fairly accurately the pressure evolution, the void fraction and the swelling level of a tank

  8. Modeling the effect of anisotropy of gas diffusion layer on transport phenomena in a direct methanol fuel cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miao, Zheng; He, Ya-Ling; Zou, Jin-Qiang

    Transport phenomena in the gas diffusion layer (GDL) are of vital importance for the operation of direct methanol fuel cells (DMFCs). In this work, a two-phase mass transport model is developed to investigate the effects of anisotropic characteristics of a GDL, including the inherent anisotropy, deformation, and electrical and thermal contact resistances, on the coupled species, charges and thermal transport processes in a DMFC. In this model, methanol crossover and non-equilibrium evaporation/condensation of water and methanol are considered. The multistep electrochemical mechanisms are used to obtain a detailed description of the kinetics of methanol oxidization reaction (MOR) in both the anode and cathode catalyst layers (CLs). The numerical results show that the anisotropy of the GDL has a great effect on the distribution of species concentration, overpotential, local current density, and temperature. The deformation of the GDL depresses the transport of species through the GDL, particularly methanol diffusion in anode GDL, but facilitates the transport of electron and the removal of heat. The electrical contact resistance plays an important role in determining the cell performance.

  9. Modeling the effect of anisotropy of gas diffusion layer on transport phenomena in a direct methanol fuel cell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miao, Zheng; He, Ya-Ling; Zou, Jin-Qiang [State Key Laboratory of Multiphase Flow in Power Engineering, School of Energy and Power Engineering, Xi' an Jiaotong University, Xi' an, Shaanxi 710049 (China)

    2010-06-01

    Transport phenomena in the gas diffusion layer (GDL) are of vital importance for the operation of direct methanol fuel cells (DMFCs). In this work, a two-phase mass transport model is developed to investigate the effects of anisotropic characteristics of a GDL, including the inherent anisotropy, deformation, and electrical and thermal contact resistances, on the coupled species, charges and thermal transport processes in a DMFC. In this model, methanol crossover and non-equilibrium evaporation/condensation of water and methanol are considered. The multistep electrochemical mechanisms are used to obtain a detailed description of the kinetics of methanol oxidization reaction (MOR) in both the anode and cathode catalyst layers (CLs). The numerical results show that the anisotropy of the GDL has a great effect on the distribution of species concentration, overpotential, local current density, and temperature. The deformation of the GDL depresses the transport of species through the GDL, particularly methanol diffusion in anode GDL, but facilitates the transport of electron and the removal of heat. The electrical contact resistance plays an important role in determining the cell performance. (author)

  10. Modelling the effect of inhomogeneous compression of GDL on local transport phenomena in a PEM fuel cell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karvonen, S.; Mikkola, M. [Laboratory of Advanced Energy Systems, Helsinki University of Technology (Finland); Himanen, O. [VTT Technical Research Center of Finland, Fuel Cells, VTT (Finland); Nitta, I.

    2008-12-15

    The effects of inhomogeneous compression of gas diffusion layers (GDLs) on local transport phenomena within a polymer electrolyte membrane (PEM) fuel cell were studied theoretically. The inhomogeneous compression induced by the rib/channel structure of the flow field plate causes partial deformation of the GDLs and significantly affects component parameters. The results suggest that inhomogeneous compression does not significantly affect the polarisation behaviour or gas-phase mass transport. However, the effect of inhomogeneous compression on the current density distribution is evident. Local current density under the channel was substantially smaller than that under the rib when inhomogeneous compression was taken into account, while the current density distribution was fairly uniform for the model which excluded the effect of inhomogeneous compression. This is caused by the changes in the selective current path, which is determined by the combination of conductivities of components and contact resistance between them. Despite the highly uneven current distribution and variation in material parametres as a function of GDL thickness, the temperature profile was relatively even over the active area for both the modelled cases, contrary to predictions in previous studies. However, an abnormally high current density significantly accelerates deterioration of the membrane and is critical in terms of cell durability. Therefore, fuel cells should be carefully designed to minimise the harmful effects of inhomogeneous compression. (Abstract Copyright [2008], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

  11. Estimation of water saturated permeability of soils, using 3D soil tomographic images and pore-level transport phenomena modelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamorski, Krzysztof; Sławiński, Cezary; Barna, Gyöngyi

    2014-05-01

    There are some important macroscopic properties of the soil porous media such as: saturated permeability and water retention characteristics. These soil characteristics are very important as they determine soil transport processes and are commonly used as a parameters of general models of soil transport processes used extensively for scientific developments and engineering practise. These characteristics are usually measured or estimated using some statistical or phenomenological modelling, i.e. pedotransfer functions. On the physical basis, saturated soil permeability arises from physical transport processes occurring at the pore level. Current progress in modelling techniques, computational methods and X-ray micro-tomographic technology gives opportunity to use direct methods of physical modelling for pore level transport processes. Physically valid description of transport processes at micro-scale based on Navier-Stokes type modelling approach gives chance to recover macroscopic porous medium characteristics from micro-flow modelling. Water microflow transport processes occurring at the pore level are dependent on the microstructure of porous body and interactions between the fluid and the medium. In case of soils, i.e. the medium there exist relatively big pores in which water can move easily but also finer pores are present in which water transport processes are dominated by strong interactions between the medium and the fluid - full physical description of these phenomena is a challenge. Ten samples of different soils were scanned using X-ray computational microtomograph. The diameter of samples was 5 mm. The voxel resolution of CT scan was 2.5 µm. Resulting 3D soil samples images were used for reconstruction of the pore space for further modelling. 3D image threshholding was made to determine the soil grain surface. This surface was triangulated and used for computational mesh construction for the pore space. Numerical modelling of water flow through the

  12. Challenges and advances for transcriptome assembly in non-model species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ungaro, Arnaud; Pech, Nicolas; Martin, Jean-François; McCairns, R J Scott; Mévy, Jean-Philippe; Chappaz, Rémi; Gilles, André

    2017-01-01

    Analyses of high-throughput transcriptome sequences of non-model organisms are based on two main approaches: de novo assembly and genome-guided assembly using mapping to assign reads prior to assembly. Given the limits of mapping reads to a reference when it is highly divergent, as is frequently the case for non-model species, we evaluate whether using blastn would outperform mapping methods for read assignment in such situations (>15% divergence). We demonstrate its high performance by using simulated reads of lengths corresponding to those generated by the most common sequencing platforms, and over a realistic range of genetic divergence (0% to 30% divergence). Here we focus on gene identification and not on resolving the whole set of transcripts (i.e. the complete transcriptome). For simulated datasets, the transcriptome-guided assembly based on blastn recovers 94.8% of genes irrespective of read length at 0% divergence; however, assignment rate of reads is negatively correlated with both increasing divergence level and reducing read lengths. Nevertheless, we still observe 92.6% of recovered genes at 30% divergence irrespective of read length. This analysis also produces a categorization of genes relative to their assignment, and suggests guidelines for data processing prior to analyses of comparative transcriptomics and gene expression to minimize potential inferential bias associated with incorrect transcript assignment. We also compare the performances of de novo assembly alone vs in combination with a transcriptome-guided assembly based on blastn both via simulation and empirically, using data from a cyprinid fish species and from an oak species. For any simulated scenario, the transcriptome-guided assembly using blastn outperforms the de novo approach alone, including when the divergence level is beyond the reach of traditional mapping methods. Combining de novo assembly and a related reference transcriptome for read assignment also addresses the bias

  13. Modeling Evaporation and Particle Assembly in Colloidal Droplets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Mingfei; Yong, Xin

    2017-06-13

    Evaporation-induced assembly of nanoparticles in a drying droplet is of great importance in many engineering applications, including printing, coating, and thin film processing. The investigation of particle dynamics in evaporating droplets can provide fundamental hydrodynamic insight for revealing the processing-structure relationship in the particle self-organization induced by solvent evaporation. We develop a free-energy-based multiphase lattice Boltzmann method coupled with Brownian dynamics to simulate evaporating colloidal droplets on solid substrates with specified wetting properties. The influence of interface-bound nanoparticles on the surface tension and evaporation of a flat liquid-vapor interface is first quantified. The results indicate that the particles at the interface reduce surface tension and enhance evaporation flux. For evaporating particle-covered droplets on substrates with different wetting properties, we characterize the increase of evaporate rate via measuring droplet volume. We find that droplet evaporation is determined by the number density and circumferential distribution of interfacial particles. We further correlate particle dynamics and assembly to the evaporation-induced convection in the bulk and on the surface of droplet. Finally, we observe distinct final deposits from evaporating colloidal droplets with bulk-dispersed and interface-bound particles. In addition, the deposit pattern is also influenced by the equilibrium contact angle of droplet.

  14. Structural characterisation of medically relevant protein assemblies by integrating mass spectrometry with computational modelling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Politis, Argyris; Schmidt, Carla

    2018-03-20

    Structural mass spectrometry with its various techniques is a powerful tool for the structural elucidation of medically relevant protein assemblies. It delivers information on the composition, stoichiometries, interactions and topologies of these assemblies. Most importantly it can deal with heterogeneous mixtures and assemblies which makes it universal among the conventional structural techniques. In this review we summarise recent advances and challenges in structural mass spectrometric techniques. We describe how the combination of the different mass spectrometry-based methods with computational strategies enable structural models at molecular levels of resolution. These models hold significant potential for helping us in characterizing the function of protein assemblies related to human health and disease. In this review we summarise the techniques of structural mass spectrometry often applied when studying protein-ligand complexes. We exemplify these techniques through recent examples from literature that helped in the understanding of medically relevant protein assemblies. We further provide a detailed introduction into various computational approaches that can be integrated with these mass spectrometric techniques. Last but not least we discuss case studies that integrated mass spectrometry and computational modelling approaches and yielded models of medically important protein assembly states such as fibrils and amyloids. Copyright © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Development of numerical models for Monte Carlo simulations of Th-Pb fuel assembly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oettingen Mikołaj

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The thorium-uranium fuel cycle is a promising alternative against uranium-plutonium fuel cycle, but it demands many advanced research before starting its industrial application in commercial nuclear reactors. The paper presents the development of the thorium-lead (Th-Pb fuel assembly numerical models for the integral irradiation experiments. The Th-Pb assembly consists of a hexagonal array of ThO2 fuel rods and metallic Pb rods. The design of the assembly allows different combinations of rods for various types of irradiations and experimental measurements. The numerical model of the Th-Pb assembly was designed for the numerical simulations with the continuous energy Monte Carlo Burnup code (MCB implemented on the supercomputer Prometheus of the Academic Computer Centre Cyfronet AGH.

  16. An analytical framework for handling production time variety at workstations of mixed-model assembly lines

    OpenAIRE

    Keckl, Stefan; Kern, Wolfgang; Abou-Haydar, A.; Westkämper, Engelbert

    2016-01-01

    In recent years market demands have shifted towards customized products. As a result many manufacturing companies face an increasing variety of their product range. As it is not profitable to install new assembly lines for each product, assembly lines have to be able to handle different products in batch size one. In literature these lines are called mixed-model lines. They follow the logical principal of flow production but are capable of producing different products while needing minimal mo...

  17. Modeling Ultra-fast assembly and sintering of gold nanostructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lane, J. Matthew D.; Salerno, K. Michael; Grest, Gary S.; Fan, Hongyou

    We use fully atomistic simulations to understand the role of extreme pressure in the assembly and sintering of fcc superlattices of alkanethiol-coated gold nanocrystals into larger nanostructures. Recent quasi-isentropic experiments have shown that 1D, 2D and 3D nanostructures can be formed and recovered from dynamic compression experiments on Sandia's Veloce pulsed power accelerator. Here, we describe the role of coating properties, such as ligand length and grafting density, on ligand migration and deformation processes during pressure-driven coalescence of metal nano cores into permanent nanowires, nanosheets and 3D structures. The role of uniaxial vs isotropic pressure and the effects of compression along various superlattice orientations will be discussed. Sandia National Laboratories is a multi-mission laboratory managed and operated by Sandia Corporation, a wholly owned subsidiary of Lockheed Martin Corporation, for the U.S. Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration under contract DE-AC04-94AL85000.

  18. Anomalous transport phenomena in Weyl metal beyond the Drude model for Landauʼs Fermi liquids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Ki-Seok; Kim, Heon-Jung; Sasaki, M.; Wang, J.-F.; Li, L.

    2014-12-01

    Landau's Fermi-liquid theory is the standard model for metals, characterized by the existence of electron quasiparticles near a Fermi surface as long as Landau's interaction parameters lie below critical values for instabilities. Recently this fundamental paradigm has been challenged by the physics of strong spin-orbit coupling, although the concept of electron quasiparticles remains valid near the Fermi surface, where Landau's Fermi-liquid theory fails to describe the electromagnetic properties of this novel metallic state, referred to as Weyl metal. A novel ingredient is that such a Fermi surface encloses a Weyl point with definite chirality, referred to as a chiral Fermi surface, which can arise from breaking of either time reversal or inversion symmetry in systems with strong spin-orbit coupling, responsible for both the Berry curvature and the chiral anomaly. As a result, electromagnetic properties of the Weyl metallic state are described not by conventional Maxwell equations but by axion electrodynamics, where Maxwell equations are modified with a topological-in-origin spatially modulated θ ({\\boldsymbol{r}} ){\\boldsymbol{E}} \\cdot {\\boldsymbol{B}} term. This novel metallic state was realized recently in Bi1-xSbx around x˜ 3% under magnetic fields, where the Dirac spectrum appears around the critical point between the normal semiconducting (x\\lt 3%) and topological semiconducting phases (x\\gt 3%) and the time reversal symmetry breaking perturbation causes the Dirac point to split into a pair of Weyl points along the direction of the applied magnetic field for a very strong spin-orbit coupled system. In this review article, we discuss how the topological structure of both the Berry curvature and the chiral anomaly (axion electrodynamics) gives rise to anomalous transport phenomena in B{{i}1-x}Sbx around x˜ 3% under magnetic fields, thus modifying the Drude model of Landau's Fermi liquids.

  19. Experimental evaluation of models for predicting Cherenkov light intensities from short-cooled nuclear fuel assemblies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Branger, E.; Grape, S.; Jansson, P.; Jacobsson Svärd, S.

    2018-02-01

    The Digital Cherenkov Viewing Device (DCVD) is a tool used by nuclear safeguards inspectors to verify irradiated nuclear fuel assemblies in wet storage based on the recording of Cherenkov light produced by the assemblies. One type of verification involves comparing the measured light intensity from an assembly with a predicted intensity, based on assembly declarations. Crucial for such analyses is the performance of the prediction model used, and recently new modelling methods have been introduced to allow for enhanced prediction capabilities by taking the irradiation history into account, and by including the cross-talk radiation from neighbouring assemblies in the predictions. In this work, the performance of three models for Cherenkov-light intensity prediction is evaluated by applying them to a set of short-cooled PWR 17x17 assemblies for which experimental DCVD measurements and operator-declared irradiation data was available; (1) a two-parameter model, based on total burnup and cooling time, previously used by the safeguards inspectors, (2) a newly introduced gamma-spectrum-based model, which incorporates cycle-wise burnup histories, and (3) the latter gamma-spectrum-based model with the addition to account for contributions from neighbouring assemblies. The results show that the two gamma-spectrum-based models provide significantly higher precision for the measured inventory compared to the two-parameter model, lowering the standard deviation between relative measured and predicted intensities from 15.2 % to 8.1 % respectively 7.8 %. The results show some systematic differences between assemblies of different designs (produced by different manufacturers) in spite of their similar PWR 17x17 geometries, and possible ways are discussed to address such differences, which may allow for even higher prediction capabilities. Still, it is concluded that the gamma-spectrum-based models enable confident verification of the fuel assembly inventory at the currently used

  20. Structural Model of the Tubular Assembly of the Rous Sarcoma Virus Capsid Protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeon, Jaekyun; Qiao, Xin; Hung, Ivan; Mitra, Alok K; Desfosses, Ambroise; Huang, Daniel; Gor'kov, Peter L; Craven, Rebecca C; Kingston, Richard L; Gan, Zhehong; Zhu, Fangqiang; Chen, Bo

    2017-02-08

    The orthoretroviral capsid protein (CA) assembles into polymorphic capsids, whose architecture, assembly, and stability are still being investigated. The N-terminal and C-terminal domains of CA (NTD and CTD, respectively) engage in both homotypic and heterotypic interactions to create the capsid. Hexameric turrets formed by the NTD decorate the majority of the capsid surface. We report nearly complete solid-state NMR (ssNMR) resonance assignments of Rous sarcoma virus (RSV) CA, assembled into hexamer tubes that mimic the authentic capsid. The ssNMR assignments show that, upon assembly, large conformational changes occur in loops connecting helices, as well as the short 3 10 helix initiating the CTD. The interdomain linker becomes statically disordered. Combining constraints from ssNMR and cryo-electron microscopy (cryo-EM), we establish an atomic resolution model of the RSV CA tubular assembly using molecular dynamics flexible fitting (MDFF) simulations. On the basis of comparison of this MDFF model with an earlier-derived crystallographic model for the planar assembly, the induction of curvature into the RSV CA hexamer lattice arises predominantly from reconfiguration of the NTD-CTD and CTD trimer interfaces. The CTD dimer and CTD trimer interfaces are also intrinsically variable. Hence, deformation of the CA hexamer lattice results from the variable displacement of the CTDs that surround each hexameric turret. Pervasive H-bonding is found at all interdomain interfaces, which may contribute to their malleability. Finally, we find helices at the interfaces of HIV and RSV CA assemblies have very different contact angles, which may reflect differences in the capsid assembly pathway for these viruses.

  1. Short read Illumina data for the de novo assembly of a non-model snail species transcriptome (Radix balthica, Basommatophora, Pulmonata), and a comparison of assembler performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feldmeyer, Barbara; Wheat, Christopher W; Krezdorn, Nicolas; Rotter, Björn; Pfenninger, Markus

    2011-06-16

    Until recently, read lengths on the Solexa/Illumina system were too short to reliably assemble transcriptomes without a reference sequence, especially for non-model organisms. However, with read lengths up to 100 nucleotides available in the current version, an assembly without reference genome should be possible. For this study we created an EST data set for the common pond snail Radix balthica by Illumina sequencing of a normalized transcriptome. Performance of three different short read assemblers was compared with respect to: the number of contigs, their length, depth of coverage, their quality in various BLAST searches and the alignment to mitochondrial genes. A single sequencing run of a normalized RNA pool resulted in 16,923,850 paired end reads with median read length of 61 bases. The assemblies generated by VELVET, OASES, and SeqMan NGEN differed in the total number of contigs, contig length, the number and quality of gene hits obtained by BLAST searches against various databases, and contig performance in the mt genome comparison. While VELVET produced the highest overall number of contigs, a large fraction of these were of small size (performance resulted from the NGEN assembly. It produced the second largest number of contigs, which on average were comparable to the OASES contigs but gave the highest number of gene hits in two out of four BLAST searches against different reference databases. A subsequent meta-assembly of the four contig sets resulted in larger contigs, less redundancy and a higher number of BLAST hits. Our results document the first de novo transcriptome assembly of a non-model species using Illumina sequencing data. We show that de novo transcriptome assembly using this approach yields results useful for downstream applications, in particular if a meta-assembly of contig sets is used to increase contig quality. These results highlight the ongoing need for improvements in assembly methodology.

  2. Short read Illumina data for the de novo assembly of a non-model snail species transcriptome (Radix balthica, Basommatophora, Pulmonata, and a comparison of assembler performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rotter Björn

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Until recently, read lengths on the Solexa/Illumina system were too short to reliably assemble transcriptomes without a reference sequence, especially for non-model organisms. However, with read lengths up to 100 nucleotides available in the current version, an assembly without reference genome should be possible. For this study we created an EST data set for the common pond snail Radix balthica by Illumina sequencing of a normalized transcriptome. Performance of three different short read assemblers was compared with respect to: the number of contigs, their length, depth of coverage, their quality in various BLAST searches and the alignment to mitochondrial genes. Results A single sequencing run of a normalized RNA pool resulted in 16,923,850 paired end reads with median read length of 61 bases. The assemblies generated by VELVET, OASES, and SeqMan NGEN differed in the total number of contigs, contig length, the number and quality of gene hits obtained by BLAST searches against various databases, and contig performance in the mt genome comparison. While VELVET produced the highest overall number of contigs, a large fraction of these were of small size (BLAST searches and the mt genome alignment. The best overall contig performance resulted from the NGEN assembly. It produced the second largest number of contigs, which on average were comparable to the OASES contigs but gave the highest number of gene hits in two out of four BLAST searches against different reference databases. A subsequent meta-assembly of the four contig sets resulted in larger contigs, less redundancy and a higher number of BLAST hits. Conclusion Our results document the first de novo transcriptome assembly of a non-model species using Illumina sequencing data. We show that de novo transcriptome assembly using this approach yields results useful for downstream applications, in particular if a meta-assembly of contig sets is used to increase contig quality

  3. Assembly of a phased diploid Candida albicans genome facilitates allele-specific measurements and provides a simple model for repeat and indel structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muzzey, Dale; Schwartz, Katja; Weissman, Jonathan S; Sherlock, Gavin

    2013-01-01

    Candida albicans is a ubiquitous opportunistic fungal pathogen that afflicts immunocompromised human hosts. With rare and transient exceptions the yeast is diploid, yet despite its clinical relevance the respective sequences of its two homologous chromosomes have not been completely resolved. We construct a phased diploid genome assembly by deep sequencing a standard laboratory wild-type strain and a panel of strains homozygous for particular chromosomes. The assembly has 700-fold coverage on average,allowing extensive revision and expansion of the number of known SNPs and indels. This phased genome significantly enhances the sensitivity and specificity of allele-specific expression measurements by enabling pooling and cross-validation of signal across multiple polymorphic sites. Additionally, the diploid assembly reveals pervasive and unexpected patterns in allelic differences between homologous chromosomes. Firstly, we see striking clustering of indels, concentrated primarily in the repeat sequences in promoters. Secondly, both indels and their repeat-sequence substrate are enriched near replication origins. Finally, we reveal an intimate link between repeat sequences and indels, which argues that repeat length is under selective pressure for most eukaryotes. This connection is described by a concise one-parameter model that explains repeat-sequence abundance in C. albicans as a function of the indel rate,and provides a general framework to interpret repeat abundance in species ranging from bacteria to humans. The phased genome assembly and insights into repeat plasticity will be valuable for better understanding allele-specific phenomena and genome evolution.

  4. An atomic model of HIV-1 capsid-SP1 reveals structures regulating assembly and maturation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schur, Florian K M; Obr, Martin; Hagen, Wim J H; Wan, William; Jakobi, Arjen J; Kirkpatrick, Joanna M; Sachse, Carsten; Kräusslich, Hans-Georg; Briggs, John A G

    2016-07-29

    Immature HIV-1 assembles at and buds from the plasma membrane before proteolytic cleavage of the viral Gag polyprotein induces structural maturation. Maturation can be blocked by maturation inhibitors (MIs), thereby abolishing infectivity. The CA (capsid) and SP1 (spacer peptide 1) region of Gag is the key regulator of assembly and maturation and is the target of MIs. We applied optimized cryo-electron tomography and subtomogram averaging to resolve this region within assembled immature HIV-1 particles at 3.9 angstrom resolution and built an atomic model. The structure reveals a network of intra- and intermolecular interactions mediating immature HIV-1 assembly. The proteolytic cleavage site between CA and SP1 is inaccessible to protease. We suggest that MIs prevent CA-SP1 cleavage by stabilizing the structure, and MI resistance develops by destabilizing CA-SP1. Copyright © 2016, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  5. A second order turbulence model based on a Reynolds stress approach for two-phase boiling flow and application to fuel assembly analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mimouni, S.; Archambeau, F.; Boucker, M.; Lavieville, J.; Morel, C.

    2010-01-01

    High-thermal performance PWR (pressurized water reactor) spacer grids require both low-pressure loss and high critical heat flux (CHF) properties. Numerical investigations on the effect of angles and position of mixing vanes and to understand in more details the main physical phenomena (wall boiling, entrainment of bubbles in the wakes, recondensation) are required. In the field of fuel assembly analysis or design by means of CFD codes, the overwhelming majority of the studies are carried out using two-equation Eddy Viscosity Models (EVM), especially the standard K-ε model, while the use of Reynolds Stress Transport Models (RSTM) remains exceptional. The simulation of swirling flow generated by the mixing vanes plays an important role for the prediction of the CHF for the fuel assemblies. For this reason, according to , rotation effects and RSTM model are more specifically addressed in the paper. Before comparing performance of EVM and RSTM models on fuel assembly geometry, we performed calculations with simpler geometries, the DEBORA case and the ASU-annular channel case. ASU-annular channel case has already been addressed in . Then, a geometry closer to actual fuel assemblies is considered. It consists of a rectangular test section in which a 2 x 2 rod bundle equipped with a simple spacer grid with mixing vanes is inserted. The influence of the turbulence model on target variables linked to CHF limitation will be discussed. Moreover, the sensitivity to the mesh refinement will be particularly examined. The study of this case is a further step towards the modelling of the two-phase boiling flow in real-life grids and rod bundles.

  6. DNA Self-Assembly and Computation Studied with a Coarse-grained Dynamic Bonded Model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svaneborg, Carsten; Fellermann, Harold; Rasmussen, Steen

    2012-01-01

    We utilize a coarse-grained directional dynamic bonding DNA model [C. Svaneborg, Comp. Phys. Comm. (In Press DOI:10.1016/j.cpc.2012.03.005)] to study DNA self-assembly and DNA computation. In our DNA model, a single nucleotide is represented by a single interaction site, and complementary sites can...

  7. Solid state phenomena

    CERN Document Server

    Lawrance, R

    1972-01-01

    Solid State Phenomena explores the fundamentals of the structure and their influence on the properties of solids. This book is composed of five chapters that focus on the electrical and thermal conductivities of crystalline solids. Chapter 1 describes the nature of solids, particularly metals and crystalline materials. This chapter also presents a model to evaluate crystal structure, the forces between atom pairs, and the mechanism of plastic and elastic deformation. Chapter 2 demonstrates random vibrations of atoms in a solid using a one-dimensional array, while Chapter 3 examines the resista

  8. Modelling of near-field radionuclide transport phenomena in a KBS-3V type of repository for nuclear waste with Goldsim Code - and verification against previous methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pulkkanen, V.-M.; Nordman, H.

    2010-03-01

    Traditional radionuclide transport models overestimate significantly some phenomena, or completely ignore them. This motivates the development of new more precise models. As a result, this work is a description of commissioning of a new KBS-3V near-field radionuclide transport model, which has been done with a commercial software called GoldSim. According to earlier models, GoldSim model uses rz coordinates, but the solubilities of radionuclides have been treated more precisely. To begin with, the physical phenomena concerning near-field transport have been introduced according to GoldSim way of thinking. Also, the computational methods of GoldSim have been introduced and compared to methods used earlier. The actual verification of GoldSim model has been carried out by comparing the GoldSim results from simple cases to the corresponding results obtained with REPCOM, a software developed by VTT and used in several safety assessments. The results agree well. Finally, a few complicated cases were studied. In these cases, the REPCOM's limitations in handling of some phenomena become evident. The differences in the results are caused especially by the extension of the solubility limit to the whole computational domain, and the element-wise treatment of the solubilities which was used instead of nuclide-wise treatment. This work has been carried out as a special assignment to the former laboratory of Advanced Energy Systems in Helsinki University of Technology. The work was done at VTT. (orig.)

  9. Modelling of near-field radionuclide transport phenomena in a KBS-3V type of repository for nuclear waste with Goldsim Code - and verification against previous methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pulkkanen, V.-M.; Nordman, H. (VTT Technical Research Centre, Espoo (Finland))

    2010-03-15

    Traditional radionuclide transport models overestimate significantly some phenomena, or completely ignore them. This motivates the development of new more precise models. As a result, this work is a description of commissioning of a new KBS-3V near-field radionuclide transport model, which has been done with a commercial software called GoldSim. According to earlier models, GoldSim model uses rz coordinates, but the solubilities of radionuclides have been treated more precisely. To begin with, the physical phenomena concerning near-field transport have been introduced according to GoldSim way of thinking. Also, the computational methods of GoldSim have been introduced and compared to methods used earlier. The actual verification of GoldSim model has been carried out by comparing the GoldSim results from simple cases to the corresponding results obtained with REPCOM, a software developed by VTT and used in several safety assessments. The results agree well. Finally, a few complicated cases were studied. In these cases, the REPCOM's limitations in handling of some phenomena become evident. The differences in the results are caused especially by the extension of the solubility limit to the whole computational domain, and the element-wise treatment of the solubilities which was used instead of nuclide-wise treatment. This work has been carried out as a special assignment to the former laboratory of Advanced Energy Systems in Helsinki University of Technology. The work was done at VTT. (orig.)

  10. Modeling and simulation of bus assem-bling process using DES/ABS approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pawel PAWLEWSKI

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the results of the project, which goal is to analyze the production process capability after reengineering the assembly process due to expansion of a bus production plant. The verification of the designed work organization for the new configuration of workstations on new production hall is necessary. To solve these  problems authors propose a method based on mixing DES (Discrete Event Simulation and ABS (Agent Based Simulation approach. DES is using to model the main process – material flow (buses, ABS is using to model assembling operations of teams of  workers.One of obtained goal is to build a simulation model, which presents the new assembly line in the factory, taking into ac-count the arrangement of workstations and work teams in the new production hall as well as the transport between workstations. Second goal is to present work organization of work teams and division of individual workers’ labor (who belongs to a particular work team and performs operations on buses in a particular workstation in order to determine the best allocation of tasks and the optimum size of individual work teams. Proposed solution enables to determine the effect of assembly interferences on the work of particular work teams and the efficiency of the whole production system, to define the efficiency of the designed assembly lines and proposing changes aimed at the quality improvement of the created conception. 

  11. A multiobjective model and evolutionary algorithms for robust time and space assembly line balancing under uncertain demand

    OpenAIRE

    Chica Serrano, Manuel; Bautista Valhondo, Joaquín; Cordón García, Oscar; Damas Arroyo, Sergio

    2016-01-01

    Changes in demand when manufacturing different products require an optimization model that includes robustness in its definition and methods to deal with it. In this work we propose the r-TSALBP, a multiobjective model for assembly line balancing to search for the most robust line configurations when demand changes. The robust model definition considers a set of demand scenarios and presents temporal and spatial overloads of the stations in the assembly line of the products to be assembled. W...

  12. Experimental study of the natural circulation phenomena

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sabundjian, Gaiane; Andrade, Delvonei Alves de; Umbehaun, Pedro E.; Torres, Walmir M.; Castro, Alfredo Jose Alvim de; Belchior Junior, Antonio; Rocha, Ricardo Takeshi Vieira da; Damy, Osvaldo Luiz de Almeida; Torres, Eduardo

    2006-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to study the natural circulation in experimental loops and extend the results to nuclear facilities. New generation of compact nuclear power plants use the natural circulation as cooling and residual heat removal systems in case of accidents or shutdown. Lately the interest in this phenomenon, by scientific community, has increased. The experimental loop, described in this paper, was assembled at Escola Politecnica - USP at the Chemical Engineering Department. It is the goal to generate information to help with the understanding of the one and two phase natural circulation phenomena. Some experiments were performed with different levels of heat power and different flow of the cooling water at the secondary circuit. The data generated from these experiments are going to be used to validate some computational thermal hydraulic codes. Experimental results for one and two phase regimes are presented as well as the proposed model to simulate the flow regimes with the RELAP5 code. (author)

  13. Mathematical Modelling of Surfactant Self-assembly at Interfaces

    KAUST Repository

    Morgan, C. E.

    2015-01-01

    © 2015 Society for Industrial and Applied Mathematics. We present a mathematical model to describe the distribution of surfactant pairs in a multilayer structure beneath an adsorbed monolayer. A mesoscopic model comprising a set of ordinary differential equations that couple the rearrangement of surfactant within the multilayer to the surface adsorption kinetics is first derived. This model is then extended to the macroscopic scale by taking the continuum limit that exploits the typically large number of surfactant layers, which results in a novel third-order partial differential equation. The model is generalized to allow for the presence of two adsorbing boundaries, which results in an implicit free-boundary problem. The system predicts physically observed features in multilayer systems such as the initial formation of smaller lamellar structures and the typical number of layers that form in equilibrium.

  14. Peroxiredoxins: A Model for a Self-Assembling Nanoscale System

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-08-24

    software SWISS-MODEL (http://swissmodel.expasy.org/) ( Kiefer et al. 2009). This program uses a BLAST search to identify a protein sequence with a crystal...sequence (Arnold et al. 2006; Kiefer et al. 2009; Peitsch 1995). The amino acid sequence of TaqPrx was entered, and the modelling program run in...radicals. ACS Chem. Biol. 4: 161–177. Frisken, Barbara J. (2001) Revisiting the method of cumulants for the analysis of dynamic light-scattering data

  15. Three-dimensional multi-phase flow computational fluid dynamics model for analysis of transport phenomena and thermal stresses in PEM fuel cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maher, A.R.; Al-Baghdadi, S. [International Technological Univ., London (United Kingdom). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering; Haroun, A.K.; Al-Janabi, S. [Babylon Univ., Babylon (Iraq). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering

    2007-07-01

    Fuel cell technology is expected to play an important role in meeting the growing demand for distributed generation because it can convert the chemical energy of a clean fuel directly into electrical energy. An operating fuel cell has varying local conditions of temperature, humidity, and power generation across the active area of the fuel cell in 3D. This paper presented a model that was developed to improve the basic understanding of the transport phenomena and thermal stresses in PEM fuel cells, and to investigate the behaviour of polymer membrane under hygro and thermal stresses during the cell operation. This comprehensive 3D, multiphase, non-isothermal model accounts for the major transport phenomena in a PEM fuel cell, notably convective and diffusive heat and mass transfer; electrode kinetics; transport and phase change mechanism of water; and potential fields. The model accounts for the liquid water flux inside the gas diffusion layers by viscous and capillary forces and can therefore predict the amount of liquid water inside the gas diffusion layers. This study also investigated the key parameters affecting fuel cell performance including geometry, materials and operating conditions. The model considers the many interacting, complex electrochemical, transport phenomena, thermal stresses and deformation that cannot be studied experimentally. It was concluded that the model can provide a computer-aided tool for the design and optimization of future fuel cells with much higher power density and lower cost. 21 refs., 2 tabs., 14 figs.

  16. Experimental analysis models for studying the dynamic behaviour of turbine shrouded bladed disk assemblies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Costa, B.

    1996-05-01

    The study presented concerns the final blade assembly of a low-pressure body in an electric power station. The ultimate objective of the study is to check whether the fatigue damage is acceptable and that the actual stresses do not excite the bladed disk assembly in its own modes. A combined methodology of calculations and tests was adopted to carry out this test. The calculation part involves modelization, by finite elements, of the bladed disk assembly. This paper presents only the experimental part, i.e. the tests, and experimental analysis methods and models. Experimental analysis poses special problems on account of the complexity of the dynamic behaviour of this type of structure and the limited number of available measuring points. (author). 9 refs

  17. A computational model for the optimization of transport phenomena in a rotating hollow-fiber bioreactor for artificial liver.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Consolo, Filippo; Fiore, Gianfranco B; Truscello, Silvia; Caronna, Marco; Morbiducci, Umberto; Montevecchi, Franco M; Redaelli, Alberto

    2009-03-01

    A comprehensive computational study modelling the operation of a rotating hollow-fiber bioreactor for artificial liver (BAL) was performed to explore the interactions between the oxygenated culture medium and the cultured hepatocytes. Computational fluid dynamics investigations were carried out using two-dimensional (2D) and 3D time-dependent numerical simulations, integrating calculations of diffusion, convection, and multiphase fluid dynamics. The analysis was aimed at determining the rotational speed value of the chamber to ensure homogenous distribution of the floating microcarrier-attached aggregated cells (microCAACs) and avoid their sedimentation and excessive packing, analyzing oxygen (O(2)) delivery and cellular O(2) consumption as an index of cellular metabolic activity, and analyzing the fluid-induced mechanical stress experienced by cells. According to our results, homogeneous distribution of cells is reached at a rotational speed of 30 rpm; spreading of cellular concentration at around the initial value of 12% was limited (median = 11.97%, 5th percentile = 10.94%, 95th percentile = 13.2%), resulting in uniform suspension of microCAACs, which did not appear to be excessively packed. Mixing within the rotating fluid caused a maximum fluid-induced stress value of 0.05 Pa, which was neither endangering for liver-specific functions of cultured cells, nor causing disruption of the floating aggregates. Moreover, an inlet medium flow rate of 200 mL/m with a partial pressure of oxygen (pO(2)) value of 160 mmHg was found to guarantee an adequate O(2) supply for the hepatocytes (2.7 x 10(8) hepatocytes are simulated); under such conditions, the minimum pO(2) value (23 mmHg) is above the critical threshold value, causing the onset of cellular hypoxia (10 mmHg). We proved that numerical simulation of transport phenomena is a valuable tool for the computer-aided design of BALs, helping overcome the unsolved issues in optimizing the cell-environment conditioning

  18. Herbicide targets and detoxification proteins in sugarcane: from gene assembly to structure modelling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lloyd Evans, Dyfed; Joshi, Shailesh Vinay

    2017-07-01

    In a genome context, sugarcane is a classic orphan crop, in that no genome and only very few genes have been assembled. We have devised a novel exome assembly methodology that has allowed us to assemble and characterize 49 genes that serve as herbicide targets, safener interacting proteins, and members of herbicide detoxification pathways within the sugarcane genome. We have structurally modelled the products of each of these genes, as well as determining allelic, genomic, and RNA-Seq based polymorphisms for each gene. This study provides the largest collection of sugarcane structures modelled to date. We demonstrate that sugarcane genes are highly polymorphic, revealing that each genotype is evolving both uniquely and independently. In addition, we present an exome assembly system for orphan crops that can be executed on commodity infrastructure, making exome assembly practical for any group. In terms of knowledge about herbicide modes of action and detoxification, we have advanced sugarcane from a crop where no information about any herbicide-associated gene was available to the situation where sugarcane is now a species with the single largest collection of known and annotated herbicide-associated genes.

  19. Model for Assembly Line Re-Balancing Considering Additional Capacity and Outsourcing to Face Demand Fluctuations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samadhi, TMAA; Sumihartati, Atin

    2016-02-01

    The most critical stage in a garment industry is sewing process, because generally, it consists of a number of operations and a large number of sewing machines for each operation. Therefore, it requires a balancing method that can assign task to work station with balance workloads. Many studies on assembly line balancing assume a new assembly line, but in reality, due to demand fluctuation and demand increased a re-balancing is needed. To cope with those fluctuating demand changes, additional capacity can be carried out by investing in spare sewing machine and paying for sewing service through outsourcing. This study develops an assembly line balancing (ALB) model on existing line to cope with fluctuating demand change. Capacity redesign is decided if the fluctuation demand exceeds the available capacity through a combination of making investment on new machines and outsourcing while considering for minimizing the cost of idle capacity in the future. The objective of the model is to minimize the total cost of the line assembly that consists of operating costs, machine cost, adding capacity cost, losses cost due to idle capacity and outsourcing costs. The model develop is based on an integer programming model. The model is tested for a set of data of one year demand with the existing number of sewing machines of 41 units. The result shows that additional maximum capacity up to 76 units of machine required when there is an increase of 60% of the average demand, at the equal cost parameters..

  20. CAD ACTIVE MODELS: AN INNOVATIVE METHOD IN ASSEMBLY ENVIRONMENT

    OpenAIRE

    NADDEO Alessandro; CAPPETTI Nicola; PAPPALARDO Michele

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this work is to show the use and the versatility of the active models in different applications. It has been realized an active model of a cylindrical spring and it has been applied in two mechanisms, different for typology and for backlash loads. The first example is a dynamometer in which nthe cylindrical spring is loaded by traction forces, while the second example is made up from a pressure valve in which the cylindrical-conic spring works under compression. The imposition of t...

  1. Modelling phagosomal lipid networks that regulate actin assembly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schwarz Roland

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background When purified phagosomes are incubated in the presence of actin under appropriate conditions, microfilaments start growing from the membrane in a process that is affected by ATP and the lipid composition of the membrane. Isolated phagosomes are metabolically active organelles that contain enzymes and metabolites necessary for lipid interconversion. Hence, addition of ATP, lipids, and actin to the system alter the steady-state composition of the phagosomal membrane at the same time that the actin nucleation is initiated. Our aim was to model all these processes in parallel. Results We compiled detailed experimental data on the effects of different lipids and ATP on actin nucleation and we investigated experimentally lipid interconversion and ATP metabolism in phagosomes by using suitable radioactive compounds. In a first step, a complex lipid network interconnected by chemical reactions catalyzed by known enzymes was modelled in COPASI (Complex Pathway Simulator. However, several lines of experimental evidence indicated that only the phosphatidylinositol branch of the network was active, an observation that dramatically reduced the number of parameters in the model. The results also indicated that a lipid network-independent ATP-consuming activity should be included in the model. When this activity was introduced, the set of differential equations satisfactorily reproduced the experimental data. On the other hand, a molecular mechanism connecting membrane lipids, ATP, and the actin nucleation process is still missing. We therefore adopted a phenomenological (black-box approach to represent the empirical observations. We proposed that lipids and ATP influence the dynamic interconversion between active and inactive actin nucleation sites. With this simple model, all the experimental data were satisfactorily fitted with a single positive parameter per lipid and ATP. Conclusion By establishing an active 'dialogue' between an

  2. The 'British-Imperial' Model of administration: Assembling the South ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    With the end of the South African War believed to be in sight, British policy makers in South Africa created the South African Constabulary (SAC) in late 1900 to provide law and order over the new Transvaal and Orange River colonies. By 1900, policy makers no longer simply exported 'English' or 'Irish' models to the ...

  3. Review on mechanisms and continuum models of multi-phase transport phenomena in porous structures of non-aqueous Li-Air batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Jinliang; Yu, Jong-Sung; Sundén, Bengt

    2015-03-01

    During recent years intensive research activities involving both experimental and modeling approaches have appeared for different aspects of Lithium-air (Li-air) battery. Multi-phase transport phenomena including dissolved oxygen and lithium ions (Li+) in the liquid electrolyte, as well as electrons in the solid materials, are strongly coupled with the porous structures and various reactions, particularly the solid product grown in the porous cathode during battery discharge. Understanding the mechanisms of transport phenomena and accurate evaluation of effective transport properties are significant for improving the battery capacities and design, especially at high rate conditions. In this paper, the transport governing equations commonly used for macroscopic continuum models at porous-average level are outlined and highlighted, with a purpose to provide a general overview of the validity and the limitation of these approaches. The most often used models in the open literature are reviewed and discussed focusing on the effective properties involving tortuosity factors, solid product morphologies, as well as effects on the void space clogging, surface area reduction and passivation. Comments and suggestions are also provided for better understanding of multi-phase transport phenomena and implementation of the detailed models for solid product generation and morphology growth in Li-air battery cathodes.

  4. Molecular simulations of self-assembly processes in metal-organic frameworks: Model dependence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biswal, Debasmita; Kusalik, Peter G.

    2017-07-01

    Molecular simulation is a powerful tool for investigating microscopic behavior in various chemical systems, where the use of suitable models is critical to successfully reproduce the structural and dynamic properties of the real systems of interest. In this context, molecular dynamics simulation studies of self-assembly processes in metal-organic frameworks (MOFs), a well-known class of porous materials with interesting chemical and physical properties, are relatively challenging, where a reasonably accurate representation of metal-ligand interactions is anticipated to play an important role. In the current study, we both investigate the performance of some existing models and introduce and test new models to help explore the self-assembly in an archetypal Zn-carboxylate MOF system. To this end, the behavior of six different Zn-ion models, three solvent models, and two ligand models was examined and validated against key experimental structural parameters. To explore longer time scale ordering events during MOF self-assembly via explicit solvent simulations, it is necessary to identify a suitable combination of simplified model components representing metal ions, organic ligands, and solvent molecules. It was observed that an extended cationic dummy atom (ECDA) Zn-ion model combined with an all-atom carboxylate ligand model and a simple dipolar solvent model can reproduce characteristic experimental structures for the archetypal MOF system. The successful use of these models in extensive sets of molecular simulations, which provide key insights into the self-assembly mechanism of this archetypal MOF system occurring during the early stages of this process, has been very recently reported.

  5. Automated Test Assembly for Cognitive Diagnosis Models Using a Genetic Algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finkelman, Matthew; Kim, Wonsuk; Roussos, Louis A.

    2009-01-01

    Much recent psychometric literature has focused on cognitive diagnosis models (CDMs), a promising class of instruments used to measure the strengths and weaknesses of examinees. This article introduces a genetic algorithm to perform automated test assembly alongside CDMs. The algorithm is flexible in that it can be applied whether the goal is to…

  6. Insights into the variability of nucleated amyloid polymerization by a minimalistic model of stochastic protein assembly

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eugène, Sarah, E-mail: Sarah.Eugene@inria.fr; Doumic, Marie, E-mail: Philippe.Robert@inria.fr, E-mail: Marie.Doumic@inria.fr [INRIA de Paris, 2 Rue Simone Iff, CS 42112, 75589 Paris Cedex 12 (France); Sorbonne Universités, UPMC Université Pierre et Marie Curie, UMR 7598, Laboratoire Jacques-Louis Lions, F-75005 Paris (France); Xue, Wei-Feng, E-mail: W.F.Xue@kent.ac.uk [School of Biosciences, University of Kent, Canterbury, Kent CT2 7NJ (United Kingdom); Robert, Philippe, E-mail: Philippe.Robert@inria.fr [INRIA de Paris, 2 Rue Simone Iff, CS 42112, 75589 Paris Cedex 12 (France)

    2016-05-07

    Self-assembly of proteins into amyloid aggregates is an important biological phenomenon associated with human diseases such as Alzheimer’s disease. Amyloid fibrils also have potential applications in nano-engineering of biomaterials. The kinetics of amyloid assembly show an exponential growth phase preceded by a lag phase, variable in duration as seen in bulk experiments and experiments that mimic the small volumes of cells. Here, to investigate the origins and the properties of the observed variability in the lag phase of amyloid assembly currently not accounted for by deterministic nucleation dependent mechanisms, we formulate a new stochastic minimal model that is capable of describing the characteristics of amyloid growth curves despite its simplicity. We then solve the stochastic differential equations of our model and give mathematical proof of a central limit theorem for the sample growth trajectories of the nucleated aggregation process. These results give an asymptotic description for our simple model, from which closed form analytical results capable of describing and predicting the variability of nucleated amyloid assembly were derived. We also demonstrate the application of our results to inform experiments in a conceptually friendly and clear fashion. Our model offers a new perspective and paves the way for a new and efficient approach on extracting vital information regarding the key initial events of amyloid formation.

  7. ITER central solenoid model coil heat treatment complete and assembly started

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thome, R.J.; Okuno, K.

    1998-01-01

    A major R and D task in the ITER program is to fabricate a Superconducting Model Coil for the Central Solenoid to establish the design and fabrication methods for ITER size coils and to demonstrate conductor performance. Completion of its components is expected in 1998, to be followed by assembly with structural components and testing in a facility at JAERI

  8. Physical modeling of geometrically confined disordered protein assemblies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ando, David

    2015-08-01

    The transport of cargo across the nuclear membrane is highly selective and accomplished by a poorly understood mechanism involving hundreds of nucleoporins lining the inside of the nuclear pore complex (NPC). Currently, there is no clear picture of the overall structure formed by this collection of proteins within the pore, primarily due to their disordered nature and uncertainty regarding the properties of individual nucleoporins. We first study the defining characteristics of the amino acid sequences of nucleoporins through bioinformatics techniques, although bioinformatics of disordered proteins is especially challenging given high mutation rates for homologous proteins and that functionality may not be strongly related to sequence. Here we have performed a novel bioinformatic analysis, based on the spatial clustering of physically relevant features such as binding motifs and charges within disordered proteins, on thousands of FG motif containing nucleoporins (FG nups). The biophysical mechanism by which the critical FG nups regulate nucleocytoplasmic transport has remained elusive, yet our analysis revealed a set of highly conserved spatial features in the sequence structure of individual FG nups, such as the separation, localization, and ordering of FG motifs and charged residues along the protein chain. These sequence features are likely conserved due to a common functionality between species regarding how FG nups functionally regulate traffic, therefore these results constrain current models and eliminate proposed biophysical mechanisms responsible for regulation of nucleocytoplasmic traffic in the NPC which would not result in such a conserved amino acid sequence structure. Additionally, this method allows us to identify potentially functionally analogous disordered proteins across distantly related species. To understand the physical implications of the sequence features on structure and dynamics of the nucleoporins, we performed coarse-grained simulations

  9. Modeling biological problems in computer science: a case study in genome assembly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medvedev, Paul

    2018-01-30

    As computer scientists working in bioinformatics/computational biology, we often face the challenge of coming up with an algorithm to answer a biological question. This occurs in many areas, such as variant calling, alignment and assembly. In this tutorial, we use the example of the genome assembly problem to demonstrate how to go from a question in the biological realm to a solution in the computer science realm. We show the modeling process step-by-step, including all the intermediate failed attempts. Please note this is not an introduction to how genome assembly algorithms work and, if treated as such, would be incomplete and unnecessarily long-winded. © The Author(s) 2018. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  10. On the mixing model for calculating the temperature fields in nuclear reactor fuel assemblies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mikhin, V.I.; Zhukov, A.V.

    1985-01-01

    One of the alternatives of the mixing model applied for calculating temperature fields in nuclear reactor fuel assemblies,including the fuel assemblies with nonequilibrium energy-release in fuel element cross section, is consistently described. The equations for both constant and variable values of coolant density and heat capacity are obtained. The mixing model is based on a set of mass, heat and longitudinal momentum balance equations. This set is closed by the ratios connecting the unknown values for gaps between fuel elements with the averaged values for neighbouring channels. The ratios to close momentum and heat balance equations, explaining, in particular, the nonequivalent heat and mass, momentum and mass transfer coefficients, are suggested. The balance equations with variable coolant density and heat capacity are reduced to the form coinciding with those of the similar equations with constant values of these parameters. Application of one of the main ratios of the mixing model relating the coolant transverse overflow in the gaps between fuel elements to the averaged coolant rates (flow rates) in the neighbouring channels is mainly limited by the coolant stabilized flow in the fuel assemblies with regular symmetrical arrangement of elements. Mass transfer coefficients for these elements are experimentally determined. The ratio in the paper is also applicable for calculation of fuel assembly temperature fields with a small relative shift of elements

  11. A mathematical model of an automatic assembler to stack fuel pellets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jarvis, R.G.; Joynes, R.; Bretzlaff, C.I.

    1980-11-01

    Fuel elements for CANDU reactors are assembled from stacks of cylindrical UO 2 pellets, with close tolerances on lengths and diameters. Present stacking techniques involve extensive manual operations and they can be speeded up and reduced in cost by an automated device. If gamma-active fuel is handled such a device is essential. An automatic fuel pellet assembly process was modelled mathematically. The model indicated a suitable sequence of pellet manipulations to arrive at a stack length that was always within tolerance. This sequence was used as the inital input for the design of mechanical hardware. The mechanical design and the refinement of the mathematical model proceeded simultaneously. Mechanical constraints were allowed for in the model, and its optimized sequence of operations was incorporated in a microcomputer program to control the mechanical hardware. (auth)

  12. Application of probabilistic modelling for the uncertainty evaluation of alignment measurements of large accelerator magnets assemblies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doytchinov, I.; Tonnellier, X.; Shore, P.; Nicquevert, B.; Modena, M.; Mainaud Durand, H.

    2018-05-01

    Micrometric assembly and alignment requirements for future particle accelerators, and especially large assemblies, create the need for accurate uncertainty budgeting of alignment measurements. Measurements and uncertainties have to be accurately stated and traceable, to international standards, for metre-long sized assemblies, in the range of tens of µm. Indeed, these hundreds of assemblies will be produced and measured by several suppliers around the world, and will have to be integrated into a single machine. As part of the PACMAN project at CERN, we proposed and studied a practical application of probabilistic modelling of task-specific alignment uncertainty by applying a simulation by constraints calibration method. Using this method, we calibrated our measurement model using available data from ISO standardised tests (10360 series) for the metrology equipment. We combined this model with reference measurements and analysis of the measured data to quantify the actual specific uncertainty of each alignment measurement procedure. Our methodology was successfully validated against a calibrated and traceable 3D artefact as part of an international inter-laboratory study. The validated models were used to study the expected alignment uncertainty and important sensitivity factors in measuring the shortest and longest of the compact linear collider study assemblies, 0.54 m and 2.1 m respectively. In both cases, the laboratory alignment uncertainty was within the targeted uncertainty budget of 12 µm (68% confidence level). It was found that the remaining uncertainty budget for any additional alignment error compensations, such as the thermal drift error due to variation in machine operation heat load conditions, must be within 8.9 µm and 9.8 µm (68% confidence level) respectively.

  13. Assembly of the first model of MQXFS quadrupole magnet for Hi-Lumi

    CERN Multimedia

    AUTHOR|(CDS)2086825

    2016-01-01

    Building 927. Assembly of the first model of MQXFS quadrupole magnet for Hi-Lumi. The MQXF models are about 1.5 m long and are used to validate the design before start building the first long prototype. Two types of insertion quadrupoles will be built and installed in the LHC tunnel during LS3. LARP (US collaboration) will built MQXFA type (4.2 meters long) and MQXFB magnets (around 7 m long) will be built at CERN.

  14. Modelling Methods of Magnetohydrodynamic Phenomena Occurring in a Channel of the Device Used to Wash Out the Spent Automotive Catalyst by a Liquid Metal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fornalczyk A.

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The recovery of precious metals is necessary for environmental and economic reasons. Spent catalysts from automotive industry containing precious metals are very attractive recyclable material as the devices have to be periodically renovated and eventually replaced. This paper presents the method of removing platinum from the spent catalytic converters applying lead as a collector metal in a device used to wash out by using mangetohydrodynamic stirrer. The article includes the description of the methods used for modeling of magnetohydrodynamic phenomena (coupled analysis of the electromagnetic, temperature and flow fields occurring in this particular device. The paper describes the general phenomena and ways of coupling the various physical fields for this type of calculation. The basic computational techniques with a discussion of their advantages and disadvantages are presented.

  15. Determination of the phenomena involved when de-energing transformers for wind-farms. Modelling, residual fluxes calculation and validation by on site tests

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rioual, Michel [Societe Electricite de France (EDF) (France). Themis Dept.; Reveret, Jean-Christophe [Ecole Speciale de Mecanique et d' Electricite, Ivry-sur-Seine (France)

    2009-07-01

    The energization of the main transformers for wind-farms is an important issue, as it has a major impact on the voltage dips at the Delivery Point and consequently on the power delivery. One of the main point is the determination of the phenomena at the transformer energizing prior its energization, which are described in the paper, and mainly the residual fluxes circulating in the iron core. The residual fluxes have been determined in the case of the de-energization of the main transformers for wind-farms, with a detailed modelling of the equipment under the phenomena involved. A methodology is presented to obtain those fluxes; the values obtained have then be considered as initial conditions for the transformers energization, the inrush currents and overvoltages determined by the EMTP-RV program, and finally validated by on site tests. (orig.)

  16. Multiscale Phenomena in the Solid-Liquid Transition State of a Granular Material: Analysis, Modeling and Experimentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-21

    Methods in Geomechanics 33 pp 1737-1768. Tordesillas, A, Shi, J and Muhlhaus, H (2009) “Non-coaxiality and force chain evolution” International...Buckling force chains in dense granular assemblies: physical and numerical experiments” Geomechanics and Geoengineering 4(1) pp 3-16. Tordesillas, A...J, Tshaikiwsky, T (2010) “Stress-dilatancy and force chain evolution”, International Journal of Numerical and Analytical Methods in Geomechanics DOI

  17. Workshop on Interface Phenomena

    CERN Document Server

    Kreuzer, Hans

    1987-01-01

    This book contains the proceedings of the first Workshop on Interface Phenomena, organized jointly by the surface science groups at Dalhousie University and the University of Maine. It was our intention to concentrate on just three topics related to the kinetics of interface reactions which, in our opinion, were frequently obscured unnecessarily in the literature and whose fundamental nature warranted an extensive discussion to help clarify the issues, very much in the spirit of the Discussions of the Faraday Society. Each session (day) saw two principal speakers expounding the different views; the session chairmen were asked to summarize the ensuing discussions. To understand the complexity of interface reactions, paradigms must be formulated to provide a framework for the interpretation of experimen­ tal data and for the construction of theoretical models. Phenomenological approaches have been based on a small number of rate equations for the concentrations or mole numbers of the various species involved i...

  18. Modelling of isothermal remanence magnetisation curves for an assembly of macrospins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tournus, F.

    2015-01-01

    We present a robust and efficient framework to compute isothermal remanent magnetisation (IRM) curves for magnetic nanoparticle assemblies. The assembly is modelled by independent, randomly oriented, uniaxial macrospins and we use a Néel model to take into account the thermal relaxation. A simple analytic expression is established for a single size, in a sudden switching approximation, and is compared to more evolved models. We show that for realistic samples (necessarily presenting a size dispersion) the simple model is very satisfactory. With this framework, it is then possible to reliably simulate IRM curves, which can be compared to experimental measurements and used in a best fit procedure. We also examine the influence of several parameters on the IRM curves and we discuss the link between the irreversible susceptibility and the switching field distribution. - Highlights: • A framework to compute IRM curves for nanoparticle assemblies is presented. • A simple analytic expression (for a single size) is compared to more evolved models. • The simple expression can reliably simulate IRM curves for realistic samples. • Irreversible susceptibility and the influence of several parameters is discussed

  19. A two-stage stochastic rule-based model to determine pre-assembly buffer content

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunay, Elif Elcin; Kula, Ufuk

    2018-01-01

    This study considers instant decision-making needs of the automobile manufactures for resequencing vehicles before final assembly (FA). We propose a rule-based two-stage stochastic model to determine the number of spare vehicles that should be kept in the pre-assembly buffer to restore the altered sequence due to paint defects and upstream department constraints. First stage of the model decides the spare vehicle quantities, where the second stage model recovers the scrambled sequence respect to pre-defined rules. The problem is solved by sample average approximation (SAA) algorithm. We conduct a numerical study to compare the solutions of heuristic model with optimal ones and provide following insights: (i) as the mismatch between paint entrance and scheduled sequence decreases, the rule-based heuristic model recovers the scrambled sequence as good as the optimal resequencing model, (ii) the rule-based model is more sensitive to the mismatch between the paint entrance and scheduled sequences for recovering the scrambled sequence, (iii) as the defect rate increases, the difference in recovery effectiveness between rule-based heuristic and optimal solutions increases, (iv) as buffer capacity increases, the recovery effectiveness of the optimization model outperforms heuristic model, (v) as expected the rule-based model holds more inventory than the optimization model.

  20. Development of student's skills of 3D modeling of assembly units

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chepur, P. V.; Boshhenko, T. V.

    2018-03-01

    The paper presents data on the influence of additives of the pre-treated aluminium oxide powder on the structure of cast lead-tin-based bronzes. The article demonstrates that modern, advanced from the point of view of automation, methods in designing products are the basis for the successful implementation of any production task. The advantages of product presentation in the form of an assembly consisting of 3D models of its details are described. The extreme importance of high-quality preparation of students of engineering specialties for work in computer-aided design programs such as AutoCAD, Compass 3D, Inventer|, Solid Edge, Solid Works, Revit, ANSYS is considered. It is established that one of the most effective forms of increasing the level of computer graphic preparation of students are academic competitions and contests on modeling and prototyping products. The stages of creation of assembly unit models in the AutoCad and Compass 3D software suits generally accepted both in design in a business environment and during training of specialists are considered. The developed 3D models of assembly units are presented in the course of preparation for academic competitions (called Academic Olympics in Russia) of students of the 2nd-5th years of study and the first year students of the master's program in engineering. The conclusions and recommendations on the development of the direction of three-dimensional design in the environment of higher education are given.

  1. Modeling Textural Processes during Self-Assembly of Plant-Based Chiral-Nematic Liquid Crystals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yogesh K. Murugesan

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Biological liquid crystalline polymers are found in cellulosic, chitin, and DNA based natural materials. Chiral nematic liquid crystalline orientational order is observed frozen-in in the solid state in plant cell walls and is known as a liquid crystal analogue characterized by a helicoidal plywood architecture. The emergence of the plywood architecture by directed chiral nematic liquid crystalline self assembly has been postulated as the mechanism that leads to optimal cellulose fibril organization. In natural systems, tissue growth and development takes place in the presence of inclusions and secondary phases leaving behind characteristic defects and textures, which provide a unique testing ground for the validity of the liquid crystal self-assembly postulate. In this work, a mathematical model, based on the Landau-de Gennes theory of liquid crystals, is used to simulate defect textures arising in the domain of self assembly, due to presence of secondary phases representing plant cells, lumens and pit canals. It is shown that the obtained defect patterns observed in some plant cell walls are those expected from a truly liquid crystalline phase. The analysis reveals the nature and magnitude of the viscoelastic material parameters that lead to observed patterns in plant-based helicoids through directed self-assembly. In addition, the results provide new guidance to develop biomimetic plywoods for structural and functional applications.

  2. Development of core seismic analysis models for KNGR fuel assemblies associated with 0.3 g seismic loads

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, H.K.; Lee, J.S.

    2002-01-01

    In order to evaluate the structural integrity of fuel assemblies associated with 0.3 g seismic loads in the Korean Next Generation Reactor (KNGR), detailed fuel assembly model and core series models with seven and 17 assemblies have been developed using the super-element capability of the MSC/NASTRAN code. The detailed fuel assembly model has been verified by comparison with the analysis results and test results. Non-linear transient analysis has been performed on the core series models. The detailed fuel assembly model and core series models for the KNGR developed with the MSC/NASTRAN code have a good correlation with test results and in-reactor impact behavior of fuel assemblies under applied seismic loads. Since the time histories considered in the transient analysis were generated from a seismic analysis of the System 80+ reactor internals that is reference plant of the KNGR based on 0.3 g ground motion, it is necessary to study further the evaluation for the KNGR fuel assembly and the models using the site specific time histories. It is expected that the further evaluation and some modifications can be performed effectively with the aid of the models developed in this study

  3. Automated Eukaryotic Gene Structure Annotation Using EVidenceModeler and the Program to Assemble Spliced Alignments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haas, B J; Salzberg, S L; Zhu, W; Pertea, M; Allen, J E; Orvis, J; White, O; Buell, C R; Wortman, J R

    2007-12-10

    EVidenceModeler (EVM) is presented as an automated eukaryotic gene structure annotation tool that reports eukaryotic gene structures as a weighted consensus of all available evidence. EVM, when combined with the Program to Assemble Spliced Alignments (PASA), yields a comprehensive, configurable annotation system that predicts protein-coding genes and alternatively spliced isoforms. Our experiments on both rice and human genome sequences demonstrate that EVM produces automated gene structure annotation approaching the quality of manual curation.

  4. Fuzzy Mixed Assembly Line Sequencing and Scheduling Optimization Model Using Multiobjective Dynamic Fuzzy GA

    OpenAIRE

    Tahriri, Farzad; Dawal, Siti Zawiah Md; Taha, Zahari

    2014-01-01

    A new multiobjective dynamic fuzzy genetic algorithm is applied to solve a fuzzy mixed-model assembly line sequencing problem in which the primary goals are to minimize the total make-span and minimize the setup number simultaneously. Trapezoidal fuzzy numbers are implemented for variables such as operation and travelling time in order to generate results with higher accuracy and representative of real-case data. An improved genetic algorithm called fuzzy adaptive genetic algorithm (FAGA) is ...

  5. Containment severe accident thermohydraulic phenomena

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frid, W.

    1991-08-01

    This report describes and discusses the containment accident progression and the important severe accident containment thermohydraulic phenomena. The overall objective of the report is to provide a rather detailed presentation of the present status of phenomenological knowledge, including an account of relevant experimental investigations and to discuss, to some extent, the modelling approach used in the MAAP 3.0 computer code. The MAAP code has been used in Sweden as the main tool in the analysis of severe accidents. The dependence of the containment accident progression and containment phenomena on the initial conditions, which in turn are heavily dependent on the in-vessel accident progression and phenomena as well as associated uncertainties, is emphasized. The report is in three parts dealing with: * Swedish reactor containments, the severe accident mitigation programme in Sweden and containment accident progression in Swedish PWRs and BWRs as predicted by the MAAP 3.0 code. * Key non-energetic ex-vessel phenomena (melt fragmentation in water, melt quenching and coolability, core-concrete interaction and high temperature in containment). * Early containment threats due to energetic events (hydrogen combustion, high pressure melt ejection and direct containment heating, and ex-vessel steam explosions). The report concludes that our understanding of the containment severe accident progression and phenomena has improved very significantly over the parts ten years and, thereby, our ability to assess containment threats, to quantify uncertainties, and to interpret the results of experiments and computer code calculations have also increased. (au)

  6. Modeling and simulation for microelectronic packaging assembly manufacturing, reliability and testing

    CERN Document Server

    Liu, Sheng

    2011-01-01

    Although there is increasing need for modeling and simulation in the IC package design phase, most assembly processes and various reliability tests are still based on the time consuming ""test and try out"" method to obtain the best solution. Modeling and simulation can easily ensure virtual Design of Experiments (DoE) to achieve the optimal solution. This has greatly reduced the cost and production time, especially for new product development. Using modeling and simulation will become increasingly necessary for future advances in 3D package development.  In this book, Liu and Liu allow people

  7. Thermodynamically Constrained Averaging Theory Approach for Modeling Flow and Transport Phenomena in Porous Medium Systems: 8. Interface and Common Curve Dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, William G; Miller, Cass T

    2010-12-01

    This work is the eighth in a series that develops the fundamental aspects of the thermodynamically constrained averaging theory (TCAT) that allows for a systematic increase in the scale at which multiphase transport phenomena is modeled in porous medium systems. In these systems, the explicit locations of interfaces between phases and common curves, where three or more interfaces meet, are not considered at scales above the microscale. Rather, the densities of these quantities arise as areas per volume or length per volume. Modeling of the dynamics of these measures is an important challenge for robust models of flow and transport phenomena in porous medium systems, as the extent of these regions can have important implications for mass, momentum, and energy transport between and among phases, and formulation of a capillary pressure relation with minimal hysteresis. These densities do not exist at the microscale, where the interfaces and common curves correspond to particular locations. Therefore, it is necessary for a well-developed macroscale theory to provide evolution equations that describe the dynamics of interface and common curve densities. Here we point out the challenges and pitfalls in producing such evolution equations, develop a set of such equations based on averaging theorems, and identify the terms that require particular attention in experimental and computational efforts to parameterize the equations. We use the evolution equations developed to specify a closed two-fluid-phase flow model.

  8. A Kinetic Zipper Model and the Assembly of Tobacco Mosaic Virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraft, Daniela J.; Kegel, Willem K.; van der Schoot, Paul

    2012-01-01

    We put forward a modified Zipper model inspired by the statics and dynamics of the spontaneous reconstitution of rodlike tobacco mosaic virus particles in solutions containing the coat protein and the single-stranded RNA of the virus. An important ingredient of our model is an allosteric switch associated with the binding of the first protein unit to the origin-of-assembly domain of the viral RNA. The subsequent addition and conformational switching of coat proteins to the growing capsid we believe is catalyzed by the presence of the helical arrangement of bound proteins to the RNA. The model explains why the formation of complete viruses is favored over incomplete ones, even though the process is quasi-one-dimensional in character. We numerically solve the relevant kinetic equations and show that time evolution is different for the assembly and disassembly of the virus, the former exhibiting a time lag even if all forward rate constants are equal. We find the late-stage assembly kinetics in the presence of excess protein to be governed by a single-exponential relaxation, which agrees with available experimental data on TMV reconstruction. PMID:22735535

  9. Fuzzy mixed assembly line sequencing and scheduling optimization model using multiobjective dynamic fuzzy GA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tahriri, Farzad; Dawal, Siti Zawiah Md; Taha, Zahari

    2014-01-01

    A new multiobjective dynamic fuzzy genetic algorithm is applied to solve a fuzzy mixed-model assembly line sequencing problem in which the primary goals are to minimize the total make-span and minimize the setup number simultaneously. Trapezoidal fuzzy numbers are implemented for variables such as operation and travelling time in order to generate results with higher accuracy and representative of real-case data. An improved genetic algorithm called fuzzy adaptive genetic algorithm (FAGA) is proposed in order to solve this optimization model. In establishing the FAGA, five dynamic fuzzy parameter controllers are devised in which fuzzy expert experience controller (FEEC) is integrated with automatic learning dynamic fuzzy controller (ALDFC) technique. The enhanced algorithm dynamically adjusts the population size, number of generations, tournament candidate, crossover rate, and mutation rate compared with using fixed control parameters. The main idea is to improve the performance and effectiveness of existing GAs by dynamic adjustment and control of the five parameters. Verification and validation of the dynamic fuzzy GA are carried out by developing test-beds and testing using a multiobjective fuzzy mixed production assembly line sequencing optimization problem. The simulation results highlight that the performance and efficacy of the proposed novel optimization algorithm are more efficient than the performance of the standard genetic algorithm in mixed assembly line sequencing model.

  10. Fuzzy Mixed Assembly Line Sequencing and Scheduling Optimization Model Using Multiobjective Dynamic Fuzzy GA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farzad Tahriri

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A new multiobjective dynamic fuzzy genetic algorithm is applied to solve a fuzzy mixed-model assembly line sequencing problem in which the primary goals are to minimize the total make-span and minimize the setup number simultaneously. Trapezoidal fuzzy numbers are implemented for variables such as operation and travelling time in order to generate results with higher accuracy and representative of real-case data. An improved genetic algorithm called fuzzy adaptive genetic algorithm (FAGA is proposed in order to solve this optimization model. In establishing the FAGA, five dynamic fuzzy parameter controllers are devised in which fuzzy expert experience controller (FEEC is integrated with automatic learning dynamic fuzzy controller (ALDFC technique. The enhanced algorithm dynamically adjusts the population size, number of generations, tournament candidate, crossover rate, and mutation rate compared with using fixed control parameters. The main idea is to improve the performance and effectiveness of existing GAs by dynamic adjustment and control of the five parameters. Verification and validation of the dynamic fuzzy GA are carried out by developing test-beds and testing using a multiobjective fuzzy mixed production assembly line sequencing optimization problem. The simulation results highlight that the performance and efficacy of the proposed novel optimization algorithm are more efficient than the performance of the standard genetic algorithm in mixed assembly line sequencing model.

  11. Fuzzy Mixed Assembly Line Sequencing and Scheduling Optimization Model Using Multiobjective Dynamic Fuzzy GA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tahriri, Farzad; Dawal, Siti Zawiah Md; Taha, Zahari

    2014-01-01

    A new multiobjective dynamic fuzzy genetic algorithm is applied to solve a fuzzy mixed-model assembly line sequencing problem in which the primary goals are to minimize the total make-span and minimize the setup number simultaneously. Trapezoidal fuzzy numbers are implemented for variables such as operation and travelling time in order to generate results with higher accuracy and representative of real-case data. An improved genetic algorithm called fuzzy adaptive genetic algorithm (FAGA) is proposed in order to solve this optimization model. In establishing the FAGA, five dynamic fuzzy parameter controllers are devised in which fuzzy expert experience controller (FEEC) is integrated with automatic learning dynamic fuzzy controller (ALDFC) technique. The enhanced algorithm dynamically adjusts the population size, number of generations, tournament candidate, crossover rate, and mutation rate compared with using fixed control parameters. The main idea is to improve the performance and effectiveness of existing GAs by dynamic adjustment and control of the five parameters. Verification and validation of the dynamic fuzzy GA are carried out by developing test-beds and testing using a multiobjective fuzzy mixed production assembly line sequencing optimization problem. The simulation results highlight that the performance and efficacy of the proposed novel optimization algorithm are more efficient than the performance of the standard genetic algorithm in mixed assembly line sequencing model. PMID:24982962

  12. Comparative study of two- and three-dimensional modeling on arc discharge phenomena inside a thermal plasma torch with hollow electrodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Keun Su; Park, Jin Myung; Choi, Sooseok; Kim, Jongin; Hong, Sang Hee

    2008-01-01

    A comparative study between two- and three-dimensional (2D and 3D) modeling is carried out on arc discharge phenomena inside a thermal plasma torch with hollow electrodes, in order to evaluate the effects of arc root configuration characterized by either 2D annular or 3D highly localized attachment on the electrode surface. For this purpose, a more precise 3D transient model has been developed by taking account of 3D arc current distribution and arc root rotation. The 3D simulation results apparently reveal that the 3D arc root attachment brings about the inherent 3D and turbulence nature of plasma fields inside the torch. It is also found that the constricted arc column near the vortex chamber plays an important role in heating and acceleration of injected arc gases by concentrating arc currents on the axis of the hollow electrodes. The inherent 3D nature of arc discharge is well preserved inside the cathode region, while these 3D features slowly diminish behind the vortex chamber where the turbulent flow begins to be developed in the anode region. Based on the present simulation results, it is noted that the mixing effects of the strong turbulent flow on the heat and mass transfer are mainly responsible for the gradual relaxation of the 3D structures of plasma fields into the 2D axisymmetric ones that eventually appear in the anode region near the torch exit. From a detailed comparison of the 3D results with the 2D ones, the arc root configuration seems to have a significant effect on the heat transfer to the electrode surfaces interacting with the turbulent plasma flow. That is, in the 2D simulation based on an axisymmetric stationary model, the turbulence phenomena are fairly underestimated and the amount of heat transferred to the cold anode wall is calculated to be smaller than that obtained in the 3D simulation. For the validation of the numerical simulations, calculated plasma temperatures and axial velocities are compared with experimentally measured ones

  13. The Physalis peruviana leaf transcriptome: assembly, annotation and gene model prediction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Garzón-Martínez Gina A

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Physalis peruviana commonly known as Cape gooseberry is a member of the Solanaceae family that has an increasing popularity due to its nutritional and medicinal values. A broad range of genomic tools is available for other Solanaceae, including tomato and potato. However, limited genomic resources are currently available for Cape gooseberry. Results We report the generation of a total of 652,614 P. peruviana Expressed Sequence Tags (ESTs, using 454 GS FLX Titanium technology. ESTs, with an average length of 371 bp, were obtained from a normalized leaf cDNA library prepared using a Colombian commercial variety. De novo assembling was performed to generate a collection of 24,014 isotigs and 110,921 singletons, with an average length of 1,638 bp and 354 bp, respectively. Functional annotation was performed using NCBI’s BLAST tools and Blast2GO, which identified putative functions for 21,191 assembled sequences, including gene families involved in all the major biological processes and molecular functions as well as defense response and amino acid metabolism pathways. Gene model predictions in P. peruviana were obtained by using the genomes of Solanum lycopersicum (tomato and Solanum tuberosum (potato. We predict 9,436 P. peruviana sequences with multiple-exon models and conserved intron positions with respect to the potato and tomato genomes. Additionally, to study species diversity we developed 5,971 SSR markers from assembled ESTs. Conclusions We present the first comprehensive analysis of the Physalis peruviana leaf transcriptome, which will provide valuable resources for development of genetic tools in the species. Assembled transcripts with gene models could serve as potential candidates for marker discovery with a variety of applications including: functional diversity, conservation and improvement to increase productivity and fruit quality. P. peruviana was estimated to be phylogenetically branched out before the

  14. The Physalis peruviana leaf transcriptome: assembly, annotation and gene model prediction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garzón-Martínez, Gina A; Zhu, Z Iris; Landsman, David; Barrero, Luz S; Mariño-Ramírez, Leonardo

    2012-04-25

    Physalis peruviana commonly known as Cape gooseberry is a member of the Solanaceae family that has an increasing popularity due to its nutritional and medicinal values. A broad range of genomic tools is available for other Solanaceae, including tomato and potato. However, limited genomic resources are currently available for Cape gooseberry. We report the generation of a total of 652,614 P. peruviana Expressed Sequence Tags (ESTs), using 454 GS FLX Titanium technology. ESTs, with an average length of 371 bp, were obtained from a normalized leaf cDNA library prepared using a Colombian commercial variety. De novo assembling was performed to generate a collection of 24,014 isotigs and 110,921 singletons, with an average length of 1,638 bp and 354 bp, respectively. Functional annotation was performed using NCBI's BLAST tools and Blast2GO, which identified putative functions for 21,191 assembled sequences, including gene families involved in all the major biological processes and molecular functions as well as defense response and amino acid metabolism pathways. Gene model predictions in P. peruviana were obtained by using the genomes of Solanum lycopersicum (tomato) and Solanum tuberosum (potato). We predict 9,436 P. peruviana sequences with multiple-exon models and conserved intron positions with respect to the potato and tomato genomes. Additionally, to study species diversity we developed 5,971 SSR markers from assembled ESTs. We present the first comprehensive analysis of the Physalis peruviana leaf transcriptome, which will provide valuable resources for development of genetic tools in the species. Assembled transcripts with gene models could serve as potential candidates for marker discovery with a variety of applications including: functional diversity, conservation and improvement to increase productivity and fruit quality. P. peruviana was estimated to be phylogenetically branched out before the divergence of five other Solanaceae family members, S

  15. Multi-objective optimization algorithms for mixed model assembly line balancing problem with parallel workstations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masoud Rabbani

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with mixed model assembly line (MMAL balancing problem of type-I. In MMALs several products are made on an assembly line while the similarity of these products is so high. As a result, it is possible to assemble several types of products simultaneously without any additional setup times. The problem has some particular features such as parallel workstations and precedence constraints in dynamic periods in which each period also effects on its next period. The research intends to reduce the number of workstations and maximize the workload smoothness between workstations. Dynamic periods are used to determine all variables in different periods to achieve efficient solutions. A non-dominated sorting genetic algorithm (NSGA-II and multi-objective particle swarm optimization (MOPSO are used to solve the problem. The proposed model is validated with GAMS software for small size problem and the performance of the foregoing algorithms is compared with each other based on some comparison metrics. The NSGA-II outperforms MOPSO with respect to some comparison metrics used in this paper, but in other metrics MOPSO is better than NSGA-II. Finally, conclusion and future research is provided.

  16. A model of stimulus-specific neural assemblies in the insect antennal lobe.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dominique Martinez

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available It has been proposed that synchronized neural assemblies in the antennal lobe of insects encode the identity of olfactory stimuli. In response to an odor, some projection neurons exhibit synchronous firing, phase-locked to the oscillations of the field potential, whereas others do not. Experimental data indicate that neural synchronization and field oscillations are induced by fast GABA(A-type inhibition, but it remains unclear how desynchronization occurs. We hypothesize that slow inhibition plays a key role in desynchronizing projection neurons. Because synaptic noise is believed to be the dominant factor that limits neuronal reliability, we consider a computational model of the antennal lobe in which a population of oscillatory neurons interact through unreliable GABA(A and GABA(B inhibitory synapses. From theoretical analysis and extensive computer simulations, we show that transmission failures at slow GABA(B synapses make the neural response unpredictable. Depending on the balance between GABA(A and GABA(B inputs, particular neurons may either synchronize or desynchronize. These findings suggest a wiring scheme that triggers stimulus-specific synchronized assemblies. Inhibitory connections are set by Hebbian learning and selectively activated by stimulus patterns to form a spiking associative memory whose storage capacity is comparable to that of classical binary-coded models. We conclude that fast inhibition acts in concert with slow inhibition to reformat the glomerular input into odor-specific synchronized neural assemblies.

  17. A two-state stochastic model for nanoparticle self-assembly: theory, computer simulations and applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schwen, E M; Mazilu, I; Mazilu, D A

    2015-01-01

    We introduce a stochastic cooperative model for particle deposition and evaporation relevant to ionic self-assembly of nanoparticles with applications in surface fabrication and nanomedicine, and present a method for mapping our model onto the Ising model. The mapping process allows us to use the established results for the Ising model to describe the steady-state properties of our system. After completing the mapping process, we investigate the time dependence of particle density using the mean field approximation. We complement this theoretical analysis with Monte Carlo simulations that support our model. These techniques, which can be used separately or in combination, are useful as pedagogical tools because they are tractable mathematically and they apply equally well to many other physical systems with nearest-neighbour interactions including voter and epidemic models. (paper)

  18. Mixed convective low flow pressure drop in vertical rod assemblies - I. Predictive model and design correlation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suh, K.Y.; Todreas, N.E.; Robsenow, W.M.

    1987-01-01

    An experimental study has been conducted to confirm and validate the predictive models and correlations for low flow frictional pressure loss in vertical rod bundle geometries under natural circulation conditions. An experimental procedure has been developed to measure low magnitude differential pressures under mixed convection conditions in 19 heated rod bare and wire-wrapped assemblies. The proposed model has been found to successfully predict the effects of wire wrapping, power skew, transition from laminar regime, developing and interacting global and local flow redistributions, and rod number on the mixed convection friction loss characteristics of rod bundles

  19. Ultrashort Laser Pulse Phenomena

    CERN Document Server

    Diels, Jean-Claude

    2006-01-01

    Ultrashort Laser Pulse Phenomena, 2e serves as an introduction to the phenomena of ultra short laser pulses and describes how this technology can be used to examine problems in areas such as electromagnetism, optics, and quantum mechanics. Ultrashort Laser Pulse Phenomena combines theoretical backgrounds and experimental techniques and will serve as a manual on designing and constructing femtosecond (""faster than electronics"") systems or experiments from scratch. Beyond the simple optical system, the various sources of ultrashort pulses are presented, again with emphasis on the basic

  20. Nonlinear surface electromagnetic phenomena

    CERN Document Server

    Ponath, H-E

    1991-01-01

    In recent years the physics of electromagnetic surface phenomena has developed rapidly, evolving into technologies for communications and industry, such as fiber and integrated optics. The variety of phenomena based on electromagnetism at surfaces is rich and this book was written with the aim of summarizing the available knowledge in selected areas of the field. The book contains reviews written by solid state and optical physicists on the nonlinear interaction of electromagnetic waves at and with surfaces and films. Both the physical phenomena and some potential applications are

  1. Science and Paranormal Phenomena

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noyes, H. Pierre

    1999-06-03

    In order to ground my approach to the study of paranormal phenomena, I first explain my operational approach to physics, and to the ''historical'' sciences of cosmic, biological, human, social and political evolution. I then indicate why I believe that ''paranormal phenomena'' might-but need not- fit into this framework. I endorse the need for a new theoretical framework for the investigation of this field presented by Etter and Shoup at this meeting. I close with a short discussion of Ted Bastin's contention that paranormal phenomena should be defined as contradicting physics.

  2. Patterns in the English language: phonological networks, percolation and assembly models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stella, Massimo; Brede, Markus

    2015-05-01

    In this paper we provide a quantitative framework for the study of phonological networks (PNs) for the English language by carrying out principled comparisons to null models, either based on site percolation, randomization techniques, or network growth models. In contrast to previous work, we mainly focus on null models that reproduce lower order characteristics of the empirical data. We find that artificial networks matching connectivity properties of the English PN are exceedingly rare: this leads to the hypothesis that the word repertoire might have been assembled over time by preferentially introducing new words which are small modifications of old words. Our null models are able to explain the ‘power-law-like’ part of the degree distributions and generally retrieve qualitative features of the PN such as high clustering, high assortativity coefficient and small-world characteristics. However, the detailed comparison to expectations from null models also points out significant differences, suggesting the presence of additional constraints in word assembly. Key constraints we identify are the avoidance of large degrees, the avoidance of triadic closure and the avoidance of large non-percolating clusters.

  3. Evaluation of neutron streaming in fast breeder reactor fuel assembly by double heterogeneous modelling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Unesaki, Hironobu; Takeda, Toshikazu

    1988-01-01

    Neutron streaming in a fast breeder reactor fuel assembly caused by the double heterogeneity structure is estimated by double heterogeneous modelling. The conventional pin cell model, a two-region subassembly model and the exact pin cluster model are used to take into account the streaming effect caused by the pin cell structure and the surrounding wrapper tube structure. The heterogeneity of wrapper tube and its surrounding sodium is explicitly considered. The streaming effect is evaluated based on Benoist's diffusion coefficient. The total streaming effect caused by the double heterogeneity structure of a fuel subassembly is found to be -0.2 % dk/kk' for k eff , which is almost twice that obtained from the conventional pin cell model of -0.1 % dk/kk'. (author)

  4. Interfacial transport phenomena

    CERN Document Server

    Slattery, John C; Oh, Eun-Suok

    2007-01-01

    Revised and updated extensively from the previous editionDiscusses transport phenomena at common lines or three-phase lines of contactProvides a comprehensive summary about the extensions of continuum mechanics to the nanoscale.

  5. Nuclear fuel deformation phenomena

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Brutzel, L.; Dingreville, R.; Bartel, T.J.

    2015-01-01

    Nuclear fuel encounters severe thermomechanical environments. Its mechanical response is profoundly influenced by an underlying heterogeneous microstructure but also inherently dependent on the temperature and stress level histories. The ability to adequately simulate the response of such microstructures, to elucidate the associated macroscopic response in such extreme environments is crucial for predicting both performance and transient fuel mechanical responses. This chapter discusses key physical phenomena and the status of current modelling techniques to evaluate and predict fuel deformations: creep, swelling, cracking and pellet-clad interaction. This chapter only deals with nuclear fuel; deformations of cladding materials are discussed elsewhere. An obvious need for a multi-physics and multi-scale approach to develop a fundamental understanding of properties of complex nuclear fuel materials is presented. The development of such advanced multi-scale mechanistic frameworks should include either an explicit (domain decomposition, homogenisation, etc.) or implicit (scaling laws, hand-shaking,...) linkage between the different time and length scales involved, in order to accurately predict the fuel thermomechanical response for a wide range of operating conditions and fuel types (including Gen-IV and TRU). (authors)

  6. Severe accident phenomena

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jokiniemi, J.; Kilpi, K.; Lindholm, I.; Maekynen, J.; Pekkarinen, E.; Sairanen, R.; Silde, A.

    1995-02-01

    Severe accidents are nuclear reactor accidents in which the reactor core is substantially damaged. The report describes severe reactor accident phenomena and their significance for the safety of nuclear power plants. A comprehensive set of phenomena ranging from accident initiation to containment behaviour and containment integrity questions are covered. The report is based on expertise gained in the severe accident assessment projects conducted at the Technical Research Centre of Finland (VTT). (49 refs., 32 figs., 12 tabs.)

  7. Integration phenomena Paralympic cyclists

    OpenAIRE

    Diepoldová, Tereza

    2017-01-01

    Title: Integration phenomena Paralympic cyclists. Objectives of work: Try to find integration phenomena in relation to sport training and its impact on selected cyclists with disabilities. Methods: Case report structured interview, data collection method - the method of interrogation. Results: Based on case studies developed a structured interview, we found differences in the integration, which we have divided into phases - before obtaining disability, acclimatization, sports integration. Fur...

  8. Fundamentals of Fire Phenomena

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Quintiere, James

    analyses. Fire phenomena encompass everything about the scientific principles behind fire behaviour. Combining the principles of chemistry, physics, heat and mass transfer, and fluid dynamics necessary to understand the fundamentals of fire phenomena, this book integrates the subject into a clear...... as a visiting professor at BYG.DTU financed by the Larsen and Nielsen Foundation, and is entered to the research database by Kristian Hertz responsible for the visiting professorship....

  9. A new biochromatography model based on DNA origami assembled PPARγ: construction and evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Jie; Meng, Lingchang; Sun, Chong; Chen, Shanshan; Sun, Fang; Luo, Pei; Zhao, Yongxing

    2017-05-01

    As drug targets, receptors have potential to screen drugs. Silica is an attractive support to immobilize receptors; however, the lack of biocompatibility makes it easier for receptors to lose bioactivity, which remains an obstacle to its widespread use. With the advantage of biocompatibility, DNA origami can be used as a biological carrier to improve the biocompatibility of silica and assemble receptors. In this study, a new biochromatography model based on DNA origami was constructed. A large quantity of M13ssDNA was used as a scaffold, leading to significant costs, so M13ssDNA was self-produced from the bacteriophage particles. This approach is demonstrated using the ligand binding domain of gamma isoform peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPARγ-LBD) as a research object. PPARγ-LBD was assembled on DNA origami carrier and then coupled on the surface of silica. The products were packed into the column as stationary phase to construct the biochromatography with the ability to recognize drugs. Affinity and specificity of the biochromatography model were evaluated by HPLC. The final results showed that the biochromatography could recognize rosiglitazone specifically, which further proved that the model could screen chemical compositions interacted with PPARγ. It was the first time to take advantage of DNA origami to assemble PPARγ to construct biochromatography. The new biochromatography model has the advantages of being efficient, convenient, and high-throughput. This method affords a new way to rapidly and conveniently screen active ingredients from complex sample plant extracts and natural product-like libraries.

  10. Study of Λ parameters and crossover phenomena in SU(N) x SU(N) sigma models in two dimensions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shigemitsu, J.; Kogut, J.B.

    1981-01-01

    The spin system analogues of recent studies of the string tension and Λ parameters of SU(N) gauge theories in 4 dimensions are carried out for the SU(N) x SU(N) and O(N) models in 2 dimensions. The relations between the Λ parameters of both the Euclidean and Hamiltonian formulation of the lattice models and the Λ parameter of the continuum models are obtained. The one loop finite renormalization of the speed of light in the lattice Hamiltonian formulations of the O(N) and SU(N) x SU(N) models is calculated. Strong coupling calculations of the mass gaps of these spin models are done for all N and the constants of proportionality between the gap and the Λ parameter of the continuum models are obtained. These results are contrasted with similar calculations for the SU(N) gauge models in 3+1 dimensions. Identifying suitable coupling constants for discussing the N → infinity limits, the numerical results suggest that the crossover from weak to strong coupling in the lattice O(N) models becomes less abrupt as N increases while the crossover for the SU(N) x SU(N) models becomes more abrupt. The crossover in SU(N) gauge theories also becomes more abrupt with increasing N, however, at an even greater rate than in the SU(N) x SU(N) spin models

  11. Modeling Energy Efficiency As A Green Logistics Component In Vehicle Assembly Line

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oumer, Abduaziz; Mekbib Atnaw, Samson; Kie Cheng, Jack; Singh, Lakveer

    2016-11-01

    This paper uses System Dynamics (SD) simulation to investigate the concept green logistics in terms of energy efficiency in automotive industry. The car manufacturing industry is considered to be one of the highest energy consuming industries. An efficient decision making model is proposed that capture the impacts of strategic decisions on energy consumption and environmental sustainability. The sources of energy considered in this research are electricity and fuel; which are the two main types of energy sources used in a typical vehicle assembly plant. The model depicts the performance measurement for process- specific energy measures of painting, welding, and assembling processes. SD is the chosen simulation method and the main green logistics issues considered are Carbon Dioxide (CO2) emission and energy utilization. The model will assist decision makers acquire an in-depth understanding of relationship between high level planning and low level operation activities on production, environmental impacts and costs associated. The results of the SD model signify the existence of positive trade-offs between green practices of energy efficiency and the reduction of CO2 emission.

  12. Biogenesis of the bacterialcbb3cytochromecoxidase: Active subcomplexes support a sequential assembly model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durand, Anne; Bourbon, Marie-Line; Steunou, Anne-Soisig; Khalfaoui-Hassani, Bahia; Legrand, Camille; Guitton, Audrey; Astier, Chantal; Ouchane, Soufian

    2018-01-19

    The cbb 3 oxidase has a high affinity for oxygen and is required for growth of bacteria, including pathogens, in oxygen-limited environments. However, the assembly of this oxidase is poorly understood. Most cbb 3 are composed of four subunits: the catalytic CcoN subunit, the two cytochrome c subunits (CcoO and CcoP) involved in electron transfer, and the small CcoQ subunit with an unclear function. Here, we address the role of these four subunits in cbb 3 biogenesis in the purple bacterium Rubrivivax gelatinosus Analyses of membrane proteins from different mutants revealed the presence of active CcoNQO and CcoNO subcomplexes and also showed that the CcoP subunit is not essential for their assembly. However, CcoP was required for the oxygen reduction activity in the absence of CcoQ. We also found that CcoQ is dispensable for forming an active CcoNOP subcomplex in membranes. CcoNOP exhibited oxygen reductase activity, indicating that the cofactors (hemes b and copper for CcoN and cytochromes c for CcoO and CcoP) were present within the subunits. Finally, we discovered the presence of a CcoNQ subcomplex and showed that CcoN is the required anchor for the assembly of the full CcoNQOP complex. On the basis of these findings, we propose a sequential assembly model in which the CcoQ subunit is required for the early maturation step: CcoQ first associates with CcoN before the CcoNQ-CcoO interaction. CcoP associates to CcoNQO subcomplex in the late maturation step, and once the CcoNQOP complex is fully formed, CcoQ is released for degradation by the FtsH protease. This model could be conserved in other bacteria, including the pathogenic bacteria lacking the assembly factor CcoH as in R. gelatinosus . © 2018 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  13. Self-organization phenomena in plasma physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanduloviciu, M.; Popescu, S.

    2001-01-01

    The self-assembling in nature and laboratory of structures in systems away from thermodynamic equilibrium is one of the problems that mostly fascinates the scientists working in all branches of science. In this context a substantial progress has been obtained by investigating the appearance of spatial and spatiotemporal patterns in plasma. These experiments revealed the presence of a scenario of self-organization able to suggest an answer to the central problem of the 'Science of Complexity', why matter transits spontaneously from a disordered into an ordered state? Based on this scenario of self-organization we present arguments proving the possibility to explain the challenging problems of nonequilibrium physics in general. These problems refer to: (i) genuine origin of phase transitions observed in gaseous conductors and semiconductors; (ii) the elucidation of the role played by self-organization in the simulation of oscillations; (iii) the physical basis of anomalous transport of matter and energy with special reference to the possibilities of improving the economical performance of fusion devices; (iv) the possibility to use self-confined gaseous space charged configurations as an alternative to the magnetically confined plasma used at present in fusion devices. In other branches of sciences, as for instance in Biology, the self-organization scenario reveals a new insight into a mechanism able to explain the appearance of the simplest possible space charge configuration able to evolve, under suitable conditions, into prebiotic structures. Referring to phenomena observed in nature, the same self-organization scenario suggests plausible answers to the appearance of ball lightening but also to the origin of the flickering phenomena observed in the light emission of the Sun and stars. For theory the described self-organization scenario offers a new physical basis for many problems of nonlinear science not solved yet and also a new model for the so-called 'self

  14. Status of the IAEA coordinated research project on natural circulation phenomena, modelling, and reliability of passive systems that utilize natural circulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reyes, J.N. Jr.; Cleveland, J.; Aksan, N.

    2004-01-01

    The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) has established a Coordinated Research Project (CRP) titled ''Natural Circulation Phenomena, Modelling and Reliability of Passive Safety Systems that Utilize Natural Circulation. '' This work has been organized within the framework of the IAEA Department of Nuclear Energy's Technical Working Groups for Advanced Technologies for Light Water Reactors and Heavy Water Reactors (the TWG-LWR and the TWG-HWR). This CRP is part of IAEA's effort to foster international collaborations that strive to improve the economic performance of future water-cooled nuclear power plants while meeting stringent safety requirements. Thus far, IAEA has established 12 research agreements with organizations from industrialized Member States and 3 research contracts with organizations from developing Member States. The objective of the CRP is to enhance our understanding of natural circulation phenomena in water-cooled reactors and passive safety systems. The CRP participants are particularly interested in establishing a natural circulation and passive safety system thermal hydraulic database that can be used to benchmark computer codes for advanced reactor systems design and safety analysis. An important aspect of this CRP relates to developing methodologies to assess the reliability of passive safety systems in advanced reactor designs. This paper describes the motivation and objectives of the CRP, the research plan, and the role of each of the participating organizations. (author)

  15. Multi-Objective Analysis Applied to Mixed-Model Assembly Line Sequencing Problem through Elite Induced Evolutionary Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimizu, Yoshiaki; Sakaguchi, Tatsuhiko; Pralomkarn, Theerayoth

    To meet higher customer satisfaction and shorter production lead time, assembly lines are shifting to mixed-model assembly lines. Accordingly, sequencing is becoming an increasingly important operation scheduling that directly affects on efficiency of the entire process. In this study, such sequencing problem at the mixed-model assembly line has been formulated as a bi-objective integer programming problem so that decision making through trade-off analysis can bring about significant production improvements. Then we have developed a multi-objective analysis method by hybridizing conventional and recent meta-heuristic methods. After showing its generic idea, the car mixed-model assembly line sequencing problem is concerned as a case study. Certain measures are also introduced to quantitatively evaluate the performances of the method through comparison.

  16. Use of Graph-Theoretic Models in Technological Preparation of Assembly Plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Franzevich Yurchik

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The article examines the existing ways of describing the structural and technological properties of the product in the process of building and repair. It turned out that the main body of work on the preparation process of assembling production uses graph-theoretic model of the product. It is shown that, in general, the structural integrity of many-form connections and relations on the set of components that can not be adequately described by binary structures, such as graphs, networks or trees.

  17. Modeling capsid kinetics assembly from the steady state distribution of multi-sizes aggregates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hozé, Nathanaël; Holcman, David

    2014-01-24

    The kinetics of aggregation for particles of various sizes depends on their diffusive arrival and fusion at a specific nucleation site. We present here a mean-field approximation and a stochastic jump model for aggregates at equilibrium. This approach is an alternative to the classical Smoluchowski equations that do not have a close form and are not solvable in general. We analyze these mean-field equations and obtain the kinetics of a cluster formation. Our approach provides a simplified theoretical framework to study the kinetics of viral capsid formation, such as HIV from the self-assembly of the structural proteins Gag.

  18. Nonlinear friction modelling and compensation control of hysteresis phenomena for a pair of tendon-sheath actuated surgical robots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Do, T. N.; Tjahjowidodo, T.; Lau, M. W. S.; Phee, S. J.

    2015-08-01

    Natural Orifice Transluminal Endoscopic Surgery (NOTES) is a special method that allows surgical operations via natural orifices like mouth, anus, and vagina, without leaving visible scars. The use of flexible tendon-sheath mechanism (TSM) is common in these systems because of its light weight in structure, flexibility, and easy transmission of power. However, nonlinear friction and backlash hysteresis pose many challenges to control of such systems; in addition, they do not provide haptic feedback to assist the surgeon in the operation of the systems. In this paper, we propose a new dynamic friction model and backlash hysteresis nonlinearity for a pair of TSM to deal with these problems. The proposed friction model, unlike current approaches in the literature, is smooth and able to capture the force at near zero velocity when the system is stationary or operates at small motion. This model can be used to estimate the friction force for haptic feedback purpose. To improve the system tracking performances, a backlash hysteresis model will be introduced, which can be used in a feedforward controller scheme. The controller involves a simple computation of the inverse hysteresis model. The proposed models are configuration independent and able to capture the nonlinearities for arbitrary tendon-sheath shapes. A representative experimental setup is used to validate the proposed models and to demonstrate the improvement in position tracking accuracy and the possibility of providing desired force information at the distal end of a pair of TSM slave manipulator for haptic feedback to the surgeons.

  19. A Structural Model for a Self-Assembled Nanotube Provides Insight into Its Exciton Dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    The design and synthesis of functional self-assembled nanostructures is frequently an empirical process fraught with critical knowledge gaps about atomic-level structure in these noncovalent systems. Here, we report a structural model for a semiconductor nanotube formed via the self-assembly of naphthalenediimide-lysine (NDI-Lys) building blocks determined using experimental 13C–13C and 13C–15N distance restraints from solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance supplemented by electron microscopy and X-ray powder diffraction data. The structural model reveals a two-dimensional-crystal-like architecture of stacked monolayer rings each containing ∼50 NDI-Lys molecules, with significant π-stacking interactions occurring both within the confines of the ring and along the long axis of the tube. Excited-state delocalization and energy transfer are simulated for the nanotube based on time-dependent density functional theory and an incoherent hopping model. Remarkably, these calculations reveal efficient energy migration from the excitonic bright state, which is in agreement with the rapid energy transfer within NDI-Lys nanotubes observed previously using fluorescence spectroscopy. PMID:26120375

  20. Transport phenomena in a model cheese: the influence of the charge and shape of solutes on diffusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, J V C; Peixoto, P D S; Lortal, S; Floury, J

    2013-10-01

    During cheese ripening, microorganisms grow as immobilized colonies, metabolizing substrates present in the matrix and generating products from enzymatic reactions. Local factors that limit the rates of diffusion, either within the general cheese matrix or near the colonies, may influence the metabolic activity of the bacteria during ripening, affecting the final quality of the cheese. The objective of this study was to determine the diffusion coefficients of solutes as a function of their different physicochemical characteristics (size, charge, and shape) in an ultrafiltrate (UF) model cheese (based on ultrafiltered milk) to enable better understanding of the ripening mechanisms. Diffusion coefficients of fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC)-dextrans (4 kDa to 2 MDa) and FITC-labeled dairy proteins (α-lactalbumin, β-lactoglobulin, and BSA) were measured using the technique of fluorescence recovery after photobleaching (FRAP). This study showed that macromolecules up to 2 MDa and proteins could diffuse through the UF model cheese. The larger FITC-dextrans were not more hindered by the structure of the UF model cheese compared with the smaller ones. Any decrease in the diffusion coefficients of solutes was related only to their hydrodynamic radii. The FITC-dextran diffusion data were fitted to an obstruction model, resulting in a constant obstruction factor (k ~0.42). Diffusion in the model cheese was sensitive to the physicochemical characteristics of the solute. The FITC-dairy proteins studied (rigid and negatively charged molecules) were hindered to a greater degree than the FITC-dextrans (flexible and charge-neutral molecules) in the UF model cheese. The existence of steric and electrostatic interactions between the protein matrix of the UF model cheese and the FITC-dairy proteins could explain the decrease in diffusion compared with FITC-dextrans. Copyright © 2013 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Modeling of RFID-Enabled Real-Time Manufacturing Execution System in Mixed-Model Assembly Lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhixin Yang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available To quickly respond to the diverse product demands, mixed-model assembly lines are well adopted in discrete manufacturing industries. Besides the complexity in material distribution, mixed-model assembly involves a variety of components, different process plans and fast production changes, which greatly increase the difficulty for agile production management. Aiming at breaking through the bottlenecks in existing production management, a novel RFID-enabled manufacturing execution system (MES, which is featured with real-time and wireless information interaction capability, is proposed to identify various manufacturing objects including WIPs, tools, and operators, etc., and to trace their movements throughout the production processes. However, being subject to the constraints in terms of safety stock, machine assignment, setup, and scheduling requirements, the optimization of RFID-enabled MES model for production planning and scheduling issues is a NP-hard problem. A new heuristical generalized Lagrangian decomposition approach has been proposed for model optimization, which decomposes the model into three subproblems: computation of optimal configuration of RFID senor networks, optimization of production planning subjected to machine setup cost and safety stock constraints, and optimization of scheduling for minimized overtime. RFID signal processing methods that could solve unreliable, redundant, and missing tag events are also described in detail. The model validity is discussed through algorithm analysis and verified through numerical simulation. The proposed design scheme has important reference value for the applications of RFID in multiple manufacturing fields, and also lays a vital research foundation to leverage digital and networked manufacturing system towards intelligence.

  2. A new constitutive model for simulation of softening, plateau, and densification phenomena for trabecular bone under compression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Chi-Seung; Lee, Jae-Myung; Youn, BuHyun; Kim, Hyung-Sik; Shin, Jong Ki; Goh, Tae Sik; Lee, Jung Sub

    2017-01-01

    A new type of constitutive model and its computational implementation procedure for the simulation of a trabecular bone are proposed in the present study. A yield surface-independent Frank-Brockman elasto-viscoplastic model is introduced to express the nonlinear material behavior such as softening beyond yield point, plateau, and densification under compressive loads. In particular, the hardening- and softening-dominant material functions are introduced and adopted in the plastic multiplier to describe each nonlinear material behavior separately. In addition, the elasto-viscoplastic model is transformed into an implicit type discrete model, and is programmed as a user-defined material subroutine in commercial finite element analysis code. In particular, the consistent tangent modulus method is proposed to improve the computational convergence and to save computational time during finite element analysis. Through the developed material library, the nonlinear stress-strain relationship is analyzed qualitatively and quantitatively, and the simulation results are compared with the results of compression test on the trabecular bone to validate the proposed constitutive model, computational method, and material library. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. An effective model for ergonomic optimization applied to a new automotive assembly line

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duraccio, Vincenzo [University Niccolò Cusano, Rome Via Don Gnocchi,00166, Roma Italy (Italy); Elia, Valerio [Dept. of Innovation Engineering - University of Salento Via Monteroni, 73100, Lecce (Italy); Forcina, Antonio [University Parthenope, Dep. of Engineering Centro Direzionale - Isola C4 80143 - Naples - Italy (Italy)

    2016-06-08

    An efficient ergonomic optimization can lead to a significant improvement in production performance and a considerable reduction of costs. In the present paper new model for ergonomic optimization is proposed. The new approach is based on the criteria defined by National Institute of Occupational Safety and Health and, adapted to Italian legislation. The proposed model provides an ergonomic optimization, by analyzing ergonomic relations between manual work in correct conditions. The model includes a schematic and systematic analysis method of the operations, and identifies all possible ergonomic aspects to be evaluated. The proposed approach has been applied to an automotive assembly line, where the operation repeatability makes the optimization fundamental. The proposed application clearly demonstrates the effectiveness of the new approach.

  4. An effective model for ergonomic optimization applied to a new automotive assembly line

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duraccio, Vincenzo; Elia, Valerio; Forcina, Antonio

    2016-01-01

    An efficient ergonomic optimization can lead to a significant improvement in production performance and a considerable reduction of costs. In the present paper new model for ergonomic optimization is proposed. The new approach is based on the criteria defined by National Institute of Occupational Safety and Health and, adapted to Italian legislation. The proposed model provides an ergonomic optimization, by analyzing ergonomic relations between manual work in correct conditions. The model includes a schematic and systematic analysis method of the operations, and identifies all possible ergonomic aspects to be evaluated. The proposed approach has been applied to an automotive assembly line, where the operation repeatability makes the optimization fundamental. The proposed application clearly demonstrates the effectiveness of the new approach.

  5. An effective model for ergonomic optimization applied to a new automotive assembly line

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duraccio, Vincenzo; Elia, Valerio; Forcina, Antonio

    2016-06-01

    An efficient ergonomic optimization can lead to a significant improvement in production performance and a considerable reduction of costs. In the present paper new model for ergonomic optimization is proposed. The new approach is based on the criteria defined by National Institute of Occupational Safety and Health and, adapted to Italian legislation. The proposed model provides an ergonomic optimization, by analyzing ergonomic relations between manual work in correct conditions. The model includes a schematic and systematic analysis method of the operations, and identifies all possible ergonomic aspects to be evaluated. The proposed approach has been applied to an automotive assembly line, where the operation repeatability makes the optimization fundamental. The proposed application clearly demonstrates the effectiveness of the new approach.

  6. Modeling heat and mass transport phenomena at higher temperatures in solar distillation systems - The Chilton-Colburn analogy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsilingiris, P.T. [Department of Energy Engineering, Heat Transfer Laboratory, Technological Education Institution of Athens, A. Spyridonos Street, GR 122 10 Egaleo, Athens (Greece)

    2010-02-15

    In the present investigation efforts have been devoted towards developing an analysis suitable for heat and mass transfer processes modeling in solar distillation systems, when they are operating at higher temperatures. For this purpose the use of Lewis relation is not new although its validity is based on the assumptions of identical boundary layer concentration and temperature distributions, as well as low mass flux conditions, which are not usually met in solar distillation systems operating at higher temperatures associated with considerable mass transfer rates. The present analysis, taking into consideration these conditions and the temperature dependence of all pertinent thermophysical properties of the saturated binary mixture of water vapor and dry air, leads to the development of an improved predictive accuracy model. This model, having undergone successful first order validation against earlier reported measurements from the literature, appears to offer more accurate predictions of the transport processes and mass flow rate yield of solar stills when operated at elevated temperatures. (author)

  7. Modeling of the Ionic Multi-Species Transport Phenomena in Electrokinetic Processes and Comparison with Experimental Results

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paz-Garcia, Juan Manuel; Johannesson, Björn; Ottosen, Lisbeth M.

    2010-01-01

    . Electrical neutrality was continuously assured in the model by the inclusion of the Poisson-Boltzmann equation to the system of governing equations. Voltage differences were applied across the sample as boundary conditions in order to evaluate the competition between diffusion and electromigration terms......A model to predict the transport of ionic species within the pore solution of porous materials, under the effect of an external electric field has been developed. A Finite Elements method was implemented and used for the integration of the Nernst-Plank equations for each ionic species considered...

  8. Experimental investigations of heat transfer during sodium boiling in fuel assembly model in justification of advanced fast reactor safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khafizov, R.R.; Poplavskij, V.M.; Rachkov, V.I.; Sorokin, A.P.; Ashurko, Yu.M.; Volkov, A.V.; Ivanov, E.F.; Privezentsev, V.V.

    2015-01-01

    The experimental facility is built up and investigation of heat exchange during sodium boiling in simulated fast reactor core assembly in conditions of natural and forced circulation with sodium plenum and upper end shield model are conducted. It is shown that in the presence of sodium plenum there is possibility to provide long-term cooling of fuel assembly when heat flux density on the surface of fuel element simulator up to 140 and 170 kW/m 2 in conditions of natural and forced circulation, respectively. The obtained data is used for improving calculational model of sodium boiling process in fuel assembly and calculational code COREMELT verification. It is pointed out that heat transfer coefficients in the case of liquid metal boiling in fuel assemblies are slightly over the ones in the case of liquid metals boiling in pipes and pool boiling [ru

  9. A SEM Model in Assessing the Effect of Convergent, Divergent and Logical Thinking on Students' Understanding of Chemical Phenomena

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stamovlasis, D.; Kypraios, N.; Papageorgiou, G.

    2015-01-01

    In this study, structural equation modeling (SEM) is applied to an instrument assessing students' understanding of chemical change. The instrument comprised items on understanding the structure of substances, chemical changes and their interpretation. The structural relationships among particular groups of items are investigated and analyzed using…

  10. Communication: Self-assembly of a model supramolecular polymer studied by replica exchange with solute tempering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arefi, Hadi H.; Yamamoto, Takeshi

    2017-12-01

    Conventional molecular-dynamics (cMD) simulation has a well-known limitation in accessible time and length scales, and thus various enhanced sampling techniques have been proposed to alleviate the problem. In this paper, we explore the utility of replica exchange with solute tempering (REST) (i.e., a variant of Hamiltonian replica exchange methods) to simulate the self-assembly of a supramolecular polymer in explicit solvent and compare the performance with temperature-based replica exchange MD (T-REMD) as well as cMD. As a test system, we consider a relatively simple all-atom model of supramolecular polymerization (namely, benzene-1,3,5-tricarboxamides in methylcyclohexane solvent). Our results show that both REST and T-REMD are able to predict highly ordered polymer structures with helical H-bonding patterns, in contrast to cMD which completely fails to obtain such a structure for the present model. At the same time, we have also experienced some technical challenge (i.e., aggregation-dispersion transition and the resulting bottleneck for replica traversal), which is illustrated numerically. Since the computational cost of REST scales more moderately than T-REMD, we expect that REST will be useful for studying the self-assembly of larger systems in solution with enhanced rearrangement of monomers.

  11. Growth modeling of the green microalga Scenedesmus obliquus in a hybrid photobioreactor as a practical tool to understand both physical and biochemical phenomena in play during algae cultivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tramontin, Deise P; Gressler, Pablo D; Rörig, Leonardo R; Derner, Roberto B; Pereira-Filho, Jurandir; Radetski, Claudemir M; Quadri, Marintho B

    2018-04-01

    In recent years, numerous studies have justified the use of microalgae as a sustainable alternative for the generation of different types of fuels, food supplementation, and cosmetics, as well as bioremediation processes. To improve the cost/benefit ratio of microalgae mass production, many culture systems have been built and upgraded. Mathematical modeling the growth of different species in different systems has become an efficient and practical tool to understand both physical and biochemical phenomena in play during algae cultivation. In addition, growth modeling can guide design changes that lead to process optimization. In the present work, growth of the green microalga Scenedesmus obliquus was modeled in a hybrid photobioreactor that combines the characteristics of tubular photobioreactors (TPB) with thin-layer cascades (TLC). The system showed productivity greater than 8.0 g m -2 day -1 (dry mass) for CO 2 -fed cultures, and the model proved to be an accurate representation of experimental data with R 2 greater than 0.7 for all cases under variable conditions of temperature and irradiance to determine subsystem efficiency. Growth modeling also allowed growth prediction relative to the operating conditions of TLC, making it useful for estimating the system given other irradiance and temperature conditions, as well as other microalgae species. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Rheological phenomena in focus

    CERN Document Server

    Boger, DV

    1993-01-01

    More than possibly any other scientific discipline, rheology is easily visualized and the relevant literature contains many excellent photographs of unusual and often bizarre phenomena. The present book brings together these photographs for the first time. They are supported by a full explanatory text. Rheological Phenomena in Focus will be an indispensable support manual to all those who teach rheology or have to convince colleagues of the practical relevance of the subject within an industrial setting. For those who teach fluid mechanics, the book clearly illustrates the difference be

  13. Traffic model for commercial payloads in the Materials Experiment Assembly (MEA). [market research in commercial space processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tietzel, F. A.

    1979-01-01

    One hundred individuals representing universities, technical institutes, government agencies, and industrial facilities were surveyed to determine potential commercial use of a self-contained, automated assembly for the space processing of materials during frequent shuttle flights for the 1981 to 1987 period. The approach used and the results of the study are summarized. A time time-phased projection (traffic model) of commercial usage of the materials experiment assembly is provided.

  14. The approximate thermal-model-testing method for non-stationary temperature fields in central zones of fast reactor assemblies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mikhin, V.I.; Matukhin, N.M.

    2000-01-01

    The approach to generalization of the non-stationary heat exchange data for the central zones of the nuclear reactor fuel assemblies and the approximate thermal-model-testing criteria are proposed. The fuel assemblies of fast and water-cooled reactors with different fuel compositions have been investigated. The reason of the non-stationary heat exchange is the fuel-energy-release time dependence. (author)

  15. Experimental diagnostics and modeling of inductive phenomena at low frequencies in impedance spectra of proton exchange membrane fuel cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pivac, Ivan; Šimić, Boris; Barbir, Frano

    2017-10-01

    Representation of fuel cell processes by equivalent circuit models, involving resistance and capacitance elements representing activation losses on both anode and cathode in series with resistance representing ohmic losses, cannot capture and explain the inductive loop that may show up at low frequencies in Nyquist diagram representation of the electrochemical impedance spectra. In an attempt to explain the cause of the low-frequency inductive loop and correlate it with the processes within the fuel cell electrodes, a novel equivalent circuit model of a Proton Exchange Membrane (PEM) fuel cell has been proposed and experimentally verified here in detail. The model takes into account both the anode and the cathode, and has an additional resonant loop on each side, comprising of a resistance, capacitance and inductance in parallel representing the processes within the catalyst layer. Using these additional circuit elements, more accurate and better fits to experimental impedance data in the wide frequency range at different current densities, cell temperatures, humidity of gases, air flow stoichiometries and backpressures were obtained.

  16. New solutions of the Einstein equations for the Mixmaster and Taub Universe models and the anti gravity phenomena

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Melendez L, L.

    2004-01-01

    In the first part of this work, starting from Einstein's equations of the Classical General Relativity, a new kind of solutions for the Mixmaster model are explored. By dispensing with the extension to the complex variable field, which is usual in problems such as the Laplace equation or the harmonic oscillator, in a similar manner to that of Quantum Mechanics, the equations appear to have solutions that belong to the complex General Relativity. A first integral is performed by establishing a separation of the first derivatives. Then a second integral is obtained once the respective equations with separate variables are found and whose integrals provide a family of complex solutions. However, reality conditions do not seem to be easily imposed at this stage. Above all, it is significant that the classical Einstein's equations for the debatably integrable Mixmaster model present complex solutions. In the second part of this work, following a specific strategy in which the cosmological time variables are operated upon, a new family of solutions to the empty Taub universe is found. Among the characteristics of such a family, it stands the positive acceleration provided by the tri-curvature property of this universe to two of the three scale factors of the Taub model. This effect of the tri-curvature results not in a restoring force such as normal gravity but in the conversion of the Taub cosmology into an accelerating universe. (Author)

  17. Direct numerical simulation of reactive flow and modeling of pore-scale transport phenomena in fractured media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nomeli, M. A.; Alizadehnomeli, M.

    2017-12-01

    A long-term geochemical modeling of CO2 sequestration is carried out in a single fracture to investigate its impact on CO2 transport and storage capacity. We model the fracture by considering flow of CO2 between finite plates. We study the physics and the critical time of blockage for a fracture to interpret the results. To this end, we employ direct numerical simulation tools and algorithms to simulate incompressible flow along with necessary transport equations that capture the kinetics of relevant chemical reactions. The numerical model is based on a finite volume method using a sequential non-iterative approach. It is found that mineral precipitation has an important effect on reservoir porosity and permeability. According to the simulations, the flow of injected CO2 in the fracture is controlled by changes in the pore-scale permeability close to the fracture inlet. The fracture ceases to be a fluid channel because of the precipitation of minerals. In addition, using parameter analysis we also determine the effect of various mineral precipitates on porosity of fractures.

  18. Direct numerical simulation of reactive flow and modeling of pore-scale transport phenomena in porous media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nomeli, Mohammad; Riaz, Amir

    2017-11-01

    Direct numerical simulation of reactive flow and a long-term geochemical modeling of CO2 sequestration is carried out in a fractured media to investigate its impact on CO2 transport and storage capacity. The fracture is modeled by considering flow of CO2 between finite plates. We study the physics and the critical time of blockage for a fracture to interpret the results. To this end, we employ direct numerical simulation tools and algorithms to simulate incompressible flow along with necessary transport equations that capture the kinetics of relevant chemical reactions. The numerical model is based on a finite volume method using a sequential non-iterative approach. It is found that the reactive transport of minerals has an important effect on reservoir porosity and permeability. According to the simulations, the flow of injected CO2 in the fracture is controlled by changes in the pore-scale permeability. The fracture ceases to be a fluid channel due to geochemical reactions of minerals. In addition, using parameter analysis we also determine the effect of various reaction kinetics on permeability of porous media.

  19. Wind Tunnel Test of a Risk-Reduction Wing/Fuselage Model to Examine Juncture-Flow Phenomena

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kegerise, Michael A.; Neuhart, Dan H.

    2016-01-01

    A wing/fuselage wind-tunnel model was tested in the Langley 14- by 22-foot Subsonic Wind Tunnel in preparation for a highly-instrumented Juncture Flow Experiment to be conducted in the same facility. This test, which was sponsored by the NASA Transformational Tool and Technologies Project, is part of a comprehensive set of experimental and computational research activities to develop revolutionary, physics-based aeronautics analysis and design capability. The objectives of this particular test were to examine the surface and off-body flow on a generic wing/body combination to: 1) choose a final wing for a future, highly instrumented model, 2) use the results to facilitate unsteady pressure sensor placement on the model, 3) determine the area to be surveyed with an embedded laser-doppler velocimetry (LDV) system, 4) investigate the primary juncture corner- flow separation region using particle image velocimetry (PIV) to see if the particle seeding is adequately entrained and to examine the structure in the separated region, and 5) to determine the similarity of observed flow features with those predicted by computational fluid dynamics (CFD). This report documents the results of the above experiment that specifically address the first three goals. Multiple wing configurations were tested at a chord Reynolds number of 2.4 million. Flow patterns on the surface of the wings and in the region of the wing/fuselage juncture were examined using oil- flow visualization and infrared thermography. A limited number of unsteady pressure sensors on the fuselage around the wing leading and trailing edges were used to identify any dynamic effects of the horseshoe vortex on the flow field. The area of separated flow in the wing/fuselage juncture near the wing trailing edge was observed for all wing configurations at various angles of attack. All of the test objectives were met. The staff of the 14- by 22-foot Subsonic Wind Tunnel provided outstanding support and delivered

  20. Transport phenomena in multiphase flows

    CERN Document Server

    Mauri, Roberto

    2015-01-01

    This textbook provides a thorough presentation of the phenomena related to the transport of mass, momentum and energy.  It lays all the basic physical principles, then for the more advanced readers, it offers an in-depth treatment with advanced mathematical derivations and ends with some useful applications of the models and equations in specific settings. The important idea behind the book is to unify all types of transport phenomena, describing them within a common framework in terms of cause and effect, respectively represented by the driving force and the flux of the transported quantity. The approach and presentation are original in that the book starts with a general description of transport processes, providing the macroscopic balance relations of fluid dynamics and heat and mass transfer, before diving into the mathematical realm of continuum mechanics to derive the microscopic governing equations at the microscopic level. The book is a modular teaching tool and can be used either for an introductory...

  1. Solar Neutrons and Related Phenomena

    CERN Document Server

    Dorman, Lev

    2010-01-01

    This book presents the first comprehensive compilation and review of the extensive body of experimental and theoretical material on solar neutrons and related phenomena published in the scientific literature over the last sixty years. Phenomena related to solar neutrons are more specifically: the decay products of solar neutrons solar gamma rays generated in processes like nuclear reactions between solar energetic charged particles and matter of the solar atmosphere, as well as by the capture of solar neutrons by hydrogen atoms in the solar atmosphere the propagation of solar neutrons, solar gamma rays and other secondary particles through the solar photosphere, chromosphere and corona, as well as through interplanetary space and through the Earth's atmosphere. Models and simulations of particle acceleration, interactions, and propagation processes show that observations of solar neutrons and gamma rays in space and in the Earth's atmosphere yield essential and unique information on the source function of ene...

  2. Modelling of Heat Transfer Phenomena for Vertical and Horizontal Configurations of In-Pool Condensers and Comparison with Experimental Findings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davide Papini

    2010-01-01

    Different condenser tube arrangements have been developed for applications to the next generation NPPs. The two most used configurations, namely, horizontal and vertical tube condensers, are thoroughly investigated in this paper. Several thermal-hydraulic features were explored, being the analysis mainly devoted to the description of the best-estimate correlations and models for heat transfer coefficient prediction. In spite of a more critical behaviour concerning thermal expansion issues, vertical tube condensers offer remarkably better thermal-hydraulic performances. An experimental validation of the vertical tube correlations is provided by PERSEO facility (SIET labs, Piacenza, showing a fairly good agreement.

  3. Phototrophic Biofilm Assembly in Microbial-Mat-Derived Unicyanobacterial Consortia: Model Systems for the Study of Autotroph-Heterotroph Interactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cole, Jessica K.; Hutchison, Janine R.; Renslow, Ryan S.; Kim, Young-Mo; Chrisler, William B.; Engelmann, Heather E.; Dohnalkova, Alice; Hu, Dehong; Metz, Thomas O.; Fredrickson, Jim K.; Lindemann, Stephen R.

    2014-04-07

    Though microbial autotroph-heterotroph interactions influence biogeochemical cycles on a global scale, the diversity and complexity of natural systems and their intractability to in situ environmental manipulation makes elucidation of the principles governing these interactions challenging. Examination of primary succession during phototrophic biofilm assembly provides a robust means by which to elucidate the dynamics of such interactions and determine their influence upon recruitment and maintenance of phylogenetic and functional diversity in microbial communities. We isolated and characterized two unicyanobacterial consortia from the Hot Lake phototrophic mat, quantifying the structural and community composition of their assembling biofilms. The same heterotrophs were retained in both consortia and included members of Alphaproteobacteria, Gammaproteobacteria, and Bacteroidetes, taxa frequently reported as consorts of microbial photoautotrophs. Cyanobacteria led biofilm assembly, eventually giving way to a late heterotrophic bloom. The consortial biofilms exhibited similar patterns of assembly, with the relative abundances of members of Bacteroidetes and Alphaproteobacteria increasing and members of Gammaproteobacteria decreasing as colonization progressed. Despite similar trends in assembly at higher taxa, the consortia exhibited substantial differences in community structure at the species level. These similar patterns of assembly with divergent community structures suggest that, while similar niches are created by the metabolism of the cyanobacteria, the resultant webs of autotroph-heterotroph and heterotroph-heterotroph interactions driving metabolic exchange are specific to each primary producer. Altogether, our data support these Hot Lake unicyanobacterial consortia as generalizable model systems whose simplicity and tractability permit the deciphering of community assembly principles relevant to natural microbial communities.

  4. No tension between assembly models of super massive black hole binaries and pulsar observations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Middleton, Hannah; Chen, Siyuan; Del Pozzo, Walter; Sesana, Alberto; Vecchio, Alberto

    2018-02-08

    Pulsar timing arrays are presently the only means to search for the gravitational wave stochastic background from super massive black hole binary populations, considered to be within the grasp of current or near-future observations. The stringent upper limit from the Parkes Pulsar Timing Array has been interpreted as excluding (>90% confidence) the current paradigm of binary assembly through galaxy mergers and hardening via stellar interaction, suggesting evolution is accelerated or stalled. Using Bayesian hierarchical modelling we consider implications of this upper limit for a range of astrophysical scenarios, without invoking stalling, nor more exotic physical processes. All scenarios are fully consistent with the upper limit, but (weak) bounds on population parameters can be inferred. Recent upward revisions of the black hole-galaxy bulge mass relation are disfavoured at 1.6σ against lighter models. Once sensitivity improves by an order of magnitude, a non-detection will disfavour the most optimistic scenarios at 3.9σ.

  5. Three-Dimensional CFD Modeling of Transport Phenomena in a Cross-Flow Anode-Supported Planar SOFC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhonggang Zhang

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In this study, a three-dimensional computational fluid dynamics (CFD model is developed for an anode-supported planar SOFC from the Chinese Academy of Science Ningbo Institute of Material Technology and Engineering (NIMTE. The simulation results of the developed model are in good agreement with the experimental data obtained under the same conditions. With the simulation results, the distribution of temperature, flow velocity and the gas concentrations through the cell components and gas channels is presented and discussed. Potential and current density distributions in the cell and overall fuel utilization are also presented. It is also found that the temperature gradients exist along the length of the cell, and the maximum value of the temperature for the cross-flow is at the outlet region of the cell. The distribution of the current density is uneven, and the maximum current density is located at the interfaces between the channels, ribs and the electrodes, the maximum current density result in a large over-potential and heat source in the electrodes, which is harmful to the overall performance and working lifespan of the fuel cells. A new type of flow structure should be developed to make the current flow be more evenly distributed and promote most of the TPB areas to take part in the electrochemical reactions.

  6. Transport phenomena in articular cartilage cryopreservation as predicted by the modified triphasic model and the effect of natural inhomogeneities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abazari, Alireza; Thompson, Richard B; Elliott, Janet A W; McGann, Locksley E

    2012-03-21

    Knowledge of the spatial and temporal distribution of cryoprotective agent (CPA) is necessary for the cryopreservation of articular cartilage. Cartilage dehydration and shrinkage, as well as the change in extracellular osmolality, may have a significant impact on chondrocyte survival during and after CPA loading, freezing, and thawing, and during CPA unloading. In the literature, Fick's law of diffusion is commonly used to predict the spatial distribution and overall concentration of the CPA in the cartilage matrix, and the shrinkage and stress-strain in the cartilage matrix during CPA loading are neglected. In this study, we used a previously described biomechanical model to predict the spatial and temporal distributions of CPA during loading. We measured the intrinsic inhomogeneities in initial water and fixed charge densities in the cartilage using magnetic resonance imaging and introduced them into the model as initial conditions. We then compared the prediction results with the results obtained using uniform initial conditions. The simulation results in this study demonstrate the presence of a significant mechanical strain in the matrix of the cartilage, within all layers, during CPA loading. The osmotic response of the chondrocytes to the cartilage dehydration during CPA loading was also simulated. The results reveal that a transient shrinking occurs to different levels, and the chondrocytes experience a significant decrease in volume, particularly in the middle and deep zones of articular cartilage, during CPA loading. Copyright © 2012 Biophysical Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Gas-liquid mass transfer and flow phenomena in the Peirce-Smith converter: a water model study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Xing; Zhao, Hong-liang; Zhang, Li-feng; Yang, Li-qiang

    2018-01-01

    A water model with a geometric similarity ratio of 1:5 was developed to investigate the gas-liquid mass transfer and flow characteristics in a Peirce-Smith converter. A gas mixture of CO2 and Ar was injected into a NaOH solution bath. The flow field, volumetric mass transfer coefficient per unit volume ( Ak/V; where A is the contact area between phases, V is the volume, and k is the mass transfer coefficient), and gas utilization ratio ( η) were then measured at different gas flow rates and blow angles. The results showed that the flow field could be divided into five regions, i.e., injection, strong loop, weak loop, splashing, and dead zone. Whereas the Ak/V of the bath increased and then decreased with increasing gas flow rate, and η steadily increased. When the converter was rotated clockwise, both Ak/V and η increased. However, the flow condition deteriorated when the gas flow rate and blow angle were drastically increased. Therefore, these parameters must be controlled to optimal conditions. In the proposed model, the optimal gas flow rate and blow angle were 7.5 m3·h-1 and 10°, respectively.

  8. Thermodynamically Constrained Averaging Theory Approach for Modeling Flow and Transport Phenomena in Porous Medium Systems: 5. Single-Fluid-Phase Transport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, William G; Miller, Cass T

    2009-05-01

    This work is the fifth in a series of papers on the thermodynamically constrained averaging theory (TCAT) approach for modeling flow and transport phenomena in multiscale porous medium systems. The general TCAT framework and the mathematical foundation presented in previous works are used to develop models that describe species transport and single-fluid-phase flow through a porous medium system in varying physical regimes. Classical irreversible thermodynamics formulations for species in fluids, solids, and interfaces are developed. Two different approaches are presented, one that makes use of a momentum equation for each entity along with constitutive relations for species diffusion and dispersion, and a second approach that makes use of a momentum equation for each species in an entity. The alternative models are developed by relying upon different approaches to constrain an entropy inequality using mass, momentum, and energy conservation equations. The resultant constrained entropy inequality is simplified and used to guide the development of closed models. Specific instances of dilute and non-dilute systems are examined and compared to alternative formulation approaches.

  9. Simulations of Biomechanical Phenomena

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez, Jose Cruz

    Recent studies have published breakthroughs in the application of finite element (FEA) studies in the design and analysis of advanced orthodontics. However, FEA has not captured bone remodeling responses to advanced orthodontics. The results of these simulations report unrealistic displacement around the nasal bridge, which impeded correlation with clinical data. Bone remodeling has been previously documented in FEA and has shown bone response to mechanical stimulus in femur bone models. However, the relationship between mechanical stimulus and bone remodeling has not been reported in orthodontic studies due to the complexity of the skull. In the current study, strain energy is used as the mechanical stimulus to control remodeling, from which density and modulus evolve. Due to the localization of forces in orthodontics, current remodeling algorithms have limited application. In turn, we developed an algorithm that dynamically collects, sorts, and bins stresses in all elements for regional remodeling based on the proximity of the element to the load. The results demonstrate that bone response to orthodontic appliances is different than that of an FEA without bone remodeling, due to load path changes based upon evolution of the bone properties. It was also found that density and moduli proximal to the load application site exhibit faster remodeling than those located remotely. Modeling another biomechanical phenomena, a 3D simulation was created to simulate recent experimental results that discovered a difference in impact mitigation properties of dense-polymer/foam bilayer structure based on the orientation of the dense-polymer with respect to the impact site. The impact energy transmitted varied in time of arrival and amplitude depending on the orientation of the structure (thin layer up or down). By creating a 3D explicit dynamic FEA simulation, it is expected to reduce costly experiments and time consumed in set up, and offer opportunities for optimization for

  10. Modeling of Flow, Transport and Controlled Sedimentation Phenomena during Mixing of Salt Solutions in Complex Porous Formations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skouras, Eugene D.; Jaho, Sofia; Pavlakou, Efstathia I.; Sygouni, Varvara; Petsi, Anastasia; Paraskeva, Christakis A.

    2015-04-01

    The deposition of salts in porous media is a major engineering phenomenon encountered in a plethora of industrial and environmental applications where in some cases is desirable and in other not (oil production, geothermal systems, soil stabilization etc). Systematic approach of these problems requires knowledge of the key mechanisms of precipitating salts within the porous structures, in order to develop new methods to control the process. In this work, the development and the solution of spatiotemporally variable mass balances during salt solution mixing along specific pores were performed. Both analytical models and finite differences CFD models were applied for the study of flow and transport with simultaneous homogeneous and heterogeneous nucleation (by crystal growth on the surface of the pores) in simple geometries, while unstructured finite elements and meshless methods were developed and implemented for spatial discretization, reconstruction, and solution of transport equations and homogeneous / heterogeneous reactions in more complex geometries. At initial stages of this work, critical problem parameters were identified, such as the characteristics of the porosity, the number of dissolved components, etc. The parameters were then used for solving problems which correspond to available experimental data. For each combination of ions and materials, specific data and process characteristics were included: (a) crystal kinetics (nucleation, growth rates or reaction surface rates of crystals, critical suspension concentrations), (b) physico-chemical properties (bulk density, dimensions of generated crystals, ion diffusion coefficients in the solution), (c) operating parameters (macroscopic velocity, flow, or pressure gradient of the solution, ion concentration) (d) microfluidic data (geometry, flow area), (e) porosity data in Darcy description (initial porosity, specific surface area, tortuosity). During the modeling of flow and transport in three

  11. Bioelectrochemistry II membrane phenomena

    CERN Document Server

    Blank, M

    1987-01-01

    This book contains the lectures of the second course devoted to bioelectro­ chemistry, held within the framework of the International School of Biophysics. In this course another very large field of bioelectrochemistry, i. e. the field of Membrane Phenomena, was considered, which itself consists of several different, but yet related subfields. Here again, it can be easily stated that it is impossible to give a complete and detailed picture of all membrane phenomena of biological interest in a short course of about one and half week. Therefore the same philosophy, as the one of the first course, was followed, to select a series of lectures at postgraduate level, giving a synthesis of several membrane phenomena chosen among the most'important ones. These lectures should show the large variety of membrane-regulated events occurring in living bodies, and serve as sound interdisciplinary basis to start a special­ ized study of biological phenomena, for which the investigation using the dual approach, physico-che...

  12. Fundamentals of wave phenomena

    CERN Document Server

    Hirose, Akira

    2010-01-01

    This textbook provides a unified treatment of waves that either occur naturally or can be excited and propagated in various media. This includes both longitudinal and transverse waves. The book covers both mechanical and electrical waves, which are normally covered separately due to their differences in physical phenomena.

  13. Field enhancement and resonance phenomena in complex three-dimensional nanoparticles: efficient computation using the source-model technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishay, Yakir; Leviatan, Yehuda; Bartal, Guy

    2014-05-15

    We present a semi-analytical method for computing the electromagnetic field in and around 3D nanoparticles (NP) of complex shape and demonstrate its power via concrete examples of plasmonic NPs that have nonsymmetrical shapes and surface areas with very small radii of curvature. In particular, we show the three axial resonances of a 3D cashew-nut and the broadband response of peanut-shell NPs. The method employs the source-model technique along with a newly developed intricate source distributing algorithm based on the surface curvature. The method is simple and can outperform finite-difference time domain and finite-element-based software tools in both its efficiency and accuracy.

  14. Analysis and evaluation of the ASTEC model basis on fission product and aerosol release phenomena from melts. 3. Technical report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agethen, K.; Koch, M.K.

    2016-04-01

    The present report is the 3 rd Technical Report within the research project ''ASMO'' founded by the German Federal Ministry for Economic Affairs and Energy (BMWi 1501433) and projected at the Chair of Energy Systems and Energy Economics (LEE) within the workgroup Reactor Simulation and Safety at the Ruhr-Universitaet Bochum (RUB). The focus in this report is set on the release of fission products and the contribution to the source term, which is formed in the late phase after failure of the reactor pressure vessel during MCCI. By comparing the RUB simulation results including the fission product release rates with further simulations of GRS and VEIKI it can be indicated that the simulations have a high sensitivity in respect to the melting point temperature. It can be noted that the release rates are underestimated for most fission product species with the current model. Especially semi-volatile fission products and the lanthanum release is underestimated by several orders of magnitude. Based on the ACE experiment L2, advanced considerations are presented concerning the melt temperature, the gas temperature, the segregation and a varied melt configuration. Furthermore, the influence of the gas velocity is investigated. This variation of the gas velocity causes an underestimation of the release rates compared to the RUB base calculation. A model extension to oxidic species for lanthanum and ruthenium shows a significant improvement of the simulation results. In addition, the MEDICIS module has been enhanced to document the currently existing species, are displayed in a *.ist-file. This expansion shows inconsistencies between the melt composition and the fission product composition. Based on these results, there are still some difficulties regarding the release of fission products in the MEDICIS module and the interaction with the material data base (MOB) which needs further investigation.

  15. Numerical modeling assistance system in finite element analysis for the structure of an assembly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakajima, Norihiro; Nishida, Akemi; Kawakami, Yoshiaki; Suzuki, Yoshio; Sawa, Kazuhiro; Iigaki, Kazuhiko

    2015-01-01

    The objective of structural analysis and seismic response analysis are well recognized and utilized as one of sophisticated analysis tools for design objects in the nuclear engineering. The way to design nuclear facilities is always in compromising with many index, such as costs, performance, robustness and so on, but the most important issues is the safety. It is true the structural analysis and seismic response analysis plays an important role to insure the safety, since it is well known that Japan is always facing to the earthquake. In this paper, a numerical analysis's controlling and managing system is implemented on a supercomputer, which controls the modelling process and data treating for structural robustness, although a numerical analysis's manager only controls a structural analysis by finite element method. The modeling process is described by the list of function ID and its procedures in a data base. The analytical modeling manager executes the process by order of the lists for simulation procedures. The manager controls the intention of an analysis by changing the analytical process one to another. Modeling process was experimentally found that may subject to the intention of designing index. The numerical experiments were carried out with static analyses and dynamic analyses. The results of its experiment introduce reasonable discussion to understand the accuracy of simulation. In the numerical experiments, K, supercomputer is utilized by using parallel computing resource with the controlling and managing system. The structural analysis and seismic response analysis are done by the FIEST, finite element analysis for the structure of an assembly, which carries out the simulation by gathering components. As components are attached to one another to build an assembly, and, therefore, the interactions between the components due to differences in material properties and their connection conditions considerably affect the behavior of an assembly

  16. 3D Normal Human Neural Progenitor Tissue-Like Assemblies: A Model of Persistent VZV Infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodwin, Thomas J.

    2013-01-01

    Varicella-zoster virus (VZV) is a neurotropic human alphaherpesvirus that causes varicella upon primary infection, establishes latency in multiple ganglionic neurons, and can reactivate to cause zoster. Live attenuated VZV vaccines are available; however, they can also establish latent infections and reactivate. Studies of VZV latency have been limited to the analyses of human ganglia removed at autopsy, as the virus is strictly a human pathogen. Recently, terminally differentiated human neurons have received much attention as a means to study the interaction between VZV and human neurons; however, the short life-span of these cells in culture has limited their application. Herein, we describe the construction of a model of normal human neural progenitor cells (NHNP) in tissue-like assemblies (TLAs), which can be successfully maintained for at least 180 days in three-dimensional (3D) culture, and exhibit an expression profile similar to that of human trigeminal ganglia. Infection of NHNP TLAs with cell-free VZV resulted in a persistent infection that was maintained for three months, during which the virus genome remained stable. Immediate-early, early and late VZV genes were transcribed, and low-levels of infectious VZV were recurrently detected in the culture supernatant. Our data suggest that NHNP TLAs are an effective system to investigate long-term interactions of VZV with complex assemblies of human neuronal cells.

  17. Raman laser spectrometer optical head: qualification model assembly and integration verification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos, G.; Sanz-Palomino, M.; Moral, A. G.; Canora, C. P.; Belenguer, T.; Canchal, R.; Prieto, J. A. R.; Santiago, A.; Gordillo, C.; Escribano, D.; Lopez-Reyes, G.; Rull, F.

    2017-08-01

    Raman Laser Spectrometer (RLS) is the Pasteur Payload instrument of the ExoMars mission, within the ESA's Aurora Exploration Programme, that will perform for the first time in an out planetary mission Raman spectroscopy. RLS is composed by SPU (Spectrometer Unit), iOH (Internal Optical Head), and ICEU (Instrument Control and Excitation Unit). iOH focuses the excitation laser on the samples (excitation path), and collects the Raman emission from the sample (collection path, composed on collimation system and filtering system). Its original design presented a high laser trace reaching to the detector, and although a certain level of laser trace was required for calibration purposes, the high level degrades the Signal to Noise Ratio confounding some Raman peaks. So, after the bread board campaign, some light design modifications were implemented in order to fix the desired amount of laser trace, and after the fabrication and the commitment of the commercial elements, the assembly and integration verification process was carried out. A brief description of the iOH design update for the engineering and qualification model (iOH EQM) as well as the assembly process are briefly described in this papers. In addition, the integration verification and the first functional tests, carried out with the RLS calibration target (CT), results are reported on.

  18. Modeling coupled transport and electrochemical reaction phenomena in polymer electrolyte fuel cell electrode by Lattice Boltzmann method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarokh, Atefeh; Tarokh, Ali; Hejazi, Hossein; Karan, Kunal

    2015-11-01

    Fuel cells convert chemical energy of a fuel directly into electricity. The overall process is a result of coupled reaction-transport processes. The electrochemical reactions occur in porous composite catalysts layers with intermingled material phases, often made up of nano-sized particles and nano/micrometers pores. In a polymer electrolye fuel cell (PEFC) catalyst layer, the focus of this work, transport of electrons through carbon, transport of protons through ion-conducting polymer (ionomer), diffusion of gases through pores must be considered. The three different reacting species, viz. protons, electrons and reactive molecule (H2 or O2) must co-exist at the reactive interface formed by Pt catalyst surface covered by an ionomer film. We use Lattice Boltzmann Method to capture the interactions between chemistry, transport and porous medium geometries in a PEFC catalyst layer. We report the simulation results for a model but novel catalyst architecture made of a continuous carbon phase with organized pore structure. The Pt catalyst is dispersed on the internal surface of the carbon. This Pt-catalyst decorated surface is covered by a thin ionomer film. In particular, we are interested in explicitly capturing the complexity of the pore geometry and Knudsen diffusion effects.

  19. Multi-level modelling of the response of the ultraminiature proportional counter: gas gain phenomena and pulse height spectra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olko, P.; Moutarde, C.; Segur, P.

    1995-01-01

    The ultraminiature proportional counters, UMC, unique radiation detectors for monitoring high intensity therapy fields, designed by Kliauga and operated at Columbia University (USA), have yielded a number of pulse height distributions for photons, neutrons and ions at simulated diameters of 5-50 nm. Monte Carlo calculations of the gas gain in such a counter questioned the possibility of achieving proportionally at such low simulated diameters. The response of the UMC has now been modelled taking into account both fluctuations of energy deposited in the counter volume and its calculated gas gain. Energy deposition was calculated using the MOCA-14, MOCA-8 and TRION codes, whereby distributions of ionisations d(j) after irradiations with 137 Cs, 15 MeV neutrons and 7 MeV.amu -1 deuterons were obtained. Monte Carlo calculations of electron avalanches in UMC show that the size of the single-electron avalanche P(n) reaching the anode depends strongly on the location of the primary ionisation within the counter volume. Distributions of the size of electron avalanches for higher numbers of primary ionisations, P *j (n), were obtained by successive convolutions of P(n). Finally, the counter response was obtained by weighting P *j (n) over d(j) distributions. On comparing the measured and calculated spectra it was concluded that the previously proposed single-electron peak calibration method might not be valid for the UMC due to the excessive width and overlap of electron avalanche distributions. Better agreement between the measured and calculated spectra is found if broader electron avalanche distributions than those used in the present calculations, are assumed. (author)

  20. Experiments to investigate direct containment heating phenomena with scaled models of the Zion Nuclear Power Plant in the Surtsey Test Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allen, M.D.; Pilch, M.M.; Blanchat, T.K.; Griffith, R.O.; Nichols, R.T.

    1994-05-01

    The Surtsey Facility at Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) is used to perform scaled experiments that simulate hypothetical high-pressure melt ejection (HPME) accidents in a nuclear power plant (NPP). These experiments are designed to investigate the effect of specific phenomena associated with direct containment heating (DCH) on the containment load, such as the effect of physical scale, prototypic subcompartment structures, water in the cavity, and hydrogen generation and combustion. In the Integral Effects Test (IET) series, 1:10 linear scale models of the Zion NPP structures were constructed in the Surtsey vessel. The RPV was modeled with a steel pressure vessel that had a hemispherical bottom head, which had a 4-cm hole in the bottom head that simulated the final ablated hole that would be formed by ejection of an instrument guide tube in a severe NPP accident. Iron/alumina/chromium thermite was used to simulate molten corium that would accumulate on the bottom head of an actual RPV. The chemically reactive melt simulant was ejected by high-pressure steam from the RPV model into the scaled reactor cavity. Debris was then entrained through the instrument tunnel into the subcompartment structures and the upper dome of the simulated reactor containment building. The results of the IET experiments are given in this report

  1. Experiments to investigate direct containment heating phenomena with scaled models of the Zion Nuclear Power Plant in the Surtsey Test Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allen, M.D.; Pilch, M.M.; Blanchat, T.K.; Griffith, R.O. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Nichols, R.T. [Ktech Corp., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1994-05-01

    The Surtsey Facility at Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) is used to perform scaled experiments that simulate hypothetical high-pressure melt ejection (HPME) accidents in a nuclear power plant (NPP). These experiments are designed to investigate the effect of specific phenomena associated with direct containment heating (DCH) on the containment load, such as the effect of physical scale, prototypic subcompartment structures, water in the cavity, and hydrogen generation and combustion. In the Integral Effects Test (IET) series, 1:10 linear scale models of the Zion NPP structures were constructed in the Surtsey vessel. The RPV was modeled with a steel pressure vessel that had a hemispherical bottom head, which had a 4-cm hole in the bottom head that simulated the final ablated hole that would be formed by ejection of an instrument guide tube in a severe NPP accident. Iron/alumina/chromium thermite was used to simulate molten corium that would accumulate on the bottom head of an actual RPV. The chemically reactive melt simulant was ejected by high-pressure steam from the RPV model into the scaled reactor cavity. Debris was then entrained through the instrument tunnel into the subcompartment structures and the upper dome of the simulated reactor containment building. The results of the IET experiments are given in this report.

  2. Thermodynamic stabilities of linear and crinkled tapes and cyclic rosettes in melamine-cyanurate assemblies: a model description

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bielejewska, A.G.; Marjo, Christopher E.; Prins, L.J.; Timmerman, P.; de Jong, Feike; Reinhoudt, David

    2001-01-01

    In this paper we describe model calculations for the self-assembly of N,N-disubstituted melamines 1 and N-substituted cyanuric acid or 5,5-disubstituted barbituric acid derivatives 2 into linear or crinkled tapes and cyclic rosettes via cooperative hydrogen bond formation. The model description

  3. Markov model-based polymer assembly from force field-parameterized building blocks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durmaz, Vedat

    2015-03-01

    A conventional by hand construction and parameterization of a polymer model for the purpose of molecular simulations can quickly become very work-intensive and time-consuming. Using the example of polyglycerol, I present a polymer decomposition strategy yielding a set of five monomeric residues that are convenient for an instantaneous assembly and subsequent force field simulation of a polyglycerol polymer model. Force field parameters have been developed in accordance with the classical Amber force field. Partial charges of each unit were fitted to the electrostatic potential using quantum-chemical methods and slightly modified in order to guarantee a neutral total polymer charge. In contrast to similarly constructed models of amino acid and nucleotide sequences, the glycerol building blocks may yield an arbitrary degree of bifurcations depending on the underlying probabilistic model. The iterative development of the overall structure as well as the relation of linear to branching units is controlled by a simple Markov model which is presented with few algorithmic details. The resulting polymer is highly suitable for classical explicit water molecular dynamics simulations on the atomistic level after a structural relaxation step. Moreover, the decomposition strategy presented here can easily be adopted to many other (co)polymers.

  4. Image processor of model-based vision system for assembly robots

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moribe, H.; Nakano, M.; Kuno, T.; Hasegawa, J.

    1987-01-01

    A special purpose image preprocessor for the visual system of assembly robots has been developed. The main function unit is composed of lookup tables to utilize the advantage of semiconductor memory for large scale integration, high speed and low price. More than one unit may be operated in parallel since it is designed on the standard IEEE 796 bus. The operation time of the preprocessor in line segment extraction is usually 200 ms per 500 segments, though it differs according to the complexity of scene image. The gray-scale visual system supported by the model-based analysis program using the extracted line segments recognizes partially visible or overlapping industrial workpieces, and detects these locations and orientations

  5. Modeling Self-Assembly Across Scales: The Unifying Perspective of Smart Minimal Particles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alcherio Martinoli

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available A wealth of current research in microengineering aims at fabricating devices of increasing complexity, notably by (self-assembling elementary components into heterogeneous functional systems. At the same time, a large body of robotic research called swarm robotics is concerned with the design and the control of large ensembles of robots of decreasing size and complexity. This paper describes the asymptotic convergence of micro/nano electromechanical systems (M/NEMS on one side, and swarm robotic systems on the other, toward a unifying class of systems, which we denote Smart Minimal Particles (SMPs. We define SMPs as mobile, purely reactive and physically embodied agents that compensate for their limited on-board capabilities using specifically engineered reactivity to external physical stimuli, including local energy and information scavenging. In trading off internal resources for simplicity and robustness, SMPs are still able to collectively perform non-trivial, spatio-temporally coordinated and highly scalable operations such as aggregation and self-assembly (SA. We outline the opposite converging tendencies, namely M/NEMS smarting and robotic minimalism, by reviewing each field’s literature with specific focus on self-assembling systems. Our main claim is that the SMPs can be used to develop a unifying technological and methodological framework that bridges the gap between passive M/NEMS and active, centimeter-sized robots. By proposing this unifying perspective, we hypothesize a continuum in both complexity and length scale between these two extremes. We illustrate the benefits of possible cross-fertilizations among these originally separate domains, with specific emphasis on the modeling of collective dynamics. Particularly, we argue that while most of the theoretical studies on M/NEMS SA dynamics belong so far to one of only two main frameworks—based on analytical master equations and on numerical agent-based simulations

  6. Two-Stage orders sequencing system for mixed-model assembly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zemczak, M.; Skolud, B.; Krenczyk, D.

    2015-11-01

    In the paper, the authors focus on the NP-hard problem of orders sequencing, formulated similarly to Car Sequencing Problem (CSP). The object of the research is the assembly line in an automotive industry company, on which few different models of products, each in a certain number of versions, are assembled on the shared resources, set in a line. Such production type is usually determined as a mixed-model production, and arose from the necessity of manufacturing customized products on the basis of very specific orders from single clients. The producers are nowadays obliged to provide each client the possibility to determine a huge amount of the features of the product they are willing to buy, as the competition in the automotive market is large. Due to the previously mentioned nature of the problem (NP-hard), in the given time period only satisfactory solutions are sought, as the optimal solution method has not yet been found. Most of the researchers that implemented inaccurate methods (e.g. evolutionary algorithms) to solving sequencing problems dropped the research after testing phase, as they were not able to obtain reproducible results, and met problems while determining the quality of the received solutions. Therefore a new approach to solving the problem, presented in this paper as a sequencing system is being developed. The sequencing system consists of a set of determined rules, implemented into computer environment. The system itself works in two stages. First of them is connected with the determination of a place in the storage buffer to which certain production orders should be sent. In the second stage of functioning, precise sets of sequences are determined and evaluated for certain parts of the storage buffer under certain criteria.

  7. Transport phenomena in nanofluidics

    OpenAIRE

    Schoch, Reto Bruno; Han, J.; Renaud, Philippe

    2008-01-01

    Transport of fluid in and around nanometer-sized objects with at least one characteristic dimension below 100 nm renders possible phenomena that are not accessible at bigger length scales. This research field is termed nanofluidics and received its name only recently, but the roots in science and technology are broad. Nanofluidics has experienced a big growth during the last few years, confirmed by significant scientific and practical achievements. This review focuses on physical proper...

  8. Transport phenomena II essentials

    CERN Document Server

    REA, The Editors of

    2012-01-01

    REA's Essentials provide quick and easy access to critical information in a variety of different fields, ranging from the most basic to the most advanced. As its name implies, these concise, comprehensive study guides summarize the essentials of the field covered. Essentials are helpful when preparing for exams, doing homework and will remain a lasting reference source for students, teachers, and professionals. Transport Phenomena II covers forced convention, temperature distribution, free convection, diffusitivity and the mechanism of mass transfer, convective mass transfer, concentration

  9. The use of pneumoperitoneum during laparoscopic surgery as a model to study pathophysiologic phenomena: the correlation of cardiac functionality with computerized acoustic indices--preliminary data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bickel, Amitai; Eitan, Arieh; Melnik, Dimitry; Weiss, Atalia; Gavrieli, Noam; Kniaz, David; Intrator, Nathan

    2012-05-01

    Induction of pneumoperitoneum during laparoscopic surgery leads to diverse cardiovascular changes that can be used as a model to study pathophysiologic phenomena. Application of novel signal processing and figure extraction enabled searching for correlation between various signals and pathophysiologic setting. Our aim was to quantitatively correlate cardiac functionality (as expressed by cardiac output) with the spectral energy of the first heart sound (S1) obtained from the phonocardiogram, during laparoscopic surgery. Patients who were scheduled for elective laparoscopic operations were enrolled in the study. Cardiac output was maximally changed during anesthesia and abdominal insufflation and was obtained from the arterial pressure wave (FloTrac™ sensor and Vigileo™ monitor [Edwards Lifesciences Ltd.]). Heart signals were recorded during surgery from each subject by a computerized digital data acquisition system. The automatic analysis of the heart sounds included segmentation that was based on the energy envelope of the heart sounds together with analysis of the electrocardiogram signal. We analyzed the morphology of the sounds using hierarchial cluster analysis to remove those sounds that were not reliably recorded. The magnitude of the amplitude of heart sounds was obtained by using the Hilbert transform for each heartbeat. Statistical analysis was based on linear regression. Following exclusion of 3 patients (mainly because of technical reasons), we were left with 7 patients who demonstrated statistically significant positive correlation between cardiac index and the amplitude of S1 (regression coefficient between 0.4 and 0.9, Pfunctionality, through sophisticated computerized analysis, using the pneumoperitoneum model for changing the cardiac output.

  10. TerraFERMA: The Transparent Finite Element Rapid Model Assembler for multiphysics problems in Earth sciences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Cian R.; Spiegelman, Marc; van Keken, Peter E.

    2017-02-01

    We introduce and describe a new software infrastructure TerraFERMA, the Transparent Finite Element Rapid Model Assembler, for the rapid and reproducible description and solution of coupled multiphysics problems. The design of TerraFERMA is driven by two computational needs in Earth sciences. The first is the need for increased flexibility in both problem description and solution strategies for coupled problems where small changes in model assumptions can lead to dramatic changes in physical behavior. The second is the need for software and models that are more transparent so that results can be verified, reproduced, and modified in a manner such that the best ideas in computation and Earth science can be more easily shared and reused. TerraFERMA leverages three advanced open-source libraries for scientific computation that provide high-level problem description (FEniCS), composable solvers for coupled multiphysics problems (PETSc), and an options handling system (SPuD) that allows the hierarchical management of all model options. TerraFERMA integrates these libraries into an interface that organizes the scientific and computational choices required in a model into a single options file from which a custom compiled application is generated and run. Because all models share the same infrastructure, models become more reusable and reproducible, while still permitting the individual researcher considerable latitude in model construction. TerraFERMA solves partial differential equations using the finite element method. It is particularly well suited for nonlinear problems with complex coupling between components. TerraFERMA is open-source and available at http://terraferma.github.io, which includes links to documentation and example input files.

  11. Large momentum transfer phenomena

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Imachi, Masahiro; Otsuki, Shoichiro; Matsuoka, Takeo; Sawada, Shoji.

    1978-01-01

    The large momentum transfer phenomena in hadron reaction drastically differ from small momentum transfer phenomena, and are described in this paper. Brief review on the features of the large transverse momentum transfer reactions is described in relation with two-body reactions, single particle productions, particle ratios, two jet structure, two particle correlations, jet production cross section, and the component of momentum perpendicular to the plane defined by the incident protons and the triggered pions and transverse momentum relative to jet axis. In case of two-body process, the exponent N of the power law of the differential cross section is a value between 10 to 11.5 in the large momentum transfer region. The breaks of the exponential behaviors into the power ones are observed at the large momentum transfer region. The break would enable to estimate the order of a critical length. The large momentum transfer phenomena strongly suggest an important role of constituents of hadrons in the hard region. Hard rearrangement of constituents from different initial hadrons induces large momentum transfer reactions. Several rules to count constituents in the hard region have been proposed so far to explain the power behavior. Scale invariant quark interaction and hard reactions are explained, and a summary of the possible types of hard subprocess is presented. (Kato, T.)

  12. Modeling of water transport through the membrane electrode assembly for direct methanol fuel cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, C.; Zhao, T. S.; Yang, W. W.

    In this work, a one-dimensional, isothermal two-phase mass transport model is developed to investigate the water transport through the membrane electrode assembly (MEA) for liquid-feed direct methanol fuel cells (DMFCs). The liquid (methanol-water solution) and gas (carbon dioxide gas, methanol vapor and water vapor) two-phase mass transport in the porous anode and cathode is formulated based on classical multiphase flow theory in porous media. In the anode and cathode catalyst layers, the simultaneous three-phase (liquid and vapor in pores as well as dissolved phase in the electrolyte) water transport is considered and the phase exchange of water is modeled with finite-rate interfacial exchanges between different phases. This model enables quantification of the water flux corresponding to each of the three water transport mechanisms through the membrane for DMFCs, such as diffusion, electro-osmotic drag, and convection. Hence, with this model, the effects of MEA design parameters on water crossover and cell performance under various operating conditions can be numerically investigated.

  13. DATA MINING METHODOLOGY FOR DETERMINING THE OPTIMAL MODEL OF COST PREDICTION IN SHIP INTERIM PRODUCT ASSEMBLY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Damir Kolich

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available In order to accurately predict costs of the thousands of interim products that are assembled in shipyards, it is necessary to use skilled engineers to develop detailed Gantt charts for each interim product separately which takes many hours. It is helpful to develop a prediction tool to estimate the cost of interim products accurately and quickly without the need for skilled engineers. This will drive down shipyard costs and improve competitiveness. Data mining is used extensively for developing prediction models in other industries. Since ships consist of thousands of interim products, it is logical to develop a data mining methodology for a shipyard or any other manufacturing industry where interim products are produced. The methodology involves analysis of existing interim products and data collection. Pre-processing and principal component analysis is done to make the data “user-friendly” for later prediction processing and the development of both accurate and robust models. The support vector machine is demonstrated as the better model when there are a lower number of tuples. However as the number of tuples is increased to over 10000, then the artificial neural network model is recommended.

  14. Fluid-Mediated Stochastic Self-Assembly at Centimetric and Sub-Millimetric Scales: Design, Modeling, and Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bahar Haghighat

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Stochastic self-assembly provides promising means for building micro-/nano-structures with a variety of properties and functionalities. Numerous studies have been conducted on the control and modeling of the process in engineered self-assembling systems constituted of modules with varied capabilities ranging from completely reactive nano-/micro-particles to intelligent miniaturized robots. Depending on the capabilities of the constituting modules, different approaches have been utilized for controlling and modeling these systems. In the quest of a unifying control and modeling framework and within the broader perspective of investigating how stochastic control strategies can be adapted from the centimeter-scale down to the (sub-millimeter-scale, as well as from mechatronic to MEMS-based technology, this work presents the outcomes of our research on self-assembly during the past few years. As the first step, we leverage an experimental platform to study self-assembly of water-floating passive modules at the centimeter scale. A dedicated computational framework is developed for real-time tracking, modeling and control of the formation of specific structures. Using a similar approach, we then demonstrate controlled self-assembly of microparticles into clusters of a preset dimension in a microfluidic chamber, where the control loop is closed again through real-time tracking customized for a much faster system dynamics. Finally, with the aim of distributing the intelligence and realizing programmable self-assembly, we present a novel experimental system for fluid-mediated programmable stochastic self-assembly of active modules at the centimeter scale. The system is built around the water-floating 3-cm-sized Lily robots specifically designed to be operative in large swarms and allows for exploring the whole range of fully-centralized to fully-distributed control strategies. The outcomes of our research efforts extend the state-of-the-art methodologies

  15. Transport phenomena in the close-spaced sublimation deposition process for manufacture of large-area cadmium telluride photovoltaic panels: Modeling and optimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malhotra, C. P.

    With increasing national and global demand for energy and concerns about the effect of fossil fuels on global climate change, there is an increasing emphasis on the development and use of renewable sources of energy. Solar cells or photovoltaics constitute an important renewable energy technology but the major impediment to their widespread adoption has been their high initial cost. Although thin-film photovoltaic semiconductors such as cadmium sulfide-cadmium telluride (CdS/CdTe) can potentially be inexpensively manufactured using large area deposition techniques such as close-spaced sublimation (CSS), their low stability has prevented them from becoming an alternative to traditional polycrystalline silicon solar cells. A key factor affecting the stability of CdS/CdTe cells is the uniformity of deposition of the thin films. Currently no models exist that can relate the processing parameters in a CSS setup with the film deposition uniformity. Central to the development of these models is a fundamental understanding of the complex transport phenomena which constitute the deposition process which include coupled conduction and radiation as well as transition regime rarefied gas flow. This thesis is aimed at filling these knowledge gaps and thereby leading to the development of the relevant models. The specific process under consideration is the CSS setup developed by the Materials Engineering Group at the Colorado State University (CSU). Initially, a 3-D radiation-conduction model of a single processing station was developed using the commercial finite-element software ABAQUS and validated against data from steady-state experiments carried out at CSU. A simplified model was then optimized for maximizing the steady-state thermal uniformity within the substrate. It was inferred that contrary to traditional top and bottom infrared lamp heating, a lamp configuration that directs heat from the periphery of the sources towards the center results in the minimum temperature

  16. Model Development and Process Analysis for Lean Cellular Design Planning in Aerospace Assembly and Manufacturing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilburn, Monty D.

    Successful lean manufacturing and cellular manufacturing execution relies upon a foundation of leadership commitment and strategic planning built upon solid data and robust analysis. The problem for this study was to create and employ a simple lean transformation planning model and review process that could be used to identify functional support staff resources required to plan and execute lean manufacturing cells within aerospace assembly and manufacturing sites. The lean planning model was developed using available literature for lean manufacturing kaizen best practices and validated through a Delphi panel of lean experts. The resulting model and a standardized review process were used to assess the state of lean transformation planning at five sites of an international aerospace manufacturing and assembly company. The results of the three day, on-site review were compared with baseline plans collected from each of the five sites to determine if there analyzed, with focus on three critical areas of lean planning: the number and type of manufacturing cells identified, the number, type, and duration of planned lean and continuous kaizen events, and the quantity and type of functional staffing resources planned to support the kaizen schedule. Summarized data of the baseline and on-site reviews was analyzed with descriptive statistics. ANOVAs and paired-t tests at 95% significance level were conducted on the means of data sets to determine if null hypotheses related to cell, kaizen event, and support resources could be rejected. The results of the research found significant differences between lean transformation plans developed by site leadership and plans developed utilizing the structured, on-site review process and lean transformation planning model. The null hypothesis that there was no difference between the means of pre-review and on-site cell counts was rejected, as was the null hypothesis that there was no significant difference in kaizen event plans. These

  17. Model of self assembled monolayer based molecular diodes made of ferrocenyl-alkanethiols

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duche, David; Planchoke, Ujwol; Dang, Florian-Xuan; Le Rouzo, Judikael; Bescond, Marc; Simon, Jean-Jacques; Balaban, Teodor Silviu; Escoubas, Ludovic

    2017-03-01

    There has been significant work investigating the use of self assembled monolayers (SAMs) made of ferrocenyl terminated alkanethiols for realizing molecular diodes, leading to remarkably large forward-to-reverse current rectification ratios. In this study, we use a multiband barrier tunneling model to examine the electrical properties of SAM-based molecular diodes made of HSC9Fc, HSC11Fc, and HSCiFcC13-i (0 ≤ i ≤ 13). Using our simple physical model, we reproduce the experimental data of charge transport across various ferrocenyl substituted alkanethiols performed by Nijhuis, Reus, and Whitesides [J. Am. Chem. Soc. 132, 18386-184016 (2010)] and Yuan et al. [Nat. Commun. 6, 6324 (2015)]. Especially, the model allows predicting the rectification direction in HSCiFcC13-i (0 ≤ i ≤ 13) based molecular diodes depending on the position of the ferrocenyl (Fc) moiety within the molecules. We show that the asymmetry of the barrier length at both sides of the Highest Occupied Molecular Orbital of the ferrocenyl moiety strongly contributes to the rectifying properties of ferrocenyl-alkanethiol based molecular junctions. Furthermore, our results reveal that bound and quasi-bound states play an important role in the charge transport.

  18. Numerical evaluation of experimental models to investigate the dynamic behavior of the ITER tokamak assembly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Onozuka, M.; Takeda, N.; Nakahira, M.; Shimizu, K.; Nakamura, T.

    2003-01-01

    The most recent assessment method to evaluate the dynamic behavior of the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) tokamak assembly is outlined. Three experimental models, including a 1/5.8-scale tokamak model, have been considered to validate the numerical analysis methods for dynamic events, particularly seismic ones. The experimental model has been evaluated by numerical calculations and the results are presented. In the calculations, equivalent linearization has been applied for the non-linear characteristics of the support flange connection, caused by the effects of the bolt-fastening and the friction between the flanges. The detailed connecting conditions for the support flanges have been developed and validated for the analysis. Using the conditions, the eigen-mode analysis has shown that the first and second eigen-mode are horizontal vibration modes with the natural frequency of 39 Hz, while the vertical vibration mode is the fourth mode with the natural frequency of 86 Hz. Dynamic analysis for seismic events has shown the maximum acceleration of approximately twofold larger than that of the applied acceleration, and the maximum stress of 104 MPa found in the flange connecting bolt. These values will be examined comparing with experimental results in order to validate the analysis methods

  19. Developing Parametric Models for the Assembly of Machine Fixtures for Virtual Multiaxial CNC Machining Centers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balaykin, A. V.; Bezsonov, K. A.; Nekhoroshev, M. V.; Shulepov, A. P.

    2018-01-01

    This paper dwells upon a variance parameterization method. Variance or dimensional parameterization is based on sketching, with various parametric links superimposed on the sketch objects and user-imposed constraints in the form of an equation system that determines the parametric dependencies. This method is fully integrated in a top-down design methodology to enable the creation of multi-variant and flexible fixture assembly models, as all the modeling operations are hierarchically linked in the built tree. In this research the authors consider a parameterization method of machine tooling used for manufacturing parts using multiaxial CNC machining centers in the real manufacturing process. The developed method allows to significantly reduce tooling design time when making changes of a part’s geometric parameters. The method can also reduce time for designing and engineering preproduction, in particular, for development of control programs for CNC equipment and control and measuring machines, automate the release of design and engineering documentation. Variance parameterization helps to optimize construction of parts as well as machine tooling using integrated CAE systems. In the framework of this study, the authors demonstrate a comprehensive approach to parametric modeling of machine tooling in the CAD package used in the real manufacturing process of aircraft engines.

  20. Composite transcriptome assembly of RNA-seq data in a sheep model for delayed bone healing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mundlos Stefan

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The sheep is an important model organism for many types of medically relevant research, but molecular genetic experiments in the sheep have been limited by the lack of knowledge about ovine gene sequences. Results Prior to our study, mRNA sequences for only 1,556 partial or complete ovine genes were publicly available. Therefore, we developed a composite de novo transcriptome assembly method for next-generation sequence data to combine known ovine mRNA and EST sequences, mRNA sequences from mouse and cow, and sequences assembled de novo from short read RNA-Seq data into a composite reference transcriptome, and identified transcripts from over 12 thousand previously undescribed ovine genes. Gene expression analysis based on these data revealed substantially different expression profiles in standard versus delayed bone healing in an ovine tibial osteotomy model. Hundreds of transcripts were differentially expressed between standard and delayed healing and between the time points of the standard and delayed healing groups. We used the sheep sequences to design quantitative RT-PCR assays with which we validated the differential expression of 26 genes that had been identified by RNA-seq analysis. A number of clusters of characteristic expression profiles could be identified, some of which showed striking differences between the standard and delayed healing groups. Gene Ontology (GO analysis showed that the differentially expressed genes were enriched in terms including extracellular matrix, cartilage development, contractile fiber, and chemokine activity. Conclusions Our results provide a first atlas of gene expression profiles and differentially expressed genes in standard and delayed bone healing in a large-animal model and provide a number of clues as to the shifts in gene expression that underlie delayed bone healing. In the course of our study, we identified transcripts of 13,987 ovine genes, including 12,431 genes for which

  1. Large-scale molecular dynamics simulations of self-assembling systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, Michael L; Shinoda, Wataru

    2008-08-08

    Relentless increases in the size and performance of multiprocessor computers, coupled with new algorithms and methods, have led to novel applications of simulations across chemistry. This Perspective focuses on the use of classical molecular dynamics and so-called coarse-grain models to explore phenomena involving self-assembly in complex fluids and biological systems.

  2. A multiobjective model and evolutionary algorithms for robust time and space assembly line balancing under uncertain demand

    OpenAIRE

    Chica Serrano, Manuel; Bautista Valhondo, Joaquín; Cordón García, Oscar; Damas Arroyo, Sergio

    2015-01-01

    Equilibrado de líneas (TSALBP) con soluciones robustas ante la variación de la demanda. Changes in demand when manufacturing different products require an optimization model that includes robustness in its definition and methods to deal with it. In this work we propose the r-TSALBP, a multiobjective model for assembly line balancing to search for the most robust line configurations when demand changes. The robust model definition considers a set of demand scenarios and presents temporal an...

  3. Viscoplastic behavior of zirconium alloys in the temperatures range 20 deg C - 400 deg C: characterization and modeling of strain ageing phenomena

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graff, St.

    2006-10-01

    The anomalous strain rate sensitivity of zirconium alloys over the temperatures range 20-600 C has been widely reported in the literature. This unconventional behavior is related to the existence of strain ageing phenomenon which results from the combined action of thermally activated diffusion of foreign atoms to and along dislocation cores and the long range of dislocations interactions. The important role of interstitial and substitutional atoms in zirconium alloys, responsible for strain ageing and the lack of information about the domain where strain ageing is active have not been yet adequately characterized because of the multiplicity of alloying elements and chemical impurities. The aim of this work is to characterize experimentally the range of temperatures and strain rates where strain ageing is active on the macroscopic and mesoscopic scales. We propose also a predictive approach of the strain ageing effects, using the macroscopic strain ageing model suggested by McCormick (McCormick, 1988; Zhang et al., 2000). Specific zirconium alloys were elaborated starting from a crystal bar of zirconium with 2.2 wt% hafnium and very low oxygen content (80 wt ppm), called ZrHf. Another substitutional atom was added to the solid solution under the form of 1 wt% niobium. Some zirconium alloys were doped with oxygen, others were not. All of them were characterized by various mechanical tests (standard tensile tests, tensile tests with strain rate changes, relaxation tests with unloading). The experimental results were compared with those for the standard oxygen doped zirconium alloy (1300 wt ppm) studied by Pujol (Pujol, 1994) and called Zr702. The following experimental evidences of the age-hardening phenomena were collected and then modeled: 1) low and/or negative strain rate sensitivity around 200-300 C, 2) creep arrest at 200 C, 3) relaxation arrest at 200 C and 300 C, 4) plastic strain heterogeneities observed in laser extensometry on the millimeter scale

  4. Viscoplastic behavior of zirconium alloys in the temperatures range 20 deg C - 400 deg C: characterization and modeling of strain ageing phenomena

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Graff, St

    2006-10-15

    The anomalous strain rate sensitivity of zirconium alloys over the temperatures range 20-600 C has been widely reported in the literature. This unconventional behavior is related to the existence of strain ageing phenomenon which results from the combined action of thermally activated diffusion of foreign atoms to and along dislocation cores and the long range of dislocations interactions. The important role of interstitial and substitutional atoms in zirconium alloys, responsible for strain ageing and the lack of information about the domain where strain ageing is active have not been yet adequately characterized because of the multiplicity of alloying elements and chemical impurities. The aim of this work is to characterize experimentally the range of temperatures and strain rates where strain ageing is active on the macroscopic and mesoscopic scales. We propose also a predictive approach of the strain ageing effects, using the macroscopic strain ageing model suggested by McCormick (McCormick, 1988; Zhang et al., 2000). Specific zirconium alloys were elaborated starting from a crystal bar of zirconium with 2.2 wt% hafnium and very low oxygen content (80 wt ppm), called ZrHf. Another substitutional atom was added to the solid solution under the form of 1 wt% niobium. Some zirconium alloys were doped with oxygen, others were not. All of them were characterized by various mechanical tests (standard tensile tests, tensile tests with strain rate changes, relaxation tests with unloading). The experimental results were compared with those for the standard oxygen doped zirconium alloy (1300 wt ppm) studied by Pujol (Pujol, 1994) and called Zr702. The following experimental evidences of the age-hardening phenomena were collected and then modeled: 1) low and/or negative strain rate sensitivity around 200-300 C, 2) creep arrest at 200 C, 3) relaxation arrest at 200 C and 300 C, 4) plastic strain heterogeneities observed in laser extensometry on the millimeter scale

  5. Evolutionary phenomena in galaxies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beckman, J.E.; Pagel, B.E.J.

    1989-01-01

    This book reviews the subject of evolutionary phenomena in galaxies, bringing together contributions by experts on all the relevant physics and astrophysics necessary to understand galaxies and how they work. The book is based on the proceedings of a conference held in July 1988 in Puerto de la Cruz, Tenerife which was timed to coincide with the first year of operation of the 4.2 m William Herschel Telescope. The broad topics covered include formation of galaxies and their ages, stellar dynamics, galactic scale gas and its role in star formation and the production and distribution of the chemical elements within galaxies. (author)

  6. Transport phenomena I essentials

    CERN Document Server

    REA, The Editors of

    2012-01-01

    REA's Essentials provide quick and easy access to critical information in a variety of different fields, ranging from the most basic to the most advanced. As its name implies, these concise, comprehensive study guides summarize the essentials of the field covered. Essentials are helpful when preparing for exams, doing homework and will remain a lasting reference source for students, teachers, and professionals. Transport Phenomena I includes viscosity, flow of Newtonian fluids, velocity distribution in laminar flow, velocity distributions with more than one independent variable, thermal con

  7. Crystallography and Magnetic Phenomena

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vojtěch Kopský

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available This essay describes the development of groups used for the specification of symmetries from ordinary and magnetic point groups to Fedorov and magnetic space groups, as well as other varieties of groups useful in the study of symmetric objects. In particular, we consider the problem of some incorrectness in Vol. A of the International Tables for Crystallography. Some results of tensor calculus are presented in connection with magnetoelectric phenomena, where we demonstrate the use of Ascher’s trinities and Opechowski’s magic relations and their connection. Specific tensor decomposition calculations on the grounds of Clebsch Gordan products are illustrated.

  8. An improved benchmark model for the Big Ten critical assembly - 021

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mosteller, R.D.

    2010-01-01

    A new benchmark specification is developed for the BIG TEN uranium critical assembly. The assembly has a fast spectrum, and its core contains approximately 10 wt.% enriched uranium. Detailed specifications for the benchmark are provided, and results from the MCNP5 Monte Carlo code using a variety of nuclear-data libraries are given for this benchmark and two others. (authors)

  9. The quest for new phenomena

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hinchliffe, I.

    1996-12-01

    The Standard Model of particle physics has been very successful in describing experimental data with great precision. With the exception of some neutrino anomalies, there is no data that is in disagreement with it. Nevertheless, the model is regarded as incomplete and unsatisfactory. There is no explanation of the pattern of quark and lepton masses and, possibly more important, no understanding of the scale of electroweak interactions. Electroweak symmetry breaking is implemented in the Standard Model from the presence of a scalar electroweak doublet, the Higgs field, that acquires a vacuum expectation value of order 250 GeV and leaves as a remnant one physical state, the electrically neutral Higgs boson whose mass is not predicted. In this talk, the author compares the techniques used at, and capabilities of, various facilities in searching for new phenomena. The author emphasizes the cases where information from more than one facility may be needed to fully explore the physics

  10. Direct channel problems and phenomena

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cutkosky, R.E.

    1975-01-01

    Direct channel problems and phenomena are considered covering the need for precision hadron spectroscopy, the data base for precision hadron spectroscopy, some relations between direct-channel and cross-channel effects, and spin rotation phenomena

  11. Localization of adenovirus morphogenesis players, together with visualization of assembly intermediates and failed products, favor a model where assembly and packaging occur concurrently at the periphery of the replication center.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela N Condezo

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Adenovirus (AdV morphogenesis is a complex process, many aspects of which remain unclear. In particular, it is not settled where in the nucleus assembly and packaging occur, and whether these processes occur in a sequential or a concerted manner. Here we use immunofluorescence and immunoelectron microscopy (immunoEM to trace packaging factors and structural proteins at late times post infection by either wildtype virus or a delayed packaging mutant. We show that representatives of all assembly factors are present in the previously recognized peripheral replicative zone, which therefore is the AdV assembly factory. Assembly intermediates and abortive products observed in this region favor a concurrent assembly and packaging model comprising two pathways, one for capsid proteins and another one for core components. Only when both pathways are coupled by correct interaction between packaging proteins and the genome is the viral particle produced. Decoupling generates accumulation of empty capsids and unpackaged cores.

  12. Localization of adenovirus morphogenesis players, together with visualization of assembly intermediates and failed products, favor a model where assembly and packaging occur concurrently at the periphery of the replication center.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Condezo, Gabriela N; San Martín, Carmen

    2017-04-01

    Adenovirus (AdV) morphogenesis is a complex process, many aspects of which remain unclear. In particular, it is not settled where in the nucleus assembly and packaging occur, and whether these processes occur in a sequential or a concerted manner. Here we use immunofluorescence and immunoelectron microscopy (immunoEM) to trace packaging factors and structural proteins at late times post infection by either wildtype virus or a delayed packaging mutant. We show that representatives of all assembly factors are present in the previously recognized peripheral replicative zone, which therefore is the AdV assembly factory. Assembly intermediates and abortive products observed in this region favor a concurrent assembly and packaging model comprising two pathways, one for capsid proteins and another one for core components. Only when both pathways are coupled by correct interaction between packaging proteins and the genome is the viral particle produced. Decoupling generates accumulation of empty capsids and unpackaged cores.

  13. INSIGHTS INTO THE MECHANICS OF CYTOKINETIC RING ASSEMBLY USING 3D MODELING.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bidone, Tamara Carla; Tang, Haosu; Vavylonis, Dimitrios

    During fission yeast cytokinesis, actin filaments nucleated by cortical formin Cdc12 are captured by myosin motors bound to a band of cortical nodes. The myosin motors exert forces that pull nodes together into a contractile ring. Cross-linking interactions help align actin filaments and nodes into a single bundle. Mutations in the myosin motor domain and changes in the concentration of cross-linkers alpha-actinin and fimbrin alter the morphology of the condensing network, leading to clumps, rings or extended meshworks. How the contractile tension developing during ring formation depends on the interplay between network morphology, myosin motor activity, cross-linking and actin filament turnover remains to be elucidated. We addressed this question using a 3D computational model in which semiflexible actin filaments (represented as beads connected by springs) grow from formins, can be captured by myosin in neighboring nodes, and get cross-linked with one another through an attractive interaction. We identify regimes of tension generation between connected nodes under a wide set of conditions regarding myosin dynamics and strength of cross-linking between actin filaments. We find conditions that maximize circumferential tension, correlate them with network morphology and propose experiments to test these predictions. This work addresses "Morphogenesis of soft and living matter" using computational modeling to simulate cytokinetic ring assembly from the key molecular mechanisms of viscoelastic cross-linked actin networks that include active molecular motors.

  14. A simplified modeling technique for the thermal analysis of spent nuclear assemblies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanchez, L.C.

    1987-01-01

    A major design concern of a cask for the transport of spent fuel assemblies is the determination of the maximum fuel pin temperature. Normally the determination of the maximum steady state fuel pin temperature requires the thermal analysis (two-dimensional or three-dimensional) of the cask to be performed in conjunction with the fuel assemblies. This, in general, would require extensive effort and computer time. However, by performing a sensitivity analysis for fuel pin temperature for various boundary conditions it was possible to decouple the heat transfer analysis of the cask from that of the fuel assemblies. This paper presents the scaling law that was obtained for maximum fuel pin temperature as a function of emissivity, heat generation rate and assembly wrapper temperature for hex-shaped fuel assemblies

  15. The upgrade of integrity analysis module and the mechanical behavior evaluation for the assembly duct

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Byoung Oon; Lee, Dong Uk; Kim, Young Il [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejeon (Korea)

    2002-05-01

    The high neutron fluxes and operating temperatures associated with KALIMER are inducing the important radiation damage phenomena, which can cause significant dimensional changes in the core components of the reactor.The thermo-mechanical analysis of the assembly ducts for KALIMER are mainly performed to evaluate the following items.1) change of reactivity. 2) force at pads on core assemblies. 3) withdrawal force at refueling. 4) loading and refueling deviation of assembly ducts. 5) bowing modes for control assembly. In this report, the model for the evaluation of reactivity change as well as the refueling model and the withdrawl force model are upgraded. And the reactivity change is considered as the most important parameter among the above items. Therefore, the sensitivity analyses mainly associated with reactivity change are carried out. As the results, the pad gap between the assembly ducts preliminary driven for keeping the (-) reactivity change. 9 refs., 24 figs., 2 tabs. (Author)

  16. In-vessel phenomena -- CORA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ott, L.J.; Rij, W.I. van.

    1991-01-01

    Experiment-specific models have been employed since 1986 by Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) severe accident analysis programs for the purpose of boiling water reactor experimental planning and optimum interpretation of experimental results. The large integral tests performed to date, which start from an initial undamaged core state, have involved significantly different-from-prototypic boundary and experimental conditions because of either normal facility limitations or specific experimental constraints. These experiments (ACRR: DF-4, NRU: FLHT-6, and CORA) were designed to obtain specific phenomenological information such as the degradation and interaction of prototypic components and the effects on melt progression of control-blade materials and channel boxes. Applications of ORNL models specific to the KfK CORA-16 and CORA-17 experiments are discussed and significant findings from the experimental analyses such as the following are presented: applicability of available Zircaloy oxidation kinetics correlations; influence of cladding strain on Zircaloy oxidation; influence of spacer grids on the structural heatup; and the impact of treating the gaseous coolant as a gray interacting medium. The experiment-specific models supplement and support the systems-level accident analysis codes. They allow the analyst to accurately quantify the observed experimental phenomena and to compensate for the effect of known uncertainties. They provide a basis for the efficient development of new models for phenomena that are currently not modeled (such as material interactions). They can provide validated phenomenological models (from the results of the experiments) as candidates for incorporation in the systems-level ''whole-core'' codes

  17. Modular Product Families and Assembly Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thyssen, Jesper

    2005-01-01

    of the rela-tionship between variables associated with configuration of modular product families and the interacting assembly system. One core result is the development of a system model based on the longitudinal case study incorporating both structural and performance elements. Based on the system model......This research centres on assembly systems designed for utilizing product modularization. Altogether, the task for companies has become an issue of managing the overall trade-off between the external market’s desire for variety and the internal efficiency and effectiveness. Product modularization...... is often claimed to be the answer to this trade-off in the extant literature. The overall research purpose has been to investigate the phenomena of product modularization as an apparently both powerful and com-plex means. The focal research objective is to obtain an improved insight and understanding...

  18. Viral capsid assembly as a model for protein aggregation diseases: Active processes catalyzed by cellular assembly machines comprising novel drug targets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marreiros, Rita; Müller-Schiffmann, Andreas; Bader, Verian; Selvarajah, Suganya; Dey, Debendranath; Lingappa, Vishwanath R; Korth, Carsten

    2015-09-02

    Viruses can be conceptualized as self-replicating multiprotein assemblies, containing coding nucleic acids. Viruses have evolved to exploit host cellular components including enzymes to ensure their replicative life cycle. New findings indicate that also viral capsid proteins recruit host factors to accelerate their assembly. These assembly machines are RNA-containing multiprotein complexes whose composition is governed by allosteric sites. In the event of viral infection, the assembly machines are recruited to support the virus over the host and are modified to achieve that goal. Stress granules and processing bodies may represent collections of such assembly machines, readily visible by microscopy but biochemically labile and difficult to isolate by fractionation. We hypothesize that the assembly of protein multimers such as encountered in neurodegenerative or other protein conformational diseases, is also catalyzed by assembly machines. In the case of viral infection, the assembly machines have been modified by the virus to meet the virus' need for rapid capsid assembly rather than host homeostasis. In the case of the neurodegenerative diseases, it is the monomers and/or low n oligomers of the so-called aggregated proteins that are substrates of assembly machines. Examples for substrates are amyloid β peptide (Aβ) and tau in Alzheimer's disease, α-synuclein in Parkinson's disease, prions in the prion diseases, Disrupted-in-schizophrenia 1 (DISC1) in subsets of chronic mental illnesses, and others. A likely continuum between virus capsid assembly and cell-to-cell transmissibility of aggregated proteins is remarkable. Protein aggregation diseases may represent dysfunction and dysregulation of these assembly machines analogous to the aberrations induced by viral infection in which cellular homeostasis is pathologically reprogrammed. In this view, as for viral infection, reset of assembly machines to normal homeostasis should be the goal of protein aggregation

  19. Design and experimental validation of a generic model for combinatorial assembly of DNA tiles into 1D-structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laisne, Aude; Lesniewska, Eric; Pompon, Denis

    2011-06-01

    Quantitative modeling of the self-assembly of DNA tiles leading either to defined end-products or distribution of biopolymers is of practical importance for biotechnology and synthetic biology. The combinatorial process describing tile assembly was implemented into a generic algorithm allowing quantitative description of the population of significant species accumulating during the reaction course. Experimental formation and characterization by optical and electrophoresis approaches of copolymers resulting from the self-assembly of a limited number of half-complementary tiles were used to define and validate generic rules allowing definition of model parameters. Factors controlling the structure and the dynamic of the oligomer population were evidenced for assemblies leading or not to defined end-products. Primary parameters were experimentally determined using rapid mixing experiments. Adjustment of simulations to experimental profiles allowed definition of generic rules for calculation of secondary parameters that take into account macro- and microenvironment of individual hybridization steps. In the case of copolymers, accurate simulation of experimental profiles was achieved for formation of linear assemblies. Overall length of species and structure of the DNA regions flanking the hybridization sites are critical parameters for which calculation rules were defined. The computational approach quantitatively predicted the parameters affecting time-course and distribution of accumulating products for different experimental designs. The computational and parameter evaluation procedures designed for the assembly of DNA tiles into large 1D-structures are more generally applicable for the construction of non-DNA polymers by extremities-specific recognition of molecular blocks. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. A three-layer model of self-assembly induced surface-energy variation experimentally extracted by using nanomechanically sensitive cantilevers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zuo Guomin; Li Xinxin

    2011-01-01

    This research is aimed at elucidating surface-energy (or interfacial energy) variation during the process of molecule-layer self-assembly on a solid surface. A quasi-quantitative plotting model is proposed and established to distinguish the surface-energy variation contributed by the three characteristic layers of a thiol-on-gold self-assembled monolayer (SAM), namely the assembly-medium correlative gold/head-group layer, the chain/chain interaction layer and the tail/medium layer, respectively. The data for building the model are experimentally extracted from a set of correlative thiol self-assemblies in different media. The variation in surface-energy during self-assembly is obtained by in situ recording of the self-assembly induced nanomechanical surface-stress using integrated micro-cantilever sensors. Based on the correlative self-assembly experiment, and by using the nanomechanically sensitive self-sensing cantilevers to monitor the self-assembly induced surface-stressin situ, the experimentally extracted separate contributions of the three layers to the overall surface-energy change aid a comprehensive understanding of the self-assembly mechanism. Moreover, the quasi-quantitative modeling method is helpful for optimal design, molecule synthesis and performance evaluation of molecule self-assembly for application-specific surface functionalization.

  1. Crystallization phenomena in slags

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orrling, Carl Folke

    2000-09-01

    The crystallization of the mold slag affects both the heat transfer and the lubrication between the mold and the strand in continuous casting of steel. In order for mold slag design to become an engineering science rather than an empirical exercise, a fundamental understanding of the melting and solidification behavior of a slag must be developed. Thus it is necessary to be able to quantify the phenomena that occur under the thermal conditions that are found in the mold of a continuous caster. The double hot thermocouple technique (DHTT) and the Confocal Laser Scanning Microscope used in this study are two novel techniques for investigating melting and solidification phenomena of transparent slags. Results from these techniques are useful in defining the phenomena that occur when the slag film infiltrates between the mold and the shell of the casting. TTT diagrams were obtained for various slags and indicated that the onset of crystallization is a function of cooling rate and slag chemistry. Crystal morphology was found to be dependent upon the experimental temperature and four different morphologies were classified based upon the degree of melt undercooling. Continuous cooling experiments were carried out to develop CCT diagrams and it was found that the amount and appearance of the crystalline fraction greatly depends on the cooling conditions. The DHTT can also be used to mimic the cooling profile encountered by the slag in the mold of a continuous caster. In this differential cooling mode (DCT), it was found that the details of the cooling rate determine the actual response of the slag to a thermal gradient and small changes can lead to significantly different results. Crystal growth rates were measured and found to be in the range between 0.11 mum/s to 11.73 mum/s depending on temperature and slag chemistry. Alumina particles were found to be effective innoculants in oxide melts reducing the incubation time for the onset of crystallization and also extending

  2. Description of WWER-440 fuel assembly 3D depletion model developed with TRITON6 code (SCALE 6.0)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2014-07-01

    One of the key components strongly influencing the accuracy of burnup credit methodology is precision of spent nuclear fuel isotopic composition prediction. To enhance the accuracy of spent nuclear fuel isotopic composition prediction modeling 3D depletion model of WWER-440 nuclear fuel was developed by TRITON6. TRITON6 couples ORIGEN-S depletion code with 3D neutron transport solver KENO-VI. This kind of coupling allows updating the ORIGEN-S cross-section libraries by 3D problem-dependent neutron fluxes computed by KENO-VI hence significantly improving the accuracy of isotopic composition predications. WWER-440 fuel assembly destructive experimental results carried out by RIAR Dimitrovgrad are planned to be used for verification and validation of developed model. Therefore WWER-440 fuel assembly model was developed with taking into account peculiarities in destructive experimental results

  3. IRaPPA: information retrieval based integration of biophysical models for protein assembly selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moal, Iain H; Barradas-Bautista, Didier; Jiménez-García, Brian; Torchala, Mieczyslaw; van der Velde, Arjan; Vreven, Thom; Weng, Zhiping; Bates, Paul A; Fernández-Recio, Juan

    2017-06-15

    In order to function, proteins frequently bind to one another and form 3D assemblies. Knowledge of the atomic details of these structures helps our understanding of how proteins work together, how mutations can lead to disease, and facilitates the designing of drugs which prevent or mimic the interaction. Atomic modeling of protein-protein interactions requires the selection of near-native structures from a set of docked poses based on their calculable properties. By considering this as an information retrieval problem, we have adapted methods developed for Internet search ranking and electoral voting into IRaPPA, a pipeline integrating biophysical properties. The approach enhances the identification of near-native structures when applied to four docking methods, resulting in a near-native appearing in the top 10 solutions for up to 50% of complexes benchmarked, and up to 70% in the top 100. IRaPPA has been implemented in the SwarmDock server ( http://bmm.crick.ac.uk/∼SwarmDock/ ), pyDock server ( http://life.bsc.es/pid/pydockrescoring/ ) and ZDOCK server ( http://zdock.umassmed.edu/ ), with code available on request. moal@ebi.ac.uk. Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com

  4. Performance Evaluation of O-Ring Seals in Model 9975 Packaging Assemblies (U)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skidmore, Eric

    1998-12-28

    The Materials Consultation Group of SRTC has completed a review of existing literature and data regarding the useable service life of Viton{reg_sign} GLT fluoroelastomer O-rings currently used in the Model 9975 packaging assemblies. Although the shipping and transportation period is normally limited to 2 years, it is anticipated that these packages will be used for longer-term storage of Pu-bearing materials in KAMS (K-Area Materials Storage) prior to processing or disposition in the APSF (Actinide Packaging and Storage Facility). Based on the service conditions and review of available literature, Materials Consultation concludes that there is sufficient existing data to establish the technical basis for storage of Pu-bearing materials using Parker Seals O-ring compound V835-75 (or equivalent) for up to 10 years following the 2-year shipping period. Although significant physical deterioration of the O-rings and release of product is not expected, definite changes in physical properties will occur. However, due to the complex relationship between elastomer formulation, seal properties, and competing degradation mechanisms, the actual degree of property variation and impact upon seal performance is difficult to predict. Therefore, accelerated aging and/or surveillance programs are recommended to validate the assumptions outlined in this report and to assess the long-term performance of O-ring seals under actual service conditions. Such programs could provide a unique opportunity to develop nonexistent long-term performance data, as well as address storage extension issues if necessary.

  5. Thermal analysis model for the temperature distribution of the CANDU spent fuel assembly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Hae Yun; Kwon, Jong Soo; Park, Seong Hoon; Kim, Seong Rea; Lee, Gi Won

    1996-01-01

    The purpose of this technical is to introduce the methodology and experimental process for the experimental research work with the mock-up test performed to verify and validate the MAXROT code which is a thermal analysis method for Wolsong (CANDU) spent fuel dry storage canister. The experiment was conducted simulating the heat transfer characteristics of combinations of equilateral triangular and square pitch arrays of heater rods, similar to a CANDU spent fuel bundle. After assembly of the heater rod bundle into the containment vessel, the experimental apparatus was operated under the same operating and boundary conditions as an interim dry storage condition at the nuclear power plant site. The reduced data from this experiment has been utilized to verity a model developed to predict the maximum fuel rod surface temperature in a fuel bundle. These test procedures and the experiment can be utilized to establish the fine thermal analysis method applicable to dry storage system for the spent fuel. 12 figs., 5 tabs., 36 refs. (Author) .new

  6. Second DOE natural phenomena hazards mitigation conference

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-01-01

    This conference has been organized into ten presentation sessions which include an overview of the DOE Natural Phenomena Guidelines, Seismic Analysis, Seismic Design, Modifying Existing Facilities, DOE Orders, Codes, and Standards (2 sessions), Seismic Hazard (2 sessions), and Probabilistic Risk Assessment (2 sessions). Two poster sessions were also included in the program to provide a different forum for communication of ideas. Over the past fourteen years, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Nuclear Systems Safety Program, has been working with the US Department of Energy, Office of Safety Appraisals and their predecessors in the area of natural phenomena hazards. During this time we have developed seismic, extreme wind/tornado, and flood hazard models for DOE sites in the United States. Guidelines for designing and evaluating DOE facilities for natural phenomena have been developed and are in interim use throughout the DOE community. A series of state-of-the practice manuals have also been developed to aid the designers. All of this material is listed in the Natural Phenomena Hazards Bibliography included in these proceedings. This conference provides a mechanism to disseminate current information on natural phenomena hazards and their mitigation. It provides an opportunity to bring together members of the DOE community to discuss current projects, to share information, and to hear practicing members of the structural engineering community discuss their experiences from past natural phenomena, future trends, and any changes to building codes. Each paper or poster presented is included in these proceedings. We have also included material related to the luncheon and dinner talks

  7. Clay Generic Disposal System Model - Sensitivity Analysis for 32 PWR Assembly Canisters (+2 associated model files).

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morris, Edgar [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)

    2014-10-01

    The Used Fuel Disposition Campaign (UFDC), as part of the DOE Office of Nuclear Energy’s (DOE-NE) Fuel Cycle Technology program (FCT) is investigating the disposal of high level radioactive waste (HLW) and spent nuclear fuela (SNF) in a variety of geologic media. The feasibility of disposing SNF and HLW in clay media has been investigated and has been shown to be promising [Ref. 1]. In addition the disposal of these wastes in clay media is being investigated in Belgium, France, and Switzerland. Thus, Argillaceous media is one of the environments being considered by UFDC. As identified by researchers at Sandia National Laboratory, potentially suitable formations that may exist in the U.S. include mudstone, clay, shale, and argillite formations [Ref. 1]. These formations encompass a broad range of material properties. In this report, reference to clay media is intended to cover the full range of material properties. This report presents the status of the development of a simulation model for evaluating the performance of generic clay media. The clay Generic Disposal System Model (GDSM) repository performance simulation tool has been developed with the flexibility to evaluate not only different properties, but different waste streams/forms and different repository designs and engineered barrier configurations/ materials that could be used to dispose of these wastes.

  8. Introduction on KPS's maintenance experience of the swirl vane assemblies of primary separators for SG model F in Korea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Yong tae

    2003-01-01

    Recently, we had experienced to replace the Swirl Vane Assemblies of primary moisture separator for SG model F in Korea because of serious degradation (Thinning) in carbon steel swirl vane blades and carbon steel separator barrel wall adjacent to swirl vane blades. When the symptom was observed by us at the first time on the swirl vane assemblies, there were small or a bit clear erosion / or corrosion marks on the edge regions of the blades but within 3 cycles of operation, we found that those marks became holes which penetrated the most of swirl vane assemblies and even more seriously, some parts of the assemblies were worn-out. Therefore, we concluded that the speed of degradation would be very rapid and serious from the beginning stage. It had been assumed that these kinds of thinning problems would be due to FAC(Flow Accelerated Corrosion) because the plants having these problems are using a highly concentrated hydrazine for the water treatment of secondary side which lead to reduce the oxygen and pH in the water. What are more serious reasons will be that the swirl vane assemblies are very weak to FAC because they were made by a low concentrated chromium carbon steel and the assemblies would have to be under the operation conditions of the highly turbulent steam-water mixed fluid with the operating temperature of higher than 280 .deg. C. Potentially, the damaged swirl vane assemblies of the primary moisture separator may create bad influences for the plant operation because it may cause the rupture of SG Tubes and over-exceed fluid influx onto the turbine and etc. KPS had successfully performed the replacement of the degraded swirl vane assemblies through our own planning and preparation. This was the unique case in all over the world and I would like to introduce you about our unique repair experience to prepare an expected future situation as we see the similar problems in other model F SGs operating in Korea

  9. Structural and Magnetic model of self-assembled FePt nanoparticle arrays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomson, T

    2004-01-01

    Chemically ordered, self-assembled FePt nanoparticle arrays with high magnetic anisotropy are considered a candidate medium for data storage beyond 1 Tbit/in 2 . We report comprehensive structural and magnetic studies on thin (3 layer) assemblies of polyethylenimine (PEI) and 4 nm Fe 58 Pt 42 nanoparticles using X-ray diffraction, small angle neutron scattering and magnetometry. We show that prior to annealing FePt nanoparticles in the PEI-FePt assembly consist of a metallic, magnetic core surrounded by a weakly magnetic or non-magnetic shell. High temperature annealing creates the desired L1 0 chemical ordering and results in high coercivity FePt nanoparticles. However, we find that the high temperatures necessary to establish full chemical ordering leads to particle sintering and agglomeration. Understanding the magnetic and physical properties of these assemblies allows future research directions to be clarified for nanoparticle arrays as data storage media

  10. Internal states of model isotropic granular packings. I. Assembling process, geometry, and contact networks

    OpenAIRE

    I. Agnolin; J.-N. Roux;  

    2007-01-01

    29 pages. Published in Physical Review E; International audience; This is the first paper of a series of three, reporting on numerical simulation studies of geometric and mechanical properties of static assemblies of spherical beads under an isotropic pressure. Frictionless systems assemble in the unique random close packing (RCP) state in the low pressure limit if the compression process is fast enough, slower processes inducing traces of crystallization, and exhibit specific properties direct...

  11. Oral insulin delivery by self-assembled chitosan nanoparticles: In vitro and in vivo studies in diabetic animal model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mukhopadhyay, Piyasi; Sarkar, Kishor [Department of Polymer Science and Technology, 92, A.P.C. Road, Kolkata-700009, University of Calcutta (India); Chakraborty, Mousumi; Bhattacharya, Sourav; Mishra, Roshnara [Department of Physiology, 92, A.P.C. Road, Kolkata-700009, University of Calcutta (India); Kundu, P.P., E-mail: ppk923@yahoo.com [Department of Polymer Science and Technology, 92, A.P.C. Road, Kolkata-700009, University of Calcutta (India)

    2013-01-01

    We have developed self-assembled chitosan/insulin nanoparticles for successful oral insulin delivery. The main purpose of our study is to prepare chitosan/insulin nanoparticles by self-assembly method, to characterize them and to evaluate their efficiency in vivo diabetic model. The size and morphology of the nanoparticles were analyzed by dynamic light scattering (DLS), atomic force microscopy (AFM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The average particle size ranged from 200 to 550 nm, with almost spherical or sub spherical shape. An average insulin encapsulation within the nanoparticles was {approx} 85%. In vitro release study showed that the nanoparticles were also efficient in retaining good amount of insulin in simulated gastric condition, while significant amount of insulin release was noticed in simulated intestinal condition. The oral administrations of chitosan/insulin nanoparticles were effective in lowering the blood glucose level of alloxan-induced diabetic mice. Thus, self-assembled chitosan/insulin nanoparticles show promising effects as potential insulin carrier system in animal models. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Self-assembled chitosan/insulin nanoparticle preparation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Almost spherical or sub-spherical nanoparticles observed under microscope. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Good insulin encapsulation of the nanoparticles. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Nanoparticles reduced blood glucose level significantly in diabetic mice.

  12. On the Use of Self-Assembling Block Copolymers to Toughen A Model Epoxy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yilin

    Block copolymers have been receiving considerable attention in toughening epoxy due to their ability to form a wide variety of nanostructures. This study focuses on using both triblock and diblock copolymers to improve the fracture toughness of an aromatic-amine cured epoxy system. The curing system consisted of 1,3- phenylenediamine (mPDA) as curing agent and aniline as a chain extender. Three triblock copolymers and three diblock copolymers were incorporated in the same lightly crosslinked model epoxy system, which was chosen to mimic an underfill material in flip-chip packaging for the microelectronics industry. In this research, rubber particles were formed in situ using self-assembling block copolymers. Mechanical, thermal and microscopic studies were conducted with the main goal to study the relationship between the block parameters and the final morphologies and their effects on static and dynamic mechanical properties of the toughened resin, especially fracture toughness. In these block-copolymer-modified epoxies, spherical micelles and wormlike micelles were obtained by varying block lengths, molecular weight, polarities and compositions. It was found that miscibility of the epoxy-miscible block played a crucial role in the formation of different types of morphologies. At a low loading level, diblock copolymers were able to toughen the model epoxy as effectively as triblock copolymers. The fracture toughness was improved to almost three times with respect to that of the neat resin with addition of 10 phr AM*-27. At the same time, other mechanical properties, such as yield strength and modulus, were well retained. Incorporation of block copolymers did not have a significant effect on glass transition temperature but caused an increase in coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE) of the modified epoxy. Particle cavitation and matrix void growth were proved to be the toughening mechanisms for SBM-Modified epoxies. However, these typical toughening mechanisms for

  13. Dissipative phenomena in condensed matter some applications

    CERN Document Server

    Dattagupta, Sushanta

    2004-01-01

    From the field of nonequilibrium statistical physics, this graduate- and research-level volume treats the modeling and characterization of dissipative phenomena. A variety of examples from diverse disciplines like condensed matter physics, materials science, metallurgy, chemical physics etc. are discussed. Dattagupta employs the broad framework of stochastic processes and master equation techniques to obtain models for a wide range of experimentally relevant phenomena such as classical and quantum Brownian motion, spin dynamics, kinetics of phase ordering, relaxation in glasses, dissipative tunneling. It provides a pedagogical exposition of current research material and will be useful to experimentalists, computational physicists and theorists.

  14. General fractional calculus in non-singular power-law kernel applied to model anomalous diffusion phenomena in heat transfer problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gao Feng

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we address the general fractional calculus of Liouville-Weyl and Liouville-Caputo general fractional derivative types with non-singular power-law kernel for the first time. The Fourier transforms and the anomalous diffusions are discussed in detail. The formulations are adopted to describe complex phenomena of the heat transfer problems.

  15. MHD phenomena at ASDEX Upgrade

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guenter, S.; Gude, A.; Maraschek, M.; Pinches, S.D.; Sesnic, S.; Wolf, R.C.; Yu, Q.; Zohm, M.

    2001-01-01

    The onset of neoclassical tearing modes leads to the most serious β limit at ASDEX Upgrade. The β p value for the onset of neoclassical tearing modes is found to be proportional to the ion gyro-radius for collisionless plasmas as proposed by the ion polarisation current model. Larger collisionalities have a stabilizing effect. Sawtooth crashes or fishbones can trigger the mode, and in a few cases it appears spontaneously. Fishbones are shown to be able to cause magnetic reconnection. The fractional energy loss due to a (3,2) mode saturates for large pressures at around 25 %. In discharges with large impurity accumulation unusual MHD phenomena such as cascades of high-n tearing modes and modes driven by positive pressure gradients have been found. (author)

  16. MHD phenomena at ASDEX Upgrade

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guenter, S.; Gude, A.; Maraschek, M.; Pinches, S.D.; Sesnic, S.; Wolf, R.C.; Yu, Q.; Zohm, H.

    1999-01-01

    The onset of neoclassical tearing modes leads to the most serious β limit at ASDEX Upgrade. The β p value for the onset of neoclassical tearing modes is found to be proportional to the ion gyro-radius for collisionless plasmas as proposed by the ion polarisation current model. Larger collisionalities have a stabilizing effect. Sawtooth crashes or fishbones can trigger the mode, and in a few cases it appears spontaneously. Fishbones are shown to be able to cause magnetic reconnection. The fractional energy loss due to a (3,2) mode saturates for large pressures at around 25%. In discharges with large impurity accumulation unusual MHD phenomena such as cascades of high-n tearing modes and modes driven by positive pressure gradients have been found. (author)

  17. Acid Deposition Phenomena

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramadan, A.E.K.

    2004-01-01

    Acid deposition, commonly known as acid rain, occurs when emissions from the combustion of fossil fuels and other industrial processes undergo complex chemical reactions in the atmosphere and fall to the earth as wet deposition (rain, snow, cloud, fog) or dry deposition (dry particles, gas). Rain and snow are already naturally acidic, but are only considered problematic when less than a ph of 5.0 The main chemical precursors leading to acidic conditions are atmospheric concentrations of sulfur dioxide (SO 2 ) and nitrogen oxides (NO x ). When these two compounds react with water, oxygen, and sunlight in the atmosphere, the result is sulfuric (H 2 SO 4 ) and nitric acids (HNO 3 ), the primary agents of acid deposition which mainly produced from the combustion of fossil fuel and from petroleum refinery. Airborne chemicals can travel long distances from their sources and can therefore affect ecosystems over broad regional scales and in locations far from the sources of emissions. According to the concern of petroleum ministry with the environment and occupational health, in this paper we will discussed the acid deposition phenomena through the following: Types of acidic deposition and its components in the atmosphere Natural and man-made sources of compounds causing the acidic deposition. Chemical reactions causing the acidic deposition phenomenon in the atmosphere. Factors affecting level of acidic deposition in the atmosphere. Impact of acid deposition. Procedures for acidic deposition control in petroleum industry

  18. Immune phenomena in echinoderms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gliński, Z; Jarosz, J

    2000-01-01

    Advances in biochemistry and molecular biology have made it possible to identify a number of mechanisms active in the immune phenomena of echinoderms. It is obvious that echinoderms have the ability to distinguish between different foreign objects (pathologically changed tissues, microorganisms, parasites, grafts) and to express variable effector mechanisms which are elicited specifically and repeatably after a variety of non-self challenges. The molecular and biochemical basis for the expression of these variable defense mechanisms and the specific signals which elicit one type of effector mechanism are not, however, yet well known. The high capacity of coelomocytes to phagocytose, entrap and encapsulate invading microorganisms is a valid immune cell-mediated mechanism of echinoderms. The entrapped bacteria, discharged cellular materials and disintegrating granular cells are compacted and provoke the cellular encapsulation reaction. Moreover, humoral-based reactions form an integral part of the echinoderm defense system against microbial invaders. Factors such as lysozyme, perforins (hemolysins) vitellogenin and lectins are normal constituents of hemolymph, while cytokines are synthesized by echinoderms in response to infection.

  19. The evidences of progressive pressurization of volcanic conduit as driving forces of unrest phenomena analyzed via modelling of multiplatform geodetic measurements: Fernandina (GALAPAGOS) and Maunaloa (HAWAII) case studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pepe, Susi; Castaldo, Raffaele; Casu, Francesco; D'Auria, Luca; De Luca, Claudio; De Novellis, Vincenzo; Solaro, Giuseppe; Tizzani, Pietro

    2017-04-01

    We investigated the source of the ground deformation pattern affecting the Mauna Loa (Hawaii) and Fernandina (Galapagos) volcanoes by jointly exploiting different dataset collected by both GPS and multiplatform and multiorbit SAR sensors. We exploited the advanced Differential SAR Interferometry (DInSAR) techniques to analyze unrest episode in two different geodynamics context. Our main goal is the understanding of the relationship among the spatio-temporal evolution of the ground deformation field and the temporal volumetric variation of the detected geodetic source during the uplift phenomena. We highlight the huge opportunity in understanding volcano unrest phenomena offered by the joint use of remote sensing data and inversion procedures: this prospect is particularly relevant for the analysis of uplift events, when other geophysical measurements are not available. For Mauna Loa (Hawaii) and Fernandina (Galapagos) volcanoes, the performed statistic analysis support the source pipe-like as the more suitable geometry to explain the unrest phenomena in which magmatic masses intrude in volcanic conduits. In particular, the deformation time series achieved at MounaLoa volcano are achieved by 23 GPS permanent stations of the Hawaii surveillance network, processed by Nevada Geodetic Laboratory, 7 SAR dataset acquired from ascending and descending orbits, with different look angles and along different tracks, by the C-Band Envisat satellite along the 2003 - 2010 time period for a total of 189 SAR imagery. Moreover, we exploited 2 dataset collected from ascending and descending passes by the X-Band Cosmo Sky-Med constellation during the 2012 - 2015 time span . These SAR datasets have been processed through the advanced DInSAR technique referred to as P-SBAS (De Luca et al., 2016), which allows us to retrieve the Line of Sight (LOS) projection of the surface deformation and analyze its temporal evolution by generating displacement time series. Starting this data

  20. Performance Evaluation of O-Ring Seals in Model 9975 Packaging Assemblies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skidmore, Eric

    1998-01-01

    The Materials Consultation Group of SRTC has completed a review of existing literature and data regarding the useable service life of Viton(reg s ign) GLT fluoroelastomer O-rings currently used in the Model 9975 packaging assemblies. Although the shipping and transportation period is normally limited to 2 years, it is anticipated that these packages will be used for longer-term storage of Pu-bearing materials in KAMS (K-Area Materials Storage) prior to processing or disposition in the APSF (Actinide Packaging and Storage Facility). Based on the service conditions and review of available literature, Materials Consultation concludes that there is sufficient existing data to establish the technical basis for storage of Pu-bearing materials using Parker Seals O-ring compound V835-75 (or equivalent) for up to 10 years following the 2-year shipping period. Although significant physical deterioration of the O-rings and release of product is not expected, definite changes in physical properties will occur. However, due to the complex relationship between elastomer formulation, seal properties, and competing degradation mechanisms, the actual degree of property variation and impact upon seal performance is difficult to predict. Therefore, accelerated aging and/or surveillance programs are recommended to validate the assumptions outlined in this report and to assess the long-term performance of O-ring seals under actual service conditions. Such programs could provide a unique opportunity to develop nonexistent long-term performance data, as well as address storage extension issues if necessary

  1. NMR derived model of GTPase effector domain (GED self association: relevance to dynamin assembly.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Swagata Chakraborty

    Full Text Available Self-association of dynamin to form spiral structures around lipidic vesicles during endocytosis is largely mediated by its 'coiled coil' GTPase Effector Domain (GED, which, in vitro, self-associates into huge helical assemblies. Residue-level structural characterizations of these assemblies and understanding the process of association have remained a challenge. It is also impossible to get folded monomers in the solution phase. In this context, we have developed here a strategy to probe the self-association of GED by first dissociating the assembly using Dimethyl Sulfoxide (DMSO and then systematically monitoring the refolding into helix and concomitant re-association using NMR spectroscopy, as DMSO concentration is progressively reduced. The short segment, Arg109 - Met116, acts as the nucleation site for helix formation and self-association. Hydrophobic and complementary charge interactions on the surfaces drive self-association, as the helices elongate in both the directions resulting in an antiparallel stack. A small N-terminal segment remains floppy in the assembly. Following these and other published results on inter-domain interactions, we have proposed a plausible mode of dynamin self assembly.

  2. Haters Phenomena in Social Media

    OpenAIRE

    Pradipta, Angga; Lailiyah, S.Sos, M.I.Kom, Nuriyatul

    2016-01-01

    Social media is internet-basic media, functioned as interaction media room based on multimedia technology. And social media created some effects. One of the negative effects of social media is haters phenomena. Haters are a person who easily said dirty words, harass, and humiliate to others. This phenomena causes anxiety—especially in Indonesia, even the Government issued public policy and letter of regulation about this phenomena, through Paragraph 27 verse (3) IT Constitution, Paragraph 45 ...

  3. Thermodynamically Constrained Averaging Theory Approach for Modeling Flow and Transport Phenomena in Porous Medium Systems: 7. Single-Phase Megascale Flow Models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, William G; Miller, Cass T

    2009-08-01

    This work is the seventh in a series that introduces and employs the thermodynamically constrained averaging theory (TCAT) for modeling flow and transport in multiscale porous medium systems. This paper expands the previous analyses in the series by developing models at a scale where spatial variations within the system are not considered. Thus the time variation of variables averaged over the entire system is modeled in relation to fluxes at the boundary of the system. This implementation of TCAT makes use of conservation equations for mass, momentum, and energy as well as an entropy balance. Additionally, classical irreversible thermodynamics is assumed to hold at the microscale and is averaged to the megascale, or system scale. The fact that the local equilibrium assumption does not apply at the megascale points to the importance of obtaining closure relations that account for the large-scale manifestation of small-scale variations. Example applications built on this foundation are suggested to stimulate future work.

  4. Transport phenomena in environmental engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sander, Aleksandra; Kardum, Jasna Prlić; Matijašić, Gordana; Žižek, Krunoslav

    2018-01-01

    A term transport phenomena arises as a second paradigm at the end of 1950s with high awareness that there was a strong need to improve the scoping of chemical engineering science. At that point, engineers became highly aware that it is extremely important to take step forward from pure empirical description and the concept of unit operations only to understand the specific process using phenomenological equations that rely on three elementary physical processes: momentum, energy and mass transport. This conceptual evolution of chemical engineering was first presented with a well-known book of R. Byron Bird, Warren E. Stewart and Edwin N. Lightfoot, Transport Phenomena, published in 1960 [1]. What transport phenomena are included in environmental engineering? It is hard to divide those phenomena through different engineering disciplines. The core is the same but the focus changes. Intention of the authors here is to present the transport phenomena that are omnipresent in treatment of various process streams. The focus in this chapter is made on the transport phenomena that permanently occur in mechanical macroprocesses of sedimentation and filtration for separation in solid-liquid particulate systems and on the phenomena of the flow through a fixed and a fluidized bed of particles that are immanent in separation processes in packed columns and in environmental catalysis. The fundamental phenomena for each thermal and equilibrium separation process technology are presented as well. Understanding and mathematical description of underlying transport phenomena result in scoping the separation processes in a way that ChEs should act worldwide.

  5. A kinetic model for impact/sliding wear of pressurized water reactor internal components. Application to rod cluster control assemblies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zbinden, M.; Durbec, V.

    1996-12-01

    A new concept of industrial wear model adapted to components of nuclear plants is proposed. Its originality is to be supported, on one hand, by experimental results obtained via wear machines of relatively short operational times, and, on the other hand, by the information obtained from the operating feedback over real wear kinetics of the reactors components. The proposed model is illustrated by an example which corresponds to a specific real situation. The determination of the coefficients permitting to cover all assembly of configurations and the validation of the model in these configurations have been the object of the most recent work. (author)

  6. Terminology of allergic phenomena.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ring, Johannes

    2014-01-01

    Over the last 2,000 years a variety of terms have been used for the description of phenomena possibly related to allergy. Many have been forgotten, while some of them have remained. In Greco-Roman literature the term 'idiosyncrasy' was used to describe an individual characterization of a health condition, possibly comparable to 'constitution'. The same term was also used to describe individual reaction patterns, and the term 'antipathy' was used in a similar sense. 'Hypersensitivity' originated from the German word 'Überempfindlichkeit' and was first used in a medical sense by Emil von Behring when he described untoward reactions to his antitoxin containing serum therapy. 'Anaphylaxis' was coined by Richet and Portier to describe the new phenomenon of a life-threatening general pathogenic reaction after repeated injection of antigen. In 1906, Clemens von Pirquet introduced the term 'allergy' in order to bring more clarity to the confusing debate regarding protective and harmful immunity. In order to characterize the familial occurrence of hypersensitivity reactions such as asthma, hay fever and others, the American allergists A.F. Coca and R.A. Cooke introduced the term 'atopy'. Contrary to anaphylaxis, which was experimentally induced, this type of 'hypersensitiveness' occurred spontaneously. The nature of the pathogenic factor was called the 'atopic reagin' and was found to be transferable with serum by Prausnitz and Küstner. After the detection of immunoglobulin (Ig) E as the carrier of this type of hypersensitivity, the term 'atopy' gained a new sense, since IgE is a characteristic - yet not exclusive - parameter of the so-called atopic diseases. Clinically similar diseases such as asthma, rhinoconjunctivitis or eczema can be found in the absence of IgE, and are then called 'intrinsic' variants of the same disease. © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  7. Self-assembly of peptide scaffolds in biosilica formation: computer simulations of a coarse-grained model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenoci, Leonardo; Camp, Philip J

    2006-08-09

    The self-assembly of model peptides is studied using Brownian dynamics computer simulations. A coarse-grained, bead-spring model is designed to mimic silaffins, small peptides implicated in the biomineralization of certain silica diatom skeletons and observed to promote the formation of amorphous silica nanospheres in vitro. The primary characteristics of the silaffin are a 15 amino acid hydrophilic backbone and two modified lysine residues near the ends of the backbone carrying long polyamine chains. In the simulations, the model peptides self-assemble to form spherical clusters, networks of strands, or bicontinuous structures, depending on the peptide concentration and effective temperature. The results indicate that over a broad range of volume fractions (0.05-25%) the characteristic structural lengthscales fall in the range 12-45 nm. On this basis, we suggest that self-assembled structures act as either nucleation points or scaffolds for the deposition of 10-100 nm silica-peptide building blocks from which diatom skeletons and synthetic nanospheres are constructed.

  8. Impact of model perfumes on surfactant and mixed surfactant self-assembly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penfold, J; Tucker, I; Green, A; Grainger, D; Jones, C; Ford, G; Roberts, C; Hubbard, J; Petkov, J; Thomas, R K; Grillo, I

    2008-11-04

    The impact of some model perfumes on surfactant self-assembly has been investigated, using small-angle neutron scattering. A range of different model perfumes, with differing degrees of hydrophilicity/hydrophobicity, have been explored, and in order of increasing hydrophobicity include phenyl ethanol (PE), rose oxide (RO), limonene (LM), linalool (LL), and dihydrogen mercenol (DHM). The effect of their solubilization on the nonionic surfactant micelles of dodecaethylene monododecyl ether (C12EO12) and on the mixed surfactant aggregates of C12EO12 and the cationic dialkyl chain surfactant dihexadecyl dimethyl ammonium bromide (DHDAB) has been quantified. For PE and LL the effect of their solubilization on the micelle, mixed micelle/lamellar and lamellar regimes of the C12EO12/DHDAB mixtures, has also been determined. For the C12EO12 and mixed DHDAB/C12EO12 micelles PE is solubilized predominantly at the hydrophilic/hydrophobic interface, whereas the more hydrophobic perfumes, from RO to DHM, are solubilized predominantly in the hydrophobic core of the micelles. For the C12EO12 micelles, with increasing perfume concentration, the more hydrophobic perfumes (RO to DHM) promote micellar growth. Relatively modest growth is observed for RO and LM, whereas substantial growth is observed for LL and DHM. In contrast, for the addition of PE the C12EO12 micelles remain as relatively small globular micelles, with no significant growth. For the C12EO12/DHDAB mixed micelles, the pattern of behavior with the addition of perfume is broadly similar, except that the micellar growth with increasing perfume concentration for the more hydrophobic perfumes is less pronounced. In the Lbeta (Lv) region of the DHDAB-rich C12EO12/DHDAB phase diagram, the addition of PE results in a less structured (less rigid) lamellar phase, and ultimately a shift toward a structure more consistent with a sponge or bicontinuous phase. In the mixed L1/Lbeta region of the phase diagram PE induces a slight

  9. Phototrophic biofilm assembly in microbial-mat-derived unicyanobacterial consortia: model systems for the study of autotroph-heterotroph interactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica K Cole

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Microbial autotroph-heterotroph interactions influence biogeochemical cycles on a global scale, but the diversity and complexity of natural systems and their intractability to in situ manipulation make it challenging to elucidate the principles governing these interactions. The study of assembling phototrophic biofilm communities provides a robust means to identify such interactions and evaluate their contributions to the recruitment and maintenance of phylogenetic and functional diversity over time. To examine primary succession in phototrophic communities, we isolated two unicyanobacterial consortia from the microbial mat in Hot Lake, Washington, characterizing the membership and metabolic function of each consortium. We then analyzed the spatial structures and quantified the community compositions of their assembling biofilms. The consortia retained the same suite of heterotrophic species, identified as abundant members of the mat and assigned to Alphaproteobacteria, Gammaproteobacteria, and Bacteroidetes. Autotroph growth rates dominated early in assembly, yielding to increasing heterotroph growth rates late in succession. The two consortia exhibited similar assembly patterns, with increasing relative abundances of members from Bacteroidetes and Alphaproteobacteria concurrent with decreasing relative abundances of those from Gammaproteobacteria. Despite these similarities at higher taxonomic levels, the relative abundances of individual heterotrophic species were substantially different in the developing consortial biofilms. This suggests that, although similar niches are created by the cyanobacterial metabolisms, the resulting webs of autotroph-heterotroph and heterotroph-heterotroph interactions are specific to each primary producer. The relative simplicity and tractability of the Hot Lake unicyanobacterial consortia make them useful model systems for deciphering interspecies interactions and assembly principles relevant to natural

  10. Analysis of induction phenomena in thermonuclear experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deeds, W.E.; Dodd, C.V.

    1976-01-01

    Many of the problems involving transients induced by changing currents in the large coils of thermonuclear machines are identical to those arising in nondestructive testing by eddy currents. There are three chief methods used for calculating such induction phenomena: analytical boundary-value solutions, relaxation or iteration techniques, and model experiments. Some of the results obtained by each of these methods are described below

  11. Inertial confinement fusion reactor cavity phenomena

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bohachevsky, I.O.; Hafer, J.F.; Devaney, J.J.; Pendergrass, J.H.

    1978-01-01

    Cavity phenomena in Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF) are created by the interaction of energy released by the fuel pellet microexplosion with the medium inside the reactor cavity. The ambient state of the medium in ICF reactor cavities is restricted primarily by its effects on laser beam propagation and on the fuel pellet trajectory. Therefore, a relatively wide choice of ambient conditions can be exploited to gain first-wall protection and advantages in energy extraction. Depending on the choice of ambient cavity conditions and on fuel pellet design, a variety of physical phenomena may develop and dominate the ICF reactor cavity design. Because of the cavity phenomena, the forms of energy released by the fuel-pellet microexplosion are modified before reaching the first wall, thus giving rise to different cavity design problems. The types of cavity phenomena encountered in the conceptual design of ICF reactors are examined, the approaches available for their modeling and analysis are discussed, and some results are presented. Most phenomena are sufficiently well understood to permit valid engineering assessments of the proposed ICF reactor concepts

  12. Teaching Optical Phenomena with Tracker

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, M.; Carvalho, P. Simeão

    2014-01-01

    Since the invention and dissemination of domestic laser pointers, observing optical phenomena is a relatively easy task. Any student can buy a laser and experience at home, in a qualitative way, the reflection, refraction and even diffraction phenomena of light. However, quantitative experiments need instruments of high precision that have a…

  13. Interfacial Transport Phenomena (Second edition)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Slattery, J.C.; Sagis, L.M.C.; Oh, E.S.

    2007-01-01

    Gives a presentation of transport phenomena or continuum mechanics focused on momentum, energy, and mass transfer at interfaces. This work includes a discussion of transport phenomena at common lines or three-phase lines of contact, and a theory for the extension of continuum mechanics to the

  14. Internal states of model isotropic granular packings. I. Assembling process, geometry, and contact networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agnolin, Ivana; Roux, Jean-Noël

    2007-12-01

    This is the first paper of a series of three, in which we report on numerical simulation studies of geometric and mechanical properties of static assemblies of spherical beads under an isotropic pressure. The influence of various assembling processes on packing microstructures is investigated. It is accurately checked that frictionless systems assemble in the unique random close packing (RCP) state in the low pressure limit if the compression process is fast enough, higher solid fractions corresponding to more ordered configurations with traces of crystallization. Specific properties directly related to isostaticity of the force-carrying structure in the rigid limit are discussed. With frictional grains, different preparation procedures result in quite different inner structures that cannot be classified by the sole density. If partly or completely lubricated they will assemble like frictionless ones, approaching the RCP solid fraction Phi_{RCP} approximately 0.639 with a high coordination number: z* approximately =6 on the force-carrying backbone. If compressed with a realistic coefficient of friction mu=0.3 packings stabilize in a loose state with Phi approximately 0.593 and z* approximately =4.5 . And, more surprisingly, an idealized "vibration" procedure, which maintains an agitated, collisional regime up to high densities results in equally small values of z* while Phi is close to the maximum value Phi_{RCP}. Low coordination packings have a large proportion (>10%) of rattlers--grains carrying no force--the effect of which should be accounted for on studying position correlations, and also contain a small proportion of localized "floppy modes" associated with divalent grains. Low-pressure states of frictional packings retain a finite level of force indeterminacy even when assembled with the slowest compression rates simulated, except in the case when the friction coefficient tends to infinity. Different microstructures are characterized in terms of near

  15. Development of an Augmented Reality environment for the assembly of a precast wood-frame wall using the BIM model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Regina Mizrahy Cuperschmid

    Full Text Available Abstract This article presents the development of an Augmented Reality (AR application to assist in the assembly of a precast wood-frame wall, based on the BIM model of the wall execution sequence. The research study used the Design Science Research approach and its aim was to develop an AR application named "montAR" (version 2.0. This application offers a tutorial that combines a wall model visualized in AR in actual scale, followed by an audio with step-by-step instructions of the assembly process. Its applicability was simulated in a laboratory with the participation of volunteers (architecture and engineering students. Two visualization gadgets were used and compared: smartphones and smart glasses. The potentialities and difficulties of the use of the AR system were assessed through a questionnaire answered by the participants and through direct observation and result analysis by the researchers. The results demonstrated the potential of using AR for precast wall assembly. From a technological innovation perspective, this study emphasizes the potential use of AR as a technology suitable for training and for construction quality control.

  16. Remote sensing of natural phenomena

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miodrag D. Regodić

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available There has always been a need to directly perceive and study the events whose extent is beyond people's possibilities. In order to get new data and to make observations and studying much more objective in comparison with past syntheses - a new method of examination called remote sensing has been adopted. The paper deals with the principles and elements of remote sensing, as well as with the basic aspects of using remote research in examining meteorological (weather parameters and the conditions of the atmosphere. The usage of satellite images is possible in all phases of the global and systematic research of different natural phenomena when airplane and satellite images of different characteristics are used and their analysis and interpretation is carried out by viewing and computer added procedures. Introduction Remote sensing of the Earth enables observing and studying global and local events that occur on it. Satellite images are nowadays used in geology, agriculture, forestry, geodesy, meteorology, spatial and urbanism planning, designing of infrastructure and other objects, protection from natural and technological catastrophes, etc. It it possible to use satellite images in all phases of global and systematic research of different natural phenomena. Basics of remote sensing Remote sensing is a method of the acquisition and interpretation of information about remote objects without making a physical contact with them. The term Daljinska detekcija is a literal translation of the English term Remote Sensing. In French it isTeledetection, in German - Fernerkundung, in Russian - дистанционие иследования. We also use terms such as: remote survailance, remote research, teledetection, remote methods, and distance research. The basic elements included in Remote Sensing are: object, electromagnetic energy, sensor, platform, image, analysis, interpretation and the information (data, fact. Usage of satellite remote research in

  17. Modeling and Parameter Identification of the Vibration Characteristics of Armature Assembly in a Torque Motor of Hydraulic Servo Valves under Electromagnetic Excitations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinghui Peng

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The resonance of the armature assembly is the main problem leading to the fatigue of the spring pipe in a torque motor of hydraulic servo valves, which can cause the failure of servo valves. To predict the vibration characteristics of the armature assembly, this paper focuses on the mathematical modeling of the vibration characteristics of armature assembly in a hydraulic servo valve and the identification of parameters in the models. To build models more accurately, the effect of the magnetic spring is taken into account. Vibration modal analysis is performed to obtain the mode shapes and natural frequencies, which are necessary to implement the identification of damping ratios in the mathematical models. Based on the mathematical models for the vibration characteristics, the harmonic responses of the armature assembly are analyzed using the finite element method and measured under electromagnetic excitations. The simulation results agree well with the experimental studies.

  18. Maximum likelihood model based on minor allele frequencies and weighted Max-SAT formulation for haplotype assembly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mousavi, Sayyed R; Khodadadi, Ilnaz; Falsafain, Hossein; Nadimi, Reza; Ghadiri, Nasser

    2014-06-07

    Human haplotypes include essential information about SNPs, which in turn provide valuable information for such studies as finding relationships between some diseases and their potential genetic causes, e.g., for Genome Wide Association Studies. Due to expensiveness of directly determining haplotypes and recent progress in high throughput sequencing, there has been an increasing motivation for haplotype assembly, which is the problem of finding a pair of haplotypes from a set of aligned fragments. Although the problem has been extensively studied and a number of algorithms have already been proposed for the problem, more accurate methods are still beneficial because of high importance of the haplotypes information. In this paper, first, we develop a probabilistic model, that incorporates the Minor Allele Frequency (MAF) of SNP sites, which is missed in the existing maximum likelihood models. Then, we show that the probabilistic model will reduce to the Minimum Error Correction (MEC) model when the information of MAF is omitted and some approximations are made. This result provides a novel theoretical support for the MEC, despite some criticisms against it in the recent literature. Next, under the same approximations, we simplify the model to an extension of the MEC in which the information of MAF is used. Finally, we extend the haplotype assembly algorithm HapSAT by developing a weighted Max-SAT formulation for the simplified model, which is evaluated empirically with positive results. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Static Electricity-Responsive Supramolecular Assembly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jintoku, Hirokuni; Ihara, Hirotaka; Matsuzawa, Yoko; Kihara, Hideyuki

    2017-12-01

    Stimuli-responsive materials can convert between molecular scale and macroscopic scale phenomena. Two macroscopic static electricity-responsive phenomena based on nanoscale supramolecular assemblies of a zinc porphyrin derivative are presented. One example involves the movement of supramolecular assemblies in response to static electricity. The assembly of a pyridine (Py) complex of the above-mentioned derivative in cyclohexane is drawn to a positively charged material, whereas the assembly of a 3,5-dimethylpyridine complex is drawn to a negatively charged material. The second phenomenon involves the movement of a non-polar solvent in response to static electrical stimulation. A cyclohexane solution containing a small quantity of the Py-complexed assembly exhibited a strong movement response towards negatively charged materials. Based on spectroscopic measurements and electron microscope observations, it was revealed that the assembled formation generates the observed response to static electricity. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  20. Validation Data and Model Development for Fuel Assembly Response to Seismic Loads

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bardet, Philippe; Ricciardi, Guillaume

    2016-01-01

    Vibrations are inherently present in nuclear reactors, especially in cores and steam generators of pressurized water reactors (PWR). They can have significant effects on local heat transfer and wear and tear in the reactor and often set safety margins. The simulation of these multiphysics phenomena from first principles requires the coupling of several codes, which is one the most challenging task in modern computer simulation. Here an ambitious multiphysics multidisciplinary validation campaign is conducted. It relied on an integrated team of experimentalists and code developers to acquire benchmark and validation data for fluid-structure interaction codes. Data are focused on PWR fuel bundle behavior during seismic transients.