WorldWideScience

Sample records for modeling 3d objects

  1. The 3D Object Mediator : Handling 3D Models on Internet

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kok, A.J.F.; Lawick van Pabst, J. van; Afsarmanesh, H.

    1997-01-01

    The 3D Object MEdiator (3DOME 3) offers two services for handling 3D models: a modelshop and a renderfarm. These services can be consulted through the Internet. The modelshop meets the demands for brokerage of geometric descriptions of 3D models. People who create geometric models of objects can

  2. 3D object-oriented image analysis in 3D geophysical modelling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fadel, I.; van der Meijde, M.; Kerle, N.

    2015-01-01

    Non-uniqueness of satellite gravity interpretation has traditionally been reduced by using a priori information from seismic tomography models. This reduction in the non-uniqueness has been based on velocity-density conversion formulas or user interpretation of the 3D subsurface structures (objects......) approach was implemented to extract the 3D subsurface structures from geophysical data. The approach was applied on a 3D shear wave seismic tomography model of the central part of the East African Rift System. Subsequently, the extracted 3D objects from the tomography model were reconstructed in the 3D...... interactive modelling environment IGMAS+, and their density contrast values were calculated using an object-based inversion technique to calculate the forward signal of the objects and compare it with the measured satellite gravity. Thus, a new object-based approach was implemented to interpret and extract...

  3. Modelling 3D spatial objects in a geo-DBMS using a 3D primitive

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arens, Călin; Stoter, Jantien; van Oosterom, Peter

    2005-03-01

    There is a growing interest in modelling the world in three dimensions, both in applications and in science. At the same time, geographical information systems are changing into integrated architecture in which administrative and spatial data are maintained in one environment. It is for this reason that mainstream Data Base Management Systems (DBMSs) have implemented spatial data types according to the 'Simple Feature Specifications for SQL', described by the OpenGeospatial Consortium. However, these specifications are 2D, as indeed are the implementations in DBMSs. At the Section GIS Technology of TU Delft, research has been carried out in which a 3D primitive was implemented in a DBMS (Oracle Spatial). To explore the possibilities and complications, a fairly simple 3D primitive was chosen to start with: a polyhedron. In the future the study will be extended with more complex primitives, the ultimate aim being to build 3D models with features closer to the real world. Besides the data structure, a validation function was developed to check the geometric accuracy of the data. Rules for validation were established and translated into prototype implementations with the aid of literature. In order to manipulate the data, a list of useful 3D functions was specified. Most of these were translated into algorithms, which were implemented in the DBMS. The algorithms for these functions were obtained from the relevant literature. The research also comprised a comparative performance test on spatial indexing in 2D and 3D, using an R-tree. Finally, existing software was used to visualize 3D objects structured with the implemented 3D primitive. This research is a first attempt to implement a true 3D primitive in a DBMS. Future research will focus on extending and improving the implementations and on optimizing maintenance and query of 3D objects in DBMSs.

  4. Topological models and frameworks for 3D spatial objects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zlatanova, Siyka; Rahman, Alias Abdul; Shi, Wenzhong

    2004-05-01

    Topology is one of the mechanisms to describe relationships between spatial objects. Thus, it is the basis for many spatial operations. Models utilizing the topological properties of spatial objects are usually called topological models, and are considered by many researchers as the best suited for complex spatial analysis (i.e., the shortest path search). A number of topological models for two-dimensional and 2.5D spatial objects have been implemented (or are under consideration) by GIS and DBMS vendors. However, when we move to one more dimension (i.e., three-dimensions), the complexity of the relationships increases, and this requires new approaches, rules and representations. This paper aims to give an overview of the 3D topological models presented in the literature, and to discuss generic issues related to 3D modeling. The paper also considers models in object-oriented (OO) environments. Finally, future trends for research and development in this area are highlighted.

  5. Modeling 3D Objects for Navigation Purposes Using Laser Scanning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cezary Specht

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The paper discusses the creation of 3d models and their applications in navigation. It contains a review of available methods and geometric data sources, focusing mostly on terrestrial laser scanning. It presents detailed description, from field survey to numerical elaboration, how to construct accurate model of a typical few storey building as a hypothetical reference in complex building navigation. Hence, the paper presents fields where 3d models are being used and their potential new applications.

  6. 3D genome structure modeling by Lorentzian objective function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trieu, Tuan; Cheng, Jianlin

    2017-02-17

    The 3D structure of the genome plays a vital role in biological processes such as gene interaction, gene regulation, DNA replication and genome methylation. Advanced chromosomal conformation capture techniques, such as Hi-C and tethered conformation capture, can generate chromosomal contact data that can be used to computationally reconstruct 3D structures of the genome. We developed a novel restraint-based method that is capable of reconstructing 3D genome structures utilizing both intra-and inter-chromosomal contact data. Our method was robust to noise and performed well in comparison with a panel of existing methods on a controlled simulated data set. On a real Hi-C data set of the human genome, our method produced chromosome and genome structures that are consistent with 3D FISH data and known knowledge about the human chromosome and genome, such as, chromosome territories and the cluster of small chromosomes in the nucleus center with the exception of the chromosome 18. The tool and experimental data are available at https://missouri.box.com/v/LorDG.

  7. Object recognition via MINACE filter trained on synthetic 3D model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaulskiy, Dmitry V.; Konstantinov, Maxim V.; Starikov, Rostislav S.

    2015-09-01

    Paper presents study results of MINACE filter implementation to recognition problem of object subjected to out-of-plane rotation distortion and captured as raster image. Filter training conducted by images acquired from synthetic 3D object model. Dependence of recognition results from 3D model illumination type is shown.

  8. Temporal-spatial modeling of fast-moving and deforming 3D objects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Xiaoliang; Wei, Youzhi

    1998-09-01

    This paper gives a brief description of the method and techniques developed for the modeling and reconstruction of fast moving and deforming 3D objects. A new approach using close-range digital terrestrial photogrammetry in conjunction with high speed photography and videography is proposed. A sequential image matching method (SIM) has been developed to automatically process pairs of images taken continuously of any fast moving and deforming 3D objects. Using the SIM technique a temporal-spatial model (TSM) of any fast moving and deforming 3D objects can be developed. The TSM would include a series of reconstructed surface models of the fast moving and deforming 3D object in the form of 3D images. The TSM allows the 3D objects to be visualized and analyzed in sequence. The SIM method, specifically the left-right matching and forward-back matching techniques are presented in the paper. An example is given which deals with the monitoring of a typical blast rock bench in a major open pit mine in Australia. With the SIM approach and the TSM model it is possible to automatically and efficiently reconstruct the 3D images of the blasting process. This reconstruction would otherwise be impossible to achieve using a labor intensive manual processing approach based on 2D images taken from conventional high speed cameras. The case study demonstrates the potential of the SIM approach and the TSM for the automatic identification, tracking and reconstruction of any fast moving and deforming 3D targets.

  9. Formalizing Implementable Constraints in the INTERLIS Language for Modelling Legal 3D RRR Spaces and 3D Physical Objects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kalogianni, Eftychia; Dimopoulou, Efi; Quak, C.W.; van Oosterom, P.J.M.; van Oosterom, P.J.M.; Dimopoulou, Efi; Fendel, Elfriede M.

    2016-01-01

    Building Information Models (e.g. BIM, IFC) and virtual 3D city models (e.g. CityGML) are revolutionising the way we manage information about cities. The main focus of such models is on the physical and functional characteristics of urban structures (Aien et al, 2015). On the other hand cadastral

  10. 3D MODELLING AND INTERACTIVE WEB-BASED VISUALIZATION OF CULTURAL HERITAGE OBJECTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. N. Koeva

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, there are rapid developments in the fields of photogrammetry, laser scanning, computer vision and robotics, together aiming to provide highly accurate 3D data that is useful for various applications. In recent years, various LiDAR and image-based techniques have been investigated for 3D modelling because of their opportunities for fast and accurate model generation. For cultural heritage preservation and the representation of objects that are important for tourism and their interactive visualization, 3D models are highly effective and intuitive for present-day users who have stringent requirements and high expectations. Depending on the complexity of the objects for the specific case, various technological methods can be applied. The selected objects in this particular research are located in Bulgaria – a country with thousands of years of history and cultural heritage dating back to ancient civilizations. \\this motivates the preservation, visualisation and recreation of undoubtedly valuable historical and architectural objects and places, which has always been a serious challenge for specialists in the field of cultural heritage. In the present research, comparative analyses regarding principles and technological processes needed for 3D modelling and visualization are presented. The recent problems, efforts and developments in interactive representation of precious objects and places in Bulgaria are presented. Three technologies based on real projects are described: (1 image-based modelling using a non-metric hand-held camera; (2 3D visualization based on spherical panoramic images; (3 and 3D geometric and photorealistic modelling based on architectural CAD drawings. Their suitability for web-based visualization are demonstrated and compared. Moreover the possibilities for integration with additional information such as interactive maps, satellite imagery, sound, video and specific information for the objects are described. This

  11. 3D surveying and modelling of complex architectural sites and heritage objects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabio Remondino

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The actual techniques and methodologies for 3D surveying and modeling allow to achieve very satisfactory and impressive results in the field of documentation, conservation and representation of architectural sites and heritage objects. A great variety of active or passive sensors are available for data acquisition. These data are then processed in order to derive metric 3D information and share them using online databases or GIS tools. But despite the large amount of data, the processing methodologies are still relying very often on manual restitution as automatic method are still not enough reliable for the detailed and precise 3D reconstruction of architectural scenarios and drawings. The articles reports the actual 3D surveying methodologies and data processing techniques with a critical description of open problems and research issues.

  12. Modreg: A Modular Framework for RGB-D Image Acquisition and 3D Object Model Registration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kornuta Tomasz

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available RGB-D sensors became a standard in robotic applications requiring object recognition, such as object grasping and manipulation. A typical object recognition system relies on matching of features extracted from RGB-D images retrieved from the robot sensors with the features of the object models. In this paper we present ModReg: a system for registration of 3D models of objects. The system consists of a modular software associated with a multi-camera setup supplemented with an additional pattern projector, used for the registration of high-resolution RGB-D images. The objects are placed on a fiducial board with two dot patterns enabling extraction of masks of the placed objects and estimation of their initial poses. The acquired dense point clouds constituting subsequent object views undergo pairwise registration and at the end are optimized with a graph-based technique derived from SLAM. The combination of all those elements resulted in a system able to generate consistent 3D models of objects.

  13. Minimal camera networks for 3D image based modeling of cultural heritage objects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alsadik, Bashar; Gerke, Markus; Vosselman, George; Daham, Afrah; Jasim, Luma

    2014-03-25

    3D modeling of cultural heritage objects like artifacts, statues and buildings is nowadays an important tool for virtual museums, preservation and restoration. In this paper, we introduce a method to automatically design a minimal imaging network for the 3D modeling of cultural heritage objects. This becomes important for reducing the image capture time and processing when documenting large and complex sites. Moreover, such a minimal camera network design is desirable for imaging non-digitally documented artifacts in museums and other archeological sites to avoid disturbing the visitors for a long time and/or moving delicate precious objects to complete the documentation task. The developed method is tested on the Iraqi famous statue "Lamassu". Lamassu is a human-headed winged bull of over 4.25 m in height from the era of Ashurnasirpal II (883-859 BC). Close-range photogrammetry is used for the 3D modeling task where a dense ordered imaging network of 45 high resolution images were captured around Lamassu with an object sample distance of 1 mm. These images constitute a dense network and the aim of our study was to apply our method to reduce the number of images for the 3D modeling and at the same time preserve pre-defined point accuracy. Temporary control points were fixed evenly on the body of Lamassu and measured by using a total station for the external validation and scaling purpose. Two network filtering methods are implemented and three different software packages are used to investigate the efficiency of the image orientation and modeling of the statue in the filtered (reduced) image networks. Internal and external validation results prove that minimal image networks can provide highly accurate records and efficiency in terms of visualization, completeness, processing time (>60% reduction) and the final accuracy of 1 mm.

  14. Minimal Camera Networks for 3D Image Based Modeling of Cultural Heritage Objects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alsadik, Bashar; Gerke, Markus; Vosselman, George; Daham, Afrah; Jasim, Luma

    2014-01-01

    3D modeling of cultural heritage objects like artifacts, statues and buildings is nowadays an important tool for virtual museums, preservation and restoration. In this paper, we introduce a method to automatically design a minimal imaging network for the 3D modeling of cultural heritage objects. This becomes important for reducing the image capture time and processing when documenting large and complex sites. Moreover, such a minimal camera network design is desirable for imaging non-digitally documented artifacts in museums and other archeological sites to avoid disturbing the visitors for a long time and/or moving delicate precious objects to complete the documentation task. The developed method is tested on the Iraqi famous statue “Lamassu”. Lamassu is a human-headed winged bull of over 4.25 m in height from the era of Ashurnasirpal II (883–859 BC). Close-range photogrammetry is used for the 3D modeling task where a dense ordered imaging network of 45 high resolution images were captured around Lamassu with an object sample distance of 1 mm. These images constitute a dense network and the aim of our study was to apply our method to reduce the number of images for the 3D modeling and at the same time preserve pre-defined point accuracy. Temporary control points were fixed evenly on the body of Lamassu and measured by using a total station for the external validation and scaling purpose. Two network filtering methods are implemented and three different software packages are used to investigate the efficiency of the image orientation and modeling of the statue in the filtered (reduced) image networks. Internal and external validation results prove that minimal image networks can provide highly accurate records and efficiency in terms of visualization, completeness, processing time (>60% reduction) and the final accuracy of 1 mm. PMID:24670718

  15. View-based 3-D object retrieval

    CERN Document Server

    Gao, Yue

    2014-01-01

    Content-based 3-D object retrieval has attracted extensive attention recently and has applications in a variety of fields, such as, computer-aided design, tele-medicine,mobile multimedia, virtual reality, and entertainment. The development of efficient and effective content-based 3-D object retrieval techniques has enabled the use of fast 3-D reconstruction and model design. Recent technical progress, such as the development of camera technologies, has made it possible to capture the views of 3-D objects. As a result, view-based 3-D object retrieval has become an essential but challenging res

  16. EFFICIENT USE OF VIDEO FOR 3D MODELLING OF CULTURAL HERITAGE OBJECTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Alsadik

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Currently, there is a rapid development in the techniques of the automated image based modelling (IBM, especially in advanced structure-from-motion (SFM and dense image matching methods, and camera technology. One possibility is to use video imaging to create 3D reality based models of cultural heritage architectures and monuments. Practically, video imaging is much easier to apply when compared to still image shooting in IBM techniques because the latter needs a thorough planning and proficiency. However, one is faced with mainly three problems when video image sequences are used for highly detailed modelling and dimensional survey of cultural heritage objects. These problems are: the low resolution of video images, the need to process a large number of short baseline video images and blur effects due to camera shake on a significant number of images. In this research, the feasibility of using video images for efficient 3D modelling is investigated. A method is developed to find the minimal significant number of video images in terms of object coverage and blur effect. This reduction in video images is convenient to decrease the processing time and to create a reliable textured 3D model compared with models produced by still imaging. Two experiments for modelling a building and a monument are tested using a video image resolution of 1920×1080 pixels. Internal and external validations of the produced models are applied to find out the final predicted accuracy and the model level of details. Related to the object complexity and video imaging resolution, the tests show an achievable average accuracy between 1 – 5 cm when using video imaging, which is suitable for visualization, virtual museums and low detailed documentation.

  17. IMPLICIT SHAPE MODELS FOR OBJECT DETECTION IN 3D POINT CLOUDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Velizhev

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available We present a method for automatic object localization and recognition in 3D point clouds representing outdoor urban scenes. The method is based on the implicit shape models (ISM framework, which recognizes objects by voting for their center locations. It requires only few training examples per class, which is an important property for practical use. We also introduce and evaluate an improved version of the spin image descriptor, more robust to point density variation and uncertainty in normal direction estimation. Our experiments reveal a significant impact of these modifications on the recognition performance. We compare our results against the state-of-the-art method and get significant improvement in both precision and recall on the Ohio dataset, consisting of combined aerial and terrestrial LiDAR scans of 150,000 m2 of urban area in total.

  18. 3D object-oriented image analysis in 3D geophysical modelling : Analysing the central part of the East African Rift System

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fadel, I.E.A.M.; van der Meijde, M.; Kerle, N.; Lauritsen, N.

    2015-01-01

    Non-uniqueness of satellite gravity interpretation has traditionally been reduced by using a priori information from seismic tomography models. This reduction in the non-uniqueness has been based on velocity–density conversion formulas or user interpretation of the 3D subsurface structures (objects)

  19. 3D Modeling of Interior Building Environments and Objects from Noisy Sensor Suites

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-05-14

    the resolution is 5 cm. Figure 3.17 models an office building, including cubicles and individual offices . The largest room in this model, shown in... Office of Scientific Research, National Defense Science and Engineering Graduate (NDSEG) Fellowship, 32 CFR 168a. Support was also given by the Army...Research Office (ARO), contract W911NF-11-1-0088, and by ARPA-E under contract DE-AR0000331. 3D Modeling of Interior Building Environments and

  20. Flexible simulation strategy for modeling 3D cultural objects based on multisource remotely sensed imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guienko, Guennadi; Levin, Eugene

    2003-01-01

    New ideas and solutions never come alone. Although automated feature extraction is not sufficiently mature to move from the realm of scientific investigation into the category of production technology, a new goal has arisen: 3D simulation of real-world objects, extracted from images. This task, which evolved from feature extraction and is not an easy task itself, becomes even more complex, multi-leveled, and often uncertain and fuzzy when one exploits time-sequenced multi-source remotely sensed visual data. The basic components of the process are familiar image processing tasks: fusion of various types of imagery, automatic recognition of objects, removng those objects from the source images, and replacing them in the images with their realistic simulated "twin" object rendering. This paper discusses how to aggregate the most appropriate approach to each task into one technological process in order to develop a Manipulator for Visual Simulation of 3D objects (ManVIS) that is independent or imagery/format/media. The technology could be made general by combining a number of competent special purpose algorithms under appropriate contextual, geometric, spatial, and temporal constraints derived from a-priori knowledge. This could be achieved by planning the simulation in an Open Structure Simulation Strategy Manager (O3SM) a distinct component of ManVIS building the simulation strategy before beginning actual image manipulation.

  1. 3D Object Metamorphosis with Pseudo Metameshes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MOCANU, B.

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we introduce a novel framework for 3D object metamorphosis, represented by closed triangular meshes. The systems returns a high quality transition sequence, smooth and gradual, that is visual pleasant and consistent to both source and target topologies. The method starts by parameterizing both the source and the target model to a common domain (the unit sphere. Then, the features selected from the two models are aligned by applying the CTPS C2a radial basis functions. We demonstrate how the selected approach can create valid warping by deforming the models embedded into the parametric domain. In the final stage, we propose and validate a novel algorithm to construct a pseudo-supermesh able to approximate both, the source and target 3D objects. By using the pseudo-supermesh we developed a morphing transition consistent with respect to both geometry and topology of the 3D models.

  2. Model-based recognition of 3-D objects by geometric hashing technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Severcan, M.; Uzunalioglu, H.

    1992-09-01

    A model-based object recognition system is developed for recognition of polyhedral objects. The system consists of feature extraction, modelling and matching stages. Linear features are used for object descriptions. Lines are obtained from edges using rotation transform. For modelling and recognition process, geometric hashing method is utilized. Each object is modelled using 2-D views taken from the viewpoints on the viewing sphere. A hidden line elimination algorithm is used to find these views from the wire frame model of the objects. The recognition experiments yielded satisfactory results. (author). 8 refs, 5 figs

  3. 3D-PRINTING OF BUILD OBJECTS

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    SAVYTSKYI M. V.

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Raising of problem. Today, in all spheres of our life we can constate the permanent search for new, modern methods and technologies that meet the principles of sustainable development. New approaches need to be, on the one hand more effective in terms of conservation of exhaustible resources of our planet, have minimal impact on the environment and on the other hand to ensure a higher quality of the final product. Construction is not exception. One of the new promising technology is the technology of 3D -printing of individual structures and buildings in general. 3Dprinting - is the process of real object recreating on the model of 3D. Unlike conventional printer which prints information on a sheet of paper, 3D-printer allows you to display three-dimensional information, i.e. creates certain physical objects. Currently, 3D-printer finds its application in many areas of production: machine building elements, a variety of layouts, interior elements, various items. But due to the fact that this technology is fairly new, it requires the creation of detailed and accurate technologies, efficient equipment and materials, and development of common vocabulary and regulatory framework in this field. Research Aim. The analysis of existing methods of creating physical objects using 3D-printing and the improvement of technology and equipment for the printing of buildings and structures. Conclusion. 3D-printers building is a new generation of equipment for the construction of buildings, structures, and structural elements. A variety of building printing technics opens up wide range of opportunities in the construction industry. At this stage, printers design allows to create low-rise buildings of different configurations with different mortars. The scientific novelty of this work is to develop proposals to improve the thermal insulation properties of constructed 3D-printing objects and technological equipment. The list of key terms and notions of construction

  4. 3D Digital Modelling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hundebøl, Jesper

    wave of new building information modelling tools demands further investigation, not least because of industry representatives' somewhat coarse parlance: Now the word is spreading -3D digital modelling is nothing less than a revolution, a shift of paradigm, a new alphabet... Research qeustions. Based...... on empirical probes (interviews, observations, written inscriptions) within the Danish construction industry this paper explores the organizational and managerial dynamics of 3D Digital Modelling. The paper intends to - Illustrate how the network of (non-)human actors engaged in the promotion (and arrest) of 3...... important to appreciate the analysis. Before turning to the presentation of preliminary findings and a discussion of 3D digital modelling, it begins, however, with an outline of industry specific ICT strategic issues. Paper type. Multi-site field study...

  5. Tangible 3D Modelling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hejlesen, Aske K.; Ovesen, Nis

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents an experimental approach to teaching 3D modelling techniques in an Industrial Design programme. The approach includes the use of tangible free form models as tools for improving the overall learning. The paper is based on lecturer and student experiences obtained through...

  6. Spherical blurred shape model for 3-D object and pose recognition: quantitative analysis and HCI applications in smart environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopes, Oscar; Reyes, Miguel; Escalera, Sergio; Gonzàlez, Jordi

    2014-12-01

    The use of depth maps is of increasing interest after the advent of cheap multisensor devices based on structured light, such as Kinect. In this context, there is a strong need of powerful 3-D shape descriptors able to generate rich object representations. Although several 3-D descriptors have been already proposed in the literature, the research of discriminative and computationally efficient descriptors is still an open issue. In this paper, we propose a novel point cloud descriptor called spherical blurred shape model (SBSM) that successfully encodes the structure density and local variabilities of an object based on shape voxel distances and a neighborhood propagation strategy. The proposed SBSM is proven to be rotation and scale invariant, robust to noise and occlusions, highly discriminative for multiple categories of complex objects like the human hand, and computationally efficient since the SBSM complexity is linear to the number of object voxels. Experimental evaluation in public depth multiclass object data, 3-D facial expressions data, and a novel hand poses data sets show significant performance improvements in relation to state-of-the-art approaches. Moreover, the effectiveness of the proposal is also proved for object spotting in 3-D scenes and for real-time automatic hand pose recognition in human computer interaction scenarios.

  7. A 3D City Model with Dynamic Behaviour Based on Geospatial Managed Objects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjems, Erik; Kolář, Jan

    2014-01-01

    models with consistent object definitions give us the possibility to avoid troublesome abstractions of reality, and design even complex urban systems fusing information from various sources of data. These systems are difficult to design with the traditional software development approach based on major...... occasions we have been advocating for a new and advanced formulation of real world features using the concept of Geospatial Managed Objects (GMO). This chapter presents the outcome of the InfraWorld project, a 4 million Euro project financed primarily by the Norwegian Research Council where the concept...

  8. 3D modelling for multipurpose cadastre

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abduhl Rahman, A.; Van Oosterom, P.J.M.; Hua, T.C.; Sharkawi, K.H.; Duncan, E.E.; Azri, N.; Hassan, M.I.

    2012-01-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) modelling of cadastral objects (such as legal spaces around buildings, around utility networks and other spaces) is one of the important aspects for a multipurpose cadastre (MPC). This paper describes the 3D modelling of the objects for MPC and its usage to the knowledge of 3D

  9. 3D PDF - a means of public access to geological 3D - objects, using the example of GTA3D

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slaby, Mark-Fabian; Reimann, Rüdiger

    2013-04-01

    In geology, 3D modeling has become very important. In the past, two-dimensional data such as isolines, drilling profiles, or cross-sections based on those, were used to illustrate the subsurface geology, whereas now, we can create complex digital 3D models. These models are produced with special software, such as GOCAD ®. The models can be viewed, only through the software used to create them, or through viewers available for free. The platform-independent PDF (Portable Document Format), enforced by Adobe, has found a wide distribution. This format has constantly evolved over time. Meanwhile, it is possible to display CAD data in an Adobe 3D PDF file with the free Adobe Reader (version 7). In a 3D PDF, a 3D model is freely rotatable and can be assembled from a plurality of objects, which can thus be viewed from all directions on their own. In addition, it is possible to create moveable cross-sections (profiles), and to assign transparency to the objects. Based on industry-standard CAD software, 3D PDFs can be generated from a large number of formats, or even be exported directly from this software. In geoinformatics, different approaches to creating 3D PDFs exist. The intent of the Authority for Mining, Energy and Geology to allow free access to the models of the Geotectonic Atlas (GTA3D), could not be realized with standard software solutions. A specially designed code converts the 3D objects to VRML (Virtual Reality Modeling Language). VRML is one of the few formats that allow using image files (maps) as textures, and to represent colors and shapes correctly. The files were merged in Acrobat X Pro, and a 3D PDF was generated subsequently. A topographic map, a display of geographic directions and horizontal and vertical scales help to facilitate the use.

  10. A Mathematical and Numerically Integrable Modeling of 3D Object Grasping under Rolling Contacts between Smooth Surfaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suguru Arimoto

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A computable model of grasping and manipulation of a 3D rigid object with arbitrary smooth surfaces by multiple robot fingers with smooth fingertip surfaces is derived under rolling contact constraints between surfaces. Geometrical conditions of pure rolling contacts are described through the moving-frame coordinates at each rolling contact point under the postulates: (1 two surfaces share a common single contact point without any mutual penetration and a common tangent plane at the contact point and (2 each path length of running of the contact point on the robot fingertip surface and the object surface is equal. It is shown that a set of Euler-Lagrange equations of motion of the fingers-object system can be derived by introducing Lagrange multipliers corresponding to geometric conditions of contacts. A set of 1st-order differential equations governing rotational motions of each fingertip and the object and updating arc-length parameters should be accompanied with the Euler-Lagrange equations. Further more, nonholonomic constraints arising from twisting between the two normal axes to each tangent plane are rewritten into a set of Frenet-Serre equations with a geometrically given normal curvature and a motion-induced geodesic curvature.

  11. The effect of object characteristics and image quality on 3D-modelling by Structure-from-Motion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seeger, Manuel; Gronz, Oliver; Klaes, Björn; Becker, Kerstin; Marzen, Miriam; Remke, Alexander

    2014-05-01

    Structure-from-Motion (SfM) methodology is becoming more and more common in soil erosion research and geomorphology. It allows a fast and accurate automated reconstruction of surface shapes. It is based on an automated detection of features within images and their identification in pairs of them. In a 2nd step, the position of the camera is reconstructed. Based on this, the 3D location of the features are calculated to generate a point cloud of the object. By the combination of different positions and angles it is nowadays used to digitally reconstruct 3-dimensional surfaces, even complex ones such as gullies. It may be used for the generation of detailed DEM of small catchments from aerial photographies taken by many different platforms, but also for a detailed characterisation of soil surfaces. As a consequence, SfM is becoming a real alternative to e.g. terrestrial laser scanning technologies. It is obvious that the quality of the generated surfaces depends not only on the accuracy of the algorithm, but also on the scheme of photography, and the characteristics of the object. We present here a systematic study on the accuracy of SfM 3D reconstruction, and its dependency on changes of light and colour of the photographed object. Therefore, we quantified the detectable error in models of structured flat surfaces first. Then, we generated a complex surface of wet, clayey soil. This one was photographed with 2 different illuminations: 1) bright diffuse and, 2) bright direct, with shadows. Additionally, the clay soil was exposed to a slow stream of warm air to dry out the soil surface gradually to generate different soil colours. First results show that SfM produces, with close range photography, a moise in height calculations of about 3-5 times the pixel size at ground. We also experienced that, despite an overlapping of the images >80%, the algorithms had considerable difficulties in pairwise detection of features when the distance of the photographing positions

  12. Embedding complex objects with 3d printing

    KAUST Repository

    Hussain, Muhammad Mustafa

    2017-10-12

    A CMOS technology-compatible fabrication process for flexible CMOS electronics embedded during additive manufacturing (i.e. 3D printing). A method for such a process may include printing a first portion of a 3D structure; pausing the step of printing the 3D structure to embed the flexible silicon substrate; placing the flexible silicon substrate in a cavity of the first portion of the 3D structure to embed the flexible silicon substrate in the 3D structure; and resuming the step of printing the 3D structure to form the second portion of the 3D structure.

  13. 3D Models of Immunotherapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    This collaborative grant is developing 3D models of both mouse and human biology to investigate aspects of therapeutic vaccination in order to answer key questions relevant to human cancer immunotherapy.

  14. Integrated modelling for 3D GIS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pilouk, M.

    1996-01-01


    A three dimensional (3D) model facilitates the study of the real world objects it represents. A geoinformation system (GIS) should exploit the 3D model in a digital form as a basis for answering questions pertaining to aspects of the real world. With respect to the earth sciences,

  15. 3D Face Appearance Model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lading, Brian; Larsen, Rasmus; Åström, Kalle

    2006-01-01

    We build a 3d face shape model, including inter- and intra-shape variations, derive the analytical jacobian of its resulting 2d rendered image, and show example of its fitting performance with light, pose, id, expression and texture variations.}......We build a 3d face shape model, including inter- and intra-shape variations, derive the analytical jacobian of its resulting 2d rendered image, and show example of its fitting performance with light, pose, id, expression and texture variations.}...

  16. 3D Face Apperance Model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lading, Brian; Larsen, Rasmus; Astrom, K

    2006-01-01

    We build a 3D face shape model, including inter- and intra-shape variations, derive the analytical Jacobian of its resulting 2D rendered image, and show example of its fitting performance with light, pose, id, expression and texture variations......We build a 3D face shape model, including inter- and intra-shape variations, derive the analytical Jacobian of its resulting 2D rendered image, and show example of its fitting performance with light, pose, id, expression and texture variations...

  17. A Large-Scale 3D Object Recognition dataset

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sølund, Thomas; Glent Buch, Anders; Krüger, Norbert

    2016-01-01

    geometric groups; concave, convex, cylindrical and flat 3D object models. The object models have varying amount of local geometric features to challenge existing local shape feature descriptors in terms of descriptiveness and robustness. The dataset is validated in a benchmark which evaluates the matching...... performance of 7 different state-of-the-art local shape descriptors. Further, we validate the dataset in a 3D object recognition pipeline. Our benchmark shows as expected that local shape feature descriptors without any global point relation across the surface have a poor matching performance with flat...

  18. CROWDSOURCING BASED 3D MODELING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Somogyi

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Web-based photo albums that support organizing and viewing the users’ images are widely used. These services provide a convenient solution for storing, editing and sharing images. In many cases, the users attach geotags to the images in order to enable using them e.g. in location based applications on social networks. Our paper discusses a procedure that collects open access images from a site frequently visited by tourists. Geotagged pictures showing the image of a sight or tourist attraction are selected and processed in photogrammetric processing software that produces the 3D model of the captured object. For the particular investigation we selected three attractions in Budapest. To assess the geometrical accuracy, we used laser scanner and DSLR as well as smart phone photography to derive reference values to enable verifying the spatial model obtained from the web-album images. The investigation shows how detailed and accurate models could be derived applying photogrammetric processing software, simply by using images of the community, without visiting the site.

  19. Embedding objects during 3D printing to add new functionalities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuen, Po Ki

    2016-07-01

    A novel method for integrating and embedding objects to add new functionalities during 3D printing based on fused deposition modeling (FDM) (also known as fused filament fabrication or molten polymer deposition) is presented. Unlike typical 3D printing, FDM-based 3D printing could allow objects to be integrated and embedded during 3D printing and the FDM-based 3D printed devices do not typically require any post-processing and finishing. Thus, various fluidic devices with integrated glass cover slips or polystyrene films with and without an embedded porous membrane, and optical devices with embedded Corning(®) Fibrance™ Light-Diffusing Fiber were 3D printed to demonstrate the versatility of the FDM-based 3D printing and embedding method. Fluid perfusion flow experiments with a blue colored food dye solution were used to visually confirm fluid flow and/or fluid perfusion through the embedded porous membrane in the 3D printed fluidic devices. Similar to typical 3D printed devices, FDM-based 3D printed devices are translucent at best unless post-polishing is performed and optical transparency is highly desirable in any fluidic devices; integrated glass cover slips or polystyrene films would provide a perfect optical transparent window for observation and visualization. In addition, they also provide a compatible flat smooth surface for biological or biomolecular applications. The 3D printed fluidic devices with an embedded porous membrane are applicable to biological or chemical applications such as continuous perfusion cell culture or biocatalytic synthesis but without the need for any post-device assembly and finishing. The 3D printed devices with embedded Corning(®) Fibrance™ Light-Diffusing Fiber would have applications in display, illumination, or optical applications. Furthermore, the FDM-based 3D printing and embedding method could also be utilized to print casting molds with an integrated glass bottom for polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) device replication

  20. Embedding objects during 3D printing to add new functionalities

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    A novel method for integrating and embedding objects to add new functionalities during 3D printing based on fused deposition modeling (FDM) (also known as fused filament fabrication or molten polymer deposition) is presented. Unlike typical 3D printing, FDM-based 3D printing could allow objects to be integrated and embedded during 3D printing and the FDM-based 3D printed devices do not typically require any post-processing and finishing. Thus, various fluidic devices with integrated glass cover slips or polystyrene films with and without an embedded porous membrane, and optical devices with embedded Corning® Fibrance™ Light-Diffusing Fiber were 3D printed to demonstrate the versatility of the FDM-based 3D printing and embedding method. Fluid perfusion flow experiments with a blue colored food dye solution were used to visually confirm fluid flow and/or fluid perfusion through the embedded porous membrane in the 3D printed fluidic devices. Similar to typical 3D printed devices, FDM-based 3D printed devices are translucent at best unless post-polishing is performed and optical transparency is highly desirable in any fluidic devices; integrated glass cover slips or polystyrene films would provide a perfect optical transparent window for observation and visualization. In addition, they also provide a compatible flat smooth surface for biological or biomolecular applications. The 3D printed fluidic devices with an embedded porous membrane are applicable to biological or chemical applications such as continuous perfusion cell culture or biocatalytic synthesis but without the need for any post-device assembly and finishing. The 3D printed devices with embedded Corning® Fibrance™ Light-Diffusing Fiber would have applications in display, illumination, or optical applications. Furthermore, the FDM-based 3D printing and embedding method could also be utilized to print casting molds with an integrated glass bottom for polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) device replication. These

  1. Sketch-driven mental 3D object retrieval

    Science.gov (United States)

    Napoléon, Thibault; Sahbi, Hichem

    2010-02-01

    3D object recognition and retrieval recently gained a big interest because of the limitation of the "2D-to-2D" approaches. The latter suffer from several drawbacks such as the lack of information (due for instance to occlusion), pose sensitivity, illumination changes, etc. Our main motivation is to gather both discrimination and easy interaction by allowing simple (but multiple) 2D specifications of queries and their retrieval into 3D gallery sets. We introduce a novel "2D sketch-to-3D model" retrieval framework with the following contributions: (i) first a novel generative approach for aligning and normalizing the pose of 3D gallery objects and extracting their 2D canonical views is introduced. (ii) Afterwards, robust and compact contour signatures are extracted using the set of 2D canonical views. We also introduce a pruning approach to speedup the whole search process in a coarseto- fine way. (iii) Finally, object ranking is performed using our variant of elastic dynamic programming which considers only a subset of possible matches thereby providing a considerable gain in performance for the same amount of errors. Our experiments are reported/compared through the Princeton Shape Benchmark; clearly showing the good performance of our framework w.r.t. the other approaches. An iPhone demo of this method is available and allows us to achieve "2D sketch to 3D object" querying and interaction.

  2. Measuring Visual Closeness of 3-D Models

    KAUST Repository

    Gollaz Morales, Jose Alejandro

    2012-09-01

    Measuring visual closeness of 3-D models is an important issue for different problems and there is still no standardized metric or algorithm to do it. The normal of a surface plays a vital role in the shading of a 3-D object. Motivated by this, we developed two applications to measure visualcloseness, introducing normal difference as a parameter in a weighted metric in Metro’s sampling approach to obtain the maximum and mean distance between 3-D models using 3-D and 6-D correspondence search structures. A visual closeness metric should provide accurate information on what the human observers would perceive as visually close objects. We performed a validation study with a group of people to evaluate the correlation of our metrics with subjective perception. The results were positive since the metrics predicted the subjective rankings more accurately than the Hausdorff distance.

  3. Object detection using categorised 3D edges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kiforenko, Lilita; Buch, Anders Glent; Bodenhagen, Leon

    2015-01-01

    categorisation algorithm for describing objects in terms of its different edge types. Relying on edge information allow our system to deal with objects with little or no texture or surface variation. We show that edge categorisation improves matching performance due to the higher level of discrimination, which...... is made possible by the explicit use of edge categories in the feature descriptor. We quantitatively compare our approach with the state-of-the-art template based Linemod method, which also provides an effective way of dealing with texture-less objects, tests were performed on our own object dataset. Our...

  4. Solid object visualization of 3D ultrasound data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Thomas R.; Bailey, Michael J.

    2000-04-01

    Visualization of volumetric medical data is challenging. Rapid-prototyping (RP) equipment producing solid object prototype models of computer generated structures is directly applicable to visualization of medical anatomic data. The purpose of this study was to develop methods for transferring 3D Ultrasound (3DUS) data to RP equipment for visualization of patient anatomy. 3DUS data were acquired using research and clinical scanning systems. Scaling information was preserved and the data were segmented using threshold and local operators to extract features of interest, converted from voxel raster coordinate format to a set of polygons representing an iso-surface and transferred to the RP machine to create a solid 3D object. Fabrication required 30 to 60 minutes depending on object size and complexity. After creation the model could be touched and viewed. A '3D visualization hardcopy device' has advantages for conveying spatial relations compared to visualization using computer display systems. The hardcopy model may be used for teaching or therapy planning. Objects may be produced at the exact dimension of the original object or scaled up (or down) to facilitate matching the viewers reference frame more optimally. RP models represent a useful means of communicating important information in a tangible fashion to patients and physicians.

  5. 3-D Object Recognition from Point Cloud Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, W.; Walker, A. S.; Zhang, B.

    2011-09-01

    The market for real-time 3-D mapping includes not only traditional geospatial applications but also navigation of unmanned autonomous vehicles (UAVs). Massively parallel processes such as graphics processing unit (GPU) computing make real-time 3-D object recognition and mapping achievable. Geospatial technologies such as digital photogrammetry and GIS offer advanced capabilities to produce 2-D and 3-D static maps using UAV data. The goal is to develop real-time UAV navigation through increased automation. It is challenging for a computer to identify a 3-D object such as a car, a tree or a house, yet automatic 3-D object recognition is essential to increasing the productivity of geospatial data such as 3-D city site models. In the past three decades, researchers have used radiometric properties to identify objects in digital imagery with limited success, because these properties vary considerably from image to image. Consequently, our team has developed software that recognizes certain types of 3-D objects within 3-D point clouds. Although our software is developed for modeling, simulation and visualization, it has the potential to be valuable in robotics and UAV applications. The locations and shapes of 3-D objects such as buildings and trees are easily recognizable by a human from a brief glance at a representation of a point cloud such as terrain-shaded relief. The algorithms to extract these objects have been developed and require only the point cloud and minimal human inputs such as a set of limits on building size and a request to turn on a squaring option. The algorithms use both digital surface model (DSM) and digital elevation model (DEM), so software has also been developed to derive the latter from the former. The process continues through the following steps: identify and group 3-D object points into regions; separate buildings and houses from trees; trace region boundaries; regularize and simplify boundary polygons; construct complex roofs. Several case

  6. 3-D OBJECT RECOGNITION FROM POINT CLOUD DATA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Smith

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The market for real-time 3-D mapping includes not only traditional geospatial applications but also navigation of unmanned autonomous vehicles (UAVs. Massively parallel processes such as graphics processing unit (GPU computing make real-time 3-D object recognition and mapping achievable. Geospatial technologies such as digital photogrammetry and GIS offer advanced capabilities to produce 2-D and 3-D static maps using UAV data. The goal is to develop real-time UAV navigation through increased automation. It is challenging for a computer to identify a 3-D object such as a car, a tree or a house, yet automatic 3-D object recognition is essential to increasing the productivity of geospatial data such as 3-D city site models. In the past three decades, researchers have used radiometric properties to identify objects in digital imagery with limited success, because these properties vary considerably from image to image. Consequently, our team has developed software that recognizes certain types of 3-D objects within 3-D point clouds. Although our software is developed for modeling, simulation and visualization, it has the potential to be valuable in robotics and UAV applications. The locations and shapes of 3-D objects such as buildings and trees are easily recognizable by a human from a brief glance at a representation of a point cloud such as terrain-shaded relief. The algorithms to extract these objects have been developed and require only the point cloud and minimal human inputs such as a set of limits on building size and a request to turn on a squaring option. The algorithms use both digital surface model (DSM and digital elevation model (DEM, so software has also been developed to derive the latter from the former. The process continues through the following steps: identify and group 3-D object points into regions; separate buildings and houses from trees; trace region boundaries; regularize and simplify boundary polygons; construct complex

  7. FE-ANN based modeling of 3D Simple Reinforced Concrete Girders for Objective Structural Health Evaluation : Tech Transfer Summary

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-06-01

    The objective of this study was to develop an objective, quantitative method for evaluating damage to bridge girders by using artificial neural networks (ANNs). This evaluation method, which is a supplement to visual inspection, requires only the res...

  8. 3D Hilbert Space Filling Curves in 3D City Modeling for Faster Spatial Queries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ujang, Uznir; Antón Castro, Francesc/François; Azri, Suhaibah

    2014-01-01

    The advantages of three dimensional (3D) city models can be seen in various applications including photogrammetry, urban and regional planning, computer games, etc. They expand the visualization and analysis capabilities of Geographic Information Systems on cities, and they can be developed using...... objects. In this research, the authors propose an opponent data constellation technique of space-filling curves (3D Hilbert curves) for 3D city model data representation. Unlike previous methods, that try to project 3D or n-dimensional data down to 2D or 3D using Principal Component Analysis (PCA......) or Hilbert mappings, in this research, they extend the Hilbert space-filling curve to one higher dimension for 3D city model data implementations. The query performance was tested for single object, nearest neighbor and range search queries using a CityGML dataset of 1,000 building blocks and the results...

  9. Identifying positioning-based attacks against 3D printed objects and the 3D printing process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Straub, Jeremy

    2017-05-01

    Zeltmann, et al. demonstrated that structural integrity and other quality damage to objects can be caused by changing its position on a 3D printer's build plate. On some printers, for example, object surfaces and support members may be stronger when oriented parallel to the X or Y axis. The challenge presented by the need to assure 3D printed object orientation is that this can be altered in numerous places throughout the system. This paper considers attack scenarios and discusses where attacks that change printing orientation can occur in the process. An imaging-based solution to combat this problem is presented.

  10. Symmetry facilitates shape constancy for smoothly curved 3D objects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Young Lim; Saunders, Jeffrey A

    2013-08-01

    We tested whether the presence of symmetry improves shape discrimination across changes in viewpoint and lighting for smoothly curved 3D objects. We constructed symmetric and asymmetric versions of random 3D shapes by manipulating their spherical harmonic representations. Matched objects had the same power spectra and appear highly similar except for the presence of symmetry. Observers discriminated sequentially presented pairs of either symmetric or asymmetric objects. Objects were presented in conditions that provided different 3D cues: shading only, stereo only, and combined shading and stereo. To control for 2D cues, standard and test objects had matched boundary contours and were rendered with different light sources. Test objects were also rotated in depth by variable amounts (0° to 60°). Across all viewpoint and 3D cue conditions, we found that shape discrimination for symmetric objects was better than for asymmetric objects. The symmetry benefit was not limited to monocular viewing or to conditions with large rotations in depth. In a second experiment, we blocked trials by viewpoint rotation to eliminate uncertainty in object orientation. This improved performance for asymmetric objects relative to symmetric objects, suggesting that symmetry contributes by providing a cue to object orientation. However, a symmetry advantage was still observed in all shape cue conditions, so this was not the sole source of benefit. Our results demonstrate that symmetry improves shape constancy for smooth 3D objects and suggest that one role of symmetry is to provide a reference orientation for an object. 2013 APA, all rights reserved

  11. 2D and 3D Modeling Comparison

    OpenAIRE

    Gaidyte, Rita

    2010-01-01

    Many inventors and companies still use 2D drawings and are starting to realize a 3D design because 3D modeling can save time and money. In this project I am going to compare 2D and 3D drawings and modeling. 2D modeling and 3D modeling have advantages and disadvantages. For this comparison I made 2D and 3D models using AutoCAD, Autodesk Revit Architectural and Revit MEP software. So, I am going to compare CAD (Computer-aided design) and BIM (Building Information Modeling) technologies, beca...

  12. Advanced 3D Object Identification System, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Optra will build an Advanced 3D Object Identification System utilizing three or more high resolution imagers spaced around a launch platform. Data from each imager...

  13. Encryption of 3D Point Cloud Object with Deformed Fringe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin Yang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A 3D point cloud object encryption method was proposed with this study. With the method, a mapping relationship between 3D coordinates was formulated and Z coordinate was transformed to deformed fringe by a phase coding method. The deformed fringe and gray image were used for encryption and decryption with simulated off-axis digital Fresnel hologram. Results indicated that the proposed method is able to accurately decrypt the coordinates and gray image of the 3D object. The method is also robust against occlusion attacks.

  14. Sensing and compressing 3-D models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krumm, J. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States). Intelligent System Sensors and Controls Dept.

    1998-02-01

    The goal of this research project was to create a passive and robust computer vision system for producing 3-D computer models of arbitrary scenes. Although the authors were unsuccessful in achieving the overall goal, several components of this research have shown significant potential. Of particular interest is the application of parametric eigenspace methods for planar pose measurement of partially occluded objects in gray-level images. The techniques presented provide a simple, accurate, and robust solution to the planar pose measurement problem. In addition, the representational efficiency of eigenspace methods used with gray-level features were successfully extended to binary features, which are less sensitive to illumination changes. The results of this research are presented in two papers that were written during the course of this project. The papers are included in sections 2 and 3. The first section of this report summarizes the 3-D modeling efforts.

  15. Viewpoint-independent 3D object segmentation for randomly stacked objects using optical object detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Liang-Chia; Nguyen, Thanh-Hung; Lin, Shyh-Tsong

    2015-01-01

    This work proposes a novel approach to segmenting randomly stacked objects in unstructured 3D point clouds, which are acquired by a random-speckle 3D imaging system for the purpose of automated object detection and reconstruction. An innovative algorithm is proposed; it is based on a novel concept of 3D watershed segmentation and the strategies for resolving over-segmentation and under-segmentation problems. Acquired 3D point clouds are first transformed into a corresponding orthogonally projected depth map along the optical imaging axis of the 3D sensor. A 3D watershed algorithm based on the process of distance transformation is then performed to detect the boundary, called the edge dam, between stacked objects and thereby to segment point clouds individually belonging to two stacked objects. Most importantly, an object-matching algorithm is developed to solve the over- and under-segmentation problems that may arise during the watershed segmentation. The feasibility and effectiveness of the method are confirmed experimentally. The results reveal that the proposed method is a fast and effective scheme for the detection and reconstruction of a 3D object in a random stack of such objects. In the experiments, the precision of the segmentation exceeds 95% and the recall exceeds 80%. (paper)

  16. Automation of 3D micro object handling process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gegeckaite, Asta; Hansen, Hans Nørgaard

    2007-01-01

    Most of the micro objects in industrial production are handled with manual labour or in semiautomatic stations. Manual labour usually makes handling and assembly operations highly flexible, but slow, relatively imprecise and expensive. Handling of 3D micro objects poses special challenges due to ...

  17. 3D Face Modeling based on 3D Dense Morphable Face Shape Model

    OpenAIRE

    Yongsuk Jang Kim; Sun-Tae Chung; Boogyun Kim; Seongwon Cho

    2008-01-01

    Realistic 3D face model is more precise in representing pose, illumination, and expression of face than 2D face model so that it can be utilized usefully in various applications such as face recognition, games, avatars, animations, and etc. In this paper, we propose a 3D face modeling method based on 3D dense morphable shape model. The proposed 3D modeling method first constructs a 3D dense morphable shape model from 3D face scan data obtained using a 3D scanner. Next, th...

  18. Vision models for 3D surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitra, Sunanda

    1992-11-01

    Different approaches to computational stereo to represent human stereo vision have been developed over the past two decades. The Marr-Poggio theory of human stereo vision is probably the most widely accepted model of the human stereo vision. However, recently developed motion stereo models which use a sequence of images taken by either a moving camera or a moving object provide an alternative method of achieving multi-resolution matching without the use of Laplacian of Gaussian operators. While using image sequences, the baseline between two camera positions for a image pair is changed for the subsequent image pair so as to achieve different resolution for each image pair. Having different baselines also avoids the inherent occlusion problem in stereo vision models. The advantage of using multi-resolution images acquired by camera positioned at different baselines over those acquired by LOG operators is that one does not have to encounter spurious edges often created by zero-crossings in the LOG operated images. Therefore in designing a computer vision system, a motion stereo model is more appropriate than a stereo vision model. However, in some applications where only a stereo pair of images are available, recovery of 3D surfaces of natural scenes are possible in a computationally efficient manner by using cepstrum matching and regularization techniques. Section 2 of this paper describes a motion stereo model using multi-scale cepstrum matching for the detection of disparity between image pairs in a sequence of images and subsequent recovery of 3D surfaces from depth-map obtained by a non convergent triangulation technique. Section 3 presents a 3D surface recovery technique from a stereo pair using cepstrum matching for disparity detection and cubic B-splines for surface smoothing. Section 4 contains the results of 3D surface recovery using both of the techniques mentioned above. Section 5 discusses the merit of 2D cepstrum matching and cubic B

  19. Object-Oriented Approach for 3d Archaeological Documentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valente, R.; Brumana, R.; Oreni, D.; Banfi, F.; Barazzetti, L.; Previtali, M.

    2017-08-01

    Documentation on archaeological fieldworks needs to be accurate and time-effective. Many features unveiled during excavations can be recorded just once, since the archaeological workflow physically removes most of the stratigraphic elements. Some of them have peculiar characteristics which make them hardly recognizable as objects and prevent a full 3D documentation. The paper presents a suitable feature-based method to carry on archaeological documentation with a three-dimensional approach, tested on the archaeological site of S. Calocero in Albenga (Italy). The method is based on one hand on the use of structure from motion techniques for on-site recording and 3D Modelling to represent the three-dimensional complexity of stratigraphy. The entire documentation workflow is carried out through digital tools, assuring better accuracy and interoperability. Outputs can be used in GIS to perform spatial analysis; moreover, a more effective dissemination of fieldworks results can be assured with the spreading of datasets and other information through web-services.

  20. 3D Printing of Molecular Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardner, Adam; Olson, Arthur

    2016-01-01

    Physical molecular models have played a valuable role in our understanding of the invisible nano-scale world. We discuss 3D printing and its use in producing models of the molecules of life. Complex biomolecular models, produced from 3D printed parts, can demonstrate characteristics of molecular structure and function, such as viral self-assembly,…

  1. Automatic balancing of 3D models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Asger Nyman; Schmidt, Ryan; Bærentzen, Jakob Andreas

    2014-01-01

    3D printing technologies allow for more diverse shapes than are possible with molds and the cost of making just one single object is negligible compared to traditional production methods. However, not all shapes are suitable for 3D print. One of the remaining costs is therefore human time spent o...

  2. 3D modeling of underground objects with the use of SLAM technology on the example of historical mine in Ciechanowice (Ołowiane Range, The Sudetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wajs Jaroslaw

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Terrestrial Laser Scanning is a currently one of the most popular methods for producing representations of 3D objects. This paper presents the potential of applying the mobile laser scanning method to inventory underground objects. The examined location was a historic crystalline limestone mine situated in the vicinity of Ciechanowice village (Kaczawa Mts., SW Poland. The authors present a methodology for performing measurements and for processing the obtained results, whose accuracy is additionally verified.

  3. 3D modeling of underground objects with the use of SLAM technology on the example of historical mine in Ciechanowice (Ołowiane Range, The Sudetes)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wajs, Jaroslaw; Kasza, Damian; Zagożdżon, Paweł P.; Zagożdżon, Katarzyna D.

    2018-01-01

    Terrestrial Laser Scanning is a currently one of the most popular methods for producing representations of 3D objects. This paper presents the potential of applying the mobile laser scanning method to inventory underground objects. The examined location was a historic crystalline limestone mine situated in the vicinity of Ciechanowice village (Kaczawa Mts., SW Poland). The authors present a methodology for performing measurements and for processing the obtained results, whose accuracy is additionally verified.

  4. BEAMS3D Neutral Beam Injection Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lazerson, Samuel

    2014-04-14

    With the advent of applied 3D fi elds in Tokamaks and modern high performance stellarators, a need has arisen to address non-axisymmetric effects on neutral beam heating and fueling. We report on the development of a fully 3D neutral beam injection (NBI) model, BEAMS3D, which addresses this need by coupling 3D equilibria to a guiding center code capable of modeling neutral and charged particle trajectories across the separatrix and into the plasma core. Ionization, neutralization, charge-exchange, viscous velocity reduction, and pitch angle scattering are modeled with the ADAS atomic physics database [1]. Benchmark calculations are presented to validate the collisionless particle orbits, neutral beam injection model, frictional drag, and pitch angle scattering effects. A calculation of neutral beam heating in the NCSX device is performed, highlighting the capability of the code to handle 3D magnetic fields.

  5. Key techniques for vision measurement of 3D object surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Huachao; Zhang, Shubi; Guo, Guangli; Liu, Chao; Yu, Ruipeng

    2006-11-01

    Digital close-range photogrammetry system and machine vision are widely used in production control, quality inspection. The main aim is to provide accurate 3D objects or reconstruction of an object surface and give an expression to an object shape. First, the key techniques of camera calibration and target image positioning for 3D object surface vision measurement were briefly reviewed and analyzed in this paper. Then, an innovative and effect method for precise space coordinates measurements was proposed. Test research proved that the thought and methods we proposed about image segmentation, detection and positioning of circular marks were effective and valid. A propriety weight value for adding parameters, control points and orientation elements in bundle adjustment with self-calibration are advantageous to gaining high accuracy of space coordinates. The RMS error of check points is less than +/-1 mm, which can meet the requirement in industrial measurement with high accuracy.

  6. A PROPOSAL FOR GENERALIZATION OF 3D MODELS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Uyar

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, 3D models have been created of many cities around the world. Most of the 3D city models have been introduced as completely graphic or geometric models, and the semantic and topographic aspects of the models have been neglected. In order to use 3D city models beyond the task, a generalization is necessary. CityGML is an open data model and XML-based format for the storage and exchange of virtual 3D city models. Level of Details (LoD which is an important concept for 3D modelling, can be defined as outlined degree or prior representation of real-world objects. The paper aim is first describes some requirements of 3D model generalization, then presents problems and approaches that have been developed in recent years. In conclude the paper will be a summary and outlook on problems and future work.

  7. a Proposal for Generalization of 3d Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uyar, A.; Ulugtekin, N. N.

    2017-11-01

    In recent years, 3D models have been created of many cities around the world. Most of the 3D city models have been introduced as completely graphic or geometric models, and the semantic and topographic aspects of the models have been neglected. In order to use 3D city models beyond the task, a generalization is necessary. CityGML is an open data model and XML-based format for the storage and exchange of virtual 3D city models. Level of Details (LoD) which is an important concept for 3D modelling, can be defined as outlined degree or prior representation of real-world objects. The paper aim is first describes some requirements of 3D model generalization, then presents problems and approaches that have been developed in recent years. In conclude the paper will be a summary and outlook on problems and future work.

  8. Using the Flow-3D General Moving Object Model to Simulate Coupled Liquid Slosh - Container Dynamics on the SPHERES Slosh Experiment: Aboard the International Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulman, Richard; Kirk, Daniel; Marsell, Brandon; Roth, Jacob; Schallhorn, Paul

    2013-01-01

    The SPHERES Slosh Experiment (SSE) is a free floating experimental platform developed for the acquisition of long duration liquid slosh data aboard the International Space Station (ISS). The data sets collected will be used to benchmark numerical models to aid in the design of rocket and spacecraft propulsion systems. Utilizing two SPHERES Satellites, the experiment will be moved through different maneuvers designed to induce liquid slosh in the experiment's internal tank. The SSE has a total of twenty-four thrusters to move the experiment. In order to design slosh generating maneuvers, a parametric study with three maneuvers types was conducted using the General Moving Object (GMO) model in Flow-30. The three types of maneuvers are a translation maneuver, a rotation maneuver and a combined rotation translation maneuver. The effectiveness of each maneuver to generate slosh is determined by the deviation of the experiment's trajectory as compared to a dry mass trajectory. To fully capture the effect of liquid re-distribution on experiment trajectory, each thruster is modeled as an independent force point in the Flow-3D simulation. This is accomplished by modifying the total number of independent forces in the GMO model from the standard five to twenty-four. Results demonstrate that the most effective slosh generating maneuvers for all motions occurs when SSE thrusters are producing the highest changes in SSE acceleration. The results also demonstrate that several centimeters of trajectory deviation between the dry and slosh cases occur during the maneuvers; while these deviations seem small, they are measureable by SSE instrumentation.

  9. Object 3D surface reconstruction approach using portable laser scanner

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Ning; Zhang, Wei; Zhu, Liye; Li, Changqing; Wang, Shifeng

    2017-06-01

    The environment perception plays the key role for a robot system. The 3D surface of the objects can provide essential information for the robot to recognize objects. This paper present an approach to reconstruct objects' 3D surfaces using a portable laser scanner we designed which consists of a single-layer laser scanner, an encoder, a motor, power supply and mechanical components. The captured point cloud data is processed to remove the discrete points, denoise filtering, stitching and registration. Then the triangular mesh generation of point cloud is accomplished by using Gaussian bilateral filtering, ICP real-time registration and greedy triangle projection algorithm. The experiment result shows the feasibility of the device designed and the algorithm proposed.

  10. Multifractal modelling and 3D lacunarity analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hanen, Akkari; Imen, Bhouri; Asma, Ben Abdallah; Patrick, Dubois; Hedi, Bedoui Mohamed

    2009-01-01

    This study presents a comparative evaluation of lacunarity of 3D grey level models with different types of inhomogeneity. A new method based on the 'Relative Differential Box Counting' was developed to estimate the lacunarity features of grey level volumes. To validate our method, we generated a set of 3D grey level multifractal models with random, anisotropic and hierarchical properties. Our method gives a lacunarity measurement correlated with the theoretical one and allows a better model classification compared with a classical approach.

  11. Augmented Reality versus Virtual Reality for 3D Object Manipulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krichenbauer, Max; Yamamoto, Goshiro; Taketom, Takafumi; Sandor, Christian; Kato, Hirokazu

    2018-02-01

    Virtual Reality (VR) Head-Mounted Displays (HMDs) are on the verge of becoming commodity hardware available to the average user and feasible to use as a tool for 3D work. Some HMDs include front-facing cameras, enabling Augmented Reality (AR) functionality. Apart from avoiding collisions with the environment, interaction with virtual objects may also be affected by seeing the real environment. However, whether these effects are positive or negative has not yet been studied extensively. For most tasks it is unknown whether AR has any advantage over VR. In this work we present the results of a user study in which we compared user performance measured in task completion time on a 9 degrees of freedom object selection and transformation task performed either in AR or VR, both with a 3D input device and a mouse. Our results show faster task completion time in AR over VR. When using a 3D input device, a purely VR environment increased task completion time by 22.5 percent on average compared to AR ( ). Surprisingly, a similar effect occurred when using a mouse: users were about 17.3 percent slower in VR than in AR ( ). Mouse and 3D input device produced similar task completion times in each condition (AR or VR) respectively. We further found no differences in reported comfort.

  12. Digital relief generation from 3D models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Meili; Sun, Yu; Zhang, Hongming; Qian, Kun; Chang, Jian; He, Dongjian

    2016-09-01

    It is difficult to extend image-based relief generation to high-relief generation, as the images contain insufficient height information. To generate reliefs from three-dimensional (3D) models, it is necessary to extract the height fields from the model, but this can only generate bas-reliefs. To overcome this problem, an efficient method is proposed to generate bas-reliefs and high-reliefs directly from 3D meshes. To produce relief features that are visually appropriate, the 3D meshes are first scaled. 3D unsharp masking is used to enhance the visual features in the 3D mesh, and average smoothing and Laplacian smoothing are implemented to achieve better smoothing results. A nonlinear variable scaling scheme is then employed to generate the final bas-reliefs and high-reliefs. Using the proposed method, relief models can be generated from arbitrary viewing positions with different gestures and combinations of multiple 3D models. The generated relief models can be printed by 3D printers. The proposed method provides a means of generating both high-reliefs and bas-reliefs in an efficient and effective way under the appropriate scaling factors.

  13. Tangible 3D modeling of coherent and themed structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Walther, Jeppe Ullè; Bærentzen, J. Andreas; Aanæs, Henrik

    2016-01-01

    We present CubeBuilder, a system for interactive, tangible 3D shape modeling. CubeBuilder allows the user to create a digital 3D model by placing physical, non-interlocking cubic blocks. These blocks may be placed in a completely arbitrary fashion and combined with other objects. In effect...... appears to be limited only by the number of blocks available....

  14. Representations and Techniques for 3D Object Recognition and Scene Interpretation

    CERN Document Server

    Hoiem, Derek

    2011-01-01

    One of the grand challenges of artificial intelligence is to enable computers to interpret 3D scenes and objects from imagery. This book organizes and introduces major concepts in 3D scene and object representation and inference from still images, with a focus on recent efforts to fuse models of geometry and perspective with statistical machine learning. The book is organized into three sections: (1) Interpretation of Physical Space; (2) Recognition of 3D Objects; and (3) Integrated 3D Scene Interpretation. The first discusses representations of spatial layout and techniques to interpret physi

  15. The 3D-city model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holmgren, Steen; Rüdiger, Bjarne; Tournay, Bruno

    2001-01-01

    We have worked with the construction and use of 3D city models for about ten years. This work has given us valuable experience concerning model methodology. In addition to this collection of knowledge, our perception of the concept of city models has changed radically. In order to explain...... of 3D city models....... this shift in paradigms we begin by describing some of the concrete models we have made, showing the relationship between model structure (methodology and content) and model use. We also describe the projects we are working on at present in order to illustrate new ideas concerning the potential development...

  16. 3D face modeling, analysis and recognition

    CERN Document Server

    Daoudi, Mohamed; Veltkamp, Remco

    2013-01-01

    3D Face Modeling, Analysis and Recognition presents methodologies for analyzing shapes of facial surfaces, develops computational tools for analyzing 3D face data, and illustrates them using state-of-the-art applications. The methodologies chosen are based on efficient representations, metrics, comparisons, and classifications of features that are especially relevant in the context of 3D measurements of human faces. These frameworks have a long-term utility in face analysis, taking into account the anticipated improvements in data collection, data storage, processing speeds, and application s

  17. Progressive Representation, Transmission, and Visualization of 3D Objects

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-07-01

    several 3D models in VRML format downloaded from public web sites. Table 1 shows that comparison between our algorithm and resolution progressive...Technology, 1999. [8] B. Koh and T. Chen, "Progressive VRML Browser," IEEE Intl. Workshop on Multimedia Signal Processing, Sep 1999. [9] A. Khodakovsky...vol. 6, no. 3, pp. 243-250. 1996. 12 Model #V #t #dv Attributes Proposed MPEG-4 Original method hierarchical VRML (KB) (bytes) mode (bytes) (*1

  18. The Visual Priming of Motion-Defined 3D Objects.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiong Jiang

    Full Text Available The perception of a stimulus can be influenced by previous perceptual experience, a phenomenon known as perceptual priming. However, there has been limited investigation on perceptual priming of shape perception of three-dimensional object structures defined by moving dots. Here we examined the perceptual priming of a 3D object shape defined purely by motion-in-depth cues (i.e., Shape-From-Motion, SFM using a classic prime-target paradigm. The results from the first two experiments revealed a significant increase in accuracy when a "cloudy" SFM stimulus (whose object structure was difficult to recognize due to the presence of strong noise was preceded by an unambiguous SFM that clearly defined the same transparent 3D shape. In contrast, results from Experiment 3 revealed no change in accuracy when a "cloudy" SFM stimulus was preceded by a static shape or a semantic word that defined the same object shape. Instead, there was a significant decrease in accuracy when preceded by a static shape or a semantic word that defined a different object shape. These results suggested that the perception of a noisy SFM stimulus can be facilitated by a preceding unambiguous SFM stimulus--but not a static image or a semantic stimulus--that defined the same shape. The potential neural and computational mechanisms underlying the difference in priming are discussed.

  19. Combining Different Modalities for 3D Imaging of Biological Objects

    CERN Document Server

    Tsyganov, E; Kulkarni, P; Mason, R; Parkey, R; Seliuonine, S; Shay, J; Soesbe, T; Zhezher, V; Zinchenko, A I

    2005-01-01

    A resolution enhanced NaI(Tl)-scintillator micro-SPECT device using pinhole collimator geometry has been built and tested with small animals. This device was constructed based on a depth-of-interaction measurement using a thick scintillator crystal and a position sensitive PMT to measure depth-dependent scintillator light profiles. Such a measurement eliminates the parallax error that degrades the high spatial resolution required for small animal imaging. This novel technique for 3D gamma-ray detection was incorporated into the micro-SPECT device and tested with a $^{57}$Co source and $^{98m}$Tc-MDP injected in mice body. To further enhance the investigating power of the tomographic imaging different imaging modalities can be combined. In particular, as proposed and shown in this paper, the optical imaging permits a 3D reconstruction of the animal's skin surface thus improving visualization and making possible depth-dependent corrections, necessary for bioluminescence 3D reconstruction in biological objects. ...

  20. Methodology for the Efficient Progressive Distribution and Visualization of 3D Building Objects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bo Mao

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Three-dimensional (3D, city models have been applied in a variety of fields. One of the main problems in 3D city model utilization, however, is the large volume of data. In this paper, a method is proposed to generalize the 3D building objects in 3D city models at different levels of detail, and to combine multiple Levels of Detail (LODs for a progressive distribution and visualization of the city models. First, an extended structure for multiple LODs of building objects, BuildingTree, is introduced that supports both single buildings and building groups; second, constructive solid geometry (CSG representations of buildings are created and generalized. Finally, the BuildingTree is stored in the NoSQL database MongoDB for dynamic visualization requests. The experimental results indicate that the proposed progressive method can efficiently visualize 3D city models, especially for large areas.

  1. 3D Character Modeling in Virtual Reality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kiss, S.; Williams, A.

    2002-01-01

    The paper presents a virtual reality modeling system based on interactive web technologies. The system's goal is to provide a user-friendly virtual environment for the development of 3D characters with an articulated structure. The interface allows the modeling of both the character's joint

  2. From 2D to 3D: Using Illumination Cones to Build 3d Face Model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xiao, S S; Jin, M

    2006-01-01

    To solve the problem derivate by lighting condition and position of the camera, a new method using illumination cones to build 3d face model has been proposed. Due to illumination variability, the same object can show dramatic difference even as being viewed in fixed pose. To handle this variability, an object recognition system must employ a representation that is either invariant to, or can model this variability. The proposed technique presents an appearance-based method for modeling the variability due to illumination in the images of objects. The method differs from past appearance-based methods. Evenmore, a small set of training images is used to generate a representation that the illumination cone models the complete set of images of an object with Lambertian reflectance surface under a combination of arbitrary point light sources at infinity. After building up the illumination cones, researches focus on how to present the 3d model of the face. Combining illumination and texture feature to build up 3d model of the face make it easy solving the problem in recognition of face under different pose

  3. 3D Modelling of Kizildag Monument

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karauguz, Güngör; Kalayci, İbrahim; Öğütcü, Sermet

    2016-10-01

    The most important cultural property that the nations possess is their historical accumulation, and bringing these to light, taking measures to preserve them or at least maintain the continuity of transferring them to next generations by means of recent technic and technology, ought to be the business of present generations. Although, nowadays, intensive documentation and archiving studies are done by means of classical techniques, besides studies towards preserving historical objects, modelling one-to-one or scaled modelling were not possible until recently. Computing devices and the on-going reflection of this, which is acknowledged as digital technology, is widely used in many areas and makes it possible to document and archive historical works. Even virtual forms in quantitative environments can be transferred to next generations in a scaled and one-to-one modelled way. Within this scope, every single artefact categorization belonging to any era or civilization present in our country can be considered in separate study areas. Furthermore, any work or likewise can be evaluated in separate categories. Also, it is possible to construct travelable virtual 3D museums that make it possible to visit these artefacts. Under the auspices of these technologies, it is quite possible to construct single virtual indoor museums or also, at the final stage, a 3D travelable open-air museum, a platform or more precisely, to establish a data system that spreads all over the country on a broad spectrum. With a long-termed, significant and extensive study and a substantial organization, such a data system can be established, which also serves as a serious infrastructure for alternative tourism possibilities. Located beside a stepped altar and right above the Kizildag IV inscription, the offering pot is destructed and rolled away a few meters to the south slope of the mould. Every time visiting these artefacts with our undergraduate students, unfortunately, we observe more

  4. Extending 3D city models with legal information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frank, A. U.; Fuhrmann, T.; Navratil, G.

    2012-10-01

    3D city models represent existing physical objects and their topological and functional relations. In everyday life the rights and responsibilities connected to these objects, primarily legally defined rights and obligations but also other socially and culturally established rights, are of importance. The rights and obligations are defined in various laws and it is often difficult to identify the rules applicable for a certain case. The existing 2D cadastres show civil law rights and obligations and plans to extend them to provide information about public law restrictions for land use are in several countries under way. It is tempting to design extensions to the 3D city models to provide information about legal rights in 3D. The paper analyses the different types of information that are needed to reduce conflicts and to facilitate decisions about land use. We identify the role 3D city models augmented with planning information in 3D can play, but do not advocate a general conversion from 2D to 3D for the legal cadastre. Space is not anisotropic and the up/down dimension is practically very different from the two dimensional plane - this difference must be respected when designing spatial information systems. The conclusions are: (1) continue the current regime for ownership of apartments, which is not ownership of a 3D volume, but co-ownership of a building with exclusive use of some rooms; such exclusive use rights could be shown in a 3D city model; (2) ownership of 3D volumes for complex and unusual building situations can be reported in a 3D city model, but are not required everywhere; (3) indicate restrictions for land use and building in 3D city models, with links to the legal sources.

  5. 3D gender recognition using cognitive modeling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fagertun, Jens; Andersen, Tobias; Hansen, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    We use 3D scans of human faces and cognitive modeling to estimate the “gender strength”. The “gender strength” is a continuous class variable of the gender, superseding the traditional binary class labeling. To visualize some of the visual trends humans use when performing gender classification, we...

  6. 3D Modelling and Printing Technology to Produce Patient-Specific 3D Models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birbara, Nicolette S; Otton, James M; Pather, Nalini

    2017-11-10

    A comprehensive knowledge of mitral valve (MV) anatomy is crucial in the assessment of MV disease. While the use of three-dimensional (3D) modelling and printing in MV assessment has undergone early clinical evaluation, the precision and usefulness of this technology requires further investigation. This study aimed to assess and validate 3D modelling and printing technology to produce patient-specific 3D MV models. A prototype method for MV 3D modelling and printing was developed from computed tomography (CT) scans of a plastinated human heart. Mitral valve models were printed using four 3D printing methods and validated to assess precision. Cardiac CT and 3D echocardiography imaging data of four MV disease patients was used to produce patient-specific 3D printed models, and 40 cardiac health professionals (CHPs) were surveyed on the perceived value and potential uses of 3D models in a clinical setting. The prototype method demonstrated submillimetre precision for all four 3D printing methods used, and statistical analysis showed a significant difference (pprinted models, particularly using multiple print materials, were considered useful by CHPs for preoperative planning, as well as other applications such as teaching and training. This study suggests that, with further advances in 3D modelling and printing technology, patient-specific 3D MV models could serve as a useful clinical tool. The findings also highlight the potential of this technology to be applied in a variety of medical areas within both clinical and educational settings. Copyright © 2017 Australian and New Zealand Society of Cardiac and Thoracic Surgeons (ANZSCTS) and the Cardiac Society of Australia and New Zealand (CSANZ). Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Microfluidic 3D models of cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sung, Kyung Eun; Beebe, David J

    2014-12-15

    Despite advances in medicine and biomedical sciences, cancer still remains a major health issue. Complex interactions between tumors and their microenvironment contribute to tumor initiation and progression and also contribute to the development of drug resistant tumor cell populations. The complexity and heterogeneity of tumors and their microenvironment make it challenging to both study and treat cancer. Traditional animal cancer models and in vitro cancer models are limited in their ability to recapitulate human structures and functions, thus hindering the identification of appropriate drug targets and therapeutic strategies. The development and application of microfluidic 3D cancer models have the potential to overcome some of the limitations inherent to traditional models. This review summarizes the progress in microfluidic 3D cancer models, their benefits, and their broad application to basic cancer biology, drug screening, and drug discovery. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Illustrating the disassembly of 3D models

    KAUST Repository

    Guo, Jianwei

    2013-06-11

    We present a framework for the automatic disassembly of 3D man-made models and the illustration of the disassembly process. Given an assembled 3D model, we first analyze the individual parts using sharp edge loops and extract the contact faces between each pair of neighboring parts. The contact faces are then used to compute the possible moving directions of each part. We then present a simple algorithm for clustering the sets of the individual parts into meaningful sub-assemblies, which can be used for a hierarchical decomposition. We take the stability of sub-assemblies into account during the decomposition process by considering the upright orientation of the input models. Our framework also provides a user-friendly interface to enable the superimposition of the constraints for the decomposition. Finally, we visualize the disassembly process by generating an animated sequence. The experiments demonstrate that our framework works well for a variety of complex models. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.

  9. Debris Dispersion Model Using Java 3D

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thirumalainambi, Rajkumar; Bardina, Jorge

    2004-01-01

    This paper describes web based simulation of Shuttle launch operations and debris dispersion. Java 3D graphics provides geometric and visual content with suitable mathematical model and behaviors of Shuttle launch. Because the model is so heterogeneous and interrelated with various factors, 3D graphics combined with physical models provides mechanisms to understand the complexity of launch and range operations. The main focus in the modeling and simulation covers orbital dynamics and range safety. Range safety areas include destruct limit lines, telemetry and tracking and population risk near range. If there is an explosion of Shuttle during launch, debris dispersion is explained. The shuttle launch and range operations in this paper are discussed based on the operations from Kennedy Space Center, Florida, USA.

  10. Virtual 3d City Modeling: Techniques and Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, S. P.; Jain, K.; Mandla, V. R.

    2013-08-01

    3D city model is a digital representation of the Earth's surface and it's related objects such as Building, Tree, Vegetation, and some manmade feature belonging to urban area. There are various terms used for 3D city models such as "Cybertown", "Cybercity", "Virtual City", or "Digital City". 3D city models are basically a computerized or digital model of a city contains the graphic representation of buildings and other objects in 2.5 or 3D. Generally three main Geomatics approach are using for Virtual 3-D City models generation, in first approach, researcher are using Conventional techniques such as Vector Map data, DEM, Aerial images, second approach are based on High resolution satellite images with LASER scanning, In third method, many researcher are using Terrestrial images by using Close Range Photogrammetry with DSM & Texture mapping. We start this paper from the introduction of various Geomatics techniques for 3D City modeling. These techniques divided in to two main categories: one is based on Automation (Automatic, Semi-automatic and Manual methods), and another is Based on Data input techniques (one is Photogrammetry, another is Laser Techniques). After details study of this, finally in short, we are trying to give the conclusions of this study. In the last, we are trying to give the conclusions of this research paper and also giving a short view for justification and analysis, and present trend for 3D City modeling. This paper gives an overview about the Techniques related with "Generation of Virtual 3-D City models using Geomatics Techniques" and the Applications of Virtual 3D City models. Photogrammetry, (Close range, Aerial, Satellite), Lasergrammetry, GPS, or combination of these modern Geomatics techniques play a major role to create a virtual 3-D City model. Each and every techniques and method has some advantages and some drawbacks. Point cloud model is a modern trend for virtual 3-D city model. Photo-realistic, Scalable, Geo-referenced virtual 3

  11. The 3D-city model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holmgren, Steen; Rüdiger, Bjarne; Tournay, Bruno

    2001-01-01

    We have worked with the construction and use of 3D city models for about ten years. This work has given us valuable experience concerning model methodology. In addition to this collection of knowledge, our perception of the concept of city models has changed radically. In order to explain...... this shift in paradigms we begin by describing some of the concrete models we have made, showing the relationship between model structure (methodology and content) and model use. We also describe the projects we are working on at present in order to illustrate new ideas concerning the potential development...

  12. Summary on several key techniques in 3D geological modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mei, Gang

    2014-01-01

    Several key techniques in 3D geological modeling including planar mesh generation, spatial interpolation, and surface intersection are summarized in this paper. Note that these techniques are generic and widely used in various applications but play a key role in 3D geological modeling. There are two essential procedures in 3D geological modeling: the first is the simulation of geological interfaces using geometric surfaces and the second is the building of geological objects by means of various geometric computations such as the intersection of surfaces. Discrete geometric surfaces that represent geological interfaces can be generated by creating planar meshes first and then spatially interpolating; those surfaces intersect and then form volumes that represent three-dimensional geological objects such as rock bodies. In this paper, the most commonly used algorithms of the key techniques in 3D geological modeling are summarized.

  13. 3D Microperfusion Model of ADPKD

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-10-01

    AutoCAD and the system was optimized based on concurrent COMSOL modeling. The final design depicted in Figure 1 allows for the bottom of a 12 x 10 mm...fabrication was accomplished using a custom multistep fabrication process. A negative mold of the bioreactor, designed in AutoCAD , was created using a...Scaffold a) b) Figure 1 (a) AutoCAD model of the 3D perfusion bioreactor. The silk scaffold dimensions are several millimeters wider than the channel

  14. Do-It-Yourself: 3D Models of Hydrogenic Orbitals through 3D Printing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffith, Kaitlyn M.; de Cataldo, Riccardo; Fogarty, Keir H.

    2016-01-01

    Introductory chemistry students often have difficulty visualizing the 3-dimensional shapes of the hydrogenic electron orbitals without the aid of physical 3D models. Unfortunately, commercially available models can be quite expensive. 3D printing offers a solution for producing models of hydrogenic orbitals. 3D printing technology is widely…

  15. Extending generalized hough transform to detect 3D objects in laser range data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Khoshelham, K.

    2007-01-01

    Automated detection and 3D modelling of objects in laser range data is of great importance in many applications. Existing approaches to object detection in range data are limited to either 2.5D data (e.g. range images) or simple objects with a parametric form (e.g. spheres). This paper describes a

  16. EQUIPMENT WITH HYDROSTATIC AMPLIFIER MODELED 3D

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EFTIMIE Dorin

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The equipment with hydrostatic amplifier is a new constructive solution modeled 3D using NX 7.5 software. Hydraulic equipment allows the amplification of a constant torque of a DC electric motor of low power at a variable speed. The hydrostatic speed amplifier of constant torque with electric control device is a hydraulic device which provides by design a bridge between the conventional hydraulic and the servo-hydraulic.

  17. EQUIPMENT WITH HYDROSTATIC AMPLIFIER MODELED 3D

    OpenAIRE

    EFTIMIE Dorin; FRONE Alexandru

    2013-01-01

    The equipment with hydrostatic amplifier is a new constructive solution modeled 3D using NX 7.5 software. Hydraulic equipment allows the amplification of a constant torque of a DC electric motor of low power at a variable speed. The hydrostatic speed amplifier of constant torque with electric control device is a hydraulic device which provides by design a bridge between the conventional hydraulic and the servo-hydraulic.

  18. Automatisk reparering av 3D-modeller

    OpenAIRE

    Larsson, Agnes

    2013-01-01

    To handle broken 3D models can be a very time consuming problem. Several methods aiming for automatic mesh repair have been presented in the recent years. This thesis gives an extensive evaluation of automatic mesh repair algorithms, presents a mesh repair pipeline and describes an implemented automatic mesh repair algorithm. The presented pipeline for automatic mesh repair includes three main steps: octree generation, surface reconstruction and ray casting. Ray casting is for removal of hidd...

  19. Robust hashing for 3D models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berchtold, Waldemar; Schäfer, Marcel; Rettig, Michael; Steinebach, Martin

    2014-02-01

    3D models and applications are of utmost interest in both science and industry. With the increment of their usage, their number and thereby the challenge to correctly identify them increases. Content identification is commonly done by cryptographic hashes. However, they fail as a solution in application scenarios such as computer aided design (CAD), scientific visualization or video games, because even the smallest alteration of the 3D model, e.g. conversion or compression operations, massively changes the cryptographic hash as well. Therefore, this work presents a robust hashing algorithm for 3D mesh data. The algorithm applies several different bit extraction methods. They are built to resist desired alterations of the model as well as malicious attacks intending to prevent correct allocation. The different bit extraction methods are tested against each other and, as far as possible, the hashing algorithm is compared to the state of the art. The parameters tested are robustness, security and runtime performance as well as False Acceptance Rate (FAR) and False Rejection Rate (FRR), also the probability calculation of hash collision is included. The introduced hashing algorithm is kept adaptive e.g. in hash length, to serve as a proper tool for all applications in practice.

  20. Shape: A 3D Modeling Tool for Astrophysics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steffen, Wolfgang; Koning, Nicholas; Wenger, Stephan; Morisset, Christophe; Magnor, Marcus

    2011-04-01

    We present a flexible interactive 3D morpho-kinematical modeling application for astrophysics. Compared to other systems, our application reduces the restrictions on the physical assumptions, data type, and amount that is required for a reconstruction of an object's morphology. It is one of the first publicly available tools to apply interactive graphics to astrophysical modeling. The tool allows astrophysicists to provide a priori knowledge about the object by interactively defining 3D structural elements. By direct comparison of model prediction with observational data, model parameters can then be automatically optimized to fit the observation. The tool has already been successfully used in a number of astrophysical research projects.

  1. Image based 3D city modeling : Comparative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. P. Singh

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available 3D city model is a digital representation of the Earth’s surface and it’s related objects such as building, tree, vegetation, and some manmade feature belonging to urban area. The demand of 3D city modeling is increasing rapidly for various engineering and non-engineering applications. Generally four main image based approaches were used for virtual 3D city models generation. In first approach, researchers were used Sketch based modeling, second method is Procedural grammar based modeling, third approach is Close range photogrammetry based modeling and fourth approach is mainly based on Computer Vision techniques. SketchUp, CityEngine, Photomodeler and Agisoft Photoscan are the main softwares to represent these approaches respectively. These softwares have different approaches & methods suitable for image based 3D city modeling. Literature study shows that till date, there is no complete such type of comparative study available to create complete 3D city model by using images. This paper gives a comparative assessment of these four image based 3D modeling approaches. This comparative study is mainly based on data acquisition methods, data processing techniques and output 3D model products. For this research work, study area is the campus of civil engineering department, Indian Institute of Technology, Roorkee (India. This 3D campus acts as a prototype for city. This study also explains various governing parameters, factors and work experiences. This research work also gives a brief introduction, strengths and weakness of these four image based techniques. Some personal comment is also given as what can do or what can’t do from these softwares. At the last, this study shows; it concluded that, each and every software has some advantages and limitations. Choice of software depends on user requirements of 3D project. For normal visualization project, SketchUp software is a good option. For 3D documentation record, Photomodeler gives good

  2. 3D Modeling from Photos Given Topological Information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Young Min; Cho, Junghyun; Ahn, Sang Chul

    2016-09-01

    Reconstructing 3D models given a single-view 2D information is inherently an ill-posed problem and requires additional information such as shape prior or user input.We introduce a method to generate multiple 3D models of a particular category given corresponding photographs when the topological information is known. While there is a wide range of shapes for an object of a particular category, the basic topology usually remains constant.In consequence, the topological prior needs to be provided only once for each category and can be easily acquired by consulting an existing database of 3D models or by user input. The input of topological description is only connectivity information between parts; this is in contrast to previous approaches that have required users to interactively mark individual parts. Given the silhouette of an object and the topology, our system automatically finds a skeleton and generates a textured 3D model by jointly fitting multiple parts. The proposed method, therefore, opens the possibility of generating a large number of 3D models by consulting a massive number of photographs. We demonstrate examples of the topological prior and reconstructed 3D models using photos.

  3. Object Segmentation and Ground Truth in 3D Embryonic Imaging.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhavna Rajasekaran

    Full Text Available Many questions in developmental biology depend on measuring the position and movement of individual cells within developing embryos. Yet, tools that provide this data are often challenged by high cell density and their accuracy is difficult to measure. Here, we present a three-step procedure to address this problem. Step one is a novel segmentation algorithm based on image derivatives that, in combination with selective post-processing, reliably and automatically segments cell nuclei from images of densely packed tissue. Step two is a quantitative validation using synthetic images to ascertain the efficiency of the algorithm with respect to signal-to-noise ratio and object density. Finally, we propose an original method to generate reliable and experimentally faithful ground truth datasets: Sparse-dense dual-labeled embryo chimeras are used to unambiguously measure segmentation errors within experimental data. Together, the three steps outlined here establish a robust, iterative procedure to fine-tune image analysis algorithms and microscopy settings associated with embryonic 3D image data sets.

  4. 3D modeling of buildings outstanding sites

    CERN Document Server

    Héno, Rapha?le

    2014-01-01

    Conventional topographic databases, obtained by capture on aerial or spatial images provide a simplified 3D modeling of our urban environment, answering the needs of numerous applications (development, risk prevention, mobility management, etc.). However, when we have to represent and analyze more complex sites (monuments, civil engineering works, archeological sites, etc.), these models no longer suffice and other acquisition and processing means have to be implemented. This book focuses on the study of adapted lifting means for "notable buildings". The methods tackled in this book cover las

  5. 3D space analysis of dental models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chuah, Joon H.; Ong, Sim Heng; Kondo, Toshiaki; Foong, Kelvin W. C.; Yong, Than F.

    2001-05-01

    Space analysis is an important procedure by orthodontists to determine the amount of space available and required for teeth alignment during treatment planning. Traditional manual methods of space analysis are tedious and often inaccurate. Computer-based space analysis methods that work on 2D images have been reported. However, as the space problems in the dental arch exist in all three planes of space, a full 3D analysis of the problems is necessary. This paper describes a visualization and measurement system that analyses 3D images of dental plaster models. Algorithms were developed to determine dental arches. The system is able to record the depths of the Curve of Spee, and quantify space liabilities arising from a non-planar Curve of Spee, malalignment and overjet. Furthermore, the difference between total arch space available and the space required to arrange the teeth in ideal occlusion can be accurately computed. The system for 3D space analysis of the dental arch is an accurate, comprehensive, rapid and repeatable method of space analysis to facilitate proper orthodontic diagnosis and treatment planning.

  6. 3D model of bow shocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gustafsson, M.; Ravkilde, T.; Kristensen, L. E.; Cabrit, S.; Field, D.; Pineau Des Forêts, G.

    2010-04-01

    Context. Shocks produced by outflows from young stars are often observed as bow-shaped structures in which the H2 line strength and morphology are characteristic of the physical and chemical environments and the velocity of the impact. Aims: We present a 3D model of interstellar bow shocks propagating in a homogeneous molecular medium with a uniform magnetic field. The model enables us to estimate the shock conditions in observed flows. As an example, we show how the model can reproduce rovibrational H2 observations of a bow shock in OMC1. Methods: The 3D model is constructed by associating a planar shock with every point on a 3D bow skeleton. The planar shocks are modelled with a highly sophisticated chemical reaction network that is essential for predicting accurate shock widths and line emissions. The shock conditions vary along the bow surface and determine the shock type, the local thickness, and brightness of the bow shell. The motion of the cooling gas parallel to the bow surface is also considered. The bow shock can move at an arbitrary inclination to the magnetic field and to the observer, and we model the projected morphology and radial velocity distribution in the plane-of-sky. Results: The morphology of a bow shock is highly dependent on the orientation of the magnetic field and the inclination of the flow. Bow shocks can appear in many different guises and do not necessarily show a characteristic bow shape. The ratio of the H2 v = 2-1 S(1) line to the v = 1-0 S(1) line is variable across the flow and the spatial offset between the peaks of the lines may be used to estimate the inclination of the flow. The radial velocity comes to a maximum behind the apparent apex of the bow shock when the flow is seen at an inclination different from face-on. Under certain circumstances the radial velocity of an expanding bow shock can show the same signatures as a rotating flow. In this case a velocity gradient perpendicular to the outflow direction is a projection

  7. 3D X-ray tomography to evaluate volumetric objects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliveira, L.F. de; Lopes, Ricardo T.; Jesus, Edgar F.O. de; Braz, Delson

    2003-01-01

    The 3D-CT and stereological techniques are used concomitantly. The quantitative stereology yields measurements that reflects areas, volumes, lengths, rates and frequencies of the test body. Two others quantification, connectivity and anisotropy, can be used as well to complete the analysis. In this paper, it is presented the application of 3D-CT and the stereological quantification to analyze a special kind of test body: ceramic filters which have an internal structure similar to cancellous bone. The stereology is adapted to work with the 3D nature of the tomographic data. It is presented too the results of connectivity and anisotropy

  8. Reconstruction and 3D visualisation based on objective real 3D based documentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolliger, Michael J; Buck, Ursula; Thali, Michael J; Bolliger, Stephan A

    2012-09-01

    Reconstructions based directly upon forensic evidence alone are called primary information. Historically this consists of documentation of findings by verbal protocols, photographs and other visual means. Currently modern imaging techniques such as 3D surface scanning and radiological methods (computer tomography, magnetic resonance imaging) are also applied. Secondary interpretation is based on facts and the examiner's experience. Usually such reconstructive expertises are given in written form, and are often enhanced by sketches. However, narrative interpretations can, especially in complex courses of action, be difficult to present and can be misunderstood. In this report we demonstrate the use of graphic reconstruction of secondary interpretation with supporting pictorial evidence, applying digital visualisation (using 'Poser') or scientific animation (using '3D Studio Max', 'Maya') and present methods of clearly distinguishing between factual documentation and examiners' interpretation based on three cases. The first case involved a pedestrian who was initially struck by a car on a motorway and was then run over by a second car. The second case involved a suicidal gunshot to the head with a rifle, in which the trigger was pushed with a rod. The third case dealt with a collision between two motorcycles. Pictorial reconstruction of the secondary interpretation of these cases has several advantages. The images enable an immediate overview, give rise to enhanced clarity, and compel the examiner to look at all details if he or she is to create a complete image.

  9. Three Dimensional (3D) Printing: A Straightforward, User-Friendly Protocol to Convert Virtual Chemical Models to Real-Life Objects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossi, Sergio; Benaglia, Maurizio; Brenna, Davide; Porta, Riccardo; Orlandi, Manuel

    2015-01-01

    A simple procedure to convert protein data bank files (.pdb) into a stereolithography file (.stl) using VMD software (Virtual Molecular Dynamic) is reported. This tutorial allows generating, with a very simple protocol, three-dimensional customized structures that can be printed by a low-cost 3D-printer, and used for teaching chemical education…

  10. Objective and subjective quality assessment of geometry compression of reconstructed 3D humans in a 3D virtual room

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mekuria, Rufael; Cesar, Pablo; Doumanis, Ioannis; Frisiello, Antonella

    2015-09-01

    Compression of 3D object based video is relevant for 3D Immersive applications. Nevertheless, the perceptual aspects of the degradation introduced by codecs for meshes and point clouds are not well understood. In this paper we evaluate the subjective and objective degradations introduced by such codecs in a state of art 3D immersive virtual room. In the 3D immersive virtual room, users are captured with multiple cameras, and their surfaces are reconstructed as photorealistic colored/textured 3D meshes or point clouds. To test the perceptual effect of compression and transmission, we render degraded versions with different frame rates in different contexts (near/far) in the scene. A quantitative subjective study with 16 users shows that negligible distortion of decoded surfaces compared to the original reconstructions can be achieved in the 3D virtual room. In addition, a qualitative task based analysis in a full prototype field trial shows increased presence, emotion, user and state recognition of the reconstructed 3D Human representation compared to animated computer avatars.

  11. Approximation of a foreign object using x-rays, reference photographs and 3D reconstruction techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briggs, Matt; Shanmugam, Mohan

    2013-12-01

    This case study describes how a 3D animation was created to approximate the depth and angle of a foreign object (metal bar) that had become embedded into a patient's head. A pre-operative CT scan was not available as the patient could not fit though the CT scanner, therefore a post surgical CT scan, x-ray and photographic images were used. A surface render was made of the skull and imported into Blender (a 3D animation application). The metal bar was not available, however images of a similar object that was retrieved from the scene by the ambulance crew were used to recreate a 3D model. The x-ray images were then imported into Blender and used as background images in order to align the skull reconstruction and metal bar at the correct depth/angle. A 3D animation was then created to fully illustrate the angle and depth of the iron bar in the skull.

  12. Anvendt 3D modellering og parametrisk formgivning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hermund, Anders

    2011-01-01

    kreativitet i det parametriske system? Denne Ph.d. afhandling søger at skabe en teoretisk ramme, med henblik på at identificere og klarlægge nye potentialer for anvendt 3D modellering og parametrisk formgivningspraksis. Efter at have fået denne klarhed, er det nødvendigt at drøfte anvendelse og etik i de nye...... hjælpe med at identificere problemer og fordele, og fokusere på vigtigheden af at være i stand til at påvirke udviklingen af moderne 3D teknologier og systemer i en plausibel retning for kvaliteten af fremtidens arkitektoniske projekter. Forskningsspørgsmål er: Hvorledes kan en diagrammatisk metode sikre......Det felt der er opstået i Danmark i forbindelse med Building Information Modeling (BIM) og det digitale byggeri (DDB) – lovgivning om bygherrekrav og digital arbejdsmetode, kræver en løbende dialog for at sikre en succesfuld anvendelse i praksis. Arkitektonisk forskning på dette område kan derfor...

  13. 3D Model Optimization of Four-Facet Drill for 3D Drilling Simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buranský, Ivan; Necpal, Martin; Bračík, Matej

    2016-09-01

    The article is focused on optimization of four-facet drill for 3D drilling numerical modelling. For optimization, the process of reverse engineering by PowerShape software was used. The design of four-facet drill was created in NumrotoPlus software. The modified 3D model of the drill was used in the numerical analysis of cutting forces. Verification of the accuracy of 3D models for reverse engineering was implemented using the colour deviation maps. The CAD model was in the STEP format. For simulation software, 3D model in the STEP format is ideal. STEP is a solid model. Simulation software automatically splits the 3D model into finite elements. The STEP model was therefore more suitable than the STL model.

  14. 3D Model Optimization of Four-Facet Drill for 3D Drilling Simulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Buranský Ivan

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The article is focused on optimization of four-facet drill for 3D drilling numerical modelling. For optimization, the process of reverse engineering by PowerShape software was used. The design of four-facet drill was created in NumrotoPlus software. The modified 3D model of the drill was used in the numerical analysis of cutting forces. Verification of the accuracy of 3D models for reverse engineering was implemented using the colour deviation maps. The CAD model was in the STEP format. For simulation software, 3D model in the STEP format is ideal. STEP is a solid model. Simulation software automatically splits the 3D model into finite elements. The STEP model was therefore more suitable than the STL model.

  15. Improving Semantic Updating Method on 3d City Models Using Hybrid Semantic-Geometric 3d Segmentation Technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharkawi, K.-H.; Abdul-Rahman, A.

    2013-09-01

    Cities and urban areas entities such as building structures are becoming more complex as the modern human civilizations continue to evolve. The ability to plan and manage every territory especially the urban areas is very important to every government in the world. Planning and managing cities and urban areas based on printed maps and 2D data are getting insufficient and inefficient to cope with the complexity of the new developments in big cities. The emergence of 3D city models have boosted the efficiency in analysing and managing urban areas as the 3D data are proven to represent the real world object more accurately. It has since been adopted as the new trend in buildings and urban management and planning applications. Nowadays, many countries around the world have been generating virtual 3D representation of their major cities. The growing interest in improving the usability of 3D city models has resulted in the development of various tools for analysis based on the 3D city models. Today, 3D city models are generated for various purposes such as for tourism, location-based services, disaster management and urban planning. Meanwhile, modelling 3D objects are getting easier with the emergence of the user-friendly tools for 3D modelling available in the market. Generating 3D buildings with high accuracy also has become easier with the availability of airborne Lidar and terrestrial laser scanning equipments. The availability and accessibility to this technology makes it more sensible to analyse buildings in urban areas using 3D data as it accurately represent the real world objects. The Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC) has accepted CityGML specifications as one of the international standards for representing and exchanging spatial data, making it easier to visualize, store and manage 3D city models data efficiently. CityGML able to represents the semantics, geometry, topology and appearance of 3D city models in five well-defined Level-of-Details (LoD), namely LoD0

  16. 3D-model: Earth's seasons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meirlaen, Koen

    2017-04-01

    A lot of subjects in geography and geology are linked to the seasons of the earth. Most of the students think that the earth's seasons are caused by the differences in the distance from the sun throughout the year. So as a teacher I tried year after year to explain the motion of the earth around the sun. Even when I used animations/movies/… it still seemed difficult for the students to understand the 3D-situation. Most of the animations only show the start of every season but it's important to demonstrate to the students the motion of the earth during a year so they can see that the tilt of our planet causes the seasons. The earth's axis is tilted by 23.4 degrees to the plane in which it travels around the sun, the ecliptic. So I started to work on a 3D-model on a scale to use in a classroom. It measures approximately 2m by 1m. You can buy all the materials in DIY-shop for less than € 100: wooden plank, lamp, styrofoam spheres (= earth), … I have been using the model for over 4 years now and it's very nice to work with. You can involve the students more and let them investigate for themselves what causes the seasons. The model demonstrates the start of every season, why it is dark for several months in several places on Earth. They can draw the positions of the Tropic of Cancer, Tropic of Capricorn, Arctic Circle and Antarctic Circle on the styrofoam spheres. Also the difference between day and night is well shown on the globes. A lot of subjects in geography and geology are linked to the seasons of the earth: the changes in weather, ocean currents, winds, tropical storms, vegetation, fauna and flora, hours of daylight, … even economy, migration and social health. This way the model can be used in many lessons during the year. The poster session will demonstrate how you can make the 3D-model, some exercises, …

  17. MC3D modelling of stratified explosion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Picchi, S.; Berthoud, G.

    1999-01-01

    It is known that a steam explosion can occur in a stratified geometry and that the observed yields are lower than in the case of explosion in a premixture configuration. However, very few models are available to quantify the amount of melt which can be involved and the pressure peak that can be developed. In the stratified application of the MC3D code, mixing and fragmentation of the melt are explained by the growth of Kelvin Helmholtz instabilities due to the shear flow of the two phase coolant above the melt. Such a model is then used to recalculate the Frost-Ciccarelli tin-water experiment. Pressure peak, speed of propagation, bubble shape and erosion height are well reproduced as well as the influence of the inertial constraint (height of the water pool). (author)

  18. 3D Imaging of Dielectric Objects Buried under a Rough Surface by Using CSI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evrim Tetik

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A 3D scalar electromagnetic imaging of dielectric objects buried under a rough surface is presented. The problem has been treated as a 3D scalar problem for computational simplicity as a first step to the 3D vector problem. The complexity of the background in which the object is buried is simplified by obtaining Green’s function of its background, which consists of two homogeneous half-spaces, and a rough interface between them, by using Buried Object Approach (BOA. Green’s function of the two-part space with planar interface is obtained to be used in the process. Reconstruction of the location, shape, and constitutive parameters of the objects is achieved by Contrast Source Inversion (CSI method with conjugate gradient. The scattered field data that is used in the inverse problem is obtained via both Method of Moments (MoM and Comsol Multiphysics pressure acoustics model.

  19. Content-adaptive pyramid representation for 3D object classification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kounalakis, Tsampikos; Boulgouris, Nikolaos; Triantafyllidis, Georgios

    2016-01-01

    In this paper we introduce a novel representation for the classification of 3D images. Unlike most current approaches, our representation is not based on a fixed pyramid but adapts to image content and uses image regions instead of rectangular pyramid scales. Image characteristics, such as depth...... and color, are used for defining regions within images. Multiple region scales are formed in order to construct the proposed pyramid image representation. The proposed method achieves excellent results in comparison to conventional representations....

  20. Regional geothermal 3D modelling in Denmark

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poulsen, S. E.; Balling, N.; Bording, T. S.; Nielsen, S. B.

    2012-04-01

    In the pursuit of sustainable and low carbon emission energy sources, increased global attention has been given to the exploration and exploitation of geothermal resources within recent decades. In 2009 a national multi-disciplinary geothermal research project was established. As a significant part of this project, 3D temperature modelling is to be carried out, with special emphasis on temperatures of potential geothermal reservoirs in the Danish area. The Danish subsurface encompasses low enthalpy geothermal reservoirs of mainly Triassic and Jurassic age. Geothermal plants at Amager (Copenhagen) and Thisted (Northern Jutland) have the capacity of supplying the district heating network with up to 14 MW and 7 MW, respectively, by withdrawing warm pore water from the Gassum (Lower Jurassic/Upper Triassic) and Bunter (Lower Triassic) sandstone reservoirs, respectively. Explorative studies of the subsurface temperature regime typically are based on a combination of observations and modelling. In this study, the open-source groundwater modelling code MODFLOW is modified to simulate the subsurface temperature distribution in three dimensions by taking advantage of the mathematical similarity between saturated groundwater flow (Darcy flow) and heat conduction. A numerical model of the subsurface geology in Denmark is built and parameterized from lithological information derived from joint interpretation of seismic surveys and borehole information. Boundary conditions are constructed from knowledge about the heat flow from the Earth's interior and the shallow ground temperature. Matrix thermal conductivities have been estimated from analysis of high-resolution temperature logs measured in deep wells and porosity-depth relations are included using interpreted main lithologies. The model takes into account the dependency of temperature and pressure on thermal conductivity. Moreover, a transient model based correction of the paleoclimatic thermal disturbance caused by the

  1. Towards an Integrated Visualization Of Semantically Enriched 3D City Models: An Ontology of 3D Visualization Techniques

    OpenAIRE

    Métral, Claudine; Ghoula, Nizar; Falquet, Gilles

    2012-01-01

    3D city models - which represent in 3 dimensions the geometric elements of a city - are increasingly used for an intended wide range of applications. Such uses are made possible by using semantically enriched 3D city models and by presenting such enriched 3D city models in a way that allows decision-making processes to be carried out from the best choices among sets of objectives, and across issues and scales. In order to help in such a decision-making process we have defined a framework to f...

  2. 3D Model Data Generation and Conversion for 3D Printers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sungsuk

    2015-03-01

    Recently, 3D printers have attracted increasing attention due to their popularization and high performance, resulting in expanded application ranges. Popularization implies that people are using 3D equipment when they do not have underlying knowledge about it. High performance can be obtained from several aspects of 3D printing processes such as an efficient way to generate a 3D model from images or drawings. In this paper, two topics are considered: improvement of the precision of 3D models from two-dimensional (2D) images, and their conversion into G-code in a time-efficient way. When making 3D data models using 2D images, there are several issues to consider. In this study, some case studies using standard software are used to obtain data in which adjustments are made. The conversion time strongly depends on the subject size. Although the amount of code and its complexity are high, 3D printers should be able to handle this process in a practical time. A system model is proposed to shorten the essential data conversion time for a high-performance process. A distributed processing algorithm for converting standard template library (STL) files to G-code is proposed as a means to process 3D model data.

  3. INTEGRATION OF VIDEO IMAGES AND CAD WIREFRAMES FOR 3D OBJECT LOCALIZATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. A. Persad

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The tracking of moving objects from single images has received widespread attention in photogrammetric computer vision and considered to be at a state of maturity. This paper presents a model-driven solution for localizing moving objects detected from monocular, rotating and zooming video images in a 3D reference frame. To realize such a system, the recovery of 2D to 3D projection parameters is essential. Automatic estimation of these parameters is critical, particularly for pan-tilt-zoom (PTZ surveillance cameras where parameters change spontaneously upon camera motion. In this work, an algorithm for automated parameter retrieval is proposed. This is achieved by matching linear features between incoming images from video sequences and simple geometric 3D CAD wireframe models of man-made structures. The feature matching schema uses a hypothesis-verify optimization framework referred to as LR-RANSAC. This novel method improves the computational efficiency of the matching process in comparison to the standard RANSAC robust estimator. To demonstrate the applicability and performance of the method, experiments have been performed on indoor and outdoor image sequences under varying conditions with lighting changes and occlusions. Reliability of the matching algorithm has been analyzed by comparing the automatically determined camera parameters with ground truth (GT. Dependability of the retrieved parameters for 3D localization has also been assessed by comparing the difference between 3D positions of moving image objects estimated using the LR-RANSAC-derived parameters and those computed using GT parameters.

  4. Integration of Video Images and CAD Wireframes for 3d Object Localization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Persad, R. A.; Armenakis, C.; Sohn, G.

    2012-07-01

    The tracking of moving objects from single images has received widespread attention in photogrammetric computer vision and considered to be at a state of maturity. This paper presents a model-driven solution for localizing moving objects detected from monocular, rotating and zooming video images in a 3D reference frame. To realize such a system, the recovery of 2D to 3D projection parameters is essential. Automatic estimation of these parameters is critical, particularly for pan-tilt-zoom (PTZ) surveillance cameras where parameters change spontaneously upon camera motion. In this work, an algorithm for automated parameter retrieval is proposed. This is achieved by matching linear features between incoming images from video sequences and simple geometric 3D CAD wireframe models of man-made structures. The feature matching schema uses a hypothesis-verify optimization framework referred to as LR-RANSAC. This novel method improves the computational efficiency of the matching process in comparison to the standard RANSAC robust estimator. To demonstrate the applicability and performance of the method, experiments have been performed on indoor and outdoor image sequences under varying conditions with lighting changes and occlusions. Reliability of the matching algorithm has been analyzed by comparing the automatically determined camera parameters with ground truth (GT). Dependability of the retrieved parameters for 3D localization has also been assessed by comparing the difference between 3D positions of moving image objects estimated using the LR-RANSAC-derived parameters and those computed using GT parameters.

  5. [Digital modeling for the individual mandibular 3D mesh scaffold based on 3D printing technology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Rongzeng; Luo, Danmei; Qin, Xiaoyu; Li, Runxin; Rong, Qiguo; Hu, Min

    2016-05-01

    To investigate an ideal modeling method of designing 3D mesh scaffold substitutes based on tissue engineering to restore mandibular bone defects. By analyzing the theoretical model from titanium scaffolds fabricated by 3D printing, the feasibility and effectiveness of the proposed methodology were verified. Based on the CT scanned data of a subject, the Mimics 15.0 and Geomagic studio 12.0 reverse engineering software were adopted to generate surface model of mandibular bone and the defect area was separated from the 3D model of bone. Then prosthesis was designed via mirror algorithm, in which outer shape was used as the external shape of scaffold. Unigraphics software NX 8.5 was applied on Boolean calculation of subtraction between prosthesis and regular microstructure structure and ANSYS 14.0 software was used to design the inner construction of 3D mesh scaffolds. The topological structure and the geometrical parameters of 3D mesh titanium scaffolds were adjusted according to the aim of optimized structure and maximal strength with minimal weight. The 3D mesh scaffolds solid model through two kinds of computer-aided methods was input into 3D printing equipment to fabricate titanium scaffolds. Individual scaffolds were designed successfully by two modeling methods. The finite element optimization made 10% decrease of the stress peak and volume decrease of 43%, and the porosity increased to 76.32%. This modeling method was validated by 3D printing titanium scaffold to be feasible and effective. 3D printing technology combined with finite element topology optimization to obtain the ideal mandibular 3D mesh scaffold is feasible and effective.

  6. A 3D Printing Model Watermarking Algorithm Based on 3D Slicing and Feature Points

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giao N. Pham

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available With the increase of three-dimensional (3D printing applications in many areas of life, a large amount of 3D printing data is copied, shared, and used several times without any permission from the original providers. Therefore, copyright protection and ownership identification for 3D printing data in communications or commercial transactions are practical issues. This paper presents a novel watermarking algorithm for 3D printing models based on embedding watermark data into the feature points of a 3D printing model. Feature points are determined and computed by the 3D slicing process along the Z axis of a 3D printing model. The watermark data is embedded into a feature point of a 3D printing model by changing the vector length of the feature point in OXY space based on the reference length. The x and y coordinates of the feature point will be then changed according to the changed vector length that has been embedded with a watermark. Experimental results verified that the proposed algorithm is invisible and robust to geometric attacks, such as rotation, scaling, and translation. The proposed algorithm provides a better method than the conventional works, and the accuracy of the proposed algorithm is much higher than previous methods.

  7. 3D geospatial visualizations: Animation and motion effects on spatial objects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evangelidis, Konstantinos; Papadopoulos, Theofilos; Papatheodorou, Konstantinos; Mastorokostas, Paris; Hilas, Constantinos

    2018-02-01

    Digital Elevation Models (DEMs), in combination with high quality raster graphics provide realistic three-dimensional (3D) representations of the globe (virtual globe) and amazing navigation experience over the terrain through earth browsers. In addition, the adoption of interoperable geospatial mark-up languages (e.g. KML) and open programming libraries (Javascript) makes it also possible to create 3D spatial objects and convey on them the sensation of any type of texture by utilizing open 3D representation models (e.g. Collada). One step beyond, by employing WebGL frameworks (e.g. Cesium.js, three.js) animation and motion effects are attributed on 3D models. However, major GIS-based functionalities in combination with all the above mentioned visualization capabilities such as for example animation effects on selected areas of the terrain texture (e.g. sea waves) as well as motion effects on 3D objects moving in dynamically defined georeferenced terrain paths (e.g. the motion of an animal over a hill, or of a big fish in an ocean etc.) are not widely supported at least by open geospatial applications or development frameworks. Towards this we developed and made available to the research community, an open geospatial software application prototype that provides high level capabilities for dynamically creating user defined virtual geospatial worlds populated by selected animated and moving 3D models on user specified locations, paths and areas. At the same time, the generated code may enhance existing open visualization frameworks and programming libraries dealing with 3D simulations, with the geospatial aspect of a virtual world.

  8. A Taxonomy of 3D Occluded Objects Recognition Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soleimanizadeh, Shiva; Mohamad, Dzulkifli; Saba, Tanzila; Al-ghamdi, Jarallah Saleh

    2016-03-01

    The overall performances of object recognition techniques under different condition (e.g., occlusion, viewpoint, and illumination) have been improved significantly in recent years. New applications and hardware are shifted towards digital photography, and digital media. This faces an increase in Internet usage requiring object recognition for certain applications; particularly occulded objects. However occlusion is still an issue unhandled, interlacing the relations between extracted feature points through image, research is going on to develop efficient techniques and easy to use algorithms that would help users to source images; this need to overcome problems and issues regarding occlusion. The aim of this research is to review recognition occluded objects algorithms and figure out their pros and cons to solve the occlusion problem features, which are extracted from occluded object to distinguish objects from other co-existing objects by determining the new techniques, which could differentiate the occluded fragment and sections inside an image.

  9. Efficient 3D scene modeling and mosaicing

    CERN Document Server

    Nicosevici, Tudor

    2013-01-01

    This book proposes a complete pipeline for monocular (single camera) based 3D mapping of terrestrial and underwater environments. The aim is to provide a solution to large-scale scene modeling that is both accurate and efficient. To this end, we have developed a novel Structure from Motion algorithm that increases mapping accuracy by registering camera views directly with the maps. The camera registration uses a dual approach that adapts to the type of environment being mapped.   In order to further increase the accuracy of the resulting maps, a new method is presented, allowing detection of images corresponding to the same scene region (crossovers). Crossovers then used in conjunction with global alignment methods in order to highly reduce estimation errors, especially when mapping large areas. Our method is based on Visual Bag of Words paradigm (BoW), offering a more efficient and simpler solution by eliminating the training stage, generally required by state of the art BoW algorithms.   Also, towards dev...

  10. Enhanced LOD Concepts for Virtual 3d City Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benner, J.; Geiger, A.; Gröger, G.; Häfele, K.-H.; Löwner, M.-O.

    2013-09-01

    Virtual 3D city models contain digital three dimensional representations of city objects like buildings, streets or technical infrastructure. Because size and complexity of these models continuously grow, a Level of Detail (LoD) concept effectively supporting the partitioning of a complete model into alternative models of different complexity and providing metadata, addressing informational content, complexity and quality of each alternative model is indispensable. After a short overview on various LoD concepts, this paper discusses the existing LoD concept of the CityGML standard for 3D city models and identifies a number of deficits. Based on this analysis, an alternative concept is developed and illustrated with several examples. It differentiates between first, a Geometric Level of Detail (GLoD) and a Semantic Level of Detail (SLoD), and second between the interior building and its exterior shell. Finally, a possible implementation of the new concept is demonstrated by means of an UML model.

  11. Advanced 3D Object Identification System, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — During the Phase I effort, OPTRA developed object detection, tracking, and identification algorithms and successfully tested these algorithms on computer-generated...

  12. 3D for Geosciences: Interactive Tangibles and Virtual Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pippin, J. E.; Matheney, M.; Kitsch, N.; Rosado, G.; Thompson, Z.; Pierce, S. A.

    2016-12-01

    Point cloud processing provides a method of studying and modelling geologic features relevant to geoscience systems and processes. Here, software including Skanect, MeshLab, Blender, PDAL, and PCL are used in conjunction with 3D scanning hardware, including a Structure scanner and a Kinect camera, to create and analyze point cloud images of small scale topography, karst features, tunnels, and structures at high resolution. This project successfully scanned internal karst features ranging from small stalactites to large rooms, as well as an external waterfall feature. For comparison purposes, multiple scans of the same object were merged into single object files both automatically, using commercial software, and manually using open source libraries and code. Files with format .ply were manually converted into numeric data sets to be analyzed for similar regions between files in order to match them together. We can assume a numeric process would be more powerful and efficient than the manual method, however it could lack other useful features that GUI's may have. The digital models have applications in mining as efficient means of replacing topography functions such as measuring distances and areas. Additionally, it is possible to make simulation models such as drilling templates and calculations related to 3D spaces. Advantages of using methods described here for these procedures include the relatively quick time to obtain data and the easy transport of the equipment. With regard to openpit mining, obtaining 3D images of large surfaces and with precision would be a high value tool by georeferencing scan data to interactive maps. The digital 3D images obtained from scans may be saved as printable files to create physical 3D-printable models to create tangible objects based on scientific information, as well as digital "worlds" able to be navigated virtually. The data, models, and algorithms explored here can be used to convey complex scientific ideas to a range of

  13. Building 3D models with modo 701

    CERN Document Server

    García, Juan Jiménez

    2013-01-01

    The book will focus on creating a sample application throughout the book, building gradually from chapter to chapter.If you are new to the 3D world, this is the key to getting started with a modern software in the modern visualization industry. Only minimal previous knowledge is needed.If you have some previous knowledge about 3D content creation, you will find useful tricks that will differentiate the learning experience from a typical user manual from this, a practical guide concerning the most common problems and situations and how to solve them.

  14. 3D-GNOME: an integrated web service for structural modeling of the 3D genome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szalaj, Przemyslaw; Michalski, Paul J; Wróblewski, Przemysław; Tang, Zhonghui; Kadlof, Michal; Mazzocco, Giovanni; Ruan, Yijun; Plewczynski, Dariusz

    2016-07-08

    Recent advances in high-throughput chromosome conformation capture (3C) technology, such as Hi-C and ChIA-PET, have demonstrated the importance of 3D genome organization in development, cell differentiation and transcriptional regulation. There is now a widespread need for computational tools to generate and analyze 3D structural models from 3C data. Here we introduce our 3D GeNOme Modeling Engine (3D-GNOME), a web service which generates 3D structures from 3C data and provides tools to visually inspect and annotate the resulting structures, in addition to a variety of statistical plots and heatmaps which characterize the selected genomic region. Users submit a bedpe (paired-end BED format) file containing the locations and strengths of long range contact points, and 3D-GNOME simulates the structure and provides a convenient user interface for further analysis. Alternatively, a user may generate structures using published ChIA-PET data for the GM12878 cell line by simply specifying a genomic region of interest. 3D-GNOME is freely available at http://3dgnome.cent.uw.edu.pl/. © The Author(s) 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.

  15. AxiSEM3D: broadband seismic wavefields in 3-D aspherical Earth models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leng, K.; Nissen-Meyer, T.; Zad, K. H.; van Driel, M.; Al-Attar, D.

    2017-12-01

    Seismology is the primary tool for data-informed inference of Earth structure and dynamics. Simulating seismic wave propagation at a global scale is fundamental to seismology, but remains as one of most challenging problems in scientific computing, because of both the multiscale nature of Earth's interior and the observable frequency band of seismic data. We present a novel numerical method to simulate global seismic wave propagation in realistic 3-D Earth models. Our method, named AxiSEM3D, is a hybrid of spectral element method and pseudospectral method. It reduces the azimuthal dimension of wavefields by means of a global Fourier series parameterization, of which the number of terms can be locally adapted to the inherent azimuthal smoothness of the wavefields. AxiSEM3D allows not only for material heterogeneities, such as velocity, density, anisotropy and attenuation, but also for finite undulations on radial discontinuities, both solid-solid and solid-fluid, and thereby a variety of aspherical Earth features such as ellipticity, topography, variable crustal thickness, and core-mantle boundary topography. Such interface undulations are equivalently interpreted as material perturbations of the contiguous media, based on the "particle relabelling transformation". Efficiency comparisons show that AxiSEM3D can be 1 to 3 orders of magnitude faster than conventional 3-D methods, with the speedup increasing with simulation frequency and decreasing with model complexity, but for all realistic structures the speedup remains at least one order of magnitude. The observable frequency range of global seismic data (up to 1 Hz) has been covered for wavefield modelling upon a 3-D Earth model with reasonable computing resources. We show an application of surface wave modelling within a state-of-the-art global crustal model (Crust1.0), with the synthetics compared to real data. The high-performance C++ code is released at github.com/AxiSEM3D/AxiSEM3D.

  16. A robotic assembly procedure using 3D object reconstruction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chrysostomou, Dimitrios; Bitzidou, Malamati; Gasteratos, Antonios

    The use of robotic systems for rapid manufacturing and intelligent automation has attracted growing interest in recent years. Specifically, the generation and planning of an object assembly sequence is becoming crucial as it can reduce significantly the production costs and accelerate the full...

  17. 3D Object Segmentation of Point Clouds using Profiling Techniques ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In the automatic processing of point clouds, higher level information in the form of point segments is required for classification and object detection purposes. Segmentation allows for the definition of these segments. Because of the increasing size of point clouds faster and more reliable segmentation methods are being ...

  18. 3D Models of a Transversal Flux Inductor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    POPA Monica

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with 3D numerical models of transverse flux inductor with a flexible electromagnetic configuration developed in Flux3D software. The simplified 3D model is coupled with a simplex optimization algorithm in order to attain a maximum uniformity of the transversal profile of power developed within the metallic sheet. The complex 3D model is used for a thoroughly analysis of device.

  19. A primitive-based 3D object recognition system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhawan, Atam P.

    1988-01-01

    An intermediate-level knowledge-based system for decomposing segmented data into three-dimensional primitives was developed to create an approximate three-dimensional description of the real world scene from a single two-dimensional perspective view. A knowledge-based approach was also developed for high-level primitive-based matching of three-dimensional objects. Both the intermediate-level decomposition and the high-level interpretation are based on the structural and relational matching; moreover, they are implemented in a frame-based environment.

  20. A LOW-COST AND PORTABLE SYSTEM FOR 3D RECONSTRUCTION OF TEXTURE-LESS OBJECTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Hosseininaveh

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The optical methods for 3D modelling of objects can be classified into two categories including image-based and range-based methods. Structure from Motion is one of the image-based methods implemented in commercial software. In this paper, a low-cost and portable system for 3D modelling of texture-less objects is proposed. This system includes a rotating table designed and developed by using a stepper motor and a very light rotation plate. The system also has eight laser light sources with very dense and strong beams which provide a relatively appropriate pattern on texture-less objects. In this system, regarding to the step of stepper motor, images are semi automatically taken by a camera. The images can be used in structure from motion procedures implemented in Agisoft software.To evaluate the performance of the system, two dark objects were used. The point clouds of these objects were obtained by spraying a light powders on the objects and exploiting a GOM laser scanner. Then these objects were placed on the proposed turntable. Several convergent images were taken from each object while the laser light sources were projecting the pattern on the objects. Afterward, the images were imported in VisualSFM as a fully automatic software package for generating an accurate and complete point cloud. Finally, the obtained point clouds were compared to the point clouds generated by the GOM laser scanner. The results showed the ability of the proposed system to produce a complete 3D model from texture-less objects.

  1. Real and virtual explorations of the environment and interactive tracking of movable objects for the blind on the basis of tactile-acoustical maps and 3D environment models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hub, Andreas; Hartter, Tim; Kombrink, Stefan; Ertl, Thomas

    2008-01-01

    PURPOSE.: This study describes the development of a multi-functional assistant system for the blind which combines localisation, real and virtual navigation within modelled environments and the identification and tracking of fixed and movable objects. The approximate position of buildings is determined with a global positioning sensor (GPS), then the user establishes exact position at a specific landmark, like a door. This location initialises indoor navigation, based on an inertial sensor, a step recognition algorithm and map. Tracking of movable objects is provided by another inertial sensor and a head-mounted stereo camera, combined with 3D environmental models. This study developed an algorithm based on shape and colour to identify objects and used a common face detection algorithm to inform the user of the presence and position of others. The system allows blind people to determine their position with approximately 1 metre accuracy. Virtual exploration of the environment can be accomplished by moving one's finger on a touch screen of a small portable tablet PC. The name of rooms, building features and hazards, modelled objects and their positions are presented acoustically or in Braille. Given adequate environmental models, this system offers blind people the opportunity to navigate independently and safely, even within unknown environments. Additionally, the system facilitates education and rehabilitation by providing, in several languages, object names, features and relative positions.

  2. An overview of 3D topology for LADM-based objects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zulkifli, N.A.; Rahman, A.A.; Van Oosterom, P.J.M.

    2015-01-01

    This paper reviews 3D topology within Land Administration Domain Model (LADM) international standard. It is important to review characteristic of the different 3D topological models and to choose the most suitable model for certain applications. The characteristic of the different 3D topological

  3. Integrating 3D modeling, photogrammetry and design

    CERN Document Server

    Foster, Shaun

    2014-01-01

    This book looks at the convergent nature of technology and its relationship to the field of photogrammetry and 3D design. This is a facet of a broader discussion of the nature of technology itself and the relationship of technology to art, as well as an examination of the educational process. In the field of technology-influenced design-based education it is natural to push for advanced technology, yet within a larger institution the constraints of budget and adherence to tradition must be accepted. These opposing forces create a natural balance; in some cases constraints lead to greater creat

  4. 3D modeling of metallic grain growth

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    George, D.; Carlson, N.; Gammel, J.T.; Kuprat, A.

    1999-06-01

    This paper will describe simulating metallic grain growth using the Gradient Weighted Moving Finite Elements code, GRAIN3D. The authors also describe the set of mesh topology change operations developed to respond to changes in the physical topology such as the collapse of grains and to maintain uniform calculational mesh quality. Validation of the method is demonstrated by comparison to analytic calculations. The authors present results of multigrain simulations where grain boundaries evolve by mean curvature motion and include results which incorporate grain boundary orientation dependence.

  5. OB3D, a new set of 3D objects available for research: a web-based study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buffat, Stéphane; Chastres, Véronique; Bichot, Alain; Rider, Delphine; Benmussa, Frédéric; Lorenceau, Jean

    2014-01-01

    Studying object recognition is central to fundamental and clinical research on cognitive functions but suffers from the limitations of the available sets that cannot always be modified and adapted to meet the specific goals of each study. We here present a new set of 3D scans of real objects available on-line as ASCII files, OB3D. These files are lists of dots, each defined by a triplet of spatial coordinates and their normal that allow simple and highly versatile transformations and adaptations. We performed a web-based experiment to evaluate the minimal number of dots required for the denomination and categorization of these objects, thus providing a reference threshold. We further analyze several other variables derived from this data set, such as the correlations with object complexity. This new stimulus set, which was found to activate the Lower Occipital Complex (LOC) in another study, may be of interest for studies of cognitive functions in healthy participants and patients with cognitive impairments, including visual perception, language, memory, etc. PMID:25339920

  6. A Unified 3D Spatial Data Model for Surface and Subsurface Spatial ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    surface. LoD maps for surface and subsurface integration exist for most city centres but the 3D component is lacking and this ... the integration of surface and subsurface models are discussed and a geometric, topological 3D object oriented model is sug- gested. .... dimensional (3D) continuous geological stratigraphy,.

  7. 3D noise-resistant segmentation and tracking of unknown and occluded objects using integral imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aloni, Doron; Jung, Jae-Hyun; Yitzhaky, Yitzhak

    2017-10-01

    Three dimensional (3D) object segmentation and tracking can be useful in various computer vision applications, such as: object surveillance for security uses, robot navigation, etc. We present a method for 3D multiple-object tracking using computational integral imaging, based on accurate 3D object segmentation. The method does not employ object detection by motion analysis in a video as conventionally performed (such as background subtraction or block matching). This means that the movement properties do not significantly affect the detection quality. The object detection is performed by analyzing static 3D image data obtained through computational integral imaging With regard to previous works that used integral imaging data in such a scenario, the proposed method performs the 3D tracking of objects without prior information about the objects in the scene, and it is found efficient under severe noise conditions.

  8. 3D model tools for architecture and archaeology reconstruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vlad, Ioan; Herban, Ioan Sorin; Stoian, Mircea; Vilceanu, Clara-Beatrice

    2016-06-01

    The main objective of architectural and patrimonial survey is to provide a precise documentation of the status quo of the surveyed objects (monuments, buildings, archaeological object and sites) for preservation and protection, for scientific studies and restoration purposes, for the presentation to the general public. Cultural heritage documentation includes an interdisciplinary approach having as purpose an overall understanding of the object itself and an integration of the information which characterize it. The accuracy and the precision of the model are directly influenced by the quality of the measurements realized on field and by the quality of the software. The software is in the process of continuous development, which brings many improvements. On the other side, compared to aerial photogrammetry, close range photogrammetry and particularly architectural photogrammetry is not limited to vertical photographs with special cameras. The methodology of terrestrial photogrammetry has changed significantly and various photographic acquisitions are widely in use. In this context, the present paper brings forward a comparative study of TLS (Terrestrial Laser Scanner) and digital photogrammetry for 3D modeling. The authors take into account the accuracy of the 3D models obtained, the overall costs involved for each technology and method and the 4th dimension - time. The paper proves its applicability as photogrammetric technologies are nowadays used at a large scale for obtaining the 3D model of cultural heritage objects, efficacious in their assessment and monitoring, thus contributing to historic conservation. Its importance also lies in highlighting the advantages and disadvantages of each method used - very important issue for both the industrial and scientific segment when facing decisions such as in which technology to invest more research and funds.

  9. 3-D numerical modelling of flow around a groin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Miller, R.; Roulund, A.; Sumer, B. Mutlu

    2003-01-01

    A 3-D flow code, EllipSys3D, has been implemented to simulate the 3-D flow around a groin in steady current. The k  turbulence model has been used for closure. Two kinds of groins are considered: (1) A vertical-wall groin, and (2) A groin with a side slope. Steady-flow simulations were conducted...

  10. 3D facial geometric features for constrained local model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cheng, Shiyang; Zafeiriou, Stefanos; Asthana, Ashish; Asthana, Akshay; Pantic, Maja

    2014-01-01

    We propose a 3D Constrained Local Model framework for deformable face alignment in depth image. Our framework exploits the intrinsic 3D geometric information in depth data by utilizing robust histogram-based 3D geometric features that are based on normal vectors. In addition, we demonstrate the

  11. 3D modeling based on CityEngine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Guangyin; Liao, Kaiju

    2017-03-01

    Currently, there are many 3D modeling softwares, like 3DMAX, AUTOCAD, and more populous BIM softwares represented by REVIT. CityEngine modeling software introduced in this paper can fully utilize the existing GIS data and combine other built models to make 3D modeling on internal and external part of buildings in a rapid and batch manner, so as to improve the 3D modeling efficiency.

  12. Laser Energy Deposition Model for the ICF3D Code

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaiser, Thomas B.; Byers, Jack A.

    1996-11-01

    We have built a laser deposition module for the new ICF physics design code, ICF3D(``3D Unstructured Mesh ALE Hydrodynamics with the Upwind Discontinuous Finite Element Method,'' D. S. Kershaw, M. K. Prasad and M. J. Shaw,'' LLNL Report UCRL-JC-122104, (1995)), being developed at LLNL. The code uses a 3D unstructured grid on which hydrodynamic quantities are represented in terms of discontinuous linear finite elements (hexahedrons, prisms, tetrahedrons or pyramids). Because of the complex mesh geometry and (in general) non-uniform index of refraction (i.e., plasma density), the geometrical-optical ray-tracing problem is quite complicated. To solve it we have developed a grid-cell-face-crossing detection algorithm, an integrator for the ray equations of motion and a path-length calculator that are encapsulated in a C++ class that is used to create ray-bundle objects. Additional classes are being developed for inverse-bremsstrahlung and resonance-absorption heating models. A quasi-optical technique will be used to include diffractive effects. We use the ICF3D Python shell, a very flexible interface that allows command-line invocation of member functions.

  13. From 2D Silhouettes to 3D Object Retrieval: Contributions and Benchmarking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Napoléon Thibault

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available 3D retrieval has recently emerged as an important boost for 2D search techniques. This is mainly due to its several complementary aspects, for instance, enriching views in 2D image datasets, overcoming occlusion and serving in many real-world applications such as photography, art, archeology, and geolocalization. In this paper, we introduce a complete "2D photography to 3D object" retrieval framework. Given a (collection of picture(s or sketch(es of the same scene or object, the method allows us to retrieve the underlying similar objects in a database of 3D models. The contribution of our method includes (i a generative approach for alignment able to find canonical views consistently through scenes/objects and (ii the application of an efficient but effective matching method used for ranking. The results are reported through the Princeton Shape Benchmark and the Shrec benchmarking consortium evaluated/compared by a third party. In the two gallery sets, our framework achieves very encouraging performance and outperforms the other runs.

  14. 3D Reflection Map Modeling for Optical Emitter-receiver Pairs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Henrik Vie

    2004-01-01

    A model for a model-based 3D-position determination system for a passive object is presented. Infrared emitter/receiver pairs are proposed as sensing part to acquire information on a ball shaped object's position. A 3D reflection map model is derived trough geometrical considerations. The model...

  15. An Object-Oriented Simulator for 3D Digital Breast Tomosynthesis Imaging System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saeed Seyyedi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Digital breast tomosynthesis (DBT is an innovative imaging modality that provides 3D reconstructed images of breast to detect the breast cancer. Projections obtained with an X-ray source moving in a limited angle interval are used to reconstruct 3D image of breast. Several reconstruction algorithms are available for DBT imaging. Filtered back projection algorithm has traditionally been used to reconstruct images from projections. Iterative reconstruction algorithms such as algebraic reconstruction technique (ART were later developed. Recently, compressed sensing based methods have been proposed in tomosynthesis imaging problem. We have developed an object-oriented simulator for 3D digital breast tomosynthesis (DBT imaging system using C++ programming language. The simulator is capable of implementing different iterative and compressed sensing based reconstruction methods on 3D digital tomosynthesis data sets and phantom models. A user friendly graphical user interface (GUI helps users to select and run the desired methods on the designed phantom models or real data sets. The simulator has been tested on a phantom study that simulates breast tomosynthesis imaging problem. Results obtained with various methods including algebraic reconstruction technique (ART and total variation regularized reconstruction techniques (ART+TV are presented. Reconstruction results of the methods are compared both visually and quantitatively by evaluating performances of the methods using mean structural similarity (MSSIM values.

  16. An object-oriented simulator for 3D digital breast tomosynthesis imaging system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seyyedi, Saeed; Cengiz, Kubra; Kamasak, Mustafa; Yildirim, Isa

    2013-01-01

    Digital breast tomosynthesis (DBT) is an innovative imaging modality that provides 3D reconstructed images of breast to detect the breast cancer. Projections obtained with an X-ray source moving in a limited angle interval are used to reconstruct 3D image of breast. Several reconstruction algorithms are available for DBT imaging. Filtered back projection algorithm has traditionally been used to reconstruct images from projections. Iterative reconstruction algorithms such as algebraic reconstruction technique (ART) were later developed. Recently, compressed sensing based methods have been proposed in tomosynthesis imaging problem. We have developed an object-oriented simulator for 3D digital breast tomosynthesis (DBT) imaging system using C++ programming language. The simulator is capable of implementing different iterative and compressed sensing based reconstruction methods on 3D digital tomosynthesis data sets and phantom models. A user friendly graphical user interface (GUI) helps users to select and run the desired methods on the designed phantom models or real data sets. The simulator has been tested on a phantom study that simulates breast tomosynthesis imaging problem. Results obtained with various methods including algebraic reconstruction technique (ART) and total variation regularized reconstruction techniques (ART+TV) are presented. Reconstruction results of the methods are compared both visually and quantitatively by evaluating performances of the methods using mean structural similarity (MSSIM) values.

  17. 3D Servicescape Model: Atmospheric Qualities of Virtual Reality Retailing

    OpenAIRE

    Dad, Aasim M; Davies, Barry J; Rehman, Asma Abdul

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to provide a 3D servicescape conceptual model which explores the potential effect of 3D virtual reality retail stores' environment on shoppers' behaviour. Extensive review of literature within two different domains, namely: servicescape models, and retail atmospherics, was carried out in order to propose a conceptual model. Further, eight detailed interviews were conducted to confirm the stimulus dimension of the conceptual model. A 3D servicescape conceptual mode...

  18. 3D Simulation and Modeling of Ultra-fast 3D Silicon Detectors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu Manwen

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available 3D detectors with very small electrode spacing can provide ultra-fast detection due to their extremely small charge collection time. Since the detector full depletion voltage and charge collection time are independent to the detector thickness, ultra-fast 3D detectors can be made relatively thick (or not too thin, ~200 μm to ensure a large signal. The results of the 3D simulations and modeling of 3D silicon detectors with very small electrode spacing and relatively large thickness will be shown in this paper. The column spacing LP is in the range of 5 μm to 10 μm. At a bias voltage of only a few volts, the electric field in the detector can be large enough to ensure the carrier saturation drift velocity in most volume of the detector, and the detector charge collection time there can be as short as 10’s of ps. In this paper, we will analysis the simulated electrical characteristics of this detector structure through systematic 3D simulations using the Silvaco’s TCAD tool. Profiles of detector electric potential and electric field will be presented. We will investigate the region of low electric field (the “slow region” in the detector. We will also exam whether the detector reach the breakdown condition at operation voltages suggested in this work.

  19. Prototyping a sensor enabled 3D citymodel on geospatial managed objects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjems, Erik; Kolář, Jan

    2013-01-01

    resources in the most sustainable way. Using 3D models with consistent object definitions give us the possibility to avoid troublesome abstractions of reality, and design even complex urban systems fusing information from various sources of data. These systems are difficult to design with the traditional...... one constraint software design complex. On several occasions we have been advocating for a new end advanced formulation of real world features using the concept of Geospatial Managed Objects (GMO). This paper presents the outcome of the InfraWorld project, a 4 million Euro project financed primarily...

  20. From medical imaging data to 3D printed anatomical models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bücking, Thore M; Hill, Emma R; Robertson, James L; Maneas, Efthymios; Plumb, Andrew A; Nikitichev, Daniil I

    2017-01-01

    Anatomical models are important training and teaching tools in the clinical environment and are routinely used in medical imaging research. Advances in segmentation algorithms and increased availability of three-dimensional (3D) printers have made it possible to create cost-efficient patient-specific models without expert knowledge. We introduce a general workflow that can be used to convert volumetric medical imaging data (as generated by Computer Tomography (CT)) to 3D printed physical models. This process is broken up into three steps: image segmentation, mesh refinement and 3D printing. To lower the barrier to entry and provide the best options when aiming to 3D print an anatomical model from medical images, we provide an overview of relevant free and open-source image segmentation tools as well as 3D printing technologies. We demonstrate the utility of this streamlined workflow by creating models of ribs, liver, and lung using a Fused Deposition Modelling 3D printer.

  1. Integration of knowledge to support automatic object reconstruction from images and 3D data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boochs, F.; Truong, H; Marbs, A.; Karmacharya, A.; Cruz, C.; Habed, A.; Nicolle, C.; Voisin, Y.

    2011-01-01

    Object reconstruction is a important task in many fields of application as it allows to generate digital representations of our physical world used as base for analysis, planning, construction, visualization or other aims. A reconstruction itself normally is based on reliable data (images, 3D point clouds for example) expressing the object in his complete extension. This data then has to be compiled and analyzed in order to extract all necessary geometrical elements, which represent the object and form a digital copy of it. Traditional strategies are largely based on manual interaction and interpretation, because with increasing complexity of objects human understanding is inevitable to achieve acceptable and reliable results. But human interaction is time consuming and expensive, why many research has already been invested to integrate algorithmic support, what allows to speed up the process and reduce manual work load. Presently most such algorithms are data-driven and concentrate on specific features of the objects, being accessible to numerical models. By means of these models, which normally will represent geometrical (flatness, roughness, for example) or physical features (color, texture), the data is classified and analyzed. This is succesful for objects with a limited complexity, but gets to its limits with increasing complexity of objects. Then purely numerical strategies are not able to sufficiently model the reality. Therefore, the intention of our approach is to take human cogni-tive strategy as an example, and to simulate extraction processes based on available knowledge for the objects of interest. Such processes will introduce a semantic structure for the objects and guide the algorithms used to detect and recognize objects, which will yield a higher effectiveness. Hence, our research proposes an approach using knowledge to guide the algorithms in 3D point cloud and image processing.

  2. Visual Object Recognition with 3D-Aware Features in KITTI Urban Scenes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yebes, J. Javier; Bergasa, Luis M.; García-Garrido, Miguel Ángel

    2015-01-01

    Driver assistance systems and autonomous robotics rely on the deployment of several sensors for environment perception. Compared to LiDAR systems, the inexpensive vision sensors can capture the 3D scene as perceived by a driver in terms of appearance and depth cues. Indeed, providing 3D image understanding capabilities to vehicles is an essential target in order to infer scene semantics in urban environments. One of the challenges that arises from the navigation task in naturalistic urban scenarios is the detection of road participants (e.g., cyclists, pedestrians and vehicles). In this regard, this paper tackles the detection and orientation estimation of cars, pedestrians and cyclists, employing the challenging and naturalistic KITTI images. This work proposes 3D-aware features computed from stereo color images in order to capture the appearance and depth peculiarities of the objects in road scenes. The successful part-based object detector, known as DPM, is extended to learn richer models from the 2.5D data (color and disparity), while also carrying out a detailed analysis of the training pipeline. A large set of experiments evaluate the proposals, and the best performing approach is ranked on the KITTI website. Indeed, this is the first work that reports results with stereo data for the KITTI object challenge, achieving increased detection ratios for the classes car and cyclist compared to a baseline DPM. PMID:25903553

  3. Visual Object Recognition with 3D-Aware Features in KITTI Urban Scenes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yebes, J Javier; Bergasa, Luis M; García-Garrido, Miguel Ángel

    2015-04-20

    Driver assistance systems and autonomous robotics rely on the deployment of several sensors for environment perception. Compared to LiDAR systems, the inexpensive vision sensors can capture the 3D scene as perceived by a driver in terms of appearance and depth cues. Indeed, providing 3D image understanding capabilities to vehicles is an essential target in order to infer scene semantics in urban environments. One of the challenges that arises from the navigation task in naturalistic urban scenarios is the detection of road participants (e.g., cyclists, pedestrians and vehicles). In this regard, this paper tackles the detection and orientation estimation of cars, pedestrians and cyclists, employing the challenging and naturalistic KITTI images. This work proposes 3D-aware features computed from stereo color images in order to capture the appearance and depth peculiarities of the objects in road scenes. The successful part-based object detector, known as DPM, is extended to learn richer models from the 2.5D data (color and disparity), while also carrying out a detailed analysis of the training pipeline. A large set of experiments evaluate the proposals, and the best performing approach is ranked on the KITTI website. Indeed, this is the first work that reports results with stereo data for the KITTI object challenge, achieving increased detection ratios for the classes car and cyclist compared to a baseline DPM.

  4. Visual Object Recognition with 3D-Aware Features in KITTI Urban Scenes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Javier Yebes

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Driver assistance systems and autonomous robotics rely on the deployment of several sensors for environment perception. Compared to LiDAR systems, the inexpensive vision sensors can capture the 3D scene as perceived by a driver in terms of appearance and depth cues. Indeed, providing 3D image understanding capabilities to vehicles is an essential target in order to infer scene semantics in urban environments. One of the challenges that arises from the navigation task in naturalistic urban scenarios is the detection of road participants (e.g., cyclists, pedestrians and vehicles. In this regard, this paper tackles the detection and orientation estimation of cars, pedestrians and cyclists, employing the challenging and naturalistic KITTI images. This work proposes 3D-aware features computed from stereo color images in order to capture the appearance and depth peculiarities of the objects in road scenes. The successful part-based object detector, known as DPM, is extended to learn richer models from the 2.5D data (color and disparity, while also carrying out a detailed analysis of the training pipeline. A large set of experiments evaluate the proposals, and the best performing approach is ranked on the KITTI website. Indeed, this is the first work that reports results with stereo data for the KITTI object challenge, achieving increased detection ratios for the classes car and cyclist compared to a baseline DPM.

  5. 2D-Driven 3D Object Detection in RGB-D Images

    KAUST Repository

    Lahoud, Jean

    2017-12-25

    In this paper, we present a technique that places 3D bounding boxes around objects in an RGB-D scene. Our approach makes best use of the 2D information to quickly reduce the search space in 3D, benefiting from state-of-the-art 2D object detection techniques. We then use the 3D information to orient, place, and score bounding boxes around objects. We independently estimate the orientation for every object, using previous techniques that utilize normal information. Object locations and sizes in 3D are learned using a multilayer perceptron (MLP). In the final step, we refine our detections based on object class relations within a scene. When compared to state-of-the-art detection methods that operate almost entirely in the sparse 3D domain, extensive experiments on the well-known SUN RGB-D dataset [29] show that our proposed method is much faster (4.1s per image) in detecting 3D objects in RGB-D images and performs better (3 mAP higher) than the state-of-the-art method that is 4.7 times slower and comparably to the method that is two orders of magnitude slower. This work hints at the idea that 2D-driven object detection in 3D should be further explored, especially in cases where the 3D input is sparse.

  6. Building extraction for 3D city modelling using airborne laser ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The ground points was used to generate digital terrain model (DTM) while digital surface model (DSM) was produced from the entire point cloud. From DSM and DTM, we obtained ... Then the extracted building footprints from the building class were further processed to generate 3D model. The model provides 3D visual ...

  7. 3D Face modeling using the multi-deformable method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Jinkyu; Yu, Sunjin; Kim, Joongrock; Lee, Sangyoun

    2012-09-25

    In this paper, we focus on the problem of the accuracy performance of 3D face modeling techniques using corresponding features in multiple views, which is quite sensitive to feature extraction errors. To solve the problem, we adopt a statistical model-based 3D face modeling approach in a mirror system consisting of two mirrors and a camera. The overall procedure of our 3D facial modeling method has two primary steps: 3D facial shape estimation using a multiple 3D face deformable model and texture mapping using seamless cloning that is a type of gradient-domain blending. To evaluate our method's performance, we generate 3D faces of 30 individuals and then carry out two tests: accuracy test and robustness test. Our method shows not only highly accurate 3D face shape results when compared with the ground truth, but also robustness to feature extraction errors. Moreover, 3D face rendering results intuitively show that our method is more robust to feature extraction errors than other 3D face modeling methods. An additional contribution of our method is that a wide range of face textures can be acquired by the mirror system. By using this texture map, we generate realistic 3D face for individuals at the end of the paper.

  8. PERFORMANCE EVALUATION OF 3D MODELING SOFTWARE FOR UAV PHOTOGRAMMETRY

    OpenAIRE

    H. Yanagi; H. Yanagi; H. Chikatsu

    2016-01-01

    UAV (Unmanned Aerial Vehicle) photogrammetry, which combines UAV and freely available internet-based 3D modeling software, is widely used as a low-cost and user-friendly photogrammetry technique in the fields such as remote sensing and geosciences. In UAV photogrammetry, only the platform used in conventional aerial photogrammetry is changed. Consequently, 3D modeling software contributes significantly to its expansion. However, the algorithms of the 3D modelling software are black box algori...

  9. CityGML - Interoperable semantic 3D city models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gröger, Gerhard; Plümer, Lutz

    2012-07-01

    CityGML is the international standard of the Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC) for the representation and exchange of 3D city models. It defines the three-dimensional geometry, topology, semantics and appearance of the most relevant topographic objects in urban or regional contexts. These definitions are provided in different, well-defined Levels-of-Detail (multiresolution model). The focus of CityGML is on the semantical aspects of 3D city models, its structures, taxonomies and aggregations, allowing users to employ virtual 3D city models for advanced analysis and visualization tasks in a variety of application domains such as urban planning, indoor/outdoor pedestrian navigation, environmental simulations, cultural heritage, or facility management. This is in contrast to purely geometrical/graphical models such as KML, VRML, or X3D, which do not provide sufficient semantics. CityGML is based on the Geography Markup Language (GML), which provides a standardized geometry model. Due to this model and its well-defined semantics and structures, CityGML facilitates interoperable data exchange in the context of geo web services and spatial data infrastructures. Since its standardization in 2008, CityGML has become used on a worldwide scale: tools from notable companies in the geospatial field provide CityGML interfaces. Many applications and projects use this standard. CityGML is also having a strong impact on science: numerous approaches use CityGML, particularly its semantics, for disaster management, emergency responses, or energy-related applications as well as for visualizations, or they contribute to CityGML, improving its consistency and validity, or use CityGML, particularly its different Levels-of-Detail, as a source or target for generalizations. This paper gives an overview of CityGML, its underlying concepts, its Levels-of-Detail, how to extend it, its applications, its likely future development, and the role it plays in scientific research. Furthermore, its

  10. 3D Shape Modeling Using High Level Descriptors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Vedrana

    The goal of this Ph.D. project is to investigate and improve the methods for describing the surface of 3D objects, with focus on modeling geometric texture on surfaces. Surface modeling being a large field of research, the work done during this project concentrated around a few smaller areas...... corresponding to the research papers presented here. One of those areas is formulating surface priors by utilizing local surface properties. A well defined prior can, in a Bayesian framework, assist many common task in geometry processing, like denoising, object recovery, object matching and classification....... Some of the priors described here are defined on the main entities of the triangular mesh, vertices, edges and faces. Other priors are defined on small planar patches, denoted surfels. Another area of research deals with textures which cannot be described by height fields, for example biological...

  11. Vel-IO 3D: A tool for 3D velocity model construction, optimization and time-depth conversion in 3D geological modeling workflow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maesano, Francesco E.; D'Ambrogi, Chiara

    2017-02-01

    We present Vel-IO 3D, a tool for 3D velocity model creation and time-depth conversion, as part of a workflow for 3D model building. The workflow addresses the management of large subsurface dataset, mainly seismic lines and well logs, and the construction of a 3D velocity model able to describe the variation of the velocity parameters related to strong facies and thickness variability and to high structural complexity. Although it is applicable in many geological contexts (e.g. foreland basins, large intermountain basins), it is particularly suitable in wide flat regions, where subsurface structures have no surface expression. The Vel-IO 3D tool is composed by three scripts, written in Python 2.7.11, that automate i) the 3D instantaneous velocity model building, ii) the velocity model optimization, iii) the time-depth conversion. They determine a 3D geological model that is consistent with the primary geological constraints (e.g. depth of the markers on wells). The proposed workflow and the Vel-IO 3D tool have been tested, during the EU funded Project GeoMol, by the construction of the 3D geological model of a flat region, 5700 km2 in area, located in the central part of the Po Plain. The final 3D model showed the efficiency of the workflow and Vel-IO 3D tool in the management of large amount of data both in time and depth domain. A 4 layer-cake velocity model has been applied to a several thousand (5000-13,000 m) thick succession, with 15 horizons from Triassic up to Pleistocene, complicated by a Mesozoic extensional tectonics and by buried thrusts related to Southern Alps and Northern Apennines.

  12. Modified 3D time-of-flight camera for object separation in organic farming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knoll, Florian J.; Holtorf, Tim; Hussmann, Stephan

    2017-06-01

    An important step for the classification of plants in organic farming is the separation of the objects. In our approach a 3D camera will be used for this task. One problem is that most of the available 3D sensors are not suitable due to their bad resolution, low-speed and high costs. The Kinect II is an affordable alternative but designed for another workspace. In this paper it is shown why a 3D sensor is required for the separation of objects in organic farming and how the modification of a Kinect II 3D camera increases the range resolution to solve the given problem.

  13. Effective 3-D surface modeling for geographic information systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yüksek, K.; Alparslan, M.; Mendi, E.

    2016-01-01

    In this work, we propose a dynamic, flexible and interactive urban digital terrain platform with spatial data and query processing capabilities of geographic information systems, multimedia database functionality and graphical modeling infrastructure. A new data element, called Geo-Node, which stores image, spatial data and 3-D CAD objects is developed using an efficient data structure. The system effectively handles data transfer of Geo-Nodes between main memory and secondary storage with an optimized directional replacement policy (DRP) based buffer management scheme. Polyhedron structures are used in digital surface modeling and smoothing process is performed by interpolation. The experimental results show that our framework achieves high performance and works effectively with urban scenes independent from the amount of spatial data and image size. The proposed platform may contribute to the development of various applications such as Web GIS systems based on 3-D graphics standards (e.g., X3-D and VRML) and services which integrate multi-dimensional spatial information and satellite/aerial imagery.

  14. 3D-printer visualization of neuron models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert A McDougal

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Neurons come in a wide variety of shapes and sizes. In a quest to understand this neuronal diversity, researchers have three-dimensionally traced tens of thousands of neurons; many of these tracings are freely available through online repositories like NeuroMorpho.Org and ModelDB. Tracings can be visualized on the computer screen, used for statistical analysis of the properties of different cell types, used to simulate neuronal behavior, and more. We introduce the use of 3D printing as a technique for visualizing traced morphologies. Our method for generating printable versions of a cell or group of cells is to expand dendrite and axon diameters and then to transform the wireframe tracing into a 3D object with a neuronal surface generating algorithm like Constructive Tessellated Neuronal Geometry (CTNG. We show that 3D printed cells can be readily examined, manipulated, and compared with other neurons to gain insight into both the biology and the reconstruction process. We share our printable models in a new database, 3DModelDB, and encourage others to do the same with cells that they generate using our code or other methods. To provide additional context, 3DModelDB provides a simulatable version of each cell, links to papers that use or describe it, and links to associated entries in other databases.

  15. 3D-printer visualization of neuron models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDougal, Robert A; Shepherd, Gordon M

    2015-01-01

    Neurons come in a wide variety of shapes and sizes. In a quest to understand this neuronal diversity, researchers have three-dimensionally traced tens of thousands of neurons; many of these tracings are freely available through online repositories like NeuroMorpho.Org and ModelDB. Tracings can be visualized on the computer screen, used for statistical analysis of the properties of different cell types, used to simulate neuronal behavior, and more. We introduce the use of 3D printing as a technique for visualizing traced morphologies. Our method for generating printable versions of a cell or group of cells is to expand dendrite and axon diameters and then to transform the tracing into a 3D object with a neuronal surface generating algorithm like Constructive Tessellated Neuronal Geometry (CTNG). We show that 3D printed cells can be readily examined, manipulated, and compared with other neurons to gain insight into both the biology and the reconstruction process. We share our printable models in a new database, 3DModelDB, and encourage others to do the same with cells that they generate using our code or other methods. To provide additional context, 3DModelDB provides a simulatable version of each cell, links to papers that use or describe it, and links to associated entries in other databases.

  16. Numerical 3-D Modelling of Overflows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Torben; Nielsen, L.; Jensen, B.

    2008-01-01

    The present study uses laboratory experiments to evaluate the reliability of two types of numerical models of sewers systems: - 1-dimensional model based on the extended Saint-Venant equation including the term for curvature of the water surface (the so-called Boussinesq approximation) - 2- and 3......-dimensional so-called Volume of Fluid Models (VOF-models) based on the full Navier-Stokes equations (named NS3 and developed by DHI Water & Environment) As a general conclusion, the two numerical models show excellent results when compared with measurements. However, considerable errors occur when...... inappropriate boundary conditions and grid resolutions are chosen. The paper describes the used physical and numerical models and summarises the results....

  17. A 3D Geometry Model Search Engine to Support Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tam, Gary K. L.; Lau, Rynson W. H.; Zhao, Jianmin

    2009-01-01

    Due to the popularity of 3D graphics in animation and games, usage of 3D geometry deformable models increases dramatically. Despite their growing importance, these models are difficult and time consuming to build. A distance learning system for the construction of these models could greatly facilitate students to learn and practice at different…

  18. 3D Image Modelling and Specific Treatments in Orthodontics Domain

    OpenAIRE

    Goularas, Dionysis; Djemal, Khalifa; Mannoussakis, Yannis

    2007-01-01

    In this article, we present a 3D specific dental plaster treatment system for orthodontics. From computer tomography scanner images, we propose first a 3D image modelling and reconstruction method of the Mandible and Maxillary based on an adaptive triangulation allowing management of contours meant for the complex topologies. Secondly, we present two specific treatment methods directly achieved on obtained 3D model allowing the automatic correction for the setting in occlusion of the Mandible...

  19. 3D Temperature Distribution Model Based on Thermal Infrared Image

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tong Jia

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to study the construction of 3D temperature distribution reconstruction system based on binocular vision technology. Initially, a traditional calibration method cannot be directly used, because the thermal infrared camera is only sensitive to temperature. Therefore, the thermal infrared camera is calibrated separately. Belief propagation algorithm is also investigated and its smooth model is improved in terms of stereo matching to optimize mismatching rate. Finally, the 3D temperature distribution model is built based on the matching of 3D point cloud and 2D thermal infrared information. Experimental results show that the method can accurately construct the 3D temperature distribution model and has strong robustness.

  20. 3D Printed Models of Cleft Palate Pathology for Surgical Education

    OpenAIRE

    Lioufas, Peter A.; Quayle, Michelle R.; Leong, James C.; McMenamin, Paul G.

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To explore the potential viability and limitations of 3D printed models of children with cleft palate deformity. Background: The advantages of 3D printed replicas of normal anatomical specimens have previously been described. The creation of 3D prints displaying patient-specific anatomical pathology for surgical planning and interventions is an emerging field. Here we explored the possibility of taking rare pediatric radiographic data sets to create 3D prints for surgical education...

  1. Complex crustal structures: their 3D grav/mag modelling and 3D printing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Götze, Hans-Jürgen; Schmidt, Sabine; Menzel, Peter

    2017-04-01

    Our new techniques for modelling and visualization are user-friendly because they are highly interactive, ideally real-time and topology conserving and can be used for both flat and spherical models in 3D. These are important requirements for joint inversion for gravity and magnetic modelling of fields and their derivatives, constrained by seismic and structural input from independent data sources. A borehole tool for magnetic and gravity modelling will also be introduced. We are already close to satisfying the demand of treating several geophysical methods in a single model for subsurface evaluation purposes and aim now for fulfilling most of the constraints: consistency of modelling results and measurements and geological plausibility as well. For 3D modelling, polyhedrons built by triangles are used. All elements of the gravity and magnetic tensors can be included. In the modelling interface, after geometry changes the effect on the model is quickly updated because only the changed triangles have to be recalculated. Because of the triangular model structure, our approach can handle complex structures very well and flexible (e.g. overhangs of salt domes or plumes). For regional models, the use of spherical geometries and calculations is necessary and available. 3D visualization is performed with a 3D-printer (Ultimaker 2) and gives new insights into even rather complicated Earth subsurface structures. Inversion can either be run over the whole model, but typically it is used in smaller parts of the model, helping to solve local problems and/or proving/disproving local hypotheses. The basic principles behind this interactive approach are high performance optimized algorithms (CMA-ES: Covariance-matrix-adoption-evolution-strategy). The efficiency of the algorithm is rather good in terms of stable convergence due to topological model validity. Potential field modelling is always influenced by edge effects. To avoid this, a simple but very robust method has been

  2. Venusian Applications of 3D Convection Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonaccorso, Timary Annie

    2011-01-01

    This study models mantle convection on Venus using the 'cubed sphere' code OEDIPUS, which models one-sixth of the planet in spherical geometry. We are attempting to balance internal heating, bottom mantle viscosity, and temperature difference across Venus' mantle, in order to create a realistic model that matches with current planetary observations. We also have begun to run both lower and upper mantle simulations to determine whether layered (as opposed to whole-mantle) convection might produce more efficient heat transfer, as well as to model coronae formation in the upper mantle. Upper mantle simulations are completed using OEDIPUS' Cartesian counterpart, JOCASTA. This summer's central question has been how to define a mantle plume. Traditionally, we have defined a hot plume the region with temperature at or above 40% of the difference between the maximum and horizontally averaged temperature, and a cold plume as the region with 40% of the difference between the minimum and average temperature. For less viscous cases (1020 Pa?s), the plumes generated by that definition lacked vigor, displaying buoyancies 1/100th of those found in previous, higher viscosity simulations (1021 Pa?s). As the mantle plumes with large buoyancy flux are most likely to produce topographic uplift and volcanism, the low viscosity cases' plumes may not produce observable deformation. In an effort to eliminate the smallest plumes, we experimented with different lower bound parameters and temperature percentages.

  3. Computational modeling of RNA 3D structures and interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawson, Wayne K; Bujnicki, Janusz M

    2016-04-01

    RNA molecules have key functions in cellular processes beyond being carriers of protein-coding information. These functions are often dependent on the ability to form complex three-dimensional (3D) structures. However, experimental determination of RNA 3D structures is difficult, which has prompted the development of computational methods for structure prediction from sequence. Recent progress in 3D structure modeling of RNA and emerging approaches for predicting RNA interactions with ions, ligands and proteins have been stimulated by successes in protein 3D structure modeling. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  4. 3D modeling for the generation of virtual heritage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Díaz Gómez

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The present article is focused on the generation of virtual 3D contents from cultural heritage. Its main structure is divided in two well-defined blocks: the first one focused in the generation of 3D models, analyzing the most used technologies of 3D measuring in the cultural heritage, the most important software applications for the management of the 3D models obtained and the generation of the target contents; and a second block for exposing two case studies showing potential of these technologies, previously shown, for approaching the cultural heritage to both the general public and researchers, due to the development of the information and communication technologies.

  5. PROBADO3D – Towards an automatic multimedia indexing workflow for architectural 3D models

    OpenAIRE

    R. Berndt; I. Blümel; R. Wessel

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, we describe a repository for architectural 3D-CAD models which is currently set up at the German National Library of Science and Technology (TIB), Hannover, as part of the larger German PROBADO digital library initiative: The proposed PROBADO-framework is integrating different types of multimedia content-repositories and adding features available in text-based digital libraries. A workflow for automated content-based data analysis and indexing is proposed.

  6. Prototyping a Sensor Enabled 3d Citymodel on Geospatial Managed Objects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kjems, E.; Kolář, J.

    2013-09-01

    One of the major development efforts within the GI Science domain are pointing at sensor based information and the usage of real time information coming from geographic referenced features in general. At the same time 3D City models are mostly justified as being objects for visualization purposes rather than constituting the foundation of a geographic data representation of the world. The combination of 3D city models and real time information based systems though can provide a whole new setup for data fusion within an urban environment and provide time critical information preserving our limited resources in the most sustainable way. Using 3D models with consistent object definitions give us the possibility to avoid troublesome abstractions of reality, and design even complex urban systems fusing information from various sources of data. These systems are difficult to design with the traditional software development approach based on major software packages and traditional data exchange. The data stream is varying from urban domain to urban domain and from system to system why it is almost impossible to design a complete system taking care of all thinkable instances now and in the future within one constraint software design complex. On several occasions we have been advocating for a new end advanced formulation of real world features using the concept of Geospatial Managed Objects (GMO). This paper presents the outcome of the InfraWorld project, a 4 million Euro project financed primarily by the Norwegian Research Council where the concept of GMO's have been applied in various situations on various running platforms of an urban system. The paper will be focusing on user experiences and interfaces rather then core technical and developmental issues. The project was primarily focusing on prototyping rather than realistic implementations although the results concerning applicability are quite clear.

  7. Værkanalyse med digitale 3D modeller

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Villaume, René Domine; Ørstrup, Finn Rude

    2006-01-01

    Projektet afprøve muligheder for Værkanalyse af danske arkitekturværker med anvendelse af digitale 3D modeller. Arkitektstuderende har i en workshop udarbejdet en 3D model af Arkitekt Vilhelm Lauritzens bygning til  Københavns Lufthavn fra 1939. Modellen er herefter videreudviklet og yderligere...

  8. Global Magnetospheric Modeling of 3D Reconnection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spicer, Daniel S.

    1999-01-01

    A review of approaches to the global modeling of the terrestrial magnetosphere, how these approaches are utilized to interpret satellite data, and how these approaches have been successful at predicting magnetospheric phenomena will be presented. In addition, the importance of the ionospheric boundary and its effect on the globally topology of the magnetospheric magnetic field will be reviewed. In particular, numerical results that are rapidly changing our view of magnetospheric reconnection within the magnetospheric magnetic field will be discussed.

  9. An Automatic Registration Algorithm for 3D Maxillofacial Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Luwen; Zhou, Zhongwei; Guo, Jixiang; Lv, Jiancheng

    2016-09-01

    3D image registration aims at aligning two 3D data sets in a common coordinate system, which has been widely used in computer vision, pattern recognition and computer assisted surgery. One challenging problem in 3D registration is that point-wise correspondences between two point sets are often unknown apriori. In this work, we develop an automatic algorithm for 3D maxillofacial models registration including facial surface model and skull model. Our proposed registration algorithm can achieve a good alignment result between partial and whole maxillofacial model in spite of ambiguous matching, which has a potential application in the oral and maxillofacial reparative and reconstructive surgery. The proposed algorithm includes three steps: (1) 3D-SIFT features extraction and FPFH descriptors construction; (2) feature matching using SAC-IA; (3) coarse rigid alignment and refinement by ICP. Experiments on facial surfaces and mandible skull models demonstrate the efficiency and robustness of our algorithm.

  10. Scalable singular 3D modeling for digital battlefield applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jannson, Tomasz P.; Ternovskiy, Igor V.

    2000-10-01

    We propose a new classification algorithm to detect and classify targets of interest. It is based on an advanced brand of analytic geometry of manifolds, called theory of catastrophes. Physical Optics Corporation's (POC) scalable 3D model representation provides automatic and real-time analysis of a discrete frame of a sensed 2D imagery of terrain, urban, and target features. It then transforms this frame of discrete different-perspective 2D views of a target into a 3D continuous model called a pictogram. The unique local stereopsis feature of this modeling is the surprising ability to locally obtain a 3D pictogram from a single monoscopic photograph. The proposed 3D modeling, combined with more standard change detection algorithms and 3D terrain feature models, will constitute a novel classification algorithm and a new type of digital battlefield imagery for Imaging Systems.

  11. Visualization of the ROOT 3D class objects with openInventor-like viewers

    CERN Document Server

    Fine, V; Kulikova, A; Panebrattsev, M

    2004-01-01

    The class library for conversion of the ROOT 3D class objects to the iv format for 3D image viewers is described in this paper. At present the library was tested using the STAR and ATLAS detector geometry without any changes and revision for concrete detector.

  12. Modeling of a PWR using 3D components; Modelado de un PWR mediante componentes 3D

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mesado, C.; Garcia-Fenoll, M.; Miro, R.; Barrachina, T.; Verdu, G.

    2013-07-01

    The simulation of the behavior of the nucleus in nuclear reactors is especially important in the design, operation and safety of the plant. It is such importance that it has been decided to make a model of a nuclear reactor fully 3D. This has been used trailers codes TRACE v5.0 patch 3/PARCS v3.0. In addition, the model has been validated with another model of the same reactor through the attached code basis/PARCS2.7.

  13. Exporting 3d objects to m3g format used for 3d graphics in mobile phones

    OpenAIRE

    Pragarauskaitė, Julija

    2009-01-01

    Šiame magistro darbe nagrinėjamas M3G standartas, skirtas 3D grafikai mobiliuose telefonuose, tiriamos 3D modelių eksportavimo į M3G formatą galimybės bei M3G standarto suderinamumas. Apžvelgiamos 3D modeliavimo bei eksportavimo priemonės bei pasirinkta modeliavimo priemonė Blender, įgalinanti pasiekti 3D modelio duomenis naudojant Python skriptus. Sukurta eksportavimo iš Blender modeliavimo priemonės į M3G formatą schema. Schema realizuojama suprogramavus eksportavimo priemonę vartojant Pyth...

  14. 3D GIS FOR FLOOD MODELLING IN RIVER VALLEYS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Tymkow

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study is implementation of system architecture for collecting and analysing data as well as visualizing results for hydrodynamic modelling of flood flows in river valleys using remote sensing methods, tree-dimensional geometry of spatial objects and GPU multithread processing. The proposed solution includes: spatial data acquisition segment, data processing and transformation, mathematical modelling of flow phenomena and results visualization. Data acquisition segment was based on aerial laser scanning supplemented by images in visible range. Vector data creation was based on automatic and semiautomatic algorithms of DTM and 3D spatial features modelling. Algorithms for buildings and vegetation geometry modelling were proposed or adopted from literature. The implementation of the framework was designed as modular software using open specifications and partially reusing open source projects. The database structure for gathering and sharing vector data, including flood modelling results, was created using PostgreSQL. For the internal structure of feature classes of spatial objects in a database, the CityGML standard was used. For the hydrodynamic modelling the solutions of Navier-Stokes equations in two-dimensional version was implemented. Visualization of geospatial data and flow model results was transferred to the client side application. This gave the independence from server hardware platform. A real-world case in Poland, which is a part of Widawa River valley near Wroclaw city, was selected to demonstrate the applicability of proposed system.

  15. RECONSTRUCCIÓN DE OBJETO 3D A PARTIR DE IMÁGENES CALIBRADAS 3D OBJECT RECONSTRUCTION WITH CALIBRATED IMAGES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natividad Grandón-Pastén

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Este trabajo presenta el desarrollo de un sistema de reconstrucción de objeto 3D, a partir de una colección de vistas. El sistema se compone de dos módulos principales. El primero realiza el procesamiento de imagen, cuyo objetivo es determinar el mapa de profundidad en un par de vistas, donde cada par de vistas sucesivas sigue una secuencia de fases: detección de puntos de interés, correspondencia de puntos y reconstrucción de puntos; en el proceso de reconstrucción se determinan los parámetros que describen el movimiento (matriz de rotación R y el vector de traslación T entre las dos vistas. Esta secuencia de pasos se repite para todos los pares de vista sucesivas del conjunto. El segundo módulo tiene como objetivo crear el modelo 3D del objeto, para lo cual debe determinar el mapa total de todos los puntos 3D generados; en cada iteración del módulo anterior, una vez obtenido el mapa de profundidad total, genera la malla 3D, aplicando el método de triangulación de Delaunay [28]. Los resultados obtenidos del proceso de reconstrucción son modelados en un ambiente virtual VRML para obtener una visualización más realista del objeto.The system is composed of two main modules. The first one, carries out the image prosecution, whose objective is to determine the depth map of a pair of views where each pair of successive views continues a sequence of phases: interest points detection, points correspondence and points reconstruction; in the reconstruction process, is determined the parameters that describe the movement (rotation matrix R and the translation vector T between the two views. This an sequence of steps is repeated for all the peers of successive views of the set. The second module has as objective to create the 3D model of the object, for it should determine the total map of all the 3D points generated, by each iteration of the previous module, once obtained the map of total depth generates the 3D netting, applying the

  16. From Images to 3D Models Made Easy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Esteban, I.; Dijk, J.; Groen, F.

    2011-01-01

    FIT3D is a Toolbox built for Matlab that aims at unifying and distributing a set of tools that will allow the researcher to obtain a complete 3D model from a set of calibrated images. In this paper we motivate and present the structure of the toolbox in a tutorial and example based approach. Given

  17. NoSQL Based 3D City Model Management System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, B.; Harrie, L.; Cao, J.; Wu, Z.; Shen, J.

    2014-04-01

    To manage increasingly complicated 3D city models, a framework based on NoSQL database is proposed in this paper. The framework supports import and export of 3D city model according to international standards such as CityGML, KML/COLLADA and X3D. We also suggest and implement 3D model analysis and visualization in the framework. For city model analysis, 3D geometry data and semantic information (such as name, height, area, price and so on) are stored and processed separately. We use a Map-Reduce method to deal with the 3D geometry data since it is more complex, while the semantic analysis is mainly based on database query operation. For visualization, a multiple 3D city representation structure CityTree is implemented within the framework to support dynamic LODs based on user viewpoint. Also, the proposed framework is easily extensible and supports geoindexes to speed up the querying. Our experimental results show that the proposed 3D city management system can efficiently fulfil the analysis and visualization requirements.

  18. Accelerated computation of hologram patterns by use of interline redundancy of 3-D object images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Seung-Cheol; Choe, Woo-Young; Kim, Eun-Soo

    2011-09-01

    We present a new approach for accelerated computation of hologram patterns of a three-dimensional (3-D) image by taking into account of its interline redundant data. Interline redundant data of a 3-D image are extracted with the differential pulse code modulation (DPCM) algorithm, and then the CGH patterns for these compressed line images are generated with the novel lookup table (N-LUT) technique. To confirm the feasibility of the proposed method, experiments with four kinds of 3-D test objects are carried out, and the results are comparatively discussed with the conventional methods in terms of the number of object points and the computation time. Experimental results show that the number of calculated object points and the computation time for one object point have been reduced by 73.3 and 83.9%, on the average, for four test 3-D images in the proposed method employing a top-down scanning method, compared to the conventional method.

  19. VIEWNET: a neural architecture for learning to recognize 3D objects from multiple 2D views

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grossberg, Stephen; Bradski, Gary

    1994-10-01

    A self-organizing neural network is developed for recognition of 3-D objects from sequences of their 2-D views. Called VIEWNET because it uses view information encoded with networks, the model processes 2-D views of 3-D objects using the CORT-X 2 filter, which discounts the illuminant, regularizes and completes figural boundaries, and removes noise from the images. A log-polar transform is taken with respect to the centroid of the resulting figure and then re-centered to achieve 2-D scale and rotation invariance. The invariant images are coarse coded to further reduce noise, reduce foreshortening effects, and increase generalization. These compressed codes are input into a supervised learning system based on the Fuzzy ARTMAP algorithm which learns 2-D view categories. Evidence from sequences of 2-D view categories is stored in a working memory. Voting based on the unordered set of stored categories determines object recognition. Recognition is studied with noisy and clean images using slow and fast learning. VIEWNET is demonstrated on an MIT Lincoln Laboratory database of 2-D views of aircraft with and without additive noise. A recognition rate of up to 90% is achieved with one 2-D view category and of up to 98.5% correct with three 2-D view categories.

  20. Unwrapping Highly-Detailed 3d Meshes of Rotationally Symmetric Man-Made Objects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rieck, B.; Mara, H.; Krömker, S.

    2013-07-01

    Rotationally symmetric objects commonly occur at archæological finds. Instead of creating 2D images for documentation purposes by manual drawing or photographic methods, we propose a method based on digitally colored surface models that are acquired by 3D scanners, thereby including color information. We then transform these highly-detailed meshes using simple geometrical objects such as cones and spheres and unwrap the objects onto a plane. Our method can handle curved vessel profiles by dividing the surface into multiple segments and approximating each segment with a cone frustum that serves as an auxiliary surface. In order to minimize distortions, we introduce a simple quality measure based on distances of points to a fitted cone. We then extend our method to approximately spherical objects by fitting a sphere on the surface of the object and applying a map projection, namely the equirectangular projection known from cartography. Our implementation generates true-to-scale images from triangular meshes. Exemplary results demonstrate our methods on real objects, ranging from small and medium-sized objects such as clay cones from the Ancient Orient and figural friezes of Greek vessels to extremely large objects such as the remains of a cylindrical tower of Heidelberg Castle.

  1. Procedural 3d Modelling for Traditional Settlements. The Case Study of Central Zagori

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitsakis, D.; Tsiliakou, E.; Labropoulos, T.; Dimopoulou, E.

    2017-02-01

    Over the last decades 3D modelling has been a fast growing field in Geographic Information Science, extensively applied in various domains including reconstruction and visualization of cultural heritage, especially monuments and traditional settlements. Technological advances in computer graphics, allow for modelling of complex 3D objects achieving high precision and accuracy. Procedural modelling is an effective tool and a relatively novel method, based on algorithmic modelling concept. It is utilized for the generation of accurate 3D models and composite facade textures from sets of rules which are called Computer Generated Architecture grammars (CGA grammars), defining the objects' detailed geometry, rather than altering or editing the model manually. In this paper, procedural modelling tools have been exploited to generate the 3D model of a traditional settlement in the region of Central Zagori in Greece. The detailed geometries of 3D models derived from the application of shape grammars on selected footprints, and the process resulted in a final 3D model, optimally describing the built environment of Central Zagori, in three levels of Detail (LoD). The final 3D scene was exported and published as 3D web-scene which can be viewed with 3D CityEngine viewer, giving a walkthrough the whole model, same as in virtual reality or game environments. This research work addresses issues regarding textures' precision, LoD for 3D objects and interactive visualization within one 3D scene, as well as the effectiveness of large scale modelling, along with the benefits and drawbacks that derive from procedural modelling techniques in the field of cultural heritage and more specifically on 3D modelling of traditional settlements.

  2. Conceptual Development af a 3D Product Configuration Model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skauge, Jørn

    2006-01-01

    Paper. This project deals with 3D product configuration of a digital building element which has been developed as a prototype in cooperation between a product manufacturer and a research institution in Denmark. The project falls within the concept of product modelling which is more and more used ......’s production of steel fire sliding doors. The development of the 3D digital model is based on practical rather than theoretical research. The result of the research is a prototype digital 3D model to be presented live....

  3. Plane-based optimization for 3D object reconstruction from single line drawings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jianzhuang; Cao, Liangliang; Li, Zhenguo; Tang, Xiaoou

    2008-02-01

    In previous optimization-based methods of 3D planar-faced object reconstruction from single 2D line drawings, the missing depths of the vertices of a line drawing (and other parameters in some methods) are used as the variables of the objective functions. A 3D object with planar faces is derived by finding values for these variables that minimize the objective functions. These methods work well for simple objects with a small number N of variables. As N grows, however, it is very difficult for them to find expected objects. This is because with the nonlinear objective functions in a space of large dimension N, the search for optimal solutions can easily get trapped into local minima. In this paper, we use the parameters of the planes that pass through the planar faces of an object as the variables of the objective function. This leads to a set of linear constraints on the planes of the object, resulting in a much lower dimensional nullspace where optimization is easier to achieve. We prove that the dimension of this nullspace is exactly equal to the minimum number of vertex depths which define the 3D object. Since a practical line drawing is usually not an exact projection of a 3D object, we expand the nullspace to a larger space based on the singular value decomposition of the projection matrix of the line drawing. In this space, robust 3D reconstruction can be achieved. Compared with two most related methods, our method not only can reconstruct more complex 3D objects from 2D line drawings, but also is computationally more efficient.

  4. Thickness and clearance visualization based on distance field of 3D objects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masatomo Inui

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a novel method for visualizing the thickness and clearance of 3D objects in a polyhedral representation. The proposed method uses the distance field of the objects in the visualization. A parallel algorithm is developed for constructing the distance field of polyhedral objects using the GPU. The distance between a voxel and the surface polygons of the model is computed many times in the distance field construction. Similar sets of polygons are usually selected as close polygons for close voxels. By using this spatial coherence, a parallel algorithm is designed to compute the distances between a cluster of close voxels and the polygons selected by the culling operation so that the fast shared memory mechanism of the GPU can be fully utilized. The thickness/clearance of the objects is visualized by distributing points on the visible surfaces of the objects and painting them with a unique color corresponding to the thickness/clearance values at those points. A modified ray casting method is developed for computing the thickness/clearance using the distance field of the objects. A system based on these algorithms can compute the distance field of complex objects within a few minutes for most cases. After the distance field construction, thickness/clearance visualization at a near interactive rate is achieved.

  5. Brandenburg 3D - a comprehensive 3D Subsurface Model, Conception of an Infrastructure Node and a Web Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerschke, Dorit; Schilling, Maik; Simon, Andreas; Wächter, Joachim

    2014-05-01

    The Energiewende and the increasing scarcity of raw materials will lead to an intensified utilization of the subsurface in Germany. Within this context, geological 3D modeling is a fundamental approach for integrated decision and planning processes. Initiated by the development of the European Geospatial Infrastructure INSPIRE, the German State Geological Offices started digitizing their predominantly analog archive inventory. Until now, a comprehensive 3D subsurface model of Brandenburg did not exist. Therefore the project B3D strived to develop a new 3D model as well as a subsequent infrastructure node to integrate all geological and spatial data within the Geodaten-Infrastruktur Brandenburg (Geospatial Infrastructure, GDI-BB) and provide it to the public through an interactive 2D/3D web application. The functionality of the web application is based on a client-server architecture. Server-sided, all available spatial data is published through GeoServer. GeoServer is designed for interoperability and acts as the reference implementation of the Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC) Web Feature Service (WFS) standard that provides the interface that allows requests for geographical features. In addition, GeoServer implements, among others, the high performance certified compliant Web Map Service (WMS) that serves geo-referenced map images. For publishing 3D data, the OGC Web 3D Service (W3DS), a portrayal service for three-dimensional geo-data, is used. The W3DS displays elements representing the geometry, appearance, and behavior of geographic objects. On the client side, the web application is solely based on Free and Open Source Software and leans on the JavaScript API WebGL that allows the interactive rendering of 2D and 3D graphics by means of GPU accelerated usage of physics and image processing as part of the web page canvas without the use of plug-ins. WebGL is supported by most web browsers (e.g., Google Chrome, Mozilla Firefox, Safari, and Opera). The web

  6. Comparison of active SIFT-based 3D object recognition algorithms

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Keaikitse, M

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Active object recognition aims to manipulate the sensor and its parameters, and interact with the environment and/or the object of interest in order to gather more information to complete the 3D object recognition task as quickly and accurately...

  7. Active learning in the lecture theatre using 3D printed objects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, David P

    2016-01-01

    The ability to conceptualize 3D shapes is central to understanding biological processes. The concept that the structure of a biological molecule leads to function is a core principle of the biochemical field. Visualisation of biological molecules often involves vocal explanations or the use of two dimensional slides and video presentations. A deeper understanding of these molecules can however be obtained by the handling of objects. 3D printed biological molecules can be used as active learning tools to stimulate engagement in large group lectures. These models can be used to build upon initial core knowledge which can be delivered in either a flipped form or a more didactic manner. Within the teaching session the students are able to learn by handling, rotating and viewing the objects to gain an appreciation, for example, of an enzyme's active site or the difference between the major and minor groove of DNA. Models and other artefacts can be handled in small groups within a lecture theatre and act as a focal point to generate conversation. Through the approach presented here core knowledge is first established and then supplemented with high level problem solving through a "Think-Pair-Share" cooperative learning strategy. The teaching delivery was adjusted based around experiential learning activities by moving the object from mental cognition and into the physical environment. This approach led to students being able to better visualise biological molecules and a positive engagement in the lecture. The use of objects in teaching allows the lecturer to create interactive sessions that both challenge and enable the student.

  8. A New 3D Object Pose Detection Method Using LIDAR Shape Set.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jung-Un; Kang, Hang-Bong

    2018-03-16

    In object detection systems for autonomous driving, LIDAR sensors provide very useful information. However, problems occur because the object representation is greatly distorted by changes in distance. To solve this problem, we propose a LIDAR shape set that reconstructs the shape surrounding the object more clearly by using the LIDAR point information projected on the object. The LIDAR shape set restores object shape edges from a bird's eye view by filtering LIDAR points projected on a 2D pixel-based front view. In this study, we use this shape set for two purposes. The first is to supplement the shape set with a LIDAR Feature map, and the second is to divide the entire shape set according to the gradient of the depth and density to create a 2D and 3D bounding box proposal for each object. We present a multimodal fusion framework that classifies objects and restores the 3D pose of each object using enhanced feature maps and shape-based proposals. The network structure consists of a VGG -based object classifier that receives multiple inputs and a LIDAR-based Region Proposal Networks (RPN) that identifies object poses. It works in a very intuitive and efficient manner and can be extended to other classes other than vehicles. Our research has outperformed object classification accuracy (Average Precision, AP) and 3D pose restoration accuracy (3D bounding box recall rate) based on the latest studies conducted with KITTI data sets.

  9. 3D Image Modelling and Specific Treatments in Orthodontics Domain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dionysis Goularas

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available In this article, we present a 3D specific dental plaster treatment system for orthodontics. From computer tomography scanner images, we propose first a 3D image modelling and reconstruction method of the Mandible and Maxillary based on an adaptive triangulation allowing management of contours meant for the complex topologies. Secondly, we present two specific treatment methods directly achieved on obtained 3D model allowing the automatic correction for the setting in occlusion of the Mandible and the Maxillary, and the teeth segmentation allowing more specific dental examinations. Finally, these specific treatments are presented via a client/server application with the aim of allowing a telediagnosis and treatment.

  10. \\HIGH RESOLUTION 3D MODELING OF THE BEHAIM GLOBE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Menna

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The article describes the 3D surveying and modeling of the Behaim globe, the oldest still existing and intact globe of the earth, preserved at the German National Museum of Nuremberg, Germany. The work is primarily performed using high-resolution digital images and automatic photogrammetric techniques. Triangulation-based laser scanning is also employed to fill some gaps in the derived image-based 3D geometry and perform geometric comparisons. Major problems are encountered in texture mapping. The 3D modeling project and the creation of high-resolution map-projections is performed for scientific, conservation, visualization and education purposes.

  11. Research and implementation on 3D modeling of geological body

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niu, Lijuan; Li, Ligong; Zhu, Renyi; Huang, Man

    2017-10-01

    This study based on GIS thinking explores the combination of the mixed spatial data model and GIS model to build three-dimensional(3d) model of geological bodies in the Arc Engine platform, describes the interface and method used in the construction of 3d geological body in Arc Engine component platform in detail, and puts forward an indirect method which constructs a set of geological grid layers through Rigging interpolation by the borehole data and then converts it into the geological layers of TIN, which improves the defect in building the geological layers of TIN directly and makes it better to complete the simulation of the real geological layer. This study makes a useful attempt to build 3d model of the geological body based on the GIS, and provides a certain reference value for simulating geological bodies in 3d and constructing the digital system of underground space.

  12. Animation of 3D Model of Human Head

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Michalcin

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with the new algorithm of animation of 3D model of the human head in combination with its global motion. The designed algorithm is very fast and with low calculation requirements, because it does not need the synthesis of the input videosequence for estimation of the animation parameters as well as the parameters of global motion. The used 3D model Candide generates different expressions using its animation units which are controlled by the animation parameters. These ones are estimated on the basis of optical flow without the need of extracting of the feature points in the frames of the input videosequence because they are given by the selected vertices of the animation units of the calibrated 3D model Candide. The established multiple iterations inside the designed animation algorithm of 3D model of the human head between two successive frames significantly improved its accuracy above all for the large motion.

  13. Active Exploration of Large 3D Model Repositories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Lin; Cao, Yan-Pei; Lai, Yu-Kun; Huang, Hao-Zhi; Kobbelt, Leif; Hu, Shi-Min

    2015-12-01

    With broader availability of large-scale 3D model repositories, the need for efficient and effective exploration becomes more and more urgent. Existing model retrieval techniques do not scale well with the size of the database since often a large number of very similar objects are returned for a query, and the possibilities to refine the search are quite limited. We propose an interactive approach where the user feeds an active learning procedure by labeling either entire models or parts of them as "like" or "dislike" such that the system can automatically update an active set of recommended models. To provide an intuitive user interface, candidate models are presented based on their estimated relevance for the current query. From the methodological point of view, our main contribution is to exploit not only the similarity between a query and the database models but also the similarities among the database models themselves. We achieve this by an offline pre-processing stage, where global and local shape descriptors are computed for each model and a sparse distance metric is derived that can be evaluated efficiently even for very large databases. We demonstrate the effectiveness of our method by interactively exploring a repository containing over 100 K models.

  14. A standardized set of 3-D objects for virtual reality research and applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peeters, David

    2017-06-23

    The use of immersive virtual reality as a research tool is rapidly increasing in numerous scientific disciplines. By combining ecological validity with strict experimental control, immersive virtual reality provides the potential to develop and test scientific theories in rich environments that closely resemble everyday settings. This article introduces the first standardized database of colored three-dimensional (3-D) objects that can be used in virtual reality and augmented reality research and applications. The 147 objects have been normed for name agreement, image agreement, familiarity, visual complexity, and corresponding lexical characteristics of the modal object names. The availability of standardized 3-D objects for virtual reality research is important, because reaching valid theoretical conclusions hinges critically on the use of well-controlled experimental stimuli. Sharing standardized 3-D objects across different virtual reality labs will allow for science to move forward more quickly.

  15. A Unified Building Model for 3D Urban GIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ihab Hijazi

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Several tasks in urban and architectural design are today undertaken in a geospatial context. Building Information Models (BIM and geospatial technologies offer 3D data models that provide information about buildings and the surrounding environment. The Industry Foundation Classes (IFC and CityGML are today the two most prominent semantic models for representation of BIM and geospatial models respectively. CityGML has emerged as a standard for modeling city models while IFC has been developed as a reference model for building objects and sites. Current CAD and geospatial software provide tools that allow the conversion of information from one format to the other. These tools are however fairly limited in their capabilities, often resulting in data and information losses in the transformations. This paper describes a new approach for data integration based on a unified building model (UBM which encapsulates both the CityGML and IFC models, thus avoiding translations between the models and loss of information. To build the UBM, all classes and related concepts were initially collected from both models, overlapping concepts were merged, new objects were created to ensure the capturing of both indoor and outdoor objects, and finally, spatial relationships between the objects were redefined. Unified Modeling Language (UML notations were used for representing its objects and relationships between them. There are two use-case scenarios, both set in a hospital: “evacuation” and “allocating spaces for patient wards” were developed to validate and test the proposed UBM data model. Based on these two scenarios, four validation queries were defined in order to validate the appropriateness of the proposed unified building model. It has been validated, through the case scenarios and four queries, that the UBM being developed is able to integrate CityGML data as well as IFC data in an apparently seamless way. Constraints and enrichment functions are

  16. From medical imaging data to 3D printed anatomical models.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thore M Bücking

    Full Text Available Anatomical models are important training and teaching tools in the clinical environment and are routinely used in medical imaging research. Advances in segmentation algorithms and increased availability of three-dimensional (3D printers have made it possible to create cost-efficient patient-specific models without expert knowledge. We introduce a general workflow that can be used to convert volumetric medical imaging data (as generated by Computer Tomography (CT to 3D printed physical models. This process is broken up into three steps: image segmentation, mesh refinement and 3D printing. To lower the barrier to entry and provide the best options when aiming to 3D print an anatomical model from medical images, we provide an overview of relevant free and open-source image segmentation tools as well as 3D printing technologies. We demonstrate the utility of this streamlined workflow by creating models of ribs, liver, and lung using a Fused Deposition Modelling 3D printer.

  17. 3D Numerical Modeling of Flow in Sedimentation Basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harlan Dhemi

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Normal operation sedimentation basin flushing systems require large volumes of water, typically up ten times of the deposited sediment volume for efficient flushing. A complete sediment removal, can only be realized by combination of mechanical removal with drawdown flushing. This operation reaches much longer operation time resulting in water loss and reducing power and energy production of Mini Hydro Power Plant (MHPP. The objective of this study is to improve the flushing system of sedimentation basin based on a numerical approach. Fluid motion is described with non-linear, transient, second-order differential equations. A numerical solution of these equations involves approximating the various terms with algebraic expressions. The resulting equations are then solved to yield an approximate solution to the original problem. The simulation result shows that the 3D numerical modeling of flow in sedimentation basin gives the reasonable result to predict the suspended load movement in the flow.

  18. Performance Evaluation of 3d Modeling Software for Uav Photogrammetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yanagi, H.; Chikatsu, H.

    2016-06-01

    UAV (Unmanned Aerial Vehicle) photogrammetry, which combines UAV and freely available internet-based 3D modeling software, is widely used as a low-cost and user-friendly photogrammetry technique in the fields such as remote sensing and geosciences. In UAV photogrammetry, only the platform used in conventional aerial photogrammetry is changed. Consequently, 3D modeling software contributes significantly to its expansion. However, the algorithms of the 3D modelling software are black box algorithms. As a result, only a few studies have been able to evaluate their accuracy using 3D coordinate check points. With this motive, Smart3DCapture and Pix4Dmapper were downloaded from the Internet and commercial software PhotoScan was also employed; investigations were performed in this paper using check points and images obtained from UAV.

  19. PERFORMANCE EVALUATION OF 3D MODELING SOFTWARE FOR UAV PHOTOGRAMMETRY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Yanagi

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available UAV (Unmanned Aerial Vehicle photogrammetry, which combines UAV and freely available internet-based 3D modeling software, is widely used as a low-cost and user-friendly photogrammetry technique in the fields such as remote sensing and geosciences. In UAV photogrammetry, only the platform used in conventional aerial photogrammetry is changed. Consequently, 3D modeling software contributes significantly to its expansion. However, the algorithms of the 3D modelling software are black box algorithms. As a result, only a few studies have been able to evaluate their accuracy using 3D coordinate check points. With this motive, Smart3DCapture and Pix4Dmapper were downloaded from the Internet and commercial software PhotoScan was also employed; investigations were performed in this paper using check points and images obtained from UAV.

  20. Web based Interactive 3D Learning Objects for Learning Management Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefan Hesse

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we present an approach to create and integrate interactive 3D learning objects of high quality for higher education into a learning management system. The use of these resources allows to visualize topics, such as electro-technical and physical processes in the interior of complex devices. This paper addresses the challenge of combining rich interactivity and adequate realism with 3D exercise material for distance elearning.

  1. Image to Point Cloud Method of 3D-MODELING

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chibunichev, A. G.; Galakhov, V. P.

    2012-07-01

    This article describes the method of constructing 3D models of objects (buildings, monuments) based on digital images and a point cloud obtained by terrestrial laser scanner. The first step is the automated determination of exterior orientation parameters of digital image. We have to find the corresponding points of the image and point cloud to provide this operation. Before the corresponding points searching quasi image of point cloud is generated. After that SIFT algorithm is applied to quasi image and real image. SIFT algorithm allows to find corresponding points. Exterior orientation parameters of image are calculated from corresponding points. The second step is construction of the vector object model. Vectorization is performed by operator of PC in an interactive mode using single image. Spatial coordinates of the model are calculated automatically by cloud points. In addition, there is automatic edge detection with interactive editing available. Edge detection is performed on point cloud and on image with subsequent identification of correct edges. Experimental studies of the method have demonstrated its efficiency in case of building facade modeling.

  2. Metric Evaluation Pipeline for 3d Modeling of Urban Scenes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosch, M.; Leichtman, A.; Chilcott, D.; Goldberg, H.; Brown, M.

    2017-05-01

    Publicly available benchmark data and metric evaluation approaches have been instrumental in enabling research to advance state of the art methods for remote sensing applications in urban 3D modeling. Most publicly available benchmark datasets have consisted of high resolution airborne imagery and lidar suitable for 3D modeling on a relatively modest scale. To enable research in larger scale 3D mapping, we have recently released a public benchmark dataset with multi-view commercial satellite imagery and metrics to compare 3D point clouds with lidar ground truth. We now define a more complete metric evaluation pipeline developed as publicly available open source software to assess semantically labeled 3D models of complex urban scenes derived from multi-view commercial satellite imagery. Evaluation metrics in our pipeline include horizontal and vertical accuracy and completeness, volumetric completeness and correctness, perceptual quality, and model simplicity. Sources of ground truth include airborne lidar and overhead imagery, and we demonstrate a semi-automated process for producing accurate ground truth shape files to characterize building footprints. We validate our current metric evaluation pipeline using 3D models produced using open source multi-view stereo methods. Data and software is made publicly available to enable further research and planned benchmarking activities.

  3. METRIC EVALUATION PIPELINE FOR 3D MODELING OF URBAN SCENES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Bosch

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Publicly available benchmark data and metric evaluation approaches have been instrumental in enabling research to advance state of the art methods for remote sensing applications in urban 3D modeling. Most publicly available benchmark datasets have consisted of high resolution airborne imagery and lidar suitable for 3D modeling on a relatively modest scale. To enable research in larger scale 3D mapping, we have recently released a public benchmark dataset with multi-view commercial satellite imagery and metrics to compare 3D point clouds with lidar ground truth. We now define a more complete metric evaluation pipeline developed as publicly available open source software to assess semantically labeled 3D models of complex urban scenes derived from multi-view commercial satellite imagery. Evaluation metrics in our pipeline include horizontal and vertical accuracy and completeness, volumetric completeness and correctness, perceptual quality, and model simplicity. Sources of ground truth include airborne lidar and overhead imagery, and we demonstrate a semi-automated process for producing accurate ground truth shape files to characterize building footprints. We validate our current metric evaluation pipeline using 3D models produced using open source multi-view stereo methods. Data and software is made publicly available to enable further research and planned benchmarking activities.

  4. Gis-Based Smart Cartography Using 3d Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malinverni, E. S.; Tassetti, A. N.

    2013-08-01

    3D City Models have evolved to be important tools for urban decision processes and information systems, especially in planning, simulation, analysis, documentation and heritage management. On the other hand existing and in use numerical cartography is often not suitable to be used in GIS because not geometrically and topologically correctly structured. The research aim is to 3D structure and organize a numeric cartography for GIS and turn it into CityGML standardized features. The work is framed around a first phase of methodological analysis aimed to underline which existing standard (like ISO and OGC rules) can be used to improve the quality requirement of a cartographic structure. Subsequently, from this technical specifics, it has been investigated the translation in formal contents, using an owner interchange software (SketchUp), to support some guide lines implementations to generate a GIS3D structured in GML3. It has been therefore predisposed a test three-dimensional numerical cartography (scale 1:500, generated from range data captured by 3D laser scanner), tested on its quality according to the previous standard and edited when and where necessary. Cad files and shapefiles are converted into a final 3D model (Google SketchUp model) and then exported into a 3D city model (CityGML LoD1/LoD2). The GIS3D structure has been managed in a GIS environment to run further spatial analysis and energy performance estimate, not achievable in a 2D environment. In particular geometrical building parameters (footprint, volume etc.) are computed and building envelop thermal characteristics are derived from. Lastly, a simulation is carried out to deal with asbestos and home renovating charges and show how the built 3D city model can support municipal managers with risk diagnosis of the present situation and development of strategies for a sustainable redevelop.

  5. Heuristic 3D Object Shape Completion based on Symmetry and Scene Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-12-01

    Heuristic 3D Object Shape Completion based on Symmetry and Scene Context David Schiebener, Andreas Schmidt, Nikolaus Vahrenkamp and Tamim Asfour...Focusing on the worst case, and probably the most common one, where only one side of the object was perceived, we propose robust heuristics that allow to

  6. Representing 3D virtual objects: interaction between visuo-spatial ability and type of exploration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meijer, F.; van den Broek, Egon

    2010-01-01

    We investigated individual differences in interactively exploring previous term3D virtual objects.next term 36 participants explored 24 simple and 24 difficult previous objects (composed of respectively three and five Biederman geons) actively, passively, or not at all. Both their previous

  7. 3D model generation using an airborne swarm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clark, R. A.; Punzo, G.; Macdonald, M. [Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, University of Strathclyde, Glasgow, G1 1XW (United Kingdom); Dobie, G.; MacLeod, C. N.; Summan, R.; Pierce, G. [Centre for Ultrasonic Engineering, University of Strathclyde, Glasgow, G1 1XW (United Kingdom); Bolton, G. [National Nuclear Laboratory Limited, Chadwick House, Warrington Road, Birchwood Park, Warrington, WA3 6AE (United Kingdom)

    2015-03-31

    Using an artificial kinematic field to provide co-ordination between multiple inspection UAVs, the authors herein demonstrate full 3D modelling capability based on a photogrammetric system. The operation of the system is demonstrated by generating a full 3D surface model of an intermediate level nuclear waste storage drum. Such drums require periodic inspection to ensure that drum distortion or corrosion is carefully monitored. Performing this inspection with multiple airborne platforms enables rapid inspection of structures that are inaccessible to on-surface remote vehicles and are in human-hazardous environments. A three-dimensional surface-meshed model of the target can then be constructed in post-processing through photogrammetry analysis of the visual inspection data. The inspection environment uses a tracking system to precisely monitor the position of each aerial vehicle within the enclosure. The vehicles used are commercially available Parrot AR. Drone quadcopters, controlled through a computer interface connected over an IEEE 802.11n (WiFi) network, implementing a distributed controller for each vehicle. This enables the autonomous and distributed elements of the control scheme to be retained, while alleviating the vehicles of the control algorithm’s computational load. The control scheme relies on a kinematic field defined with the target at its centre. This field defines the trajectory for all the drones in the volume relative to the central target, enabling the drones to circle the target at a set radius while avoiding drone collisions. This function enables complete coverage along the height of the object, which is assured by transitioning to another inspection band only after completing circumferential coverage. Using a swarm of vehicles, the time until complete coverage can be significantly reduced.

  8. 3D model generation using an airborne swarm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clark, R. A.; Punzo, G.; Macdonald, M.; Dobie, G.; MacLeod, C. N.; Summan, R.; Pierce, G.; Bolton, G.

    2015-01-01

    Using an artificial kinematic field to provide co-ordination between multiple inspection UAVs, the authors herein demonstrate full 3D modelling capability based on a photogrammetric system. The operation of the system is demonstrated by generating a full 3D surface model of an intermediate level nuclear waste storage drum. Such drums require periodic inspection to ensure that drum distortion or corrosion is carefully monitored. Performing this inspection with multiple airborne platforms enables rapid inspection of structures that are inaccessible to on-surface remote vehicles and are in human-hazardous environments. A three-dimensional surface-meshed model of the target can then be constructed in post-processing through photogrammetry analysis of the visual inspection data. The inspection environment uses a tracking system to precisely monitor the position of each aerial vehicle within the enclosure. The vehicles used are commercially available Parrot AR. Drone quadcopters, controlled through a computer interface connected over an IEEE 802.11n (WiFi) network, implementing a distributed controller for each vehicle. This enables the autonomous and distributed elements of the control scheme to be retained, while alleviating the vehicles of the control algorithm’s computational load. The control scheme relies on a kinematic field defined with the target at its centre. This field defines the trajectory for all the drones in the volume relative to the central target, enabling the drones to circle the target at a set radius while avoiding drone collisions. This function enables complete coverage along the height of the object, which is assured by transitioning to another inspection band only after completing circumferential coverage. Using a swarm of vehicles, the time until complete coverage can be significantly reduced

  9. 3D model generation using an airborne swarm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, R. A.; Punzo, G.; Dobie, G.; MacLeod, C. N.; Summan, R.; Pierce, G.; Macdonald, M.; Bolton, G.

    2015-03-01

    Using an artificial kinematic field to provide co-ordination between multiple inspection UAVs, the authors herein demonstrate full 3D modelling capability based on a photogrammetric system. The operation of the system is demonstrated by generating a full 3D surface model of an intermediate level nuclear waste storage drum. Such drums require periodic inspection to ensure that drum distortion or corrosion is carefully monitored. Performing this inspection with multiple airborne platforms enables rapid inspection of structures that are inaccessible to on-surface remote vehicles and are in human-hazardous environments. A three-dimensional surface-meshed model of the target can then be constructed in post-processing through photogrammetry analysis of the visual inspection data. The inspection environment uses a tracking system to precisely monitor the position of each aerial vehicle within the enclosure. The vehicles used are commercially available Parrot AR. Drone quadcopters, controlled through a computer interface connected over an IEEE 802.11n (WiFi) network, implementing a distributed controller for each vehicle. This enables the autonomous and distributed elements of the control scheme to be retained, while alleviating the vehicles of the control algorithm's computational load. The control scheme relies on a kinematic field defined with the target at its centre. This field defines the trajectory for all the drones in the volume relative to the central target, enabling the drones to circle the target at a set radius while avoiding drone collisions. This function enables complete coverage along the height of the object, which is assured by transitioning to another inspection band only after completing circumferential coverage. Using a swarm of vehicles, the time until complete coverage can be significantly reduced.

  10. 3D MODEL GENERATION USING OBLIQUE IMAGES ACQUIRED BY UAV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Lingua

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, many studies revealed the advantages of using airborne oblique images for obtaining improved 3D city models (including façades and building footprints. Here the acquisition and use of oblique images from a low cost and open source Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV for the 3D high-level-of-detail reconstruction of historical architectures is evaluated. The critical issues of such acquisitions (flight planning strategies, ground control points distribution, etc. are described. Several problems should be considered in the flight planning: best approach to cover the whole object with the minimum time of flight; visibility of vertical structures; occlusions due to the context; acquisition of all the parts of the objects (the closest and the farthest with similar resolution; suitable camera inclination, and so on. In this paper a solution is proposed in order to acquire oblique images with one only flight. The data processing was realized using Structure-from-Motion-based approach for point cloud generation using dense image-matching algorithms implemented in an open source software. The achieved results are analysed considering some check points and some reference LiDAR data. The system was tested for surveying a historical architectonical complex: the “Sacro Mo nte di Varallo Sesia” in north-west of Italy. This study demonstrates that the use of oblique images acquired from a low cost UAV system and processed through an open source software is an effective methodology to survey cultural heritage, characterized by limited accessibility, need for detail and rapidity of the acquisition phase, and often reduced budgets.

  11. Creating 3D models of historical buildings using geospatial data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alionescu, Adrian; Bǎlǎ, Alina Corina; Brebu, Floarea Maria; Moscovici, Anca-Maria

    2017-07-01

    Recently, a lot of interest has been shown to understand a real world object by acquiring its 3D images of using laser scanning technology and panoramic images. A realistic impression of geometric 3D data can be generated by draping real colour textures simultaneously captured by a colour camera images. In this context, a new concept of geospatial data acquisition has rapidly revolutionized the method of determining the spatial position of objects, which is based on panoramic images. This article describes an approach that comprises inusing terrestrial laser scanning and panoramic images captured with Trimble V10 Imaging Rover technology to enlarge the details and realism of the geospatial data set, in order to obtain 3D urban plans and virtual reality applications.

  12. Consistency between 2D-3D Sediment Transport models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villaret, Catherine; Jodeau, Magali

    2017-04-01

    Sediment transport models have been developed and applied by the engineering community to estimate transport rates and morphodynamic bed evolutions in river flows, coastal and estuarine conditions. Environmental modelling systems like the open-source Telemac modelling system include a hierarchy of models from 1D (Mascaret), 2D (Telemac-2D/Sisyphe) and 3D (Telemac-3D/Sedi-3D) and include a wide range of processes to represent sediment flow interactions under more and more complex situations (cohesive, non-cohesive and mixed sediment). Despite some tremendous progresses in the numerical techniques and computing resources, the quality/accuracy of model results mainly depend on the numerous choices and skills of the modeler. In complex situations involving stratification effects, complex geometry, recirculating flows… 2D model assumptions are no longer valid. A full 3D turbulent flow model is then required in order to capture the vertical mixing processes and to represent accurately the coupled flow/sediment distribution. However a number of theoretical and numerical difficulties arise when dealing with sediment transport modelling in 3D which will be high-lighted : (1) Dependency of model results to the vertical grid refinement and choice of boundary conditions and numerical scheme (2) The choice of turbulence model determines also the sediment vertical distribution which is governed by a balance between the downward settling term and upward turbulent diffusion. (3) The use of different numerical schemes for both hydrodynamics (mean and turbulent flow) and sediment transport modelling can lead to some inconsistency including a mismatch in the definition of numerical cells and definition of boundary conditions. We discuss here those present issues and present some detailed comparison between 2D and 3D simulations on a set of validation test cases which are available in the Telemac 7.2 release using both cohesive and non-cohesive sediments.

  13. Arbitrary modeling of TSVs for 3D integrated circuits

    CERN Document Server

    Salah, Khaled; El-Rouby, Alaa

    2014-01-01

    This book presents a wide-band and technology independent, SPICE-compatible RLC model for through-silicon vias (TSVs) in 3D integrated circuits. This model accounts for a variety of effects, including skin effect, depletion capacitance and nearby contact effects. Readers will benefit from in-depth coverage of concepts and technology such as 3D integration, Macro modeling, dimensional analysis and compact modeling, as well as closed form equations for the through silicon via parasitics. Concepts covered are demonstrated by using TSVs in applications such as a spiral inductor?and inductive-based

  14. Modeling And Position Control Of Scara Type 3D Printer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmet Saygamp305n Ogulmuamp351

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available In this work a scara robot type 3D printer system is dynamically modeled and position control of the system is realized. For this aim computer aided design model of three degrees of freedom robotic system is created using SolidWorks program then obtained model is exported to MATLABSimMechanics software for position control. Also mathematical model of servo motors used in robotic 3D printer system is included in control methodology to design proportional controllers. Uncontrolled and controlled position results are simulated and given in the form of the graphics.

  15. Quasi-3D modelling of surf zone dynamics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Luijendijk, A.; Henrotte, J.; Walstra, D.J.R.; van Ormondt, M.

    2010-01-01

    A quasi-three-dimensional model (quasi-3D) has been developed through the implementation of an analytical 1DV flow model in existing depth-averaged shallow water equations. The model includes the effects of waves and wind on the vertical distribution of the horizontal velocities. Comparisons with

  16. 3-D GRACE gravity model for the 2011 Japan earthquake

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    model (3-D forward gravity pyramid model with constant density contrasts) to explain the isolated. GRACE satellite gravity anomaly at an average satellite height of 500 km above MSL for the 2011. Japan earthquake. Additionally, our model infers rupture length, average rupture velocity, seismic moment and momentum ...

  17. Global travel time tomography with 3-D reference models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Amaru, M.L.

    2007-01-01

    In this study, a global high-resolution P-wave velocity model is obtained for the Earth's crust and mantle using travel time tomography. Improvements to previous models are achieved by incorporating additional data and advancing the method to use 3-D reference models. The newly compiled data set

  18. MolPrint3D: Enhanced 3D Printing of Ball-and-Stick Molecular Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paukstelis, Paul J.

    2018-01-01

    The increased availability of noncommercial 3D printers has provided instructors and students improved access to printing technology. However, printing complex ball-and-stick molecular structures faces distinct challenges, including the need for support structures that increase with molecular complexity. MolPrint3D is a software add-on for the…

  19. A spherical harmonics intensity model for 3D segmentation and 3D shape analysis of heterochromatin foci.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eck, Simon; Wörz, Stefan; Müller-Ott, Katharina; Hahn, Matthias; Biesdorf, Andreas; Schotta, Gunnar; Rippe, Karsten; Rohr, Karl

    2016-08-01

    The genome is partitioned into regions of euchromatin and heterochromatin. The organization of heterochromatin is important for the regulation of cellular processes such as chromosome segregation and gene silencing, and their misregulation is linked to cancer and other diseases. We present a model-based approach for automatic 3D segmentation and 3D shape analysis of heterochromatin foci from 3D confocal light microscopy images. Our approach employs a novel 3D intensity model based on spherical harmonics, which analytically describes the shape and intensities of the foci. The model parameters are determined by fitting the model to the image intensities using least-squares minimization. To characterize the 3D shape of the foci, we exploit the computed spherical harmonics coefficients and determine a shape descriptor. We applied our approach to 3D synthetic image data as well as real 3D static and real 3D time-lapse microscopy images, and compared the performance with that of previous approaches. It turned out that our approach yields accurate 3D segmentation results and performs better than previous approaches. We also show that our approach can be used for quantifying 3D shape differences of heterochromatin foci. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Improving 3D spatial queries search: newfangled technique of space filling curves in 3D city modeling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Uznir, U.; Anton, François; Suhaibah, A.

    2013-01-01

    , in this research, we extend the Hilbert space-filling curve to one higher dimension for 3D city model data implementations. The query performance was tested using a CityGML dataset of 1,000 building blocks and the results are presented in this paper. The advantages of implementing space-filling curves in 3D city......The advantages of three dimensional (3D) city models can be seen in various applications including photogrammetry, urban and regional planning, computer games, etc.. They expand the visualization and analysis capabilities of Geographic Information Systems on cities, and they can be developed using....... In this research, we propose an opponent data constellation technique of space-filling curves (space-filling curve) for 3D city model data representation. Unlike previous methods, that try to project 3D or n-dimensional data down to 2D or 3D using Principal Component Analysis (PCA) or Hilbert mappings...

  1. 3D model of amphioxus steroid receptor complexed with estradiol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baker, Michael E.; Chang, David J.

    2009-01-01

    The origins of signaling by vertebrate steroids are not fully understood. An important advance was the report that an estrogen-binding steroid receptor [SR] is present in amphioxus, a basal chordate with a similar body plan as vertebrates. To investigate the evolution of estrogen-binding to steroid receptors, we constructed a 3D model of amphioxus SR complexed with estradiol. This 3D model indicates that although the SR is activated by estradiol, some interactions between estradiol and human ERα are not conserved in the SR, which can explain the low affinity of estradiol for the SR. These differences between the SR and ERα in the steroid-binding domain are sufficient to suggest that another steroid is the physiological regulator of the SR. The 3D model predicts that mutation of Glu-346 to Gln will increase the affinity of testosterone for amphioxus SR and elucidate the evolution of steroid-binding to nuclear receptors.

  2. 3D model of amphioxus steroid receptor complexed with estradiol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baker, Michael E., E-mail: mbaker@ucsd.edu [Department of Medicine, University of California, San Diego, 9500 Gilman Drive, La Jolla, CA 92093-0693 (United States); Chang, David J. [Department of Biology, University of California, San Diego, 9500 Gilman Drive, La Jolla, CA 92093-0693 (United States)

    2009-08-28

    The origins of signaling by vertebrate steroids are not fully understood. An important advance was the report that an estrogen-binding steroid receptor [SR] is present in amphioxus, a basal chordate with a similar body plan as vertebrates. To investigate the evolution of estrogen-binding to steroid receptors, we constructed a 3D model of amphioxus SR complexed with estradiol. This 3D model indicates that although the SR is activated by estradiol, some interactions between estradiol and human ER{alpha} are not conserved in the SR, which can explain the low affinity of estradiol for the SR. These differences between the SR and ER{alpha} in the steroid-binding domain are sufficient to suggest that another steroid is the physiological regulator of the SR. The 3D model predicts that mutation of Glu-346 to Gln will increase the affinity of testosterone for amphioxus SR and elucidate the evolution of steroid-binding to nuclear receptors.

  3. Statistical 3D damage accumulation model for ion implant simulators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hernandez-Mangas, J.M.; Lazaro, J.; Enriquez, L.; Bailon, L.; Barbolla, J.; Jaraiz, M.

    2003-01-01

    A statistical 3D damage accumulation model, based on the modified Kinchin-Pease formula, for ion implant simulation has been included in our physically based ion implantation code. It has only one fitting parameter for electronic stopping and uses 3D electron density distributions for different types of targets including compound semiconductors. Also, a statistical noise reduction mechanism based on the dose division is used. The model has been adapted to be run under parallel execution in order to speed up the calculation in 3D structures. Sequential ion implantation has been modelled including previous damage profiles. It can also simulate the implantation of molecular and cluster projectiles. Comparisons of simulated doping profiles with experimental SIMS profiles are presented. Also comparisons between simulated amorphization and experimental RBS profiles are shown. An analysis of sequential versus parallel processing is provided

  4. Statistical 3D damage accumulation model for ion implant simulators

    CERN Document Server

    Hernandez-Mangas, J M; Enriquez, L E; Bailon, L; Barbolla, J; Jaraiz, M

    2003-01-01

    A statistical 3D damage accumulation model, based on the modified Kinchin-Pease formula, for ion implant simulation has been included in our physically based ion implantation code. It has only one fitting parameter for electronic stopping and uses 3D electron density distributions for different types of targets including compound semiconductors. Also, a statistical noise reduction mechanism based on the dose division is used. The model has been adapted to be run under parallel execution in order to speed up the calculation in 3D structures. Sequential ion implantation has been modelled including previous damage profiles. It can also simulate the implantation of molecular and cluster projectiles. Comparisons of simulated doping profiles with experimental SIMS profiles are presented. Also comparisons between simulated amorphization and experimental RBS profiles are shown. An analysis of sequential versus parallel processing is provided.

  5. 3D-DART: a DNA structure modelling server

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Dijk, M.; Bonvin, A.M.J.J.

    2009-01-01

    There is a growing interest in structural studies of DNA by both experimental and computational approaches. Often, 3D-structural models of DNA are required, for instance, to serve as templates for homology modeling, as starting structures for macro-molecular docking or as scaffold for NMR structure

  6. 3D subsurface temperature model of Europe for geothermal exploration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Limberger, J.; Wees, J.D. van

    2014-01-01

    For the assessment of geothermal resources in Europe we constructed a digital 3D temperature model of the European crust and sedimentary basins, incorporating publicly available temperature data. Using European crustal thickness models and indirect parameters such as surface heat flow measurements,

  7. Localization of anatomical point landmarks in 3D medical images by fitting 3D parametric intensity models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wörz, Stefan; Rohr, Karl

    2006-02-01

    We introduce a new approach for the localization of 3D anatomical point landmarks. This approach is based on 3D parametric intensity models which are directly fitted to 3D images. To efficiently model tip-like, saddle-like, and sphere-like anatomical structures we introduce analytic intensity models based on the Gaussian error function in conjunction with 3D rigid transformations as well as deformations. To select a suitable size of the region-of-interest (ROI) where model fitting is performed, we also propose a new scheme for automatic selection of an optimal 3D ROI size based on the dominant gradient direction. In addition, to achieve a higher level of automation we present an algorithm for automatic initialization of the model parameters. Our approach has been successfully applied to accurately localize anatomical landmarks in 3D synthetic data as well as 3D MR and 3D CT image data. We have also compared the experimental results with the results of a previously proposed 3D differential approach. It turns out that the new approach significantly improves the localization accuracy.

  8. A new approach towards image based virtual 3D city modeling by using close range photogrammetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, S. P.; Jain, K.; Mandla, V. R.

    2014-05-01

    3D city model is a digital representation of the Earth's surface and it's related objects such as building, tree, vegetation, and some manmade feature belonging to urban area. The demand of 3D city modeling is increasing day to day for various engineering and non-engineering applications. Generally three main image based approaches are using for virtual 3D city models generation. In first approach, researchers used Sketch based modeling, second method is Procedural grammar based modeling and third approach is Close range photogrammetry based modeling. Literature study shows that till date, there is no complete solution available to create complete 3D city model by using images. These image based methods also have limitations This paper gives a new approach towards image based virtual 3D city modeling by using close range photogrammetry. This approach is divided into three sections. First, data acquisition process, second is 3D data processing, and third is data combination process. In data acquisition process, a multi-camera setup developed and used for video recording of an area. Image frames created from video data. Minimum required and suitable video image frame selected for 3D processing. In second section, based on close range photogrammetric principles and computer vision techniques, 3D model of area created. In third section, this 3D model exported to adding and merging of other pieces of large area. Scaling and alignment of 3D model was done. After applying the texturing and rendering on this model, a final photo-realistic textured 3D model created. This 3D model transferred into walk-through model or in movie form. Most of the processing steps are automatic. So this method is cost effective and less laborious. Accuracy of this model is good. For this research work, study area is the campus of department of civil engineering, Indian Institute of Technology, Roorkee. This campus acts as a prototype for city. Aerial photography is restricted in many country

  9. Probabilistic reasoning for assembly-based 3D modeling

    KAUST Repository

    Chaudhuri, Siddhartha

    2011-01-01

    Assembly-based modeling is a promising approach to broadening the accessibility of 3D modeling. In assembly-based modeling, new models are assembled from shape components extracted from a database. A key challenge in assembly-based modeling is the identification of relevant components to be presented to the user. In this paper, we introduce a probabilistic reasoning approach to this problem. Given a repository of shapes, our approach learns a probabilistic graphical model that encodes semantic and geometric relationships among shape components. The probabilistic model is used to present components that are semantically and stylistically compatible with the 3D model that is being assembled. Our experiments indicate that the probabilistic model increases the relevance of presented components. © 2011 ACM.

  10. LIME: 3D visualisation and interpretation of virtual geoscience models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckley, Simon; Ringdal, Kari; Dolva, Benjamin; Naumann, Nicole; Kurz, Tobias

    2017-04-01

    Three-dimensional and photorealistic acquisition of surface topography, using methods such as laser scanning and photogrammetry, has become widespread across the geosciences over the last decade. With recent innovations in photogrammetric processing software, robust and automated data capture hardware, and novel sensor platforms, including unmanned aerial vehicles, obtaining 3D representations of exposed topography has never been easier. In addition to 3D datasets, fusion of surface geometry with imaging sensors, such as multi/hyperspectral, thermal and ground-based InSAR, and geophysical methods, create novel and highly visual datasets that provide a fundamental spatial framework to address open geoscience research questions. Although data capture and processing routines are becoming well-established and widely reported in the scientific literature, challenges remain related to the analysis, co-visualisation and presentation of 3D photorealistic models, especially for new users (e.g. students and scientists new to geomatics methods). Interpretation and measurement is essential for quantitative analysis of 3D datasets, and qualitative methods are valuable for presentation purposes, for planning and in education. Motivated by this background, the current contribution presents LIME, a lightweight and high performance 3D software for interpreting and co-visualising 3D models and related image data in geoscience applications. The software focuses on novel data integration and visualisation of 3D topography with image sources such as hyperspectral imagery, logs and interpretation panels, geophysical datasets and georeferenced maps and images. High quality visual output can be generated for dissemination purposes, to aid researchers with communication of their research results. The background of the software is described and case studies from outcrop geology, in hyperspectral mineral mapping and geophysical-geospatial data integration are used to showcase the novel

  11. Parallel Optimization of 3D Cardiac Electrophysiological Model Using GPU.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Yong; Wang, Kuanquan; Zhang, Henggui

    2015-01-01

    Large-scale 3D virtual heart model simulations are highly demanding in computational resources. This imposes a big challenge to the traditional computation resources based on CPU environment, which already cannot meet the requirement of the whole computation demands or are not easily available due to expensive costs. GPU as a parallel computing environment therefore provides an alternative to solve the large-scale computational problems of whole heart modeling. In this study, using a 3D sheep atrial model as a test bed, we developed a GPU-based simulation algorithm to simulate the conduction of electrical excitation waves in the 3D atria. In the GPU algorithm, a multicellular tissue model was split into two components: one is the single cell model (ordinary differential equation) and the other is the diffusion term of the monodomain model (partial differential equation). Such a decoupling enabled realization of the GPU parallel algorithm. Furthermore, several optimization strategies were proposed based on the features of the virtual heart model, which enabled a 200-fold speedup as compared to a CPU implementation. In conclusion, an optimized GPU algorithm has been developed that provides an economic and powerful platform for 3D whole heart simulations.

  12. Parallel Optimization of 3D Cardiac Electrophysiological Model Using GPU

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong Xia

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Large-scale 3D virtual heart model simulations are highly demanding in computational resources. This imposes a big challenge to the traditional computation resources based on CPU environment, which already cannot meet the requirement of the whole computation demands or are not easily available due to expensive costs. GPU as a parallel computing environment therefore provides an alternative to solve the large-scale computational problems of whole heart modeling. In this study, using a 3D sheep atrial model as a test bed, we developed a GPU-based simulation algorithm to simulate the conduction of electrical excitation waves in the 3D atria. In the GPU algorithm, a multicellular tissue model was split into two components: one is the single cell model (ordinary differential equation and the other is the diffusion term of the monodomain model (partial differential equation. Such a decoupling enabled realization of the GPU parallel algorithm. Furthermore, several optimization strategies were proposed based on the features of the virtual heart model, which enabled a 200-fold speedup as compared to a CPU implementation. In conclusion, an optimized GPU algorithm has been developed that provides an economic and powerful platform for 3D whole heart simulations.

  13. Geodiversity: Exploration of 3D geological model space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindsay, M. D.; Jessell, M. W.; Ailleres, L.; Perrouty, S.; de Kemp, E.; Betts, P. G.

    2013-05-01

    The process of building a 3D model necessitates the reconciliation of field observations, geophysical interpretation, geological data uncertainty and the prevailing tectonic evolution hypotheses and interpretations. Uncertainty is compounded when clustered data points collected at local scales are statistically upscaled to one or two points for use in regional models. Interpretation is required to interpolate between sparse field data points using ambiguous geophysical data in covered terranes. It becomes clear that multiple interpretations are possible during model construction. The various interpretations are considered as potential natural representatives, but pragmatism typically dictates that just a single interpretation is offered by the modelling process. Uncertainties are introduced into the 3D model during construction from a variety of sources and through data set optimisation that produces a single model. Practices such as these are likely to result in a model that does not adequately represent the target geology. A set of geometrical ‘geodiversity’ metrics are used to analyse a 3D model of the Gippsland Basin, southeastern Australia after perturbing geological input data via uncertainty simulation. The resulting sets of perturbed geological observations are used to calculate a suite of geological 3D models that display a range of geological architectures. The concept of biodiversity has been adapted for the geosciences to quantify geometric variability, or geodiversity, between models in order to understand the effect uncertainty has models geometry. Various geometrical relationships (depth, volume, contact surface area, curvature and geological complexity) are used to describe the range of possibilities exhibited throughout the model suite. End-member models geodiversity metrics are classified in a similar manner to taxonomic descriptions. Further analysis of the model suite is performed using principal component analysis (PCA) to determine

  14. TLS for generating multi-LOD of 3D building model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akmalia, R; Setan, H; Majid, Z; Suwardhi, D; Chong, A

    2014-01-01

    The popularity of Terrestrial Laser Scanners (TLS) to capture three dimensional (3D) objects has been used widely for various applications. Development in 3D models has also led people to visualize the environment in 3D. Visualization of objects in a city environment in 3D can be useful for many applications. However, different applications require different kind of 3D models. Since a building is an important object, CityGML has defined a standard for 3D building models at four different levels of detail (LOD). In this research, the advantages of TLS for capturing buildings and the modelling process of the point cloud can be explored. TLS will be used to capture all the building details to generate multi-LOD. This task, in previous works, involves usually the integration of several sensors. However, in this research, point cloud from TLS will be processed to generate the LOD3 model. LOD2 and LOD1 will then be generalized from the resulting LOD3 model. Result from this research is a guiding process to generate the multi-LOD of 3D building starting from LOD3 using TLS. Lastly, the visualization for multi-LOD model will also be shown

  15. 3D modeling of dual-gate FinFET.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mil'shtein, Samson; Devarakonda, Lalitha; Zanchi, Brian; Palma, John

    2012-11-13

    The tendency to have better control of the flow of electrons in a channel of field-effect transistors (FETs) did lead to the design of two gates in junction field-effect transistors, field plates in a variety of metal semiconductor field-effect transistors and high electron mobility transistors, and finally a gate wrapping around three sides of a narrow fin-shaped channel in a FinFET. With the enhanced control, performance trends of all FETs are still challenged by carrier mobility dependence on the strengths of the electrical field along the channel. However, in cases when the ratio of FinFET volume to its surface dramatically decreases, one should carefully consider the surface boundary conditions of the device. Moreover, the inherent non-planar nature of a FinFET demands 3D modeling for accurate analysis of the device performance. Using the Silvaco modeling tool with quantization effects, we modeled a physical FinFET described in the work of Hisamoto et al. (IEEE Tran. Elec. Devices 47:12, 2000) in 3D. We compared it with a 2D model of the same device. We demonstrated that 3D modeling produces more accurate results. As 3D modeling results came close to experimental measurements, we made the next step of the study by designing a dual-gate FinFET biased at Vg1 >Vg2. It is shown that the dual-gate FinFET carries higher transconductance than the single-gate device.

  16. Modelling Polymer Deformation and Welding Behaviour during 3D Printing

    Science.gov (United States)

    McIlroy, Claire; Olmsted, Peter

    2016-11-01

    3D printing has the potential to transform manufacturing processes, yet improving the strength of printed parts, to equal that of traditionally-manufactured parts, remains an underlying issue. The most common method, fused deposition modelling, involves melting a thermoplastic, followed by layer-by-layer extrusion of the material to fabricate a three-dimensional object. The key to the ensuring strength at the weld between these layers is successful inter-diffusion. However, as the printed layer cools towards the glass transition temperature, the time available for diffusion is limited. In addition, the extrusion process significantly deforms the polymer micro-structure prior to welding and consequently affects how the polymers "re-entangle" across the weld. We have developed a simple model of the non-isothermal printing process to explore the effects that typical printing conditions and amorphous polymer rheology have on the ultimate weld structure. In particular, we incorporate both the stretch and orientation of the polymer using the Rolie-Poly constitutive equation to examine how the melt flows through the nozzle and is deposited onto the build plate. We then address how this deformation relaxes and contributes to the thickness and structure of the weld. National Institute for Standards and Technology (NIST) and Georgetown University.

  17. Printing of metallic 3D micro-objects by laser induced forward transfer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zenou, Michael; Kotler, Zvi

    2016-01-25

    Digital printing of 3D metal micro-structures by laser induced forward transfer under ambient conditions is reviewed. Recent progress has allowed drop on demand transfer of molten, femto-liter, metal droplets with a high jetting directionality. Such small volume droplets solidify instantly, on a nanosecond time scale, as they touch the substrate. This fast solidification limits their lateral spreading and allows the fabrication of high aspect ratio and complex 3D metal structures. Several examples of micron-scale resolution metal objects printed using this method are presented and discussed.

  18. Shape and deformation measurements of 3D objects using volume speckle field and phase retrieval

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Anand, A; Chhaniwal, VK; Almoro, Percival

    2009-01-01

    Shape and deformation measurement of diffusely reflecting 3D objects are very important in many application areas, including quality control, nondestructive testing, and design. When rough objects are exposed to coherent beams, the scattered light produces speckle fields. A method to measure the ......-sized deformation induced on a metal sheet was obtained upon subtraction of the phase, corresponding to unloaded and loaded states. Results from computer simulations confirm the experiments. (C) 2009 Optical Society of America....

  19. A Spatial Reference Grid for Real-Time Autonomous Underwater Modeling using 3-D Sonar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Auran, P.G.

    1996-12-31

    The offshore industry has recognized the need for intelligent underwater robotic vehicles. This doctoral thesis deals with autonomous underwater vehicles (AUVs) and concentrates on a data representation for real-time image formation and analysis. Its main objective is to develop a 3-D image representation suitable for autonomous perception objectives underwater, assuming active sonar as the main sensor for perception. The main contributions are: (1) A dynamical image representation for 3-D range data, (2) A basic electronic circuit and software system for 3-D sonar sampling and amplitude thresholding, (3) A model for target reliability, (4) An efficient connected components algorithm for 3-D segmentation, (5) A method for extracting general 3-D geometrical representations from segmented echo clusters, (6) Experimental results of planar and curved target modeling. 142 refs., 120 figs., 10 tabs.

  20. Estimation of shape model parameters for 3D surfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Erbou, Søren Gylling Hemmingsen; Darkner, Sune; Fripp, Jurgen

    2008-01-01

    is applied to a database of 3D surfaces from a section of the porcine pelvic bone extracted from 33 CT scans. A leave-one-out validation shows that the parameters of the first 3 modes of the shape model can be predicted with a mean difference within [-0.01,0.02] from the true mean, with a standard deviation......Statistical shape models are widely used as a compact way of representing shape variation. Fitting a shape model to unseen data enables characterizing the data in terms of the model parameters. In this paper a Gauss-Newton optimization scheme is proposed to estimate shape model parameters of 3D...... surfaces using distance maps, which enables the estimation of model parameters without the requirement of point correspondence. For applications with acquisition limitations such as speed and cost, this formulation enables the fitting of a statistical shape model to arbitrarily sampled data. The method...

  1. 3-D QSAutogrid/R: an alternative procedure to build 3-D QSAR models. Methodologies and applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballante, Flavio; Ragno, Rino

    2012-06-25

    Since it first appeared in 1988 3-D QSAR has proved its potential in the field of drug design and activity prediction. Although thousands of citations now exist in 3-D QSAR, its development was rather slow with the majority of new 3-D QSAR applications just extensions of CoMFA. An alternative way to build 3-D QSAR models, based on an evolution of software, has been named 3-D QSAutogrid/R and has been developed to use only software freely available to academics. 3-D QSAutogrid/R covers all the main features of CoMFA and GRID/GOLPE with implementation by multiprobe/multiregion variable selection (MPGRS) that improves the simplification of interpretation of the 3-D QSAR map. The methodology is based on the integration of the molecular interaction fields as calculated by AutoGrid and the R statistical environment that can be easily coupled with many free graphical molecular interfaces such as UCSF-Chimera, AutoDock Tools, JMol, and others. The description of each R package is reported in detail, and, to assess its validity, 3-D QSAutogrid/R has been applied to three molecular data sets of which either CoMFA or GRID/GOLPE models were reported in order to compare the results. 3-D QSAutogrid/R has been used as the core engine to prepare more that 240 3-D QSAR models forming the very first 3-D QSAR server ( www.3d-qsar.com ) with its code freely available through R-Cran distribution.

  2. Monoplane 3D-2D registration of cerebral angiograms based on multi-objective stratified optimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aksoy, T.; Špiclin, Ž.; Pernuš, F.; Unal, G.

    2017-12-01

    Registration of 3D pre-interventional to 2D intra-interventional medical images has an increasingly important role in surgical planning, navigation and treatment, because it enables the physician to co-locate depth information given by pre-interventional 3D images with the live information in intra-interventional 2D images such as x-ray. Most tasks during image-guided interventions are carried out under a monoplane x-ray, which is a highly ill-posed problem for state-of-the-art 3D to 2D registration methods. To address the problem of rigid 3D-2D monoplane registration we propose a novel multi-objective stratified parameter optimization, wherein a small set of high-magnitude intensity gradients are matched between the 3D and 2D images. The stratified parameter optimization matches rotation templates to depth templates, first sampled from projected 3D gradients and second from the 2D image gradients, so as to recover 3D rigid-body rotations and out-of-plane translation. The objective for matching was the gradient magnitude correlation coefficient, which is invariant to in-plane translation. The in-plane translations are then found by locating the maximum of the gradient phase correlation between the best matching pair of rotation and depth templates. On twenty pairs of 3D and 2D images of ten patients undergoing cerebral endovascular image-guided intervention the 3D to monoplane 2D registration experiments were setup with a rather high range of initial mean target registration error from 0 to 100 mm. The proposed method effectively reduced the registration error to below 2 mm, which was further refined by a fast iterative method and resulted in a high final registration accuracy (0.40 mm) and high success rate (> 96%). Taking into account a fast execution time below 10 s, the observed performance of the proposed method shows a high potential for application into clinical image-guidance systems.

  3. 3D printing and IoT for personalized everyday objects in nursing and healthcare

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asano, Yoshihiro; Tanaka, Hiroya; Miyagawa, Shoko; Yoshioka, Junki

    2017-04-01

    Today, application of 3D printing technology for medical use is getting popular. It strongly helps to make complicated shape of body parts with functional materials. We can complement injured, weakened or lacked parts, and recover original shape and functions. However, these cases are mainly focusing on the symptom itself, not on everyday lives of patients. With life span extending, many of us will live a life with chronic disease for long time. Then, we should think about our living environment more carefully. For example, we can make personalized everyday objects and support their body and mind. Therefore, we use 3D printing for making everyday objects from nursing / healthcare perspective. In this project, we have 2 main research questions. The first one is how to make objects which patients really require. We invited many kinds of people such as engineer, nurses and patients to our research activity. Nurses can find patient's real demands firstly, and engineers support them with rapid prototyping. Finally, we found the best collaboration methodologies among nurses, engineers and patients. The second question is how to trace and evaluate usages of created objects. Apparently, it's difficult to monitor user's activity for a long time. So we're developing the IoT sensing system, which monitor activities remotely. We enclose a data logger which can lasts about one month with 3D printed objects. After one month, we can pick up the data from objects and understand how it has been used.

  4. 3D Geological Model for "LUSI" - a Deep Geothermal System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sohrabi, Reza; Jansen, Gunnar; Mazzini, Adriano; Galvan, Boris; Miller, Stephen A.

    2016-04-01

    Geothermal applications require the correct simulation of flow and heat transport processes in porous media, and many of these media, like deep volcanic hydrothermal systems, host a certain degree of fracturing. This work aims to understand the heat and fluid transport within a new-born sedimentary hosted geothermal system, termed Lusi, that began erupting in 2006 in East Java, Indonesia. Our goal is to develop conceptual and numerical models capable of simulating multiphase flow within large-scale fractured reservoirs such as the Lusi region, with fractures of arbitrary size, orientation and shape. Additionally, these models can also address a number of other applications, including Enhanced Geothermal Systems (EGS), CO2 sequestration (Carbon Capture and Storage CCS), and nuclear waste isolation. Fractured systems are ubiquitous, with a wide-range of lengths and scales, making difficult the development of a general model that can easily handle this complexity. We are developing a flexible continuum approach with an efficient, accurate numerical simulator based on an appropriate 3D geological model representing the structure of the deep geothermal reservoir. Using previous studies, borehole information and seismic data obtained in the framework of the Lusi Lab project (ERC grant n°308126), we present here the first 3D geological model of Lusi. This model is calculated using implicit 3D potential field or multi-potential fields, depending on the geological context and complexity. This method is based on geological pile containing the geological history of the area and relationship between geological bodies allowing automatic computation of intersections and volume reconstruction. Based on the 3D geological model, we developed a new mesh algorithm to create hexahedral octree meshes to transfer the structural geological information for 3D numerical simulations to quantify Thermal-Hydraulic-Mechanical-Chemical (THMC) physical processes.

  5. A Topological Framework for Interactive Queries on 3D Models in the Web

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauro Figueiredo

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Several technologies exist to create 3D content for the web. With X3D, WebGL, and X3DOM, it is possible to visualize and interact with 3D models in a web browser. Frequently, three-dimensional objects are stored using the X3D file format for the web. However, there is no explicit topological information, which makes it difficult to design fast algorithms for applications that require adjacency and incidence data. This paper presents a new open source toolkit TopTri (Topological model for Triangle meshes for Web3D servers that builds the topological model for triangular meshes of manifold or nonmanifold models. Web3D client applications using this toolkit make queries to the web server to get adjacent and incidence information of vertices, edges, and faces. This paper shows the application of the topological information to get minimal local points and iso-lines in a 3D mesh in a web browser. As an application, we present also the interactive identification of stalactites in a cave chamber in a 3D web browser. Several tests show that even for large triangular meshes with millions of triangles, the adjacency and incidence information is returned in real time making the presented toolkit appropriate for interactive Web3D applications.

  6. Illusions of perception of 3-D house models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, Torsten Ingemann

    2008-01-01

    In five experiments some edgelines on different polyhedrons (house models in 3-D) were, from a certain vantage point, optically confluent, ie in optical prolongation of each other in 2-D on the retinal image and on photos. Other edgelines on the same polyhedrons were non-confluent, ie optically separate in 2-D. These conditions were found to lead to five different illusory shapes in 3-D. Five spatiofigural illusions were perceived. From these findings an edgeline principle is formulated that: "a straight edgeline in 2-D, whether confluent or separate, is perceived as a unitary and continuously straight edgeline in 3-D". To this is added a supplementary perceptual principle, an amodal completion principle. In the experiments reported here, the illusory perception of shapes in 3-D with confluent edgelines as well as the veridical perception of other shapes in 3-D with only separate or non-confluent edgelines could all be explained by the edgeline principle and the amodal completion principle. By applying the concepts of edgeline confluence and the edgeline principle, a new explanation of the Kopfermann (1930 Psychologische Forschung 13 293- 364) cube phenomena is proposed together with one example of how to test this explanation experimentally.

  7. Level of detail in 3D city models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Biljecki, F.

    2017-01-01

    The concept of level of detail (LOD) describes the content of 3D city models and it plays an essential role during their life cycle. On one hand it comes akin to the concepts of scale in cartography and LOD in computer graphics, on the other hand it is a standalone concept that requires attention.

  8. 3D modellering af residualspændinger ved pulversvejsning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Jan Langkjær

    1998-01-01

    Der er opbygget en 3D finite element model i et general purpose FEM-program til beregning af henholdsvis temperaturfelter og de heraf inducerede spændinger ved pulversvejsning i 10mm ST37-2 plade.Til verifikation af de termiske felter er der foretaget temperaturmålinger på en serie...

  9. Modeling the Properties of 3D Woven Composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, Brian N.

    1995-01-01

    An extensive study has been completed of the internal geometry, the mechanisms of failure, and the micromechanics of local failure events in graphite/epoxy composites with three dimensional (3D) woven reinforcement. This work has led to the development of models for predicting elastic constants, strength, notch sensitivity, and fatigue life. A summary is presented here.

  10. Automatic 3D Modeling of the Urban Landscape

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Esteban, I.; Dijk, J.; Groen, F.A.

    2010-01-01

    In this paper we present a fully automatic system for building 3D models of urban areas at the street level. We propose a novel approach for the accurate estimation of the scale consistent camera pose given two previous images. We employ a new method for global optimization and use a novel sampling

  11. Coarse-grained modeling of RNA 3D structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawson, Wayne K; Maciejczyk, Maciej; Jankowska, Elzbieta J; Bujnicki, Janusz M

    2016-07-01

    Functional RNA molecules depend on three-dimensional (3D) structures to carry out their tasks within the cell. Understanding how these molecules interact to carry out their biological roles requires a detailed knowledge of RNA 3D structure and dynamics as well as thermodynamics, which strongly governs the folding of RNA and RNA-RNA interactions as well as a host of other interactions within the cellular environment. Experimental determination of these properties is difficult, and various computational methods have been developed to model the folding of RNA 3D structures and their interactions with other molecules. However, computational methods also have their limitations, especially when the biological effects demand computation of the dynamics beyond a few hundred nanoseconds. For the researcher confronted with such challenges, a more amenable approach is to resort to coarse-grained modeling to reduce the number of data points and computational demand to a more tractable size, while sacrificing as little critical information as possible. This review presents an introduction to the topic of coarse-grained modeling of RNA 3D structures and dynamics, covering both high- and low-resolution strategies. We discuss how physics-based approaches compare with knowledge based methods that rely on databases of information. In the course of this review, we discuss important aspects in the reasoning process behind building different models and the goals and pitfalls that can result. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. 3-D Model of the Human Respiratory System

    Science.gov (United States)

    The U.S. EPA’s Office of Research and Development (ORD) has developed a 3-D computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model of the human respiratory system that allows for the simulation of particulate based contaminant deposition and clearance, while being adaptable for age, ethn...

  13. Building a 3-D Appearance Model of the Human Face

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sjöstrand, Karl; Larsen, Rasmus; Lading, Brian

    2003-01-01

    This paper describes a method for building an appearance model from three-dimensional data of human faces. The data consists of 3-D vertices, polygons and a texture map. The method uses a set of nine manually placed landmarks to automatically form a dense correspondence of thousands of points. Th...

  14. Volume Sculpting: Intuitive, Interactive 3D Shape Modelling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bærentzen, Jakob Andreas

    A system for interactive modelling of 3D shapes on a computer is presented. The system is intuitive and has a flat learning curve. It is especially well suited to the creation of organic shapes and shapes of complex topology. The interaction is simple; the user can either add new shape features...

  15. Prostate MR image segmentation using 3D active appearance models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maan, Bianca; van der Heijden, Ferdinand

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents a method for automatic segmentation of the prostate from transversal T2-weighted images based on 3D Active Appearance Models (AAM). The algorithm consist of two stages. Firstly, Shape Context based non-rigid surface registration of the manual segmented images is used to obtain

  16. Particle based 3D modeling of positive streamer inception

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    H.J. Teunissen (Jannis)

    2012-01-01

    htmlabstractIn this report we present a particle based 3D model for the study of streamer inception near positive electrodes in air. The particle code is of the PIC-MCC type and an electrode is included using the charge simulation method. An algorithm for the adaptive creation of super-particles is

  17. Chiral mixed phase in disordered 3d Heisenberg models

    OpenAIRE

    Bekhechi, S.; Southern, B. W.

    2004-01-01

    Using Monte Carlo simulations, we compute the spin stiffness of a site-random 3d Heisenberg model with competing ferromagnetic and antiferromagnetic interactions. Our results for the pure limit yield values of the the critical temperature and the critical exponent $\

  18. 3D engineered models for highway construction : the Iowa experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-06-01

    3D engineered modeling is a relatively new and developing technology that can provide numerous bene ts to owners, engineers, : contractors, and the general public. This manual is for highway agencies that are considering or are in the process of s...

  19. Tracking people and cars using 3D modeling and CCTV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edelman, Gerda; Bijhold, Jurrien

    2010-10-10

    The aim of this study was to find a method for the reconstruction of movements of people and cars using CCTV footage and a 3D model of the environment. A procedure is proposed, in which video streams are synchronized and displayed in a 3D model, by using virtual cameras. People and cars are represented by cylinders and boxes, which are moved in the 3D model, according to their movements as shown in the video streams. The procedure was developed and tested in an experimental setup with test persons who logged their GPS coordinates as a recording of the ground truth. Results showed that it is possible to implement this procedure and to reconstruct movements of people and cars from video recordings. The procedure was also applied to a forensic case. In this work we experienced that more situational awareness was created by the 3D model, which made it easier to track people on multiple video streams. Based on all experiences from the experimental set up and the case, recommendations are formulated for use in practice. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Object Recognition in Flight: How Do Bees Distinguish between 3D Shapes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werner, Annette; Stürzl, Wolfgang; Zanker, Johannes

    2016-01-01

    Honeybees (Apis mellifera) discriminate multiple object features such as colour, pattern and 2D shape, but it remains unknown whether and how bees recover three-dimensional shape. Here we show that bees can recognize objects by their three-dimensional form, whereby they employ an active strategy to uncover the depth profiles. We trained individual, free flying honeybees to collect sugar water from small three-dimensional objects made of styrofoam (sphere, cylinder, cuboids) or folded paper (convex, concave, planar) and found that bees can easily discriminate between these stimuli. We also tested possible strategies employed by the bees to uncover the depth profiles. For the card stimuli, we excluded overall shape and pictorial features (shading, texture gradients) as cues for discrimination. Lacking sufficient stereo vision, bees are known to use speed gradients in optic flow to detect edges; could the bees apply this strategy also to recover the fine details of a surface depth profile? Analysing the bees' flight tracks in front of the stimuli revealed specific combinations of flight maneuvers (lateral translations in combination with yaw rotations), which are particularly suitable to extract depth cues from motion parallax. We modelled the generated optic flow and found characteristic patterns of angular displacement corresponding to the depth profiles of our stimuli: optic flow patterns from pure translations successfully recovered depth relations from the magnitude of angular displacements, additional rotation provided robust depth information based on the direction of the displacements; thus, the bees flight maneuvers may reflect an optimized visuo-motor strategy to extract depth structure from motion signals. The robustness and simplicity of this strategy offers an efficient solution for 3D-object-recognition without stereo vision, and could be employed by other flying insects, or mobile robots.

  1. Object Recognition in Flight: How Do Bees Distinguish between 3D Shapes?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annette Werner

    Full Text Available Honeybees (Apis mellifera discriminate multiple object features such as colour, pattern and 2D shape, but it remains unknown whether and how bees recover three-dimensional shape. Here we show that bees can recognize objects by their three-dimensional form, whereby they employ an active strategy to uncover the depth profiles. We trained individual, free flying honeybees to collect sugar water from small three-dimensional objects made of styrofoam (sphere, cylinder, cuboids or folded paper (convex, concave, planar and found that bees can easily discriminate between these stimuli. We also tested possible strategies employed by the bees to uncover the depth profiles. For the card stimuli, we excluded overall shape and pictorial features (shading, texture gradients as cues for discrimination. Lacking sufficient stereo vision, bees are known to use speed gradients in optic flow to detect edges; could the bees apply this strategy also to recover the fine details of a surface depth profile? Analysing the bees' flight tracks in front of the stimuli revealed specific combinations of flight maneuvers (lateral translations in combination with yaw rotations, which are particularly suitable to extract depth cues from motion parallax. We modelled the generated optic flow and found characteristic patterns of angular displacement corresponding to the depth profiles of our stimuli: optic flow patterns from pure translations successfully recovered depth relations from the magnitude of angular displacements, additional rotation provided robust depth information based on the direction of the displacements; thus, the bees flight maneuvers may reflect an optimized visuo-motor strategy to extract depth structure from motion signals. The robustness and simplicity of this strategy offers an efficient solution for 3D-object-recognition without stereo vision, and could be employed by other flying insects, or mobile robots.

  2. Simulated and Real Sheet-of-Light 3D Object Scanning Using a-Si:H Thin Film PSD Arrays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier Contreras

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available A MATLAB/SIMULINK software simulation model (structure and component blocks has been constructed in order to view and analyze the potential of the PSD (Position Sensitive Detector array concept technology before it is further expanded or developed. This simulation allows changing most of its parameters, such as the number of elements in the PSD array, the direction of vision, the viewing/scanning angle, the object rotation, translation, sample/scan/simulation time, etc. In addition, results show for the first time the possibility of scanning an object in 3D when using an a-Si:H thin film 128 PSD array sensor and hardware/software system. Moreover, this sensor technology is able to perform these scans and render 3D objects at high speeds and high resolutions when using a sheet-of-light laser within a triangulation platform. As shown by the simulation, a substantial enhancement in 3D object profile image quality and realism can be achieved by increasing the number of elements of the PSD array sensor as well as by achieving an optimal position response from the sensor since clearly the definition of the 3D object profile depends on the correct and accurate position response of each detector as well as on the size of the PSD array.

  3. Use Models like Maps in a 3D SDI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gietzel, Jan; Gabriel, Paul; Schaeben, Helmut; Le, Hai Ha

    2013-04-01

    Digital geological applications have become 3D up to 4D modelling of the underground. The modellers are working very heterogeneously in terms of its applied software systems. On the other hand the 3D/4D modelling of the subsurface has become part of the geological surveys all around the world. This implies a wide spread group of users working in different institutions aiming to work together on one subsurface model. Established 3D/4D-modelling software systems mainly use a file based approach to store data, which is in a high contrast to the needs of a central administrated and network based data transfer approach. At the department of geophysics and geo information sciences at the Technical University Bergakademie Freiberg, the GST system for managing 3D and 4D geosciences data in a databases system was developed and is now continued by the company GiGa infosystems. The GST-Framework includes a storage engine, a web service for sharing and a number of client software including a browser based client interface for visualising, accessing and manipulating geological CAD data. Including a check out system GST supports multi user editing on huge models, designed to manage seamless high resolution models of the subsurface. While working on complex projects various software is used for the creation of the model, the prediction of properties and final simulation. A problem rising from the use of several software is the interoperability of the models. Due to conversion errors different working groups use mainly different raw data. This results in different models, which have to be corrected with additional effort. One platform sharing the models is strongly demanded. One high potential solution is a centralized and software independent storage, which will be presented.

  4. Citygml Modelling for Singapore 3d National Mapping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soon, K. H.; Khoo, V. H. S.

    2017-10-01

    Since 2014, the Land Survey Division of Singapore Land Authority (SLA) has spearheaded a Whole-of-Government (WOG) 3D mapping project to create and maintain a 3D national map for Singapore. The implementation of the project is divided into two phases. The first phase of the project, which was based on airborne data collection, has produced 3D models for Relief, Building, Vegetation and Waterbody. This part of the work was completed in 2016. To complement the first phase, the second phase used mobile imaging and scanning technique. This phase is targeted to be completed by the mid of 2017 and is creating 3D models for Transportation, CityFurniture, Bridge and Tunnel. The project has extensively adopted the Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC)'s CityGML standard. Out of 10 currently supported thematic modules in CityGML 2.0, the project has implemented 8. The paper describes the adoption of CityGML in the project, and discusses challenges, data validations and management of the models.

  5. Combining Synchronous and Asynchronous Collaboration within 3D City Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klimke, Jan; Döllner, Jürgen

    This paper presents an approach for combining spatially distributed synchronous and asynchronous collaboration within 3D city models. Software applications use these models as additional communication medium to facilitate communication of georeferenced and geospatial information. Collaboration tools should support both the communication with other collaborators and their awareness of the current collaboration context. To support collaborative knowledge construction and gathering, we have designed a collaboration system to facilitate (a) creation of annotations that have 3D references to the virtual 3D city model and (b) collection information about the context in which these annotations are created. Our approach supports synchronous collaboration in connection with the creation of non volatile, precisely georeferenced units of information allow for a comprehensible form of cooperation in spatially distributed settings. Storage and retrieval of this information is provided through a Web Feature Service, which eases integration of collaboration data into existing applications. We further introduce a visualization technique that integrates annotations as complex structured data into the 3D visualization. This avoids media breaks and disruptions in working processes and creates a spatial coherence between annotation and annotated feature or geometry.

  6. The Finite Element Numerical Modelling of 3D Magnetotelluric

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ligang Cao

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The ideal numerical simulation of 3D magnetotelluric was restricted by the methodology complexity and the time-consuming calculation. Boundary values, the variation of weighted residual equation, and the hexahedral mesh generation method of finite element are three major causes. A finite element method for 3D magnetotelluric numerical modeling is presented in this paper as a solution for the problem mentioned above. In this algorithm, a hexahedral element coefficient matrix for magnetoelluric finite method is developed, which solves large-scale equations using preconditioned conjugate gradient of the first-type boundary conditions. This algorithm is verified using the homogeneous model, and the positive landform model, as well as the low resistance anomaly model.

  7. Retrieval of 3D-Position af a Passive Object Using Infrared LED's and Photodiodes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Henrik Vie

    2005-01-01

    A sensor using infrared emitter/receiver pairs to determine the position of a passive object is presented. An array with a small number of infrared emitter/receiver pairs are proposed as sensing part to acquire information on the object position. The emitters illuminates the object and the intens...... experiments shows good accordance between actual and retrieved positions when tracking a ball. The ball has been successfully replaced by a human hand, and a "3D non-touch screen" with a human hand as "pointing device" is shown possible....

  8. Learning the 3-D structure of objects from 2-D views depends on shape, not format

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Moqian; Yamins, Daniel; Grill-Spector, Kalanit

    2016-01-01

    Humans can learn to recognize new objects just from observing example views. However, it is unknown what structural information enables this learning. To address this question, we manipulated the amount of structural information given to subjects during unsupervised learning by varying the format of the trained views. We then tested how format affected participants' ability to discriminate similar objects across views that were rotated 90° apart. We found that, after training, participants' performance increased and generalized to new views in the same format. Surprisingly, the improvement was similar across line drawings, shape from shading, and shape from shading + stereo even though the latter two formats provide richer depth information compared to line drawings. In contrast, participants' improvement was significantly lower when training used silhouettes, suggesting that silhouettes do not have enough information to generate a robust 3-D structure. To test whether the learned object representations were format-specific or format-invariant, we examined if learning novel objects from example views transfers across formats. We found that learning objects from example line drawings transferred to shape from shading and vice versa. These results have important implications for theories of object recognition because they suggest that (a) learning the 3-D structure of objects does not require rich structural cues during training as long as shape information of internal and external features is provided and (b) learning generates shape-based object representations independent of the training format. PMID:27153196

  9. Ground and Structure Deformation 3d Modelling with a Tin Based Property Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    TIAN, T.; Zhang, J.; Jiang, W.

    2013-12-01

    With the development of 3D( three-dimensional) modeling and visualization, more and more 3D tectonics are used to assist the daily work in Engineering Survey, in which the prediction of deformation field in strata and structure induced by underground construction is an essential part. In this research we developed a TIN (Triangulated Irregular Network) based property model for the 3D (three dimensional) visualization of ground deformation filed. By record deformation vector for each nodes, the new model can express the deformation with geometric-deformation-style by drawing each node in its new position and deformation-attribute-distribution-style by drawing each node in the color correspond with its deformation attribute at the same time. Comparing with the volume model based property model, this new property model can provide a more precise geometrical shape for structure objects. Furthermore, by recording only the deformation data of the user-interested 3d surface- such as the ground surface or the underground digging surface, the new property model can save a lot of space, which makes it possible to build the deformation filed model of a much more large scale. To construct the models of deformation filed based on TIN model, the refinement of the network is needed to increase the nodes number, which is necessary to express the deformation filed with a certain resolution. The TIN model refinement is a process of sampling the 3D deformation field values on points on the TIN surface, for which we developed a self-adapting TIN refinement method. By set the parameter of the attribute resolution, this self-adapting method refines the input geometric-expressing TIN model by adding more vertexes and triangles where the 3D deformation filed changing faster. Comparing with the even refinement method, the self-adapting method can generate a refined TIN model with nodes counted less by two thirds. Efficiency Comparison between Self-adapting Refinement Method and Even

  10. 3D-modeling for the LANL-APT RFQ

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krawczyk, F.L.; Young, L.M.

    1996-01-01

    An 8-m-long 4-vane radio frequency quadrupole (RFQ) has been proposed by LANL for use in high-current proton accelerators. This RFQ is made up of four 2-m-long coupled segments; the end regions and segment joints need full 3D modeling. In this paper, the strategies for piecewise treatment of the RFQ and results of the modeling are presented

  11. TouchTerrain: A simple web-tool for creating 3D-printable topographic models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasiuk, Franciszek J.; Harding, Chris; Renner, Alex Raymond; Winer, Eliot

    2017-12-01

    An open-source web-application, TouchTerrain, was developed to simplify the production of 3D-printable terrain models. Direct Digital Manufacturing (DDM) using 3D Printers can change how geoscientists, students, and stakeholders interact with 3D data, with the potential to improve geoscience communication and environmental literacy. No other manufacturing technology can convert digital data into tangible objects quickly at relatively low cost; however, the expertise necessary to produce a 3D-printed terrain model can be a substantial burden: knowledge of geographical information systems, computer aided design (CAD) software, and 3D printers may all be required. Furthermore, printing models larger than the build volume of a 3D printer can pose further technical hurdles. The TouchTerrain web-application simplifies DDM for elevation data by generating digital 3D models customized for a specific 3D printer's capabilities. The only required user input is the selection of a region-of-interest using the provided web-application with a Google Maps-style interface. Publically available digital elevation data is processed via the Google Earth Engine API. To allow the manufacture of 3D terrain models larger than a 3D printer's build volume the selected area can be split into multiple tiles without third-party software. This application significantly reduces the time and effort required for a non-expert like an educator to obtain 3D terrain models for use in class. The web application is deployed at http://touchterrain.geol.iastate.edu/

  12. Genetic Fuzzy Modelling of User Perception of 3D Shapes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Achiche, Sofiane; Ahmed-Kristensen, Saeema

    2011-01-01

    Defining the aesthetic and emotional value of a product is an important consideration for its design. Furthermore, if several designers are faced with the task of creating an object that describe a certain emotion/perception (aggressive, soft, heavy, etc.), each is most likely to interpret...... the emotion/perception with different shapes composed of a set of different geometric features. In this paper, the authors propose an automatic approach to formalize the relationships between geometric information of 3D objects and the intended emotional content using fuzzy logic. In addition...

  13. Recognizing 3 D Objects from 2D Images Using Structural Knowledge Base of Genetic Views

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-08-31

    of a change in sign; it typically occurs within a pixel and consequently requires subpixel interpolation in order to determine its spatial position...experiments, while their 3D modeling and rendering are fairly well understood. In particular, the edges and linear surface mark- ings of polyhedra

  14. Fourier Domain Iterative Approach to Optical Sectioning of 3d Translucent Objects for Ophthalmology Purposes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razgulina, A. V.; Iroshnikov, N. G.; Larichev, A. V.; Romanenko, T. E.; Goncharov, A. S.

    2017-05-01

    In this paper we deal with the problem of optical sectioning. This is a post processing step while investigating of 3D translucent medical objects based on rapid refocusing of the imaging system by the adaptive optics technique. Each image, captured in focal plane, can be represented as the sum of in-focus true section and out-of-focus images of the neighboring sections of the depth that are undesirable in the subsequent reconstruction of 3D object. The problem of optical sectioning under consideration is to elaborate a robust approach capable of obtaining a stack of cross section images purified from such distortions. For a typical sectioning statement arising in ophthalmology we propose a local iterative method in Fourier spectral plane. Compared to the non-local constant parameter selection for the whole spectral domain, the method demonstrates both improved sectioning results and a good level of scalability when implemented on multi-core CPUs.

  15. Towards a Stable Robotic Object Manipulation Through 2D-3D Features Tracking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sorin M. Grigorescu

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a new object tracking system is proposed to improve the object manipulation capabilities of service robots. The goal is to continuously track the state of the visualized environment in order to send visual information in real time to the path planning and decision modules of the robot; that is, to adapt the movement of the robotic system according to the state variations appearing in the imaged scene. The tracking approach is based on a probabilistic collaborative tracking framework developed around a 2D patch-based tracking system and a 2D-3D point features tracker. The real-time visual information is composed of RGB-D data streams acquired from state-of-the-art structured light sensors. For performance evaluation, the accuracy of the developed tracker is compared to a traditional marker-based tracking system which delivers 3D information with respect to the position of the marker.

  16. 3-D model-based tracking for UAV indoor localization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teulière, Céline; Marchand, Eric; Eck, Laurent

    2015-05-01

    This paper proposes a novel model-based tracking approach for 3-D localization. One main difficulty of standard model-based approach lies in the presence of low-level ambiguities between different edges. In this paper, given a 3-D model of the edges of the environment, we derive a multiple hypotheses tracker which retrieves the potential poses of the camera from the observations in the image. We also show how these candidate poses can be integrated into a particle filtering framework to guide the particle set toward the peaks of the distribution. Motivated by the UAV indoor localization problem where GPS signal is not available, we validate the algorithm on real image sequences from UAV flights.

  17. Two-equation turbulence modeling for 3-D hypersonic flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bardina, J. E.; Coakley, T. J.; Marvin, J. G.

    1992-01-01

    An investigation to verify, incorporate and develop two-equation turbulence models for three-dimensional high speed flows is presented. The current design effort of hypersonic vehicles has led to an intensive study of turbulence models for compressible hypersonic flows. This research complements an extensive review of experimental data and the current development of 2D turbulence models. The review of experimental data on 2D and 3D flows includes complex hypersonic flows with pressure profiles, skin friction, wall heat transfer, and turbulence statistics data. In a parallel effort, turbulence models for high speed flows have been tested against flat plate boundary layers, and are being tested against the 2D database. In the present paper, we present the results of 3D Navier-Stokes numerical simulations with an improved k-omega two-equation turbulence model against experimental data and empirical correlations of an adiabatic flat plate boundary layer, a cold wall flat plate boundary layer, and a 3D database flow, the interaction of an oblique shock wave and a thick turbulent boundary layer with a free stream Mach number = 8.18 and Reynolds number = 5 x 10 to the 6th.

  18. 3D modeling of dual-gate FinFET

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mil'shtein, Samson; Devarakonda, Lalitha; Zanchi, Brian; Palma, John

    2012-11-01

    The tendency to have better control of the flow of electrons in a channel of field-effect transistors (FETs) did lead to the design of two gates in junction field-effect transistors, field plates in a variety of metal semiconductor field-effect transistors and high electron mobility transistors, and finally a gate wrapping around three sides of a narrow fin-shaped channel in a FinFET. With the enhanced control, performance trends of all FETs are still challenged by carrier mobility dependence on the strengths of the electrical field along the channel. However, in cases when the ratio of FinFET volume to its surface dramatically decreases, one should carefully consider the surface boundary conditions of the device. Moreover, the inherent non-planar nature of a FinFET demands 3D modeling for accurate analysis of the device performance. Using the Silvaco modeling tool with quantization effects, we modeled a physical FinFET described in the work of Hisamoto et al. (IEEE Tran. Elec. Devices 47:12, 2000) in 3D. We compared it with a 2D model of the same device. We demonstrated that 3D modeling produces more accurate results. As 3D modeling results came close to experimental measurements, we made the next step of the study by designing a dual-gate FinFET biased at V g1 > V g2. It is shown that the dual-gate FinFET carries higher transconductance than the single-gate device.

  19. Determining the 3-D structure and motion of objects using a scanning laser range sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nandhakumar, N.; Smith, Philip W.

    1993-12-01

    In order for the EVAHR robot to autonomously track and grasp objects, its vision system must be able to determine the 3-D structure and motion of an object from a sequence of sensory images. This task is accomplished by the use of a laser radar range sensor which provides dense range maps of the scene. Unfortunately, the currently available laser radar range cameras use a sequential scanning approach which complicates image analysis. Although many algorithms have been developed for recognizing objects from range images, none are suited for use with single beam, scanning, time-of-flight sensors because all previous algorithms assume instantaneous acquisition of the entire image. This assumption is invalid since the EVAHR robot is equipped with a sequential scanning laser range sensor. If an object is moving while being imaged by the device, the apparent structure of the object can be significantly distorted due to the significant non-zero delay time between sampling each image pixel. If an estimate of the motion of the object can be determined, this distortion can be eliminated; but, this leads to the motion-structure paradox - most existing algorithms for 3-D motion estimation use the structure of objects to parameterize their motions. The goal of this research is to design a rigid-body motion recovery technique which overcomes this limitation. The method being developed is an iterative, linear, feature-based approach which uses the non-zero image acquisition time constraint to accurately recover the motion parameters from the distorted structure of the 3-D range maps. Once the motion parameters are determined, the structural distortion in the range images is corrected.

  20. Application of 3D models of palatal rugae to personal identification: hints at identification from 3D-3D superimposition techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibelli, Daniele; De Angelis, Danilo; Pucciarelli, Valentina; Riboli, Francesco; Ferrario, Virgilio F; Dolci, Claudia; Sforza, Chiarella; Cattaneo, Cristina

    2017-11-20

    Palatal rugae are known in literature as individualizing anatomical structures with a strong potential for personal identification. However, a 3D assessment of their uniqueness has not yet been performed. The present study aims at verifying the uniqueness of 3D models of the palate. Twenty-six subjects were recruited among the orthodontic patients of a private dental office; from every patient, at least two dental casts were taken in different time periods, for a total of 62 casts. Dental casts were digitized by a 3D laser scanner (iSeries, Dental Wings©, Montreal, Canada). The palatal area was identified, and a series of 250 superimpositions was then performed automatically through VAM©software in order to reach the minimum point-to point distance between two models. In 36 matches the models belonged to the same individual, whereas in 214 mismatches they came from different subjects. The RMS (root mean square) of point-to-point distances was then calculated by 3D software. Possible statistically significant differences were assessed through Mann-Whitney test (p rugae, based on their anatomical 3D conformations, with consequent applications to personal identification.

  1. Interchain coupling and 3D modeling of trans-polyacetylene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bronold, F.; Saxena, A.; Bishop, A.R.

    1992-01-01

    In spite of the success of the SSH model for trans-polyacetylene in interpreting many experimental results (e.g. optical and magnetic properties) there remain some aspects of the real material which are outside the scope of the simple 1D model. Especially ordering phenomena of doped and undoped trans-polyacetylene as well as transport properties (e.g. electronic and thermal conductivity) are beyond a 1D description. There are many attempts to construct a transport theory for this novel class of materials using solitons or polaxons as the basic ingredients. But so far it is not yet clear whether these typical 1D excitations still exist in crystalline transpolyacetylene. Therefore, to clarify the role which intrinsic self-localized nonlinear excitations characteristic of 1D models play in the bulk (3D) material, we study the stability of a polaronic excitation against interchain coupling. As a preliminary step we consider first two coupled t-(CH) x -chains where the π-electrons are allowed to hop from one chain to the other. Then we introduce a 3D generalization of the SSH model and study a polaron in a 3D crystalline environment

  2. 3D-DART: a DNA structure modelling server.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Dijk, Marc; Bonvin, Alexandre M J J

    2009-07-01

    There is a growing interest in structural studies of DNA by both experimental and computational approaches. Often, 3D-structural models of DNA are required, for instance, to serve as templates for homology modeling, as starting structures for macro-molecular docking or as scaffold for NMR structure calculations. The conformational adaptability of DNA when binding to a protein is often an important factor and at the same time a limitation in such studies. As a response to the demand for 3D-structural models reflecting the intrinsic plasticity of DNA we present the 3D-DART server (3DNA-Driven DNA Analysis and Rebuilding Tool). The server provides an easy interface to a powerful collection of tools for the generation of DNA-structural models in custom conformations. The computational engine beyond the server makes use of the 3DNA software suite together with a collection of home-written python scripts. The server is freely available at http://haddock.chem.uu.nl/dna without any login requirement.

  3. A 3D Hydrodynamic Model for Cytokinesis of Eukaryotic Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-08-01

    called cytokinesis. For eukaryotic cells , cell division is a much more complicated process than the division of prokaryotic cells . Despite of extensive...2014 2. REPORT TYPE 3. DATES COVERED 00-00-2014 to 00-00-2014 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE A 3D Hydrodynamic Model for Cytokinesis of Eukaryotic Cells ...stage of the mitotic cycle of eukaryotic cells , cytokinesis ensues where a parent cell replicates its nucleus with the necessary genetical substances

  4. Explicit 3D continuum fracture modeling with smooth particle hydrodynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benz, W.; Asphaug, E.

    1993-01-01

    Impact phenomena shaped our solar system. As usual for most solar system processes, the scales are far different than we can address directly in the laboratory. Impact velocities are often much higher than we can achieve, sizes are often vastly larger, and most impacts take place in an environment where the only gravitational force is the mutual pull of the impactors. The Smooth Particle Hydrodynamics (SPH) technique has been applied in the past to the simulations of giant impacts. In these simulations, the colliding objects were so massive (at least a sizeable fraction of the Earth's mass) that material strength was negligible compared to gravity. This assumption can no longer be made when the bodies are much smaller. To this end, we have developed a 3D SPH code that includes a strength model to which we have added a von Mises yielding relation for stresses beyond the Hugoniot Elastic Limit. At the lower stresses associated with brittle failure, we use a rate-dependent strength based on the nucleation of incipient flaws whose number density is given by a Weibull distribution. Following Grady and Kipp and Melosh et al., we introduce a state variable D ('damage'), 0 less than D less than 1, which expresses the local reduction in strength due to crack growth under tensile loading. Unfortunately for the hydrodynamics, Grady and Kipp's model predicts which fragments are the most probable ones and not the ones that are really formed. This means, for example, that if a given laboratory experiment is modeled, the fragment distribution obtained from the Grady-Kipp theory would be equivalent to a ensemble average over many realizations of the experiment. On the other hand, the hydrodynamics itself is explicit and evolves not an ensemble average but very specific fragments. Hence, there is a clear incompatibility with the deterministic nature of the hydrodynamics equations and the statistical approach of the Grady-Kipp dynamical fracture model. We remedy these shortcomings

  5. Towards a Decision Support Tool for 3d Visualisation: Application to Selectivity Purpose of Single Object in a 3d City Scene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neuville, R.; Pouliot, J.; Poux, F.; Hallot, P.; De Rudder, L.; Billen, R.

    2017-10-01

    This paper deals with the establishment of a comprehensive methodological framework that defines 3D visualisation rules and its application in a decision support tool. Whilst the use of 3D models grows in many application fields, their visualisation remains challenging from the point of view of mapping and rendering aspects to be applied to suitability support the decision making process. Indeed, there exists a great number of 3D visualisation techniques but as far as we know, a decision support tool that facilitates the production of an efficient 3D visualisation is still missing. This is why a comprehensive methodological framework is proposed in order to build decision tables for specific data, tasks and contexts. Based on the second-order logic formalism, we define a set of functions and propositions among and between two collections of entities: on one hand static retinal variables (hue, size, shape…) and 3D environment parameters (directional lighting, shadow, haze…) and on the other hand their effect(s) regarding specific visual tasks. It enables to define 3D visualisation rules according to four categories: consequence, compatibility, potential incompatibility and incompatibility. In this paper, the application of the methodological framework is demonstrated for an urban visualisation at high density considering a specific set of entities. On the basis of our analysis and the results of many studies conducted in the 3D semiotics, which refers to the study of symbols and how they relay information, the truth values of propositions are determined. 3D visualisation rules are then extracted for the considered context and set of entities and are presented into a decision table with a colour coding. Finally, the decision table is implemented into a plugin developed with three.js, a cross-browser JavaScript library. The plugin consists of a sidebar and warning windows that help the designer in the use of a set of static retinal variables and 3D environment

  6. Right approach to 3D modeling using CAD tools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baddam, Mounica Reddy

    The thesis provides a step-by-step methodology to enable an instructor dealing with CAD tools to optimally guide his/her students through an understandable 3D modeling approach which will not only enhance their knowledge about the tool's usage but also enable them to achieve their desired result in comparatively lesser time. In the known practical field, there is particularly very little information available to apply CAD skills to formal beginners' training sessions. Additionally, advent of new software in 3D domain cumulates updating into a more difficult task. Keeping up to the industry's advanced requirements emphasizes the importance of more skilled hands in the field of CAD development, rather than just prioritizing manufacturing in terms of complex software features. The thesis analyses different 3D modeling approaches specified to the varieties of CAD tools currently available in the market. Utilizing performance-time databases, learning curves have been generated to measure their performance time, feature count etc. Based on the results, improvement parameters have also been provided for (Asperl, 2005).

  7. Digital 3D Borobudur - Integration of 3D surveying and modeling techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suwardhi, D.; Menna, F.; Remondino, F.; Hanke, K.; Akmalia, R.

    2015-08-01

    The Borobudur temple (Indonesia) is one of the greatest Buddhist monuments in the world, now listed as an UNESCO World Heritage Site. The present state of the temple is the result of restorations after being exposed to natural disasters several times. Today there is still a growing rate of deterioration of the building stones whose causes need further researches. Monitoring programs, supported at institutional level, have been effectively executed to observe the problem. The paper presents the latest efforts to digitally document the Borobudur Temple and its surrounding area in 3D with photogrammetric techniques. UAV and terrestrial images were acquired to completely digitize the temple, produce DEM, orthoimages and maps at 1:100 and 1:1000 scale. The results of the project are now employed by the local government organizations to manage the heritage area and plan new policies for the conservation and preservation of the UNESCO site. In order to help data management and policy makers, a web-based information system of the heritage area was also built to visualize and easily access all the data and achieved 3D results.

  8. Digital 3D Borobudur – Integration of 3D surveying and modeling techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Suwardhi

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The Borobudur temple (Indonesia is one of the greatest Buddhist monuments in the world, now listed as an UNESCO World Heritage Site. The present state of the temple is the result of restorations after being exposed to natural disasters several times. Today there is still a growing rate of deterioration of the building stones whose causes need further researches. Monitoring programs, supported at institutional level, have been effectively executed to observe the problem. The paper presents the latest efforts to digitally document the Borobudur Temple and its surrounding area in 3D with photogrammetric techniques. UAV and terrestrial images were acquired to completely digitize the temple, produce DEM, orthoimages and maps at 1:100 and 1:1000 scale. The results of the project are now employed by the local government organizations to manage the heritage area and plan new policies for the conservation and preservation of the UNESCO site. In order to help data management and policy makers, a web-based information system of the heritage area was also built to visualize and easily access all the data and achieved 3D results.

  9. 3D Modeling and Visualization of Geology Volume based on Geophysical Field Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min Qi

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available 3D modeling and visualization of geology volume is very important to interpret accurately and locate subsurface geology volume for mining exploration and deep prospecting. However, it faces a lack of information because the target area is usually unexplored and lacks geological data. This paper presents our experience in applying a 3D model of geology volume based on geophysics. This work has researched and developed a 3D visualization system. It is based on an OO (orientated object approach and modular programming, uses the C++ language and Microsoft .NET platform. This system has built first a high resistivity method and MT database. The system uses irregular tetrahedrons to construct its model and then finally has built the 3D geological model itself.

  10. 3D Massive MIMO Systems: Channel Modeling and Performance Analysis

    KAUST Repository

    Nadeem, Qurrat-Ul-Ain

    2015-03-01

    Multiple-input-multiple-output (MIMO) systems of current LTE releases are capable of adaptation in the azimuth only. More recently, the trend is to enhance the system performance by exploiting the channel\\'s degrees of freedom in the elevation through the dynamic adaptation of the vertical antenna beam pattern. This necessitates the derivation and characterization of three-dimensional (3D) channels. Over the years, channel models have evolved to address the challenges of wireless communication technologies. In parallel to theoretical studies on channel modeling, many standardized channel models like COST-based models, 3GPP SCM, WINNER, ITU have emerged that act as references for industries and telecommunication companies to assess system-level and link-level performances of advanced signal processing techniques over real-like channels. Given the existing channels are only two dimensional (2D) in nature; a large effort in channel modeling is needed to study the impact of the channel component in the elevation direction. The first part of this work sheds light on the current 3GPP activity around 3D channel modeling and beamforming, an aspect that to our knowledge has not been extensively covered by a research publication. The standardized MIMO channel model is presented, that incorporates both the propagation effects of the environment and the radio effects of the antennas. In order to facilitate future studies on the use of 3D beamforming, the main features of the proposed 3D channel model are discussed. A brief overview of the future 3GPP 3D channel model being outlined for the next generation of wireless networks is also provided. In the subsequent part of this work, we present an information-theoretic channel model for MIMO systems that supports the elevation dimension. The model is based on the principle of maximum entropy, which enables us to determine the distribution of the channel matrix consistent with the prior information on the angles of departure and

  11. Image-Based 3D Face Modeling System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir Vezhnevets

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes an automatic system for 3D face modeling using frontal and profile images taken by an ordinary digital camera. The system consists of four subsystems including frontal feature detection, profile feature detection, shape deformation, and texture generation modules. The frontal and profile feature detection modules automatically extract the facial parts such as the eye, nose, mouth, and ear. The shape deformation module utilizes the detected features to deform the generic head mesh model such that the deformed model coincides with the detected features. A texture is created by combining the facial textures augmented from the input images and the synthesized texture and mapped onto the deformed generic head model. This paper provides a practical system for 3D face modeling, which is highly automated by aggregating, customizing, and optimizing a bunch of individual computer vision algorithms. The experimental results show a highly automated process of modeling, which is sufficiently robust to various imaging conditions. The whole model creation including all the optional manual corrections takes only 2∼3 minutes.

  12. 3D digital anatomy modelling - Practical or pretty?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murgitroyd, Ellen; Madurska, Marta; Gonzalez, Jasmina; Watson, Angus

    2015-06-01

    With an increasing move towards digitalisation of medical records and medical teaching, such as online exams and webinars, one of the questions that persists asks 'is there a place for digital anatomy teaching and can it effectively replace the traditional teaching methods such as cadaveric dissection?' Cadaveric dissection has a number of benefits as a teaching method but it also has its limitations. Although these can be partially addressed by prosections and new more "life-like" fixatives, it does not address the lack of resources and the increasing pressure to be able to study and learn at home. This paper reviews the literature with regards to the suitability of digital models for teaching and the wider uses a 3D digital anatomy model could have, such as postgraduate teaching, patient education and surgical planning. It also looks briefly at the learning model that anatomy as art contributes. The literature has scattered examples of digital models used for teaching at both undergraduate and postgraduate level, which demonstrate a number of positive outcomes, mostly surrounding user satisfaction and convenience. 3D modelling for patient education and operation planning has less exploration, and these papers generate a number of discussion points, mostly surrounding the practicality of digital models, which can be more time consuming and require the technology to be widely available and reliable. 3D digital anatomy is a useful adjunct to teaching and its use in patient education and operation planning have interesting possibilities still to be fully explored. Copyright © 2014 Royal College of Surgeons of Edinburgh (Scottish charity number SC005317) and Royal College of Surgeons in Ireland. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Development of hybrid 3-D hydrological modeling for the NCAR Community Earth System Model (CESM)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zeng, Xubin [Univ. of Arizona, Tucson, AZ (United States); Troch, Peter [Univ. of Arizona, Tucson, AZ (United States); Pelletier, Jon [Univ. of Arizona, Tucson, AZ (United States); Niu, Guo-Yue [Univ. of Arizona, Tucson, AZ (United States); Gochis, David [NCAR Research Applications Lab., Boulder, CO (United States)

    2015-11-15

    This is the Final Report of our four-year (3-year plus one-year no cost extension) collaborative project between the University of Arizona (UA) and the National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR). The overall objective of our project is to develop and evaluate the first hybrid 3-D hydrological model with a horizontal grid spacing of 1 km for the NCAR Community Earth System Model (CESM).

  14. 3D Hatching : Linear halftoning for dual extrusion fused deposition modeling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuipers, Tim; Doubrovski, E.L.; Verlinden, J.C.

    2017-01-01

    This work presents halftoning techniques to manufacture 3D objects with the appearance of full grayscale imagery for Fused Deposition Modeling (FDM) printers. While droplet-based dithering is a common halftoning technique, this is not applicable to FDM printing, since FDM builds up objects by

  15. Focus for 3D city models should be on interoperability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bodum, Lars; Kjems, Erik; Jaegly, Marie Michele Helena

    2006-01-01

    3D city models have become a very popular commodity for cities in general. The politicians and/or the administrative management have in the last few years been very active when it comes to investments in dimensionality, and the models come in many different forms and for many specific or non...... developments in Geographical Exploration Systems. Centralized and proprietary Geographical Exploration Systems only give us their own perspective on the world. On the contrary, GRIFINOR is decentralized and available for everyone to use, empowering people to promote their own world vision....

  16. 3D statistical shape models incorporating 3D random forest regression voting for robust CT liver segmentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norajitra, Tobias; Meinzer, Hans-Peter; Maier-Hein, Klaus H.

    2015-03-01

    During image segmentation, 3D Statistical Shape Models (SSM) usually conduct a limited search for target landmarks within one-dimensional search profiles perpendicular to the model surface. In addition, landmark appearance is modeled only locally based on linear profiles and weak learners, altogether leading to segmentation errors from landmark ambiguities and limited search coverage. We present a new method for 3D SSM segmentation based on 3D Random Forest Regression Voting. For each surface landmark, a Random Regression Forest is trained that learns a 3D spatial displacement function between the according reference landmark and a set of surrounding sample points, based on an infinite set of non-local randomized 3D Haar-like features. Landmark search is then conducted omni-directionally within 3D search spaces, where voxelwise forest predictions on landmark position contribute to a common voting map which reflects the overall position estimate. Segmentation experiments were conducted on a set of 45 CT volumes of the human liver, of which 40 images were randomly chosen for training and 5 for testing. Without parameter optimization, using a simple candidate selection and a single resolution approach, excellent results were achieved, while faster convergence and better concavity segmentation were observed, altogether underlining the potential of our approach in terms of increased robustness from distinct landmark detection and from better search coverage.

  17. 3D Building Evacuation Route Modelling and Visualization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, W.; Armenakis, C.

    2014-11-01

    The most common building evacuation approach currently applied is to have evacuation routes planned prior to these emergency events. These routes are usually the shortest and most practical path from each building room to the closest exit. The problem with this approach is that it is not adaptive. It is not responsively configurable relative to the type, intensity, or location of the emergency risk. Moreover, it does not provide any information to the affected persons or to the emergency responders while not allowing for the review of simulated hazard scenarios and alternative evacuation routes. In this paper we address two main tasks. The first is the modelling of the spatial risk caused by a hazardous event leading to choosing the optimal evacuation route for a set of options. The second is to generate a 3D visual representation of the model output. A multicriteria decision making (MCDM) approach is used to model the risk aiming at finding the optimal evacuation route. This is achieved by using the analytical hierarchy process (AHP) on the criteria describing the different alternative evacuation routes. The best route is then chosen to be the alternative with the least cost. The 3D visual representation of the model displays the building, the surrounding environment, the evacuee's location, the hazard location, the risk areas and the optimal evacuation pathway to the target safety location. The work has been performed using ESRI's ArcGIS. Using the developed models, the user can input the location of the hazard and the location of the evacuee. The system then determines the optimum evacuation route and displays it in 3D.

  18. The 3-D alignment of objects in dynamic PET scans using filtered sinusoidal trajectories of sinogram

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kostopoulos, Aristotelis E.; Happonen, Antti P.; Ruotsalainen, Ulla

    2006-01-01

    In this study, our goal is to employ a novel 3-D alignment method for dynamic positron emission tomography (PET) scans. Because the acquired data (i.e. sinograms) often contain noise considerably, filtering of the data prior to the alignment presumably improves the final results. In this study, we utilized a novel 3-D stackgram domain approach. In the stackgram domain, the signals along the sinusoidal trajectory signals of the sinogram can be processed separately. In this work, we performed angular stackgram domain filtering by employing well known 1-D filters: the Gaussian low-pass filter and the median filter. In addition, we employed two wavelet de-noising techniques. After filtering we performed alignment of objects in the stackgram domain. The local alignment technique we used is based on similarity comparisons between locus vectors (i.e. the signals along the sinusoidal trajectories of the sinogram) in a 3-D neighborhood of sequences of the stackgrams. Aligned stackgrams can be transformed back to sinograms (Method 1), or alternatively directly to filtered back-projected images (Method 2). In order to evaluate the alignment process, simulated data with different kinds of additive noises were used. The results indicated that the filtering prior to the alignment can be important concerning the accuracy

  19. Simulation of current generation in a 3-D plasma model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsung, F.S.; Dawson, J.M.

    1996-01-01

    Two wires carrying current in the same direction will attract each other, and two wires carrying current in the opposite direction will repel each other. Now, consider a test charge in a plasma. If the test charge carries current parallel to the plasma, then it will be pulled toward the plasma core, and if the test charge carries current anti-parallel to the plasma, then it will be pushed to the edge. The electromagnetic coupling between the plasma and a test charge (i.e., the A parallel circ v parallel term in the test charge's Hamiltonian) breaks the symmetry in the parallel direction, and gives rise to a diffusion coefficient which is dependent on the particle's parallel velocity. This is the basis for the open-quotes preferential lossclose quotes mechanism described in the work by Nunan et al. In our previous 2+1/2 D work, in both cylindrical and toroidal geometries, showed that if the plasma column is centrally fueled, then an initial current increases steadily. The results in straight, cylindrical plasmas showed that self generated parallel current arises without trapped particle or neoclassical diffusion, as assumed by the bootstrap theory. It suggests that the fundamental mechanism seems to be the conservation of particles canonical momenta in the direction of the ignorable coordinate. We have extended the simulation to 3D to verify the model put forth. A scalable 3D EM-PIC code, with a localized field-solver, has been implemented to run on a large class of parallel computers. On the 512-node SP2 at Cornell Theory Center, we have benchmarked the 2+1/2 D calculations using 32 grids in the previously ignored direction, and a 100-fold increase in the number of particles. Our preliminary results show good agreements between the 2+1/2 D and the 3D calculations. We will present our 3D results at the meeting

  20. Modeling Images of Natural 3D Surfaces: Overview and Potential Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jalobeanu, Andre; Kuehnel, Frank; Stutz, John

    2004-01-01

    Generative models of natural images have long been used in computer vision. However, since they only describe the of 2D scenes, they fail to capture all the properties of the underlying 3D world. Even though such models are sufficient for many vision tasks a 3D scene model is when it comes to inferring a 3D object or its characteristics. In this paper, we present such a generative model, incorporating both a multiscale surface prior model for surface geometry and reflectance, and an image formation process model based on realistic rendering, the computation of the posterior model parameter densities, and on the critical aspects of the rendering. We also how to efficiently invert the model within a Bayesian framework. We present a few potential applications, such as asteroid modeling and Planetary topography recovery, illustrated by promising results on real images.

  1. Evaluation of the 3d Urban Modelling Capabilities in Geographical Information Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dogru, A. O.; Seker, D. Z.

    2010-12-01

    Geographical Information System (GIS) Technology, which provides successful solutions to basic spatial problems, is currently widely used in 3 dimensional (3D) modeling of physical reality with its developing visualization tools. The modeling of large and complicated phenomenon is a challenging problem in terms of computer graphics currently in use. However, it is possible to visualize that phenomenon in 3D by using computer systems. 3D models are used in developing computer games, military training, urban planning, tourism and etc. The use of 3D models for planning and management of urban areas is very popular issue of city administrations. In this context, 3D City models are produced and used for various purposes. However the requirements of the models vary depending on the type and scope of the application. While a high level visualization, where photorealistic visualization techniques are widely used, is required for touristy and recreational purposes, an abstract visualization of the physical reality is generally sufficient for the communication of the thematic information. The visual variables, which are the principle components of cartographic visualization, such as: color, shape, pattern, orientation, size, position, and saturation are used for communicating the thematic information. These kinds of 3D city models are called as abstract models. Standardization of technologies used for 3D modeling is now available by the use of CityGML. CityGML implements several novel concepts to support interoperability, consistency and functionality. For example it supports different Levels-of-Detail (LoD), which may arise from independent data collection processes and are used for efficient visualization and efficient data analysis. In one CityGML data set, the same object may be represented in different LoD simultaneously, enabling the analysis and visualization of the same object with regard to different degrees of resolution. Furthermore, two CityGML data sets

  2. Patient-specific 3D printed model in delineating brain glioma and surrounding structures in a pediatric patient

    OpenAIRE

    Ivan Lau; Andrew Squelch; Yung Liang Wan; Alex Mun-Chung Wong; Werner Ducke; Zhonghua Sun

    2017-01-01

    Background and Objectives: Three-dimensional (3D) printing has been increasingly used in medicine with applications in the diagnostic assessment of disease extent, medical education and training, preoperative planning, and surgical simulation. The use of 3D printing in brain tumors is very limited. In this study, we presented our preliminary experience of creating patient-specific 3D printed model of a brain tumor in a pediatric patient and demonstrated the feasibility of using 3D printing in...

  3. Automated reconstruction of 3D models from real environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sequeira, V.; Ng, K.; Wolfart, E.; Gonçalves, J. G. M.; Hogg, D.

    This paper describes an integrated approach to the construction of textured 3D scene models of building interiors from laser range data and visual images. This approach has been implemented in a collection of algorithms and sensors within a prototype device for 3D reconstruction, known as the EST (Environmental Sensor for Telepresence). The EST can take the form of a push trolley or of an autonomous mobile platform. The Autonomous EST (AEST) has been designed to provide an integrated solution for automating the creation of complete models. Embedded software performs several functions, including triangulation of the range data, registration of video texture, registration and integration of data acquired from different capture points. Potential applications include facilities management for the construction industry and creating reality models to be used in general areas of virtual reality, for example, virtual studios, virtualised reality for content-related applications (e.g., CD-ROMs), social telepresence, architecture and others. The paper presents the main components of the EST/AEST, and presents some example results obtained from the prototypes. The reconstructed model is encoded in VRML format so that it is possible to access and view the model via the World Wide Web.

  4. Exploiting Textured 3D Models for Developing Serious Games

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Kontogianni

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Digital technologies have affected significantly many fields of computer graphics such as Games and especially the field of the Serious Games. These games are usually used for educational proposes in many fields such as Health Care, Military applications, Education, Government etc. Especially Digital Cultural Heritage is a scientific area that Serious Games are applied and lately many applications appear in the related literature. Realistic 3D textured models which have been produced using different photogrammetric methods could be a useful tool for the creation of Serious Game applications in order to make the final result more realistic and close to the reality. The basic goal of this paper is how 3D textured models which are produced by photogrammetric methods can be useful for developing a more realistic environment of a Serious Game. The application of this project aims at the creation of an educational game for the Ancient Agora of Athens. The 3D models used vary not only as far as their production methods (i.e. Time of Flight laser scanner, Structure from Motion, Virtual historical reconstruction etc. is concerned, but also as far as their era as some of them illustrated according to their existing situation and some others according to how these monuments looked like in the past. The Unity 3D® game developing environment was used for creating this application, in which all these models were inserted in the same file format. For the application two diachronic virtual tours of the Athenian Agora were produced. The first one illustrates the Agora as it is today and the second one at the 2nd century A.D. Finally the future perspective for the evolution of this game is presented which includes the addition of some questions that the user will be able to answer. Finally an evaluation is scheduled to be performed at the end of the project.

  5. Exploiting Textured 3D Models for Developing Serious Games

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kontogianni, G.; Georgopoulos, A.

    2015-08-01

    Digital technologies have affected significantly many fields of computer graphics such as Games and especially the field of the Serious Games. These games are usually used for educational proposes in many fields such as Health Care, Military applications, Education, Government etc. Especially Digital Cultural Heritage is a scientific area that Serious Games are applied and lately many applications appear in the related literature. Realistic 3D textured models which have been produced using different photogrammetric methods could be a useful tool for the creation of Serious Game applications in order to make the final result more realistic and close to the reality. The basic goal of this paper is how 3D textured models which are produced by photogrammetric methods can be useful for developing a more realistic environment of a Serious Game. The application of this project aims at the creation of an educational game for the Ancient Agora of Athens. The 3D models used vary not only as far as their production methods (i.e. Time of Flight laser scanner, Structure from Motion, Virtual historical reconstruction etc.) is concerned, but also as far as their era as some of them illustrated according to their existing situation and some others according to how these monuments looked like in the past. The Unity 3D® game developing environment was used for creating this application, in which all these models were inserted in the same file format. For the application two diachronic virtual tours of the Athenian Agora were produced. The first one illustrates the Agora as it is today and the second one at the 2nd century A.D. Finally the future perspective for the evolution of this game is presented which includes the addition of some questions that the user will be able to answer. Finally an evaluation is scheduled to be performed at the end of the project.

  6. Memory color of natural familiar objects: effects of surface texture and 3-D shape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vurro, Milena; Ling, Yazhu; Hurlbert, Anya C

    2013-06-28

    Natural objects typically possess characteristic contours, chromatic surface textures, and three-dimensional shapes. These diagnostic features aid object recognition, as does memory color, the color most associated in memory with a particular object. Here we aim to determine whether polychromatic surface texture, 3-D shape, and contour diagnosticity improve memory color for familiar objects, separately and in combination. We use solid three-dimensional familiar objects rendered with their natural texture, which participants adjust in real time to match their memory color for the object. We analyze mean, accuracy, and precision of the memory color settings relative to the natural color of the objects under the same conditions. We find that in all conditions, memory colors deviate slightly but significantly in the same direction from the natural color. Surface polychromaticity, shape diagnosticity, and three dimensionality each improve memory color accuracy, relative to uniformly colored, generic, or two-dimensional shapes, respectively. Shape diagnosticity improves the precision of memory color also, and there is a trend for polychromaticity to do so as well. Differently from other studies, we find that the object contour alone also improves memory color. Thus, enhancing the naturalness of the stimulus, in terms of either surface or shape properties, enhances the accuracy and precision of memory color. The results support the hypothesis that memory color representations are polychromatic and are synergistically linked with diagnostic shape representations.

  7. 3D geological modeling for mineral resource assessment of the Tongshan Cu deposit, Heilongjiang Province, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gongwen Wang

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Three-dimensional geological modeling (3DGM assists geologists to quantitatively study in three-dimensional (3D space structures that define temporal and spatial relationships between geological objects. The 3D property model can also be used to infer or deduce causes of geological objects. 3DGM technology provides technical support for extraction of diverse geoscience information, 3D modeling, and quantitative calculation of mineral resources. Based on metallogenic concepts and an ore deposit model, 3DGM technology is applied to analyze geological characteristics of the Tongshan Cu deposit in order to define a metallogenic model and develop a virtual borehole technology; a BP neural network and a 3D interpolation technique were combined to integrate multiple geoscience information in a 3D environment. The results indicate: (1 on basis of the concept of magmatic-hydrothermal Cu polymetallic mineralization and a porphyry Cu deposit model, a spatial relational database of multiple geoscience information for mineralization in the study area (geology, geophysics, geochemistry, borehole, and cross-section data was established, and 3D metallogenic geological objects including mineralization stratum, granodiorite, alteration rock, and magnetic anomaly were constructed; (2 on basis of the 3D ore deposit model, 23,800 effective surveys from 94 boreholes and 21 sections were applied to establish 3D orebody models with a kriging interpolation method; (3 combined 23,800 surveys involving 21 sections, using VC++ and OpenGL platform, virtual borehole and virtual section with BP network, and an improved inverse distance interpolation (IDW method were used to predict and delineate mineralization potential targets (Cu-grade of cell not less than 0.1%; (4 comparison of 3D ore bodies, metallogenic geological objects of mineralization, and potential targets of mineralization models in the study area, delineated the 3D spatial and temporal relationship and causal

  8. Recent progress in modelling 3D lithospheric deformation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaus, B. J. P.; Popov, A.; May, D. A.

    2012-04-01

    Modelling 3D lithospheric deformation remains a challenging task, predominantly because the variations in rock types, as well as nonlinearities due to for example plastic deformation result in sharp and very large jumps in effective viscosity contrast. As a result, there are only a limited number of 3D codes available, most of which are using direct solvers which are computationally and memory-wise very demanding. As a result, the resolutions for typical model runs are quite modest, despite the use of hundreds of processors (and using much larger computers is unlikely to bring much improvement in this situation). For this reason we recently developed a new 3D deformation code,called LaMEM: Lithosphere and Mantle Evolution Model. LaMEM is written on top of PETSc, and as a result it runs on massive parallel machines and we have a large number of iterative solvers available (including geometric and algebraic multigrid methods). As it remains unclear which solver combinations work best under which conditions, we have implemented most currently suggested methods (such as schur complement reduction or Fully coupled iterations). In addition, we can use either a finite element discretization (with Q1P0, stabilized Q1Q1 or Q2P-1 elements) or a staggered finite difference discretization for the same input geometry, which is based on a marker and cell technique). This gives us he flexibility to test various solver methodologies on the same model setup, in terms of accuracy, speed, memory usage etc. Here, we will report on some features of LaMEM, on recent code additions, as well as on some lessons we learned which are important for modelling 3D lithospheric deformation. Specifically we will discuss: 1) How we combine a particle-and-cell method to make it work with both a finite difference and a (lagrangian, eulerian or ALE) finite element formulation, with only minor code modifications code 2) How finite difference and finite element discretizations compare in terms of

  9. Computational Modelling of Piston Ring Dynamics in 3D

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dlugoš Jozef

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Advanced computational models of a piston assembly based on the level of virtual prototypes require a detailed description of piston ring behaviour. Considering these requirements, the piston rings operate in regimes that cannot, in general, be simplified into an axisymmetric model. The piston and the cylinder liner do not have a perfect round shape, mainly due to machining tolerances and external thermo-mechanical loads. If the ring cannot follow the liner deformations, a local loss of contact occurs resulting in blow-by and increased consumption of lubricant oil in the engine. Current computational models are unable to implement such effects. The paper focuses on the development of a flexible 3D piston ring model based on the Timoshenko beam theory using the multibody system (MBS. The MBS model is compared to the finite element method (FEM solution.

  10. Radiative transfer model for heterogeneous 3-D scenes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimes, D. S.; Kirchner, J. A.

    1982-01-01

    A general mathematical framework for simulating processes in heterogeneous 3-D scenes is presented. Specifically, a model was designed and coded for application to radiative transfers in vegetative scenes. The model is unique in that it predicts (1) the directional spectral reflectance factors as a function of the sensor's azimuth and zenith angles and the sensor's position above the canopy, (2) the spectral absorption as a function of location within the scene, and (3) the directional spectral radiance as a function of the sensor's location within the scene. The model was shown to follow known physical principles of radiative transfer. Initial verification of the model as applied to a soybean row crop showed that the simulated directional reflectance data corresponded relatively well in gross trends to the measured data. However, the model can be greatly improved by incorporating more sophisticated and realistic anisotropic scattering algorithms

  11. 3D City Models with Different Temporal Characteristica

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bodum, Lars

    2005-01-01

    -built dynamic or a model suitable for visualization in realtime, it is required that modelling is done with level-of-detail and simplification of both the aesthetics and the geometry. If a temporal characteristic is combined with a visual characteristic, the situation can easily be seen as a t/v matrix where t....... Therefore it is important that temporal information is attached to the different parts of a city model so that it can be used as part of metadata for city models. Another and just as important use of time is related to the temporal characteristics of the 3D city models. There is a huge difference between...... is the temporal characteristic or representation and v is the visual characteristic or representation....

  12. Detection and 3d Modelling of Vehicles from Terrestrial Stereo Image Pairs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coenen, M.; Rottensteiner, F.; Heipke, C.

    2017-05-01

    The detection and pose estimation of vehicles plays an important role for automated and autonomous moving objects e.g. in autonomous driving environments. We tackle that problem on the basis of street level stereo images, obtained from a moving vehicle. Processing every stereo pair individually, our approach is divided into two subsequent steps: the vehicle detection and the modelling step. For the detection, we make use of the 3D stereo information and incorporate geometric assumptions on vehicle inherent properties in a firstly applied generic 3D object detection. By combining our generic detection approach with a state of the art vehicle detector, we are able to achieve satisfying detection results with values for completeness and correctness up to more than 86%. By fitting an object specific vehicle model into the vehicle detections, we are able to reconstruct the vehicles in 3D and to derive pose estimations as well as shape parameters for each vehicle. To deal with the intra-class variability of vehicles, we make use of a deformable 3D active shape model learned from 3D CAD vehicle data in our model fitting approach. While we achieve encouraging values up to 67.2% for correct position estimations, we are facing larger problems concerning the orientation estimation. The evaluation is done by using the object detection and orientation estimation benchmark of the KITTI dataset (Geiger et al., 2012).

  13. Modelling of Shaft Orbiting with 3-D Solid Finite Elements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Yu

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available A 3-D solid finite element model which can include bending, torsional, axial and other motions is proposed to analyse dynamic responses of shafts. For uniform shafts, this model shows consistency with beam theories when bending vibration is examined. For non-uniform shafts such as tapered ones, however, this model gives much more reliable and accurate results than beam theories which use an assumption that plane sections remain plane. Reduction procedures can be applied which involve only small matrix operations for such a system with a large number of degrees of freedom. The equations of motion have been consistently derived in a rotating frame. Shaft orbiting motion is then defined in this frame, giving a clear view of its trajectories. Forced responses due to excitation in the rotating frame have been examined to find some characteristics of the orbiting shaft. Resonant orbiting frequencies, i.e., natural frequencies of rotating shafts, can be determined in terms of the rotating or fixed frame. Trajectories of transverse displacements have been found to be varying with the forcing frequencies. At resonance, a uniform shaft will only have forward or backward orbiting motion with circular orbits. For other forcing frequencies, however, even a uniform shaft could present both forward and backward orbiting motions with non-circular orbits at different locations along its length. It is anticipated that modelling of shaft orbiting in the rotating frame with the proposed 3-D solid finite elements will lead to accurate dynamic stress evaluation.

  14. FISHEYE LENSES FOR 3D MODELING: EVALUATIONS AND CONSIDERATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Barazzetti

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Fisheye lenses are becoming more popular in complete image-based modelling projects of small and narrow spaces. The growing interest in fisheye lenses is confirmed by the availability of different commercial software incorporating a fisheye camera model. Such software are now able to carry out the steps of the image processing pipeline in a fully automated way, from camera calibration and orientation to dense matching, surface generation, and orthophoto production. This paper highlights the advantages (and disadvantages of fisheye lenses when used for 3D modelling projects through different commercial software. The goal is not only a comparison of commercial software, but also an analysis of the additional issues that arise when a fisheye lens is used for 3D modelling. Results confirm that a fisheye lens is suitable for accurate metric documentation, especially when limited space is available. On the other hand, additional issues where found during the camera calibration/image orientation step as well as the texture generation and orthophoto production phases, for which particular attention is required.

  15. 3D Marine MT Modeling for a Topographic Seafloor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, B., Sr.; Yin, C.; Ren, X.; Liu, Y.; Huang, X.; Liu, L.

    2017-12-01

    As an effective geophysical tool, marine magnetotelluric (MMT) exploration has been widely used in offshore oil and gas exploration. Accordingly, the MMT forward modelling has made big progress. However, most of the researches are focused on a flat seafloor. In this paper, we present a 3D finite-element (FE) algorithm for marine MT forward modelling based on unstructured grids that can accurately model the MMT responses for a topographic seafloor. The boundary value problem for the forward modelling is described by an Helmholtz equation together with the boundary conditions derived by assuming the electrical polarizations respectively along the x- and y-direction on the top surface of the modelling domain. Applying the Galerkin method to the boundary value problem and substituting the unstructured finite-element vector shape function into the equation, we derive the final large linear system for the two polarizations, from which the EM fields is obtained for the calculation of impedance apparent resistivities and phases. To verify the effectiveness of our algorithm, we compare our modelling results with those by Key's (2013) 2D marine MT open source code of Scripps Institution of Oceanography (Figure 1). From Figure 1, one sees that the two agree well, implying that our 3D modelling method based unstructured FE is an effective modelling tool for topographic seafloor. From the MMT modelling responses for other topographic seafloor models (not shown here), we further observe that 1) the apparent resistivities have a similar profile pattern to the topography at the seafloor; 2) at the edges of the topography, there exist sharp changes; 3) the seafloor topography may dominate the responses from the abnormal bodies under the seafloor. This paper is supported by Key Program of National Natural Science Foundation of China (41530320), China Natural Science Foundation for Young Scientists (41404093), and Key National Research Project of China (2016YFC0303100, 2017YFC0601900)

  16. A generic 3D kinetic model of gene expression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhdanov, Vladimir P.

    2012-04-01

    Recent experiments show that mRNAs and proteins can be localized both in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells. To describe such situations, I present a 3D mean-field kinetic model aimed primarily at gene expression in prokaryotic cells, including the formation of mRNA, its translation into protein, and slow diffusion of these species. Under steady-state conditions, the mRNA and protein spatial distribution is described by simple exponential functions. The protein concentration near the gene transcribed into mRNA is shown to depend on the protein and mRNA diffusion coefficients and degradation rate constants.

  17. 3-D Numerical Modelling of Oblique Continental Collisions with ASPECT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karatun, L.; Pysklywec, R.

    2017-12-01

    Among the fundamental types of tectonic plate boundaries, continent-continent collision is least well understood. Deformation of the upper and middle crustal layers can be inferred from surface structures and geophysical imaging, but the fate of lower crustal rocks and mantle lithosphere is not well resolved. Previous research suggests that shortening of mantle lithosphere generally may be occurring by either: 1) a distributed thickening with a formation of a Raleigh-Tailor (RT) type instability (possibly accompanied with lithospheric folding); or 2) plate-like subduction, which can be one- or two-sided, with or without delamination and slab break-off; a combination of both could be taking place too. 3-D features of the orogens such as along-trench material transfer, bounding subduction zones can influence the evolution of the collision zone significantly. The current study was inspired by South Island of New Zealand - a young collision system where a block of continental crust is being shortened by the relative Australian-Pacific plate motion. The collision segment of the plate boundary is relatively small ( 800 km), and is bounded by oppositely verging subduction zones to the North and South. Here, we present results of 3-D forward numerical modelling of continental collision to investigate some of these processes. To conduct the simulations, we used ASPECT - a highly parallel community-developed code based on the Finite Element method. Model setup for three different sets of models featured 2-D vertical across strike, 3-D with periodic front and back walls, and 3-D with open front and back walls, with velocities prescribed on the left and right faces. We explored the importance of values of convergent velocity, strike-slip velocity and their ratio, which defines the resulting velocity direction relative to the plate boundary (obliquity). We found that higher strike-slip motion promotes strain localization, weakens the lithosphere close to the plate boundary and

  18. 3D simulation of the Cluster-Cluster Aggregation model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chao; Xiong, Hailing

    2014-12-01

    We write a program to implement the Cluster-Cluster Aggregation (CCA) model with java programming language. By using the simulation program, the fractal aggregation growth process can be displayed dynamically in the form of a three-dimensional (3D) figure. Meanwhile, the related kinetics data of aggregation simulation can be also recorded dynamically. Compared to the traditional programs, the program has better real-time performance and is more helpful to observe the fractal growth process, which contributes to the scientific study in fractal aggregation. Besides, because of adopting java programming language, the program has very good cross-platform performance.

  19. ALGE3D: A Three-Dimensional Transport Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maze, G. M.

    2017-12-01

    Of the top 10 most populated US cities from a 2015 US Census Bureau estimate, 7 of the cities are situated near the ocean, a bay, or on one of the Great Lakes. A contamination of the water ways in the United States could be devastating to the economy (through tourism and industries such as fishing), public health (from direct contact, or contaminated drinking water), and in some cases even infrastructure (water treatment plants). Current national response models employed by emergency response agencies have well developed models to simulate the effects of hazardous contaminants in riverine systems that are primarily driven by one-dimensional flows; however in more complex systems, such as tidal estuaries, bays, or lakes, a more complex model is needed. While many models exist, none are capable of quick deployment in emergency situations that could contain a variety of release situations including a mixture of both particulate and dissolved chemicals in a complex flow area. ALGE3D, developed at the Department of Energy's (DOE) Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL), is a three-dimensional hydrodynamic code which solves the momentum, mass, and energy conservation equations to predict the movement and dissipation of thermal or dissolved chemical plumes discharged into cooling lakes, rivers, and estuaries. ALGE3D is capable of modeling very complex flows, including areas with tidal flows which include wetting and drying of land. Recent upgrades have increased the capabilities including the transport of particulate tracers, allowing for more complete modeling of the transport of pollutants. In addition the model is capable of coupling with a one-dimension riverine transport model or a two-dimension atmospheric deposition model in the event that a contamination event occurs upstream or upwind of the water body.

  20. 3D Massive MIMO Systems: Modeling and Performance Analysis

    KAUST Repository

    Nadeem, Qurrat-Ul-Ain

    2015-07-30

    Multiple-input-multiple-output (MIMO) systems of current LTE releases are capable of adaptation in the azimuth only. Recently, the trend is to enhance system performance by exploiting the channel’s degrees of freedom in the elevation, which necessitates the characterization of 3D channels. We present an information-theoretic channel model for MIMO systems that supports the elevation dimension. The model is based on the principle of maximum entropy, which enables us to determine the distribution of the channel matrix consistent with the prior information on the angles. Based on this model, we provide analytical expression for the cumulative density function (CDF) of the mutual information (MI) for systems with a single receive and finite number of transmit antennas in the general signalto- interference-plus-noise-ratio (SINR) regime. The result is extended to systems with finite receive antennas in the low SINR regime. A Gaussian approximation to the asymptotic behavior of MI distribution is derived for the large number of transmit antennas and paths regime. We corroborate our analysis with simulations that study the performance gains realizable through meticulous selection of the transmit antenna downtilt angles, confirming the potential of elevation beamforming to enhance system performance. The results are directly applicable to the analysis of 5G 3D-Massive MIMO-systems.

  1. 3D MODELING OF THE ARCHAIC AMPHORAS OF IONIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Denker

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Few other regions offer such a rich collection of amphoras than the cities of Ionia. Throughout history amphoras of these cities had been spread all over the Mediterranean. Despite their common characteristics, amphora manufacturing cities of Ionia had their own distinctive styles that can be identified. They differed in details of shape and decoration. Each city produced an authentic type of amphora which served as a trademark of itself and enabled its attribution to where it originated from. That’s why, amphoras provide important insight into commerce of old ages and yield evidence into ancient sailing routes. Owing to this our knowledge of the ancient trade is profoundly enriched. The following is based on the finds of amphoras which originated from the Ionian cities of Chios, Clazomenai, Lesbos, Miletus, and Samos. Starting from city-specific forms which offer interpretative advantages in provenancing, this article surveys the salient features of the regional forms and styles of the those Ionian cities. 3D modeling is utilized with the aim of bringing fresh glimpses of the investigated amphoras by showing how they originally looked. Due to their virtual indestructibility these models offer interpretative advantages by enabling experimental testing of hypotheses upon the finds without risking them. The 3D models in the following sections were reconstructed from numerous fragments of necks, handles, body sherds and bases. They convey in color- unlike the monochrome drawings which we were accustomed to-the texture, decoration, tint and the vitality of the amphoras of Ionia.

  2. Heralding a new paradigm in 3D tumor modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fong, Eliza L S; Harrington, Daniel A; Farach-Carson, Mary C; Yu, Hanry

    2016-11-01

    Numerous studies to date have contributed to a paradigm shift in modeling cancer, moving from the traditional two-dimensional culture system to three-dimensional (3D) culture systems for cancer cell culture. This led to the inception of tumor engineering, which has undergone rapid advances over the years. In line with the recognition that tumors are not merely masses of proliferating cancer cells but rather, highly complex tissues consisting of a dynamic extracellular matrix together with stromal, immune and endothelial cells, significant efforts have been made to better recapitulate the tumor microenvironment in 3D. These approaches include the development of engineered matrices and co-cultures to replicate the complexity of tumor-stroma interactions in vitro. However, the tumor engineering and cancer biology fields have traditionally relied heavily on the use of cancer cell lines as a cell source in tumor modeling. While cancer cell lines have contributed to a wealth of knowledge in cancer biology, the use of this cell source is increasingly perceived as a major contributing factor to the dismal failure rate of oncology drugs in drug development. Backing this notion is the increasing evidence that tumors possess intrinsic heterogeneity, which predominantly homogeneous cancer cell lines poorly reflect. Tumor heterogeneity contributes to therapeutic resistance in patients. To overcome this limitation, cancer cell lines are beginning to be replaced by primary tumor cell sources, in the form of patient-derived xenografts and organoids cultures. Moving forward, we propose that further advances in tumor engineering would require that tumor heterogeneity (tumor variants) be taken into consideration together with tumor complexity (tumor-stroma interactions). In this review, we provide a comprehensive overview of what has been achieved in recapitulating tumor complexity, and discuss the importance of incorporating tumor heterogeneity into 3D in vitro tumor models. This

  3. 3D Imaging with a Single-Aperture 3-mm Objective Lens: Concept, Fabrication and Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korniski, Ron; Bae, Sam Y.; Shearn, Mike; Manohara, Harish; Shahinian, Hrayr

    2011-01-01

    There are many advantages to minimally invasive surgery (MIS). An endoscope is the optical system of choice by the surgeon for MIS. The smaller the incision or opening made to perform the surgery, the smaller the optical system needed. For minimally invasive neurological and skull base surgeries the openings are typically 10-mm in diameter (dime sized) or less. The largest outside diameter (OD) endoscope used is 4mm. A significant drawback to endoscopic MIS is that it only provides a monocular view of the surgical site thereby lacking depth information for the surgeon. A stereo view would provide the surgeon instantaneous depth information of the surroundings within the field of view, a significant advantage especially during brain surgery. Providing 3D imaging in an endoscopic objective lens system presents significant challenges because of the tight packaging constraints. This paper presents a promising new technique for endoscopic 3D imaging that uses a single lens system with complementary multi-bandpass filters (CMBFs), and describes the proof-of-concept demonstrations performed to date validating the technique. These demonstrations of the technique have utilized many commercial off-the-shelf (COTS) components including the ones used in the endoscope objective.

  4. Integration of aerial oblique imagery and terrestrial imagery for optimized 3D modeling in urban areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Bo; Xie, Linfu; Hu, Han; Zhu, Qing; Yau, Eric

    2018-05-01

    Photorealistic three-dimensional (3D) models are fundamental to the spatial data infrastructure of a digital city, and have numerous potential applications in areas such as urban planning, urban management, urban monitoring, and urban environmental studies. Recent developments in aerial oblique photogrammetry based on aircraft or unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) offer promising techniques for 3D modeling. However, 3D models generated from aerial oblique imagery in urban areas with densely distributed high-rise buildings may show geometric defects and blurred textures, especially on building façades, due to problems such as occlusion and large camera tilt angles. Meanwhile, mobile mapping systems (MMSs) can capture terrestrial images of close-range objects from a complementary view on the ground at a high level of detail, but do not offer full coverage. The integration of aerial oblique imagery with terrestrial imagery offers promising opportunities to optimize 3D modeling in urban areas. This paper presents a novel method of integrating these two image types through automatic feature matching and combined bundle adjustment between them, and based on the integrated results to optimize the geometry and texture of the 3D models generated from aerial oblique imagery. Experimental analyses were conducted on two datasets of aerial and terrestrial images collected in Dortmund, Germany and in Hong Kong. The results indicate that the proposed approach effectively integrates images from the two platforms and thereby improves 3D modeling in urban areas.

  5. Reevaluating plate driving forces from 3-D models of subduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stegman, D. R.; Freeman, J.; Schellart, W. P.; Moresi, L.; May, D.; Turnbull, R.

    2004-12-01

    Subducting lithospheric slabs mechanically attached to tectonic plates provide the main driving force for surface plate motion. Numerical models historically simulate slab dynamics as a 2-D process and further simplify the problem into either a density driven model (no heat transfer) or a corner-flow problem (thermal convection) [Christensen, 2001; Enns et al., (in revision); van Keken, 2003]. Recent 3-D global models of density driven flow incorporating a history of plate motion (Conrad and Lithgow-Bertelloni, 2002) have succussfully ruled out slab "suction" (basal shear traction induced by downward flow of the slabs) as a major driving force, but exact partitioning of the remaining forces acting on the slab remain unconstrained. A survey of trenches around the world reveals that over half of the slabs presently subducted in the upper mantle have a discontinuous edge (either a slab tip on a young slab, or the side edge of a slab with finite width) around which mantle can flow: prime examples being slabs in the Mediterranean and Carribean. However, even slabs with a wide lateral extent (and where a 2-D approximation may seem appropriate), show signs of having 3-D complexity. For example, on the surface Tonga appears relatively symmetric, but when the history of subduction is considered, the slab has a twisted, 3-D structure due to significant eastward retreat of just the northern part of an originally N-S oriented trench edge. Similarly the widest slabs, South American and Kamchatka, show seismic anisotropy attributed to trench parallel mantle flow (Russo and Silver, 1994; Peyton, et al., 2001, respectively), while the Aleutian trench has oblique subduction varying in magnitude from west to east, and medium width Central American slab likely has a slab window allowing 3-D flow (Johnston and Thorkelson, 1997). Recent laboratory experiments of subduction have demonstrated the full complexity of flow occuring in 3-D geometry (Kincaid and Griffiths, 2003; Schellart

  6. Automated finite element modelling of 3D woven textiles

    OpenAIRE

    Zeng, Xuesen; Long, A.C.; Clifford, M.J.; Probst-Schendzielorz, S.; Schmitt, M.W.

    2011-01-01

    The advance of 3D fabric technology allows tailored material structure in different directions for optimised performance. 3D fabrics open up increasing applications in automotive, medical, energy and many other areas. This paper explores highly automated techniques to simulate 3D fabric geometry and mechanical behaviour. The basis of the work starts from TexGen,an open source software package developed at the University of Nottingham. A complex variety of 3D fabrics can be defined as subclass...

  7. In-process 3D geometry reconstruction of objects produced by direct light projection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Ulrik Vølcker; Pedersen, David Bue; Hansen, Hans Nørgaard

    2013-01-01

    equipment such as coordinate measuring machines cannot be verified easily. This problem is addressed by developing an in-line reverse engineering and 3D reconstruction method that allows a true-to-scale reconstruction of a part being additively manufactured. In earlier works (Pedersen et al. 2010; Hansen et...... of direct light projection (DLP), the possibility of directly capturing the geometrical features of the object during a build job is limited by the specific machine design and the fact that photoactivated monomers often do not change optical characteristics in the polymerization process. Therefore......, a variant of the previously tested and verified method has been implemented on DLP machine, where instead of capturing the geometrical features of the produced objects during the build job directly, these features are captured indirectly by capturing the reflection of the projected light projected during...

  8. 3D vadose zone modeling using geostatistical inferences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knutson, C.F.; Lee, C.B.

    1991-01-01

    In developing a 3D model of the 600 ft thick interbedded basalt and sediment complex that constitutes the vadose zone at the Radioactive Waste Management Complex (RWMC) at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) geostatistical data were captured for 12--15 parameters (e.g. permeability, porosity, saturation, etc. and flow height, flow width, flow internal zonation, etc.). This two scale data set was generated from studies of subsurface core and geophysical log suites at RWMC and from surface outcrop exposures located at the Box Canyon of the Big Lost River and from Hell's Half Acre lava field all located in the general RWMC area. Based on these currently available data, it is possible to build a 3D stochastic model that utilizes: cumulative distribution functions obtained from the geostatistical data; backstripping and rebuilding of stratigraphic units; an ''expert'' system that incorporates rules based on expert geologic analysis and experimentally derived geostatistics for providing: (a) a structural and isopach map of each layer, (b) a realization of the flow geometry of each basalt flow unit, and (c) a realization of the internal flow parameters (eg permeability, porosity, and saturation) for each flow. 10 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab

  9. Development of a Quasi-3D Multiscale Modeling Framework: Motivation, basic algorithm and preliminary results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joon-Hee Jung

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available A new framework for modeling the atmosphere, which we call the quasi-3D (Q3D multi-scale modeling framework (MMF, is developed with the objective of including cloud-scale three-dimensional effects in a GCM without necessarily using a global cloud-resolving model (CRM. It combines a GCM with a Q3D CRM that has the horizontal domain consisting of two perpendicular sets of channels, each of which contains a locally 3D grid-point array. For computing efficiency, the widths of the channels are chosen to be narrow. Thus, it is crucial to select a proper lateral boundary condition to realistically simulate the statistics of cloud and cloud-associated processes. Among the various possibilities, a periodic lateral boundary condition is chosen for the deviations from background fields that are obtained by interpolations from the GCM grid points. Since the deviations tend to vanish as the GCM grid size approaches that of the CRM, the whole system of the Q3D MMF can converge to a fully 3D global CRM. Consequently, the horizontal resolution of the GCM can be freely chosen depending on the objective of application, without changing the formulation of model physics. To evaluate the newly developed Q3D CRM in an efficient way, idealized experiments have been performed using a small horizontal domain. In these tests, the Q3D CRM uses only one pair of perpendicular channels with only two grid points across each channel. Comparing the simulation results with those of a fully 3D CRM, it is concluded that the Q3D CRM can reproduce most of the important statistics of the 3D solutions, including the vertical distributions of cloud water and precipitants, vertical transports of potential temperature and water vapor, and the variances and covariances of dynamical variables. The main improvement from a corresponding 2D simulation appears in the surface fluxes and the vorticity transports that cause the mean wind to change. A comparison with a simulation using a coarse

  10. Topological order in an exactly solvable 3D spin model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bravyi, Sergey; Leemhuis, Bernhard; Terhal, Barbara M.

    2011-01-01

    Research highlights: RHtriangle We study exactly solvable spin model with six-qubit nearest neighbor interactions on a 3D face centered cubic lattice. RHtriangle The ground space of the model exhibits topological quantum order. RHtriangle Elementary excitations can be geometrically described as the corners of rectangular-shaped membranes. RHtriangle The ground space can encode 4g qubits where g is the greatest common divisor of the lattice dimensions. RHtriangle Logical operators acting on the encoded qubits are described in terms of closed strings and closed membranes. - Abstract: We study a 3D generalization of the toric code model introduced recently by Chamon. This is an exactly solvable spin model with six-qubit nearest-neighbor interactions on an FCC lattice whose ground space exhibits topological quantum order. The elementary excitations of this model which we call monopoles can be geometrically described as the corners of rectangular-shaped membranes. We prove that the creation of an isolated monopole separated from other monopoles by a distance R requires an operator acting on Ω(R 2 ) qubits. Composite particles that consist of two monopoles (dipoles) and four monopoles (quadrupoles) can be described as end-points of strings. The peculiar feature of the model is that dipole-type strings are rigid, that is, such strings must be aligned with face-diagonals of the lattice. For periodic boundary conditions the ground space can encode 4g qubits where g is the greatest common divisor of the lattice dimensions. We describe a complete set of logical operators acting on the encoded qubits in terms of closed strings and closed membranes.

  11. Automatic 3d Building Model Generations with Airborne LiDAR Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yastikli, N.; Cetin, Z.

    2017-11-01

    LiDAR systems become more and more popular because of the potential use for obtaining the point clouds of vegetation and man-made objects on the earth surface in an accurate and quick way. Nowadays, these airborne systems have been frequently used in wide range of applications such as DEM/DSM generation, topographic mapping, object extraction, vegetation mapping, 3 dimensional (3D) modelling and simulation, change detection, engineering works, revision of maps, coastal management and bathymetry. The 3D building model generation is the one of the most prominent applications of LiDAR system, which has the major importance for urban planning, illegal construction monitoring, 3D city modelling, environmental simulation, tourism, security, telecommunication and mobile navigation etc. The manual or semi-automatic 3D building model generation is costly and very time-consuming process for these applications. Thus, an approach for automatic 3D building model generation is needed in a simple and quick way for many studies which includes building modelling. In this study, automatic 3D building models generation is aimed with airborne LiDAR data. An approach is proposed for automatic 3D building models generation including the automatic point based classification of raw LiDAR point cloud. The proposed point based classification includes the hierarchical rules, for the automatic production of 3D building models. The detailed analyses for the parameters which used in hierarchical rules have been performed to improve classification results using different test areas identified in the study area. The proposed approach have been tested in the study area which has partly open areas, forest areas and many types of the buildings, in Zekeriyakoy, Istanbul using the TerraScan module of TerraSolid. The 3D building model was generated automatically using the results of the automatic point based classification. The obtained results of this research on study area verified that automatic 3D

  12. AUTOMATIC 3D BUILDING MODEL GENERATIONS WITH AIRBORNE LiDAR DATA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Yastikli

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available LiDAR systems become more and more popular because of the potential use for obtaining the point clouds of vegetation and man-made objects on the earth surface in an accurate and quick way. Nowadays, these airborne systems have been frequently used in wide range of applications such as DEM/DSM generation, topographic mapping, object extraction, vegetation mapping, 3 dimensional (3D modelling and simulation, change detection, engineering works, revision of maps, coastal management and bathymetry. The 3D building model generation is the one of the most prominent applications of LiDAR system, which has the major importance for urban planning, illegal construction monitoring, 3D city modelling, environmental simulation, tourism, security, telecommunication and mobile navigation etc. The manual or semi-automatic 3D building model generation is costly and very time-consuming process for these applications. Thus, an approach for automatic 3D building model generation is needed in a simple and quick way for many studies which includes building modelling. In this study, automatic 3D building models generation is aimed with airborne LiDAR data. An approach is proposed for automatic 3D building models generation including the automatic point based classification of raw LiDAR point cloud. The proposed point based classification includes the hierarchical rules, for the automatic production of 3D building models. The detailed analyses for the parameters which used in hierarchical rules have been performed to improve classification results using different test areas identified in the study area. The proposed approach have been tested in the study area which has partly open areas, forest areas and many types of the buildings, in Zekeriyakoy, Istanbul using the TerraScan module of TerraSolid. The 3D building model was generated automatically using the results of the automatic point based classification. The obtained results of this research on study area verified

  13. Estimating the complexity of 3D structural models using machine learning methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mejía-Herrera, Pablo; Kakurina, Maria; Royer, Jean-Jacques

    2016-04-01

    Quantifying the complexity of 3D geological structural models can play a major role in natural resources exploration surveys, for predicting environmental hazards or for forecasting fossil resources. This paper proposes a structural complexity index which can be used to help in defining the degree of effort necessary to build a 3D model for a given degree of confidence, and also to identify locations where addition efforts are required to meet a given acceptable risk of uncertainty. In this work, it is considered that the structural complexity index can be estimated using machine learning methods on raw geo-data. More precisely, the metrics for measuring the complexity can be approximated as the difficulty degree associated to the prediction of the geological objects distribution calculated based on partial information on the actual structural distribution of materials. The proposed methodology is tested on a set of 3D synthetic structural models for which the degree of effort during their building is assessed using various parameters (such as number of faults, number of part in a surface object, number of borders, ...), the rank of geological elements contained in each model, and, finally, their level of deformation (folding and faulting). The results show how the estimated complexity in a 3D model can be approximated by the quantity of partial data necessaries to simulated at a given precision the actual 3D model without error using machine learning algorithms.

  14. Correlative nanoscale 3D imaging of structure and composition in extended objects.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feng Xu

    Full Text Available Structure and composition at the nanoscale determine the behavior of biological systems and engineered materials. The drive to understand and control this behavior has placed strong demands on developing methods for high resolution imaging. In general, the improvement of three-dimensional (3D resolution is accomplished by tightening constraints: reduced manageable specimen sizes, decreasing analyzable volumes, degrading contrasts, and increasing sample preparation efforts. Aiming to overcome these limitations, we present a non-destructive and multiple-contrast imaging technique, using principles of X-ray laminography, thus generalizing tomography towards laterally extended objects. We retain advantages that are usually restricted to 2D microscopic imaging, such as scanning of large areas and subsequent zooming-in towards a region of interest at the highest possible resolution. Our technique permits correlating the 3D structure and the elemental distribution yielding a high sensitivity to variations of the electron density via coherent imaging and to local trace element quantification through X-ray fluorescence. We demonstrate the method by imaging a lithographic nanostructure and an aluminum alloy. Analyzing a biological system, we visualize in lung tissue the subcellular response to toxic stress after exposure to nanotubes. We show that most of the nanotubes are trapped inside alveolar macrophages, while a small portion of the nanotubes has crossed the barrier to the cellular space of the alveolar wall. In general, our method is non-destructive and can be combined with different sample environmental or loading conditions. We therefore anticipate that correlative X-ray nano-laminography will enable a variety of in situ and in operando 3D studies.

  15. COMBINATION OF VIRTUAL TOURS, 3D MODEL AND DIGITAL DATA IN A 3D ARCHAEOLOGICAL KNOWLEDGE AND INFORMATION SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Koehl

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The site of the Engelbourg ruined castle in Thann, Alsace, France, has been for some years the object of all the attention of the city, which is the owner, and also of partners like historians and archaeologists who are in charge of its study. The valuation of the site is one of the main objective, as well as its conservation and its knowledge. The aim of this project is to use the environment of the virtual tour viewer as new base for an Archaeological Knowledge and Information System (AKIS. With available development tools we add functionalities in particular through diverse scripts that convert the viewer into a real 3D interface. By beginning with a first virtual tour that contains about fifteen panoramic images, the site of about 150 times 150 meters can be completely documented by offering the user a real interactivity and that makes visualization very concrete, almost lively. After the choice of pertinent points of view, panoramic images were realized. For the documentation, other sets of images were acquired at various seasons and climate conditions, which allow documenting the site in different environments and states of vegetation. The final virtual tour was deducted from them. The initial 3D model of the castle, which is virtual too, was also joined in the form of panoramic images for completing the understanding of the site. A variety of types of hotspots were used to connect the whole digital documentation to the site, including videos (as reports during the acquisition phases, during the restoration works, during the excavations, etc., digital georeferenced documents (archaeological reports on the various constituent elements of the castle, interpretation of the excavations and the searches, description of the sets of collected objects, etc.. The completely personalized interface of the system allows either to switch from a panoramic image to another one, which is the classic case of the virtual tours, or to go from a panoramic

  16. Combination of Virtual Tours, 3d Model and Digital Data in a 3d Archaeological Knowledge and Information System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koehl, M.; Brigand, N.

    2012-08-01

    The site of the Engelbourg ruined castle in Thann, Alsace, France, has been for some years the object of all the attention of the city, which is the owner, and also of partners like historians and archaeologists who are in charge of its study. The valuation of the site is one of the main objective, as well as its conservation and its knowledge. The aim of this project is to use the environment of the virtual tour viewer as new base for an Archaeological Knowledge and Information System (AKIS). With available development tools we add functionalities in particular through diverse scripts that convert the viewer into a real 3D interface. By beginning with a first virtual tour that contains about fifteen panoramic images, the site of about 150 times 150 meters can be completely documented by offering the user a real interactivity and that makes visualization very concrete, almost lively. After the choice of pertinent points of view, panoramic images were realized. For the documentation, other sets of images were acquired at various seasons and climate conditions, which allow documenting the site in different environments and states of vegetation. The final virtual tour was deducted from them. The initial 3D model of the castle, which is virtual too, was also joined in the form of panoramic images for completing the understanding of the site. A variety of types of hotspots were used to connect the whole digital documentation to the site, including videos (as reports during the acquisition phases, during the restoration works, during the excavations, etc.), digital georeferenced documents (archaeological reports on the various constituent elements of the castle, interpretation of the excavations and the searches, description of the sets of collected objects, etc.). The completely personalized interface of the system allows either to switch from a panoramic image to another one, which is the classic case of the virtual tours, or to go from a panoramic photographic image

  17. 3D Shape-Encoded Particle Filter for Object Tracking and Its Application to Human Body Tracking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Chellappa

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available We present a nonlinear state estimation approach using particle filters, for tracking objects whose approximate 3D shapes are known. The unnormalized conditional density for the solution to the nonlinear filtering problem leads to the Zakai equation, and is realized by the weights of the particles. The weight of a particle represents its geometric and temporal fit, which is computed bottom-up from the raw image using a shape-encoded filter. The main contribution of the paper is the design of smoothing filters for feature extraction combined with the adoption of unnormalized conditional density weights. The “shape filter” has the overall form of the predicted 2D projection of the 3D model, while the cross-section of the filter is designed to collect the gradient responses along the shape. The 3D-model-based representation is designed to emphasize the changes in 2D object shape due to motion, while de-emphasizing the variations due to lighting and other imaging conditions. We have found that the set of sparse measurements using a relatively small number of particles is able to approximate the high-dimensional state distribution very effectively. As a measures to stabilize the tracking, the amount of random diffusion is effectively adjusted using a Kalman updating of the covariance matrix. For a complex problem of human body tracking, we have successfully employed constraints derived from joint angles and walking motion.

  18. 3D Shape-Encoded Particle Filter for Object Tracking and Its Application to Human Body Tracking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chellappa R

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract We present a nonlinear state estimation approach using particle filters, for tracking objects whose approximate 3D shapes are known. The unnormalized conditional density for the solution to the nonlinear filtering problem leads to the Zakai equation, and is realized by the weights of the particles. The weight of a particle represents its geometric and temporal fit, which is computed bottom-up from the raw image using a shape-encoded filter. The main contribution of the paper is the design of smoothing filters for feature extraction combined with the adoption of unnormalized conditional density weights. The "shape filter" has the overall form of the predicted 2D projection of the 3D model, while the cross-section of the filter is designed to collect the gradient responses along the shape. The 3D-model-based representation is designed to emphasize the changes in 2D object shape due to motion, while de-emphasizing the variations due to lighting and other imaging conditions. We have found that the set of sparse measurements using a relatively small number of particles is able to approximate the high-dimensional state distribution very effectively. As a measures to stabilize the tracking, the amount of random diffusion is effectively adjusted using a Kalman updating of the covariance matrix. For a complex problem of human body tracking, we have successfully employed constraints derived from joint angles and walking motion.

  19. "Let's get physical": advantages of a physical model over 3D computer models and textbooks in learning imaging anatomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preece, Daniel; Williams, Sarah B; Lam, Richard; Weller, Renate

    2013-01-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) information plays an important part in medical and veterinary education. Appreciating complex 3D spatial relationships requires a strong foundational understanding of anatomy and mental 3D visualization skills. Novel learning resources have been introduced to anatomy training to achieve this. Objective evaluation of their comparative efficacies remains scarce in the literature. This study developed and evaluated the use of a physical model in demonstrating the complex spatial relationships of the equine foot. It was hypothesized that the newly developed physical model would be more effective for students to learn magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) anatomy of the foot than textbooks or computer-based 3D models. Third year veterinary medicine students were randomly assigned to one of three teaching aid groups (physical model; textbooks; 3D computer model). The comparative efficacies of the three teaching aids were assessed through students' abilities to identify anatomical structures on MR images. Overall mean MRI assessment scores were significantly higher in students utilizing the physical model (86.39%) compared with students using textbooks (62.61%) and the 3D computer model (63.68%) (P < 0.001), with no significant difference between the textbook and 3D computer model groups (P = 0.685). Student feedback was also more positive in the physical model group compared with both the textbook and 3D computer model groups. Our results suggest that physical models may hold a significant advantage over alternative learning resources in enhancing visuospatial and 3D understanding of complex anatomical architecture, and that 3D computer models have significant limitations with regards to 3D learning. © 2013 American Association of Anatomists.

  20. Quantitative vertebral morphometry based on parametric modeling of vertebral bodies in 3D.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stern, D; Njagulj, V; Likar, B; Pernuš, F; Vrtovec, T

    2013-04-01

    Quantitative vertebral morphometry (QVM) was performed by parametric modeling of vertebral bodies in three dimensions (3D). Identification of vertebral fractures in two dimensions is a challenging task due to the projective nature of radiographic images and variability in the vertebral shape. By generating detailed 3D anatomical images, computed tomography (CT) enables accurate measurement of vertebral deformations and fractures. A detailed 3D representation of the vertebral body shape is obtained by automatically aligning a parametric 3D model to vertebral bodies in CT images. The parameters of the 3D model describe clinically meaningful morphometric vertebral body features, and QVM in 3D is performed by comparing the parameters to their statistical values. Thresholds and parameters that best discriminate between normal and fractured vertebral bodies are determined by applying statistical classification analysis. The proposed QVM in 3D was applied to 454 normal and 228 fractured vertebral bodies, yielding classification sensitivity of 92.5% at 7.5% specificity, with corresponding accuracy of 92.5% and precision of 86.1%. The 3D shape parameters that provided the best separation between normal and fractured vertebral bodies were the vertebral body height and the inclination and concavity of both vertebral endplates. The described QVM in 3D is able to efficiently and objectively discriminate between normal and fractured vertebral bodies and identify morphological cases (wedge, (bi)concavity, or crush) and grades (1, 2, or 3) of vertebral body fractures. It may be therefore valuable for diagnosing and predicting vertebral fractures in patients who are at risk of osteoporosis.

  1. Implicit Regularization for Reconstructing 3D Building Rooftop Models Using Airborne LiDAR Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Jaewook; Jwa, Yoonseok; Sohn, Gunho

    2017-03-19

    With rapid urbanization, highly accurate and semantically rich virtualization of building assets in 3D become more critical for supporting various applications, including urban planning, emergency response and location-based services. Many research efforts have been conducted to automatically reconstruct building models at city-scale from remotely sensed data. However, developing a fully-automated photogrammetric computer vision system enabling the massive generation of highly accurate building models still remains a challenging task. One the most challenging task for 3D building model reconstruction is to regularize the noises introduced in the boundary of building object retrieved from a raw data with lack of knowledge on its true shape. This paper proposes a data-driven modeling approach to reconstruct 3D rooftop models at city-scale from airborne laser scanning (ALS) data. The focus of the proposed method is to implicitly derive the shape regularity of 3D building rooftops from given noisy information of building boundary in a progressive manner. This study covers a full chain of 3D building modeling from low level processing to realistic 3D building rooftop modeling. In the element clustering step, building-labeled point clouds are clustered into homogeneous groups by applying height similarity and plane similarity. Based on segmented clusters, linear modeling cues including outer boundaries, intersection lines, and step lines are extracted. Topology elements among the modeling cues are recovered by the Binary Space Partitioning (BSP) technique. The regularity of the building rooftop model is achieved by an implicit regularization process in the framework of Minimum Description Length (MDL) combined with Hypothesize and Test (HAT). The parameters governing the MDL optimization are automatically estimated based on Min-Max optimization and Entropy-based weighting method. The performance of the proposed method is tested over the International Society for

  2. Implicit Regularization for Reconstructing 3D Building Rooftop Models Using Airborne LiDAR Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaewook Jung

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available With rapid urbanization, highly accurate and semantically rich virtualization of building assets in 3D become more critical for supporting various applications, including urban planning, emergency response and location-based services. Many research efforts have been conducted to automatically reconstruct building models at city-scale from remotely sensed data. However, developing a fully-automated photogrammetric computer vision system enabling the massive generation of highly accurate building models still remains a challenging task. One the most challenging task for 3D building model reconstruction is to regularize the noises introduced in the boundary of building object retrieved from a raw data with lack of knowledge on its true shape. This paper proposes a data-driven modeling approach to reconstruct 3D rooftop models at city-scale from airborne laser scanning (ALS data. The focus of the proposed method is to implicitly derive the shape regularity of 3D building rooftops from given noisy information of building boundary in a progressive manner. This study covers a full chain of 3D building modeling from low level processing to realistic 3D building rooftop modeling. In the element clustering step, building-labeled point clouds are clustered into homogeneous groups by applying height similarity and plane similarity. Based on segmented clusters, linear modeling cues including outer boundaries, intersection lines, and step lines are extracted. Topology elements among the modeling cues are recovered by the Binary Space Partitioning (BSP technique. The regularity of the building rooftop model is achieved by an implicit regularization process in the framework of Minimum Description Length (MDL combined with Hypothesize and Test (HAT. The parameters governing the MDL optimization are automatically estimated based on Min-Max optimization and Entropy-based weighting method. The performance of the proposed method is tested over the International

  3. Radiological characterisation by means of 3D-laser modelling and positioning of measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hedvall, Robert; Johansson, Patrik; Erixon, Peter; Ekenborg, Fredrik; Quanhong, Feng

    2012-01-01

    AB SVAFO is a nuclear waste technology and decommissioning company based in Sweden in the scenic surroundings of Studsvik on the Baltic coast. SVAFO is owned by the Swedish nuclear power industry. MultiInfo 3D Laser Scan Solution AB is a technical consult company focusing on the development and solution of 3D laser scanning techniques and its applications in different fields. For better viewing we are using a 3D-laser modelling of a building, national coordinates and using radiological measurements from a database. It is then possible to visualize the contamination situation in the whole building using a CAD-program. The results will be used for the upcoming R2-reactor decommissioning and for visualisation of dose rates and contamination levels in other nuclear buildings. For better documentation of radioactivity distribution of a decommissioned facility any object in a building can be accurately measured in 3D and visualized in 3D-laser image in a CAD program (e.g. AutoCAD), and then link to a database (e.g. SVALA), which have stored the measurements of radioactivity by other tools (e.g. RFID-tags). The position of any measured object can also be identified in 3D model and laser image, so the situation of contamination levels and distribution can be monitored and visualized in 3D. The results will be used for visualisation of dose rates and contamination levels in other nuclear buildings. AB SVAFO's main business is to take care of formerly state-owned spent nuclear waste at the site, including small amounts of nuclear fuel. Buildings are also included, mainly nuclear waste storage buildings and a research reactor. Some buildings have already been decommissioned with results of contamination shown in long and not very clear tables. With 3D-modelling the results are shown more clear. (authors)

  4. Interactive Scientific Visualization in 3D Virtual Reality Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filip Popovski

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Scientific visualization in technology of virtual reality is a graphical representation of virtual environment in the form of images or animation that can be displayed with various devices such as Head Mounted Display (HMD or monitors that can view threedimensional world. Research in real time is a desirable capability for scientific visualization and virtual reality in which we are immersed and make the research process easier. In this scientific paper the interaction between the user and objects in the virtual environment аrе in real time which gives a sense of reality to the user. Also, Quest3D VR software package is used and the movement of the user through the virtual environment, the impossibility to walk through solid objects, methods for grabbing objects and their displacement are programmed and all interactions between them will be possible. At the end some critical analysis were made on all of these techniques on various computer systems and excellent results were obtained.

  5. Measurement of Laser Weld Temperatures for 3D Model Input

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dagel, Daryl [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Grossetete, Grant [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Maccallum, Danny O. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2016-10-01

    Laser welding is a key joining process used extensively in the manufacture and assembly of critical components for several weapons systems. Sandia National Laboratories advances the understanding of the laser welding process through coupled experimentation and modeling. This report summarizes the experimental portion of the research program, which focused on measuring temperatures and thermal history of laser welds on steel plates. To increase confidence in measurement accuracy, researchers utilized multiple complementary techniques to acquire temperatures during laser welding. This data serves as input to and validation of 3D laser welding models aimed at predicting microstructure and the formation of defects and their impact on weld-joint reliability, a crucial step in rapid prototyping of weapons components.

  6. Modeling tree crown dynamics with 3D partial differential equations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beyer, Robert; Letort, Véronique; Cournède, Paul-Henry

    2014-01-01

    We characterize a tree's spatial foliage distribution by the local leaf area density. Considering this spatially continuous variable allows to describe the spatiotemporal evolution of the tree crown by means of 3D partial differential equations. These offer a framework to rigorously take locally and adaptively acting effects into account, notably the growth toward light. Biomass production through photosynthesis and the allocation to foliage and wood are readily included in this model framework. The system of equations stands out due to its inherent dynamic property of self-organization and spontaneous adaptation, generating complex behavior from even only a few parameters. The density-based approach yields spatially structured tree crowns without relying on detailed geometry. We present the methodological fundamentals of such a modeling approach and discuss further prospects and applications.

  7. Modeling Tree Crown Dynamics with 3D Partial Differential Equations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert eBeyer

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available We characterize a tree's spatial foliage distribution by the local leaf area density. Considering this spatially continuous variable allows to describe the spatiotemporal evolution of the tree crown by means of 3D partial differential equations. These offer a framework to rigorously take locally and adaptively acting effects into account, notably the growth towards light. Biomass production through photosynthesis and the allocation to foliage and wood are readily included in this model framework. The system of equations stands out due to its inherent dynamic property of self-organization and spontaneous adaptation, generating complex behavior from even only a few parameters. The density-based approach yields spatially structured tree crowns without relying on detailed geometry. We present the methodological fundamentals of such a modeling approach and discuss further prospects and applications.

  8. Plasticized protein for 3D printing by fused deposition modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaunier, Laurent; Leroy, Eric; Della Valle, Guy; Lourdin, Denis

    2016-10-01

    The developments of Additive Manufacturing (AM) by Fused Deposition Modeling (FDM) now target new 3D printable materials, leading to novel properties like those given by biopolymers such as proteins: degradability, biocompatibility and edibility. Plasticized materials from zein, a storage protein issued from corn, present interesting thermomechanical and rheological properties, possibly matching with AM-FDM specifications. Thus commercial zein plasticized with 20% glycerol has a glass transition temperature (Tg) at about 42°C, after storage at intermediate relative humidity (RH=59%). Its principal mechanical relaxation at Tα ≈ 50°C leads to a drop of the elastic modulus from about 1.1 GPa, at ambient temperature, to 0.6 MPa at Tα+100°C. These values are in the same range as values obtained in the case of standard polymers for AM-FDM processing, as PLA and ABS, although relaxation mechanisms are likely different in these materials. Such results lead to the setting up of zein-based compositions printable by AM-FDM and allow processing bioresorbable printed parts, with designed 3D geometry and structure.

  9. Early experiences of planning stereotactic radiosurgery using 3D printed models of eyes with uveal melanomas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Furdová A

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Alena Furdová,1 Miron Sramka,2 Andrej Thurzo,3 Adriana Furdová3 1Department of Ophthalmology, Faculty of Medicine, Comenius University, 2Department of Stereotactic Radiosurgery, St Elisabeth Cancer Inst and St Elisabeth University College of Health and Social Work, 3Department of Simulation and Virtual Medical Education, Faculty of Medicine, Comenius University, Bratislava, Slovak Republic Objective: The objective of this study was to determine the use of 3D printed model of an eye with intraocular tumor for linear accelerator-based stereotactic radiosurgery.Methods: The software for segmentation (3D Slicer created virtual 3D model of eye globe with tumorous mass based on tissue density from computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging data. A virtual model was then processed in the slicing software (Simplify3D® and printed on 3D printer using fused deposition modeling technology. The material that was used for printing was polylactic acid.Results: In 2015, stereotactic planning scheme was optimized with the help of 3D printed model of the patient’s eye with intraocular tumor. In the period 2001–2015, a group of 150 patients with uveal melanoma (139 choroidal melanoma and 11 ciliary body melanoma were treated. The median tumor volume was 0.5 cm3 (0.2–1.6 cm3. The radiation dose was 35.0 Gy by 99% of dose volume histogram.Conclusion: The 3D printed model of eye with tumor was helpful in planning the process to achieve the optimal scheme for irradiation which requires high accuracy of defining the targeted tumor mass and critical structures. Keywords: 3D printing, uveal melanoma, stereotactic radiosurgery, linear accelerator, intraocular tumor, stereotactic planning scheme

  10. Collaboration of 3D context and extracellular matrix in the development of glioma stemness in a 3D model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Nina K L; Lim, Jia Kai; Leong, Meng Fatt; Sandanaraj, Edwin; Ang, Beng Ti; Tang, Carol; Wan, Andrew C A

    2016-02-01

    A hierarchy of cellular stemness exists in certain cancers, and any successful strategy to treat such cancers would have to eliminate the self-renewing tumor-initiating cells at the apex of the hierarchy. The cellular microenvironment, in particular the extracellular matrix (ECM), is believed to have a role in regulating stemness. In this work, U251 glioblastoma cells are cultured on electrospun polystyrene (ESPS) scaffolds coated with an array of 7 laminin isoforms to provide a 3D model for stem cell-related genes and proteins expression studies. We observed collaboration between 3D context and laminins in promoting glioma stemness. Depending on the laminin isoform presented, U251 cells cultured on ESPS scaffolds (3D) exhibited increased expression of stemness markers compared to those cultured on tissue culture polystyrene (2D). Our results indicate the influence of 3D (versus 2D) context on integrin expression, specifically, the upregulation of the laminin-binding integrins alpha 6 and beta 4. By a colony forming assay, we showed enhanced clonogenicity of cells grown on ESPS scaffolds in collaboration with laminins 411, 421, 511 and 521. Evaluation of patient glioma databases demonstrated significant enrichment of integrin and ECM pathway networks in tumors of worse prognosis, consistent with our observations. The present results demonstrate how 3D versus 2D context profoundly affects ECM signaling, leading to stemness. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. New Directions in 3D Medical Modeling: 3D-Printing Anatomy and Functions in Neurosurgical Planning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paolo Gargiulo

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper illustrates the feasibility and utility of combining cranial anatomy and brain function on the same 3D-printed model, as evidenced by a neurosurgical planning case study of a 29-year-old female patient with a low-grade frontal-lobe glioma. We herein report the rapid prototyping methodology utilized in conjunction with surgical navigation to prepare and plan a complex neurosurgery. The method introduced here combines CT and MRI images with DTI tractography, while using various image segmentation protocols to 3D model the skull base, tumor, and five eloquent fiber tracts. This 3D model is rapid-prototyped and coregistered with patient images and a reported surgical navigation system, establishing a clear link between the printed model and surgical navigation. This methodology highlights the potential for advanced neurosurgical preparation, which can begin before the patient enters the operation theatre. Moreover, the work presented here demonstrates the workflow developed at the National University Hospital of Iceland, Landspitali, focusing on the processes of anatomy segmentation, fiber tract extrapolation, MRI/CT registration, and 3D printing. Furthermore, we present a qualitative and quantitative assessment for fiber tract generation in a case study where these processes are applied in the preparation of brain tumor resection surgery.

  12. New Directions in 3D Medical Modeling: 3D-Printing Anatomy and Functions in Neurosurgical Planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gargiulo, Paola; Árnadóttir, Iris; Gíslason, Magnús; Edmunds, Kyle; Ólafsson, Ingvar

    2017-01-01

    This paper illustrates the feasibility and utility of combining cranial anatomy and brain function on the same 3D-printed model, as evidenced by a neurosurgical planning case study of a 29-year-old female patient with a low-grade frontal-lobe glioma. We herein report the rapid prototyping methodology utilized in conjunction with surgical navigation to prepare and plan a complex neurosurgery. The method introduced here combines CT and MRI images with DTI tractography, while using various image segmentation protocols to 3D model the skull base, tumor, and five eloquent fiber tracts. This 3D model is rapid-prototyped and coregistered with patient images and a reported surgical navigation system, establishing a clear link between the printed model and surgical navigation. This methodology highlights the potential for advanced neurosurgical preparation, which can begin before the patient enters the operation theatre. Moreover, the work presented here demonstrates the workflow developed at the National University Hospital of Iceland, Landspitali, focusing on the processes of anatomy segmentation, fiber tract extrapolation, MRI/CT registration, and 3D printing. Furthermore, we present a qualitative and quantitative assessment for fiber tract generation in a case study where these processes are applied in the preparation of brain tumor resection surgery. © 2017 Paolo Gargiulo et al.

  13. Photogrammetry in 3d Modelling of Human Bone Structures from Radiographs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosseinian, S.; Arefi, H.

    2017-05-01

    Photogrammetry can have great impact on the success of medical processes for diagnosis, treatment and surgeries. Precise 3D models which can be achieved by photogrammetry improve considerably the results of orthopedic surgeries and processes. Usual 3D imaging techniques, computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), have some limitations such as being used only in non-weight-bearing positions, costs and high radiation dose(for CT) and limitations of MRI for patients with ferromagnetic implants or objects in their bodies. 3D reconstruction of bony structures from biplanar X-ray images is a reliable and accepted alternative for achieving accurate 3D information with low dose radiation in weight-bearing positions. The information can be obtained from multi-view radiographs by using photogrammetry. The primary step for 3D reconstruction of human bone structure from medical X-ray images is calibration which is done by applying principles of photogrammetry. After the calibration step, 3D reconstruction can be done using efficient methods with different levels of automation. Because of the different nature of X-ray images from optical images, there are distinct challenges in medical applications for calibration step of stereoradiography. In this paper, after demonstrating the general steps and principles of 3D reconstruction from X-ray images, a comparison will be done on calibration methods for 3D reconstruction from radiographs and they are assessed from photogrammetry point of view by considering various metrics such as their camera models, calibration objects, accuracy, availability, patient-friendly and cost.

  14. Prototype coupling of the CFD software ansys CFX with the 3D neutron kinetic core model DYN3D - 249

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kliem, S.; Rohde, U.; Schutze, J.; Frank, Th.

    2010-01-01

    The CFD code ANSYS CFX has been coupled with the neutron-kinetic core model DYN3D. ANSYS CFX calculates the fluid dynamics and related transport phenomena in the reactor's coolant and provides the corresponding data to DYN3D. In the fluid flow simulation of the coolant, the core itself is modeled within the porous body approach. DYN3D calculates the neutron kinetics and the fuel behavior including the heat transfer to the coolant. The physical data interface between the codes is the volumetric heat release rate into the coolant. In the prototype that is currently available, the coupling is restricted to single-phase flow problems. In the time domain an explicit coupling of the codes has been implemented so far. Steady-state and transient verification calculations for a small-size test problem confirm the correctness of the implementation of the prototype coupling. This test problem was a mini-core consisting of nine real-size fuel assemblies. Comparison was performed with the DYN3D standalone code. In the steady state, the effective multiplication factor obtained by the ANSYS CFX/DYN3D codes shows a deviation of 9.8 pcm from the DYN3D stand-alone solution. This difference can be attributed to the use of different water property packages in the two codes. The transient test case simulated the withdrawal of the control rod from the central fuel assembly at hot zero power. Power increase during the introduction of positive reactivity and power reduction due to fuel temperature increase are calculated in the same manner by the coupled and the stand-alone codes. The maximum values reached during the power rise differ by about 1 MW at a power level of 50 MW. Beside the different water property packages, these differences are caused by the use of different flow solvers. (authors)

  15. Energy flow in passive and active 3D cochlear model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Yanli; Steele, Charles [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Stanford University, Stanford, California (United States); Puria, Sunil [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Stanford University, Stanford, California (United States); Department of Otolaryngology, Head and Neck Surgery, Stanford University, Stanford, California (United States)

    2015-12-31

    Energy flow in the cochlea is an important characteristic of the cochlear traveling wave, and many investigators, such as von Békésy and Lighthill, have discussed this phenomenon. Particularly after the discovery of the motility of the outer hair cells (OHCs), the nature of the power gain of the cochlea has been a fundamental research question. In the present work, direct three-dimensional (3D) calculations of the power on cross sections of the cochlea and on the basilar membrane are performed based on a box model of the mouse cochlea. The distributions of the fluid pressure and fluid velocity in the scala vestibuli are presented. The power output from the OHCs and the power loss due to fluid viscous damping are calculated along the length of the cochlea. This work provides a basis for theoretical calculations of the power gain of the OHCs from mechanical considerations.

  16. Beyond Virtual Replicas: 3D Modeling and Maltese Prehistoric Architecture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filippo Stanco

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In the past decade, computer graphics have become strategic for the development of projects aimed at the interpretation of archaeological evidence and the dissemination of scientific results to the public. Among all the solutions available, the use of 3D models is particularly relevant for the reconstruction of poorly preserved sites and monuments destroyed by natural causes or human actions. These digital replicas are, at the same time, a virtual environment that can be used as a tool for the interpretative hypotheses of archaeologists and as an effective medium for a visual description of the cultural heritage. In this paper, the innovative methodology and aims and outcomes of a virtual reconstruction of the Borg in-Nadur megalithic temple, carried out by Archeomatica Project of the University of Catania, are offered as a case study for a virtual archaeology of prehistoric Malta.

  17. 3D Modelling of Urban Terrain (Modelisation 3D de milieu urbain)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-01

    of a part of it may be made for individual use only. The approval of the RTA Information Management Systems Branch is required for more than one...tâches n’impliquant pas de visualisation telles que le calcul de ligne de visée, la planification de mission, la détection de changements ...Perform an evaluation of an area where military operations are to be conducted. Battlespace Management Use a model to manage ongoing military operations

  18. A 3D City Model Used as User-interface for an Energy-system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjems, Erik

    2011-01-01

    At CUPUM 2009 the project “Object Oriented Visualization of Urban Energy Consumption” was presented, explaining the technology behind the visualization of an energy-model connected to a 3D city model. This paper presents the subsequent work involving the final design, the user involvement...... and the overall results after the system has been used at the Bright Green Exhibition connected to the COP15 conference in Copenhagen. This paper presents the empirical findings of the attempt to use a 3D city model as user-interface. The system gave the user the possibility to try out different scenarios...... of combinations of the energy-consumption and energy-production for an entire city. The interface was supposed to help especially nonprofessionals, among them politicians, to better perceive the numbers and graphs adjoining the 3D model in a combined view. Only very few systems have been developed for this kind...

  19. Coupling of the 3D neutron kinetic core model DYN3D with the CFD software ANSYS-CFX

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grahn, Alexander; Kliem, Sören; Rohde, Ulrich

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Improved thermal hydraulic description of nuclear reactor cores. • Possibility of three-dimensional flow phenomena in the core, such as cross flow, flow reversal, flow around obstacles. • Simulation at higher spatial resolution as compared to system codes. - Abstract: This article presents the implementation of a coupling between the 3D neutron kinetic core model DYN3D and the commercial, general purpose computational fluid dynamics (CFD) software ANSYS-CFX. In the coupling approach, parts of the thermal hydraulic calculation are transferred to CFX for its better ability to simulate the three-dimensional coolant redistribution in the reactor core region. The calculation of the heat transfer from the fuel into the coolant remains with DYN3D, which incorporates well tested and validated heat transfer models for rod-type fuel elements. On the CFX side, the core region is modeled based on the porous body approach. The implementation of the code coupling is verified by comparing test case results with reference solutions of the DYN3D standalone version. Test cases cover mini and full core geometries, control rod movement and partial overcooling transients

  20. Automated mask creation from a 3D model using Faethm.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schiek, Richard Louis; Schmidt, Rodney Cannon

    2007-11-01

    We have developed and implemented a method which given a three-dimensional object can infer from topology the two-dimensional masks needed to produce that object with surface micro-machining. The masks produced by this design tool can be generic, process independent masks, or if given process constraints, specific for a target process. This design tool calculates the two-dimensional mask set required to produce a given three-dimensional model by investigating the vertical topology of the model.

  1. Topological order in an exactly solvable 3D spin model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bravyi, Sergey; Leemhuis, Bernhard; Terhal, Barbara M.

    2011-04-01

    We study a 3D generalization of the toric code model introduced recently by Chamon. This is an exactly solvable spin model with six-qubit nearest-neighbor interactions on an FCC lattice whose ground space exhibits topological quantum order. The elementary excitations of this model which we call monopoles can be geometrically described as the corners of rectangular-shaped membranes. We prove that the creation of an isolated monopole separated from other monopoles by a distance R requires an operator acting on Ω( R2) qubits. Composite particles that consist of two monopoles (dipoles) and four monopoles (quadrupoles) can be described as end-points of strings. The peculiar feature of the model is that dipole-type strings are rigid, that is, such strings must be aligned with face-diagonals of the lattice. For periodic boundary conditions the ground space can encode 4 g qubits where g is the greatest common divisor of the lattice dimensions. We describe a complete set of logical operators acting on the encoded qubits in terms of closed strings and closed membranes.

  2. 3D numerical modeling of India-Asia-like collision

    Science.gov (United States)

    -Erika Püsök, Adina; Kaus, Boris; Popov, Anton

    2013-04-01

    above a strong mantle lithosphere - the jelly sandwich model (Burov and Watts, 2006). 3D models are thus needed to investigate these hypotheses. However, fully 3D models of the dynamics of continent collision zones have only been developed very recently, and presently most research groups have relied on certain explicit assumptions for their codes. Here, we employ the parallel 3D code LaMEM (Lithosphere and Mantle Evolution Model), with a finite difference staggered grid solver, which is capable of simulating lithospheric deformation while simultaneously taking mantle flow and a free surface into account. We here report on first lithospheric and upper-mantle scale simulations in which the Indian lithosphere is indented into Asia. Acknowledgements. Funding was provided by the European Research Council under the European Community's Seventh Framework Program (FP7/2007-2013) / ERC Grant agreement #258830. Numerical computations have been performed on JUQUEEN of the Jülich high-performance computing center. • Beaumont, C., Jamieson, R.A., Nguyen, M.H., Medvedev, S.E., 2004. Crustal channel flows: 1. Numerical models with applications to the tectonics of the Himalayan-Tibetan orogeny. J. Geophys. Res. 109, B06406. • Burov, E. & Watts, W.S., 2006. The long-term strength of continental lithosphere: "jelly sandwich" or "crème brûlée"?. GSA Today, 16, doi: 10.1130/1052-5173(2006)10161132.1130.CO;1132. • England P., Houseman, G., 1986. Finite strain calculations of continental deformation. 2. Comparison with the India-Asia collision zone. J. Geophys. Res.- Solid Earth and Planets 91 (B3), 3664-3676. • Jackson, J., 2002. Strength of the continental lithosphere: time to abandon the jelly sandwich?. GSA Today, September, 4-10. • Lechmann, S.M., May, D.A., Kaus, B.J.P., Schmalholz, S.M., 2011. Comparing thin-sheet models with 3D multilayer models for continental collision. Geophy. Int. J. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-246X.2011.05164.x • Royden, L.H., Burchfiel, B.C., King, R

  3. 3D Strain Modelling of Tear Fault Analogues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hindle, D.; Vietor, T.

    2005-12-01

    Tear faults can be described as vertical discontinuities, with near fault parallel displacements terminating on some sort of shallow detachment. As such, they are difficult to study in "cross section" i.e. 2 dimensions as is often the case for fold-thrust systems. Hence, little attempt has been made to model the evolution of strain around tear faults and the processes of strain localisation in such structures due to the necessity of describing these systems in 3 dimensions and the problems this poses for both numerical and analogue modelling. Field studies suggest that strain in such regions can be distributed across broad zones on minor tear systems, which are often not easily mappable. Such strain is probably assumed to be due to distributed strain and to displacement gradients which are themselves necessary for the initiation of the tear itself. We present a numerical study of the effects of a sharp, basal discontinutiy parallel to the transport direction in a shortening wedge of material. The discontinuity is represented by two adjacent basal surfaces with strongly contrasting (0.5 and 0.05) friction coefficient. The material is modelled using PFC3D distinct element software for simulating granular material, whose properties are chosen to simulate upper crustal, sedimentary rock. The model geometry is a rectangular bounding box, 2km x 1km, and 0.35-0.5km deep, with a single, driving wall of constant velocity. We show the evolution of strain in the model in horizontal and vertical sections, and interpret strain localization as showing the spontaneous development of tear fault like features. The strain field in the model is asymmetrical, rotated towards the strong side of the model. Strain increments seem to oscillate in time, suggesting achievement of a steady state. We also note that our model cannot be treated as a critical wedge, since the 3rd dimension and the lateral variations of strength rule out this type of 2D approximation.

  4. 3D Printing of Molecular Potential Energy Surface Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lolur, Phalgun; Dawes, Richard

    2014-01-01

    Additive manufacturing, commonly known as 3D printing, is gaining popularity in a variety of applications and has recently become routinely available. Today, 3D printing services are not only found in engineering design labs and through online companies, but also in university libraries offering student access. In addition, affordable options for…

  5. 3D-Digital soil property mapping by geoadditive models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papritz, Andreas

    2016-04-01

    In many digital soil mapping (DSM) applications, soil properties must be predicted not only for a single but for multiple soil depth intervals. In the GlobalSoilMap project, as an example, predictions are computed for the 0-5 cm, 5-15 cm, 15-30 cm, 30-60 cm, 60-100 cm, 100-200 cm depth intervals (Arrouays et al., 2014). Legacy soil data are often used for DSM. It is common for such datasets that soil properties were measured for soil horizons or for layers at varying soil depth and with non-constant thickness (support). This poses problems for DSM: One strategy is to harmonize the soil data to common depth prior to the analyses (e.g. Bishop et al., 1999) and conduct the statistical analyses for each depth interval independently. The disadvantage of this approach is that the predictions for different depths are computed independently from each other so that the predicted depth profiles may be unrealistic. Furthermore, the error induced by the harmonization to common depth is ignored in this approach (Orton et al. 2016). A better strategy is therefore to process all soil data jointly without prior harmonization by a 3D-analysis that takes soil depth and geographical position explicitly into account. Usually, the non-constant support of the data is then ignored, but Orton et al. (2016) presented recently a geostatistical approach that accounts for non-constant support of soil data and relies on restricted maximum likelihood estimation (REML) of a linear geostatistical model with a separable, heteroscedastic, zonal anisotropic auto-covariance function and area-to-point kriging (Kyriakidis, 2004.) Although this model is theoretically coherent and elegant, estimating its many parameters by REML and selecting covariates for the spatial mean function is a formidable task. A simpler approach might be to use geoadditive models (Kammann and Wand, 2003; Wand, 2003) for 3D-analyses of soil data. geoAM extend the scope of the linear model with spatially correlated errors to

  6. Real-Time Propagation Measurement System and Scattering Object Identification by 3D Visualization by Using VRML for ETC System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ando Tetsuo

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available In the early deployment of electric toll collecting (ETC system, multipath interference has caused the malfunction of the system. Therefore, radio absorbers are installed in the toll gate to suppress the scattering effects. This paper presents a novel radio propagation measurement system using the beamforming with 8-elmenet antenna array to examine the power intensity distribution of the ETC gate in real time without closing the toll gates that are already open for traffic. In addition, an identification method of the individual scattering objects with 3D visualization by using virtual reality modeling language will be proposed and the validity is also demonstrated by applying to the measurement data.

  7. Automatic Extraction of Contours of Buildings on Oblique View Maps Based on 3D City Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ZHU Yuanyuan

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Aiming to deal with the problem that manual extraction of contours of buildings on oblique view maps are expensive and ineffective with low accuracy and coarse detail, we present a method of automatic extraction of contours buildings on oblique view maps which based on 3D city models. We employ depth-buffers to obtain a building object's color-buffers concerning the occlusion blocked by other buildings and the existence of groups of buildings, and then we trace building contours based on color-buffers. And in order to keep the occlusion consistency and match the traced contours with the map, we propose loading 3D city models by block on projection plane. Finally, the validity and feasibility of this method are proved through the experiments on 3D city models of Wuhan.

  8. COMPARATIVE STUDY ON METHODS FOR 3D MODELLING OF URBAN AREAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Oniga

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available This article presents (comparatively the methodology for creating a 3D model of the urban area, based on terrestrial laser scanner, traditional technologies of terrestrial photogrammetry and aerial images. We are reviewing the data sources, their preliminary processing to be brought in a common system and the software used for this purpose. The case study presents the comparative results obtained using the methods listed above. To obtain the 3D models with terrestrial laser scanner systems have been used the dates achieved with ScanStation 2. To obtain the 3D model drawn by traditional photogrammetric methods using the UMK terrestrial camera, have been used auxiliary dates from topographic measurements with GPS systems and total stations as well as the current topographic plans. For the 3D model creation based on the dates taken with aerial digital cameras, were used the aerial images, taken with the ADS40 photogrammetric aerial camera. The comparative study between the three methods was accomplished by analyzing the object space representation fidelity, the precision of the 3D models obtained by comparison of the distances, areas and volumes, comparing the execution time and execution costs. The article presents the conclusions, the advantages and disadvantages of the three technologies based on the criteria listed above.

  9. 3D printing cybersecurity: detecting and preventing attacks that seek to weaken a printed object by changing fill level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Straub, Jeremy

    2017-06-01

    Prior work by Zeltmann, et al. has demonstrated the impact of small defects and other irregularities on the structural integrity of 3D printed objects. It posited that such defects could be introduced intentionally. The current work looks at the impact of changing the fill level on object structural integrity. It considers whether the existence of an appropriate level of fill can be determined through visible light imagery-based assessment of a 3D printed object. A technique for assessing the quality and sufficiency of quantity of 3D printed fill material is presented. It is assessed experimentally and results are presented and analyzed.

  10. Predicted 3D Model of the Rabies Virus Glycoprotein Trimer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bastida-González Fernando

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The RABVG ectodomain is a homotrimer, and trimers are often called spikes. They are responsible for the attachment of the virus through the interaction with nicotinic acetylcholine receptors, neural cell adhesion molecule (NCAM, and the p75 neurotrophin receptor (p75NTR. This makes them relevant in viral pathogenesis. The antigenic structure differs significantly between the trimers and monomers. Surfaces rich in hydrophobic amino acids are important for trimer stabilization in which the C-terminal of the ectodomain plays an important role; to understand these interactions between the G proteins, a mechanistic study of their functions was performed with a molecular model of G protein in its trimeric form. This verified its 3D conformation. The molecular modeling of G protein was performed by a I-TASSER server and was evaluated via a Rachamandran plot and ERRAT program obtained 84.64% and 89.9% of the residues in the favorable regions and overall quality factor, respectively. The molecular dynamics simulations were carried out on RABVG trimer at 310 K. From these theoretical studies, we retrieved the RMSD values from Cα atoms to assess stability. Preliminary model of G protein of rabies virus stable at 12 ns with molecular dynamics was obtained.

  11. Model-based normalization for iterative 3D PET image

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bai, B.; Li, Q.; Asma, E.; Leahy, R.M.; Holdsworth, C.H.; Chatziioannou, A.; Tai, Y.C.

    2002-01-01

    We describe a method for normalization in 3D PET for use with maximum a posteriori (MAP) or other iterative model-based image reconstruction methods. This approach is an extension of previous factored normalization methods in which we include separate factors for detector sensitivity, geometric response, block effects and deadtime. Since our MAP reconstruction approach already models some of the geometric factors in the forward projection, the normalization factors must be modified to account only for effects not already included in the model. We describe a maximum likelihood approach to joint estimation of the count-rate independent normalization factors, which we apply to data from a uniform cylindrical source. We then compute block-wise and block-profile deadtime correction factors using singles and coincidence data, respectively, from a multiframe cylindrical source. We have applied this method for reconstruction of data from the Concorde microPET P4 scanner. Quantitative evaluation of this method using well-counter measurements of activity in a multicompartment phantom compares favourably with normalization based directly on cylindrical source measurements. (author)

  12. 3D Printed Molecules and Extended Solid Models for Teaching Symmetry and Point Groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scalfani, Vincent F.; Vaid, Thomas P.

    2014-01-01

    Tangible models help students and researchers visualize chemical structures in three dimensions (3D). 3D printing offers a unique and straightforward approach to fabricate plastic 3D models of molecules and extended solids. In this article, we prepared a series of digital 3D design files of molecular structures that will be useful for teaching…

  13. Segmentation of 3d Models for Cultural Heritage Structural Analysis - Some Critical Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonizzi Barsanti, S.; Guidi, G.; De Luca, L.

    2017-08-01

    Cultural Heritage documentation and preservation has become a fundamental concern in this historical period. 3D modelling offers a perfect aid to record ancient buildings and artefacts and can be used as a valid starting point for restoration, conservation and structural analysis, which can be performed by using Finite Element Methods (FEA). The models derived from reality-based techniques, made up of the exterior surfaces of the objects captured at high resolution, are - for this reason - made of millions of polygons. Such meshes are not directly usable in structural analysis packages and need to be properly pre-processed in order to be transformed in volumetric meshes suitable for FEA. In addition, dealing with ancient objects, a proper segmentation of 3D volumetric models is needed to analyse the behaviour of the structure with the most suitable level of detail for the different sections of the structure under analysis. Segmentation of 3D models is still an open issue, especially when dealing with ancient, complicated and geometrically complex objects that imply the presence of anomalies and gaps, due to environmental agents such as earthquakes, pollution, wind and rain, or human factors. The aims of this paper is to critically analyse some of the different methodologies and algorithms available to segment a 3D point cloud or a mesh, identifying difficulties and problems by showing examples on different structures.

  14. A modern approach to storing of 3D geometry of objects in machine engineering industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sokolova, E. A.; Aslanov, G. A.; Sokolov, A. A.

    2017-02-01

    3D graphics is a kind of computer graphics which has absorbed a lot from the vector and raster computer graphics. It is used in interior design projects, architectural projects, advertising, while creating educational computer programs, movies, visual images of parts and products in engineering, etc. 3D computer graphics allows one to create 3D scenes along with simulation of light conditions and setting up standpoints.

  15. A contest of sensors in close range 3D imaging: performance evaluation with a new metric test object

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Hess

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available An independent means of 3D image quality assessment is introduced, addressing non-professional users of sensors and freeware, which is largely characterized as closed-sourced and by the absence of quality metrics for processing steps, such as alignment. A performance evaluation of commercially available, state-of-the-art close range 3D imaging technologies is demonstrated with the help of a newly developed Portable Metric Test Artefact. The use of this test object provides quality control by a quantitative assessment of 3D imaging sensors. It will enable users to give precise specifications which spatial resolution and geometry recording they expect as outcome from their 3D digitizing process. This will lead to the creation of high-quality 3D digital surrogates and 3D digital assets. The paper is presented in the form of a competition of teams, and a possible winner will emerge.

  16. Parametric modelling and segmentation of vertebral bodies in 3D CT and MR spine images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stern, Darko; Likar, Boštjan; Pernuš, Franjo; Vrtovec, Tomaž

    2011-12-07

    Accurate and objective evaluation of vertebral deformations is of significant importance in clinical diagnostics and therapy of pathological conditions affecting the spine. Although modern clinical practice is focused on three-dimensional (3D) computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance (MR) imaging techniques, the established methods for evaluation of vertebral deformations are limited to measuring deformations in two-dimensional (2D) x-ray images. In this paper, we propose a method for quantitative description of vertebral body deformations by efficient modelling and segmentation of vertebral bodies in 3D. The deformations are evaluated from the parameters of a 3D superquadric model, which is initialized as an elliptical cylinder and then gradually deformed by introducing transformations that yield a more detailed representation of the vertebral body shape. After modelling the vertebral body shape with 25 clinically meaningful parameters and the vertebral body pose with six rigid body parameters, the 3D model is aligned to the observed vertebral body in the 3D image. The performance of the method was evaluated on 75 vertebrae from CT and 75 vertebrae from T(2)-weighted MR spine images, extracted from the thoracolumbar part of normal and pathological spines. The results show that the proposed method can be used for 3D segmentation of vertebral bodies in CT and MR images, as the proposed 3D model is able to describe both normal and pathological vertebral body deformations. The method may therefore be used for initialization of whole vertebra segmentation or for quantitative measurement of vertebral body deformations.

  17. 3D modelling of microscopic structure of ring‑porous wood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Neugebauer

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays many scientific 3D models of wood are available. These models are suitable only for simulation of physical fields movements in wood but not for educational purposes especially demonstration of microscopic structure of wood.3D structure of ring-porous hardwood species was created. European ash (Faraxinus excelsior L. was selected due to its relatively simple wood structure than other wood species within ring-porous group. The model was created by manual modelling process in Rhinoceros 4.0 that is a software for visualization and modelling. Microslides were prepared from sample of ash to take micro photos that were used as a visual source for modelling. Beside these pictures made by authors of this paper other microphotos from wood anatomy publications were used. Created 3D model of ash is a VRML object (Virtual Reality Modelling Language. This format is available to viewing and presentation with severe freeware VRML browsers. These VRML browsers are available as a plug-in for standard internet browsers or as standalone VRML browsers. The model is useful for studying and teaching microscopic structure of ring‑porous hardwood species. It was created such a way to be as exact copy of original anatomical structure of ash wood as possible. The paper may be used as a cue for other authors to create their own 3D models of different wood kinds.

  18. Coupling of the computational fluid dynamics code ANSYS CFX with the 3D neutron kinetic core model DYN3D

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kliem, S.; Grahn, A.; Rohde, U.; Schuetze, J.; Frank, Th.

    2010-01-01

    The computational fluid dynamics code ANSYS CFX has been coupled with the neutron-kinetic core model DYN3D. ANSYS CFX calculates the fluid dynamics and related transport phenomena in the reactors coolant and provides the corresponding data to DYN3D. In the fluid flow simulation of the coolant, the core itself is modeled within the porous body approach. DYN3D calculates the neutron kinetics and the fuel behavior including the heat transfer to the coolant. The physical data interface between the codes is the volumetric heat release rate into the coolant. In the prototype that is currently available, the coupling is restricted to single-phase flow problems. In the time domain an explicit coupling of the codes has been implemented so far. Steady-state and transient verification calculations for two small-size test problems confirm the correctness of the implementation of the prototype coupling. The first test problem was a mini-core consisting of nine real-size fuel assemblies with quadratic cross section. Comparison was performed with the DYN3D stand-alone code. In the steady state, the effective multiplication factor obtained by the DYN3D/ANSYS CFX codes hows a deviation of 9.8 pcm from the DYN3D stand-alone solution. This difference can be attributed to the use of different water property packages in the two codes. The transient test case simulated the withdrawal of the control rod from the central fuel assembly at hot zero power in the same mini-core. Power increase during the introduction of positive reactivity and power reduction due to fuel temperature increase are calculated in the same manner by the coupled and the stand-alone codes. The maximum values reached during the power rise differ by about 1 MW at a power level of 50 MW. Beside the different water property packages, these differences are caused by the use of different flow solvers. The same calculations were carried for a mini-core with seven real-size fuel assemblies with hexagonal cross section in

  19. 3D MODELING OF HISTORICAL DOGER CARAVANSARIES BY DIGITAL PHOTOGRAMMETRY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Yakar

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Caravansaries are sort of bigger khan that established on the busy trade roads to provide any kind of supplies but essentially all Caravansaries on Anatolia are established for caravans' accommodations which are passing through on caravan rout. After the Turks had chosen being Muslim, the land that Islam religion spread on it has expanded. As a result of this expansion it is required a safe route for trade caravans. During the ruling time of Seljuk's Empire, Caravansaries took the most advanced form. Sultans of the Seljuk's Empire were aware of importance of trade and economy. That's why they established Caravansaries near marines, between the important trade centers and on Anatolian lands which is a bridge between East and West. But these trade routes has changed at the time of Ottoman Empire. Many of the historical places in the world have been totally or partly destroyed by natural events and human activities such as earthquake, flood and fire until the present day and still going on. Documentation is essentially required for protection and restoration these historical places and photogrammetry is one of the most effective method for documentation of cultural heritages. In this study, it is aimed to get 3D models of Doger Caravansaries which is established in Afyonkarahisar for relief and advertising. Doger Caravansaries was built in 15. Century at Sultan II Murat eras but the exact date of building is not known. The structure has rectangular plan in width. The total length of it is 56.50 in meters. The Caravansaries is consisting of attached two parts. The first part has two floors. There are pointed arched niches in the two sides of the wall and there are windows (iron barred in the middle of the each niche. The door is fillet low arched. First floor rises on four elephant foot columns and ten other small columns. Short sides are covered by two each cross squinch and the other parts with barrel vault. There is a ladder with only ten remain

  20. 3D Hatching: Linear halftoning for dual extrusion fused deposition modeling

    OpenAIRE

    Kuipers, Tim; Doubrovski, E.L.; Verlinden, J.C.

    2017-01-01

    This work presents halftoning techniques to manufacture 3D objects with the appearance of full grayscale imagery for Fused Deposition Modeling (FDM) printers. While droplet-based dithering is a common halftoning technique, this is not applicable to FDM printing, since FDM builds up objects by extruding material in semi-continuous paths. A set of three methods is presented which apply a linear halftoning principle called 'hatching' to horizontal, vertical and diagonal surfaces. These methods a...

  1. Pros and Cons of ID vs. 3D Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klimchuk, James A.

    2012-01-01

    Advances in computing capability have led to tremendous improvements in 3D modeling. Entire active regions are being simulated in what might be described as a first principles way, in which plasma heating is treated self consistently rather than through the specification of heating functions. There are limitations to this approach, however, as actual heating mechanisms on the Sun involve spatial scales orders of magnitude smaller than what these simulations can resolve. Other simulations begin to resolve these scales, but they only treat a tiny volume and do not include the all important coupling with larger scales or with other parts of the atmosphere, and so cannot be readily compared with observations. Finally, ID hydrodynamic models capture the field-aligned evolution of the plasma extremely well and are ideally suited for data comparison, but they treat the heating in a totally ad hoc manner. All of these approaches have important contributions to make, but we must be aware of their limitations. I will highlight some of the strengths. and weaknesses of each.

  2. 3D MODELING OF STRESS FIELDS IN MILLING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wadii YOUSFI

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Given the complexity of the physical phenomena present in machining, orthogonal cutting was the most exploited configuration in the analytical modelling of cutting. This configuration is no longer valid if we consider the orientations of the tool in space such as the milling process. A along the cutting edge the geometric and kinematic parameters vary greatly and the speed vector of each point is very sensitive to the position [1]. This study incorporates the kinematic evolutions in the volume, with significant gradients of speeds, in 3D machining configuration and this in each shear zone. These gradients velocity generate additional displacements of the chip, in three dimensions, therefore a new force component with the appearance of cutting moments. This study presents a brief description of orthogonal cutting model developed followed by the determination of the velocity field in each shear zone. From the overall expression of the velocity vector, the contributions of the kinematic variations to the strain and the strain rate between the two extreme points of the edge are determined.

  3. 3D morphological and micromechanical modeling of cementitious materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Escoda, Julie

    2012-01-01

    The goal of this thesis is to develop morphological models of cementitious materials and use these models to study their local and effective response. To this aim, 3D images of cementitious materials (mortar and concrete), obtained by micro-tomography, are studied. First, the mortar image is segmented in order to obtain an image of a real microstructure, to be used for linear elasticity computations. The image of concrete is used, after being processed, to determine various morphological characteristics of the material. A random model of concrete is then developed and validated by means of morphological data. This model is made up of three phases, corresponding to the matrix, aggregates and voids. The aggregates phase is modelled by implantation of Poisson polyhedra without overlap. For this purpose, an algorithm suited to the vector generation of Poisson polyhedra is introduced and validated with morphological measurements. Finally, the effective linear elastic properties of the mortar and other simulated microstructures are estimated with the FFT (Fast-Fourier Transform) method, for various contrasts between the aggregates and matrix' Young moduli. To complete this work, focused on effective properties, an analysis of the local elastic response in the matrix phase is undertaken, in order to determine the spatial arrangement between stress concentration zones in the matrix and the phases of the microstructure (aggregates and voids). Moreover, a statistical fields characterization, in the matrix, is achieved, including the determination of the Representative Volume Element (RVE) size. Furthermore, a comparison between effective and local elastic properties obtained from microstructures containing polyhedra and spheres is carried out. (author)

  4. QueryArch3D: Querying and Visualising 3D Models of a Maya Archaeological Site in a Web-Based Interface

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giorgio Agugiaro

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Constant improvements in the field of surveying, computing and distribution of digital-content are reshaping the way Cultural Heritage can be digitised and virtually accessed, even remotely via web. A traditional 2D approach for data access, exploration, retrieval and exploration may generally suffice, however more complex analyses concerning spatial and temporal features require 3D tools, which, in some cases, have not yet been implemented or are not yet generally commercially available. Efficient organisation and integration strategies applicable to the wide array of heterogeneous data in the field of Cultural Heritage represent a hot research topic nowadays. This article presents a visualisation and query tool (QueryArch3D conceived to deal with multi-resolution 3D models. Geometric data are organised in successive levels of detail (LoD, provided with geometric and semantic hierarchies and enriched with attributes coming from external data sources. The visualisation and query front-end enables the 3D navigation of the models in a virtual environment, as well as the interaction with the objects by means of queries based on attributes or on geometries. The tool can be used as a standalone application, or served through the web. The characteristics of the research work, along with some implementation issues and the developed QueryArch3D tool will be discussed and presented.

  5. EM modeling for GPIR using 3D FDTD modeling codes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nelson, S.D.

    1994-10-01

    An analysis of the one-, two-, and three-dimensional electrical characteristics of structural cement and concrete is presented. This work connects experimental efforts in characterizing cement and concrete in the frequency and time domains with the Finite Difference Time Domain (FDTD) modeling efforts of these substances. These efforts include Electromagnetic (EM) modeling of simple lossless homogeneous materials with aggregate and targets and the modeling dispersive and lossy materials with aggregate and complex target geometries for Ground Penetrating Imaging Radar (GPIR). Two- and three-dimensional FDTD codes (developed at LLNL) where used for the modeling efforts. Purpose of the experimental and modeling efforts is to gain knowledge about the electrical properties of concrete typically used in the construction industry for bridges and other load bearing structures. The goal is to optimize the performance of a high-sample-rate impulse radar and data acquisition system and to design an antenna system to match the characteristics of this material. Results show agreement to within 2 dB of the amplitudes of the experimental and modeled data while the frequency peaks correlate to within 10% the differences being due to the unknown exact nature of the aggregate placement.

  6. Methods for Geometric Data Validation of 3d City Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, D.; Alam, N.; Wewetzer, M.; Pries, M.; Coors, V.

    2015-12-01

    Geometric quality of 3D city models is crucial for data analysis and simulation tasks, which are part of modern applications of the data (e.g. potential heating energy consumption of city quarters, solar potential, etc.). Geometric quality in these contexts is however a different concept as it is for 2D maps. In the latter case, aspects such as positional or temporal accuracy and correctness represent typical quality metrics of the data. They are defined in ISO 19157 and should be mentioned as part of the metadata. 3D data has a far wider range of aspects which influence their quality, plus the idea of quality itself is application dependent. Thus, concepts for definition of quality are needed, including methods to validate these definitions. Quality on this sense means internal validation and detection of inconsistent or wrong geometry according to a predefined set of rules. A useful starting point would be to have correct geometry in accordance with ISO 19107. A valid solid should consist of planar faces which touch their neighbours exclusively in defined corner points and edges. No gaps between them are allowed, and the whole feature must be 2-manifold. In this paper, we present methods to validate common geometric requirements for building geometry. Different checks based on several algorithms have been implemented to validate a set of rules derived from the solid definition mentioned above (e.g. water tightness of the solid or planarity of its polygons), as they were developed for the software tool CityDoctor. The method of each check is specified, with a special focus on the discussion of tolerance values where they are necessary. The checks include polygon level checks to validate the correctness of each polygon, i.e. closeness of the bounding linear ring and planarity. On the solid level, which is only validated if the polygons have passed validation, correct polygon orientation is checked, after self-intersections outside of defined corner points and edges

  7. FIRST EXPERIENCES WITH KINECT V2 SENSOR FOR CLOSE RANGE 3D MODELLING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Lachat

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available RGB-D cameras, also known as range imaging cameras, are a recent generation of sensors. As they are suitable for measuring distances to objects at high frame rate, such sensors are increasingly used for 3D acquisitions, and more generally for applications in robotics or computer vision. This kind of sensors became popular especially since the Kinect v1 (Microsoft arrived on the market in November 2010. In July 2014, Windows has released a new sensor, the Kinect for Windows v2 sensor, based on another technology as its first device. However, due to its initial development for video games, the quality assessment of this new device for 3D modelling represents a major investigation axis. In this paper first experiences with Kinect v2 sensor are related, and the ability of close range 3D modelling is investigated. For this purpose, error sources on output data as well as a calibration approach are presented.

  8. CT Image Sequence Analysis for Object Recognition - A Rule-Based 3-D Computer Vision System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dongping Zhu; Richard W. Conners; Daniel L. Schmoldt; Philip A. Araman

    1991-01-01

    Research is now underway to create a vision system for hardwood log inspection using a knowledge-based approach. In this paper, we present a rule-based, 3-D vision system for locating and identifying wood defects using topological, geometric, and statistical attributes. A number of different features can be derived from the 3-D input scenes. These features and evidence...

  9. Indoor objects and outdoor urban scenes recognition by 3D visual primitives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fu, Junsheng; Kämäräinen, Joni-Kristian; Buch, Anders Glent

    2014-01-01

    , we propose an alternative appearance-driven approach which rst extracts 2D primitives justi ed by Marr's primal sketch, which are \\accumulated" over multiple views and the most stable ones are \\promoted" to 3D visual primitives. The 3D promoted primitives represent both structure and appearance...

  10. 3D city models as a basis for heat demand simulations; 3D-Stadtmodelle als Grundlage fuer Waermebedarfssimulationen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schulte, Claudia; Coors, Volker; Eicker, Ursula [Hochschule fuer Technik (HFT), Stuttgart (Germany)

    2012-07-01

    The biggest potential for heat consumption reduction and CO2 emission reduction in Germany is in older buildings. By applying innovative modernization concepts, primary energy consumption could be reduced by 80 percent. Planning of modernisation and energy concepts requires data on the current status. HFT Stuttgart developed a promising method for assessing heat consumption according to DIN 18599 of urban districts on the basis of 3D models of buildings (CityGML). The method is presented and explained here.

  11. Image Reconstruction Based Modeling of 3D Textile Composite (Postprint)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Zhou, Eric; Mollenhauer, David; Iarve, Endel

    2007-01-01

    ... joints, near-net shape processing, etc. To fully understand the mechanical behavior of 3-D textile composites, it is essential to perform analyses to predict effective material properties and damage initiation and growth...

  12. The Combination of Spherical Photogrammetry and UAV for 3D Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ihsanudin, T.; Affriani, A. R.

    2017-12-01

    The complete of 3D models required the object that was recorded from both side and top. If the object recorded from above, then the object from the side can not be covered, and if the objects recorded from the side, it can not be covered from the top. Recording of objects from the side using spherical photogrammetry method and from the top using UAV method. The merge of both models using a conform transformation, by bringing the spherical photogrammetry coordinates system to the UAV model. The object of this research is Ratu Boko temple, Sleman, Yogyakarta. The spherical photogrammetry recording was performed by rotating the camera in 360° angle on the entire area of the temple. The area consists of 12 stations. The UAV method uses a drone with flight attitude of 20 meters. The merge of the both models produced the completeness of the temple model from the top and side.

  13. Workflows and the Role of Images for Virtual 3d Reconstruction of no Longer Extant Historic Objects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Münster, S.

    2013-07-01

    3D reconstruction technologies have gained importance as tools for the research and visualization of no longer extant historic objects during the last decade. Within such reconstruction processes, visual media assumes several important roles: as the most important sources especially for a reconstruction of no longer extant objects, as a tool for communication and cooperation within the production process, as well as for a communication and visualization of results. While there are many discourses about theoretical issues of depiction as sources and as visualization outcomes of such projects, there is no systematic research about the importance of depiction during a 3D reconstruction process and based on empirical findings. Moreover, from a methodological perspective, it would be necessary to understand which role visual media plays during the production process and how it is affected by disciplinary boundaries and challenges specific to historic topics. Research includes an analysis of published work and case studies investigating reconstruction projects. This study uses methods taken from social sciences to gain a grounded view of how production processes would take place in practice and which functions and roles images would play within them. For the investigation of these topics, a content analysis of 452 conference proceedings and journal articles related to 3D reconstruction modeling in the field of humanities has been completed. Most of the projects described in those publications dealt with data acquisition and model building for existing objects. Only a small number of projects focused on structures that no longer or never existed physically. Especially that type of project seems to be interesting for a study of the importance of pictures as sources and as tools for interdisciplinary cooperation during the production process. In the course of the examination the authors of this paper applied a qualitative content analysis for a sample of 26 previously

  14. 3D Simulation Modeling of the Tooth Wear Process.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ning Dai

    Full Text Available Severe tooth wear is the most common non-caries dental disease, and it can seriously affect oral health. Studying the tooth wear process is time-consuming and difficult, and technological tools are frequently lacking. This paper presents a novel method of digital simulation modeling that represents a new way to study tooth wear. First, a feature extraction algorithm is used to obtain anatomical feature points of the tooth without attrition. Second, after the alignment of non-attrition areas, the initial homogeneous surface is generated by means of the RBF (Radial Basic Function implicit surface and then deformed to the final homogeneous by the contraction and bounding algorithm. Finally, the method of bilinear interpolation based on Laplacian coordinates between tooth with attrition and without attrition is used to inversely reconstruct the sequence of changes of the 3D tooth morphology during gradual tooth wear process. This method can also be used to generate a process simulation of nonlinear tooth wear by means of fitting an attrition curve to the statistical data of attrition index in a certain region. The effectiveness and efficiency of the attrition simulation algorithm are verified through experimental simulation.

  15. 3D numerical modeling of YSO accretion shocks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matsakos T.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The dynamics of YSO accretion shocks is determined by radiative processes as well as the strength and structure of the magnetic field. A quasi-periodic emission signature is theoretically expected to be observed, but observations do not confirm any such pattern. In this work, we assume a uniform background field, in the regime of optically thin energy losses, and we study the multi-dimensional shock evolution in the presence of perturbations, i.e. clumps in the stream and an acoustic energy flux flowing at the base of the chromosphere. We perform 3D MHD simulations using the PLUTO code, modelling locally the impact of the infalling gas onto the chromosphere. We find that the structure and dynamics of the post-shock region is strongly dependent on the plasma-beta (thermal over magnetic pressure, different values of which may give distinguishable emission signatures, relevant for observations. In particular, a strong magnetic field effectively confines the plasma inside its flux tubes and leads to the formation of quasi-independent fibrils. The fibrils may oscillate out of phase and hence the sum of their contributions in the emission results in a smooth overall profile. On the contrary, a weak magnetic field is not found to have any significant effect on the shocked plasma and the turbulent hot slab that forms is found to retain its periodic signature.

  16. 3D Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics Models of Betelgeuse's Bow Shock

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohamed, S.; Mackey, J.; Langer, N.

    2013-05-01

    Betelgeuse, the bright red supergiant (RSG) in Orion, is a runaway star. Its supersonic motion through the interstellar medium has resulted in the formation of a bow shock, a cometary structure pointing in the direction of motion. We present the first 3D hydrodynamic simulations of the formation and evolution of Betelgeuse's bow shock. We show that the bow shock morphology depends substantially on the growth timescale for Rayleigh-Taylor versus Kelvin-Helmholtz instabilities. We discuss our models in light of the recent Herschel, GALEX and VLA observations. If the mass in the bow shock shell is low (~few × 10-3 M⊙), as seems to be implied by the AKARI and Herschel observations, then Betelgeuse's bow shock is very young and is unlikely to have reached a steady state. The circular, smooth bow shock shell is consistent with this conclusion. We further discuss the implications of our results, in particular, the possibility that Betelgeuse may have only recently entered the RSG phase.

  17. Electron-beam-induced welding of 3D nano-objects from beneath

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moskalenko, A V [Department of Physics, University of Bath, Claverton Down, Bath BA2 7AY (United Kingdom); Burbridge, D J [Department of Physics, University of Bath, Claverton Down, Bath BA2 7AY (United Kingdom); Viau, G [ITODYS, UMR CNRS 7086, Universite Paris 7-Denis Diderot, case 7090, 2 place Jussieu, F-75251 Paris Cedex 05 (France); Gordeev, S N [Department of Physics, University of Bath, Claverton Down, Bath BA2 7AY (United Kingdom)

    2007-01-17

    Exposure of a sample to the electron beam in a scanning electron microscope (SEM) results in the growth of a film of amorphous carbon due to decomposition of hydrocarbon molecules, which are always present in small quantities in the SEM chamber. This growth is induced mainly by secondary electrons backscattered by atoms of both the sample and substrate. We show that, because the secondary electrons are spread beyond the exposed area, this deposit can be grown in areas of geometric shadow and therefore can be used for bonding of different complex 3D nano-objects to a substrate. This is demonstrated by welding 100 nm Fe-Co-Ni nanoparticles to the surface of 2D graphite. The tip of an atomic force microscope was used to probe the mechanical properties of the formed nanostructures. We observed that, for layers thicker than 25 nm, the nanoparticle is bonded so strongly that it is easier to break the particle than to separate it from the substrate.

  18. Geospatial Data Processing for 3d City Model Generation, Management and Visualization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toschi, I.; Nocerino, E.; Remondino, F.; Revolti, A.; Soria, G.; Piffer, S.

    2017-05-01

    Recent developments of 3D technologies and tools have increased availability and relevance of 3D data (from 3D points to complete city models) in the geospatial and geo-information domains. Nevertheless, the potential of 3D data is still underexploited and mainly confined to visualization purposes. Therefore, the major challenge today is to create automatic procedures that make best use of available technologies and data for the benefits and needs of public administrations (PA) and national mapping agencies (NMA) involved in "smart city" applications. The paper aims to demonstrate a step forward in this process by presenting the results of the SENECA project (Smart and SustaiNablE City from Above - http://seneca.fbk.eu). State-of-the-art processing solutions are investigated in order to (i) efficiently exploit the photogrammetric workflow (aerial triangulation and dense image matching), (ii) derive topologically and geometrically accurate 3D geo-objects (i.e. building models) at various levels of detail and (iii) link geometries with non-spatial information within a 3D geo-database management system accessible via web-based client. The developed methodology is tested on two case studies, i.e. the cities of Trento (Italy) and Graz (Austria). Both spatial (i.e. nadir and oblique imagery) and non-spatial (i.e. cadastral information and building energy consumptions) data are collected and used as input for the project workflow, starting from 3D geometry capture and modelling in urban scenarios to geometry enrichment and management within a dedicated webGIS platform.

  19. GEOSPATIAL DATA PROCESSING FOR 3D CITY MODEL GENERATION, MANAGEMENT AND VISUALIZATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Toschi

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Recent developments of 3D technologies and tools have increased availability and relevance of 3D data (from 3D points to complete city models in the geospatial and geo-information domains. Nevertheless, the potential of 3D data is still underexploited and mainly confined to visualization purposes. Therefore, the major challenge today is to create automatic procedures that make best use of available technologies and data for the benefits and needs of public administrations (PA and national mapping agencies (NMA involved in “smart city” applications. The paper aims to demonstrate a step forward in this process by presenting the results of the SENECA project (Smart and SustaiNablE City from Above – http://seneca.fbk.eu. State-of-the-art processing solutions are investigated in order to (i efficiently exploit the photogrammetric workflow (aerial triangulation and dense image matching, (ii derive topologically and geometrically accurate 3D geo-objects (i.e. building models at various levels of detail and (iii link geometries with non-spatial information within a 3D geo-database management system accessible via web-based client. The developed methodology is tested on two case studies, i.e. the cities of Trento (Italy and Graz (Austria. Both spatial (i.e. nadir and oblique imagery and non-spatial (i.e. cadastral information and building energy consumptions data are collected and used as input for the project workflow, starting from 3D geometry capture and modelling in urban scenarios to geometry enrichment and management within a dedicated webGIS platform.

  20. Data processing path from multimodal 3D measurement to realistic virtual model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sitnik, Robert; Krzeslowski, Jakub; Mączkowski, Grzegorz

    2011-03-01

    A set of calculation methods has been developed and tested to provide means of creating virtual copies of three dimensional (3D) historical objects with minimal user input. We present a step by step data processing path along with algorithm description required to reconstruct a realistic 3D model of a culturally significant object. The important feature for archiving historical objects is the ability to include both information about its shape and texture, allowing visualization using arbitrary conditions of illumination. Data samples used as input for the processing method chain were collected using an integrated device consisting of shape, multispectral color and simplified BRDF measurements. To confirm the usability of presented methods, it has been tested by example of real life object - statue of an ancient Greek goddess Kybele. Additional visualization methods have also been examined to render a realistic virtual representation satisfying intrinsic surface properties of the investigated specimen.

  1. A 3D Model Based Imdoor Navigation System for Hubei Provincial Museum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, W.; Kruminaite, M.; Onrust, B.; Liu, H.; Xiong, Q.; Zlatanova, S.

    2013-11-01

    3D models are more powerful than 2D maps for indoor navigation in a complicate space like Hubei Provincial Museum because they can provide accurate descriptions of locations of indoor objects (e.g., doors, windows, tables) and context information of these objects. In addition, the 3D model is the preferred navigation environment by the user according to the survey. Therefore a 3D model based indoor navigation system is developed for Hubei Provincial Museum to guide the visitors of museum. The system consists of three layers: application, web service and navigation, which is built to support localization, navigation and visualization functions of the system. There are three main strengths of this system: it stores all data needed in one database and processes most calculations on the webserver which make the mobile client very lightweight, the network used for navigation is extracted semi-automatically and renewable, the graphic user interface (GUI), which is based on a game engine, has high performance of visualizing 3D model on a mobile display.

  2. Validity and Repeatability of the Sizestream 3D Scanner and Poikos Modeling System

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vonk, T.E.; Daanen, H.A.M.

    2015-01-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) body scanning becomes increasingly important in the medical, ergonomical and apparel industry. The SizeStream 3D body scanner is a 3D body scanner in the shape of a fitting room that can generate a 3D copy of the human body in a few seconds. The Poikos modeling system

  3. Performance Investigation of a Handheld 3d Scanner to Define Good Practices for Small Artefact 3d Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lachat, E.; Landes, T.; Grussenmeyer, P.

    2017-08-01

    Handheld 3D scanners can be used to complete large scale models with the acquisition of occluded areas or small artefacts. This may be of interest for digitization projects in the field of Cultural Heritage, where detailed areas may require a specific treatment. Such sensors present the advantage of being easily portable in the field, and easily usable even without particular knowledge. In this paper, the Freestyle3D handheld scanner launched on the market in 2015 by FARO is investigated. Different experiments are described, covering various topics such as the influence of range or color on the measurements, but also the precision achieved for geometrical primitive digitization. These laboratory experiments are completed by acquisitions performed on engraved and sculpted stone blocks. This practical case study is useful to investigate which acquisition protocol seems to be the more adapted and leads to precise results. The produced point clouds will be compared to photogrammetric surveys for the purpose of their accuracy assessment.

  4. Modelling and inversion of 3D complex kinematic data; Modelisation et inversion de donnees cinematiques complexes en 3D

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clarke, R.

    1997-10-27

    Reflection tomography can determine velocity models containing lateral velocity variations and reflectors of arbitrary shapes; in order to access the kinematic data, a 3D zero offset approach to the SMART (Sequential Migration Aided Reflection Tomography) method, an original method of migration velocity analysis, is adopted. The approach involves interpreting kinematic data in the post-stack depth migrated cube and then de-migrating the horizons by two-point ray-tracing. A fast and robust two-point ray-tracer is developed, which can recover multi-valued kinematic data from complex geological structures. An original formulation for 3D reflection tomography is proposed, which can reliably take into account multivalued travel times

  5. You Can Touch This! Bringing HST images to life as 3-D models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christian, Carol A.; Nota, A.; Grice, N. A.; Sabbi, E.; Shaheen, N.; Greenfield, P.; Hurst, A.; Kane, S.; Rao, R.; Dutterer, J.; de Mink, S. E.

    2014-01-01

    We present the very first results of an innovative process to transform Hubble images into tactile 3-D models of astronomical objects. We have created a very new, unique tool for understanding astronomical phenomena, especially designed to make astronomy accessible to visually impaired children and adults. From the multicolor images of stellar clusters, we construct 3-D computer models that are digitally sliced into layers, each featuring touchable patterning and Braille characters, and are printed on a 3-D printer. The slices are then fitted together, so that the user can explore the structure of the cluster environment with their fingertips, slice-by-slice, analogous to a visual fly-through. Students will be able to identify and spatially locate the different components of these complex astronomical objects, namely gas, dust and stars, and will learn about the formation and composition of stellar clusters. The primary audiences for the 3D models are middle school and high school blind students and, secondarily, blind adults. However, we believe that the final materials will address a broad range of individuals with varied and multi-sensory learning styles, and will be interesting and visually appealing to the public at large.

  6. 3D Visualization System for Tracking and Identification of Objects Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Photon-X has developed a proprietary EO spatial phase technology that can passively collect 3-D images in real-time using a single camera-based system. This...

  7. Automatic reasoning for geometric constraints in 3D city models with uncertain observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loch-Dehbi, Sandra; Plümer, Lutz

    This paper presents a novel approach to automated geometric reasoning for 3D building models. Geometric constraints like orthogonality or parallelity play a prominent role in man-made objects such as buildings. Thus, constraint based modelling, that specifies buildings by their individual components and the constraints between them, is a common approach in 3D city models. Since prototyped building models allow one to incorporate a priori knowledge they support the 3D reconstruction of buildings from point clouds and allow the construction of virtual cities. However, high level building models have a high degree of complexity and consequently are not easily manageable. Interactive tools are needed which facilitate the development of consistent models that, for instance, do not entail internal logical contradictions. Furthermore, there is often an interest in a compact, redundancy-free representation. We propose an approach that uses algebraic methods to prove that a constraint is deducible from a set of premises. While automated reasoning in 2D models is practical, a substantial increase in complexity can be observed in the transition to the three-dimensional space. Apart from that, algebraic theorem provers are restricted to crisp constraints so far. Thus, they are unable to handle quality issues, which are, however, an important aspect of GIS data and models. In this article we present an approach to automatic 3D reasoning which explicitly addresses uncertainty. Hereby, our aim is to support the interactive modelling of 3D city models and the automatic reconstruction of buildings. Geometric constraints are represented by multivariate polynomials whereas algebraic reasoning is based on Wu's method of pseudodivision and characteristic sets. The reasoning process is further supported by logical inference rules. In order to cope with uncertainty and to address quality issues the reasoner integrates uncertain projective geometry and statistical hypothesis tests

  8. 3D modelling of Trompsburg Complex (in South Africa) using 3D focusing inversion of gravity data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rezaie, Mohammad; Moradzadeh, Ali; Kalate, Ali Nejati; Aghajani, Hamid; Kahoo, Amin Roshandel; Moazam, Sahar

    2017-06-01

    The Trompsburg complex is a huge layered mafic igneous rock that is located near the town of Trompsburg in the Free State Province, South Africa that does not outcrop on the surface. Here, we construct 3D model of Trompsburg intrusion using 3D focusing inversion of gravity data. The inversion of gravity data is one of the most important topics in the quantitative interpretation of practical geophysical data. Focusing inversion can produce compact solution and recover the sharp boundaries between intrusive body and host rocks. In focusing inversion of Trompsburg gravity data we set focusing parameter equals 0.02. According to the geological information, lower density bound set to -0.1 g/cm3 and upper density bound set to 0.5 g/cm3. The results of 3D inversion in this study indicate that the Trompsburg Complex is a deep bowl-shaped intrusion which is extended to 33(km) below the surface. It is like an oval in horizontal plane sections with major axis of nearly 50 km in west- east direction and north- south minor axis about 30 km. The obtained results confirms that this complex could be related to intraplate magmatism.

  9. Automated robust generation of compact 3D statistical shape models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vrtovec, Tomaz; Likar, Bostjan; Tomazevic, Dejan; Pernus, Franjo

    2004-05-01

    Ascertaining the detailed shape and spatial arrangement of anatomical structures is important not only within diagnostic settings but also in the areas of planning, simulation, intraoperative navigation, and tracking of pathology. Robust, accurate and efficient automated segmentation of anatomical structures is difficult because of their complexity and inter-patient variability. Furthermore, the position of the patient during image acquisition, the imaging device and protocol, image resolution, and other factors induce additional variations in shape and appearance. Statistical shape models (SSMs) have proven quite successful in capturing structural variability. A possible approach to obtain a 3D SSM is to extract reference voxels by precisely segmenting the structure in one, reference image. The corresponding voxels in other images are determined by registering the reference image to each other image. The SSM obtained in this way describes statistically plausible shape variations over the given population as well as variations due to imperfect registration. In this paper, we present a completely automated method that significantly reduces shape variations induced by imperfect registration, thus allowing a more accurate description of variations. At each iteration, the derived SSM is used for coarse registration, which is further improved by describing finer variations of the structure. The method was tested on 64 lumbar spinal column CT scans, from which 23, 38, 45, 46 and 42 volumes of interest containing vertebra L1, L2, L3, L4 and L5, respectively, were extracted. Separate SSMs were generated for each vertebra. The results show that the method is capable of reducing the variations induced by registration errors.

  10. True-3D accentuating of grids and streets in urban topographic maps enhances human object location memory.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dennis Edler

    Full Text Available Cognitive representations of learned map information are subject to systematic distortion errors. Map elements that divide a map surface into regions, such as content-related linear symbols (e.g. streets, rivers, railway systems or additional artificial layers (coordinate grids, provide an orientation pattern that can help users to reduce distortions in their mental representations. In recent years, the television industry has started to establish True-3D (autostereoscopic displays as mass media. These modern displays make it possible to watch dynamic and static images including depth illusions without additional devices, such as 3D glasses. In these images, visual details can be distributed over different positions along the depth axis. Some empirical studies of vision research provided first evidence that 3D stereoscopic content attracts higher attention and is processed faster. So far, the impact of True-3D accentuating has not yet been explored concerning spatial memory tasks and cartography. This paper reports the results of two empirical studies that focus on investigations whether True-3D accentuating of artificial, regular overlaying line features (i.e. grids and content-related, irregular line features (i.e. highways and main streets in official urban topographic maps (scale 1/10,000 further improves human object location memory performance. The memory performance is measured as both the percentage of correctly recalled object locations (hit rate and the mean distances of correctly recalled objects (spatial accuracy. It is shown that the True-3D accentuating of grids (depth offset: 5 cm significantly enhances the spatial accuracy of recalled map object locations, whereas the True-3D emphasis of streets significantly improves the hit rate of recalled map object locations. These results show the potential of True-3D displays for an improvement of the cognitive representation of learned cartographic information.

  11. Mapping Infrared Data on Terrestrial Laser Scanning 3D Models of Buildings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mattia Previtali

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available A new 3D acquisition and processing procedure to map RGB, thermal IR and near infrared images (NIR on a detailed 3D model of a building is presented. The combination and fusion of different data sources allows the generation of 3D thermal data useful for different purposes such as localization, visualization, and analysis of anomalies in contemporary architecture. The classic approach, which is currently used to map IR images on 3D models, is based on the direct registration of each single image by using space resection or homography. This approach is largely time consuming and in many cases suffers from poor object texture. To overcome these drawbacks, a “bi-camera” system coupling a thermal IR camera to a RGB camera has been setup. The second sensor is used to orient the “bi-camera” through a photogrammetric network also including free-handled camera stations to strengthen the block geometry. In many cases the bundle adjustment can be executed through a procedure for automatic extraction of tie points. Terrestrial laser scanning is adopted to retrieve the 3D model building. The integration of a low-cost NIR camera accumulates further radiometric information on the final 3D model. The use of such a sensor has not been exploited until now to assess the conservation state of buildings. Here some interesting findings from this kind of analysis are reported. The paper shows the methodology and its experimental application to a couple of buildings in the main Campus of Politecnico di Milano University, where IR thermography has previously been carried out for conservation and maintenance purposes.

  12. 3D BUILDING MODELING IN LOD2 USING THE CITYGML STANDARD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Preka

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Over the last decade, scientific research has been increasingly focused on the third dimension in all fields and especially in sciences related to geographic information, the visualization of natural phenomena and the visualization of the complex urban reality. The field of 3D visualization has achieved rapid development and dynamic progress, especially in urban applications, while the technical restrictions on the use of 3D information tend to subside due to advancements in technology. A variety of 3D modeling techniques and standards has already been developed, as they gain more traction in a wide range of applications. Such a modern standard is the CityGML, which is open and allows for sharing and exchanging of 3D city models. Within the scope of this study, key issues for the 3D modeling of spatial objects and cities are considered and specifically the key elements and abilities of CityGML standard, which is used in order to produce a 3D model of 14 buildings that constitute a block at the municipality of Kaisariani, Athens, in Level of Detail 2 (LoD2, as well as the corresponding relational database. The proposed tool is based upon the 3DCityDB package in tandem with a geospatial database (PostgreSQL w/ PostGIS 2.0 extension. The latter allows for execution of complex queries regarding the spatial distribution of data. The system is implemented in order to facilitate a real-life scenario in a suburb of Athens.

  13. Tactile pattern recognition by graphic display: importance of 3-D information for haptic perception of familiar objects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimizu, Y; Saida, S; Shimura, H

    1993-01-01

    Haptic recognition of familiar objects by the early blind, the late blind, and the sighted was investigated with two-dimensional (2-D) and three-dimensional (3-D) stimuli produced by small tactor-pins. The 2-D stimulus was an outline of an object that was depicted by raising tactor-pins to 1.5 mm. The 3-D stimulus was a relief that was produced by raising the tactors up to 10 mm, corresponding to the height of the object. Mean recognition times for correct answers to the 3-D stimuli were faster than those for the 2-D stimuli, in all three subject groups. No statistically significant differences in percentage of correct responses between the 2-D and the 3-D stimuli were found for the late-blind and sighted groups, but the early-blind group demonstrated a significant difference. In addition, the haptic legibility for the quality of depiction of the object, without regard to whether or not the stimulus was understood, was measured. The haptic legibility of the 3-D stimuli was significantly higher than that of the 2-D stimuli for all the groups. These results suggest that 3-D presentation seems to promise a way to overcome the limitations of 2-D graphic display.

  14. Digital Geological Model (DGM): a 3D raster model of the subsurface of the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gunnink, J.L.; Maljers, D.; Gessel, S.F. van; Menkovic, A.; Hummelman, H.J.

    2013-01-01

    A 3D geological raster model has been constructed of the onshore of the Netherlands. The model displays geological units for the upper 500 m in 3D in an internally consistent way. The units are based on the lithostratigraphical classification of the Netherlands. This classification is used to

  15. 3D Bioprinting and In Vitro Cardiovascular Tissue Modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Jinah

    2017-08-18

    Numerous microfabrication approaches have been developed to recapitulate morphologically and functionally organized tissue microarchitectures in vitro; however, the technical and operational limitations remain to be overcome. 3D printing technology facilitates the building of a construct containing biomaterials and cells in desired organizations and shapes that have physiologically relevant geometry, complexity, and micro-environmental cues. The selection of biomaterials for 3D printing is considered one of the most critical factors to achieve tissue function. It has been reported that some printable biomaterials, having extracellular matrix-like intrinsic microenvironment factors, were capable of regulating stem cell fate and phenotype. In particular, this technology can control the spatial positions of cells, and provide topological, chemical, and complex cues, allowing neovascularization and maturation in the engineered cardiovascular tissues. This review will delineate the state-of-the-art 3D bioprinting techniques in the field of cardiovascular tissue engineering and their applications in translational medicine. In addition, this review will describe 3D printing-based pre-vascularization technologies correlated with implementing blood perfusion throughout the engineered tissue equivalent. The described engineering method may offer a unique approach that results in the physiological mimicry of human cardiovascular tissues to aid in drug development and therapeutic approaches.

  16. Conceptual Development of a 3D Product Configuration Model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skauge, Jørn

    2006-01-01

      Abstract. Projektet er et 3D konfigurationsprojekt for et digitalt byggeelement udviklet i prototypeform i et samarbejde mellem en virksomhed og en forskningsinstitution i Danmark. Projektet betegnes som produktmodellering dvs et knowledge based system dvs et IT system udviklet til hjælp i prod...

  17. 3D Channel Model Emulation in a MIMO OTA Setup

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fan, Wei; Kyösti, Pekka; Sun, Fan

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a new channel reconstruction technique for 3D geometry-based channels in a multi-probe based MIMO OTA setup. The proposed method provides a general channel reconstruction framework for any spherical power spectrum. The channel reconstruction is formed as convex optimization...

  18. Using 3D Geometric Models to Teach Spatial Geometry Concepts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertoline, Gary R.

    1991-01-01

    An explanation of 3-D Computer Aided Design (CAD) usage to teach spatial geometry concepts using nontraditional techniques is presented. The software packages CADKEY and AutoCAD are described as well as their usefulness in solving space geometry problems. (KR)

  19. [3D modeling of the female pelvis by Computer-Assisted Anatomical Dissection: Applications and perspectives].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balaya, V; Uhl, J-F; Lanore, A; Salachas, C; Samoyeau, T; Ngo, C; Bensaid, C; Cornou, C; Rossi, L; Douard, R; Bats, A-S; Lecuru, F; Delmas, V

    2016-05-01

    To achieve a 3D vectorial model of a female pelvis by Computer-Assisted Anatomical Dissection and to assess educationnal and surgical applications. From the database of "visible female" of Visible Human Project(®) (VHP) of the "national library of medicine" NLM (United States), we used 739 transverse anatomical slices of 0.33mm thickness going from L4 to the trochanters. The manual segmentation of each anatomical structures was done with Winsurf(®) software version 4.3. Each anatomical element was built as a separate vectorial object. The whole colored-rendered vectorial model with realistic textures was exported in 3Dpdf format to allow a real time interactive manipulation with Acrobat(®) pro version 11 software. Each element can be handled separately at any transparency, which allows an anatomical learning by systems: skeleton, pelvic organs, urogenital system, arterial and venous vascularization. This 3D anatomical model can be used as data bank to teach of the fundamental anatomy. This 3D vectorial model, realistic and interactive constitutes an efficient educational tool for the teaching of the anatomy of the pelvis. 3D printing of the pelvis is possible with the new printers. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  20. Recovery of 3D volume from 2-tone images of novel objects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, C; Cavanagh, P

    1998-07-01

    In 2-tone images (e.g., Dallenbach's cow), only two levels of brightness are used to convey image structure-dark object regions and shadows are turned to black and light regions are light regions are turned white. Despite a lack of shading, hue and texture information, many 2-tone images of familiar objects and scenes are accurately interpreted, even by naive observers. Objects frequently appear fully volumetric and are distinct from their shadows. If perceptual interpretation of 2-tone images is accomplished via bottom-up processes on the basis of geometrical structure projected to the image (e.g., volumetric parts, contour and junction information) novel objects should appear volumetric as readily as their familiar counterparts. We demonstrate that accurate volumetric representations are rarely extracted from 2-tone images of novel objects, even when these objects are constructed from volumetric primitives such as generalized cones (Marr, D., Nishihara, H.K., 1978. Proceedings of the Royal Society London 200, 269-294; Biederman, I. 1985. Computer Vision, Graphics, and Image Processing 32, 29-73), or from the rearranged components of a familiar object which is itself recognizable as a 2-tone image. Even familiar volumes such as canonical bricks and cylinders require scenes with redundant structure (e.g., rows of cylinders) or explicit lighting (a lamp in the image) for recovery of global volumetric shape. We conclude that 2-tone image perception is not mediated by bottom-up extraction of geometrical features such as junctions or volumetric parts, but may rely on previously stored representations in memory and a model of the illumination of the scene. The success of this top-down strategy implies it is available for general object recognition in natural scenes.

  1. Affective SSVEP BCI to effectively control 3D objects by using a prism array-based display

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mun, Sungchul; Park, Min-Chul

    2014-06-01

    3D objects with depth information can provide many benefits to users in education, surgery, and interactions. In particular, many studies have been done to enhance sense of reality in 3D interaction. Viewing and controlling stereoscopic 3D objects with crossed or uncrossed disparities, however, can cause visual fatigue due to the vergenceaccommodation conflict generally accepted in 3D research fields. In order to avoid the vergence-accommodation mismatch and provide a strong sense of presence to users, we apply a prism array-based display to presenting 3D objects. Emotional pictures were used as visual stimuli in control panels to increase information transfer rate and reduce false positives in controlling 3D objects. Involuntarily motivated selective attention by affective mechanism can enhance steady-state visually evoked potential (SSVEP) amplitude and lead to increased interaction efficiency. More attentional resources are allocated to affective pictures with high valence and arousal levels than to normal visual stimuli such as white-and-black oscillating squares and checkerboards. Among representative BCI control components (i.e., eventrelated potentials (ERP), event-related (de)synchronization (ERD/ERS), and SSVEP), SSVEP-based BCI was chosen in the following reasons. It shows high information transfer rates and takes a few minutes for users to control BCI system while few electrodes are required for obtaining reliable brainwave signals enough to capture users' intention. The proposed BCI methods are expected to enhance sense of reality in 3D space without causing critical visual fatigue to occur. In addition, people who are very susceptible to (auto) stereoscopic 3D may be able to use the affective BCI.

  2. 3D unified CFD to modeling of bubbles phenomena

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vladimir V Chudanov; Anna E Aksenova; Valerii A Pervichko

    2005-01-01

    Full text of publication follows: During of the last ten years the developed numerical methods and algorithms for solving of heat and mass transfer problems in compressible/incompressible fluids were successfully tested at simulation of interaction of two immiscible liquids. Now these computing tools are extended on a case of two-phase flows, such as a liquids-gas system as follows: outside of bubbles the non-stationary incompressible Navier-Stokes equations in the primitive variables coupled with the heat transfer equation are used; inside of bubble a compressible medium model with low Mach limit is applied. To observe of an interface of liquid-gas system we use the modified level set method and three-dimensional advective schemes of TVD-type with small scheme diffusion with use of sub-grid simulation. These schemes with small diffusion were already applied by us under using of sub-grid simulation for interface transfer in case of two non-mixing liquids. For bubble phenomena a numerical technique based on the developed algorithms with a small scheme diffusion, for which the discrete approximations are constructed using the finite-volume methods and fully staggered grids is adapted. Testing of the developed approach is carried out on the set of test problems and a good agreement is obtained between numerical predictions and experimental data. The numerical technique was successfully utilized for numerical support of 3D experiment financed by Nuclear Energy Agency at the Organization economic cooperation and development within the framework of MASKA Project, where computational fluid dynamics of two non-mixing fluids such as corium and steel was investigated. In this paper there is application of developed approach for simulation of bubble flows, in particular, for study of coalescence of two drops. The developed technique has a high degree of efficiency and allows on a personal computer (3 GHz and 2 Gbytes RAM) to carry out CFD calculations on a grid with 10 7

  3. Flying triangulation--an optical 3D sensor for the motion-robust acquisition of complex objects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ettl, Svenja; Arold, Oliver; Yang, Zheng; Häusler, Gerd

    2012-01-10

    Three-dimensional (3D) shape acquisition is difficult if an all-around measurement of an object is desired or if a relative motion between object and sensor is unavoidable. An optical sensor principle is presented-we call it "flying triangulation"-that enables a motion-robust acquisition of 3D surface topography. It combines a simple handheld sensor with sophisticated registration algorithms. An easy acquisition of complex objects is possible-just by freely hand-guiding the sensor around the object. Real-time feedback of the sequential measurement results enables a comfortable handling for the user. No tracking is necessary. In contrast to most other eligible sensors, the presented sensor generates 3D data from each single camera image. © 2012 Optical Society of America

  4. Learning to Grasp Unknown Objects Based on 3D Edge Information

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bodenhagen, Leon; Kraft, Dirk; Popovic, Mila

    2010-01-01

    In this work we refine an initial grasping behavior based on 3D edge information by learning. Based on a set of autonomously generated evaluated grasps and relations between the semi-global 3D edges, a prediction function is learned that computes a likelihood for the success of a grasp using either...... an offline or an online learning scheme. Both methods are implemented using a hybrid artificial neural network containing standard nodes with a sigmoid activation function and nodes with a radial basis function. We show that a significant performance improvement can be achieved....

  5. Laser Transfer of Metals and Metal Alloys for Digital Microfabrication of 3D Objects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zenou, Michael; Sa'ar, Amir; Kotler, Zvi

    2015-09-02

    3D copper logos printed on epoxy glass laminates are demonstrated. The structures are printed using laser transfer of molten metal microdroplets. The example in the image shows letters of 50 µm width, with each letter being taller than the last, from a height of 40 µm ('s') to 190 µm ('l'). The scanning microscopy image is taken at a tilt, and the topographic image was taken using interferometric 3D microscopy, to show the effective control of this technique. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  6. 3D reconstruction of carotid atherosclerotic plaque: comparison between spatial compound ultrasound models and anatomical models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lind, Bo L.; Fagertun, Jens; Wilhjelm, Jens E.

    2007-01-01

    compound ultrasound (US) and subsequently sliced and photographed to produce a 3D anatomical data set. Outlines in the ultrasound data were found by means of active contours and combined into 10 3D ultrasound models. The plaque regions of the anatomical photographs were outlined manually and then combined...... into 10 3D anatomical models. The volumes of the anatomical models correlated with the volume found by a water displacement method (r = 0.95), except for an offset. The models were compared in three ways. Visual inspection showed quite good agreement between the models. The volumes of the ultrasound...

  7. Large-scale 3-D modeling by integration of resistivity models and borehole data through inversion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Foged, N.; Marker, Pernille Aabye; Christiansen, A. V.

    2014-01-01

    and the borehole data set in one variable. Finally, we use k-means clustering to generate a 3-D model of the subsurface structures. We apply the procedure to the Norsminde survey in Denmark, integrating approximately 700 boreholes and more than 100 000 resistivity models from an airborne survey...... in the parameterization of the 3-D model covering 156 km2. The final five-cluster 3-D model differentiates between clay materials and different high-resistivity materials from information held in the resistivity model and borehole observations, respectively....

  8. Creating objects with 3D printers to stimulate reminiscence in memory loss: A mixed-method feasibility study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garlinghouse, Allison; Rud, Shaina; Johnson, Kari; Plocher, Tom; Klassen, Daniel; Havey, Thomas; Gaugler, Joseph E

    2017-08-08

    The objective of the current project was to determine the feasibility of using 3D printed technology to facilitate reminiscence-related activities for persons with memory loss (PWMLs). A parallel convergent mixed methods design was used. Fifteen PWMLs, 13 family members, and six staff from two residential long-term care facilities participated. Participants were observed and interviewed initially, during a 2-week reminiscence session, and again during a 1-month reminiscence session. Staff participants also completed a 1-month focus group, and staff and family members were administered a 3D printing review checklist at 1-month. The integrated qualitative and quantitative data strongly suggested that PWMLs enjoyed using the 3D objects, were engaged while doing so and appeared to value the objects due to their personalized nature. The use of 3D printed objects also appeared to encourage family involvement as well as family and staff interactions with PWMLs. Barriers to use included memory impairment and behavioral issues. The use of 3D printed objects could provide an easy-to-use, well-received, person-centered approach that augments current reminiscence strategies for PWMLs.

  9. 3D Anatomy Models and Impact on Learning: A Review of the Quality of the Literature

    OpenAIRE

    Azer, Samy A.; Azer, Sarah

    2016-01-01

    Background: The aims of this study were to identify studies exploring three-dimensional (3D) anatomy models and their impact on learning, and to assess the quality of research in this area. Methods: PubMed, EMBASE, and the Web of Knowledge databases were searched using the following keywords "3D anatomy", "three dimensional anatomy," "3D virtual reality anatomy," "3D VR anatomy," "3D anatomy model, “3D anatomy teaching", and “anatomy learning VR” . Three evaluators independently assessed t...

  10. Evaluating procedural modelling for 3D models of informal settlements in urban design activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victoria Rautenbach

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Three-dimensional (3D modelling and visualisation is one of the fastest growing application fields in geographic information science. 3D city models are being researched extensively for a variety of purposes and in various domains, including urban design, disaster management, education and computer gaming. These models typically depict urban business districts (downtown or suburban residential areas. Despite informal settlements being a prevailing feature of many cities in developing countries, 3D models of informal settlements are virtually non-existent. 3D models of informal settlements could be useful in various ways, e.g. to gather information about the current environment in the informal settlements, to design upgrades, to communicate these and to educate inhabitants about environmental challenges. In this article, we described the development of a 3D model of the Slovo Park informal settlement in the City of Johannesburg Metropolitan Municipality, South Africa. Instead of using time-consuming traditional manual methods, we followed the procedural modelling technique. Visualisation characteristics of 3D models of informal settlements were described and the importance of each characteristic in urban design activities for informal settlement upgrades was assessed. Next, the visualisation characteristics of the Slovo Park model were evaluated. The results of the evaluation showed that the 3D model produced by the procedural modelling technique is suitable for urban design activities in informal settlements. The visualisation characteristics and their assessment are also useful as guidelines for developing 3D models of informal settlements. In future, we plan to empirically test the use of such 3D models in urban design projects in informal settlements.

  11. Fast, Automated, Photo realistic, 3D Modeling of Building Interiors

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-09-12

    Conference on 3D Vision, Lyon, France, October 2015. [Adobe PDF] [2] R. Zhang and A. Zakhor, "Automatic Identification of Window Regions on Indoor Point...February 11, 2015 - Avideh Zakhor Featured in ARPA-E Inspiring Innovators Showcase November 13, 2014 - SWARM Lab Seminar: "Professor Zakhor’s talk on...a warehouse-sized retail shopping center. Each planar region given a random color. Generated with resolution of 10 cm. Final Report for ARO

  12. Mixed Structural Models for 3D Audio in Virtual Environments

    OpenAIRE

    Geronazzo, Michele

    2014-01-01

    In the world of ICT, strategies for innovation and development are increasingly focusing on applications that require spatial representation and real-time interaction with and within 3D media environments. One of the major challenges that such applications have to address is user-centricity, reflecting e.g. on developing complexity-hiding services so that people can personalize their own delivery of services. In these terms, multimodal interfaces represent a key factor for enabling an inclusi...

  13. Håndbog i 3D-modeller

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karlshøj, Jan; Bennetsen, Jens Chr.; Kjems, Erik

    Denne håndbog er udviklet i forbindelse med overgangen til nye digitale 3D-metoder, -værktøjer og -procedurer. Håndbogen gennemgår baggrundsmateriale, teknologi og metoder, der kan bruges til skabe alternative løsninger, kvalificere beslutninger, klæde bygherren bedre på og i det hele taget få mere...

  14. 3D Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics Models of Betelgeuse's Bow Shock

    OpenAIRE

    Mohamed, Shazrene; Mackey, Jonathan; Langer, Norbert

    2013-01-01

    Betelgeuse, the bright red supergiant (RSG) in Orion, is a runaway star. Its supersonic motion through the interstellar medium has resulted in the formation of a bow shock, a cometary structure pointing in the direction of motion. We present the first 3D hydrodynamic simulations of the formation and evolution of Betelgeuse's bow shock. We show that the bow shock morphology depends substantially on the growth timescale for Rayleigh-Taylor versus Kelvin-Helmholtz instabilities. We discuss our m...

  15. Research on urban rapid 3D modeling and application based on CGA rule

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jing-wen; Jiang, Jian-wu; Zhou, Song; Yin, Shou-qiang

    2015-12-01

    Use CityEngine as the 3D modeling platform, research on urban rapid 3D modeling technology based on the CGA(Computer Generated Architectur) rule , solved the problem of the rapid creation of urban 3D model in large scenes , and research on building texture processing and 3D model optimization techniques based on CGA rule , using component modeling method , solved the problem of texture distortion and model redundancy in the traditional fast modeling 3D model , and development of a three-dimensional view and analysis system based on ArcGIS Engine , realization of 3D model query , distance measurement , specific path flight , 3D marking , Scene export,etc.

  16. Marker encoded fringe projection profilometry for efficient 3D model acquisition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budianto, B; Lun, P K D; Hsung, Tai-Chiu

    2014-11-01

    This paper presents a novel marker encoded fringe projection profilometry (FPP) scheme for efficient 3-dimensional (3D) model acquisition. Traditional FPP schemes can introduce large errors to the reconstructed 3D model when the target object has an abruptly changing height profile. For the proposed scheme, markers are encoded in the projected fringe pattern to resolve the ambiguities in the fringe images due to that problem. Using the analytic complex wavelet transform, the marker cue information can be extracted from the fringe image, and is used to restore the order of the fringes. A series of simulations and experiments have been carried out to verify the proposed scheme. They show that the proposed method can greatly improve the accuracy over the traditional FPP schemes when reconstructing the 3D model of objects with abruptly changing height profile. Since the scheme works directly in our recently proposed complex wavelet FPP framework, it enjoys the same properties that it can be used in real time applications for color objects.

  17. Quasi-Facial Communication for Online Learning Using 3D Modeling Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yushun; Zhuang, Yueting

    2008-01-01

    Online interaction with 3D facial animation is an alternative way of face-to-face communication for distance education. 3D facial modeling is essential for virtual educational environments establishment. This article presents a novel 3D facial modeling solution that facilitates quasi-facial communication for online learning. Our algorithm builds…

  18. Modelling soil erosion risk based on RUSLE-3D using GIS in a ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2016-08-26

    watershed ... Click here to view fulltext PDF ... The RUSLE-3D (Revised Universal Soil Loss Equation-3D) model was implemented in geographic information system (GIS) for predicting the soil loss and the spatial patterns of soil ...

  19. Reconstruction of Consistent 3d CAD Models from Point Cloud Data Using a Priori CAD Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bey, A.; Chaine, R.; Marc, R.; Thibault, G.; Akkouche, S.

    2011-09-01

    We address the reconstruction of 3D CAD models from point cloud data acquired in industrial environments, using a pre-existing 3D model as an initial estimate of the scene to be processed. Indeed, this prior knowledge can be used to drive the reconstruction so as to generate an accurate 3D model matching the point cloud. We more particularly focus our work on the cylindrical parts of the 3D models. We propose to state the problem in a probabilistic framework: we have to search for the 3D model which maximizes some probability taking several constraints into account, such as the relevancy with respect to the point cloud and the a priori 3D model, and the consistency of the reconstructed model. The resulting optimization problem can then be handled using a stochastic exploration of the solution space, based on the random insertion of elements in the configuration under construction, coupled with a greedy management of the conflicts which efficiently improves the configuration at each step. We show that this approach provides reliable reconstructed 3D models by presenting some results on industrial data sets.

  20. Topology optimization of a pseudo 3D thermofluid heat sink model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haertel, Jan H. K.; Engelbrecht, Kurt; Lazarov, Boyan S.

    2018-01-01

    This paper investigates the application of density-based topology optimization to the design of air-cooled forced convection heat sinks. To reduce the computational burden that is associated with a full 3D optimization, a pseudo 3D optimization model comprising a 2D modeled conducting metal base...... sink and a fixed heat production rate in the base plate. Optimized designs are presented and the resulting fin geometry is discussed from a thermal engineering point of view and compared to fin shapes resulting from a pressure drop minimization objective. Parametric studies are conducted to analyze...... is found, confirming the physical validity of the utilized optimization model. Two topology optimized designs are exemplarily benchmarked against a size optimized parallel fin heat sink and an up to 13.6% lower thermal resistance is found to be realized by the topology optimization....

  1. Image analysis and 2D/3D modeling of the MOX fuel microstructure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oudinet, Ghislain

    2003-01-01

    The microstructure of the MOX fuel, made with UO 2 and PuO 2 , determines his 'in pile' behavior. The french companies CEA and COGEMA are highly interested in its description by image analysis, which is the object of the present work. The segmentation algorithms described here use pictures issued from a microprobe and a SEM, to analyse the plutonium and porosity distribution in the fuel pellets. They are innovating, automated and robust enough to be used with a small data set. They have been successfully tested on different fuels, before and after irradiation. Three-dimensional informations have been computed with a genetic algorithm. The obtained 3D object size distributions allowed the modeling of many different industrial and research fuels. 3D reconstruction is accurate and stable, and provides a basis for different studies among which the study of the MOX fuel 'in pile' behavior. (author)

  2. Modeling the transparent shape memory gels by 3D printer Acculas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumagai, Hiroaki; Arai, Masanori; Gong, Jin; Sakai, Kazuyuki; Kawakami, Masaru; Furukawa, Hidemitsu

    2016-04-01

    In our group, highly transparent shape memory gels were successfully synthesized for the first time in the world. These gels have the high strength of 3MPs modulus even with the water content of 40wt% water and high transparency. We consider that these highly transparent and high strength gels can be applied to the optical devices such as intraocular-lenses and optical fibers. In previous research by our group, attempts were made to manufacture the gel intraocular-lenses using highly transparent shape memory gels. However, it was too difficult to print the intraocular-lens finely enough. Here, we focus on a 3D printer, which can produce objects of irregular shape. 3D printers generally we fused deposition modeling (FDM), a stereo lithography apparatus (SLA) and selective laser sintering (SLS). Because highly transparent shape memory gels are gelled by light irradiation, we used 3D printer with stereo lithography apparatus (SLA). In this study, we found the refractive index of highly transparent shape memory gels depend on monomer concentration, and does not depend on the cross-linker or initiator concentration. Furthermore, the cross-linker and initiator concentration can change the gelation progression rate. As a result, we have developed highly transparent shape memory gels, which can have a range of refractive indexes, and we defined the optimal conditions that can be modeling in the 3D printer by changing the cross-linker and initiator concentration. With these discoveries we were able to produce a gel intraocular-lens replica.

  3. Comparison of 3D Echocardiogram-Derived 3D Printed Valve Models to Molded Models for Simulated Repair of Pediatric Atrioventricular Valves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scanlan, Adam B; Nguyen, Alex V; Ilina, Anna; Lasso, Andras; Cripe, Linnea; Jegatheeswaran, Anusha; Silvestro, Elizabeth; McGowan, Francis X; Mascio, Christopher E; Fuller, Stephanie; Spray, Thomas L; Cohen, Meryl S; Fichtinger, Gabor; Jolley, Matthew A

    2018-03-01

    Mastering the technical skills required to perform pediatric cardiac valve surgery is challenging in part due to limited opportunity for practice. Transformation of 3D echocardiographic (echo) images of congenitally abnormal heart valves to realistic physical models could allow patient-specific simulation of surgical valve repair. We compared materials, processes, and costs for 3D printing and molding of patient-specific models for visualization and surgical simulation of congenitally abnormal heart valves. Pediatric atrioventricular valves (mitral, tricuspid, and common atrioventricular valve) were modeled from transthoracic 3D echo images using semi-automated methods implemented as custom modules in 3D Slicer. Valve models were then both 3D printed in soft materials and molded in silicone using 3D printed "negative" molds. Using pre-defined assessment criteria, valve models were evaluated by congenital cardiac surgeons to determine suitability for simulation. Surgeon assessment indicated that the molded valves had superior material properties for the purposes of simulation compared to directly printed valves (p 3D echo-derived molded valves are a step toward realistic simulation of complex valve repairs but require more time and labor to create than directly printed models. Patient-specific simulation of valve repair in children using such models may be useful for surgical training and simulation of complex congenital cases.

  4. Use of LIDAR Data in the 3D/4D Analyses of the Krakow Fortress Objects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glowienka, Ewa; Michalowska, Krystyna; Opalinski, Piotr; Hejmanowska, Beata; Mikrut, Slawomir; Kramarczyk, Piotr

    2017-10-01

    The article presents partial results of studies within the framework of the international project "Cultural Heritage Through Time" (CHT2). The subject of the study were forts of the Krakow Fortress, which had been built by the Austrians between 1849-1914 in order to provide defence against the Russians. Research works were aimed at identifying architectural changes occurring in different time periods in relation to selected objects of the Krakow Fortress. For the analysis, the following LIDAR (Light Detection and Ranging) data was applied: Digital Terrain Models (DTM), Digital Surface Model (DSM), as well as the cartographic data: maps and orthophotomaps. All spatial data was obtained from the Polish Main Office of Geodesy and Cartography (Główny Urząd Geodezji i Kartografii - GUGIK). The majority of the cartographic data is available in the form of Web Map Services (WMS) on Geoportal (www.geoportal.gov.pl). The archival data was made available by the Historical Museum of the City of Krakow, or obtained from private collections. In order to conduct a thorough analysis of objects of the Krakow fortress, DTM and DSM data was obtained, either in ASCII format, or in the source *.las (LIDAR) format. On the basis of DTM and DSM, the degree of destruction of selected fortress objects was determined, occurring as a result of the action of demolishing those objects in the interwar period (1920-1939) and in the 1950s. The research has been made on the basis of all available cartographic materials, both archival (plans, maps, photos) and current (topographic map, orthophotomap, etc.) ones. Verification of archival maps and plans was carried out by comparing current digital images of the existing forms of fortifications with designs developed by the Austrians. As a result, it was possible to identify the differences between the original design, and the current state of the objects concerned. The analyses, which have been conducted, also allowed checking the legitimacy of

  5. Table of 3D organ model IDs and organ names (IS-A Tree) - BodyParts3D | LSDB Archive [Life Science Database Archive metadata

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available switchLanguage; BLAST Search Image Search Home About Archive Update History Data List Contact us BodyParts...nce between 3D organ model IDs and organ names available in IS-A Tree. Data file File name: isa_parts..._list_e.txt (IS-A Tree) File URL: ftp://ftp.biosciencedbc.jp/archive/bodyparts3d/LATEST/isa_parts..._list_e.txt File size: 126 KB Simple search URL http://togodb.biosciencedbc.jp/togodb/view/bodyparts3d_isa_parts...| Contact Us Table of 3D organ model IDs and organ names (IS-A Tree) - BodyParts3D | LSDB Archive ...

  6. Pathophysiological aspects of cystocele with a 3D finite elements model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamblin, Géry; Mayeur, Olivier; Giraudet, Géraldine; Jean Dit Gautier, Estelle; Chene, Gautier; Brieu, Mathias; Rubod, Chrystèle; Cosson, Michel

    2016-11-01

    The objective of this study is to design a 3D biomechanical model of the female pelvic system to assess pelvic organ suspension theories and understand cystocele mechanisms. A finite elements (FE) model was constructed to calculate the impact of suspension structure geometry on cystocele. The sample was a geometric model of a control patient's pelvic organs. The method used geometric reconstruction, implemented by the biomechanical properties of each anatomic structure. Various geometric configurations were simulated on the FE method to analyse the role of each structure and compare the two main anatomic theories. The main outcome measure was a 3D biomechanical model of the female pelvic system. The various configurations of bladder displacement simulated mechanisms underlying medial, lateral and apical cystocele. FE simulation revealed that pubocervical fascia is the most influential structure in the onset of median cystocele (essentially after 40 % impairment). Lateral cystocele showed a stronger influence of arcus tendineus fasciae pelvis (ATFP) on vaginal wall displacement under short ATFP lengthening. In apical cystocele, the uterosacral ligament showed greater influence than the cardinal ligament. Suspension system elongation increased displacement by 25 % in each type of cystocele. A 3D digital model enabled simulations of anatomic structures underlying cystocele to better understand cystocele pathophysiology. The model could be used to predict cystocele surgery results and personalising technique by preoperative simulation.

  7. 3D MODELS COMPARISON OF COMPLEX SHELL IN UNDERWATER AND DRY ENVIRONMENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Troisi

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available In marine biology the shape, morphology, texture and dimensions of the shells and organisms like sponges and gorgonians are very important parameters. For example, a particular type of gorgonian grows every year only few millimeters; this estimation was conducted without any measurement instrument but it has been provided after successive observational studies, because this organism is very fragile: the contact could compromise its structure and outliving. Non-contact measurement system has to be used to preserve such organisms: the photogrammetry is a method capable to assure high accuracy without contact. Nevertheless, the achievement of a 3D photogrammetric model of complex object (as gorgonians or particular shells is a challenge in normal environments, either with metric camera or with consumer camera. Indeed, the successful of automatic target-less image orientation and the image matching algorithms is strictly correlated to the object texture properties and of camera calibration quality as well. In the underwater scenario, the environment conditions strongly influence the results quality; in particular, water’s turbidity, the presence of suspension, flare and other optical aberrations decrease the image quality reducing the accuracy and increasing the noise on the 3D model. Furthermore, seawater density variability influences its refraction index and consequently the interior orientation camera parameters. For this reason, the camera calibration has to be performed in the same survey conditions. In this paper, a comparison between the 3D models of a Charonia Tritonis shell are carried out through surveys conducted both in dry and underwater environments.

  8. Neurally and ocularly informed graph-based models for searching 3D environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jangraw, David C.; Wang, Jun; Lance, Brent J.; Chang, Shih-Fu; Sajda, Paul

    2014-08-01

    Objective. As we move through an environment, we are constantly making assessments, judgments and decisions about the things we encounter. Some are acted upon immediately, but many more become mental notes or fleeting impressions—our implicit ‘labeling’ of the world. In this paper, we use physiological correlates of this labeling to construct a hybrid brain-computer interface (hBCI) system for efficient navigation of a 3D environment. Approach. First, we record electroencephalographic (EEG), saccadic and pupillary data from subjects as they move through a small part of a 3D virtual city under free-viewing conditions. Using machine learning, we integrate the neural and ocular signals evoked by the objects they encounter to infer which ones are of subjective interest to them. These inferred labels are propagated through a large computer vision graph of objects in the city, using semi-supervised learning to identify other, unseen objects that are visually similar to the labeled ones. Finally, the system plots an efficient route to help the subjects visit the ‘similar’ objects it identifies. Main results. We show that by exploiting the subjects’ implicit labeling to find objects of interest instead of exploring naively, the median search precision is increased from 25% to 97%, and the median subject need only travel 40% of the distance to see 84% of the objects of interest. We also find that the neural and ocular signals contribute in a complementary fashion to the classifiers’ inference of subjects’ implicit labeling. Significance. In summary, we show that neural and ocular signals reflecting subjective assessment of objects in a 3D environment can be used to inform a graph-based learning model of that environment, resulting in an hBCI system that improves navigation and information delivery specific to the user’s interests.

  9. CAD CONSTRUCTION METHOD OF 3D BUILDING MODELS FOR GIS ANALYSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Boguslawski

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Buildings are often modelled as two-dimensional (2D footprints which are extruded to simple cubes. Buildings are also represented as more complex objects with roofs, facades, etc. – in this case they are polyhedra, sometimes of a complex shape. These allow for visualisation and analysis of a wide area like a city, but micro-scale analysis of interiors is not possible. An example can be rescue operation simulation where information about the internal structure of a building and the external terrain is crucial to improve the response time. It demands a three-dimensional (3D model where each room is represented as a separate element; there are also doors, windows, walls and other objects that have to be included. Even complex geometrical models can be easily constructed using Computer-Aided Design (CAD systems. However, lack of semantic information and topological relations makes such models poor choices for GIS analysis. With the new dual half-edge (DHE data structure and a set of Euler operators a 3D model can be built as in CAD systems, and represented as a cell complex. Construction of non-manifold objects is also possible. An advantage of the DHE is simplicity – only edges and nodes are used. Because of the 3D duality implemented in the structure volumes (cells and faces are also present in the model. The geometry of a model is constructed explicitly by using Euler operators: connections between elements are created automatically, and semantic information is represented with attributes which can be assigned to any element of the model.

  10. 3D model assisted fully automated scanning laser Doppler vibrometer measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sels, Seppe; Ribbens, Bart; Bogaerts, Boris; Peeters, Jeroen; Vanlanduit, Steve

    2017-12-01

    In this paper, a new fully automated scanning laser Doppler vibrometer (LDV) measurement technique is presented. In contrast to existing scanning LDV techniques which use a 2D camera for the manual selection of sample points, we use a 3D Time-of-Flight camera in combination with a CAD file of the test object to automatically obtain measurements at pre-defined locations. The proposed procedure allows users to test prototypes in a shorter time because physical measurement locations are determined without user interaction. Another benefit from this methodology is that it incorporates automatic mapping between a CAD model and the vibration measurements. This mapping can be used to visualize measurements directly on a 3D CAD model. The proposed method is illustrated with vibration measurements of an unmanned aerial vehicle

  11. ANALYSIS OF THE POSSIBILITIES OF USING LOW-COST SCANNING SYSTEM IN 3D MODELING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Kedzierski

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The laser scanning technique is still a very popular and fast growing method of obtaining information on modeling 3D objects. The use of low-cost miniature scanners creates new opportunities for small objects of 3D modeling based on point clouds acquired from the scan. The same, the development of accuracy and methods of automatic processing of this data type is noticeable. The article presents methods of collecting raw datasets in the form of a point-cloud using a low-cost ground-based laser scanner FabScan. As part of the research work 3D scanner from an open source FabLab project was constructed. In addition, the results for the analysis of the geometry of the point clouds obtained by using a low-cost laser scanner were presented. Also, some analysis of collecting data of different structures (made of various materials such as: glass, wood, paper, gum, plastic, plaster, ceramics, stoneware clay etc. and of different shapes: oval and similar to oval and prism shaped have been done. The article presents two methods used for analysis: the first one - visual (general comparison between the 3D model and the real object and the second one - comparative method (comparison between measurements on models and scanned objects using the mean error of a single sample of observations. The analysis showed, that the low-budget ground-based laser scanner FabScan has difficulties with collecting data of non-oval objects. Items built of glass painted black also caused problems for the scanner. In addition, the more details scanned object contains, the lower the accuracy of the collected point-cloud is. Nevertheless, the accuracy of collected data (using oval-straight shaped objects is satisfactory. The accuracy, in this case, fluctuates between ± 0,4 mm and ± 1,0 mm whereas when using more detailed objects or a rectangular shaped prism the accuracy is much more lower, between 2,9 mm and ± 9,0 mm. Finally, the publication presents the possibility (for the

  12. 3D Modeling and Printing in History/Social Studies Classrooms: Initial Lessons and Insights

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maloy, Robert; Trust, Torrey; Kommers, Suzan; Malinowski, Allison; LaRoche, Irene

    2017-01-01

    This exploratory study examines the use of 3D technology by teachers and students in four middle school history/social studies classrooms. As part of a university-developed 3D Printing 4 Teaching & Learning project, teachers integrated 3D modeling and printing into curriculum topics in world geography, U.S. history, and government/civics.…

  13. Analysis of 3D Modeling Software Usage Patterns for K-12 Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yi-Chieh; Liao, Wen-Hung; Chi, Ming-Te; Li, Tsai-Yen

    2016-01-01

    In response to the recent trend in maker movement, teachers are learning 3D techniques actively and bringing 3D printing into the classroom to enhance variety and creativity in designing lectures. This study investigates the usage pattern of a 3D modeling software, Qmodel Creator, which is targeted at K-12 students. User logs containing…

  14. An evaluation of the Cray T3D programming paradigms in atmospheric chemistry/transport models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.G. Blom (Joke); C. Keßler (Carsten); J.G. Verwer (Jan)

    1996-01-01

    textabstractIn this paper we compare the different programming paradigms available on the Cray T3D for the implementation of a 3D prototype of an Atmospheric Chemistry/Transport Model. We discuss the amount of work needed to convert existing codes to the T3D and the portability of the resulting

  15. Influence of 3D printing on transport : a theory and experts judgment based conceptual model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boon, Wouter; Van Wee, Bert

    2017-01-01

    Consumer 3D printing is on the rise and has the potential to significantly change the transport and logistics sector. Current literature on 3D printing and transport studies does not provide a systematic model of the impact of 3D printing on transport and related (policy relevant) areas, such as

  16. 3D MODELING OF COMPONENTS OF A GARDEN BY USING POINT CLOUD DATA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Kumazakia

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Laser measurement is currently applied to several tasks such as plumbing management, road investigation through mobile mapping systems, and elevation model utilization through airborne LiDAR. Effective laser measurement methods have been well-documented in civil engineering, but few attempts have been made to establish equally effective methods in landscape engineering. By using point cloud data acquired through laser measurement, the aesthetic landscaping of Japanese gardens can be enhanced. This study focuses on simple landscape simulations for pruning and rearranging trees as well as rearranging rocks, lanterns, and other garden features by using point cloud data. However, such simulations lack concreteness. Therefore, this study considers the construction of a library of garden features extracted from point cloud data. The library would serve as a resource for creating new gardens and simulating gardens prior to conducting repairs. Extracted garden features are imported as 3ds Max objects, and realistic 3D models are generated by using a material editor system. As further work toward the publication of a 3D model library, file formats for tree crowns and trunks should be adjusted. Moreover, reducing the size of created models is necessary. Models created using point cloud data are informative because simply shaped garden features such as trees are often seen in the 3D industry.

  17. Geo3DML: A standard-based exchange format for 3D geological models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhangang; Qu, Honggang; Wu, Zixing; Wang, Xianghong

    2018-01-01

    A geological model (geomodel) in three-dimensional (3D) space is a digital representation of the Earth's subsurface, recognized by geologists and stored in resultant geological data (geodata). The increasing demand for data management and interoperable applications of geomodelscan be addressed by developing standard-based exchange formats for the representation of not only a single geological object, but also holistic geomodels. However, current standards such as GeoSciML cannot incorporate all the geomodel-related information. This paper presents Geo3DML for the exchange of 3D geomodels based on the existing Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC) standards. Geo3DML is based on a unified and formal representation of structural models, attribute models and hierarchical structures of interpreted resultant geodata in different dimensional views, including drills, cross-sections/geomaps and 3D models, which is compatible with the conceptual model of GeoSciML. Geo3DML aims to encode all geomodel-related information integrally in one framework, including the semantic and geometric information of geoobjects and their relationships, as well as visual information. At present, Geo3DML and some supporting tools have been released as a data-exchange standard by the China Geological Survey (CGS).

  18. 3D Finite Element Modeling of Sliding Wear

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-01

    formulation. The spin tensor is responsible for pure rotation. Mathematically their relations can be expressed as [31]: L = D +W (C-21) 1 2 TD L+ L (C-22...3.87 AISI-1080 Steel AISI Steel 1045[31]. 0.7 3.6 0.17 0.25 0.6 Table D-9 JC Dynamic Failure Parameters 1d 2d 3d 4d 5d 0 5 0 [1 ( )]f r m T Td T T 225...Contact and Rubbing of Flat Surfaces,” Journal of Applied Physics, 24(8): 981–988, August 1953. 3. Archard, J. F. “The Temperature of Rubbing

  19. Overview of the OGC CDB Standard for 3D Synthetic Environment Modeling and Simulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Saeedi

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Recent advances in sensor and platform technologies, such as satellite systems, unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV, manned aerial platforms, and ground-based sensor networks have resulted in massive volumes of data being produced and collected about the earth. Processing, managing, and analyzing these data is one of the main challenges in 3D synthetic representation used in modeling and simulation (M&S of the natural environment. M&S devices, such as flight simulators, traditionally require a variety of different databases to provide a synthetic representation of the world. M&S often requires integration of data from a variety of sources stored in different formats. Thus, for simulation of a complex synthetic environment, such as a 3D terrain model, tackling interoperability among its components (geospatial data, natural and man-made objects, dynamic and static models is a critical challenge. Conventional approaches used local proprietary data models and formats. These approaches often lacked interoperability and created silos of content within the simulation community. Therefore, open geospatial standards are increasingly perceived as a means to promote interoperability and reusability for 3D M&S. In this paper, the Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC CDB Standard is introduced. “CDB” originally referred to Common DataBase, which is currently considered as a name with no abbreviation in the OGC community. The OGC CDB is an international standard for structuring, modeling, and storing geospatial information required in high-performance modeling and simulation applications. CDB defines the core conceptual models, use cases, requirements, and specifications for employing geospatial data in 3D M&S. The main features of the OGC CDB Standard are described as the run-time performance, full plug-and-play interoperable geospatial data store, usefulness in 3D and dynamic simulation environment, ability to integrate proprietary and open-source data formats

  20. Time domain SAR raw data simulation using CST and image focusing of 3D objects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saeed, Adnan; Hellwich, Olaf

    2017-10-01

    This paper presents the use of a general purpose electromagnetic simulator, CST, to simulate realistic synthetic aperture radar (SAR) raw data of three-dimensional objects. Raw data is later focused in MATLAB using range-doppler algorithm. Within CST Microwave Studio a replica of TerraSAR-X chirp signal is incident upon a modeled Corner Reflector (CR) whose design and material properties are identical to that of the real one. Defining mesh and other appropriate settings reflected wave is measured at several distant points within a line parallel to the viewing direction. This is analogous to an array antenna and is synthesized to create a long aperture for SAR processing. The time domain solver in CST is based on the solution of differential form of Maxwells equations. Exported data from CST is arranged into a 2-d matrix of axis range and azimuth. Hilbert transform is applied to convert the real signal to complex data with phase information. Range compression, range cell migration correction (RCMC), and azimuth compression are applied in time domain to obtain the final SAR image. This simulation can provide valuable information to clarify which real world objects cause images suitable for high accuracy identification in the SAR images.

  1. a Quadtree Organization Construction and Scheduling Method for Urban 3d Model Based on Weight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, C.; Peng, G.; Song, Y.; Duan, M.

    2017-09-01

    The increasement of Urban 3D model precision and data quantity puts forward higher requirements for real-time rendering of digital city model. Improving the organization, management and scheduling of 3D model data in 3D digital city can improve the rendering effect and efficiency. This paper takes the complexity of urban models into account, proposes a Quadtree construction and scheduling rendering method for Urban 3D model based on weight. Divide Urban 3D model into different rendering weights according to certain rules, perform Quadtree construction and schedule rendering according to different rendering weights. Also proposed an algorithm for extracting bounding box extraction based on model drawing primitives to generate LOD model automatically. Using the algorithm proposed in this paper, developed a 3D urban planning&management software, the practice has showed the algorithm is efficient and feasible, the render frame rate of big scene and small scene are both stable at around 25 frames.

  2. A QUADTREE ORGANIZATION CONSTRUCTION AND SCHEDULING METHOD FOR URBAN 3D MODEL BASED ON WEIGHT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Yao

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The increasement of Urban 3D model precision and data quantity puts forward higher requirements for real-time rendering of digital city model. Improving the organization, management and scheduling of 3D model data in 3D digital city can improve the rendering effect and efficiency. This paper takes the complexity of urban models into account, proposes a Quadtree construction and scheduling rendering method for Urban 3D model based on weight. Divide Urban 3D model into different rendering weights according to certain rules, perform Quadtree construction and schedule rendering according to different rendering weights. Also proposed an algorithm for extracting bounding box extraction based on model drawing primitives to generate LOD model automatically. Using the algorithm proposed in this paper, developed a 3D urban planning&management software, the practice has showed the algorithm is efficient and feasible, the render frame rate of big scene and small scene are both stable at around 25 frames.