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  1. Spatial Heterodyne Observations of Water (SHOW) vapour in the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere from a high altitude aircraft: Modelling and sensitivity analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langille, J. A.; Letros, D.; Zawada, D.; Bourassa, A.; Degenstein, D.; Solheim, B.

    2018-04-01

    A spatial heterodyne spectrometer (SHS) has been developed to measure the vertical distribution of water vapour in the upper troposphere and the lower stratosphere with a high vertical resolution (∼500 m). The Spatial Heterodyne Observations of Water (SHOW) instrument combines an imaging system with a monolithic field-widened SHS to observe limb scattered sunlight in a vibrational band of water (1363 nm-1366 nm). The instrument has been optimized for observations from NASA's ER-2 aircraft as a proof-of-concept for a future low earth orbit satellite deployment. A robust model has been developed to simulate SHOW ER-2 limb measurements and retrievals. This paper presents the simulation of the SHOW ER-2 limb measurements along a hypothetical flight track and examines the sensitivity of the measurement and retrieval approach. Water vapour fields from an Environment and Climate Change Canada forecast model are used to represent realistic spatial variability along the flight path. High spectral resolution limb scattered radiances are simulated using the SASKTRAN radiative transfer model. It is shown that the SHOW instrument onboard the ER-2 is capable of resolving the water vapour variability in the UTLS from approximately 12 km - 18 km with ±1 ppm accuracy. Vertical resolutions between 500 m and 1 km are feasible. The along track sampling capability of the instrument is also discussed.

  2. Analysis of the Fgfr2C342Y mouse model shows condensation defects due to misregulation of Sox9 expression in prechondrocytic mesenchyme

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emma Peskett

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Syndromic craniosynostosis caused by mutations in FGFR2 is characterised by developmental pathology in both endochondral and membranous skeletogenesis. Detailed phenotypic characterisation of features in the membranous calvarium, the endochondral cranial base and other structures in the axial and appendicular skeleton has not been performed at embryonic stages. We investigated bone development in the Crouzon mouse model (Fgfr2C342Y at pre- and post-ossification stages to improve understanding of the underlying pathogenesis. Phenotypic analysis was performed by whole-mount skeletal staining (Alcian Blue/Alizarin Red and histological staining of sections of CD1 wild-type (WT, Fgfr2C342Y/+ heterozygous (HET and Fgfr2C342Y/C342Y homozygous (HOM mouse embryos from embryonic day (E12.5-E17.5 stages. Gene expression (Sox9, Shh, Fgf10 and Runx2 was studied by in situ hybridisation and protein expression (COL2A1 by immunohistochemistry. Our analysis has identified severely decreased osteogenesis in parts of the craniofacial skeleton together with increased chondrogenesis in parts of the endochondral and cartilaginous skeleton in HOM embryos. The Sox9 expression domain in tracheal and basi-cranial chondrocytic precursors at E13.5 in HOM embryos is increased and expanded, correlating with the phenotypic observations which suggest FGFR2 signalling regulates Sox9 expression. Combined with abnormal staining of type II collagen in pre-chondrocytic mesenchyme, this is indicative of a mesenchymal condensation defect. An expanded spectrum of phenotypic features observed in the Fgfr2C342Y/C342Y mouse embryo paves the way towards better understanding the clinical attributes of human Crouzon–Pfeiffer syndrome. FGFR2 mutation results in impaired skeletogenesis; however, our findings suggest that many phenotypic aberrations stem from a primary failure of pre-chondrogenic/osteogenic mesenchymal condensation and link FGFR2 to SOX9, a principal regulator of

  3. Snacking on Television: A Content Analysis of Adolescents' Favorite Shows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisenberg, Marla E; Larson, Nicole I; Gollust, Sarah E; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne

    2016-05-19

    Snacking is a complex behavior that may be influenced by entertainment media. Research suggests that snacking and unhealthy foods are commonly shown in programming that targets young audiences, but shows selected for study have been limited. We conducted a content analysis on shows that were named as favorites by adolescents to characterize portrayals of snacking on popular television. A diverse sample of 2,130 adolescents (mean age, 14.3 y) listed 3 favorite television shows in a 2010 school-based survey. Three episodes each of the 25 most popular shows were coded for food-related content, including healthfulness, portion size, screen time use, setting, and social context. We also analyzed the characteristics of characters involved in eating incidents, the show type, and the show rating. We used χ(2) tests, binomial tests, and multilevel regression models to compare incidence of snacks versus meals, the characteristics of those involved, and snacking across show characteristics. Almost half of food incidents on television shows were snacks. Snacks were significantly more likely than meals to be "mostly unhealthy" (69.3% vs 22.6%, P Media awareness and literacy programs should include foods and snacking behaviors among the issues they address. More healthful portrayals of food and dietary intake in entertainment shows' content would create a healthier media environment for youth.

  4. Program impact pathway analysis of a social franchise model shows potential to improve infant and young child feeding practices in Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Phuong H; Menon, Purnima; Keithly, Sarah C; Kim, Sunny S; Hajeebhoy, Nemat; Tran, Lan M; Ruel, Marie T; Rawat, Rahul

    2014-10-01

    By mapping the mechanisms through which interventions are expected to achieve impact, program impact pathway (PIP) analysis lays out the theoretical causal links between program activities, outcomes, and impacts. This study examines the pathways through which the Alive & Thrive (A&T) social franchise model is intended to improve infant and young child feeding (IYCF) practices in Vietnam. Mixed methods were used, including qualitative interviews with franchise management board members (n = 12), surveys with health providers (n = 120), counseling observations (n = 160), and household surveys (n = 2045). Six PIP components were assessed: 1) franchise management, 2) training and IYCF knowledge of health providers, 3) service delivery, 4) program exposure and utilization, 5) maternal behavioral determinants (knowledge, beliefs, and intentions) toward optimal IYCF practices, and 6) IYCF practices. Data were collected from A&T-intensive areas (A&T-I; mass media + social franchise) and A&T-nonintensive areas (A&T-NI; mass media only) by using a cluster-randomized controlled trial design. Data from 2013 were compared with baseline where similar measures were available. Results indicate that mechanisms are in place for effective management of the franchise system, despite challenges to routine monitoring. A&T training was associated with increased capacity of providers, resulting in higher-quality IYCF counseling (greater technical knowledge and communication skills during counseling) in A&T-I areas. Franchise utilization increased from 10% in 2012 to 45% in 2013 but fell below the expected frequency of 9-15 contacts per mother-child dyad. Improvements in breastfeeding knowledge, beliefs, intentions, and practices were greater among mothers in A&T-I areas than among those in A&T-NI areas. In conclusion, there are many positive changes along the impact pathway of the franchise services, but challenges in utilization and demand creation should be addressed to achieve the full

  5. Transcriptomic Analysis of Lung Tissue from Cigarette Smoke-Induced Emphysema Murine Models and Human Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease Show Shared and Distinct Pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yun, Jeong H; Morrow, Jarrett; Owen, Caroline A; Qiu, Weiliang; Glass, Kimberly; Lao, Taotao; Jiang, Zhiqiang; Perrella, Mark A; Silverman, Edwin K; Zhou, Xiaobo; Hersh, Craig P

    2017-07-01

    Although cigarette smoke (CS) is the primary risk factor for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), the underlying molecular mechanisms for the significant variability in developing COPD in response to CS are incompletely understood. We performed lung gene expression profiling of two different wild-type murine strains (C57BL/6 and NZW/LacJ) and two genetic models with mutations in COPD genome-wide association study genes (HHIP and FAM13A) after 6 months of chronic CS exposure and compared the results to human COPD lung tissues. We identified gene expression patterns that correlate with severity of emphysema in murine and human lungs. Xenobiotic metabolism and nuclear erythroid 2-related factor 2-mediated oxidative stress response were commonly regulated molecular response patterns in C57BL/6, Hhip +/- , and Fam13a -/- murine strains exposed chronically to CS. The CS-resistant Fam13a -/- mouse and NZW/LacJ strain revealed gene expression response pattern differences. The Fam13a -/- strain diverged in gene expression compared with C57BL/6 control only after CS exposure. However, the NZW/LacJ strain had a unique baseline expression pattern, enriched for nuclear erythroid 2-related factor 2-mediated oxidative stress response and xenobiotic metabolism, and converged to a gene expression pattern similar to the more susceptible wild-type C57BL/6 after CS exposure. These results suggest that distinct molecular pathways may account for resistance to emphysema. Surprisingly, there were few genes commonly modulated in mice and humans. Our study suggests that gene expression responses to CS may be largely species and model dependent, yet shared pathways could provide biologically significant insights underlying individual susceptibility to CS.

  6. Bayesian analysis of repairable systems showing a bounded failure intensity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guida, Maurizio; Pulcini, Gianpaolo

    2006-01-01

    The failure pattern of repairable mechanical equipment subject to deterioration phenomena sometimes shows a finite bound for the increasing failure intensity. A non-homogeneous Poisson process with bounded increasing failure intensity is then illustrated and its characteristics are discussed. A Bayesian procedure, based on prior information on model-free quantities, is developed in order to allow technical information on the failure process to be incorporated into the inferential procedure and to improve the inference accuracy. Posterior estimation of the model-free quantities and of other quantities of interest (such as the optimal replacement interval) is provided, as well as prediction on the waiting time to the next failure and on the number of failures in a future time interval is given. Finally, numerical examples are given to illustrate the proposed inferential procedure

  7. Showing that the race model inequality is not violated

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gondan, Matthias; Riehl, Verena; Blurton, Steven Paul

    2012-01-01

    When participants are asked to respond in the same way to stimuli from different sources (e. g., auditory and visual), responses are often observed to be substantially faster when both stimuli are presented simultaneously (redundancy gain). Different models account for this effect, the two most...

  8. Porcine Esophageal Submucosal Gland Culture Model Shows Capacity for Proliferation and DifferentiationSummary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard J. von Furstenberg

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Background & Aims: Although cells comprising esophageal submucosal glands (ESMGs represent a potential progenitor cell niche, new models are needed to understand their capacity to proliferate and differentiate. By histologic appearance, ESMGs have been associated with both overlying normal squamous epithelium and columnar epithelium. Our aim was to assess ESMG proliferation and differentiation in a 3-dimensional culture model. Methods: We evaluated proliferation in human ESMGs from normal and diseased tissue by proliferating cell nuclear antigen immunohistochemistry. Next, we compared 5-ethynyl-2′-deoxyuridine labeling in porcine ESMGs in vivo before and after esophageal injury with a novel in vitro porcine organoid ESMG model. Microarray analysis of ESMGs in culture was compared with squamous epithelium and fresh ESMGs. Results: Marked proliferation was observed in human ESMGs of diseased tissue. This activated ESMG state was recapitulated after esophageal injury in an in vivo porcine model, ESMGs assumed a ductal appearance with increased proliferation compared with control. Isolated and cultured porcine ESMGs produced buds with actively cycling cells and passaged to form epidermal growth factor–dependent spheroids. These spheroids were highly proliferative and were passaged multiple times. Two phenotypes of spheroids were identified: solid squamous (P63+ and hollow/ductal (cytokeratin 7+. Microarray analysis showed spheroids to be distinct from parent ESMGs and enriched for columnar transcripts. Conclusions: Our results suggest that the activated ESMG state, seen in both human disease and our porcine model, may provide a source of cells to repopulate damaged epithelium in a normal manner (squamous or abnormally (columnar epithelium. This culture model will allow the evaluation of factors that drive ESMGs in the regeneration of injured epithelium. The raw microarray data have been uploaded to the National Center for

  9. Porcine Esophageal Submucosal Gland Culture Model Shows Capacity for Proliferation and Differentiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Furstenberg, Richard J; Li, Joy; Stolarchuk, Christina; Feder, Rachel; Campbell, Alexa; Kruger, Leandi; Gonzalez, Liara M; Blikslager, Anthony T; Cardona, Diana M; McCall, Shannon J; Henning, Susan J; Garman, Katherine S

    2017-11-01

    Although cells comprising esophageal submucosal glands (ESMGs) represent a potential progenitor cell niche, new models are needed to understand their capacity to proliferate and differentiate. By histologic appearance, ESMGs have been associated with both overlying normal squamous epithelium and columnar epithelium. Our aim was to assess ESMG proliferation and differentiation in a 3-dimensional culture model. We evaluated proliferation in human ESMGs from normal and diseased tissue by proliferating cell nuclear antigen immunohistochemistry. Next, we compared 5-ethynyl-2'-deoxyuridine labeling in porcine ESMGs in vivo before and after esophageal injury with a novel in vitro porcine organoid ESMG model. Microarray analysis of ESMGs in culture was compared with squamous epithelium and fresh ESMGs. Marked proliferation was observed in human ESMGs of diseased tissue. This activated ESMG state was recapitulated after esophageal injury in an in vivo porcine model, ESMGs assumed a ductal appearance with increased proliferation compared with control. Isolated and cultured porcine ESMGs produced buds with actively cycling cells and passaged to form epidermal growth factor-dependent spheroids. These spheroids were highly proliferative and were passaged multiple times. Two phenotypes of spheroids were identified: solid squamous (P63+) and hollow/ductal (cytokeratin 7+). Microarray analysis showed spheroids to be distinct from parent ESMGs and enriched for columnar transcripts. Our results suggest that the activated ESMG state, seen in both human disease and our porcine model, may provide a source of cells to repopulate damaged epithelium in a normal manner (squamous) or abnormally (columnar epithelium). This culture model will allow the evaluation of factors that drive ESMGs in the regeneration of injured epithelium. The raw microarray data have been uploaded to the National Center for Biotechnology Information Gene Expression Omnibus (accession number: GSE100543).

  10. Small GSK-3 Inhibitor Shows Efficacy in a Motor Neuron Disease Murine Model Modulating Autophagy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Estefanía de Munck

    Full Text Available Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS is a progressive motor neuron degenerative disease that has no effective treatment up to date. Drug discovery tasks have been hampered due to the lack of knowledge in its molecular etiology together with the limited animal models for research. Recently, a motor neuron disease animal model has been developed using β-N-methylamino-L-alanine (L-BMAA, a neurotoxic amino acid related to the appearing of ALS. In the present work, the neuroprotective role of VP2.51, a small heterocyclic GSK-3 inhibitor, is analysed in this novel murine model together with the analysis of autophagy. VP2.51 daily administration for two weeks, starting the first day after L-BMAA treatment, leads to total recovery of neurological symptoms and prevents the activation of autophagic processes in rats. These results show that the L-BMAA murine model can be used to test the efficacy of new drugs. In addition, the results confirm the therapeutic potential of GSK-3 inhibitors, and specially VP2.51, for the disease-modifying future treatment of motor neuron disorders like ALS.

  11. Classifying multi-model wheat yield impact response surfaces showing sensitivity to temperature and precipitation change

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Fronzek, S.; Pirttioja, N. K.; Carter, T. R.; Bindi, M.; Hoffmann, H.; Palosuo, T.; Ruiz-Ramos, M.; Tao, F.; Trnka, Miroslav; Acutis, M.; Asseng, S.; Baranowski, P.; Basso, B.; Bodin, P.; Buis, S.; Cammarano, D.; Deligios, P.; Destain, M. F.; Dumont, B.; Ewert, F.; Ferrise, R.; Francois, L.; Gaiser, T.; Hlavinka, Petr; Jacquemin, I.; Kersebaum, K. C.; Kollas, C.; Krzyszczak, J.; Lorite, I. J.; Minet, J.; Ines Minguez, M.; Montesino, M.; Moriondo, M.; Mueller, C.; Nendel, C.; Öztürk, I.; Perego, A.; Rodriguez, A.; Ruane, A. C.; Ruget, F.; Sanna, M.; Semenov, M. A.; Slawinski, C.; Stratonovitch, P.; Supit, I.; Waha, K.; Wang, E.; Wu, L.; Zhao, Z.; Rötter, R.

    2018-01-01

    Roč. 159, jan (2018), s. 209-224 ISSN 0308-521X Keywords : climate-change * crop models * probabilistic assessment * simulating impacts * british catchments * uncertainty * europe * productivity * calibration * adaptation * Classification * Climate change * Crop model * Ensemble * Sensitivity analysis * Wheat Impact factor: 2.571, year: 2016

  12. Rifalazil and derivative compounds show potent efficacy in a mouse model of H. pylori colonization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothstein, David M; Mullin, Steve; Sirokman, Klari; Söndergaard, Karen L; Johnson, Starrla; Gwathmey, Judith K; van Duzer, John; Murphy, Christopher K

    2008-08-01

    The rifamycin rifalazil (RFZ), and derivatives (NCEs) were efficacious in a mouse model of Helicobacter pylori colonization. Select NCEs were more active in vitro and showed greater efficacy than RFZ. A systemic component contributes to efficacy.

  13. New azole derivatives showing antimicrobial effects and their mechanism of antifungal activity by molecular modeling studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doğan, İnci Selin; Saraç, Selma; Sari, Suat; Kart, Didem; Eşsiz Gökhan, Şebnem; Vural, İmran; Dalkara, Sevim

    2017-04-21

    Azole antifungals are potent inhibitors of fungal lanosterol 14α demethylase (CYP51) and have been used for eradication of systemic candidiasis clinically. Herein we report the design, synthesis, and biological evaluation of a series of 1-phenyl/1-(4-chlorophenyl)-2-(1H-imidazol-1-yl)ethanol esters. Many of these derivatives showed fungal growth inhibition at very low concentrations. Minimal inhibition concentration (MIC) value of 15 was 0.125 μg/mL against Candida albicans. Additionally, some of our compounds, such as 19 (MIC: 0.25 μg/mL), were potent against resistant C. glabrata, a fungal strain less susceptible to some first-line antifungal drugs. We confirmed their antifungal efficacy by antibiofilm test and their safety against human monocytes by cytotoxicity assay. To rationalize their mechanism of action, we performed computational analysis utilizing molecular docking and dynamics simulations on the C. albicans and C. glabrata CYP51 (CACYP51 and CGCYP51) homology models we built. Leu130 and T131 emerged as possible key residues for inhibition of CGCYP51 by 19. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  14. Factor analysis shows association between family activity environment and children's health behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendrie, Gilly A; Coveney, John; Cox, David N

    2011-12-01

    To characterise the family activity environment in a questionnaire format, assess the questionnaire's reliability and describe its predictive ability by examining the relationships between the family activity environment and children's health behaviours - physical activity, screen time and fruit and vegetable intake. This paper describes the creation of a tool, based on previously validated scales, adapted from the food domain. Data are from 106 children and their parents (Adelaide, South Australia). Factor analysis was used to characterise factors within the family activity environment. Pearson-Product Moment correlations between the family environment and child outcomes, controlling for demographic variation, were examined. Three factors described the family activity environment - parental activity involvement, opportunity for role modelling and parental support for physical activity - and explained 37.6% of the variance. Controlling for demographic factors, the scale was significantly correlated with children's health behaviour - physical activity (r=0.27), screen time (r=-0.24) and fruit and vegetable intake (r=0.34). The family activity environment questionnaire shows high internal consistency and moderate predictive ability. This study has built on previous research by taking a more comprehensive approach to measuring the family activity environment. This research suggests the family activity environment should be considered in family-based health promotion interventions. © 2011 The Authors. ANZJPH © 2011 Public Health Association of Australia.

  15. Analysis of experimental evidence that shows adverse effects of salt and its relation to hypertension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ignacio Bravo A.

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The study by Taylor et al published in June 2010 in the American Journal of Hypertension questions the effectiveness of reducing salt intake in the diet in the prevention and treatment of high blood pressure and other cardiovascular conditions. The publication of this article has lead to great controversy and medical associations and learned societies responded promptly. The response criticized the results of the meta-analysis and pointed out its methodological shortcomings. In this review we critically appraise the experimental evidence that shows the importance of diet salt intake and its role as a determinant of blood pressure. We briefly describe the paradigm that explains the role of salt intake in contributing in the regulation of blood pressure (Guyton hypothesis and model and we mention the experimental evidence that supports this. We briefly comment on the classical studies that indicate that salt intake (NaCl contributes directly to the development of high blood pressure and target tissues. Finally, we briefly mention the experimental data that is related with the controversy on the role of salt (NaCl or sodium as prohypertensive agents.

  16. The ATLAS Analysis Model

    CERN Multimedia

    Amir Farbin

    The ATLAS Analysis Model is a continually developing vision of how to reconcile physics analysis requirements with the ATLAS offline software and computing model constraints. In the past year this vision has influenced the evolution of the ATLAS Event Data Model, the Athena software framework, and physics analysis tools. These developments, along with the October Analysis Model Workshop and the planning for CSC analyses have led to a rapid refinement of the ATLAS Analysis Model in the past few months. This article introduces some of the relevant issues and presents the current vision of the future ATLAS Analysis Model. Event Data Model The ATLAS Event Data Model (EDM) consists of several levels of details, each targeted for a specific set of tasks. For example the Event Summary Data (ESD) stores calorimeter cells and tracking system hits thereby permitting many calibration and alignment tasks, but will be only accessible at particular computing sites with potentially large latency. In contrast, the Analysis...

  17. Classifying Multi-Model Wheat Yield Impact Response Surfaces Showing Sensitivity to Temperature and Precipitation Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fronzek, Stefan; Pirttioja, Nina; Carter, Timothy R.; Bindi, Marco; Hoffmann, Holger; Palosuo, Taru; Ruiz-Ramos, Margarita; Tao, Fulu; Trnka, Miroslav; Acutis, Marco; hide

    2017-01-01

    Crop growth simulation models can differ greatly in their treatment of key processes and hence in their response to environmental conditions. Here, we used an ensemble of 26 process-based wheat models applied at sites across a European transect to compare their sensitivity to changes in temperature (minus 2 to plus 9 degrees Centigrade) and precipitation (minus 50 to plus 50 percent). Model results were analysed by plotting them as impact response surfaces (IRSs), classifying the IRS patterns of individual model simulations, describing these classes and analysing factors that may explain the major differences in model responses. The model ensemble was used to simulate yields of winter and spring wheat at four sites in Finland, Germany and Spain. Results were plotted as IRSs that show changes in yields relative to the baseline with respect to temperature and precipitation. IRSs of 30-year means and selected extreme years were classified using two approaches describing their pattern. The expert diagnostic approach (EDA) combines two aspects of IRS patterns: location of the maximum yield (nine classes) and strength of the yield response with respect to climate (four classes), resulting in a total of 36 combined classes defined using criteria pre-specified by experts. The statistical diagnostic approach (SDA) groups IRSs by comparing their pattern and magnitude, without attempting to interpret these features. It applies a hierarchical clustering method, grouping response patterns using a distance metric that combines the spatial correlation and Euclidian distance between IRS pairs. The two approaches were used to investigate whether different patterns of yield response could be related to different properties of the crop models, specifically their genealogy, calibration and process description. Although no single model property across a large model ensemble was found to explain the integrated yield response to temperature and precipitation perturbations, the

  18. FESEM Analysis showing evidence of aerosol Mixing over Indo-Gangetic Plains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, R. P.; Huth, J.; Wagner, T.; Sharma, M.; Chauhan, A.; Singh, S.; Pandey, S. N.

    2012-12-01

    Kanpur AERONET deployed in January 2001 has provided a long-term dataset which has been used to understand the aerosol properties and aerosol long term trend in the Indo-Gangetic Plains (IGP). Recent studies have revealed higher black carbon (BC) mass concentrations in the IGP, home to 900 million people. We present analysis of black carbon mass concentrations obtained from several locations in the IGP - namely Varanasi, Lucknow, Kanpur, Greater Noida and Delhi. Measurements show significant diurnal variation with higher BC concentrations in the morning hours and low concentrations during afternoon and evening time. Seasonally, BC concentrations are generally found to be higher during winter months compared to spring and summer monsoon season showing high seasonal variability. The higher winter-time BC is associated with a stable and shallow boundary layer which favors accumulation of pollutants over the IGP, resulting in dense haze conditions. Filter-based analysis, obtained from samples used in Aethalometer and high vacuum sampler, were analyzed to study aerosol surface characteristics and size of particles. Additionally, FESEM (Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscope) analysis show many dust minerals (Na, Al, Si, K, Fe), biogenic substances, fly ash of varying sizes 15 nanometer to 5 micron. The SEM imagery also show heterogeneous aerosol particles, sometimes these mineral grains are seen separately and sometime coating of fly ash and mineral particles are clearly seen. Similarly, Kanpur AERONET data is analyzed during winter and pre-monsoon season, contrasting aerosol properties (SSA, Refractive index and Size distribution) are found that are associated with large aerosol mixing, also supported from the FESEM analysis.

  19. A physics-explicit model of bacterial conjugation shows the stabilizing role of the conjugative junction

    OpenAIRE

    Pastuszak, Jakub; Waclaw, Bartlomiej

    2017-01-01

    Conjugation is a process in which bacteria exchange DNA through a physical connection (conjugative junction) between mating cells. Despite its significance for processes such as the spread of antibiotic resistance, the role of physical forces in conjugation is poorly understood. Here we use computer models to show that the conjugative junction not only serves as a link to transfer the DNA but it also mechanically stabilises the mating pair which significantly increases the conjugation rate. W...

  20. Microarray profiling shows distinct differences between primary tumors and commonly used preclinical models in hepatocellular carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Weining; Iyer, N. Gopalakrishna; Tay, Hsien Ts’ung; Wu, Yonghui; Lim, Tony K. H.; Zheng, Lin; Song, In Chin; Kwoh, Chee Keong; Huynh, Hung; Tan, Patrick O. B.; Chow, Pierce K. H.

    2015-01-01

    Despite advances in therapeutics, outcomes for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) remain poor and there is an urgent need for efficacious systemic therapy. Unfortunately, drugs that are successful in preclinical studies often fail in the clinical setting, and we hypothesize that this is due to functional differences between primary tumors and commonly used preclinical models. In this study, we attempt to answer this question by comparing tumor morphology and gene expression profiles between primary tumors, xenografts and HCC cell lines. Hep G2 cell lines and tumor cells from patient tumor explants were subcutaneously (ectopically) injected into the flank and orthotopically into liver parenchyma of Mus Musculus SCID mice. The mice were euthanized after two weeks. RNA was extracted from the tumors, and gene expression profiling was performed using the Gene Chip Human Genome U133 Plus 2.0. Principal component analyses (PCA) and construction of dendrograms were conducted using Partek genomics suite. PCA showed that the commonly used HepG2 cell line model and its xenograft counterparts were vastly different from all fresh primary tumors. Expression profiles of primary tumors were also significantly divergent from their counterpart patient-derived xenograft (PDX) models, regardless of the site of implantation. Xenografts from the same primary tumors were more likely to cluster together regardless of site of implantation, although heat maps showed distinct differences in gene expression profiles between orthotopic and ectopic models. The data presented here challenges the utility of routinely used preclinical models. Models using HepG2 were vastly different from primary tumors and PDXs, suggesting that this is not clinically representative. Surprisingly, site of implantation (orthotopic versus ectopic) resulted in limited impact on gene expression profiles, and in both scenarios xenografts differed significantly from the original primary tumors, challenging the long

  1. Social network analysis shows direct evidence for social transmission of tool use in wild chimpanzees.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine Hobaiter

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Social network analysis methods have made it possible to test whether novel behaviors in animals spread through individual or social learning. To date, however, social network analysis of wild populations has been limited to static models that cannot precisely reflect the dynamics of learning, for instance, the impact of multiple observations across time. Here, we present a novel dynamic version of network analysis that is capable of capturing temporal aspects of acquisition--that is, how successive observations by an individual influence its acquisition of the novel behavior. We apply this model to studying the spread of two novel tool-use variants, "moss-sponging" and "leaf-sponge re-use," in the Sonso chimpanzee community of Budongo Forest, Uganda. Chimpanzees are widely considered the most "cultural" of all animal species, with 39 behaviors suspected as socially acquired, most of them in the domain of tool-use. The cultural hypothesis is supported by experimental data from captive chimpanzees and a range of observational data. However, for wild groups, there is still no direct experimental evidence for social learning, nor has there been any direct observation of social diffusion of behavioral innovations. Here, we tested both a static and a dynamic network model and found strong evidence that diffusion patterns of moss-sponging, but not leaf-sponge re-use, were significantly better explained by social than individual learning. The most conservative estimate of social transmission accounted for 85% of observed events, with an estimated 15-fold increase in learning rate for each time a novice observed an informed individual moss-sponging. We conclude that group-specific behavioral variants in wild chimpanzees can be socially learned, adding to the evidence that this prerequisite for culture originated in a common ancestor of great apes and humans, long before the advent of modern humans.

  2. Social network analysis shows direct evidence for social transmission of tool use in wild chimpanzees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hobaiter, Catherine; Poisot, Timothée; Zuberbühler, Klaus; Hoppitt, William; Gruber, Thibaud

    2014-09-01

    Social network analysis methods have made it possible to test whether novel behaviors in animals spread through individual or social learning. To date, however, social network analysis of wild populations has been limited to static models that cannot precisely reflect the dynamics of learning, for instance, the impact of multiple observations across time. Here, we present a novel dynamic version of network analysis that is capable of capturing temporal aspects of acquisition--that is, how successive observations by an individual influence its acquisition of the novel behavior. We apply this model to studying the spread of two novel tool-use variants, "moss-sponging" and "leaf-sponge re-use," in the Sonso chimpanzee community of Budongo Forest, Uganda. Chimpanzees are widely considered the most "cultural" of all animal species, with 39 behaviors suspected as socially acquired, most of them in the domain of tool-use. The cultural hypothesis is supported by experimental data from captive chimpanzees and a range of observational data. However, for wild groups, there is still no direct experimental evidence for social learning, nor has there been any direct observation of social diffusion of behavioral innovations. Here, we tested both a static and a dynamic network model and found strong evidence that diffusion patterns of moss-sponging, but not leaf-sponge re-use, were significantly better explained by social than individual learning. The most conservative estimate of social transmission accounted for 85% of observed events, with an estimated 15-fold increase in learning rate for each time a novice observed an informed individual moss-sponging. We conclude that group-specific behavioral variants in wild chimpanzees can be socially learned, adding to the evidence that this prerequisite for culture originated in a common ancestor of great apes and humans, long before the advent of modern humans.

  3. Modeled hydrologic metrics show links between hydrology and the functional composition of stream assemblages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patrick, Christopher J; Yuan, Lester L

    2017-07-01

    Flow alteration is widespread in streams, but current understanding of the effects of differences in flow characteristics on stream biological communities is incomplete. We tested hypotheses about the effect of variation in hydrology on stream communities by using generalized additive models to relate watershed information to the values of different flow metrics at gauged sites. Flow models accounted for 54-80% of the spatial variation in flow metric values among gauged sites. We then used these models to predict flow metrics in 842 ungauged stream sites in the mid-Atlantic United States that were sampled for fish, macroinvertebrates, and environmental covariates. Fish and macroinvertebrate assemblages were characterized in terms of a suite of metrics that quantified aspects of community composition, diversity, and functional traits that were expected to be associated with differences in flow characteristics. We related modeled flow metrics to biological metrics in a series of stressor-response models. Our analyses identified both drying and base flow instability as explaining 30-50% of the observed variability in fish and invertebrate community composition. Variations in community composition were related to variations in the prevalence of dispersal traits in invertebrates and trophic guilds in fish. The results demonstrate that we can use statistical models to predict hydrologic conditions at bioassessment sites, which, in turn, we can use to estimate relationships between flow conditions and biological characteristics. This analysis provides an approach to quantify the effects of spatial variation in flow metrics using readily available biomonitoring data. © 2017 by the Ecological Society of America.

  4. Human Commercial Models' Eye Colour Shows Negative Frequency-Dependent Selection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabela Rodrigues Nogueira Forti

    Full Text Available In this study we investigated the eye colour of human commercial models registered in the UK (400 female and 400 male and Brazil (400 female and 400 male to test the hypothesis that model eye colour frequency was the result of negative frequency-dependent selection. The eye colours of the models were classified as: blue, brown or intermediate. Chi-square analyses of data for countries separated by sex showed that in the United Kingdom brown eyes and intermediate colours were significantly more frequent than expected in comparison to the general United Kingdom population (P<0.001. In Brazil, the most frequent eye colour brown was significantly less frequent than expected in comparison to the general Brazilian population. These results support the hypothesis that model eye colour is the result of negative frequency-dependent selection. This could be the result of people using eye colour as a marker of genetic diversity and finding rarer eye colours more attractive because of the potential advantage more genetically diverse offspring that could result from such a choice. Eye colour may be important because in comparison to many other physical traits (e.g., hair colour it is hard to modify, hide or disguise, and it is highly polymorphic.

  5. Human Commercial Models' Eye Colour Shows Negative Frequency-Dependent Selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forti, Isabela Rodrigues Nogueira; Young, Robert John

    2016-01-01

    In this study we investigated the eye colour of human commercial models registered in the UK (400 female and 400 male) and Brazil (400 female and 400 male) to test the hypothesis that model eye colour frequency was the result of negative frequency-dependent selection. The eye colours of the models were classified as: blue, brown or intermediate. Chi-square analyses of data for countries separated by sex showed that in the United Kingdom brown eyes and intermediate colours were significantly more frequent than expected in comparison to the general United Kingdom population (PBrazilian population. These results support the hypothesis that model eye colour is the result of negative frequency-dependent selection. This could be the result of people using eye colour as a marker of genetic diversity and finding rarer eye colours more attractive because of the potential advantage more genetically diverse offspring that could result from such a choice. Eye colour may be important because in comparison to many other physical traits (e.g., hair colour) it is hard to modify, hide or disguise, and it is highly polymorphic.

  6. Histidine decarboxylase knockout mice, a genetic model of Tourette syndrome, show repetitive grooming after induced fear.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Meiyu; Li, Lina; Ohtsu, Hiroshi; Pittenger, Christopher

    2015-05-19

    Tics, such as are seen in Tourette syndrome (TS), are common and can cause profound morbidity, but they are poorly understood. Tics are potentiated by psychostimulants, stress, and sleep deprivation. Mutations in the gene histidine decarboxylase (Hdc) have been implicated as a rare genetic cause of TS, and Hdc knockout mice have been validated as a genetic model that recapitulates phenomenological and pathophysiological aspects of the disorder. Tic-like stereotypies in this model have not been observed at baseline but emerge after acute challenge with the psychostimulant d-amphetamine. We tested the ability of an acute stressor to stimulate stereotypies in this model, using tone fear conditioning. Hdc knockout mice acquired conditioned fear normally, as manifested by freezing during the presentation of a tone 48h after it had been paired with a shock. During the 30min following tone presentation, knockout mice showed increased grooming. Heterozygotes exhibited normal freezing and intermediate grooming. These data validate a new paradigm for the examination of tic-like stereotypies in animals without pharmacological challenge and enhance the face validity of the Hdc knockout mouse as a pathophysiologically grounded model of tic disorders. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. MTO1-deficient mouse model mirrors the human phenotype showing complex I defect and cardiomyopathy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lore Becker

    Full Text Available Recently, mutations in the mitochondrial translation optimization factor 1 gene (MTO1 were identified as causative in children with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, lactic acidosis and respiratory chain defect. Here, we describe an MTO1-deficient mouse model generated by gene trap mutagenesis that mirrors the human phenotype remarkably well. As in patients, the most prominent signs and symptoms were cardiovascular and included bradycardia and cardiomyopathy. In addition, the mutant mice showed a marked worsening of arrhythmias during induction and reversal of anaesthesia. The detailed morphological and biochemical workup of murine hearts indicated that the myocardial damage was due to complex I deficiency and mitochondrial dysfunction. In contrast, neurological examination was largely normal in Mto1-deficient mice. A translational consequence of this mouse model may be to caution against anaesthesia-related cardiac arrhythmias which may be fatal in patients.

  8. Visual modeling shows that avian host parents use multiple visual cues in rejecting parasitic eggs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spottiswoode, Claire N; Stevens, Martin

    2010-05-11

    One of the most striking outcomes of coevolution between species is egg mimicry by brood parasitic birds, resulting from rejection behavior by discriminating host parents. Yet, how exactly does a host detect a parasitic egg? Brood parasitism and egg rejection behavior provide a model system for exploring the relative importance of different visual cues used in a behavioral task. Although hosts are discriminating, we do not know exactly what cues they use, and to answer this it is crucial to account for the receiver's visual perception. Color, luminance ("perceived lightness") and pattern information have never been simultaneously quantified and experimentally tested through a bird's eye. The cuckoo finch Anomalospiza imberbis and its hosts show spectacular polymorphisms in egg appearance, providing a good opportunity for investigating visual discrimination owing to the large range of patterns and colors involved. Here we combine field experiments in Africa with modeling of avian color vision and pattern discrimination to identify the specific visual cues used by hosts in making rejection decisions. We found that disparity between host and foreign eggs in both color and several aspects of pattern (dispersion, principal marking size, and variability in marking size) were important predictors of rejection, especially color. These cues correspond exactly to the principal differences between host and parasitic eggs, showing that hosts use the most reliable available cues in making rejection decisions, and select for parasitic eggs that are increasingly mimetic in a range of visual attributes.

  9. Transchromosomic cell model of Down syndrome shows aberrant migration, adhesion and proteome response to extracellular matrix

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cotter Finbarr E

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Down syndrome (DS, caused by trisomy of human chromosome 21 (HSA21, is the most common genetic birth defect. Congenital heart defects (CHD are seen in 40% of DS children, and >50% of all atrioventricular canal defects in infancy are caused by trisomy 21, but the causative genes remain unknown. Results Here we show that aberrant adhesion and proliferation of DS cells can be reproduced using a transchromosomic model of DS (mouse fibroblasts bearing supernumerary HSA21. We also demonstrate a deacrease of cell migration in transchromosomic cells independently of their adhesion properties. We show that cell-autonomous proteome response to the presence of Collagen VI in extracellular matrix is strongly affected by trisomy 21. Conclusion This set of experiments establishes a new model system for genetic dissection of the specific HSA21 gene-overdose contributions to aberrant cell migration, adhesion, proliferation and specific proteome response to collagen VI, cellular phenotypes linked to the pathogenesis of CHD.

  10. Estimating carbon and showing impacts of drought using satellite data in regression-tree models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyte, Stephen; Wylie, Bruce K.; Howard, Danny; Dahal, Devendra; Gilmanov, Tagir G.

    2018-01-01

    Integrating spatially explicit biogeophysical and remotely sensed data into regression-tree models enables the spatial extrapolation of training data over large geographic spaces, allowing a better understanding of broad-scale ecosystem processes. The current study presents annual gross primary production (GPP) and annual ecosystem respiration (RE) for 2000–2013 in several short-statured vegetation types using carbon flux data from towers that are located strategically across the conterminous United States (CONUS). We calculate carbon fluxes (annual net ecosystem production [NEP]) for each year in our study period, which includes 2012 when drought and higher-than-normal temperatures influence vegetation productivity in large parts of the study area. We present and analyse carbon flux dynamics in the CONUS to better understand how drought affects GPP, RE, and NEP. Model accuracy metrics show strong correlation coefficients (r) (r ≥ 94%) between training and estimated data for both GPP and RE. Overall, average annual GPP, RE, and NEP are relatively constant throughout the study period except during 2012 when almost 60% less carbon is sequestered than normal. These results allow us to conclude that this modelling method effectively estimates carbon dynamics through time and allows the exploration of impacts of meteorological anomalies and vegetation types on carbon dynamics.

  11. Visualizing Three-dimensional Slab Geometries with ShowEarthModel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, B.; Jadamec, M. A.; Fischer, K. M.; Kreylos, O.; Yikilmaz, M. B.

    2017-12-01

    Seismic data that characterize the morphology of modern subducted slabs on Earth suggest that a two-dimensional paradigm is no longer adequate to describe the subduction process. Here we demonstrate the effect of data exploration of three-dimensional (3D) global slab geometries with the open source program ShowEarthModel. ShowEarthModel was designed specifically to support data exploration, by focusing on interactivity and real-time response using the Vrui toolkit. Sixteen movies are presented that explore the 3D complexity of modern subduction zones on Earth. The first movie provides a guided tour through the Earth's major subduction zones, comparing the global slab geometry data sets of Gudmundsson and Sambridge (1998), Syracuse and Abers (2006), and Hayes et al. (2012). Fifteen regional movies explore the individual subduction zones and regions intersecting slabs, using the Hayes et al. (2012) slab geometry models where available and the Engdahl and Villasenor (2002) global earthquake data set. Viewing the subduction zones in this way provides an improved conceptualization of the 3D morphology within a given subduction zone as well as the 3D spatial relations between the intersecting slabs. This approach provides a powerful tool for rendering earth properties and broadening capabilities in both Earth Science research and education by allowing for whole earth visualization. The 3D characterization of global slab geometries is placed in the context of 3D slab-driven mantle flow and observations of shear wave splitting in subduction zones. These visualizations contribute to the paradigm shift from a 2D to 3D subduction framework by facilitating the conceptualization of the modern subduction system on Earth in 3D space.

  12. SDI CFD MODELING ANALYSIS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, S.

    2011-05-05

    The Savannah River Remediation (SRR) Organization requested that Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) develop a Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) method to mix and blend the miscible contents of the blend tanks to ensure the contents are properly blended before they are transferred from the blend tank; such as, Tank 50H, to the Salt Waste Processing Facility (SWPF) feed tank. The work described here consists of two modeling areas. They are the mixing modeling analysis during miscible liquid blending operation, and the flow pattern analysis during transfer operation of the blended liquid. The transient CFD governing equations consisting of three momentum equations, one mass balance, two turbulence transport equations for kinetic energy and dissipation rate, and one species transport were solved by an iterative technique until the species concentrations of tank fluid were in equilibrium. The steady-state flow solutions for the entire tank fluid were used for flow pattern analysis, for velocity scaling analysis, and the initial conditions for transient blending calculations. A series of the modeling calculations were performed to estimate the blending times for various jet flow conditions, and to investigate the impact of the cooling coils on the blending time of the tank contents. The modeling results were benchmarked against the pilot scale test results. All of the flow and mixing models were performed with the nozzles installed at the mid-elevation, and parallel to the tank wall. From the CFD modeling calculations, the main results are summarized as follows: (1) The benchmark analyses for the CFD flow velocity and blending models demonstrate their consistency with Engineering Development Laboratory (EDL) and literature test results in terms of local velocity measurements and experimental observations. Thus, an application of the established criterion to SRS full scale tank will provide a better, physically-based estimate of the required mixing time, and

  13. Global thermal niche models of two European grasses show high invasion risks in Antarctica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pertierra, Luis R; Aragón, Pedro; Shaw, Justine D; Bergstrom, Dana M; Terauds, Aleks; Olalla-Tárraga, Miguel Ángel

    2017-07-01

    The two non-native grasses that have established long-term populations in Antarctica (Poa pratensis and Poa annua) were studied from a global multidimensional thermal niche perspective to address the biological invasion risk to Antarctica. These two species exhibit contrasting introduction histories and reproductive strategies and represent two referential case studies of biological invasion processes. We used a multistep process with a range of species distribution modelling techniques (ecological niche factor analysis, multidimensional envelopes, distance/entropy algorithms) together with a suite of thermoclimatic variables, to characterize the potential ranges of these species. Their native bioclimatic thermal envelopes in Eurasia, together with the different naturalized populations across continents, were compared next. The potential niche of P. pratensis was wider at the cold extremes; however, P. annua life history attributes enable it to be a more successful colonizer. We observe that particularly cold summers are a key aspect of the unique Antarctic environment. In consequence, ruderals such as P. annua can quickly expand under such harsh conditions, whereas the more stress-tolerant P. pratensis endures and persist through steady growth. Compiled data on human pressure at the Antarctic Peninsula allowed us to provide site-specific biosecurity risk indicators. We conclude that several areas across the region are vulnerable to invasions from these and other similar species. This can only be visualized in species distribution models (SDMs) when accounting for founder populations that reveal nonanalogous conditions. Results reinforce the need for strict management practices to minimize introductions. Furthermore, our novel set of temperature-based bioclimatic GIS layers for ice-free terrestrial Antarctica provide a mechanism for regional and global species distribution models to be built for other potentially invasive species. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Molecular epidemiological analysis of Mycoplasma bovis isolates from the United Kingdom shows two genetically distinct clusters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McAuliffe, Laura; Kokotovic, Branko; Ayling, Roger D.

    2004-01-01

    polymorphism (AFLP), and random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) analysis. In addition, the influence of variable surface protein (Vsp) profiles on the profiles generated with molecular typing techniques was studied. Both AFLP and RAPD separated the isolates into two distinct groups, but PFGE showed less......Mycoplasma bovis is an important veterinary pathogen causing pneumonia, arthritis, and mastitis in infected cattle. We investigated the genetic diversity of 53 isolates collected in the United Kingdom between 1996 and 2002 with pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE), amplified fragment length...... congruence with the other techniques. There was no clear relationship between the geographic origin or year of isolation of the isolates and the profiles produced. No correlation between Vsp profiles and any of the molecular typing techniques was observed. We propose that RAPD and AFLP provide valuable tools...

  15. Etoposide incorporated into camel milk phospholipids liposomes shows increased activity against fibrosarcoma in a mouse model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maswadeh, Hamzah M; Aljarbou, Ahmad N; Alorainy, Mohammed S; Alsharidah, Mansour S; Khan, Masood A

    2015-01-01

    Phospholipids were isolated from camel milk and identified by using high performance liquid chromatography and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC/MS). Anticancer drug etoposide (ETP) was entrapped in liposomes, prepared from camel milk phospholipids, to determine its activity against fibrosarcoma in a murine model. Fibrosarcoma was induced in mice by injecting benzopyrene (BAP) and tumor-bearing mice were treated with various formulations of etoposide, including etoposide entrapped camel milk phospholipids liposomes (ETP-Cam-liposomes) and etoposide-loaded DPPC-liposomes (ETP-DPPC-liposomes). The tumor-bearing mice treated with ETP-Cam-liposomes showed slow progression of tumors and increased survival compared to free ETP or ETP-DPPC-liposomes. These results suggest that ETP-Cam-liposomes may prove to be a better drug delivery system for anticancer drugs.

  16. Etoposide Incorporated into Camel Milk Phospholipids Liposomes Shows Increased Activity against Fibrosarcoma in a Mouse Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamzah M. Maswadeh

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Phospholipids were isolated from camel milk and identified by using high performance liquid chromatography and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC/MS. Anticancer drug etoposide (ETP was entrapped in liposomes, prepared from camel milk phospholipids, to determine its activity against fibrosarcoma in a murine model. Fibrosarcoma was induced in mice by injecting benzopyrene (BAP and tumor-bearing mice were treated with various formulations of etoposide, including etoposide entrapped camel milk phospholipids liposomes (ETP-Cam-liposomes and etoposide-loaded DPPC-liposomes (ETP-DPPC-liposomes. The tumor-bearing mice treated with ETP-Cam-liposomes showed slow progression of tumors and increased survival compared to free ETP or ETP-DPPC-liposomes. These results suggest that ETP-Cam-liposomes may prove to be a better drug delivery system for anticancer drugs.

  17. Phenolic Acids from Wheat Show Different Absorption Profiles in Plasma: A Model Experiment with Catheterized Pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørskov, Natalja; Hedemann, Mette Skou; Theil, Peter Kappel

    2013-01-01

    consumed. Benzoic acid derivatives showed low concentration in the plasma (diets. The exception was p-hydroxybenzoic acid, with a plasma concentration (4 ± 0.4 μM), much higher than the other plant phenolic acids, likely because it is an intermediate in the phenolic acid metabolism......The concentration and absorption of the nine phenolic acids of wheat were measured in a model experiment with catheterized pigs fed whole grain wheat and wheat aleurone diets. Six pigs in a repeated crossover design were fitted with catheters in the portal vein and mesenteric artery to study....... It was concluded that plant phenolic acids undergo extensive interconversion in the colon and that their absorption profiles reflected their low bioavailability in the plant matrix....

  18. Ebola Virus Makona Shows Reduced Lethality in an Immune-deficient Mouse Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smither, Sophie J; Eastaugh, Lin; Ngugi, Sarah; O'Brien, Lyn; Phelps, Amanda; Steward, Jackie; Lever, Mark Stephen

    2016-10-15

    Ebola virus Makona (EBOV-Makona; from the 2013-2016 West Africa outbreak) shows decreased virulence in an immune-deficient mouse model, compared with a strain from 1976. Unlike other filoviruses tested, EBOV-Makona may be slightly more virulent by the aerosol route than by the injected route, as 2 mice died following aerosol exposure, compared with no mortality among mice that received intraperitoneal injection of equivalent or higher doses. Although most mice did not succumb to infection, the detection of an immunoglobulin G antibody response along with observed clinical signs suggest that the mice were infected but able to clear the infection and recover. We hypothesize that this may be due to the growth rates and kinetics of the virus, which appear slower than that for other filoviruses and consequently give more time for an immune response that results in clearance of the virus. In this instance, the immune-deficient mouse model is unlikely to be appropriate for testing medical countermeasures against this EBOV-Makona stock but may provide insight into pathogenesis and the immune response to virus. © Crown copyright 2016.

  19. Phylogenomic analysis shows that Bacillus amyloliquefaciens subsp. plantarum is a later heterotypic synonym of Bacillus methylotrophicus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunlap, Christopher A; Kim, Soo-Jin; Kwon, Soon-Wo; Rooney, Alejandro P

    2015-07-01

    The rhizosphere-isolated bacteria belonging to the Bacillus amyloliquefaciens subsp. plantarum and Bacillus methylotrophicus clades are an important group of strains that are used as plant growth promoters and antagonists of plant pathogens. These properties have made these strains the focus of commercial interest. Here, we present the draft genome sequence of B. methylotrophicus KACC 13105(T) ( = CBMB205(T)). Comparative genomic analysis showed only minor differences between this strain and the genome of the B. amyloliquefaciens subsp. plantarum type strain, with the genomes sharing approximately 95% of the same genes. The results of morphological, physiological, chemotaxonomic and phylogenetic analyses indicate that the type strains of these two taxa are highly similar. In fact, our results show that the type strain of B. amyloliquefaciens subsp. plantarum FZB42(T) ( = DSM 23117(T) = BGSC 10A6(T)) does not cluster with other members of the B. amyloliquefaciens taxon. Instead, it clusters well within a clade of strains that are assigned to B. methylotrophicus, including the type strain of that species. Therefore, we propose that the subspecies B. amyloliquefaciens subsp. plantarum should be reclassified as a later heterotypic synonym of B. methylotrophicus.

  20. Dioscorea alata tuber proteome analysis shows over thirty dioscorin isoforms and novel tuber proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Shruti; Gupta, Ravi; Deswal, Renu

    2017-05-01

    In Dioscorea, dioscorin (31 kDa) is the major storage protein constituting 85% of the total tuber proteins. An integrated proteomic and biochemical approach was used to understand the physiological role of dioscorin in the two contrasting growth stages (germinating and mature tuber). HPLC analysis showed 3 fold reduction in mannitol and 12.88 and 1.24 fold increase in sucrose and maltose in the germinating tuber. A 1.8 and 3 fold increase in sucrose phosphate synthase and mannitol dehydrogenase activity respectively was observed in the germinating tuber while a 2 fold higher invertase probably lowers the sucrose accumulation in the mature tuber. SDS-PAGE and 2-D maps of the mature and germinating tubers confirmed depletion (more than 50%) of dioscorin on germination. Dioscorin was purified using ion exchange and gel filtration chromatography with 43.32 fold purification and 38.16 yield. Out of a trail of 35 spots at 31 kDa only 12 spots (identified as dioscorin isoforms) were present in the 2D gel of the purified fraction. To search for other tuber proteins besides dioscorin, the unbound fractions of DEAE column were analysed by 2DGE. DREB 1A, caffeic acid 3-O-methyltransferase and Rab-1 small GTP binding protein were identified perhaps for the first time in the Dioscorea proteome. The interactome analysis revealed these to be involved in oxidative stress, carotenoid synthesis and vesicular transport. This is perhaps the first attempt to identify tuber proteome (although limited) and to understand the physiological significance of these proteins. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  1. Gut Transcriptome Analysis Shows Different Food Utilization Efficiency by the Grasshopper Oedaleous asiaticus (Orthoptera: Acrididae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Xunbing; McNeill, Mark Richard; Ma, Jingchuan; Qin, Xinghu; Tu, Xiongbing; Cao, Guangchun; Wang, Guangjun; Nong, Xiangqun; Zhang, Zehua

    2017-08-01

    Oedaleus asiaticus B. Bienko is a persistent pest occurring in north Asian grasslands. We found that O. asiaticus feeding on Stipa krylovii Roshev. had higher approximate digestibility (AD), efficiency of conversion of ingested food (ECI), and efficiency of conversion of digested food (ECD), compared with cohorts feeding on Leymus chinensis (Trin.) Tzvel, Artemisia frigida Willd., or Cleistogenes squarrosa (Trin.) Keng. Although this indicated high food utilization efficiency for S. krylovii, the physiological processes and molecular mechanisms underlying these biological observations are not well understood. Transcriptome analysis was used to examine how gene expression levels in O. asiaticus gut are altered by feeding on the four plant species. Nymphs (fifth-instar female) that fed on S. krylovii had the largest variation in gene expression profiles, with a total of 88 genes significantly upregulated compared with those feeding on the other three plants, mainly including nutrition digestive genes of protein, carbohydrate, and lipid digestion. GO and KEGG enrichment also showed that feeding S. krylovii could upregulate the nutrition digestion-related molecular function, biological process, and pathways. These changes in transcripts levels indicate that the physiological processes of activating nutrition digestive enzymes and metabolism pathways can well explain the high food utilization of S. krylovii by O. asiaticus. © The Authors 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  2. Atovaquone Nanosuspensions Show Excellent Therapeutic Effect in a New Murine Model of Reactivated Toxoplasmosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schöler, Nadja; Krause, Karsten; Kayser, Oliver; Müller, Rainer H.; Borner, Klaus; Hahn, Helmut; Liesenfeld, Oliver

    2001-01-01

    Immunocompromised patients are at risk of developing toxoplasma encephalitis (TE). Standard therapy regimens (including sulfadiazine plus pyrimethamine) are hampered by severe side effects. While atovaquone has potent in vitro activity against Toxoplasma gondii, it is poorly absorbed after oral administration and shows poor therapeutic efficacy against TE. To overcome the low absorption of atovaquone, we prepared atovaquone nanosuspensions (ANSs) for intravenous (i.v.) administration. At concentrations higher than 1.0 μg/ml, ANS did not exert cytotoxicity and was as effective as free atovaquone (i.e., atovaquone suspended in medium) against T. gondii in freshly isolated peritoneal macrophages. In a new murine model of TE that closely mimics reactivated toxoplasmosis in immunocompromised hosts, using mice with a targeted mutation in the gene encoding the interferon consensus sequence binding protein, i.v.-administered ANS doses of 10.0 mg/kg of body weight protected the animals against development of TE and death. Atovaquone was detectable in the sera, brains, livers, and lungs of mice by high-performance liquid chromatography. Development of TE and mortality in mice treated with 1.0- or 0.1-mg/kg i.v. doses of ANS did not differ from that in mice treated orally with 100 mg of atovaquone/kg. In conclusion, i.v. ANSs may prove to be an effective treatment alternative for patients with TE. PMID:11353624

  3. Showing a model's eye movements in examples does not improve learning of problem-solving tasks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Marlen, Tim; van Wermeskerken, Margot; Jarodzka, Halszka; van Gog, Tamara

    2016-01-01

    Eye movement modeling examples (EMME) are demonstrations of a computer-based task by a human model (e.g., a teacher), with the model's eye movements superimposed on the task to guide learners' attention. EMME have been shown to enhance learning of perceptual classification tasks; however, it is an

  4. Classifying multi-model wheat yield impact response surfaces showing sensitivity to temperature and precipitation change

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fronzek, Stefan; Pirttioja, Nina; Carter, Timothy R.; Bindi, Marco; Hoffmann, Holger; Palosuo, Taru; Ruiz-Ramos, Margarita; Tao, Fulu; Trnka, Miroslav; Acutis, Marco; Asseng, Senthold; Baranowski, Piotr; Basso, Bruno; Bodin, Per; Buis, Samuel; Cammarano, Davide; Deligios, Paola; Destain, Marie France; Dumont, Benjamin; Ewert, Frank; Ferrise, Roberto; François, Louis; Gaiser, Thomas; Hlavinka, Petr; Jacquemin, Ingrid; Kersebaum, Kurt Christian; Kollas, Chris; Krzyszczak, Jaromir; Lorite, Ignacio J.; Minet, Julien; Minguez, M.I.; Montesino, Manuel; Moriondo, Marco; Müller, Christoph; Nendel, Claas; Öztürk, Isik; Perego, Alessia; Rodríguez, Alfredo; Ruane, Alex C.; Ruget, Françoise; Sanna, Mattia; Semenov, Mikhail A.; Slawinski, Cezary; Stratonovitch, Pierre; Supit, Iwan; Waha, Katharina; Wang, Enli; Wu, Lianhai; Zhao, Zhigan; Rötter, Reimund P.

    2018-01-01

    Crop growth simulation models can differ greatly in their treatment of key processes and hence in their response to environmental conditions. Here, we used an ensemble of 26 process-based wheat models applied at sites across a European transect to compare their sensitivity to changes in

  5. Predictive Modeling of Influenza Shows the Promise of Applied Evolutionary Biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Dylan H; Gostic, Katelyn M; Pompei, Simone; Bedford, Trevor; Łuksza, Marta; Neher, Richard A; Grenfell, Bryan T; Lässig, Michael; McCauley, John W

    2018-02-01

    Seasonal influenza is controlled through vaccination campaigns. Evolution of influenza virus antigens means that vaccines must be updated to match novel strains, and vaccine effectiveness depends on the ability of scientists to predict nearly a year in advance which influenza variants will dominate in upcoming seasons. In this review, we highlight a promising new surveillance tool: predictive models. Based on data-sharing and close collaboration between the World Health Organization and academic scientists, these models use surveillance data to make quantitative predictions regarding influenza evolution. Predictive models demonstrate the potential of applied evolutionary biology to improve public health and disease control. We review the state of influenza predictive modeling and discuss next steps and recommendations to ensure that these models deliver upon their considerable biomedical promise. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Connecting with The Biggest Loser: an extended model of parasocial interaction and identification in health-related reality TV shows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Yan; Yoo, Jina H

    2015-01-01

    This study investigates audience responses to health-related reality TV shows in the setting of The Biggest Loser. It conceptualizes a model for audience members' parasocial interaction and identification with cast members and explores antecedents and outcomes of parasocial interaction and identification. Data analysis suggests the following direct relationships: (1) audience members' exposure to the show is positively associated with parasocial interaction, which in turn is positively associated with identification, (2) parasocial interaction is positively associated with exercise self-efficacy, whereas identification is negatively associated with exercise self-efficacy, and (3) exercise self-efficacy is positively associated with exercise behavior. Indirect effects of parasocial interaction and identification on exercise self-efficacy and exercise behavior are also significant. We discuss the theoretical and practical implications of these findings.

  7. Metabolic modeling of energy balances in Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae shows that pyruvate addition increases growth rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamminga, Tjerko; Slagman, Simen-Jan; Bijlsma, Jetta J E; Martins Dos Santos, Vitor A P; Suarez-Diez, Maria; Schaap, Peter J

    2017-10-01

    Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae is cultured on large-scale to produce antigen for inactivated whole-cell vaccines against respiratory disease in pigs. However, the fastidious nutrient requirements of this minimal bacterium and the low growth rate make it challenging to reach sufficient biomass yield for antigen production. In this study, we sequenced the genome of M. hyopneumoniae strain 11 and constructed a high quality constraint-based genome-scale metabolic model of 284 chemical reactions and 298 metabolites. We validated the model with time-series data of duplicate fermentation cultures to aim for an integrated model describing the dynamic profiles measured in fermentations. The model predicted that 84% of cellular energy in a standard M. hyopneumoniae cultivation was used for non-growth associated maintenance and only 16% of cellular energy was used for growth and growth associated maintenance. Following a cycle of model-driven experimentation in dedicated fermentation experiments, we were able to increase the fraction of cellular energy used for growth through pyruvate addition to the medium. This increase in turn led to an increase in growth rate and a 2.3 times increase in the total biomass concentration reached after 3-4 days of fermentation, enhancing the productivity of the overall process. The model presented provides a solid basis to understand and further improve M. hyopneumoniae fermentation processes. Biotechnol. Bioeng. 2017;114: 2339-2347. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. The speed of memory errors shows the influence of misleading information: Testing the diffusion model and discrete-state models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starns, Jeffrey J; Dubé, Chad; Frelinger, Matthew E

    2018-05-01

    In this report, we evaluate single-item and forced-choice recognition memory for the same items and use the resulting accuracy and reaction time data to test the predictions of discrete-state and continuous models. For the single-item trials, participants saw a word and indicated whether or not it was studied on a previous list. The forced-choice trials had one studied and one non-studied word that both appeared in the earlier single-item trials and both received the same response. Thus, forced-choice trials always had one word with a previous correct response and one with a previous error. Participants were asked to select the studied word regardless of whether they previously called both words "studied" or "not studied." The diffusion model predicts that forced-choice accuracy should be lower when the word with a previous error had a fast versus a slow single-item RT, because fast errors are associated with more compelling misleading memory retrieval. The two-high-threshold (2HT) model does not share this prediction because all errors are guesses, so error RT is not related to memory strength. A low-threshold version of the discrete state approach predicts an effect similar to the diffusion model, because errors are a mixture of responses based on misleading retrieval and guesses, and the guesses should tend to be slower. Results showed that faster single-trial errors were associated with lower forced-choice accuracy, as predicted by the diffusion and low-threshold models. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Simple solvable energy-landscape model that shows a thermodynamic phase transition and a glass transition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naumis, Gerardo G

    2012-06-01

    When a liquid melt is cooled, a glass or phase transition can be obtained depending on the cooling rate. Yet, this behavior has not been clearly captured in energy-landscape models. Here, a model is provided in which two key ingredients are considered in the landscape, metastable states and their multiplicity. Metastable states are considered as in two level system models. However, their multiplicity and topology allows a phase transition in the thermodynamic limit for slow cooling, while a transition to the glass is obtained for fast cooling. By solving the corresponding master equation, the minimal speed of cooling required to produce the glass is obtained as a function of the distribution of metastable states.

  10. BIOMETRICAL ANALYSIS OF ARABIAN FOALS AND THEIR LATER SUCCESSES IN SHOWS AND ON RACE TRACK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. PIESZKA

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Arabian horses are one of the most important products of Polish horse breeding.Many of them are International and World champions in shows; others are very wellknown as courageous race horses. To obtain such champions it is necessary to takeunder consideration many factors affecting the final results. The objective of thisstudy was to evaluate the effect of biometrical measurements of the foals at birthaccording to their future successes in shows and on racetrack. The study was carriedout on 143 horses winning in shows and in races. Body weight, height at withers,girth and canon circumferences taken at birth of these horses were analysed.Additionally coat colour was studied. All studied animals were divided into threegroups according to each measurement and the differences between such groupswere evaluated according points obtained for particular place at shows and place inraces. It was stated that horses heavier at birth and with higher girth circumferencegot more successes both at shows and on racetrack. Horses with higher height atwithers at birth were more successful in shows while animals with higher canoncircumference won oftener at race track. It was observed that the most courageousrace horses were bay while most champions were grey.

  11. Downscaling CMIP5 climate models shows increased tropical cyclone activity over the 21st century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emanuel, Kerry A

    2013-07-23

    A recently developed technique for simulating large [O(10(4))] numbers of tropical cyclones in climate states described by global gridded data is applied to simulations of historical and future climate states simulated by six Coupled Model Intercomparison Project 5 (CMIP5) global climate models. Tropical cyclones downscaled from the climate of the period 1950-2005 are compared with those of the 21st century in simulations that stipulate that the radiative forcing from greenhouse gases increases by over preindustrial values. In contrast to storms that appear explicitly in most global models, the frequency of downscaled tropical cyclones increases during the 21st century in most locations. The intensity of such storms, as measured by their maximum wind speeds, also increases, in agreement with previous results. Increases in tropical cyclone activity are most prominent in the western North Pacific, but are evident in other regions except for the southwestern Pacific. The increased frequency of events is consistent with increases in a genesis potential index based on monthly mean global model output. These results are compared and contrasted with other inferences concerning the effect of global warming on tropical cyclones.

  12. Show them your teeth first! A game-theoretic analysis of lobbying and presure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sloof, R.; van Winden, F.A.A.M.

    2000-01-01

    This paper investigates the choice of an interest group between lobbying words and pressure actions in order to influence a policymaker. Both lobbying and pressure are modeled as strategic means of transmitting information that is relevant to the policymaker. However, only pressure is directly

  13. Meta-analysis of field experiments shows no change in racial discrimination in hiring over time

    OpenAIRE

    Quillian, Lincoln; Pager, Devah; Hexel, Ole; Midtbøen, Arnfinn Haagensen

    2017-01-01

    This study investigates change over time in the level of hiring discrimination in US labor markets. We perform a meta-analysis of every available field experiment of hiring discrimination against African Americans or Latinos (n = 28). Together, these studies represent 55,842 applications submitted for 26,326 positions. We focus on trends since 1989 (n = 24 studies), when field experiments became more common and improved methodologically. Since 1989, whites receive on average 36% more callback...

  14. Animal Models for Muscular Dystrophy Show Different Patterns of Sarcolemmal Disruption

    OpenAIRE

    Straub, Volker; Rafael, Jill A.; Chamberlain, Jeffrey S.; Campbell, Kevin P.

    1997-01-01

    Genetic defects in a number of components of the dystrophin–glycoprotein complex (DGC) lead to distinct forms of muscular dystrophy. However, little is known about how alterations in the DGC are manifested in the pathophysiology present in dystrophic muscle tissue. One hypothesis is that the DGC protects the sarcolemma from contraction-induced damage. Using tracer molecules, we compared sarcolemmal integrity in animal models for muscular dystrophy and in muscular dystrophy patient samples. Ev...

  15. Analysis of competition performance in dressage and show jumping of Dutch Warmblood horses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rovere, G.; Ducro, B.J.; Arendonk, van J.A.M.; Norberg, E.; Madsen, P.

    2016-01-01

    Most Warmblood horse studbooks aim to improve the performance in dressage and show jumping. The Dutch Royal Warmblood Studbook (KWPN) includes the highest score achieved in competition by a horse to evaluate its genetic ability of performance. However, the records collected during competition are

  16. Economic impact and market analysis of a special event: The Great New England Air Show

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodney B. Warnick; David C. Bojanic; Atul Sheel; Apurv Mather; Deepak. Ninan

    2010-01-01

    We conducted a post-event evaluation for the Great New England Air Show to assess its general economic impact and to refine economic estimates where possible. In addition to the standard economic impact variables, we examined travel distance, purchase decision involvement, event satisfaction, and frequency of attendance. Graphic mapping of event visitors' home ZIP...

  17. The PROMETHEUS bundled payment experiment: slow start shows problems in implementing new payment models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussey, Peter S; Ridgely, M Susan; Rosenthal, Meredith B

    2011-11-01

    Fee-for-service payment is blamed for many of the problems observed in the US health care system. One of the leading alternative payment models proposed in the Affordable Care Act of 2010 is bundled payment, which provides payment for all of the care a patient needs over the course of a defined clinical episode, instead of paying for each discrete service. We evaluated the initial "road test" of PROMETHEUS Payment, one of several bundled payment pilot projects. The project has faced substantial implementation challenges, and none of the three pilot sites had executed contracts or made bundled payments as of May 2011. The pilots have taken longer to set up than expected, primarily because of the complexity of the payment model and the fact that it builds on the existing fee-for-service payment system and other complexities of health care. Participants continue to see promise and value in the bundled payment model, but the pilot results suggest that the desired benefits of this and other payment reforms may take time and considerable effort to materialize.

  18. A Murine Model of Candida glabrata Vaginitis Shows No Evidence of an Inflammatory Immunopathogenic Response.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evelyn E Nash

    Full Text Available Candida glabrata is the second most common organism isolated from women with vulvovaginal candidiasis (VVC, particularly in women with uncontrolled diabetes mellitus. However, mechanisms involved in the pathogenesis of C. glabrata-associated VVC are unknown and have not been studied at any depth in animal models. The objective of this study was to evaluate host responses to infection following efforts to optimize a murine model of C. glabrata VVC. For this, various designs were evaluated for consistent experimental vaginal colonization (i.e., type 1 and type 2 diabetic mice, exogenous estrogen, varying inocula, and co-infection with C. albicans. Upon model optimization, vaginal fungal burden and polymorphonuclear neutrophil (PMN recruitment were assessed longitudinally over 21 days post-inoculation, together with vaginal concentrations of IL-1β, S100A8 alarmin, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH, and in vivo biofilm formation. Consistent and sustained vaginal colonization with C. glabrata was achieved in estrogenized streptozotocin-induced type 1 diabetic mice. Vaginal PMN infiltration was consistently low, with IL-1β, S100A8, and LDH concentrations similar to uninoculated mice. Biofilm formation was not detected in vivo, and co-infection with C. albicans did not induce synergistic immunopathogenic effects. This data suggests that experimental vaginal colonization of C. glabrata is not associated with an inflammatory immunopathogenic response or biofilm formation.

  19. Can Automated Facial Expression Analysis Show Differences Between Autism and Typical Functioning?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borsos, Zsófia; Gyori, Miklos

    2017-01-01

    Exploratory analyses of emotional expressions using a commercially available facial expression recognition software are reported, from the context of a serious game for screening purposes. Our results are based on a comparative analysis of two matched groups of kindergarten-age children (high-functioning children with autism spectrum condition: n=13; typically developing children: n=13). Results indicate that this technology has the potential to identify autism-specific emotion expression features, and may play a role in affective diagnostic and assistive technologies.

  20. Comparative analysis shows that bacterivory, not viral lysis, controls the abundance of heterotrophic prokaryotic plankton.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedrós-Alió; Calderón-Paz; Gasol

    2000-04-01

    Empirical models derived from literature data were used to compare the factors controlling prokaryotic abundance (PN) and prokaryotic heterotrophic production (PHP) in solar salterns. These empirical relationships were generated as multiple linear regressions with PN or PHP as dependent variables, while the independent variables were chosen to reflect the likely sources of organic matter, inorganic nutrients and temperature. These variables were then measured in solar salterns and the predictions made by the general relationships were compared to actual saltern values of PN and PHP. Saltern ponds of salinity higher than 100 per thousand departed significantly from the general relationships, while the ponds of salinity lower than 100 per thousand fitted well within the range of values predicted by the general models. The most likely explanation for the discrepancy of the former was the absence of bacterivory. This hypothesis was tested with data from other very different aquatic systems: karstic lakes with anaerobic hypolimnia and two marine areas in the Mediterranean and the Southern Ocean. The anoxic regions of karstic lakes departed significantly from the predictions of the general model, while the oxic layers conformed to the predictions. As in the case of salterns, this difference could be explained by the presence of significant predation in the oxic, but not in the anoxic, layers of these lakes. Finally, two marine areas with similar predation pressure on prokaryotes but very different impacts of viral lysis were tested. In all cases, PN values conformed to the predictions, suggesting that lysis due to viruses is not the main factor controlling PN in aquatic systems, which is more likely to be determined by the balance between bacterivory and resource supply. The present work also demonstrates the usefulness of empirical comparative analyses to generate predictions and to draw inferences on the functioning of microbial communities.

  1. ASIC1a Deficient Mice Show Unaltered Neurodegeneration in the Subacute MPTP Model of Parkinson Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komnig, Daniel; Imgrund, Silke; Reich, Arno; Gründer, Stefan; Falkenburger, Björn H

    2016-01-01

    Inflammation contributes to the death of dopaminergic neurons in Parkinson disease and can be accompanied by acidification of extracellular pH, which may activate acid-sensing ion channels (ASIC). Accordingly, amiloride, a non-selective inhibitor of ASIC, was protective in an acute 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP) mouse model of Parkinson disease. To complement these findings we determined MPTP toxicity in mice deficient for ASIC1a, the most common ASIC isoform in neurons. MPTP was applied i.p. in doses of 30 mg per kg on five consecutive days. We determined the number of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra, assayed by stereological counting 14 days after the last MPTP injection, the number of Nissl positive neurons in the substantia nigra, and the concentration of catecholamines in the striatum. There was no difference between ASIC1a-deficient mice and wildtype controls. We are therefore not able to confirm that ASIC1a are involved in MPTP toxicity. The difference might relate to the subacute MPTP model we used, which more closely resembles the pathogenesis of Parkinson disease, or to further targets of amiloride.

  2. Progesterone treatment shows benefit in a pediatric model of moderate to severe bilateral brain injury.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rastafa I Geddes

    Full Text Available Controlled cortical impact (CCI models in adult and aged Sprague-Dawley (SD rats have been used extensively to study medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC injury and the effects of post-injury progesterone treatment, but the hormone's effects after traumatic brain injury (TBI in juvenile animals have not been determined. In the present proof-of-concept study we investigated whether progesterone had neuroprotective effects in a pediatric model of moderate to severe bilateral brain injury.Twenty-eight-day old (PND 28 male Sprague Dawley rats received sham (n = 24 or CCI (n = 47 injury and were given progesterone (4, 8, or 16 mg/kg per 100 g body weight or vehicle injections on post-injury days (PID 1-7, subjected to behavioral testing from PID 9-27, and analyzed for lesion size at PID 28.The 8 and 16 mg/kg doses of progesterone were observed to be most beneficial in reducing the effect of CCI on lesion size and behavior in PND 28 male SD rats.Our findings suggest that a midline CCI injury to the frontal cortex will reliably produce a moderate TBI comparable to what is seen in the adult male rat and that progesterone can ameliorate the injury-induced deficits.

  3. ASIC1a Deficient Mice Show Unaltered Neurodegeneration in the Subacute MPTP Model of Parkinson Disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Komnig

    Full Text Available Inflammation contributes to the death of dopaminergic neurons in Parkinson disease and can be accompanied by acidification of extracellular pH, which may activate acid-sensing ion channels (ASIC. Accordingly, amiloride, a non-selective inhibitor of ASIC, was protective in an acute 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP mouse model of Parkinson disease. To complement these findings we determined MPTP toxicity in mice deficient for ASIC1a, the most common ASIC isoform in neurons. MPTP was applied i.p. in doses of 30 mg per kg on five consecutive days. We determined the number of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra, assayed by stereological counting 14 days after the last MPTP injection, the number of Nissl positive neurons in the substantia nigra, and the concentration of catecholamines in the striatum. There was no difference between ASIC1a-deficient mice and wildtype controls. We are therefore not able to confirm that ASIC1a are involved in MPTP toxicity. The difference might relate to the subacute MPTP model we used, which more closely resembles the pathogenesis of Parkinson disease, or to further targets of amiloride.

  4. Linkage analysis in a Dutch population isolate shows no major gene for left-handedness or atypical language lateralization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Somers, Metten; Ophoff, Roel A; Aukes, Maartje F; Cantor, Rita M; Boks, Marco P; Dauwan, Meenakshi; de Visser, Kees L; Kahn, René S; Sommer, Iris E

    2015-06-10

    Cerebral dominance of language function and hand preference are suggested to be heritable traits with possible shared genetic background. However, joined genetic studies of these traits have never been conducted. We performed a genetic linkage study in 37 multigenerational human pedigrees of both sexes (consisting of 355 subjects) enriched with left-handedness in which we also measured language lateralization. Hand preference was measured with the Edinburgh Handedness Inventory, and language lateralization was measured with functional transcranial Doppler during language production. The estimated heritability of left-handedness and language lateralization in these pedigrees is 0.24 and 0.31, respectively. A parametric major gene model was tested for left-handedness. Nonparametric analyses were performed for left-handedness, atypical lateralization, and degree of language lateralization. We did not observe genome-wide evidence for linkage in the parametric or nonparametric analyses for any of the phenotypes tested. However, multiple regions showed suggestive evidence of linkage. The parametric model showed suggestive linkage for left-handedness in the 22q13 region [heterogeneity logarithm of odds (HLOD) = 2.18]. Nonparametric multipoint analysis of left-handedness showed suggestive linkage in the same region [logarithm of odds (LOD) = 2.80]. Atypical language lateralization showed suggestive linkage in the 7q34 region (LODMax = 2.35). For strength of language lateralization, we observed suggestive linkage in the 6p22 (LODMax = 2.54), 7q32 (LODMax = 1.93), and 9q33 (LODMax = 2.10) regions. We did not observe any overlap of suggestive genetic signal between handedness and the extent of language lateralization. The absence of significant linkage argues against the presence of a major gene coding for both traits; rather, our results are suggestive of these traits being two independent polygenic complex traits. Copyright © 2015 the authors 0270-6474/15/358730-07$15.00/0.

  5. A comparative analysis shows morphofunctional differences between the rat and mouse melanin-concentrating hormone systems.

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    Sophie Croizier

    Full Text Available Sub-populations of neurons producing melanin-concentrating hormone (MCH are characterized by distinct projection patterns, birthdates and CART/NK3 expression in rat. Evidence for such sub-populations has not been reported in other species. However, given that genetically engineered mouse lines are now commonly used as experimental models, a better characterization of the anatomy and morphofunctionnal organization of MCH system in this species is then necessary. Combining multiple immunohistochemistry experiments with in situ hybridization, tract tracing or BrdU injections, evidence supporting the hypothesis that rat and mouse MCH systems are not identical was obtained: sub-populations of MCH neurons also exist in mouse, but their relative abundance is different. Furthermore, divergences in the distribution of MCH axons were observed, in particular in the ventromedial hypothalamus. These differences suggest that rat and mouse MCH neurons are differentially involved in anatomical networks that control feeding and the sleep/wake cycle.

  6. Innovative scattering analysis shows that hydrophobic disordered proteins are expanded in water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Riback, Joshua A.; Bowman, Micayla A.; Zmyslowski, Adam M.; Knoverek, Catherine R.; Jumper, John M.; Hinshaw, James R.; Kaye, Emily B.; Freed, Karl F.; Clark, Patricia L.; Sosnick, Tobin R.

    2017-10-12

    A substantial fraction of the proteome is intrinsically disordered, and even well-folded proteins adopt non-native geometries during synthesis, folding, transport, and turnover. Characterization of intrinsically disordered proteins (IDPs) is challenging, in part because of a lack of accurate physical models and the difficulty of interpreting experimental results. We have developed a general method to extract the dimensions and solvent quality (self-interactions) of IDPs from a single small-angle x-ray scattering measurement. We applied this procedure to a variety of IDPs and found that even IDPs with low net charge and high hydrophobicity remain highly expanded in water, contrary to the general expectation that protein-like sequences collapse in water. Our results suggest that the unfolded state of most foldable sequences is expanded; we conjecture that this property was selected by evolution to minimize misfolding and aggregation.

  7. A zebrafish model of glucocorticoid resistance shows serotonergic modulation of the stress response

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian eGriffiths

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available One function of glucocorticoids is to restore homeostasis after an acute stress response by providing negative feedback to stress circuits in the brain. Loss of this negative feedback leads to elevated physiological stress and may contribute to depression, anxiety and post-traumatic stress disorder. We investigated the early, developmental effects of glucocorticoid signaling deficits on stress physiology and related behaviors using a mutant zebrafish, grs357, with non-functional glucocorticoid receptors. These mutants are morphologically inconspicuous and adult-viable. A previous study of adult grs357 mutants showed loss of glucocorticoid-mediated negative feedback and elevated physiological and behavioral stress markers. Already at five days post-fertilization, mutant larvae had elevated whole body cortisol, increased expression of pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC, the precursor of adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH, and failed to show normal suppression of stress markers after dexamethasone treatment. Mutant larvae had larger auditory-evoked startle responses compared to wildtype sibling controls (grwt, despite having lower spontaneous activity levels. Fluoxetine (Prozac treatment in mutants decreased startle responding and increased spontaneous activity, making them behaviorally similar to wildtype. This result mirrors known effects of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs in modifying glucocorticoid signaling and alleviating stress disorders in human patients. Our results suggest that larval grs357 zebrafish can be used to study behavioral, physiological and molecular aspects of stress disorders. Most importantly, interactions between glucocorticoid and serotonin signaling appear to be highly conserved among vertebrates, suggesting deep homologies at the neural circuit level and opening up new avenues for research into psychiatric conditions.

  8. Brazilian press and denunciation: an analysis of two decades in the predilection for showing problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Solano Nascimento

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available This study analyzes the Brazilian press’ tendency to publish stories with denunciations during the six separate years of presidential elections that happened after the military regime, which means a period of over 20 years. The chosen corpus are the country’s three main weekly magazines: Época, IstoÉ and Veja. The conclusion is that the average number of stories containing denunciations almost tripled since 2002, when compared to the 1989-1998 period. A bibliographic review was employed to show that the Brazilian press’ preference for denunciation, apart from being related to thecountry’s democratic progress, can be explained by some of journalism’s main theories.

  9. Genetic and Antigenic Analysis of Adenovirus Type 3 Strains Showing Intermediate Behavior in Standard Seroneutralization Test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Márcia TB Moraes

    1998-03-01

    Full Text Available During an epidemiological survey of acute respiratory infection in Rio de Janeiro, among 208 adenovirus isolates, we found two strains that we were not able, by a standard neutralization procedure, to distinguish between type 3 or 7. However, DNA restriction pattern for the two strains with different enzymes were analyzed and showed a typical Ad3h profile. Using a cross-neutralization test in which both Ad3p and Ad7p antisera were used in different concentration against 100 TCID50 of each adenovirus standard and both isolates, we were able to confirm that the two isolates belong to serotype 3. An hemagglutination inhibition test also corroborated the identification of both strains as adenovirus type 3. Comparing Ad3h and Ad3p genome, we observed 16 different restriction enzyme sites, three of which were located in genomic regions encoding polypeptides involved in neutralization sites

  10. Meta-analysis of grain yield QTL identified during agricultural drought in grasses showed consensus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swamy, B P Mallikarjuna; Vikram, Prashant; Dixit, Shalabh; Ahmed, H U; Kumar, Arvind

    2011-06-16

    In the last few years, efforts have been made to identify large effect QTL for grain yield under drought in rice. However, identification of most precise and consistent QTL across the environments and genetics backgrounds is essential for their successful use in Marker-assisted Selection. In this study, an attempt was made to locate consistent QTL regions associated with yield increase under drought by applying a genome-wide QTL meta-analysis approach. The integration of 15 maps resulted in a consensus map with 531 markers and a total map length of 1821 cM. Fifty-three yield QTL reported in 15 studies were projected on a consensus map and meta-analysis was performed. Fourteen meta-QTL were obtained on seven chromosomes. MQTL1.2, MQTL1.3, MQTL1.4, and MQTL12.1 were around 700 kb and corresponded to a reasonably small genetic distance of 1.8 to 5 cM and they are suitable for use in marker-assisted selection (MAS). The meta-QTL for grain yield under drought coincided with at least one of the meta-QTL identified for root and leaf morphology traits under drought in earlier reports. Validation of major-effect QTL on a panel of random drought-tolerant lines revealed the presence of at least one major QTL in each line. DTY12.1 was present in 85% of the lines, followed by DTY4.1 in 79% and DTY1.1 in 64% of the lines. Comparative genomics of meta-QTL with other cereals revealed that the homologous regions of MQTL1.4 and MQTL3.2 had QTL for grain yield under drought in maize, wheat, and barley respectively. The genes in the meta-QTL regions were analyzed by a comparative genomics approach and candidate genes were deduced for grain yield under drought. Three groups of genes such as stress-inducible genes, growth and development-related genes, and sugar transport-related genes were found in clusters in most of the meta-QTL. Meta-QTL with small genetic and physical intervals could be useful in Marker-assisted selection individually and in combinations. Validation and comparative

  11. Meta-analysis of field experiments shows no change in racial discrimination in hiring over time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quillian, Lincoln; Pager, Devah; Hexel, Ole; Midtbøen, Arnfinn H

    2017-10-10

    This study investigates change over time in the level of hiring discrimination in US labor markets. We perform a meta-analysis of every available field experiment of hiring discrimination against African Americans or Latinos ( n = 28). Together, these studies represent 55,842 applications submitted for 26,326 positions. We focus on trends since 1989 ( n = 24 studies), when field experiments became more common and improved methodologically. Since 1989, whites receive on average 36% more callbacks than African Americans, and 24% more callbacks than Latinos. We observe no change in the level of hiring discrimination against African Americans over the past 25 years, although we find modest evidence of a decline in discrimination against Latinos. Accounting for applicant education, applicant gender, study method, occupational groups, and local labor market conditions does little to alter this result. Contrary to claims of declining discrimination in American society, our estimates suggest that levels of discrimination remain largely unchanged, at least at the point of hire.

  12. Global Trend Analysis of Multi-decade Soil Temperature Records Show Soils Resistant to Warming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frey, S. D.; Jennings, K.

    2017-12-01

    Soil temperature is an important determinant of many subterranean ecological processes including plant growth, nutrient cycling, and carbon sequestration. Soils are expected to warm in response to increasing global surface temperatures; however, despite the importance of soil temperature to ecosystem processes, less attention has been given to examining changes in soil temperature over time. We collected long-term (> 20 years) soil temperature records from approximately 50 sites globally, many with multiple depths (5 - 100 cm), and examined temperature trends over the last few decades. For each site and depth we calculated annual summer means and conducted non-parametric Mann Kendall trend and Sen slope analysis to assess changes in summer soil temperature over the length of each time series. The mean summer soil temperature trend across all sites and depths was not significantly different than zero (mean = 0.004 °C year-1 ± 0.033 SD), suggesting that soils have not warmed over the observation period. Of the subset of sites that exhibit significant increases in temperature over time, site location, depth of measurement, time series length, and neither start nor end date seem to be related to trend strength. These results provide evidence that the thermal regime of soils may have a stronger buffering capacity than expected, having important implications for the global carbon cycle and feedbacks to climate change.

  13. Metabolic remodeling agents show beneficial effects in the dystrophin-deficient mdx mouse model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jahnke Vanessa E

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Duchenne muscular dystrophy is a genetic disease involving a severe muscle wasting that is characterized by cycles of muscle degeneration/regeneration and culminates in early death in affected boys. Mitochondria are presumed to be involved in the regulation of myoblast proliferation/differentiation; enhancing mitochondrial activity with exercise mimetics (AMPK and PPAR-delta agonists increases muscle function and inhibits muscle wasting in healthy mice. We therefore asked whether metabolic remodeling agents that increase mitochondrial activity would improve muscle function in mdx mice. Methods Twelve-week-old mdx mice were treated with two different metabolic remodeling agents (GW501516 and AICAR, separately or in combination, for 4 weeks. Extensive systematic behavioral, functional, histological, biochemical, and molecular tests were conducted to assess the drug(s' effects. Results We found a gain in body and muscle weight in all treated mice. Histologic examination showed a decrease in muscle inflammation and in the number of fibers with central nuclei and an increase in fibers with peripheral nuclei, with significantly fewer activated satellite cells and regenerating fibers. Together with an inhibition of FoXO1 signaling, these results indicated that the treatments reduced ongoing muscle damage. Conclusions The three treatments produced significant improvements in disease phenotype, including an increase in overall behavioral activity and significant gains in forelimb and hind limb strength. Our findings suggest that triggering mitochondrial activity with exercise mimetics improves muscle function in dystrophin-deficient mdx mice.

  14. Male Wistar rats show individual differences in an animal model of conformity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jolles, Jolle W; de Visser, Leonie; van den Bos, Ruud

    2011-09-01

    Conformity refers to the act of changing one's behaviour to match that of others. Recent studies in humans have shown that individual differences exist in conformity and that these differences are related to differences in neuronal activity. To understand the neuronal mechanisms in more detail, animal tests to assess conformity are needed. Here, we used a test of conformity in rats that has previously been evaluated in female, but not male, rats and assessed the nature of individual differences in conformity. Male Wistar rats were given the opportunity to learn that two diets differed in palatability. They were subsequently exposed to a demonstrator that had consumed the less palatable food. Thereafter, they were exposed to the same diets again. Just like female rats, male rats decreased their preference for the more palatable food after interaction with demonstrator rats that had eaten the less palatable food. Individual differences existed for this shift, which were only weakly related to an interaction between their own initial preference and the amount consumed by the demonstrator rat. The data show that this conformity test in rats is a promising tool to study the neurobiology of conformity.

  15. Metachronous metastasis- and survival-analysis show prognostic importance of lymphadenectomy for colon carcinomas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laubert Tilman

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Lymphadenectomy is performed to assess patient prognosis and to prevent metastasizing. Recently, it was questioned whether lymph node metastases were capable of metastasizing and therefore, if lymphadenectomy was still adequate. We evaluated whether the nodal status impacts on the occurrence of distant metastases by analyzing a highly selected cohort of colon cancer patients. Methods 1,395 patients underwent surgery exclusively for colon cancer at the University of Lübeck between 01/1993 and 12/2008. The following exclusion criteria were applied: synchronous metastasis, R1-resection, prior/synchronous second carcinoma, age Results Five-year survival rates for TM + and TM- were 21% and 73%, respectively (p Conclusions Besides a higher T-category, a positive N-stage independently implies a higher probability to develop distant metastases and correlates with poor survival. Our data thus show a prognostic relevance of lymphadenectomy which should therefore be retained until conclusive studies suggest the unimportance of lmyphadenectomy.

  16. Modeling serotonin uptake in the lung shows endothelial transporters dominate over cleft permeation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bassingthwaighte, James B.

    2013-01-01

    A four-region (capillary plasma, endothelium, interstitial fluid, cell) multipath model was configured to describe the kinetics of blood-tissue exchange for small solutes in the lung, accounting for regional flow heterogeneity, permeation of cell membranes and through interendothelial clefts, and intracellular reactions. Serotonin uptake data from the Multiple indicator dilution “bolus sweep” experiments of Rickaby and coworkers (Rickaby DA, Linehan JH, Bronikowski TA, Dawson CA. J Appl Physiol 51: 405–414, 1981; Rickaby DA, Dawson CA, and Linehan JH. J Appl Physiol 56: 1170–1177, 1984) and Malcorps et al. (Malcorps CM, Dawson CA, Linehan JH, Bronikowski TA, Rickaby DA, Herman AG, Will JA. J Appl Physiol 57: 720–730, 1984) were analyzed to distinguish facilitated transport into the endothelial cells (EC) and the inhibition of tracer transport by nontracer serotonin in the bolus of injectate from the free uninhibited permeation through the clefts into the interstitial fluid space. The permeability-surface area products (PS) for serotonin via the inter-EC clefts were ∼0.3 ml·g−1·min−1, low compared with the transporter-mediated maximum PS of 13 ml·g−1·min−1 (with Km = ∼0.3 μM and Vmax = ∼4 nmol·g−1·min−1). The estimates of serotonin PS values for EC transporters from their multiple data sets were similar and were influenced only modestly by accounting for the cleft permeability in parallel. The cleft PS estimates in these Ringer-perfused lungs are less than half of those for anesthetized dogs (Yipintsoi T. Circ Res 39: 523–531, 1976) with normal hematocrits, but are compatible with passive noncarrier-mediated transport observed later in the same laboratory (Dawson CA, Linehan JH, Rickaby DA, Bronikowski TA. Ann Biomed Eng 15: 217–227, 1987; Peeters FAM, Bronikowski TA, Dawson CA, Linehan JH, Bult H, Herman AG. J Appl Physiol 66: 2328–2337, 1989) The identification and quantitation of the cleft pathway conductance from these

  17. [Analysis of spectacle lens prescriptions shows no increase of myopia in Germany from 2000 to 2015].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wesemann, W

    2017-11-06

    To determine whether the prevalence and magnitude of myopia among children and young adults wearing spectacles has increased in Germany from 2000 to 2015. A total of 1,223,410 refraction values from 278,432 male and 333,273 female subjects between 5 and 30 years of age were analyzed. All subjects had received a new pair of spectacles between 1 January 2000 and 31 December 2015. The parameter studied was the spherical equivalent averaged over both eyes of each subject (N = 611,705). In order to identify temporal changes, the entire period of 16 years was divided into 4 time intervals of 4 years each. In the subjects three evaluation criteria were studied as a function of age: a) the frequency of myopic subjects among all spectacle wearers, b) the mean spherical equivalent and c) the distribution of the individual spherical equivalents. a) The frequency of myopic corrections among all spectacle wearers did not increase from 2000 to 2015. At 5 years of age, 9% of all children wearing glasses were myopic (≤-0.5 D) and 80% were hyperopic (≥+0.5 D). At the age of 10, 20 and 25 years, 46%, 75% and 79%, respectively, of all spectacle wearers were myopic and 42%, 13% and 10% hyperopic. b) The mean spherical equivalent, averaged across all spectacle wearers of the same age, did not show a myopic shift from 2000 to 2015. At the age of 5, 10.3 and 27 years, the mean spherical equivalent all subjects wearing glasses was +1.74 D, 0.0 D and -1.91D. c) The refractive power distribution of the individual spherical equivalents did not change significantly from 2000 to 2015. Neither low nor high myopias were more abundant in the period 2012-2015 compared to the previous years. The frequency and the refractive power of myopia did not increase in Germany over the last 16 years.

  18. Genome-Wide Gene Expression Analysis Shows AKAP13-Mediated PKD1 Signaling Regulates the Transcriptional Response to Cardiac Hypertrophy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keven R Johnson

    Full Text Available In the heart, scaffolding proteins such as A-Kinase Anchoring Proteins (AKAPs play a crucial role in normal cellular function by serving as a signaling hub for multiple protein kinases including protein kinase D1 (PKD1. Under cardiac hypertrophic conditions AKAP13 anchored PKD1 activates the transcription factor MEF2 leading to subsequent fetal gene activation and hypertrophic response. We used an expression microarray to identify the global transcriptional response in the hearts of wild-type mice expressing the native form of AKAP13 compared to a gene-trap mouse model expressing a truncated form of AKAP13 that is unable to bind PKD1 (AKAP13-ΔPKD1. Microarray analysis showed that AKAP13-ΔPKD1 mice broadly failed to exhibit the transcriptional profile normally associated with compensatory cardiac hypertrophy following trans-aortic constriction (TAC. The identified differentially expressed genes in WT and AKAP13-ΔPKD1 hearts are vital for the compensatory hypertrophic response to pressure-overload and include myofilament, apoptotic, and cell growth/differentiation genes in addition to genes not previously identified as affected by AKAP13-anchored PKD1. Our results show that AKAP13-PKD1 signaling is critical for transcriptional regulation of key contractile, cell death, and metabolic pathways during the development of compensatory hypertrophy in vivo.

  19. KEEFEKTIFAN MODEL SHOW NOT TELL DAN MIND MAP PADA PEMBELAJARAN MENULIS TEKS EKSPOSISI BERDASARKAN MINAT PESERTA DIDIK KELAS X SMK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wiwit Lili Sokhipah

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Tujuan penelitian ini adalah (1 menentukan keefektifan penggunaan model show not tell pada pembelajaran keterampilan menulis teks eksposisi berdasarkan minat peserta didik SMK Kelas X, (2 menentukan keefektifan penggunaan model mind map pada pembelajaran keterampilan menulis teks eksposisi berdasarkan minat peserta didik SMK kelas X, (3 menentukan keefektifan interaksi show not tell dan mind map pada pembelajaran keterampilan menulis teks eksposisi berdasarkan minat peserta didik SMK kelas X. Penelitian ini adalah quasi experimental design (pretes-postes control group design. Dalam desain ini terdapat dua kelompok eksperimen yakni penerapan model show not tell dalam pembelajaran keterampilan menulis teks eksposisipeserta didik dengan minat tinggi dan penerapan model mind map dalam pembelajaran keterampilan menulis teks eksposisi  peserta didik dengan minat rendah. Hasil penelitian adalah (1 model show not tell efektif digunakan  dalam membelajarkan menulis teks eksposisi bagi peserta didik yang memiliki minat tinggi, (2 model mind map efektif digunakan dalam membelajarkan menulis teks eksposisi bagi peserta didik yang memiliki minat rendah, dan (3 model show not tell lebih efektif digunakan dalam membelajarkan menulis teks eksposisi bagi peserta didik yang memiliki minat tinggi, sedangkan model mind map efektif digunakan dalam membelajarkan teks eksposisi pagi peserta didik yang memiliki minat rendah.

  20. Operations and Modeling Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebeling, Charles

    2005-01-01

    The Reliability and Maintainability Analysis Tool (RMAT) provides NASA the capability to estimate reliability and maintainability (R&M) parameters and operational support requirements for proposed space vehicles based upon relationships established from both aircraft and Shuttle R&M data. RMAT has matured both in its underlying database and in its level of sophistication in extrapolating this historical data to satisfy proposed mission requirements, maintenance concepts and policies, and type of vehicle (i.e. ranging from aircraft like to shuttle like). However, a companion analyses tool, the Logistics Cost Model (LCM) has not reached the same level of maturity as RMAT due, in large part, to nonexistent or outdated cost estimating relationships and underlying cost databases, and it's almost exclusive dependence on Shuttle operations and logistics cost input parameters. As a result, the full capability of the RMAT/LCM suite of analysis tools to take a conceptual vehicle and derive its operations and support requirements along with the resulting operating and support costs has not been realized.

  1. Plot showing ATLAS limits on Standard Model Higgs production in the mass range 110-150 GeV

    CERN Multimedia

    ATLAS Collaboration

    2011-01-01

    The combined upper limit on the Standard Model Higgs boson production cross section divided by the Standard Model expectation as a function of mH is indicated by the solid line. This is a 95% CL limit using the CLs method in in the low mass range. The dotted line shows the median expected limit in the absence of a signal and the green and yellow bands reflect the corresponding 68% and 95% expected

  2. Plot showing ATLAS limits on Standard Model Higgs production in the mass range 100-600 GeV

    CERN Multimedia

    ATLAS Collaboration

    2011-01-01

    The combined upper limit on the Standard Model Higgs boson production cross section divided by the Standard Model expectation as a function of mH is indicated by the solid line. This is a 95% CL limit using the CLs method in the entire mass range. The dotted line shows the median expected limit in the absence of a signal and the green and yellow bands reflect the corresponding 68% and 95% expected

  3. A new formulation of cannabidiol in cream shows therapeutic effects in a mouse model of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giacoppo, Sabrina; Galuppo, Maria; Pollastro, Federica; Grassi, Gianpaolo; Bramanti, Placido; Mazzon, Emanuela

    2015-10-21

    The present study was designed to investigate the efficacy of a new formulation of alone, purified cannabidiol (CBD) (>98 %), the main non-psychotropic cannabinoid of Cannabis sativa, as a topical treatment in an experimental model of autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), the most commonly used model for multiple sclerosis (MS). Particularly, we evaluated whether administration of a topical 1 % CBD-cream, given at the time of symptomatic disease onset, could affect the EAE progression and if this treatment could also recover paralysis of hind limbs, qualifying topical-CBD for the symptomatic treatment of MS. In order to have a preparation of 1 % of CBD-cream, pure CBD have been solubilized in propylene glycoland basic dense cream O/A. EAE was induced by immunization with myelin oligodendroglial glycoprotein peptide (MOG35-55) in C57BL/6 mice. After EAE onset, mice were allocated into several experimental groups (Naïve, EAE, EAE-1 % CBD-cream, EAE-vehicle cream, CTRL-1 % CBD-cream, CTRL-vehicle cream). Mice were observed daily for signs of EAE and weight loss. At the sacrifice of the animals, which occurred at the 28(th) day from EAE-induction, spinal cord and spleen tissues were collected in order to perform histological evaluation, immunohistochemistry and western blotting analysis. Achieved results surprisingly show that daily treatment with topical 1 % CBD-cream may exert neuroprotective effects against EAE, diminishing clinical disease score (mean of 5.0 in EAE mice vs 1.5 in EAE + CBD-cream), by recovering of paralysis of hind limbs and by ameliorating histological score typical of disease (lymphocytic infiltration and demyelination) in spinal cord tissues. Also, 1 % CBD-cream is able to counteract the EAE-induced damage reducing release of CD4 and CD8α T cells (spleen tissue localization was quantified about 10,69 % and 35,96 % of positive staining respectively in EAE mice) and expression of the main pro-inflammatory cytokines as well as several other

  4. Analysis of Business Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Slavik Stefan

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The term business model has been used in practice for few years, but companies create, define and innovate their models subconsciously from the start of business. Our paper is aimed to clear the theory about business model, hence definition and all the components that form each business. In the second part, we create an analytical tool and analyze the real business models in Slovakia and define the characteristics of each part of business model, i.e., customers, distribution, value, resources, activities, cost and revenue. In the last part of our paper, we discuss the most used characteristics, extremes, discrepancies and the most important facts which were detected in our research.

  5. Proteomic Analysis Shows Constitutive Secretion of MIF and p53-associated Activity of COX-2-/- Lung Fibroblasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dave, Mandar; Islam, Abul B M M K; Jensen, Roderick V; Rostagno, Agueda; Ghiso, Jorge; Amin, Ashok R

    2017-12-01

    The differential expression of two closelyassociated cyclooxygenase isozymes, COX-1 and COX-2, exhibited functions beyond eicosanoid metabolism. We hypothesized that COX-1 or COX-2 knockout lung fibroblasts may display altered protein profiles which may allow us to further differentiate the functional roles of these isozymes at the molecular level. Proteomic analysis shows constitutive production of macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) in lung fibroblasts derived from COX-2 -/- but not wild-type (WT) or COX-1 -/- mice. MIF was spontaneously released in high levels into the extracellular milieu of COX2 -/- fibroblasts seemingly from the preformed intracellular stores, with no change in the basal gene expression of MIF. The secretion and regulation of MIF in COX-2 -/- was "prostaglandin-independent." GO analysis showed that concurrent with upregulation of MIF, there is a significant surge in expression of genes related to fibroblast growth, FK506 binding proteins, and isomerase activity in COX-2 -/- cells. Furthermore, COX-2 -/- fibroblasts also exhibit a significant increase in transcriptional activity of various regulators, antagonists, and co-modulators of p53, as well as in the expression of oncogenes and related transcripts. Integrative Oncogenomics Cancer Browser (IntroGen) analysis shows downregulation of COX-2 and amplification of MIF and/or p53 activity during development of glioblastomas, ependymoma, and colon adenomas. These data indicate the functional role of the MIF-COX-p53 axis in inflammation and cancer at the genomic and proteomic levels in COX-2-ablated cells. This systematic analysis not only shows the proinflammatory state but also unveils a molecular signature of a pro-oncogenic state of COX-1 in COX-2 ablated cells. Copyright © 2017 Beijing Institute of Genomics, Chinese Academy of Sciences and Genetics Society of China. Production and hosting by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Proteomic Analysis Shows Constitutive Secretion of MIF and p53-associated Activity of COX-2−/− Lung Fibroblasts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mandar Dave

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The differential expression of two closelyassociated cyclooxygenase isozymes, COX-1 and COX-2, exhibited functions beyond eicosanoid metabolism. We hypothesized that COX-1 or COX-2 knockout lung fibroblasts may display altered protein profiles which may allow us to further differentiate the functional roles of these isozymes at the molecular level. Proteomic analysis shows constitutive production of macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF in lung fibroblasts derived from COX-2−/− but not wild-type (WT or COX-1−/− mice. MIF was spontaneously released in high levels into the extracellular milieu of COX2−/− fibroblasts seemingly from the preformed intracellular stores, with no change in the basal gene expression of MIF. The secretion and regulation of MIF in COX-2−/− was “prostaglandin-independent.” GO analysis showed that concurrent with upregulation of MIF, there is a significant surge in expression of genes related to fibroblast growth, FK506 binding proteins, and isomerase activity in COX-2−/− cells. Furthermore, COX-2−/− fibroblasts also exhibit a significant increase in transcriptional activity of various regulators, antagonists, and co-modulators of p53, as well as in the expression of oncogenes and related transcripts. Integrative Oncogenomics Cancer Browser (IntroGen analysis shows downregulation of COX-2 and amplification of MIF and/or p53 activity during development of glioblastomas, ependymoma, and colon adenomas. These data indicate the functional role of the MIF-COX-p53 axis in inflammation and cancer at the genomic and proteomic levels in COX-2-ablated cells. This systematic analysis not only shows the proinflammatory state but also unveils a molecular signature of a pro-oncogenic state of COX-1 in COX-2 ablated cells.

  7. 14 Days of supplementation with blueberry extract shows anti-atherogenic properties and improves oxidative parameters in hypercholesterolemic rats model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ströher, Deise Jaqueline; Escobar Piccoli, Jacqueline da Costa; Güllich, Angélica Aparecida da Costa; Pilar, Bruna Cocco; Coelho, Ritiéle Pinto; Bruno, Jamila Benvegnú; Faoro, Debora; Manfredini, Vanusa

    2015-01-01

    The effects of supplementation with blueberry (BE) extract (Vaccinium ashei Reade) for 14 consecutive days on biochemical, hematological, histopathological and oxidative parameters in hypercholesterolemic rats were investigated. After supplementation with lyophilized extract of BE, the levels of total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and triglycerides were decreased. Histopathological analysis showed significant decrease (p < 0.05) of aortic lesions in hypercholesterolemic rats. Oxidative parameters showed significant reductions (p < 0.05) in oxidative damage to lipids and proteins and an increase in activities of antioxidant enzymes such as catalase, superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase. The BE extract showed an important cardioprotective effect by the improvements in the serum lipid profile, antioxidant system, particularly in reducing oxidative stress associated with hypercholesterolemia and anti-atherogenic effect in rats.

  8. Survival analysis models and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Liu, Xian

    2012-01-01

    Survival analysis concerns sequential occurrences of events governed by probabilistic laws.  Recent decades have witnessed many applications of survival analysis in various disciplines. This book introduces both classic survival models and theories along with newly developed techniques. Readers will learn how to perform analysis of survival data by following numerous empirical illustrations in SAS. Survival Analysis: Models and Applications: Presents basic techniques before leading onto some of the most advanced topics in survival analysis.Assumes only a minimal knowledge of SAS whilst enablin

  9. SHOW. A program for the integrated analysis of the data produced in a nuclear fusion experimental device

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bracco, G.; Tudisco, O. [ENEA, Centro Ricerche Casaccia, Rome (Italy). Dipt. Energia

    1998-03-01

    The report describes the program SHOW, an application devoted to the integrated analysis of the data produced in nuclear fusion experimental devices. The program is currently used for the analysis of the FTU data and a version is also available at JET. The code is written in FORTRAN 77, runs on IBM mainframes under MVS operating system and makes use of the GDDM graphical package. The program, that operates both in batch and interactive modes, permits to perform a graphical analysis of the data collected in the experimental databases. The report contains as appendixes the detailed description of all the program options together with a short illustration of the FTU databases. [Italiano] Il rapporto descrive il programma SHOW. Si tratta di una applicazione che permette l`analisi integrata dei dati prodotti da apparati sperimentali dedicati allo studio della fusione nucleare controllata. Il programma e` utilizzato per l`analisi dei dati di FTU (Frascati Tokamak Upgrade) e una versione e` disponibile anche al JET (Joint European Torus). Il codice e` scritto in FORTRAN 77 per mainframes IBM con sistema operativo MVS ed utilizza il pacchetto grafico GDDM. Il programma puo` funzionare sia in modo batch che in modo interattivo e permette di compiere l`elaborazione grafica dei dati raccolti nelle basi di dati sperimentali. Il rapporto contiene come appendici la descrizione dettagliata di tutte le opzioni del programma e una breve illustrazione delle basi di dati disponibili per FTU.

  10. Skeletal Muscle Differentiation on a Chip Shows Human Donor Mesoangioblasts' Efficiency in Restoring Dystrophin in a Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serena, Elena; Zatti, Susi; Zoso, Alice; Lo Verso, Francesca; Tedesco, F Saverio; Cossu, Giulio; Elvassore, Nicola

    2016-12-01

    : Restoration of the protein dystrophin on muscle membrane is the goal of many research lines aimed at curing Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD). Results of ongoing preclinical and clinical trials suggest that partial restoration of dystrophin might be sufficient to significantly reduce muscle damage. Different myogenic progenitors are candidates for cell therapy of muscular dystrophies, but only satellite cells and pericytes have already entered clinical experimentation. This study aimed to provide in vitro quantitative evidence of the ability of mesoangioblasts to restore dystrophin, in terms of protein accumulation and distribution, within myotubes derived from DMD patients, using a microengineered model. We designed an ad hoc experimental strategy to miniaturize on a chip the standard process of muscle regeneration independent of variables such as inflammation and fibrosis. It is based on the coculture, at different ratios, of human dystrophin-positive myogenic progenitors and dystrophin-negative myoblasts in a substrate with muscle-like physiological stiffness and cell micropatterns. Results showed that both healthy myoblasts and mesoangioblasts restored dystrophin expression in DMD myotubes. However, mesoangioblasts showed unexpected efficiency with respect to myoblasts in dystrophin production in terms of the amount of protein produced (40% vs. 15%) and length of the dystrophin membrane domain (210-240 µm vs. 40-70 µm). These results show that our microscaled in vitro model of human DMD skeletal muscle validated previous in vivo preclinical work and may be used to predict efficacy of new methods aimed at enhancing dystrophin accumulation and distribution before they are tested in vivo, reducing time, costs, and variability of clinical experimentation. This study aimed to provide in vitro quantitative evidence of the ability of human mesoangioblasts to restore dystrophin, in terms of protein accumulation and distribution, within myotubes derived from

  11. Skeletal Muscle Differentiation on a Chip Shows Human Donor Mesoangioblasts’ Efficiency in Restoring Dystrophin in a Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serena, Elena; Zatti, Susi; Zoso, Alice; Lo Verso, Francesca; Tedesco, F. Saverio; Cossu, Giulio

    2016-01-01

    Restoration of the protein dystrophin on muscle membrane is the goal of many research lines aimed at curing Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD). Results of ongoing preclinical and clinical trials suggest that partial restoration of dystrophin might be sufficient to significantly reduce muscle damage. Different myogenic progenitors are candidates for cell therapy of muscular dystrophies, but only satellite cells and pericytes have already entered clinical experimentation. This study aimed to provide in vitro quantitative evidence of the ability of mesoangioblasts to restore dystrophin, in terms of protein accumulation and distribution, within myotubes derived from DMD patients, using a microengineered model. We designed an ad hoc experimental strategy to miniaturize on a chip the standard process of muscle regeneration independent of variables such as inflammation and fibrosis. It is based on the coculture, at different ratios, of human dystrophin-positive myogenic progenitors and dystrophin-negative myoblasts in a substrate with muscle-like physiological stiffness and cell micropatterns. Results showed that both healthy myoblasts and mesoangioblasts restored dystrophin expression in DMD myotubes. However, mesoangioblasts showed unexpected efficiency with respect to myoblasts in dystrophin production in terms of the amount of protein produced (40% vs. 15%) and length of the dystrophin membrane domain (210–240 µm vs. 40–70 µm). These results show that our microscaled in vitro model of human DMD skeletal muscle validated previous in vivo preclinical work and may be used to predict efficacy of new methods aimed at enhancing dystrophin accumulation and distribution before they are tested in vivo, reducing time, costs, and variability of clinical experimentation. Significance This study aimed to provide in vitro quantitative evidence of the ability of human mesoangioblasts to restore dystrophin, in terms of protein accumulation and distribution, within myotubes

  12. CMS Analysis School Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malik, S. [Nebraska U.; Shipsey, I. [Purdue U.; Cavanaugh, R. [Illinois U., Chicago; Bloom, K. [Nebraska U.; Chan, Kai-Feng [Taiwan, Natl. Taiwan U.; D' Hondt, J. [Vrije U., Brussels; Klima, B. [Fermilab; Narain, M. [Brown U.; Palla, F. [INFN, Pisa; Rolandi, G. [CERN; Schörner-Sadenius, T. [DESY

    2014-01-01

    To impart hands-on training in physics analysis, CMS experiment initiated the concept of CMS Data Analysis School (CMSDAS). It was born over three years ago at the LPC (LHC Physics Centre), Fermilab and is based on earlier workshops held at the LPC and CLEO Experiment. As CMS transitioned from construction to the data taking mode, the nature of earlier training also evolved to include more of analysis tools, software tutorials and physics analysis. This effort epitomized as CMSDAS has proven to be a key for the new and young physicists to jump start and contribute to the physics goals of CMS by looking for new physics with the collision data. With over 400 physicists trained in six CMSDAS around the globe, CMS is trying to engage the collaboration in its discovery potential and maximize physics output. As a bigger goal, CMS is striving to nurture and increase engagement of the myriad talents, in the development of physics, service, upgrade, education of those new to CMS and the career development of younger members. An extension of the concept to the dedicated software and hardware schools is also planned, keeping in mind the ensuing upgrade phase.

  13. Benchmark risk analysis models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ale BJM; Golbach GAM; Goos D; Ham K; Janssen LAM; Shield SR; LSO

    2002-01-01

    A so-called benchmark exercise was initiated in which the results of five sets of tools available in the Netherlands would be compared. In the benchmark exercise a quantified risk analysis was performed on a -hypothetical- non-existing hazardous establishment located on a randomly chosen location in

  14. Plectasin shows intracellular activity against Staphylococcus aureus in human THP-1 monocytes and in a mouse peritonitis model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brinch, Karoline Sidelmann; Sandberg, Anne; Baudoux, Pierre

    2009-01-01

    Antimicrobial therapy of infections with Staphylococcus aureus can pose a challenge due to slow response to therapy and recurrence of infection. These treatment difficulties can partly be explained by intracellular survival of staphylococci, which is why the intracellular activity...... was maintained (maximal relative efficacy [E(max)], 1.0- to 1.3-log reduction in CFU) even though efficacy was inferior to that of extracellular killing (E(max), >4.5-log CFU reduction). Animal studies included a novel use of the mouse peritonitis model, exploiting extra- and intracellular differentiation assays...... concentration. These findings stress the importance of performing studies of extra- and intracellular activity since these features cannot be predicted from traditional MIC and killing kinetic studies. Application of both the THP-1 and the mouse peritonitis models showed that the in vitro results were similar...

  15. Meta-analysis shows limited evidence for using Lactobacillus acidophilus LB to treat acute gastroenteritis in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szajewska, Hania; Ruszczyński, Marek; Kolaček, Sanja

    2014-03-01

    A meta-analysis of four randomised controlled trials of varying methodological quality, involving 304 children aged 1-48 months, showed that Lactobacillus acidophilus LB (LB) reduced the duration of diarrhoea in hospitalised, but not outpatient, children compared with a placebo. The chance of a cure on day three was similar in both groups, but LB increased the chance of cure on day four. There is limited evidence to recommend LB for treating paediatric diarrhoea. ©2013 Foundation Acta Paediatrica. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Climate Modelling Shows Increased Risk to Eucalyptus sideroxylon on the Eastern Coast of Australia Compared to Eucalyptus albens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shabani, Farzin; Kumar, Lalit; Ahmadi, Mohsen

    2017-11-24

    Aim: To identify the extent and direction of range shift of Eucalyptus sideroxylon and E. albens in Australia by 2050 through an ensemble forecast of four species distribution models (SDMs). Each was generated using four global climate models (GCMs), under two representative concentration pathways (RCPs). Location: Australia. Methods : We used four SDMs of (i) generalized linear model, (ii) MaxEnt, (iii) random forest, and (iv) boosted regression tree to construct SDMs for species E. sideroxylon and E. albens under four GCMs including (a) MRI-CGCM3, (b) MIROC5, (c) HadGEM2-AO and (d) CCSM4, under two RCPs of 4.5 and 6.0. Here, the true skill statistic (TSS) index was used to assess the accuracy of each SDM. Results: Results showed that E. albens and E. sideroxylon will lose large areas of their current suitable range by 2050 and E. sideroxylon is projected to gain in eastern and southeastern Australia. Some areas were also projected to remain suitable for each species between now and 2050. Our modelling showed that E. sideroxylon will lose suitable habitat on the western side and will not gain any on the eastern side because this region is one the most heavily populated areas in the country, and the populated areas are moving westward. The predicted decrease in E. sideroxylon's distribution suggests that land managers should monitor its population closely, and evaluate whether it meets criteria for a protected legal status. Main conclusions: Both Eucalyptus sideroxylon and E. albens will be negatively affected by climate change and it is projected that E. sideroxylon will be at greater risk of losing habitat than E. albens .

  17. Climate Modelling Shows Increased Risk to Eucalyptus sideroxylon on the Eastern Coast of Australia Compared to Eucalyptus albens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farzin Shabani

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To identify the extent and direction of range shift of Eucalyptus sideroxylon and E. albens in Australia by 2050 through an ensemble forecast of four species distribution models (SDMs. Each was generated using four global climate models (GCMs, under two representative concentration pathways (RCPs. Location: Australia. Methods: We used four SDMs of (i generalized linear model, (ii MaxEnt, (iii random forest, and (iv boosted regression tree to construct SDMs for species E. sideroxylon and E. albens under four GCMs including (a MRI-CGCM3, (b MIROC5, (c HadGEM2-AO and (d CCSM4, under two RCPs of 4.5 and 6.0. Here, the true skill statistic (TSS index was used to assess the accuracy of each SDM. Results: Results showed that E. albens and E. sideroxylon will lose large areas of their current suitable range by 2050 and E. sideroxylon is projected to gain in eastern and southeastern Australia. Some areas were also projected to remain suitable for each species between now and 2050. Our modelling showed that E. sideroxylon will lose suitable habitat on the western side and will not gain any on the eastern side because this region is one the most heavily populated areas in the country, and the populated areas are moving westward. The predicted decrease in E. sideroxylon’s distribution suggests that land managers should monitor its population closely, and evaluate whether it meets criteria for a protected legal status. Main conclusions: Both Eucalyptus sideroxylon and E. albens will be negatively affected by climate change and it is projected that E. sideroxylon will be at greater risk of losing habitat than E. albens.

  18. Coadministration of doxorubicin and etoposide loaded in camel milk phospholipids liposomes showed increased antitumor activity in a murine model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maswadeh HM

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Hamzah M Maswadeh,1 Ahmed N Aljarbou,1 Mohammed S Alorainy,2 Arshad H Rahmani,3 Masood A Khan3 1Department of Pharmaceutics, College of Pharmacy, 2Department of Pharmacology and Therapeutics, College of Medicine, 3College of Applied Medical Sciences, Qassim University, Buraydah, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia Abstract: Small unilamellar vesicles from camel milk phospholipids (CML mixture or from 1,2 dipalmitoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphatidylcholine (DPPC were prepared, and anticancer drugs doxorubicin (Dox or etoposide (ETP were loaded. Liposomal formulations were used against fibrosarcoma in a murine model. Results showed a very high percentage of Dox encapsulation (~98% in liposomes (Lip prepared from CML-Lip or DPPC-Lip, whereas the percentage of encapsulations of ETP was on the lower side, 22% of CML-Lip and 18% for DPPC-Lip. Differential scanning calorimetry curves show that Dox enhances the lamellar formation in CML-Lip, whereas ETP enhances the nonlamellar formation. Differential scanning calorimetry curves also showed that the presence of Dox and ETP together into DPPC-Lip produced the interdigitation effect. The in vivo anticancer activity of liposomal formulations of Dox or ETP or a combination of both was assessed against benzopyrene (BAP-induced fibrosarcoma in a murine model. Tumor-bearing mice treated with a combination of Dox and ETP loaded into CML-Lip showed increased survival and reduced tumor growth compared to other groups, including the combination of Dox and ETP in DPPC-Lip. Fibrosarcoma-bearing mice treated with a combination of free (Dox + ETP showed much higher tumor growth compared to those groups treated with CML-Lip-(Dox + ETP or DPPC-Lip-(Dox + ETP. Immunohistochemical study was also performed to show the expression of tumor-suppressor PTEN, and it was found that the tumor tissues from the group of mice treated with a combination of free (Dox + ETP showed greater loss of cytoplasmic PTEN than tumor tissues obtained from the

  19. PET kinetic analysis. Compartmental model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watabe, Hiroshi; Ikoma, Yoko; Shidahara, Miho; Kimura, Yuichi; Naganawa, Mika

    2006-01-01

    Positron emission tomography (PET) enables not only visualization of the distribution of radiotracer, but also has ability to quantify several biomedical functions. Compartmental model is a basic idea to analyze dynamic PET data. This review describes the principle of the compartmental model and categorizes the techniques and approaches for the compartmental model according to various aspects: model design, experimental design, invasiveness, and mathematical solution. We also discussed advanced applications of the compartmental analysis with PET. (author)

  20. Restless led syndrome model Drosophila melanogaster show successful olfactory learning and 1-day retention of the acquired memory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mika F. Asaba

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Restless Legs Syndrome (RLS is a prevalent but poorly understood disorder that ischaracterized by uncontrollable movements during sleep, resulting in sleep disturbance.Olfactory memory in Drosophila melanogaster has proven to be a useful tool for the study ofcognitive deficits caused by sleep disturbances, such as those seen in RLS. A recently generatedDrosophila model of RLS exhibited disturbed sleep patterns similar to those seen in humans withRLS. This research seeks to improve understanding of the relationship between cognitivefunctioning and sleep disturbances in a new model for RLS. Here, we tested learning andmemory in wild type and dBTBD9 mutant flies by Pavlovian olfactory conditioning, duringwhich a shock was paired with one of two odors. Flies were then placed in a T-maze with oneodor on either side, and successful associative learning was recorded when the flies chose theside with the unpaired odor. We hypothesized that due to disrupted sleep patterns, dBTBD9mutant flies would be unable to learn the shock-odor association. However, the current studyreports that the recently generated Drosophila model of RLS shows successful olfactorylearning, despite disturbed sleep patterns, with learning performance levels matching or betterthan wild type flies.

  1. The BACHD Rat Model of Huntington Disease Shows Specific Deficits in a Test Battery of Motor Function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppe Manfré

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Rationale: Huntington disease (HD is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder characterized by motor, cognitive and neuropsychiatric symptoms. HD is usually diagnosed by the appearance of motor deficits, resulting in skilled hand use disruption, gait abnormality, muscle wasting and choreatic movements. The BACHD transgenic rat model for HD represents a well-established transgenic rodent model of HD, offering the prospect of an in-depth characterization of the motor phenotype.Objective: The present study aims to characterize different aspects of motor function in BACHD rats, combining classical paradigms with novel high-throughput behavioral phenotyping.Methods: Wild-type (WT and transgenic animals were tested longitudinally from 2 to 12 months of age. To measure fine motor control, rats were challenged with the pasta handling test and the pellet reaching test. To evaluate gross motor function, animals were assessed by using the holding bar and the grip strength tests. Spontaneous locomotor activity and circadian rhythmicity were assessed in an automated home-cage environment, namely the PhenoTyper. We then integrated existing classical methodologies to test motor function with automated home-cage assessment of motor performance.Results: BACHD rats showed strong impairment in muscle endurance at 2 months of age. Altered circadian rhythmicity and locomotor activity were observed in transgenic animals. On the other hand, reaching behavior, forepaw dexterity and muscle strength were unaffected.Conclusions: The BACHD rat model exhibits certain features of HD patients, like muscle weakness and changes in circadian behavior. We have observed modest but clear-cut deficits in distinct motor phenotypes, thus confirming the validity of this transgenic rat model for treatment and drug discovery purposes.

  2. Multiscale Signal Analysis and Modeling

    CERN Document Server

    Zayed, Ahmed

    2013-01-01

    Multiscale Signal Analysis and Modeling presents recent advances in multiscale analysis and modeling using wavelets and other systems. This book also presents applications in digital signal processing using sampling theory and techniques from various function spaces, filter design, feature extraction and classification, signal and image representation/transmission, coding, nonparametric statistical signal processing, and statistical learning theory. This book also: Discusses recently developed signal modeling techniques, such as the multiscale method for complex time series modeling, multiscale positive density estimations, Bayesian Shrinkage Strategies, and algorithms for data adaptive statistics Introduces new sampling algorithms for multidimensional signal processing Provides comprehensive coverage of wavelets with presentations on waveform design and modeling, wavelet analysis of ECG signals and wavelet filters Reviews features extraction and classification algorithms for multiscale signal and image proce...

  3. Uncertainty analysis of environmental models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Monte, L.

    1990-01-01

    In the present paper an evaluation of the output uncertainty of an environmental model for assessing the transfer of 137 Cs and 131 I in the human food chain are carried out on the basis of a statistical analysis of data reported by the literature. The uncertainty analysis offers the oppotunity of obtaining some remarkable information about the uncertainty of models predicting the migration of non radioactive substances in the environment mainly in relation to the dry and wet deposition

  4. Model Checking as Static Analysis: Revisited

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Fuyuan; Nielson, Flemming; Nielson, Hanne Riis

    2012-01-01

    We show that the model checking problem of the μ-calculus can be viewed as an instance of static analysis. We propose Succinct Fixed Point Logic (SFP) within our logical approach to static analysis as an extension of Alternation-free Least Fixed Logic (ALFP). We generalize the notion of stratific......We show that the model checking problem of the μ-calculus can be viewed as an instance of static analysis. We propose Succinct Fixed Point Logic (SFP) within our logical approach to static analysis as an extension of Alternation-free Least Fixed Logic (ALFP). We generalize the notion...... of stratification to weak stratification and establish a Moore Family result for the new logic as well. The semantics of the μ-calculus is encoded as the intended model of weakly stratified clause sequences in SFP....

  5. Sensitivity Analysis of Simulation Models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kleijnen, J.P.C.

    2009-01-01

    This contribution presents an overview of sensitivity analysis of simulation models, including the estimation of gradients. It covers classic designs and their corresponding (meta)models; namely, resolution-III designs including fractional-factorial two-level designs for first-order polynomial

  6. Command Process Modeling & Risk Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meshkat, Leila

    2011-01-01

    Commanding Errors may be caused by a variety of root causes. It's important to understand the relative significance of each of these causes for making institutional investment decisions. One of these causes is the lack of standardized processes and procedures for command and control. We mitigate this problem by building periodic tables and models corresponding to key functions within it. These models include simulation analysis and probabilistic risk assessment models.

  7. Analysis of a large dataset of mycorrhiza inoculation field trials on potato shows highly significant increases in yield.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hijri, Mohamed

    2016-04-01

    An increasing human population requires more food production in nutrient-efficient systems in order to simultaneously meet global food needs while reducing the environmental footprint of agriculture. Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) have the potential to enhance crop yield, but their efficiency has yet to be demonstrated in large-scale crop production systems. This study reports an analysis of a dataset consisting of 231 field trials in which the same AMF inoculant (Rhizophagus irregularis DAOM 197198) was applied to potato over a 4-year period in North America and Europe under authentic field conditions. The inoculation was performed using a liquid suspension of AMF spores that was sprayed onto potato seed pieces, yielding a calculated 71 spores per seed piece. Statistical analysis showed a highly significant increase in marketable potato yield (ANOVA, P < 0.0001) for inoculated fields (42.2 tons/ha) compared with non-inoculated controls (38.3 tons/ha), irrespective of trial year. The average yield increase was 3.9 tons/ha, representing 9.5 % of total crop yield. Inoculation was profitable with a 0.67-tons/ha increase in yield, a threshold reached in almost 79 % of all trials. This finding clearly demonstrates the benefits of mycorrhizal-based inoculation on crop yield, using potato as a case study. Further improvements of these beneficial inoculants will help compensate for crop production deficits, both now and in the future.

  8. BO-1055, a novel DNA cross-linking agent with remarkable low myelotoxicity shows potent activity in sarcoma models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ambati, Srikanth R; Shieh, Jae-Hung; Pera, Benet; Lopes, Eloisi Caldas; Chaudhry, Anisha; Wong, Elissa W P; Saxena, Ashish; Su, Tsann-Long; Moore, Malcolm A S

    2016-07-12

    DNA damaging agents cause rapid shrinkage of tumors and form the basis of chemotherapy for sarcomas despite significant toxicities. Drugs having superior efficacy and wider therapeutic windows are needed to improve patient outcomes. We used cell proliferation and apoptosis assays in sarcoma cell lines and benign cells; γ-H2AX expression, comet assay, immunoblot analyses and drug combination studies in vitro and in patient derived xenograft (PDX) models. BO-1055 caused apoptosis and cell death in a concentration and time dependent manner in sarcoma cell lines. BO-1055 had potent activity (submicromolar IC50) against Ewing sarcoma and rhabdomyosarcoma, intermediate activity in DSRCT (IC50 = 2-3μM) and very weak activity in osteosarcoma (IC50 >10μM) cell lines. BO-1055 exhibited a wide therapeutic window compared to other DNA damaging drugs. BO-1055 induced more DNA double strand breaks and γH2AX expression in cancer cells compared to benign cells. BO-1055 showed inhibition of tumor growth in A673 xenografts and caused tumor regression in cyclophosphamide resistant patient-derived Ewing sarcoma xenografts and A204 xenografts. Combination of BO-1055 and irinotecan demonstrated synergism in Ewing sarcoma PDX models. Potent activity on sarcoma cells and its relative lack of toxicity presents a strong rationale for further development of BO-1055 as a therapeutic agent.

  9. Marmosets, Raree shows and Pulcinelle: an Analysis and Edition of a Hitherto-Unpublished Carnival Play by Antonio de Zamora

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Plata

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper is an analyisis, annotation and edition of the Mojiganga del mundinovo (‘The raree show, a carnival play’ by Antonio de Zamora. The play was performed in 1698 Madrid by the troupe of Carlos Vallejo, along with the sacramental one-act play El templo vivo de Dios (‘The living temple of God’. The hitherto unpublished text is based on the only two extant manuscripts, located in archives in Madrid. Despite the play’s title, my analysis argues that the novelty in this play is not so much the raree show, a contraption popularized four decades earlier in Golden Age theater, as the marmosets. The death of two marmosets and the ensuing desolation of their owner, Ms. Estupenda, both trigger the play and provide it with a plot. The marmosets, too, point to a changing mentality in late 17th-century society, regarding the possession among ladies of marmosets and other monkeys as pets.

  10. Global morphological analysis of marine viruses shows minimal regional variation and dominance of non-tailed viruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brum, Jennifer R; Schenck, Ryan O; Sullivan, Matthew B

    2013-09-01

    Viruses influence oceanic ecosystems by causing mortality of microorganisms, altering nutrient and organic matter flux via lysis and auxiliary metabolic gene expression and changing the trajectory of microbial evolution through horizontal gene transfer. Limited host range and differing genetic potential of individual virus types mean that investigations into the types of viruses that exist in the ocean and their spatial distribution throughout the world's oceans are critical to understanding the global impacts of marine viruses. Here we evaluate viral morphological characteristics (morphotype, capsid diameter and tail length) using a quantitative transmission electron microscopy (qTEM) method across six of the world's oceans and seas sampled through the Tara Oceans Expedition. Extensive experimental validation of the qTEM method shows that neither sample preservation nor preparation significantly alters natural viral morphological characteristics. The global sampling analysis demonstrated that morphological characteristics did not vary consistently with depth (surface versus deep chlorophyll maximum waters) or oceanic region. Instead, temperature, salinity and oxygen concentration, but not chlorophyll a concentration, were more explanatory in evaluating differences in viral assemblage morphological characteristics. Surprisingly, given that the majority of cultivated bacterial viruses are tailed, non-tailed viruses appear to numerically dominate the upper oceans as they comprised 51-92% of the viral particles observed. Together, these results document global marine viral morphological characteristics, show that their minimal variability is more explained by environmental conditions than geography and suggest that non-tailed viruses might represent the most ecologically important targets for future research.

  11. Combined Analysis of Endothelial, Hematopoietic, and Mesenchymal Stem Cell Compartments Shows Simultaneous but Independent Effects of Age and Heart Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carine Ghem

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Clinical trials using stem cell therapy for heart diseases have not reproduced the initial positive results obtained with animal models. This might be explained by a decreased regenerative capacity of stem cells collected from the patients. This work aimed at the simultaneous investigation of endothelial stem/progenitor cells (EPCs, mesenchymal stem/progenitor cells (MSCs, and hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells (HSCs in sternal bone marrow samples of patients with ischemic or valvular heart disease, using flow cytometry and colony assays. The study included 36 patients referred for coronary artery bypass grafting or valve replacement surgery. A decreased frequency of stem cells was observed in both groups of patients. Left ventricular dysfunction, diabetes, and intermediate risk in EuroSCORE and SYNTAX score were associated with lower EPCs frequency, and the use of aspirin and β-blockers correlated with a higher frequency of HSCs and EPCs, respectively. Most importantly, the distribution of frequencies in the three stem cell compartments showed independent patterns. The combined investigation of the three stem cell compartments in patients with cardiovascular diseases showed that they are independently affected by the disease, suggesting the investigation of prognostic factors that may be used to determine when autologous stem cells may be used in cell therapy.

  12. Demographical history and palaeodistribution modelling show range shift towards Amazon Basin for a Neotropical tree species in the LGM.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitorino, Luciana Cristina; Lima-Ribeiro, Matheus S; Terribile, Levi Carina; Collevatti, Rosane G

    2016-10-13

    We studied the phylogeography and demographical history of Tabebuia serratifolia (Bignoniaceae) to understand the disjunct geographical distribution of South American seasonally dry tropical forests (SDTFs). We specifically tested if the multiple and isolated patches of SDTFs are current climatic relicts of a widespread and continuously distributed dry forest during the last glacial maximum (LGM), the so called South American dry forest refugia hypothesis, using ecological niche modelling (ENM) and statistical phylogeography. We sampled 235 individuals of T. serratifolia in 17 populations in Brazil and analysed the polymorphisms at three intergenic chloroplast regions and ITS nuclear ribosomal DNA. Coalescent analyses showed a demographical expansion at the last c. 130 ka (thousand years before present). Simulations and ENM also showed that the current spatial pattern of genetic diversity is most likely due to a scenario of range expansion and range shift towards the Amazon Basin during the colder and arid climatic conditions associated with the LGM, matching the expected for the South American dry forest refugia hypothesis, although contrasting to the Pleistocene Arc hypothesis. Populations in more stable areas or with higher suitability through time showed higher genetic diversity. Postglacial range shift towards the Southeast and Atlantic coast may have led to spatial genome assortment due to leading edge colonization as the species tracks suitable environments, leading to lower genetic diversity in populations at higher distance from the distribution centroid at 21 ka. Haplotype sharing or common ancestry among populations from Caatinga in Northeast Brazil, Atlantic Forest in Southeast and Cerrado biome and ENM evince the past connection among these biomes.

  13. Transcriptomic and metabolomic analysis of Yukon Thellungiella plants grown in cabinets and their natural habitat show phenotypic plasticity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guevara David R

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Thellungiella salsuginea is an important model plant due to its natural tolerance to abiotic stresses including salt, cold, and water deficits. Microarray and metabolite profiling have shown that Thellungiella undergoes stress-responsive changes in transcript and organic solute abundance when grown under controlled environmental conditions. However, few reports assess the capacity of plants to display stress-responsive traits in natural habitats where concurrent stresses are the norm. Results To determine whether stress-responsive changes observed in cabinet-grown plants are recapitulated in the field, we analyzed leaf transcript and metabolic profiles of Thellungiella growing in its native Yukon habitat during two years of contrasting meteorological conditions. We found 673 genes showing differential expression between field and unstressed, chamber-grown plants. There were comparatively few overlaps between genes expressed under field and cabinet treatment-specific conditions. Only 20 of 99 drought-responsive genes were expressed both in the field during a year of low precipitation and in plants subjected to drought treatments in cabinets. There was also a general pattern of lower abundance among metabolites found in field plants relative to control or stress-treated plants in growth cabinets. Nutrient availability may explain some of the observed differences. For example, proline accumulated to high levels in cold and salt-stressed cabinet-grown plants but proline content was, by comparison, negligible in plants at a saline Yukon field site. We show that proline accumulated in a stress-responsive manner in Thellungiella plants salinized in growth cabinets and in salt-stressed seedlings when nitrogen was provided at 1.0 mM. In seedlings grown on 0.1 mM nitrogen medium, the proline content was low while carbohydrates increased. The relatively higher content of sugar-like compounds in field plants and seedlings on low nitrogen

  14. Transcriptomic and metabolomic analysis of Yukon Thellungiella plants grown in cabinets and their natural habitat show phenotypic plasticity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guevara, David R; Champigny, Marc J; Tattersall, Ashley; Dedrick, Jeff; Wong, Chui E; Li, Yong; Labbe, Aurelie; Ping, Chien-Lu; Wang, Yanxiang; Nuin, Paulo; Golding, G Brian; McCarry, Brian E; Summers, Peter S; Moffatt, Barbara A; Weretilnyk, Elizabeth A

    2012-10-01

    Thellungiella salsuginea is an important model plant due to its natural tolerance to abiotic stresses including salt, cold, and water deficits. Microarray and metabolite profiling have shown that Thellungiella undergoes stress-responsive changes in transcript and organic solute abundance when grown under controlled environmental conditions. However, few reports assess the capacity of plants to display stress-responsive traits in natural habitats where concurrent stresses are the norm. To determine whether stress-responsive changes observed in cabinet-grown plants are recapitulated in the field, we analyzed leaf transcript and metabolic profiles of Thellungiella growing in its native Yukon habitat during two years of contrasting meteorological conditions. We found 673 genes showing differential expression between field and unstressed, chamber-grown plants. There were comparatively few overlaps between genes expressed under field and cabinet treatment-specific conditions. Only 20 of 99 drought-responsive genes were expressed both in the field during a year of low precipitation and in plants subjected to drought treatments in cabinets. There was also a general pattern of lower abundance among metabolites found in field plants relative to control or stress-treated plants in growth cabinets. Nutrient availability may explain some of the observed differences. For example, proline accumulated to high levels in cold and salt-stressed cabinet-grown plants but proline content was, by comparison, negligible in plants at a saline Yukon field site. We show that proline accumulated in a stress-responsive manner in Thellungiella plants salinized in growth cabinets and in salt-stressed seedlings when nitrogen was provided at 1.0 mM. In seedlings grown on 0.1 mM nitrogen medium, the proline content was low while carbohydrates increased. The relatively higher content of sugar-like compounds in field plants and seedlings on low nitrogen media suggests that Thellungiella shows

  15. Transcriptomic and metabolomic analysis of Yukon Thellungiella plants grown in cabinets and their natural habitat show phenotypic plasticity

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Thellungiella salsuginea is an important model plant due to its natural tolerance to abiotic stresses including salt, cold, and water deficits. Microarray and metabolite profiling have shown that Thellungiella undergoes stress-responsive changes in transcript and organic solute abundance when grown under controlled environmental conditions. However, few reports assess the capacity of plants to display stress-responsive traits in natural habitats where concurrent stresses are the norm. Results To determine whether stress-responsive changes observed in cabinet-grown plants are recapitulated in the field, we analyzed leaf transcript and metabolic profiles of Thellungiella growing in its native Yukon habitat during two years of contrasting meteorological conditions. We found 673 genes showing differential expression between field and unstressed, chamber-grown plants. There were comparatively few overlaps between genes expressed under field and cabinet treatment-specific conditions. Only 20 of 99 drought-responsive genes were expressed both in the field during a year of low precipitation and in plants subjected to drought treatments in cabinets. There was also a general pattern of lower abundance among metabolites found in field plants relative to control or stress-treated plants in growth cabinets. Nutrient availability may explain some of the observed differences. For example, proline accumulated to high levels in cold and salt-stressed cabinet-grown plants but proline content was, by comparison, negligible in plants at a saline Yukon field site. We show that proline accumulated in a stress-responsive manner in Thellungiella plants salinized in growth cabinets and in salt-stressed seedlings when nitrogen was provided at 1.0 mM. In seedlings grown on 0.1 mM nitrogen medium, the proline content was low while carbohydrates increased. The relatively higher content of sugar-like compounds in field plants and seedlings on low nitrogen media suggests that

  16. Brain Correlates of Cognitive Remediation in Schizophrenia: Activation Likelihood Analysis Shows Preliminary Evidence of Neural Target Engagement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramsay, Ian S; MacDonald, Angus W

    2015-11-01

    Cognitive remediation training (CRT) for schizophrenia has been found to improve cognitive functioning and influence neural plasticity. However, with various training approaches and mixed findings, the mechanisms driving generalization of cognitive skills from CRT are unclear. In this meta-analysis of extant imaging studies examining CRT's effects, we sought to clarify whether varying approaches to CRT suggest common neural changes and whether such mechanisms are restorative or compensatory. We conducted a literature search to identify studies appropriate for inclusion in an activation likelihood estimation (ALE) meta-analysis. Our criteria required studies to consist of training-based interventions designed to improve patients' cognitive or social functioning, including generalization to untrained circumstances. Studies were also required to examine changes in pre- vs posttraining functional activation using functional magnetic resonance imaging or positron emission tomography. The literature search identified 162 articles, 9 of which were appropriate for inclusion. ALE analyses comparing pre- and posttraining brain activation showed increased activity in the lateral and medial prefrontal cortex (PFC), parietal cortex, insula, and the caudate and thalamus. Notably, activation associated with CRT in the left PFC and thalamus partially overlapped with previous meta-analytically identified areas associated with deficits in working memory, executive control, and facial emotion processing in schizophrenia. We conclude that CRT interventions from varying theoretic modalities elicit plasticity in areas that support cognitive and socioemotional processes in this early set of studies. While preliminary, these changes appear to be both restorative and compensatory, though thalamocortical areas previously associated with dysfunction may be common sources of plasticity for cognitive remediation in schizophrenia. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on

  17. Comparative shotgun proteomic analysis of wild and domesticated Opuntia spp. species shows a metabolic adaptation through domestication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pichereaux, Carole; Hernández-Domínguez, Eric E; Santos-Diaz, Maria Del Socorro; Reyes-Agüero, Antonio; Astello-García, Marizel; Guéraud, Françoise; Negre-Salvayre, Anne; Schiltz, Odile; Rossignol, Michel; Barba de la Rosa, Ana Paulina

    2016-06-30

    The Opuntia genus is widely distributed in America, but the highest richness of wild species are found in Mexico, as well as the most domesticated Opuntia ficus-indica, which is the most domesticated species and an important crop in agricultural economies of arid and semiarid areas worldwide. During domestication process, the Opuntia morphological characteristics were favored, such as less and smaller spines in cladodes and less seeds in fruits, but changes at molecular level are almost unknown. To obtain more insights about the Opuntia molecular changes through domestication, a shotgun proteomic analysis and database-dependent searches by homology was carried out. >1000 protein species were identified and by using a label-free quantitation method, the Opuntia proteomes were compared in order to identify differentially accumulated proteins among wild and domesticated species. Most of the changes were observed in glucose, secondary, and 1C metabolism, which correlate with the observed protein, fiber and phenolic compounds accumulation in Opuntia cladodes. Regulatory proteins, ribosomal proteins, and proteins related with response to stress were also observed in differential accumulation. These results provide new valuable data that will help to the understanding of the molecular changes of Opuntia species through domestication. Opuntia species are well adapted to dry and warm conditions in arid and semiarid regions worldwide, and they are highly productive plants showing considerable promises as an alternative food source. However, there is a gap regarding Opuntia molecular mechanisms that enable them to grow in extreme environmental conditions and how the domestication processes has changed them. In the present study, a shotgun analysis was carried out to characterize the proteomes of five Opuntia species selected by its domestication degree. Our results will help to a better understanding of proteomic features underlying the selection and specialization under

  18. Anatomical network analysis shows decoupling of modular lability and complexity in the evolution of the primate skull.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esteve-Altava, Borja; Boughner, Julia C; Diogo, Rui; Villmoare, Brian A; Rasskin-Gutman, Diego

    2015-01-01

    Modularity and complexity go hand in hand in the evolution of the skull of primates. Because analyses of these two parameters often use different approaches, we do not know yet how modularity evolves within, or as a consequence of, an also-evolving complex organization. Here we use a novel network theory-based approach (Anatomical Network Analysis) to assess how the organization of skull bones constrains the co-evolution of modularity and complexity among primates. We used the pattern of bone contacts modeled as networks to identify connectivity modules and quantify morphological complexity. We analyzed whether modularity and complexity evolved coordinately in the skull of primates. Specifically, we tested Herbert Simon's general theory of near-decomposability, which states that modularity promotes the evolution of complexity. We found that the skulls of extant primates divide into one conserved cranial module and up to three labile facial modules, whose composition varies among primates. Despite changes in modularity, statistical analyses reject a positive feedback between modularity and complexity. Our results suggest a decoupling of complexity and modularity that translates to varying levels of constraint on the morphological evolvability of the primate skull. This study has methodological and conceptual implications for grasping the constraints that underlie the developmental and functional integration of the skull of humans and other primates.

  19. Characterization and mutational analysis of a nicotinamide mononucleotide deamidase from Agrobacterium tumefaciens showing high thermal stability and catalytic efficiency.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Belén Martínez-Moñino

    Full Text Available NAD+ has emerged as a crucial element in both bioenergetic and signaling pathways since it acts as a key regulator of cellular and organismal homeostasis. Among the enzymes involved in its recycling, nicotinamide mononucleotide (NMN deamidase is one of the key players in the bacterial pyridine nucleotide cycle, where it catalyzes the conversion of NMN into nicotinic acid mononucleotide (NaMN, which is later converted to NAD+ in the Preiss-Handler pathway. The biochemical characteristics of bacterial NMN deamidases have been poorly studied, although they have been investigated in some firmicutes, gamma-proteobacteria and actinobacteria. In this study, we present the first characterization of an NMN deamidase from an alphaproteobacterium, Agrobacterium tumefaciens (AtCinA. The enzyme was active over a broad pH range, with an optimum at pH 7.5. Moreover, the enzyme was quite stable at neutral pH, maintaining 55% of its activity after 14 days. Surprisingly, AtCinA showed the highest optimal (80°C and melting (85°C temperatures described for an NMN deamidase. The above described characteristics, together with its high catalytic efficiency, make AtCinA a promising biocatalyst for the production of pure NaMN. In addition, six mutants (C32A, S48A, Y58F, Y58A, T105A and R145A were designed to study their involvement in substrate binding, and two (S31A and K63A to determine their contribution to the catalysis. However, only four mutants (C32A, S48A Y58F and T105A showed activity, although with reduced catalytic efficiency. These results, combined with a thermal and structural analysis, reinforce the Ser/Lys catalytic dyad mechanism as the most plausible among those proposed.

  20. An actuarial analysis shows that offering lung cancer screening as an insurance benefit would save lives at relatively low cost.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pyenson, Bruce S; Sander, Marcia S; Jiang, Yiding; Kahn, Howard; Mulshine, James L

    2012-04-01

    Lung cancer screening is not established as a public health practice, yet the results of a recent large randomized controlled trial showed that screening with low-dose spiral computed tomography reduces lung cancer mortality. Using actuarial models, this study estimated the costs and benefits of annual lung cancer screening offered as a commercial insurance benefit in the high-risk US population ages 50-64. Assuming current commercial reimbursement rates for treatment, we found that screening would cost about $1 per insured member per month in 2012 dollars. The cost per life-year saved would be below $19,000, an amount that compares favorably with screening for cervical, breast, and colorectal cancers. Our results suggest that commercial insurers should consider lung cancer screening of high-risk individuals to be high-value coverage and provide it as a benefit to people who are at least fifty years old and have a smoking history of thirty pack-years or more. We also believe that payers and patients should demand screening from high-quality, low-cost providers, thus helping set an example of efficient system innovation.

  1. Transcriptome analysis shows activation of the arginine deiminase pathway in Lactococcus lactis as a response to ethanol stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díez, Lorena; Solopova, Ana; Fernández-Pérez, Rocío; González, Miriam; Tenorio, Carmen; Kuipers, Oscar P; Ruiz-Larrea, Fernanda

    2017-09-18

    This paper describes the molecular response of Lactococcus lactis NZ9700 to ethanol. This strain is a well-known nisin producer and a lactic acid bacteria (LAB) model strain. Global transcriptome profiling using DNA microarrays demonstrated a bacterial adaptive response to the presence of 2% ethanol in the culture broth and differential expression of 67 genes. The highest up-regulation was detected for those genes involved in arginine degradation through the arginine deiminase (ADI) pathway (20-40 fold up-regulation). The metabolic responses to ethanol of wild type L. lactis strains were studied and compared to those of regulator-deletion mutants MG∆argR and MG∆ahrC. The results showed that in the presence of 2% ethanol those strains with an active ADI pathway reached higher growth rates when arginine was available in the culture broth than in absence of arginine. In a chemically defined medium strains with an active ADI pathway consumed arginine and produced ornithine in the presence of 2% ethanol, hence corroborating that arginine catabolism is involved in the bacterial response to ethanol. This is the first study of the L. lactis response to ethanol stress to demonstrate the relevance of arginine catabolism for bacterial adaptation and survival in an ethanol containing medium. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Reliability analysis and operator modelling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hollnagel, Erik

    1996-01-01

    The paper considers the state of operator modelling in reliability analysis. Operator models are needed in reliability analysis because operators are needed in process control systems. HRA methods must therefore be able to account both for human performance variability and for the dynamics of the interaction. A selected set of first generation HRA approaches is briefly described in terms of the operator model they use, their classification principle, and the actual method they propose. In addition, two examples of second generation methods are also considered. It is concluded that first generation HRA methods generally have very simplistic operator models, either referring to the time-reliability relationship or to elementary information processing concepts. It is argued that second generation HRA methods must recognise that cognition is embedded in a context, and be able to account for that in the way human reliability is analysed and assessed

  3. Network models of TEM β-lactamase mutations coevolving under antibiotic selection show modular structure and anticipate evolutionary trajectories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guthrie, Violeta Beleva; Allen, Jennifer; Camps, Manel; Karchin, Rachel

    2011-09-01

    Understanding how novel functions evolve (genetic adaptation) is a critical goal of evolutionary biology. Among asexual organisms, genetic adaptation involves multiple mutations that frequently interact in a non-linear fashion (epistasis). Non-linear interactions pose a formidable challenge for the computational prediction of mutation effects. Here we use the recent evolution of β-lactamase under antibiotic selection as a model for genetic adaptation. We build a network of coevolving residues (possible functional interactions), in which nodes are mutant residue positions and links represent two positions found mutated together in the same sequence. Most often these pairs occur in the setting of more complex mutants. Focusing on extended-spectrum resistant sequences, we use network-theoretical tools to identify triple mutant trajectories of likely special significance for adaptation. We extrapolate evolutionary paths (n = 3) that increase resistance and that are longer than the units used to build the network (n = 2). These paths consist of a limited number of residue positions and are enriched for known triple mutant combinations that increase cefotaxime resistance. We find that the pairs of residues used to build the network frequently decrease resistance compared to their corresponding singlets. This is a surprising result, given that their coevolution suggests a selective advantage. Thus, β-lactamase adaptation is highly epistatic. Our method can identify triplets that increase resistance despite the underlying rugged fitness landscape and has the unique ability to make predictions by placing each mutant residue position in its functional context. Our approach requires only sequence information, sufficient genetic diversity, and discrete selective pressures. Thus, it can be used to analyze recent evolutionary events, where coevolution analysis methods that use phylogeny or statistical coupling are not possible. Improving our ability to assess

  4. Comparative genomic hybridization analysis shows different epidemiology of chromosomal and plasmid-borne cpe-carrying Clostridium perfringens type A.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Päivi Lahti

    Full Text Available Clostridium perfringens, one of the most common causes of food poisonings, can carry the enterotoxin gene, cpe, in its chromosome or on a plasmid. C. perfringens food poisonings are more frequently caused by the chromosomal cpe-carrying strains, while the plasmid-borne cpe-positive genotypes are more commonly found in the human feces and environmental samples. Different tolerance to food processing conditions by the plasmid-borne and chromosomal cpe-carrying strains has been reported, but the reservoirs and contamination routes of enterotoxin-producing C. perfringens remain unknown. A comparative genomic hybridization (CGH analysis with a DNA microarray based on three C. perfringens type A genomes was conducted to shed light on the epidemiology of C. perfringens food poisonings caused by plasmid-borne and chromosomal cpe-carrying strains by comparing chromosomal and plasmid-borne cpe-positive and cpe-negative C. perfringens isolates from human, animal, environmental, and food samples. The chromosomal and plasmid-borne cpe-positive C. perfringens genotypes formed two distinct clusters. Variable genes were involved with myo-inositol, ethanolamine and cellobiose metabolism, suggesting a new epidemiological model for C. perfringens food poisonings. The CGH results were complemented with growth studies, which demonstrated different myo-inositol, ethanolamine, and cellobiose metabolism between the chromosomal and plasmid-borne cpe-carrying strains. These findings support a ubiquitous occurrence of the plasmid-borne cpe-positive strains and their adaptation to the mammalian intestine, whereas the chromosomal cpe-positive strains appear to have a narrow niche in environments containing degrading plant material. Thus the epidemiology of the food poisonings caused by two populations appears different, the plasmid-borne cpe-positive strains probably contaminating foods via humans and the chromosomal strains being connected to plant material.

  5. Evolution Analysis of the Aux/IAA Gene Family in Plants Shows Dual Origins and Variable Nuclear Localization Signals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Wentao; Liu, Yaxue; Wang, Yuqian; Li, Huimin; Liu, Jiaxi; Tan, Jiaxin; He, Jiadai; Bai, Jingwen

    2017-01-01

    The plant hormone auxin plays pivotal roles in many aspects of plant growth and development. The auxin/indole-3-acetic acid (Aux/IAA) gene family encodes short-lived nuclear proteins acting on auxin perception and signaling, but the evolutionary history of this gene family remains to be elucidated. In this study, the Aux/IAA gene family in 17 plant species covering all major lineages of plants is identified and analyzed by using multiple bioinformatics methods. A total of 434 Aux/IAA genes was found among these plant species, and the gene copy number ranges from three (Physcomitrella patens) to 63 (Glycine max). The phylogenetic analysis shows that the canonical Aux/IAA proteins can be generally divided into five major clades, and the origin of Aux/IAA proteins could be traced back to the common ancestor of land plants and green algae. Many truncated Aux/IAA proteins were found, and some of these truncated Aux/IAA proteins may be generated from the C-terminal truncation of auxin response factor (ARF) proteins. Our results indicate that tandem and segmental duplications play dominant roles for the expansion of the Aux/IAA gene family mainly under purifying selection. The putative nuclear localization signals (NLSs) in Aux/IAA proteins are conservative, and two kinds of new primordial bipartite NLSs in P. patens and Selaginella moellendorffii were discovered. Our findings not only give insights into the origin and expansion of the Aux/IAA gene family, but also provide a basis for understanding their functions during the course of evolution. PMID:28991190

  6. Evolution Analysis of the Aux/IAA Gene Family in Plants Shows Dual Origins and Variable Nuclear Localization Signals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wentao Wu

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The plant hormone auxin plays pivotal roles in many aspects of plant growth and development. The auxin/indole-3-acetic acid (Aux/IAA gene family encodes short-lived nuclear proteins acting on auxin perception and signaling, but the evolutionary history of this gene family remains to be elucidated. In this study, the Aux/IAA gene family in 17 plant species covering all major lineages of plants is identified and analyzed by using multiple bioinformatics methods. A total of 434 Aux/IAA genes was found among these plant species, and the gene copy number ranges from three (Physcomitrella patens to 63 (Glycine max. The phylogenetic analysis shows that the canonical Aux/IAA proteins can be generally divided into five major clades, and the origin of Aux/IAA proteins could be traced back to the common ancestor of land plants and green algae. Many truncated Aux/IAA proteins were found, and some of these truncated Aux/IAA proteins may be generated from the C-terminal truncation of auxin response factor (ARF proteins. Our results indicate that tandem and segmental duplications play dominant roles for the expansion of the Aux/IAA gene family mainly under purifying selection. The putative nuclear localization signals (NLSs in Aux/IAA proteins are conservative, and two kinds of new primordial bipartite NLSs in P. patens and Selaginella moellendorffii were discovered. Our findings not only give insights into the origin and expansion of the Aux/IAA gene family, but also provide a basis for understanding their functions during the course of evolution.

  7. A validated age-related normative model for male total testosterone shows increasing variance but no decline after age 40 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelsey, Thomas W; Li, Lucy Q; Mitchell, Rod T; Whelan, Ashley; Anderson, Richard A; Wallace, W Hamish B

    2014-01-01

    The diagnosis of hypogonadism in human males includes identification of low serum testosterone levels, and hence there is an underlying assumption that normal ranges of testosterone for the healthy population are known for all ages. However, to our knowledge, no such reference model exists in the literature, and hence the availability of an applicable biochemical reference range would be helpful for the clinical assessment of hypogonadal men. In this study, using model selection and validation analysis of data identified and extracted from thirteen studies, we derive and validate a normative model of total testosterone across the lifespan in healthy men. We show that total testosterone peaks [mean (2.5-97.5 percentile)] at 15.4 (7.2-31.1) nmol/L at an average age of 19 years, and falls in the average case [mean (2.5-97.5 percentile)] to 13.0 (6.6-25.3) nmol/L by age 40 years, but we find no evidence for a further fall in mean total testosterone with increasing age through to old age. However we do show that there is an increased variation in total testosterone levels with advancing age after age 40 years. This model provides the age related reference ranges needed to support research and clinical decision making in males who have symptoms that may be due to hypogonadism.

  8. Bayesian analysis of CCDM models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jesus, J.F. [Universidade Estadual Paulista (Unesp), Câmpus Experimental de Itapeva, Rua Geraldo Alckmin 519, Vila N. Sra. de Fátima, Itapeva, SP, 18409-010 Brazil (Brazil); Valentim, R. [Departamento de Física, Instituto de Ciências Ambientais, Químicas e Farmacêuticas—ICAQF, Universidade Federal de São Paulo (UNIFESP), Unidade José Alencar, Rua São Nicolau No. 210, Diadema, SP, 09913-030 Brazil (Brazil); Andrade-Oliveira, F., E-mail: jfjesus@itapeva.unesp.br, E-mail: valentim.rodolfo@unifesp.br, E-mail: felipe.oliveira@port.ac.uk [Institute of Cosmology and Gravitation—University of Portsmouth, Burnaby Road, Portsmouth, PO1 3FX United Kingdom (United Kingdom)

    2017-09-01

    Creation of Cold Dark Matter (CCDM), in the context of Einstein Field Equations, produces a negative pressure term which can be used to explain the accelerated expansion of the Universe. In this work we tested six different spatially flat models for matter creation using statistical criteria, in light of SNe Ia data: Akaike Information Criterion (AIC), Bayesian Information Criterion (BIC) and Bayesian Evidence (BE). These criteria allow to compare models considering goodness of fit and number of free parameters, penalizing excess of complexity. We find that JO model is slightly favoured over LJO/ΛCDM model, however, neither of these, nor Γ = 3α H {sub 0} model can be discarded from the current analysis. Three other scenarios are discarded either because poor fitting or because of the excess of free parameters. A method of increasing Bayesian evidence through reparameterization in order to reducing parameter degeneracy is also developed.

  9. Program Analysis as Model Checking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Mads Chr.

    and abstract interpretation. Model checking views the program as a finite automaton and tries to prove logical properties over the automaton model, or present a counter-example if not possible — with a focus on precision. Abstract interpretation translates the program semantics into abstract semantics...... are considered, among others numerical analysis of c programs, and worst-case execution time analysis of ARM programs. It is shown how lattice automata allow automatic and manual tuning of the precision and efficiency of the verification procedure. In the case of worst-case execution time analysis a sound......Software programs are proliferating throughout modern life, to a point where even the simplest appliances such as lightbulbs contain software, in addition to the software embedded in cars and airplanes. The correct functioning of these programs is therefore of the utmost importance, for the quality...

  10. Accelerated life models modeling and statistical analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Bagdonavicius, Vilijandas

    2001-01-01

    Failure Time DistributionsIntroductionParametric Classes of Failure Time DistributionsAccelerated Life ModelsIntroductionGeneralized Sedyakin's ModelAccelerated Failure Time ModelProportional Hazards ModelGeneralized Proportional Hazards ModelsGeneralized Additive and Additive-Multiplicative Hazards ModelsChanging Shape and Scale ModelsGeneralizationsModels Including Switch-Up and Cycling EffectsHeredity HypothesisSummaryAccelerated Degradation ModelsIntroductionDegradation ModelsModeling the Influence of Explanatory Varia

  11. Critical analysis of algebraic collective models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moshinsky, M.

    1986-01-01

    The author shall understand by algebraic collective models all those based on specific Lie algebras, whether the latter are suggested through simple shell model considerations like in the case of the Interacting Boson Approximation (IBA), or have a detailed microscopic foundation like the symplectic model. To analyze these models critically, it is convenient to take a simple conceptual example of them in which all steps can be implemented analytically or through elementary numerical analysis. In this note he takes as an example the symplectic model in a two dimensional space i.e. based on a sp(4,R) Lie algebra, and show how through its complete discussion we can get a clearer understanding of the structure of algebraic collective models of nuclei. In particular he discusses the association of Hamiltonians, related to maximal subalgebras of our basic Lie algebra, with specific types of spectra, and the connections between spectra and shapes

  12. Geometric simplification of analysis models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Watterberg, P.A.

    1999-12-01

    Analysis programs have been having to deal with more and more complex objects as the capability to model fine detail increases. This can make them unacceptably slow. This project attempts to find heuristics for removing features from models in an automatic fashion in order to reduce polygon count. The approach is not one of theoretical completeness but rather one of trying to achieve useful results with scattered practical ideas. By removing a few simple things such as screw holes, slots, chambers, and fillets, large gains can be realized. Results varied but a reduction in the number of polygons by a factor of 10 is not unusual.

  13. Bioavailability of particulate metal to zebra mussels: Biodynamic modelling shows that assimilation efficiencies are site-specific

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bourgeault, Adeline, E-mail: bourgeault@ensil.unilim.fr [Cemagref, Unite de Recherche Hydrosystemes et Bioprocedes, 1 rue Pierre-Gilles de Gennes, 92761 Antony (France); FIRE, FR-3020, 4 place Jussieu, 75005 Paris (France); Gourlay-France, Catherine, E-mail: catherine.gourlay@cemagref.fr [Cemagref, Unite de Recherche Hydrosystemes et Bioprocedes, 1 rue Pierre-Gilles de Gennes, 92761 Antony (France); FIRE, FR-3020, 4 place Jussieu, 75005 Paris (France); Priadi, Cindy, E-mail: cindy.priadi@eng.ui.ac.id [LSCE/IPSL CEA-CNRS-UVSQ, Avenue de la Terrasse, 91198 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Ayrault, Sophie, E-mail: Sophie.Ayrault@lsce.ipsl.fr [LSCE/IPSL CEA-CNRS-UVSQ, Avenue de la Terrasse, 91198 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Tusseau-Vuillemin, Marie-Helene, E-mail: Marie-helene.tusseau@ifremer.fr [IFREMER Technopolis 40, 155 rue Jean-Jacques Rousseau, 92138 Issy-Les-Moulineaux (France)

    2011-12-15

    This study investigates the ability of the biodynamic model to predict the trophic bioaccumulation of cadmium (Cd), chromium (Cr), copper (Cu), nickel (Ni) and zinc (Zn) in a freshwater bivalve. Zebra mussels were transplanted to three sites along the Seine River (France) and collected monthly for 11 months. Measurements of the metal body burdens in mussels were compared with the predictions from the biodynamic model. The exchangeable fraction of metal particles did not account for the bioavailability of particulate metals, since it did not capture the differences between sites. The assimilation efficiency (AE) parameter is necessary to take into account biotic factors influencing particulate metal bioavailability. The biodynamic model, applied with AEs from the literature, overestimated the measured concentrations in zebra mussels, the extent of overestimation being site-specific. Therefore, an original methodology was proposed for in situ AE measurements for each site and metal. - Highlights: > Exchangeable fraction of metal particles did not account for the bioavailability of particulate metals. > Need for site-specific biodynamic parameters. > Field-determined AE provide a good fit between the biodynamic model predictions and bioaccumulation measurements. - The interpretation of metal bioaccumulation in transplanted zebra mussels with biodynamic modelling highlights the need for site-specific assimilation efficiencies of particulate metals.

  14. Bioavailability of particulate metal to zebra mussels: biodynamic modelling shows that assimilation efficiencies are site-specific.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourgeault, Adeline; Gourlay-Francé, Catherine; Priadi, Cindy; Ayrault, Sophie; Tusseau-Vuillemin, Marie-Hélène

    2011-12-01

    This study investigates the ability of the biodynamic model to predict the trophic bioaccumulation of cadmium (Cd), chromium (Cr), copper (Cu), nickel (Ni) and zinc (Zn) in a freshwater bivalve. Zebra mussels were transplanted to three sites along the Seine River (France) and collected monthly for 11 months. Measurements of the metal body burdens in mussels were compared with the predictions from the biodynamic model. The exchangeable fraction of metal particles did not account for the bioavailability of particulate metals, since it did not capture the differences between sites. The assimilation efficiency (AE) parameter is necessary to take into account biotic factors influencing particulate metal bioavailability. The biodynamic model, applied with AEs from the literature, overestimated the measured concentrations in zebra mussels, the extent of overestimation being site-specific. Therefore, an original methodology was proposed for in situ AE measurements for each site and metal. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Sensitivity Analysis in Sequential Decision Models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Qiushi; Ayer, Turgay; Chhatwal, Jagpreet

    2017-02-01

    Sequential decision problems are frequently encountered in medical decision making, which are commonly solved using Markov decision processes (MDPs). Modeling guidelines recommend conducting sensitivity analyses in decision-analytic models to assess the robustness of the model results against the uncertainty in model parameters. However, standard methods of conducting sensitivity analyses cannot be directly applied to sequential decision problems because this would require evaluating all possible decision sequences, typically in the order of trillions, which is not practically feasible. As a result, most MDP-based modeling studies do not examine confidence in their recommended policies. In this study, we provide an approach to estimate uncertainty and confidence in the results of sequential decision models. First, we provide a probabilistic univariate method to identify the most sensitive parameters in MDPs. Second, we present a probabilistic multivariate approach to estimate the overall confidence in the recommended optimal policy considering joint uncertainty in the model parameters. We provide a graphical representation, which we call a policy acceptability curve, to summarize the confidence in the optimal policy by incorporating stakeholders' willingness to accept the base case policy. For a cost-effectiveness analysis, we provide an approach to construct a cost-effectiveness acceptability frontier, which shows the most cost-effective policy as well as the confidence in that for a given willingness to pay threshold. We demonstrate our approach using a simple MDP case study. We developed a method to conduct sensitivity analysis in sequential decision models, which could increase the credibility of these models among stakeholders.

  16. An integrated proteomics approach shows synaptic plasticity changes in an APP/PS1 Alzheimer's mouse model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kempf, Stefan J; Metaxas, Athanasios; Ibáñez-Vea, María

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to elucidate the molecular signature of Alzheimer's disease-associated amyloid pathology.We used the double APPswe/PS1ΔE9 mouse, a widely used model of cerebral amyloidosis, to compare changes in proteome, including global phosphorylation and sialylated N-linked glycosyl...

  17. Distribution system modeling and analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Kersting, William H

    2001-01-01

    For decades, distribution engineers did not have the sophisticated tools developed for analyzing transmission systems-often they had only their instincts. Things have changed, and we now have computer programs that allow engineers to simulate, analyze, and optimize distribution systems. Powerful as these programs are, however, without a real understanding of the operating characteristics of a distribution system, engineers using the programs can easily make serious errors in their designs and operating procedures. Distribution System Modeling and Analysis helps prevent those errors. It gives readers a basic understanding of the modeling and operating characteristics of the major components of a distribution system. One by one, the author develops and analyzes each component as a stand-alone element, then puts them all together to analyze a distribution system comprising the various shunt and series devices for power-flow and short-circuit studies. He includes the derivation of all models and includes many num...

  18. Matching of motor-sensory modality in the rodent femoral nerve model shows no enhanced effect on peripheral nerve regeneration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawamura, David H.; Johnson, Philip J.; Moore, Amy M.; Magill, Christina K.; Hunter, Daniel A.; Ray, Wilson Z.; Tung, Thomas HH.; Mackinnon, Susan E.

    2010-01-01

    The treatment of peripheral nerve injuries with nerve gaps largely consists of autologous nerve grafting utilizing sensory nerve donors. Underlying this clinical practice is the assumption that sensory autografts provide a suitable substrate for motoneuron regeneration, thereby facilitating motor endplate reinnervation and functional recovery. This study examined the role of nerve graft modality on axonal regeneration, comparing motor nerve regeneration through motor, sensory, and mixed nerve isografts in the Lewis rat. A total of 100 rats underwent grafting of the motor or sensory branch of the femoral nerve with histomorphometric analysis performed after 5, 6, or 7 weeks. Analysis demonstrated similar nerve regeneration in motor, sensory, and mixed nerve grafts at all three time points. These data indicate that matching of motor-sensory modality in the rat femoral nerve does not confer improved axonal regeneration through nerve isografts. PMID:20122927

  19. Advanced imaging techniques show progressive arthropathy following experimentally induced knee bleeding in a factor VIII-/- rat model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sorensen, K. R.; Roepstorff, K.; Petersen, M.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Joint pathology is most commonly assessed by radiogra-phy, but ultrasonography (US) is increasingly recognized for its acces-sibility, safety and ability to show soft tissue changes, the earliestindicators of haemophilic arthropathy (HA). US, however, lacks theability to visualize...

  20. Global gene analysis of oocytes from early stages in human folliculogenesis shows high expression of novel genes in reproduction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Markholt, Sara; Grøndahl, M L; Ernst, Erik

    2012-01-01

    The pool of primordial follicles in humans is laid down during embryonic development and follicles can remain dormant for prolonged intervals, often decades, until individual follicles resume growth. The mechanisms that induce growth and maturation of primordial follicles are poorly understood......) and the mitochondrial-encoded ATPase6 (ATP6). Thus, the present study provides not only a technique to capture and perform transcriptome analysis of the sparse material of human oocytes from the earliest follicle stages but further includes a comprehensive basis for our understanding of the regulatory factors...... but follicles once activated either continue growth or undergo atresia. We have isolated pure populations of oocytes from human primordial, intermediate and primary follicles using laser capture micro-dissection microscopy and evaluated the global gene expression profiles by whole-genome microarray analysis...

  1. Automated home cage assessment shows behavioral changes in a transgenic mouse model of spinocerebellar ataxia type 17.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Portal, Esteban; Riess, Olaf; Nguyen, Huu Phuc

    2013-08-01

    Spinocerebellar Ataxia type 17 (SCA17) is an autosomal dominantly inherited, neurodegenerative disease characterized by ataxia, involuntary movements, and dementia. A novel SCA17 mouse model having a 71 polyglutamine repeat expansion in the TATA-binding protein (TBP) has shown age related motor deficit using a classic motor test, yet concomitant weight increase might be a confounding factor for this measurement. In this study we used an automated home cage system to test several motor readouts for this same model to confirm pathological behavior results and evaluate benefits of automated home cage in behavior phenotyping. Our results confirm motor deficits in the Tbp/Q71 mice and present previously unrecognized behavioral characteristics obtained from the automated home cage, indicating its use for high-throughput screening and testing, e.g. of therapeutic compounds. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. BO-1055, a novel DNA cross-linking agent with remarkable low myelotoxicity shows potent activity in sarcoma models

    OpenAIRE

    Ambati, Srikanth R.; Shieh, Jae-Hung; Pera, Benet; Lopes, Eloisi Caldas; Chaudhry, Anisha; Wong, Elissa W.P.; Saxena, Ashish; Su, Tsann-Long; Moore, Malcolm A.S.

    2016-01-01

    DNA damaging agents cause rapid shrinkage of tumors and form the basis of chemotherapy for sarcomas despite significant toxicities. Drugs having superior efficacy and wider therapeutic windows are needed to improve patient outcomes. We used cell proliferation and apoptosis assays in sarcoma cell lines and benign cells; ?-H2AX expression, comet assay, immunoblot analyses and drug combination studies in vitro and in patient derived xenograft (PDX) models. BO-1055 caused apoptosis and cell death...

  3. Betting on change: Tenet deal with Vanguard shows it's primed to try ACO effort, new payment model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kutscher, Beth

    2013-07-01

    Tenet Healthcare Corp.'s acquisition of Vanguard Health Systems is a sign the investor-owned chain is willing to take a chance on alternative payment models such as accountable care organizations. There's no certainty that ACOs will deliver the improvements on quality or cost savings, but Vanguard Vice Chairman Keith Pitts, left, says his system's Pioneer ACO in Detroit has already achieved some cost savings.

  4. Restless led syndrome model Drosophila melanogaster show successful olfactory learning and 1-day retention of the acquired memory

    OpenAIRE

    Mika F. Asaba; Adrian A. Bates; Hoa M. Dao; Mika J. Maeda

    2013-01-01

    Restless Legs Syndrome (RLS) is a prevalent but poorly understood disorder that ischaracterized by uncontrollable movements during sleep, resulting in sleep disturbance.Olfactory memory in Drosophila melanogaster has proven to be a useful tool for the study ofcognitive deficits caused by sleep disturbances, such as those seen in RLS. A recently generatedDrosophila model of RLS exhibited disturbed sleep patterns similar to those seen in humans withRLS. This research seeks to improve understand...

  5. A water-soluble extract from Cucurbita moschata shows anti-obesity effects by controlling lipid metabolism in a high fat diet-induced obesity mouse model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Hyounjeong; Eo, Haekwan; Park, Kyoungcheol; Jin, Mirim; Park, Eun-Jin; Kim, Seon-Hee; Park, Jeong Euy; Kim, Sunyoung

    2007-08-03

    During the screening of a variety of plant sources for their anti-obesity activity, it was found that a water-soluble extract, named PG105, prepared from stem parts of Cucurbita moschata, contains potent anti-obesity activities in a high fat diet-induced obesity mouse model. In this animal model, increases in body weight and fat storage were suppressed by 8-week oral administration of PG105 at 500 mg/kg, while the overall amount of food intake was not affected. Furthermore, PG105 protected the development of fatty liver and increased the hepatic beta-oxidation activity. Results from blood analysis showed that the levels of triglyceride and cholesterol were significantly lowered by PG105 administration, and also that the level of leptin was reduced, while that of adiponectin was increased. To understand the underlying mechanism at the molecular level, the effects of PG105 were examined on the expression of the genes involved in lipid metabolism by Northern blot analysis. In the liver of PG105-treated mice, the mRNA level of lipogenic genes such as SREBP-1c and SCD-1 was decreased, while that of lipolytic genes such as PPARalpha, ACO-1, CPT-1, and UCP-2 was modestly increased. Our data suggest that PG105 may have great potential as a novel anti-obesity agent in that both inhibition of lipid synthesis and acceleration of fatty acid breakdown are induced by this reagent.

  6. Ventilation Model and Analysis Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    V. Chipman

    2003-07-18

    This model and analysis report develops, validates, and implements a conceptual model for heat transfer in and around a ventilated emplacement drift. This conceptual model includes thermal radiation between the waste package and the drift wall, convection from the waste package and drift wall surfaces into the flowing air, and conduction in the surrounding host rock. These heat transfer processes are coupled and vary both temporally and spatially, so numerical and analytical methods are used to implement the mathematical equations which describe the conceptual model. These numerical and analytical methods predict the transient response of the system, at the drift scale, in terms of spatially varying temperatures and ventilation efficiencies. The ventilation efficiency describes the effectiveness of the ventilation process in removing radionuclide decay heat from the drift environment. An alternative conceptual model is also developed which evaluates the influence of water and water vapor mass transport on the ventilation efficiency. These effects are described using analytical methods which bound the contribution of latent heat to the system, quantify the effects of varying degrees of host rock saturation (and hence host rock thermal conductivity) on the ventilation efficiency, and evaluate the effects of vapor and enhanced vapor diffusion on the host rock thermal conductivity.

  7. Ventilation Model and Analysis Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chipman, V.

    2003-01-01

    This model and analysis report develops, validates, and implements a conceptual model for heat transfer in and around a ventilated emplacement drift. This conceptual model includes thermal radiation between the waste package and the drift wall, convection from the waste package and drift wall surfaces into the flowing air, and conduction in the surrounding host rock. These heat transfer processes are coupled and vary both temporally and spatially, so numerical and analytical methods are used to implement the mathematical equations which describe the conceptual model. These numerical and analytical methods predict the transient response of the system, at the drift scale, in terms of spatially varying temperatures and ventilation efficiencies. The ventilation efficiency describes the effectiveness of the ventilation process in removing radionuclide decay heat from the drift environment. An alternative conceptual model is also developed which evaluates the influence of water and water vapor mass transport on the ventilation efficiency. These effects are described using analytical methods which bound the contribution of latent heat to the system, quantify the effects of varying degrees of host rock saturation (and hence host rock thermal conductivity) on the ventilation efficiency, and evaluate the effects of vapor and enhanced vapor diffusion on the host rock thermal conductivity

  8. Comparative Analysis of Clinical Samples Showing Weak Serum Reaction on AutoVue System Causing ABO Blood Typing Discrepancies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jo, Su Yeon; Lee, Ju Mi; Kim, Hye Lim; Sin, Kyeong Hwa; Lee, Hyeon Ji; Chang, Chulhun Ludgerus; Kim, Hyung Hoi

    2017-03-01

    ABO blood typing in pre-transfusion testing is a major component of the high workload in blood banks that therefore requires automation. We often experienced discrepant results from an automated system, especially weak serum reactions. We evaluated the discrepant results by the reference manual method to confirm ABO blood typing. In total, 13,113 blood samples were tested with the AutoVue system; all samples were run in parallel with the reference manual method according to the laboratory protocol. The AutoVue system confirmed ABO blood typing of 12,816 samples (97.7%), and these results were concordant with those of the manual method. The remaining 297 samples (2.3%) showed discrepant results in the AutoVue system and were confirmed by the manual method. The discrepant results involved weak serum reactions (serum reactions, samples from patients who had received stem cell transplants, ABO subgroups, and specific system error messages. Among the 98 samples showing ≤1+ reaction grade in the AutoVue system, 70 samples (71.4%) showed a normal serum reaction (≥2+ reaction grade) with the manual method, and 28 samples (28.6%) showed weak serum reaction in both methods. ABO blood tying of 97.7% samples could be confirmed by the AutoVue system and a small proportion (2.3%) needed to be re-evaluated by the manual method. Samples with a 2+ reaction grade in serum typing do not need to be evaluated manually, while those with ≤1+ reaction grade do.

  9. CP-809,101, a selective 5-HT2C agonist, shows activity in animal models of antipsychotic activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siuciak, Judith A; Chapin, Douglas S; McCarthy, Sheryl A; Guanowsky, Victor; Brown, Janice; Chiang, Phoebe; Marala, Ravi; Patterson, Terrell; Seymour, Patricia A; Swick, Andrew; Iredale, Philip A

    2007-02-01

    CP-809,101 is a potent, functionally selective 5-HT(2C) agonist that displays approximately 100% efficacy in vitro. The aim of the present studies was to assess the efficacy of a selective 5-HT(2C) agonist in animal models predictive of antipsychotic-like efficacy and side-effect liability. Similar to currently available antipsychotic drugs, CP-809,101 dose-dependently inhibited conditioned avoidance responding (CAR, ED(50)=4.8 mg/kg, sc). The efficacy of CP-809,101 in CAR was completely antagonized by the concurrent administration of the 5-HT(2C) receptor antagonist, SB-224,282. CP-809,101 antagonized both PCP- and d-amphetamine-induced hyperactivity with ED(50) values of 2.4 and 2.9 mg/kg (sc), respectively and also reversed an apomorphine induced-deficit in prepulse inhibition. At doses up to 56 mg/kg, CP-809,101 did not produce catalepsy. Thus, the present results demonstrate that the 5-HT(2C) agonist, CP-809,101, has a pharmacological profile similar to that of the atypical antipsychotics with low extrapyramidal symptom liability. CP-809,101 was inactive in two animal models of antidepressant-like activity, the forced swim test and learned helplessness. However, CP-809,101 was active in novel object recognition, an animal model of cognitive function. These data suggest that 5-HT(2C) agonists may be a novel approach in the treatment of psychosis as well as for the improvement of cognitive dysfunction associated with schizophrenia.

  10. Show me the money! An analysis of underserved stakeholders' funding priorities in Patient Centered Outcomes Research domains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cargill, Stephanie Solomon; Baker, Lauren Lyn; Goold, Susan Dorr

    2017-07-01

    Develop an accessible exercise to engage underserved populations about research funding priorities; analyze the criteria they use to prioritize research; contrast these criteria to those currently used by Patient Centered Outcomes Research Institute (PCORI). Academic and community partners collaborated to develop an Ipad exercise to facilitate group deliberation about PCOR funding priorities. 16 groups (n = 183) of underserved individuals in both urban and rural areas participated. Recordings were qualitatively analyzed for prioritization criteria. Analysis yielded ten codes, many of which were similar to PCORI criteria, but all of which challenged or illuminated these criteria. Directly involving underserved populations in determining funding criteria is both feasible and important, and can better fulfill PCORI's goal of incorporating patient priorities.

  11. [Wearing a pouch shows the difference between "being an "ostomized person" and "being a professional": analysis of a teaching strategy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, V L; Sawaia, B B

    2000-07-01

    This study aimed at analyzing nurses (re)construction process regarding the meanings of ostomy, ostomized patients, nursing care and the professional role after they wore an ostomy appliance. This activity is a teaching strategy applied at the Enterostomal Therapy Nursing Education Program. Two major units were identified after the analysis of students speeches: "being an ostomized person" and "being a professional". When students wore the pouches they felt as ostomized patients experiencing a violation of their identity and quality of life that promotes profound changes in daily life. These symbolic contents cause a crisis regarding the meaning of being a professional as until this experience, nursing care seemed fragmented to them. Recognizing a previous care performed as a technical action mainly directed to the ostomy and the pouch, students were able to visualize a future care, that is holistic and considers the ostomized human being, enabling them to incorporate affective, symbolic and relational dimensions.

  12. Pridopidine, a dopamine stabilizer, improves motor performance and shows neuroprotective effects in Huntington disease R6/2 mouse model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Squitieri, Ferdinando; Di Pardo, Alba; Favellato, Mariagrazia; Amico, Enrico; Maglione, Vittorio; Frati, Luigi

    2015-11-01

    Huntington disease (HD) is a neurodegenerative disorder for which new treatments are urgently needed. Pridopidine is a new dopaminergic stabilizer, recently developed for the treatment of motor symptoms associated with HD. The therapeutic effect of pridopidine in patients with HD has been determined in two double-blind randomized clinical trials, however, whether pridopidine exerts neuroprotection remains to be addressed. The main goal of this study was to define the potential neuroprotective effect of pridopidine, in HD in vivo and in vitro models, thus providing evidence that might support a potential disease-modifying action of the drug and possibly clarifying other aspects of pridopidine mode-of-action. Our data corroborated the hypothesis of neuroprotective action of pridopidine in HD experimental models. Administration of pridopidine protected cells from apoptosis, and resulted in highly improved motor performance in R6/2 mice. The anti-apoptotic effect observed in the in vitro system highlighted neuroprotective properties of the drug, and advanced the idea of sigma-1-receptor as an additional molecular target implicated in the mechanism of action of pridopidine. Coherent with protective effects, pridopidine-mediated beneficial effects in R6/2 mice were associated with an increased expression of pro-survival and neurostimulatory molecules, such as brain derived neurotrophic factor and DARPP32, and with a reduction in the size of mHtt aggregates in striatal tissues. Taken together, these findings support the theory of pridopidine as molecule with disease-modifying properties in HD and advance the idea of a valuable therapeutic strategy for effectively treating the disease. © 2015 The Authors. Journal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd and Foundation for Cellular and Molecular Medicine.

  13. Large scale genomic analysis shows no evidence for pathogen adaptation between the blood and cerebrospinal fluid niches during bacterial meningitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lees, John A.; Kremer, Philip H. C.; Manso, Ana S.; Croucher, Nicholas J.; Ferwerda, Bart; Serón, Mercedes Valls; Oggioni, Marco R.; Parkhill, Julian; Brouwer, Matthijs C.; van der Ende, Arie; van de Beek, Diederik

    2017-01-01

    Recent studies have provided evidence for rapid pathogen genome diversification, some of which could potentially affect the course of disease. We have previously described such variation seen between isolates infecting the blood and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of a single patient during a case of bacterial meningitis. Here, we performed whole-genome sequencing of paired isolates from the blood and CSF of 869 meningitis patients to determine whether such variation frequently occurs between these two niches in cases of bacterial meningitis. Using a combination of reference-free variant calling approaches, we show that no genetic adaptation occurs in either invaded niche during bacterial meningitis for two major pathogen species, Streptococcus pneumoniae and Neisseria meningitidis. This study therefore shows that the bacteria capable of causing meningitis are already able to do this upon entering the blood, and no further sequence change is necessary to cross the blood–brain barrier. Our findings place the focus back on bacterial evolution between nasopharyngeal carriage and invasion, or diversity of the host, as likely mechanisms for determining invasiveness. PMID:28348877

  14. ANALYSIS MODEL FOR INVENTORY MANAGEMENT

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    CAMELIA BURJA

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The inventory represents an essential component for the assets of the enterprise and the economic analysis gives them special importance because their accurate management determines the achievement of the activity object and the financial results. The efficient management of inventory requires ensuring an optimum level for them, which will guarantee the normal functioning of the activity with minimum inventory expenses and funds which are immobilised. The paper presents an analysis model for inventory management based on their rotation speed and the correlation with the sales volume illustrated in an adequate study. The highlighting of the influence factors on the efficient inventory management ensures the useful information needed to justify managerial decisions, which will lead to a balancedfinancial position and to increased company performance.

  15. Simplified model for DNB analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva Filho, E.

    1979-08-01

    In a pressurized water nuclear reactor (PWR), the power of operation is restricted by the possibility of the occurrence of the departure from nucleate boiling called DNB (Departure from Nucleate Boiling) in the hottest channel of the core. The present work proposes a simplified model that analyses the thermal-hydraulic conditions of the coolant in the hottest channel of PWRs with the objective to evaluate BNB in this channel. For this the coupling between the hot channel and typical nominal channels assumed imposing the existence of a cross flow between these channels in a way that a uniforme pressure axial distribution results along the channels. The model is applied for Angra-I reactor and the results are compared with those of Final Safety Analysis Report (FSAR) obtained by Westinghouse through the THINC program, beeing considered satisfactory (Author) [pt

  16. Zonulin transgenic mice show altered gut permeability and increased morbidity/mortality in the DSS colitis model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sturgeon, Craig; Lan, Jinggang; Fasano, Alessio

    2017-06-01

    Increased small intestinal permeability (IP) has been proposed to be an integral element, along with genetic makeup and environmental triggers, in the pathogenies of chronic inflammatory diseases (CIDs). We identified zonulin as a master regular of intercellular tight junctions linked to the development of several CIDs. We aim to study the role of zonulin-mediated IP in the pathogenesis of CIDs. Zonulin transgenic Hp2 mice (Ztm) were subjected to dextran sodium sulfate (DSS) treatment for 7 days, followed by 4-7 days' recovery and compared to C57Bl/6 (wild-type (WT)) mice. IP was measured in vivo and ex vivo, and weight, histology, and survival were monitored. To mechanistically link zonulin-dependent impairment of small intestinal barrier function with clinical outcome, Ztm were treated with the zonulin inhibitor AT1001 added to drinking water in addition to DSS. We observed increased morbidity (more pronounced weight loss and colitis) and mortality (40-70% compared with 0% in WT) at 11 days post-DSS treatment in Ztm compared with WT mice. Both in vivo and ex vivo measurements showed an increased IP at baseline in Ztm compared to WT mice, which was exacerbated by DSS treatment and was associated with upregulation of zonulin gene expression (fourfold in the duodenum, sixfold in the jejunum). Treatment with AT1001 prevented the DSS-induced increased IP both in vivo and ex vivo without changing zonulin gene expression and completely reverted morbidity and mortality in Ztm. Our data show that zonulin-dependent small intestinal barrier impairment is an early step leading to the break of tolerance with subsequent development of CIDs. © 2017 New York Academy of Sciences.

  17. Dynamical system analysis of interacting models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carneiro, S.; Borges, H. A.

    2018-01-01

    We perform a dynamical system analysis of a cosmological model with linear dependence between the vacuum density and the Hubble parameter, with constant-rate creation of dark matter. We show that the de Sitter spacetime is an asymptotically stable critical point, future limit of any expanding solution. Our analysis also shows that the Minkowski spacetime is an unstable critical point, which eventually collapses to a singularity. In this way, such a prescription for the vacuum decay not only predicts the correct future de Sitter limit, but also forbids the existence of a stable Minkowski universe. We also study the effect of matter creation on the growth of structures and their peculiar velocities, showing that it is inside the current errors of redshift space distortions observations.

  18. Synthesis, Modelling, and Anticonvulsant Studies of New Quinazolines Showing Three Highly Active Compounds with Low Toxicity and High Affinity to the GABA-A Receptor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed F. Zayed

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Some novel fluorinated quinazolines (5a–j were designed and synthesized to be evaluated for their anticonvulsant activity and their neurotoxicity. Structures of all newly synthesized compounds were confirmed by their infrared (IR, mass spectrometry (MS spectra, 1H nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR, 13C-NMR, and elemental analysis (CHN. The anticonvulsant activity was evaluated by a subcutaneous pentylenetetrazole (scPTZ test and maximal electroshock (MES-induced seizure test, while neurotoxicity was evaluated by a rotorod test. The molecular docking was performed for all newly-synthesized compounds to assess their binding affinities to the GABA-A receptor in order to rationalize their anticonvulsant activities in a qualitative way. The data obtained from the molecular modeling was correlated with that obtained from the biological screening. These data showed considerable anticonvulsant activity for all newly-synthesized compounds. Compounds 5b, 5c, and 5d showed the highest binding affinities toward the GABA-A receptor, along with the highest anticonvulsant activities in experimental mice. These compounds also showed low neurotoxicity and low toxicity in the median lethal dose test compared to the reference drugs. A GABA enzymatic assay was performed for these highly active compounds to confirm the obtained results and explain the possible mechanism for anticonvulsant action. The most active compounds might be used as leads for future modification and optimization.

  19. Daily supplementation of D-ribose shows no therapeutic benefits in the MHC-I transgenic mouse model of inflammatory myositis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William Coley

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Current treatments for idiopathic inflammatory myopathies (collectively called myositis focus on the suppression of an autoimmune inflammatory response within the skeletal muscle. However, it has been observed that there is a poor correlation between the successful suppression of muscle inflammation and an improvement in muscle function. Some evidence in the literature suggests that metabolic abnormalities in the skeletal muscle underlie the weakness that continues despite successful immunosuppression. We have previously shown that decreased expression of a purine nucleotide cycle enzyme, adenosine monophosphate deaminase (AMPD1, leads to muscle weakness in a mouse model of myositis and may provide a mechanistic basis for muscle weakness. One of the downstream metabolites of this pathway, D-ribose, has been reported to alleviate symptoms of myalgia in patients with a congenital loss of AMPD1. Therefore, we hypothesized that supplementing exogenous D-ribose would improve muscle function in the mouse model of myositis. We treated normal and myositis mice with daily doses of D-ribose (4 mg/kg over a 6-week time period and assessed its effects using a battery of behavioral, functional, histological and molecular measures. RESULTS: Treatment with D-ribose was found to have no statistically significant effects on body weight, grip strength, open field behavioral activity, maximal and specific forces of EDL, soleus muscles, or histological features. Histological and gene expression analysis indicated that muscle tissues remained inflamed despite treatment. Gene expression analysis also suggested that low levels of the ribokinase enzyme in the skeletal muscle might prevent skeletal muscle tissue from effectively utilizing D-ribose. CONCLUSIONS: Treatment with daily oral doses of D-ribose showed no significant effect on either disease progression or muscle function in the mouse model of myositis.

  20. Analysis of somatic hypermutation in X-linked hyper-IgM syndrome shows specific deficiencies in mutational targeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longo, Nancy S.; Lugar, Patricia L.; Yavuz, Sule; Zhang, Wen; Krijger, Peter H. L.; Russ, Daniel E.; Jima, Dereje D.; Dave, Sandeep S.; Grammer, Amrie C.

    2009-01-01

    Subjects with X-linked hyper-IgM syndrome (X-HIgM) have a markedly reduced frequency of CD27+ memory B cells, and their Ig genes have a low level of somatic hypermutation (SHM). To analyze the nature of SHM in X-HIgM, we sequenced 209 nonproductive and 926 productive Ig heavy chain genes. In nonproductive rearrangements that were not subjected to selection, as well as productive rearrangements, most of the mutations were within targeted RGYW, WRCY, WA, or TW motifs (R = purine, Y = pyrimidine, and W = A or T). However, there was significantly decreased targeting of the hypermutable G in RGYW motifs. Moreover, the ratio of transitions to transversions was markedly increased compared with normal. Microarray analysis documented that specific genes involved in SHM, including activation-induced cytidine deaminase (AICDA) and uracil-DNA glycosylase (UNG2), were up-regulated in normal germinal center (GC) B cells, but not induced by CD40 ligation. Similar results were obtained from light chain rearrangements. These results indicate that in the absence of CD40-CD154 interactions, there is a marked reduction in SHM and, specifically, mutations of AICDA-targeted G residues in RGYW motifs along with a decrease in transversions normally related to UNG2 activity. PMID:19023113

  1. Phylogenetic analysis shows that Neolithic slate plaques from the southwestern Iberian Peninsula are not genealogical recording systems.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel García Rivero

    Full Text Available Prehistoric material culture proposed to be symbolic in nature has been the object of considerable archaeological work from diverse theoretical perspectives, yet rarely are methodological tools used to test the interpretations. The lack of testing is often justified by invoking the opinion that the slippery nature of past human symbolism cannot easily be tackled by the scientific method. One such case, from the southwestern Iberian Peninsula, involves engraved stone plaques from megalithic funerary monuments dating ca. 3,500-2,750 B.C. (calibrated age. One widely accepted proposal is that the plaques are ancient mnemonic devices that record genealogies. The analysis reported here demonstrates that this is not the case, even when the most supportive data and techniques are used. Rather, we suspect there was a common ideological background to the use of plaques that overlay the southwestern Iberian Peninsula, with little or no geographic patterning. This would entail a cultural system in which plaque design was based on a fundamental core idea, with a number of mutable and variable elements surrounding it.

  2. Combination Therapy Showed Limited Superiority Over Monotherapy for Alzheimer Disease: A Meta-analysis of 14 Randomized Trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsoi, Kelvin K F; Chan, Joyce Y C; Leung, Nelson W Y; Hirai, Hoyee W; Wong, Samuel Y S; Kwok, Timothy C Y

    2016-09-01

    Acetylcholinesterase inhibitor (AChEI) and memantine are recognized drug treatments with limited clinical efficacy. Combination therapy for patients with Alzheimer disease (AD) was suggested, but the additional benefit of combination therapy is still controversial. To evaluate the additional benefit of combination therapy over monotherapy with either AChEI or memantine. Prospective randomized controlled trials were searched from the OVID databases. The trials were eligible if study subjects were diagnosed with AD, and were randomized to compare combination therapy with monotherapy. Any clinical assessment measured using validated scales on cognitive function, activities of daily living, behavioral problems, and global changes were the primary outcomes, and any reported adverse events were the secondary outcomes. Quality of studies and risk of bias were evaluated. Fourteen randomized trials were identified between 2004 and 2015 from the United States, Canada, Germany, Japan, China, and Korea. A total of 5019 patients with AD were randomly assigned to receive combination therapy of AChEI and memantine or monotherapy with AChEI or memantine. Combination therapy showed no significant benefit on cognitive function (mean difference [MD] of MMSE = 0.06, 95% CI -0.52 to 0.65), activities of daily living (MD of ADCS-ADL = -0.15, 95% CI -1.08 to 0.78), neuropsychiatric symptoms and behavioral problems (MD of NPI = -1.85, 95% CI -4.83 to 1.13), and global changes (MD of CIBIC-plus = 0.01, 95% CI -0.25 to 0.28). In subgroup analyses, combination therapy can improve cognitive function more than memantine alone; and it can significantly relieve neuropsychiatric symptoms and behavioral problems when concomitantly used with donepezil. No additional adverse event was reported in the combination therapy. Combination therapy only showed the benefit on neuropsychiatric symptoms and behavioral problems in moderate-to-severe AD, but no other superiority in terms of cognitive

  3. Amniotic fluid stem cells with low γ-interferon response showed behavioral improvement in Parkinsonism rat model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Jen Chang

    Full Text Available Amniotic fluid stem cells (AFSCs are multipotent stem cells that may be used in transplantation medicine. In this study, AFSCs established from amniocentesis were characterized on the basis of surface marker expression and differentiation potential. To further investigate the properties of AFSCs for translational applications, we examined the cell surface expression of human leukocyte antigens (HLA of these cells and estimated the therapeutic effect of AFSCs in parkinsonian rats. The expression profiles of HLA-II and transcription factors were compared between AFSCs and bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (BMMSCs following treatment with γ-IFN. We found that stimulation of AFSCs with γ-IFN prompted only a slight increase in the expression of HLA-Ia and HLA-E, and the rare HLA-II expression could also be observed in most AFSCs samples. Consequently, the expression of CIITA and RFX5 was weakly induced by γ-IFN stimulation of AFSCs compared to that of BMMSCs. In the transplantation test, Sprague Dawley rats with 6-hydroxydopamine lesioning of the substantia nigra were used as a parkinsonian-animal model. Following the negative γ-IFN response AFSCs injection, apomorphine-induced rotation was reduced by 75% in AFSCs engrafted parkinsonian rats but was increased by 53% in the control group after 12-weeks post-transplantation. The implanted AFSCs were viable, and were able to migrate into the brain's circuitry and express specific proteins of dopamine neurons, such as tyrosine hydroxylase and dopamine transporter. In conclusion, the relative insensitivity AFSCs to γ-IFN implies that AFSCs might have immune-tolerance in γ-IFN inflammatory conditions. Furthermore, the effective improvement of AFSCs transplantation for apomorphine-induced rotation paves the way for the clinical application in parkinsonian therapy.

  4. Genetic analysis shows that morphology alone cannot distinguish asian carp eggs from those of other cyprinid species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larson, James H.; McCalla, Sunnie; Chapman, Duane C.; Rees, Christopher B.; Knights, Brent C.; Vallazza, Jon; George, Amy E.; Richardson, William B.; Amberg, Jon

    2016-01-01

    Fish eggs and embryos (hereafter collectively referred to as “eggs”) were collected in the upper Mississippi River main stem (~300 km upstream of previously reported spawning by invasive Asian carp) during summer 2013. Based on previously published morphological characteristics, the eggs were identified as belonging to Asian carp. A subsample of the eggs was subsequently analyzed by using molecular methods to determine species identity. Genetic identification using the cytochrome-c oxidase 1 gene was attempted for a total of 41 eggs. Due to the preservation technique used (formalin) and the resulting DNA degradation, sequences were recovered from only 17 individual eggs. In all 17 cases, cyprinids other than Asian carp (usually Notropis sp.) were identified as the most likely species. In previously published reports, a key characteristic that distinguished Asian carp eggs from those of other cyprinids was size: Asian carp eggs exhibited diameters ranging from 4.0 to 6.0 mm and were thought to be much larger than the otherwise similar eggs of native species. Eggs from endemic cyprinids were believed to rarely reach 3.0 mm and had not been observed to exceed 3.3 mm. However, many of the eggs that were genetically identified as originating from native cyprinids were as large as 4.0 mm in diameter (at early developmental stages) and were therefore large enough to over- lap with the lower end of the size range observed for Asian carp eggs. Researchers studying the egg stages of Asian carp and other cyprinids should plan on preserving subsets of eggs for genetic analysis to confirm morphological identifications.

  5. Morphometric analysis of molars in a Middle Pleistocene population shows a mosaic of 'modern' and Neanderthal features.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinón-Torres, María; Spěváčková, Petra; Gracia-Téllez, Ana; Martínez, Ignacio; Bruner, Emiliano; Arsuaga, Juan Luis; Bermúdez de Castro, José María

    2013-10-01

    Previous studies of upper first molar (M1) crown shape have shown significant differences between Homo sapiens and Homo neanderthalensis that were already present in the European Middle Pleistocene populations, including the large dental sample from Atapuerca-Sima de los Huesos (SH). Analysis of other M1 features such as the total crown base area, cusp proportions, cusp angles and occlusal polygon have confirmed the differences between both lineages, becoming a useful tool for the taxonomic assignment of isolated teeth from Late Pleistocene sites. However, until now the pattern of expression of these variables has not been known for the SH sample. This fossil sample, the largest collection from the European Middle Pleistocene, is generally interpreted as being from the direct ancestors of Neanderthals, and thus is a reference sample for assessing the origin of the Neanderthal morphologies. Surprisingly, our study reveals that SH M(1) s present a unique mosaic of H. neanderthalensis and H. sapiens features. Regarding the cusp angles and the relative occlusal polygon area, SH matches the H. neanderthalensis pattern. However, regarding the total crown base area and relative cusps size, SH M(1) s are similar to H. sapiens, with a small crown area, a strong hypocone reduction and a protocone enlargement, although the protocone expansion in SH is significantly larger than in any other group studied. The SH dental sample calls into question the uniqueness of some so-called modern traits. Our study also sounds a note of caution on the use of M(1) occlusal morphology for the alpha taxonomy of isolated M(1) s. © 2013 Anatomical Society.

  6. Morphometric analysis of molars in a Middle Pleistocene population shows a mosaic of ‘modern’ and Neanderthal features

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinón-Torres, María; Spěváčková, Petra; Gracia-Téllez, Ana; Martínez, Ignacio; Bruner, Emiliano; Arsuaga, Juan Luis; Bermúdez de Castro, José María

    2013-01-01

    Previous studies of upper first molar (M1) crown shape have shown significant differences between Homo sapiens and Homo neanderthalensis that were already present in the European Middle Pleistocene populations, including the large dental sample from Atapuerca-Sima de los Huesos (SH). Analysis of other M1 features such as the total crown base area, cusp proportions, cusp angles and occlusal polygon have confirmed the differences between both lineages, becoming a useful tool for the taxonomic assignment of isolated teeth from Late Pleistocene sites. However, until now the pattern of expression of these variables has not been known for the SH sample. This fossil sample, the largest collection from the European Middle Pleistocene, is generally interpreted as being from the direct ancestors of Neanderthals, and thus is a reference sample for assessing the origin of the Neanderthal morphologies. Surprisingly, our study reveals that SH M1s present a unique mosaic of H. neanderthalensis and H. sapiens features. Regarding the cusp angles and the relative occlusal polygon area, SH matches the H. neanderthalensis pattern. However, regarding the total crown base area and relative cusps size, SH M1s are similar to H. sapiens, with a small crown area, a strong hypocone reduction and a protocone enlargement, although the protocone expansion in SH is significantly larger than in any other group studied. The SH dental sample calls into question the uniqueness of some so-called modern traits. Our study also sounds a note of caution on the use of M1 occlusal morphology for the alpha taxonomy of isolated M1s. PMID:23914934

  7. X-ray survival characteristics and genetic analysis for nine saccharomyces deletion mutants that show altered radiation sensitivity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Game, John C.; Williamson, Marsha S.; Baccari, Clelia

    2004-01-07

    The availability of a genome-wide set of Saccharomyces deletion mutants provides a chance to identify all the yeast genes involved in DNA repair. Using X-rays, we are screening these mutants to identify additional genes that show increased sensitivity to the lethal effects of ionizing radiation. For each mutant identified as sensitive, we are confirming that the sensitivity phenotype co-segregates with the deletion allele and are obtaining multipoint survival-versus-dose assays in at least two haploid and one homozygous diploid strains. We present data for deletion mutants involving the genes DOT1, MDM20, NAT3, SPT7, SPT20, GCN5, HFI1, DCC1 and VID21/EAF1, and discuss their potential roles in repair. Eight of these genes have a clear radiation-sensitive phenotype when deleted, but the ninth, GCN5, has at most a borderline phenotype. None of the deletions confer substantial sensitivity to ultra-violet radiation, although one or two may confer marginal sensitivity. The DOT1 gene is of interest because its only known function is to methylate one lysine residue in the core of the histone H3 protein. We find that histone H3 mutants (supplied by K. Struhl) in which this residue is replaced by other amino-acids are also X-ray sensitive, seeming to confirm that methylation of the lysine-79 residue is required for effective repair of radiation damage.

  8. High-resolution structural analysis shows how Tah1 tethers Hsp90 to the R2TP complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Back, Régis; Dominguez, Cyril; Rothé, Benjamin; Bobo, Claude; Beaufils, Chrystel; Moréra, Solange; Meyer, Philippe; Charpentier, Bruno; Branlant, Christiane; Allain, Frédéric H-T; Manival, Xavier

    2013-10-08

    The ubiquitous Hsp90 chaperone participates in snoRNP and RNA polymerase assembly through interaction with the R2TP complex. This complex includes the proteins Tah1, Pih1, Rvb1, and Rvb2. Tah1 bridges Hsp90 to R2TP. Its minimal TPR domain includes two TPR motifs and a capping helix. We established the high-resolution solution structures of Tah1 free and in complex with the Hsp90 C-terminal peptide. The TPR fold is similar in the free and bound forms and we show experimentally that in addition to its solvating/stabilizing role, the capping helix is essential for the recognition of the Hsp90 (704)EMEEVD(709) motif. In addition to Lys79 and Arg83 from the carboxylate clamp, this helix bears Tyr82 forming a π/S-CH3 interaction with Hsp90 M(705) from the peptide 310 helix. The Tah1 C-terminal region is unfolded, and we demonstrate that it is essential for the recruitment of the Pih1 C-terminal domain and folds upon binding. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Comprehensive behavioral analysis of Ox1r-/- mice showed implication of orexin receptor-1 in mood, anxiety and social behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md Golam Abbas

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Neuropeptides orexin A and orexin B, which are exclusively produced by neurons in the lateral hypothalamic area, play an important role in the regulation of a wide range of behaviors and homeostatic processes, including regulation of sleep/wakefulness states and energy homeostasis. The orexin system has close anatomical and functional relationships with systems that regulate the autonomic nervous system, emotion, mood, the reward system and sleep/wakefulness states. Recent pharmacological studies using selective antagonists have suggested that orexin receptor-1 (OX1R is involved in physiological processes that regulate emotion, the reward system and autonomic nervous system. Here, we examined Ox1r-/- mice with a comprehensive behavioral test battery to screen additional OX1R functions. Ox1r-/- mice showed increased anxiety-like behavior, altered depression-like behavior, slightly decreased spontaneous locomotor activity, reduced social interaction, increased startle response and decreased prepulse inhibition. These results suggest that OX1R plays roles in social behaviour and sensory motor gating in addition to roles in mood and anxiety.

  10. A Birth Cohort Analysis to Study Dog Walking in Adolescence Shows No Relationship with Objectively Measured Physical Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westgarth, Carri; Ness, Andrew R.; Mattocks, Calum; Christley, Robert M.

    2017-01-01

    Physical inactivity during childhood and adolescence is a serious health concern. There are few studies of the activity undertaken by adolescents when walking with the family dog, and the effect of this on objectively measured physical activity levels. Objective measures of physical activity using accelerometers were recorded at age 11–12, 13–14, and 15–16 years in the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC) (ALSPAC, UK) birth cohort during the 2000s. Family pet ownership was collected retrospectively using a questionnaire at age 18 years, for the ages 7, 11, 13, and 15 years. In addition, approximate frequency per week of walks undertaken with dogs were also reported. Multilevel, multivariable modeling was used to investigate the relationship between dog ownership and dog walking status, and physical activity outcomes. There were a total of 4,373 complete data observations for use in 2,055 children. Reported participation in dog walking tended to increase during adolescence, as did dog ownership. The majority of who own dogs reported walking them either 2–6 times/week (range 39–46%) or never (range 27–37%). A small minority (7–8%) reported walking their dog every day. Most reported never walking any other dog either (94–87%). We found no evidence for an association between dog ownership or reported dog walking, and objectively measured physical activity (counts per minute, P = 0.3, or minutes of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity, P = 0.7) during adolescence. This study provides no evidence to support a relationship between adolescent dog ownership and physical activity, and demonstrates the importance of using objective activity measures and considering dog walking rather than just dog ownership. PMID:28560222

  11. A Birth Cohort Analysis to Study Dog Walking in Adolescence Shows No Relationship with Objectively Measured Physical Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carri Westgarth

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Physical inactivity during childhood and adolescence is a serious health concern. There are few studies of the activity undertaken by adolescents when walking with the family dog, and the effect of this on objectively measured physical activity levels. Objective measures of physical activity using accelerometers were recorded at age 11–12, 13–14, and 15–16 years in the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC (ALSPAC, UK birth cohort during the 2000s. Family pet ownership was collected retrospectively using a questionnaire at age 18 years, for the ages 7, 11, 13, and 15 years. In addition, approximate frequency per week of walks undertaken with dogs were also reported. Multilevel, multivariable modeling was used to investigate the relationship between dog ownership and dog walking status, and physical activity outcomes. There were a total of 4,373 complete data observations for use in 2,055 children. Reported participation in dog walking tended to increase during adolescence, as did dog ownership. The majority of who own dogs reported walking them either 2–6 times/week (range 39–46% or never (range 27–37%. A small minority (7–8% reported walking their dog every day. Most reported never walking any other dog either (94–87%. We found no evidence for an association between dog ownership or reported dog walking, and objectively measured physical activity (counts per minute, P = 0.3, or minutes of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity, P = 0.7 during adolescence. This study provides no evidence to support a relationship between adolescent dog ownership and physical activity, and demonstrates the importance of using objective activity measures and considering dog walking rather than just dog ownership.

  12. Transmission electron microscopic analysis showing structural changes to bacterial cells treated with electrolyzed water and an acidic sanitizer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feliciano, Lizanel; Lee, Jaesung; Pascall, Melvin A

    2012-04-01

    The effects of various sanitizers on the viability and cellular injury to structures of Escherichia coli and Listeria innocua were investigated. A food grade organic acidic formulation (pH 2.5) and acidic, neutral, and basic electrolyzed water [AEW (pH 2.7, oxidation reduction potential; ORP: 1100 mV, free available chlorine; FAC: 150 ppm), NEW (pH 6.9, ORP: 840 mV, FAC: 150 ppm), BEW (pH 11.6, ORP: -810 mV)] were used to treat E. coli and L. innocua cells. After 10 min of exposure to the sanitizers, changes to the bacterial numbers and cell structures were evaluated by plate counting and transmission electron microscopy (TEM), respectively. It was concluded from the results that the sanitizers reduced the E. coli cells between 2 and 3 log CFU/mL. Except for the BEW treatment, reductions in L. innocua population were greater (>1 log CFU/mL) than that of E. coli for all treatments. Data from the TEM showed that all sanitizers caused changes to the cell envelope and cytoplasm of both organisms. However, smaller changes were observed for L. innocua cells. Decrease in the integrity of the cell envelope and aggregation of the cytoplasmic components appeared to be mainly because of exposure to the sanitizers. The organic acid formulation and AEW were the most effective sanitizers against bacterial cells, indicating that penetration of acidic substances effectively caused the cell inactivation. An understanding of the method in which E-water and an acidic sanitizer cause injury to E. coli and L. innocua would be helpful in selecting an effective chemical agent as a food safety tool. This will allow a scientist to target similar microorganisms such as food borne bacteria with structures that are vulnerable to the sanitizer. © 2012 Institute of Food Technologists®

  13. Dynamic Chest Image Analysis: Evaluation of Model-Based Pulmonary Perfusion Analysis With Pyramid Images

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Liang, Jianming

    2001-01-01

    Dynamic Chest Image Analysis aims to develop model-based computer analysis and visualization methods for showing focal and general abnormalities of lung ventilation and perfusion based on a sequence...

  14. Geologic Framework Model Analysis Model Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clayton, R.

    2000-01-01

    The purpose of this report is to document the Geologic Framework Model (GFM), Version 3.1 (GFM3.1) with regard to data input, modeling methods, assumptions, uncertainties, limitations, and validation of the model results, qualification status of the model, and the differences between Version 3.1 and previous versions. The GFM represents a three-dimensional interpretation of the stratigraphy and structural features of the location of the potential Yucca Mountain radioactive waste repository. The GFM encompasses an area of 65 square miles (170 square kilometers) and a volume of 185 cubic miles (771 cubic kilometers). The boundaries of the GFM were chosen to encompass the most widely distributed set of exploratory boreholes (the Water Table or WT series) and to provide a geologic framework over the area of interest for hydrologic flow and radionuclide transport modeling through the unsaturated zone (UZ). The depth of the model is constrained by the inferred depth of the Tertiary-Paleozoic unconformity. The GFM was constructed from geologic map and borehole data. Additional information from measured stratigraphy sections, gravity profiles, and seismic profiles was also considered. This interim change notice (ICN) was prepared in accordance with the Technical Work Plan for the Integrated Site Model Process Model Report Revision 01 (CRWMS M and O 2000). The constraints, caveats, and limitations associated with this model are discussed in the appropriate text sections that follow. The GFM is one component of the Integrated Site Model (ISM) (Figure l), which has been developed to provide a consistent volumetric portrayal of the rock layers, rock properties, and mineralogy of the Yucca Mountain site. The ISM consists of three components: (1) Geologic Framework Model (GFM); (2) Rock Properties Model (RPM); and (3) Mineralogic Model (MM). The ISM merges the detailed project stratigraphy into model stratigraphic units that are most useful for the primary downstream models and

  15. Geologic Framework Model Analysis Model Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    R. Clayton

    2000-12-19

    The purpose of this report is to document the Geologic Framework Model (GFM), Version 3.1 (GFM3.1) with regard to data input, modeling methods, assumptions, uncertainties, limitations, and validation of the model results, qualification status of the model, and the differences between Version 3.1 and previous versions. The GFM represents a three-dimensional interpretation of the stratigraphy and structural features of the location of the potential Yucca Mountain radioactive waste repository. The GFM encompasses an area of 65 square miles (170 square kilometers) and a volume of 185 cubic miles (771 cubic kilometers). The boundaries of the GFM were chosen to encompass the most widely distributed set of exploratory boreholes (the Water Table or WT series) and to provide a geologic framework over the area of interest for hydrologic flow and radionuclide transport modeling through the unsaturated zone (UZ). The depth of the model is constrained by the inferred depth of the Tertiary-Paleozoic unconformity. The GFM was constructed from geologic map and borehole data. Additional information from measured stratigraphy sections, gravity profiles, and seismic profiles was also considered. This interim change notice (ICN) was prepared in accordance with the Technical Work Plan for the Integrated Site Model Process Model Report Revision 01 (CRWMS M&O 2000). The constraints, caveats, and limitations associated with this model are discussed in the appropriate text sections that follow. The GFM is one component of the Integrated Site Model (ISM) (Figure l), which has been developed to provide a consistent volumetric portrayal of the rock layers, rock properties, and mineralogy of the Yucca Mountain site. The ISM consists of three components: (1) Geologic Framework Model (GFM); (2) Rock Properties Model (RPM); and (3) Mineralogic Model (MM). The ISM merges the detailed project stratigraphy into model stratigraphic units that are most useful for the primary downstream models and the

  16. Xyloketal-derived small molecules show protective effect by decreasing mutant Huntingtin protein aggregates in Caenorhabditis elegans model of Huntington's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Yixuan; Guo, Wenyuan; Xu, Guangqing; Wang, Qinmei; Feng, Luyang; Long, Simei; Liang, Fengyin; Huang, Yi; Lu, Xilin; Li, Shichang; Zhou, Jiebin; Burgunder, Jean-Marc; Pang, Jiyan; Pei, Zhong

    2016-01-01

    Huntington's disease is an autosomal-dominant neurodegenerative disorder, with chorea as the most prominent manifestation. The disease is caused by abnormal expansion of CAG codon repeats in the IT15 gene, which leads to the expression of a glutamine-rich protein named mutant Huntingtin (Htt). Because of its devastating disease burden and lack of valid treatment, development of more effective therapeutics for Huntington's disease is urgently required. Xyloketal B, a natural product from mangrove fungus, has shown protective effects against toxicity in other neurodegenerative disease models such as Parkinson's and Alzheimer's diseases. To identify potential neuroprotective molecules for Huntington's disease, six derivatives of xyloketal B were screened in a Caenorhabditis elegans Huntington's disease model; all six compounds showed a protective effect. Molecular docking studies indicated that compound 1 could bind to residues GLN369 and GLN393 of the mutant Htt protein, forming a stable trimeric complex that can prevent the formation of mutant Htt aggregates. Taken together, we conclude that xyloketal derivatives could be novel drug candidates for treating Huntington's disease. Molecular target analysis is a good method to simulate the interaction between proteins and drug compounds. Further, protective candidate drugs could be designed in future using the guidance of molecular docking results.

  17. Xyloketal-derived small molecules show protective effect by decreasing mutant Huntingtin protein aggregates in Caenorhabditis elegans model of Huntington’s disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Yixuan; Guo, Wenyuan; Xu, Guangqing; Wang, Qinmei; Feng, Luyang; Long, Simei; Liang, Fengyin; Huang, Yi; Lu, Xilin; Li, Shichang; Zhou, Jiebin; Burgunder, Jean-Marc; Pang, Jiyan; Pei, Zhong

    2016-01-01

    Huntington’s disease is an autosomal-dominant neurodegenerative disorder, with chorea as the most prominent manifestation. The disease is caused by abnormal expansion of CAG codon repeats in the IT15 gene, which leads to the expression of a glutamine-rich protein named mutant Huntingtin (Htt). Because of its devastating disease burden and lack of valid treatment, development of more effective therapeutics for Huntington’s disease is urgently required. Xyloketal B, a natural product from mangrove fungus, has shown protective effects against toxicity in other neurodegenerative disease models such as Parkinson’s and Alzheimer’s diseases. To identify potential neuroprotective molecules for Huntington’s disease, six derivatives of xyloketal B were screened in a Caenorhabditis elegans Huntington’s disease model; all six compounds showed a protective effect. Molecular docking studies indicated that compound 1 could bind to residues GLN369 and GLN393 of the mutant Htt protein, forming a stable trimeric complex that can prevent the formation of mutant Htt aggregates. Taken together, we conclude that xyloketal derivatives could be novel drug candidates for treating Huntington’s disease. Molecular target analysis is a good method to simulate the interaction between proteins and drug compounds. Further, protective candidate drugs could be designed in future using the guidance of molecular docking results. PMID:27110099

  18. Analysis of genetic distance between Peruvian Alpaca (Vicugna Pacos showing two distinct fleece phenotypes, Suri and Huacaya, by means of microsatellite markers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlo Renieri

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Two coat phenotypes exist in Alpaca, Huacaya and Suri. The two coats show different fleece structure, textile characteristics and prices on the market. Although present scientific knowledge suggests a simple genetic model of inheritance, there is a tendency to manage and consider the two phenotypes as two different breeds. A 13 microsatellite panel was used in this study to assess genetic distance between Suri and Huacaya alpacas in a sample of non-related animals from two phenotypically pure flocks at the Illpa-Puno experimental station in Quimsachata, Peru. The animals are part of a germplasm established approximately 20 years ago and have been bred separately according to their coat type since then. Genetic variability parameters were also calculated. The data were statistically analyzed using the software Genalex 6.3, Phylip 3.69 and Fstat 2.9.3.2. The sample was tested for Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium (HWE and after strict Bonferroni correction only one locus (LCA37 showed deviation from equilibrium (Ploci associations showed significant disequilibrium. Observed heterozygosis (Ho= 0.766; SE=0.044, expected heterozygosis (He=0.769; SE=0.033, number of alleles (Na=9.667, SE=0.772 and Fixation index (F=0.004; SE=0.036 are comparable to data from previous studies. Measures of genetic distance were 0.06 for Nei’s and 0.03 for Cavalli-Sforza’s. The analysis of molecular variance reported no existing variance between populations. Considering the origin of the animals, their post domestication evolution and the reproductive practices in place, the results do not show genetic differentiation between the two populations for the studied loci.

  19. Hydrographic Basins Analysis Using Digital Terrain Modelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mihaela, Pişleagă; -Minda Codruţa, Bădăluţă; Gabriel, Eleş; Daniela, Popescu

    2017-10-01

    The paper, emphasis the link between digital terrain modelling and studies of hydrographic basins, concerning the hydrological processes analysis. Given the evolution of computing techniques but also of the software digital terrain modelling made its presence felt increasingly, and established itself as a basic concept in many areas, due to many advantages. At present, most digital terrain modelling is derived from three alternative sources such as ground surveys, photogrammetric data capture or from digitized cartographic sources. A wide range of features may be extracted from digital terrain models, such as surface, specific points and landmarks, linear features but also areal futures like drainage basins, hills or hydrological basins. The paper highlights how the use appropriate software for the preparation of a digital terrain model, a model which is subsequently used to study hydrographic basins according to various geomorphological parameters. As a final goal, it shows the link between digital terrain modelling and hydrographic basins study that can be used to optimize the correlation between digital model terrain and hydrological processes in order to obtain results as close to the real field processes.

  20. Model Performance Evaluation and Scenario Analysis (MPESA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Model Performance Evaluation and Scenario Analysis (MPESA) assesses the performance with which models predict time series data. The tool was developed Hydrological Simulation Program-Fortran (HSPF) and the Stormwater Management Model (SWMM)

  1. LCD motion blur: modeling, analysis, and algorithm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Stanley H; Nguyen, Truong Q

    2011-08-01

    Liquid crystal display (LCD) devices are well known for their slow responses due to the physical limitations of liquid crystals. Therefore, fast moving objects in a scene are often perceived as blurred. This effect is known as the LCD motion blur. In order to reduce LCD motion blur, an accurate LCD model and an efficient deblurring algorithm are needed. However, existing LCD motion blur models are insufficient to reflect the limitation of human-eye-tracking system. Also, the spatiotemporal equivalence in LCD motion blur models has not been proven directly in the discrete 2-D spatial domain, although it is widely used. There are three main contributions of this paper: modeling, analysis, and algorithm. First, a comprehensive LCD motion blur model is presented, in which human-eye-tracking limits are taken into consideration. Second, a complete analysis of spatiotemporal equivalence is provided and verified using real video sequences. Third, an LCD motion blur reduction algorithm is proposed. The proposed algorithm solves an l(1)-norm regularized least-squares minimization problem using a subgradient projection method. Numerical results show that the proposed algorithm gives higher peak SNR, lower temporal error, and lower spatial error than motion-compensated inverse filtering and Lucy-Richardson deconvolution algorithm, which are two state-of-the-art LCD deblurring algorithms.

  2. Fluctuation microscopy analysis of amorphous silicon models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gibson, J.M.; Treacy, M.M.J.

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Studied competing computer models for amorphous silicon and simulated fluctuation microscopy data. • Show that only paracrystalline/random network composite can fit published data. • Specifically show that pure random network or random network with void models do not fit available data. • Identify a new means to measure volume fraction of ordered material. • Identify unreported limitations of the Debye model for simulating fluctuation microscopy data. - Abstract: Using computer-generated models we discuss the use of fluctuation electron microscopy (FEM) to identify the structure of amorphous silicon. We show that a combination of variable resolution FEM to measure the correlation length, with correlograph analysis to obtain the structural motif, can pin down structural correlations. We introduce the method of correlograph variance as a promising means of independently measuring the volume fraction of a paracrystalline composite. From comparisons with published data, we affirm that only a composite material of paracrystalline and continuous random network that is substantially paracrystalline could explain the existing experimental data, and point the way to more precise measurements on amorphous semiconductors. The results are of general interest for other classes of disordered materials.

  3. Modelling dominance in a flexible intercross analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Besnier Francois

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim of this paper is to develop a flexible model for analysis of quantitative trait loci (QTL in outbred line crosses, which includes both additive and dominance effects. Our flexible intercross analysis (FIA model accounts for QTL that are not fixed within founder lines and is based on the variance component framework. Genome scans with FIA are performed using a score statistic, which does not require variance component estimation. Results Simulations of a pedigree with 800 F2 individuals showed that the power of FIA including both additive and dominance effects was almost 50% for a QTL with equal allele frequencies in both lines with complete dominance and a moderate effect, whereas the power of a traditional regression model was equal to the chosen significance value of 5%. The power of FIA without dominance effects included in the model was close to those obtained for FIA with dominance for all simulated cases except for QTL with overdominant effects. A genome-wide linkage analysis of experimental data from an F2 intercross between Red Jungle Fowl and White Leghorn was performed with both additive and dominance effects included in FIA. The score values for chicken body weight at 200 days of age were similar to those obtained in FIA analysis without dominance. Conclusion We have extended FIA to include QTL dominance effects. The power of FIA was superior, or similar, to standard regression methods for QTL effects with dominance. The difference in power for FIA with or without dominance is expected to be small as long as the QTL effects are not overdominant. We suggest that FIA with only additive effects should be the standard model to be used, especially since it is more computationally efficient.

  4. Modeling and analysis of advanced binary cycles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gawlik, K.

    1997-12-31

    A computer model (Cycle Analysis Simulation Tool, CAST) and a methodology have been developed to perform value analysis for small, low- to moderate-temperature binary geothermal power plants. The value analysis method allows for incremental changes in the levelized electricity cost (LEC) to be determined between a baseline plant and a modified plant. Thermodynamic cycle analyses and component sizing are carried out in the model followed by economic analysis which provides LEC results. The emphasis of the present work is on evaluating the effect of mixed working fluids instead of pure fluids on the LEC of a geothermal binary plant that uses a simple Organic Rankine Cycle. Four resources were studied spanning the range of 265{degrees}F to 375{degrees}F. A variety of isobutane and propane based mixtures, in addition to pure fluids, were used as working fluids. This study shows that the use of propane mixtures at a 265{degrees}F resource can reduce the LEC by 24% when compared to a base case value that utilizes commercial isobutane as its working fluid. The cost savings drop to 6% for a 375{degrees}F resource, where an isobutane mixture is favored. Supercritical cycles were found to have the lowest cost at all resources.

  5. Development of a novel pink-eyed dilution mouse model showing progressive darkening of the eyes and coat hair with aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishikawa, Akira; Sugiyama, Makoto; Hondo, Eiichi; Kinoshita, Keiji; Yamagishi, Yuki

    2015-01-01

    Oca2(p-cas) (oculocutaneous albinism II; pink-eyed dilution castaneus) is a coat color mutant gene on mouse chromosome 7 that arose spontaneously in wild Mus musculus castaneus mice. Mice homozygous for Oca2(p-cas) usually exhibit pink eyes and gray coat hair on the non-agouti genetic background, and this ordinary phenotype remains unchanged throughout life. During breeding of a mixed strain carrying this gene on the C57BL/6J background, we discovered a novel spontaneous mutation that causes darkening of the eyes and coat hair with aging. In this study, we developed a novel mouse model showing this unique phenotype. Gross observations revealed that the pink eyes and gray coat hair of the novel mutant young mice became progressively darker in color by approximately 3 months after birth. Light and transmission-electron microscopic observations revealed a marked increase in melanin pigmentation of coat hair shafts and choroid of the eye in the novel mice compared to that in the ordinary mice. Sequence analysis of Oca2(p-cas) revealed a 4.1-kb deletion involving exons 15 and 16 of its wild-type gene. However, there was no sequence difference between the two types of mutant mice. Mating experiments suggested that the novel mutant phenotype was not inherited in a simple fashion, due to incomplete penetrance. The novel spontaneous mutant mouse is the first example of progressive hair darkening animals and is an essential animal model for understanding of the regulation mechanisms of melanin biosynthesis with aging.

  6. Techniques for managing behaviour in pediatric dentistry: comparative study of live modelling and tell-show-do based on children's heart rates during treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farhat-McHayleh, Nada; Harfouche, Alice; Souaid, Philippe

    2009-05-01

    Tell-show-do is the most popular technique for managing children"s behaviour in dentists" offices. Live modelling is used less frequently, despite the satisfactory results obtained in studies conducted during the 1980s. The purpose of this study was to compare the effects of these 2 techniques on children"s heart rates during dental treatments, heart rate being the simplest biological parameter to measure and an increase in heart rate being the most common physiologic indicator of anxiety and fear. For this randomized, controlled, parallel-group single-centre clinical trial, children 5 to 9 years of age presenting for the first time to the Saint Joseph University dental care centre in Beirut, Lebanon, were divided into 3 groups: those in groups A and B were prepared for dental treatment by means of live modelling, the mother serving as the model for children in group A and the father as the model for children in group B. The children in group C were prepared by a pediatric dentist using the tell-show-do method. Each child"s heart rate was monitored during treatment, which consisted of an oral examination and cleaning. A total of 155 children met the study criteria and participated in the study. Children who received live modelling with the mother as model had lower heart rates than those who received live modelling with the father as model and those who were prepared by the tell-show-do method (p pediatric dentistry.

  7. Mathematical analysis of epidemiological models with heterogeneity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Ark, J.W.

    1992-01-01

    For many diseases in human populations the disease shows dissimilar characteristics in separate subgroups of the population; for example, the probability of disease transmission for gonorrhea or AIDS is much higher from male to female than from female to male. There is reason to construct and analyze epidemiological models which allow this heterogeneity of population, and to use these models to run computer simulations of the disease to predict the incidence and prevalence of the disease. In the models considered here the heterogeneous population is separated into subpopulations whose internal and external interactions are homogeneous in the sense that each person in the population can be assumed to have all average actions for the people of that subpopulation. The first model considered is an SIRS models; i.e., the Susceptible can become Infected, and if so he eventually Recovers with temporary immunity, and after a period of time becomes Susceptible again. Special cases allow for permanent immunity or other variations. This model is analyzed and threshold conditions are given which determine whether the disease dies out or persists. A deterministic model is presented; this model is constructed using difference equations, and it has been used in computer simulations for the AIDS epidemic in the homosexual population in San Francisco. The homogeneous version and the heterogeneous version of the differential-equations and difference-equations versions of the deterministic model are analyzed mathematically. In the analysis, equilibria are identified and threshold conditions are set forth for the disease to die out if the disease is below the threshold so that the disease-free equilibrium is globally asymptotically stable. Above the threshold the disease persists so that the disease-free equilibrium is unstable and there is a unique endemic equilibrium.

  8. Systematic review with meta-analysis: faecal occult blood tests show lower colorectal cancer detection rates in the proximal colon in colonoscopy-verified diagnostic studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirai, H W; Tsoi, K K F; Chan, J Y C; Wong, S H; Ching, J Y L; Wong, M C S; Wu, J C Y; Chan, F K L; Sung, J J Y; Ng, S C

    2016-04-01

    The performance of faecal occult blood tests (FOBTs) to screen proximally located colorectal cancer (CRC) has produced inconsistent results. To assess in a meta-analysis, the diagnostic accuracy of FOBTs for relative detection of CRC according to anatomical location of CRC. Diagnostic studies including both symptomatic and asymptomatic cohorts assessing performance of FOBTs for CRC were searched from MEDINE and EMBASE. Primary outcome was accuracy of FOBTs according to the anatomical location of CRC. Bivariate random-effects model was used. Subgroup analyses were performed to evaluate test performance of guaiac-based FOBT (gFOBT) and immunochemical-based FOBT (iFOBT). Thirteen studies, with 17 cohorts, reporting performance of FOBT were included; a total of 26 342 patients (mean age 58.9 years; 58.1% male) underwent both colonoscopy and FOBT. Pooled sensitivity, specificity, positive likelihood ratio and negative likelihood ratio of FOBTs for CRC detection in the proximal colon were 71.2% (95% CI 61.3-79.4%), 93.6% (95% CI 90.7-95.7%), 11.1 (95% CI 7.8-15.8) and 0.3 (95% CI 0.2-0.4) respectively. Corresponding findings for CRC detection in distal colon were 80.1% (95% CI 70.9-87.0%), 93.6% (95% CI 90.7-95.7%), 12.6 (95% CI 8.8-18.1) and 0.2 (95% CI 0.1-0.3). The area-under-curve for FOBT detection for proximal and distal CRC were 90% vs. 94% (P = 0.0143). Both gFOBT and iFOBT showed significantly lower sensitivity but comparable specificity for the detection of proximally located CRC compared with distal CRC. Faecal occult blood tests, both guaiac- and immunochemical-based, show better diagnostic performance for the relative detection of colorectal cancer in the distal colon than in the proximal bowel. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. ModelMate - A graphical user interface for model analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banta, Edward R.

    2011-01-01

    ModelMate is a graphical user interface designed to facilitate use of model-analysis programs with models. This initial version of ModelMate supports one model-analysis program, UCODE_2005, and one model software program, MODFLOW-2005. ModelMate can be used to prepare input files for UCODE_2005, run UCODE_2005, and display analysis results. A link to the GW_Chart graphing program facilitates visual interpretation of results. ModelMate includes capabilities for organizing directories used with the parallel-processing capabilities of UCODE_2005 and for maintaining files in those directories to be identical to a set of files in a master directory. ModelMate can be used on its own or in conjunction with ModelMuse, a graphical user interface for MODFLOW-2005 and PHAST.

  10. Application of autoregressive moving average model in reactor noise analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tran Dinh Tri

    1993-01-01

    The application of an autoregressive (AR) model to estimating noise measurements has achieved many successes in reactor noise analysis in the last ten years. The physical processes that take place in the nuclear reactor, however, are described by an autoregressive moving average (ARMA) model rather than by an AR model. Consequently more correct results could be obtained by applying the ARMA model instead of the AR model to reactor noise analysis. In this paper the system of the generalised Yule-Walker equations is derived from the equation of an ARMA model, then a method for its solution is given. Numerical results show the applications of the method proposed. (author)

  11. Diagnosis, Synthesis and Analysis of Probabilistic Models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Han, Tingting

    2009-01-01

    This dissertation considers three important aspects of model checking Markov models: diagnosis — generating counterexamples, synthesis — providing valid parameter values and analysis — verifying linear real-time properties. The three aspects are relatively independent while all contribute to

  12. Bayesian Model Averaging for Propensity Score Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaplan, David; Chen, Jianshen

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to explore Bayesian model averaging in the propensity score context. Previous research on Bayesian propensity score analysis does not take into account model uncertainty. In this regard, an internally consistent Bayesian framework for model building and estimation must also account for model uncertainty. The…

  13. Statistical Modelling of Wind Proles - Data Analysis and Modelling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jónsson, Tryggvi; Pinson, Pierre

    The aim of the analysis presented in this document is to investigate whether statistical models can be used to make very short-term predictions of wind profiles.......The aim of the analysis presented in this document is to investigate whether statistical models can be used to make very short-term predictions of wind profiles....

  14. Xyloketal-derived small molecules show protective effect by decreasing mutant Huntingtin protein aggregates in Caenorhabditis elegans model of Huntington’s disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeng YX

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Yixuan Zeng,1,2,* Wenyuan Guo,1,* Guangqing Xu,3 Qinmei Wang,4 Luyang Feng,1,2 Simei Long,1 Fengyin Liang,1 Yi Huang,1 Xilin Lu,1 Shichang Li,5 Jiebin Zhou,5 Jean-Marc Burgunder,6 Jiyan Pang,5 Zhong Pei1,2 1Department of Neurology, National Key Clinical Department and Key Discipline of Neurology, Guangdong Key Laboratory for Diagnosis and Treatment of Major Neurological Disease, The First Affiliated Hospital, Sun Yat-sen University, 2Guangzhou Center, Chinese Huntington’s Disease Network, 3Department of Rehabilitation, The First Affiliated Hospital, 4Key laboratory on Assisted Circulation, Ministry of Health, Department of Cardiovascular Medicine of the First Affiliated Hospital, 5School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou, Guangdong, People’s Republic of China; 6Swiss Huntington’s Disease Center, Department of Neurology, University of Bern, Bern, Switzerland *These authors contributed equally to this work Abstract: Huntington’s disease is an autosomal-dominant neurodegenerative disorder, with chorea as the most prominent manifestation. The disease is caused by abnormal expansion of CAG codon repeats in the IT15 gene, which leads to the expression of a glutamine-rich protein named mutant Huntingtin (Htt. Because of its devastating disease burden and lack of valid treatment, development of more effective therapeutics for Huntington’s disease is urgently required. Xyloketal B, a natural product from mangrove fungus, has shown protective effects against toxicity in other neurodegenerative disease models such as Parkinson’s and Alzheimer’s diseases. To identify potential neuroprotective molecules for Huntington’s disease, six derivatives of xyloketal B were screened in a Caenorhabditis elegans Huntington’s disease model; all six compounds showed a protective effect. Molecular docking studies indicated that compound 1 could bind to residues GLN369 and GLN393 of the mutant Htt protein, forming a

  15. Comparative analysis of design models for concrete corbels

    OpenAIRE

    Araújo, D. L.; Silva Neto, A. P.; Lobo, F. A.; Debs, M. K. El

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT The main objective of this paper is performing a comparative analysis of some design models for precast concrete corbels. For this, it was analyzed design models from Brazilian (NBR 9062) and European (EUROCODE 2) Codes and a US design handbook (PCI). Moreover, three analytical models showed in the literature are analyzed. The objective of this comparative is identifying the best design models to represent the failure load of concrete corbels by the tie yields or by the concrete crus...

  16. Analysis of Crosscutting in Model Transformations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Berg, Klaas; Tekinerdogan, B.; Nguyen, H.; Aagedal, J.; Neple, T.; Oldevik, J.

    2006-01-01

    This paper describes an approach for the analysis of crosscutting in model transformations in the Model Driven Architecture (MDA). Software architectures should be amenable to changes in user requirements and technological platforms. Impact analysis of changes can be based on traceability of

  17. Two sustainable energy system analysis models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Henrik; Goran Krajacic, Neven Duic; da Graca Carvalho, Maria

    2005-01-01

    This paper presents a comparative study of two energy system analysis models both designed with the purpose of analysing electricity systems with a substantial share of fluctuating renewable energy.......This paper presents a comparative study of two energy system analysis models both designed with the purpose of analysing electricity systems with a substantial share of fluctuating renewable energy....

  18. Mathematical modeling and analysis of WEDM machining ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Sadhana; Volume 42; Issue 6. Mathematical modeling and analysis ... The present work is mainly focused on the analysis and optimization of the WEDM process parameters of Inconel 625. The four machining ... Response surface methodology was used to develop the experimental models. The parametric ...

  19. Model Checking as Static Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Fuyuan

    fairness problems can be encoded into ALFP as well. To deal with multi-valued model checking problems, we have proposed multivalued ALFP. A Moore Family result for multi-valued ALFP is also established, which ensures the existence and uniqueness of the least model. When the truth values in multi-valued...... of states satisfying a CTL formula can be characterized as the least model of ALFP clauses specifying this CTL formula. The existence of the least model of ALFP clauses is ensured by the Moore Family property of ALFP. Then, we take fairness assumptions in CTL into consideration and have shown that CTL...... ALFP constitute a nite distributive complete lattice, multi-valued ALFP can be reduced to two-valued ALFP. This result enables to implement a solver for multi-valued ALFP by reusing existing solvers for twovalued ALFP. Our ALFP-based technique developed for the two-valued CTL naturally generalizes...

  20. Rapid Analysis Model: Reducing Analysis Time without Sacrificing Quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, William W.; Owens, Diana

    2001-01-01

    Discusses the performance technology design process and the fact that the analysis phase is often being eliminated to speed up the process. Proposes a rapid analysis model that reduces time needed for analysis and still ensures more successful value-added solutions that focus on customer satisfaction. (LRW)

  1. Standard model for safety analysis report of fuel reprocessing plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-12-01

    A standard model for a safety analysis report of fuel reprocessing plants is established. This model shows the presentation format, the origin, and the details of the minimal information required by CNEN (Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear) aiming to evaluate the requests of construction permits and operation licenses made according to the legislation in force. (E.G.) [pt

  2. Standard model for safety analysis report of fuel fabrication plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-09-01

    A standard model for a safety analysis report of fuel fabrication plants is established. This model shows the presentation format, the origin, and the details of the minimal information required by CNEN (Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear) aiming to evaluate the requests of construction permits and operation licenses made according to the legislation in force. (E.G.) [pt

  3. Representing Uncertainty on Model Analysis Plots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Trevor I.

    2016-01-01

    Model analysis provides a mechanism for representing student learning as measured by standard multiple-choice surveys. The model plot contains information regarding both how likely students in a particular class are to choose the correct answer and how likely they are to choose an answer consistent with a well-documented conceptual model.…

  4. Behavior Analysis of Elderly using Topic Models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rieping, K.; Englebienne, G.; Kröse, B.

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes two new topic models for the analysis of human behavior in homes that are equipped with sensor networks. The models are based on Latent Dirichlet Allocation (LDA) topic models and can detect patterns in sensor data in an unsupervised manner. LDA-Gaussian, the first variation of

  5. Model correction factor method for system analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ditlevsen, Ove Dalager; Johannesen, Johannes M.

    2000-01-01

    The Model Correction Factor Method is an intelligent response surface method based on simplifiedmodeling. MCFM is aimed for reliability analysis in case of a limit state defined by an elaborate model. Herein it isdemonstrated that the method is applicable for elaborate limit state surfaces on which...... severallocally most central points exist without there being a simple geometric definition of the corresponding failuremodes such as is the case for collapse mechanisms in rigid plastic hinge models for frame structures. Taking as simplifiedidealized model a model of similarity with the elaborate model...... surface than existing in the idealized model....

  6. CMS Data Analysis School Model

    CERN Document Server

    Malik, Sudhir; Cavanaugh, R; Bloom, K; Chan, Kai-Feng; D'Hondt, J; Klima, B; Narain, M; Palla, F; Rolandi, G; Schörner-Sadenius, T

    2014-01-01

    To impart hands-on training in physics analysis, CMS experiment initiated the  concept of CMS Data Analysis School (CMSDAS). It was born three years ago at the LPC (LHC Physics Center), Fermilab and is based on earlier workshops held at the LPC and CLEO Experiment. As CMS transitioned from construction to the data taking mode, the nature of earlier training also evolved to include more of analysis tools, software tutorials and physics analysis. This effort epitomized as CMSDAS has proven to be a key for the new and young physicists to jump start and contribute to the physics goals of CMS by looking for new physics with the collision data. With over 400 physicists trained in six CMSDAS around the globe , CMS is trying to  engage the collaboration discovery potential and maximize the physics output. As a bigger goal, CMS is striving to nurture and increase engagement of the myriad talents of CMS, in the development of physics, service, upgrade, education of those new to CMS and the caree...

  7. A Succinct Approach to Static Analysis and Model Checking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Filipiuk, Piotr

    In a number of areas software correctness is crucial, therefore it is often desirable to formally verify the presence of various properties or the absence of errors. This thesis presents a framework for concisely expressing static analysis and model checking problems. The framework facilitates...... in the classical formulation of ALFP logic. Finally, we show that the logics and the associated solvers can be used for rapid prototyping. We illustrate that by a variety of case studies from static analysis and model checking....

  8. Modelling and analysis of global coal markets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trueby, Johannes

    2013-01-17

    The thesis comprises four interrelated essays featuring modelling and analysis of coal markets. Each of the four essays has a dedicated chapter in this thesis. Chapters 2 to 4 have, from a topical perspective, a backward-looking focus and deal with explaining recent market outcomes in the international coal trade. The findings of those essays may serve as guidance for assessing current coal market outcomes as well as expected market outcomes in the near to medium-term future. Chapter 5 has a forward-looking focus and builds a bridge between explaining recent market outcomes and projecting long-term market equilibria. Chapter 2, Strategic Behaviour in International Metallurgical Coal Markets, deals with market conduct of large exporters in the market of coals used in steel-making in the period 2008 to 2010. In this essay I analyse whether prices and trade-flows in the international market for metallurgical coals were subject to non-competitive conduct in the period 2008 to 2010. To do so, I develop mathematical programming models - a Stackelberg model, two varieties of a Cournot model, and a perfect competition model - for computing spatial equilibria in international resource markets. Results are analysed with various statistical measures to assess the prediction accuracy of the models. The results show that real market equilibria cannot be reproduced with a competitive model. However, real market outcomes can be accurately simulated with the non-competitive models, suggesting that market equilibria in the international metallurgical coal trade were subject to the strategic behaviour of coal exporters. Chapter 3 and chapter 4 deal with market power issues in the steam coal trade in the period 2006 to 2008. Steam coals are typically used to produce steam either for electricity generation or for heating purposes. In Chapter 3 we analyse market behaviour of key exporting countries in the steam coal trade. This chapter features the essay Market Structure Scenarios in

  9. Modelling and analysis of global coal markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trueby, Johannes

    2013-01-01

    The thesis comprises four interrelated essays featuring modelling and analysis of coal markets. Each of the four essays has a dedicated chapter in this thesis. Chapters 2 to 4 have, from a topical perspective, a backward-looking focus and deal with explaining recent market outcomes in the international coal trade. The findings of those essays may serve as guidance for assessing current coal market outcomes as well as expected market outcomes in the near to medium-term future. Chapter 5 has a forward-looking focus and builds a bridge between explaining recent market outcomes and projecting long-term market equilibria. Chapter 2, Strategic Behaviour in International Metallurgical Coal Markets, deals with market conduct of large exporters in the market of coals used in steel-making in the period 2008 to 2010. In this essay I analyse whether prices and trade-flows in the international market for metallurgical coals were subject to non-competitive conduct in the period 2008 to 2010. To do so, I develop mathematical programming models - a Stackelberg model, two varieties of a Cournot model, and a perfect competition model - for computing spatial equilibria in international resource markets. Results are analysed with various statistical measures to assess the prediction accuracy of the models. The results show that real market equilibria cannot be reproduced with a competitive model. However, real market outcomes can be accurately simulated with the non-competitive models, suggesting that market equilibria in the international metallurgical coal trade were subject to the strategic behaviour of coal exporters. Chapter 3 and chapter 4 deal with market power issues in the steam coal trade in the period 2006 to 2008. Steam coals are typically used to produce steam either for electricity generation or for heating purposes. In Chapter 3 we analyse market behaviour of key exporting countries in the steam coal trade. This chapter features the essay Market Structure Scenarios in

  10. Applying model analysis to a resource-based analysis of the Force and Motion Conceptual Evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trevor I. Smith

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Previously, we analyzed the Force and Motion Conceptual Evaluation in terms of a resources-based model that allows for clustering of questions so as to provide useful information on how students correctly or incorrectly reason about physics. In this paper, we apply model analysis to show that the associated model plots provide more information regarding the results of investigations using these question clusters than normalized gain graphs. We provide examples from two different institutions to show how the use of model analysis with our redefined clusters can provide previously hidden insight into the effectiveness of instruction.

  11. Data analysis and source modelling for LISA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shang, Yu

    2014-01-01

    The gravitational waves are one of the most important predictions in general relativity. Besides of the directly proof of the existence of GWs, there are already several ground based detectors (such as LIGO, GEO, etc) and the planed future space mission (such as: LISA) which are aim to detect the GWs directly. GW contain a large amount of information of its source, extracting these information can help us dig out the physical property of the source, even open a new window for understanding the Universe. Hence, GW data analysis will be a challenging task in seeking the GWs. In this thesis, I present two works about the data analysis for LISA. In the first work, we introduce an extended multimodal genetic algorithm which utilizes the properties of the signal and the detector response function to analyze the data from the third round of mock LISA data challenge. We have found all five sources present in the data and recovered the coalescence time, chirp mass, mass ratio and sky location with reasonable accuracy. As for the orbital angular momentum and two spins of the Black Holes, we have found a large number of widely separated modes in the parameter space with similar maximum likelihood values. The performance of this method is comparable, if not better, to already existing algorithms. In the second work, we introduce an new phenomenological waveform model for the extreme mass ratio inspiral system. This waveform consists of a set of harmonics with constant amplitude and slowly evolving phase which we decompose in a Taylor series. We use these phenomenological templates to detect the signal in the simulated data, and then, assuming a particular EMRI model, estimate the physical parameters of the binary with high precision. The results show that our phenomenological waveform is very feasible in the data analysis of EMRI signal.

  12. Sensitivity analysis of Smith's AMRV model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ho, Chih-Hsiang

    1995-01-01

    Multiple-expert hazard/risk assessments have considerable precedent, particularly in the Yucca Mountain site characterization studies. In this paper, we present a Bayesian approach to statistical modeling in volcanic hazard assessment for the Yucca Mountain site. Specifically, we show that the expert opinion on the site disruption parameter p is elicited on the prior distribution, π (p), based on geological information that is available. Moreover, π (p) can combine all available geological information motivated by conflicting but realistic arguments (e.g., simulation, cluster analysis, structural control, etc.). The incorporated uncertainties about the probability of repository disruption p, win eventually be averaged out by taking the expectation over π (p). We use the following priors in the analysis: priors chosen for mathematical convenience: Beta (r, s) for (r, s) = (2, 2), (3, 3), (5, 5), (2, 1), (2, 8), (8, 2), and (1, 1); and three priors motivated by expert knowledge. Sensitivity analysis is performed for each prior distribution. Estimated values of hazard based on the priors chosen for mathematical simplicity are uniformly higher than those obtained based on the priors motivated by expert knowledge. And, the model using the prior, Beta (8,2), yields the highest hazard (= 2.97 X 10 -2 ). The minimum hazard is produced by the open-quotes three-expert priorclose quotes (i.e., values of p are equally likely at 10 -3 10 -2 , and 10 -1 ). The estimate of the hazard is 1.39 x which is only about one order of magnitude smaller than the maximum value. The term, open-quotes hazardclose quotes, is defined as the probability of at least one disruption of a repository at the Yucca Mountain site by basaltic volcanism for the next 10,000 years

  13. Analysis of radiology business models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enzmann, Dieter R; Schomer, Donald F

    2013-03-01

    As health care moves to value orientation, radiology's traditional business model faces challenges to adapt. The authors describe a strategic value framework that radiology practices can use to best position themselves in their environments. This simplified construct encourages practices to define their dominant value propositions. There are 3 main value propositions that form a conceptual triangle, whose vertices represent the low-cost provider, the product leader, and the customer intimacy models. Each vertex has been a valid market position, but each demands specific capabilities and trade-offs. The underlying concepts help practices select value propositions they can successfully deliver in their competitive environments. Copyright © 2013 American College of Radiology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Analysis on the crime model using dynamical approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammad, Fazliza; Roslan, Ummu'Atiqah Mohd

    2017-08-01

    A research is carried out to analyze a dynamical model of the spread crime system. A Simplified 2-Dimensional Model is used in this research. The objectives of this research are to investigate the stability of the model of the spread crime, to summarize the stability by using a bifurcation analysis and to study the relationship of basic reproduction number, R0 with the parameter in the model. Our results for stability of equilibrium points shows that we have two types of stability, which are asymptotically stable and saddle node. While the result for bifurcation analysis shows that the number of criminally active and incarcerated increases as we increase the value of a parameter in the model. The result for the relationship of R0 with the parameter shows that as the parameter increases, R0 increase too, and the rate of crime increase too.

  15. Combustion instability modeling and analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santoro, R.J.; Yang, V.; Santavicca, D.A. [Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States); Sheppard, E.J. [Tuskeggee Univ., Tuskegee, AL (United States). Dept. of Aerospace Engineering

    1995-12-31

    It is well known that the two key elements for achieving low emissions and high performance in a gas turbine combustor are to simultaneously establish (1) a lean combustion zone for maintaining low NO{sub x} emissions and (2) rapid mixing for good ignition and flame stability. However, these requirements, when coupled with the short combustor lengths used to limit the residence time for NO formation typical of advanced gas turbine combustors, can lead to problems regarding unburned hydrocarbons (UHC) and carbon monoxide (CO) emissions, as well as the occurrence of combustion instabilities. The concurrent development of suitable analytical and numerical models that are validated with experimental studies is important for achieving this objective. A major benefit of the present research will be to provide for the first time an experimentally verified model of emissions and performance of gas turbine combustors. The present study represents a coordinated effort between industry, government and academia to investigate gas turbine combustion dynamics. Specific study areas include development of advanced diagnostics, definition of controlling phenomena, advancement of analytical and numerical modeling capabilities, and assessment of the current status of our ability to apply these tools to practical gas turbine combustors. The present work involves four tasks which address, respectively, (1) the development of a fiber-optic probe for fuel-air ratio measurements, (2) the study of combustion instability using laser-based diagnostics in a high pressure, high temperature flow reactor, (3) the development of analytical and numerical modeling capabilities for describing combustion instability which will be validated against experimental data, and (4) the preparation of a literature survey and establishment of a data base on practical experience with combustion instability.

  16. Generation and analysis of large reliability models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palumbo, Daniel L.; Nicol, David M.

    1990-01-01

    An effort has been underway for several years at NASA's Langley Research Center to extend the capability of Markov modeling techniques for reliability analysis to the designers of highly reliable avionic systems. This effort has been focused in the areas of increased model abstraction and increased computational capability. The reliability model generator (RMG), a software tool which uses as input a graphical, object-oriented block diagram of the system, is discussed. RMG uses an automated failure modes-effects analysis algorithm to produce the reliability model from the graphical description. Also considered is the ASSURE software tool, a parallel processing program which uses the ASSIST modeling language and SURE semi-Markov solution technique. An executable failure modes-effects analysis is used by ASSURE. The successful combination of the power of graphical representation, automated model generation, and parallel computation leads to the conclusion that large system architectures can now be analyzed.

  17. Hypersonic - Model Analysis as a Service

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Acretoaie, Vlad; Störrle, Harald

    2014-01-01

    Hypersonic is a Cloud-based tool that proposes a new approach to the deployment of model analysis facilities. It is implemented as a RESTful Web service API o_ering analysis features such as model clone detection. This approach allows the migration of resource intensive analysis algorithms from...... monolithic desktop modeling tools to a wide range of mobile and Web-based clients. As a technology demonstrator, a Web application acting as a client for the Hypersonic API has been implemented and made publicly available....

  18. Reusable Launch Vehicle (RLV) Market Analysis Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prince, Frank A.

    1999-01-01

    The RLV Market Analysis model is at best a rough order approximation of actual market behavior. However, it does give a quick indication if the flights exists to enable an economically viable RLV, and the assumptions necessary for the vehicle to capture those flights. Additional analysis, market research, and updating with the latest information on payloads and launches would improve the model. Plans are to update the model as new information becomes available and new requirements are levied. This tool will continue to be a vital part of NASA's RLV business analysis capability for the foreseeable future.

  19. Hierarchical modeling and analysis for spatial data

    CERN Document Server

    Banerjee, Sudipto; Gelfand, Alan E

    2003-01-01

    Among the many uses of hierarchical modeling, their application to the statistical analysis of spatial and spatio-temporal data from areas such as epidemiology And environmental science has proven particularly fruitful. Yet to date, the few books that address the subject have been either too narrowly focused on specific aspects of spatial analysis, or written at a level often inaccessible to those lacking a strong background in mathematical statistics.Hierarchical Modeling and Analysis for Spatial Data is the first accessible, self-contained treatment of hierarchical methods, modeling, and dat

  20. Comparative analysis of design models for concrete corbels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. L. Araújo

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The main objective of this paper is performing a comparative analysis of some design models for precast concrete corbels. For this, it was analyzed design models from Brazilian (NBR 9062 and European (EUROCODE 2 Codes and a US design handbook (PCI. Moreover, three analytical models showed in the literature are analyzed. The objective of this comparative is identifying the best design models to represent the failure load of concrete corbels by the tie yields or by the concrete crushing. Moreover, it is intended to evaluate the contribution of horizontal stirrups to resistance of concrete corbels. For this, a database was assembled from test results of concrete corbels carried out by several researchers and they are showed in the literature. The design models were applied to this database and from statistical tools, adjustments coefficients are recommended to be applied on these design models to take into account the results dispersion found in the analysis.

  1. Representing uncertainty on model analysis plots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trevor I. Smith

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Model analysis provides a mechanism for representing student learning as measured by standard multiple-choice surveys. The model plot contains information regarding both how likely students in a particular class are to choose the correct answer and how likely they are to choose an answer consistent with a well-documented conceptual model. Unfortunately, Bao’s original presentation of the model plot did not include a way to represent uncertainty in these measurements. I present details of a method to add error bars to model plots by expanding the work of Sommer and Lindell. I also provide a template for generating model plots with error bars.

  2. Models of Plankton Community Changes during a Warm Water Anomaly in Arctic Waters Show Altered Trophic Pathways with Minimal Changes in Carbon Export

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Vernet

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Carbon flow through pelagic food webs is an expression of the composition, biomass and activity of phytoplankton as primary producers. In the near future, severe environmental changes in the Arctic Ocean are expected to lead to modifications of phytoplankton communities. Here, we used a combination of linear inverse modeling and ecological network analysis to study changes in food webs before, during, and after an anomalous warm water event in the eastern Fram Strait of the West Spitsbergen Current (WSC that resulted in a shift from diatoms to flagellates during the summer (June–July. The model predicts substantial differences in the pathways of carbon flow in diatom- vs. Phaeocystis/nanoflagellate-dominated phytoplankton communities, but relatively small differences in carbon export. The model suggests a change in the zooplankton community and activity through increasing microzooplankton abundance and the switching of meso- and macrozooplankton feeding from strict herbivory to omnivory, detritivory and coprophagy. When small cells and flagellates dominated, the phytoplankton carbon pathway through the food web was longer and the microbial loop more active. Furthermore, one step was added in the flow from phytoplankton to mesozooplankton, and phytoplankton carbon to higher trophic levels is available via detritus or microzooplankton. Model results highlight how specific changes in phytoplankton community composition, as expected in a climate change scenario, do not necessarily lead to a reduction in carbon export.

  3. Practical Soil-Shallow Foundation Model for Nonlinear Structural Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Moussa Leblouba; Salah Al Toubat; Muhammad Ekhlasur Rahman; Omer Mugheida

    2016-01-01

    Soil-shallow foundation interaction models that are incorporated into most structural analysis programs generally lack accuracy and efficiency or neglect some aspects of foundation behavior. For instance, soil-shallow foundation systems have been observed to show both small and large loops under increasing amplitude load reversals. This paper presents a practical macroelement model for soil-shallow foundation system and its stability under simultaneous horizontal and vertical loads. The model...

  4. Analysis and modeling of "focus" in context

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hovy, Dirk; Anumanchipalli, Gopala; Parlikar, Alok

    2013-01-01

    or speech stimuli. We then build models to show how well we predict that focus word from lexical (and higher) level features. Also, using spectral and prosodic information, we show the differences in these focus words when spoken with and without context. Finally, we show how we can improve speech synthesis...... of these utterances given focus information....

  5. Meta-analysis of diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) studies shows altered fractional anisotropy occurring in distinct brain areas in association with depression

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Murphy, Melissa L

    2011-09-27

    Abstract Fractional anisotropy anomalies occurring in the white matter tracts in the brains of depressed patients may reflect microstructural changes underlying the pathophysiology of this disorder. We conducted a meta-analysis of fractional anisotropy abnormalities occurring in major depressive disorder using voxel-based diffusion tensor imaging studies. Using the Embase, PubMed and Google Scholar databases, 89 relevant data sets were identified, of which 7 (including 188 patients with major depressive disorder and 221 healthy controls) met our inclusion criteria. Authors were contacted to retrieve any additional data required. Coordinates were extracted from clusters of significant white matter fractional anisotropy differences between patients and controls. Relevant demographic, clinical and methodological variables were extracted from each study or obtained directly from authors. The meta-analysis was carried out using Signed Differential Mapping. Patients with depression showed decreased white matter fractional anisotropy values in the superior longitudinal fasciculus and increased fractional anisotropy values in the fronto-occipital fasciculus compared to controls. Using quartile and jackknife sensitivity analysis, we found that reduced fractional anisotropy in the left superior longitudinal fasciculus was very stable, with increases in the right fronto-occipital fasciculus driven by just one study. In conclusion, our meta-analysis revealed a significant reduction in fractional anisotropy values in the left superior longitudinal fasciculus, which may ultimately play an important role in the pathology of depression.

  6. Meta-analysis of diffusion tensor imaging studies shows altered fractional anisotropy occurring in distinct brain areas in association with depression.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Murphy, Melissa L

    2011-09-01

    Fractional anisotropy anomalies occurring in the white matter tracts in the brains of depressed patients may reflect microstructural changes underlying the pathophysiology of this disorder. We conducted a meta-analysis of fractional anisotropy abnormalities occurring in major depressive disorder using voxel-based diffusion tensor imaging studies. Using the Embase, PubMed and Google Scholar databases, 89 relevant data sets were identified, of which 7 (including 188 patients with major depressive disorder and 221 healthy controls) met our inclusion criteria. Authors were contacted to retrieve any additional data required. Coordinates were extracted from clusters of significant white matter fractional anisotropy differences between patients and controls. Relevant demographic, clinical and methodological variables were extracted from each study or obtained directly from authors. The meta-analysis was carried out using Signed Differential Mapping. Patients with depression showed decreased white matter fractional anisotropy values in the superior longitudinal fasciculus and increased fractional anisotropy values in the fronto-occipital fasciculus compared to controls. Using quartile and jackknife sensitivity analysis, we found that reduced fractional anisotropy in the left superior longitudinal fasciculus was very stable, with increases in the right fronto-occipital fasciculus driven by just one study. In conclusion, our meta-analysis revealed a significant reduction in fractional anisotropy values in the left superior longitudinal fasciculus, which may ultimately play an important role in the pathology of depression.

  7. Three-dimensional model analysis and processing

    CERN Document Server

    Yu, Faxin; Luo, Hao; Wang, Pinghui

    2011-01-01

    This book focuses on five hot research directions in 3D model analysis and processing in computer science:  compression, feature extraction, content-based retrieval, irreversible watermarking and reversible watermarking.

  8. A Multiple siRNA-Based Anti-HIV/SHIV Microbicide Shows Protection in Both In Vitro and In Vivo Models.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandhya Boyapalle

    Full Text Available Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV types 1 and 2 (HIV-1 and HIV-2 are the etiologic agents of AIDS. Most HIV-1 infected individuals worldwide are women, who acquire HIV infections during sexual contact. Blocking HIV mucosal transmission and local spread in the female lower genital tract is important in preventing infection and ultimately eliminating the pandemic. Microbicides work by destroying the microbes or preventing them from establishing an infection. Thus, a number of different types of microbicides are under investigation, however, the lack of their solubility and bioavailability, and toxicity has been major hurdles. Herein, we report the development of multifunctional chitosan-lipid nanocomplexes that can effectively deliver plasmids encoding siRNA(s as microbicides without adverse effects and provide significant protection against HIV in both in vitro and in vivo models. Chitosan or chitosan-lipid (chlipid was complexed with a cocktail of plasmids encoding HIV-1-specific siRNAs (psiRNAs and evaluated for their efficacy in HEK-293 cells, PBMCs derived from nonhuman primates, 3-dimensional human vaginal ectocervical tissue (3D-VEC model and also in non-human primate model. Moreover, prophylactic administration of the chlipid to deliver a psiRNA cocktail intravaginally with a cream formulation in a non-human primate model showed substantial reduction of SHIV (simian/human immunodeficiency virus SF162 viral titers. Taken together, these studies demonstrate the potential of chlipid-siRNA nanocomplexes as a potential genetic microbicide against HIV infections.

  9. Applied research in uncertainty modeling and analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Ayyub, Bilal

    2005-01-01

    Uncertainty has been a concern to engineers, managers, and scientists for many years. For a long time uncertainty has been considered synonymous with random, stochastic, statistic, or probabilistic. Since the early sixties views on uncertainty have become more heterogeneous. In the past forty years numerous tools that model uncertainty, above and beyond statistics, have been proposed by several engineers and scientists. The tool/method to model uncertainty in a specific context should really be chosen by considering the features of the phenomenon under consideration, not independent of what is known about the system and what causes uncertainty. In this fascinating overview of the field, the authors provide broad coverage of uncertainty analysis/modeling and its application. Applied Research in Uncertainty Modeling and Analysis presents the perspectives of various researchers and practitioners on uncertainty analysis and modeling outside their own fields and domain expertise. Rather than focusing explicitly on...

  10. The Most Entertaining Show on Television - Your Local News - A Content Analysis of the News on Tampa Bay's Local Fox Affiliate

    OpenAIRE

    Hagman, Carl Philip

    2009-01-01

    This dissertation project is based on a content analysis of the local television news on WTVT – Fox 13, the Fox affiliate in Tampa Bay, Florida. The hypothesis is that the typical American local newscast is produced primarily to entertain, rather than inform, and that this is shown in both story selection, as well as in the form and structure of the news stories. This project shows that the market-driven journalism in America has in recent decades led much of the U.S. media to focus on tabloi...

  11. Modeling shows that the NS5A inhibitor daclatasvir has two modes of action and yields a shorter estimate of the hepatitis C virus half-life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guedj, Jeremie; Dahari, Harel; Rong, Libin; Sansone, Natasha D; Nettles, Richard E; Cotler, Scott J; Layden, Thomas J; Uprichard, Susan L; Perelson, Alan S

    2013-03-05

    The nonstructural 5A (NS5A) protein is a target for drug development against hepatitis C virus (HCV). Interestingly, the NS5A inhibitor daclatasvir (BMS-790052) caused a decrease in serum HCV RNA levels by about two orders of magnitude within 6 h of administration. However, NS5A has no known enzymatic functions, making it difficult to understand daclatasvir's mode of action (MOA) and to estimate its antiviral effectiveness. Modeling viral kinetics during therapy has provided important insights into the MOA and effectiveness of a variety of anti-HCV agents. Here, we show that understanding the effects of daclatasvir in vivo requires a multiscale model that incorporates drug effects on the HCV intracellular lifecycle, and we validated this approach with in vitro HCV infection experiments. The model predicts that daclatasvir efficiently blocks two distinct stages of the viral lifecycle, namely viral RNA synthesis and virion assembly/secretion with mean effectiveness of 99% and 99.8%, respectively, and yields a more precise estimate of the serum HCV half-life, 45 min, i.e., around four times shorter than previous estimates. Intracellular HCV RNA in HCV-infected cells treated with daclatasvir and the HCV polymerase inhibitor NM107 showed a similar pattern of decline. However, daclatasvir treatment led to an immediate and rapid decline of extracellular HCV titers compared to a delayed (6-9 h) and slower decline with NM107, confirming an effect of daclatasvir on both viral replication and assembly/secretion. The multiscale modeling approach, validated with in vitro kinetic experiments, brings a unique conceptual framework for understanding the mechanism of action of a variety of agents in development for the treatment of HCV.

  12. Early Start DENVER Model: A Meta - analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jane P. Canoy

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Each child with Autism Spectrum Disorder has different symptoms, skills and types of impairment or disorder with other children. This is why the word “spectrum” is included in this disorder. Eapen, Crncec, and Walter, 2013 claimed that there was an emerging evidence that early interventions gives the greatest capacity of child’s development during their first years of life as “brain plasticity” are high during this period. With this, the only intervention program model for children as young as 18 months that has been validated in a randomized clinical trial is “Early Start Denver Model” (ESDM. This study aimed to determine the effectiveness of the outcome of “Early Start Denver Model” (ESDM towards young children with Autism Spectrum Disorders. This study made use of meta-analysis method. In this study, the researcher utilized studies related to “Early Start Denver Model (ESDM” which is published in a refereed journal which are all available online. There were five studies included which totals 149 children exposed to ESDM. To examine the “pooled effects” of ESDM in a variety of outcomes, a meta-analytic procedure was performed after the extraction of data of the concrete outcomes. Comprehensive Meta Analysis Version 3.3.070 was used to analyze the data.  The effectiveness of the outcome of “Early Start Denver Model” towards young children with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD highly depends on the intensity of intervention and the younger child age. This study would provide the basis in effectively implementing an early intervention to children with autism such as the “Early Start Denver Model” (ESDM that would show great outcome effects to those children that has “Autism Spectrum Disorder”.

  13. [Tuscan Chronic Care Model: a preliminary analysis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbato, Angelo; Meggiolaro, Angela; Rossi, Luigi; Fioravanti, C; Palermita, F; La Torre, Giuseppe

    2015-01-01

    the aim of this study is to present a preliminary analysis of efficacy and effectiveness of a model of chronically ill care (Chronic Care Model, CCM). the analysis took into account 106 territorial modules, 1016 General Practitioners and 1,228,595 patients. The diagnostic and therapeutic pathways activated (PDTA), involved four chronic conditions, selected according to the prevalence and incidence, in Tuscany Region: Diabetes Mellitus (DM), Heart Failure (SC), Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) and stroke. Six epidemiological indicators of process and output were selected, in order to measure the model of care performed, before and after its application: adherence to specific follow-up for each pathology (use of clinical and laboratory indicators), annual average of expenditure per/capita/euro for diagnostic tests, in laboratory and instrumental, average expenditure per/capita/year for specialist visits; hospitalization rate for diseases related to the main pathology, hospitalization rate for long-term complications and rate of access to the emergency department (ED). Data were collected through the database; the differences before and after the intervention and between exposed and unexposed, were analyzed by method "Before-After (Controlled and Uncontrolled) Studies". The impact of the intervention was calculated as DD (difference of the differences). DM management showed an increased adhesion to follow-up (DD: +8.1%), and the use of laboratory diagnostics (DD: +4,9 €/year/pc), less hospitalization for long-term complications and for endocrine related diseases (DD respectively: 5.8/1000 and DD: +1.2/1000), finally a smaller increase of access to PS (DD: -1.6/1000), despite a slight increase of specialistic visits (DD: +0,38 €/year/pc). The management of SC initially showed a rising adherence to follow-up (DD: +2.3%), a decrease of specialist visits (DD:E 1.03 €/year/pc), hospitalization and access to PS for exacerbations (DD: -4.4/1000 and DD: -6

  14. Sensitivity Analysis of a Physiochemical Interaction Model ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The mathematical modelling of physiochemical interactions in the framework of industrial and environmental physics usually relies on an initial value problem which is described by a single first order ordinary differential equation. In this analysis, we will study the sensitivity analysis due to a variation of the initial condition ...

  15. Credit Risk Evaluation : Modeling - Analysis - Management

    OpenAIRE

    Wehrspohn, Uwe

    2002-01-01

    An analysis and further development of the building blocks of modern credit risk management: -Definitions of default -Estimation of default probabilities -Exposures -Recovery Rates -Pricing -Concepts of portfolio dependence -Time horizons for risk calculations -Quantification of portfolio risk -Estimation of risk measures -Portfolio analysis and portfolio improvement -Evaluation and comparison of credit risk models -Analytic portfolio loss distributions The thesis contributes to the evaluatio...

  16. A Bayesian Nonparametric Meta-Analysis Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karabatsos, George; Talbott, Elizabeth; Walker, Stephen G.

    2015-01-01

    In a meta-analysis, it is important to specify a model that adequately describes the effect-size distribution of the underlying population of studies. The conventional normal fixed-effect and normal random-effects models assume a normal effect-size population distribution, conditionally on parameters and covariates. For estimating the mean overall…

  17. Premium adjustment: actuarial analysis on epidemiological models ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Premium adjustment: actuarial analysis on epidemiological models. DEA Omorogbe, SO Edobor. Abstract. In this paper, we analyse insurance premium adjustment in the context of an epidemiological model where the insurer's future financial liability is greater than the premium from patients. In this situation, it becomes ...

  18. Model Based Analysis of Insider Threats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Taolue; Han, Tingting; Kammueller, Florian

    2016-01-01

    In order to detect malicious insider attacks it is important to model and analyse infrastructures and policies of organisations and the insiders acting within them. We extend formal approaches that allow modelling such scenarios by quantitative aspects to enable a precise analysis of security...

  19. Independent Component Analysis in Multimedia Modeling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Jan

    2003-01-01

    Modeling of multimedia and multimodal data becomes increasingly important with the digitalization of the world. The objective of this paper is to demonstrate the potential of independent component analysis and blind sources separation methods for modeling and understanding of multimedia data, which...

  20. Practical Soil-Shallow Foundation Model for Nonlinear Structural Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moussa Leblouba

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Soil-shallow foundation interaction models that are incorporated into most structural analysis programs generally lack accuracy and efficiency or neglect some aspects of foundation behavior. For instance, soil-shallow foundation systems have been observed to show both small and large loops under increasing amplitude load reversals. This paper presents a practical macroelement model for soil-shallow foundation system and its stability under simultaneous horizontal and vertical loads. The model comprises three spring elements: nonlinear horizontal, nonlinear rotational, and linear vertical springs. The proposed macroelement model was verified using experimental test results from large-scale model foundations subjected to small and large cyclic loading cases.

  1. Perturbation analysis of nonlinear matrix population models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hal Caswell

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Perturbation analysis examines the response of a model to changes in its parameters. It is commonly applied to population growth rates calculated from linear models, but there has been no general approach to the analysis of nonlinear models. Nonlinearities in demographic models may arise due to density-dependence, frequency-dependence (in 2-sex models, feedback through the environment or the economy, and recruitment subsidy due to immigration, or from the scaling inherent in calculations of proportional population structure. This paper uses matrix calculus to derive the sensitivity and elasticity of equilibria, cycles, ratios (e.g. dependency ratios, age averages and variances, temporal averages and variances, life expectancies, and population growth rates, for both age-classified and stage-classified models. Examples are presented, applying the results to both human and non-human populations.

  2. Ignalina NPP Safety Analysis: Models and Results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uspuras, E.

    1999-01-01

    Research directions, linked to safety assessment of the Ignalina NPP, of the scientific safety analysis group are presented: Thermal-hydraulic analysis of accidents and operational transients; Thermal-hydraulic assessment of Ignalina NPP Accident Localization System and other compartments; Structural analysis of plant components, piping and other parts of Main Circulation Circuit; Assessment of RBMK-1500 reactor core and other. Models and main works carried out last year are described. (author)

  3. Bayesian Model Averaging for Propensity Score Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaplan, David; Chen, Jianshen

    2014-01-01

    This article considers Bayesian model averaging as a means of addressing uncertainty in the selection of variables in the propensity score equation. We investigate an approximate Bayesian model averaging approach based on the model-averaged propensity score estimates produced by the R package BMA but that ignores uncertainty in the propensity score. We also provide a fully Bayesian model averaging approach via Markov chain Monte Carlo sampling (MCMC) to account for uncertainty in both parameters and models. A detailed study of our approach examines the differences in the causal estimate when incorporating noninformative versus informative priors in the model averaging stage. We examine these approaches under common methods of propensity score implementation. In addition, we evaluate the impact of changing the size of Occam's window used to narrow down the range of possible models. We also assess the predictive performance of both Bayesian model averaging propensity score approaches and compare it with the case without Bayesian model averaging. Overall, results show that both Bayesian model averaging propensity score approaches recover the treatment effect estimates well and generally provide larger uncertainty estimates, as expected. Both Bayesian model averaging approaches offer slightly better prediction of the propensity score compared with the Bayesian approach with a single propensity score equation. Covariate balance checks for the case study show that both Bayesian model averaging approaches offer good balance. The fully Bayesian model averaging approach also provides posterior probability intervals of the balance indices.

  4. The fading affect bias shows positive outcomes at the general but not the individual level of analysis in the context of social media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibbons, Jeffrey A; Horowitz, Kyle A; Dunlap, Spencer M

    2017-08-01

    Unpleasant affect fades faster than pleasant affect (e.g., Walker, Vogl, & Thompson, 1997); this effect is referred to as the Fading Affect Bias (FAB; Walker, Skowronski, Gibbons, Vogl, & Thompson, 2003a). Research shows that the FAB is consistently related to positive/healthy outcomes at a general but not at a specific level of analysis based on event types and individual differences (e.g., Gibbons et al., 2013). Based on the positive outcomes for FAB and negative outcomes for social media (Bolton et al., 2013; Huang, 2010), the current study examined FAB in the context of social media events along with related individual differences. General positive outcomes were shown in the form of robust FAB effects across social media and non-social media events, a larger FAB for non-social media events than for social media events, negative correlations of FAB with depression, anxiety, and stress as well as a positive correlation of FAB with self-esteem. However, the lack of a negative correlation between FAB and anxiety for social media events in a 3-way interaction did not show positive outcomes at a specific level of analysis. Rehearsal ratings mediated the 3-way interaction. Implications are discussed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. A comparison of genotyping-by-sequencing analysis methods on low-coverage crop datasets shows advantages of a new workflow, GB-eaSy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wickland, Daniel P; Battu, Gopal; Hudson, Karen A; Diers, Brian W; Hudson, Matthew E

    2017-12-28

    Genotyping-by-sequencing (GBS), a method to identify genetic variants and quickly genotype samples, reduces genome complexity by using restriction enzymes to divide the genome into fragments whose ends are sequenced on short-read sequencing platforms. While cost-effective, this method produces extensive missing data and requires complex bioinformatics analysis. GBS is most commonly used on crop plant genomes, and because crop plants have highly variable ploidy and repeat content, the performance of GBS analysis software can vary by target organism. Here we focus our analysis on soybean, a polyploid crop with a highly duplicated genome, relatively little public GBS data and few dedicated tools. We compared the performance of five GBS pipelines using low-coverage Illumina sequence data from three soybean populations. To address issues identified with existing methods, we developed GB-eaSy, a GBS bioinformatics workflow that incorporates widely used genomics tools, parallelization and automation to increase the accuracy and accessibility of GBS data analysis. Compared to other GBS pipelines, GB-eaSy rapidly and accurately identified the greatest number of SNPs, with SNP calls closely concordant with whole-genome sequencing of selected lines. Across all five GBS analysis platforms, SNP calls showed unexpectedly low convergence but generally high accuracy, indicating that the workflows arrived at largely complementary sets of valid SNP calls on the low-coverage data analyzed. We show that GB-eaSy is approximately as good as, or better than, other leading software solutions in the accuracy, yield and missing data fraction of variant calling, as tested on low-coverage genomic data from soybean. It also performs well relative to other solutions in terms of the run time and disk space required. In addition, GB-eaSy is built from existing open-source, modular software packages that are regularly updated and commonly used, making it straightforward to install and maintain

  6. Reliability of four models for clinical gait analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kainz, Hans; Graham, David; Edwards, Julie; Walsh, Henry P J; Maine, Sheanna; Boyd, Roslyn N; Lloyd, David G; Modenese, Luca; Carty, Christopher P

    2017-05-01

    Three-dimensional gait analysis (3DGA) has become a common clinical tool for treatment planning in children with cerebral palsy (CP). Many clinical gait laboratories use the conventional gait analysis model (e.g. Plug-in-Gait model), which uses Direct Kinematics (DK) for joint kinematic calculations, whereas, musculoskeletal models, mainly used for research, use Inverse Kinematics (IK). Musculoskeletal IK models have the advantage of enabling additional analyses which might improve the clinical decision-making in children with CP. Before any new model can be used in a clinical setting, its reliability has to be evaluated and compared to a commonly used clinical gait model (e.g. Plug-in-Gait model) which was the purpose of this study. Two testers performed 3DGA in eleven CP and seven typically developing participants on two occasions. Intra- and inter-tester standard deviations (SD) and standard error of measurement (SEM) were used to compare the reliability of two DK models (Plug-in-Gait and a six degrees-of-freedom model solved using Vicon software) and two IK models (two modifications of 'gait2392' solved using OpenSim). All models showed good reliability (mean SEM of 3.0° over all analysed models and joint angles). Variations in joint kinetics were less in typically developed than in CP participants. The modified 'gait2392' model which included all the joint rotations commonly reported in clinical 3DGA, showed reasonable reliable joint kinematic and kinetic estimates, and allows additional musculoskeletal analysis on surgically adjustable parameters, e.g. muscle-tendon lengths, and, therefore, is a suitable model for clinical gait analysis. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  7. MSSV Modeling for Wolsong-1 Safety Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moon, Bok Ja; Choi, Chul Jin; Kim, Seoung Rae [KEPCO EandC, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-10-15

    The main steam safety valves (MSSVs) are installed on the main steam line to prevent the overpressurization of the system. MSSVs are held in closed position by spring force and the valves pop open by internal force when the main steam pressure increases to open set pressure. If the overpressure condition is relieved, the valves begin to close. For the safety analysis of anticipated accident condition, the safety systems are modeled conservatively to simulate the accident condition more severe. MSSVs are also modeled conservatively for the analysis of over-pressurization accidents. In this paper, the pressure transient is analyzed at over-pressurization condition to evaluate the conservatism for MSSV models

  8. Model selection criterion in survival analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karabey, Uǧur; Tutkun, Nihal Ata

    2017-07-01

    Survival analysis deals with time until occurrence of an event of interest such as death, recurrence of an illness, the failure of an equipment or divorce. There are various survival models with semi-parametric or parametric approaches used in medical, natural or social sciences. The decision on the most appropriate model for the data is an important point of the analysis. In literature Akaike information criteria or Bayesian information criteria are used to select among nested models. In this study,the behavior of these information criterion is discussed for a real data set.

  9. A Content Analysis of How Sexual Behavior and Reproductive Health are Being Portrayed on Primetime Television Shows Being Watched by Teens and Young Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinsler, Janni J; Glik, Deborah; de Castro Buffington, Sandra; Malan, Hannah; Nadjat-Haiem, Carsten; Wainwright, Nicole; Papp-Green, Melissa

    2018-02-01

    Television is a leading source of sexual education for teens and young adults, thus it is important to understand how sexual behavior and reproductive health are portrayed in popular primetime programming. This study is a media content analysis of the 19 top-rated scripted English-language primetime television shows aired between January 1, 2015 and May 31, 2015, and viewed by American youth audiences 12-24 years of age. The purpose of this study is to assess how sex/sexuality and reproductive health are being portrayed in a popular medium that reaches many adolescent and young adult audiences. Themes used for this analysis include youth pregnancy/parenting, mentoring/guidance of youth regarding sexual behavior, sex/sexuality, body image/identity, sexual violence/abuse/harassment, gender identity/sexual orientation, and reproductive health. Themes have been classified in one of the following six categories: visual cues, brief mentions, dialogue, minor storylines, major storylines, and multi-episode storylines. Our findings indicate that narratives providing educational information regarding the risks and consequences of sexual behavior were missing from the television shows we analyzed and that storylines promoting low risk sexual behavior were rare. Sexual violence and abuse, casual sex among adults, lack of contraception use, or no portrayal of consequences of risky behaviors were common. Compared to prior research, we found an emergent theme normalizing non-heterosexual gender identity and sexual orientation. Our findings have important implications as exposure to popular media shapes the perceptions and behaviors of teens and young adults. This study has the potential to shed light on the need to create stories and narratives in television shows watched by American teens and young adults with educational messages regarding the risks and consequences of sexual behavior.

  10. RFA: R-Squared Fitting Analysis Model for Power Attack

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    An Wang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Correlation Power Analysis (CPA introduced by Brier et al. in 2004 is an important method in the side-channel attack and it enables the attacker to use less cost to derive secret or private keys with efficiency over the last decade. In this paper, we propose R-squared fitting model analysis (RFA which is more appropriate for nonlinear correlation analysis. This model can also be applied to other side-channel methods such as second-order CPA and collision-correlation power attack. Our experiments show that the RFA-based attacks bring significant advantages in both time complexity and success rate.

  11. Simulation modeling and analysis with Arena

    CERN Document Server

    Altiok, Tayfur

    2007-01-01

    Simulation Modeling and Analysis with Arena is a highly readable textbook which treats the essentials of the Monte Carlo discrete-event simulation methodology, and does so in the context of a popular Arena simulation environment.” It treats simulation modeling as an in-vitro laboratory that facilitates the understanding of complex systems and experimentation with what-if scenarios in order to estimate their performance metrics. The book contains chapters on the simulation modeling methodology and the underpinnings of discrete-event systems, as well as the relevant underlying probability, statistics, stochastic processes, input analysis, model validation and output analysis. All simulation-related concepts are illustrated in numerous Arena examples, encompassing production lines, manufacturing and inventory systems, transportation systems, and computer information systems in networked settings.· Introduces the concept of discrete event Monte Carlo simulation, the most commonly used methodology for modeli...

  12. Modelling of SWOT Analysis Using Fuzzy Integrals

    OpenAIRE

    Haile, Meaza; Křupka, Jiří

    2016-01-01

    To develop a strategy for an organization it is important to understand the organization and its surrounding environment. SWOT(Strength, Weakness, Opportunity and Threat) analysis is a famous tool to perform this task precisely by showing the strength, weakness of the organization and the external factors, opportunities and threats that affect its success. SWOT analysis is commonly used by business; however non-profit organizations also use SWOT analysis for decision-making and strategy evalu...

  13. Chitosan dressing promotes healing in third degree burns in mice: gene expression analysis shows biphasic effects for rapid tissue regeneration and decreased fibrotic signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baxter, Ruth M; Dai, Tianhong; Kimball, Jess; Wang, Eugenia; Hamblin, Michael R; Wiesmann, William P; McCarthy, Simon J; Baker, Shenda M

    2013-02-01

    Burns are a significant health challenge and healing can result in scar formation. Chitosan, a derivative of chitin, has been used to promote wound healing. In this study we used gene expression profiling in a mouse model of full thickness cutaneous burn to assess the benefits of treating with a chitosan lactate dressing. Three days after wounding mice treated with chitosan showed increased expression of genes associated with formation of granulation tissue. At a later time point, seven days after wounding, genes that initially showed increased expression were now down-regulated, and there was increased expression of genes involved in remodeling suggesting that the chitosan treatment results in accelerated healing. Quantitative RT-PCR showed modulated mRNA levels for TGFβ1 by the chitosan dressing. TGFβ1 initially promotes healing but extended activity can result in scarring. Importantly we found that expression was elevated at day three, but decreased at day seven suggesting that chitosan treatment will not result in scar formation, and may even be beneficial in preventing scar formation. Additionally, the biphasic regulation of expression of TGFβ1 could be a powerful biomarker for future studies of the wound-healing potential of chitosan based and other treatments for burn wounds. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Gc, gc-ms analysis of lipophilic fractions of aerial parts of fagonia indica burm.f. showing growth inhibitory effect on ht 29 colorectal cancer cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farheen, R.; Mahmood, I.

    2016-01-01

    Fagonia indica Burm.f. is a small genus of herbs and under shrubs. The plant contains potentially active substances and has been used traditionally for the treatment of many illnesses including cancer. Many polar compounds have been reported from this plant but its non-polar constituents have only been rarely studied. In the present studies these constituents of aerial parts of Fagonia indica Burm.f. and its sub fractions showing growth inhibitory effect on HT 29 colorectal cancer cells were analyzed using flame ionization detector (GC-FID) and GC-EIMS analysis. The present studies exhibited the presence of free fatty acids and their esters along with structurally diverse constituents including triterpene, heterocyclic organic compound, aromatics, hydrocarbons, alcohols, lactone and sterols which may be responsible for this activity. The results suggest that the non-polar constituents of F. indica bear a potential of further studies. (author)

  15. Site-directed mutagenesis and molecular modelling studies show the role of Asp82 and cysteines in rat acylase 1, a member of the M20 family

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herga, Sameh; Brutus, Alexandre; Vitale, Rosa Maria; Miche, Helene; Perrier, Josette; Puigserver, Antoine; Scaloni, Andrea; Giardina, Thierry

    2005-01-01

    Acylase 1 from rat kidney catalyzes the hydrolysis of acyl-amino acids. Sequence alignment has shown that this enzyme belongs to the metalloprotein family M20. Site-directed mutagenesis experiments led to the identification of one functionally important amino acid residue located near one of the zinc coordinating residues, which play a critical role in the enzymatic activity. The D82N- and D82E-substituted forms showed no significant activity and very low activity, respectively, along with a loss of zinc coordination. Molecular modelling investigations indicated a putative role of D82 in ensuring a proper protonation of catalytic histidine. In addition, none of the five cysteine residues present in the rat kidney acylase 1 sequence seemed involved in the catalytic process: the loss of activity induced by the C294A substitution was probably due to a conformational change in the 3D structure

  16. Large Scale Genome Analysis Shows that the Epitopes for Broadly Cross-Reactive Antibodies Are Predominant in the Pandemic 2009 Influenza Virus A H1N1 Strain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edgar E. Lara-Ramírez

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The past pandemic strain H1N1 (A (H1N1pdm09 has now become a common component of current seasonal influenza viruses. It has changed the pre-existing immunity of the human population to succeeding infections. In the present study, a total of 14,210 distinct sequences downloaded from National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI database were used for the analysis. The epitope compositions in A (H1N1pdm09, classic seasonal strains, swine strains as well as highly virulent avian strain H5N1, identified with the aid of the Immune Epitope DataBase (IEDB, were compared at genomic level. The result showed that A (H1N1 pdm09 contains the 90% of B-cell epitopes for broadly cross-reactive antibodies (EBCA, which is in consonance with the recent reports on the experimental identification of new epitopes or antibodies for this virus and the binding tests with influenza virus protein HA of different subtypes. Our analysis supports that high proportional EBCA depends on the epitope pattern of A (H1N1pdm09 virus. This study may be helpful for better understanding of A (H1N1pdm09 and the production of new influenza vaccines.

  17. Gene expression analysis of two extensively drug-resistant tuberculosis isolates show that two-component response systems enhance drug resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Guohua; Cui, Zhenling; Sun, Xian; Peng, Jinfu; Jiang, Jun; Wu, Wei; Huang, Wenhua; Chu, Kaili; Zhang, Lu; Ge, Baoxue; Li, Yao

    2015-05-01

    Global analysis of expression profiles using DNA microarrays was performed between a reference strain H37Rv and two clinical extensively drug-resistant isolates in response to three anti-tuberculosis drug exposures (isoniazid, capreomycin, and rifampicin). A deep analysis was then conducted using a combination of genome sequences of the resistant isolates, resistance information, and related public microarray data. Certain known resistance-associated gene sets were significantly overrepresented in upregulated genes in the resistant isolates relative to that observed in H37Rv, which suggested a link between resistance and expression levels of particular genes. In addition, isoniazid and capreomycin response genes, but not rifampicin, either obtained from published works or our data, were highly consistent with the differentially expressed genes of resistant isolates compared to those of H37Rv, indicating a strong association between drug resistance of the isolates and genes differentially regulated by isoniazid and capreomycin exposures. Based on these results, 92 genes of the studied isolates were identified as candidate resistance genes, 10 of which are known resistance-related genes. Regulatory network analysis of candidate resistance genes using published networks and literature mining showed that three two-component regulatory systems and regulator CRP play significant roles in the resistance of the isolates by mediating the production of essential envelope components. Finally, drug sensitivity testing indicated strong correlations between expression levels of these regulatory genes and sensitivity to multiple anti-tuberculosis drugs in Mycobacterium tuberculosis. These findings may provide novel insights into the mechanism underlying the emergence and development of drug resistance in resistant tuberculosis isolates and useful clues for further studies on this issue. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Robotic Assisted Radical Cystectomy with Extracorporeal Urinary Diversion Does Not Show a Benefit over Open Radical Cystectomy: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Randomised Controlled Trials.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Shen Tan

    Full Text Available The number of robotic assisted radical cystectomy (RARC procedures is increasing despite the lack of Level I evidence showing any advantages over open radical cystectomy (ORC. However, several systematic reviews with meta-analyses including non-randomised studies, suggest an overall benefit for RARC compared to ORC. We performed a systematic review with meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials (RCTs to evaluate the perioperative morbidity and efficacy of RARC compared to ORC in patients with bladder cancer.Literature searches of Medline/Pubmed, Embase, Web of Science and clinicaltrials.gov databases up to 10th March 2016 were performed. The inclusion criteria for eligible studies were RCTs which compared perioperative outcomes of ORC and RARC for bladder cancer. Primary objective was perioperative and histopathological outcomes of RARC versus ORC while the secondary objective was quality of life assessment (QoL, oncological outcomes and cost analysis.Four RCTs (from 5 articles met the inclusion criteria, with a total of 239 patients all with extracorporeal urinary diversion. Patient demographics and clinical characteristics of RARC and ORC patients were evenly matched. There was no significant difference between groups in perioperative morbidity, length of stay, positive surgical margin, lymph node yield and positive lymph node status. RARC group had significantly lower estimated blood loss (p<0.001 and wound complications (p = 0.03 but required significantly longer operating time (p<0.001. QoL was not measured uniformly across trials and cost analysis was reported in one RCTs. A test for heterogeneity did highlight differences across operating time of trials suggesting that surgeon experience may influence outcomes.This study does not provide evidence to support a benefit for RARC compared to ORC. These results may not have inference for RARC with intracorporeal urinary diversion. Well-designed trials with appropriate endpoints conducted

  19. The BACHD Rat Model of Huntington Disease Shows Signs of Fronto-Striatal Dysfunction in Two Operant Conditioning Tests of Short-Term Memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clemensson, Erik Karl Håkan; Clemensson, Laura Emily; Riess, Olaf; Nguyen, Huu Phuc

    2017-01-01

    The BACHD rat is a recently developed transgenic animal model of Huntington disease, a progressive neurodegenerative disorder characterized by extensive loss of striatal neurons. Cognitive impairments are common among patients, and characterization of similar deficits in animal models of the disease is therefore of interest. The present study assessed the BACHD rats' performance in the delayed alternation and the delayed non-matching to position test, two Skinner box-based tests of short-term memory function. The transgenic rats showed impaired performance in both tests, indicating general problems with handling basic aspects of the tests, while short-term memory appeared to be intact. Similar phenotypes have been found in rats with fronto-striatal lesions, suggesting that Huntington disease-related neuropathology might be present in the BACHD rats. Further analyses indicated that the performance deficit in the delayed alternation test might be due to impaired inhibitory control, which has also been implicated in Huntington disease patients. The study ultimately suggests that the BACHD rats might suffer from neuropathology and cognitive impairments reminiscent of those of Huntington disease patients.

  20. The BACHD Rat Model of Huntington Disease Shows Signs of Fronto-Striatal Dysfunction in Two Operant Conditioning Tests of Short-Term Memory.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erik Karl Håkan Clemensson

    Full Text Available The BACHD rat is a recently developed transgenic animal model of Huntington disease, a progressive neurodegenerative disorder characterized by extensive loss of striatal neurons. Cognitive impairments are common among patients, and characterization of similar deficits in animal models of the disease is therefore of interest. The present study assessed the BACHD rats' performance in the delayed alternation and the delayed non-matching to position test, two Skinner box-based tests of short-term memory function. The transgenic rats showed impaired performance in both tests, indicating general problems with handling basic aspects of the tests, while short-term memory appeared to be intact. Similar phenotypes have been found in rats with fronto-striatal lesions, suggesting that Huntington disease-related neuropathology might be present in the BACHD rats. Further analyses indicated that the performance deficit in the delayed alternation test might be due to impaired inhibitory control, which has also been implicated in Huntington disease patients. The study ultimately suggests that the BACHD rats might suffer from neuropathology and cognitive impairments reminiscent of those of Huntington disease patients.

  1. Show them the money? The role of pay, managerial need support, and justice in a self-determination theory model of intrinsic work motivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olafsen, Anja H; Halvari, Hallgeir; Forest, Jacques; Deci, Edward L

    2015-08-01

    The link between money and motivation has been a debated topic for decades, especially in work organizations. However, field studies investigating the amount of pay in relation to employee motivation is lacking and there have been calls for empirical studies addressing compensation systems and motivation in the work domain. The purpose of this study was to examine outcomes associated with the amount of pay, and perceived distributive and procedural justice regarding pay in relation to those for perceived managerial need support. Participants were 166 bank employees who also reported on their basic psychological need satisfaction and intrinsic work motivation. SEM-analyses tested a self-determination theory (SDT) model, with satisfaction of the competence and autonomy needs as an intervening variable. The primary findings were that amount of pay and employees' perceived distributive justice regarding their pay were unrelated to employees' need satisfaction and intrinsic work motivation, but procedural justice regarding pay did affect these variables. However, managerial need support was the most important factor for promoting need satisfaction and intrinsic work motivation both directly, indirectly, and as a moderator in the model. Hence, the results of the present organizational field study support earlier laboratory experiments within the SDT framework showing that monetary rewards did not enhance intrinsic motivation. This seems to have profound implications for organizations concerned about motivating their employees. © 2015 Scandinavian Psychological Associations and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Polysaccharides from the Medicinal Mushroom Cordyceps taii Show Antioxidant and Immunoenhancing Activities in a D-Galactose-Induced Aging Mouse Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian-Hui Xiao

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Cordyceps taii, an edible medicinal mushroom native to south China, is recognized as an unparalleled resource of healthy foods and drug discovery. In the present study, the antioxidant pharmacological properties of C. taii were systematically investigated. In vitro assays revealed the scavenging activities of the aqueous extract and polysaccharides of C. taii against various free radicals, that is, 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radical, hydroxyl radical, and superoxide anion radical. The EC50 values for superoxide anion-free radical ranged from 2.04 mg/mL to 2.49 mg/mL, which was at least 2.6-fold stronger than that of antioxidant thiourea. The polysaccharides also significantly enhanced the antioxidant enzyme activities (superoxide dismutase, catalase, and glutathione peroxidase and markedly decreased the malondialdehyde production of lipid peroxidation in a D-galactose-induced aging mouse model. Interestingly, the immune function of the administration group was significantly boosted compared with the D-galactose-induced aging model group. Therefore, the C. taii polysaccharides possessed potent antioxidant activity closely associated with immune function enhancement and free radical scavenging. These findings suggest that the polysaccharides are a promising source of natural antioxidants and antiaging drugs. Consequently, a preliminary chemical investigation was performed using gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy and revealed that the polysaccharides studied were mainly composed of glucose, mannose, and galactose. Fourier-transform infrared spectra also showed characteristic polysaccharide absorption bands.

  3. Characterization of chronic constriction of the saphenous nerve, a model of neuropathic pain in mice showing rapid molecular and electrophysiological changes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walczak, Jean-Sébastien; Pichette, Vincent; Leblond, François; Desbiens, Karine; Beaulieu, Pierre

    2006-05-15

    Neuropathic pain is one of the most inextricable problems encountered in clinics, because few facts are known about its etiology. Nerve injury often leads to allodynia and hyperalgesia, which are symptoms of neuropathic pain. The aim of this study was to understand some molecular and electrophysiological mechanisms of neuropathic pain after chronic constriction of the saphenous nerve (CCS) in mice. After surgery, CCS mice displayed significant allodynia and hyperalgesia, which were sensitive to acute systemic injection of morphine (4 mg/kg), gabapentin (50 mg/kg), amitriptyline (10 mg/kg), and the cannabinoid agonist WIN 55,212-2 (5 mg/kg). These behavioral changes were accompanied after surgery by an increase of c-Fos expression and by an overexpression of mu-opioid and cannabinoid CB1 and CB2 receptors in the spinal cord and the dorsal hind paw skin. In combination with the skin-nerve preparation, this model showed a decrease in functional receptive fields downstream to the injury and the apparition of A-fiber ectopic discharges. In conclusion, CCS injury induced behavioral, molecular, and electrophysiological rearrangements that might help us in better understanding the peripheral mechanisms of neuropathic pain. This model takes advantage of the possible use in the future of genetically modified mice and of an exclusively sensory nerve for a comprehensive study of peripheral mechanisms of neuropathic pain. Copyright 2006 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  4. Showing Value (Editorial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denise Koufogiannakis

    2009-06-01

    librarians on student achievement. Todd notes, “If we do not show value, we will not have a future. Evidence-based practice is not about the survival of school librarians, it’s about the survival of our students” (40. In this issue we feature school libraries and their connection to evidence based practice. Former Editor-in-Chief, Lindsay Glynn, began putting the wheels in motion for this feature almost a year ago. She invited Carol Gordon and Ross Todd to act as guest editors of the section, drawing upon their contacts and previous work in this field. The result is an issue with five feature articles exploring different aspects of the connection between school libraries and evidence based practice, from the theoretical to the practical. In addition, there is a thought-provoking Commentary by David Loertscher, asking whether we need the evolutionary model of evidence based practice, or something more revolutionary!In addition to the Feature section, we have a well-rounded issue with articles on the topics of library human resources, and the development of a scholars’ portal. As well, there are a record 10 evidence summaries and our educational EBL101 column. I hope there is something for everyone in this issue of EBLIP – enjoy, and see you soon in Stockholm!

  5. An Analysis of Trafficking Receptors Shows that CD44 and P-Selectin Glycoprotein Ligand-1 Collectively Control the Migration of Activated Human T-Cells

    KAUST Repository

    Ali, Amal J.

    2017-05-03

    Selectins guide the traffic of activated T-cells through the blood stream by mediating their tethering and rolling onto inflamed endothelium, in this way acting as beacons to help navigate them to sites of inflammation. Here, we present a comprehensive analysis of E-selectin ligands expressed on activated human T-cells. We identified several novel glycoproteins that function as E-selectin ligands. Specifically, we compared the role of P-selectin glycoprotein ligand-1 (PSGL-1) and CD43, known E-selectin ligands, to CD44, a ligand that has not previously been characterized as an E-selectin ligand on activated human T-cells. We showed that CD44 acts as a functional E-selectin ligand when expressed on both CD4+ and CD8+ T-cells. Moreover, the CD44 protein carries a binding epitope identifying it as hematopoietic cell E- and/or L-selectin ligand (HCELL). Furthermore, by knocking down these ligands individually or together in primary activated human T-cells, we demonstrated that CD44/HCELL, and not CD43, cooperates with PSGL-1 as a major E-selectin ligand. Additionally, we demonstrated the relevance of our findings to chronic autoimmune disease, by showing that CD44/HCELL and PSGL-1, but not CD43, from T-cells isolated from psoriasis patients, bind E-selectin.

  6. Modeling and analysis of solar distributed generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortiz Rivera, Eduardo Ivan

    Recent changes in the global economy are creating a big impact in our daily life. The price of oil is increasing and the number of reserves are less every day. Also, dramatic demographic changes are impacting the viability of the electric infrastructure and ultimately the economic future of the industry. These are some of the reasons that many countries are looking for alternative energy to produce electric energy. The most common form of green energy in our daily life is solar energy. To convert solar energy into electrical energy is required solar panels, dc-dc converters, power control, sensors, and inverters. In this work, a photovoltaic module, PVM, model using the electrical characteristics provided by the manufacturer data sheet is presented for power system applications. Experimental results from testing are showed, verifying the proposed PVM model. Also in this work, three maximum power point tracker, MPPT, algorithms would be presented to obtain the maximum power from a PVM. The first MPPT algorithm is a method based on the Rolle's and Lagrange's Theorems and can provide at least an approximate answer to a family of transcendental functions that cannot be solved using differential calculus. The second MPPT algorithm is based on the approximation of the proposed PVM model using fractional polynomials where the shape, boundary conditions and performance of the proposed PVM model are satisfied. The third MPPT algorithm is based in the determination of the optimal duty cycle for a dc-dc converter and the previous knowledge of the load or load matching conditions. Also, four algorithms to calculate the effective irradiance level and temperature over a photovoltaic module are presented in this work. The main reasons to develop these algorithms are for monitoring climate conditions, the elimination of temperature and solar irradiance sensors, reductions in cost for a photovoltaic inverter system, and development of new algorithms to be integrated with maximum

  7. Show-Bix &

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2014-01-01

    The anti-reenactment 'Show-Bix &' consists of 5 dias projectors, a dial phone, quintophonic sound, and interactive elements. A responsive interface will enable the Dias projectors to show copies of original dias slides from the Show-Bix piece ”March på Stedet”, 265 images in total. The copies are...

  8. Static analysis of a Model of the LDL degradation pathway

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pilegaard, Henrik; Nielson, Flemming; Nielson, Hanne Riis

    2005-01-01

    BioAmbients is a derivative of mobile ambients that has shown promise of describing interesting features of the behaviour of biological systems. As for other ambient calculi static program analysis can be used to compute safe approximations of the behavior of modelled systems. We use these tools ...... to model and analyse the production of cholesterol in living cells and show that we are able to pinpoint the difference in behaviour between models of healthy systems and models of mutated systems giving rise to known diseases....

  9. Robust bayesian analysis of an autoregressive model with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this work, robust Bayesian analysis of the Bayesian estimation of an autoregressive model with exponential innovations is performed. Using a Bayesian robustness methodology, we show that, using a suitable generalized quadratic loss, we obtain optimal Bayesian estimators of the parameters corresponding to the ...

  10. Discrete Discriminant analysis based on tree-structured graphical models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Perez de la Cruz, Gonzalo; Eslava, Guillermina

    The purpose of this paper is to illustrate the potential use of discriminant analysis based on tree{structured graphical models for discrete variables. This is done by comparing its empirical performance using estimated error rates for real and simulated data. The results show that discriminant...

  11. LBLOCA sensitivity analysis using meta models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Villamizar, M.; Sanchez-Saez, F.; Villanueva, J.F.; Carlos, S.; Sanchez, A.I.; Martorell, S.

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents an approach to perform the sensitivity analysis of the results of simulation of thermal hydraulic codes within a BEPU approach. Sensitivity analysis is based on the computation of Sobol' indices that makes use of a meta model, It presents also an application to a Large-Break Loss of Coolant Accident, LBLOCA, in the cold leg of a pressurized water reactor, PWR, addressing the results of the BEMUSE program and using the thermal-hydraulic code TRACE. (authors)

  12. An Extensible Model and Analysis Framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-01

    of a pre-existing, open-source modeling and analysis framework known as Ptolemy II (http://ptolemy.org). The University of California, Berkeley...worked with the Air Force Research Laboratory, Rome Research Site on adapting Ptolemy II for modeling and simulation of large scale dynamics of Political...capabilities were prototyped in Ptolemy II and delivered via version control and software releases. Each of these capabilities specifically supports one or

  13. Bayesian uncertainty analysis with applications to turbulence modeling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheung, Sai Hung; Oliver, Todd A.; Prudencio, Ernesto E.; Prudhomme, Serge; Moser, Robert D.

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, we apply Bayesian uncertainty quantification techniques to the processes of calibrating complex mathematical models and predicting quantities of interest (QoI's) with such models. These techniques also enable the systematic comparison of competing model classes. The processes of calibration and comparison constitute the building blocks of a larger validation process, the goal of which is to accept or reject a given mathematical model for the prediction of a particular QoI for a particular scenario. In this work, we take the first step in this process by applying the methodology to the analysis of the Spalart-Allmaras turbulence model in the context of incompressible, boundary layer flows. Three competing model classes based on the Spalart-Allmaras model are formulated, calibrated against experimental data, and used to issue a prediction with quantified uncertainty. The model classes are compared in terms of their posterior probabilities and their prediction of QoI's. The model posterior probability represents the relative plausibility of a model class given the data. Thus, it incorporates the model's ability to fit experimental observations. Alternatively, comparing models using the predicted QoI connects the process to the needs of decision makers that use the results of the model. We show that by using both the model plausibility and predicted QoI, one has the opportunity to reject some model classes after calibration, before subjecting the remaining classes to additional validation challenges.

  14. Modeling antibiotic treatment in hospitals: A systematic approach shows benefits of combination therapy over cycling, mixing, and mono-drug therapies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tepekule, Burcu; Uecker, Hildegard; Derungs, Isabel; Frenoy, Antoine; Bonhoeffer, Sebastian

    2017-09-01

    Multiple treatment strategies are available for empiric antibiotic therapy in hospitals, but neither clinical studies nor theoretical investigations have yielded a clear picture when which strategy is optimal and why. Extending earlier work of others and us, we present a mathematical model capturing treatment strategies using two drugs, i.e the multi-drug therapies referred to as cycling, mixing, and combination therapy, as well as monotherapy with either drug. We randomly sample a large parameter space to determine the conditions determining success or failure of these strategies. We find that combination therapy tends to outperform the other treatment strategies. By using linear discriminant analysis and particle swarm optimization, we find that the most important parameters determining success or failure of combination therapy relative to the other treatment strategies are the de novo rate of emergence of double resistance in patients infected with sensitive bacteria and the fitness costs associated with double resistance. The rate at which double resistance is imported into the hospital via patients admitted from the outside community has little influence, as all treatment strategies are affected equally. The parameter sets for which combination therapy fails tend to fall into areas with low biological plausibility as they are characterised by very high rates of de novo emergence of resistance to both drugs compared to a single drug, and the cost of double resistance is considerably smaller than the sum of the costs of single resistance.

  15. Review and analysis of biomass gasification models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Puig Arnavat, Maria; Bruno, Joan Carles; Coronas, Alberto

    2010-01-01

    The use of biomass as a source of energy has been further enhanced in recent years and special attention has been paid to biomass gasification. Due to the increasing interest in biomass gasification, several models have been proposed in order to explain and understand this complex process......, and the design, simulation, optimisation and process analysis of gasifiers have been carried out. This paper presents and analyses several gasification models based on thermodynamic equilibrium, kinetics and artificial neural networks. The thermodynamic models are found to be a useful tool for preliminary...

  16. Modeling and analysis of stochastic systems

    CERN Document Server

    Kulkarni, Vidyadhar G

    2011-01-01

    Based on the author's more than 25 years of teaching experience, Modeling and Analysis of Stochastic Systems, Second Edition covers the most important classes of stochastic processes used in the modeling of diverse systems, from supply chains and inventory systems to genetics and biological systems. For each class of stochastic process, the text includes its definition, characterization, applications, transient and limiting behavior, first passage times, and cost/reward models. Along with reorganizing the material, this edition revises and adds new exercises and examples. New to the second edi

  17. Numerical analysis of the rebellious voter model

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Swart, Jan M.; Vrbenský, Karel

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 140, č. 5 (2010), s. 873-899 ISSN 0022-4715 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA201/09/1931; GA MŠk 1M0572 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10750506 Keywords : rebellious voter model * parity conservation * exactly solvable model * coexistence * interface tightness * cancellative systems * Markov chain Monte Carlo Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 1.447, year: 2010 http://library.utia.cas.cz/separaty/2010/SI/swart-numerical analysis of the rebellious voter model.pdf

  18. Theoretical Analysis of a Modified Continuum Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge, Hong-Xia; Wu, Shu-Zhen; Cheng, Rong-Jun; Lo, Siu-ming

    2011-09-01

    Based on the optimal velocity (OV) model, a new car-following model for traffic flow with the consideration of the driver's forecast effect (DFE) was proposed by Tang et al., which can be used to describe some complex traffic phenomena better. Using an asymptotic approximation between the headway and density, we obtain a new macro continuum version of the car-following model with the DFE. The linear stability theory is applied to derive the neutral stability condition. The Korteweg—de Vries equation near the neutral stability line is given by nonlinear analysis and the corresponding solution for the traffic density wave is derived.

  19. Genome-wide analysis of AP2/ERF family genes from Lotus corniculatus shows LcERF054 enhances salt tolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Zhan-Min; Zhou, Mei-Liang; Xiao, Xing-Guo; Tang, Yi-Xiong; Wu, Yan-Min

    2014-09-01

    Lotus corniculatus is used in agriculture as a main forage plant. Members of the Apetala2/ethylene response factor (AP2/ERF) family play important roles in regulating gene expression in response to many forms of stress, including drought and salt. Here, starting from database of the L. corniculatus var. japonicus genome, we identified 127 AP2/ERF genes by insilico cloning method. The phylogeny, gene structures, and putative conserved motifs in L. corniculatus var. japonicus ERF proteins were analyzed. Based on the number of AP2/ERF domains and the function of the genes, 127 AP2/ERF genes from L. corniculatus var. japonicus were classified into five subfamilies named the AP2, dehydration-responsive element binding factor (DREB), ERF, RAV, and a soloist. Outside the AP2/ERF domain, many L. corniculatus var. japonicus-specific conserved motifs were detected. Expression profile analysis of AP2/ERF genes by quantitative real-time PCR revealed that 19 LcERF genes, including LcERF054 (KJ004728), were significantly induced by salt stress. The results showed that the LcERF054 gene encodes a nuclear transcription activator. Overexpression of LcERF054 in Arabidopsis enhanced the tolerances to salt stress, showed higher germination ratio of seeds, and had elevated levels of relative moisture contents, soluble sugars, proline, and lower levels of malondialdehyde under stress conditions compared to wild-type plants. The expression of hyperosmotic salinity response genes COR15A, LEA4-5, P5CS1, and RD29A was found to be elevated in the LcERF054-overexpressing Arabidopsis plants compared to wild type. These results revealed that the LcERF genes play important roles in L. corniculatus cv Leo under salt stress and that LcERFs are attractive engineering targets in applied efforts to improve abiotic stress tolerances in L. corniculatus cv Leo or other crops.

  20. Aircraft vulnerability analysis by modeling and simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willers, Cornelius J.; Willers, Maria S.; de Waal, Alta

    2014-10-01

    Infrared missiles pose a significant threat to civilian and military aviation. ManPADS missiles are especially dangerous in the hands of rogue and undisciplined forces. Yet, not all the launched missiles hit their targets; the miss being either attributable to misuse of the weapon or to missile performance restrictions. This paper analyses some of the factors affecting aircraft vulnerability and demonstrates a structured analysis of the risk and aircraft vulnerability problem. The aircraft-missile engagement is a complex series of events, many of which are only partially understood. Aircraft and missile designers focus on the optimal design and performance of their respective systems, often testing only in a limited set of scenarios. Most missiles react to the contrast intensity, but the variability of the background is rarely considered. Finally, the vulnerability of the aircraft depends jointly on the missile's performance and the doctrine governing the missile's launch. These factors are considered in a holistic investigation. The view direction, altitude, time of day, sun position, latitude/longitude and terrain determine the background against which the aircraft is observed. Especially high gradients in sky radiance occur around the sun and on the horizon. This paper considers uncluttered background scenes (uniform terrain and clear sky) and presents examples of background radiance at all view angles across a sphere around the sensor. A detailed geometrical and spatially distributed radiometric model is used to model the aircraft. This model provides the signature at all possible view angles across the sphere around the aircraft. The signature is determined in absolute terms (no background) and in contrast terms (with background). It is shown that the background significantly affects the contrast signature as observed by the missile sensor. A simplified missile model is constructed by defining the thrust and mass profiles, maximum seeker tracking rate, maximum

  1. Model Selection in Data Analysis Competitions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wind, David Kofoed; Winther, Ole

    2014-01-01

    The use of data analysis competitions for selecting the most appropriate model for a problem is a recent innovation in the field of predictive machine learning. Two of the most well-known examples of this trend was the Netflix Competition and recently the competitions hosted on the online platfor...

  2. Modeling and analysis of metrics databases

    OpenAIRE

    Paul, Raymond A.

    1999-01-01

    The main objective of this research is to propose a comprehensive framework for quality and risk management in software development process based on analysis and modeling of software metrics data. Existing software metrics work has focused mainly on the type of metrics tobe collected ...

  3. Stochastic Modelling and Analysis of Warehouse Operations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Y. Gong (Yeming)

    2009-01-01

    textabstractThis thesis has studied stochastic models and analysis of warehouse operations. After an overview of stochastic research in warehouse operations, we explore the following topics. Firstly, we search optimal batch sizes in a parallel-aisle warehouse with online order arrivals. We employ a

  4. Power system stability modelling, analysis and control

    CERN Document Server

    Sallam, Abdelhay A

    2015-01-01

    This book provides a comprehensive treatment of the subject from both a physical and mathematical perspective and covers a range of topics including modelling, computation of load flow in the transmission grid, stability analysis under both steady-state and disturbed conditions, and appropriate controls to enhance stability.

  5. Comparative Distributions of Hazard Modeling Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rana Abdul Wajid

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we present the comparison among the distributions used in hazard analysis. Simulation technique has been used to study the behavior of hazard distribution modules. The fundamentals of Hazard issues are discussed using failure criteria. We present the flexibility of the hazard modeling distribution that approaches to different distributions.

  6. Stochastic Wake Modelling Based on POD Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Bastine

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available In this work, large eddy simulation data is analysed to investigate a new stochastic modeling approach for the wake of a wind turbine. The data is generated by the large eddy simulation (LES model PALM combined with an actuator disk with rotation representing the turbine. After applying a proper orthogonal decomposition (POD, three different stochastic models for the weighting coefficients of the POD modes are deduced resulting in three different wake models. Their performance is investigated mainly on the basis of aeroelastic simulations of a wind turbine in the wake. Three different load cases and their statistical characteristics are compared for the original LES, truncated PODs and the stochastic wake models including different numbers of POD modes. It is shown that approximately six POD modes are enough to capture the load dynamics on large temporal scales. Modeling the weighting coefficients as independent stochastic processes leads to similar load characteristics as in the case of the truncated POD. To complete this simplified wake description, we show evidence that the small-scale dynamics can be captured by adding to our model a homogeneous turbulent field. In this way, we present a procedure to derive stochastic wake models from costly computational fluid dynamics (CFD calculations or elaborated experimental investigations. These numerically efficient models provide the added value of possible long-term studies. Depending on the aspects of interest, different minimalized models may be obtained.

  7. Multivariable modeling and multivariate analysis for the behavioral sciences

    CERN Document Server

    Everitt, Brian S

    2009-01-01

    Multivariable Modeling and Multivariate Analysis for the Behavioral Sciences shows students how to apply statistical methods to behavioral science data in a sensible manner. Assuming some familiarity with introductory statistics, the book analyzes a host of real-world data to provide useful answers to real-life issues.The author begins by exploring the types and design of behavioral studies. He also explains how models are used in the analysis of data. After describing graphical methods, such as scatterplot matrices, the text covers simple linear regression, locally weighted regression, multip

  8. Statistical Models and Methods for Network Meta-Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madden, L V; Piepho, H-P; Paul, P A

    2016-08-01

    Meta-analysis, the methodology for analyzing the results from multiple independent studies, has grown tremendously in popularity over the last four decades. Although most meta-analyses involve a single effect size (summary result, such as a treatment difference) from each study, there are often multiple treatments of interest across the network of studies in the analysis. Multi-treatment (or network) meta-analysis can be used for simultaneously analyzing the results from all the treatments. However, the methodology is considerably more complicated than for the analysis of a single effect size, and there have not been adequate explanations of the approach for agricultural investigations. We review the methods and models for conducting a network meta-analysis based on frequentist statistical principles, and demonstrate the procedures using a published multi-treatment plant pathology data set. A major advantage of network meta-analysis is that correlations of estimated treatment effects are automatically taken into account when an appropriate model is used. Moreover, treatment comparisons may be possible in a network meta-analysis that are not possible in a single study because all treatments of interest may not be included in any given study. We review several models that consider the study effect as either fixed or random, and show how to interpret model-fitting output. We further show how to model the effect of moderator variables (study-level characteristics) on treatment effects, and present one approach to test for the consistency of treatment effects across the network. Online supplemental files give explanations on fitting the network meta-analytical models using SAS.

  9. Assessing a five factor model of PTSD: is dysphoric arousal a unique PTSD construct showing differential relationships with anxiety and depression?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armour, Cherie; Elhai, Jon D; Richardson, Don; Ractliffe, Kendra; Wang, Li; Elklit, Ask

    2012-03-01

    Posttraumatic stress disorder's (PTSD) latent structure has been widely debated. To date, two four-factor models (Numbing and Dysphoria) have received the majority of factor analytic support. Recently, Elhai et al. (2011) proposed and supported a revised (five-factor) Dysphoric Arousal model. Data were gathered from two separate samples; War veterans and Primary Care medical patients. The three models were compared and the resultant factors of the Dysphoric Arousal model were validated against external constructs of depression and anxiety. The Dysphoric Arousal model provided significantly better fit than the Numbing and Dysphoria models across both samples. When differentiating between factors, the current results support the idea that Dysphoric Arousal can be differentiated from Anxious Arousal but not from Emotional Numbing when correlated with depression. In conclusion, the Dysphoria model may be a more parsimonious representation of PTSD's latent structure in these trauma populations despite superior fit of the Dysphoric Arousal model. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Fine-Scale Structure Analysis Shows Epidemic Patterns of Clonal Complex 95, a Cosmopolitan Escherichia coli Lineage Responsible for Extraintestinal Infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, David M; Geyik, Sarah; Clermont, Olivier; O'Brien, Claire L; Huang, Shiwei; Abayasekara, Charmalie; Rajesh, Ashwin; Kennedy, Karina; Collignon, Peter; Pavli, Paul; Rodriguez, Christophe; Johnston, Brian D; Johnson, James R; Decousser, Jean-Winoc; Denamur, Erick

    2017-01-01

    The Escherichia coli lineage known as clonal complex 95 (CC95) is a cosmopolitan human-associated lineage responsible for a significant fraction of extraintestinal infections of humans. Whole-genome sequence data of 200 CC95 strains from various origins enabled determination of the CC95 pangenome. The pangenome analysis revealed that strains of the complex could be assigned to one of five subgroups that vary in their serotype, extraintestinal virulence, virulence gene content, and antibiotic resistance gene profile. A total of 511 CC95 strains isolated from humans living in France, Australia, and the United States were screened for their subgroup membership using a PCR-based method. The CC95 subgroups are nonrandomly distributed with respect to their geographic origin. The relative frequency of the subgroups was shown to change through time, although the nature of the changes varies with continent. Strains of the subgroups are also nonrandomly distributed with respect to source of isolation (blood, urine, or feces) and host sex. Collectively, the evidence indicates that although strains belonging to CC95 may be cosmopolitan, human movement patterns have been insufficient to homogenize the distribution of the CC95 subgroups. Rather, the manner in which CC95 strains evolve appears to vary both spatially and temporally. Although CC95 strains appeared globally as pandemic, fine-scale structure analysis shows epidemic patterns of the CC95 subgroups. Furthermore, the observation that the relative frequency of CC95 subgroups at a single locality has changed over time indicates that the relative fitness of the subgroups has changed. IMPORTANCE Escherichia coli clonal complex 95 represents a cosmopolitan, genetically diverse lineage, and the extensive substructure observed in this lineage is epidemiologically and clinically relevant. The frequency with which CC95 strains are responsible for extraintestinal infection appears to have been stable over the past 15

  11. Characterization and Genetic Analysis of a Novel Light-Dependent Lesion Mimic Mutant, lm3, Showing Adult-Plant Resistance to Powdery Mildew in Common Wheat.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fang Wang

    Full Text Available Lesion mimics (LMs that exhibit spontaneous disease-like lesions in the absence of pathogen attack might confer enhanced plant disease resistance to a wide range of pathogens. The LM mutant, lm3 was derived from a single naturally mutated individual in the F1 population of a 3-1/Jing411 cross, backcrossed six times with 3-1 as the recurrent parent and subsequently self-pollinated twice. The leaves of young seedlings of the lm3 mutant exhibited small, discrete white lesions under natural field conditions. The lesions first appeared at the leaf tips and subsequently expanded throughout the entire leaf blade to the leaf sheath. The lesions were initiated through light intensity and day length. Histochemical staining revealed that lesion formation might reflect programmed cell death (PCD and abnormal accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS. The chlorophyll content in the mutant was significantly lower than that in wildtype, and the ratio of chlorophyll a/b was increased significantly in the mutant compared with wildtype, indicating that lm3 showed impairment of the biosynthesis or degradation of chlorophyll, and that Chlorophyll b was prone to damage during lesion formation. The lm3 mutant exhibited enhanced resistance to wheat powdery mildew fungus (Blumeria graminis f. sp. tritici; Bgt infection, which was consistent with the increased expression of seven pathogenesis-related (PR and two wheat chemically induced (WCI genes involved in the defense-related reaction. Genetic analysis showed that the mutation was controlled through a single partially dominant gene, which was closely linked to Xbarc203 on chromosome 3BL; this gene was delimited to a 40 Mb region between SSR3B450.37 and SSR3B492.6 using a large derived segregating population and the available Chinese Spring chromosome 3B genome sequence. Taken together, our results provide information regarding the identification of a novel wheat LM gene, which will facilitate the additional fine

  12. A Drosophila model of dominant inclusion body myopathy type 3 shows diminished myosin kinetics that reduce muscle power and yield myofibrillar defects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suggs, Jennifer A; Melkani, Girish C; Glasheen, Bernadette M; Detor, Mia M; Melkani, Anju; Marsan, Nathan P; Swank, Douglas M; Bernstein, Sanford I

    2017-06-01

    Individuals with inclusion body myopathy type 3 (IBM3) display congenital joint contractures with early-onset muscle weakness that becomes more severe in adulthood. The disease arises from an autosomal dominant point mutation causing an E706K substitution in myosin heavy chain type IIa. We have previously expressed the corresponding myosin mutation (E701K) in homozygous Drosophila indirect flight muscles and recapitulated the myofibrillar degeneration and inclusion bodies observed in the human disease. We have also found that purified E701K myosin has dramatically reduced actin-sliding velocity and ATPase levels. Since IBM3 is a dominant condition, we now examine the disease state in heterozygote Drosophila in order to gain a mechanistic understanding of E701K pathogenicity. Myosin ATPase activities in heterozygotes suggest that approximately equimolar levels of myosin accumulate from each allele. In vitro actin sliding velocity rates for myosin isolated from the heterozygotes were lower than the control, but higher than for the pure mutant isoform. Although sarcomeric ultrastructure was nearly wild type in young adults, mechanical analysis of skinned indirect flight muscle fibers revealed a 59% decrease in maximum oscillatory power generation and an approximately 20% reduction in the frequency at which maximum power was produced. Rate constant analyses suggest a decrease in the rate of myosin attachment to actin, with myosin spending decreased time in the strongly bound state. These mechanical alterations result in a one-third decrease in wing beat frequency and marginal flight ability. With aging, muscle ultrastructure and function progressively declined. Aged myofibrils showed Z-line streaming, consistent with the human heterozygote phenotype. Based upon the mechanical studies, we hypothesize that the mutation decreases the probability of the power stroke occurring and/or alters the degree of movement of the myosin lever arm, resulting in decreased in vitro

  13. A Drosophila model of dominant inclusion body myopathy type 3 shows diminished myosin kinetics that reduce muscle power and yield myofibrillar defects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer A. Suggs

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Individuals with inclusion body myopathy type 3 (IBM3 display congenital joint contractures with early-onset muscle weakness that becomes more severe in adulthood. The disease arises from an autosomal dominant point mutation causing an E706K substitution in myosin heavy chain type IIa. We have previously expressed the corresponding myosin mutation (E701K in homozygous Drosophila indirect flight muscles and recapitulated the myofibrillar degeneration and inclusion bodies observed in the human disease. We have also found that purified E701K myosin has dramatically reduced actin-sliding velocity and ATPase levels. Since IBM3 is a dominant condition, we now examine the disease state in heterozygote Drosophila in order to gain a mechanistic understanding of E701K pathogenicity. Myosin ATPase activities in heterozygotes suggest that approximately equimolar levels of myosin accumulate from each allele. In vitro actin sliding velocity rates for myosin isolated from the heterozygotes were lower than the control, but higher than for the pure mutant isoform. Although sarcomeric ultrastructure was nearly wild type in young adults, mechanical analysis of skinned indirect flight muscle fibers revealed a 59% decrease in maximum oscillatory power generation and an approximately 20% reduction in the frequency at which maximum power was produced. Rate constant analyses suggest a decrease in the rate of myosin attachment to actin, with myosin spending decreased time in the strongly bound state. These mechanical alterations result in a one-third decrease in wing beat frequency and marginal flight ability. With aging, muscle ultrastructure and function progressively declined. Aged myofibrils showed Z-line streaming, consistent with the human heterozygote phenotype. Based upon the mechanical studies, we hypothesize that the mutation decreases the probability of the power stroke occurring and/or alters the degree of movement of the myosin lever arm, resulting in

  14. Fine Resolution Analysis of Lake Malawi Sediment Record Shows No Significant Climatic Impacts from the Mount Toba Super-Eruption of ~75ky

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, L. J.; Stone, J.; Cohen, A. S.

    2014-12-01

    Debate over long, and short-term climatic impacts of the Mt. Toba super-eruption circa 75ky is often focused on East Africa. A severe drop in anatomically modern human populations has been hypothesized to be synchronous with a volcanic winter caused by the Toba super-eruption. If the Toba eruption caused a volcanic winter in East Africa, climatologically-sensitive ecosystems, such as Lake Malawi and its immediate watershed should show a direct and observable response in the sediment record. Cooler temperatures would cause a reduction of density contrast between epilimnion and hypolimnion waters, allowing for increased mixing and oxygenation of normally anoxic bottom waters. Enhanced mixing would cause noticeable changes in lake fly and algal communities. Cooler temperatures might also affect precipitation and the fire regime in the surrounding watershed. We analyzed two Lake Malawi cores at the finest practical resolution. Core 2A-10H-2 was analyzed in less than 6-year intervals and core 1C-8H-1 in 7-year intervals surrounding the Youngest Toba Tephra (YTT) for microfaunal abundance and variability, sediment composition, and evidence of changes in the occurrence of fires or watershed precipitation. Our analysis included point counts of diatoms and other algae, lake flies, charcoal, and siliciclastics. Changes in microfossil assemblage, variability, and abundance, as well as sediment composition around the YTT in Core 2A and 1C do not indicate that increased mixing or cooler temperatures occurred in either the central or northern basins of Lake Malawi. Similarly, charcoal counts do not suggest a change in fire regime. Our results indicate that at a subdecadal scale there was no substantial response in Lake Malawi or its immediate watershed to the Mt. Toba super-eruption, in contrast to predictions from the volcanic winter hypothesis.

  15. An effective convolutional neural network model for Chinese sentiment analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yu; Chen, Mengdong; Liu, Lianzhong; Wang, Yadong

    2017-06-01

    Nowadays microblog is getting more and more popular. People are increasingly accustomed to expressing their opinions on Twitter, Facebook and Sina Weibo. Sentiment analysis of microblog has received significant attention, both in academia and in industry. So far, Chinese microblog exploration still needs lots of further work. In recent years CNN has also been used to deal with NLP tasks, and already achieved good results. However, these methods ignore the effective use of a large number of existing sentimental resources. For this purpose, we propose a Lexicon-based Sentiment Convolutional Neural Networks (LSCNN) model focus on Weibo's sentiment analysis, which combines two CNNs, trained individually base on sentiment features and word embedding, at the fully connected hidden layer. The experimental results show that our model outperforms the CNN model only with word embedding features on microblog sentiment analysis task.

  16. Modeling and Verification of Insider Threats Using Logical Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kammuller, Florian; Probst, Christian W.

    2017-01-01

    and use a common trick from the formal verification of security protocols, showing that it is applicable to insider threats. We introduce briefly a three-step process of social explanation, illustrating that it can be applied fruitfully to the characterization of insider threats. We introduce the insider......In this paper, we combine formal modeling and analysis of infrastructures of organizations with sociological explanation to provide a framework for insider threat analysis. We use the higher order logic (HOL) proof assistant Isabelle/HOL to support this framework. In the formal model, we exhibit...... theory constructed in Isabelle that implements this process of social explanation. To validate that the social explanation is generally useful for the analysis of insider threats and to demonstrate our framework, we model and verify the insider threat patterns of entitled independent and Ambitious Leader...

  17. Guideliness for system modeling: fault tree [analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Yoon Hwan; Yang, Joon Eon; Kang, Dae Il; Hwang, Mee Jeong

    2004-07-01

    This document, the guidelines for system modeling related to Fault Tree Analysis(FTA), is intended to provide the guidelines with the analyzer to construct the fault trees in the level of the capability category II of ASME PRA standard. Especially, they are to provide the essential and basic guidelines and the related contents to be used in support of revising the Ulchin 3 and 4 PSA model for risk monitor within the capability category II of ASME PRA standard. Normally the main objective of system analysis is to assess the reliability of system modeled by Event Tree Analysis (ETA). A variety of analytical techniques can be used for the system analysis, however, FTA method is used in this procedures guide. FTA is the method used for representing the failure logic of plant systems deductively using AND, OR or NOT gates. The fault tree should reflect all possible failure modes that may contribute to the system unavailability. This should include contributions due to the mechanical failures of the components, Common Cause Failures (CCFs), human errors and outages for testing and maintenance. This document identifies and describes the definitions and the general procedures of FTA and the essential and basic guidelines for reving the fault trees. Accordingly, the guidelines for FTA will be capable to guide the FTA to the level of the capability category II of ASME PRA standard.

  18. Social phenomena from data analysis to models

    CERN Document Server

    Perra, Nicola

    2015-01-01

    This book focuses on the new possibilities and approaches to social modeling currently being made possible by an unprecedented variety of datasets generated by our interactions with modern technologies. This area has witnessed a veritable explosion of activity over the last few years, yielding many interesting and useful results. Our aim is to provide an overview of the state of the art in this area of research, merging an extremely heterogeneous array of datasets and models. Social Phenomena: From Data Analysis to Models is divided into two parts. Part I deals with modeling social behavior under normal conditions: How we live, travel, collaborate and interact with each other in our daily lives. Part II deals with societal behavior under exceptional conditions: Protests, armed insurgencies, terrorist attacks, and reactions to infectious diseases. This book offers an overview of one of the most fertile emerging fields bringing together practitioners from scientific communities as diverse as social sciences, p...

  19. Modeling and analysis of calcium bromide hydrolysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lottes, Steven A.; Lyczkowski, Robert W.; Panchal, Chandrakant B.; Doctor, Richard D. [Energy Systems Division, Argonne National Laboratory, 9700 S. Cass Avenue, Argonne, IL 60439 (United States)

    2009-05-15

    The main focus of this paper is the modeling, simulation, and analysis of the calcium bromide hydrolysis reactor stage in the calcium-bromine thermochemical water-splitting cycle for nuclear hydrogen production. One reactor concept is to use a spray of calcium bromide into steam, in which the heat of fusion supplies the heat of reaction. Droplet models were built up in a series of steps incorporating various physical phenomena, including droplet flow, heat transfer, phase change, and reaction, separately. Given the large heat reservoir contained in a pool of molten calcium bromide that allows bubbles to rise easily, using a bubble column reactor for the hydrolysis appears to be a feasible and promising alternative to the spray reactor concept. The two limiting cases of bubble geometry, spherical and spherical-cap, are considered in the modeling. Results for both droplet and bubble modeling with COMSOL MULTIPHYSICS trademark are presented, with recommendations for the path forward. (author)

  20. High Content Analysis of Hippocampal Neuron-Astrocyte Co-cultures Shows a Positive Effect of Fortasyn Connect on Neuronal Survival and Postsynaptic Maturation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne-Lieke F. van Deijk

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Neuronal and synaptic membranes are composed of a phospholipid bilayer. Supplementation with dietary precursors for phospholipid synthesis –docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, uridine and choline– has been shown to increase neurite outgrowth and synaptogenesis both in vivo and in vitro. A role for multi-nutrient intervention with specific precursors and cofactors has recently emerged in early Alzheimer's disease, which is characterized by decreased synapse numbers in the hippocampus. Moreover, the medical food Souvenaid, containing the specific nutrient combination Fortasyn Connect (FC, improves memory performance in early Alzheimer's disease patients, possibly via maintaining brain connectivity. This suggests an effect of FC on synapses, but the underlying cellular mechanism is not fully understood. Therefore, we investigated the effect of FC (consisting of DHA, eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA, uridine, choline, phospholipids, folic acid, vitamins B12, B6, C and E, and selenium, on synaptogenesis by supplementing it to primary neuron-astrocyte co-cultures, a cellular model that mimics metabolic dependencies in the brain. We measured neuronal developmental processes using high content screening in an automated manner, including neuronal survival, neurite morphology, as well as the formation and maturation of synapses. Here, we show that FC supplementation resulted in increased numbers of neurons without affecting astrocyte number. Furthermore, FC increased postsynaptic PSD95 levels in both immature and mature synapses. These findings suggest that supplementation with FC to neuron-astrocyte co-cultures increased both neuronal survival and the maturation of postsynaptic terminals, which might aid the functional interpretation of FC-based intervention strategies in neurological diseases characterized by neuronal loss and impaired synaptic functioning.

  1. Bifurcation analysis of dengue transmission model in Baguio City, Philippines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Libatique, Criselda P.; Pajimola, Aprimelle Kris J.; Addawe, Joel M.

    2017-11-01

    In this study, we formulate a deterministic model for the transmission dynamics of dengue fever in Baguio City, Philippines. We analyzed the existence of the equilibria of the dengue model. We computed and obtained conditions for the existence of the equilibrium states. Stability analysis for the system is carried out for disease free equilibrium. We showed that the system becomes stable under certain conditions of the parameters. A particular parameter is taken and with the use of the Theory of Centre Manifold, the proposed model demonstrates a bifurcation phenomenon. We performed numerical simulation to verify the analytical results.

  2. Dynamic Chest Image Analysis: Model-Based Perfusion Analysis in Dynamic Pulmonary Imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kiuru Aaro

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The "Dynamic Chest Image Analysis" project aims to develop model-based computer analysis and visualization methods for showing focal and general abnormalities of lung ventilation and perfusion based on a sequence of digital chest fluoroscopy frames collected with the dynamic pulmonary imaging technique. We have proposed and evaluated a multiresolutional method with an explicit ventilation model for ventilation analysis. This paper presents a new model-based method for pulmonary perfusion analysis. According to perfusion properties, we first devise a novel mathematical function to form a perfusion model. A simple yet accurate approach is further introduced to extract cardiac systolic and diastolic phases from the heart, so that this cardiac information may be utilized to accelerate the perfusion analysis and improve its sensitivity in detecting pulmonary perfusion abnormalities. This makes perfusion analysis not only fast but also robust in computation; consequently, perfusion analysis becomes computationally feasible without using contrast media. Our clinical case studies with 52 patients show that this technique is effective for pulmonary embolism even without using contrast media, demonstrating consistent correlations with computed tomography (CT and nuclear medicine (NM studies. This fluoroscopical examination takes only about 2 seconds for perfusion study with only low radiation dose to patient, involving no preparation, no radioactive isotopes, and no contrast media.

  3. Talk Show Science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Mitzi Ruth

    1992-01-01

    Proposes having students perform skits in which they play the roles of the science concepts they are trying to understand. Provides the dialog for a skit in which hot and cold gas molecules are interviewed on a talk show to study how these properties affect wind, rain, and other weather phenomena. (MDH)

  4. Analysis of CPN-1 sigma models via projective structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Post, S; Grundland, A M

    2012-01-01

    This paper represents a study of projector solutions to the Euclidean CP N-1 sigma model in two dimensions and their associated surfaces immersed in the su(N) Lie algebra. Any solution for the CP N-1 sigma model defined on the extended complex plane with finite action can be written as a raising operator acting on a holomorphic one. Here the proof is formulated in terms rank-1 projectors so it is explicitly gauge invariant. We apply these results to the analysis of surfaces associated with the CP N-1 models defined using the generalized Weierstrass formula for immersion. We show that the surfaces are conformally parametrized by the Lagrangian density, with finite area equal to the action of the model, and express several other geometrical characteristics of the surface in terms of the physical quantities of the model. Finally, we provide necessary and sufficient conditions that a surface be related to a CP N-1 sigma model

  5. Reusable launch vehicle model uncertainties impact analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jiaye; Mu, Rongjun; Zhang, Xin; Deng, Yanpeng

    2018-03-01

    Reusable launch vehicle(RLV) has the typical characteristics of complex aerodynamic shape and propulsion system coupling, and the flight environment is highly complicated and intensely changeable. So its model has large uncertainty, which makes the nominal system quite different from the real system. Therefore, studying the influences caused by the uncertainties on the stability of the control system is of great significance for the controller design. In order to improve the performance of RLV, this paper proposes the approach of analyzing the influence of the model uncertainties. According to the typical RLV, the coupling dynamic and kinematics models are built. Then different factors that cause uncertainties during building the model are analyzed and summed up. After that, the model uncertainties are expressed according to the additive uncertainty model. Choosing the uncertainties matrix's maximum singular values as the boundary model, and selecting the uncertainties matrix's norm to show t how much the uncertainty factors influence is on the stability of the control system . The simulation results illustrate that the inertial factors have the largest influence on the stability of the system, and it is necessary and important to take the model uncertainties into consideration before the designing the controller of this kind of aircraft( like RLV, etc).

  6. Modeling of creep for structural analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Naumenko, K.; Altenbach, H. [Halle-Wittenberg Univ., Halle (Germany). Lehrstuhl fuer Technische Mechanik

    2007-07-01

    ''Creep Modeling for Structural Analysis'' develops methods to simulate and analyze the time-dependent changes of stress and strain states in engineering structures up to the critical stage of creep rupture. The principal subjects of creep mechanics are the formulation of constitutive equations for creep in structural materials under multi-axial stress states; the application of structural mechanics models of beams, plates, shells and three-dimensional solids and the utilization of procedures for the solution of non-linear initial-boundary value problems. The objective of this book is to review some of the classical and recently proposed approaches to the modeling of creep for structural analysis applications as well as to extend the collection of available solutions of creep problems by new, more sophisticated examples. In Chapter 1, the book discusses basic features of the creep behavior in materials and structures and presents an overview of various approaches to the modeling of creep. Chapter 2 collects constitutive models that describe creep and damage processes under multi-axial stress states. Chapter 3 deals with the application of constitutive models to the description of creep for several structural materials. Constitutive and evolution equations, response functions and material constants are presented according to recently published experimental data. In Chapter 4 the authors discuss structural mechanics problems. Governing equations of creep in three-dimensional solids, direct variational methods and time step algorithms are reviewed. Examples are presented to illustrate the application of advanced numerical methods to the structural analysis. An emphasis is placed on the development and verification of creep-damage material subroutines inside the general purpose finite element codes. (orig.)

  7. International Space Station Model Correlation Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laible, Michael R.; Fitzpatrick, Kristin; Hodge, Jennifer; Grygier, Michael

    2018-01-01

    This paper summarizes the on-orbit structural dynamic data and the related modal analysis, model validation and correlation performed for the International Space Station (ISS) configuration ISS Stage ULF7, 2015 Dedicated Thruster Firing (DTF). The objective of this analysis is to validate and correlate the analytical models used to calculate the ISS internal dynamic loads and compare the 2015 DTF with previous tests. During the ISS configurations under consideration, on-orbit dynamic measurements were collected using the three main ISS instrumentation systems; Internal Wireless Instrumentation System (IWIS), External Wireless Instrumentation System (EWIS) and the Structural Dynamic Measurement System (SDMS). The measurements were recorded during several nominal on-orbit DTF tests on August 18, 2015. Experimental modal analyses were performed on the measured data to extract modal parameters including frequency, damping, and mode shape information. Correlation and comparisons between test and analytical frequencies and mode shapes were performed to assess the accuracy of the analytical models for the configurations under consideration. These mode shapes were also compared to earlier tests. Based on the frequency comparisons, the accuracy of the mathematical models is assessed and model refinement recommendations are given. In particular, results of the first fundamental mode will be discussed, nonlinear results will be shown, and accelerometer placement will be assessed.

  8. 3D face modeling, analysis and recognition

    CERN Document Server

    Daoudi, Mohamed; Veltkamp, Remco

    2013-01-01

    3D Face Modeling, Analysis and Recognition presents methodologies for analyzing shapes of facial surfaces, develops computational tools for analyzing 3D face data, and illustrates them using state-of-the-art applications. The methodologies chosen are based on efficient representations, metrics, comparisons, and classifications of features that are especially relevant in the context of 3D measurements of human faces. These frameworks have a long-term utility in face analysis, taking into account the anticipated improvements in data collection, data storage, processing speeds, and application s

  9. Advances in statistical models for data analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Minerva, Tommaso; Vichi, Maurizio

    2015-01-01

    This edited volume focuses on recent research results in classification, multivariate statistics and machine learning and highlights advances in statistical models for data analysis. The volume provides both methodological developments and contributions to a wide range of application areas such as economics, marketing, education, social sciences and environment. The papers in this volume were first presented at the 9th biannual meeting of the Classification and Data Analysis Group (CLADAG) of the Italian Statistical Society, held in September 2013 at the University of Modena and Reggio Emilia, Italy.

  10. Sensitivity analysis techniques for models of human behavior.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bier, Asmeret Brooke

    2010-09-01

    Human and social modeling has emerged as an important research area at Sandia National Laboratories due to its potential to improve national defense-related decision-making in the presence of uncertainty. To learn about which sensitivity analysis techniques are most suitable for models of human behavior, different promising methods were applied to an example model, tested, and compared. The example model simulates cognitive, behavioral, and social processes and interactions, and involves substantial nonlinearity, uncertainty, and variability. Results showed that some sensitivity analysis methods create similar results, and can thus be considered redundant. However, other methods, such as global methods that consider interactions between inputs, can generate insight not gained from traditional methods.

  11. Formal Modeling and Analysis of Timed Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Kim Guldstrand; Niebert, Peter

    This book constitutes the thoroughly refereed post-proceedings of the First International Workshop on Formal Modeling and Analysis of Timed Systems, FORMATS 2003, held in Marseille, France in September 2003. The 19 revised full papers presented together with an invited paper and the abstracts...... of two invited talks were carefully selected from 36 submissions during two rounds of reviewing and improvement. All current aspects of formal method for modeling and analyzing timed systems are addressed; among the timed systems dealt with are timed automata, timed Petri nets, max-plus algebras, real......-time systems, discrete time systems, timed languages, and real-time operating systems....

  12. MATHEMATICAL RISK ANALYSIS: VIA NICHOLAS RISK MODEL AND BAYESIAN ANALYSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anass BAYAGA

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this second part of a two-phased study was to explorethe predictive power of quantitative risk analysis (QRA method andprocess within Higher Education Institution (HEI. The method and process investigated the use impact analysis via Nicholas risk model and Bayesian analysis, with a sample of hundred (100 risk analysts in a historically black South African University in the greater Eastern Cape Province.The first findings supported and confirmed previous literature (KingIII report, 2009: Nicholas and Steyn, 2008: Stoney, 2007: COSA, 2004 that there was a direct relationship between risk factor, its likelihood and impact, certiris paribus. The second finding in relation to either controlling the likelihood or the impact of occurrence of risk (Nicholas risk model was that to have a brighter risk reward, it was important to control the likelihood ofoccurrence of risks as compared with its impact so to have a direct effect on entire University. On the Bayesian analysis, thus third finding, the impact of risk should be predicted along three aspects. These aspects included the human impact (decisions made, the property impact (students and infrastructural based and the business impact. Lastly, the study revealed that although in most business cases, where as business cycles considerably vary dependingon the industry and or the institution, this study revealed that, most impacts in HEI (University was within the period of one academic.The recommendation was that application of quantitative risk analysisshould be related to current legislative framework that affects HEI.

  13. Physics Reality Show

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erukhimova, Tatiana

    The attention span of K-12 students is very short; they are used to digesting information in short snippets through social media and TV. To get the students interested in physics, we created the Physics Reality Show: a series of staged short videos with duration no longer than a few minutes. Each video explains and illustrates one physics concept or law through a fast-paced sequence of physics demonstrations and experiments. The cast consists entirely of physics undergraduate students with artistic abilities and substantial experience in showing physics demonstrations at current outreach events run by the department: Physics Shows and Physics & Engineering Festival. Undergraduate students are of almost the same age as their high-school audience. They are in the best position to connect with kids and convey their fascination with physics. The PI and other faculty members who are involved in the outreach advise and coach the cast. They help students in staging the episodes and choosing the most exciting and relevant demonstrations. Supported by the APS mini-outreach Grant.

  14. Antimalarial iron chelator, FBS0701, shows asexual and gametocyte Plasmodium falciparum activity and single oral dose cure in a murine malaria model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia Ferrer

    Full Text Available Iron chelators for the treatment of malaria have proven therapeutic activity in vitro and in vivo in both humans and mice, but their clinical use is limited by the unsuitable absorption and pharmacokinetic properties of the few available iron chelators. FBS0701, (S3"-(HO-desazadesferrithiocin-polyether [DADFT-PE], is an oral iron chelator currently in Phase 2 human studies for the treatment of transfusional iron overload. The drug has very favorable absorption and pharmacokinetic properties allowing for once-daily use to deplete circulating free iron with human plasma concentrations in the high µM range. Here we show that FBS0701 has inhibition concentration 50% (IC(50 of 6 µM for Plasmodium falciparum in contrast to the IC(50 for deferiprone and deferoxamine at 15 and 30 µM respectively. In combination, FBS0701 interfered with artemisinin parasite inhibition and was additive with chloroquine or quinine parasite inhibition. FBS0701 killed early stage P. falciparum gametocytes. In the P. berghei Thompson suppression test, a single dose of 100 mg/kg reduced day three parasitemia and prolonged survival, but did not cure mice. Treatment with a single oral dose of 100 mg/kg one day after infection with 10 million lethal P. yoelii 17XL cured all the mice. Pretreatment of mice with a single oral dose of FBS0701 seven days or one day before resulted in the cure of some mice. Plasma exposures and other pharmacokinetics parameters in mice of the 100 mg/kg dose are similar to a 3 mg/kg dose in humans. In conclusion, FBS0701 demonstrates a single oral dose cure of the lethal P. yoelii model. Significantly, this effect persists after the chelator has cleared from plasma. FBS0701 was demonstrated to remove labile iron from erythrocytes as well as enter erythrocytes to chelate iron. FBS0701 may find clinically utility as monotherapy, a malarial prophylactic or, more likely, in combination with other antimalarials.

  15. Micromechatronics modeling, analysis, and design with Matlab

    CERN Document Server

    Giurgiutiu, Victor

    2009-01-01

    Focusing on recent developments in engineering science, enabling hardware, advanced technologies, and software, Micromechatronics: Modeling, Analysis, and Design with MATLAB®, Second Edition provides clear, comprehensive coverage of mechatronic and electromechanical systems. It applies cornerstone fundamentals to the design of electromechanical systems, covers emerging software and hardware, introduces the rigorous theory, examines the design of high-performance systems, and helps develop problem-solving skills. Along with more streamlined material, this edition adds many new sections to exist

  16. Model Analysis of Hotel Management Contract

    OpenAIRE

    平野, 典男; Hirano, Norio

    2014-01-01

    This paper develops model analysis of hotel management contract by agency theory. A hotel management contract is an arrangement under which the hotel owner transfers the power of attorney to the hotel operator and lets the hotel operator make decisions concerned with hotel operation on behalf of the hotel owner. Under a hotel management contract there is the inherent conflict of interest between the hotel owner and the hotel operator, because the hotel owner has the asset proprietary rights b...

  17. Energy Systems Modelling Research and Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller Andersen, Frits; Alberg Østergaard, Poul

    2015-01-01

    This editorial introduces the seventh volume of the International Journal of Sustainable Energy Planning and Management. The volume presents part of the outcome of the project Energy Systems Modelling Research and Analysis (ENSYMORA) funded by the Danish Innovation Fund. The project carried out...... by 11 university and industry partners has improved the basis for decision-making within energy planning and energy scenario making by providing new and improved tools and methods for energy systems analyses....

  18. Genetic analysis shows low levels of hybridization between African wildcats (Felis silvestris lybica) and domestic cats (F. s. catus) in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Roux, Johannes J; Foxcroft, Llewellyn C; Herbst, Marna; MacFadyen, Sandra

    2015-01-01

    Hybridization between domestic and wild animals is a major concern for biodiversity conservation, and as habitats become increasingly fragmented, conserving biodiversity at all levels, including genetic, becomes increasingly important. Except for tropical forests and true deserts, African wildcats occur across the African continent; however, almost no work has been carried out to assess its genetic status and extent of hybridization with domestic cats. For example, in South Africa it has been argued that the long-term viability of maintaining pure wildcat populations lies in large protected areas only, isolated from human populations. Two of the largest protected areas in Africa, the Kgalagadi Transfrontier and Kruger National Parks, as well as the size of South Africa and range of landscape uses, provide a model situation to assess how habitat fragmentation and heterogeneity influences the genetic purity of African wildcats. Using population genetic and home range data, we examined the genetic purity of African wildcats and their suspected hybrids across South Africa, including areas within and outside of protected areas. Overall, we found African wildcat populations to be genetically relatively pure, but instances of hybridization and a significant relationship between the genetic distinctiveness (purity) of wildcats and human population pressure were evident. The genetically purest African wildcats were found in the Kgalagadi Transfrontier Park, while samples from around Kruger National Park showed cause for concern, especially combined with the substantial human population density along the park's boundary. While African wildcat populations in South Africa generally appear to be genetically pure, with low levels of hybridization, our genetic data do suggest that protected areas may play an important role in maintaining genetic purity by reducing the likelihood of contact with domestic cats. We suggest that approaches such as corridors between protected areas

  19. 3D space analysis of dental models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chuah, Joon H.; Ong, Sim Heng; Kondo, Toshiaki; Foong, Kelvin W. C.; Yong, Than F.

    2001-05-01

    Space analysis is an important procedure by orthodontists to determine the amount of space available and required for teeth alignment during treatment planning. Traditional manual methods of space analysis are tedious and often inaccurate. Computer-based space analysis methods that work on 2D images have been reported. However, as the space problems in the dental arch exist in all three planes of space, a full 3D analysis of the problems is necessary. This paper describes a visualization and measurement system that analyses 3D images of dental plaster models. Algorithms were developed to determine dental arches. The system is able to record the depths of the Curve of Spee, and quantify space liabilities arising from a non-planar Curve of Spee, malalignment and overjet. Furthermore, the difference between total arch space available and the space required to arrange the teeth in ideal occlusion can be accurately computed. The system for 3D space analysis of the dental arch is an accurate, comprehensive, rapid and repeatable method of space analysis to facilitate proper orthodontic diagnosis and treatment planning.

  20. Analysis of Sting Balance Calibration Data Using Optimized Regression Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulbrich, N.; Bader, Jon B.

    2010-01-01

    Calibration data of a wind tunnel sting balance was processed using a candidate math model search algorithm that recommends an optimized regression model for the data analysis. During the calibration the normal force and the moment at the balance moment center were selected as independent calibration variables. The sting balance itself had two moment gages. Therefore, after analyzing the connection between calibration loads and gage outputs, it was decided to choose the difference and the sum of the gage outputs as the two responses that best describe the behavior of the balance. The math model search algorithm was applied to these two responses. An optimized regression model was obtained for each response. Classical strain gage balance load transformations and the equations of the deflection of a cantilever beam under load are used to show that the search algorithm s two optimized regression models are supported by a theoretical analysis of the relationship between the applied calibration loads and the measured gage outputs. The analysis of the sting balance calibration data set is a rare example of a situation when terms of a regression model of a balance can directly be derived from first principles of physics. In addition, it is interesting to note that the search algorithm recommended the correct regression model term combinations using only a set of statistical quality metrics that were applied to the experimental data during the algorithm s term selection process.

  1. Session 6: Dynamic Modeling and Systems Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Csank, Jeffrey; Chapman, Jeffryes; May, Ryan

    2013-01-01

    These presentations cover some of the ongoing work in dynamic modeling and dynamic systems analysis. The first presentation discusses dynamic systems analysis and how to integrate dynamic performance information into the systems analysis. The ability to evaluate the dynamic performance of an engine design may allow tradeoffs between the dynamic performance and operability of a design resulting in a more efficient engine design. The second presentation discusses the Toolbox for Modeling and Analysis of Thermodynamic Systems (T-MATS). T-MATS is a Simulation system with a library containing the basic building blocks that can be used to create dynamic Thermodynamic Systems. Some of the key features include Turbo machinery components, such as turbines, compressors, etc., and basic control system blocks. T-MAT is written in the Matlab-Simulink environment and is open source software. The third presentation focuses on getting additional performance from the engine by allowing the limit regulators only to be active when a limit is danger of being violated. Typical aircraft engine control architecture is based on MINMAX scheme, which is designed to keep engine operating within prescribed mechanical/operational safety limits. Using a conditionally active min-max limit regulator scheme, additional performance can be gained by disabling non-relevant limit regulators

  2. Corneal modeling for analysis of photorefractive keratectomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Della Vecchia, Michael A.; Lamkin-Kennard, Kathleen

    1997-05-01

    Procedurally, excimer photorefractive keratectomy is based on the refractive correction of composite spherical and cylindrical ophthalmic errors of the entire eye. These refractive errors are inputted for correction at the corneal plane and for the properly controlled duration and location of laser energy. Topography is usually taken to correspondingly monitor spherical and cylindrical corneorefractive errors. While a corneal topographer provides surface morphologic information, the keratorefractive photoablation is based on the patient's spherical and cylindrical spectacle correction. Topography is at present not directly part of the procedural deterministic parameters. Examination of how corneal curvature at each of the keratometric reference loci affect the shape of the resultant corneal photoablated surface may enhance the accuracy of the desired correction. The objective of this study was to develop a methodology to utilize corneal topography for construction of models depicting pre- and post-operative keratomorphology for analysis of photorefractive keratectomy. Multiple types of models were developed then recreated in optical design software for examination of focal lengths and other optical characteristics. The corneal models were developed using data extracted from the TMS I corneal modeling system (Computed Anatomy, New York, NY). The TMS I does not allow for manipulation of data or differentiation of pre- and post-operative surfaces within its platform, thus models needed to be created for analysis. The data were imported into Matlab where 3D models, surface meshes, and contour plots were created. The data used to generate the models were pre- and post-operative curvatures, heights from the corneal apes, and x-y positions at 6400 locations on the corneal surface. Outlying non-contributory points were eliminated through statistical operations. Pre- and post- operative models were analyzed to obtain the resultant changes in the corneal surfaces during PRK

  3. Model reduction using a posteriori analysis

    KAUST Repository

    Whiteley, Jonathan P.

    2010-05-01

    Mathematical models in biology and physiology are often represented by large systems of non-linear ordinary differential equations. In many cases, an observed behaviour may be written as a linear functional of the solution of this system of equations. A technique is presented in this study for automatically identifying key terms in the system of equations that are responsible for a given linear functional of the solution. This technique is underpinned by ideas drawn from a posteriori error analysis. This concept has been used in finite element analysis to identify regions of the computational domain and components of the solution where a fine computational mesh should be used to ensure accuracy of the numerical solution. We use this concept to identify regions of the computational domain and components of the solution where accurate representation of the mathematical model is required for accuracy of the functional of interest. The technique presented is demonstrated by application to a model problem, and then to automatically deduce known results from a cell-level cardiac electrophysiology model. © 2010 Elsevier Inc.

  4. Hydraulic Hybrid Excavator—Mathematical Model Validation and Energy Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paolo Casoli

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Recent demands to reduce pollutant emissions and improve energy efficiency have driven the implementation of hybrid solutions in mobile machinery. This paper presents the results of a numerical and experimental analysis conducted on a hydraulic hybrid excavator (HHE. The machinery under study is a middle size excavator, whose standard version was modified with the introduction of an energy recovery system (ERS. The proposed ERS layout was designed to recover the potential energy of the boom, using a hydraulic accumulator as a storage device. The recovered energy is utilized through the pilot pump of the machinery which operates as a motor, thus reducing the torque required from the internal combustion engine (ICE. The analysis reported in this paper validates the HHE model by comparing numerical and experimental data in terms of hydraulic and mechanical variables and fuel consumption. The mathematical model shows its capability to reproduce the realistic operating conditions of the realized prototype, tested on the field. A detailed energy analysis comparison between the standard and the hybrid excavator models was carried out to evaluate the energy flows along the system, showing advantages, weaknesses and possibilities to further improve the machinery efficiency. Finally, the fuel consumption estimated by the model and that measured during the experiments are presented to highlight the fuel saving percentages. The HHE model is an important starting point for the development of other energy saving solutions.

  5. Predicate Argument Structure Analysis for Use Case Description Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeuchi, Hironori; Nakamura, Taiga; Yamaguchi, Takahira

    In a large software system development project, many documents are prepared and updated frequently. In such a situation, support is needed for looking through these documents easily to identify inconsistencies and to maintain traceability. In this research, we focus on the requirements documents such as use cases and consider how to create models from the use case descriptions in unformatted text. In the model construction, we propose a few semantic constraints based on the features of the use cases and use them for a predicate argument structure analysis to assign semantic labels to actors and actions. With this approach, we show that we can assign semantic labels without enhancing any existing general lexical resources such as case frame dictionaries and design a less language-dependent model construction architecture. By using the constructed model, we consider a system for quality analysis of the use cases and automated test case generation to keep the traceability between document sets. We evaluated the reuse of the existing use cases and generated test case steps automatically with the proposed prototype system from real-world use cases in the development of a system using a packaged application. Based on the evaluation, we show how to construct models with high precision from English and Japanese use case data. Also, we could generate good test cases for about 90% of the real use cases through the manual improvement of the descriptions based on the feedback from the quality analysis system.

  6. Analysis of software for modeling atmospheric dispersion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grandamas, O.; Hubert, Ph.; Pages, P.

    1989-09-01

    During last few years, a number software packages for microcomputes have appeared with the aim to simulate diffusion of atmospheric pollutants. These codes, simplifying the models used for safety analyses of industrial plants are becoming more useful, and are even used for post-accidental conditions. The report presents for the first time in a critical manner, principal models available up to this date. The problem arises in adapting the models to the demanded post-accidental interventions. In parallel to this action an analysis of performance was performed. It means, identifying the need of forecasting the most appropriate actions to be performed having in mind short available time and lack of information. Because of these difficulties, it is possible to simplify the software, which will not include all the options but could deal with a specific situation. This would enable minimisation of data to be collected on the site [fr

  7. Predictive models for monitoring and analysis of the total zooplankton

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Obradović Milica

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, modeling and prediction of total zooplankton abundance have been performed by various tools and techniques, among which data mining tools have been less frequent. The purpose of this paper is to automatically determine the dependency degree and the influence of physical, chemical and biological parameters on the total zooplankton abundance, through design of the specific data mining models. For this purpose, the analysis of key influencers was used. The analysis is based on the data obtained from the SeLaR information system - specifically, the data from the two reservoirs (Gruža and Grošnica with different morphometric characteristics and trophic state. The data is transformed into optimal structure for data analysis, upon which, data mining model based on the Naïve Bayes algorithm is constructed. The results of the analysis imply that in both reservoirs, parameters of groups and species of zooplankton have the greatest influence on the total zooplankton abundance. If these inputs (group and zooplankton species are left out, differences in the impact of physical, chemical and other biological parameters in dependences of reservoirs can be noted. In the Grošnica reservoir, analysis showed that the temporal dimension (months, nitrates, water temperature, chemical oxygen demand, chlorophyll and chlorides, had the key influence with strong relative impact. In the Gruža reservoir, key influence parameters for total zooplankton are: spatial dimension (location, water temperature and physiological groups of bacteria. The results show that the presented data mining model is usable on any kind of aquatic ecosystem and can also serve for the detection of inputs which could be the basis for the future analysis and modeling.

  8. Data analysis and approximate models model choice, location-scale, analysis of variance, nonparametric regression and image analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Davies, Patrick Laurie

    2014-01-01

    Introduction IntroductionApproximate Models Notation Two Modes of Statistical AnalysisTowards One Mode of Analysis Approximation, Randomness, Chaos, Determinism ApproximationA Concept of Approximation Approximation Approximating a Data Set by a Model Approximation Regions Functionals and EquivarianceRegularization and Optimality Metrics and DiscrepanciesStrong and Weak Topologies On Being (almost) Honest Simulations and Tables Degree of Approximation and p-values ScalesStability of Analysis The Choice of En(α, P) Independence Procedures, Approximation and VaguenessDiscrete Models The Empirical Density Metrics and Discrepancies The Total Variation Metric The Kullback-Leibler and Chi-Squared Discrepancies The Po(λ) ModelThe b(k, p) and nb(k, p) Models The Flying Bomb Data The Student Study Times Data OutliersOutliers, Data Analysis and Models Breakdown Points and Equivariance Identifying Outliers and Breakdown Outliers in Multivariate Data Outliers in Linear Regression Outliers in Structured Data The Location...

  9. Modeling Analysis For Grout Hopper Waste Tank

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, S.

    2012-01-01

    The Saltstone facility at Savannah River Site (SRS) has a grout hopper tank to provide agitator stirring of the Saltstone feed materials. The tank has about 300 gallon capacity to provide a larger working volume for the grout nuclear waste slurry to be held in case of a process upset, and it is equipped with a mechanical agitator, which is intended to keep the grout in motion and agitated so that it won't start to set up. The primary objective of the work was to evaluate the flow performance for mechanical agitators to prevent vortex pull-through for an adequate stirring of the feed materials and to estimate an agitator speed which provides acceptable flow performance with a 45 o pitched four-blade agitator. In addition, the power consumption required for the agitator operation was estimated. The modeling calculations were performed by taking two steps of the Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) modeling approach. As a first step, a simple single-stage agitator model with 45 o pitched propeller blades was developed for the initial scoping analysis of the flow pattern behaviors for a range of different operating conditions. Based on the initial phase-1 results, the phase-2 model with a two-stage agitator was developed for the final performance evaluations. A series of sensitivity calculations for different designs of agitators and operating conditions have been performed to investigate the impact of key parameters on the grout hydraulic performance in a 300-gallon hopper tank. For the analysis, viscous shear was modeled by using the Bingham plastic approximation. Steady state analyses with a two-equation turbulence model were performed. All analyses were based on three-dimensional results. Recommended operational guidance was developed by using the basic concept that local shear rate profiles and flow patterns can be used as a measure of hydraulic performance and spatial stirring. Flow patterns were estimated by a Lagrangian integration technique along the flow paths

  10. Not a "reality" show.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wrong, Terence; Baumgart, Erica

    2013-01-01

    The authors of the preceding articles raise legitimate questions about patient and staff rights and the unintended consequences of allowing ABC News to film inside teaching hospitals. We explain why we regard their fears as baseless and not supported by what we heard from individuals portrayed in the filming, our decade-long experience making medical documentaries, and the full un-aired context of the scenes shown in the broadcast. The authors don't and can't know what conversations we had, what documents we reviewed, and what protections we put in place in each televised scene. Finally, we hope to correct several misleading examples cited by the authors as well as their offhand mischaracterization of our program as a "reality" show.

  11. Epidemiology of dengue fever: A model with temporary cross-immunity and possible secondary infection shows bifurcations and chaotic behaviour in wide parameter regions.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aguilar, M.; Kooi, B.W.; Stollenwerk, N.

    2008-01-01

    Basic models suitable to explain the epidemiology of dengue fever have previously shown the possibility of deterministically chaotic attractors, which might explain the observed fluctuations found in empiric outbreak data. However, the region of bifurcations and chaos require strong enhanced

  12. Sensitivity analysis of geometric errors in additive manufacturing medical models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinto, Jose Miguel; Arrieta, Cristobal; Andia, Marcelo E; Uribe, Sergio; Ramos-Grez, Jorge; Vargas, Alex; Irarrazaval, Pablo; Tejos, Cristian

    2015-03-01

    Additive manufacturing (AM) models are used in medical applications for surgical planning, prosthesis design and teaching. For these applications, the accuracy of the AM models is essential. Unfortunately, this accuracy is compromised due to errors introduced by each of the building steps: image acquisition, segmentation, triangulation, printing and infiltration. However, the contribution of each step to the final error remains unclear. We performed a sensitivity analysis comparing errors obtained from a reference with those obtained modifying parameters of each building step. Our analysis considered global indexes to evaluate the overall error, and local indexes to show how this error is distributed along the surface of the AM models. Our results show that the standard building process tends to overestimate the AM models, i.e. models are larger than the original structures. They also show that the triangulation resolution and the segmentation threshold are critical factors, and that the errors are concentrated at regions with high curvatures. Errors could be reduced choosing better triangulation and printing resolutions, but there is an important need for modifying some of the standard building processes, particularly the segmentation algorithms. Copyright © 2015 IPEM. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Longitudinal analysis strategies for modelling epigenetic trajectories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staley, James R; Suderman, Matthew; Simpkin, Andrew J; Gaunt, Tom R; Heron, Jon; Relton, Caroline L; Tilling, Kate

    2018-02-16

    DNA methylation levels are known to vary over time, and modelling these trajectories is crucial for our understanding of the biological relevance of these changes over time. However, due to the computational cost of fitting multilevel models across the epigenome, most trajectory modelling efforts to date have focused on a subset of CpG sites identified through epigenome-wide association studies (EWAS) at individual time-points. We propose using linear regression across the repeated measures, estimating cluster-robust standard errors using a sandwich estimator, as a less computationally intensive strategy than multilevel modelling. We compared these two longitudinal approaches, as well as three approaches based on EWAS (associated at baseline, at any time-point and at all time-points), for identifying epigenetic change over time related to an exposure using simulations and by applying them to blood DNA methylation profiles from the Accessible Resource for Integrated Epigenomics Studies (ARIES). Restricting association testing to EWAS at baseline identified a less complete set of associations than performing EWAS at each time-point or applying the longitudinal modelling approaches to the full dataset. Linear regression models with cluster-robust standard errors identified similar sets of associations with almost identical estimates of effect as the multilevel models, while also being 74 times more efficient. Both longitudinal modelling approaches identified comparable sets of CpG sites in ARIES with an association with prenatal exposure to smoking (>70% agreement). Linear regression with cluster-robust standard errors is an appropriate and efficient approach for longitudinal analysis of DNA methylation data.

  14. A Comparative Analysis of Task Modeling Notations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean Vanderdonckt

    2012-03-01

    paper a comparative analysis of selected models involving multiple users in an interaction is provided in order to identify concepts which are underexplored in today's multi-user interaction task modeling. This comparative analysis is based on three families of criteria: information criteria, conceptual coverage, and expressiveness. Merging the meta-models of the selected models enables to come up with a broader meta-model that could be instantiated in most situations involving multi-user interaction, like workflow information systems, CSCW.

  15. Dynamic modelling and analysis of space webs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Yang; Baoyin, HeXi; Li, JunFeng

    2011-04-01

    Future space missions demand operations on large flexible structures, for example, space webs, the lightweight cable nets deployable in space, which can serve as platforms for very large structures or be used to capture orbital objects. The interest in research on space webs is likely to increase in the future with the development of promising applications such as Furoshiki sat-ellite of JAXA, Robotic Geostationary Orbit Restorer (ROGER) of ESA and Grapple, Retrieve And Secure Payload (GRASP) of NASA. Unlike high-tensioned nets in civil engineering, space webs may be low-tensioned or tensionless, and extremely flexible, owing to the microgravity in the orbit and the lack of support components, which may cause computational difficulties. Mathematical models are necessary in the analysis of space webs, especially in the conceptual design and evaluation for prototypes. A full three-dimensional finite element (FE) model was developed in this work. Trivial truss elements were adopted to reduce the computational complexity. Considering cable is a compression-free material and its tensile stiffness is also variable, we introduced the cable material constitutive relationship to work out an accurate and feasible model for prototype analysis and design. In the static analysis, the stress distribution and global deformation of the webs were discussed to get access to the knowledge of strength of webs with different types of meshes. In the dynamic analysis, special attention was paid to the impact problem. The max stress and global deformation were investigated. The simulation results indicate the interesting phenomenon which may be worth further research.

  16. Sensitivity analysis of the terrestrial food chain model FOOD III

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zach, Reto.

    1980-10-01

    As a first step in constructing a terrestrial food chain model suitable for long-term waste management situations, a numerical sensitivity analysis of FOOD III was carried out to identify important model parameters. The analysis involved 42 radionuclides, four pathways, 14 food types, 93 parameters and three percentages of parameter variation. We also investigated the importance of radionuclides, pathways and food types. The analysis involved a simple contamination model to render results from individual pathways comparable. The analysis showed that radionuclides vary greatly in their dose contribution to each of the four pathways, but relative contributions to each pathway are very similar. Man's and animals' drinking water pathways are much more important than the leaf and root pathways. However, this result depends on the contamination model used. All the pathways contain unimportant food types. Considering the number of parameters involved, FOOD III has too many different food types. Many of the parameters of the leaf and root pathway are important. However, this is true for only a few of the parameters of animals' drinking water pathway, and for neither of the two parameters of mans' drinking water pathway. The radiological decay constant increases the variability of these results. The dose factor is consistently the most important variable, and it explains most of the variability of radionuclide doses within pathways. Consideration of the variability of dose factors is important in contemporary as well as long-term waste management assessment models, if realistic estimates are to be made. (auth)

  17. Comparative analysis of Goodwin's business cycle models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antonova, A. O.; Reznik, S.; Todorov, M. D.

    2016-10-01

    We compare the behavior of solutions of Goodwin's business cycle equation in the form of neutral delay differential equation with fixed delay (NDDE model) and in the form of the differential equations of 3rd, 4th and 5th orders (ODE model's). Such ODE model's (Taylor series expansion of NDDE in powers of θ) are proposed in N. Dharmaraj and K. Vela Velupillai [6] for investigation of the short periodic sawthooth oscillations in NDDE. We show that the ODE's of 3rd, 4th and 5th order may approximate the asymptotic behavior of only main Goodwin's mode, but not the sawthooth modes. If the order of the Taylor series expansion exceeds 5, then the approximate ODE becomes unstable independently of time lag θ.

  18. Automating risk analysis of software design models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frydman, Maxime; Ruiz, Guifré; Heymann, Elisa; César, Eduardo; Miller, Barton P

    2014-01-01

    The growth of the internet and networked systems has exposed software to an increased amount of security threats. One of the responses from software developers to these threats is the introduction of security activities in the software development lifecycle. This paper describes an approach to reduce the need for costly human expertise to perform risk analysis in software, which is common in secure development methodologies, by automating threat modeling. Reducing the dependency on security experts aims at reducing the cost of secure development by allowing non-security-aware developers to apply secure development with little to no additional cost, making secure development more accessible. To automate threat modeling two data structures are introduced, identification trees and mitigation trees, to identify threats in software designs and advise mitigation techniques, while taking into account specification requirements and cost concerns. These are the components of our model for automated threat modeling, AutSEC. We validated AutSEC by implementing it in a tool based on data flow diagrams, from the Microsoft security development methodology, and applying it to VOMS, a grid middleware component, to evaluate our model's performance.

  19. Automating Risk Analysis of Software Design Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maxime Frydman

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The growth of the internet and networked systems has exposed software to an increased amount of security threats. One of the responses from software developers to these threats is the introduction of security activities in the software development lifecycle. This paper describes an approach to reduce the need for costly human expertise to perform risk analysis in software, which is common in secure development methodologies, by automating threat modeling. Reducing the dependency on security experts aims at reducing the cost of secure development by allowing non-security-aware developers to apply secure development with little to no additional cost, making secure development more accessible. To automate threat modeling two data structures are introduced, identification trees and mitigation trees, to identify threats in software designs and advise mitigation techniques, while taking into account specification requirements and cost concerns. These are the components of our model for automated threat modeling, AutSEC. We validated AutSEC by implementing it in a tool based on data flow diagrams, from the Microsoft security development methodology, and applying it to VOMS, a grid middleware component, to evaluate our model's performance.

  20. Global sensitivity analysis of thermomechanical models in modelling of welding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petelet, M.

    2008-01-01

    Current approach of most welding modellers is to content themselves with available material data, and to chose a mechanical model that seems to be appropriate. Among inputs, those controlling the material properties are one of the key problems of welding simulation: material data are never characterized over a sufficiently wide temperature range. This way to proceed neglect the influence of the uncertainty of input data on the result given by the computer code. In this case, how to assess the credibility of prediction? This thesis represents a step in the direction of implementing an innovative approach in welding simulation in order to bring answers to this question, with an illustration on some concretes welding cases.The global sensitivity analysis is chosen to determine which material properties are the most sensitive in a numerical welding simulation and in which range of temperature. Using this methodology require some developments to sample and explore the input space covering welding of different steel materials. Finally, input data have been divided in two groups according to their influence on the output of the model (residual stress or distortion). In this work, complete methodology of the global sensitivity analysis has been successfully applied to welding simulation and lead to reduce the input space to the only important variables. Sensitivity analysis has provided answers to what can be considered as one of the probable frequently asked questions regarding welding simulation: for a given material which properties must be measured with a good accuracy and which ones can be simply extrapolated or taken from a similar material? (author)

  1. Progressive Multiple Sclerosis patients show substantial lesion activity that correlates with clinical disease severity and sex: a retrospective autopsy cohort analysis.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Luchetti, S.; Fransen, N.L.; van Eden, C.G.; Ramaglia, V.; Mason, M.; Huitinga, I.

    2018-01-01

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a highly heterogeneous disease with large inter-individual differences in disease course. MS lesion pathology shows considerable heterogeneity in localization, cellular content and degree of demyelination between patients. In this study, we investigated pathological

  2. Comprehensive behavioral testing in the R6/2 mouse model of Huntington's disease shows no benefit from CoQ10 or minocycline.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liliana B Menalled

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Previous studies of the effects of coenzyme Q10 and minocycline on mouse models of Huntington's disease have produced conflicting results regarding their efficacy in behavioral tests. Using our recently published best practices for husbandry and testing for mouse models of Huntington's disease, we report that neither coenzyme Q10 nor minocycline had significant beneficial effects on measures of motor function, general health (open field, rotarod, grip strength, rearing-climbing, body weight and survival in the R6/2 mouse model. The higher doses of minocycline, on the contrary, reduced survival. We were thus unable to confirm the previously reported benefits for these two drugs, and we discuss potential reasons for these discrepancies, such as the effects of husbandry and nutrition.

  3. Conflicts Analysis for Inter-Enterprise Business Process Model

    OpenAIRE

    Wei Ding; Zhong Tian; Jian Wang; Jun Zhu; Haiqi Liang; Lei Zhang

    2003-01-01

    Business process (BP) management systems facilitate the understanding and execution of business processes, which tend to change frequently due to both internal and external change in an enterprise. Therefore, the needs for analysis methods to verify the correctness of business process model is becoming more prominent. One key element of such business process is its control flow. We show how a flow specification may contain certain structural conflicts that could compromise its correct executi...

  4. Gentrification and models for real estate analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gianfranco Brusa

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available This research propose a deep analysis of Milanese real estate market, based on data supplied by three real estate organizations; gentrification appears in some neighborhoods, such as Tortona, Porta Genova, Bovisa, Isola Garibaldi: the latest is the subject of the final analysis, by surveying of physical and social state of the area. The survey takes place in two periods (2003 and 2009 to compare the evolution of gentrification. The results of surveys has been employed in a simulation by multi-agent system model, to foresee long term evolution of the phenomenon. These neighborhood micro-indicators allow to put in evidence actual trends, conditioning a local real estate market, which can translate themselves in phenomena such as gentrification. In present analysis, the employ of cellular automata models applied to a neighborhood in Milan (Isola Garibaldi produced the dynamic simulation of gentrification trend during a very long time: the cyclical phenomenon (one loop holds a period of twenty – thirty years appears sometimes during a theoretical time of 100 – 120 – 150 years. Simulation of long period scenarios by multi-agent systems and cellular automata provides estimator with powerful tool, without limits in implementing it, able to support him in appraisal judge. It stands also to reason that such a tool can sustain urban planning and related evaluation processes.

  5. Signal analysis of accelerometry data using gravity-based modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davey, Neil P.; James, Daniel A.; Anderson, Megan E.

    2004-03-01

    Triaxial accelerometers have been used to measure human movement parameters in swimming. Interpretation of data is difficult due to interference sources including interaction of external bodies. In this investigation the authors developed a model to simulate the physical movement of the lower back. Theoretical accelerometery outputs were derived thus giving an ideal, or noiseless dataset. An experimental data collection apparatus was developed by adapting a system to the aquatic environment for investigation of swimming. Model data was compared against recorded data and showed strong correlation. Comparison of recorded and modeled data can be used to identify changes in body movement, this is especially useful when cyclic patterns are present in the activity. Strong correlations between data sets allowed development of signal processing algorithms for swimming stroke analysis using first the pure noiseless data set which were then applied to performance data. Video analysis was also used to validate study results and has shown potential to provide acceptable results.

  6. Therapeutic Implications from Sensitivity Analysis of Tumor Angiogenesis Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poleszczuk, Jan; Hahnfeldt, Philip; Enderling, Heiko

    2015-01-01

    Anti-angiogenic cancer treatments induce tumor starvation and regression by targeting the tumor vasculature that delivers oxygen and nutrients. Mathematical models prove valuable tools to study the proof-of-concept, efficacy and underlying mechanisms of such treatment approaches. The effects of parameter value uncertainties for two models of tumor development under angiogenic signaling and anti-angiogenic treatment are studied. Data fitting is performed to compare predictions of both models and to obtain nominal parameter values for sensitivity analysis. Sensitivity analysis reveals that the success of different cancer treatments depends on tumor size and tumor intrinsic parameters. In particular, we show that tumors with ample vascular support can be successfully targeted with conventional cytotoxic treatments. On the other hand, tumors with curtailed vascular support are not limited by their growth rate and therefore interruption of neovascularization emerges as the most promising treatment target. PMID:25785600

  7. Sensitivity analysis in a Lassa fever deterministic mathematical model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdullahi, Mohammed Baba; Doko, Umar Chado; Mamuda, Mamman

    2015-05-01

    Lassa virus that causes the Lassa fever is on the list of potential bio-weapons agents. It was recently imported into Germany, the Netherlands, the United Kingdom and the United States as a consequence of the rapid growth of international traffic. A model with five mutually exclusive compartments related to Lassa fever is presented and the basic reproduction number analyzed. A sensitivity analysis of the deterministic model is performed. This is done in order to determine the relative importance of the model parameters to the disease transmission. The result of the sensitivity analysis shows that the most sensitive parameter is the human immigration, followed by human recovery rate, then person to person contact. This suggests that control strategies should target human immigration, effective drugs for treatment and education to reduced person to person contact.

  8. Individual patient data meta-analysis shows a significant association between the ATM rs1801516 SNP and toxicity after radiotherapy in 5456 breast and prostate cancer patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreassen, Christian Nicolaj; Rosenstein, Barry S; Kerns, Sarah L

    2016-01-01

    PURPOSE: Several small studies have indicated that the ATM rs1801516 SNP is associated with risk of normal tissue toxicity after radiotherapy. However, the findings have not been consistent. In order to test this SNP in a well-powered study, an individual patient data meta-analysis was carried ou...

  9. Unique presentation of corneal opacity in Peters plus syndrome : An unusual form of Peters anomaly showing tissue repair in serial analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Nie, Karlijn F.; Wesseling, Pieter; Eggink, Catharina A.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: To report an unusual case of bilateral Peters anomaly in Peters Plus syndrome. Methods: Systematic analysis and description of relevant clinical features, histopathological, and genetic findings. Results: A premature neonate, born after 34 weeks of gestation, presented with typical features

  10. Unique Presentation of Corneal Opacity in Peters Plus Syndrome: An Unusual Form of Peters Anomaly Showing Tissue Repair in Serial Analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nie, K.F. de; Wesseling, P.; Eggink, C.A.

    2016-01-01

    PURPOSE: To report an unusual case of bilateral Peters anomaly in Peters Plus syndrome. METHODS: Systematic analysis and description of relevant clinical features, histopathological, and genetic findings. RESULTS: A premature neonate, born after 34 weeks of gestation, presented with typical features

  11. A Combination of Coffee Compounds Shows Insulin-Sensitizing and Hepatoprotective Effects in a Rat Model of Diet-Induced Metabolic Syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shokouh, Pedram; Jeppesen, Per Bendix; Hermansen, Kjeld

    2017-01-01

    control, but improved fed hyperinsulinemia (mean difference = 30.80 mU/L, p = 0.044) and homeostatic model assessment-insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) (mean difference = 15.29, p = 0.033), and plasma adiponectin levels (mean difference = -0.99 µg/mL, p = 0.048). The impact of nutraceuticals on post...

  12. Cross-biome transplants of plant litter show decomposition models extend to a broader climatic range but lose predictability at the decadal time scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    William S. Currie; Mark E. Harmon; Ingrid C. Burke; Stephen C. Hart; William J. Parton; Whendee L. Silver

    2009-01-01

    We analyzed results from 10-year long field incubations of foliar and fine root litter from the Long-term lntersite Decomposition Experiment Team (LIDET) study. We tested whether a variety of climate and litter quality variables could be used to develop regression models of decomposition parameters across wide ranges in litter quality and climate and whether these...

  13. Data Logistics and the CMS Analysis Model

    CERN Document Server

    Managan, Julie E

    2009-01-01

    The Compact Muon Solenoid Experiment (CMS) at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN has brilliant prospects for uncovering new information about the physical structure of our universe. Soon physicists around the world will participate together in analyzing CMS data in search of new physics phenomena and the Higgs Boson. However, they face a significant problem: with 5 Petabytes of data needing distribution each year, how will physicists get the data they need? How and where will they be able to analyze it? Computing resources and scientists are scattered around the world, while CMS data exists in localized chunks. The CMS computing model only allows analysis of locally stored data, “tethering” analysis to storage. The Vanderbilt CMS team is actively working to solve this problem with the Research and Education Data Depot Network (REDDnet), a program run by Vanderbilt’s Advanced Computing Center for Research and Education (ACCRE). The Compact Muon Solenoid Experiment (CMS) at the Large Hadron Collider ...

  14. Analyzing availability using transfer function models and cross spectral analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singpurwalla, N.D.

    1980-01-01

    The paper shows how the methods of multivariate time series analysis can be used in a novel way to investigate the interrelationships between a series of operating (running) times and a series of maintenance (down) times of a complex system. Specifically, the techniques of cross spectral analysis are used to help obtain a Box-Jenkins type transfer function model for the running times and the down times of a nuclear reactor. A knowledge of the interrelationships between the running times and the down times is useful for an evaluation of maintenance policies, for replacement policy decisions, and for evaluating the availability and the readiness of complex systems

  15. Plasma brake model for preliminary mission analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orsini, Leonardo; Niccolai, Lorenzo; Mengali, Giovanni; Quarta, Alessandro A.

    2018-03-01

    Plasma brake is an innovative propellantless propulsion system concept that exploits the Coulomb collisions between a charged tether and the ions in the surrounding environment (typically, the ionosphere) to generate an electrostatic force orthogonal to the tether direction. Previous studies on the plasma brake effect have emphasized the existence of a number of different parameters necessary to obtain an accurate description of the propulsive acceleration from a physical viewpoint. The aim of this work is to discuss an analytical model capable of estimating, with the accuracy required by a preliminary mission analysis, the performance of a spacecraft equipped with a plasma brake in a (near-circular) low Earth orbit. The simplified mathematical model is first validated through numerical simulations, and is then used to evaluate the plasma brake performance in some typical mission scenarios, in order to quantify the influence of the system parameters on the mission performance index.

  16. Stability Analysis of the Embankment Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G.S. Gopalakrishna

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available In analysis of embankment model affected by dynamic force, employment of shaking table is a scientific way in assessment of earthquake behavior. This work focused on saturated loose sandy foundation and enbankment. The results generated through the pore pressure sensors indicated pore water pressure playing main role in creation of liquefaction and stability of the system, and also revealed deformation, settlement, liquefaction intensity and time stability of system in direct correlation with the strength and characteristics of soil. One of the economical methods in stabilization of soil foundation is improvement of some part soil foundation.

  17. Non standard analysis, polymer models, quantum fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Albeverio, S.

    1984-01-01

    We give an elementary introduction to non standard analysis and its applications to the theory of stochastic processes. This is based on a joint book with J.E. Fenstad, R. Hoeegh-Krohn and T. Lindstroeem. In particular we give a discussion of an hyperfinite theory of Dirichlet forms with applications to the study of the Hamiltonian for a quantum mechanical particle in the potential created by a polymer. We also discuss new results on the existence of attractive polymer measures in dimension d 1 2 phi 2 2 )sub(d)-model of interacting quantum fields. (orig.)

  18. Sensitivity analysis practices: Strategies for model-based inference

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saltelli, Andrea [Institute for the Protection and Security of the Citizen (IPSC), European Commission, Joint Research Centre, TP 361, 21020 Ispra (Vatican City State, Holy See,) (Italy)]. E-mail: andrea.saltelli@jrc.it; Ratto, Marco [Institute for the Protection and Security of the Citizen (IPSC), European Commission, Joint Research Centre, TP 361, 21020 Ispra (VA) (Italy); Tarantola, Stefano [Institute for the Protection and Security of the Citizen (IPSC), European Commission, Joint Research Centre, TP 361, 21020 Ispra (VA) (Italy); Campolongo, Francesca [Institute for the Protection and Security of the Citizen (IPSC), European Commission, Joint Research Centre, TP 361, 21020 Ispra (VA) (Italy)

    2006-10-15

    Fourteen years after Science's review of sensitivity analysis (SA) methods in 1989 (System analysis at molecular scale, by H. Rabitz) we search Science Online to identify and then review all recent articles having 'sensitivity analysis' as a keyword. In spite of the considerable developments which have taken place in this discipline, of the good practices which have emerged, and of existing guidelines for SA issued on both sides of the Atlantic, we could not find in our review other than very primitive SA tools, based on 'one-factor-at-a-time' (OAT) approaches. In the context of model corroboration or falsification, we demonstrate that this use of OAT methods is illicit and unjustified, unless the model under analysis is proved to be linear. We show that available good practices, such as variance based measures and others, are able to overcome OAT shortcomings and easy to implement. These methods also allow the concept of factors importance to be defined rigorously, thus making the factors importance ranking univocal. We analyse the requirements of SA in the context of modelling, and present best available practices on the basis of an elementary model. We also point the reader to available recipes for a rigorous SA.

  19. Sensitivity analysis practices: Strategies for model-based inference

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saltelli, Andrea; Ratto, Marco; Tarantola, Stefano; Campolongo, Francesca

    2006-01-01

    Fourteen years after Science's review of sensitivity analysis (SA) methods in 1989 (System analysis at molecular scale, by H. Rabitz) we search Science Online to identify and then review all recent articles having 'sensitivity analysis' as a keyword. In spite of the considerable developments which have taken place in this discipline, of the good practices which have emerged, and of existing guidelines for SA issued on both sides of the Atlantic, we could not find in our review other than very primitive SA tools, based on 'one-factor-at-a-time' (OAT) approaches. In the context of model corroboration or falsification, we demonstrate that this use of OAT methods is illicit and unjustified, unless the model under analysis is proved to be linear. We show that available good practices, such as variance based measures and others, are able to overcome OAT shortcomings and easy to implement. These methods also allow the concept of factors importance to be defined rigorously, thus making the factors importance ranking univocal. We analyse the requirements of SA in the context of modelling, and present best available practices on the basis of an elementary model. We also point the reader to available recipes for a rigorous SA

  20. Dynamical Analysis of a Computer Virus Model with Delays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Liu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available An SIQR computer virus model with two delays is investigated in the present paper. The linear stability conditions are obtained by using characteristic root method and the developed asymptotic analysis shows the onset of a Hopf bifurcation occurs when the delay parameter reaches a critical value. Moreover the direction of the Hopf bifurcation and stability of the bifurcating period solutions are investigated by using the normal form theory and the center manifold theorem. Finally, numerical investigations are carried out to show the feasibility of the theoretical results.

  1. Year clustering analysis for modelling olive flowering phenology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oteros, J.; García-Mozo, H.; Hervás-Martínez, C.; Galán, C.

    2013-07-01

    It is now widely accepted that weather conditions occurring several months prior to the onset of flowering have a major influence on various aspects of olive reproductive phenology, including flowering intensity. Given the variable characteristics of the Mediterranean climate, we analyse its influence on the registered variations in olive flowering intensity in southern Spain, and relate them to previous climatic parameters using a year-clustering approach, as a first step towards an olive flowering phenology model adapted to different year categories. Phenological data from Cordoba province (Southern Spain) for a 30-year period (1982-2011) were analysed. Meteorological and phenological data were first subjected to both hierarchical and "K-means" clustering analysis, which yielded four year-categories. For this classification purpose, three different models were tested: (1) discriminant analysis; (2) decision-tree analysis; and (3) neural network analysis. Comparison of the results showed that the neural-networks model was the most effective, classifying four different year categories with clearly distinct weather features. Flowering-intensity models were constructed for each year category using the partial least squares regression method. These category-specific models proved to be more effective than general models. They are better suited to the variability of the Mediterranean climate, due to the different response of plants to the same environmental stimuli depending on the previous weather conditions in any given year. The present detailed analysis of the influence of weather patterns of different years on olive phenology will help us to understand the short-term effects of climate change on olive crop in the Mediterranean area that is highly affected by it.

  2. Gastrointestinal Simulation Model TWIN-SHIME Shows Differences between Human Urolithin-Metabotypes in Gut Microbiota Composition, Pomegranate Polyphenol Metabolism, and Transport along the Intestinal Tract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Villalba, Rocío; Vissenaekens, Hanne; Pitart, Judit; Romo-Vaquero, María; Espín, Juan C; Grootaert, Charlotte; Selma, María V; Raes, Katleen; Smagghe, Guy; Possemiers, Sam; Van Camp, John; Tomas-Barberan, Francisco A

    2017-07-12

    A TWIN-SHIME system was used to compare the metabolism of pomegranate polyphenols by the gut microbiota from two individuals with different urolithin metabotypes. Gut microbiota, ellagitannin metabolism, short-chain fatty acids (SCFA), transport of metabolites, and phase II metabolism using Caco-2 cells were explored. The simulation reproduced the in vivo metabolic profiles for each metabotype. The study shows for the first time that microbial composition, metabolism of ellagitannins, and SCFA differ between metabotypes and along the large intestine. The assay also showed that pomegranate phenolics preserved intestinal cell integrity. Pomegranate polyphenols enhanced urolithin and propionate production, as well as Akkermansia and Gordonibacter prevalence with the highest effect in the descending colon. The system provides an insight into the mechanisms of pomegranate polyphenol gut microbiota metabolism and absorption through intestinal cells. The results obtained by the combined SHIME/Caco-2 cell system are consistent with previous human and animal studies and show that although urolithin metabolites are present along the gastrointestinal tract due to enterohepatic circulation, they are predominantly produced in the distal colon region.

  3. Diffusion tensor MRI shows progressive changes in the hippocampus and dentate gyrus after status epilepticus in rat - histological validation with Fourier-based analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salo, Raimo A; Miettinen, Tuukka; Laitinen, Teemu; Gröhn, Olli; Sierra, Alejandra

    2017-05-15

    Imaging markers for monitoring disease progression, recovery, and treatment efficacy are a major unmet need for many neurological diseases, including epilepsy. Recent evidence suggests that diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) provides high microstructural contrast even outside major white matter tracts. We hypothesized that in vivo DTI could detect progressive microstructural changes in the dentate gyrus and the hippocampal CA3bc in the rat brain after status epilepticus (SE). To test this hypothesis, we induced SE with systemic kainic acid or pilocarpine in adult male Wistar rats and subsequently scanned them using in vivo DTI at five time-points: prior to SE, and 10, 20, 34, and 79 days post SE. In order to tie the DTI findings to changes in the tissue microstructure, myelin- and glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP)-stained sections from the same animals underwent Fourier analysis. We compared the Fourier analysis parameters, anisotropy index and angle of myelinated axons or astrocyte processes, to corresponding DTI parameters, fractional anisotropy (FA) and the orientation angle of the principal eigenvector. We found progressive detectable changes in DTI parameters in both the dentate gyrus (FA, axial diffusivity [D || ], linear anisotropy [CL] and spherical anisotropy [CS], pFourier analysis revealed that both myelinated axons and astrocyte processes played a role in the water diffusion anisotropy changes detected by DTI in individual portions of the dentate gyrus (suprapyramidal blade, mid-portion, and infrapyramidal blade). In the whole dentate gyrus, myelinated axons markedly contributed to the water diffusion changes. In CA3bc as well as in CA3b and CA3c, both myelinated axons and astrocyte processes contributed to water diffusion anisotropy and orientation. Our study revealed that DTI is a promising method for noninvasive detection of microstructural alterations in the hippocampus proper. These alterations may be potential imaging markers for epileptogenesis

  4. Spatial Uncertainty Analysis of Ecological Models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jager, H.I.; Ashwood, T.L.; Jackson, B.L.; King, A.W.

    2000-09-02

    The authors evaluated the sensitivity of a habitat model and a source-sink population model to spatial uncertainty in landscapes with different statistical properties and for hypothetical species with different habitat requirements. Sequential indicator simulation generated alternative landscapes from a source map. Their results showed that spatial uncertainty was highest for landscapes in which suitable habitat was rare and spatially uncorrelated. Although, they were able to exert some control over the degree of spatial uncertainty by varying the sampling density drawn from the source map, intrinsic spatial properties (i.e., average frequency and degree of spatial autocorrelation) played a dominant role in determining variation among realized maps. To evaluate the ecological significance of landscape variation, they compared the variation in predictions from a simple habitat model to variation among landscapes for three species types. Spatial uncertainty in predictions of the amount of source habitat depended on both the spatial life history characteristics of the species and the statistical attributes of the synthetic landscapes. Species differences were greatest when the landscape contained a high proportion of suitable habitat. The predicted amount of source habitat was greater for edge-dependent (interior) species in landscapes with spatially uncorrelated(correlated) suitable habitat. A source-sink model demonstrated that, although variation among landscapes resulted in relatively little variation in overall population growth rate, this spatial uncertainty was sufficient in some situations, to produce qualitatively different predictions about population viability (i.e., population decline vs. increase).

  5. Rotor-Flying Manipulator: Modeling, Analysis, and Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bin Yang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Equipping multijoint manipulators on a mobile robot is a typical redesign scheme to make the latter be able to actively influence the surroundings and has been extensively used for many ground robots, underwater robots, and space robotic systems. However, the rotor-flying robot (RFR is difficult to be made such redesign. This is mainly because the motion of the manipulator will bring heavy coupling between itself and the RFR system, which makes the system model highly complicated and the controller design difficult. Thus, in this paper, the modeling, analysis, and control of the combined system, called rotor-flying multijoint manipulator (RF-MJM, are conducted. Firstly, the detailed dynamics model is constructed and analyzed. Subsequently, a full-state feedback linear quadratic regulator (LQR controller is designed through obtaining linearized model near steady state. Finally, simulations are conducted and the results are analyzed to show the basic control performance.

  6. Coarse Analysis of Microscopic Models using Equation-Free Methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marschler, Christian

    -dimensional models. The goal of this thesis is to investigate such high-dimensional multiscale models and extract relevant low-dimensional information from them. Recently developed mathematical tools allow to reach this goal: a combination of so-called equation-free methods with numerical bifurcation analysis...... using short simulation bursts of computationally-expensive complex models. Those information is subsequently used to construct bifurcation diagrams that show the parameter dependence of solutions of the system. The methods developed for this thesis have been applied to a wide range of relevant problems....... Applications include the learning behavior in the barn owl’s auditory system, traffic jam formation in an optimal velocity model for circular car traffic and oscillating behavior of pedestrian groups in a counter-flow through a corridor with narrow door. The methods do not only quantify interesting properties...

  7. ANALYSIS MODEL FOR RETURN ON CAPITAL EMPLOYED

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BURJA CAMELIA

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available At the microeconomic level, the appreciation of the capitals’ profitability is a very complex action which is ofinterest for stakeholders. This study has as main purpose to extend the traditional analysis model for the capitals’profitability, based on the ratio “Return on capital employed”. In line with it the objectives of this work aim theidentification of factors that exert an influence on the capital’s profitability utilized by a company and the measurementof their contribution in the manifestation of the phenomenon. The proposed analysis model is validated on the use caseof a representative company from the agricultural sector. The results obtained reveal that in a company there are somefactors which can act positively on the capitals’ profitability: capital turnover, sales efficiency, increase the share ofsales in the total revenues, improvement of the expenses’ efficiency. The findings are useful both for the decisionmakingfactors in substantiating the economic strategies and for the capital owners who are interested in efficiency oftheir investments.

  8. Using multi-criteria analysis of simulation models to understand complex biological systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maureen C. Kennedy; E. David. Ford

    2011-01-01

    Scientists frequently use computer-simulation models to help solve complex biological problems. Typically, such models are highly integrated, they produce multiple outputs, and standard methods of model analysis are ill suited for evaluating them. We show how multi-criteria optimization with Pareto optimality allows for model outputs to be compared to multiple system...

  9. Growth models and analysis of development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mathur, G.

    1979-10-01

    This paper deals with remnants of neoclassical elements in Keynesian and post-Keynesian thought, and attempts to demonstrate that the elimination of these elements from our modes of thinking would not impoverish economic analysis as a means of solving real problems. In the Keynesian analysis the causation from investment to savings is exhibited in terms of income determination. When put in terms of a capital-theory model, the vector of savings is represented in two ways: real savings and counterpart real savings. The former coincides with the investment vector and the latter with the vector of consumption goods foregone for diverting resources towards equipment making. Thus the Keynesian causation in capital theory terms makes the concept of national savings as an independent variable redudant. The Robinsonian causation in a golden age with full employment and its reversal of direction in a steady state with non-employment are then considered. But in each of these, variables like rate of savings and output/capital ratio are found to be dormant variables. They are termed as null variables which, being of no account in both full-employment and unemployment situations, could, without loss, be deleted from the repertory of analytical tools. The Harrod formula of warranted rate of growth, when put in causal form, thus becomes a redundant portion of economics of growth. The real determinants of the growth rate and real wage rate on which the analysis of growth or of development should be based, are also depicted.

  10. Comparative analysis of calculation models of railway subgrade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I.O. Sviatko

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. In transport engineering structures design, the primary task is to determine the parameters of foundation soil and nuances of its work under loads. It is very important to determine the parameters of shear resistance and the parameters, determining the development of deep deformations in foundation soils, while calculating the soil subgrade - upper track structure interaction. Search for generalized numerical modeling methods of embankment foundation soil work that include not only the analysis of the foundation stress state but also of its deformed one. Methodology. The analysis of existing modern and classical methods of numerical simulation of soil samples under static load was made. Findings. According to traditional methods of analysis of ground masses work, limitation and the qualitative estimation of subgrade deformations is possible only indirectly, through the estimation of stress and comparison of received values with the boundary ones. Originality. A new computational model was proposed in which it will be applied not only classical approach analysis of the soil subgrade stress state, but deformed state will be also taken into account. Practical value. The analysis showed that for accurate analysis of ground masses work it is necessary to develop a generalized methodology for analyzing of the rolling stock - railway subgrade interaction, which will use not only the classical approach of analyzing the soil subgrade stress state, but also take into account its deformed one.

  11. Comparison of G protein sequences of South African street rabies viruses showing distinct progression of the disease in a mouse model of experimental rabies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Wonhyo; Servat, Alexandre; Cliquet, Florence; Akinbowale, Jenkins; Prehaud, Christophe; Lafon, Monique; Sabeta, Claude

    Rabies is a fatal zoonotic disease and infections generally lead to a fatal encephalomyelitis in both humans and animals. In South Africa, domestic (dogs) and the wildlife (yellow mongoose) host species maintain the canid and mongoose rabies variants respectively. In this study, pathogenicity differences of South African canid and mongoose rabies viruses were investigated in a murine model, by assessing the progression of clinical signs and survivorship. Comparison of glycoprotein gene sequences revealed amino acid differences that may underpin the observed pathogenicity differences. Cumulatively, our results suggest that the canid rabies virus may be more neurovirulent in mice than the mongoose rabies variant. Copyright © 2017 Institut Pasteur. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  12. Retrotransposon-centered analysis of piRNA targeting shows a shift from active to passive retrotransposon transcription in developing mouse testes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mourier, Tobias

    2011-01-01

    . As expected, young RTEs display a much higher level of piRNA targeting than old RTEs. Further, irrespective of age, RTE loci near protein-coding coding genes are targeted to a greater extent than RTE loci far from genes. During development, a shift in piRNA targeting is observed, with a clear increase...... transcripts from other cellular RNAs. During germline development, the main target of piRNAs switch between different types of RTEs. Using the piRNA targeting of RTEs as an indicator of RTE activity, and considering the entire population of genomic RTE loci along with their age and location, this study aims...... at further elucidating the dynamics of RTE activity during mouse germline development. RESULTS: Due to the inherent sequence redundancy between RTE loci, assigning piRNA targeting to specific loci is problematic. This limits the analysis, although certain features of piRNA targeting of RTE loci are apparent...

  13. Recombination analysis and structure prediction show correlation between breakpoint clusters and RNA hairpins in the pol gene of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 unique recombinant forms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Galli, Andrea; Lai, Alessia; Corvasce, Stefano

    2008-01-01

    throughout the genome, leading to viral recombination. Some recombination hotspots have been identified and found to correlate with RNA structure or sequence features. The aim of this study was to evaluate the presence of recombination hotspots in the pol gene of HIV-1 and to assess their correlation......Recombination is recognized as a primary force in human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) evolution, increasing viral diversity through reshuffling of genomic portions. The strand-switching activity of reverse transcriptase is required to complete HIV-1 replication and can occur randomly...... with the underlying RNA structure. Analysis of the recombination pattern and breakpoint distribution in a group of unique recombinant forms (URFs) detected two recombination hotspots in the pol region. Two stable and conserved hairpins were consistently predicted corresponding to the identified hotspots using six...

  14. Modified Models of Bentler and Woodward Model of Confirmatory Factor Analysis to Analysis of Covariance

    OpenAIRE

    Tan, Şeref

    2016-01-01

    Analysis of covariance is a technique used to fix effects of covariates on dependent variable to test treatment effect in experimental studies. In analysis of covariance it is assumed that covariates are measured perfectly reliable. The assumption of perfectly reliable covariates is almost impossible to meet. In reality, it is almost impossible to measure a covariate without error. In this study, a structural model suggested by Bentler and Woodward (1979) was modified both observed and latent...

  15. Topological Data Analysis of Biological Aggregation Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Topaz, Chad M.; Ziegelmeier, Lori; Halverson, Tom

    2015-01-01

    We apply tools from topological data analysis to two mathematical models inspired by biological aggregations such as bird flocks, fish schools, and insect swarms. Our data consists of numerical simulation output from the models of Vicsek and D'Orsogna. These models are dynamical systems describing the movement of agents who interact via alignment, attraction, and/or repulsion. Each simulation time frame is a point cloud in position-velocity space. We analyze the topological structure of these point clouds, interpreting the persistent homology by calculating the first few Betti numbers. These Betti numbers count connected components, topological circles, and trapped volumes present in the data. To interpret our results, we introduce a visualization that displays Betti numbers over simulation time and topological persistence scale. We compare our topological results to order parameters typically used to quantify the global behavior of aggregations, such as polarization and angular momentum. The topological calculations reveal events and structure not captured by the order parameters. PMID:25970184

  16. A Combination of Coffee Compounds Shows Insulin-Sensitizing and Hepatoprotective Effects in a Rat Model of Diet-Induced Metabolic Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedram Shokouh

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Since coffee may help to prevent the development of metabolic syndrome (MetS, we aimed to evaluate the short- and long-term effects of a coffee-based supplement on different features of diet-induced MetS. In this study, 24 Sprague Dawley rats were divided into control or nutraceuticals groups to receive a high-fat/high-fructose diet with or without a mixture of caffeic acid (30 mg/day, trigonelline (20 mg/day, and cafestol (1 mg/day for 12 weeks. An additional 11 rats were assigned to an acute crossover study. In the chronic experiment, nutraceuticals did not alter body weight or glycemic control, but improved fed hyperinsulinemia (mean difference = 30.80 mU/L, p = 0.044 and homeostatic model assessment-insulin resistance (HOMA-IR (mean difference = 15.29, p = 0.033, and plasma adiponectin levels (mean difference = −0.99 µg/mL, p = 0.048. The impact of nutraceuticals on post-prandial glycemia tended to be more pronounced after acute administration than at the end of the chronic study. Circulating (mean difference = 4.75 U/L, p = 0.014 and intrahepatocellular alanine transaminase activity was assessed by hyperpolarized-13C nuclear magnetic resonance NMR spectroscopy and found to be reduced by coffee nutraceuticals at endpoint. There was also a tendency towards lower liver triglyceride content and histological steatosis score in the intervention group. In conclusion, a mixture of coffee nutraceuticals improved insulin sensitivity and exhibited hepatoprotective effects in a rat model of MetS. Higher dosages with or without caffeine deserve to be studied in the future.

  17. Practical identifiability analysis of a minimal cardiovascular system model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pironet, Antoine; Docherty, Paul D; Dauby, Pierre C; Chase, J Geoffrey; Desaive, Thomas

    2017-01-17

    Parameters of mathematical models of the cardiovascular system can be used to monitor cardiovascular state, such as total stressed blood volume status, vessel elastance and resistance. To do so, the model parameters have to be estimated from data collected at the patient's bedside. This work considers a seven-parameter model of the cardiovascular system and investigates whether these parameters can be uniquely determined using indices derived from measurements of arterial and venous pressures, and stroke volume. An error vector defined the residuals between the simulated and reference values of the seven clinically available haemodynamic indices. The sensitivity of this error vector to each model parameter was analysed, as well as the collinearity between parameters. To assess practical identifiability of the model parameters, profile-likelihood curves were constructed for each parameter. Four of the seven model parameters were found to be practically identifiable from the selected data. The remaining three parameters were practically non-identifiable. Among these non-identifiable parameters, one could be decreased as much as possible. The other two non-identifiable parameters were inversely correlated, which prevented their precise estimation. This work presented the practical identifiability analysis of a seven-parameter cardiovascular system model, from limited clinical data. The analysis showed that three of the seven parameters were practically non-identifiable, thus limiting the use of the model as a monitoring tool. Slight changes in the time-varying function modeling cardiac contraction and use of larger values for the reference range of venous pressure made the model fully practically identifiable. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  18. Quantitative analysis of free and bonded forms of volatile sulfur compouds in wine. Basic methodologies and evidences showing the existence of reversible cation-complexed forms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franco-Luesma, Ernesto; Ferreira, Vicente

    2014-09-12

    This paper examines first some basic aspects critical to the analysis of Volatile Sulfur Compounds (VSCs), such as the analytical characteristics of the GC-pFPD system and the stability of the different standard solutions required for a proper calibration. Following, a direct static headspace analytical method for the determination of exclusively free forms of VSCs has been developed. Method repeatability is better than 4%, detection limits for main analytes are below 0.5μgL(-1), and the method dynamic linear range (r(2)>0.99) is expanded by controlling the split ratio in the chromatographic inlet to cover the natural range of occurrence of these compounds in wines. The method gives reliable estimates of headspace concentrations but, as expected, suffers from strong matrix effects with recoveries ranging from 0 to 100% or from 60 to 100 in the cases of H2S and the other mercaptans, respectively. This demonstrates the existence of strong interactions of these compounds with different matrix components. The complexing ability of Cu(2+) and to a lower extent Fe(2+) and Zn(2+) has been experimentally checked. A previously developed method in which the wine is strongly diluted with brine and the volatiles are preconcentrated by HS-SPME, was found to give a reliable estimation of the total amount (free+complexed) of mercaptans, demonstrating that metal-mercaptan complexes are reversible. The comparative analysis of different wines by the two procedures reveals that in normal wines H2S and methanethiol can be complexed at levels above 99%, with averages around 97% for H2S and 75% for methanethiol, while thioethers such as dimethyl sulfide (DMS) are not complexed. Overall, the proposed strategy may be generalized to understand problems caused by VSCs in different matrices. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Verification and Validation of FAARR Model and Data Envelopment Analysis Models for United States Army Recruiting

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Piskator, Gene

    1998-01-01

    ...) model and to develop a Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA) modeling strategy. First, the FAARR model was verified using a simulation of a known production function and validated using sensitivity analysis and ex-post forecasts...

  20. A catalog of automated analysis methods for enterprise models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Florez, Hector; Sánchez, Mario; Villalobos, Jorge

    2016-01-01

    Enterprise models are created for documenting and communicating the structure and state of Business and Information Technologies elements of an enterprise. After models are completed, they are mainly used to support analysis. Model analysis is an activity typically based on human skills and due to the size and complexity of the models, this process can be complicated and omissions or miscalculations are very likely. This situation has fostered the research of automated analysis methods, for supporting analysts in enterprise analysis processes. By reviewing the literature, we found several analysis methods; nevertheless, they are based on specific situations and different metamodels; then, some analysis methods might not be applicable to all enterprise models. This paper presents the work of compilation (literature review), classification, structuring, and characterization of automated analysis methods for enterprise models, expressing them in a standardized modeling language. In addition, we have implemented the analysis methods in our modeling tool.

  1. Macrophage inflammatory protein-1α shows predictive value as a risk marker for subjects and sites vulnerable to bone loss in a longitudinal model of aggressive periodontitis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel H Fine

    Full Text Available Improved diagnostics remains a fundamental goal of biomedical research. This study was designed to assess cytokine biomarkers that could predict bone loss (BL in localized aggressive periodontitis. 2,058 adolescents were screened. Two groups of 50 periodontally healthy adolescents were enrolled in the longitudinal study. One group had Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans (Aa, the putative pathogen, while the matched cohort did not. Cytokine levels were assessed in saliva and gingival crevicular fluid (GCF. Participants were sampled, examined, and radiographed every 6 months for 2-3 years. Disease was defined as radiographic evidence of BL. Saliva and GCF was collected at each visit, frozen, and then tested retrospectively after detection of BL. Sixteen subjects with Aa developed BL. Saliva from Aa-positive and Aa-negative healthy subjects was compared to subjects who developed BL. GCF was collected from 16 subjects with BL and from another 38 subjects who remained healthy. GCF from BL sites in the 16 subjects was compared to healthy sites in these same subjects and to healthy sites in subjects who remained healthy. Results showed that cytokines in saliva associated with acute inflammation were elevated in subjects who developed BL (i.e., MIP-1α MIP-1β IL-α, IL-1β and IL-8; p<0.01. MIP-1α was elevated 13-fold, 6 months prior to BL. When MIP-1α levels were set at 40 pg/ml, 98% of healthy sites were below that level (Specificity; whereas, 93% of sites with BL were higher (Sensitivity, with comparable Predictive Values of 98%; p<0.0001; 95% C.I. = 42.5-52.7. MIP-1α consistently showed elevated levels as a biomarker for BL in both saliva and GCF, 6 months prior to BL. MIP-1α continues to demonstrate its strong candidacy as a diagnostic biomarker for both subject and site vulnerability to BL.

  2. Analysis of Static and Dynamic E-Reference Content at a Multi-Campus University Shows, that Updated Content is Associated with Greater Annual Usage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Costello

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective – To discover whether there is a difference in use over time between dynamically updated and changing subscription e-reference titles and collections, and static purchased e-reference titles and collections. Design – Case study. Setting – A multi-campus Canadian university with 9,200 students enrolled in both graduate and undergraduate programs. Subjects – E-reference book packages and individual e-reference titles. Methods – The author compared data from individual e-reference books and packages. First, individual subscription e-reference books that periodically added updated content were compared to individually purchased e-reference books that remained static after purchase. The author then compared two e-reference book packages that provided new and updated content to two static e-reference book packages. The author compared data from patron usage to new content added over time using regression analysis. Main Results – As the library acquired e-reference titles, dynamic title subscriptions added to the collection were associated with 2,246 to 4,635 views per subscription while static title additions were associated with 8 to 123 views per purchase. The author also found that there was a strong linear relationship between views and dynamic titles added to the collection (R2=0.79 and a very weak linear relationship (R2=0.18 with views when static titles are added to the collection. Regression analysis of dynamic e-reference collections revealed that the number of titles added to each collection was strongly associated with views of the material (R2=0.99, while static e-reference collections were less strongly linked (R2=0.43. Conclusion – Dynamic e-reference titles and collections experienced increases in usage each year while static titles and collections experienced decreases in usage. This indicates that collections and titles that offer new content to users each year will continue to see growth in usage while static

  3. Delamination Modeling of Composites for Improved Crash Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleming, David C.

    1999-01-01

    Finite element crash modeling of composite structures is limited by the inability of current commercial crash codes to accurately model delamination growth. Efforts are made to implement and assess delamination modeling techniques using a current finite element crash code, MSC/DYTRAN. Three methods are evaluated, including a straightforward method based on monitoring forces in elements or constraints representing an interface; a cohesive fracture model proposed in the literature; and the virtual crack closure technique commonly used in fracture mechanics. Results are compared with dynamic double cantilever beam test data from the literature. Examples show that it is possible to accurately model delamination propagation in this case. However, the computational demands required for accurate solution are great and reliable property data may not be available to support general crash modeling efforts. Additional examples are modeled including an impact-loaded beam, damage initiation in laminated crushing specimens, and a scaled aircraft subfloor structures in which composite sandwich structures are used as energy-absorbing elements. These examples illustrate some of the difficulties in modeling delamination as part of a finite element crash analysis.

  4. Bayesian analysis of a reduced-form air quality model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foley, Kristen M; Reich, Brian J; Napelenok, Sergey L

    2012-07-17

    Numerical air quality models are being used for assessing emission control strategies for improving ambient pollution levels across the globe. This paper applies probabilistic modeling to evaluate the effectiveness of emission reduction scenarios aimed at lowering ground-level ozone concentrations. A Bayesian hierarchical model is used to combine air quality model output and monitoring data in order to characterize the impact of emissions reductions while accounting for different degrees of uncertainty in the modeled emissions inputs. The probabilistic model predictions are weighted based on population density in order to better quantify the societal benefits/disbenefits of four hypothetical emission reduction scenarios in which domain-wide NO(x) emissions from various sectors are reduced individually and then simultaneously. Cross validation analysis shows the statistical model performs well compared to observed ozone levels. Accounting for the variability and uncertainty in the emissions and atmospheric systems being modeled is shown to impact how emission reduction scenarios would be ranked, compared to standard methodology.

  5. Database analysis of a French type 2 diabetic population shows a specific age pattern of tooth extractions and correlates health care utilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayard-Pons, M L; Rilliard, F; Libersa, J C; Musset, A M; Farge, P

    2015-01-01

    To assess the relationship between type 2 diabetes and tooth loss and the predictive value of health behavior and routine dental care in regard to both dental and medical follow-ups. Cross-sectional study from a national database of a French population of railways transport workers was conducted with a descriptive analysis between registered diabetic patients and non-diabetic subjects. The relationship between oral health and diabetes was measured by tooth extraction prevalence in regard to the frequency of scaling-prophylaxis sessions and the number of medical and dental appointments. The prevalence of tooth extractions in the type 2 diabetic population is 1.88 higher than the non-diabetic population. Diabetic patients tend to undergo dental extractions earlier and more often than non-diabetic individuals. They also have more medical appointments and less dental check-ups and scaling sessions than the non-diabetic population. Measured by tooth loss, type 2 diabetic patients have a significantly earlier detrimental oral status when compared to the non-diabetic population. They exhibit a different pattern in health care utilization of outpatient medical resources. Oral health surveillance is not correctly addressed by the medical and dental coverage of these diabetic patients. Emphasis should be directed on specific dental care programs aimed at preventing tooth loss. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Measuring performance at trade shows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Kåre

    2004-01-01

    Trade shows is an increasingly important marketing activity to many companies, but current measures of trade show performance do not adequately capture dimensions important to exhibitors. Based on the marketing literature's outcome and behavior-based control system taxonomy, a model is built...... that captures a outcome-based sales dimension and four behavior-based dimensions (i.e. information-gathering, relationship building, image building, and motivation activities). A 16-item instrument is developed for assessing exhibitors perceptions of their trade show performance. The paper presents evidence...... of the scale's reliability, factor structure, and validity on the basis of analyzing data from independent samples of exhibitors at the international trade shows SIAL (Paris) and ANUGA (Cologne); and it concludes with a discussion of potential managerial applications and implications for future research. New...

  7. Urban Sprawl Analysis and Modeling in Asmara, Eritrea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mussie G. Tewolde

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The extension of urban perimeter markedly cuts available productive land. Hence, studies in urban sprawl analysis and modeling play an important role to ensure sustainable urban development. The urbanization pattern of the Greater Asmara Area (GAA, the capital of Eritrea, was studied. Satellite images and geospatial tools were employed to analyze the spatiotemporal urban landuse changes. Object-Based Image Analysis (OBIA, Landuse Cover Change (LUCC analysis and urban sprawl analysis using Shannon Entropy were carried out. The Land Change Modeler (LCM was used to develop a model of urban growth. The Multi-layer Perceptron Neural Network was employed to model the transition potential maps with an accuracy of 85.9% and these were used as an input for the ‘actual’ urban modeling with Markov chains. Model validation was assessed and a scenario of urban land use change of the GAA up to year 2020 was presented. The result of the study indicated that the built-up area has tripled in size (increased by 4,441 ha between 1989 and 2009. Specially, after year 2000 urban sprawl in GAA caused large scale encroachment on high potential agricultural lands and plantation cover. The scenario for year 2020 shows an increase of the built-up areas by 1,484 ha (25% which may cause further loss. The study indicated that the land allocation system in the GAA overrode the landuse plan, which caused the loss of agricultural land and plantation cover. The recommended policy options might support decision makers to resolve further loss of agricultural land and plantation cover and to achieve sustainable urban development planning in the GAA.

  8. Genotypic and phenotypic analysis of familial male breast cancer shows under representation of the HER2 and basal subtypes in BRCA-associated carcinomas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deb, Siddhartha; Jene, Nicholas; Fox, Stephen B

    2012-01-01

    Male breast cancer (MBC) is an uncommon and relatively uncharacterised disease accounting for <1% of all breast cancers. A significant proportion occurs in families with a history of breast cancer and in particular those carrying BRCA2 mutations. Here we describe clinicopathological features and genomic BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation status in a large cohort of familial MBCs. Cases (n=60) included 3 BRCA1 and 25 BRCA2 mutation carries, and 32 non-BRCA1/2 (BRCAX) carriers with strong family histories of breast cancer. The cohort was examined with respect to mutation status, clinicopathological parameters including TNM staging, grade, histological subtype and intrinsic phenotype. Compared to the general population, MBC incidence was higher in all subgroups. In contrast to female breast cancer (FBC) there was greater representation of BRCA2 tumours (41.7% vs 8.3%, p=0.0008) and underrepresentation of BRCA1 tumours (5.0% vs 14.4%, p=0.0001). There was no correlation between mutation status and age of onset, disease specific survival (DSS) or other clincopathological factors. Comparison with sporadic MBC studies showed similar clinicopathological features. Prognostic variables affecting DSS included primary tumour size (p=0.003, HR:4.26 95%CI 1.63-11.11), age (p=0.002, HR:4.09 95%CI 1.65-10.12), lymphovascular (p=0.019, HR:3.25 95%CI 1.21-8.74) and perineural invasion (p=0.027, HR:2.82 95%CI 1.13-7.06). Unlike familial FBC, the histological subtypes seen in familial MBC were more similar to those seen in sporadic MBC with 46 (76.7%) pure invasive ductal carcinoma of no special type (IDC-NST), 2 (3.3%) invasive lobular carcinomas and 4 (6.7%) invasive papillary carcinoma. A further 8 (13.3%) IDC-NST had foci of micropapillary differentiation, with a strong trend for co-occurrence in BRCA2 carriers (p=0.058). Most tumours were of the luminal phenotype (89.7%), with infrequent HER2 (8.6%) and basal (1.7%) phenotype tumours seen. MBC in BRCA1/2 carriers and BRCAX families is

  9. Surface plasmon resonance analysis shows an IgG-isotype-specific defect in ABO blood group antibody formation in patients with common variable immunodeficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Bernhard Fischer

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Common variable immunodeficiency (CVID is the most common clinically severe primary immunodeficiency and comprises a heterogeneous group of patients with recurrent severe bacterial infections due to the failure to produce IgG antibodies after exposure to infectious agents and immunization. Diagnostic recommendations for antibody failure include assessment of isoagglutinins. We have readdressed this four decades old but still accepted recommendation with up to date methodology.Methods: Anti-A/B IgM- and IgG-antibodies were measured by Diamed-ID Micro Typing, surface plasmon resonance (SPR using the Biacore® device and flow cytometry.Results: When Diamed-ID Micro Typing was used, CVID patients (n=34 showed IgG- and IgM-isoagglutinins that were comparable to healthy volunteers (n=28, while all XLA patients (n=8 had none. Anti-A/B IgM-antibodies were present in more than 2/3 of the CVID patients and showed binding kinetics comparable to anti-A/B IgM-antibodies from healthy individuals. A correlation could be found in CVID patients between levels of anti-A/B IgM-antibodies and levels of serum IgM and PnP-IgM-antibodies. In contrast in CVID patients as a group ABO antibodies were significantly decreased when assessed by SPR, which correlated with levels of switched memory, non-switched memory and naïve B cells, but all CVID patients had low/undetectable anti-A/B IgG-antibodies.Conclusion: These results indicate that conventional isoagglutinin assessment and assessment of anti-A/B IgM antibodies are not suited for the diagnosis of impaired antibody production in CVID. Examination of anti-A/B IgG antibodies by SPR provides a useful method for the diagnosis of IgG antibody failure in all CVID patients studied, thus indicating an important additional rationale to start immunoglobulin replacement therapy early in these patients, before post-infectious sequelae develop.

  10. LRRTM1-deficient mice show a rare phenotype of avoiding small enclosures—A tentative mouse model for claustrophobia-like behaviour

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laakso, T.; Lauren, J.; Strittmatter, S.M.; Airaksinen, M.S.

    2013-01-01

    The LRRTM family proteins have been shown to act as synaptogenic cell adhesion molecules via interaction with presynaptic neurexins and are associated with neuropsychiatric disorders. LRRTM1-knockout mice have subtle morphological deficits in excitatory hippocampal synapses and were suggested to have impaired cognitive function. Here we report that LRRTM1-knockout mice exhibit an extraordinary phenotype of avoiding small enclosures. In the light–dark box, the knockout mice escape to dark through a standard opening as quickly as wild-type littermates but avoid escaping through a small doorway. While all wild-type mice spontaneously enter a small tube, most knockout mice do not. This apparent aversion to enter narrow space may explain other abnormalities such as increased time in open arms in the elevated plus maze and less visits through a tunnel in the IntelliCage. Moreover, LRRTM1-knockout mice show increased social interaction, reduced nest building and MK801-induced locomotion, and slower swim speed but normal water maze learning. Since LRRTM1 is predominantly expressed in thalamus, hippocampus and limbic cortex, specific synaptic defects in those areas presumably cause these behavioural abnormalities. PMID:23089646

  11. LRRTM1-deficient mice show a rare phenotype of avoiding small enclosures--a tentative mouse model for claustrophobia-like behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voikar, V; Kulesskaya, N; Laakso, T; Lauren, J; Strittmatter, S M; Airaksinen, M S

    2013-02-01

    The LRRTM family proteins have been shown to act as synaptogenic cell adhesion molecules via interaction with presynaptic neurexins and are associated with neuropsychiatric disorders. LRRTM1-knockout mice have subtle morphological deficits in excitatory hippocampal synapses and were suggested to have impaired cognitive function. Here we report that LRRTM1-knockout mice exhibit an extraordinary phenotype of avoiding small enclosures. In the light-dark box, the knockout mice escape to dark through a standard opening as quickly as wild-type littermates but avoid escaping through a small doorway. While all wild-type mice spontaneously enter a small tube, most knockout mice do not. This apparent aversion to enter narrow space may explain other abnormalities such as increased time in open arms in the elevated plus maze and less visits through a tunnel in the IntelliCage. Moreover, LRRTM1-knockout mice show increased social interaction, reduced nest building and MK801-induced locomotion, and slower swim speed but normal water maze learning. Since LRRTM1 is predominantly expressed in thalamus, hippocampus and limbic cortex, specific synaptic defects in those areas presumably cause these behavioural abnormalities. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Seasonality shows evidence for polygenic architecture and genetic correlation with schizophrenia and bipolar disorder – a meta-analysis of genetic studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrne, Enda M; Raheja, Uttam; Stephens, Sarah H.; Heath, Andrew C; Madden, Pamela AF; Vaswani, Dipika; Nijjar, Gagan V.; Ryan, Kathleen A.; Youssufi, Hassaan; Gehrman, Philip R; Shuldiner, Alan R; Martin, Nicholas G; Montgomery, Grant W; Wray, Naomi R; Nelson, Elliot C; Mitchell, Braxton D; Postolache, Teodor T

    2015-01-01

    Objective To test common genetic variants for association with seasonality (seasonal changes in mood and behavior) and to investigate whether there are shared genetic risk factors between psychiatric disorders and seasonality. Methods A meta-analysis of genome-wide association studies (GWAS) conducted in Australian and Amish populations in whom the Seasonal Pattern Assessment Questionnaire (SPAQ) had been administered. The total sample size was 4,156 individuals. Genetic risk scores based on results from prior large GWAS studies of bipolar disorder (BD), major depressive disorder (MDD), and schizophrenia (SCZ) were calculated to test for overlap in risk between psychiatric disorders and seasonality. Results The most significant association was with rs11825064 (p = 1.7 × 10−6, β = 0.64, S.E = 0.13), an intergenic SNP found on chromosome 11. The evidence for overlap in risk factors was strongest for SCZ and seasonality, with the SCZ genetic profile scores explaining 3% of the variance in log-transformed GSS. BD genetic profile scores were also significantly associated with seasonality, although at much weaker levels, and no evidence for overlap in risk was detected between MDD and seasonality. Conclusions Common SNPs of very large effect likely do not exist for seasonality in the populations examined. As expected, there was overlapping genetic risk factors for BD (but not MDD) with seasonality. Unexpectedly, the risk for SCZ and seasonality had the largest overlap, an unprecedented finding that requires replication in other populations, and has potential clinical implications considering overlapping cognitive deficits in seasonal affective disorders and SCZ PMID:25562672

  13. Vena contracta analysis by color Doppler three-dimensional transesophageal echocardiography shows geometrical differences between prolapse and pseudoprolapse in eccentric mitral regurgitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berdejo, Javier; Shiota, Maiko; Mihara, Hirotsugu; Itabashi, Yuji; Utsunomiya, Hiroto; Shiota, Takahiro

    2017-05-01

    Evaluation of eccentric mitral regurgitation (MR) remains extremely difficult and the role played by its etiology, functional or degenerative, is not well understood. This study aimed to demonstrate the value of three-dimensional transesophageal echocardiography (3DTEE) in the evaluation of eccentric MR identifying geometric differences in the vena contracta area between functional and degenerative etiologies. We studied 61 patients with eccentric MR (30 functional and 31 degenerative). Regurgitant orifice area was determined by the two-dimensional proximal isovelocity surface area (2DPISA) and the 3DTEE methods. The ratio between maximum and minimum lengths of the vena contracta was calculated in each patient. Effective regurgitant orifice area by the 2DPISA method was smaller than that estimated by 3DTEE (0.56±0.21 vs 0.72±0.25 cm 2 ). A better correlation between both methods was seen in degenerative mitral regurgitation (DMR; r=.83), with a mean underestimation of 8.2% by the 2DPISA method. A much worse correlation was found in functional mitral regurgitation (FMR; r=.39), where a mean underestimation by the 2DPISA method of 29.1% was observed. There was a more elongated and curved vena contracta in FMR compared to that in DMR (length ratio: 3.4±1.0 vs 2.2±0.7, Pechocardiography identifies a more elongated regurgitant orifice in eccentric FMR compared to that in eccentric DMR. This difference may explain the greater underestimation of effective regurgitant orifice area by the 2DPISA method in FMR. High-quality 3DTEE analysis of vena contracta area would be a highly recommended alternative. © 2017, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Combined analysis of 19 common validated type 2 diabetes susceptibility gene variants shows moderate discriminative value and no evidence of gene-gene interaction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sparsø, T; Grarup, N; Andreasen, C.

    2009-01-01

    study; and additional type 2 diabetic patients and glucose-tolerant individuals. The case-control studies involved 4,093 type 2 diabetic patients and 5,302 glucose-tolerant individuals. RESULTS: Single-variant analyses demonstrated allelic odds ratios ranging from 1.04 (95% CI 0.98-1.11) to 1.33 (95% CI...... 1.22-1.45). When combining the 19 variants, subgroups with extreme risk profiles showed a threefold difference in the risk of type 2 diabetes (lower 10% carriers with or =22 risk alleles, OR 2.93 (95% CI 2.38-3.62, p = 1.6 x 10(-25)). We calculated......AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: The list of validated type 2 diabetes susceptibility variants has recently been expanded from three to 19. The variants identified are common and have low penetrance in the general population. The aim of the study is to investigate the combined effect of the 19 variants by applying...

  15. PIXE analysis showed that the preirradiation enhanced recovery of bone marrow elements after challenging irradiation in C57BL/6N Mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsuda, Y.; Yonezawa, M.; Nishiyama, F.

    2000-01-01

    Priming X-irradiation with 0.3-0.5 Gy induces radio-resistance in C57BL/6 strain of mice 2 weeks afterward. Elements in the bone marrow, sampled 11 days after challenging exposure to 5.0 Gy, were determined by PIXE. The challenging irradiation decreased Mg, P, S, K, Ca and Zn as well as dried bone marrow weight. The pre-irradiation enhanced recovery of these levels, indicating stimulated recovery of the metabolism int he tissue. Fe in both control (without pre-irradiation) and experimental groups increased to about twice the original value, showing elevated hemoglobin synthesis after challenging exposure. In previous studies we have reported that recovery of peripheral blood cell counts after sub-lethal irradiation was enhanced by the pre-irradiation. Further, study on accumulation of p53 and Bax proteins, which lead to apoptotic cell death, revealed that the pre-irradiation significantly suppressed accumulation of these proteins in the spleen after challenging irradiation with 3 Gy. These results and our present study suggest that the pre-irradiation decreased the spleen cell death, and favored re-growth of the spleen cells, resulting in stimulated recovery of metabolism for hematopoiesis in the bone marrow as well as in the spleen after challenging high dose irradiation. Stimulated recovery of Mg, P, S, K, Ca and Zn levels might indicate the importance of these elements in hematopoiesis. (author)

  16. Sentiments Analysis of Reviews Based on ARCNN Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xiaoyu; Xu, Ming; Xu, Jian; Zheng, Ning; Yang, Tao

    2017-10-01

    The sentiments analysis of product reviews is designed to help customers understand the status of the product. The traditional method of sentiments analysis relies on the input of a fixed feature vector which is performance bottleneck of the basic codec architecture. In this paper, we propose an attention mechanism with BRNN-CNN model, referring to as ARCNN model. In order to have a good analysis of the semantic relations between words and solves the problem of dimension disaster, we use the GloVe algorithm to train the vector representations for words. Then, ARCNN model is proposed to deal with the problem of deep features training. Specifically, BRNN model is proposed to investigate non-fixed-length vectors and keep time series information perfectly and CNN can study more connection of deep semantic links. Moreover, the attention mechanism can automatically learn from the data and optimize the allocation of weights. Finally, a softmax classifier is designed to complete the sentiment classification of reviews. Experiments show that the proposed method can improve the accuracy of sentiment classification compared with benchmark methods.

  17. PCA: Principal Component Analysis for spectra modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurley, Peter D.; Oliver, Seb; Farrah, Duncan; Wang, Lingyu; Efstathiou, Andreas

    2012-07-01

    The mid-infrared spectra of ultraluminous infrared galaxies (ULIRGs) contain a variety of spectral features that can be used as diagnostics to characterize the spectra. However, such diagnostics are biased by our prior prejudices on the origin of the features. Moreover, by using only part of the spectrum they do not utilize the full information content of the spectra. Blind statistical techniques such as principal component analysis (PCA) consider the whole spectrum, find correlated features and separate them out into distinct components. This code, written in IDL, classifies principal components of IRS spectra to define a new classification scheme using 5D Gaussian mixtures modelling. The five PCs and average spectra for the four classifications to classify objects are made available with the code.

  18. Structured analysis and modeling of complex systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strome, David R.; Dalrymple, Mathieu A.

    1992-01-01

    The Aircrew Evaluation Sustained Operations Performance (AESOP) facility at Brooks AFB, Texas, combines the realism of an operational environment with the control of a research laboratory. In recent studies we collected extensive data from the Airborne Warning and Control Systems (AWACS) Weapons Directors subjected to high and low workload Defensive Counter Air Scenarios. A critical and complex task in this environment involves committing a friendly fighter against a hostile fighter. Structured Analysis and Design techniques and computer modeling systems were applied to this task as tools for analyzing subject performance and workload. This technology is being transferred to the Man-Systems Division of NASA Johnson Space Center for application to complex mission related tasks, such as manipulating the Shuttle grappler arm.

  19. Progesterone treatment shows greater protection in brain vs. retina in a rat model of middle cerebral artery occlusion: Progesterone receptor levels may play an important role.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Rachael S; Sayeed, Iqbal; Oumarbaeva, Yuliya; Morrison, Katherine C; Choi, Paul H; Pardue, Machelle T; Stein, Donald G

    2016-11-22

    To determine whether inflammation increases in retina as it does in brain following middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO), and whether the neurosteroid progesterone, shown to have protective effects in both retina and brain after MCAO, reduces inflammation in retina as well as brain. MCAO rats treated systemically with progesterone or vehicle were compared with shams. Protein levels of cytosolic NF-κB, nuclear NF-κB, phosphorylated NF-κB, IL-6, TNF-α, CD11b, progesterone receptor A and B, and pregnane X receptor were assessed in retinas and brains at 24 and 48 h using western blots. Following MCAO, significant increases were observed in the following inflammatory markers: pNF-κB and CD11b at 24 h in both brain and retina, nuclear NF-κB at 24 h in brain and 48 h in retina, and TNF-α at 24 h in brain.Progesterone treatment in MCAO animals significantly attenuated levels of the following markers in brain: pNF-κB, nuclear NF-κB, IL-6, TNF-α, and CD11b, with significantly increased levels of cytosolic NF-κB. Retinas from progesterone-treated animals showed significantly reduced levels of nuclear NF-κB and IL-6 and increased levels of cytosolic NF-κB, with a trend for reduction in other markers. Post-MCAO, progesterone receptors A and B were upregulated in brain and downregulated in retina. Inflammatory markers increased in both brain and retina after MCAO, with greater increases observed in brain. Progesterone treatment reduced inflammation, with more dramatic reductions observed in brain than retina. This differential effect may be due to differences in the response of progesterone receptors in brain and retina after injury.

  20. ILDR1 null mice, a model of human deafness DFNB42, show structural aberrations of tricellular tight junctions and degeneration of auditory hair cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morozko, Eva L.; Nishio, Ayako; Ingham, Neil J.; Chandra, Rashmi; Fitzgerald, Tracy; Martelletti, Elisa; Borck, Guntram; Wilson, Elizabeth; Riordan, Gavin P.; Wangemann, Philine; Forge, Andrew; Steel, Karen P.; Liddle, Rodger A.; Friedman, Thomas B.; Belyantseva, Inna A.

    2015-01-01

    In the mammalian inner ear, bicellular and tricellular tight junctions (tTJs) seal the paracellular space between epithelial cells. Tricellulin and immunoglobulin-like (Ig-like) domain containing receptor 1 (ILDR1, also referred to as angulin-2) localize to tTJs of the sensory and non-sensory epithelia in the organ of Corti and vestibular end organs. Recessive mutations of TRIC (DFNB49) encoding tricellulin and ILDR1 (DFNB42) cause human nonsyndromic deafness. However, the pathophysiology of DFNB42 deafness remains unknown. ILDR1 was recently reported to be a lipoprotein receptor mediating the secretion of the fat-stimulated cholecystokinin (CCK) hormone in the small intestine, while ILDR1 in EpH4 mouse mammary epithelial cells in vitro was shown to recruit tricellulin to tTJs. Here we show that two different mouse Ildr1 mutant alleles have early-onset severe deafness associated with a rapid degeneration of cochlear hair cells (HCs) but have a normal endocochlear potential. ILDR1 is not required for recruitment of tricellulin to tTJs in the cochlea in vivo; however, tricellulin becomes mislocalized in the inner ear sensory epithelia of ILDR1 null mice after the first postnatal week. As revealed by freeze-fracture electron microscopy, ILDR1 contributes to the ultrastructure of inner ear tTJs. Taken together, our data provide insight into the pathophysiology of human DFNB42 deafness and demonstrate that ILDR1 is crucial for normal hearing by maintaining the structural and functional integrity of tTJs, which are critical for the survival of auditory neurosensory HCs. PMID:25217574

  1. Retrotransposon-centered analysis of piRNA targeting shows a shift from active to passive retrotransposon transcription in developing mouse testes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mourier, Tobias

    2011-09-01

    Piwi-associated RNAs (piRNAs) bind transcripts from retrotransposable elements (RTE) in mouse germline cells and seemingly act as guides for genomic methylation, thereby repressing the activity of RTEs. It is currently unknown if and how Piwi proteins distinguish RTE transcripts from other cellular RNAs. During germline development, the main target of piRNAs switch between different types of RTEs. Using the piRNA targeting of RTEs as an indicator of RTE activity, and considering the entire population of genomic RTE loci along with their age and location, this study aims at further elucidating the dynamics of RTE activity during mouse germline development. Due to the inherent sequence redundancy between RTE loci, assigning piRNA targeting to specific loci is problematic. This limits the analysis, although certain features of piRNA targeting of RTE loci are apparent. As expected, young RTEs display a much higher level of piRNA targeting than old RTEs. Further, irrespective of age, RTE loci near protein-coding coding genes are targeted to a greater extent than RTE loci far from genes. During development, a shift in piRNA targeting is observed, with a clear increase in the relative piRNA targeting of RTEs residing within boundaries of protein-coding gene transcripts. Reanalyzing published piRNA sequences and taking into account the features of individual RTE loci provide novel insight into the activity of RTEs during development. The obtained results are consistent with some degree of proportionality between what transcripts become substrates for Piwi protein complexes and the level by which the transcripts are present in the cell. A transition from active transcription of RTEs to passive co-transcription of RTE sequences residing within protein-coding transcripts appears to take place in postnatal development. Hence, the previously reported increase in piRNA targeting of SINEs in postnatal testis development does not necessitate widespread active transcription of

  2. Post-mortem analysis of suicide victims shows ABCB1 haplotype 1236T-2677T-3435T as a candidate predisposing factor behind adverse drug reactions in females.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahikainen, Anna-Liina; Palo, Jukka U; Haukka, Jari; Sajantila, Antti

    2018-04-01

    Genetic variation in efflux transporter, permeability glycoprotein (P-gp), has recently been associated with completed violent suicides and also violent suicide attempts. As depression is known to be a risk factor for suicide and many antidepressants are P-gp substrates, it has been speculated that inadequate antidepressant treatment response or adverse side effects could be involved. The aim of this study was to investigate whether there is an association between the P-gp coding ABCB1 gene and completed suicides in citalopram users. Also, the effect of sex and suicide method used (violent vs. non-violent) was evaluated. All cases included in the study population, 349 completed suicide victims and 284 controls, were shown to be positive for antidepressant citalopram in a post-mortem toxicological drug screen. ABCB1 1236C>T, 2677G>T/A and 3435C>T polymorphisms were determined by TaqMan genotyping assays. Haplotypes were constructed from genotype data using the PHASE software. The association between the manner of death and the ABCB1 haplotype was tested with logistic regression analysis. No statistically significant differences were observed in the ABCB1 allele or genotype frequencies between the suicide and control groups. However, the ABCB1 1236T-2677T-3435T haplotype was associated with completed suicides of female citalopram users (odds ratio: 2.23; 95% confidence interval: 1.22-4.07; P=0.009). After stratification by the method used for suicide, the association emerged in fatal intoxications (odds ratio: 2.51; 95% confidence interval: 1.29-4.87; P=0.007). In other groups, no statistically significant associations were observed. Our results suggest that female citalopram users with ABCB1 1236T-2677T-3435T are more vulnerable to adverse effects of the drugs as this haplotype was enriched in non-violent suicides of female citalopram users. Even though the biological mechanism behind this observation is unknown, the results provide another example of the importance

  3. The gene expression profiling of hepatocellular carcinoma by a network analysis approach shows a dominance of intrinsically disordered proteins (IDPs) between hub nodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Sakshi; Colonna, Giovanni; Di Bernardo, Giovanni; Bergantino, Francesca; Cammarota, Marcella; Castello, Giuseppe; Costantini, Susan

    2015-11-01

    We have analyzed the transcriptomic data from patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) after viral HCV infection at the various stages of the disease by means of a networking analysis using the publicly available E-MTAB-950 dataset. The data was compared with those obtained in our group from HepG2 cells, a cancer cell line that lacks the viral infection. By sequential pruning of data, and also taking into account the data from cells of healthy patients as blanks, we were able to obtain a distribution of hub genes for the various stages that characterize the disease and finally, we isolated a metabolic sub-net specific to HCC alone. The general picture is that the basic organization to energetically and metabolically sustain the cells in both the normal and diseased conditions is the same, but a complex cluster of sub-networks controlled by hub genes drives the HCC progression with high metabolic flexibility and plasticity. In particular, we have extracted a sub-net of genes strictly correlated to other hub genes of the network from HepG2 cells, but specific for the HCC and mainly devoted to: (i) control at chromatin levels of cell division; (ii) control of ergastoplasmatic stress through protein degradation and misfolding; (iii) control of the immune response also through an increase of mature T-cells in the thymus. This sub-net is characterized by 26 hub genes coding for intrinsically disordered proteins with a high ability to interact with numerous molecular partners. Moreover, we have also noted that periphery molecules, that is, with one or very few interactions (e.g., cytokines or post-translational enzymes), which do not have a central role in the clusters that make up the global metabolic network, essentially have roles as information transporters. The results evidence a strong presence of intrinsically disordered proteins with key roles as hubs in the sub-networks that characterize the various stages of the disease, conferring a structural plasticity to

  4. Bayesian analysis of data and model error in rainfall-runoff hydrological models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kavetski, D.; Franks, S. W.; Kuczera, G.

    2004-12-01

    A major unresolved issue in the identification and use of conceptual hydrologic models is realistic description of uncertainty in the data and model structure. In particular, hydrologic parameters often cannot be measured directly and must be inferred (calibrated) from observed forcing/response data (typically, rainfall and runoff). However, rainfall varies significantly in space and time, yet is often estimated from sparse gauge networks. Recent work showed that current calibration methods (e.g., standard least squares, multi-objective calibration, generalized likelihood uncertainty estimation) ignore forcing uncertainty and assume that the rainfall is known exactly. Consequently, they can yield strongly biased and misleading parameter estimates. This deficiency confounds attempts to reliably test model hypotheses, to generalize results across catchments (the regionalization problem) and to quantify predictive uncertainty when the hydrologic model is extrapolated. This paper continues the development of a Bayesian total error analysis (BATEA) methodology for the calibration and identification of hydrologic models, which explicitly incorporates the uncertainty in both the forcing and response data, and allows systematic model comparison based on residual model errors and formal Bayesian hypothesis testing (e.g., using Bayes factors). BATEA is based on explicit stochastic models for both forcing and response uncertainty, whereas current techniques focus solely on response errors. Hence, unlike existing methods, the BATEA parameter equations directly reflect the modeler's confidence in all the data. We compare several approaches to approximating the parameter distributions: a) full Markov Chain Monte Carlo methods and b) simplified approaches based on linear approximations. Studies using synthetic and real data from the US and Australia show that BATEA systematically reduces the parameter bias, leads to more meaningful model fits and allows model comparison taking

  5. Analysis of the interaction of platelet collagen receptor glycoprotein VI (GPVI) with collagen. A dimeric form of GPVI, but not the monomeric form, shows affinity to fibrous collagen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miura, Yoshiki; Takahashi, Tsuyoshi; Jung, Stephanie M; Moroi, Masaaki

    2002-11-29

    Glycoprotein VI (GPVI) is a platelet-specific glycoprotein that has been indicated to react with collagen and activate platelets. Its structure was recently identified by cDNA cloning (Clemetson, J. M., Polgar, J., Magnenat, E., Wells, T. N., and Clemetson, K. J. (1999) J. Biol. Chem. 274, 29019-29024). However, the mechanism of the interaction between collagen and GPVI has not been analyzed in detail because both collagen and GPVI are insoluble molecules. In this study, we expressed the extracellular domain of GPVI as soluble forms as follows: the monomeric form (GPVIex) and the dimeric form of GPVI fused with the human immunoglobulin Fc domain (GPVI-Fc(2)). Purified GPVIex strongly inhibited convulxin (Cvx)-induced platelet aggregation but only weakly inhibited that induced by collagen-related peptide. However, only GPVI-Fc(2), and not GPVIex, inhibited collagen-induced platelet aggregation. The dimeric form of GPVI exhibits high affinity for collagen, as concluded from measurements of GPVI binding to immobilized collagen by both the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and surface plasmon resonance methods. GPVI-Fc(2) bound to the surface of immobilized collagen with a dissociation constant (K(D)) of 5.76 x 10(-7) m, but the binding of GPVIex was too weak to allow estimation of this parameter. Cvx did not inhibit the binding of dimeric GPVI to collagen, indicating that the binding site of GPVI to collagen was different from that to Cvx. Taken together, our data indicate that the high affinity binding site for collagen is composed from two chains of GPVI. Furthermore, they suggest that the binding sites for Cvx are different from the collagen-binding sites and do not need to be formed by two GPVI molecules. Because dimeric GPVI is the only form that shows high affinity to fibrous collagen, our results indicate that GPVI would be present as a dimeric form on the platelet. Moreover, surface plasmon resonance indicated that there is no detectable interaction between

  6. Development of hydrogen combustion analysis model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lim, Tae Jin; Lee, K. D.; Kim, S. N. [Soongsil University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Hong, J. S.; Kwon, H. Y. [Seoul National Polytechnic University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Y. B.; Kim, J. S. [Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1997-07-01

    The objectives of this project is to construct a credible DB for component reliability by developing methodologies and computer codes for assessing component independent failure and common cause failure probability, incorporating applicability and dependency of the data. In addition to this, the ultimate goal is to systematize all the analysis procedures so as to provide plans for preventing component failures by employing flexible tools for the change of specific plant or data sources. For the first subject, we construct a DB for similarity index and dependence matrix and propose a systematic procedure for data analysis by investigating the similarity and redundancy of the generic data sources. Next, we develop a computer code for this procedure and construct reliability data base for major components. The second subject is focused on developing CCF procedure for assessing the plant specific defense ability, rather than developing another CCF model. We propose a procedure and computer code for estimating CCF event probability by incorporating plant specific defensive measure. 116 refs., 25 tabs., 24 figs. (author)

  7. Analysis of GARCH modeling in financial markets: an approach based on technical analysis strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mircea Cristian Gherman

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we performed an analysis in order the make an evidence of GARCH modeling on the performances of trading rules applied for a stock market index. Our study relays on the overlap between econometrical modeling, technical analysis and a simulation computing technique. The non-linear structures presented in the daily returns of the analyzed index and also in other financial series, together with the phenomenon of volatility clustering are premises for applying a GARCH model. In our approach the standardized GARCH innovations are resampled using the bootstrap method. On the simulated data are then applied technical analysis trading strategies. For all the simulated paths the “p-values” are computed in order to verify that the hypothesis concerning the goodness of fit for GARCH model on the BET index is accepted. The processed data with trading rules are showing evidence that GARCH model is a good choice for econometrical modeling of financial time series including the romanian exchange trade index.

  8. Modeling and Performance Analysis of Manufacturing Systems in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study deals with modeling and performance analysis of footwear manufacturing using arena simulation modeling software. It was investigated that modeling and simulation is a potential tool for modeling and analysis of manufacturing assembly lines like footwear manufacturing because it allows the researcher to ...

  9. Benchmarking analysis of three multimedia models: RESRAD, MMSOILS, and MEPAS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheng, J.J.; Faillace, E.R.; Gnanapragasam, E.K.

    1995-11-01

    Multimedia modelers from the United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the United States Department of Energy (DOE) collaborated to conduct a comprehensive and quantitative benchmarking analysis of three multimedia models. The three models-RESRAD (DOE), MMSOILS (EPA), and MEPAS (DOE)-represent analytically based tools that are used by the respective agencies for performing human exposure and health risk assessments. The study is performed by individuals who participate directly in the ongoing design, development, and application of the models. A list of physical/chemical/biological processes related to multimedia-based exposure and risk assessment is first presented as a basis for comparing the overall capabilities of RESRAD, MMSOILS, and MEPAS. Model design, formulation, and function are then examined by applying the models to a series of hypothetical problems. Major components of the models (e.g., atmospheric, surface water, groundwater) are evaluated separately and then studied as part of an integrated system for the assessment of a multimedia release scenario to determine effects due to linking components of the models. Seven modeling scenarios are used in the conduct of this benchmarking study: (1) direct biosphere exposure, (2) direct release to the air, (3) direct release to the vadose zone, (4) direct release to the saturated zone, (5) direct release to surface water, (6) surface water hydrology, and (7) multimedia release. Study results show that the models differ with respect to (1) environmental processes included (i.e., model features) and (2) the mathematical formulation and assumptions related to the implementation of solutions (i.e., parameterization)

  10. Selecting an Appropriate Upscaled Reservoir Model Based on Connectivity Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Preux Christophe

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Reservoir engineers aim to build reservoir models to investigate fluid flows within hydrocarbon reservoirs. These models consist of three-dimensional grids populated by petrophysical properties. In this paper, we focus on permeability that is known to significantly influence fluid flow. Reservoir models usually encompass a very large number of fine grid blocks to better represent heterogeneities. However, performing fluid flow simulations for such fine models is extensively CPU-time consuming. A common practice consists in converting the fine models into coarse models with less grid blocks: this is the upscaling process. Many upscaling methods have been proposed in the literature that all lead to distinct coarse models. The problem is how to choose the appropriate upscaling method. Various criteria have been established to evaluate the information loss due to upscaling, but none of them investigate connectivity. In this paper, we propose to first perform a connectivity analysis for the fine and candidate coarse models. This makes it possible to identify shortest paths connecting wells. Then, we introduce two indicators to quantify the length and trajectory mismatch between the paths for the fine and the coarse models. The upscaling technique to be recommended is the one that provides the coarse model for which the shortest paths are the closest to the shortest paths determined for the fine model, both in terms of length and trajectory. Last, the potential of this methodology is investigated from two test cases. We show that the two indicators help select suitable upscaling techniques as long as gravity is not a prominent factor that drives fluid flows.

  11. Bifurcation analysis of vertical transmission model with preventive strategy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gosalamang Ricardo Kelatlhegile

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available We formulate and analyze a deterministic mathematical model for the prevention of a disease transmitted horizontally and vertically in a population of varying size. The model incorporates prevention of disease on individuals at birth and adulthood and allows for natural recovery from infection. The main aim of the study is to investigate the impact of a preventive strategy applied at birth and at adulthood in reducing the disease burden. Bifurcation analysis is explored to determine existence conditions for establishment of the epidemic states. The results of the study showed that in addition to the disease-free equilibrium there exist multiple endemic equilibria for the model reproduction number below unity. These results may have serious implications on the design of intervention programs and public health policies. Numerical simulations were carried out to illustrate analytical results.

  12. Modeling and Analysis of Epidemic Diffusion with Population Migration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming Liu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available An improved Susceptible-Infected-Susceptible (SIS epidemic diffusion model with population migration between two cities is modeled. Global stability conditions for both the disease-free equilibrium and the endemic equilibrium are analyzed and proved. The main contribution of this paper is reflected in epidemic modeling and analysis which considers unequal migration rates, and only susceptible individuals can migrate between the two cities. Numerical simulation shows when the epidemic diffusion system is stable, number of infected individuals in one city can reach zero, while the number of infected individuals in the other city is still positive. On the other hand, decreasing population migration in only one city seems not as effective as improving the recovery rate for controlling the epidemic diffusion.

  13. Modelling and Simulation Analysis of Rolling Motion of Spherical Robot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamis, N. N.; Embong, A. H.; Ahmad, S.

    2017-11-01

    This paper presents the findings of modelling, control and analysis of the spherical rolling robot based on pendulum driven within the simulation environment. The spherical robot is modelled using Lagrange function based on the equation of rolling motion. PD-type Fuzzy logic controller (FLC) was designed to control the position of the spherical robot where 25 rules were constructed to control the rolling motion of spherical robot. It was then integrated with the model developed in Simulink-Matlab environment. The output scaling factor (output gain) of the FLC was heuristically tuned to improve the system performance. The simulation results show that the FLC managed to eliminate the overshoot response and demonstrated better performance with 29.67% increasing in settling time to reach 0.01% of steady state error.

  14. Container Throughput Forecasting Using Dynamic Factor Analysis and ARIMAX Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marko Intihar

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The paper examines the impact of integration of macroeconomic indicators on the accuracy of container throughput time series forecasting model. For this purpose, a Dynamic factor analysis and AutoRegressive Integrated Moving-Average model with eXogenous inputs (ARIMAX are used. Both methodologies are integrated into a novel four-stage heuristic procedure. Firstly, dynamic factors are extracted from external macroeconomic indicators influencing the observed throughput. Secondly, the family of ARIMAX models of different orders is generated based on the derived factors. In the third stage, the diagnostic and goodness-of-fit testing is applied, which includes statistical criteria such as fit performance, information criteria, and parsimony. Finally, the best model is heuristically selected and tested on the real data of the Port of Koper. The results show that by applying macroeconomic indicators into the forecasting model, more accurate future throughput forecasts can be achieved. The model is also used to produce future forecasts for the next four years indicating a more oscillatory behaviour in (2018-2020. Hence, care must be taken concerning any bigger investment decisions initiated from the management side. It is believed that the proposed model might be a useful reinforcement of the existing forecasting module in the observed port.

  15. Modeling for Deformable Body and Motion Analysis: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hailang Pan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper surveys the modeling methods for deformable human body and motion analysis in the recent 30 years. First, elementary knowledge of human expression and modeling is introduced. Then, typical human modeling technologies, including 2D model, 3D surface model, and geometry-based, physics-based, and anatomy-based approaches, and model-based motion analysis are summarized. Characteristics of these technologies are analyzed. The technology accumulation in the field is outlined for an overview.

  16. Dynamic sensitivity analysis of long running landslide models through basis set expansion and meta-modelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohmer, Jeremy

    2016-04-01

    Predicting the temporal evolution of landslides is typically supported by numerical modelling. Dynamic sensitivity analysis aims at assessing the influence of the landslide properties on the time-dependent predictions (e.g., time series of landslide displacements). Yet two major difficulties arise: 1. Global sensitivity analysis require running the landslide model a high number of times (> 1000), which may become impracticable when the landslide model has a high computation time cost (> several hours); 2. Landslide model outputs are not scalar, but function of time, i.e. they are n-dimensional vectors with n usually ranging from 100 to 1000. In this article, I explore the use of a basis set expansion, such as principal component analysis, to reduce the output dimensionality to a few components, each of them being interpreted as a dominant mode of variation in the overall structure of the temporal evolution. The computationally intensive calculation of the Sobol' indices for each of these components are then achieved through meta-modelling, i.e. by replacing the landslide model by a "costless-to-evaluate" approximation (e.g., a projection pursuit regression model). The methodology combining "basis set expansion - meta-model - Sobol' indices" is then applied to the La Frasse landslide to investigate the dynamic sensitivity analysis of the surface horizontal displacements to the slip surface properties during the pore pressure changes. I show how to extract information on the sensitivity of each main modes of temporal behaviour using a limited number (a few tens) of long running simulations. In particular, I identify the parameters, which trigger the occurrence of a turning point marking a shift between a regime of low values of landslide displacements and one of high values.

  17. Modal Analysis and Model Correlation of the Mir Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyoung M.; Kaouk, Mohamed

    2000-01-01

    This paper will discuss on-orbit dynamic tests, modal analysis, and model refinement studies performed as part of the Mir Structural Dynamics Experiment (MiSDE). Mir is the Russian permanently manned Space Station whose construction first started in 1986. The MiSDE was sponsored by the NASA International Space Station (ISS) Phase 1 Office and was part of the Shuttle-Mir Risk Mitigation Experiment (RME). One of the main objectives for MiSDE is to demonstrate the feasibility of performing on-orbit modal testing on large space structures to extract modal parameters that will be used to correlate mathematical models. The experiment was performed over a one-year span on the Mir-alone and Mir with a Shuttle docked. A total of 45 test sessions were performed including: Shuttle and Mir thruster firings, Shuttle-Mir and Progress-Mir dockings, crew exercise and pushoffs, and ambient noise during night-to-day and day-to-night orbital transitions. Test data were recorded with a variety of existing and new instrumentation systems that included: the MiSDE Mir Auxiliary Sensor Unit (MASU), the Space Acceleration Measurement System (SAMS), the Russian Mir Structural Dynamic Measurement System (SDMS), the Mir and Shuttle Inertial Measurement Units (IMUs), and the Shuttle payload bay video cameras. Modal analysis was performed on the collected test data to extract modal parameters, i.e. frequencies, damping factors, and mode shapes. A special time-domain modal identification procedure was used on free-decay structural responses. The results from this study show that modal testing and analysis of large space structures is feasible within operational constraints. Model refinements were performed on both the Mir alone and the Shuttle-Mir mated configurations. The design sensitivity approach was used for refinement, which adjusts structural properties in order to match analytical and test modal parameters. To verify the refinement results, the analytical responses calculated using

  18. Tokyo Motor Show 2003; Tokyo Motor Show 2003

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joly, E.

    2004-01-01

    The text which follows present the different techniques exposed during the 37. Tokyo Motor Show. The report points out the great tendencies of developments of the Japanese automobile industry. The hybrid electric-powered vehicles or those equipped with fuel cells have been highlighted by the Japanese manufacturers which allow considerable budgets in the research of less polluting vehicles. The exposed models, although being all different according to the manufacturer, use always a hybrid system: fuel cell/battery. The manufacturers have stressed too on the intelligent systems for navigation and safety as well as on the design and comfort. (O.M.)

  19. Structuring Problem Analysis for Embedded Systems Modelling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marincic, J.; Mader, Angelika H.; Wieringa, Roelf J.; Lucas, Yan

    Our interest is embedded systems validation as part of the model-driven approach. To design a model, the modeller needs to obtain knowledge about the system and decide what is relevant to model and how. A part of the modelling activities is inherently informal - it cannot be formalised in such a way

  20. Sensitivity Analysis of a Riparian Vegetation Growth Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Nones

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents a sensitivity analysis of two main parameters used in a mathematic model able to evaluate the effects of changing hydrology on the growth of riparian vegetation along rivers and its effects on the cross-section width. Due to a lack of data in existing literature, in a past study the schematization proposed here was applied only to two large rivers, assuming steady conditions for the vegetational carrying capacity and coupling the vegetal model with a 1D description of the river morphology. In this paper, the limitation set by steady conditions is overcome, imposing the vegetational evolution dependent upon the initial plant population and the growth rate, which represents the potential growth of the overall vegetation along the watercourse. The sensitivity analysis shows that, regardless of the initial population density, the growth rate can be considered the main parameter defining the development of riparian vegetation, but it results site-specific effects, with significant differences for large and small rivers. Despite the numerous simplifications adopted and the small database analyzed, the comparison between measured and computed river widths shows a quite good capability of the model in representing the typical interactions between riparian vegetation and water flow occurring along watercourses. After a thorough calibration, the relatively simple structure of the code permits further developments and applications to a wide range of alluvial rivers.

  1. Model Based Analysis and Test Generation for Flight Software

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasareanu, Corina S.; Schumann, Johann M.; Mehlitz, Peter C.; Lowry, Mike R.; Karsai, Gabor; Nine, Harmon; Neema, Sandeep

    2009-01-01

    We describe a framework for model-based analysis and test case generation in the context of a heterogeneous model-based development paradigm that uses and combines Math- Works and UML 2.0 models and the associated code generation tools. This paradigm poses novel challenges to analysis and test case generation that, to the best of our knowledge, have not been addressed before. The framework is based on a common intermediate representation for different modeling formalisms and leverages and extends model checking and symbolic execution tools for model analysis and test case generation, respectively. We discuss the application of our framework to software models for a NASA flight mission.

  2. Model performance analysis and model validation in logistic regression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosa Arboretti Giancristofaro

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available In this paper a new model validation procedure for a logistic regression model is presented. At first, we illustrate a brief review of different techniques of model validation. Next, we define a number of properties required for a model to be considered "good", and a number of quantitative performance measures. Lastly, we describe a methodology for the assessment of the performance of a given model by using an example taken from a management study.

  3. A stochastic model for EEG microstate sequence analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gärtner, Matthias; Brodbeck, Verena; Laufs, Helmut; Schneider, Gaby

    2015-01-01

    The analysis of spontaneous resting state neuronal activity is assumed to give insight into the brain function. One noninvasive technique to study resting state activity is electroencephalography (EEG) with a subsequent microstate analysis. This technique reduces the recorded EEG signal to a sequence of prototypical topographical maps, which is hypothesized to capture important spatio-temporal properties of the signal. In a statistical EEG microstate analysis of healthy subjects in wakefulness and three stages of sleep, we observed a simple structure in the microstate transition matrix. It can be described with a first order Markov chain in which the transition probability from the current state (i.e., map) to a different map does not depend on the current map. The resulting transition matrix shows a high agreement with the observed transition matrix, requiring only about 2% of mass transport (1/2 L1-distance). In the second part, we introduce an extended framework in which the simple Markov chain is used to make inferences on a potential underlying time continuous process. This process cannot be directly observed and is therefore usually estimated from discrete sampling points of the EEG signal given by the local maxima of the global field power. Therefore, we propose a simple stochastic model called sampled marked intervals (SMI) model that relates the observed sequence of microstates to an assumed underlying process of background intervals and thus, complements approaches that focus on the analysis of observable microstate sequences. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. A model for website analysis and\tconception: the Website Canvas Model applied to\tEldiario.es

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carles Sanabre Vives

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available This article presents the model of ideation and analysis called Website CanvasModel. It allows identifying the key aspects for a website to be successful, and shows how ithas been applied to Eldiario.es. As a result, the key factors prompting the success of thisdigital newspaper have been identified.

  5. Likelihood analysis of the minimal AMSB model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bagnaschi, E.; Weiglein, G. [DESY, Hamburg (Germany); Borsato, M.; Chobanova, V.; Lucio, M.; Santos, D.M. [Universidade de Santiago de Compostela, Santiago de Compostela (Spain); Sakurai, K. [Institute for Particle Physics Phenomenology, University of Durham, Science Laboratories, Department of Physics, Durham (United Kingdom); University of Warsaw, Faculty of Physics, Institute of Theoretical Physics, Warsaw (Poland); Buchmueller, O.; Citron, M.; Costa, J.C.; Richards, A. [Imperial College, High Energy Physics Group, Blackett Laboratory, London (United Kingdom); Cavanaugh, R. [Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory, Batavia, IL (United States); University of Illinois at Chicago, Physics Department, Chicago, IL (United States); De Roeck, A. [Experimental Physics Department, CERN, Geneva (Switzerland); Antwerp University, Wilrijk (Belgium); Dolan, M.J. [School of Physics, University of Melbourne, ARC Centre of Excellence for Particle Physics at the Terascale, Melbourne (Australia); Ellis, J.R. [King' s College London, Theoretical Particle Physics and Cosmology Group, Department of Physics, London (United Kingdom); CERN, Theoretical Physics Department, Geneva (Switzerland); Flaecher, H. [University of Bristol, H.H. Wills Physics Laboratory, Bristol (United Kingdom); Heinemeyer, S. [Campus of International Excellence UAM+CSIC, Madrid (Spain); Instituto de Fisica Teorica UAM-CSIC, Madrid (Spain); Instituto de Fisica de Cantabria (CSIC-UC), Cantabria (Spain); Isidori, G. [Physik-Institut, Universitaet Zuerich, Zurich (Switzerland); Luo, F. [Kavli IPMU (WPI), UTIAS, The University of Tokyo, Kashiwa, Chiba (Japan); Olive, K.A. [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Minnesota, William I. Fine Theoretical Physics Institute, Minneapolis, MN (United States)

    2017-04-15

    We perform a likelihood analysis of the minimal anomaly-mediated supersymmetry-breaking (mAMSB) model using constraints from cosmology and accelerator experiments. We find that either a wino-like or a Higgsino-like neutralino LSP, χ{sup 0}{sub 1}, may provide the cold dark matter (DM), both with similar likelihoods. The upper limit on the DM density from Planck and other experiments enforces m{sub χ{sup 0}{sub 1}} 0) but the scalar mass m{sub 0} is poorly constrained. In the wino-LSP case, m{sub 3/2} is constrained to about 900 TeV and m{sub χ{sup 0}{sub 1}} to 2.9 ± 0.1 TeV, whereas in the Higgsino-LSP case m{sub 3/2} has just a lower limit >or similar 650 TeV (>or similar 480 TeV) and m{sub χ{sup 0}{sub 1}} is constrained to 1.12 (1.13) ± 0.02 TeV in the μ > 0 (μ < 0) scenario. In neither case can the anomalous magnetic moment of the muon, (g-2){sub μ}, be improved significantly relative to its Standard Model (SM) value, nor do flavour measurements constrain the model significantly, and there are poor prospects for discovering supersymmetric particles at the LHC, though there are some prospects for direct DM detection. On the other hand, if the χ{sup 0}{sub 1} contributes only a fraction of the cold DM density, future LHC E{sub T}-based searches for gluinos, squarks and heavier chargino and neutralino states as well as disappearing track searches in the wino-like LSP region will be relevant, and interference effects enable BR(B{sub s,d} → μ{sup +}μ{sup -}) to agree with the data better than in the SM in the case of wino-like DM with μ > 0. (orig.)

  6. Sensitivity analysis approaches applied to systems biology models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zi, Z

    2011-11-01

    With the rising application of systems biology, sensitivity analysis methods have been widely applied to study the biological systems, including metabolic networks, signalling pathways and genetic circuits. Sensitivity analysis can provide valuable insights about how robust the biological responses are with respect to the changes of biological parameters and which model inputs are the key factors that affect the model outputs. In addition, sensitivity analysis is valuable for guiding experimental analysis, model reduction and parameter estimation. Local and global sensitivity analysis approaches are the two types of sensitivity analysis that are commonly applied in systems biology. Local sensitivity analysis is a classic method that studies the impact of small perturbations on the model outputs. On the other hand, global sensitivity analysis approaches have been applied to understand how the model outputs are affected by large variations of the model input parameters. In this review, the author introduces the basic concepts of sensitivity analysis approaches applied to systems biology models. Moreover, the author discusses the advantages and disadvantages of different sensitivity analysis methods, how to choose a proper sensitivity analysis approach, the available sensitivity analysis tools for systems biology models and the caveats in the interpretation of sensitivity analysis results.

  7. Observer analysis and its impact on task performance modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobs, Eddie L.; Brown, Jeremy B.

    2014-05-01

    Fire fighters use relatively low cost thermal imaging cameras to locate hot spots and fire hazards in buildings. This research describes the analyses performed to study the impact of thermal image quality on fire fighter fire hazard detection task performance. Using human perception data collected by the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) for fire fighters detecting hazards in a thermal image, an observer analysis was performed to quantify the sensitivity and bias of each observer. Using this analysis, the subjects were divided into three groups representing three different levels of performance. The top-performing group was used for the remainder of the modeling. Models were developed which related image quality factors such as contrast, brightness, spatial resolution, and noise to task performance probabilities. The models were fitted to the human perception data using logistic regression, as well as probit regression. Probit regression was found to yield superior fits and showed that models with not only 2nd order parameter interactions, but also 3rd order parameter interactions performed the best.

  8. Clinical laboratory as an economic model for business performance analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buljanović, Vikica; Patajac, Hrvoje; Petrovečki, Mladen

    2011-01-01

    Aim To perform SWOT (strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats) analysis of a clinical laboratory as an economic model that may be used to improve business performance of laboratories by removing weaknesses, minimizing threats, and using external opportunities and internal strengths. Methods Impact of possible threats to and weaknesses of the Clinical Laboratory at Našice General County Hospital business performance and use of strengths and opportunities to improve operating profit were simulated using models created on the basis of SWOT analysis results. The operating profit as a measure of profitability of the clinical laboratory was defined as total revenue minus total expenses and presented using a profit and loss account. Changes in the input parameters in the profit and loss account for 2008 were determined using opportunities and potential threats, and economic sensitivity analysis was made by using changes in the key parameters. The profit and loss account and economic sensitivity analysis were tools for quantifying the impact of changes in the revenues and expenses on the business operations of clinical laboratory. Results Results of simulation models showed that operational profit of €470 723 in 2008 could be reduced to only €21 542 if all possible threats became a reality and current weaknesses remained the same. Also, operational gain could be increased to €535 804 if laboratory strengths and opportunities were utilized. If both the opportunities and threats became a reality, the operational profit would decrease by €384 465. Conclusion The operational profit of the clinical laboratory could be significantly reduced if all threats became a reality and the current weaknesses remained the same. The operational profit could be increased by utilizing strengths and opportunities as much as possible. This type of modeling may be used to monitor business operations of any clinical laboratory and improve its financial situation by

  9. Clinical laboratory as an economic model for business performance analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buljanović, Vikica; Patajac, Hrvoje; Petrovecki, Mladen

    2011-08-15

    To perform SWOT (strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats) analysis of a clinical laboratory as an economic model that may be used to improve business performance of laboratories by removing weaknesses, minimizing threats, and using external opportunities and internal strengths. Impact of possible threats to and weaknesses of the Clinical Laboratory at Našice General County Hospital business performance and use of strengths and opportunities to improve operating profit were simulated using models created on the basis of SWOT analysis results. The operating profit as a measure of profitability of the clinical laboratory was defined as total revenue minus total expenses and presented using a profit and loss account. Changes in the input parameters in the profit and loss account for 2008 were determined using opportunities and potential threats, and economic sensitivity analysis was made by using changes in the key parameters. The profit and loss account and economic sensitivity analysis were tools for quantifying the impact of changes in the revenues and expenses on the business operations of clinical laboratory. Results of simulation models showed that operational profit of €470 723 in 2008 could be reduced to only €21 542 if all possible threats became a reality and current weaknesses remained the same. Also, operational gain could be increased to €535 804 if laboratory strengths and opportunities were utilized. If both the opportunities and threats became a reality, the operational profit would decrease by €384 465. The operational profit of the clinical laboratory could be significantly reduced if all threats became a reality and the current weaknesses remained the same. The operational profit could be increased by utilizing strengths and opportunities as much as possible. This type of modeling may be used to monitor business operations of any clinical laboratory and improve its financial situation by implementing changes in the next fiscal

  10. Power Grid Modelling From Wind Turbine Perspective Using Principal Componenet Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Farajzadehbibalan, Saber; Ramezani, Mohammad Hossein; Nielsen, Peter

    2015-01-01

    In this study, we derive an eigenvector-based multivariate model of a power grid from the wind farm's standpoint using dynamic principal component analysis (DPCA). The main advantages of our model over previously developed models are being more realistic and having low complexity. We show that th...

  11. Diffraction model analysis of pion-12C elastic scattering at 800 MeV ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Elastic scattering of 800 MeV/c pions by 12C has been studied in the diffraction model with a view to determine pion optical potential by the method of inversion. Finding an earlier diffraction model analysis to be deficient in some respects, we propose a Glauber model based parametrization for the elastic -matrix and show ...

  12. Dynamical Analysis of bantam-Regulated Drosophila Circadian Rhythm Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ying; Liu, Zengrong

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) interact with 3‧untranslated region (UTR) elements of target genes to regulate mRNA stability or translation, and play a crucial role in regulating many different biological processes. bantam, a conserved miRNA, is involved in several functions, such as regulating Drosophila growth and circadian rhythm. Recently, it has been discovered that bantam plays a crucial role in the core circadian pacemaker. In this paper, based on experimental observations, a detailed dynamical model of bantam-regulated circadian clock system is developed to show the post-transcriptional behaviors in the modulation of Drosophila circadian rhythm, in which the regulation of bantam is incorporated into a classical model. The dynamical behaviors of the model are consistent with the experimental observations, which shows that bantam is an important regulator of Drosophila circadian rhythm. The sensitivity analysis of parameters demonstrates that with the regulation of bantam the system is more sensitive to perturbations, indicating that bantam regulation makes it easier for the organism to modulate its period against the environmental perturbations. The effectiveness in rescuing locomotor activity rhythms of mutated flies shows that bantam is necessary for strong and sustained rhythms. In addition, the biological mechanisms of bantam regulation are analyzed, which may help us more clearly understand Drosophila circadian rhythm regulated by other miRNAs.

  13. Model parameterization as method for data analysis in dendroecology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tychkov, Ivan; Shishov, Vladimir; Popkova, Margarita

    2017-04-01

    There is no argue in usefulness of process-based models in ecological studies. Only limitations is how developed algorithm of model and how it will be applied for research. Simulation of tree-ring growth based on climate provides valuable information of tree-ring growth response on different environmental conditions, but also shares light on species-specifics of tree-ring growth process. Visual parameterization of the Vaganov-Shashkin model, allows to estimate non-linear response of tree-ring growth based on daily climate data: daily temperature, estimated day light and soil moisture. Previous using of the VS-Oscilloscope (a software tool of the visual parameterization) shows a good ability to recreate unique patterns of tree-ring growth for coniferous species in Siberian Russia, USA, China, Mediterranean Spain and Tunisia. But using of the models mostly is one-sided to better understand different tree growth processes, opposite to statistical methods of analysis (e.g. Generalized Linear Models, Mixed Models, Structural Equations.) which can be used for reconstruction and forecast. Usually the models are used either for checking of new hypothesis or quantitative assessment of physiological tree growth data to reveal a growth process mechanisms, while statistical methods used for data mining assessment and as a study tool itself. The high sensitivity of the model's VS-parameters reflects the ability of the model to simulate tree-ring growth and evaluates value of limiting growth climate factors. Precise parameterization of VS-Oscilloscope provides valuable information about growth processes of trees and under what conditions these processes occur (e.g. day of growth season onset, length of season, value of minimal/maximum temperature for tree-ring growth, formation of wide or narrow rings etc.). The work was supported by the Russian Science Foundation (RSF # 14-14-00219)

  14. Applied data analysis and modeling for energy engineers and scientists

    CERN Document Server

    Reddy, T Agami

    2011-01-01

    ""Applied Data Analysis and Modeling for Energy Engineers and Scientists"" discusses mathematical models, data analysis, and decision analysis in modeling. The approach taken in this volume focuses on the modeling and analysis of thermal systems in an engineering environment, while also covering a number of other critical areas. Other material covered includes the tools that researchers and engineering professionals will need in order to explore different analysis methods, use critical assessment skills and reach sound engineering conclusions. The book also covers process and system design and

  15. The Analysis of Several Models of Investment Value of Logistics Project Evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ke Qiu Cheng Zhou

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The study of the logistics project evaluation model features reviews the traditional value evaluation model. On the basis of this, using the fuzzy theory, we establish several logistics project evaluation models under fuzzy environment. The analysis of the respective characteristics and the comparison of the calculated results of the three models show that these models are important methods of investment value of logistics evaluation.

  16. IMAGE ANALYSIS FOR MODELLING SHEAR BEHAVIOUR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philippe Lopez

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Through laboratory research performed over the past ten years, many of the critical links between fracture characteristics and hydromechanical and mechanical behaviour have been made for individual fractures. One of the remaining challenges at the laboratory scale is to directly link fracture morphology of shear behaviour with changes in stress and shear direction. A series of laboratory experiments were performed on cement mortar replicas of a granite sample with a natural fracture perpendicular to the axis of the core. Results show that there is a strong relationship between the fracture's geometry and its mechanical behaviour under shear stress and the resulting damage. Image analysis, geostatistical, stereological and directional data techniques are applied in combination to experimental data. The results highlight the role of geometric characteristics of the fracture surfaces (surface roughness, size, shape, locations and orientations of asperities to be damaged in shear behaviour. A notable improvement in shear understanding is that shear behaviour is controlled by the apparent dip in the shear direction of elementary facets forming the fracture.

  17. Experimental Design for Sensitivity Analysis of Simulation Models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kleijnen, J.P.C.

    2001-01-01

    This introductory tutorial gives a survey on the use of statistical designs for what if-or sensitivity analysis in simulation.This analysis uses regression analysis to approximate the input/output transformation that is implied by the simulation model; the resulting regression model is also known as

  18. Evaluation of RCAS Inflow Models for Wind Turbine Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tangler, J.; Bir, G.

    2004-02-01

    The finite element structural modeling in the Rotorcraft Comprehensive Analysis System (RCAS) provides a state-of-the-art approach to aeroelastic analysis. This, coupled with its ability to model all turbine components, results in a methodology that can simulate complex system interactions characteristic of large wind. In addition, RCAS is uniquely capable of modeling advanced control algorithms and the resulting dynamic responses.

  19. [Model-based biofuels system analysis: a review].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Shiyan; Zhang, Xiliang; Zhao, Lili; Ou, Xunmin

    2011-03-01

    Model-based system analysis is an important tool for evaluating the potential and impacts of biofuels, and for drafting biofuels technology roadmaps and targets. The broad reach of the biofuels supply chain requires that biofuels system analyses span a range of disciplines, including agriculture/forestry, energy, economics, and the environment. Here we reviewed various models developed for or applied to modeling biofuels, and presented a critical analysis of Agriculture/Forestry System Models, Energy System Models, Integrated Assessment Models, Micro-level Cost, Energy and Emission Calculation Models, and Specific Macro-level Biofuel Models. We focused on the models' strengths, weaknesses, and applicability, facilitating the selection of a suitable type of model for specific issues. Such an analysis was a prerequisite for future biofuels system modeling, and represented a valuable resource for researchers and policy makers.

  20. Effective Moisture Penetration Depth Model for Residential Buildings: Sensitivity Analysis and Guidance on Model Inputs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woods, Jason D [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Winkler, Jonathan M [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2018-01-31

    Moisture buffering of building materials has a significant impact on the building's indoor humidity, and building energy simulations need to model this buffering to accurately predict the humidity. Researchers requiring a simple moisture-buffering approach typically rely on the effective-capacitance model, which has been shown to be a poor predictor of actual indoor humidity. This paper describes an alternative two-layer effective moisture penetration depth (EMPD) model and its inputs. While this model has been used previously, there is a need to understand the sensitivity of this model to uncertain inputs. In this paper, we use the moisture-adsorbent materials exposed to the interior air: drywall, wood, and carpet. We use a global sensitivity analysis to determine which inputs are most influential and how the model's prediction capability degrades due to uncertainty in these inputs. We then compare the model's humidity prediction with measured data from five houses, which shows that this model, and a set of simple inputs, can give reasonable prediction of the indoor humidity.

  1. Artificial crawler model for texture analysis on silk fibroin scaffolds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Machado, Bruno Brandoli; Gonçalves, Wesley Nunes; Bruno, Odemir Martinez

    2014-01-01

    Texture plays an important role in computer vision tasks. Several methods of texture analysis are available. However, these methods are not capable of extracting rich detail in images. This paper presents a novel approach to image texture classification based on the artificial crawler model. Here, we propose a new rule of movement that moves artificial crawler agents not only toward higher intensities but also toward lower ones. This strategy is able of capturing more detail because the agents explore the peaks as well as the valleys. Thus, compared with the state-of-the-art method, this approach shows an increased discriminatory power. Experiments on the most well known benchmark demonstrate the superior performance of our approach. We also tested our approach on silk fibroin scaffold analysis, and results indicate that our method is consistent and can be applied in real-world situations. (paper)

  2. Heterogeneous modelling and finite element analysis of the femur

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Binkai

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available As the largest and longest bone in the human body, the femur has important research value and application prospects. This paper introduces a fast reconstruction method with Mimics and ANSYS software to realize the heterogeneous modelling of the femur according to Hu distribution of the CT series, and simulates it in various situations by finite element analysis to study the mechanical characteristics of the femur. The femoral heterogeneous model shows the distribution of bone mineral density and material properties, which can be used to assess the diagnosis and treatment of bone diseases. The stress concentration position of the femur under different conditions can be calculated by the simulation, which can provide reference for the design and material selection of prosthesis.

  3. Gravity model used for the analysis of economic developments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ion PÂRŢACHI

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available In this article we study the influence of ethnic fragmentation on foreign trade in the countries of Southeastern Europe in the conditions of recent conflicts. The analysis of trade is done using the gravity model. The explanatory variables of economic foreign relations, as inter-state social structure and inter-state political relations, play an important role in this region, namely in the context of the economic transition, and of EU enlargement to the East.The gravity approach followed in the article allows to consider the multilateral resistance, by the introduction of the fixed effects, and the model is estimated by pseudo-Poisson of Maximum Likelihood, that allows to include the null trade flows. The results show a positive influence of ethnic fractionalization on the import flows, as well as a positive influence of the 1990 conflicts on the volume of trade.

  4. An Overview of Soil Models for Earthquake Response Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Halida Yunita

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Earthquakes can damage thousands of buildings and infrastructure as well as cause the loss of thousands of lives. During an earthquake, the damage to buildings is mostly caused by the effect of local soil conditions. Depending on the soil type, the earthquake waves propagating from the epicenter to the ground surface will result in various behaviors of the soil. Several studies have been conducted to accurately obtain the soil response during an earthquake. The soil model used must be able to characterize the stress-strain behavior of the soil during the earthquake. This paper compares equivalent linear and nonlinear soil model responses. Analysis was performed on two soil types, Site Class D and Site Class E. An equivalent linear soil model leads to a constant value of shear modulus, while in a nonlinear soil model, the shear modulus changes constantly,depending on the stress level, and shows inelastic behavior. The results from a comparison of both soil models are displayed in the form of maximum acceleration profiles and stress-strain curves.

  5. Earthquake response analysis of RC bridges using simplified modeling approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Do Hyung; Kim, Dookie; Park, Taehyo

    2009-07-01

    In this paper, simplified modeling approaches describing the hysteretic behavior of reinforced concrete bridge piers are proposed. For this purpose, flexure-axial and shear-axial interaction models are developed and implemented into a nonlinear finite element analysis program. Comparative verifications for reinforced concrete columns prove that the analytical predictions obtained with the new formulations show good correlation with experimental results under various levels of axial forces and section types. In addition, analytical correlation studies for the inelastic earthquake response of reinforced concrete bridge structures are also carried out using the simplified modeling approaches. Relatively good agreement is observed in the results between the current modeling approach and the elaborated fiber models. It is thus encouraging that the present developments and approaches are capable of identifying the contribution of deformation mechanisms correctly. Subsequently, the present developments can be used as a simple yet effective tool for the deformation capacity evaluation of reinforced concrete columns in general and reinforced concrete bridge piers in particular.

  6. Statistical models for competing risk analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sather, H.N.

    1976-08-01

    Research results on three new models for potential applications in competing risks problems. One section covers the basic statistical relationships underlying the subsequent competing risks model development. Another discusses the problem of comparing cause-specific risk structure by competing risks theory in two homogeneous populations, P1 and P2. Weibull models which allow more generality than the Berkson and Elveback models are studied for the effect of time on the hazard function. The use of concomitant information for modeling single-risk survival is extended to the multiple failure mode domain of competing risks. The model used to illustrate the use of this methodology is a life table model which has constant hazards within pre-designated intervals of the time scale. Two parametric models for bivariate dependent competing risks, which provide interesting alternatives, are proposed and examined

  7. Strut analysis for osteoporosis detection model using dental panoramic radiography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Jae Joon; Lee, Jeong-Hee; Han, Sang-Sun; Kim, Young Hyun; Jeong, Ho-Gul; Choi, Yoon Jeong; Park, Wonse

    2017-10-01

    The aim of this study was to identify variables that can be used for osteoporosis detection using strut analysis, fractal dimension (FD) and the gray level co-occurrence matrix (GLCM) using multiple regions of interest and to develop an osteoporosis detection model based on panoramic radiography. A total of 454 panoramic radiographs from oral examinations in our dental hospital from 2012 to 2015 were randomly selected, equally distributed among osteoporotic and non-osteoporotic patients (n = 227 in each group). The radiographs were classified by bone mineral density (T-score). After 3 marrow regions and the endosteal margin area were selected, strut features, FD and GLCM were analysed using a customized image processing program. Image upsampling was used to obtain the optimal binarization for calculating strut features and FD. The independent-samples t-test was used to assess statistical differences between the 2 groups. A decision tree and support vector machine were used to create and verify an osteoporosis detection model. The endosteal margin area showed statistically significant differences in FD, GLCM and strut variables between the osteoporotic and non-osteoporotic patients, whereas the medullary portions showed few distinguishing features. The sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy of the strut variables in the endosteal margin area were 97.1%, 95.7 and 96.25 using the decision tree and 97.2%, 97.1 and 96.9% using support vector machine, and these were the best results obtained among the 3 methods. Strut variables with FD and/or GLCM did not increase the diagnostic accuracy. The analysis of strut features in the endosteal margin area showed potential for the development of an osteoporosis detection model based on panoramic radiography.

  8. Likelihood analysis of the I(2) model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Søren

    1997-01-01

    The I(2) model is defined as a submodel of the general vector autoregressive model, by two reduced rank conditions. The model describes stochastic processes with stationary second difference. A parametrization is suggested which makes likelihood inference feasible. Consistency of the maximum...

  9. Multigroup-multiwaves Lisrel modeling in tourist satisfaction analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Bernini

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The paper analyzes the influence of tourist heterogeneity on the Tourist Local System Overall Satisfaction and its changes over time. We investigate two aspects: if different tourists segmented according to their trip motivation (seaside, conference and sport show the same pattern of evaluation toward some relevant features of the TLS and if the evaluation scheme is dynamic. At this aim, a Multigroup-Multiwaves Lisrel model is estimated on a data set from the Tourist Satisfaction Survey, conducted in Rimini from 2004 to 2006 by the Faculty of Statistics – University of Bologna. The analysis shows that tourist evaluation scheme toward Rimini is quite similar among groups and over time, suggesting that differences among tourists do not affect TLS satisfaction.

  10. Comparative uncertainty analysis of copper loads in stormwater systems using GLUE and grey-box modeling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindblom, Erik Ulfson; Madsen, Henrik; Mikkelsen, Peter Steen

    2007-01-01

    of the measurements. In the second attempt the conceptual model is reformulated to a grey-box model followed by parameter estimation. Given data from an extensive measurement campaign, the two methods suggest that the output of the stormwater pollution model is associated with significant uncertainty....... With the proposed model and input data, the GLUE analysis show that the total sampled copper mass can be predicted within a range of +/- 50% of the median value ( 385 g), whereas the grey-box analysis showed a prediction uncertainty of less than +/- 30%. Future work will clarify the pros and cons of the two methods...

  11. Eclipsing binary stars modeling and analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Kallrath, Josef

    1999-01-01

    This book focuses on the formulation of mathematical models for the light curves of eclipsing binary stars, and on the algorithms for generating such models Since information gained from binary systems provides much of what we know of the masses, luminosities, and radii of stars, such models are acquiring increasing importance in studies of stellar structure and evolution As in other areas of science, the computer revolution has given many astronomers tools that previously only specialists could use; anyone with access to a set of data can now expect to be able to model it This book will provide astronomers, both amateur and professional, with a guide for - specifying an astrophysical model for a set of observations - selecting an algorithm to determine the parameters of the model - estimating the errors of the parameters It is written for readers with knowledge of basic calculus and linear algebra; appendices cover mathematical details on such matters as optimization, coordinate systems, and specific models ...

  12. A Framework for Bioacoustic Vocalization Analysis Using Hidden Markov Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ebenezer Out-Nyarko

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Using Hidden Markov Models (HMMs as a recognition framework for automatic classification of animal vocalizations has a number of benefits, including the ability to handle duration variability through nonlinear time alignment, the ability to incorporate complex language or recognition constraints, and easy extendibility to continuous recognition and detection domains. In this work, we apply HMMs to several different species and bioacoustic tasks using generalized spectral features that can be easily adjusted across species and HMM network topologies suited to each task. This experimental work includes a simple call type classification task using one HMM per vocalization for repertoire analysis of Asian elephants, a language-constrained song recognition task using syllable models as base units for ortolan bunting vocalizations, and a stress stimulus differentiation task in poultry vocalizations using a non-sequential model via a one-state HMM with Gaussian mixtures. Results show strong performance across all tasks and illustrate the flexibility of the HMM framework for a variety of species, vocalization types, and analysis tasks.

  13. Next-Generation Sequence Analysis of Cancer Xenograft Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossello, Fernando J.; Tothill, Richard W.; Britt, Kara; Marini, Kieren D.; Falzon, Jeanette; Thomas, David M.; Peacock, Craig D.; Marchionni, Luigi; Li, Jason; Bennett, Samara; Tantoso, Erwin; Brown, Tracey; Chan, Philip; Martelotto, Luciano G.; Watkins, D. Neil

    2013-01-01

    Next-generation sequencing (NGS) studies in cancer are limited by the amount, quality and purity of tissue samples. In this situation, primary xenografts have proven useful preclinical models. However, the presence of mouse-derived stromal cells represents a technical challenge to their use in NGS studies. We examined this problem in an established primary xenograft model of small cell lung cancer (SCLC), a malignancy often diagnosed from small biopsy or needle aspirate samples. Using an in silico strategy that assign reads according to species-of-origin, we prospectively compared NGS data from primary xenograft models with matched cell lines and with published datasets. We show here that low-coverage whole-genome analysis demonstrated remarkable concordance between published genome data and internal controls, despite the presence of mouse genomic DNA. Exome capture sequencing revealed that this enrichment procedure was highly species-specific, with less than 4% of reads aligning to the mouse genome. Human-specific expression profiling with RNA-Seq replicated array-based gene expression experiments, whereas mouse-specific transcript profiles correlated with published datasets from human cancer stroma. We conclude that primary xenografts represent a useful platform for complex NGS analysis in cancer research for tumours with limited sample resources, or those with prominent stromal cell populations. PMID:24086345

  14. Next-generation sequence analysis of cancer xenograft models.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando J Rossello

    Full Text Available Next-generation sequencing (NGS studies in cancer are limited by the amount, quality and purity of tissue samples. In this situation, primary xenografts have proven useful preclinical models. However, the presence of mouse-derived stromal cells represents a technical challenge to their use in NGS studies. We examined this problem in an established primary xenograft model of small cell lung cancer (SCLC, a malignancy often diagnosed from small biopsy or needle aspirate samples. Using an in silico strategy that assign reads according to species-of-origin, we prospectively compared NGS data from primary xenograft models with matched cell lines and with published datasets. We show here that low-coverage whole-genome analysis demonstrated remarkable concordance between published genome data and internal controls, despite the presence of mouse genomic DNA. Exome capture sequencing revealed that this enrichment procedure was highly species-specific, with less than 4% of reads aligning to the mouse genome. Human-specific expression profiling with RNA-Seq replicated array-based gene expression experiments, whereas mouse-specific transcript profiles correlated with published datasets from human cancer stroma. We conclude that primary xenografts represent a useful platform for complex NGS analysis in cancer research for tumours with limited sample resources, or those with prominent stromal cell populations.

  15. Molten Salt Breeder Reactor Analysis Based on Unit Cell Model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeong, Yongjin; Choi, Sooyoung; Lee, Deokjung

    2014-01-01

    Contemporary computer codes like the MCNP6 or SCALE are only good for solving a fixed solid fuel reactor. However, due to the molten-salt fuel, MSR analysis needs some functions such as online reprocessing and refueling, and circulating fuel. J. J. Power of Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) suggested in 2013 a method for simulating the Molten Salt Breeder Reactor (MSBR) with SCALE, which does not support continuous material processing. In order to simulate MSR characteristics, the method proposes dividing a depletion time into short time intervals and batchwise reprocessing and refueling at each step. We are applying this method by using the MCNP6 and PYTHON and NEWT-TRITON-PYTHON and PYTHON code systems to MSBR. This paper contains various parameters to analyze the MSBR unit cell model such as the multiplication factor, breeding ratio, change of amount of fuel, amount of fuel feeding, and neutron flux distribution. The result of MCNP6 and NEWT module in SCALE show some difference in depletion analysis, but it still seems that they can be used to analyze MSBR. Using these two computer code system, it is possible to analyze various parameters for the MSBR unit cells such as the multiplication factor, breeding ratio, amount of material, total feeding, and neutron flux distribution. Furthermore, the two code systems will be able to be used for analyzing other MSR model or whole core models of MSR

  16. Advances in power system modelling, control and stability analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Milano, Federico

    2016-01-01

    Advances in Power System Modelling, Control and Stability Analysis captures the variety of new methodologies and technologies that are changing the way modern electric power systems are modelled, simulated and operated.

  17. Modeling and Analysis of CSP Systems (Fact Sheet)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2010-08-01

    Fact sheet describing NREL CSP Program capabilities in the area of modeling and analysis of CSP systems: assessing the solar resource, predicting performance and cost, studying environmental impact, and developing modeling software packages.

  18. A Hierarchical Visualization Analysis Model of Power Big Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yongjie; Wang, Zheng; Hao, Yang

    2018-01-01

    Based on the conception of integrating VR scene and power big data analysis, a hierarchical visualization analysis model of power big data is proposed, in which levels are designed, targeting at different abstract modules like transaction, engine, computation, control and store. The regularly departed modules of power data storing, data mining and analysis, data visualization are integrated into one platform by this model. It provides a visual analysis solution for the power big data.

  19. Modeling and analysis of modular structure in diverse biological networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Anzi, Bader; Gerges, Sherif; Olsman, Noah; Ormerod, Christopher; Piliouras, Georgios; Ormerod, John; Zinn, Kai

    2017-06-07

    Biological networks, like most engineered networks, are not the product of a singular design but rather are the result of a long process of refinement and optimization. Many large real-world networks are comprised of well-defined and meaningful smaller modules. While engineered networks are designed and refined by humans with particular goals in mind, biological networks are created by the selective pressures of evolution. In this paper, we seek to define aspects of network architecture that are shared among different types of evolved biological networks. First, we developed a new mathematical model, the Stochastic Block Model with Path Selection (SBM-PS) that simulates biological network formation based on the selection of edges that increase clustering. SBM-PS can produce modular networks whose properties resemble those of real networks. Second, we analyzed three real networks of very different types, and showed that all three can be fit well by the SBM-PS model. Third, we showed that modular elements within the three networks correspond to meaningful biological structures. The networks chosen for analysis were a proteomic network composed of all proteins required for mitochondrial function in budding yeast, a mesoscale anatomical network composed of axonal connections among regions of the mouse brain, and the connectome of individual neurons in the nematode C. elegans. We find that the three networks have common architectural features, and each can be divided into subnetworks with characteristic topologies that control specific phenotypic outputs. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Multifractal modelling and 3D lacunarity analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hanen, Akkari; Imen, Bhouri; Asma, Ben Abdallah; Patrick, Dubois; Hedi, Bedoui Mohamed

    2009-01-01

    This study presents a comparative evaluation of lacunarity of 3D grey level models with different types of inhomogeneity. A new method based on the 'Relative Differential Box Counting' was developed to estimate the lacunarity features of grey level volumes. To validate our method, we generated a set of 3D grey level multifractal models with random, anisotropic and hierarchical properties. Our method gives a lacunarity measurement correlated with the theoretical one and allows a better model classification compared with a classical approach.

  1. The Modeling Analysis of Huangshan Tourism Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Shanfeng; Yan, Xinhu; Zhu, Hongbing

    2016-06-01

    Tourism is the major industry in Huangshan city. This paper analyzes time series of tourism data to Huangshan from 2000 to 2013. The Yearly data set comprises the total arrivals of tourists, total income, Urban Resident Disposable Income Per Capital and Net Income Per Peasant. A mathematical model which is based on the binomial approximation and inverse quadratic radial basis function (RBF) is set up to model the tourist arrivals. The total income and urban resident disposable income per capital and net income per peasant are also modeled. It is shown that the established mathematical model can be used to forecast some tourism information and achieve a good management for Huangshan tourism.

  2. Hierarchical regression analysis in structural Equation Modeling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Jong, P.F.

    1999-01-01

    In a hierarchical or fixed-order regression analysis, the independent variables are entered into the regression equation in a prespecified order. Such an analysis is often performed when the extra amount of variance accounted for in a dependent variable by a specific independent variable is the main

  3. Approximate deconvolution models of turbulence analysis, phenomenology and numerical analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Layton, William J

    2012-01-01

    This volume presents a mathematical development of a recent approach to the modeling and simulation of turbulent flows based on methods for the approximate solution of inverse problems. The resulting Approximate Deconvolution Models or ADMs have some advantages over more commonly used turbulence models – as well as some disadvantages. Our goal in this book is to provide a clear and complete mathematical development of ADMs, while pointing out the difficulties that remain. In order to do so, we present the analytical theory of ADMs, along with its connections, motivations and complements in the phenomenology of and algorithms for ADMs.

  4. Wellness Model of Supervision: A Comparative Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenz, A. Stephen; Sangganjanavanich, Varunee Faii; Balkin, Richard S.; Oliver, Marvarene; Smith, Robert L.

    2012-01-01

    This quasi-experimental study compared the effectiveness of the Wellness Model of Supervision (WELMS; Lenz & Smith, 2010) with alternative supervision models for developing wellness constructs, total personal wellness, and helping skills among counselors-in-training. Participants were 32 master's-level counseling students completing their…

  5. Extendable linearised adjustment model for deformation analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hiddo Velsink

    2015-01-01

    Author supplied: "This paper gives a linearised adjustment model for the affine, similarity and congruence transformations in 3D that is easily extendable with other parameters to describe deformations. The model considers all coordinates stochastic. Full positive semi-definite covariance matrices

  6. Extendable linearised adjustment model for deformation analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Velsink, H.

    2015-01-01

    This paper gives a linearised adjustment model for the affine, similarity and congruence transformations in 3D that is easily extendable with other parameters to describe deformations. The model considers all coordinates stochastic. Full positive semi-definite covariance matrices and correlation

  7. Markov chain model for demersal fish catch analysis in Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Firdaniza; Gusriani, N.

    2018-03-01

    As an archipelagic country, Indonesia has considerable potential fishery resources. One of the fish resources that has high economic value is demersal fish. Demersal fish is a fish with a habitat in the muddy seabed. Demersal fish scattered throughout the Indonesian seas. Demersal fish production in each Indonesia’s Fisheries Management Area (FMA) varies each year. In this paper we have discussed the Markov chain model for demersal fish yield analysis throughout all Indonesia’s Fisheries Management Area. Data of demersal fish catch in every FMA in 2005-2014 was obtained from Directorate of Capture Fisheries. From this data a transition probability matrix is determined by the number of transitions from the catch that lie below the median or above the median. The Markov chain model of demersal fish catch data was an ergodic Markov chain model, so that the limiting probability of the Markov chain model can be determined. The predictive value of demersal fishing yields was obtained by calculating the combination of limiting probability with average catch results below the median and above the median. The results showed that for 2018 and long-term demersal fishing results in most of FMA were below the median value.

  8. Scaling analysis and model estimation of solar corona index

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ray, Samujjwal; Ray, Rajdeep; Khondekar, Mofazzal Hossain; Ghosh, Koushik

    2018-04-01

    A monthly average solar green coronal index time series for the period from January 1939 to December 2008 collected from NOAA (The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration) has been analysed in this paper in perspective of scaling analysis and modelling. Smoothed and de-noising have been done using suitable mother wavelet as a pre-requisite. The Finite Variance Scaling Method (FVSM), Higuchi method, rescaled range (R/S) and a generalized method have been applied to calculate the scaling exponents and fractal dimensions of the time series. Autocorrelation function (ACF) is used to find autoregressive (AR) process and Partial autocorrelation function (PACF) has been used to get the order of AR model. Finally a best fit model has been proposed using Yule-Walker Method with supporting results of goodness of fit and wavelet spectrum. The results reveal an anti-persistent, Short Range Dependent (SRD), self-similar property with signatures of non-causality, non-stationarity and nonlinearity in the data series. The model shows the best fit to the data under observation.

  9. Relative sensitivity analysis of the predictive properties of sloppy models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myasnikova, Ekaterina; Spirov, Alexander

    2018-01-25

    Commonly among the model parameters characterizing complex biological systems are those that do not significantly influence the quality of the fit to experimental data, so-called "sloppy" parameters. The sloppiness can be mathematically expressed through saturating response functions (Hill's, sigmoid) thereby embodying biological mechanisms responsible for the system robustness to external perturbations. However, if a sloppy model is used for the prediction of the system behavior at the altered input (e.g. knock out mutations, natural expression variability), it may demonstrate the poor predictive power due to the ambiguity in the parameter estimates. We introduce a method of the predictive power evaluation under the parameter estimation uncertainty, Relative Sensitivity Analysis. The prediction problem is addressed in the context of gene circuit models describing the dynamics of segmentation gene expression in Drosophila embryo. Gene regulation in these models is introduced by a saturating sigmoid function of the concentrations of the regulatory gene products. We show how our approach can be applied to characterize the essential difference between the sensitivity properties of robust and non-robust solutions and select among the existing solutions those providing the correct system behavior at any reasonable input. In general, the method allows to uncover the sources of incorrect predictions and proposes the way to overcome the estimation uncertainties.

  10. Sensitive analysis of a finite element model of orthogonal cutting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brocail, J.; Watremez, M.; Dubar, L.

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents a two-dimensional finite element model of orthogonal cutting. The proposed model has been developed with Abaqus/explicit software. An Arbitrary Lagrangian-Eulerian (ALE) formulation is used to predict chip formation, temperature, chip-tool contact length, chip thickness, and cutting forces. This numerical model of orthogonal cutting will be validated by comparing these process variables to experimental and numerical results obtained by Filice et al. [1]. This model can be considered to be reliable enough to make qualitative analysis of entry parameters related to cutting process and frictional models. A sensitivity analysis is conducted on the main entry parameters (coefficients of the Johnson-Cook law, and contact parameters) with the finite element model. This analysis is performed with two levels for each factor. The sensitivity analysis realised with the numerical model on the entry parameters has allowed the identification of significant parameters and the margin identification of parameters.

  11. Analytic uncertainty and sensitivity analysis of models with input correlations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Yueying; Wang, Qiuping A.; Li, Wei; Cai, Xu

    2018-03-01

    Probabilistic uncertainty analysis is a common means of evaluating mathematical models. In mathematical modeling, the uncertainty in input variables is specified through distribution laws. Its contribution to the uncertainty in model response is usually analyzed by assuming that input variables are independent of each other. However, correlated parameters are often happened in practical applications. In the present paper, an analytic method is built for the uncertainty and sensitivity analysis of models in the presence of input correlations. With the method, it is straightforward to identify the importance of the independence and correlations of input variables in determining the model response. This allows one to decide whether or not the input correlations should be considered in practice. Numerical examples suggest the effectiveness and validation of our analytic method in the analysis of general models. A practical application of the method is also proposed to the uncertainty and sensitivity analysis of a deterministic HIV model.

  12. Analysis of nonlinear systems using ARMA [autoregressive moving average] models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hunter, N.F. Jr.

    1990-01-01

    While many vibration systems exhibit primarily linear behavior, a significant percentage of the systems encountered in vibration and model testing are mildly to severely nonlinear. Analysis methods for such nonlinear systems are not yet well developed and the response of such systems is not accurately predicted by linear models. Nonlinear ARMA (autoregressive moving average) models are one method for the analysis and response prediction of nonlinear vibratory systems. In this paper we review the background of linear and nonlinear ARMA models, and illustrate the application of these models to nonlinear vibration systems. We conclude by summarizing the advantages and disadvantages of ARMA models and emphasizing prospects for future development. 14 refs., 11 figs

  13. Computational model for vitamin D deficiency using hair mineral analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassanien, Aboul Ella; Tharwat, Alaa; Own, Hala S

    2017-10-01

    Vitamin D deficiency is prevalent in the Arabian Gulf region, especially among women. Recent studies show that the vitamin D deficiency is associated with a mineral status of a patient. Therefore, it is important to assess the mineral status of the patient to reveal the hidden mineral imbalance associated with vitamin D deficiency. A well-known test such as the red blood cells is fairly expensive, invasive, and less informative. On the other hand, a hair mineral analysis can be considered an accurate, excellent, highly informative tool to measure mineral imbalance associated with vitamin D deficiency. In this study, 118 apparently healthy Kuwaiti women were assessed for their mineral levels and vitamin D status by a hair mineral analysis (HMA). This information was used to build a computerized model that would predict vitamin D deficiency based on its association with the levels and ratios of minerals. The first phase of the proposed model introduces a novel hybrid optimization algorithm, which can be considered as an improvement of Bat Algorithm (BA) to select the most discriminative features. The improvement includes using the mutation process of Genetic Algorithm (GA) to update the positions of bats with the aim of speeding up convergence; thus, making the algorithm more feasible for wider ranges of real-world applications. Due to the imbalanced class distribution in our dataset, in the second phase, different sampling methods such as Random Under-Sampling, Random Over-Sampling, and Synthetic Minority Oversampling Technique are used to solve the problem of imbalanced datasets. In the third phase, an AdaBoost ensemble classifier is used to predicting the vitamin D deficiency. The results showed that the proposed model achieved good results to detect the deficiency in vitamin D. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Analysis of Sea Ice Cover Sensitivity in Global Climate Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. P. Parhomenko

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents joint calculations using a 3D atmospheric general circulation model, an ocean model, and a sea ice evolution model. The purpose of the work is to analyze a seasonal and annual evolution of sea ice, long-term variability of a model ice cover, and its sensitivity to some parameters of model as well to define atmosphere-ice-ocean interaction.Results of 100 years simulations of Arctic basin sea ice evolution are analyzed. There are significant (about 0.5 m inter-annual fluctuations of an ice cover.The ice - atmosphere sensible heat flux reduced by 10% leads to the growth of average sea ice thickness within the limits of 0.05 m – 0.1 m. However in separate spatial points the thickness decreases up to 0.5 m. An analysis of the seasonably changing average ice thickness with decreasing, as compared to the basic variant by 0.05 of clear sea ice albedo and that of snow shows the ice thickness reduction in a range from 0.2 m up to 0.6 m, and the change maximum falls for the summer season of intensive melting. The spatial distribution of ice thickness changes shows, that on the large part of the Arctic Ocean there was a reduction of ice thickness down to 1 m. However, there is also an area of some increase of the ice layer basically in a range up to 0.2 m (Beaufort Sea. The 0.05 decrease of sea ice snow albedo leads to reduction of average ice thickness approximately by 0.2 m, and this value slightly depends on a season. In the following experiment the ocean – ice thermal interaction influence on the ice cover is estimated. It is carried out by increase of a heat flux from ocean to the bottom surface of sea ice by 2 W/sq. m in comparison with base variant. The analysis demonstrates, that the average ice thickness reduces in a range from 0.2 m to 0.35 m. There are small seasonal changes of this value.The numerical experiments results have shown, that an ice cover and its seasonal evolution rather strongly depend on varied parameters

  15. Finite element analysis of osteoporosis models based on synchrotron radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, W.; Xu, J.; Zhao, J.; Sun, J.

    2016-04-01

    With growing pressure of social aging, China has to face the increasing population of osteoporosis patients as well as the whole world. Recently synchrotron radiation has become an essential tool for biomedical exploration with advantage of high resolution and high stability. In order to study characteristic changes in different stages of primary osteoporosis, this research focused on the different periods of osteoporosis of rats based on synchrotron radiation. Both bone histomorphometry analysis and finite element analysis were then carried on according to the reconstructed three dimensional models. Finally, the changes of bone tissue in different periods were compared quantitatively. Histomorphometry analysis showed that the structure of the trabecular in osteoporosis degraded as the bone volume decreased. For femurs, the bone volume fraction (Bone volume/ Total volume, BV/TV) decreased from 69% to 43%. That led to the increase of the thickness of trabecular separation (from 45.05μ m to 97.09μ m) and the reduction of the number of trabecular (from 7.99 mm-1 to 5.97mm-1). Simulation of various mechanical tests with finite element analysis (FEA) indicated that, with the exacerbation of osteoporosis, the bones' ability of resistance to compression, bending and torsion gradually became weaker. The compression stiffness of femurs decreased from 1770.96 Fμ m-1 to 697.41 Fμ m-1, the bending and torsion stiffness were from 1390.80 Fμ m-1 to 566.11 Fμ m-1 and from 2957.28N.m/o to 691.31 N.m/o respectively, indicated the decrease of bone strength, and it matched the histomorphometry analysis. This study suggested that FEA and synchrotron radiation were excellent methods for analysing bone strength conbined with histomorphometry analysis.

  16. Probabilistic forward model for electroencephalography source analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Plis, Sergey M; George, John S; Jun, Sung C; Ranken, Doug M; Volegov, Petr L; Schmidt, David M

    2007-01-01

    Source localization by electroencephalography (EEG) requires an accurate model of head geometry and tissue conductivity. The estimation of source time courses from EEG or from EEG in conjunction with magnetoencephalography (MEG) requires a forward model consistent with true activity for the best outcome. Although MRI provides an excellent description of soft tissue anatomy, a high resolution model of the skull (the dominant resistive component of the head) requires CT, which is not justified for routine physiological studies. Although a number of techniques have been employed to estimate tissue conductivity, no present techniques provide the noninvasive 3D tomographic mapping of conductivity that would be desirable. We introduce a formalism for probabilistic forward modeling that allows the propagation of uncertainties in model parameters into possible errors in source localization. We consider uncertainties in the conductivity profile of the skull, but the approach is general and can be extended to other kinds of uncertainties in the forward model. We and others have previously suggested the possibility of extracting conductivity of the skull from measured electroencephalography data by simultaneously optimizing over dipole parameters and the conductivity values required by the forward model. Using Cramer-Rao bounds, we demonstrate that this approach does not improve localization results nor does it produce reliable conductivity estimates. We conclude that the conductivity of the skull has to be either accurately measured by an independent technique, or that the uncertainties in the conductivity values should be reflected in uncertainty in the source location estimates

  17. Model Independent Analysis of Beam Centroid Dynamics in Accelerators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Chun-xi

    2003-04-21

    Fundamental issues in Beam-Position-Monitor (BPM)-based beam dynamics observations are studied in this dissertation. The major topic is the Model-Independent Analysis (MIA) of beam centroid dynamics. Conventional beam dynamics analysis requires a certain machine model, which itself of ten needs to be refined by beam measurements. Instead of using any particular machine model, MIA relies on a statistical analysis of the vast amount of BPM data that often can be collected non-invasively during normal machine operation. There are two major parts in MIA. One is noise reduction and degrees-of-freedom analysis using a singular value decomposition of a BPM-data matrix, which constitutes a principal component analysis of BPM data. The other is a physical base decomposition of the BPM-data matrix based on the time structure of pulse-by-pulse beam and/or machine parameters. The combination of these two methods allows one to break the resolution limit set by individual BPMs and observe beam dynamics at more accurate levels. A physical base decomposition is particularly useful for understanding various beam dynamics issues. MIA improves observation and analysis of beam dynamics and thus leads to better understanding and control of beams in both linacs and rings. The statistical nature of MIA makes it potentially useful in other fields. Another important topic discussed in this dissertation is the measurement of a nonlinear Poincare section (one-turn) map in circular accelerators. The beam dynamics in a ring is intrinsically nonlinear. In fact, nonlinearities are a major factor that limits stability and influences the dynamics of halos. The Poincare section map plays a basic role in characterizing and analyzing such a periodic nonlinear system. Although many kinds of nonlinear beam dynamics experiments have been conducted, no direct measurement of a nonlinear map has been reported for a ring in normal operation mode. This dissertation analyzes various issues concerning map

  18. Model Independent Analysis of Beam Centroid Dynamics in Accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Chun-xi

    2003-01-01

    Fundamental issues in Beam-Position-Monitor (BPM)-based beam dynamics observations are studied in this dissertation. The major topic is the Model-Independent Analysis (MIA) of beam centroid dynamics. Conventional beam dynamics analysis requires a certain machine model, which itself of ten needs to be refined by beam measurements. Instead of using any particular machine model, MIA relies on a statistical analysis of the vast amount of BPM data that often can be collected non-invasively during normal machine operation. There are two major parts in MIA. One is noise reduction and degrees-of-freedom analysis using a singular value decomposition of a BPM-data matrix, which constitutes a principal component analysis of BPM data. The other is a physical base decomposition of the BPM-data matrix based on the time structure of pulse-by-pulse beam and/or machine parameters. The combination of these two methods allows one to break the resolution limit set by individual BPMs and observe beam dynamics at more accurate levels. A physical base decomposition is particularly useful for understanding various beam dynamics issues. MIA improves observation and analysis of beam dynamics and thus leads to better understanding and control of beams in both linacs and rings. The statistical nature of MIA makes it potentially useful in other fields. Another important topic discussed in this dissertation is the measurement of a nonlinear Poincare section (one-turn) map in circular accelerators. The beam dynamics in a ring is intrinsically nonlinear. In fact, nonlinearities are a major factor that limits stability and influences the dynamics of halos. The Poincare section map plays a basic role in characterizing and analyzing such a periodic nonlinear system. Although many kinds of nonlinear beam dynamics experiments have been conducted, no direct measurement of a nonlinear map has been reported for a ring in normal operation mode. This dissertation analyzes various issues concerning map

  19. Microbial Anti-Inflammatory Molecule (MAM) from Faecalibacterium prausnitzii Shows a Protective Effect on DNBS and DSS-Induced Colitis Model in Mice through Inhibition of NF-κB Pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breyner, Natalia M; Michon, Cristophe; de Sousa, Cassiana S; Vilas Boas, Priscilla B; Chain, Florian; Azevedo, Vasco A; Langella, Philippe; Chatel, Jean M

    2017-01-01

    Faecalibacterium prausnitzii and its supernatant showed protective effects in different chemically-induced colitis models in mice. Recently, we described 7 peptides found in the F. prausnitzii supernatant, all belonging to a protein called Microbial Anti-inflammatory Molecule (MAM). These peptides were able to inhibit NF-κB pathway in vitro and showed anti-inflammatory properties in vivo in a DiNitroBenzene Sulfate (DNBS)-induced colitis model. In this current proof we tested MAM effect on NF-κB pathway in vivo , using a transgenic model of mice producing luciferase under the control of NF-κB promoter. Moreover, we tested this protein on Dextran Sodium Sulfate (DSS)-induced colitis in mice. To study the effect of MAM we orally administered to the mice a Lactococcus lactis strain carrying a plasmid containing the cDNA of MAM under the control of a eukaryotic promoter. L. lactis delivered plasmids in epithelial cells of the intestinal membrane allowing thus the production of MAM directly by host. We showed that MAM administration inhibits NF-κB pathway in vivo . We confirmed the anti-inflammatory properties of MAM in DNBS-induced colitis but also in DSS model. In DSS model MAM was able to inhibit Th1 and Th17 immune response while in DNBS model MAM reduced Th1, Th2, and Th17 immune response and increased TGFβ production.

  20. Root analysis and implications to analysis model in ATLAS

    CERN Document Server

    Shibata, A

    2008-01-01

    An impressive amount of effort has been put in to realize a set of frameworks to support analysis in this new paradigm of GRID computing. However, much more than half of a physicist's time is typically spent after the GRID processing of the data. Due to the private nature of this level of analysis, there has been little common framework or methodology. While most physicists agree to use ROOT as the basis of their analysis, a number of approaches are possible for the implementation of the analysis using ROOT: conventional methods using CINT/ACLiC, development using g++, alternative interface through python, and parallel processing methods such as PROOF are some of the choices currently available on the market. Furthermore, in the ATLAS collaboration an additional layer of technology adds to the complexity because the data format is based on the POOL technology, which tends to be less portable. In this study, various modes of ROOT analysis are profiled for comparison with the main focus on the processing speed....

  1. Geometrical analysis of the interacting boson model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dieperink, A.E.L.

    1983-01-01

    The Interacting Boson Model is considered, in relation with geometrical models and the application of mean field techniques to algebraic models, in three lectures. In the first, several methods are reviewed to establish a connection between the algebraic formulation of collective nuclear properties in terms of the group SU(6) and the geometric approach. In the second lecture the geometric interpretation of new degrees of freedom that arise in the neutron-proton IBA is discussed, and in the third one some further applications of algebraic techniques to the calculation of static and dynamic collective properties are presented. (U.K.)

  2. Practical likelihood analysis for spatial generalized linear mixed models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bonat, W. H.; Ribeiro, Paulo Justiniano

    2016-01-01

    , respectively, examples of binomial and count datasets modeled by spatial generalized linear mixed models. Our results show that the Laplace approximation provides similar estimates to Markov Chain Monte Carlo likelihood, Monte Carlo expectation maximization, and modified Laplace approximation. Some advantages...

  3. Philosophical analysis of models of engineering education in Russia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fadeeva V. N.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This article defines the principles of the philosophical approach to the problems of engineering education. Ontological, epistemological and axiological components of the proposed approach are distinguished. Assessment criteria of engineering education models are specified. Basing on the presented principles and criteria, the analysis of Russian engineering education models is performed. The authors distinguish the following models: classical (tsarism, soviet transitional, soviet industrial, physicotechnical model, soviet mass (reproductive and Russian transitional models. In addition among developing models it is possible to recognize the following ones: methodological (creative and outrunning (advanced models. On the basis of the performed analysis, positive and negative aspects of the distinguished models are determined, and, it is possible to make a conclusion that every accomplished model emergence was reasoned by particular issues raised in the state at the particular period of time. The talking point of the necessity to design a proactive model of engineering education is formulated.

  4. CLPX NCAR Data Analysis and Numerical Modeling

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The purpose of this project was to generate a research-quality, scientifically-sound, best-as-reasonably possible, three-dimensional meteorological analysis for the...

  5. A model of the gas analysis system operation process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yakimenko, I. V.; Kanishchev, O. A.; Lyamets, L. L.; Volkova, I. V.

    2017-12-01

    The characteristic features of modeling the gas-analysis measurement system operation process on the basis of the semi-Markov process theory are discussed. The model of the measuring gas analysis system operation process is proposed, which makes it possible to take into account the influence of the replacement interval, the level of reliability and maintainability and to evaluate the product reliability.

  6. sensitivity analysis on flexible road pavement life cycle cost model

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    Sensitivity analysis is a tool used in the assessment of a model's performance. This study examined the application of sensitivity analysis on a developed flexible pavement life cycle cost model using varying discount rate. The study area is Effurun, Uvwie Local Government Area of Delta State of Nigeria. In order to ...

  7. A visual analysis of the process of process modeling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Claes, J.; Vanderfeesten, I.; Pinggera, J.; Reijers, H.A.; Weber, B.; Poels, G.

    2015-01-01

    The construction of business process models has become an important requisite in the analysis and optimization of processes. The success of the analysis and optimization efforts heavily depends on the quality of the models. Therefore, a research domain emerged that studies the process of process

  8. an improved structural model for seismic analysis of tall frames

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr Obe

    ABSTRACT. This paper proposed and examined an improved structural model that overcomes the deficiencies of the shear frame model by considering the effects of flexible horizontal members and column axial loads in seismic analysis of multi-storey frames. Matrix displacement method of analysis is used on the basis of ...

  9. Permeability model of sintered porous media: analysis and experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flórez Mera, Juan Pablo; Chiamulera, Maria E.; Mantelli, Marcia B. H.

    2017-11-01

    In this paper, the permeability of porous media fabricated from copper powder sintering process was modeled and measured, aiming the use of the porosity as input parameter for the prediction of the permeability of sintering porous media. An expression relating the powder particle mean diameter with the permeability was obtained, based on an elementary porous media cell, which is physically represented by a duct formed by the arrangement of spherical particles forming a simple or orthorhombic packing. A circular duct with variable section was used to model the fluid flow within the porous media, where the concept of the hydraulic diameter was applied. Thus, the porous is modeled as a converging-diverging duct. The electrical circuit analogy was employed to determine two hydraulic resistances of the cell: based on the Navier-Stokes equation and on the Darcýs law. The hydraulic resistances are compared between themselves and an expression to determine the permeability as function of average particle diameter is obtained. The atomized copper powder was sifted to reduce the size dispersion of the particles. The porosities and permeabilities of sintered media fabricated from powders with particle mean diameters ranging from 20 to 200 microns were measured, by means of the image analysis method and using an experimental apparatus. The permeability data of a porous media, made of copper powder and saturated with distilled water, was used to compare with the permeability model. Permeability literature models, which considers that powder particles have the same diameter and include porosity data as input parameter, were compared with the present model and experimental data. This comparison showed to be quite good.

  10. A Petri Nets Model for Blockchain Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Pinna, Andrea; Tonelli, Roberto; Orrú, Matteo; Marchesi, Michele

    2017-01-01

    A Blockchain is a global shared infrastructure where cryptocurrency transactions among addresses are recorded, validated and made publicly available in a peer- to-peer network. To date the best known and important cryptocurrency is the bitcoin. In this paper we focus on this cryptocurrency and in particular on the modeling of the Bitcoin Blockchain by using the Petri Nets formalism. The proposed model allows us to quickly collect information about identities owning Bitcoin addresses and to re...

  11. Toward General Analysis of Recursive Probability Models

    OpenAIRE

    Pless, Daniel; Luger, George

    2013-01-01

    There is increasing interest within the research community in the design and use of recursive probability models. Although there still remains concern about computational complexity costs and the fact that computing exact solutions can be intractable for many nonrecursive models and impossible in the general case for recursive problems, several research groups are actively developing computational techniques for recursive stochastic languages. We have developed an extension to the traditional...

  12. Meta-analysis a structural equation modeling approach

    CERN Document Server

    Cheung, Mike W-L

    2015-01-01

    Presents a novel approach to conducting meta-analysis using structural equation modeling. Structural equation modeling (SEM) and meta-analysis are two powerful statistical methods in the educational, social, behavioral, and medical sciences. They are often treated as two unrelated topics in the literature. This book presents a unified framework on analyzing meta-analytic data within the SEM framework, and illustrates how to conduct meta-analysis using the metaSEM package in the R statistical environment. Meta-Analysis: A Structural Equation Modeling Approach begins by introducing the impo

  13. Structural dynamic analysis with generalized damping models analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Adhikari , Sondipon

    2013-01-01

    Since Lord Rayleigh introduced the idea of viscous damping in his classic work ""The Theory of Sound"" in 1877, it has become standard practice to use this approach in dynamics, covering a wide range of applications from aerospace to civil engineering. However, in the majority of practical cases this approach is adopted more for mathematical convenience than for modeling the physics of vibration damping. Over the past decade, extensive research has been undertaken on more general ""non-viscous"" damping models and vibration of non-viscously damped systems. This book, along with a related book

  14. Model-based schedulability analysis of safety critical hard real-time Java programs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bøgholm, Thomas; Kragh-Hansen, Henrik; Olsen, Petur

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, we present a novel approach to schedulability analysis of Safety Critical Hard Real-Time Java programs. The approach is based on a translation of programs, written in the Safety Critical Java profile introduced in [21] for the Java Optimized Processor [18], to timed automata models...... verifiable by the Uppaal model checker [23]. Schedulability analysis is reduced to a simple reachability question, checking for deadlock freedom. Model-based schedulability analysis has been developed by Amnell et al. [2], but has so far only been applied to high level specifications, not actual...... implementations in a programming language. Experiments show that model-based schedulability analysis can result in a more accurate analysis than possible with traditional approaches, thus systems deemed non-schedulable by traditional approaches may in fact be schedulable, as detected by our analysis. Our approach...

  15. Models and Stability Analysis of Boiling Water Reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dorning, John

    2002-01-01

    We have studied the nuclear-coupled thermal-hydraulic stability of boiling water reactors (BWRs) using a model that includes: space-time modal neutron kinetics based on spatial w-modes; single- and two-phase flow in parallel boiling channels; fuel rod heat conduction dynamics; and a simple model of the recirculation loop. The BR model is represented by a set of time-dependent nonlinear ordinary differential equations, and is studied as a dynamical system using the modern bifurcation theory and nonlinear dynamical systems analysis. We first determine the stability boundary (SB) - or Hopf bifurcation set- in the most relevant parameter plane, the inlet-subcooling-number/external-pressure-drop plane, for a fixed control rod induced external reactivity equal to the 100% rod line value; then we transform the SB to the practical power-flow map used by BWR operating engineers and regulatory agencies. Using this SB, we show that the normal operating point at 100% power is very stable, that stability of points on the 100% rod line decreases as the flow rate is reduced, and that operating points in the low-flow/high-power region are least stable. We also determine the SB that results when the modal kinetics is replaced by simple point reactor kinetics, and we thereby show that the first harmonic mode does not have a significant effect on the SB. However, we later show that it nevertheless has a significant effect on stability because it affects the basin of attraction of stable operating points. Using numerical simulations we show that, in the important low-flow/high-power region, the Hopf bifurcation that occurs as the SB is crossed is subcritical; hence, growing oscillations can result following small finite perturbations of stable steady-states on the 100% rod line at points in the low-flow/high-power region. Numerical simulations are also performed to calculate the decay ratios (DRs) and frequencies of oscillations for various points on the 100% rod line. It is

  16. Models and Stability Analysis of Boiling Water Reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    John Dorning

    2002-04-15

    We have studied the nuclear-coupled thermal-hydraulic stability of boiling water reactors (BWRs) using a model that includes: space-time modal neutron kinetics based on spatial w-modes; single- and two-phase flow in parallel boiling channels; fuel rod heat conduction dynamics; and a simple model of the recirculation loop. The BR model is represented by a set of time-dependent nonlinear ordinary differential equations, and is studied as a dynamical system using the modern bifurcation theory and nonlinear dynamical systems analysis. We first determine the stability boundary (SB) - or Hopf bifurcation set- in the most relevant parameter plane, the inlet-subcooling-number/external-pressure-drop plane, for a fixed control rod induced external reactivity equal to the 100% rod line value; then we transform the SB to the practical power-flow map used by BWR operating engineers and regulatory agencies. Using this SB, we show that the normal operating point at 100% power is very stable, that stability of points on the 100% rod line decreases as the flow rate is reduced, and that operating points in the low-flow/high-power region are least stable. We also determine the SB that results when the modal kinetics is replaced by simple point reactor kinetics, and we thereby show that the first harmonic mode does not have a significant effect on the SB. However, we later show that it nevertheless has a significant effect on stability because it affects the basin of attraction of stable operating points. Using numerical simulations we show that, in the important low-flow/high-power region, the Hopf bifurcation that occurs as the SB is crossed is subcritical; hence, growing oscillations can result following small finite perturbations of stable steady-states on the 100% rod line at points in the low-flow/high-power region. Numerical simulations are also performed to calculate the decay ratios (DRs) and frequencies of oscillations for various points on the 100% rod line. It is

  17. Fluid Dynamic Models for Bhattacharyya-Based Discriminant Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noh, Yung-Kyun; Hamm, Jihun; Park, Frank Chongwoo; Zhang, Byoung-Tak; Lee, Daniel D

    2018-01-01

    Classical discriminant analysis attempts to discover a low-dimensional subspace where class label information is maximally preserved under projection. Canonical methods for estimating the subspace optimize an information-theoretic criterion that measures the separation between the class-conditional distributions. Unfortunately, direct optimization of the information-theoretic criteria is generally non-convex and intractable in high-dimensional spaces. In this work, we propose a novel, tractable algorithm for discriminant analysis that considers the class-conditional densities as interacting fluids in the high-dimensional embedding space. We use the Bhattacharyya criterion as a potential function that generates forces between the interacting fluids, and derive a computationally tractable method for finding the low-dimensional subspace that optimally constrains the resulting fluid flow. We show that this model properly reduces to the optimal solution for homoscedastic data as well as for heteroscedastic Gaussian distributions with equal means. We also extend this model to discover optimal filters for discriminating Gaussian processes and provide experimental results and comparisons on a number of datasets.

  18. Polypeptide-based nanogels co-encapsulating a synergistic combination of doxorubicin with 17-AAG show potent anti-tumor activity in ErbB2-driven breast cancer models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desale, Swapnil S; Raja, Srikumar M; Kim, Jong Oh; Mohapatra, Bhopal; Soni, Kruti S; Luan, Haitao; Williams, Stetson H; Bielecki, Timothy A; Feng, Dan; Storck, Matthew; Band, Vimla; Cohen, Samuel M; Band, Hamid; Bronich, Tatiana K

    2015-06-28

    ErbB2-driven breast cancers constitute 20-25% of the cases diagnosed within the USA. The humanized anti-ErbB2 monoclonal antibody, Trastuzumab (Herceptin™; Genentech), with chemotherapy is the current standard of treatment. Novel agents and strategies continue to be explored, given the challenges posed by Trastuzumab-resistance development in most patients. The HSP90 inhibitor, 17-allylaminodemethoxygeldanamycin (17-AAG), which induces ErbB2 degradation and attenuates downstream oncogenic signaling, is one such agent that showed significant promise in early phase I and II clinical trials. Its low water solubility, potential toxicities and undesirable side effects observed in patients, partly due to the Cremophor-based formulation, have been discouraging factors in the advancement of this promising drug into clinical use. Encapsulation of 17-AAG into polymeric nanoparticle formulations, particularly in synergistic combination with conventional chemotherapeutics, represents an alternative approach to overcome these problems. Herein, we report an efficient co-encapsulation of 17-AAG and doxorubicin, a clinically well-established and effective modality in breast cancer treatment, into biodegradable and biocompatible polypeptide-based nanogels. Dual drug-loaded nanogels displayed potent cytotoxicity in a breast cancer cell panel and exerted selective synergistic anticancer activity against ErbB2-overexpressing breast cancer cell lines. Analysis of ErbB2 degradation confirmed efficient 17-AAG release from nanogels with activity comparable to free 17-AAG. Furthermore, nanogels containing both 17-AAG and doxorubicin exhibited superior antitumor efficacy in vivo in an ErbB2-driven xenograft model compared to the combination of free drugs. These studies demonstrate that polypeptide-based nanogels can serve as novel nanocarriers for encapsulating 17-AAG along with other chemotherapeutics, providing an opportunity to overcome solubility issues and thereby exploit its full

  19. SBKF Modeling and Analysis Plan: Buckling Analysis of Compression-Loaded Orthogrid and Isogrid Cylinders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lovejoy, Andrew E.; Hilburger, Mark W.

    2013-01-01

    This document outlines a Modeling and Analysis Plan (MAP) to be followed by the SBKF analysts. It includes instructions on modeling and analysis formulation and execution, model verification and validation, identifying sources of error and uncertainty, and documentation. The goal of this MAP is to provide a standardized procedure that ensures uniformity and quality of the results produced by the project and corresponding documentation.

  20. Discretization model for nonlinear dynamic analysis of three dimensional structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayashi, Y.

    1982-12-01

    A discretization model for nonlinear dynamic analysis of three dimensional structures is presented. The discretization is achieved through a three dimensional spring-mass system and the dynamic response obtained by direct integration of the equations of motion using central diferences. First the viability of the model is verified through the analysis of homogeneous linear structures and then its performance in the analysis of structures subjected to impulsive or impact loads, taking into account both geometrical and physical nonlinearities is evaluated. (Author) [pt