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Sample records for modeli khabbarda pri

  1. MOTIVACIJA PRI LIKOVNI VZGOJI

    OpenAIRE

    Kerin, Tjaša

    2011-01-01

    V teoretičnem delu diplomskega dela predstavljamo splošen pojem motivacije, pomen motivacije ter teoretična izhodišča. Povezujemo splošna teoretična izhodišča s poučevanjem likovne vzgoje ter artikulacijske značilnosti pri njenem pouku. Ob tem smo tudi izpostavili pomembnost motivacije pri likovni vzgoji ter navedli nekaj možnosti za uspešno realizacijo le-te. Dotaknili smo se tudi individualizacije pri likovni vzgoji ter sredstev za spodbujanje motivacije. V empiričnem delu dela predsta...

  2. VEDENJSKE MOTNJE PRI OTROCIH

    OpenAIRE

    Jaušovec, Špela

    2015-01-01

    Osnovni namen magistrskega dela je prispevati k boljšemu razumevanju motenj vedenja pri otrocih in mladostnikih ter obravnavati vpliv motenj vedenja na otrokovo funkcioniranje in vedenje. O motnjah vedenja je napisanega že veliko, še več pa ostaja neraziskanega in nerazumljenega. Magistrsko delo je zasnovano teoretično. S pomočjo strokovne literature in virov tako poskuša podrobno opredeliti motnje vedenja, njihove varovalne dejavnike in dejavnike tveganja, definirati družinsko in šolsko...

  3. Dieta pri hiperholesterolemiji

    OpenAIRE

    Čerček Vilhar, Emanuela

    2017-01-01

    Holesterol je maščobna molekula, ki v telesu opravlja mnogo funkcij. Njegova biosinteza in pot po telesu kot nepolarna molekula je izredno zapletena. Pri tem se vključuje v lipoproteine in prehaja v jetra, kjer poteka glavna pot presnavljanja ter tvorba žolčnih soli. Značilno je, da holesterol v našem organizmu izvira iz dveh virov. Eno tretjino ga zaužijemo s hrano, preostanek pa ga tvorimo sami iz predhodne molekule acetil-CoA. Ljudje se v današnjem času čedalje pogosteje srečujejo s poviša...

  4. Uporaba hipnoze pri preiskovanju kaznivih dejanj

    OpenAIRE

    Radić, Janja

    2016-01-01

    V svojem diplomskem delu predstavljam tehniko hipnoze kot metodo za izboljšanje spomina pri pričah in žrtvah kaznivih dejanj. Posvetim se pojmovanju in uporabi hipnoze skozi zgodovino, nato pa podam še njeno definicijo in tehnike. Poleg načina uporabe hipnoze pri preiskovanju kaznivih dejanj, predstavim tudi njene prednosti in slabosti, opišem potek hipnotiziranja ter vlogo in funkcijo hipnotizerja. V zadnjih dveh poglavjih pojasnim vpliv spomina na hipnotične informacije ter predstavim pravn...

  5. Presence of pRI1:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Migura, Lourdes Garcia; Hasman, Henrik; Jensen, Lars Bogø

    2009-01-01

    This study focused on the molecular characterization of a small cryptic, mobilizable plasmid (6038 bp) sequenced from an E. faecium 9631160-1 of poultry origin. Sequence analysis of pRI1 revealed seven open reading frames. pRI1 contained an IS 100% identical to ISEfa4. This insertion element...... almost identical to the repA from the pEFNP1 and pKQ10 plasmids from E. faecium was also identified. Presence of the pRI1 replication initiation gene (rep) was analyzed in a panel of 159 E. faecium isolates of human and animal origin from different European countries, of which 60 tested positive...

  6. Uporaba BIM pri projektiranju cestne infrastrukture

    OpenAIRE

    Svetina, Gregor

    2018-01-01

    Magistrsko delo obravnava uporabo informacijskega modeliranja gradenj (angl. Building Information Modeling, kratica BIM) v infrastrukturnih projektih. Pri tem je kot primer uporabljen projekt Druge cevi predora Karavanke, pri katerem je bil BIM dejansko uporabljen. Naredili smo modele cest, ki se bodo uporabljale za odvoz materiala na deponije. Najprej je predstavljenih nekaj osnov o BIM-u, vključno s predstavitvami lastnosti 3D, 4D, 5D in 6D modelov, ovrednotenjem BIM-a, stopnjami podrobn...

  7. VLOGA DIGITALNIH POTRDIL PRI ELEKTRONSKEM POSLOVANJU

    OpenAIRE

    Zorman, Tjaša

    2010-01-01

    Uporaba elektronskega poslovanja je danes v svetu in pri nas zelo razširjena. Število uporabnikov elektronskega bančništva kot elementa elektronskega poslovanja se je od leta 2000 do leta 2008 povečalo skoraj za 30-krat. Vedno večje število uporabnikov kaže na pomembnost in uporabnost elektronskega bančništva pri nas. Del uspešnosti elektronskega bančništva lahko pripišemo njegovi varnosti, ki s svojimi elementi sodi v sam vrh kakovosti. Uporabniki elektronskega bančništva se zavedajo, d...

  8. PriBots: Conversational Privacy with Chatbots

    OpenAIRE

    Harkous, Hamza; Fawaz, Kassem; Shin, Kang G.; Aberer, Karl

    2016-01-01

    Traditional mechanisms for delivering notice and enabling choice have so far failed to protect users’ privacy. Users are continuously frustrated by complex privacy policies, unreachable privacy settings, and a multitude of emerging standards. The miniaturization trend of smart devices and the emergence of the Internet of Things (IoTs) will exacerbate this problem further. In this paper, we propose Conversational Privacy Bots (PriBots) as a new way of delivering notice and choice through a two...

  9. VLOGA ODRASLIH OSEB PRI SPODBUJANJU BRALNE MOTIVACIJE

    OpenAIRE

    Kralj, Saša

    2010-01-01

    Branje je pomembna dejavnost, ki vpliva na osebnostni razvoj posameznika, učenje in učno uspešnost. Vse pozitivne plati branja se vse bolj pozabljajo ob hitrem tempu življenja. Učitelji in knjižničarji imajo velik pomen pri spodbujanju branja. S svojim znanjem o dobrobiti branja, z uporabo različnih metod in oblik dela lahko pritegnejo starše in skupaj spodbujajo učence k branju ter tako skušajo vzgojiti bralca za vse življenje. Namen diplomskega dela je osvetliti pomen branja, bralne pismeno...

  10. G-Quadruplexes influence pri-microRNA processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rouleau, Samuel G; Garant, Jean-Michel; Bolduc, François; Bisaillon, Martin; Perreault, Jean-Pierre

    2018-02-01

    RNA G-Quadruplexes (G4) have been shown to possess many biological functions, including the regulation of microRNA (miRNA) biogenesis and function. However, their impact on pri-miRNA processing remains unknown. We identified G4 located near the Drosha cleavage site in three distinct pri-miRNAs: pri-mir200c, pri-mir451a, and pri-mir497. The folding of the potential G4 motifs was determined in solution. Subsequently, mutations disrupting G4 folding led to important changes in the mature miRNAs levels in cells. Moreover, using small antisense oligonucleotides binding to the pri-miRNA, it was possible to modulate, either positively or negatively, the mature miRNA levels. Together, these data demonstrate that G4 motifs could contribute to the regulation of pri-mRNA processing, a novel role for G4. Considering that bio-informatics screening indicates that between 9% and 50% of all pri-miRNAs contain a putative G4, these structures possess interesting potential as future therapeutic targets.

  11. Synthesis and Biological Activity of Diastereomeric and Geometric Analogs of Calcipotriol, PRI-2202 and PRI-2205, Against Human HL-60 Leukemia and MCF-7 Breast Cancer Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrzej Kutner

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Diastereomeric and geometric analogs of calcipotriol, PRI-2202 and PRI-2205, were synthesized as advanced intermediates from vitamin D C-22 benzothiazoyl sulfones and side-chain aldehydes using our convergent strategy. Calcitriol, calcipotriol (PRI-2201 and tacalcitol (PRI-2191 were used as the reference compounds. Among a series of tested analogs the diastereomeric analog PRI-2202 showed the strongest antiproliferative activity on the human breast cancer cell line MCF-7, whereas the geometric analog PRI-2205 was the weakest. Both analogs were less potent in antiproliferative activity against HL-60 cells compared to the reference compounds. The ability to potentiate antiproliferative effect of cisplatin or doxorubicin against HL-60 cells or that of tamoxifen against the MCF-7 cell line was observed at higher doses of PRI-2202 or PRI-2205 than those of the reference compounds. The proapoptotic activity of tamoxifen, expressed as the diminished mitochondrial membrane potential, as well as the increased phosphatidylserine expression, was partially attenuated by calcitriol, PRI-2191, PRI-2201 and PRI-2205. The treatment of the MCF-7 cells with tamoxifen alone resulted in an increase in VDR expression. Moreover, a further increase in VDR expression was observed when the analogs PRI-2201 or PRI-2205, but not PRI-2191, were used in combination with tamoxifen. This observation could partially explain the potentiation of the antiproliferative effect of tamoxifen by vitamin D analogs.

  12. Synthesis and Biological Activity of Diastereomeric and Geometric Analogs of Calcipotriol, PRI-2202 and PRI-2205, Against Human HL-60 Leukemia and MCF-7 Breast Cancer Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milczarek, Magdalena; Chodyński, Michał; Filip-Psurska, Beata; Martowicz, Agnieszka; Krupa, Małgorzata; Krajewski, Krzysztof; Kutner, Andrzej; Wietrzyk, Joanna

    2013-10-31

    Diastereomeric and geometric analogs of calcipotriol, PRI-2202 and PRI-2205, were synthesized as advanced intermediates from vitamin D C-22 benzothiazoyl sulfones and side-chain aldehydes using our convergent strategy. Calcitriol, calcipotriol (PRI-2201) and tacalcitol (PRI-2191) were used as the reference compounds. Among a series of tested analogs the diastereomeric analog PRI-2202 showed the strongest antiproliferative activity on the human breast cancer cell line MCF-7, whereas the geometric analog PRI-2205 was the weakest. Both analogs were less potent in antiproliferative activity against HL-60 cells compared to the reference compounds. The ability to potentiate antiproliferative effect of cisplatin or doxorubicin against HL-60 cells or that of tamoxifen against the MCF-7 cell line was observed at higher doses of PRI-2202 or PRI-2205 than those of the reference compounds. The proapoptotic activity of tamoxifen, expressed as the diminished mitochondrial membrane potential, as well as the increased phosphatidylserine expression, was partially attenuated by calcitriol, PRI-2191, PRI-2201 and PRI-2205. The treatment of the MCF-7 cells with tamoxifen alone resulted in an increase in VDR expression. Moreover, a further increase in VDR expression was observed when the analogs PRI-2201 or PRI-2205, but not PRI-2191, were used in combination with tamoxifen. This observation could partially explain the potentiation of the antiproliferative effect of tamoxifen by vitamin D analogs.

  13. Učinkovitost terapevtskega ultrazvoka pri zmanjševanju bolečine pri artrozi kolena

    OpenAIRE

    Blas, Marjeta

    2018-01-01

    Uvod: Artroza je degenerativni proces, ki lahko privede do deformacije kolenskega sklepa ter predvsem pri starejših povzroči težave pri vsakodnevnih opravilih in zmanjša kakovost njihovega življenja. Glavni simptom je bolečina. Pomembno vlogo pri zdravljenju ima fizioterapija. Inštrumentalna fizioterapija, kot je ultrazvok, se pogosto uporablja za zmanjševanje bolečine ali kot predpriprava na vadbo. Namen: Namen diplomskega dela je na osnovi pregleda objavljene strokovne in znanstvene literat...

  14. Izzivi in trendi pri vzpostavitvi managmenta destinacije Mirnska dolina

    OpenAIRE

    Žibert, Maja

    2015-01-01

    Diplomska naloga z naslovom Izzivi in trendi pri vzpostavitvi managmenta destinacije Mirnska dolina v veliki meri preverja izvajanje vsebine dokumenta Strateško akcijski načrt pri vzpostavitvi destinacije Mirnska dolina na terenu. Vsebina dokumenta se dotika posameznih prioritet trajnostnega razvoja destinacije. Na terenu smo preko intervjujev s posameznimi deležniki vseh treh sektorjev, ki sestavljajo destinacijo želeli izvedeti, kako oni doživljajo prioritete razvoja. V diplomski nalogi je ...

  15. POGODBENA IN IZVENPOGODBENA RAZMERJA MSP-JEV PRI MEDNARODNIH POSLIH

    OpenAIRE

    Vindiš, Jure

    2011-01-01

    Problem, katerega si bomo postavili v ospredje, je, kako so urejena pogodbena razmerja pri mednarodnih poslih malih in srednje velikih podjetij. Skušali bomo ugotoviti, v kolikšni meri so pogodbe pri poslovanju doma in mednarodni menjavi determinirane, in kateri so mehanizmi, s katerimi se podjetja zavarujejo, da se pogodbeni partner drži pogodbe. Osnovo za raziskovalna izhodišča bomo jemali iz študije iz leta 1963 z naslovom Preliminarna študija izvenpogodbenih razmerij v pos...

  16. Levkemija pri otroku in problemi prehranjevanja in pitja

    OpenAIRE

    Šinkovec, Sara

    2017-01-01

    Uvod: Podhranjenost in kaheksija sta pogosta pri otrocih z levkemijo in sta pokazatelja slabše prognoze. Slabo prehransko stanje otroka je povezano z večjim številom stranskih učinkov zdravljenja, s slabšim odzivom na zdravljenje in krajšim preživetjem. Funkcionalno stanje otrok in kakovost njihovega življenja sta slabša. Namen: Namen diplomskega dela je opisati problem prehranjevanja in pitja pri otroku z levkemijo. Metode dela: V diplomskem delu je uporabljena deskriptivna metoda dela s kr...

  17. PRiFi Networking for Tracking-Resistant Mobile Computing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-11-01

    conjunction with other relevant services, including Tor for tracking-resistant inter-organizational communication, distributed protocols for the...is a hardened, fully deployable PriFi implementation that can be used in conjunction with other relevant services, including Tor for tracking

  18. Canopy Level Chlorophyll Fluorescence and the PRI in a Cornfield

    Science.gov (United States)

    Middleton, Elizabeth M.; Cheng, Yen-Ben; Corp, Lawrence A.; Campbell, Petya K. E.; Huemmrich, K. Fred; Zhang, Qingyuan; Kustas, William P.

    2012-01-01

    Two bio-indicators, the Photochemical Reflectance Index (PRI) and solar-induced red and far-red Chlorophyll Fluorescence (SIF), were derived from directional hyperspectral observations and studied in a cornfield on two contrasting days in the growing season. Both red and far-red SIF exhibited higher values on the day when the canopy in the early senescent stage, but only the far-red SIF showed sensitivity to viewing geometry. Consequently, the red/far-red SIF ratio varied greatly among azimuth positions while the largest values were obtained for the "hotspot" at both growth stages. This ratio was lower (approx.0.88 +/- 0.4) in early July than in August when the ratio approached equivalence (near approx.1). In concert, the PRI exhibited stronger responses to both zenith and azimuth angles and different values on the two growth stages. The potential of using these indices to monitor photosynthetic activities needs further investigation

  19. Sistem DACUM pri sestavljanju strokovnih izobraževalnih programov

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jindra Kulich

    1996-12-01

    Full Text Available DACUM je razmeroma nov sistem logično razvrščenih postopnih korakov, ki jih je mogoče uporabiti za večjo učinkovitost pri strokovnem izobraževanju delavcev. Sistem DACUM je sestavljen iz petih zaporednih korakov. Prva dva obsegala analizo delovnih nalog in določanje storilnostnih ciljev. Pri naslednjih treh korakih mentor določi izpeljavo izobraževanja, izbira postopek vrednotenja, učne metode in izobraževalna sredstva. Izobraževalni program sestavljajo sploš­ ne naloge, delne naloge in posamezne naloge. Glede na te tri ravni je kot primer razčlenjeno usposabljanje natakarja.

  20. PSIHOLOŠKI VIDIKI BARV PRI IZDELAVI LOGOTIPA

    OpenAIRE

    Bauman, Anja

    2015-01-01

    Osrednja tema diplomske naloge so psihološki vidiki barv pri izdelavi logotipa. Diplomska naloga zajema tako teoretični kot tudi empirični del. V teoretičnem delu je predstavljen logotip in njegovi kriteriji uspešnosti. Prav tako pa so predstavljene tudi barve, njeni učinki ter značilnosti. Empirični del diplomske naloge pa se ukvarja z analizo obstoječih in izdelanih logotipov.

  1. Donava in Sava pri Strabonu in v napisih

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marjeta Šašel Kos

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available V članku so zbrana in komentirana tista mesta v Strabonovi 7. knjigi, kjer piše o Donavi in Savi. Že Herodot je Donavo opredelil kot najpomembnejšo njemu znano reko; pri grških piscih se je zanjo uveljavilo tračansko ime Istros, ki se je tudi pozneje uporabljalo za spodnji tok Donave. Zgornji tok se je imenoval Danuvius/Danubius, ime je verjetno keltsko. Kot božanstvu so Danuviju postavljali oltarje; blizu sotočja Drave in Donave so skupaj z njim počastili tudi boga Drava. Savo je poosebljal bog Savus, ki so ga častili ob zgornjem, nevarnejšem toku reke do Siscije. Skupaj z Adsaluto sta imela svetišče nad brzicami pri Podkraju nasproti Hrastnika, blizu območja nevarnih slapov. Strabon poleg drugih rek dvakrat omenja sicer neznani Noar, ki so ga enačili s celo vrsto rek, med drugim tudi z Odro, vendar je natančna analiza Strabonovega besedila pokazala, da gre lahko le za spodnji tok Save. Izviri Save Dolinke v Zelencih pri Podkorenu so bili sveti kraj, kjer so častili Saverkno.

  2. SODOBNE REŠITVE PRI UPORABI NAKUPOVALNIH VREČK

    OpenAIRE

    Zupanc, Simona

    2016-01-01

    Diplomska naloga opisuje velik problem sodobne družbe - prenasičenost z odpadnimi plastičnimi vrečkami, ki zelo obremenjujejo okolje in potrebujejo izjemno veliko časa za razgradnjo. Naloga se ukvarja tudi z možnimi alternativnimi rešitvami za to pereče vprašanje. V prvem poglavju je predstavljena problematika plastične embalaže. Pri tem smo se predvsem osredotočili na problem plastičnih vrečk HDPE (polietilen visoke gostote- vrečke, katere se uporabljajo za sadje, zelenjavo in mesne izde...

  3. POMEN MEDNARODNE OBDAVČITVE PRI POSAMZNIH VRSTAH DOHODKOV

    OpenAIRE

    Lipovčić, Dijana

    2013-01-01

    Med dohodke iz kapitala spadajo obresti, dividende in dobiček iz kapitala. Države svoje rezidente obdavčujejo po načelu svetovnega dohodka, nerezidente pa glede na vir dohodka. Problem pri mednarodni obdavčitvi je možnost dvojnega obdavčevanja, saj je lahko davčni zavezanec obdavčen v tujini, kjer je dohodek dosegel, in tudi v državi rezidentstva. Države zato sklepajo sporazume o izogibanju dvojnega obdavčevanja. V diplomskem seminarju smo primerjali obdavčitev dohodkov iz kapitala v Slo...

  4. PREPOZNAVNOST PLESNEGA LJUDSKEGA IZROČILA PRI OSNOVNOŠOLCIH

    OpenAIRE

    Žižek, Tamara

    2016-01-01

    Diplomsko delo z naslovom Prepoznavnost plesnega ljudskega izročila pri osnovnošolcih sestavljata teoretični in empirični del. V teoretičnem delu smo predstavili ples na splošno ter ljudski ples, osredotočili smo se bolj podrobno na en slovenski ljudski ples, ki se imenuje štajeriš. Predstavili smo tudi poučevanje ljudskih plesov, kaj je pomembno za vodenje folklorne skupine, opisali oblačila, ki se imenujejo narodne noše, ter na kratko predstavili nekaj izbranih šeg in navad naših prednikov...

  5. Three causes of variation in the photochemical reflectance index (PRI) in evergreen conifers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Christopher Y S; Gamon, John A

    2015-04-01

    The photochemical reflectance index (PRI) reflects diurnal xanthophyll cycle activity and is also influenced by seasonally changing carotenoid : Chl pigment ratios. Both changing pigment pools and xanthophyll cycle activity contribute to photoprotection in evergreen conifers exposed to boreal winters, but they operate over different timescales, and their relative contribution to the PRI signal has often been unclear. To clarify these responses and their contribution to the PRI signal, leaf PRI, pigment composition, temperature and irradiance were monitored over 2 yr for two evergreen conifers (Pinus contorta and Pinus ponderosa) in a boreal climate. PRI was affected by three distinct processes operating over different timescales and exhibiting contrasting spectral responses. Over the 2 yr study period, the greatest change in PRI resulted from seasonally changing carotenoid : Chl pigment ratios, followed by a previously unreported shifting leaf albedo during periods of deep cold. Remarkably, the smallest change was attributable to the xanthophyll cycle. To properly distinguish these three effects, interpretation of PRI must consider temporal context, physiological responses to evolving environmental conditions, and spectral response. Consideration of the separate mechanisms affecting PRI over different timescales could greatly improve efforts to monitor changing photosynthetic activity using optical remote sensing. © 2014 The Authors New Phytologist © 2014 New Phytologist Trust.

  6. 'Mastspuit met sensoren brengt middel effectiever aan' (onderzoek praktijkproeven PRI en PPO)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Engels, A.; PPO BBF Boomkwekerij,; PRI,; Nieuwenhuizen, A.T.

    2011-01-01

    In mei 2011 starten Plant Research International (PRI), PPO Boomkwekerij en Damcon de eerste praktijkproeven met sensoren op de mastspuit. Dit prototype spuit alleen als het bladeren detecteert. Projectleider Ard Nieuwenhuizen van PRI is ervan overtuigd dat kwekers met zo'n type spuit middelen

  7. Draft Genome Sequence of the Antagonistic Rhizosphere Bacterium Serratia plymuthica Strain PRI-2C

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Garbeva, P.; van Elsas, J.D.; de Boer, W.

    Serratia plymuthica strain PRI-2C is a rhizosphere bacterial strain with antagonistic activity against different plant pathogens. Here we present the 5.39-Mb (G+C content, 55.67%) draft genome sequence of S. plymuthica strain PRI-2C with the aim of providing insight into the genomic basis of its

  8. Correcting the relationship between PRI and shadow fraction for the blue sky effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mõttus, Matti

    2016-04-01

    The Photochemical Reflectance Index (PRI) is defined as the normalized difference ratio of leaf reflectance at two specific wavelengths in the green spectral region. Its value depends on the status of leaf carotenoid content, and especially that of the xanthophyll cycle pigments. Due to the dependence on the xanthophyll cycle, when the photosynthetic apparatus of green leaves is close to the saturation limit, their PRI becomes dependent on light conditions. Therefore, by measuring the PRI of leaves in the same canopy under different local irradiance conditions on a sunny day, it should be possible to determine the saturation level of the leaves. In turn, this gives information on the light use efficiency (LUE) of the vegetation canopy. The average light conditions of visible foliage elements are often quantified with the shadow fraction -- the fraction of visible foliage not lit by direct sunlight. The dependence of PRI on the shadow fraction has been used to remotely measure canopy LUE on clear days. Variations in shadow fraction have been achieved with multiangular measurement. However, besides photosynthetic downregulation, the dependence of canopy PRI on shadow fraction is affected by the blue sky radiation caused by scattering in the atmosphere. To quantify this effect on remotely sensed PRI, we present the underlying definitions relating leaf and canopy PRI and perform the required calculations for typical midsummer conditions in Central Finland. We demonstrate that the effect of blue sky radiation on the variation of PRI with canopy shadow fraction is similar in shape and magnitude to that of LUE variations reported in literature. Next, we propose a new method to assess these PRI variations in structured vegetation. We investiagate this blue sky effect on the PRI -- shadow fraction relationship with high spatial (60 cm) and spectral (9.8 nm) resolution airborne imaging spectroscopy data from Hyytiälä, Finland. We evaluate the spectral irradiance in

  9. Prednosti metode Montessori pri obravnavi oseb z demenco

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreja Ljubič

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Uvod: Demenca je kronično obolenje s tendenco upadanja kognitivnih sposobnosti obolelega. Uporaba metod za obvladovanje in trening osnovnih življenjskih aktivnosti, ki omogočajo daljše obdobje samostojnega življenja pacienta z demenco, je v tujini uveljavljena z različnimi novejšimi koomplementarnimi pristopi. Ena izmed uveljavljenih metod je pristop Marie Montessori, prilagojen odraslim pacientom z demenco. V članku je predstavljena metoda montessori pri obravnavi pacienta z demenco in njeni učinki na kakovost življenja pacienta z demenco. Metode: Uporabljena je bila deskriptivna raziskovalna metodologija s pregledom domače in tuje literature. Za prikaz pregleda petih preko spleta dostopnih podatkovnih baz in odločanja o uporabnosti pregledanih virov je bila uporabljena metoda PRISMA. V končni pregled literature je bilo ključenih 19 člankov, objavljenih do maja 2016. Za obdelavo podatkov je bil uporabljen model analize konceptov. Večina zajetih raziskav je bila izvedena v Združenih državah Amerike. Rezultati: Po pregledu raziskav so bila identificirana tri tematska področja: (1 vpliv metode montessori na sodelovanje in prizadevanje, (2 vpliv metode montessori na vedenje, povezano s hranjenjem, in (3 vpliv metode montessori na širšo skupino kognitivnih sposobnosti. Diskusija in zaključek: Kljub majhnemu številu člankov, ki opisujejo uporabo metode montessori pri obravnavi pacientov z demenco, metodo lahko predstavimo kot učinkovito. Avtorji raziskav ugotavljajo, da pristop ne le omogoča ohranjanje kognitivnih sposobnosti, temveč le-te celo izboljšuje.

  10. Pomen zdrave prehrane in telesne aktivnosti pri osnovnošolcih

    OpenAIRE

    Smole, Valentina

    2014-01-01

    V diplomskem delu Pomen zdrave prehrane in telesne aktivnosti pri osnovnošolcih so predstavljene smernice zdravega prehranjevanja pri otrocih, pomen zdrave prehrane in redne telesne aktivnosti za zdravje osnovnošolskih otrok ter vloga medicinske sestre pri promociji zdrave prehrane in telesne aktivnosti. V empiričnem delu so predstavljeni rezultati raziskave, ki smo jo izvedli med otroci osmega in devetega razreda osnovne šole. Namen raziskave je bil ugotoviti, kakšen je odnos osnovnošolcev d...

  11. Uporaba kreativnih medijev pri delu z mladimi v družbi tveganja

    OpenAIRE

    Zaner, Tamara

    2017-01-01

    Kot socialni pedagogi in pedagoginje se pri svojem delu nenehno srečujemo z mladimi. Ti se v sodobni družbi, srečujejo z negotovostjo, dvomi in posledično tudi stiskami, ki segajo v vse dimenzije njihovega življenja. Pri svojem delu sem temeljila na Beckovem pojmovanju današnje družbe, pri razumevanju položaja mladih pa izhajala iz koncepta življenjske usmerjenosti, socialnega pedagoga Hansa Thierscha. Namen raziskovalnega dela je preveriti, kako s pomočjo kreativnih medijev prispevati k opol...

  12. Structural and functional characterization of the CAP domain of pathogen-related yeast 1 (Pry1) protein

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darwiche, Rabih; Kelleher, Alan; Hudspeth, Elissa M.; Schneiter, Roger; Asojo, Oluwatoyin A.

    2016-06-01

    The production, crystal structure, and functional characterization of the C-terminal cysteine-rich secretory protein/antigen 5/pathogenesis related-1 (CAP) domain of pathogen-related yeast protein-1 (Pry1) from Saccharomyces cerevisiae is presented. The CAP domain of Pry1 (Pry1CAP) is functional in vivo as its expression restores cholesterol export to yeast mutants lacking endogenous Pry1 and Pry2. Recombinant Pry1CAP forms dimers in solution, is sufficient for in vitro cholesterol binding, and has comparable binding properties as full-length Pry1. Two crystal structures of Pry1CAP are reported, one with Mg2+ coordinated to the conserved CAP tetrad (His208, Glu215, Glu233 and His250) in spacegroup I41 and the other without divalent cations in spacegroup P6122. The latter structure contains four 1,4-dioxane molecules from the crystallization solution, one of which sits in the cholesterol binding site. Both structures reveal that the divalent cation and cholesterol binding sites are connected upon dimerization, providing a structural basis for the observed Mg2+-dependent sterol binding by Pry1.

  13. Spectral Similarity and PRI Variations for a Boreal Forest Stand Using Multi-angular Airborne Imagery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vincent Markiet

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The photochemical reflectance index (PRI is a proxy for light use efficiency (LUE, and is used in remote sensing to measure plant stress and photosynthetic downregulation in plant canopies. It is known to depend on local light conditions within a canopy indicating non-photosynthetic quenching of incident radiation. Additionally, when measured from a distance, canopy PRI depends on shadow fraction—the fraction of shaded foliage in the instantaneous field of view of the sensor—due to observation geometry. Our aim is to quantify the extent to which sunlit fraction alone can describe variations in PRI so that it would be possible to correct for its variation and identify other possible factors affecting the PRI–sunlit fraction relationship. We used a high spatial and spectral resolution Aisa Eagle airborne imaging spectrometer above a boreal Scots pine site in Finland (Hyytiälä forest research station, 61°50′N, 24°17′E, with the sensor looking in nadir and tilted (off-nadir directions. The spectral resolution of the data was 4.6 nm, and the spatial resolution was 0.6 m. We compared the PRI for three different scatter angles ( β = 19 ° , 55 ° and 76 °, defined as the angle between sensor and solar directions at the forest stand level, and observed a small (0.006 but statistically significant (p < 0.01 difference in stand PRI. We found that stand mean PRI was not a direct function of sunlit fraction. However, for each scatter angle separately, we found a clear non-linear relationship between PRI and sunlit fraction. The relationship was systematic and had a similar shape for all of the scatter angles. As the PRI–sunlit fraction curves for the different scatter angles were shifted with respect to each other, no universal curve could be found causing the observed independence of canopy PRI from the average sunlit fraction of each view direction. We found the shifts of the curves to be related to a leaf structural effect on canopy

  14. Diurnal and Directional Responses of Chlorophyll Fluorescence and the PRI in a Cornfield

    Science.gov (United States)

    Middleton, Elizabeth; Cheng, Y. B.; Corp, L.; Campbell, P.; Kustas, W.

    2010-01-01

    Determining the health and vigor of vegetation using high spectral resolution remote sensing is an important goal which has application to monitoring agriculture and ecosystem productivity and carbon exchange. Two spectral indices used to assess whether vegetation is performing near-optimally or exhibiting symptoms of environmental stress (e.g., drought or nutrient deficiency, non-optimal temperatures, etc.) are the Photochemical Reflectance Index (PRI) and solar-induced red and far-red Chlorophyll Fluorescence (Fs). Both the PRI and Fs capture the dynamics of photoprotection mechanisms within green foliage: the PRI is based on the association of the reflected radiation in the green spectrum with the xanthophyll cycle, whereas Fs measures the emitted radiation in the red and far-red spectrum. Fs was determined from retrievals in the atmospheric oxygen absorption features centered at 688 and 760 nm using a modified Fraunhofer Line Depth (FLD) method. We previously demonstrated diurnal and seasonal PRI differences for sunlit vs. shaded foliage in a conifer forest canopy, as expressed in the hotspot and darkspot of the Bidirectional Reflectance Function (BRF). In a USDA-ARS experimental field site located in Beltsville, MD, USA, measurements were acquired over a corn crop from a nadir view in 2008 with an ASD FieldSpec Pro (Analytical Spectral Devices, Inc., Boulder, CO, USA) to study the behavior of the PRI for sunlit and shaded foliage as captured in reflectance variations associated with the BRF, in a I m tall canopy in the vegetative growth stage. Those observations were compared to simulations obtained from two radiative transfer models. Measurements were then acquired to examine whether the PRI and Fs were influenced by view zenith and azimuth geometries at different times of day. Those measurements were made in 2010 with the Ocean Optics USB4000 Miniature Fiber Optic Spectrometer (Ocean Optics Inc., Dunedin, Florida, USA) at several times during the day on

  15. Mass spectrometric investigation of neutral and charged constituents in saturated vapor over PrI3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Motalov, V.B.; Vorobiev, D.E.; Kudin, L.S.; Markus, T.

    2009-01-01

    The Knudsen effusion mass spectrometric technique was used to study vapor species over praseodymium triiodide. The monomer, PrI 3 , and dimer, Pr 2 I 6 , molecules and the negative ions, PrI 4 - and Pr 2 I 7 - , were observed in saturated vapor in the temperature range from 856 K to 1048 K. The partial vapor pressures of neutral constituents were determined and the enthalpies of sublimation obtained using the second and the third laws of thermodynamics (Δ s H deg. (298.15 K) = 291 ± 4 kJ mol -1 for PrI 3 , and Δ s H deg. (298.15 K) = 400 ± 30 kJ mol -1 for Pr 2 I 6 ). The equilibrium constants for various ion molecular reactions were measured and the enthalpies of reactions obtained. The enthalpies of formation, Δ f H deg. (298.15 K) kJ mol -1 , of gaseous molecules and ions were calculated and are as follows: -374 ± 6 (PrI 3 ), -929 ± 30 (Pr 2 I 6 ), -867 ± 30 (PrI 4 - ), -1432 ± 50 (Pr 2 I 7 - )

  16. Physiological validation of photochemical reflectance index (PRI) as a photosynthetic parameter using Arabidopsis thaliana mutants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohzuma, Kaori; Hikosaka, Kouki

    2018-03-25

    Non-photochemical quenching (NPQ) is the most important photoprotective system in higher plants. NPQ can be divided into several steps according to the timescale of relaxation of chlorophyll fluorescence after reaching a steady state (i.e., the fast phase, qE; middle phase, qZ or qT; and slow phase, qI). The dissipation of excess energy as heat during the xanthophyll cycle, a large component of NPQ, is detectable during the fast to middle phase (sec to min). Although thermal dissipation is primarily investigated using indirect methods such as chlorophyll a fluorescence measurements, such analyses require dark adaptation or the application of a saturating pulse during measurement, making it difficult to continuously monitor this process. Here, we designed an unconventional technique for real-time monitoring of changes in thylakoid lumen pH (as reflected by changes in xanthophyll pigment content) based on the photochemical reflectance index (PRI), which we estimated by measuring light-driven leaf reflectance at 531 nm. We analyzed two Arabidopsis thaliana mutants, npq1 (unable to convert violaxanthin to zeaxanthin due to inhibited violaxanthin de-epoxidase [VDE] activity) and npq4 (lacking PsbS protein), to uncover the regulator of the PRI. The PRI was variable in wild-type and npq4 plants, but not in npq1, indicating that the PRI is related to xanthophyll cycle-dependent thermal energy quenching (qZ) rather than the linear electron transport rate or NPQ. In situ lumen pH substitution using a pH-controlled buffer solution caused a shift in PRI. These results suggest that the PRI reflects only xanthophyll cycle conversion and is therefore a useful parameter for monitoring thylakoid lumen pH (reflecting VDE activity) in vivo. Copyright © 2018 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. PriFi - Using a Multiple Alignment of Related Sequences to Find Primers for  Amplification of Homologs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fredslund, Jakob; Schauser, Leif; Madsen, Lene Heegaard

    2005-01-01

    Using a comparative approach, the web program PriFi (http://cgi-www.daimi.au.dk/cgi-chili/PriFi/main) designs pairs of primers useful for PCR amplification of genomic DNA in species where prior sequence information is not available. The program works with an alignment of DNA sequences from phylog...

  18. Stres pri delu v nujni medicinski pomoči - prehospitalna enota

    OpenAIRE

    Ploder, Matej

    2013-01-01

    Izhodišča: V diplomskem delu smo se lotili vprašanja, kako stres vpliva na delo reševalcev v prehospitalni enoti nujne medicinske pomoči. Reševalci in zdravniki nujne medicinske pomoči se vsakodnevno srečujejo s situacijami, ki vplivajo na njihovo nadaljnjo delo, počutje in psihično stabilnost, predvsem pa na njihovo zdravje, od tragičnih nesreč, katerim so priča, do trenutkov, ko svojega poslanstva ne bi zamenjali za nič na svetu. Pri raziskavi smo ugotavljali, kaj reševalcem sploh predstavl...

  19. Analiza igre branilcev v conski obrambi 5:1 pri rokometu

    OpenAIRE

    Kozole, Rok

    2017-01-01

    V diplomski nalogi je predstavljena analiza igre branilcev v conski obrambi 5:1 pri rokometu. Obrambna formacija 5:1 je po obrambi 6:0 druga najpogosteje uporabljena obrambna formacija, katere se poslužujejo tako ekipe iz vrhunskega rokometa kot tudi ekipe, ki tekmujejo v ligah nižje kakovosti. V skladu s hitrim razvojem rokometne igre se je razvijala tudi obramba 5:1. Obrambna formacija 5:1 se pri mlajših rokometaših uporablja tudi kot prehodna obramba oz. temelj za prehod iz bolj globokih (...

  20. VPLIV LIKOVNE TEHNIKE NA IZBIRO BARV PRI PREDŠOLSKEM OTROKU

    OpenAIRE

    Marčec, Tamara

    2013-01-01

    Diplomsko delo z naslovom Vpliv likovne tehnike na izbiro barv pri predšolskem otroku je sestavljeno iz teoretičnega in praktičnega dela. V teoretičnem delu smo na kratko predstavili ustvarjalnost, njene faze in faktorje ter kako spodbujamo ali zaviramo ustvarjalnost pri predšolskem otroku. Nato smo nadaljevali in opisali vlogo in pomen barve za predšolskega otroka. Predstavili smo likovna področja in vsako na kratko opisali. Kasneje smo podrobneje opisali področje slikanja, kajti naše de...

  1. Regulation of pri-microRNA BIC transcription and processing in Burkitt lymphoma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kluiver, J.; van den Berg, Anke; de Jong, Doetje; Blokzijl, T.; Harms, G.; Bouwman, E.; Jacobs, Susan; Poppema, Sibrand; Kroesen, Bart-Jan

    2007-01-01

    BIC is a primary microRNA (pri-miR-155) that can be processed to mature miR-155. In this study, we show the crucial involvement of protein kinase C (PKC) and nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-kappa B) in the regulation of BIC expression upon B-cell receptor triggering. Surprisingly, Northern blot analysis

  2. PRI leidt rupsen om de tuin: effect van tussenteelt en combinatieteelt op rupsen op spruitkool

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elderson, J.; Belder, den E.

    2002-01-01

    PRI onderzocht in spruitkool het effect van bloemstroken met bruine mosterd of klaver, ingezaaid om de zes rijen, op de aantallen rupsen en de samenstelling van de rupsenpopulatie gedurende het groeiseizoen. In het artikel ook een beschrijving en illustraties van de zes belangrijkste rupsensoorten

  3. Photosynthetic Efficiency of Northern Forest Ecosystems Using a MODIS-Derived Photochemical Reflectance Index (PRI)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Middleton, E. M.; Huemmrich, K. F.; Landis, D. R.; Black, T. A.; Barr, A. G.; McCaughey, J. H.

    2016-01-01

    This study evaluates a direct remote sensing approach from space for the determination of ecosystem photosynthetic light use efficiency (LUE), through measurement of vegetation reflectance changes expressed with the Photochemical Reflectance Index (PRI). The PRI is a normalized difference index based on spectral changes at a physiologically active wavelength (approximately 531 nanometers) as compared to a reference waveband, and is only available from a very few satellites. These include the two Moderate-Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometers (MODIS) on the Aqua and Terra satellites each of which have a narrow (10-nanometer) ocean band centered at 531 nanometers. We examined several PRI variations computed with candidate reference bands, since MODIS lacks the traditional 570-nanometer reference band. The PRI computed using MODIS land band 1 (620-670 nanometers) gave the best performance for daily LUE estimation. Through rigorous statistical analyses over a large image collection (n equals 420), the success of relating in situ daily tower-derived LUE to MODIS observations for northern forests was strongly influenced by satellite viewing geometry. LUE was calculated from CO2 fluxes (moles per moles of carbon absorbed quanta) measured at instrumented Canadian Carbon Program flux towers in four Canadian forests: a mature fir site in British Columbia, mature aspen and black spruce sites in Saskatchewan, and a mixed deciduous/coniferous forest site in Ontario. All aspects of the viewing geometry had significant effects on the MODIS-PRI, including the view zenith angle (VZA), the view azimuth angle, and the displacement of the view azimuth relative to the solar principal plane, in addition to illumination related variables.Nevertheless, we show that forward scatter sector views (VZA, 16 degrees-45 degrees) provided the strongest relationships to daily LUE, especially those collected in the early afternoon by Aqua (r squared = 0.83, RMSE (root mean square error) equals 0

  4. Dimeric structure of the N-terminal domain of PriB protein from Thermoanaerobacter tengcongensis solved ab initio

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liebschner, Dorothee [National Cancer Institute, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL 60439 (United States); Brzezinski, Krzysztof [National Cancer Institute, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL 60439 (United States); University of Bialystok, 15-399 Bialystok (Poland); Dauter, Miroslawa [Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL 60439 (United States); Dauter, Zbigniew, E-mail: dauter@anl.gov [National Cancer Institute, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL 60439 (United States); Nowak, Marta; Kur, Józef; Olszewski, Marcin, E-mail: dauter@anl.gov [Gdansk University of Technology, 80-952 Gdansk (Poland); National Cancer Institute, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL 60439 (United States)

    2012-12-01

    The N-terminal domain of the PriB protein from the thermophilic bacterium T. tengcongensis (TtePriB) was expressed and its crystal structure has been solved at the atomic resolution of 1.09 Å by direct methods. PriB is one of the components of the bacterial primosome, which catalyzes the reactivation of stalled replication forks at sites of DNA damage. The N-terminal domain of the PriB protein from the thermophilic bacterium Thermoanaerobacter tengcongensis (TtePriB) was expressed and its crystal structure was solved at the atomic resolution of 1.09 Å by direct methods. The protein chain, which encompasses the first 104 residues of the full 220-residue protein, adopts the characteristic oligonucleotide/oligosaccharide-binding (OB) structure consisting of a five-stranded β-barrel filled with hydrophobic residues and equipped with four loops extending from the barrel. In the crystal two protomers dimerize, forming a six-stranded antiparallel β-sheet. The structure of the N-terminal OB domain of T. tengcongensis shows significant differences compared with mesophile PriBs. While in all other known structures of PriB a dimer is formed by two identical OB domains in separate chains, TtePriB contains two consecutive OB domains in one chain. However, sequence comparison of both the N-terminal and the C-terminal domains of TtePriB suggests that they have analogous structures and that the natural protein possesses a structure similar to a dimer of two N-terminal domains.

  5. Uporaba e-gradiv pri pouku računalništva v osnovni šoli

    OpenAIRE

    Benedičič, Andrej

    2015-01-01

    V zadnjih nekaj letih se je pouk v osnovnih in srednjih šolah pri nas in po svetu močno spremenil, k čemur je pripomogel tudi razvoj informacijsko-komunikacijske tehnologije (v nadaljevanju IKT). Dandanes si pouka brez uporabe IKT pri vseh učnih predmetih skoraj ne moremo več predstavljati. V šole so tako prišle elektronske table, interaktivne table, tablice, glasovalne naprave in ostale elektronske naprave, ki lahko ob ustrezni uporabi pripomorejo k večji aktivnosti učencev med poukom in izb...

  6. Remote detection of water stress conditions via a diurnal photochemical reflectance index (PRI) improves yield prediction in rainfed wheat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magney, T. S.; Vierling, L. A.; Eitel, J.

    2014-12-01

    Employing remotely sensed techniques to quantify the existence and magnitude of midday photosynthetic downregulation using the photochemical reflectance index (PRI) may reveal new information about plant responses to abiotic stressors in space and time. However, the interpretation and application of the PRI can be confounded because of its sensitivity to several variables changing at the diurnal (e.g., irradiation, shadow fraction) and seasonal (e.g., leaf area, chlorophyll and carotene pigment concentrations, irradiation) time scales. We explored different techniques to correct the PRI for variations in canopy structure and relative chlorophyll content (ChlR) using highly temporally resolved (frequency = five minutes) in-situ radiometric measurements of PRI and the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) over eight soft white spring wheat (Triticum aestivum L.)field plots under varying nitrogen and soil water conditions over two seasons. Our results suggest that the influence of seasonal variation in canopy ChlR and LAI on the diurnally measured PRI (PRIdiurnal) can be minimized using simple correction techniques, therefore improving the strength of PRI as a tool to quantify abiotic stressors such as daily changes in soil volumetric water content (SVWC), and vapor pressure deficit (VPD). PRIdiurnal responded strongly to available nitrogen, and linearly tracked seasonal changes in SVWC, VPD, and stomatal conductance (gc). Utilizing the PRI as an indicator of stress, yield predictions significantly over greenness indices such as the NDVI. This study provides insight towards the future interpretation and scaling of PRI to quantify rapid changes in photosynthesis, and as an indicator of plant stress.

  7. PriFi - Using a Multiple Alignment of Related Sequences to Find Primers for  Amplification of Homologs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fredslund, Jakob; Schauser, Leif; Madsen, Lene Heegaard

    2005-01-01

    Using a comparative approach, the web program PriFi (http://cgi-www.daimi.au.dk/cgi-chili/PriFi/main) designs pairs of primers useful for PCR amplification of genomic DNA in species where prior sequence information is not available. The program works with an alignment of DNA sequences from...... of a procedure for developing general markers serving as common anchor loci across species. To accommodate users with special preferences, configuration settings and criteria can be customized....

  8. Načrtovani preventivni hišni obisk pri nosečnici

    OpenAIRE

    Hofinger Mihelič, Špela

    2009-01-01

    Rojstvo zdravega otroka je nedvomno eden izmed najpomembnejših dogodkov v življenju posameznika in družine. Namen diplomske naloge je bil ugotoviti v kolikšni meri se pri nosečnicah vključuje v preventivo patronažna medicinska sestra (PMS) in kaj nosečnice pričakujejo od njenega hišnega obiska. Cilj je bil oceniti želje nosečnic po hišnem obisku PMS in ugotoviti kje dobijo nosečnice največ informacij o nosečnosti in zdravem načinu življenja ter ugotoviti koliko so nosečnice poučene o pravicah...

  9. La mort d’un couple : prière(s) et vie publiques

    OpenAIRE

    Touzeil-Divina, Mathieu

    2009-01-01

    Si, avant la Loi du 5 décembre 1905, les Eglises et l’Etat concrétisaient matériellement leurs liens étroits par des rites officiels nommés prières publiques, ceux-ci sont censés avoir été supprimés depuis. C’est l’histoire de cette suppression (après en avoir retenu une définition) qui est ici envisagée à travers trois secteurs cardinaux de l’action administrative : la vie universitaire, parlementaire et judiciaire. Dans ces trois hypothèses les prières publiques ont été supprimées de façon ...

  10. VLOGA OPERATIVNEGA MANAGEMENTA PRI RAZVOJU UNICREDIT BANKE SLOVENIJE D.D.

    OpenAIRE

    Horvat, Metod

    2010-01-01

    Diplomsko delo predstavlja vlogo operativnega managementa pri razvoju Unicredit Banka Slovenije d.d. Operativni management predstavlja ključen kader, ki s svojim znanjem, sposobnostjo in pripravljenostjo lahko pripelje do realizacije ciljev in razvoja banke. V teoretičnem delu gre za pregled strokovne literature na področju organizacije, managerja, managementa, operativnega managementa, operativnega managementa v Unicredit Banki Slovenije d.d. V empiričnem delu je predstavljena raziskav...

  11. SOCIAL PRACTICE PERFORMED BY BALINESE SCULPTORS IN DISTRICTS OF UBUD AND SUKAWATI TO PRY INTO THE LAW OF PHORNOGRAPHY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I Ketut Sudita

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Balinese sculptors in districts of Ubud and Sukawati, Gianyar, Bali pry into the Law of Pornography. Those who agree state that the law is needed to maintain the morality which has been getting worse, and those who disagree state that it may emasculate their freedom and creativities. This study gives answers to (1 what social practices were performed by the Balinese sculptors to pry into the Law of Pornography?, (2 why did they pry into the application of the law?, and (3 what was the meaning of their prying? Several relevant critical theories such as the theory of structuration, the theory of hegemony, and the theory of aesthetics were eclectically used in this study. The data needed were collected through observation, in-depth interview, documentation study, and library research. The result of the study showed that the Balinese sculptors showed their resistance to the application of the law by making adaptation, changing profession, and still producing pornographic works. The sanction which might be imposed upon them, the consumers of pornographic works decreased, and they were eliminated from exhibitions scared them when they pried into the law. What they did could not be separated from economic, political, ideological, moral, and ethic factors. The meaning of their prying was that it caused them to lose their idealism, their consumers went down, and the number of pornographic works dropped as well.

  12. Photochemical Reflectance Index (PRI) as a proxy of Light Use Efficiency (LUE) and transpiration in Mediterranean crop sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    LE Dantec, V.; Chebbi, W.; Boulet, G.; Merlin, O.; Lili-Chabaane, Z.; Er Raki, S.; Ceschia, E.; Khabba, S.; Fanise, P.; Zawilski, B.; Simonneaux, V.; Jarlan, L.

    2016-12-01

    The Photochemical Reflectance Index (PRI) is based on the short term reversible xanthophyll pigment changes accompanying plant stress and therefore of the associated photosynthetic activities. Strong relationships between PRI and Light Use Efficiency (LUE) were shown at leaf and canopy scales and over a wide range of species (Garbulsky et al., 2011). But very few previous works have explored the potential link with plant water status. In this study, we have first analyzed the link between PRI and LUE at canopy scale on two different crops in terms of canopy structure and crop management: olive grove (Tunisia) and wheat grown under different water regimes (irrigated or rainfed) and climate zones (France, Morocco). We have investigated the daily and seasonal dynamics of PRI; linking its variations to meteorological factors (global radiation and sun angle effects, soil water content, relative air humidity …) and plant processes. The highest correlations were mainly observed in clear skies conditions. We have found, whatever site, linear negative relationships between PRI and LUE using data acquired in midday (i.e. in solar zenithal angle condition). Linear link between PRI and sapflow measurements was also revealed. This correlation was obtained over periods characterized by a moderate soil water deficit, i.e. by when transpiration rate was mainly control by Vapor Pressure Deficit. We will then briefly presented alternative and complementary approaches to this index, to detect different level of water stress using thermal infrared emissions.

  13. The Quantification Process for the PRiME-U34i

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hwang, Mee-Jeong; Han, Sang-Hoon; Yang, Joon-Eon

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, we introduce the quantification process for the PRIME-U34i, which is the merged model of ETs (Event Trees) and FTs (Fault Trees) for the level 1 internal PSA of UCN 3 and 4. PRiME-U34i has one top event. Therefore, the quantification process is changed to a simplified method when compared to the past one. In the past, we used the text file called a user file to control the quantification process. However, this user file is so complicated that it is difficult for a non-expert to understand it. Moreover, in the past PSA, ET and FT were separated but in PRiMEU34i, ET and FT were merged together. Thus, the quantification process is different. This paper is composed of five sections. In section 2, we introduce the construction of the one top model. Section 3 shows the quantification process used in the PRiME-U34i. Section 4 describes the post processing. Last section is the conclusions

  14. Povezanost modulacije refleksa H pri prehodu iz leže v stojo in mejami stabilnosti v stoji pri baletnih plesalcih

    OpenAIRE

    Lešnik, Tjaša

    2017-01-01

    Da bi ugotovili povezanost modulacije refleksa H in mej stabilnosti pri baletnih plesalcih, smo izmerili amplitudo refleksa H in izvedli štirismerni test mej stabilnosti. Refleks H je bil izmerjen osmim profesionalnim baletnim plesalcem, aktivnim članom baletnega ansambla Slovenskega narodnega gledališča Ljubljana in Maribor (1 moški in 7 žensk, povprečna starost: 25±4,2 let, povprečna višina: 169,25±5,4 cm in povprečna teža: 56,45± 10,1 kg). Vsi merjenci so zaključili najmanj 10 let plesnega...

  15. Prion-like nanofibrils of small molecules (PriSM): A new frontier at the intersection of supramolecular chemistry and cell biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Jie; Du, Xuewen; Xu, Bing

    2015-01-01

    Formed by non-covalent interactions and not defined at genetic level, the assemblies of small molecules in biology are complicated and less explored. A common morphology of the supramolecular assemblies of small molecules is nanofibrils, which coincidentally resembles the nanofibrils formed by proteins such as prions. So these supramolecular assemblies are termed as prion-like nanofibrils of small molecules (PriSM). Emerging evidence from several unrelated fields over the past decade implies the significance of PriSM in biology and medicine. This perspective aims to highlight some recent advances of the research on PriSM. This paper starts with description of the intriguing similarities between PriSM and prions, discusses the paradoxical features of PriSM, introduces the methods for elucidating the biological functions of PriSM, illustrates several examples of beneficial aspects of PriSM, and finishes with the promises and current challenges in the research of PriSM. We anticipate that the research of PriSM will contribute to the fundamental understanding at the intersection of supramolecular chemistry and cell biology and ultimately lead to a new paradigm of molecular (or supramolecular) therapeutics for biomedicine.

  16. Responses of the reflectance indices PRI and NDVI to experimental warming and drought in European shrublands along a north–south climatic gradient

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mänd, Pille; Hallik, Lea; Peñuelas, Josep

    2010-01-01

    NDVI680 [780 nm; 680 nm] using red spectral region, and NDVI570 [780 nm; 570 nm] using the same green spectral region as PRI. All three reflectance indices were significantly related to green LAIe and were able to detect changes in shrubland vegetation among treatments. In general warming treatment...... increased PRI and drought treatment reduced NDVI values. The significant treatment effect on photochemical efficiency of plants detected with PRI could not be detected by fluorescence measurements. However, we found canopy level measured PRI to be very sensitive to soil reflectance properties especially...

  17. STRATEGIJA ZDRAVEGA ŽIVLJENJA PRI DELU V MERCATORJU D.D.

    OpenAIRE

    Črnila, Marija

    2009-01-01

    V prvem delu naloge je prikazan poklic prodajalca pri nas. Delo se osredotoči na zdravstvene izostanke z dela v Sloveniji. V tem kontekstu so predstavljena posamezna teoretična izhodišča. Nakazane so ločnice med zdravstvenimi izostanki z dela in delodajalci. V osrednjem delu naloge je predstavljena strategija za promocijo zdravja v delovnem okolju, možnosti za zniževanje bolniškega staleža, Luksemburška deklaracija. Osvetljeno je vprašanje dimenzij zdravega življenjskega sloga. Z delom ...

  18. IZRAŽANJE NEPRIJETNIH ČUSTEV PRI PREDŠOLSKIH OTROCIH

    OpenAIRE

    Kumer, Monika

    2012-01-01

    V diplomskem delu Izražanje neprijetnih čustev pri predšolskih otrocih so podrobneje predstavljena naslednja neprijetna čustva: jeza, strah, žalost, sram, ljubosumje, gnus. V teoretičnem delu sem najprej opredelila čustva kot del duševnih procesov, pojem čustva definirala glede na različne avtorje in različne teorije ter opisala osnovne značilnosti čustev. Navedla sem, kako lahko čustva med seboj razlikujemo (afekti in razpoloženja, osnovna in sestavljena čustva oz. temeljna in kompleksna ...

  19. KRMILJENJE MIKROKRMILNIŠKEGA MODULA ARDUINO IN NJEGOVA UPORABA PRI KOMUNIKACIJI Z OSTALIMI NAPRAVAMI

    OpenAIRE

    Ekart, Matej

    2012-01-01

    V diplomskem delu smo obravnavali mikrokrmilniški modul Arduino. Opisali smo strojno opremo modela Uno, ki ga uporabljamo v praktičnem delu, ter predstavili osnovne karakteristike ostalih modelov. V nadaljevanju smo spoznali odprtokodno razvojno okolje Arduino in Arduino programski jezik. V praktičnem delu smo preverili, kako se odprtokodna platforma Arduino izkaže v praksi. Razvili smo avtomatski sistem za samodejno zalivanje, pri čemer smo uporabili številne dodatne komponente, ki smo ji...

  20. UPORABA RAČUNALNIŠKIH PROGRAMOV IN MOBILNIH APLIKACIJ PRI OPAZOVANJU NEBA

    OpenAIRE

    Rogač, Vida

    2015-01-01

    Astronomija je veda, ki je spremljala že pračloveka. Ljudje so se že od nekdaj orientirali po zvezdah. Dandanes astronomije, razen znanstvenih raziskovanj, ne uporabljamo več v tovrstne namene, ampak je ta za večino le hobi. Ljudje se ozirajo v nebo in poskušajo prepoznati objekte, ki jih lahko opazijo na nebu. Pri tem si lahko s pomočjo novih tehnologij pomagamo kar sami. Poiščemo ustrezen računalniški program ali mobilno aplikacijo, ki nam točno poimenuje svetlo piko na nočnem nebu, ki jo o...

  1. Simbolika dogajalnega prostora v Matkovi Tini, Sreči in Krstu pri Savici:

    OpenAIRE

    Božič, Zoran

    2000-01-01

    The typical settings in Matkova Tina, Sreča (Happiness) and Krst pri Savici (The Baptism by the Savica) is locations near a water. Water symbolically bathes away guilt of the central characters, i.e. the innkeeper's Tina, Strežkova Tinka and Črtomir, who all yearned for love but ended up as outcasts and doers of action with fatal consequences. Tina, Tinka and Črtomir did the stations along the river Soča. The river is marked by the figure of the Christian saint John Nepomuce, protector agains...

  2. Vloga medicinske sestre pri skrbi za otroka z očesno protezo

    OpenAIRE

    Lukić, Maja

    2017-01-01

    Uvod: Retinoblastom je najpogostejši maligni tumor, ki se velikokrat pojavi v otroški dobi. Bolezen je sicer redka, a zelo nevarna, saj lahko uniči tako otrokovo oko kot tudi njegov vid. Pomembna je hitra prepoznava tega nevarnega tumorja, takojšna diagnostika in zdravljenje. Večje tveganje za nastanek retinoblastoma obstaja pri otrocih, katerih bolezen se je v družini že pojavila. Namen: Namen diplomskega dela je s pomočjo pregleda literature ugotoviti, na kakšen način in kako lahko medicins...

  3. Uporaba animiranih filmov in risank pri poučevanju naravoslovnih tematik

    OpenAIRE

    Jeraj, Tina; Susman, Katarina

    2017-01-01

    Otroci se z risankami srečujejo že zelo zgodaj, tako v domačem kot v učnem okolju. Uporaba animiranih filmov pri pouku predstavlja motivacijsko orodje, poleg tega pa se ob premišljenem izboru risanke in spremljevalnih dejavnosti učenci tudi učijo. V prispevku je predstavljena raziskava o zastopanosti naravoslovnih tematik in naravoslovnih spodrsljajev (napak, ki so v nasprotju z realnostjo) v naboru risank, ki so trenutno aktualne med učenci. V okviru pedagoške raziskave smo v skupini tretješ...

  4. Miselni procesi pri tekačih na ultramaratonskih preizkušnjah

    OpenAIRE

    Ahac, Urška

    2017-01-01

    Cilj diplomskega dela je bil izluščiti glavne miselne vzorce in vodila rekreativnih tekačev na dolge proge. Pri razdaljah, ki segajo v dvakratni maraton in več, je potrebna izdatna mera samomotivacije, slednja pa lahko izvira iz pozitivnih prepričanj ali pa negativnih preteklih travm posameznika. Vsi, ki tečejo na daljše razdalje, imajo za seboj močan psihološki vzvod in naš namen je bil slednje poiskati ter podrobneje opisati. V tem projektu so povzeti rezultati nekaterih raziskav, ki so...

  5. Vías de señalización en enfermedades priónicas

    OpenAIRE

    Rodríguez Fernández, Agustí

    2007-01-01

    Las enfermedades priónicas, también conocidas como EETs (Encefalopatías Espongiformes Transmisibles), son un grupo de enfermedades neurodegenerativas fatales que, debido a su transmisibilidad potencial han tenido un gran impacto social, político y económico en las últimas décadas. Las EETs afectan a los humanos y a algunos grupos de animales, presentan largos períodos de incubación y producen la muerte pocos meses después de la aparición de la sintomatología clínica. Su origen se atribuye a ...

  6. Solution structure of the N-terminal domain of a replication restart primosome factor, PriC, in Escherichia coli

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aramaki, Takahiko; Abe, Yoshito; Katayama, Tsutomu; Ueda, Tadashi

    2013-01-01

    In eubacterial organisms, the oriC-independent primosome plays an essential role in replication restart after the dissociation of the replication DNA-protein complex by DNA damage. PriC is a key protein component in the replication restart primosome. Our recent study suggested that PriC is divided into two domains: an N-terminal and a C-terminal domain. In the present study, we determined the solution structure of the N-terminal domain, whose structure and function have remained unknown until now. The revealed structure was composed of three helices and one extended loop. We also observed chemical shift changes in the heteronuclear NMR spectrum and oligomerization in the presence of ssDNA. These abilities may contribute to the PriC-ssDNA complex, which is important for the replication restart primosome. PMID:23868391

  7. A pri-miR-218 variant and risk of cervical carcinoma in Chinese women

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shi, Ting-Yan; Cheng, Xi; Wu, Xiaohua; Wei, Qingyi; Chen, Xiao-Jun; Zhu, Mei-Ling; Wang, Meng-Yun; He, Jing; Yu, Ke-Da; Shao, Zhi-Ming; Sun, Meng-Hong; Zhou, Xiao-Yan

    2013-01-01

    MicroRNA (miRNA)-related single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) may compromise miRNA binding affinity and modify mRNA expression levels of the target genes, thus leading to cancer susceptibility. However, few studies have investigated roles of miRNA-related SNPs in the etiology of cervical carcinoma. In this case–control study of 1,584 cervical cancer cases and 1,394 cancer-free female controls, we investigated associations between two miR-218-related SNPs involved in the LAMB3-miR-218 pathway and the risk of cervical carcinoma in Eastern Chinese women. We found that the pri-miR-218 rs11134527 variant GG genotype was significantly associated with a decreased risk of cervical carcinoma compared with AA/AG genotypes (adjusted OR=0.77, 95% CI=0.63-0.95, P=0.015). However, this association was not observed for the miR-218 binding site SNP (rs2566) on LAMB3. Using the multifactor dimensionality reduction analysis, we observed some evidence of interactions of these two SNPs with other risk factors, especially age at primiparity and menopausal status, in the risk of cervical carcinoma. The pri-miR-218 rs11134527 SNP was significantly associated with the risk of cervical carcinoma in Eastern Chinese women. Larger, independent studies are warranted to validate our findings

  8. Prières et service public Prayers and the civil service

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilles J. Guglielmi

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available La marque de la séparation des Eglises et de l’Etat semble en France suffisamment forte pour que les points de contact entre service public et prière soient rares et plutôt indirects, à partir de comportements qui n’ont en général pas pour objet d’opposer le seul acte de prière aux normes juridiques et sociales environnantes. Néanmoins à partir des systèmes juridiques et des pratiques d’autres pays d’Europe, les arrêts pragmatiques de la Cour européenne des droits de l'homme révèlent une retenue comparable, même si leur fondement est nécessairement différent.Dans son ensemble, la jurisprudence de la Cour permet de constater que les Etats membres du Conseil de l’Europe ont parfois à l’égard de la prière des attitudes restrictives qui dépendent soit d’une sorte de protection de la religion dominante par rapport aux cultes minoritaires, soit d’un refus implicite de l’athéisme. En revanche, la notion de service public, n’étant pas universellement reconnue en Europe, ne fournit pas un cadre de raisonnement juridique signifiant dans les arrêts, ce qui ne permet d’identifier les rapports entre prières et service public que par le biais du contexte dans lequel se produisent les actes de prière.The mark of the separation between the Church and the State seems sufficiently strong in France so that the points of contact between the civil service and prayer are rare and rather indirect, starting with behaviours which do not have in general aim to oppose the sole act of prayer to the legal and social standards surrounding (First part. Nevertheless the legal systems and practices of other countries of Europe reveal the pragmatic judgements of the European Court of Human Rights and their comparable reserve, even if their base is necessarily different (Second part.As a whole, the decisions of the Court make it possible to note that the Member States of the Council of Europe sometimes have restrictive attitudes

  9. A Simple and High-Throughput Analysis of Amatoxins and Phallotoxins in Human Plasma, Serum and Urine Using UPLC-MS/MS Combined with PRiME HLB μElution Platform

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuo Zhang

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Amatoxins and phallotoxins are toxic cyclopeptides found in the genus Amanita and are among the predominant causes of fatal food poisoning in China. In the treatment of Amanita mushroom poisoning, an early and definite diagnosis is necessary for a successful outcome, which has prompted the development of protocols for the fast and confirmatory determination of amatoxins and phallotoxins in human biological fluids. For this purpose, a simple, rapid and sensitive multiresidue UPLC-MS/MS method for the simultaneous determination of α-amanitin, β-amanitin, γ-amanitin, phalloidin (PHD and phallacidin (PCD in human plasma, serum and urine was developed and validated. The diluted plasma, serum and urine samples were directly purified with a novel PRiME technique on a 96-well μElution plate platform, which allowed high-throughput sample processing and low reagent consumption. After purification, a UPLC-MS/MS analysis was performed using positive electrospray ionization (ESI+ in multiple reaction monitoring (MRM mode. This method fulfilled the requirements of a validation test, with good results for the limit of detection (LOD, lower limit of quantification (LLOQ, accuracy, intra- and inter-assay precision, recovery and matrix effects. All of the analytes were confirmed and quantified in authentic plasma, serum and urine samples obtained from cases of poisoning using this method. Using the PRiME μElution technique for quantification reduces labor and time costs and represents a suitable method for routine toxicological and clinical emergency analysis.

  10. Povratna informacija pri matematičnih domačih nalogah

    OpenAIRE

    Žitko, Urša

    2017-01-01

    V diplomskem delu je predstavljena povratna informacija pri matematičnih domačih nalogah. V teoretičnem delu so predstavljene domače naloge: njihova zgodovina, namen in več klasifikacij vrst domačih nalog. Domače naloge so namenjene učencem, da z njimi usvojijo in utrdijo obravnavano snov. Domača naloga učencem omogoča učenje uporabe postopkov, ki jih že poznajo, in pridobivanje novih spretnosti za nadaljnje razumevanje snovi. Z rednim pisanjem domačih nalog se učenci naučijo vestnega in sam...

  11. PRI 3.1: Electrolyte membrane fuel cells (Co-PACEM), final report (july 2002 to june 2004); PRI 3.1: Coeurs de piles a combustible a electrolyte membrane (Co-PACEM), rapport final (juillet 2002 a juin 2004)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lamy, C.

    2004-07-01

    The researches realized in the PRI Co-PACEM aim to improve the operating of the core of the electrolyte membrane fuel cells, at low temperature in order to minimize the high voltage of the electro-chemical reactions, to decrease the cost of the membrane, to improve the properties (conductivity, mechanical and thermal stability...) and to optimize the transport of heat and reactive. The document presents the research programs. (A.L.B.)

  12. Neki problemi pri prevođenju moderne poezije promatrani kroz teoriju konceptualne integracije

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanja Cimer

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Straußeneimondaber ich finde nichts mehrnichts mehr an Buchstaben im Wortmache so ähnlichwie Luftgang ohne Seiles fällt nichts mehraber nichts ist eben auchZaungrenzeund LebenMittelstelzengangder Strauß legt seine Eier in den Himmelfast Massenproduktionkugelrunde Stundenmit Haut auf wirren ÜberzugHände greifen leerwenn nicht duaber das kann nicht –Angsttauchen mit Höhengangund die Hand als Schalewer fängt, – verliert!Mjesec od nojevog jajetaali nema ničeg višeničeg više u slovima riječičinim sličnokao hod po zraku bez konopcaništa više ne padaali i ništa jestgranica od ogradei životsredinom na štulamanoj liježe svoja jaja u nebogotovo masovna proizvodnjasati okrugli poput loptes kožom na neurednoj presvlaciruke posežu u praznoako nisi tiali to ne može –uron u strah s letom u visinei ruka poput ljusketko ulovi, – izgubi!Prevođenje poezije oduvijek se smatralo osobitom temom unutar ionako složenog područja književnog prevođenja. Budući da poezija predstavlja književni oblik u kojem su sadržaj i forma nerazdvojno povezani, jasno je zašto ona predstavlja najzahtjevniji oblik prevoditeljske aktivnosti. Problematičnu točku pri prevođenju poezije predstavlja činjenica da ona daje izrazito “zgusnutu” i kompaktnu formu te da jezik poezije uglavnom počiva na konotacijama, a ne na denotacijama. Noviji pristupi prevođenju prepoznaju da su nekadašnja protivljenja prevođenju poezije, to jest isticanja njezine neprevodivosti, zapravo bila usmjerena na nemogućnost potpunog prenošenja svih aspekata izvornog poetskog djela u ciljni jezik i njegovu kulturu i tradiciju (neprevodivost poezije isticali su, primjerice, T. S. Eliott: “[poezija je] stalni podsjetnik na sve ono što se može reći samo na jednom jeziku”, Roman Jakobson: “poezija je po definiciji neprevodiva” ili Nabokov: “pjesma ne može biti prevedena, reproducirana ni iznova oblikovana na ciljnom jeziku” (svi navedeni citati te citati

  13. Developmentally regulated expression and complex processing of barley pri-microRNAs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kruszka Katarzyna

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background MicroRNAs (miRNAs regulate gene expression via mRNA cleavage or translation inhibition. In spite of barley being a cereal of great economic importance, very little data is available concerning its miRNA biogenesis. There are 69 barley miRNA and 67 pre-miRNA sequences available in the miRBase (release 19. However, no barley pri-miRNA and MIR gene structures have been shown experimentally. In the present paper, we examine the biogenesis of selected barley miRNAs and the developmental regulation of their pri-miRNA processing to learn more about miRNA maturation in barely. Results To investigate the organization of barley microRNA genes, nine microRNAs - 156g, 159b, 166n, 168a-5p/168a-3p, 171e, 397b-3p, 1120, and 1126 - were selected. Two of the studied miRNAs originate from one MIR168a-5p/168a-3p gene. The presence of all miRNAs was confirmed using a Northern blot approach. The miRNAs are encoded by genes with diverse organizations, representing mostly independent transcription units with or without introns. The intron-containing miRNA transcripts undergo complex splicing events to generate various spliced isoforms. We identified miRNAs that were encoded within introns of the noncoding genes MIR156g and MIR1126. Interestingly, the intron that encodes miR156g is spliced less efficiently than the intron encoding miR1126 from their specific precursors. miR397b-3p was detected in barley as a most probable functional miRNA, in contrast to rice where it has been identified as a complementary partner miRNA*. In the case of miR168a-5p/168a-3p, we found the generation of stable, mature molecules from both pre-miRNA arms, confirming evolutionary conservation of the stability of both species, as shown in rice and maize. We suggest that miR1120, located within the 3′ UTR of a protein-coding gene and described as a functional miRNA in wheat, may represent a siRNA generated from a mariner-like transposable element. Conclusions Seven of the

  14. ¿Por qué perdió el PRI en Yucatán? Las transiciones de este año en bastiones priístas, caída de una imagen distorsionada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lic. Fernando Pacheco Bailón

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available El pasado domingo 27 de mayo, a eso de las 5:30 de la tarde, los mexicanos nos enteramos a través de los medios de comunicación de televisión abierta y pagada de la ventaja que tenía el candidato a la gubernatura de Yucatán, a través de la coalición PAN, PRD, PVEM, PT, Patricio Patrón Laviada, con respecto al candidato del PRI, Orlando Paredes Lara. Más tarde, de aquella llamada telefónica que hiciera el presidente Vicente Fox para felicitar al candidato que aventajaba al del tricolor, al hacer referencia a las encuestas de salida llevadas a cabo por empresas como Consulta Mitovsky, Garo y otras más. Hay muchas metodologías para poder analizar procesos electorales, así como distintas formas de abordar el problema del por qué perdió el PRI en Yucatán. Para efectos de estudio se planteará las condiciones preelectorales que se dieron, el propio momento electoral del pasado 27 de mayo, así como la visión futura de PRI como organización política en tiempos transitorios.

  15. Vartotojų elgsenos veiksnių įtaka sprendimo pirkti priėmimo procesui

    OpenAIRE

    Jakimavičiūtė, Judita

    2013-01-01

    Magistro baigiamajame darbe išanalizuota ir įvertinta vartotojų elgsenos veiksnių įtaka sprendimo pirkti priėmimo procese, iškeltos vartotojų elgsenos problemos, susiję su vartotojo sprendimu pirkti bei pateikti siūlymai, kaip šias problemas spręsti. Pirmoje darbo dalyje teoriniu aspektu tiriama vartotojų elgsenos samprata, pateikiamos skirtingos Lietuvos bei užsienio autorių nuomonės apie vidinių ir išorinių veiksnių įtaką vartotojų elgsenai bei vartotojų sprendimo priėmimo procesui. Antroje...

  16. Izvedljivost testa stoje na eni nogi na pritiskovni plošči pri dejavnih starejših

    OpenAIRE

    Podvratnik, Jerica

    2018-01-01

    Uvod: Ravnotežje je potrebno za vzdrževanje stabilnega položaja med gibanjem, pri prehodih v različne položaje in med izvajanjem vsakodnevnih dejavnosti. Med teste za ocenjevanje sistemov ravnotežja spada modificiran test senzorične interakcije. S postopkom stabilometrije se s pomočjo pritiskovne plošče zabeleži gibanje središča pritiska. Za uporabno meritev je potrebno, da preiskovanec vzdržuje položaj vsaj 30 sekund. Namen: Z meritvami časa in gibanja središča pritiska pri testu stoje na en...

  17. Vloga medicinske sestre pri nefarmakološki obravnavi otrok in mladostnikov z motnjo pozornosti s hiperaktivnostjo

    OpenAIRE

    Močnik, Anja

    2017-01-01

    Uvod: Motnja pozornosti s hiperaktivnostjo spada v skupino vedenjskih in čustvenih motenj. Odkrita je pri približno 3 do 5 % šoloobveznih otrok. Trije osnovni simptomi so pomanjkljiva in zlahka odvrnljiva pozornost, impulzivnost in hiperaktivnost. Med dejavnike nastanka štejemo biokemične, genetske in nevrološke, diagnosticiranje pa poteka na podlagi simptomov. Kompleksnost problema zahteva celosten pristop, zavračanje farmakološkega zdravljenja s strani nekaterih posameznikov pa nas spodbuja...

  18. mirEX: a platform for comparative exploration of plant pri-miRNA expression data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bielewicz, Dawid; Dolata, Jakub; Zielezinski, Andrzej; Alaba, Sylwia; Szarzynska, Bogna; Szczesniak, Michal W; Jarmolowski, Artur; Szweykowska-Kulinska, Zofia; Karlowski, Wojciech M

    2012-01-01

    mirEX is a comprehensive platform for comparative analysis of primary microRNA expression data. RT-qPCR-based gene expression profiles are stored in a universal and expandable database scheme and wrapped by an intuitive user-friendly interface. A new way of accessing gene expression data in mirEX includes a simple mouse operated querying system and dynamic graphs for data mining analyses. In contrast to other publicly available databases, the mirEX interface allows a simultaneous comparison of expression levels between various microRNA genes in diverse organs and developmental stages. Currently, mirEX integrates information about the expression profile of 190 Arabidopsis thaliana pri-miRNAs in seven different developmental stages: seeds, seedlings and various organs of mature plants. Additionally, by providing RNA structural models, publicly available deep sequencing results, experimental procedure details and careful selection of auxiliary data in the form of web links, mirEX can function as a one-stop solution for Arabidopsis microRNA information. A web-based mirEX interface can be accessed at http://bioinfo.amu.edu.pl/mirex.

  19. Primerjava učinkovitosti metode mentorstva in koučinga pri delu z brezposelno osebo

    OpenAIRE

    Jagodnik, Sabina

    2017-01-01

    Magistrsko delo se osredotoča na primerjavo rabe mentorstva in koučinga pri delu z brezposelno osebo z namenom uspešnega nastopa na trgu dela. Primerjava je izpeljana na podlagi treh izpeljanih procesov koučinga ter dveh procesov mentorstva. Preko uporabe metode participativnega akcijskega raziskovanja odgovarja na vprašanja, katera metoda je primernejša glede na potrebe brezposelne osebe za uspešen nastop na trgu dela, njene izkušnje, obstoječa znanja in veščine, katere so prednosti in slabo...

  20. Uporaba JavaEE mikrostoritev pri razvoju celovite rešitve za upravljanje s spletnimi oglasi

    OpenAIRE

    ANDREJC, GAŠPER

    2017-01-01

    Diplomska naloga govori o procesu razvijanja celovite rešitve za sledenje in upravljanje s spletnimi oglasi, kot pomoč uporabniku pri nakupu želenega izdelka. Končni izdelek diplomske naloge je rešitev, ki je sestavljena iz spletne aplikacije, mobilne aplikacije, razširitve v spletnem brskalniku ter zalednega sistema. Diploma poleg idejne zasnove predstavlja tudi uporabo JavaEE mikrostoritev in ostalih tehnologij ter argumentira, zakaj so izbrani okvirji najprimernejši za takšno rešitev. Cilj...

  1. Povezanost barv in čustev pri učencih v 4. razredu osnovne šole

    OpenAIRE

    Kolar, Rebeka

    2012-01-01

    V magistrski nalogi se dotikamo področja barv, ki imajo lahko močan učinek na človeško telo in emocije. Že kot otroci uporabljamo barve tako v domačem okolju kot šoli. Po mnenju strokovnjakov naj bi ravno uporaba posameznih barv razodevala otrokovo emocionalno življenje. Pri tem je pomembno poudariti, da se barvno izražanje otrok skozi njihov razvoj spreminja, nadgrajuje, spreminja se otrokova uporaba in odnos do barv. Raziskave, ki so bile opravljene na tem področju, kažejo, da lahko ravno n...

  2. Pravna razmerja pri pogodbi o nepremičninskem posredovanju (primerjalno pravna ureditev po slovenskem in avstrijskem pravu)

    OpenAIRE

    Koser Dolenc, Martina

    2016-01-01

    Magistrska naloga celovito analizira pravna razmerja pri pogodbi o nepremičniskem posredovanju po slovenskem in avstrijskem pravu. Poudarek je v podrobni predstavitvi in opisu pravic in obveznosti strank, ki izhajajo iz posredniške pogodbe. V Sloveniji je posredniška pogodba urejena v Obligacijskem zakoniku (OZ) in sicer v členih od 837. do 850. Posredniška pogodba je dvostranska obvezna, odplačna, neoblična pogodba. Pravna pravila v zvezi s posredniško pogodbo po OZ so večinoma dispoziti...

  3. Visible Light Excited Catalysis and Reusability Performances of TiO2@Pr:Y2SiO5 Upconversion Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Jiao

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available To get high efficiency photodegradation on pollutants under visible light, Pr(III doped Y2SiO5 upconversion materials and anatase TiO2 nanofilm coated Pr:Y2SiO5 composite have been prepared by using a sol-gel method. XRD and SEM test results indicated that TiO2 nanofilm was well coated on Pr:Y2SiO5 to form TiO2@Pr:Y2SiO5 composite particles with the sizes of 0.5–1.0 μm. To avoid secondary pollution resulting from incomplete recovery of catalyst particles, TiO2@Pr:Y2SiO5 was loaded on the glass fiber filters by using a dip-coating method. It is found that the catalyst particles were embedded into the carrier firmly, even after having been reused for 6 times. The luminescence intensities of TiO2@Pr:Y2SiO5 were getting down sharply with the coating contents of TiO2 increased, which was attributed to the adsorption of the luminescence by the TiO2 film in situ. As a result, TiO2@Pr:Y2SiO5 with 4% TiO2, which presented lowest luminescence intensity, showed the highest efficiency on the photodegradation of nitrobenzene wastewater. The catalysts loaded on glass fiber filters showed excellent reusability on the photodegradation of nitrobenzene and presented a photodegradation rate of 95% at the first time and up to 75.9% even after 6 times of reusing by the treatment time of 12 h.

  4. Možnosti prihrankov električne energije pri cestni razsvetljavi, ki se prilagaja količini prometa

    OpenAIRE

    BAVČAR, JERNEJ

    2018-01-01

    V diplomskem delu sem predstavil način in predlog, kako zmanjšati stroške porabe električne energije in svetlobno onesnaževanje z javno razsvetljavo. Pri analizi podatkov sem si pomagal s programom MATLAB. Dobljene vrednosti sem nato obdelal v programskem orodju MS Excel. Na začetku najprej preletim zgodovino razvoja umetne razsvetljave in razvoja javne razsvetljave v Sloveniji in svetu. Za tem opišem veljavne zahteve glede javne razsvetljave in elemente, ki so upoštevani pri načrtovanju n...

  5. Child-Adult Relationship Enhancement in Primary Care (PriCARE): A Randomized Trial of a Parent Training for Child Behavior Problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schilling, Samantha; French, Benjamin; Berkowitz, Steven J; Dougherty, Susan L; Scribano, Philip V; Wood, Joanne N

    Child-Adult Relationship Enhancement in Primary Care (PriCARE) is a 6-session group parent training designed to teach positive parenting skills. Our objective was to measure PriCARE's impact on child behavior and parenting attitudes. Parents of children 2 to 6 years old with behavior concerns were randomized to PriCARE (n = 80) or control (n = 40). Child behavior and parenting attitudes were measured at baseline (0 weeks), program completion (9 weeks), and 7 weeks after program completion (16 weeks) using the Eyberg Child Behavior Inventory (ECBI) and the Adult Adolescent Parenting Inventory 2 (AAPI2). Linear regression models compared mean ECBI and AAPI2 change scores from 0 to 16 weeks in the PriCARE and control groups, adjusted for baseline scores. Of those randomized to PriCARE, 43% attended 3 or more sessions. Decreases in mean ECBI intensity and problem scores between 0 and 16 weeks were greater in the PriCARE group, reflecting a larger improvement in behavior problems [intensity: -22 (-29, -16) vs -7 (-17, 2), P = .012; problem: -5 (-7, -4) vs -2 (-4, 0), P = .014]. Scores on 3 of the 5 AAPI2 subscales reflected greater improvements in parenting attitudes in the PriCARE group compared to control in the following areas: empathy toward children's needs [0.82 (0.51, 1.14) vs 0.25 (-0.19, 0.70), P = .04], corporal punishment [0.22 (0.00, 0.45) vs -0.30 (-0.61, 0.02), P = .009], and power and independence [0.37 (-0.02, 0.76) vs -0.64 (-1.19, -0.09), P = .003]. PriCARE shows promise in improving parent-reported child-behavior problems in preschool-aged children and increasing positive parenting attitudes. Copyright © 2016 Academic Pediatric Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Diurnal and Seasonal Responses of High Frequency Chlorophyll Fluorescence and PRI Measurements to Abiotic Stress in Almonds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bambach-Ortiz, N. E.; Paw U, K. T.

    2016-12-01

    Plants have evolved to efficiently utilize light to synthesize energy-rich carbon compounds, and at the same time, dissipate absorbed but excessive photon that would otherwise transfer excitation energy to potentially toxic reactive oxygen species (ROS). Nevertheless, even the most rapidly growing plants with the highest rates of photosynthesis only utilize about half of the light their leaves absorb during the hours of peak irradiance in sun-exposed habitats. Usually, that daily peak of irradiance coincides with high temperature and a high vapor pressure deficit, which are conditions related to plant stomata closure. Consequently, specially in water stressed environments, plants need to have mechanisms to dissipate most of absorbed photons. Plants avoid photo-oxidative damage of the photosynthetic apparatus due to the formation of ROS under excess light using different mechanisms in order to either lower the amount of ROS formation or detoxify already formed ROS. Photoinhibition is defined as a reduction in photosynthetic activity due largely to a sustained reduction in the photochemical efficiency of Photosystem II (PSII), which can be assessed by monitoring Chlorophyll a fluorescence (ChlF). Alternatively, monitoring abiotic stress effects upon photosynthetic activity and photoinhibition may be possible using high frequency spectral reflectance sensors. We aim to find the potential relationships between high frequency PRI and ChlF as indicators of photoinhibition and permanent photodamage at a seasonal scale. Preliminary results show that PRI responses are sensitive to photoinhibition, but provide a poor representation of permanent photodamage observed at a seasonal scale.

  7. Plasma Modes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubin, D. H. E.

    This chapter explores several aspects of the linear electrostatic normal modes of oscillation for a single-species non-neutral plasma in a Penning trap. Linearized fluid equations of motion are developed, assuming the plasma is cold but collisionless, which allow derivation of the cold plasma dielectric tensor and the electrostatic wave equation. Upper hybrid and magnetized plasma waves in an infinite uniform plasma are described. The effect of the plasma surface in a bounded plasma system is considered, and the properties of surface plasma waves are characterized. The normal modes of a cylindrical plasma column are discussed, and finally, modes of spheroidal plasmas, and finite temperature effects on the modes, are briefly described.

  8. Difuzijski modeli u marketingu: kako modelirati efekt egzogenih varijabli?

    OpenAIRE

    Radas, Sonja

    2006-01-01

    U marketingu se difuzijski modeli tradicionalno koriste za modeliranje dinamike životnog ciklusa proizvoda, za predviđanje potražnje za novim proizvodom te kao pomoć pri donošenju odluka u vezi s uvođenjem proizvoda na tržište. Od kada su se počeli koristiti u marketingu, difuzijski su modeli postali vrlo kompleksni. Ta je složenost posljedica potrebe da se poveća prognostička sposobnost modela i da se oni što više prilagode potrebama menadžera. Vezano s time, jedan od izazova u difuzijskom m...

  9. Arc in a Gas Flowing Through a Magnetic Field; Duga v potoke gaza pri nalichii magnitnogo polya

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baranov, V. Ju.; Vasil' eva, I. A.; Ul' janov, K. N. [Vsesojuznyj Jelektrotehnicheskij Institut Im.V.I. Lenina, Moskva, SSSR (Russian Federation)

    1966-10-15

    The authors have previously shown that ad.c. electric arc can be used in the pre-ionizer of a non-equilibrium MHD generator. The pre-ionizer must be located immediately before the duct inlet, where the magnetic field is fairly strong and may have a substantial effect on the current in the gas flow. In the present paper they consider the behaviour of an electric arc in a gas flowing through a magnetic field. The experiments were carried out with argon, using the apparatus described in Ref. [1] of the paper. The flow was set up in a closed glass loop by means of an electromagnetic accelerator (MHD motor). By suitably treating and adjusting the loop it was possible to conduct the investigations in spectrally pure argon. The pressure varied between 1 and 100 mm Hg, and the flow velocity V{sub 0}{<=} 10{sup 4} cm/sec. The magnetic field in the accelerator (B{sub 1}) and near the arc (B{sub 2}) varied between zero and 7 x 10{sup 3} Oe. The spatial distribution of the electron concentration (n{sub e}) and the electron temperature (T{sub e}) were measured using probe and spectrum analysis methods. The gas temperature (T{sub g} ) was measured by the hot wire method and the flow velocity with the help of pitot tubes. Experiments were carried out in both decelerating and accelerating magnetic fields. (author) [Russian] Jelektricheskaja duga postojannogo toka mozhet byt' ispol'zovana v kachestve jelementa predionizatora v neravnovesnom MGDG. Predionizator dolzhen byt' raspolozhen neposredstvenno pered kanalom generatora v oblasti dostatochno sil'nogo magnitnogo polja, kotoroe mozhet sushhestvenno povlijat' na protekanie toka v potoke. Issledovano povedenie jelektricheskoj dugi v potoke pri nalichii magnitnogo polja. Jeksperimenty byli vypolneny v argone na ustanovke, opisannoj v rabote [1] . Potok v zamknutom stekljannom konture sozdavalsja pri pomoshhi jelektromagnitnogo uskoritelja (MGD dvigatelja). Sootvetstvujushhaja obrabotka i trenirovka kontura davala vozmozhnost

  10. Tacoma mode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Courant, E.D.; Ruth, R.D.; Wang, J.M.

    1979-01-01

    The name Tacoma refers to the Tacoma Narrows Bridge which collapsed on November 8, 1940 due to massive oscillations caused by high winds. One of the destructive modes was a torsion mode which was excited by transverse wind, a dipole force, and continued until the bridge collapsed. The name is used to refer to a coherent mode of oscillation of a spectrum of oscillators in which the amplitude vs frequency graph contains one node, where the node occurs near the driving frequency and a ω is not symmetric about zero. When this result is applied to vertical instabilities in coasting beams, it implies the existence of a coherent skew quadrupole moment, Q/sub xy/, whenever a coherent dipole oscillation exists

  11. Tacoma mode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Courant, E.D.; Ruth, R.D.; Wang, J.M.

    1979-01-01

    The name Tacoma refers to the Tacoma Narrows Bridge which collapsed on November 8, 1940 due to massive oscillations caused by high winds. One of the destructive modes was a torsion mode which was excited by transverse wind, a dipole force, and continued until the bridge collapsed. The name is used to refer to a coherent mode of oscillation of a spectrum of oscillators in which the amplitude vs frequency graph contains one node, where the node occurs near the driving frequency and a(ω) is not symmetric about zero. When this result is applied to vertical instabilities in coasting beams, it implies the existence of a coherent skew quadrupole moment, whenever a coherent dipole oscillation exists

  12. Oscilacije nagibnog sklopa oruđa pri opaljenju / Oscillation of elevating group on artillery weapon during firing test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zoran Ristić

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available U radu su opisane oscilacije nagibnog sklopa artiljerijskog oruđa koje nastaju pri opaljenju. Nagibni sklop prikazanje kao kruto telo sa jednim stepenom slobode kretanja (rotacija u vertikalnoj ravni. Model oscilovanja upoređenje sa eksperimentalnim rezultatima realnog modela oscilovanja oruđa (oscilacije nagibnog sklopa sa više stepeni slobode kretanja. Date su razlike između proračunskog i realnog modela oscilovanja i analiza njihovih parametara. / The oscillation of elevating group on artillery weapon during firing test are described in this paper. The elevation group is represented a rigid body of DOF (rotation in vertical plane. The model oscillation is compared -with the experimental results of real model oscillation (oscillations of elevating group with more degrees of freedom. A difference sizes among simplify and real model oscillation are given, and some of their parameters are analyzed.

  13. NON-GENICULATE CORALLINE ALGAE (CORALLINALES, RHODOPHYTA FROM THE LOWER OLIGOCENE OF POLJŠICA PRI PODNARTU (NORTHERN SLOVENIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LUKA GALE

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Despite their increasing importance in sedimentology and palaeoecology, non-geniculate coralline algae remain virtually overlooked in Slovenia. Though these plants are present or even abundant in the Cretaceous and Cainozoic strata, they have never been studied in detail with notable exception of corallines from the Lower Oligocene beds in the area of Gornji Grad. Poljšica pri Podnartu is another locality where Lower Oligocene beds are exposed, considered as equivalent to the former. The studied profile consists of pebbly limestone, mudstone, sandstone and limestone. Limestones contain abundant non-geniculate coralline algae. Nine species from six genera of these corallines have been identified: Lithoporella melobesioides (Foslie Foslie, 1909, Neogoniolithon contii (Mastrorilli Quaranta et al., 2007, Spongites sp., Lithothamnion sp. 1, Lithothamnion sp. 2, Mesophyllum sp. 1, Mesophyllum sp. 2, Mesophyllum sp. 3 and Sporolithon sp. Some of these species are described from Slovenia for the first time. 

  14. VPLIV SPOMINSKEGA TRENINGA NA KRATKOTRAJNI IN DOLGOTRAJNI SPOMIN PRI POSAMEZNIKIH S PRIDOBLJENO MOŽGANSKO POŠKODBO

    OpenAIRE

    Ogrizek, Tjaša

    2015-01-01

    Namen te študije je bil preveriti vpliv spominskega treninga N-back na kratko- in dolgotrajne spominske sposobnosti pri udeležencih s pridobljeno možgansko poškodbo. V ta namen sta se izoblikovali dve hipotezi, in sicer (H1) kratkotrajni spomin udeležencev se bo izboljšal ter (H2) dolgotrajni spomin udeležencev se ne bo spremenil. Udeleženci v študiji so bili trije posamezniki, stari 38, 31 ter 26 let, ki imajo pridobljeno možgansko poškodbo. Metodološki pripomočki, uporabljeni v študiji, so ...

  15. The interaction effects of pri-let-7a-1 rs10739971 with PGC and ERCC6 gene polymorphisms in gastric cancer and atrophic gastritis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qian Xu

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to investigate the interaction effects of pri-let-7a-1 rs10739971 with pepsinogen C (PGC and excision repair cross complementing group 6 (ERCC6 gene polymorphisms and its association with the risks of gastric cancer and atrophic gastritis. We hoped to identify miRNA polymorphism or a combination of several polymorphisms that could serve as biomarkers for predicting the risk of gastric cancer and its precancerous diseases. METHODS: Sequenom MassARRAY platform method was used to detect polymorphisms of pri-let-7a-1 rs10739971 G → A, PGC rs4711690 C → G, PGC rs6458238 G → A, PGC rs9471643 G → C, and ERCC6 rs1917799 in 471 gastric cancer patients, 645 atrophic gastritis patients and 717 controls. RESULTS: An interaction effect of pri-let-7a-1 rs10739971 polymorphism with ERCC6 rs1917799 polymorphism was observed for the risk of gastric cancer (P interaction = 0.026; and interaction effects of pri-let-7a-1 rs10739971 polymorphism with PGC rs6458238 polymorphism (P interaction = 0.012 and PGC rs9471643 polymorphism (P interaction = 0.039 were observed for the risk of atrophic gastritis. CONCLUSION: The combination of pri-let-7a-1 rs10739971 polymorphism and ERCC6 and PGC polymorphisms could provide a greater prediction potential than a single polymorphism on its own. Large-scale studies and molecular mechanism research are needed to confirm our findings.

  16. Persistent organic pollutants, heavy metals and radioactivity in the urban soil of Priština City, Kosovo and Metohija.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gulan, Ljiljana; Milenkovic, Biljana; Zeremski, Tijana; Milic, Gordana; Vuckovic, Biljana

    2017-03-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), organochlorine pesticides (OCPs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), heavy metals content and radioactivity levels were measured in 27 soil samples collected from Priština, the capital of Kosovo and Metohija. The sixteen PAHs, twelve OCPs and six PCBs congeners were determined by gas chromatography system with mass spectrometry detection. Although the use of PCBs and OCPs was prohibited decades ago residues of those compounds still existed in measurable concentrations in soils of Priština. PAHs were also present in analyzed samples but their mean concentration was significantly lower than mean concentrations of PAHs previously reported in urban areas in the world. The concentrations of heavy metals (As, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Mn, Ni, Pb and Zn) were determined by the EDTA extraction protocols, along with their extractable concentrations. The activity concentrations of natural radionuclides ( 226 Ra, 232 Th and 40 K) were determined by gamma spectrometry method. The Shapiro-Wilk normality test found that activity concentrations of natural radionuclides were normally distributed. Radiological risk was estimated through the annual effective dose, gonadal dose equivalent, excess lifetime cancer risk, radium equivalent activity, external and internal hazard indexes. Spearman correlation coefficient was used for analysis of correlations between physicochemical properties, heavy metal contents and radionuclide activity concentrations. Strong positive correlation between 226 Ra and 232 Th was found, as well as among pairs of As-Cd and Co-Mn. Very strong positive correlation (0.838) at the 0.01 significance level was noted for Pb-Zn pair. Strong correlations indicate common occurrence of these elements in the nature, as well as geogenic association. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Failure Modes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, K. P.; Burcharth, H. F.; Ibsen, Lars Bo

    1999-01-01

    The present appendix contains the derivation of ten different limit state equations divided on three different failure modes. Five of the limit state equations can be used independently of the characteristics of the subsoil, whereas the remaining five can be used for either drained or undrained s...

  18. Pri-let-7a-1 rs10739971 polymorphism is associated with gastric cancer prognosis and might affect mature let-7a expression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Y

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Ying Li, Qian Xu, Jingwei Liu, Caiyun He, Quan Yuan, Chengzhong Xing, Yuan Yuan Tumor Etiology and Screening Department of Cancer Institute and General Surgery, the First Affiliated Hospital of China Medical University, and Key Laboratory of Cancer Etiology and Prevention (China Medical University, Liaoning Provincial Education Department, Shenyang, People’s Republic of China Abstract: The relationship between the pri-let-7a-1 rs10739971 polymorphism and gastric cancer (GC risk has been reported. However, the role of this polymorphism in the prognosis of GC remains largely elusive. Sequenom MassARRAY platform method and the polymerase chain reaction (PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism were used to investigate pri-let-7a-1 rs10739971 G→A in 334 GC patients. Real-time PCR detected expression of mature let-7a in serum and tissue. Patients with AA or GA+AA genotypes of the pri-let-7a-1 rs10739971 polymorphism demonstrated significantly longer survival time than those with the wild GG genotype. Stratified analysis indicated that survival time was significantly longer in women with AA or GA+AA genotypes and in Borrmann type I/II patients with GA heterozygote or GA+AA genotypes. AA genotype was more frequent in the lymphatic-metastasis-negative subgroup. Serum mature let-7a expression in healthy people with the GA heterozygote and the GA+AA genotype was higher than in those with the GG genotype, and the difference remained significant in the female healthy subgroup. Pri-let-7a-1 rs10739971 polymorphism might be a biomarker for GC prognosis, especially for female and Borrmann type I/II patients. The pri-let-7a-1 rs10739971 polymorphism might affect serum mature let-7a expression, and partly explain the mechanism of the relationship between the pri-let-7a-1 rs10739971 polymorphism and GC survival. Keywords: miRNA, let-7a, polymorphism, gastric cancer, prognosis, expression

  19. Spin modes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaarde, C.

    1985-01-01

    An analysis of spectra of (p,n) reactions showed that they were very selective in exciting spin modes. Charge exchange reactions at intermediate energies give important new understanding of the M1-type of excitations and of the spin structure of continuum p spectra in general. In this paper, the author discusses three charge exchange reactions: (p,n); ( 3 H,t); and (d,2p) at several targets. Low-lying states and the Δ region are discussed separately. Finally, the charge exchange reaction with heavy ion beams is briefly discussed. (G.J.P./Auth.)

  20. La mort d’un couple : prière(s) et vie publiques Death of a couple: prayer(s) and public life

    OpenAIRE

    Mathieu Touzeil-Divina

    2009-01-01

    Si, avant la Loi du 5 décembre 1905, les Eglises et l’Etat concrétisaient matériellement leurs liens étroits par des rites officiels nommés prières publiques, ceux-ci sont censés avoir été supprimés depuis. C’est l’histoire de cette suppression (après en avoir retenu une définition) qui est ici envisagée à travers trois secteurs cardinaux de l’action administrative : la vie universitaire, parlementaire et judiciaire. Dans ces trois hypothèses les prières publiques ont été supprimées de façon ...

  1. Microtearing modes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garbet, X.; Mourgues, F.; Samain, A.; Zou, X.

    1990-01-01

    A serious degradation of confinement with additional heating is commonly observed on most tokamaks. The microtearing modes could provide an explanation for this experimental fact. They are driven linearly unstable by diamagnetism in collisional regimes, but it may be shown that the collisions in non linear regimes provide a small diffusion coefficient which can be only significant at the plasme edge. In the bulk of the plasma, the microtearing turbulence could play a basic role if it is unstable in the collisionless regime. While it is linearly stable without collisions, it could be driven unstable in realistic regimes by the radial diffusion it induces. To study this effect, we have used a model where the non linear action of the modes on a given helicity component is represented by a diffusion operator. They are found unstable for reasonable β p =2μ o nT/B 2 p , with a special radial profile of the potential vector A. The problem arises the validity of this model where non linearities in the trajectories behaviour are replaced by the diffusion which broadens resonances. To test this procedure, we calculate the actual electron distribution function when it is determined by the ergodicity of the field lines. We compute the correlations of the distribution function with the magnetic perturbation and compare them with the analytical expressions derived from the resonance broadening model. (author) 3 refs., 2 figs

  2. Identification and analysis of genetic variations in pri-miRNAs expressed specifically or at a high level in sheep skeletal muscle.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Zhang

    Full Text Available MicroRNAs (miRNAs are key regulators in miRNA-mediated gene regulatory networks and play important roles in many biological processes, such as growth and development of mammals. In this study, we used microarrays to detect 261 miRNAs that are expressed in sheep skeletal muscle. We found 22 miRNAs that showed high levels of expression and equated to 89% of the total miRNA. Genetic variations in these 22 pri-miRNAs were further investigated using polymerase chain reaction-single strand conformation polymorphism (PCR-SSCP and sequencing. A total of 49 genetic variations, which included 41 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs and 8 deletions/insertions, were identified in four sheep breeds. Three variations were further researched in a larger sample set, including five sheep breeds with different meat production performances. We found that the genotype and allele frequencies of the CCC deletion/insertion in pri-miR-133a were significantly related to the sheep meat production trait. Finally, cell assays and quantitative reverse transcription PCR (qRT-PCR were employed to investigate the effect of pri-miRNA genetic variation on the miRNA biogenesis process. The results confirmed that genetic variations can influence miRNA biogenesis and increase or decrease the levels of mature miRNAs, in accordance with the energy and stability change of hair-pin secondary structures. Our findings will help to further the understanding of the functions of genetic variations in sheep pri-miRNAs in skeletal muscle growth and development.

  3. Replication restart in UV-irradiated Escherichia coli involving pols II, III, V, PriA, RecA and RecFOR proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rangarajan, Savithri; Woodgate, Roger; Goodman, Myron F

    2002-02-01

    In Escherichia coli, UV-irradiated cells resume DNA synthesis after a transient inhibition by a process called replication restart. To elucidate the role of several key proteins involved in this process, we have analysed the time dependence of replication restart in strains carrying a combination of mutations in lexA, recA, polB (pol II), umuDC (pol V), priA, dnaC, recF, recO or recR. We find that both pol II and the origin-independent primosome-assembling function of PriA are essential for the immediate recovery of DNA synthesis after UV irradiation. In their absence, translesion replication or 'replication readthrough' occurs approximately 50 min after UV and is pol V-dependent. In a wild-type, lexA+ background, mutations in recF, recO or recR block both pathways. Similar results were obtained with a lexA(Def) recF strain. However, lexA(Def) recO or lexA(Def) recR strains, although unable to facilitate PriA-pol II-dependent restart, were able to perform pol V-dependent readthrough. The defects in restart attributed to mutations in recF, recO or recR were suppressed in a recA730 lexA(Def) strain expressing constitutively activated RecA (RecA*). Our data suggest that in a wild-type background, RecF, O and R are important for the induction of the SOS response and the formation of RecA*-dependent recombination intermediates necessary for PriA/Pol II-dependent replication restart. In con-trast, only RecF is required for the activation of RecA that leads to the formation of pol V (UmuD'2C) and facilitates replication readthrough.

  4. Endocrine and Metabolic Effects of Adipose Tissue in Children and Adolescents / Endokrina in Presnovna Funkcija Maščobnega Tkiva Pri Otrocih in Mladostnikih

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kotnik Primož

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Maščobno tkivo ima vlogo pri številnih endokrinih in presnovnih procesih. Lepin je bil med prvimi odkritimi dejavniki iz maščobnega tkiva, ki delujejo avto-, para- in endokrino. Od opredelitve leptina so odkrili še številne druge dejavnike, od katerih se nekateri izločajo iz maščobnih celic, nekateri pa iz drugih celic maščobnega tkiva.

  5. Cyrillic alphabet as the designation of national identity among students of University of Priština with temporary head office in Kosovska Mitrovica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miketić Sanja D.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The relationship between culture and nationality and in that sense - national identity of a particular community - is a known thing for a long time. Nationality is usually strongly connected to culture. We will only mention few of their joint characteristics: language, religion, art, customs, tradition etc. In this article special attention will be paid to one of the features of national identity - language - and we will focus on the usage of Cyrillic alphabet of our target group (students of University of Priština, with temporary head office in Kosovska Mitrovica. The study consists of two smaller researches. In the first part we explored reactions of students at University of Priština and we assumed that they will have different reactions towards Cyrillic alphabet and Latin alphabet used as stimuli-words comparing to pupils of Belgrade and Zrenjanin high schools and students of University of Belgrade, Novi Sad and Niš presented in The associative dictionary of Serbian language (Asocjativni rečnik srpskog jezika, 2005. In the second part we tried to find out if our informants prefer the usage of Cyrillic or Latin alphabet, and which one they find better in the esthetic sense. We compared attitudes of students who enroll University of Priština to attitudes of students who enroll University of Belgrade and differences between their attitudes. With both researches we wanted to see if there are formed verbal stereotypes with positive or negative connotation, and what are the attitudes on using Cyrillic alphabet among students in the age of expansion of Latin alphabet. We concluded that Cyrillic alphabet is more used and valued at University of Priština than in the rest of Republic of Serbia and the reason for that might be the stronger sense of national identity among these students.

  6. Annotating and quantifying pri-miRNA transcripts using RNA-Seq data of wild type and serrate-1 globular stage embryos of Arabidopsis thaliana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Lepe-Soltero

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The genome annotation for the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana does not include the primary transcripts from which MIRNAs are processed. Here we present and analyze the raw mRNA sequencing data from wild type and serrate-1 globular stage embryos of A. thaliana, ecotype Columbia. Because SERRATE is required for pri-miRNA processing, these precursors accumulate in serrate-1 mutants, facilitating their detection using standard RNA-Seq protocols. We first use the mapping of the RNA-Seq reads to the reference genome to annotate the potential primary transcripts of MIRNAs expressed in the embryo. We then quantify these pri-miRNAs in wild type and serrate-1 mutants. Finally, we use differential expression analysis to determine which are up-regulated in serrate-1 compared to wild type, to select the best candidates for bona fide pri-miRNAs expressed in the globular stage embryos. In addition, we analyze a previously published RNA-Seq dataset of wild type and dicer-like 1 mutant embryos at the globular stage [1]. Our data are interpreted and discussed in a separate article [2].

  7. Annotating and quantifying pri-miRNA transcripts using RNA-Seq data of wild type and serrate-1 globular stage embryos of Arabidopsis thaliana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lepe-Soltero, Daniel; Armenta-Medina, Alma; Xiang, Daoquan; Datla, Raju; Gillmor, C Stewart; Abreu-Goodger, Cei

    2017-12-01

    The genome annotation for the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana does not include the primary transcripts from which MIRNAs are processed. Here we present and analyze the raw mRNA sequencing data from wild type and serrate-1 globular stage embryos of A. thaliana , ecotype Columbia. Because SERRATE is required for pri-miRNA processing, these precursors accumulate in serrate-1 mutants, facilitating their detection using standard RNA-Seq protocols. We first use the mapping of the RNA-Seq reads to the reference genome to annotate the potential primary transcripts of MIRNAs expressed in the embryo. We then quantify these pri-miRNAs in wild type and serrate-1 mutants. Finally, we use differential expression analysis to determine which are up-regulated in serrate-1 compared to wild type, to select the best candidates for bona fide pri-miRNAs expressed in the globular stage embryos. In addition, we analyze a previously published RNA-Seq dataset of wild type and dicer-like 1 mutant embryos at the globular stage [1]. Our data are interpreted and discussed in a separate article [2].

  8. A Privacy Protection User Authentication and Key Agreement Scheme Tailored for the Internet of Things Environment: PriAuth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuwen Chen

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In a wearable sensor-based deployment, sensors are placed over the patient to monitor their body health parameters. Continuous physiological information monitored by wearable sensors helps doctors have a better diagnostic and a suitable treatment. When doctors want to access the patient’s sensor data remotely via network, the patient will authenticate the identity of the doctor first, and then they will negotiate a key for further communication. Many lightweight schemes have been proposed to enable a mutual authentication and key establishment between the two parties with the help of a gateway node, but most of these schemes cannot enable identity confidentiality. Besides, the shared key is also known by the gateway, which means the patient’s sensor data could be leaked to the gateway. In PriAuth, identities are encrypted to guarantee confidentiality. Additionally, Elliptic Curve Diffie–Hellman (ECDH key exchange protocol has been adopted to ensure the secrecy of the key, avoiding the gateway access to it. Besides, only hash and XOR computations are adopted because of the computability and power constraints of the wearable sensors. The proposed scheme has been validated by BAN logic and AVISPA, and the results show the scheme has been proven as secure.

  9. Characterization of Staphylococcus aureus Primosomal DnaD Protein: Highly Conserved C-Terminal Region Is Crucial for ssDNA and PriA Helicase Binding but Not for DnaA Protein-Binding and Self-Tetramerization.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yen-Hua Huang

    Full Text Available The role of DnaD in the recruitment of replicative helicase has been identified. However, knowledge of the DNA, PriA, and DnaA binding mechanism of this protein for the DnaA- and PriA-directed replication primosome assemblies is limited. We characterized the DNA-binding properties of DnaD from Staphylococcus aureus (SaDnaD and analyzed its interactions with SaPriA and SaDnaA. The gel filtration chromatography analysis of purified SaDnaD and its deletion mutant proteins (SaDnaD1-195, SaDnaD1-200 and SaDnaD1-204 showed a stable tetramer in solution. This finding indicates that the C-terminal region aa 196-228 is not crucial for SaDnaD oligomerization. SaDnaD forms distinct complexes with ssDNA of different lengths. In fluorescence titrations, SaDnaD bound to ssDNA with a binding-site size of approximately 32 nt. A stable complex of SaDnaD1-195, SaDnaD1-200, and SaDnaD1-204 with ssDNA dT40 was undetectable, indicating that the C-terminal region of SaDnaD (particularly aa 205-228 is crucial for ssDNA binding. The SPR results revealed that SaDnaD1-195 can interact with SaDnaA but not with SaPriA, which may indicate that DnaD has different binding sites for PriA and DnaA. Both SaDnaD and SaDnaDY176A mutant proteins, but not SaDnaD1-195, can significantly stimulate the ATPase activity of SaPriA. Hence, the stimulation effect mainly resulted from direct contact within the protein-protein interaction, not via the DNA-protein interaction. Kinetic studies revealed that the SaDnaD-SaPriA interaction increases the Vmax of the SaPriA ATPase fivefold without significantly affecting the Km. These results indicate that the conserved C-terminal region is crucial for ssDNA and PriA helicase binding, but not for DnaA protein-binding and self-tetramerization.

  10. Les prières et le droit. Considérations d’une sociologue Prayers and the Law. Reflections of a sociologist

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Régine Azria

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Les points de rencontre entre prière et droit sont nombreux, y compris en France où, du fait de la Séparation, on serait fondé à considérer de telles rencontres comme illégitimes sinon impossibles, la prière se référant au religieux donc à la sphère privée et le droit à la justice donc à la sphère publique. Cet essai se propose de démontrer que dans la réalité, les cloisons entre le privé et le public sont moins étanches et les relations entre la religion et le droit plus étroites qu’il n’y paraît. Après avoir évoqué les systèmes de droit religieux (droit canon, charia, halakha produits en marge des droits nationaux, rappelé la diversité des liens juridiques entre État et religion (théocratie, monarchie de droit divin, religion d’État – avec ou sans reconnaissance de minorités religieuses tolérées –, religion de la majorité, pluralisme, Concordat, laïcité, séparation, athéisme d’État et la pluralité des niveaux et sources de normativité au sein même des systèmes religieux, l’article se concentre sur la prière et en décline les différents aspects. En effet, la prière n’est pas plus monolithique que le droit. Exercice solitaire ou pratique collective, expression spontanée ou normée de la foi, du sentiment religieux ou de l’appartenance confessionnelle, affirmation identitaire ou communautaire, la prière est diverse dans ses formes et ses contenus comme dans ses usages. Acte social ou militant, dès lors qu’elle se risque à franchir le seuil de la sphère privée du religieux, la prière rencontre la loi.Meeting points between prayers and the law are many, including in France where, because of the separation between the Church and the State, one would be entitled to consider such junctures as illegitimate if not impossible since prayer is linked to the religious and therefore the private sphere whereas law concerns justice and therefore the public sphere. The present essay

  11. Monitoring phenology of photosynthesis in temperate evergreen and mixed deciduous forests using the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) and the photochemical reflectance index (PRI) at leaf and canopy scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, C. Y.; Arain, M. A.; Ensminger, I.

    2016-12-01

    Evergreen conifers in boreal and temperate regions undergo strong seasonal changes in photoperiod and temperatures, which determines their phenology of high photosynthetic activity in the growing season and downregulation during the winter. Monitoring the timing of the transition between summer activity and winter downregulation in evergreens is difficult since this is a largely invisible process, unlike in deciduous trees that have a visible budding and a sequence of leaf unfolding in the spring and leaf abscission in the fall. The light-use efficiency (LUE) model estimates gross primary productivity (GPP) and may be parameterized using remotely sensed vegetation indices. Using spectral reflectance data, we derived the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI), a measure of leaf "greenness", and the photochemical reflectance index (PRI), a proxy for chlorophyll:carotenoid ratios which is related to photosynthetic activity. To better understand the relationship between these vegetation indices and photosynthetic activity and to contrast this relationship between plant functional types, the phenology of NDVI, PRI and photosynthesis was monitored in an evergreen forest and a mixed deciduous forest at the leaf and canopy scale. Our data indicates that the LUE model can be parameterized by NDVI and PRI to track forest phenology. Differences in the sensitivity of PRI and NDVI will be discussed. These findings have implications to address the phenology of evergreen conifers by using PRI to complement NDVI in the LUE model, potentially improving model productivity estimates in northern hemisphere forests, that are dominated by conifers.

  12. Improvement of the design and generation of highly specific plant knockdown lines using primary synthetic microRNAs (pri-smiRNAs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alves Leonardo

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background microRNAs (miRNAs are endogenous small non-coding RNAs that post-transcriptionally regulate gene expression. In plants, they typically show high complementarity to a single sequence motif within their target mRNAs and act by catalyzing specific mRNA cleavage and degradation. miRNAs are processed from much longer primary transcripts via precursor miRNAs containing fold-back structures. Leaving these secondary structures intact, miRNAs can be re-designed experimentally to target mRNAs of choice. Results We designed primary synthetic miRNAs (pri-smiRNAs on the basis of the primary transcript of the Arabidopsis MIR159A gene by replacing the original miR159a and the corresponding miR159a* with novel sequences, keeping the overall secondary structure as predicted by the program RNAfold. We used the program RNAhybrid to optimize smiRNA design and to screen the complete Arabidopsis transcriptome for potential off-targets. To improve the molecular cloning of the pri-smiRNA we inserted restriction sites in the original MIR159A primary transcript to easily accommodate the smiRNA/smiRNA* DNA fragment. As a proof-of-concept, we targeted the single gene encoding chalcone synthase (CHS in Arabidopsis. We demonstrate smiRNA(CHS expression and CHS mRNA cleavage in different transgenic lines. Phenotypic changes in these lines were observed for seed color and flavonol derivatives, and quantified with respect to anthocyanin content. We also tested the effect of mismatches and excess G:U base pairs on knockdown efficiency. Conclusions RNAhybrid-assisted design of smiRNAs and generation of pri-smiRNAs using a novel vector containing restriction sites greatly improves specificity and speed of the generation of stable knockdown lines for functional analyses in plants.

  13. Thermochemical cycles for the heat and cold long-range transport. Final report of the PRI 9.2 Cold transport. Annual report of the PR 2-8; Cycles thermochimiques pour le transport de chaleur et de froid a longue distance. Rapport final du PRI 9.2. Transport de froid. Rapport annuel du PR 2-8

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luo, L.; Tondeur, D. [Laboratoire des Sciences du Genie Chimique (LSGC), 54 - Nancy (France); Mazet, N.; Neveu, P.; Stitou, D.; Spinner, B. [Institut de Science et de Genie des Materiaux et Procedes (IMP), 66 - Perpignan (France)

    2004-07-01

    This PRI deals with the use of thermochemical processes, based on solid-gas reversible transformation, to transfer heat of cold at long-range distance (> 10 km), in order to enhance the energy efficiency. Four main aspects have been studied to confirm the process feasibility: the process identification and the operating conditions, the selection of compatible reagents, the design of an auto-thermal reactor and the gas transport impact on the global performances. (A.L.B.)

  14. Obravnava vedenja in komunikacije po načelih ABA metode pri dvojčkih z avtističnimi motnjami

    OpenAIRE

    Berlot, Barbara

    2017-01-01

    Avtistične motnje sodijo med razvojno nevrološke motnje, ki trajajo celo življenje. Med težave, ki jih imajo osebe z avtističnimi motnjami na različnih področjih funkcioniranja, sodita tudi pojav neustreznih vedenjskih vzorcev in nezmožnost komunikacije z okoljem. Ravno pojav neustreznih vedenjskih vzorcev in nezmožnost komuniciranja z okoljem pri osebah z avtistično motnjo pomembno vplivata na uspešnost vključevanja teh oseb v različne vzgojno-izobraževalne programe. Namen kvalitativne študi...

  15. Anksioznost učencev 6. razreda osnovne šole pri pouku angleščine kot tujega jezika v povezavi z njihovo učno uspešnostjo

    OpenAIRE

    Praček, Anja

    2017-01-01

    Magistrsko delo obravnava anksioznost šestošolcev pri pouku angleščine kot tujega jezika v povezavi z njihovo učno uspešnostjo pri pouku angleščine. Pouk angleščine se v marsičem razlikuje od drugih šolskih predmetov in prav ta posebna učna situacija lahko pri učencih izzove anksioznost. Magistrsko delo je sestavljeno iz teoretičnega in empiričnega dela. V teoretičnem delu je s pomočjo literature na kratko predstavljena trenutna situacija poučevanja in učenja angleščine v slovenskih javnih...

  16. Congés… pour « prières » Prayers and days off

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudine Viard

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Les premiers combats de la classe ouvrière se sont portés sur la demande d’une journée de repos, qui par tradition chrétienne a été fixée le dimanche en 1906. Quatre journées de congé à caractère chrétien ont en outre été retenues par le législateur. L’exercice du culte est donc concrètement garanti pour les chrétiens. Avec l’arrivée sur le territoire de la République  de populations de confessions variées, cette organisation du travail apparaît inégalitaire, voire de nature à porter atteinte à la liberté religieuse. Il a été proposé de reconnaître les jours de prières d’autres confessions. Pour l’instant, le législateur n’a pas adopté ces propositions. Mais la question reste posée. Or, la jurisprudence des tribunaux judiciaires et administratifs admet le droit de prier des fidèles des cultes minoritaires, ils peuvent prétendre à un congé lors des fêtes de leur religion dans la mesure où cela n’occasionne pas de perturbation. La consécration de cette jurisprudence souple par le législateur serait de nature à calmer le débat.At the turn of the century, the working classes fought for a day off in the week, which was granted on Sundays by the legislator in 1906. Four additional christian holidays are also legal. So the right to pray is garanteed for christians. As different populations with various faiths settled in France, this organisation has seemed to violate the principle of equality, and religious freedom. There has been a debate on the question whether some of the days of minority religions should also be observed by all the population. But so far, the legislator has not voted any of these proposals. It remains an issue. The French judge has consistently decided that the people of non christian faiths had the right to be granted a day off to pray on these special days, provided it would not cause prejudice to the organisation they work for. It might help to calm the debate if this

  17. Zeaxanthin-independent energy quenching and alternative electron sinks cause a decoupling of the relationship between the photochemical reflectance index (PRI) and photosynthesis in an evergreen conifer during spring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fréchette, Emmanuelle; Wong, Christopher Y S; Junker, Laura Verena; Chang, Christine Yao-Yun; Ensminger, Ingo

    2015-12-01

    In evergreen conifers, the winter down-regulation of photosynthesis and its recovery during spring are the result of a reorganization of the chloroplast and adjustments of energy-quenching mechanisms. These phenological changes may remain undetected by remote sensing, as conifers retain green foliage during periods of photosynthetic down-regulation. The aim was to assess if the timing of the spring recovery of photosynthesis and energy-quenching characteristics are accurately monitored by the photochemical reflectance index (PRI) in the evergreen conifer Pinus strobus. The recovery of photosynthesis was studied using chlorophyll fluorescence, leaf gas exchange, leaf spectral reflectance, and photosynthetic pigment measurements. To assess if climate change might affect the recovery of photosynthesis, seedlings were exposed to cold spring conditions or warm spring conditions with elevated temperature. An early spring decoupling of the relationship between photosynthesis and PRI in both treatments was observed. This was caused by differences between the timing of the recovery of photosynthesis and the timing of carotenoid and chlorophyll pool size adjustments which are the main factors controlling PRI during spring. It was also demonstrated that zeaxanthin-independent NPQ mechanisms undetected by PRI further contributed to the early spring decoupling of the PRI-LUE relationship. An important mechanism undetected by PRI seems to involve increased electron transport around photosystem I, which was a significant energy sink during the entire spring transition, particularly in needles exposed to a combination of high light and cold temperatures. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Experimental Biology.

  18. PAZ, PRI, AND PROGRESS: OCTAVIO PAZ’S POLITICAL, ECONOMIC AND LITERARY STRUGGLE TO INSPIRE REFORM IN TWENTIETH-CENTURY MEXICO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Gene Pace

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Throughout most of the twentieth century; Mexico’s political and economic policies were heavily influenced by the Partido Revolucionario Institutional (PRI. The landmark 1998 victory by Vicente Fox, the first presidential candidate in seven decades to win without the official sanction of the PRI,marked an important milestone in Mexican history; Octavio Paz, an eloquent proponent of political, economic, and social reform, sought for decades to inspire change. This paper seeks to illuminate Paz’s economic philosophy, and to demonstrate how the acclaimed writer, through courageous symbolic action coupled with an inimitable and potent pen, challenged the PRI’s hegemony in Mexico and contributed to the historic election he almost lived to celebrate (an elderly Paz died shortly before the historic 1998 election.“The Aztec ritual of 2 October [1968] in the Plaza de Tlatelolco. . . convinced me to abandon the Mexican Foreign Service.”“October 2, 1968 ended the student movement. It also ended an era in thehistory of Mexico.”

  19. Nova libro pri interlingvistiko

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2006-01-01

    Rets rmt.: Blanke, Detlev. Interlinguistische Beiträge : zum Wesen und zur Plansprachen / herausgegeben von Sabine Fiedler. Frankfurt/Main, Berlin ; Bern ; Bruxelles ; New York ; Oxford ; Wien : Europäischer Verlag der Wissenschaften Peter Lang

  20. H-mode physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Itoh, Sanae.

    1991-06-01

    After the discovery of the H-mode in ASDEX ( a tokamak in Germany ) the transition between the L-mode ( Low confinement mode ) and H-mode ( High confinement mode ) has been observed in many tokamaks in the world. The H-mode has made a breakthrough in improving the plasma parameters and has been recognized to be a universal phenomena. Since its discovery, the extensive studies both in experiments and in theory have been made. The research on H-mode has been casting new problems of an anomalous transport across the magnetic surface. This series of lectures will provide a brief review of experiments for explaining H-mode and a model theory of H-mode transition based on the electric field bifurcation. If the time is available, a new theoretical model of the temporal evolution of the H-mode will be given. (author)

  1. Sun-induced Chlorophyll fluorescence and PRI improve remote sensing GPP estimates under varying nutrient availability in a typical Mediterranean savanna ecosystem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez-Priego, O.; Guan, J.; Rossini, M.; Fava, F.; Wutzler, T.; Moreno, G.; Carvalhais, N.; Carrara, A.; Kolle, O.; Julitta, T.; Schrumpf, M.; Reichstein, M.; Migliavacca, M.

    2015-07-01

    This study investigates the performances of different optical indices to estimate gross primary production (GPP) of herbaceous stratum in a Mediterranean savanna with different Nitrogen (N) and Phosphorous (P) availability. Sun-induced chlorophyll Fluorescence yield computed at 760 nm (Fy760), scaled-photochemical reflectance index (sPRI), MERIS terrestrial-chlorophyll index (MTCI) and Normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) were computed from near-surface field spectroscopy measurements collected using high spectral resolution spectrometers covering the visible near-infrared regions. GPP was measured using canopy-chambers on the same locations sampled by the spectrometers. We hypothesized that light-use efficiency (LUE) models driven by remote sensing quantities (RSM) can better track changes in GPP caused by nutrient supplies compared to those driven exclusively by meteorological data (MM). Particularly, we compared the performances of different RSM formulations - relying on the use of Fy760 or sPRI as proxy for LUE and NDVI or MTCI as fraction of absorbed photosynthetically active radiation (fAPAR) - with those of classical MM. Results showed significantly higher GPP in the N fertilized experimental plots during the growing period. These differences in GPP disappeared in the drying period when senescence effects masked out potential differences due to plant N content. Consequently, although MTCI was tightly related to plant N content (r2 = 0.86, p < 0.01), it was poorly related to GPP (r2 = 0.45, p < 0.05). On the contrary sPRI and Fy760 correlated well with GPP during the whole measurement period. Results revealed that the relationship between GPP and Fy760 is not unique across treatments but it is affected by N availability. Results from a cross validation analysis showed that MM (AICcv = 127, MEcv = 0.879) outperformed RSM (AICcv = 140, MEcv = 0.8737) when soil moisture was used to constrain the seasonal dynamic of LUE. However, residual analyses

  2. PRI 2.1: Basic researches on the photovoltaic: new materials (july 2002 - july 2004). Final report of the integrated research project; PRI 2.1: Recherches de base en photovoltaique: nouveaux materiaux (Juillet 2002 - Juin 2004). Rapport final du projet de recherche integre

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marfaing, Y.

    2004-07-01

    The main material of the photovoltaic cells is the massive crystalline silicon. For a large scale development of the photovoltaic industry, it is necessary to use thin layers. Many materials are possible to reach this objective: different types of silicon (amorphous, mono-crystal, poly-crystal), poly-crystal of CIS type (CuInSe{sub 2}) and organic molecules and polymers. The last two types are innovative and need some researches. These research axis are presented in this PRI. (A.L.B.)

  3. Las élites gobernantes priístas del Estado de México: su conformación y redes 1942-2005

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Abigail Morales Gómez

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available El análisis que se realiza a lo largo de este texto tiene como objetivo explicar la conformación de las élites gubernamentales priístas en las sucesiones del ejecutivo local del Estado de México. Lo cual se pretende demostrar a través de una revisión teórica de las élites y desde la concepción del término; misma que para el caso de estudio se llevó a cabo mediante el reconocimiento de las redes de los principales actores políticos, lo que permite mostrar que sus relaciones de amistad, familiares o laborales son las que le posibilitan ascender y formar parte de las élites gubernamentales.

  4. Trening za razvijanje občutka za števila in količine pri predšolskih otrocih s posebnimi potrebami

    OpenAIRE

    Kuplenk, Petra

    2017-01-01

    Tako otroci kot tudi odrasli se z matematiko srečujemo na vsakem koraku, pa naj bo to na poti v vrtec, službo ali pa pri delu doma. Matematika vsakodnevno vpliva na naše življenje in delo. Na delovnem mestu, v vrtcu, opažam vse večje težave otrok s posebnimi potrebami na področju razvoja občutka za števila in količine. V predšolskem obdobju je namreč nujno, da otroci razvijejo občutek za števila in količine, saj vsa nadaljnja matematična znanja temeljijo na usvojenih spretnostih. V empirič...

  5. Lower Oligocene non-geniculate coralline red algal (Corallinales, Rhodophyta assemblage from Poljšica pri Podnartu (Upper Carniola, Slovenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luka Gale

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The Lower Oligocene Gornji Grad beds from Polj{ica pri Podnartu consist of marly limestone, mudstone, several layers of limestones and two layers of sandstones, and were deposited on a mixed carbonate-siliciclastic ramp.Especially the limestones contain rich fossil fauna and non-geniculate coralline red algae. These were systematicallycollected from four horizons and researched in thin sections under an optical microscope. Genera Lithoporella,Neogoniolithon, Spongites, Lithothamnion, Mesophyllum and Spongites were recognized. Surface area for each genus was calculated and the differences in the coralline assemblages in the four horizons were analysed. Thecorallines originate from two source areas: sandy-muddy bottom of a shallow marine environment, and small coral bioherms with its encrusters.

  6. Izvršilne funkcije pri učencih s primanjkljaji na posameznih področjih učenja

    OpenAIRE

    Senekovič, Jasna

    2017-01-01

    V magistrskem delu z naslovom Izvršilne funkcije pri učencih s primanjkljaji na posameznih področjih učenja v prvem delu predstavljamo dosedanja spoznanja o izvršilnih funkcijah in učnih težavah v osnovni šoli, še posebej učencev s primanjkljaji na posameznih področjih učenja (PPPU). Tako smo v teoretičnem delu najprej opredelili osnovne pojme izvršilne funkcije, samoregulacija, metakognicija, učenje učenja in učne težave, posebej še primanjkljaje na posameznih področjih učenja. Podrobneje sm...

  7. La mort d’un couple : prière(s et vie publiques Death of a couple: prayer(s and public life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mathieu Touzeil-Divina

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Si, avant la Loi du 5 décembre 1905, les Eglises et l’Etat concrétisaient matériellement leurs liens étroits par des rites officiels nommés prières publiques, ceux-ci sont censés avoir été supprimés depuis. C’est l’histoire de cette suppression (après en avoir retenu une définition qui est ici envisagée à travers trois secteurs cardinaux de l’action administrative : la vie universitaire, parlementaire et judiciaire. Dans ces trois hypothèses les prières publiques ont été supprimées de façon différente (respectivement : par désuétude, par une Loi constitutionnelle et par circulaire. On constatera, enfin, l’actualité (troublante de certains de ces rites non exclus totalement de notre vie publique … laïque.If, before the law from December 5, 1905 law, Churches and the State would concretely manifest their close links through official rites called public prayers, these rites are supposed to have since been abolished. This article deals with the history of this abolition – which it first defines – through the study of the three central sectors of the public sector’s activity: university, parliament and judiciary life. In these three hypotheses, prayers have been abolished in various ways (respectively: by obsolescence, by constitutional statute-law and by decree. It will eventually focus on the (disquieting actuality of some of these rites not entirely excluded from our « secular » public life.

  8. Interaction of tearing modes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Satya, Y.; Schmidt, G.

    1979-01-01

    A fully developed tearing mode modifies the magnetic field profile. The effect of this profile modification on the linear growth rate of a different tearing mode in a slab and cylindrical geometry is investigated

  9. Streaming tearing mode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shigeta, M.; Sato, T.; Dasgupta, B.

    1985-01-01

    The magnetohydrodynamic stability of streaming tearing mode is investigated numerically. A bulk plasma flow parallel to the antiparallel magnetic field lines and localized in the neutral sheet excites a streaming tearing mode more strongly than the usual tearing mode, particularly for the wavelength of the order of the neutral sheet width (or smaller), which is stable for the usual tearing mode. Interestingly, examination of the eigenfunctions of the velocity perturbation and the magnetic field perturbation indicates that the streaming tearing mode carries more energy in terms of the kinetic energy rather than the magnetic energy. This suggests that the streaming tearing mode instability can be a more feasible mechanism of plasma acceleration than the usual tearing mode instability.

  10. Single-Mode VCSELs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsson, Anders; Gustavsson, Johan S.

    The only active transverse mode in a truly single-mode VCSEL is the fundamental mode with a near Gaussian field distribution. A single-mode VCSEL produces a light beam of higher spectral purity, higher degree of coherence and lower divergence than a multimode VCSEL and the beam can be more precisely shaped and focused to a smaller spot. Such beam properties are required in many applications. In this chapter, after discussing applications of single-mode VCSELs, we introduce the basics of fields and modes in VCSELs and review designs implemented for single-mode emission from VCSELs in different materials and at different wavelengths. This includes VCSELs that are inherently single-mode as well as inherently multimode VCSELs where higher-order modes are suppressed by mode selective gain or loss. In each case we present the current state-of-the-art and discuss pros and cons. At the end, a specific example with experimental results is provided and, as a summary, the most promising designs based on current technologies are identified.

  11. Double-mode pulsation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cox, A.N.

    1982-01-01

    Double mode pulsation is a very pervasive phenomenon in stars all over the Hertzsprung-Russell diagram. In order of increasing radius, examples are: ZZ Ceti stars, the sun, the delta Scuti stars, RR Lyrae variables, the β Cephei variables and those related to them, Cepheids, and maybe even the Mira stars. These many modes have been interpreted as both radial and nonradial modes, but in many cases the actual mode has not been clearly identified. Yellow giants seem to be the most simple pulsators with a large majority of the RR Lyrae variables and Cepheids showing only one pulsation period. We limit this review to those very few cases for classical Cepheids and RR Lyrae variables which display two modes. For these we know many facts about these stars, but the actual cause of the pulsation in two modes simultaneously remains unknown

  12. Streaming gravity mode instability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Shui.

    1989-05-01

    In this paper, we study the stability of a current sheet with a sheared flow in a gravitational field which is perpendicular to the magnetic field and plasma flow. This mixing mode caused by a combined role of the sheared flow and gravity is named the streaming gravity mode instability. The conditions of this mode instability are discussed for an ideal four-layer model in the incompressible limit. (author). 5 refs

  13. Dual-Mode Combustor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trefny, Charles J (Inventor); Dippold, Vance F (Inventor)

    2013-01-01

    A new dual-mode ramjet combustor used for operation over a wide flight Mach number range is described. Subsonic combustion mode is usable to lower flight Mach numbers than current dual-mode scramjets. High speed mode is characterized by supersonic combustion in a free-jet that traverses the subsonic combustion chamber to a variable nozzle throat. Although a variable combustor exit aperture is required, the need for fuel staging to accommodate the combustion process is eliminated. Local heating from shock-boundary-layer interactions on combustor walls is also eliminated.

  14. Antipastorialism : Resistant Georgic Mode

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Zimmerman, Donald

    2000-01-01

    .... Abolitionists, women, Afro-British slaves, and those who protested land enclosure developed a multivalent, resistant mode of writing, which I name 'antipastoralism', that countered orthodox, poetical...

  15. Nonlinear drift tearing mode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zelenyj, L.M.; Kuznetsova, M.M.

    1989-01-01

    Nonlinear study of magnetic perturbation development under single-mode conditions in collision-free plasma in configurations with the magnetic field shear is investigated. Results are obtained with regard of transverse component of electrical field and its effect on ion dynamics within wide range of ion Larmor radius value and values of magnetic field shear. Increments of nonlinear drift tearing mode are obtained and it is shown that excitation drastic conditions of even linearly stable modes are possible. Mechanism of instability nonlinear stabilization is considered and the value of magnetic island at the saturation threshold is estimeted. Energy of nonlinear drift tearing mode is discussed

  16. Evalvacija nivojskega pouka pri pouku slovenščine v 8. in 9. razredih na osnovnih šolah v občinah Ormož, Središče ob Dravi in Sveti Tomaž

    OpenAIRE

    Lalić, Marko

    2012-01-01

    Mnenja o učni diferenciaciji in individualizaciji pouka ter z njima povezanim nivojskim poukom so že od samega začetka predmet nasprotujočih si mnenj tako pri strokovnjakih kot pri laikih. Nivojski pouk, ki je v veljavi vse od leta 1996, je poskrbel, da proces poučevanja poteka na drugačnem učiteljevem pristopu, na večji učenčevi aktivnosti, povezovanju učnih vsebin in prilagajanju učenčevih individualnih posebnosti. Leta 2006 je bil nivojski pouk kot sistemski ukrep opuščen. Šolam pa je bilo...

  17. Microwave plasma mode conversion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Torres, H.S.; Sakanaka, P.H.; Villarroel, C.H.

    1985-01-01

    The behavior of hot electrons during the process of laser-produced plasma is studied. The basic equations of mode conversion from electromagnetic waves to electrostatic waves are presented. It is shown by mode conversion, that, the resonant absorption and parametric instabilities appear simultaneously, but in different plasma regions. (M.C.K.) [pt

  18. Excursions through KK modes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Furuuchi, Kazuyuki [Manipal Centre for Natural Sciences, Manipal University,Manipal, Karnataka 576104 (India)

    2016-07-07

    In this article we study Kaluza-Klein (KK) dimensional reduction of massive Abelian gauge theories with charged matter fields on a circle. Since local gauge transformations change position dependence of the charged fields, the decomposition of the charged matter fields into KK modes is gauge dependent. While whole KK mass spectrum is independent of the gauge choice, the mode number depends on the gauge. The masses of the KK modes also depend on the field value of the zero-mode of the extra dimensional component of the gauge field. In particular, one of the KK modes in the KK tower of each massless 5D charged field becomes massless at particular values of the extra-dimensional component of the gauge field. When the extra-dimensional component of the gauge field is identified with the inflaton, this structure leads to recursive cosmological particle productions.

  19. Excursions through KK modes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Furuuchi, Kazuyuki

    2016-01-01

    In this article we study Kaluza-Klein (KK) dimensional reduction of massive Abelian gauge theories with charged matter fields on a circle. Since local gauge transformations change position dependence of the charged fields, the decomposition of the charged matter fields into KK modes is gauge dependent. While whole KK mass spectrum is independent of the gauge choice, the mode number depends on the gauge. The masses of the KK modes also depend on the field value of the zero-mode of the extra dimensional component of the gauge field. In particular, one of the KK modes in the KK tower of each massless 5D charged field becomes massless at particular values of the extra-dimensional component of the gauge field. When the extra-dimensional component of the gauge field is identified with the inflaton, this structure leads to recursive cosmological particle productions.

  20. Effect of modes interaction on the resistive wall mode stability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Longxi; Wu Bin

    2013-01-01

    Effects of modes interaction on the resistive wall mode (RWM) stability are studied. When considering the modes interaction effects, the linear growth rate of the most unstable (3, 1) mode decreases. After linear evolution, the RWM saturates at the nonlinear phase. The saturation can be attributed to flux piling up on the resistive wall. When some modes exist, the (3, 1) mode saturates at lower level compared with single mode evolution. Meanwhile, the magnetic energy of the (5, 2) mode increases correspondingly, but the magnetic energy saturation level of the (2, 1) mode changes weakly. (authors)

  1. Surface modes in physics

    CERN Document Server

    Sernelius, Bo E

    2011-01-01

    Electromagnetic surface modes are present at all surfaces and interfaces between material of different dielectric properties. These modes have very important effects on numerous physical quantities: adhesion, capillary force, step formation and crystal growth, the Casimir effect etc. They cause surface tension and wetting and they give rise to forces which are important e.g. for the stability of colloids.This book is a useful and elegant approach to the topic, showing how the concept of electromagnetic modes can be developed as a unifying theme for a range of condensed matter physics. The

  2. Study of complex modes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pastrnak, J.W.

    1986-01-01

    This eighteen-month study has been successful in providing the designer and analyst with qualitative guidelines on the occurrence of complex modes in the dynamics of linear structures, and also in developing computer codes for determining quantitatively which vibration modes are complex and to what degree. The presence of complex modes in a test structure has been verified. Finite element analysis of a structure with non-proportional dumping has been performed. A partial differential equation has been formed to eliminate possible modeling errors

  3. Switch mode power supply

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Hui Jun

    1993-06-01

    This book concentrates on switch mode power supply. It has four parts, which are introduction of switch mode power supply with DC-DC converter such as Buck converter boost converter, Buck-boost converter and PWM control circuit, explanation for SMPS with DC-DC converter modeling and power mode control, resonance converter like resonance switch, converter, multi resonance converter and series resonance and parallel resonance converters, basic test of SMPS with PWM control circuit, Buck converter, Boost converter, flyback converter, forward converter and IC for control circuit.

  4. Higher Order Mode Fibers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Israelsen, Stine Møller

    This PhD thesis considers higher order modes (HOMs) in optical fibers. That includes their excitation and characteristics. Within the last decades, HOMs have been applied both for space multiplexing in optical communications, group velocity dispersion management and sensing among others......-radial polarization as opposed to the linear polarization of the LP0X modes. The effect is investigated numerically in a double cladding fiber with an outer aircladding using a full vectorial modesolver. Experimentally, the bowtie modes are excited using a long period grating and their free space characteristics...... and polarization state are investigated. For this fiber, the onset of the bowtie effect is shown numerically to be LP011. The characteristics usually associated with Bessel-likes modes such as long diffraction free length and selfhealing are shown to be conserved despite the lack of azimuthal symmetry...

  5. Propagating annular modes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheshadri, A.; Plumb, R. A.

    2017-12-01

    The leading "annular mode", defined as the dominant EOF of surface pressure or of zonal mean zonal wind variability, appears as a dipolar structure straddling the mean midlatitude jet and thus seems to describe north-south wobbling of the jet latitude. However, extratropical zonal wind anomalies frequently tend to migrate poleward. This behavior can be described by the first two EOFs, the first (AM1) being the dipolar structure, and the second (AM2) having a tripolar structure centered on the mean jet. Taken in isolation, AM1 thus describes a north-south wobbling of the jet position, while AM2 describes a strengthening and narrowing of the jet. However, despite the fact that they are spatially orthogonal, and their corresponding time series temporally orthogonal, AM1 and AM2 are not independent, but show significant lag-correlations which reveal the propagation. The EOFs are not modes of the underlying dynamical system governing the zonal flow evolution. The true modes can be estimated using principal oscillation pattern (POP) analysis. In the troposphere, the leading POPs manifest themselves as a pair of complex conjugate structures with conjugate eigenvalues thus, in reality, constituting a single, complex, mode that describes propagating anomalies. Even though the principal components associated with the two leading EOFs decay at different rates, each decays faster than the true mode. These facts have implications for eddy feedback and the susceptibility of the mode to external perturbations. If one interprets the annular modes as the modes of the system, then simple theory predicts that the response to steady forcing will usually be dominated by AM1 (with the longest time scale). However, such arguments should really be applied to the true modes. Experiments with a simplified GCM show that climate response to perturbations do not necessarily have AM1 structures. Implications of these results for stratosphere-troposphere interactions are explored. The POP

  6. Li tter Fall i n A Pri mary an d Two Logged -over Lowland Tropical Rainfore sts in Pasirmayang, Jam bi.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    UPIK ROSALI NA WAS R IN

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Litte r accu mulatio n in a prim ary and a log g ed-ove r lo wland dipterocarp fore st at Pa si rmayang, Ja mbi wa s measu red u sin g the litte r trap met hod . In the p rimary fore st , tra p s were placed in fou r d istinc t areas, reflectin g th e su ccess ion stages of the fo rest fr om building t o mat u ration. In the logged-over fo re st , litter p roduc tion w a s measured at two differe nt si tes, one cut in 197 9/1980 a nd t h e second i n 1 983/1984. In the prim ary fore st , ave rage litter production during the ob serv ation period wa s 925 g m"2yr '. In the lo gged -over f o r e st , ave rage l itte r production wa s 721 g m '2 yr1 for t h e sit e cut in 1979 /198 0 and 70 6 g m '2 yr1 f o r the site cut in 19 83/1 984 . Leave s com p ri sed the major con tri butor of litter wit h 67% of tota l litter produced in t h e pri m ary forest, 67% of total litter i n the 1979/ 1980 cut log g ed-o ver fore st, and 65 % of total li tter in the 1983/1984 cut logged-over fore st . The pu rp ose of the stu dy wa s to use litte r fa ll a s a measure of forest pro ductivi ty to a ssess the recovery of log g ed -over forests and , t o pro v ide a basi s for co mpariso n o f forest-de rived land practices for app ropriate fo re st manage ment stra tegies .

  7. Collective Lyapunov modes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takeuchi, Kazumasa A; Chaté, Hugues

    2013-01-01

    We show, using covariant Lyapunov vectors in addition to standard Lyapunov analysis, that there exists a set of collective Lyapunov modes in large chaotic systems exhibiting collective dynamics. Associated with delocalized Lyapunov vectors, they act collectively on the trajectory and hence characterize the instability of its collective dynamics. We further develop, for globally coupled systems, a connection between these collective modes and the Lyapunov modes in the corresponding Perron–Frobenius equation. We thereby address the fundamental question of the effective dimension of collective dynamics and discuss the extensivity of chaos in the presence of collective dynamics. This article is part of a special issue of Journal of Physics A: Mathematical and Theoretical devoted to ‘Lyapunov analysis: from dynamical systems theory to applications’. (paper)

  8. Sliding mode control and observation

    CERN Document Server

    Shtessel, Yuri; Fridman, Leonid; Levant, Arie

    2014-01-01

    The sliding mode control methodology has proven effective in dealing with complex dynamical systems affected by disturbances, uncertainties and unmodeled dynamics. Robust control technology based on this methodology has been applied to many real-world problems, especially in the areas of aerospace control, electric power systems, electromechanical systems, and robotics. Sliding Mode Control and Observation represents the first textbook that starts with classical sliding mode control techniques and progresses toward newly developed higher-order sliding mode control and observation algorithms and their applications. The present volume addresses a range of sliding mode control issues, including: *Conventional sliding mode controller and observer design *Second-order sliding mode controllers and differentiators *Frequency domain analysis of conventional and second-order sliding mode controllers *Higher-order sliding mode controllers and differentiators *Higher-order sliding mode observers *Sliding mode disturbanc...

  9. Mode selection laser

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2014-01-01

    spatial reflector variations, may be combined to generate a laser beam containing a plurality of orthogonal modes. The laser beam may be injected into a few- mode optical fiber, e.g. for the purpose of optical communication. The VCSEL may have intra-cavity contacts (31,37) and a Tunnel junction (33......) for current confinement into the active layer (34). An air-gap layer (102) may be provided between the upper reflector (15) and the SOI wafer (50) acting as a substrate. The lower reflector may be designed as a high-contrast grating (51) by etching....

  10. Las redes sociales en las campañas de los candidatos a diputados locales del PRI , el PAN y el PRD en las elecciones de 2015 en el Estado de México / Social media in local campaigns of pri , pan and prd candidates in the 2015 State of Mexico legislative elections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leticia Heras Gómez

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo del artículo es examinar la comunicación política de los partidos a través de las redes sociales (Facebook y Twitter en las elecciones de 2015 para el Congreso local del Estado de México. Con este fin, se realizó un análisis de contenido de todos los mensajes en redes sociales de los candidatos del Partido Revolucionario Institucional (PRI el Partido Acción Nacional (PAN y el Partido de la Revolución Democrática (PRD a partir de una muestra de nueve de los 45 distritos electorales uninominales, con base en una codificación que clasifica su contenido en ocho categorías relevantes. Contrario a los supuestos de la literatura sobre la posmodernización de las campañas electorales, los resultados del estudio muestran que el uso político de las redes sociales en las elecciones locales en México es todavía limitado y que los canales basados en Internet aún no han logrado desplazar a las formas tradicionales de comunicación ni de participación electoral. En general, los datos revelan que las redes sociales se utilizan esencialmente como agenda o diario de actividades de los candidatos, los cuales buscan una mayor visibilidad de su imagen, pero con escasa incidencia en los resultados electorales. / The aim of this article is to examine political party communication through social media (Facebook and Twitter in the 2015 local congressional elections of the State of Mexico. According to that purpose, we carried out a content analysis of social media messages of all congressional candidates of the PRI, PAN, and PRD from a sample of nine single-member districts out of 45, by using a coding of eight relevant categories. The results of our study show that the political use of social media in local elections in México is still quite limited and that Internet channels have not replaced traditional methods of political communication and electoral participation, which is contrary to the assumptions of post-modernization literature

  11. Magnetic modes in superlattices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliveira, F.A.

    1990-04-01

    A first discussion of reciprocal propagation of magnetic modes in a superlattice is presented. In the absence of an applied external magnetic field a superllatice made of alternate layers of the type antiferromagnetic-non-magnetic materials presents effects similar to those of phonons in a dielectric superlattice. (A.C.A.S.) [pt

  12. Thermodynamics of Radiation Modes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pina, Eduardo; de la Selva, Sara Maria Teresa

    2010-01-01

    We study the equilibrium thermodynamics of the electromagnetic radiation in a cavity of a given volume and temperature. We found three levels of description, the thermodynamics of one mode, the thermodynamics of the distribution of frequencies in a band by summing over the frequencies in it and the global thermodynamics by summing over all the…

  13. Thermal Operating Modes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bechtel SAIC Company

    2002-01-01

    Higher and lower temperature operating modes (e.g., above and below the boiling point of water) are alternative approaches to managing the heat produced by the radioactive decay of spent nuclear fuel. Current analyses indicate that a repository at the Yucca Mountain site is likely to comply with applicable safety standards regardless of the particular thermal operating mode. Both modes have potential advantages and disadvantages. With a higher temperature operating mode (HTOM), waste packages (WPs) can be placed closer together. This reduces the number of drifts, the required emplacement area, construction costs, and occupational risks to construction workers. In addition, the HTOM would minimize the amount of water that might contact the waste for hundreds of years after closure. On the other hand, higher temperatures introduce uncertainties in the understanding of the long-term performance of the repository because of uncertainties in the thermal effects on WP lifetime and the near-field environment around the drifts. A lower temperature operating mode (LTOM) has the potential to reduce uncertainties in long-term performance of the repository by limiting the effects of temperature on WP lifetime and on the near-field environment around the drifts. Depending on the combination of operating parameters, a LTOM could require construction of additional drifts, a larger emplacement area, increased construction costs, increased occupational risks to construction works, and a longer period of ventilation than a HTOM. The repository design for the potential Yucca Mountain site is flexible and can be constructed and operated in various operating modes to achieve specific technical objectives, accommodate future policy decisions, and use of new information. For example, the flexible design can be operated across a range of temperatures and can be tailored to achieve specific thermal requirements in the future. To accommodate future policy decisions, the repository can be

  14. Observations on resistive wall modes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gerwin, R.A.; Finn, J.M.

    1996-01-01

    Several results on resistive wall modes and their application to tokamaks are presented. First, it is observed that in the presence of collisional parallel dynamics there is an exact cancellation to lowest order of the dissipative and sound wave effects for an ideal Ohm's law. This is easily traced to the fact that the parallel dynamics occurs along the perturbed magnetic field lines for such electromagnetic modes. Such a cancellation does not occur in the resistive layer of a tearing-like mode. The relevance to models for resistive wall modes using an electrostatic Hammett-Perkins type operator to model Landau damping will be discussed. Second, we observe that with an ideal Ohm's law, resistive wall modes can be destabilized by rotation in that part of parameter space in which the ideal MHD modes are stable with the wall at infinity. This effect can easily be explained by interpreting the resistive wall instability in terms of mode coupling between the backward stable MHD mode and a stable mode locked into the wall. Such an effect can occur for very small rotation for tearing-resistive wall modes in which inertia dominates viscosity in the layer, but the mode is stabilized by further rotation. For modes for which viscosity dominates in the layer, rotation is purely stabilizing. For both tearing models, a somewhat higher rotation frequency gives stability essentially whenever the tearing mode is stable with a perfectly conducting wall. These tearing/resistive wall results axe also simply explained in terms of mode coupling. It has been shown that resonant external ideal modes can be stabilized in the presence of resistive wall and resistive plasma with rotation of order the nominal tearing mode growth rate. We show that these modes behave as resistive wall tearing modes in the sense above. This strengthens the suggestion that rotational stabilization of the external kink with a resistive wall is due to the presence of resistive layers, even for ideal modes

  15. Boosting Majorana Zero Modes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Torsten Karzig

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available One-dimensional topological superconductors are known to host Majorana zero modes at domain walls terminating the topological phase. Their non-Abelian nature allows for processing quantum information by braiding operations that are insensitive to local perturbations, making Majorana zero modes a promising platform for topological quantum computation. Motivated by the ultimate goal of executing quantum-information processing on a finite time scale, we study domain walls moving at a constant velocity. We exploit an effective Lorentz invariance of the Hamiltonian to obtain an exact solution of the associated quasiparticle spectrum and wave functions for arbitrary velocities. Essential features of the solution have a natural interpretation in terms of the familiar relativistic effects of Lorentz contraction and time dilation. We find that the Majorana zero modes remain stable as long as the domain wall moves at subluminal velocities with respect to the effective speed of light of the system. However, the Majorana bound state dissolves into a continuous quasiparticle spectrum after the domain wall propagates at luminal or even superluminal velocities. This relativistic catastrophe implies that there is an upper limit for possible braiding frequencies even in a perfectly clean system with an arbitrarily large topological gap. We also exploit our exact solution to consider domain walls moving past static impurities present in the system.

  16. Guaranteed performance in reaching mode of sliding mode ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    R. Narasimhan (Krishtel eMaging) 1461 1996 Oct 15 13:05:22

    addresses the design of constant plus proportional rate reaching law-based SMC for second-order ... Reaching mode; sliding mode controlled systems; output tracking ... The uncertainty in the input distribution function g is expressed as.

  17. Scanning in Thyroid Cancer; Exploration des tumeurs de la thyroide; Ispol'zovanie radioizotopov pri issledovanii raka shchitovidnoj zhelezy; Exploracion de los tumores tiroideos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bauer, Franz K [Radioisotope Centre, University of Southern California School of Medicine, Los Angeles, CA (United States)

    1959-07-01

    methode qui permette de suivre l'evolution de la maladie. (author) [Spanish] La exploracion de los tumores de la tiroides reviste interes para: 1. El diagnostico preoperatorio de los nodulos tiroideos; 2. La localization de metastasis del cancer de tiroides; 3. El tratamiento de los enfermos tiroidectomizados, con metastasis del cancer de la tiroides. El autor describe el aspecto de los nodulos tiroideos en el centelleograma y proporciona algunos resultados preliminares obtenidos con el empleo del fosforo radiactivo y con el recuento externo de los nodulos < inactivos > mediante un contador Geiger-Mueller. El autor describe asimismo la localizacion de las metastasis del cancer de la tiroides, destacando, especialmente, el empleo de la hormona tirotropica. Ese metodo ha permitido comprobar que las tres cuartas partes de los enfermos que padecen de tumores metastaticos de la tiroides tienen metastasis activas. Estudia detalladamente la tecnica de la ablation de los restos glandulares que suelen quedar despues de la tiroidectomia total, asi como el tratamiento de las metastasis. La exploracion de las metastasis constituye el mejor medio para observar la evolucion de la enfermedad. (author) [Russian] Primenenie radioizotopov v issledovanii raka shchitovidnoj zhelezy rekomenduetsya v sleduyushchikh sluchayakh: 1. Predoperatsionny j diagnoz uzelkovogo utolshcheniya shchitovidnoj zhelezy; 2. Lokalizatsiya metastazov raka shchitovidnoj zhelezy; 3. Lechenie bol'nykh s udalennoj shchitovidnoj zhelezoj, no s metastazami, obrazovann{sup m}i rakom ehtoj zhelezy; Opisyvaetsya vliyanie uzelkovykh utolshchenij shchitovidnoj zhelezy na etsiitigrammu. Soobshchaetsya o nekotorykh predvaritel'nykh rezul'tatakh opredeleniya < kholodnykh > utolshchenij pri pomoshchi radioaktivnog o fosfora i naruzhnogo primeneniya schetchika Gejgera-Myullera. Opisyvaetsya lokalizatsiya metastazov raka shchitovidnoj zhelezy i v osobennosti ispol'zovanie dlya ehtoj Deli gormona perednej doli gipofiza. S pomoshch

  18. Avtomatsko vodenje pri avtonomnih jadrnicah

    OpenAIRE

    ROJE, MARIN

    2016-01-01

    Avtonomne jadrnice so robotska plovila, ki brez potrebe po človekovih posegih uporabljajo veter za pogon in upravljajo z jadri in krmilom. Namen razvoja teh plovil je izdelava jadrnice brez posadke, ki omogoča popolno samostojno jadranje, varno plovbo in izvajanje dolgoročnih nalog na morju. Najpomembnejši sistemi avtonomnih jadrnic so: sistem za dolgoročno načrtovanje plovne poti v odvisnosti od vremenskih razmer, sistem za kratkoročno preusmerjanje jadrnice v odvisnosti od trenutnih pod...

  19. Primenenie piyavita pri sakharnom diabete

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E V Mikhaylova

    1999-06-01

    Full Text Available Актуальность. Микроциркуляторные сосудистые нарушения при сахарном диабете (СД носят вторичный характер, но необходимость их коррекции выходит на первый план, так как они являются причиной стойких, некупируемых сахароснижающими препаратами патологических состояний (нефропатия, ретинопатия и др., ведущих к инвалидизации. Имеются данные о влиянии пиявита на реологические свойства крови, васкулярно-тромбоцитарный гемостаз, липидный обмен, атерогенез. Цель. Изучение влияния Пиявита на реологические свойства крови, васкулярно-тромбоцитарный гемостаз, липидный обмен, атерогенез. Материалы и методы Обследовано 30 человек: 22 больных сахарным диабетом 2 типа в возрасте от 41 года до 67 лет и 8 больных с СД 1 типа в возрасте от 17 до 42 лет. 13 пациентов с СД 2 получали инсулин и сахароснижаюшие препараты, 9 ? только сахароснижаюшие препараты. Все больные СД 1 типа находились на инсулинотерапии. На фоне указанных методов лечения больным назначали Пиявит. Лечение пиявитом проводили в течение 3 нед. по 300 мг 2 раза в день. Результаты. Данные свидетельствуют об улучшении показателей липидного обмена: снижении уровня холестерина сыворотки крови и триглицеридов. Полученные результаты свидетельствуют о снижении гиперкогуляционного потенциала крови и усилении фибринолитической активности крови под влиянием пиявита. Выводы. На фоне лечения пиявитом у больных сахарным диабетом отмечено улучшение показателей липидного обмена и системы гемостаза. Пиявит можно рекомендовать для комплексной терапии больных сахарным диабетом 1 и 2 типа.

  20. Mode-to-mode energy transfers in convective patterns

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. We investigate the energy transfer between various Fourier modes in a low- dimensional model for thermal convection. We have used the formalism of mode-to-mode energy transfer rate in our calculation. The evolution equations derived using this scheme is the same as those derived using the hydrodynamical ...

  1. Azimuthal decomposition of optical modes

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Dudley, Angela L

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available This presentation analyses the azimuthal decomposition of optical modes. Decomposition of azimuthal modes need two steps, namely generation and decomposition. An azimuthally-varying phase (bounded by a ring-slit) placed in the spatial frequency...

  2. Localized Acoustic Surface Modes

    KAUST Repository

    Farhat, Mohamed

    2015-08-04

    We introduce the concept of localized acoustic surface modes (ASMs). We demonstrate that they are induced on a two-dimensional cylindrical rigid surface with subwavelength corrugations under excitation by an incident acoustic plane wave. Our results show that the corrugated rigid surface is acoustically equivalent to a cylindrical scatterer with uniform mass density that can be represented using a Drude-like model. This, indeed, suggests that plasmonic-like acoustic materials can be engineered with potential applications in various areas including sensing, imaging, and cloaking.

  3. Raman amplification of OAM modes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ingerslev, Kasper; Gregg, Patrick; Galili, Michael

    2017-01-01

    The set of fibre modes carrying orbital angular momentum (OAM) is a possible basis for mode division multiplexing. In this regard, fibres supporting OAM modes have been fabricated [1], and optical communication using these fibres, has been demonstrated [2]. A vital part of any long range...

  4. ACCA College English Teaching Mode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Renlun

    2008-01-01

    This paper elucidates a new college English teaching mode--"ACCA" (Autonomous Cooperative Class-teaching All-round College English Teaching Mode). Integrated theories such as autonomous learning and cooperative learning into one teaching mode, "ACCA", which is being developed and advanced in practice as well, is the achievement…

  5. Fluxon modes in superconducting multilayers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Niels Falsig; Madsen, Søren Peder

    2004-01-01

    We show how to construct fluxon modes from plasma modes in the inductively coupled stacked Josephson junctions, and consider some special cases of these fluxon modes analytically. In some cases we can find exact analytical solutions when we choose the bias current in a special way. We also consid...

  6. Standardization of Keyword Search Mode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Di

    2010-01-01

    In spite of its popularity, keyword search mode has not been standardized. Though information professionals are quick to adapt to various presentations of keyword search mode, novice end-users may find keyword search confusing. This article compares keyword search mode in some major reference databases and calls for standardization. (Contains 3…

  7. Spin and isospin modes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuki, T.; Sagawa, H.

    2000-01-01

    Complete text of publication follows. Spin and isospin modes in nuclei are investigated. We discuss some of the following topics. 1. Spin-dipole excitations in 12 C and 16 O are studied (1). Effects of tensor and spin-orbit interactions on the distribution of the strengths are investigated, and neutral current neutrino scattering cross sections in 16 O are obtained for heavy-flavor neutrinos from the supernovae. 2. Gamow-Teller (GT) and spin-dipole (SD) modes in 208 Bi are investigated. Quenching and fragmentation of the GT strength are discussed (2). SD excitations and electric dipole (E1) transitions between the GT and SD states are studied (3). Calculated E1 strengths are compared with the sum rule values obtained within the 1p-1h and 1p-1h + 2p-2h configuration spaces. 3. Coulomb displacement energy (CDE) of the IAS of 14 Be is calculated, and the effects of the halo on the CDE and the configuration of the halo state are investigated. 4. Spreading width of IAS and isospin dependence of the width are investigated (4). Our formula for the width explains very well the observed isospin dependence (5). (author)

  8. Modes of fossil preservation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schopf, J.M.

    1975-01-01

    The processes of geologic preservation are important for understanding the organisms represented by fossils. Some fossil differences are due to basic differences in organization of animals and plants, but the interpretation of fossils has also tended to be influenced by modes of preservation. Four modes of preservation generally can be distinguished: (1) Cellular permineralization ("petrifaction") preserves anatomical detail, and, occasionally, even cytologic structures. (2) Coalified compression, best illustrated by structures from coal but characteristic of many plant fossils in shale, preserves anatomical details in distorted form and produces surface replicas (impressions) on enclosing matrix. (3) Authigenic preservation replicates surface form or outline (molds and casts) prior to distortion by compression and, depending on cementation and timing, may intergrade with fossils that have been subject to compression. (4) Duripartic (hard part) preservation is characteristic of fossil skeletal remains, predominantly animal. Molds, pseudomorphs, or casts may form as bulk replacements following dissolution of the original fossil material, usually by leaching. Classification of the kinds of preservation in fossils will aid in identifying the processes responsible for modifying the fossil remains of both animals and plants. ?? 1975.

  9. MODELI MERJENJA KAKOVOSTI STORITEV NA MEDORGANIZACIJSKEM TRGU

    OpenAIRE

    Cestnik, Dušan

    2011-01-01

    Vse večja konkurenca na medorganizacijskih trgih sili tako storitvena podjetja, kot tudi podjetja, ki tržijo izdelke, da svoje delo opravljajo vse bolj kakovostno na vseh ravneh svojega delovanja. Podjetja morajo svoje odjemalce obdržati, prav tako pa morajo delovati tudi na pridobivanju novih odjemalcev. Da pa podjetja svoje odjemalce obdržijo morajo nenehno delovati tako, da uživajo zaupanje svojih odjemalcev. Odjemalec že z odločitvijo za neko določeno podjetje XY pričakuje, da bodo storit...

  10. Animal Representations on Ceremonial Objects Found in the Tumulus at Črnolica pri Šentjurju at the Foot of Rifnik

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iztok Vrenčur

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The years 1985 and 1986 saw a rescue excavation by archaeologists from the Institute for the Protection of Cultural Heritage of Slovenia, Celje Regional Office, performed on the severely damaged Iron Age tumulus in the village of Črnolica pri Šentjurju. The village lies in the close vicinity of the Rifnik hill, the site of one of the largest known hilltop settlements in Slovenia dating from the Late Bronze and Iron Ages. The excavation in Črnolica yielded a stone grave chamber of monumental dimensions, together with fragmented and decontextualised grave goods. These included a large set of quality ceramic vessels, a considerable number of bronze vessels, glass cups, fibulae, and a horse harness. Of special importance are three bronze items fabricated in Etruria, which carry the protomas of an aquatic bird, horses, and a ram. The burial dates to the Hallstatt C2 period or the second half of the 7th century BC. Aquatic birds are positioned on all four vertexes of the presentatoio, a special type of vessel presumably used for libation rituals. Comparable items have come to light in the richest graves of the Iron Age aristocracy of Etruria, Latium Vetus and Bologna, and date to the end of the 8th and the beginning of the 7th centuries BC. The aquatic bird sculptures on the presentatoio are stylised, displaying features of the Late Italic Geometric style. This motif marks various Late Bronze and Iron Age items associated with ritual activities in the greater part of Europe, connecting them with prehistoric religious beliefs. While the assumption that they refer to the sun divinisation cult is not proven, they must have signified some prehistoric aspect of the holy or numinous. The two anthropomorphic legs with an attached horse protoma found in the Črnolica tumulus were reconstructed as a part of a tripod of small dimensions, which can be classified as a member of the so-called horse tripod family, fine products of the Italic Geometric style

  11. Surface tearing modes in tokamaks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takizuka, Tomonori; Kurita, Gen-ichi; Azumi, Masafumi; Takeda, Tatsuoki

    1985-10-01

    Surface tearing modes in tokamaks are studied numerically and analytically. The eigenvalue problem is solved to obtain the growth rate and the mode structure. We investigate in detail dependences of the growth rate of the m/n = 2/1 resistive MHD modes on the safety factor at the plasma surface, current profile, wall position, and resistivity. The surface tearing mode moves the plasma surface even when the wall is close to the surface. The stability diagram for these modes is presented. (author)

  12. Anxiety, Self-Esteem and Coping With Stress in Secondary School Students in Relation to Involvement in Organized Sports / Anksioznost, Samospoštovanje In Spoprijemanje S Stresom Pri Srednješolcih V Povezavi Z Vključenostjo V Organizirano Športno Aktivnost

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dolenc Petra

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Cilj. Namen raziskave je bil preučiti raven samospoštovanja in anksioznosti ter uporabo različnih strategij spoprijemanja s stresom pri srednješolskih mladostnikih v povezavi z vključenostjo v redno in organizirano športno vadbo.

  13. The Integrated Mode Management Interface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutchins, Edwin

    1996-01-01

    Mode management is the processes of understanding the character and consequences of autoflight modes, planning and selecting the engagement, disengagement and transitions between modes, and anticipating automatic mode transitions made by the autoflight system itself. The state of the art is represented by the latest designs produced by each of the major airframe manufacturers, the Boeing 747-400, the Boeing 777, the McDonnell Douglas MD-11, and the Airbus A320/A340 family of airplanes. In these airplanes autoflight modes are selected by manipulating switches on the control panel. The state of the autoflight system is displayed on the flight mode annunciators. The integrated mode management interface (IMMI) is a graphical interface to autoflight mode management systems for aircraft equipped with flight management computer systems (FMCS). The interface consists of a vertical mode manager and a lateral mode manager. Autoflight modes are depicted by icons on a graphical display. Mode selection is accomplished by touching (or mousing) the appropriate icon. The IMMI provides flight crews with an integrated interface to autoflight systems for aircraft equipped with flight management computer systems (FMCS). The current version is modeled on the Boeing glass-cockpit airplanes (747-400, 757/767). It runs on the SGI Indigo workstation. A working prototype of this graphics-based crew interface to the autoflight mode management tasks of glass cockpit airplanes has been installed in the Advanced Concepts Flight Simulator of the CSSRF of NASA Ames Research Center. This IMMI replaces the devices in FMCS equipped airplanes currently known as mode control panel (Boeing), flight guidance control panel (McDonnell Douglas), and flight control unit (Airbus). It also augments the functions of the flight mode annunciators. All glass cockpit airplanes are sufficiently similar that the IMMI could be tailored to the mode management system of any modern cockpit. The IMMI does not replace the

  14. Perfil político de los diputados mexicanos federales del pan y pri de la LXI Legislatura: apuntes para un estudio cualitativo de los políticos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mónica Montaño Reyes

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available El descontento ante la democracia ha pro - vocado que el estudio del capital humano que dirige las instituciones representativas cobre relevancia. En este artículo se analiza el perfil político de 382 diputados federales del Partido Acción Nacional ( pan y del Partido Revolucionario Institucional ( pri de la lxi Legislatura. El análisis contem - pla sus competencias profesionales, su trayectoria y su experiencia política. Los resultados muestran datos relevantes sobre los personajes que ejercen los puestos de representación política en México; la revisión de sus competencias personales y de su trayectoria profesional lleva a concluir que la carrera política es un factor de gran importancia para el mejor funcionamiento de la democracia representativa.

  15. Linear stability of tearing modes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cowley, S.C.; Kulsrud, R.M.; Hahm, T.S.

    1986-05-01

    This paper examines the stability of tearing modes in a sheared slab when the width of the tearing layer is much smaller than the ion Larmor radius. The ion response is nonlocal, and the quasineutrality retains its full integal form. An expansion procedure is introduced to solve the quasineutrality equation in powers of the width of the tearing layer over the ion Larmor radius. The expansion procedure is applied to the collisionless and semi-collisional tearing modes. The first order terms in the expansion we find to be strongly stabilizing. The physics of the mode and of the stabilization is discussed. Tearing modes are observed in experiments even though the slab theory predicts stability. It is proposed that these modes grow from an equilibrium with islands at the rational surfaces. If the equilibrium islands are wider than the ion Larmor radius, the mode is unstable when Δ' is positive

  16. Preliminary evidence for association of genetic variants in pri-miR-34b/c and abnormal miR-34c expression with attention deficit and hyperactivity disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Martínez, I; Sánchez-Mora, C; Pagerols, M; Richarte, V; Corrales, M; Fadeuilhe, C; Cormand, B; Casas, M; Ramos-Quiroga, J A; Ribasés, M

    2016-08-30

    Attention deficit and hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a prevalent neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by impairment to sustain attention and inability to control impulses and activity level. The etiology of ADHD is complex, with an estimated heritability of 70-80%. Under the hypothesis that alterations in the processing or target binding of microRNAs (miRNAs) may result in functional alterations predisposing to ADHD, we explored whether common polymorphisms potentially affecting miRNA-mediated regulation are involved in this psychiatric disorder. We performed a comprehensive association study focused on 134 miRNAs in 754 ADHD subjects and 766 controls and found association between the miR-34b/c locus and ADHD. Subsequently, we provided preliminary evidence for overexpression of the miR-34c-3p mature form in peripheral blood mononuclear cells of ADHD subjects. Next, we tested the effect on gene expression of single-nucleotide polymorphisms within the ADHD-associated region and found that rs4938923 in the promoter of the pri-miR-34b/c tags cis expression quantitative trait loci for both miR-34b and miR-34c and has an impact on the expression levels of 681 transcripts in trans, including genes previously associated with ADHD. This gene set was enriched for miR-34b/c binding sites, functional categories related to the central nervous system, such as axon guidance or neuron differentiation, and serotonin biosynthesis and signaling canonical pathways. Our results provide preliminary evidence for the contribution to ADHD of a functional variant in the pri-miR-34b/c promoter, possibly through dysregulation of the expression of mature forms of miR-34b and miR-34c and some target genes. These data highlight the importance of abnormal miRNA function as a potential epigenetic mechanism contributing to ADHD.

  17. Audit mode change, corporate governance

    OpenAIRE

    Limei Cao; Wanfu Li; Limin Zhang

    2015-01-01

    This study investigates changes in audit strategy in China following the introduction of risk-based auditing standards rather than an internal control-based audit mode. Specifically, we examine whether auditors are implementing the risk-based audit mode to evaluate corporate governance before distributing audit resources. The results show that under the internal control-based audit mode, the relationship between audit effort and corporate governance was weak. However, implementation of the ri...

  18. Zero modes and entanglement entropy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yazdi, Yasaman K. [Perimeter Institute for Theoretical Physics,31 Caroline St. N., Waterloo, ON, N2L 2Y5 (Canada); Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Waterloo,200 University Avenue West, Waterloo, ON, N2L 3G1 (Canada)

    2017-04-26

    Ultraviolet divergences are widely discussed in studies of entanglement entropy. Also present, but much less understood, are infrared divergences due to zero modes in the field theory. In this note, we discuss the importance of carefully handling zero modes in entanglement entropy. We give an explicit example for a chain of harmonic oscillators in 1D, where a mass regulator is necessary to avoid an infrared divergence due to a zero mode. We also comment on a surprising contribution of the zero mode to the UV-scaling of the entanglement entropy.

  19. Normal modes of Bardeen discs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Verdaguer, E.

    1983-01-01

    The short wavelength normal modes of self-gravitating rotating polytropic discs in the Bardeen approximation are studied. The discs' oscillations can be seen in terms of two types of modes: the p-modes whose driving forces are pressure forces and the r-modes driven by Coriolis forces. As a consequence of differential rotation coupling between the two takes place and some mixed modes appear, their properties can be studied under the assumption of weak coupling and it is seen that they avoid the crossing of the p- and r-modes. The short wavelength analysis provides a basis for the classification of the modes, which can be made by using the properties of their phase diagrams. The classification is applied to the large wavelength modes of differentially rotating discs with strong coupling and to a uniformly rotating sequence with no coupling, which have been calculated in previous papers. Many of the physical properties and qualitative features of these modes are revealed by the analysis. (author)

  20. Magnetorheological dampers in shear mode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wereley, N M; Cho, J U; Choi, Y T; Choi, S B

    2008-01-01

    In this study, three types of shear mode damper using magnetorheological (MR) fluids are theoretically analyzed: linear, rotary drum, and rotary disk dampers. The damping performance of these shear mode MR dampers is characterized in terms of the damping coefficient, which is the ratio of the equivalent viscous damping at field-on status to the damping at field-off status. For these three types of shear mode MR damper, the damping coefficient or dynamic range is derived using three different constitutive models: the Bingham–plastic, biviscous, and Herschel–Bulkley models. The impact of constitutive behavior on shear mode MR dampers is theoretically presented and compared

  1. Mode Combinations and International Operations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Benito, Gabriel R. G.; Petersen, Bent; Welch, Lawrence S.

    2011-01-01

    reveals that companies tend to combine modes of operation; thereby producing unique foreign operation mode “packages” for given activities and/or countries, and that the packages are liable to be modified over time – providing a potentially important optional path for international expansion. Our data...... key markets (China, UK and USA) as the basis for an exploration of the extent to which, and how and why, companies combine clearly different foreign operation modes. We examine their use of foreign operation mode combinations within given value activities as well as within given countries. The study...

  2. Mode Combinations and International Operations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Benito, Gabriel R. G.; Petersen, Bent; Welch, Lawrence S.

    2011-01-01

    reveals that companies tend to combine modes of operation; thereby producing unique foreign operation mode “packages” for given activities and/or countries, and that the packages are liable to be modified over time—providing a potentially important optional path for international expansion. The data show...... markets (China, UK and USA) is used as the basis for an exploration of the extent to which, and how and why, companies combine clearly different foreign operation modes. We examine their use of foreign operation mode combinations within given value activities as well as within given countries. The study...

  3. Ballooning modes or Fourier modes in a toroidal plasma?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Connor, J.W.; Taylor, J.B.

    1987-01-01

    The relationship between two different descriptions of eigenmodes in a torus is investigated. In one the eigenmodes are similar to Fourier modes in a cylinder and are highly localized near a particular rational surface. In the other they are the so-called ballooning modes that extend over many rational surfaces. Using a model that represents both drift waves and resistive interchanges the transition from one of these structures to the other is investigated. In this simplified model the transition depends on a single parameter which embodies the competition between toroidal coupling of Fourier modes (which enhances ballooning) and variation in frequency of Fourier modes from one rational surface to another (which diminishes ballooning). As the coupling is increased each Fourier mode acquires a sideband on an adjacent rational surface and these sidebands then expand across the radius to form the extended mode described by the conventional ballooning mode approximation. This analysis shows that the ballooning approximation is appropriate for drift waves in a tokamak but not for resistive interchanges in a pinch. In the latter the conventional ballooning effect is negligible but they may nevertheless show a ballooning feature. This is localized near the same rational surface as the primary Fourier mode and so does not lead to a radially extended structure

  4. Spatial-mode switchable ring fiber laser based on low mode-crosstalk all-fiber mode MUX/DEMUX

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Fang; Yu, Jinyi; Wang, Jianping

    2018-05-01

    We report an all-fiber ring laser that emits linearly polarized (LP) modes based on the intracavity all-fiber mode multiplexer/demultiplexer (MUX/DEMUX). Multiple LP modes in ring fiber laser are generated by taking advantage of mode MUX/DEMUX. The all-fiber mode MUX/DEMUX are composed of cascaded mode-selective couplers (MSCs). The output lasing mode of the ring fiber laser can be switched among the three lowest-order LP modes by employing combination of a mode MUX and a simple N × 1 optical switch. The slope efficiencies, optical spectra and mode profiles are measured.

  5. Generation of high order modes

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Ngcobo, S

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available with the location of the Laguerre polynomial zeros. The Diffractive optical element is used to shape the TEM00 Gassian beam and force the laser to operate on a higher order TEMp0 Laguerre-Gaussian modes or high order superposition of Laguerre-Gaussian modes...

  6. Homogeneous modes of cosmological instantons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gratton, Steven; Turok, Neil

    2001-06-15

    We discuss the O(4) invariant perturbation modes of cosmological instantons. These modes are spatially homogeneous in Lorentzian spacetime and thus not relevant to density perturbations. But their properties are important in establishing the meaning of the Euclidean path integral. If negative modes are present, the Euclidean path integral is not well defined, but may nevertheless be useful in an approximate description of the decay of an unstable state. When gravitational dynamics is included, counting negative modes requires a careful treatment of the conformal factor problem. We demonstrate that for an appropriate choice of coordinate on phase space, the second order Euclidean action is bounded below for normalized perturbations and has a finite number of negative modes. We prove that there is a negative mode for many gravitational instantons of the Hawking-Moss or Coleman{endash}De Luccia type, and discuss the associated spectral flow. We also investigate Hawking-Turok constrained instantons, which occur in a generic inflationary model. Implementing the regularization and constraint proposed by Kirklin, Turok and Wiseman, we find that those instantons leading to substantial inflation do not possess negative modes. Using an alternate regularization and constraint motivated by reduction from five dimensions, we find a negative mode is present. These investigations shed new light on the suitability of Euclidean quantum gravity as a potential description of our universe.

  7. Homogeneous modes of cosmological instantons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gratton, Steven; Turok, Neil

    2001-01-01

    We discuss the O(4) invariant perturbation modes of cosmological instantons. These modes are spatially homogeneous in Lorentzian spacetime and thus not relevant to density perturbations. But their properties are important in establishing the meaning of the Euclidean path integral. If negative modes are present, the Euclidean path integral is not well defined, but may nevertheless be useful in an approximate description of the decay of an unstable state. When gravitational dynamics is included, counting negative modes requires a careful treatment of the conformal factor problem. We demonstrate that for an appropriate choice of coordinate on phase space, the second order Euclidean action is bounded below for normalized perturbations and has a finite number of negative modes. We prove that there is a negative mode for many gravitational instantons of the Hawking-Moss or ColemanendashDe Luccia type, and discuss the associated spectral flow. We also investigate Hawking-Turok constrained instantons, which occur in a generic inflationary model. Implementing the regularization and constraint proposed by Kirklin, Turok and Wiseman, we find that those instantons leading to substantial inflation do not possess negative modes. Using an alternate regularization and constraint motivated by reduction from five dimensions, we find a negative mode is present. These investigations shed new light on the suitability of Euclidean quantum gravity as a potential description of our universe

  8. Intelligence and musical mode preference

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bonetti, Leonardo; Costa, Marco

    2016-01-01

    The relationship between fluid intelligence and preference for major–minor musical mode was investigated in a sample of 80 university students. Intelligence was assessed by the Raven’s Advanced Progressive Matrices. Musical mode preference was assessed by presenting 14 pairs of musical stimuli...... differences at the cognitive and personality level related to the enjoyment of sad music....

  9. Mode coupling trigger of neoclassical magnetohydrodynamic tearing modes in tokamaks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gianakon, T.A.; Hegna, C.C.; Callen, J.D.

    1997-05-01

    Numerical studies of the nonlinear evolution of coupled magnetohydrodynamic - type tearing modes in three-dimensional toroidal geometry with neoclassical effects are presented. The inclusion of neoclassical physics introduces an additional free-energy source for the nonlinear formation of magnetic islands through the effects of a bootstrap current in Ohm's law. The neoclassical tearing mode is demonstrated to be destabilized in plasmas which are otherwise Δ' stable, albeit once a threshold island width is exceeded. A possible mechanism for exceeding or eliminating this threshold condition is demonstrated based on mode coupling due to toroidicity with a pre-existing instability at the q = 1 surface

  10. Inter-comb synchronization by mode-to-mode locking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chun, Byung Jae; Kim, Young-Jin; Kim, Seung-Woo

    2016-08-01

    Two combs of fiber femtosecond lasers are synchronized through the optical frequency reference created by injection-locking of a diode laser to a single comb mode. Maintaining a mHz-level narrow linewidth, the optical frequency reference permits two combs to be stabilized by mode-to-mode locking with a relative stability of 1.52  ×  10-16 at 10 s with a frequency slip of 2.46 mHz. This inter-comb synchronization can be utilized for applications such as dual-comb spectroscopy or ultra-short pulse synthesis without extra narrow-linewidth lasers.

  11. Damping Measurements of Plasma Modes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderegg, F.; Affolter, M.; Driscoll, C. F.

    2010-11-01

    For azimuthally symmetric plasma modes in a magnesium ion plasma, confined in a 3 Tesla Penning-Malmberg trap with a density of n ˜10^7cm-3, we measure a damping rate of 2s-1plasma column, alters the frequency of the mode from 16 KHz to 192 KHz. The oscillatory fluid displacement is small compared to the wavelength of the mode; in contrast, the fluid velocity, δvf, can be large compared to v. The real part of the frequency satisfies a linear dispersion relation. In long thin plasmas (α> 10) these modes are Trivelpiece-Gould (TG) modes, and for smaller values of α they are Dubin spheroidal modes. However the damping appears to be non-linear; initially large waves have weaker exponential damping, which is not yet understood. Recent theoryootnotetextM.W. Anderson and T.M. O'Neil, Phys. Plasmas 14, 112110 (2007). calculates the damping of TG modes expected from viscosity due to ion-ion collisions; but the measured damping, while having a similar temperature and density dependence, is about 40 times larger than calculated. This discrepancy might be due to an external damping mechanism.

  12. Mode synthesizing atomic force microscopy and mode-synthesizing sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Passian, Ali; Thundat, Thomas George; Tetard, Laurene

    2013-05-17

    A method of analyzing a sample that includes applying a first set of energies at a first set of frequencies to a sample and applying, simultaneously with the applying the first set of energies, a second set of energies at a second set of frequencies, wherein the first set of energies and the second set of energies form a multi-mode coupling. The method further includes detecting an effect of the multi-mode coupling.

  13. Dual-cavity mode converter for a fundamental mode output in an over-moded relativistic backward-wave oscillator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Jiawei; Huang, Wenhua; Xiao, Renzhen; Bai, Xianchen; Zhang, Yuchuan; Zhang, Xiaowei; Shao, Hao; Chen, Changhua; Zhu, Qi

    2015-01-01

    A dual-cavity TM 02 –TM 01 mode converter is designed for a dual-mode operation over-moded relativistic backward-wave oscillator. With the converter, the fundamental mode output is achieved. Particle-in-cell simulation shows that the efficiency of beam-wave conversion was over 46% and a pureTM 01 mode output was obtained. Effects of end reflection provided by the mode converter were studied. Adequate TM 01 mode feedback provided by the converter enhances conversion efficiency. The distance between the mode converter and extraction cavity critically affect the generation of microwaves depending on the reflection phase of TM 01 mode feedback

  14. Drift Instabilities and Electron Cyclotron Oscillations for Arbitrary Plasma Pressure; Instabilites de Derive et Oscillations Cyclotroniques des Electrons pour des Pressions de Plasma Arbitraires; Drejfovaya neustojchivost' i ehlektronno-tsiklotronnye kolebaniya pri proizvol'nom davlenii plazmy; Inestabilidades de Deriva y Oscilaciones Ciclotronicas de los Electrones en un Plasma de Presion Arbitraria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krall, N. A.; Pearlstein, L. D. [General Atomic Division, General Dynamics Corporation, San Diego, CA (United States)

    1966-04-15

    Most of the familiar drift instabilities (flute, universal, etc.) were, calculated in the limit {beta} = (plasma pressure)/(magnetic pressure) = 0. In this limit the perturbed electric field is electrostatic, and the Vlasov equation is remarkably simplified. The {beta} limit for validity of the electrostatic approximation depends on the particular mode considered and many present experiments fall outside the range. Two well-known low frequency drift instabilities are examined at arbitrary {beta}; the zero-{beta} regime is determined and stability criteria for larger values of {beta} are derived. In addition, the influence of finite {beta} on radiation at the electron cyclotron harmonics is examined. The finite Larmor radius (R) flute instability driven by mirror type curvature of the magnetic field is considered first. The lowest order's ominously large contribution, inversely proportional to R{sup 2}, cancels to all orders of {beta}. The leading terms are then independent of R, and are. included in the eigenvalue problem; stability criteria are obtained for various ranges of B. Next the universal instability, E = Perturbed = E (exp ik{sub Up-Tack }r{sub Up-Tack })(exp ik{sub II}r{sub II}), in a uniform magnetic field B = B{sub 0}i{sub II} is considered, with field curvature simulated by a fictitious gravity. Here the zero-{beta} limit is dependent upon wavelengths. If {beta} < (electron mass)/(ion mass), or if {beta} <(k{sub II}r{sub p}){sup 2} where r{sub p} = plasma radius and 1/k{sub II} {>=} plasma length, the zero-{beta} limit obtains. Since the instability only exists for (k{sub II}r{sub p}){sup 2} < 0.01, a modest plasma pressure violates the zero-{beta} limit. The eigenvalue for {beta} >(k{sub ll}r{sub p}){sup 2} is calculated and conditions for cusp stabilization as well as mirror destabilization are obtained. The dominant high frequency non-relativistic modes of the stable zero-{beta} plasma are longitudinal waves at electron gyrofrequency harmonics. If

  15. Equilibrium calculations and mode analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herrnegger, F.

    1987-01-01

    The STEP asymptotic stellarator expansion procedure was used to study the MHD equilibrium and stability properties of stellarator configurations without longitudinal net-current, which also apply to advanced stellarators. The effects of toroidal curvature and magnetic well, and the Shafranov shift were investigated. A classification of unstable modes in toroidal stellarators is given. For WVII-A coil-field configurations having a β value of 1% and a parabolic pressure profile, no free-boundary modes are found. This agrees with the experimental fact that unstable behavior of the plasma column is not observed for this parameter range. So a theoretical β-limit for stability against ideal MHD modes can be estimated by mode analysis for the WVII-A device

  16. Tapping mode microwave impedance microscopy

    KAUST Repository

    Lai, K.; Kundhikanjana, W.; Peng, H.; Cui, Y.; Kelly, M. A.; Shen, Z. X.

    2009-01-01

    We report tapping mode microwave impedance imaging based on atomic force microscope platforms. The shielded cantilever probe is critical to localize the tip-sample interaction near the tip apex. The modulated tip-sample impedance can be accurately

  17. Common mode and coupled failure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taylor, J.R.

    1975-10-01

    Based on examples and data from Abnormal Occurence Reports for nuclear reactors, a classification of common mode or coupled failures is given, and some simple statistical models are investigated. (author)

  18. Amplitude damping of vortex modes

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Dudley, Angela L

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available An interferometer, mimicking an amplitude damping channel for vortex modes, is presented. Experimentally the action of the channel is in good agreement with that predicted theoretically. Since we can characterize the action of the channel on orbital...

  19. Peeling mode relaxation ELM model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gimblett, C. G.

    2006-01-01

    This paper discusses an approach to modelling Edge Localised Modes (ELMs) in which toroidal peeling modes are envisaged to initiate a constrained relaxation of the tokamak outer region plasma. Relaxation produces both a flattened edge current profile (which tends to further destabilise a peeling mode), and a plasma-vacuum negative current sheet which has a counteracting stabilising influence; the balance that is struck between these two effects determines the radial extent (rE) of the ELM relaxed region. The model is sensitive to the precise position of the mode rational surfaces to the plasma surface and hence there is a 'deterministic scatter' in the results that has an accord with experimental data. The toroidal peeling stability criterion involves the edge pressure, and using this in conjunction with predictions of rE allows us to evaluate the ELM energy losses and compare with experiment. Predictions of trends with the edge safety factor and collisionality are also made

  20. Fiber cavities with integrated mode matching optics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gulati, Gurpreet Kaur; Takahashi, Hiroki; Podoliak, Nina; Horak, Peter; Keller, Matthias

    2017-07-17

    In fiber based Fabry-Pérot Cavities (FFPCs), limited spatial mode matching between the cavity mode and input/output modes has been the main hindrance for many applications. We have demonstrated a versatile mode matching method for FFPCs. Our novel design employs an assembly of a graded-index and large core multimode fiber directly spliced to a single mode fiber. This all-fiber assembly transforms the propagating mode of the single mode fiber to match with the mode of a FFPC. As a result, we have measured a mode matching of 90% for a cavity length of ~400 μm. This is a significant improvement compared to conventional FFPCs coupled with just a single mode fiber, especially at long cavity lengths. Adjusting the parameters of the assembly, the fundamental cavity mode can be matched with the mode of almost any single mode fiber, making this approach highly versatile and integrable.

  1. Evidence of the wobbling mode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Odegaard, S.W.; Tjoem, P.O.; Hagemann, G.B.; Jensen, D.R.; Bergstroem, M.; Herskind, B.; Sletten, G.; Toermaenen, S.; Wilson, J.N.; Hamamoto, I.; Spohr, K.; Huebel, H.; Goergen, A.; Schoenwasser, G.; Bracco, A.; Leoni, S.; Maj, A.; Petrache, C.M.; Bednarczyk, P.; Curien, D.

    2002-01-01

    The wobbling mode is a direct consequence of rotational motion of a triaxial body. The wobbling degree of freedom introduces sequences of bands with increasing number of wobbling quanta and a characteristic ΔI=1 decay pattern between the bands in competition with the in-band decay. A favorable candidate for establishing this exotic excitation mode is found for the first time in one of the Lu-isotopes for which stable triaxial superdeformed shapes are expected

  2. The evolution of transmission mode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forbes, Mark R.; Hauffe, Heidi C.; Kallio, Eva R.; Okamura, Beth; Sait, Steven M.

    2017-01-01

    This article reviews research on the evolutionary mechanisms leading to different transmission modes. Such modes are often under genetic control of the host or the pathogen, and often in conflict with each other via trade-offs. Transmission modes may vary among pathogen strains and among host populations. Evolutionary changes in transmission mode have been inferred through experimental and phylogenetic studies, including changes in transmission associated with host shifts and with evolution of the unusually complex life cycles of many parasites. Understanding the forces that determine the evolution of particular transmission modes presents a fascinating medley of problems for which there is a lack of good data and often a lack of conceptual understanding or appropriate methodologies. Our best information comes from studies that have been focused on the vertical versus horizontal transmission dichotomy. With other kinds of transitions, theoretical approaches combining epidemiology and population genetics are providing guidelines for determining when and how rapidly new transmission modes may evolve, but these are still in need of empirical investigation and application to particular cases. Obtaining such knowledge is a matter of urgency in relation to extant disease threats. This article is part of the themed issue ‘Opening the black box: re-examining the ecology and evolution of parasite transmission’. PMID:28289251

  3. Doenças priônicas: avaliação dos riscos envolvidos na utilização de produtos de origem bovina Prionic disease: evaluation of the risks involved in using products of bovine origin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omar Lupi

    2003-02-01

    Full Text Available Os príons são proteínas que se mostram capazes de auto-replicação apesar de, para isso, alterar o metabolismo celular. São responsáveis por inúmeras doenças em animais e no ser humano (doenças priônicas, todas elas fatais. Essas moléstias apresentam enorme variabilidade quanto ao período de incubação, de alguns meses a 40 anos. Os príons acumulam-se e destroem os neurônios, provocando quadros conhecidos como encefalopatias espongiosiformes. Discute-se a apresentação clínica, epidemiológica e histórica das doenças priônicas. O foco maior de discussão recai, no entanto, na possibilidade teórica da transmissão iatrogênica dos príons por meio das formulações tópicas que utilizam ceramidas (cerebrosídeos ou placenta de origem bovina, assim como pelo risco representado por alguns procedimentos dermatológicos, como transplantes da pele e implantes de colágeno.A prion is a protein that is capable of self replication, thereby altering a cell's metabolism. It is responsible for a number of human and animal diseases (prionic diseases, all of which are always lethal. These diseases have enormous variability in their incubation periods, ranging from a few months to forty years. Prions accumulate and destroy nerve cells, causing spongiform encephalopathy. We discuss the clinical picture, epidemiology, and historical background of prionic diseases. The major focus of the discussion lies, however, on the theoretical possibility of iatrogenic transmission of prion infection due to topical formulations using ceramides (cerebrosides or placenta of bovine origin, as well as the risk represented by some dermatological procedures such as skin grafts and collagen implants.

  4. Association of Average Telomere Length with Body-Mass Index and Vitamin D Status in Juvenile Population with Type 1 Diabetes / Povezava Povprečnih Dolžin Telomerov Z Indeksom Telesne Teže in Vitaminom D Pri Mladostnikih S Sladkorno Boleznijo Tipa 1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tesovnik Tine

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Izhodišče. Sladkorna bolezen tipa 1 (SBT1 je kronična avtoimunska bolezen, pri kateri hiperglikemija ter zvišana raven oksidativnega stresa in končnih produktov glikacije skupaj z genetskimi in okoljskimi dejavniki privedeta do nastanka diabetičnih zapletov. Krajše dolžine telomerov so povezane s hiperglikemičnimi epizodami in nižjimi serumskimi vrednostmi vitamina D.

  5. Cold distribution networks. Cold distribution by two-phase refrigerant fluid. Case of ice slurries; Reseaux de distribution de froid. Distribution de froid par fluide frigoporteur diphasique. Cas du coulis de glace stabilisee (2002 - 2004). Rapport final (1er juillet 2004). Programme energie. PRI 9.1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lallemand, A. [Institut National des Sciences Appliquees (INSA), Centre de Thermique de Lyon (CETHIL), UMR 5008, 69 - Villeurbanne (France); Mercier, P. [CEA Grenoble, Groupement pour la Recherche sur les Echangeurs Thermiques (GRETH), 38 (France); Royon, L. [Paris-1 Univ., Lab. de Biorheologie et d' Hydrodynamique Physico-Chimique, 75 (France); Dumas, J.P. [L' Ecole Nationale Superieure en Genie des Technologies Industrielles, Lab. de Thermique Energetique et Procedes, 64 - Pau (France); Guilpart, J. [URGPAN/CEMAGRE, 33 - Bordeaux (France)

    2004-07-01

    This PRI aims to participate to the development of alternate solutions for refrigerant fluids, for the cold transport and more specially a two phase refrigerant fluid: the stabilized ice slurry. The research program presented three main axis: design, realization and characterization of stabilized ice slurry, experimental studies of transport and transfer properties, study of online measurement process of the solid content. A simulation has been realized to evaluate the energy efficiency of this refrigerant use. (A.L.B.)

  6. Packaged mode multiplexer based on silicon photonics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chen, H.; Koonen, A.M.J.; Snyder, B.; Raz, O.; Boom, van den H.P.A.; Chen, X.

    2012-01-01

    A silicon photonics based mode multiplexer is proposed. Four chirped grating couplers structure can support all 6 channels in a two-mode fiber and realize LP01 and LP11 mode selective exciting. The packaged device is tested.

  7. Challenges in higher order mode Raman amplifiers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rottwitt, Karsten; Nielsen, Kristian; Friis, Søren Michael Mørk

    2015-01-01

    A higher order Raman amplifier model that take random mode coupling into account ispresented. Mode dependent gain and signal power fluctuations at the output of the higher order modeRaman amplifier are discussed......A higher order Raman amplifier model that take random mode coupling into account ispresented. Mode dependent gain and signal power fluctuations at the output of the higher order modeRaman amplifier are discussed...

  8. Two-mode PLC-based mode multi/demultiplexer for mode and wavelength division multiplexed transmission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanzawa, Nobutomo; Saitoh, Kuimasa; Sakamoto, Taiji; Matsui, Takashi; Tsujikawa, Kyozo; Koshiba, Masanori; Yamamoto, Fumihiko

    2013-11-04

    We proposed a PLC-based mode multi/demultiplexer (MUX/DEMUX) with an asymmetric parallel waveguide for mode division multiplexed (MDM) transmission. The mode MUX/DEMUX including a mode conversion function with an asymmetric parallel waveguide can be realized by matching the effective indices of the LP(01) and LP(11) modes of two waveguides. We report the design of a mode MUX/DEMUX that can support C-band WDM-MDM transmission. The fabricated mode MUX/DEMUX realized a low insertion loss of less than 1.3 dB and high a mode extinction ratio that exceeded 15 dB. We used the fabricated mode MUX/DEMUX to achieve a successful 2 mode x 4 wavelength x 10 Gbps transmission over a 9 km two-mode fiber with a penalty of less than 1 dB.

  9. Tearing modes in toroidal geometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Connor, J.W.; Cowley, S.C.; Hastie, R.J.; Hender, T.C.; Hood, A.; Martin, T.J.

    1988-01-01

    The separation of the cylindrical tearing mode stability problem into a resistive resonant layer calculation and an external marginal ideal magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) calculation (Δ' calculation) is generalized to axisymmetric toroidal geometry. The general structure of this separation is analyzed and the marginal ideal MHD information (the toroidal generalization of Δ') required to discuss stability is isolated. This can then, in principle, be combined with relevant resonant layer calculations to determine tearing mode growth rates in realistic situations. Two examples are given: the first is an analytic treatment of toroidally coupled (m = 1, n = 1) and (m = 2, n = 1) tearing modes in a large aspect ratio torus; the second, a numerical treatment of the toroidal coupling of three tearing modes through finite pressure effects in a large aspect ratio torus. In addition, the use of a coupling integral approach for determining the stability of coupled tearing modes is discussed. Finally, the possibility of using initial value resistive MHD codes in realistic toroidal geometry to determine the necessary information from the ideal MHD marginal solution is discussed

  10. Boundary methods for mode estimation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierson, William E., Jr.; Ulug, Batuhan; Ahalt, Stanley C.

    1999-08-01

    This paper investigates the use of Boundary Methods (BMs), a collection of tools used for distribution analysis, as a method for estimating the number of modes associated with a given data set. Model order information of this type is required by several pattern recognition applications. The BM technique provides a novel approach to this parameter estimation problem and is comparable in terms of both accuracy and computations to other popular mode estimation techniques currently found in the literature and automatic target recognition applications. This paper explains the methodology used in the BM approach to mode estimation. Also, this paper quickly reviews other common mode estimation techniques and describes the empirical investigation used to explore the relationship of the BM technique to other mode estimation techniques. Specifically, the accuracy and computational efficiency of the BM technique are compared quantitatively to the a mixture of Gaussian (MOG) approach and a k-means approach to model order estimation. The stopping criteria of the MOG and k-means techniques is the Akaike Information Criteria (AIC).

  11. Audit mode change, corporate governance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Limei Cao

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates changes in audit strategy in China following the introduction of risk-based auditing standards rather than an internal control-based audit mode. Specifically, we examine whether auditors are implementing the risk-based audit mode to evaluate corporate governance before distributing audit resources. The results show that under the internal control-based audit mode, the relationship between audit effort and corporate governance was weak. However, implementation of the risk-based mode required by the new auditing standards has significantly enhanced the relationship between audit effort and corporate governance. Since the change in audit mode, the Big Ten have demonstrated a significantly better grasp of governance risk and allocated their audit effort accordingly, relative to smaller firms. The empirical evidence indicates that auditors have adjusted their audit strategy to meet the regulations, risk-based auditing is being achieved to a degree, reasonable and effective corporate governance helps to optimize audit resource allocation, and smaller auditing firms in particular should urgently strengthen their risk-based auditing capability. Overall, our findings imply that the mandatory switch to risk-based auditing has optimized audit effort in China.

  12. Neutron Tests at the Start-Up of EDF1; Les essais neutroniques au demarrage du reacteur EDF1; Nejtronnye izmereniya pri puske reaktora EDF1; Ensayos neutronicos efectuados durante la puesta en marcha del reactor EDF1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Teste du Bailler, A. [Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires de Saclay (France); Janin, R. [Electricite de France, Paris (France)

    1963-10-15

    ehksperimental'nykh metodov, razrabotannykh na reaktorakh v Markule, byla provedena vo vremya puska reaktora EDF.1. Izmereniya kasalis' glavnym obrazom ehffektivnosti upravlyayushchikh sterzhnej pri razlichnykh p ogruzh eniyakh. Opredelyaetsya skhema pod''ema s terzhnej, kotoraya pozvolyaet poluchat' polnuyu moshchnost' prk soblyudenii opredelennykh ogranichenij v temperature obolochek i gaza. Parallel'no byli provedeny izmereniya potoka pri razlichnykh polozheniyakh kompensiruyushchikh sterzhnej i pri razlichnykh zagruzkakh poglotitelej v opredelennykh kanalakh, v zavisimosti ot predvaritel'nykh raschetov v dvukhraehmernom izmerenii. Ehti izmereniya byli polucheny putem aktivatsii tochechnykh detektorov s primeneniem obychnogo metoda otravleniya vozdukha. Pri nekotorykh urovnyakh temperatury (do 140{sup o}C) byli provedeny izmereniya koehffitsientov reaktivnosti i ehffektivnosti reguliruyushchikh sterzhnej. V to zhe vremya putem aktivatsii sootvetstvuyushchikh detektorov (uran, plutonij, lyutetsij, marganets, indij, zoloto) byli provedeny izmereniya koehffitsientov spektra. Dlya izmereniya ehffektivnosti nekotorykh kompensiruyushchikh sterzhnej byl ispol'zovan ostsillyatsionnyj metod. Nakonets, s tselyakh izucheniya zashchity i povrezhdeniya grafita byli provedeny izmereniya potoka bystrykh nejtronov. (author)

  13. Tapping mode microwave impedance microscopy

    KAUST Repository

    Lai, K.

    2009-01-01

    We report tapping mode microwave impedance imaging based on atomic force microscope platforms. The shielded cantilever probe is critical to localize the tip-sample interaction near the tip apex. The modulated tip-sample impedance can be accurately simulated by the finite-element analysis and the result agrees quantitatively to the experimental data on a series of thin-film dielectric samples. The tapping mode microwave imaging is also superior to the contact mode in that the thermal drift in a long time scale is totally eliminated and an absolute measurement on the dielectric properties is possible. We demonstrated tapping images on working nanodevices, and the data are consistent with the transport results. © 2009 American Institute of Physics.

  14. Reconfigurable Mixed Mode Universal Filter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neelofer Afzal

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a novel mixed mode universal filter configuration capable of working in voltage and transimpedance mode. The proposed single filter configuration can be reconfigured digitally to realize all the five second order filter functions (types at single output port. Other salient features of proposed configuration include independently programmable filter parameters, full cascadability, and low sensitivity figure. However, all these features are provided at the cost of quite large number of active elements. It needs three digitally programmable current feedback amplifiers and three digitally programmable current conveyors. Use of six active elements is justified by introducing three additional reduced hardware mixed mode universal filter configurations and its comparison with reported filters.

  15. Quasiadiabatic modes from viscous inhomogeneities

    CERN Document Server

    Giovannini, Massimo

    2016-04-20

    The viscous inhomogeneities of a relativistic plasma determine a further class of entropic modes whose amplitude must be sufficiently small since curvature perturbations are observed to be predominantly adiabatic and Gaussian over large scales. When the viscous coefficients only depend on the energy density of the fluid the corresponding curvature fluctuations are shown to be almost adiabatic. After addressing the problem in a gauge-invariant perturbative expansion, the same analysis is repeated at a non-perturbative level by investigating the nonlinear curvature inhomogeneities induced by the spatial variation of the viscous coefficients. It is demonstrated that the quasiadiabatic modes are suppressed in comparison with a bona fide adiabatic solution. Because of its anomalously large tensor to scalar ratio the quasiadiabatic mode cannot be a substitute for the conventional adiabatic paradigm so that, ultimately, the present findings seems to exclude the possibility of a successful accelerated dynamics solely...

  16. Macroscopic (and microscopic massless modes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael C. Abbott

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available We study certain spinning strings exploring the flat directions of AdS3×S3×S3×S1, the massless sector cousins of su(2 and sl(2 sector spinning strings. We describe these, and their vibrational modes, using the D(2,1;α2 algebraic curve. By exploiting a discrete symmetry of this structure which reverses the direction of motion on the spheres, and alters the masses of the fermionic modes s→κ−s, we find out how to treat the massless fermions which were previously missing from this formalism. We show that folded strings behave as a special case of circular strings, in a sense which includes their mode frequencies, and we are able to recover this fact in the worldsheet formalism. We use these frequencies to calculate one-loop corrections to the energy, with a version of the Beisert–Tseytlin resummation.

  17. Physics of resistive wall modes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Igochine, V.

    2012-01-01

    The advanced tokamak regime is a promising candidate for steady-state tokamak operation which is desirable for a fusion reactor. This regime is characterized by a high bootstrap current fraction and a flat or reversed safety factor profile, which leads to operation close to the pressure limit. At this limit, an external kink mode becomes unstable. This external kink is converted into the slowly growing resistive wall mode (RWM) by the presence of a conducting wall. Reduction of the growth rate allows one to act on the mode and to stabilize it. There are two main factors which determine the stability of the RWM. The first factor comes from external magnetic perturbations (error fields, resistive wall, feedback coils, etc). This part of RWM physics is the same for tokamaks and reversed field pinch configurations. The physics of this interaction is relatively well understood and based on classical electrodynamics. The second ingredient of RWM physics is the interaction of the mode with plasma flow and fast particles. These interactions are particularly important for tokamaks, which have higher plasma flow and stronger trapped particle effects. The influence of the fast particles will also be increasingly more important in ITER and DEMO which will have a large fraction of fusion born alpha particles. These interactions have kinetic origins which make the computations challenging since not only particles influence the mode, but also the mode acts on the particles. Correct prediction of the ‘plasma–RWM’ interaction is an important ingredient which has to be combined with external field's influence (resistive wall, error fields and feedback) to make reliable predictions for RWM behaviour in tokamaks. All these issues are reviewed in this paper. (special topic)

  18. Renormalized modes in cuprate superconductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Anushri; Kumari, Anita; Verma, Sanjeev K.; Indu, B. D.

    2018-04-01

    The renormalized mode frequencies are obtained with the help of quantum dynamical approach of many body phonon Green's function technique via a general Hamiltonian (excluding BCS Hamiltonian) including the effects of phonons and electrons, anharmonicities and electron-phonon interactions. The numerical estimates have been carried out to study the renormalized mode frequency of high temperature cuprate superconductor (HTS) YBa2Cu3O7-δ using modified Born-Mayer-Huggins interaction potential (MBMHP) best applicable to study the dynamical properties of all HTS.

  19. Transformation and Modes of Production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høst, Jeppe Engset

    2015-01-01

    modes of production and examine the ways of life that are enabled by the two modes of production. The central questions are around how market-based fisheries management transforms the principal preconditions for the self-employed fishers; and, in turn, why capitalist organized large-scale fisheries......The introduction of private and individual transferable quotas is widely considered to have a negative impact on small- and medium-sized fishing operations. In this chapter, I set out to explore this in a theoretical manner. I discuss the differences in the fishing operations as two contrasting...

  20. Soft mode of lead zirconate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pan'ko, G.F.; Prisedskij, V.V.; Klimov, V.V.

    1983-01-01

    Anisotropic diffusional scattering of electrons on PbZrO 3 crystal in the temperature range of phase transition has been recorded. As a result of its analysis it has been established that in lead zirconate the rotational vibrational mode G 25 plays the role of soft mode. The experiment is carried out using PbZrO 3 monocrystals in translucent electron microscope EhM-200, operating in the regime of microdiffraction at accelerating voltage of 150 kV and beam current 50 μA; sample preparation is realized using the method of shearing and fragmentation

  1. Mode

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mackinney-Valentin, Maria

    A textbook for school children 13-16 on fashion. Ethics, designers, social identity, zeitgeist, and gender are among the key themes.......A textbook for school children 13-16 on fashion. Ethics, designers, social identity, zeitgeist, and gender are among the key themes....

  2. Theory of Modes and Impulses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apsche, Jack A.

    2005-01-01

    In his work on the Theory of Modes, Beck (1996) suggested that there were flaws with his cognitive theory. He suggested that though there are shortcomings to his cognitive theory, there were not similar shortcomings to the practice of Cognitive Therapy. The author suggests that if there are shortcomings to cognitive theory the same shortcomings…

  3. News on the Scissors Mode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pietralla, N.; Beller, J.; Beck, T.; Derya, V.; Löher, B.; Romig, C.; Savran, D.; Scheck, M.; Tornow, W.; Zweidinger, M.

    2014-09-01

    We report on our recent nuclear resonance fluorescence experiments on l52,l54,l56Gd. Decay branches of the scissors mode to intrinsic excitations are observed. They are interpreted as a new signature for a spherical-to-deformed nuclear shape phase transition.

  4. Single-mode optical fibres

    CERN Document Server

    Cancellieri, G

    1991-01-01

    This book describes signal propagation in single-mode optical fibres for telecommunication applications. Such description is based on the analysis of field propagation, considering waveguide properties and also some of the particular characteristics of the material fibre. The book covers such recent advances as, coherent transmissions; optical amplification; MIR fibres; polarization maintaining; polarization diversity and photon counting.

  5. Rubble Mound Breakwater Failure Modes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Burcharth, H. F.; Z., Liu

    1995-01-01

    The RMBFM-Project (Rubble Mound Breakwater Failure Modes) is sponsored by the Directorate General XII of the Commission of the European Communities under the Contract MAS-CT92- 0042, with the objective of contributing to the development of rational methods for the design of rubble mound breakwate...

  6. Mode structure of active resonators

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ernst, G.J.; Witteman, W.J.

    1973-01-01

    An analysis is made of the mode structure of lasers when the interaction with the active medium is taken into account. We consider the combined effect of gain and refractive-index variations for arbitrary mirror configurations. Using a dimensionless round-trip matrix for a medium with a quadratic

  7. Energy balance in tearing modes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wesson, J.A.

    1993-01-01

    The energy balance in tearing modes is described in terms of exact separate energy balance equations. Each of these equations describes identified physical processes, and their sum gives the conservation of total energy. One of the energy balance equations corresponds to Furth's description. (Author)

  8. Quantum Accelerator Modes from the Farey Tree

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buchleitner, A.; D'Arcy, M.B.; Fishman, S.; Gardiner, S.A.; Guarneri, I.; Ma, Z.-Y.; Rebuzzini, L.; Summy, G.S.

    2006-01-01

    We show that mode locking finds a purely quantum nondissipative counterpart in atom-optical quantum accelerator modes. These modes are formed by exposing cold atoms to periodic kicks in the direction of the gravitational field. They are anchored to generalized Arnol'd tongues, parameter regions where driven nonlinear classical systems exhibit mode locking. A hierarchy for the rational numbers known as the Farey tree provides an ordering of the Arnol'd tongues and hence of experimentally observed accelerator modes

  9. Dual-cavity mode converter for a fundamental mode output in an over-moded relativistic backward-wave oscillator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Jiawei; Huang, Wenhua [Department of Electronic Engineering and Information Science, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei 230027 (China); Science and Technology on High Power Microwave Laboratory, Northwest Institute of Nuclear Technology, Xi' an 710024 (China); Xiao, Renzhen; Bai, Xianchen; Zhang, Yuchuan; Zhang, Xiaowei; Shao, Hao; Chen, Changhua [Science and Technology on High Power Microwave Laboratory, Northwest Institute of Nuclear Technology, Xi' an 710024 (China); Zhu, Qi [Department of Electronic Engineering and Information Science, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei 230027 (China)

    2015-03-16

    A dual-cavity TM{sub 02}–TM{sub 01} mode converter is designed for a dual-mode operation over-moded relativistic backward-wave oscillator. With the converter, the fundamental mode output is achieved. Particle-in-cell simulation shows that the efficiency of beam-wave conversion was over 46% and a pureTM{sub 01} mode output was obtained. Effects of end reflection provided by the mode converter were studied. Adequate TM{sub 01} mode feedback provided by the converter enhances conversion efficiency. The distance between the mode converter and extraction cavity critically affect the generation of microwaves depending on the reflection phase of TM{sub 01} mode feedback.

  10. Scaling Fiber Lasers to Large Mode Area: An Investigation of Passive Mode-Locking Using a Multi-Mode Fiber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Edwin; Lefrancois, Simon; Kutz, Jose Nathan; Wise, Frank W

    2011-01-01

    The mode-locking of dissipative soliton fiber lasers using large mode area fiber supporting multiple transverse modes is studied experimentally and theoretically. The averaged mode-locking dynamics in a multi-mode fiber are studied using a distributed model. The co-propagation of multiple transverse modes is governed by a system of coupled Ginzburg-Landau equations. Simulations show that stable and robust mode-locked pulses can be produced. However, the mode-locking can be destabilized by excessive higher-order mode content. Experiments using large core step-index fiber, photonic crystal fiber, and chirally-coupled core fiber show that mode-locking can be significantly disturbed in the presence of higher-order modes, resulting in lower maximum single-pulse energies. In practice, spatial mode content must be carefully controlled to achieve full pulse energy scaling. This paper demonstrates that mode-locking performance is very sensitive to the presence of multiple waveguide modes when compared to systems such as amplifiers and continuous-wave lasers.

  11. Single-mode fiber laser based on core-cladding mode conversion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Shigeru; Schülzgen, Axel; Peyghambarian, N

    2008-02-15

    A single-mode fiber laser based on an intracavity core-cladding mode conversion is demonstrated. The fiber laser consists of an Er-doped active fiber and two fiber Bragg gratings. One Bragg grating is a core-cladding mode converter, and the other Bragg grating is a narrowband high reflector that selects the lasing wavelength. Coupling a single core mode and a single cladding mode by the grating mode converter, the laser operates as a hybrid single-mode laser. This approach for designing a laser cavity provides a much larger mode area than conventional large-mode-area step-index fibers.

  12. Toroidal Trivelpiece-Gould modes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stoessel, F.P.

    1979-01-01

    Electron plasma waves are treated in quasi-electrostatic approximation in a toroidal cavity of rectangular cross-section in an infinitely strong azimuthal magnetic field. The differential equation for the electrostatic potential, derived from fluid equations, can be separated using cylindrical coordinates. The eigenvalue problem for the radial dependence is solved numerically by a shooting method. Eigenvalues are given for different aspect ratios. Comparison with appropriate modes of the straight geometry shows that the toroidal frequencies generally lie some percent above those for the straight case. Plots of the eigenfunctions demonstrate clearly the influence of toroidicity. The deviation from symmetry (which should appear for straight geometry) depends not only on the aspect ratio but also strongly on the mode numbers. (author)

  13. Hypersonic modes in nanophononic semiconductors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hepplestone, S P; Srivastava, G P

    2008-09-05

    Frequency gaps and negative group velocities of hypersonic phonon modes in periodically arranged composite semiconductors are presented. Trends and criteria for phononic gaps are discussed using a variety of atomic-level theoretical approaches. From our calculations, the possibility of achieving semiconductor-based one-dimensional phononic structures is established. We present results of the location and size of gaps, as well as negative group velocities of phonon modes in such structures. In addition to reproducing the results of recent measurements of the locations of the band gaps in the nanosized Si/Si{0.4}Ge{0.6} superlattice, we show that such a system is a true one-dimensional hypersonic phononic crystal.

  14. Nuclear scissors mode with pairing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balbutsev, E. B.; Malov, L. A.; Schuck, P.; Urban, M.; Vinas, X.

    2008-01-01

    The coupled dynamics of the scissors mode and the isovector giant quadrupole resonance are studied using a generalized Wigner function moments method, taking into account pair correlations. Equations of motion for angular momentum, quadrupole moment, and other relevant collective variables are derived on the basis of the time-dependent Hartree-Fock-Bogolyubov equations. Analytical expressions for energy centroids and transition probabilities are found for the harmonic-oscillator model with the quadrupole-quadrupole residual interaction and monopole pairing force. Deformation dependences of energies and B(M1) values are correctly reproduced. The inclusion of pair correlations leads to a drastic improvement in the description of qualitative and quantitative characteristics of the scissors mode.

  15. Wobbling mode in 167Ta

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hartley, D. J.; Ludington, A.; Pifer, R.; Seyfried, E. P.; Vanhoy, J. R.; Janssens, R. V. F.; Carpenter, M. P.; Lauritsen, T.; McCutchan, E. A.; Zhu, S.; Riedinger, L. L.; Darby, I. G.; Riley, M. A.; Aguilar, A.; Wang, X.; Chiara, C. J.; Chowdhury, P.; Lakshmi, S.; Tandel, S. K.; Tandel, U.

    2009-01-01

    The collective wobbling mode, the strongest signature for the rotation of a triaxial nucleus, has previously been seen only in a few Lu isotopes in spite of extensive searches in nearby isotopes. A sequence of transitions in the N=94 167 Ta nucleus exhibiting features similar to those attributed to the wobbling bands in the Lu nuclei has now been found. This band feeds into the πi 13/2 band at a relative energy similar to that seen in the established wobbling bands and its dynamic moment of inertia and alignment properties are nearly identical to the i 13/2 structure over a significant frequency range. Given these characteristics, it is likely that the wobbling mode has been observed for the first time in a nucleus other than Lu, making this collective motion a more general phenomenon.

  16. Fracture modes in human teeth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, J J-W; Kwon, J-Y; Chai, H; Lucas, P W; Thompson, V P; Lawn, B R

    2009-03-01

    The structural integrity of teeth under stress is vital to functional longevity. We tested the hypothesis that this integrity is limited by fracture of the enamel. Experiments were conducted on molar teeth, with a metal rod loaded onto individual cusps. Fracture during testing was tracked with a video camera. Two longitudinal modes of cracking were observed: median cracking from the contact zone, and margin cracking along side walls. Median cracks initiated from plastic damage at the contact site, at first growing slowly and then accelerating to the tooth margin. Margin cracks appeared to originate from the cemento-enamel junction, and traversed the tooth wall adjacent to the loaded cusp from the gingival to the occlusal surface. All cracks remained confined within the enamel shell up to about 550 N. At higher loads, additional crack modes--such as enamel chipping and delamination--began to manifest themselves, leading to more comprehensive failure of the tooth structure.

  17. Tilting mode in field-reversed configurations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schwarzmeier, J.L.; Barnes, D.C.; Lewis, H.R.; Seyler, C.E.; Shestakov, A.I.

    1982-01-01

    Field Reversed Configurations (FRCs) experimentally have exhibited remarkable stability on the magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) timescale, despite numerous MHD calculations showing FRCs to be unstable. It is easy to believe that local modes are stabilized by finite Larmor radius (FLR) effects, but more puzzling is the apparent stability of FRCs against global modes, where one would expect FLR effects to be less important. In this paper we study the tilting mode, which MHD has shown to be a rapidly growing global mode. The tilting mode in FRCs is driven by the pressure gradient, and magnetic compression and field line bending are the stabilizing forces. A schematic of the evolution of the tilting mode is shown. The tilting mode is considered dangerous, because it would lead to rapid tearing across the separatrix. Unlike spheromaks, the tilting mode in FRCs has a separatrix that is fixed in space, so that the mode is strictly internal

  18. Protected Edge Modes without Symmetry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Levin

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available We discuss the question of when a gapped two-dimensional electron system without any symmetry has a protected gapless edge mode. While it is well known that systems with a nonzero thermal Hall conductance, K_{H}≠0, support such modes, here we show that robust modes can also occur when K_{H}=0—if the system has quasiparticles with fractional statistics. We show that some types of fractional statistics are compatible with a gapped edge, while others are fundamentally incompatible. More generally, we give a criterion for when an electron system with Abelian statistics and K_{H}=0 can support a gapped edge: We show that a gapped edge is possible if and only if there exists a subset of quasiparticle types M such that (1 all the quasiparticles in M have trivial mutual statistics, and (2 every quasiparticle that is not in M has nontrivial mutual statistics with at least one quasiparticle in M. We derive this criterion using three different approaches: a microscopic analysis of the edge, a general argument based on braiding statistics, and finally a conformal field theory approach that uses constraints from modular invariance. We also discuss the analogous result for two-dimensional boson systems.

  19. A History of Emerging Modes?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schmitz Michael

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available In this paper I first introduce Tomasello’s notion of thought and his account of its emergence and development through differentiation, arguing that it calls into question the theory bias of the philosophical tradition on thought as well as its frequent atomism. I then raise some worries that he may be overextending the concept of thought, arguing that we should recognize an area of intentionality intermediate between action and perception on the one hand and thought on the other. After that I argue that the co-operative nature of humans is reflected in the very structure of their intentionality and thought: in co-operative modes such as the mode of joint attention and action and the we-mode, they experience and represent others as co-subjects of joint relations to situations in the world rather than as mere objects. In conclusion, I briefly comment on what Tomasello refers to as one of two big open questions in the theory of collective intentionality, namely that of the irreducibility of jointness.

  20. Mode pumping experiments on biomolecules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Austin, R.H.; Erramilli, S.; Xie, A.; Schramm, A.

    1995-01-01

    We will explore several aspects of protein dynamics and energy transfer that can be explored by using the intense, picosecond, tunable mid-IR output of the FEL. In order of appearance they are: (1) Saturation recovery and inter-level coupling of the low temperature amide-I band in acetanilide. This is a continuation of earlier experiments to test soliton models in crystalline hydrogen bonded solids. In this experiment we utilize the sub-picosecond time resolution and low repetition rate of the Stanford SCLA FEL to do both T 1 and T 2 relaxation measurements at 1650 cm -1 . (2) Probing the influence of collective dynamics in sensory rhodopsin. In this experiment we use the FIR output of the Stanford FIREFLY FEL to determine the lifetime of collective modes in the photo-active protein sensory rhodopsin, and begin experiments on the influence of collective modes on retinal reaction dynamics. (3) Probing the transition states of enzymes. This experiment, in the initial stages, attempts to use the intense IR output of the FEL to probe and influence the reaction path of a transition state analog for the protein nucleoside hydrolase. The transition state of the inosine substrate is believed to have critical modes softened by the protein so that bond-breaking paths show absorption at approximately 800 cm -1 . A form of action spectrum using FEL excitation will be used to probe this state

  1. Predicting the Diversity of Foreign Entry Modes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hashai, Niron; Geisler Asmussen, Christian; Benito, Gabriel

    2007-01-01

    diversity across value chain activities and host markets. Analyzing a sample of Israeli based firms we show that larger firms exhibit a higher degree of entry mode diversity both across value chain activities and across host markets. Higher levels of knowledge intensity are also associated with more......This paper expands entry mode literature by referring to multiple modes exerted in different value chain activities within and across host markets, rather than to a single entry mode at the host market level. Scale of operations and knowledge intensity are argued to affect firms' entry mode...... diversity in firms' entry modes across both dimensions....

  2. Nonlinear surface elastic modes in crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorentsveig, V. I.; Kivshar, Yu. S.; Kosevich, A. M.; Syrkin, E. S.

    1990-03-01

    The influence of nonlinearity on shear horizontal surface elastic waves in crystals is described on the basis of the effective nonlinear Schrödinger equation. It is shown that the corresponding solutions form a set of surface modes and the simplest mode coincides with the solution proposed by Mozhaev. The higher order modes have internal frequencies caused by the nonlinearity. All these modes decay in the crystal as uoexp(- z/ zo) atz≫ zo- u o-1 ( z is the distance from the crystal surface, uo the wave amplitude at the surface). The creation of the modes from a localized surface excitation has a threshold. The stability of the modes is discussed.

  3. Effect of helium irradiation on fracture modes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hanamura, T.; Jesser, W.A.

    1982-01-01

    The objective of this work is to determine the crack opening mode during in-situ HVEM tensile testing and how it is influenced by test temperature and helium irradiation. Most cracks were mixed mode I and II. However, between 250 0 C and room temperature the effect of helium irradiation is to increase the amount of mode I crack propagation. Mode II crack opening was observed as grain boundary sliding initiated by a predominantly mode I crack steeply intersecting the grain boundary. Mode II crack opening was absent in irradiated specimens tested between 250 0 C and room temperature, but could be restored by a post irradiation anneal

  4. Mixed-Mode Crack Growth in Wood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Octavian POP

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available In timber elements the mixed mode dependsessentially of wood anatomy and load configuration.In these conditions, in order to evaluate the materialbehavior and the fracture process, it’s necessary toseparate the part of each mode. The mixed modeseparation allows evaluating the amplitude offracture mode. In the present paper, using a mixedmodecrack growth specimen made in Douglas fir,the mixed mode crack growth process is studythanks to marks tracking method. Using the markstracking method the characteristic displacementsassociated to opening and shear mode aremeasured. From the experimental measurements,the energy release rate associated to opening andshear modes is calculated into to account the crackadvancement during the test.

  5. Accurate mode characterization of two-mode optical fibers by in-fiber acousto-optics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alcusa-Sáez, E; Díez, A; Andrés, M V

    2016-03-07

    Acousto-optic interaction in optical fibers is exploited for the accurate and broadband characterization of two-mode optical fibers. Coupling between LP 01 and LP 1m modes is produced in a broadband wavelength range. Difference in effective indices, group indices, and chromatic dispersions between the guided modes, are obtained from experimental measurements. Additionally, we show that the technique is suitable to investigate the fine modes structure of LP modes, and some other intriguing features related with modes' cut-off.

  6. PLC-based LP₁₁ mode rotator for mode-division multiplexing transmission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saitoh, Kunimasa; Uematsu, Takui; Hanzawa, Nobutomo; Ishizaka, Yuhei; Masumoto, Kohei; Sakamoto, Taiji; Matsui, Takashi; Tsujikawa, Kyozo; Yamamoto, Fumihiko

    2014-08-11

    A PLC-based LP11 mode rotator is proposed. The proposed mode rotator is composed of a waveguide with a trench that provides asymmetry of the waveguide. Numerical simulations show that converting LP11a (LP11b) mode to LP11b (LP11a) mode can be achieved with high conversion efficiency (more than 90%) and little polarization dependence over a wide wavelength range from 1450 nm to 1650 nm. In addition, we fabricate the proposed LP11 mode rotator using silica-based PLC. It is confirmed that the fabricated mode rotator can convert LP11a mode to LP11b mode over a wide wavelength range.

  7. Higher order mode optical fiber Raman amplifiers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rottwitt, Karsten; Friis, Søren Michael Mørk; Usuga Castaneda, Mario A.

    2016-01-01

    We review higher order mode Raman amplifiers and discuss recent theoretical as well as experimental results including system demonstrations.......We review higher order mode Raman amplifiers and discuss recent theoretical as well as experimental results including system demonstrations....

  8. Path planning during combustion mode switch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Li; Ravi, Nikhil

    2015-12-29

    Systems and methods are provided for transitioning between a first combustion mode and a second combustion mode in an internal combustion engine. A current operating point of the engine is identified and a target operating point for the internal combustion engine in the second combustion mode is also determined. A predefined optimized transition operating point is selected from memory. While operating in the first combustion mode, one or more engine actuator settings are adjusted to cause the operating point of the internal combustion engine to approach the selected optimized transition operating point. When the engine is operating at the selected optimized transition operating point, the combustion mode is switched from the first combustion mode to the second combustion mode. While operating in the second combustion mode, one or more engine actuator settings are adjusted to cause the operating point of the internal combustion to approach the target operating point.

  9. Management modes for iodine-129

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    White, I.F.; Smith, G.M.

    1984-01-01

    This study completes a two-stage programme, supported by the Commission of the European Communities, on management modes for iodine-129. The models for the radiological assessment of iodine-129 management modes have been reviewed and, where necessary, revised, and a generic radiological assessment has been carried out using these models. Cost benefit analysis has been demonstrated for a variety of iodine-129 management modes; for a wide range of assumptions, the costs of abatement of atmospheric discharges would be outweighed by the radiological benefits. The cost benefit analysis thus complements and confirms the preliminary conclusion of the previous study: iodine-129 should be trapped to a large extent from the off-gases of a large reprocessing plant and disposed of by other suitable means, in order to ensure that all exposures from this radionuclide are as low as reasonably achievable. Once the major fraction of the iodine-129 throughput of a reprocessing plant has been trapped from the dissolver off-gases, there are unlikely to be strong radiation protection incentives either for further trapping from the dissolver off-gases or for trapping from the vessel off-gases. In a generic study it is not possible to state an optimum choice of process(es) for abatement of atmospheric discharges of iodine-129. This choice must be determined by assessments in the specific context of a particular reprocessing plant, its site, the waste disposal routes that are actually available, and also in the wider context of the management plans for all radioactive wastes at the plant in question

  10. Language Differences and Operation Mode

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dasi, Angels; Pedersen, Torben

    2013-01-01

    Language serves different purposes depending on the international activity in question. Language has many dimensions and firms’ communicative requirements vary by operational platform. We argue that different dimensions of language vary in their importance depending on the operation mode chosen...... for a foreign market, so that language distance matters in the case of a home-based sales force, while language incidence is key when operating through a local agent. The hypotheses are tested on a large data set encompassing 462 multinational corporations headquartered in Finland, South Korea, New Zealand......, and Sweden that have undertaken a business operation in a foreign country....

  11. Psaltic Modes - Meanings and Symbolics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Domin Adam

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The Universe of Byzantine music is a profound one, that is why every side should be analysed for getting to the essence of psaltical soul of the singing. Every sign has a certain meaning, every mode has a certain composition and every singing genre is interpreted in a certain way. It is important to search and analyse the historical evolution of every of the mentioned categories for being able to form a holistic image about what Byzantine music meant and means.

  12. Applications of sliding mode control

    CERN Document Server

    Ghommam, Jawhar; Zhu, Quanmin

    2017-01-01

    This book presents essential studies and applications in the context of sliding mode control, highlighting the latest findings from interdisciplinary theoretical studies, ranging from computational algorithm development to representative applications. Readers will learn how to easily tailor the techniques to accommodate their ad hoc applications. To make the content as accessible as possible, the book employs a clear route in each paper, moving from background to motivation, to quantitative development (equations), and lastly to case studies/illustrations/tutorials (simulations, experiences, curves, tables, etc.). Though primarily intended for graduate students, professors and researchers from related fields, the book will also benefit engineers and scientists from industry. .

  13. Normal modes and continuous spectra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balmforth, N.J.; Morrison, P.J.

    1994-12-01

    The authors consider stability problems arising in fluids, plasmas and stellar systems that contain singularities resulting from wave-mean flow or wave-particle resonances. Such resonances lead to singularities in the differential equations determining the normal modes at the so-called critical points or layers. The locations of the singularities are determined by the eigenvalue of the problem, and as a result, the spectrum of eigenvalues forms a continuum. They outline a method to construct the singular eigenfunctions comprising the continuum for a variety of problems

  14. Acoustic rotation modes in complex plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bai Dongxue; Wang Zhengxiong; Wang Xiaogang

    2004-01-01

    Acoustic rotation modes in complex plasmas are investigated in a cylindrical system with an axial symmetry. The linear mode solution is derived. The mode in an infinite area is reduced to a classical dust acoustic wave in the region away from the centre. When the dusty plasma is confined in a finite region, the breathing and rotating-void behaviour are observed. Vivid structures of different mode number solutions are illustrated

  15. Mode damping in a commensurate monolayer solid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bruch, Ludwig Walter; Hansen, Flemming Yssing

    1997-01-01

    with an elastic-continuum theory of the response of modes of either parallel or perpendicular polarization for a spherical adsorbate on a hexagonal substrate. The results are applied to the discussion of computer simulations and inelastic atomic-scattering experiments for adsorbates on graphite. The extreme...... of substrate modes with strong anomalous dispersion, and enables a semiquantitative account of observed avoided crossings of the adlayer perpendicular vibration mode and the substrate Rayleigh mode....

  16. Multimode optical fibers: steady state mode exciter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikeda, M; Sugimura, A; Ikegami, T

    1976-09-01

    The steady state mode power distribution of the multimode graded index fiber was measured. A simple and effective steady state mode exciter was fabricated by an etching technique. Its insertion loss was 0.5 dB for an injection laser. Deviation in transmission characteristics of multimode graded index fibers can be avoided by using the steady state mode exciter.

  17. Viscoelastic modes in chiral liquid crystals

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    amit@fs.rri.local.net (Amit Kumar Agarwal)

    our studies on the viscoelastic modes of some chiral liquid crystals using dynamic light scattering. We discuss viscoelastic ... In the vicinity of the direct beam for a sample aligned in the Bragg mode and. 297 ... experimental investigations on these modes. Duke and Du ..... scattering volume is not true in practice. In an actual ...

  18. Spiral modes in cold cylindrical systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robe, H.

    1975-01-01

    The linearized hydrodynamical equations governing the non-axisymmetric free modes of oscillation of cold cylindrical stellar systems are separated in cylindrical coordinates and solved numerically for two models. Short-wavelength unstable modes corresponding to tight spirals do not exist; but there exists an unstable growing mode which has the form of trailing spirals which are quite open. (orig.) [de

  19. Silicon Photonic Integrated Circuit Mode Multiplexer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ding, Yunhong; Ou, Haiyan; Xu, Jing

    2013-01-01

    We propose and demonstrate a novel silicon photonic integrated circuit enabling multiplexing of orthogonal modes in a few-mode fiber (FMF). By selectively launching light to four vertical grating couplers, all six orthogonal spatial and polarization modes supported by the FMF are successfully...

  20. MDM: A Mode Diagram Modeling Framework

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Zheng; Pu, Geguang; Li, Jianwen

    2012-01-01

    Periodic control systems used in spacecrafts and automotives are usually period-driven and can be decomposed into different modes with each mode representing a system state observed from outside. Such systems may also involve intensive computing in their modes. Despite the fact that such control...

  1. PLC-based mode multi/demultiplexers for mode division multiplexing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saitoh, Kunimasa; Hanzawa, Nobutomo; Sakamoto, Taiji; Fujisawa, Takeshi; Yamashita, Yoko; Matsui, Takashi; Tsujikawa, Kyozo; Nakajima, Kazuhide

    2017-02-01

    Recently developed PLC-based mode multi/demultiplexers (MUX/DEMUXs) for mode division multiplexing (MDM) transmission are reviewed. We firstly show the operation principle and basic characteristics of PLC-based MUX/DEMUXs with an asymmetric directional coupler (ADC). We then demonstrate the 3-mode (2LP-mode) multiplexing of the LP01, LP11a, and LP11b modes by using fabricated PLC-based mode MUX/DEMUX on one chip. In order to excite LP11b mode in the same plane, a PLC-based LP11 mode rotator is introduced. Finally, we show the PLC-based 6-mode (4LP-mode) MUX/DEMUX with a uniform height by using ADCs, LP11 mode rotators, and tapered waveguides. It is shown that the LP21a mode can be excited from the LP11b mode by using ADC, and the two nearly degenerated LP21b and LP02 modes can be (de)multiplexed separately by using tapered mode converter from E13 (E31) mode to LP21b (LP02) mode.

  2. Management poslovnih procesov in sodobni poslovni modeli v oskrbovalnih verigah

    OpenAIRE

    Jakl, Tim

    2016-01-01

    Management oskrbovalnih verig (MOV) postaja vse pomembnejši oddelek uspešnih organizacij. MOV pridobiva na pomenu zaradi organizacij, ki več ne tekmujejo na ravni posameznih entitet, ampak v sklopu večjega števila podjetij – oskrbovalnih verig. Ker z oskrbovalnimi verigami običajno razumemo skupino podjetij, na čelu s proizvajalcem dobrin, smo se v magistrski nalogi odločili preučiti manj raziskano področje, t.j. management storitvenih oskrbovalnih verig. Pri tem se osredotočamo na njihove po...

  3. Parametric Landau damping of space charge modes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Macridin, Alexandru [Fermilab; Burov, Alexey [Fermilab; Stern, Eric [Fermilab; Amundson, James [Fermilab; Spentzouris, Panagiotis [Fermilab

    2016-09-23

    Landau damping is the mechanism of plasma and beam stabilization; it arises through energy transfer from collective modes to the incoherent motion of resonant particles. Normally this resonance requires the resonant particle's frequency to match the collective mode frequency. We have identified an important new damping mechanism, parametric Landau damping, which is driven by the modulation of the mode-particle interaction. This opens new possibilities for stability control through manipulation of both particle and mode-particle coupling spectra. We demonstrate the existence of parametric Landau damping in a simulation of transverse coherent modes of bunched accelerator beams with space charge.

  4. Topological Coherent Modes in Trapped Bose Gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yukalov, V.I.; Marzlin, K.-P.; Yukalova, E.P.; Bagnato, V.S.

    2005-01-01

    The report reviews the problem of topological coherent modes, which are nonlinear collective states of Bose-condensed atoms. Such modes can be generated by means of alternating external fields, whose frequencies are in resonance with the transition frequencies between the related modes. The Bose gas with generated topological coherent modes is a collective nonlinear analog of a resonant atom. Such systems exhibit a variety of nontrivial effects, e.g. interference fringes, interference current, mode locking, dynamic transitions, critical phenomena, chaotic motion, harmonic generation, parametric conversion, atomic squeezing, and entanglement production

  5. 'Snowflake' H Mode in a Tokamak Plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piras, F.; Coda, S.; Duval, B. P.; Labit, B.; Marki, J.; Moret, J.-M.; Pitzschke, A.; Sauter, O.; Medvedev, S. Yu.

    2010-01-01

    An edge-localized mode (ELM) H-mode regime, supported by electron cyclotron heating, has been successfully established in a 'snowflake' (second-order null) divertor configuration for the first time in the TCV tokamak. This regime exhibits 2 to 3 times lower ELM frequency and 20%-30% increased normalized ELM energy (ΔW ELM /W p ) compared to an identically shaped, conventional single-null diverted H mode. Enhanced stability of mid- to high-toroidal-mode-number ideal modes is consistent with the different snowflake ELM phenomenology. The capability of the snowflake to redistribute the edge power on the additional strike points has been confirmed experimentally.

  6. Nonlinear coupling of kink modes in Tokamaks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dagazian, R.Y.

    1975-07-01

    The m = 2, n = 1 kink mode is shown to be capable of destabilizing the m = 1, n = 1 internal kink. A nonlinear Lagrangian theory is developed for the coupling of modes of different pitch, and it is applied to the interaction of these modes. The coupling to the m = 2 mode provides sufficient additional destabilization to the internal mode to permit it to account even quantitatively (where it had failed when considered by itself) for many of the features of the disruptive instability. (U.S.)

  7. Critical cladding radius for hybrid cladding modes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guyard, Romain; Leduc, Dominique; Lupi, Cyril; Lecieux, Yann

    2018-05-01

    In this article we explore some properties of the cladding modes guided by a step-index optical fiber. We show that the hybrid modes can be grouped by pairs and that it exists a critical cladding radius for which the modes of a pair share the same electromagnetic structure. We propose a robust method to determine the critical cladding radius and use it to perform a statistical study on the influence of the characteristics of the fiber on the critical cladding radius. Finally we show the importance of the critical cladding radius with respect to the coupling coefficient between the core mode and the cladding modes inside a long period grating.

  8. Liver Scanning with Colloidal Radiogold; Exploration du foie a l'aide de l'or radioactif colloidal; Issledovanie pecheni pri pomoshchi radioaktivnogo kolloidal'nogo zolota; Exploracion del higado con oro coloidal radiactivo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Donato, L; Becchini, M F; Panichi, S [Centro di Medicina Nucleate, University of Pisa (Italy)

    1959-07-01

    esquemas anatomico y funcional. (author) [Russian] Avtory soobshchayut o svoem opyte v ispol'zovanii kolloidal'nog o zolota Ah{sup 198} dlya issledovaniya pecheni. Dlya polucheniya chetkogo razgranicheniya pecheni ot sosednikh organov i okru-zhayushchikh tkanej obychno trebuetsya doza mechenykh ehlementov, sootvetstvuyushcha ya 2,5 {mu}C/Kg. Vsya protsedura issledovaniya, kotoraya nachinaetsya cherez 30 minut posle vnutrivennogo vspryskivaniya, zanimaet okolo 90 minut pri ispol'zovanii polnost'yu avtomaticheskoj apparatury. Verkhnie i bokovye kontury pecheni obychno luchshe razlichayutsya chem nizhnie. Ispol'zovanie fokusiruyushchi kh kollimatorov (poristogo tipa) znachitel'no uluchshaet poluchaemye rezul'taty. V obychnykh usloviyakh pechen' yavlyaetsya edinstvennym organom, kotoryj chetko viden na ehkrane. V nekotorykh sluchayakh pri splenomegalii i tsirroza pecheni mozhno krome togo videt' i selezenku, veroyatno v svyazi s sokrashcheniem retikulo-ehndotelialyyuj sistemy pecheni. Sudya po priobretennomu avtorami opytu, dannyj metod ves'ma maloehffektive n dlya opredeleniya nebol'shikh metastazov pecheni, kotorye ne izmenyayut ob{sup e}ma i Formy poslednej. Dazhe v sluchayakh podtverzhdennog o operatsiej nalichiya mnozhestva razbrosannykh melkikh uzelkov metastaticheskog o kharaktera issledovaniya ehtim metodom dali neyasnye rezul'taty. Ispol'zovanie radioaktivnog o zolota-198 mozhet v sluchayakh rasseyannogo ili zonal'nogo rasshireniya - nezavisimo ot prichiny - sposobstvovat' vyyasnesho, vyzvany li ehti izmeneniya rasshireniem normal'no funktsioniruyushche j tkani ili zhe nalichem v tkani pecheni patologicheski kh obrazovanij. Ochen' udalnym okazalos' sochetanie radioizotopnog o issledovaniya pecheni s issledovaniem ee konturov rentgenovskimi luchami posle provedeniya pnevmoperitoneuma, tak kak ono pozvolyaet provesti sravnenie mezhdu anatomicheskim i funktsional'ny m sostoyaniem dannogo organa. Kontury, poluchaemye na stsintigrammakh i na rentgenovskikh snimkakh

  9. Accelerated reliability demonstration under competing failure modes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luo, Wei; Zhang, Chun-hua; Chen, Xun; Tan, Yuan-yuan

    2015-01-01

    The conventional reliability demonstration tests are difficult to apply to products with competing failure modes due to the complexity of the lifetime models. This paper develops a testing methodology based on the reliability target allocation for reliability demonstration under competing failure modes at accelerated conditions. The specified reliability at mission time and the risk caused by sampling of the reliability target for products are allocated for each failure mode. The risk caused by degradation measurement fitting of the target for a product involving performance degradation is equally allocated to each degradation failure mode. According to the allocated targets, the accelerated life reliability demonstration test (ALRDT) plans for the failure modes are designed. The accelerated degradation reliability demonstration test plans and the associated ALRDT plans for the degradation failure modes are also designed. Next, the test plan and the decision rules for the products are designed. Additionally, the effects of the discreteness of sample size and accepted number of failures for failure modes on the actual risks caused by sampling for the products are investigated. - Highlights: • Accelerated reliability demonstration under competing failure modes is studied. • The method is based on the reliability target allocation involving the risks. • The test plan for the products is based on the plans for all the failure modes. • Both failure mode and degradation failure modes are considered. • The error of actual risks caused by sampling for the products is small enough

  10. Distributed mode filtering rod fiber amplifier delivering 292W with improved mode stability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laurila, Marko; Jørgensen, Mette Marie; Hansen, Kristian Rymann

    2012-01-01

    We demonstrate a high power fiber (85μm core) amplifier delivering up to 292Watts of average output power using a mode-locked 30ps source at 1032nm. Utilizing a single mode distributed mode filter bandgap rod fiber, we demonstrate 44% power improvement before the threshold-like onset of mode inst...

  11. Identifying modes of large whispering-gallery mode resonators from the spectrum and emission pattern

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schunk, Gerhard; Fuerst, Josef U.; Förtsch, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Identifying the mode numbers in whispering-gallery mode resonators (WGMRs) is important for tailoring them to experimental needs. Here we report on a novel experimental mode analysis technique based on the combination of frequency analysis and far-field imaging for high mode numbers of large WGMR...

  12. Tearing mode instability due to anomalous resistivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Furuya, Atsushi; Itoh, Sanae I.; Yagi, Masatoshi

    2000-01-01

    Tearing mode instability in the presence of microscopic truculence is investigates. The effects of microscopic turbulence on tearing mode are taken as drags which are calculated by one-point renormalization method and mean-field approximation. These effects are reduced to effective diffusivities in reduced MHD equations. Using these equations, the stability analyses of the tearing mode are performed. It is shown that a finite amplitude of fluctuation enhances the growth rate of tearing mode. For very high values of turbulent diffusivities, marginally stable state exists. The effects of each turbulent diffusivity on mode stability are examined near marginal stability boundary. Parameter dependence of the resistive ballooning mode turbulence on tearing mode is analyzed as an example. (author)

  13. Anomalous normal mode oscillations in semiconductor microcavities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, H. [Univ. of Oregon, Eugene, OR (United States). Dept. of Physics; Hou, H.Q.; Hammons, B.E. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1997-04-01

    Semiconductor microcavities as a composite exciton-cavity system can be characterized by two normal modes. Under an impulsive excitation by a short laser pulse, optical polarizations associated with the two normal modes have a {pi} phase difference. The total induced optical polarization is then expected to exhibit a sin{sup 2}({Omega}t)-like oscillation where 2{Omega} is the normal mode splitting, reflecting a coherent energy exchange between the exciton and cavity. In this paper the authors present experimental studies of normal mode oscillations using three-pulse transient four wave mixing (FWM). The result reveals surprisingly that when the cavity is tuned far below the exciton resonance, normal mode oscillation in the polarization is cos{sup 2}({Omega}t)-like, in contrast to what is expected form the simple normal mode model. This anomalous normal mode oscillation reflects the important role of virtual excitation of electronic states in semiconductor microcavities.

  14. Economic Criteria Applied to Nuclear Materials Management; Criteres Economiques Applicables a la Gestion des Matieres Nucleaires; Ehkonomicheskie kriterii, primenyaemye pri kontrole i uchete yadernykh materialov; Criterios Economicos Aplicados a la Administracion de Materiales Nucleares

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shelley, W. J.; Kuehn, M. N. [Mallinckrodt Chemical Works, St. Charles, MS (United States)

    1966-02-15

    procedimientos, las tecnicas, el proceso de las operaciones y la forma en que el personal lleva a cabo su cometido. Esta atencion y la voluntad de corregir los. errores permitiran asegurar el equilibrio optimo de los costos y las necesidades. (author) [Russian] Kontrol' i uchet jadernyh materialov dolzhny vsegda igrat' vspomogatel'nuju rol' pri vypolnenii osnovnoj zadachi obrabotki jadernyh materialov, t.e. vyrabotki jenergii ili proizvodstva konechnyh produktov. V svjazi s jetim otvetstvennye za kontrol' i uchet jadernyh materialov dolzhny postojanno reagirovat' na nuzhdy, svjazannye s vypolneniem osnovnoj proizvodstvennoj zadachi, i prisposablivat' neobhodimye sistemy k jetomu processu s tem, chtoby osushhestvljat' kontrol' i uchet jadernyh materialov pri optimal'nyh zatratah. V svjazi s sistemoj kontrolja i ucheta jadernyh materialov neobhodimo tshhatel'no izuchat' rjad faktorov, kotorye vlijajut na ee stoimost'. Razrabotannaja sistema kontrolja dolzhna dopolnjat' proizvodstvennyj process, obespechivaja minimal'nye rashody na soderzhanie personala, analizy i minimal'nyj pereryv proizvodstvennogo processa. Sistema kontrolja dolzhna sochetat'sja s proizvodstvnnymi potrebnostjami dlja togo, chtoby poluchennaja kolichestvennaja informacija bystro postupala licam, osushhestvljajushhim kontrol' za rabotoj. Sistema registracii i vydachi svedenij dolzhna obespechivat' maksimum dopolnitel'nyh dannyh. Ona dolzhna byt' shodnoj s sistemami, kotorye ispol'zujut postavshhiki i potrebiteli, i davat', pri vozmozhnosti, dopolnitel'nuju informaciju, svjazannuju s partijami jadernogo materiala. Dannye,poluchaemye dlja kontrolja za jadernymi materialami, dolzhny byt' tol'ko takimi, kotorye neobhodimye celjah obespechenija togo, chtoby ne bylo nikakih znachitel'nyh poter', hishhenij, nezakonnogo prisvoenija ili ispol'zovanija ne po naznacheniju jadernyh materialov. Dopolnitel'nye dannye dolzhny podvergat'sja tochno takoj zhe neobhodimoj strogoj proverke, kotoroj podvergajutsja dannye

  15. Mode-routed fiber-optic add-drop filter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moslehi, Behzad (Inventor); Black, Richard James (Inventor); Shaw, Herbert John (Inventor)

    2000-01-01

    New elements mode-converting two-mode grating and mode-filtering two-mode coupler are disclosed and used as elements in a system for communications, add-drop filtering, and strain sensing. Methods of fabrication for these new two-mode gratings and mode-filtering two-mode couplers are also disclosed.

  16. GATS Mode 4 Negotiation and Policy Options

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kil-Sang Yoo

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available This study reviews the characteristics and issues of GATS Mode 4 and guesses the effects of Mode 4 liberalization on Korean economy and labor market to suggest policy options to Korea. Mode 4 negotiation started from the trade perspective, however, since Mode 4 involves international labor migration, it also has migration perspective. Thus developed countries, that have competitiveness in service sector, are interested in free movement of skilled workers such as intra-company transferees and business visitors. On the other hand, developing countries, that have little competitiveness in service sector, are interested in free movement of low-skilled workers. Empirical studies predict that the benefits of Mode 4 liberalization will be focused on developed countries rather than developing countries. The latter may suffer from brain drain and reduction of labor supply. Nevertheless developed countries are reluctant to Mode 4 negotiation because they can utilize skilled workers from developing countries by use of their own temporary visa programs. They are interested in Mode 4 related with Mode 3 in order to ease direct investment and movement of natural persons to developing countries. Regardless of the direction of a single undertaking of Mode 4 negotiation, the net effects of Mode 4 liberalization on Korean economy and labor market may be negative. The Korean initial offer on Mode 4 is the same as the UR offer. Since Korean position on Mode 4 is most defensive, it is hard to expect that Korean position will be accepted as the single undertaking of Mode 4 negotiation. Thus Korea has to prepare strategic package measures to minimize the costs of Mode 4 liberalization and improve competitiveness of service sector.

  17. Mode suppression of a two-dimensional potential relaxation instability in a weakly magnetized discharge plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gyergyek, T.; Čerček, M.; Jelić, N.; Stanojević, M.

    1993-05-01

    A potential relaxation instability (PRI) is modulated by an external signal using an additional grid to modulate the radial plasma potential profile in a magnetized plasma column in a linear magnetized discharge plasma device. It is observed that the electrode current oscillations follow the van der Pol equation with an external forcing term, and the linear growth rate of the instability is measured.

  18. Bi-directional high-side current sense circuit for switch mode power supplies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ekhtiari, Marzieh; Bruun, Erik; Andersen, Michael A. E.

    2014-01-01

    In order to control a power supply using piezoelectric transformer, AC current in the transformer ne eds to be measured. Due to the control strategy it is necessary to measure amplitude, phase angle and zero crossing of this c urrent. In some applications there is common ground between pri mary...

  19. Resonant MHD modes with toroidal coupling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Connor, J.W.; Hastie, R.J.; Taylor, J.B.

    1990-07-01

    This is part 2 of a study of resonant perturbations, such as resistive tearing and ballooning modes, in a torus. These are described by marginal ideal mhd equations in the regions between resonant surfaces; matching across these surfaces provides the dispersion relation. In part 1 we described how all the necessary information from the ideal mhd calculations could be represented by a so-called E-matrix. We also described the calculation of this E-matrix for tearing modes (even parity in perturbed magnetic field) in a large aspect ratio torus. There the toroidal modes comprise coupled cylinder tearing modes and the E-matrix is a generalization of the familiar Δ' quantity in a cylinder. In the present paper we discuss resistive ballooning, or twisting-modes, which have odd-parity in perturbed magnetic field. We show that, unlike the tearing modes, these odd-parity modes are instrinsically toroidal and are not directly related to the odd-parity modes in a cylinder. This is evident from the analysis of the high-n limit in ballooning-space, where a transition from a stable Δ' to an unstable Δ' occurs for the twisting mode when the ballooning effect exceeds the interchange effect, which can occur even at large aspect ratio (as in a tokamak). Analysis of the high-n limit in coordinate space, rather than ballooning space, clarifies this singular behaviour and indicates how one may define twisting-mode Δ'. It also yields a prescription for treating low-n twisting modes and a method for calculating an E-matrix for resistive ballooning modes in a large aspect ratio tokamak. The elements of this matrix are given in terms of cylindrical tearing mode solutions

  20. Scanning of Bone Marrow in Haematopoietic Disorders; Gammagraphie de la Moelle Osseuse dans les Troubles Hematopoietiques; Skennirovanie kostnogo mozga pri gematopoehticheskikh narusheniyakh; Exploracion de la Medula Osea en Casos de Trastornos Hematopoyeticos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kniseley, R. M.; Andrews, G. A.; Edwards, C. L.; Tanida, R. [Oak Ridge Institute of Nuclear Studies, TN (United States)

    1964-10-15

    individualmente las costillas. Cuando la medula esta dilatada se puede visualizar la zona de la rodilla, incluido el espacio articular. Los autores han logrado establecer una correlacion entre estos centelleogramas, los resultados de biopsias por aspiracion y centelleogramas lineales. Como se requieren dosis relativamente elevadas de oro-198, se esta estudiando la posibilidad de emplear otros isotopos. Tambien se esta ensayando un antropogammametro perfeccionado con el fin de facilitar la exploracion. (author) [Russian] Skennirovanie mozhet pomoch' pri ocenke ob{sup e}ma i raspredelenija gematopojeticheskogo kost- nogo mozga -trudnoj zadache dlja aspiracii ili biopsii. S pomoshh'ju skennera s zolotym- vol'framovym fokusirujushhim kollimatorom diametrom 61 mm v Okridzhskoj nacional'noj laboratorii posle vnutrivennogo vvedenija kolloidal'nogo zolota-198 byli polucheny chetkie ochertanija kostnogo mozga, prichem izvestno, chto retikulo-jendotelial'naja funkcija kostnogo mozga sootvetstvuet oblastjam gematopojeza. Skennirovanie provodilos' u pacientov s normal'nym gematopojezom i s raznymi narushenijami krovi, naprimer s ochagovym porazheniem kostnogo mozga, ostroj i hronicheskoj lejkemiej, istinnoj policitemiej, mielofibrozom, mnozhestvennoj mijelomoj i limfomoj. V svjazi s retikulojendotelial'noj aktivnost'ju v pecheni i selezenke izobrazhenie kostnogo mozga zatemneno v central'nom otdele. Ochercheny tela pozvonkov, mezhpozvonochnye diski, kosti taza i dlinnye kosti, a v grudnoj kletke grudina i grudnye pozvonki. Obnaruzheny takzhe ochagovye porazhenija. Otdel'nye rebra ne vidny iz-za dyhatel'nyh dvizhenij. Pri razrastanii kostnogo mozga ego mozhno videt' v kolennoj oblasti, vkljuchaja oblast' sustava . Pojavilas' vozmozhnost' svjazat' jeti skenogrammy s dannymi aspiracionnoj biopsii i s linejnymi diagrammami. V svjazi s tem, chto trebujutsja sravnitel'no bol'shie dozy zolota-198, issleduetsja vozmozhnost' primenenija drugih izotopov. Dlja poluchenija skennogramm, imejushhih bol

  1. The Prying Eye: Ethics of Photojournalism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mundt, Whitney R.; Broussard, E. Joseph

    A national sample of journalists, consisting of 700 television news photographers, newspaper photographers, television news directors, newspaper editors, and journalism educators, was asked to evaluate the ethical conduct in eight situations involving alleged invasion of privacy by photography. The respondents found journalistic conduct to be…

  2. UPORABA DIGITALNEGA FOTOAPARATA PRI MULTIMODALNEM NADZORU OKOLJA

    OpenAIRE

    Sedej, Gašper

    2011-01-01

    V diplomskem delu opisujemo sistem, ki smo ga razvili za multimodalni oddaljeni nadzor okolja. Sistem je sestavljen iz več komponent, med katerimi ima ključno vlogo digitalni fotoaparat. Ta je uporabljen za zajemanje žive slike in hkrati tudi fotografij z visoko ločljivostjo. Fotoaparat nadzira računalniški strežnik, ki poganja programsko opremo gPhoto. Video zajemamo preko fotoaparatovega analognega priključka in slikovnega pretvornika, ki pretvori analogni video signal v digitalnega. Strežn...

  3. Pri delezhke Tsheburashki mehh letit po storonam

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2007-01-01

    Vene ärimees ostab ameerika kompaniilt Films by Jove kollektsiooni nõukogude multifilmide (547 filmi) levitamisõigused, et anda need üle loodavale laste telekanalile Venemaal. Lähemalt laste multifilmide lemmikkangelasest Tsheburashkast, mille loojaks kirjanik Eduard Uspenski

  4. Investigation of exotic fission modes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poenaru, D. N.; Gherghescu, R. A.; Greiner, W.; Nagame, Y.; Hamilton, J. H.; Ramayya, A. V.

    2002-01-01

    Fission approach to the cluster radioactivities and α-decay has been systematically developed during the last two decades. A more complex process, the ternary fission, was observed since 1946 both in neutron-induced and spontaneous fission. We obtained interesting results concerning the binary fission saddle-point reflection asymmetric nuclear shapes, and we can explain how a possible nuclear quasimolecular state is formed during the 10 Be accompanied cold fission of 252 Cf. The equilibrium nuclear shapes in fission theory are usually determined by minimizing the deformation energy for a given surface equation. We developed a method allowing to obtain a very general saddle-point shape as a solution of a differential equation without an a priori introduction of a shape parametrization. In the approach based on a liquid drop model (LDM), saddle-point shapes are always reflection symmetric: the deformation energy increases with the mass-asymmetry parameter η = (A 1 - A 2 )/(A 1 + A 2 ). By adding the shell corrections to the LDM deformation energy, we obtained minima at a finite mass asymmetry for parent nuclei 238 U, 232,228 Th in agreement with experiments. This correction was calculated phenomenologically. A technique based on the fragment identification by using triple γ coincidences in the large arrays of Ge-detectors, like GAMMASPHERE, was employed at Vanderbilt University to discover new characteristics of the fission process, and new decay modes. The possibility of a whole family of new decay modes, the multicluster accompanied fission, was envisaged. Besides the fission into two or three fragments, a heavy or superheavy nucleus spontaneously breaks into four, five or six nuclei of which two are asymmetric or symmetric heavy fragments and the others are light clusters, e.g. α-particles, 10 Be, 14 C, or combinations of them. Examples were presented for the two-, three- and four cluster accompanied cold fission of 252 Cf and 262 Rf, in which the emitted

  5. Circular waveguide mode converters at 140 GHz

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trulsen, J.; Woskoboinikow, P.; Temkin, R.J.

    1986-01-01

    A unified derivation of the coupled mode equations for circular waveguide is presented. Also, approximate design criteria for TE/sub 0n/ to TE/sub 0n'/ axisymmetric, TE 01 to TE 11 wriggle, and TE 01 to TM 11 bend converters are reviewed. Numerically solving the coupled mode equations, an optimized set of mode converters has been designed for conversion of a 2 millimeter wave TE 03 mode into TE 11 . This set consists of axisymmetric TE 03 to TE 02 and TE 02 to TE 01 converters followed by a wriggle TE 01 to TE 11 converter. This mode converter set was fabricated and tested using a 3 kW, 137 GHz gyrotron. A TE 11 mode purity of better than 97% was achieved. The TE 01 to TE 11 wriggle converter was experimentally optimized for a measured conversion efficiency of better than 99% not including ohmic losses

  6. Mixed-mode fracture of ceramics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petrovic, J.J.

    1985-01-01

    The mixed-mode fracture behavior of ceramic materials is of importance for monolithic ceramics in order to predict the onset of fracture under generalized loading conditions and for ceramic composites to describe crack deflection toughening mechanisms. Experimental data on surface flaw mixed-mode fracture in various ceramics indicate that the flaw-plane normal stress at fracture decreases with increasing in-flaw-plane shear stress, although present data exhibit a fairly wide range in details of this sigma - tau relationship. Fracture from large cracks suggests that Mode II has a greater effect on Mode I fracture than Mode III. A comparison of surface flaw and large crack mixed-mode I-II fracture responses indicated that surface flaw behavior is influenced by shear resistance effects.

  7. Mode conversion in hybrid optical fiber coupler

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stasiewicz, Karol A.; Marc, P.; Jaroszewicz, Leszek R.

    2012-04-01

    Designing of all in-line fiber optic systems with a supercontinuum light source gives some issues. The use of a standard single mode fiber (SMF) as an input do not secure single mode transmission in full wavelength range. In the paper, the experimental results of the tested hybrid fiber optic coupler were presented. It was manufactured by fusing a standard single mode fiber (SMF28) and a photonic crystal fiber (PCF). The fabrication process is based on the standard fused biconical taper technique. Two types of large mode area fibers (LMA8 and LAM10 NKT Photonics) with different air holes arrangements were used as the photonic crystal fiber. Spectral characteristics within the range of 800 nm - 1700 nm were presented. All process was optimized to obtain a mode conversion between SMF and PCF and to reach a single mode transmission in the PCF output of the coupler.

  8. OBSERVATIONS OF SAUSAGE MODES IN MAGNETIC PORES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morton, R. J.; Erdelyi, R.; Jess, D. B.; Mathioudakis, M.

    2011-01-01

    We present here evidence for the observation of the magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) sausage modes in magnetic pores in the solar photosphere. Further evidence for the omnipresent nature of acoustic global modes is also found. The empirical decomposition method of wave analysis is used to identify the oscillations detected through a 4170 A 'blue continuum' filter observed with the Rapid Oscillations in the Solar Atmosphere (ROSA) instrument. Out of phase, periodic behavior in pore size and intensity is used as an indicator of the presence of magnetoacoustic sausage oscillations. Multiple signatures of the magnetoacoustic sausage mode are found in a number of pores. The periods range from as short as 30 s up to 450 s. A number of the magnetoacoustic sausage mode oscillations found have periods of 3 and 5 minutes, similar to the acoustic global modes of the solar interior. It is proposed that these global oscillations could be the driver of the sausage-type magnetoacoustic MHD wave modes in pores.

  9. Tearing mode analysis in tokamaks, revisited

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishimura, Y.; Callen, J.D.; Hegna, C.C.

    1997-12-01

    A new Δ' shooting code has been developed to investigate tokamak plasma tearing mode stability in a cylinder and large aspect ratio (ε ≤ 0.25) toroidal geometries, neglecting toroidal mode coupling. A different computational algorithm is used (shooting out from the singular surface instead of into it) to resolve the strong singularities at the mode rational surface, particularly in the presence of finite pressure term. Numerical results compare favorably with Furth et al. results. The effects of finite pressure, which are shown to decrease Δ', are discussed. It is shown that the distortion of the flux surfaces by the Shafranov shift, which modifies the geometry metric element stabilizes the tearing mode significantly, even in a low β regime before the toroidal magnetic curvature effects come into play. Double tearing modes in toroidal geometries are examined as well. Furthermore, m ≥ 2 tearing mode stability criteria are compared with three dimensional initial value MHD simulation by the FAR code

  10. Identifying modes of large whispering-gallery mode resonators from the spectrum and emission pattern.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schunk, Gerhard; Fürst, Josef U; Förtsch, Michael; Strekalov, Dmitry V; Vogl, Ulrich; Sedlmeir, Florian; Schwefel, Harald G L; Leuchs, Gerd; Marquardt, Christoph

    2014-12-15

    Identifying the mode numbers in whispering-gallery mode resonators (WGMRs) is important for tailoring them to experimental needs. Here we report on a novel experimental mode analysis technique based on the combination of frequency analysis and far-field imaging for high mode numbers of large WGMRs. The radial mode numbers q and the angular mode numbers p = ℓ-m are identified and labeled via far-field imaging. The polar mode numbers ℓ are determined unambiguously by fitting the frequency differences between individual whispering gallery modes (WGMs). This allows for the accurate determination of the geometry and the refractive index at different temperatures of the WGMR. For future applications in classical and quantum optics, this mode analysis enables one to control the narrow-band phase-matching conditions in nonlinear processes such as second-harmonic generation or parametric down-conversion.

  11. Adaptive variational mode decomposition method for signal processing based on mode characteristic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lian, Jijian; Liu, Zhuo; Wang, Haijun; Dong, Xiaofeng

    2018-07-01

    Variational mode decomposition is a completely non-recursive decomposition model, where all the modes are extracted concurrently. However, the model requires a preset mode number, which limits the adaptability of the method since a large deviation in the number of mode set will cause the discard or mixing of the mode. Hence, a method called Adaptive Variational Mode Decomposition (AVMD) was proposed to automatically determine the mode number based on the characteristic of intrinsic mode function. The method was used to analyze the simulation signals and the measured signals in the hydropower plant. Comparisons have also been conducted to evaluate the performance by using VMD, EMD and EWT. It is indicated that the proposed method has strong adaptability and is robust to noise. It can determine the mode number appropriately without modulation even when the signal frequencies are relatively close.

  12. Effects of multiple modes interaction on the resistive wall mode instability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Longxi; Lei, Wenqing; Ma, Zhiwei; Wu, Bin

    2013-01-01

    The effects of multiple modes interaction on the resistive wall mode (RWM) are studied in a slab geometry with and without plasma flow. The modes interaction can have a large effect on both the linear growth rate and the nonlinear saturation level of the RWM. We found that modes interaction can suppress the linear growth rate for the most unstable mode. The plasma flow can also help to control the growth of the RWM. The RWM can be stabilized completely by a plasma flow when considering the modes interaction. The effect of modes interaction on the RWM is stronger for the mode rational surface in the vacuum than that in the plasma. The modes interaction results in a substantially lowered saturation level for the most unstable RWM. (paper)

  13. A Minimal Model to Explore the Influence of Distant Modes on Mode-Coupling Instabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kruse, Sebastian; Hoffmann, Norbert

    2010-09-01

    The phenomenon of mode-coupling instability is one of the most frequently explored mechanisms to explain self-excited oscillation in sliding systems with friction. A mode coupling instability is usually due to the coupling of two modes. However, further modes can have an important influence on the coupling of two modes. This work extends a well-known minimal model to describe mode-coupling instabilities in order to explore the influence of a distant mode on the classical mode-coupling pattern. This work suggests a new minimal model. The model is explored and it is shown that a third mode can have significant influence on the classical mode-coupling instabilities where two modes are coupling. Different phenomena are analysed and it is pointed out that distant modes can only be ignored in very special cases and that the onset friction-induced oscillations can even be very sensitive to minimal variation of a distant mode. Due to the chosen academic minimal-model and the abandonment of a complex Finite-Element model the insight stays rather phenomenological but a better understanding of the mode-coupling mechnanism can be gained.

  14. Quantum random walks using quantum accelerator modes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma, Z.-Y.; Burnett, K.; D'Arcy, M. B.; Gardiner, S. A.

    2006-01-01

    We discuss the use of high-order quantum accelerator modes to achieve an atom optical realization of a biased quantum random walk. We first discuss how one can create coexistent quantum accelerator modes, and hence how momentum transfer that depends on the atoms' internal state can be achieved. When combined with microwave driving of the transition between the states, a different type of atomic beam splitter results. This permits the realization of a biased quantum random walk through quantum accelerator modes

  15. A simple theory of linear mode conversion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cairns, R.A.; Lashmore-Davies, C.N.; Woods, A.M.

    1984-01-01

    A summary is given of the basic theory of linear mode conversion involving the construction of differential equations for the mode amplitudes based on the properties of the dispersion relation in the neighbourhood of the mode conversion point. As an example the transmission coefficient for tunneling from the upper hybrid resonance through the evanescent region to the adjacent cut-off is treated. 7 refs, 3 figs

  16. Ponderomotive modification of drift tearing modes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Urquijo, G.; Singh, R.; Sen, A.

    1997-01-01

    The linear characteristics of drift tearing modes are investigated in the presence of a significant background of radio-frequency (RF) waves in the ion cyclotron range of frequencies. The ponderomotive force, arising from the radial gradients in the RF field energy, is found to significantly modify the inner layer solutions of the drift tearing modes. It can have a stabilizing influence, even at moderate RF powers, provided the field energy has a decreasing radial profile at the mode rational surface. (author)

  17. Coupled mode theory of periodic waveguides arrays

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lavrinenko, Andrei; Chigrin, Dmitry N.

    We apply the scalar coupled mode theory to the case of waveguides array consisting om two periodic waveguides. One of the waveguides is arbitrary shifted along another. A longitudinal shift acts as a parameter in the coupled mode theory. The proposed theory explains peculiarities of modes dispers...... dispersion and transmission in coupled periodic waveguides systems. Analytical results are compared with the numerical ones obtained by the plane wave expansion and FDTD methods....

  18. Majorana Zero Modes in Graphene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. San-Jose

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available A clear demonstration of topological superconductivity (TS and Majorana zero modes remains one of the major pending goals in the field of topological materials. One common strategy to generate TS is through the coupling of an s-wave superconductor to a helical half-metallic system. Numerous proposals for the latter have been put forward in the literature, most of them based on semiconductors or topological insulators with strong spin-orbit coupling. Here, we demonstrate an alternative approach for the creation of TS in graphene-superconductor junctions without the need for spin-orbit coupling. Our prediction stems from the helicity of graphene’s zero-Landau-level edge states in the presence of interactions and from the possibility, experimentally demonstrated, of tuning their magnetic properties with in-plane magnetic fields. We show how canted antiferromagnetic ordering in the graphene bulk close to neutrality induces TS along the junction and gives rise to isolated, topologically protected Majorana bound states at either end. We also discuss possible strategies to detect their presence in graphene Josephson junctions through Fraunhofer pattern anomalies and Andreev spectroscopy. The latter, in particular, exhibits strong unambiguous signatures of the presence of the Majorana states in the form of universal zero-bias anomalies. Remarkable progress has recently been reported in the fabrication of the proposed type of junctions, which offers a promising outlook for Majorana physics in graphene systems.

  19. Correlations between locked modes and impurity influxes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fishpool, G M [Commission of the European Communities, Abingdon (United Kingdom). JET Joint Undertaking; Lawson, K D [UKAEA Culham Lab., Abingdon (United Kingdom)

    1994-07-01

    An analysis of pulses that were disturbed by medium Z impurity influxes (Cl, Cr, Fe and Ni) recorded during the 91/92 JET operations, has demonstrated that such influxes can result in MHD modes which subsequently ``lock``. A correlation is found between the power radiated by the influx and the time difference between the start of the influx and the beginning of the locked mode. The growth in the amplitude of the locked mode itself can lead to further impurity influxes. A correlation is noted between intense influxes (superior to 10 MW) and the mode ``unlocking``. (authors). 4 refs., 4 figs.

  20. Theory of tokamak resistive fishbone modes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shi Bingren; Sui Guofang

    1995-12-01

    A special kind of internal kink mode, the fishbone, can be excited by the energetic particles in tokamak plasmas. Theoretical analyses of fishbone modes based on the ideal MHD framework have predicted that two branches of modes exists. One is the Chen-White branch with ω∼ω-bar dm , corresponding to a higher threshold in β h ; the other is the Coppis branch with ω∼ω *i , and a much lower threshold in β h . The latter mode would put a rather unfavourable restriction on heating efficiency and on plasma confinement. However. It is found that the resistivity effect is essential for this mode. In this paper, a new resistive fishbone mode analysis is carried out. In the (γ mhd ,β H ) space, the stability diagram shows complicate structure, the Coppis branch is replaced by a weakly unstable mode and there is no longer closed stable region. The growth rate of this mode varies with β h , its peak value is still very low compared to other internal modes. The implications of these results to future tokamak experiments are discussed. (8 figs.)

  1. Suspensions with reduced violin string modes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, B H; Ju, L; Blair, D G

    2006-01-01

    We discuss the possibility of significantly reducing the number and Q-factor of violin string modes in the mirror suspension. Simulations of a bar-flexure suspension and an orthogonal ribbon have shown a reduction in the number of violin string modes when compared to a normal ribbon suspension. By calculating the expected suspension thermal noise, we find that the orthogonal ribbon provides a promising suspension alternative. A lower number of violin modes oscillating in the direction of the laser and a reduction in violin mode peak values of at least 23dB can be achieved with a slight increase in thermal noise above 40Hz

  2. Suspensions with reduced violin string modes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, B H; Ju, L; Blair, D G [School of Physics, University of Western Australia, Crawley 6009, WA (Australia)

    2006-03-02

    We discuss the possibility of significantly reducing the number and Q-factor of violin string modes in the mirror suspension. Simulations of a bar-flexure suspension and an orthogonal ribbon have shown a reduction in the number of violin string modes when compared to a normal ribbon suspension. By calculating the expected suspension thermal noise, we find that the orthogonal ribbon provides a promising suspension alternative. A lower number of violin modes oscillating in the direction of the laser and a reduction in violin mode peak values of at least 23dB can be achieved with a slight increase in thermal noise above 40Hz.

  3. H-mode study in CHS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toi, K.; Morisaki, T.; Sakakibara, S.

    1995-02-01

    In CHS rapid H-mode transition is observed in NBI heated deuterium and hydrogen plasmas without obvious isotope effect, when a net plasma current is ramped up to increase the external rotational transform. The H-mode of CHS has many similarities with those in tokamaks. Recent measurement with fast response Langmuir probes has revealed that the rapid change in floating potential occurs at the transition, but the change follows the formation of edge transport barrier. The presence of ι/2π = 1 surface near the edge and sawtooth crash triggered by internal modes may play an important role for determining the H-mode transition in CHS. (author)

  4. Acoustic propagation mode in a cylindrical plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishida, Yoshio; Idehara, Toshitaka; Inada, Hideyo

    1975-01-01

    The sound velocity in a cylindrical plasma produced by a high frequency discharge is measured by an interferometer system. The result shows that the acoustic wave guide effect does exist in a neutral gas and in a plasma. It is found that the wave propagates in the mode m=2 in a rigid boundary above the cut-off frequency fsub(c) and in the mode m=0 below fsub(c). Because the mode m=0 is identical to a plane wave, the sound velocity in free space can be evaluated exactly. In the mode m=2, the sound velocity approaches the free space value, when the frequency increases sufficiently. (auth.)

  5. Mode coupling in spin torque oscillators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Steven S.-L.; Zhou, Yan; Li, Dong; Heinonen, Olle

    2016-01-01

    A number of recent experimental works have shown that the dynamics of a single spin torque oscillator can exhibit complex behavior that stems from interactions between two or more modes of the oscillator, such as observed mode-hopping or mode coexistence. There has been some initial work indicating how the theory for a single-mode (macro-spin) spin torque oscillator should be generalized to include several modes and the interactions between them. In the present work, we rigorously derive such a theory starting with the Landau–Lifshitz–Gilbert equation for magnetization dynamics by expanding up to third-order terms in deviation from equilibrium. Our results show how a linear mode coupling, which is necessary for observed mode-hopping to occur, arises through coupling to a magnon bath. The acquired temperature dependence of this coupling implies that the manifold of orbits and fixed points may shift with temperature. - Highlights: • Deriving equations for coupled modes in spin torque oscillators. • Including Hamiltonian formalism and elimination of three–magnon processes. • Thermal bath of magnons central to mode coupling. • Numerical examples of circular and elliptical devices.

  6. Turbulence and Solar p-Mode Oscillations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bi, S. L.; Xu, H. Y.

    The discrepancy between observed and theoretical mode frequencies can be used to examine the reliability of the standard solar model as a faithful representation of solar real situation. With the help of an improved time-dependent convective model that takes into account contribution of the full spatial and temporal turbulent energy spectrum, we study the influence of turbulent pressure on structure and solar p-mode frequencies. For the radial modes we find that the Reynolds stress produces signification modifications in structure and p-mode spectrum. Compared with an adiabatic approximation, the discrepancy is largely removed by the turbulent correction.

  7. Failure Modes of thin supported Membranes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hendriksen, Peter Vang; Høgsberg, J.R.; Kjeldsen, Ane Mette

    2007-01-01

    Four different failure modes relevant to tubular supported membranes (thin dense films on a thick porous support) were analyzed. The failure modes were: 1) Structural collapse due to external pressure 2) burst of locally unsupported areas, 3) formation of surface cracks in the membrane due to TEC......-mismatches, and finally 4) delamination between membrane and support due to expansion of the membrane on use. Design criteria to minimize risk of failure by the four different modes are discussed. The theoretical analysis of the two last failure modes is compared to failures observed on actual components....

  8. Research of the Power Plant Operational Modes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koismynina Nina M.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In this article the algorithm of the power plant operational modes research is offered. According to this algorithm the program for the modes analysis and connection power transformers choice is developed. The program can be used as educational means for studying of the power plant electric part, at the same time basic data are provided. Also the program can be used for the analysis of the working power plants modes. Checks of the entered data completeness and a choice correctness of the operational modes are provided in the program; in all cases of a deviation from the correct decisions to the user the relevant information is given.

  9. Mode coupling in spin torque oscillators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Steven S.-L., E-mail: ZhangShule@missouri.edu [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Missouri, Columbia, MO 65211 (United States); Zhou, Yan, E-mail: yanzhou@hku.hk [Department of Physics, The University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong (China); Center of Theoretical and Computational Physics, University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong (China); Li, Dong, E-mail: geodesic.ld@gmail.com [Department of Physics, Centre for Nonlinear Studies, and Beijing-Hong Kong-Singapore Joint Centre for Nonlinear and Complex Systems, Hong Kong Baptist University, Kowloon Tong, Hong Kong (China); Heinonen, Olle, E-mail: heinonen@anl.gov [Material Science Division, Argonne National Laboratory, Lemont, IL 60439 (United States); Northwestern-Argonne Institute of Science and Technology, 2145 Sheridan Road, Evanston, IL 60208 (United States); Computation Institute, The Unversity of Chicago, 5735 S Ellis Avenue, Chicago, IL 60637 (United States)

    2016-09-15

    A number of recent experimental works have shown that the dynamics of a single spin torque oscillator can exhibit complex behavior that stems from interactions between two or more modes of the oscillator, such as observed mode-hopping or mode coexistence. There has been some initial work indicating how the theory for a single-mode (macro-spin) spin torque oscillator should be generalized to include several modes and the interactions between them. In the present work, we rigorously derive such a theory starting with the Landau–Lifshitz–Gilbert equation for magnetization dynamics by expanding up to third-order terms in deviation from equilibrium. Our results show how a linear mode coupling, which is necessary for observed mode-hopping to occur, arises through coupling to a magnon bath. The acquired temperature dependence of this coupling implies that the manifold of orbits and fixed points may shift with temperature. - Highlights: • Deriving equations for coupled modes in spin torque oscillators. • Including Hamiltonian formalism and elimination of three–magnon processes. • Thermal bath of magnons central to mode coupling. • Numerical examples of circular and elliptical devices.

  10. Spatial mode discriminator based on leaky waveguides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jing; Liu, Jialing; Shi, Hongkang; Chen, Yuntian

    2018-06-01

    We propose a conceptually simple and experimentally compatible configuration to discriminate the spatial mode based on leaky waveguides, which are inserted in-between the transmission link. The essence of such a spatial mode discriminator is to introduce the leakage of the power flux on purpose for detection. Importantly, the leaky angle of each individual spatial mode with respect to the propagation direction are different for non-degenerated modes, while the radiation patterns of the degenerated spatial modes in the plane perpendicular to the propagation direction are also distinguishable. Based on these two facts, we illustrate the operation principle of the spatial mode discriminators via two concrete examples; a w-type slab leaky waveguide without degeneracy, and a cylindrical leaky waveguide with degeneracy. The correlation between the leakage angle and the spatial mode distribution for a slab leaky waveguide, as well as differences between the in-plane radiation patterns of degenerated modes in a cylindrical leaky waveguide, are verified numerically and analytically. Such findings can be readily useful in discriminating the spatial modes for optical communication or optical sensing.

  11. Transverse multibunch modes for non-rigid bunches, including mode coupling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berg, J S; Ruth, R D [Stanford Linear Accelerator Center, Menlo Park, CA (United States)

    1996-08-01

    A method for computing transverse multibunch growth rates and frequency shifts in rings, which has been described previously, is applied to the PEP-II B factory. The method allows multibunch modes with different internal-bunch oscillation modes to couple to one another, similar to single-bunch mode coupling. Including coupling between the multibunch modes gives effects similar to those seen in single-bunch mode coupling. These effects occur at currents that are lower than the single-bunch mode coupling threshold. (author)

  12. Discrimination of orbital angular momentum modes of the terahertz vortex beam using a diffractive mode transformer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Changming; Wei, Xuli; Niu, Liting; Wang, Kejia; Yang, Zhengang; Liu, Jinsong

    2016-06-13

    We present an efficient method to discriminate orbital angular momentum (OAM) of the terahertz (THz) vortex beam using a diffractive mode transformer. The mode transformer performs a log-polar coordinate transformation of the input THz vortex beam, which consists of two 3D-printed diffractive elements. A following lens separates each transformed OAM mode to a different lateral position in its focal plane. This method enables a simultaneous measurement over multiple OAM modes of the THz vortex beam. We experimentally demonstrate the measurement of seven individual OAM modes and two multiplexed OAM modes, which is in good agreement with simulations.

  13. Competition and evolution of dielectric waveguide mode and plasmonic waveguide mode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Sheng-Nan; Fang, Yun-Tuan

    2017-10-01

    In order to study the coupling and evolution law of the waveguide mode and two plasmonic surface modes, we construct a line defect waveguide based on hexagonal honeycomb plasmonic photonic crystal. Through adjusting the radius of the edge dielectric rods, the competition and evolution behaviors occur between dielectric waveguide mode and plasmonic waveguide mode. There are three status: only plasmonic waveguide modes occur for rA 0.25a; two kinds of modes coexist for 0.09a advantages in achieving slow light.

  14. Nonlinear mode coupling in rotating stars and the r-mode instability in neutron stars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schenk, A.K.; Arras, P.; Flanagan, E.E.; Teukolsky, S.A.; Wasserman, I.

    2002-01-01

    We develop the formalism required to study the nonlinear interaction of modes in rotating Newtonian stars, assuming that the mode amplitudes are only mildly nonlinear. The formalism is simpler than previous treatments of mode-mode interactions for spherical stars, and simplifies and corrects previous treatments for rotating stars. At linear order, we elucidate and extend slightly a formalism due to Schutz, show how to decompose a general motion of a rotating star into a sum over modes, and obtain uncoupled equations of motion for the mode amplitudes under the influence of an external force. Nonlinear effects are added perturbatively via three-mode couplings, which suffices for moderate amplitude modal excitations; the formalism is easy to extend to higher order couplings. We describe a new, efficient way to compute the modal coupling coefficients, to zeroth order in the stellar rotation rate, using spin-weighted spherical harmonics. The formalism is general enough to allow computation of the initial trends in the evolution of the spin frequency and differential rotation of the background star. We apply this formalism to derive some properties of the coupling coefficients relevant to the nonlinear interactions of unstable r modes in neutron stars, postponing numerical integrations of the coupled equations of motion to a later paper. First, we clarify some aspects of the expansion in stellar rotation frequency Ω that is often used to compute approximate mode functions. We show that, in zero-buoyancy stars, the rotational modes (those modes whose frequencies vanish as Ω→0) are orthogonal to zeroth order in Ω. From an astrophysical viewpoint, the most interesting result of this paper is that many couplings of r modes to other rotational modes are small: either they vanish altogether because of various selection rules, or they vanish to lowest order in Ω or in compressibility. In particular, in zero-buoyancy stars, the coupling of three r modes is forbidden

  15. Mode coupling in hybrid square-rectangular lasers for single mode operation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ma, Xiu-Wen; Huang, Yong-Zhen, E-mail: yzhuang@semi.ac.cn; Yang, Yue-De; Xiao, Jin-Long; Weng, Hai-Zhong; Xiao, Zhi-Xiong [State Key Laboratory on Integrated Optoelectronics, Institute of Semiconductors and University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100083 (China)

    2016-08-15

    Mode coupling between a square microcavity and a Fabry-Pérot (FP) cavity is proposed and demonstrated for realizing single mode lasers. The modulations of the mode Q factor as simulation results are observed and single mode operation is obtained with a side mode suppression ratio of 46 dB and a single mode fiber coupling loss of 3.2 dB for an AlGaInAs/InP hybrid laser as a 300-μm-length and 1.5-μm-wide FP cavity connected to a vertex of a 10-μm-side square microcavity. Furthermore, tunable single mode operation is demonstrated with a continuous wavelength tuning range over 10 nm. The simple hybrid structure may shed light on practical applications of whispering-gallery mode microcavities in large-scale photonic integrated circuits and optical communication and interconnection.

  16. Orbital angular momentum of general astigmatic modes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Visser, Jorrit; Nienhuis, Gerard

    2004-01-01

    We present an operator method to obtain complete sets of astigmatic Gaussian solutions of the paraxial wave equation. In case of general astigmatism, the astigmatic intensity and phase distribution of the fundamental mode differ in orientation. As a consequence, the fundamental mode has a nonzero orbital angular momentum, which is not due to phase singularities. Analogous to the operator method for the quantum harmonic oscillator, the corresponding astigmatic higher-order modes are obtained by repeated application of raising operators on the fundamental mode. The nature of the higher-order modes is characterized by a point on a sphere, in analogy with the representation of polarization on the Poincare sphere. The north and south poles represent astigmatic Laguerre-Gaussian modes, similar to circular polarization on the Poincare sphere, while astigmatic Hermite-Gaussian modes are associated with points on the equator, analogous to linear polarization. We discuss the propagation properties of the modes and their orbital angular momentum, which depends on the degree of astigmatism and on the location of the point on the sphere

  17. Mode Contributions to the Casimir Effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Intravaia, F.; Henkel, C.

    2010-04-01

    Applying a sum-over-modes approach to the Casimir interaction between two plates with finite conductivity, we isolate and study the contributions of surface plasmons and Foucault (eddy current) modes. We show in particular that for the TE-polarization eddy currents provide a repulsive force that cancels, at high temperatures, the Casimir free energy calculated with the plasma model.

  18. Line-mode browser development days

    CERN Multimedia

    Anna Pantelia

    2013-01-01

    Twelve talented web developers have travelled to CERN from all over the world to recreate a piece of web history: the line-mode browser. See the line-mode browser simulator that they created here. Read more about the birth of the web here.

  19. Simultaneous Emotions: Entwining Modes in Children's Books

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cadden, Mike

    2005-01-01

    Critics and teachers tend to pay attention to genre and ignore mode as an area of consideration. This study examines three novels for young readers that are comparable in terms of their entwining opposing modes (irony and romance, comedy and tragedy) as a successful crossover strategy for appeal to readers young and old. I share implications for…

  20. Spatial mode discrimination using second harmonic generation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Delaubert, Vincent; Lassen, Mikael Østergaard; Pulford, David

    2007-01-01

    Second harmonic generation can be used as a technique for controlling the spatial mode structure of optical beams. We demonstrate experimentally the generation of higher order spatial modes, and that it is possible to use nonlinear phase matching as a predictable and robust technique for the conv...

  1. Innovation of University Teaching Faculty Management Mode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Yuzheng; Wang, Boyu

    2015-01-01

    With the deepening of university reform in China, the traditional teaching faculty management mode has been exposed more and more defects. To make innovation of the university teaching faculty management mode becomes the voice of the times. Universities should conduct careful research on this issue in the development. Starting from the…

  2. Tapping mode atomic force microscopy in liquid

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Putman, Constant A.J.; Putman, C.A.J.; van der Werf, Kees; de Grooth, B.G.; van Hulst, N.F.; Greve, Jan

    1994-01-01

    We show that standard silicon nitride cantilevers can be used for tapping mode atomic force microscopy (AFM) in air, provided that the energy of the oscillating cantilever is sufficiently high to overcome the adhesion of the water layer. The same cantilevers are successfully used for tapping mode

  3. Multiple Modes of Inquiry in Earth Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kastens, Kim A.; Rivet, Ann

    2008-01-01

    To help teachers enrich their students' understanding of inquiry in Earth science, this article describes six modes of inquiry used by practicing geoscientists (Earth scientists). Each mode of inquiry is illustrated by using examples of seminal or pioneering research and provides pointers to investigations that enable students to experience these…

  4. Angular-momentum-bearing modes in fission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moretto, L.G.; Peaslee, G.F.; Wozniak, G.J.

    1989-03-01

    The angular-momentum-bearing degrees of freedom involved in the fission process are identified and their influence on experimental observables is discussed. The excitation of these modes is treated in the ''thermal'' limit, and the resulting distributions of observables are calculated. Experiments demonstrating the role of these modes are presented and discussed. 61 refs., 12 figs

  5. On-chip mode division multiplexing technologies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ding, Yunhong; Frellsen, Louise Floor; Guan, Xiaowei

    2016-01-01

    Space division multiplexing (SDM) is currently widely investigated in order to provide enhanced capacity thanks to the utilization of space as a new degree of multiplexing freedom in both optical fiber communication and on-chip interconnects. Basic components allowing the processing of spatial...... photonic integrated circuit mode (de) multiplexer for few-mode fibers (FMFs)....

  6. Connection between adiabaticity and the mirror mode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cohen, R.H.

    1976-01-01

    The size of magnetic moment jumps of a particle in a long, thin equilibrium magnetic mirror field is shown to be related to the complex zeroes of the mirror mode parameter B + 4πdP/sub perpendicular//dB. A consequence is that adiabaticity places a lower limit on β than does the mirror mode

  7. Confinement mechanisms in the radiatively improved mode

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tokar, M. Z.; R. Jaspers,; Koslowski, H. R.; Kramer-Flecken, A.; Messiaen, A. M.; Ongena, J.; Rogister, A. A.; Unterberg, B.; Weynants, R. R.

    1999-01-01

    The characteristics of the toroidal ion temperature gradient (ITG) instability, considered as the main source of anomalous transport in the low (L) confinement mode of tokamaks, are analysed for the conditions of the radiatively improved (RI) mode triggered by seeding of impurities. Based on

  8. Viscoresistive g-modes and ballooning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dagazian, R.Y.; Paris, R.B.

    1980-01-01

    The resistive G-mode and its particular form, the resistive ballooning mode, are treated as limits of a single simple model. MHD theory including parallel and perpendicular viscosity, finite shear, and finite beta is employed to study their linear stability

  9. Modes and Mode Volumes for Leaky Optical Cavities and Plasmonic Nanoresonators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hughes, Stephen; Kristensen, Philip Trøst

    2013-01-01

    Electromagnetic cavity modes in photonic and plasmonic resonators offer rich and attractive regimes for tailoring the properties of light–matter interactions, yet there is a disturbing lack of a precise definition for what constitutes a cavity mode, and as a result their mathematical properties r...... methods for quasinormal modes of both photonic and plasmonic resonators and the concept of a generalized effective mode volume, and we illustrate the theory with several representative cavity structures from the fields of photonic crystals and nanoplasmonics....

  10. High degree modes and instrumental effects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Korzennik, S G [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, Cambridge, MA (United States); Rabello-Soares, M C; Schou, J [Stanford University, Stanford, CA (United States)], E-mail: skorzennik@cfa.harvard.edu

    2008-10-15

    Full-disk observations taken with the Michelson Doppler Imager (MDI) on board the Solar and Heliospheric Observatory (SOHO) spacecraft, or the upgraded Global Oscillations Network Group (GONG) instruments, have enough spatial resolution to resolve modes up to {iota} = 1000 if not {iota} = 1500. The inclusion of such high-degree modes (i.e., {iota} {<=} 1000) improves dramatically inferences near the surface. Unfortunately, observational and instrumental effects cause the characterization of high degree modes to be quite complicated. Indeed, the characteristics of the solar acoustic spectrum are such that, for a given order, mode lifetimes get shorter and spatial leaks get closer in frequency as the degree of a mode increases. A direct consequence of this property is that individual modes are resolved only at low and intermediate degrees. At high degrees the individual modes blend into ridges and the power distribution of the ridge defines the ridge central frequency, masking the underlying mode frequency. An accurate model of the amplitude of the peaks that contribute to the ridge power distribution is needed to recover the underlying mode frequency from fitting the ridge. We present a detailed discussion of the modeling of the ridge power distribution, and the contribution of the various observational and instrumental effects on the spatial leakage, in the context of the MDI instrument. We have constructed a physically motivated model (rather than an ad hoc correction scheme) that results in a methodology that can produce unbiased estimates of high-degree modes. This requires that the instrumental characteristics are well understood, a task that has turned out to pose a major challenge. We also present our latest results, where most of the known instrumental and observational effects that affect specifically high-degree modes were removed. These new results allow us to focus our attention on changes with solar activity. Finally, we present variations of mode

  11. Physics of the H-mode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hinton, F.L.; Chu, M.S.; Dominguez, R.R.

    1985-01-01

    A theoretical picture of the H-mode is proposed which explains some of the most important features of this good confinement mode in neutral beam heated plasmas with divertors. From consideration of the transport through the separatrix and along the open field lines outside the separatrix, as well as the stability of the plasma inside the separatrix, we show that a bifurcation in the operating parameters is possible. At high edge temperatures, very large particle confinement times are possible because of the Ware pinch. The transport of particles and heat along the open field lines to the divertor region depends on temperature in a non-monotonic way, and the bifurcation of the thermal equilibrium which is implied may correspond to the L- to H-mode transition. The improvement of the interior confinement in the H-mode, when the edge temperature is higher, is shown to follow from the tearing mode stability properties of current profiles with pedestals. (author)

  12. Newer nonconventional modes of mechanical ventilation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Preet Mohinder Singh

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The conventional modes of ventilation suffer many limitations. Although they are popularly used and are well-understood, often they fail to match the patient-based requirements. Over the years, many small modifications in ventilators have been incorporated to improve patient outcome. The ventilators of newer generation respond to patient′s demands by additional feedback systems. In this review, we discuss the popular newer modes of ventilation that have been accepted in to clinical practice. Various intensive care units over the world have found these modes to improve patient ventilator synchrony, decrease ventilator days and improve patient safety. The various modes discusses in this review are: Dual control modes (volume assured pressure support, volume support, Adaptive support ventilation, proportional assist ventilation, mandatory minute ventilation, Bi-level airway pressure release ventilation, (BiPAP, neurally adjusted ventilatory assist and NeoGanesh. Their working principles with their advantages and clinical limitations are discussed in brief.

  13. Tearing mode saturation with finite pressure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, J.K.

    1988-01-01

    With finite pressure, the saturation of the current-driven tearing mode is obtained in three-dimensional nonlinear resistive magnetohydrodynamic simulations for Tokamak plasmas. To effectively focus on the tearing modes, the perturbed pressure effects are excluded while the finite equilibrium pressure effects are retained. With this model, the linear growth rates of the tearing modes are found to be very insensitive to the equilibrium pressure increase. The nonlinear aspects of the tearing modes, however, are found to be very sensitive to the pressure increase in that the saturation level of the nonlinear harmonics of the tearing modes increases monotonically with the pressure rise. The increased level is associated with enhanced tearing island sizes or increased stochastic magnetic field region. (author)

  14. Operating modes of superconducting tunnel junction device

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maehata, Keisuke [Kyushu Univ., Fukuoka (Japan). Faculty of Engineering

    1998-07-01

    In the Electrotechnical Laboratory, an Nb type superconducting tunnel junction (STJ) device with 200 x 200 sq. micron in area and super high quality was manufactured. By using 55-fe source, response of this large area STJ to X-ray was measured. In this measurement, two action modes with different output wave height from front amplifier were observed. Then, in this study, current-voltage feature of the element in each action mode was analyzed to elucidate a mechanism to form such two action modes. The feature was analyzed by using first order approximate solution on cavity resonance mode of Sine-Gordon equation. From the analytical results, it could be supposed that direction and magnitude of effective magnetic field penetrating into jointed area changed by an induction current effect owing to impressing speed of the magnetic field, which brings two different current-voltage features to make possible to observe two action modes with different pulse wave height. (G.K.)

  15. Reynolds stress of localized toroidal modes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Y.Z.; Mahajan, S.M.

    1995-02-01

    An investigation of the 2D toroidal eigenmode problem reveals the possibility of a new consistent 2D structure, the dissipative BM-II mode. In contrast to the conventional ballooning mode, the new mode is poloidally localized at π/2 (or -π/2), and possesses significant radial asymmetry. The radial asymmetry, in turn, allows the dissipative BM-II to generate considerably larger Reynolds stress as compared to the standard slab drift type modes. It is also shown that a wide class of localized dissipative toroidal modes are likely to be of the dissipative BM-II nature, suggesting that at the tokamak edge, the fluctuation generated Reynolds stress (a possible source of poloidal flow) can be significant

  16. Transportation Modes Classification Using Sensors on Smartphones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shih-Hau Fang

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the transportation and vehicular modes classification by using big data from smartphone sensors. The three types of sensors used in this paper include the accelerometer, magnetometer, and gyroscope. This study proposes improved features and uses three machine learning algorithms including decision trees, K-nearest neighbor, and support vector machine to classify the user’s transportation and vehicular modes. In the experiments, we discussed and compared the performance from different perspectives including the accuracy for both modes, the executive time, and the model size. Results show that the proposed features enhance the accuracy, in which the support vector machine provides the best performance in classification accuracy whereas it consumes the largest prediction time. This paper also investigates the vehicle classification mode and compares the results with that of the transportation modes.

  17. Alfven frequency modes and global Alfven eigenmodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Villard, L.; Vaclavik, J.

    1996-07-01

    The spectrum of n=0 Alfven modes is calculated analytically and numerically in cylindrical and toroidal geometries. It includes Global Alfven Eigenmodes (GAE) and Surface Modes (SM) of the fast magnetoacoustic wave. These modes are not induced by toroidicity. The n=0 GAEs owe their existence to the shear. The frequency spacing between different radial and poloidal modes and the correlation of eigenfrequencies with changes in the edge density are examined and found in complete agreement with experimental observations of what has been named the 'Alfven Frequency Mode' (AFM) so far. Although the eigenfrequency is related to the edge density, the n=0 GAE (AFM) is not necessarily edge-localized. (author) figs., tabs., refs

  18. Reynolds stress of localized toroidal modes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Y.Z.; Mahajan, S.M.

    1995-01-01

    An investigation of the 2D toroidal eigenmode problem reveals the possibility of a new consistent 2D structure, the dissipative BM-II mode. In contrast to the conventional ballooning mode, the new mode is poloidally localized at π/2 (or -π/2), and possesses significant radial asymmetry. The radial asymmetry, in turn, allows the dissipative BM-II to generate considerably larger Reynolds stress as compared to the standard slab drift type modes. It is also shown that a wide class of localized dissipative toroidal modes are likely to be of the dissipative BM-II nature, suggesting that at the tokamak edge, the fluctuation generated Reynolds stress (a possible source of poloidal flow) can be significant. (author). 15 refs

  19. Poloidal rotation and the evolution of H-mode and VH-mode profiles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hinton, F.L.; Staebler, G.M.; Kim, Y.B.

    1993-12-01

    The physics which determines poloidal rotation, and its role in the development of profiles during H- and VH-modes, is discussed. A simple phenomenological transport model, which incorporates the rvec E x rvec B flow shear suppression of turbulence, is shown to predict profile evolution similar to that observed experimentally during H-mode and VH-mode

  20. Few-mode erbium-doped fiber amplifier with photonic lantern for pump spatial mode control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lopez-Galmiche, G.; Eznaveh, Z. Sanjabi; Antonio-Lopez, J.E.; Benitez, A. M. Velazquez; Rodriguez-Asomoza, Jorge; Mondragon, J. J. Sanchez; Gonnet, C.; Sillard, P.; Li, G.; Schülzgen, A.; Okonkwo, C.M.; Amezcua Correa, R.

    2016-01-01

    We demonstrate a few-mode erbium-doped fiber amplifier employing a mode-selective photonic lantern for controlling the modal content of the pump light. Amplification of six spatial modes in a 5 m long erbium-doped fiber to x223C;6.2x2009;x2009;dBm average power is obtained while maintaining high

  1. Exploiting selective excitation of strongly coupled modes to reduce DMGD in multi-mode transmission systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Weerdenburg, J.J.A.; Antonio-Lopez, J.E.; Alvarado-Zacarias, J.; Molin, D.; Bigot-Astruc, M.; van Uden, R.; de Waardt, H.; Koonen, A.M.J.; Amezcua-Correa, R.; Sillard, P.; Okonkwo, C.M.

    2016-01-01

    By exploiting strong coupling in higher-order modes, we experimentally demonstrate reduced differential mode group delay by a factor of 3. Comparing LP02+LP21 with respect to LP01+LP11 3-mode transmission, a 27% reduction in equalizer length is shown after 53.4km MMF transmission.

  2. Informed Design of Mixed-Mode Surveys : Evaluating mode effects on measurement and selection error

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klausch, Thomas|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/341427306

    2014-01-01

    “Mixed-mode designs” are innovative types of surveys which combine more than one mode of administration in the same project, such as surveys administered partly on the web (online), on paper, by telephone, or face-to-face. Mixed-mode designs have become increasingly popular in international survey

  3. Experimental verification of microbending theory using mode coupling to discrete cladding modes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Probst, C. B.; Bjarklev, Anders Overgaard; Andreasen, S. B.

    1989-01-01

    a microbending theory in which coupling between the guided mode and a number of discrete cladding modes is considered. Very good agreement between theory and measurement is achieved. The consequences of the existence of discrete cladding modes with regard to the proper choice of artificial microbending spectrum...

  4. The H-mode Pedestal and Edge Localized Modes in NSTX

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maingi, R.; Fredrickson, E.D.; Menard, J.E.; Nishino, N.; Roquemore, A.L.; Sabbagh, S.A.; Tritz, K.

    2004-01-01

    The research program of the National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX) routinely utilizes the H-mode confinement regime to test and extend beta and pulse length limits. As in conventional aspect ratio tokamaks, NSTX observes a variety of edge localized modes (ELMs) in H-mode. Hence a significant part of the research program is dedicated to ELMs studies

  5. Limiter H-mode experiments on TFTR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bush, C [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (USA); Bretz, N L; Fredrickson, E D; McGuire, K M; Nazikian, R; Park, H K; Schivell, J; Taylor, G; Bitter, B; Budny, R; Cohen, S A; Kilpatrick, S J; LeBlanc, B; Manos, D M; Meade, D; Paul, S F; Scott, S D; Stratton, B C; Synakowski, E J; Towner, H H; Weiland, R M; Arunasalam, V; Bateman, G; Bell, M G; Bell, R; Boivin, R; Cavallo, A; Cheng, C Z; Chu, T K; Cowl,

    1990-12-15

    Limiter H-modes with centrally peaked density profiles have been obtained in TFTR using a highly conditioned graphite limiter. The transition to these centrally peaked H-modes takes place from the supershot to the H-mode rather than the usual L- to H-mode transition observed on other tokamaks. Bi-directional beam heating is required to induce the transition. Density peaking factors, n{sub e}(0)/{l angle}n{sub e}{r angle}, >2.3 are obtained and at the same time the H-mode characteristics are similar to those of limiter H-modes on other tokamaks and the global confinement, {tau}{sub E}, can be >2.5 times L-mode scaling. The TRANSP analysis shows that transport in these H-modes is similar to that of supershots within the inner 60 cm of the plasma, but the stored electron energy (calculated using measured values of T{sub e} and n{sub e}) is higher for the H-mode at the plasma edge. Microwave scattering near the edge shows broad spectra at k = 5.5 cm{sup {minus}1} which begin at the drop in D{sub {alpha}} radiation and are strongly shifted in the electron diamagnetic drift direction. At the same time beam emission spectroscopy shows a coherent mode near the boundary with m = 15--20 at 20--30 kHz which is propagating in the ion direction. During an ELM event these apparent rotations cease and Mirnov fluctuations in the 50--500 kHz increase in intensity.

  6. Completeness of non-normalizable modes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mannheim, Philip D; Simbotin, Ionel

    2006-01-01

    We establish the completeness of some characteristic sets of non-normalizable modes by constructing fully localized square steps out of them, with each such construction expressly displaying the Gibbs phenomenon associated with trying to use a complete basis of modes to fit functions with discontinuous edges. As well as being of interest in and of itself, our study is also of interest to the recently introduced large extra dimension brane-localized gravity program of Randall and Sundrum, since the particular non-normalizable mode bases that we consider (specifically the irregular Bessel functions and the associated Legendre functions of the second kind) are associated with the tensor gravitational fluctuations which occur in those specific brane worlds in which the embedding of a maximally four-symmetric brane in a five-dimensional anti-de Sitter bulk leads to a warp factor which is divergent. Since the brane-world massless four-dimensional graviton has a divergent wavefunction in these particular cases, its resulting lack of normalizability is thus not seen to be any impediment to its belonging to a complete basis of modes, and consequently its lack of normalizability should not be seen as a criterion for not including it in the spectrum of observable modes. Moreover, because the divergent modes we consider form complete bases, we can even construct propagators out of them in which these modes appear as poles with residues which are expressly finite. Thus, even though normalizable modes appear in propagators with residues which are given as their finite normalization constants, non-normalizable modes can just as equally appear in propagators with finite residues too-it is just that such residues will not be associated with bilinear integrals of the modes

  7. Even nanomechanical modes transduced by integrated photonics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Westwood-Bachman, J. N.; Diao, Z.; Sauer, V. T. K.; Hiebert, W. K., E-mail: wayne.hiebert@nrc-cnrc.gc.ca [Department of Physics, University of Alberta, Edmonton T6G 2E1 (Canada); National Institute for Nanotechnology, 11421 Saskatchewan Drive, Edmonton T6G 2M9 (Canada); Bachman, D. [Department of Electrical Engineering, University of Alberta, Edmonton T6G 2V4 (Canada)

    2016-02-08

    We demonstrate the actuation and detection of even flexural vibrational modes of a doubly clamped nanomechanical resonator using an integrated photonics transduction scheme. The doubly clamped beam is formed by releasing a straight section of an optical racetrack resonator from the underlying silicon dioxide layer, and a step is fabricated in the substrate beneath the beam. The step causes uneven force and responsivity distribution along the device length, permitting excitation and detection of even modes of vibration. This is achieved while retaining transduction capability for odd modes. The devices are actuated via optical force applied with a pump laser. The displacement sensitivities of the first through third modes, as obtained from the thermomechanical noise floor, are 228 fm Hz{sup −1/2}, 153 fm Hz{sup −1/2}, and 112 fm Hz{sup −1/2}, respectively. The excitation efficiency for these modes is compared and modeled based on integration of the uneven forces over the mode shapes. While the excitation efficiency for the first three modes is approximately the same when the step occurs at about 38% of the beam length, the ability to tune the modal efficiency of transduction by choosing the step position is discussed. The overall optical force on each mode is approximately 0.4 pN μm{sup −1} mW{sup −1}, for an applied optical power of 0.07 mW. We show a potential application that uses the resonant frequencies of the first two vibrational modes of a buckled beam to measure the stress in the silicon device layer, estimated to be 106 MPa. We anticipate that the observation of the second mode of vibration using our integrated photonics approach will be useful in future mass sensing experiments.

  8. Development of Geiger-Mueller counters for operation at high temperatures; Mise au point de compteurs Geiger-Mueller fonctionnant a haute temperature; Razrabotka schetchikov Gejgera-Myullera, rabotayushchikh pri povyshennoj temperature; Contadores Geiger-Mueller que funcionan a temperaturas elevadas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Draghicescu, M [Institut de Physique Atomique, Bucarest (Romania)

    1962-04-15

    Counters of this type are necessary for radioactive logging at great depths; they have to operate normally at temperatures up to 180{sup o}C. In order to preserve their characteristics under such conditions, the work function of the cathode has been improved by a special treatment. Tests have been made on counters with graphite, copper and wolfram cathodes in a glass envelope. The method is simple, and can easily be employed in industry. (author) [French] De tels compteurs sont necessaires pour le sondage radioactif aux grandes profondeurs; ils doivent fonctionner dans des conditions normales jusqu'a la temperature de 180{sup o}C. Afin qu'ils puissent conserver leurs caracteristiques jusqu'a cette temperature, on a agi sur le travail de sortie de la cathode par un traitement adequat. On a fait l'essai sur des compteurs avec cathode de graphite, de cuivre ou de tungstene, dans un ballon de verre. La methode proposee est simple et peut etre appliquee facilement dans l'industrie. (author) [Spanish] Se requiere este tipo de contador para la determinacion de la radiactividad a grandes profundidades; debe ser capaz de funcionar normalmente a temperaturas hasta de 180{sup o}C. A fin de que sus caracteristicas se conserven inalteradas hasta tales temperaturas, se ha modificado la funcion de trabajo del catodo mediante un tratamiento adecuando. Se han ensayado contadores con catodo de grafito, de cobre o de wolframio en un balon de vidrio. El metodo propuesto es simple y puede aplicarse facilmente en la industria. (author) [Russian] Podobnye schetchiki neobkhodimy dlya radioaktivnogo karottazha na bol'shikh glubinakh; oni dolzhny funktsionirovat' v normal'nykh usloviyakh pri temperature do 180{sup o}C. Nakonets, dlya togo, chtoby oni mogli sokhranyat' svoi osobennosti pri ehtoj temperature, bylo obrashcheno vnimanie na rabotu katodnogo vykhoda pri pomoshchi sootvetstvuyushchej obrabotki. Byl proveden opyt na schetchikakh s grafitovym, mednym ili vol'framovym katodom v

  9. High-mode-number ballooning modes in a heliotron/torsatron system. II. Stability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakajima, N.

    1996-01-01

    In heliotron/torsatron systems that have a large Shafranov shift, the local magnetic shear is found to have no stabilizing effect on high-mode-number ballooning modes at the outer side of the torus, even in the region where the global shear is stellarator-like in nature. The disappearance of this stabilization, in combination with the compression of the flux surfaces at the outer side of the torus, leads at relatively low values of the plasma pressure to significant modifications of the stabilizing effect due to magnetic field-line bending on high-mode-number ballooning modes-specifically, that the field-line bending stabilization can be remarkably suppressed or enhanced. In an equilibrium that is slightly Mercier-unstable or completely Mercier-stable due to peaked pressure profiles, such as those used in standard stability calculations, high-mode-number ballooning modes are destabilized due to these modified stability effects, with their eigenfunctions highly localized along the field line. Highly localized mode structures such as these cause the ballooning mode eigenvalues ω 2 to have a strong field line dependence (i.e., α-variation) through the strong dependence of the local magnetic curvature, such that the level surfaces of ω 2 (ψ,θ k ,α) (≤0) become spheroids in (ψ,θ k ,α) space, where ψ labels flux surfaces and θ k is the radial wave number. Because the spheroidal level surfaces for unstable eigenvalues are surrounded by level surfaces for stable eigenvalues of high-mode-number toroidal Alfvacute en eigenmodes, those high-mode-number ballooning modes never lead to low-mode-number modes. In configuration space, these high-mode-number modes are localized in a single toroidal pitch of the helical coils, and hence they may experience substantial stabilization due to finite Larmor radius effects. copyright 1996 American Institute of Physics

  10. Cross-correlated imaging of single-mode photonic crystal rod fiber with distributed mode filtering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laurila, Marko; Barankov, Roman; Jørgensen, Mette Marie

    2013-01-01

    Photonic crystal bandgap fibers employing distributed mode filtering design provide near diffraction-limited light outputs, a critical property of fiber-based high-power lasers. Microstructure of the fibers is tailored to achieve single-mode operation at specific wavelength by resonant mode...... identify regimes of resonant coupling between higher-order core modes and cladding band. We demonstrate a passive fiber design in which the higher-order modal content inside the single-mode guiding regime is suppressed by at least 20 dB even for significantly misaligned input-coupling configurations....

  11. Preconditioned dynamic mode decomposition and mode selection algorithms for large datasets using incremental proper orthogonal decomposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohmichi, Yuya

    2017-07-01

    In this letter, we propose a simple and efficient framework of dynamic mode decomposition (DMD) and mode selection for large datasets. The proposed framework explicitly introduces a preconditioning step using an incremental proper orthogonal decomposition (POD) to DMD and mode selection algorithms. By performing the preconditioning step, the DMD and mode selection can be performed with low memory consumption and therefore can be applied to large datasets. Additionally, we propose a simple mode selection algorithm based on a greedy method. The proposed framework is applied to the analysis of three-dimensional flow around a circular cylinder.

  12. Normalized modes at selected points without normalization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kausel, Eduardo

    2018-04-01

    As every textbook on linear algebra demonstrates, the eigenvectors for the general eigenvalue problem | K - λM | = 0 involving two real, symmetric, positive definite matrices K , M satisfy some well-defined orthogonality conditions. Equally well-known is the fact that those eigenvectors can be normalized so that their modal mass μ =ϕT Mϕ is unity: it suffices to divide each unscaled mode by the square root of the modal mass. Thus, the normalization is the result of an explicit calculation applied to the modes after they were obtained by some means. However, we show herein that the normalized modes are not merely convenient forms of scaling, but that they are actually intrinsic properties of the pair of matrices K , M, that is, the matrices already "know" about normalization even before the modes have been obtained. This means that we can obtain individual components of the normalized modes directly from the eigenvalue problem, and without needing to obtain either all of the modes or for that matter, any one complete mode. These results are achieved by means of the residue theorem of operational calculus, a finding that is rather remarkable inasmuch as the residues themselves do not make use of any orthogonality conditions or normalization in the first place. It appears that this obscure property connecting the general eigenvalue problem of modal analysis with the residue theorem of operational calculus may have been overlooked up until now, but which has in turn interesting theoretical implications.Á

  13. Black Hole Spectroscopy with Coherent Mode Stacking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Huan; Yagi, Kent; Blackman, Jonathan; Lehner, Luis; Paschalidis, Vasileios; Pretorius, Frans; Yunes, Nicolás

    2017-04-21

    The measurement of multiple ringdown modes in gravitational waves from binary black hole mergers will allow for testing the fundamental properties of black holes in general relativity and to constrain modified theories of gravity. To enhance the ability of Advanced LIGO/Virgo to perform such tasks, we propose a coherent mode stacking method to search for a chosen target mode within a collection of multiple merger events. We first rescale each signal so that the target mode in each of them has the same frequency and then sum the waveforms constructively. A crucial element to realize this coherent superposition is to make use of a priori information extracted from the inspiral-merger phase of each event. To illustrate the method, we perform a study with simulated events targeting the ℓ=m=3 ringdown mode of the remnant black holes. We show that this method can significantly boost the signal-to-noise ratio of the collective target mode compared to that of the single loudest event. Using current estimates of merger rates, we show that it is likely that advanced-era detectors can measure this collective ringdown mode with one year of coincident data gathered at design sensitivity.

  14. Mode structure of a quantum cascade laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogdanov, A. A.; Suris, R. A.

    2011-03-01

    We analyze the mode structure of a quantum cascade laser (QCL) cavity considering the surface plasmon-polariton modes and familiar modes of hollow resonator jointly, within a single model. We present a comprehensive mode structure analysis of the laser cavity, varying its geometric parameters and free electron concentration inside cavity layers within a wide range. Our analysis covers, in particular, the cases of metal-insulator-metal and insulator-metal-insulator waveguides. We discuss the phenomenon of negative dispersion for eigenmodes in detail and explain the nature of this phenomenon. We specify a waveguide parameters domain in which negative dispersion exists. The mode structure of QCL cavity is considered in the case of the anisotropic electrical properties of the waveguide materials. We show that anisotropy of the waveguide core results in propagation of Langmuir modes that are degenerated in the case of the isotropic core. Comparative analysis of optical losses due to free carrier absorption is presented for different modes within the frequency range from terahertz to ultraviolet frequencies.

  15. OSCILLATING MODE OF TOPINAMBUR TUBERS DRYING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Golubkivich

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Specifics of a chemical composition of tubers and green material of a topinambur (Helianthus tuberosus, high efficiency and ecological plasticity, profitability of growing, biotechnological potential of use enable to identify a topinambur as a of high-energy cultures of the future. High moisture of various topinambur parts, features of the mechanism of a heat and mass transfer set a problem of search of the new drying methods promoting to increase dehydration efficiency and produce a quality product. A method of calculation of duration of the oscillating mode of topinambur tubers drying in a dense layer is worked out. The topinambur tubers cut on cubes with the side of 6 mm were taken as object of researches. Researches were conducted in the setting of various drying modes: two experiences at the oscillating mode with height of a material layer of 0.07 m and 0.17 m; and also as a check experiment was material drying at a constant temperature of the drying agent. Duration of the oscillating mode of topinambur tubers drying was calculated on their basis of received curves of changes of moisture content at various modes of drying. Estimate indicators were confirmed with experimental data. Results of determination of duration of the oscillating modes of topinambur tubers drying proved that efficiency of the oscillating modes is 18 percent higher, than at control experiment.

  16. Generation of compressible modes in MHD turbulence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, Jungyeon [Chungnam National Univ., Daejeon (Korea); Lazarian, A. [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States)

    2005-05-01

    Astrophysical turbulence is magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) in nature. We discuss fundamental properties of MHD turbulence and in particular the generation of compressible MHD waves by Alfvenic turbulence and show that this process is inefficient. This allows us to study the evolution of different types of MHD perturbations separately. We describe how to separate MHD fluctuations into three distinct families: Alfven, slow, and fast modes. We find that the degree of suppression of slow and fast modes production by Alfvenic turbulence depends on the strength of the mean field. We review the scaling relations of the modes in strong MHD turbulence. We show that Alfven modes in compressible regime exhibit scalings and anisotropy similar to those in incompressible regime. Slow modes passively mimic Alfven modes. However, fast modes exhibit isotropy and a scaling similar to that of acoustic turbulence both in high and low {beta} plasmas. We show that our findings entail important consequences for star formation theories, cosmic ray propagation, dust dynamics, and gamma ray bursts. We anticipate many more applications of the new insight to MHD turbulence and expect more revisions of the existing paradigms of astrophysical processes as the field matures. (orig.)

  17. New modes of assisted mechanical ventilation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suarez-Sipmann, F

    2014-05-01

    Recent major advances in mechanical ventilation have resulted in new exciting modes of assisted ventilation. Compared to traditional ventilation modes such as assisted-controlled ventilation or pressure support ventilation, these new modes offer a number of physiological advantages derived from the improved patient control over the ventilator. By implementing advanced closed-loop control systems and using information on lung mechanics, respiratory muscle function and respiratory drive, these modes are specifically designed to improve patient-ventilator synchrony and reduce the work of breathing. Depending on their specific operational characteristics, these modes can assist spontaneous breathing efforts synchronically in time and magnitude, adapt to changing patient demands, implement automated weaning protocols, and introduce a more physiological variability in the breathing pattern. Clinicians have now the possibility to individualize and optimize ventilatory assistance during the complex transition from fully controlled to spontaneous assisted ventilation. The growing evidence of the physiological and clinical benefits of these new modes is favoring their progressive introduction into clinical practice. Future clinical trials should improve our understanding of these modes and help determine whether the claimed benefits result in better outcomes. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier España, S.L. and SEMICYUC. All rights reserved.

  18. Tensor B mode and stochastic Faraday mixing

    CERN Document Server

    Giovannini, Massimo

    2014-01-01

    This paper investigates the Faraday effect as a different source of B mode polarization. The E mode polarization is Faraday rotated provided a stochastic large-scale magnetic field is present prior to photon decoupling. In the first part of the paper we discuss the case where the tensor modes of the geometry are absent and we argue that the B mode recently detected by the Bicep2 collaboration cannot be explained by a large-scale magnetic field rotating, through the Faraday effect, the well established E mode polarization. In this case, the observed temperature autocorrelations would be excessively distorted by the magnetic field. In the second part of the paper the formation of Faraday rotation is treated as a stationary, random and Markovian process with the aim of generalizing a set of scaling laws originally derived in the absence of the tensor modes of the geometry. We show that the scalar, vector and tensor modes of the brightness perturbations can all be Faraday rotated even if the vector and tensor par...

  19. On Mode Correlation of Solar Acoustic Oscillations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heon-Young Chang

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available In helioseismology it is normally assumed that p-mode oscillations are excited in a statistically independent fashion. Unfortunately, however, this issue is not clearly settled down in that two experiments exist, which apparently look in discrepancy. That is, Appourchaux et al.~(2000 looked at bin-to-bin correlation and found no evidence that the assumption is invalid. On the other hand, Roth (2001 reported that p-mode pairs with nearby frequencies tend to be anti-correlated, possibly by a mode-coupling effect. This work is motivated by an idea that one may test if there exists an excess of anticorrelated power variations of pairs of solar p-modes. We have analyzed a 72-day MDI spherical-harmonic time series to examine temporal variations of p-mode power and their correlation. The power variation is computed by a running-window method after the previous study by Roth (2001, and then distribution function of power correlation between mode pairs is produced. We have confirmed Roth's result that there is an excess of anti-correlated p-mode pairs with nearby frequencies. On the other hand, the amount of excess was somewhat smaller than the previous study. Moreover, the distribution function does not exhibit significant change when we paired modes with non-nearby frequencies, implying that the excess is not due to mode coupling. We conclude that the origin of this excess of anticorrelations may not be a solar physical process, by pointing out the possibility of statistical bias playing the central role in producing the excess.

  20. Low-bending loss and single-mode operation in few-mode optical fiber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Ping; Wang, Hua; Chen, Ming-Yang; Wei, Jin; Cai, Zhi-Min; Li, Lu-Ming; Yang, Ji-Hai; Zhu, Yuan-Feng

    2016-10-01

    The technique of eliminating the higher-order modes in a few-mode optical fiber is proposed. The fiber is designed with a group of defect modes in the cladding. The higher-order modes in the fiber can be eliminated by bending the fiber to induce strong coupling between the defect modes and the higher-order modes. Numerical simulation shows the bending losses of the LP01 mode are lower than 1.5×10-4 dB/turn for the wavelength shorter than 1.625 μm. The proposed fiber can be bent multiple turns at small bending radius which are preferable for FTTH related applications.

  1. Digital holograms for laser mode multiplexing

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Mhlanga, T

    2014-10-02

    Full Text Available multiplexing Thandeka Mhlangaa, b, Abderrahmen Trichilic, Angela Dudleya, Darryl Naidooa, b, Mourad Zghalc and Andrew Forbesa, b aCSIR National Laser Centre, P.O. Box 395, Pretoria 0001, South Africa bSchool of Physics, University of KwaZulu-Natal, Private Bag... problems. In this context, we demonstrate a method of multiplexing laser modes using spatial light modulators (SLMs). In our proposed technique, we use Laguerre Gaussian (LG) modes, which form a complete basis set; hence multi-mode masks can be created...

  2. Quasinormal modes in pure de Sitter spacetimes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Du Daping; Wang Bin; Su Ruheng

    2004-01-01

    We have studied scalar perturbations as well as fermion perturbations in pure de Sitter spacetimes. For scalar perturbations we have shown that well-defined quasinormal modes in d-dimensions can exist provided that the mass of scalar field m>(d-1/2l). The quasinormal modes of fermion perturbations in three and four dimensional cases have also been investigated. We found that different from other dimensional cases, in the three dimensional pure de Sitter spacetime there is no quasinormal mode for the s-wave. This interesting difference caused by the spacial dimensions is true for both scalar and fermion perturbations

  3. Algebraic description of intrinsic modes in nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leviatan, A.

    1989-01-01

    We present a procedure for extracting normal modes in algebraic number-conserving systems of interacting bosons relevant for collective states in even-even nuclei. The Hamiltonian is resolved into intrinsic (bandhead related) and collective (in-band related) parts. Shape parameters are introduced through non-spherical boson bases. Intrinsic modes decoupled from the spurious modes are obtained from the intinsic part of the Hamiltonian in the limit of large number of bosons. Intrinsic states are constructed and serve to evaluate electromagnetic transition rates. The method is illustrated for systems with one type of boson as well as with proton-neutron bosons. 28 refs., 1 fig

  4. Interacting collective modes in a laser cavity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graca, E.L.; Brito, A.L. de; Baseia, B.

    1985-01-01

    Collective operators are defined for the quantized radiation field in a one-dimensional laser cavity coupled to a semi-infinite outside region and the overlaps of neighbouring collective modes are considered to show how they modify, in the linear appoximation, the time evolution of the radiation field below threshold. The model and procedure work directly within a continuous spectrum of modes and allow us to get an improved insight on the prescription for the laser field in single-mode operation. (Author) [pt

  5. The Relationship between Blood Injury and Absorbed Dose in Criticality Accidents; Relations entre la Deterioration du Sang et la Dose Absorbee lors d'Accidents Dus a la Formation d'un Etat Critique; Svyaz' mezhdu velichinoj pogloshchennoj dozy pri avariyakh na reaktorakh, dostigshikh kritichnosti, i narusheniem sostava krovi; Relacion entre las Hemolesiones y la Dosis Absorbida en los Accidentes de Criticidad

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dennis, J. A. [Health Physics and Medical Division, Atomic Energy Research Establishment, Harwell (United Kingdom)

    1964-03-15

    absorbidas por el tronco humano. Examina la relacion entre estas estimaciones de dosis y los valores del diagrama del recuento sanguineo basado en el sistema de valoracion propuesto por N. Wald y G. E. Thoma para las desviaciones con respecto a los indices normales de linfocitos, neutrofilos y plaquetas en la sangre periferica. Demuestra que un parametro basado en la dosis gamma absorbida superficialmente y en la actividad del {sup 24}Na en la sangre concuerda mas satisfactoriamente con el diagrama mencionado y se presta mejor para pronosticar la gravedad de una radiolesion que cualquiera de las estimaciones dosimetricas corrientes. En general, la EBR de las dosis de particulas pesadas de retroceso deducida de estas observaciones armoniza con los valores obtenidos en experimentos realizados con perros. (author) [Russian] Dlja opredelenija dozy, pogloshhennoj poverhnost'ju tela cheloveka,vychisljalis' dozy nejtronnogo i gamma-obluchenij dlja lic, podvergshihsja oblucheniju pri avarijah na reaktorah, dostigshih kritichnosti. Izuchalas' svjaz' mezhdu jetimi dozami i ''profil'nym sostavom krovi'' po metodu M. Uolda i Dzh. Toma dlja otklonenij ot normy limfocitov, nejtrofil'nyh lejkocitov i trombocitov. Pokazano, chto velichina dozy, poluchennaja pri podschete poverhnostnoj pogloshhennoj dozy gamma- obluchenija i urovnja aktivnosti natrija-24 v krovi, v bol'shej stepeni soglasuetsja s profil'nym sostavom krovi i javljaetsja bolee nadezhnym prognosticheskim priznakom pri ocenke ste peni luch ev o go porazhenija, chem standartnye metody ocenki doz obluchenija. Otnositel'naja biologicheskaja jeffektivnost' doz tjazhelyh chastic otdachi, poluchennyh pri jetih nabljudenijah, v obshhem so glasuetsja s velichinami, poluchennymi v rezul'tate jeksperimentov na sobakah. (author)

  6. Compounds Labelled with Low-Energy Gamma-Ray Emitters for Medical Isotope Scanning; Gammagraphie au Moyen de Composes Marques avec des Emetteurs Gamma de Faible Energie; Soedineniya, ispol'zuemye pri meditsinskom izotopnom skennirovanii, mechennye s pomoshch'yu gamma-izluchatelej nizkoj ehnergii; Compuestos Marcados con Emisores Gamma de Baja Energia para la Exploracion Medica Mediante Isotopos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scheer, K. E.; Zum Winkel, K.; Georgi, M. [Czerny-Krankenhaus der Universitat Heidelberg, Federal Republic of Germany (Germany)

    1964-10-15

    por los tejidos del cuerpo limita la profundidad a que las lesiones pueden ser visualizadas. En organos de grandes dimensiones, como el higado, se evita la superposicion de las radiaciones procedentes de la parte posterior del organo, lo que permite detectar mejor las lesiones superficiales. El. emisor,gamma de baja energia mas importante es el {sup 125}I. Para la exploracion de la tiroides se utiliza en forma de yoduro. El Rosa Bengala marcada con {sup 125}I es un compuesto adecuado para la exploracion del higado. Tambien puede utilizarse albumina desnaturalizada por el calor, marcada con {sup 125}I. Para la exploracion del rinon se ha comprobado que el hipuran marcado con {sup 125}I da buenos resultados cuando se inyecta por via intramuscular con hialuronidasa a fin de lograr un nivel uniforme de radiactividad en este organo. Otro emisor gamma de baja energia muy util para la exploracion medica es el {sup 197}Hg que puede utilizarse en forma de cloruro para la exploracion de los rinones y el bazo. Deben tomarse precauciones especiales para evitar la superposicion del rinon y el bazo. La exploracion da mejores resultados si se utiliza {sup 197}Hg marcado con neohidrina. Este compuesto puede emplearse tambien para la localizacion de tumores del cerebro. Los autores presentan centelleogramas tipicos de tumores de la tiroides, del higado, del bazo, del rinon y del cerebro obtenidos con emisores gamma de baja energia y con nuclidos y compuestos tradicionales, y examinan las ventajas que ofrecen los primeros. (author) [Russian] Gammaizluchateli nizkoj jenergii imejut osobye preimushhestva pri ispol'zovanii ih dlja medicine - skogo scintilljacionnogo skennirovanija po dvum prichinam: 1. Svincovaja zashhita kollimatorov znachitel'no jeffektivnee. Pojetomu mozhno primenjat' tonkostennye kollimatory s mnogokratnoj fokusirovkoj, dobivajas' pri jetom naibol'shego geometricheskogo razreshenija, i v svjazi s jetim- vozmozhnosti obnaruzhenija nebol'shih porazhenij. 2. Pogloshhenie

  7. El silenciamiento de la proteína priónica celular (PrPC mediante RNA de interferencia (siRNA reduce la infección por HSV-1 y HSV-2 en células SK-SY5Y

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth Ortega-Soto

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Las encefalopatías espongiformes transmisibles (EETs son enfermedades neurodegenerativas fatales que afectan a humanos y ciertas especies animales. La hipótesis más aceptada indica que el agente infeccioso, denotado como prion y compuesto principalmente por la Proteína Priónica Scrapie (PrPSc, corresponde a una conformación anormal de una proteína codificada por el huésped denominada Proteína Priónica Celular (PrPC, cuya función es aún desconocida; sin embargo, la expresión ubicua de PrPC así como su elevado grado de conservación entre especies, sugieren un papel importante para esta proteína. En este trabajo se detectó a la PrPC en diferentes tipos celulares incluyendo un cultivo primario de células de peces (Tilapia, Oreochromis spp.. Además, basándonos en la secuencia de la PrPC humana, se diseñó un RNA de interferencia (siRNA con el fin de silenciar el gen PRNP en células neuronales SK-SY5Y. El siRNA diseñado inhibió la expresión de PrPC a lo largo de las 96 h post-transfección y las células silenciadas fueron menos susceptibles a la infección por HSV-1 y HSV-2, en comparación con células no transfectadas con el siRNA.

  8. Scanning Techniques for Brain-Tumour, Localization; Techniques Scintigraphies pour la Iocalisation des Tumeurs Cerebrales; Tekhnika skennirovaniya pri opredelenii lokalizatsii opukholej mozga; Tecnicas Centelleograficas para la Localizacion de Tumores Cerebrales

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duggan, M. H.; Brice, J.; Jones, E.; Mallard, J. R.; Myers, M. L. [Department Of Medical Physics, Postgraduate Medical School, Hammersmith Hospital, London (United Kingdom)

    1964-10-15

    facilitar la percepcion de anomalias no muy alejadas de los limites de deteccion en sistemas detectores moviles. En la memoria se estudia la posibilidad de utilizar analizadores multicanales para aplicar esas tecnicas y permitir al mismo tiempo un nuevo y util procedimiento de presentacion del centelleograma tanto en los sistemas moviles como en los estacionarios. (author) [Russian] Ustanovka dlja cvetnogo skennirovanija (Annotacija SM-51/25) ispol'zovalas' dlja sken- nirovanija dvuh vidov opuholej mozga: v odnom sluchae po pozitronnomu izlucheniju As{sup 74} , v drugom-po gamma-izlucheniju mechennogo J{sup 131} al'bumina s ispol'zovaniem fokusirujushhego kollimatora. Sravnivajutsja rezul'taty jetih dvuh vidov issledovanij. Mjet'jus,pri issledovanii opuholej u krys,pokazal, chto limonnokislyj Bi'uti javljaetsja osobenno udobnym materialom dlja opredelenija lokalizacii opuholej mozga, i v nastojashhee vremja provoditsja tret'ja serija klinicheskih issledovanij s primeneniem jetogo materiala, ispol'zovaniem gamma-detektirovanija i fokusirujushhego kollimatora. Privodjatsja predvaritel'nye rezul'taty jetih issledovanij . Fokusirujushhie kollimatory, primenennye vmeste s gamma-izluchajushhimi izotopami, imejut glubokij geometricheskij fokus; polucheny izoschetnye harakteristiki dlja tochechnyh istochnikov, ne zavisjashhie ot glubiny do 20sm. Jeksperimental'nye rezul'taty, poluchennye dlja celogo rjada kollimatorov, javilis' osnovoj dlja konstrukcii takih kollimatorov s zadannoj specifikaciej. Stacionarnoe detektornoe skennirovanie u bol'nyh s opuholjami mozga bylo provedeno s pomoshh'ju gamma-kamery s vosproizvodjashhim zapominajushhim ustrojstvom. Preimushhestva takoj apparatury zakljuchajutsja v bol'shej chuvstvitel'nosti i bolee bystroj vizualizacii kartiny raspredelenija radioaktivnosti, chto daet vozmozhnost' provedenija issledovanij v dinamike. K problemam, voznikajushhim v svjazi s jetoj apparaturoj, otnosjatsja trudnost' markirovki anatomicheskih struktur i

  9. Analysis of current diffusive ballooning mode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yagi, M.; Azumi, M.; Itoh, K.; Itoh, S.; Fukuyama, A.

    1993-04-01

    The current diffusive ballooning mode is analysed in the tokamak plasma. This mode is destabilized by the current diffusivity (i.e., the electron viscosity) and stabilized by the thermal conductivity and ion viscosity. By use of the ballooning transformation, the eigenmode equation is solved. Analytic solution is obtained by the strong ballooning limit. Numerical calculation is also performed to confirm the analytic theory. The growth rate of the mode and the mode structure are analysed. The stability boundary is derived in terms of the current diffusivity, thermal conductivity, ion viscosity and the pressure gradient for the given shear parameter. This result is applied to express the thermal conductivity in terms of the pressure gradient, magnetic configurational parameters (such as the safety factor, shear and aspect ratio) and the Prandtl numbers. (author)

  10. Effect of survey mode on response patterns

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Anne Illemann; Ekholm, Ola; Glümer, Charlotte

    2014-01-01

    .7%). Marital status, ethnic background and highest completed education were associated with non-response in both modes. Furthermore, sex and age were associated with non-response in the self-administered mode. No significant mode effects were observed for indicators related to use of health services......BACKGROUND: While face-to-face interviews are considered the gold standard of survey modes, self-administered questionnaires are often preferred for cost and convenience. This article examines response patterns in two general population health surveys carried out by face-to-face interview and self......-administered questionnaire, respectively. METHOD: Data derives from a health interview survey in the Region of Southern Denmark (face-to-face interview) and The Danish Health and Morbidity Survey 2010 (self-administered questionnaire). Identical questions were used in both surveys. Data on all individuals were obtained from...

  11. The LHC Beam Pipe Waveguide Mode Reflectometer

    CERN Document Server

    Kroyer, T; Caspers, Friedhelm; Sulek, Z; Williams, L R

    2007-01-01

    The waveguide-mode reflectometer for obstacle detection in the LHC beam pipe has been intensively used for more than 18 months. The â€ワAssembly” version is based on the synthetic pulse method using a modern vector network analyzer. It has mode selective excitation couplers for the first TE and TM mode and uses a specially developed waveguide mode dispersion compensation algorithm with external software. In addition there is a similar â€ワIn Situ” version of the reflectometer which uses permanently installed microwave couplers at the end of each of the nearly 3 km long LHC arcs. During installation a considerable number of unexpected objects have been found in the beam pipes and subsequently removed. Operational statistics and lessons learned are presented and the overall performance is discussed.

  12. Nuclear scissors modes and hidden angular momenta

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balbutsev, E. B., E-mail: balbuts@theor.jinr.ru; Molodtsova, I. V. [Joint Institute for Nuclear Research (Russian Federation); Schuck, P. [Université Paris-Sud, Institut de Physique Nucléaire, IN2P3–CNRS (France)

    2017-01-15

    The coupled dynamics of low-lying modes and various giant resonances are studied with the help of the Wigner Function Moments method generalized to take into account spin degrees of freedom and pair correlations simultaneously. The method is based on Time-Dependent Hartree–Fock–Bogoliubov equations. The model of the harmonic oscillator including spin–orbit potential plus quadrupole–quadrupole and spin–spin interactions is considered. New low-lying spin-dependent modes are analyzed. Special attention is paid to the scissors modes. A new source of nuclear magnetism, connected with counter-rotation of spins up and down around the symmetry axis (hidden angular momenta), is discovered. Its inclusion into the theory allows one to improve substantially the agreement with experimental data in the description of energies and transition probabilities of scissors modes.

  13. Acoustic modes in dense dusty plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Avinash, K.; Bhattacharjee, A.; Hu, S.

    2002-01-01

    Properties of acoustic modes in high dust density dusty plasmas are studied. The solutions of fluid equations for electrons, ions, and dust grains with collisional and ionization effects are solved along with an equation for grain charging. The high dust density effects on the acoustic modes are interpreted in terms of a change in the screening properties of the grain charge. At low dust density, the grain charge is screened due to electrons and ions. However, at high dust density, the screening of the grain charge due to other grains also becomes important. This leads to a reduction of the phase-velocity, which in turn is shown to make the plasma more unstable at high dust density. In this regime the role of the ion acoustic mode is replaced by the charging mode. The relevance of these results to earlier theoretical studies and experimental results are discussed

  14. Dynamic rotor mode in antiferromagnetic nanoparticles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lefmann, Kim; Jacobsen, H.; Garde, J.

    2015-01-01

    We present experimental, numerical, and theoretical evidence for an unusual mode of antiferromagnetic dynamics in nanoparticles. Elastic neutron scattering experiments on 8-nm particles of hematite display a loss of diffraction intensity with temperature, the intensity vanishing around 150 K...

  15. Rotary Mode Core Sample System availability improvement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jenkins, W.W.; Bennett, K.L.; Potter, J.D.; Cross, B.T.; Burkes, J.M.; Rogers, A.C.

    1995-01-01

    The Rotary Mode Core Sample System (RMCSS) is used to obtain stratified samples of the waste deposits in single-shell and double-shell waste tanks at the Hanford Site. The samples are used to characterize the waste in support of ongoing and future waste remediation efforts. Four sampling trucks have been developed to obtain these samples. Truck I was the first in operation and is currently being used to obtain samples where the push mode is appropriate (i.e., no rotation of drill). Truck 2 is similar to truck 1, except for added safety features, and is in operation to obtain samples using either a push mode or rotary drill mode. Trucks 3 and 4 are now being fabricated to be essentially identical to truck 2

  16. Encoding information using laguerre gaussian modes

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Trichili, A

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The authors experimentally demonstrate an information encoding protocol using the two degrees of freedom of Laguerre Gaussian modes having different radial and azimuthal components. A novel method, based on digital holography, for information...

  17. Collective modes in superconducting rhombohedral graphite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kauppila, Ville [O.V. Lounasmaa Laboratory, Aalto University (Finland); Hyart, Timo; Heikkilae, Tero [University of Jyvaeskylae (Finland)

    2015-07-01

    Recently it was realized that coupling particles with a Dirac dispersion (such as electrons in graphene) can lead to a topologically protected state with flat band dispersion. Such a state could support superconductivity with unusually high critical temperatures. Perhaps the most promising way to realize such coupling in real materials is in the surface of rhombohedrally stacked graphite. We consider collective excitations (i.e. the Higgs modes) in surface superconducting rhombohedral graphite. We find two amplitude and two phase modes corresponding to the two surfaces of the graphite where the superconductivity lives. We calculate the dispersion of these modes. We also derive the Ginzburg-Landau theory for this material. We show that in superconducting rhombohedral graphite, the collective modes, unlike in conventional BCS superconductors, give a large contribution to thermodynamic properties of the material.

  18. Electrostatic effect for the collisionless tearing mode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoshino, M.

    1987-01-01

    Electron dynamics has not been self-consistently considered in collisionless tearing mode theories to date because of the mathematical complexity of the Vlasov-Maxwell equations. We have found using computer simulations that electrostatic fields play an important role in the tearing mode. Vlasov theory, including the electrostatic field, is investigated for topologies with both antiparallel and nonantiparallel magnetic field lines. The electrostatic field influences the resonant current in the neutral sheet which is a non-MHD effect, and modifies the linear growth rate. At the magnetopause, where the field lines are not antiparallel, the electrostatic effect acts to raise the linear growth rate of the tearing mode. On the other hand, in the magnetotail, where magnetic field lines are antiparallel, the electrostatic effect reduces the tearing mode growth rate. copyright American Geophysical Union 1987

  19. Anomalous neutron scattering and feroelectric modes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Viswanathan, K.S.

    1977-01-01

    It is suggested that anomalous neutron scattering could prove a powerful experimental tool in studying ferroelectric phase transition, the sublattice displacements of the soft modes as well as their symmetry characteristics. (author)

  20. Influence of toroidal rotation on tearing modes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Huishan; Cao, Jintao; Li, Ding

    2017-10-01

    Tearing modes stability analysis including toroidal rotation is studied. It is found that rotation affects the stability of tearing modes mainly through the interaction with resistive inner region of tearing mode. The coupling of magnetic curvature with centrifugal force and Coriolis force provides a perturbed perpendicular current, and a return parallel current is induced to affect the stability of tearing modes. Toroidal rotation plays a stable role, which depends on the magnitude of Mach number and adiabatic index Γ, and is independent on the direction of toroidal rotation. For Γ >1, the scaling of growth rate is changed for typical Mach number in present tokamaks. For Γ = 1 , the scaling keeps unchanged, and the effect of toroidal rotation is much less significant, compared with that for Γ >1. National Magnetic Confinement Fusion Science Program and National Science Foundation of China under Grants No. 2014GB106004, No. 2013GB111000, No. 11375189, No. 11075161 and No. 11275260, and Youth Innovation Promotion Association CAS.

  1. Soft modes and structural phase transitions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Venkataraman, G [Reactor Research Centre, Kalpakkam (India)

    1979-12-01

    A survey of soft modes and their relationship to structural phase transitions is presented. After introducing the concept of a soft mode, the origin of softening is considered from a lattice-dynamical point. The Landau theory approach to structural transitions is then discussed, followed by a generalisation of the soft-mode concept through the use of the dynamic order-parameter susceptibility. The relationship of soft modes to broken symmetry is also examined. Experimental results for several classes of crystals are next presented, bringing out various features such as the co-operative Jahn-Teller effect. The survey concludes with a discussion of the central peak, touching upon both the experimental results and the theoretical speculations.

  2. Discrete-time nonlinear sliding mode controller

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    Keywords: Discrete-time delay system, Sliding mode control, nonlinear sliding ... of engineering systems such as chemical process control, delay in the actuator ...... instrumentation from Motilal Nehru National Institute of Technology (MNNIT),.

  3. Distortional Modes of Thin-Walled Beams

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jönsson, Jeppe; Andreassen, Michael Joachim

    2009-01-01

    The classic thin-walled beam theory for open and closed cross-sections can be generalized by including distortional displacement modes. The introduction of additional displacement modes leads to coupled differential equations, which seems to have prohibited the use of exact shape functions...... in the modelling of coupled torsion and distortion. However, if the distortional displacement modes are chosen as those which decouple the differential equations as in non proportionally damped modal dynamic analysis then it may be possible to use exact shape functions and perform analysis on a reduced problem....... In the recently developed generalized beam theory (GBT) the natural distortional displacement modes are determined on the basis of a quadratic eigenvalue problem. However, as in linear modal dynamic analysis of proportionally damped structures this problem has been solved approximately using linear eigenvalue...

  4. Laser Covariance Vibrometry for Unsymmetrical Mode Detection

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kobold, Michael C

    2006-01-01

    Simulated cross - spectral covariance (CSC) from optical return from simulated surface vibration indicates CW phase modulation may be an appropriate phenomenology for adequate classification of vehicles by structural mode...

  5. Surface Loving and Surface Avoiding modes

    OpenAIRE

    Combe, Nicolas; Huntzinger, Jean Roch; Morillo, Joseph

    2008-01-01

    International audience; We theoretically study the propagation of sound waves in GaAs/AlAs superlattices focussing on periodic modes in the vicinity of the band gaps. Based on analytical and numerical calculations, we show that these modes are the product of a quickly oscillating function times a slowly varying envelope function. We carefully study the phase of the envelope function compared to the surface of a semi-infinite superlattice. Especially, the dephasing of the superlattice compared...

  6. Enhanced Sleep Mode MAC Control for EPON

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yan, Ying; Dittmann, Lars

    2011-01-01

    This paper introduces sleep mode operations for EPON. New MAC control functions are proposed to schedule sleep periods. Traffic profiles are considered to optimize energy efficiency and network performances. Simulation results are analyzed in OPNET modeler.......This paper introduces sleep mode operations for EPON. New MAC control functions are proposed to schedule sleep periods. Traffic profiles are considered to optimize energy efficiency and network performances. Simulation results are analyzed in OPNET modeler....

  7. Entry Mode Choice in Emerging Markets

    OpenAIRE

    Gundersen, Anne Kathrine Navestad

    2012-01-01

    As the mature markets of developed economies have become increasingly saturated, firms are turning their attention towards emerging markets for further enterprise growth. However, these countries often present significant challenges for foreign entrants, forcing firms to adapt their strategies to the new context. While MNEs? entry mode choice is an extensively studied field, there is a deficit in the entry mode research on SMEs, and even more so when it comes to entry into emerging markets in...

  8. Kinetic stability of internal kink mode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Romanelli, F.; Fogaccia, G.

    1993-01-01

    With reference to studies of the attainment of ignited operations on devices like ITER (International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor), the stability of the internal kink mode is re-investigated by taking into account the contribution of perpendicular compressibility, obtained by solving the drift kinetic equation. The resulting stability condition yields threshold values typically larger than the conventional Bussac criterion. For the case of ultra-flat safety factor profiles, the mode can be stable also in the absence of line-bending

  9. Chaos control using sliding-mode theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nazzal, Jamal M.; Natsheh, Ammar N.

    2007-01-01

    Chaos control means to design a controller that is able to mitigating or eliminating the chaos behavior of nonlinear systems that experiencing such phenomenon. In this paper, a nonlinear Sliding-Mode Controller (SMC) is presented. Two nonlinear chaotic systems are chosen to be our case study in this paper, the well known Chua's circuit and Lorenz system. The study shows the effectiveness of the designed nonlinear Sliding-Mode Controller

  10. Local-mode vibrations of water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lawton, R.T.; Child, M.S. (Oxford Univ. (UK). Dept. of Theoretical Chemistry)

    1981-05-11

    Quantum-mechanical eigenvalues for the stretching vibrations of H/sub 2/O on the Sorbie-Murrell potential surface are shown to contain a series of local-mode doublets, with splittings which vary as the energy increases from 100 cm/sup -1/ at v=1 to 0.001 cm/sup -1/ at v=8. Preliminary calculations indicate that this pattern is largely unaffected by inclusion of the bending vibrational mode.

  11. Local-mode vibrations of water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lawton, R.T.; Child, M.S. (Oxford Univ. (UK). Dept. of Theoretical Chemistry)

    1981-05-11

    Quantum-mechanical eigenvalues for the stretching vibrations of H/sub 2/O on the Sorbie-Murrell potential surface are shown to contain a series of local-mode doublets, with splittings which vary as the energy increases from 100 cm/sup -1/ at theta=1 to 0.001 cm/sup -1/ at theta=8. Preliminary calculations indicate that this pattern is largely unaffected by inclusion of the bending vibrational mode.

  12. Local-mode vibrations of water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lawton, R.T.; Child, M.S.

    1981-01-01

    Quantum-mechanical eigenvalues for the stretching vibrations of H 2 O on the Sorbie-Murrell potential surface are shown to contain a series of local-mode doublets, with splittings which vary as the energy increases from 100 cm - 1 at v=1 to 0.001 cm - 1 at v=8. Preliminary calculations indicate that this pattern is largely unaffected by inclusion of the bending vibrational mode. (author)

  13. OAM mode converter in twisted fibers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Usuga Castaneda, Mario A.; Beltran-Mejia, Felipe; Cordeiro, Cristiano

    2014-01-01

    We analyze the case of an OAM mode converter based on a twisted fiber, through finite element simulations where we exploit an equivalence between geometric and material transformations. The obtained converter has potential applications in MDM. © 2014 OSA.......We analyze the case of an OAM mode converter based on a twisted fiber, through finite element simulations where we exploit an equivalence between geometric and material transformations. The obtained converter has potential applications in MDM. © 2014 OSA....

  14. Internal modes in high-temperature plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crew, G.B.

    1983-02-01

    The linear stability of current-carrying toroidal plamsas is examined to determine the possibility of exciting global internal modes. The ideal magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) theory provides a useful framework for the analysis of these modes, which involve a kinking of the central portion of the plasma column. Non-ideal effects can also be important, and these are treated for high-temperature regimes where the plasma is collisionless

  15. Third abrasive wear mode: is it possible?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronaldo Câmara Cozza

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this paper is to propose an initial discussion on the characterization of a third abrasive wear mode. The results obtained in a previous work [1] under different test conditions revealed the occurrence of the superposition of the “rolling” and “grooving” abrasive wear modes. This phenomenon was denoted “micro-rolling abrasion” due to the observation that “rolling abrasion” was found to act on “grooving abrasion”.

  16. Active control of multiple resistive wall modes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brunsell, P. R.; Yadikin, D.; Gregoratto, D.; Paccagnella, R.; Liu, Y. Q.; Bolzonella, T.; Cecconello, M.; Drake, J. R.; Kuldkepp, M.; Manduchi, G.; Marchiori, G.; Marrelli, L.; Partin, P.; Menmuir, S.; Ortolani, S.; Rachlew, E.; Spizzo, S.; Zanca, P.

    2005-01-01

    Active magnetic feedback suppression of resistive wall modes is of common interest for several fusion concepts relying on close conducting walls for stabilization of ideal magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) modes. In the advanced tokamak without plasma rotation the kink mode is not completely stabilized, but rather converted into an unstable resistive wall mode (RWM) with a growth time comparable to the wall magnetic flux penetration time. The reversed field pinch (RFP) is similar to the advanced tokamak in the sense that it uses a conducting wall for kink mode stabilization. Also both configurations are susceptible to resonant field error amplification of marginally stable modes. However, the RFP has a different RWM spectrum and, in general, a range of modes is unstable. Hence, the requirement for simultaneous feedback stabilization of multiple independent RWMs arises for the RFP configuration. Recent experiments on RWM feedback stabilization, performed in the RFP device EXTRAP T2R [1], are presented. The experimental results obtained are the first demonstration of simultaneous feedback control of multiple independent RWMs [2]. Using an array of active magnetic coils, a reproducible suppression of several RWMs is achieved for the duration of the discharge, 3-5 wall times, through feedback action. An array with 64 active saddle coils at 4 poloidal times 16 toroidal positions is used. The important issues of side band generation by the active coil array and the accompanying coupling of different unstable modes through the feedback action are addressed in this study. Open loop control experiments have been carried out to quantitatively study resonant field error amplification. (Author)

  17. An automatic mode-locked system for passively mode-locked fiber laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Sha; Xu, Jun; Chen, Guoliang; Mei, Li; Yi, Bo

    2013-12-01

    This paper designs and implements one kind of automatic mode-locked system. It can adjust a passively mode-locked fiber laser to keep steady mode-locked states automatically. So the unsteadiness of traditional passively mode-locked fiber laser can be avoided. The system transforms optical signals into electrical pulse signals and sends them into MCU after processing. MCU calculates the frequency of the signals and judges the state of the output based on a quick judgment algorithm. A high-speed comparator is used to check the signals and the comparison voltage can be adjusted to improve the measuring accuracy. Then by controlling two polarization controllers at an angle of 45degrees to each other, MCU extrudes the optical fibers to change the polarization until it gets proper mode-locked output. So the system can continuously monitor the output signal and get it back to mode-locked states quickly and automatically. States of the system can be displayed on the LCD and PC. The parameters of the steady mode-locked states can be stored into an EEPROM so that the system will get into mode-locked states immediately next time. Actual experiments showed that, for a 6.238MHz passively mode-locked fiber lasers, the system can get into steady mode-locked states automatically in less than 90s after starting the system. The expected lock time can be reduced to less than 20s after follow up improvements.

  18. Mode group specific amplification length in an asymmetric LPG assisted few-mode EDFA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rastogi, Vipul; Gaur, Ankita; Aschieri, Pierre; Dussardier, Bernard

    2017-01-01

    This article presents a scheme for few-mode EDFA, which allows to choose independent amplification lengths for different mode groups. The EDF is a dual concentric core fiber, where the central core is connected to the line FMF and the ring core is doped with erbium to provide amplification. The modes of FMF are launched into the central core of the EDF, are converted into ring modes using LPG for amplification and then converted back into central core modes using another LPG. The distance between the LPGs determines the amplification length. The amplification length, can thus, be chosen for a given mode group. We demonstrate the working of this concept by choosing LP11 and LP21 mode groups of the FMF and show that a suitable choice of amplification lengths for the two mode groups can tailor the differential modal gain (DMG) to any desired value. We demonstrate achieving zero DMG among all the mode of LP11 and LP21 mode groups using this concept while having gain in excess of 20 dB. The study should be useful for optical fiber communication system employing space-division multiplexing (SDM).

  19. The H-mode of ASDEX

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-01-01

    The paper is a review of investigations of the H-mode on ASDEX performed since its discovery in 1982. The topics discussed are: (1) the development of the plasma profiles, with steep gradients in the edge region and flat profiles in the bulk plasma, (2) the MHD properties resulting from the profile changes, including an extensive stability analysis, (3) the impurity development, with special emphasis on the MHD aspects and on neoclassical impurity transport effects in quiescent H-phases, and (4) the properties of the edge plasma, including the evidence of three-dimensional distortions at the edge. The part on confinement includes scaling studies and the results of transport analysis. The power threshold of the H-mode is found to depend weakly on the density, but there is probably no dependence on the toroidal field or the current. For the operational range of the H-mode, new results for the limiter H-mode on ASDEX and the development of the H-mode under beam current drive conditions are included. A number of experiments are described which demonstrate the crucial role of the edge electron temperature in the L-H transition. New results of magnetic and density fluctuation studies at the plasma edge within the edge transport barrier are presented. Finally, the findings on ASDEX are compared with results obtained on other machines and are used to test various H-mode theories. (author). 131 refs, 103 figs, 1 tab

  20. Excitation mechanisms for Jovian seismic modes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markham, Steve; Stevenson, Dave

    2018-05-01

    Recent (2011) results from the Nice Observatory indicate the existence of global seismic modes on Jupiter in the frequency range between 0.7 and 1.5 mHz with amplitudes of tens of cm/s. Currently, the driving force behind these modes is a mystery; the measured amplitudes are many orders of magnitude larger than anticipated based on theory analogous to helioseismology (that is, turbulent convection as a source of stochastic excitation). One of the most promising hypotheses is that these modes are driven by Jovian storms. This work constructs a framework to analytically model the expected equilibrium normal mode amplitudes arising from convective columns in storms. We also place rough constraints on Jupiter's seismic modal quality factor. Using this model, neither meteor strikes, turbulent convection, nor water storms can feasibly excite the order of magnitude of observed amplitudes. Next we speculate about the potential role of rock storms deeper in Jupiter's atmosphere, because the rock storms' expected energy scales make them promising candidates to be the chief source of excitation for Jovian seismic modes, based on simple scaling arguments. We also suggest some general trends in the expected partition of energy between different frequency modes. Finally we supply some commentary on potential applications to gravity, Juno, Cassini and Saturn, and future missions to Uranus and Neptune.

  1. Thermal effects on tearing mode saturation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, J.S.; Chu, M.S.; Greene, J.M.

    1988-01-01

    The effect of geometry on tearing modes, saturated states of tearing modes, and the thermal effect on tearing modes are presented. The configuration of current and magnetic fields are quite different in slabs and in Tokamaks. However, for any magnetic island regardless of geometry and heating conditions, at island saturation the product of resistivity and current is the same at magnetic O and X lines. The temperature perturbation effect on the nonlinear development of tearing modes is investigated. Thermal conduction along the field lines is much faster than that in the perpendicular direction, and thus the temperature profile follows the island structure. Utilizing Spitzer's conductivity relation, the temperature perturbation is modelled as helical components of resistivity. For a usual tearing mode unstable Tokamak, where shear is positive, the islands continue to grow to a larger size when the islands are cooled. When they are heated, the island sizes are reduced. The temperature perturbation can induce islands even for equilibria stable with respect to tearing modes. Again, the islands appear when cooling takes place. The equilibria with the cooled islands show enhanced field line stochasticity, thus enhanced heat transport. Therefore, thermal instability can be directly related to pressure disruptions. (author)

  2. Trapped ion mode in toroidally rotating plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Artun, M.; Tang, W.M.; Rewoldt, G.

    1995-04-01

    The influence of radially sheared toroidal flows on the Trapped Ion Mode (TIM) is investigated using a two-dimensional eigenmode code. These radially extended toroidal microinstabilities could significantly influence the interpretation of confinement scaling trends and associated fluctuation properties observed in recent tokamak experiments. In the present analysis, the electrostatic drift kinetic equation is obtained from the general nonlinear gyrokinetic equation in rotating plasmas. In the long perpendicular wavelength limit k τ ρ bi much-lt 1, where ρ bi is the average trapped-ion banana width, the resulting eigenmode equation becomes a coupled system of second order differential equations nmo for the poloidal harmonics. These equations are solved using finite element methods. Numerical results from the analysis of low and medium toroidal mode number instabilities are presented using representative TFTR L-mode input parameters. To illustrate the effects of mode coupling, a case is presented where the poloidal mode coupling is suppressed. The influence of toroidal rotation on a TFTR L-mode shot is also analyzed by including a beam species with considerable larger temperature. A discussion of the numerical results is presented

  3. Rotational modes of a simple Earth model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seyed-Mahmoud, B.; Rochester, M. G.; Rogister, Y. J. G.

    2017-12-01

    We study the tilt-over mode (TOM), the spin-over mode (SOM), the free core nutation (FCN), and their relationships to each other using a simple Earth model with a homogeneous and incompressible liquid core and a rigid mantle. Analytical solutions for the periods of these modes as well as that of the Chandler wobble is found for the Earth model. We show that the FCN is the same mode as the SOM of a wobbling Earth. The reduced pressure, in terms of which the vector momentum equation is known to reduce to a scalar second order differential equation (the so called Poincaŕe equation), is used as the independent variable. Analytical solutions are then found for the displacement eigenfucntions in a meridional plane of the liquid core for the aforementioned modes. We show that the magnitude of motion in the mantle during the FCN is comparable to that in the liquid core, hence very small. The displacement eigenfunctions for these aforementioned modes as well as those for the free inner core nutation (FICN), computed numerically, are also given for a three layer Earth model which also includes a rigid but capable of wobbling inner core. We will discuss the slow convergence of the period of the FICN in terms of the characteristic surfaces of the Poincare equation.

  4. Component mode synthesis in structural dynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reddy, G.R.; Vaze, K.K.; Kushwaha, H.S.

    1993-01-01

    In seismic analysis of Nuclear Reactor Structures and equipments eigen solution requires large computer time. Component mode synthesis is an efficient technique with which one can evaluate dynamic characteristics of a large structure with minimum computer time. Due to this reason it is possible to do a coupled analysis of structure and equipment which takes into account the interaction effects. Basically in this the method large size structure is divided into small substructures and dynamic characteristics of individual substructure are determined. The dynamic characteristics of entire structure are evaluated by synthesising the individual substructure characteristics. Component mode synthesis has been applied in this paper to the analysis of a tall heavy water upgrading tower. Use of fixed interface normal modes, constrained modes, attachment modes in the component mode synthesis using energy principle and using Ritz vectors have been discussed. The validity of this method is established by solving fixed-fixed beam and comparing the results obtained by conventional and classical method. The eigen value problem has been solved using simultaneous iteration method. (author)

  5. Geometrical effects in X-mode scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bretz, N.

    1986-10-01

    One technique to extend microwave scattering as a probe of long wavelength density fluctuations in magnetically confined plasmas is to consider the launching and scattering of extraordinary (X-mode) waves nearly perpendicular to the field. When the incident frequency is less than the electron cyclotron frequency, this mode can penetrate beyond the ordinary mode cutoff at the plasma frequency and avoid significant distortions from density gradients typical of tokamak plasmas. In the more familiar case, where the incident and scattered waves are ordinary, the scattering is isotropic perpendicular to the field. However, because the X-mode polarization depends on the frequency ratios and the ray angle to the magnetic field, the coupling between the incident and scattered waves is complicated. This geometrical form factor must be unfolded from the observed scattering in order to interpret the scattering due to density fluctuations alone. The geometrical factor is calculated here for the special case of scattering perpendicular to the magnetic field. For frequencies above the ordinary mode cutoff the scattering is relatively isotropic, while below cutoff there are minima in the forward and backward directions which go to zero at approximately half the ordinary mode cutoff density

  6. Discrete mode lasers for communications applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barry, L. P.; Herbert, C.; Jones, D.; Kaszubowska-Anandarajah, A.; Kelly, B.; O'Carroll, J.; Phelan, R.; Anandarajah, P.; Shi, K.; O'Gorman, J.

    2009-02-01

    The wavelength spectra of ridge waveguide Fabry Perot lasers can be modified by perturbing the effective refractive index of the guided mode along very small sections of the laser cavity. One way of locally perturbing the effective index of the lasing mode is by etching features into the ridge waveguide such that each feature has a small overlap with the transverse field profile of the unperturbed mode, consequently most of the light in the laser cavity is unaffected by these perturbations. A proportion of the propagating light is however reflected at the boundaries between the perturbed and the unperturbed sections. Suitable positioning of these interfaces allows the mirror loss spectrum of a Fabry Perot laser to be manipulated. In order to achieve single longitudinal mode emission, the mirror loss of a specified mode must be reduced below that of the other cavity modes. Here we review the latest results obtained from devices containing such features. These results clearly demonstrate that these devices exceed the specifications required for a number of FTTH and Datacomms applications, such as GEPON, LX4 and CWDM. As well as this we will also present initial results on the linewidth of these devices.

  7. Modes of storage ring coherent instabilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, J.M.

    1986-12-01

    Longitudinal impedance in a beam and various modes of longitudinal coherent instabilities are discussed. The coasting beam coherent instability, microwave instability, and single-bunch longitudinal coherent instabilities are considered. The Vlasov equation is formulated, and a method of solving it is developed. The synchrotron modes are treated, which take the possible bunch shape distortion fully into consideration. A method of treating the synchrotron mode coupling in the case of a small bunch is discussed which takes advantage of the fact that only a few of the synchrotron modes can contribute in such a case. The effect of many bunches on the coherent motion of the beam and the longitudinal symmetric coupled bunch modes are discussed. The transverse impedance is then introduced, and the transverse coasting beam instability is discussed. Various bunched beam instabilities are discussed, including both single bunch instabilities and coupled bunch instabilities. The Vlasov equation for transverse as well as longitudinal motion of particles is introduced as well as a method of solving it within a linear approximation. Head-tail modes and short bunch instabilities and strong coupling instabilities in the long bunch case are covered. (LEW)

  8. Energetic particle effects on global MHD modes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheng, C.Z.

    1990-01-01

    The effects of energetic particles on MHD type modes are studied by analytical theories and the nonvariational kinetic-MHD stability code (NOVA-K). In particular we address the problems of (1) the stabilization of ideal MHD internal kink modes and the excitation of resonant ''fishbone'' internal modes and (2) the alpha particle destabilization of toroidicity-induced Alfven eigenmodes (TAE) via transit resonances. Analytical theories are presented to help explain the NOVA-K results. For energetic trapped particles generated by neutral-beam injection (NBI) or ion cyclotron resonant heating (ICRH), a stability window for the n=1 internal kink mode in the hot particle beat space exists even in the absence of core ion finite Larmor radius effect (finite ω *i ). On the other hand, the trapped alpha particles are found to resonantly excite instability of the n=1 internal mode and can lower the critical beta threshold. The circulating alpha particles can strongly destabilize TAE modes via inverse Landau damping associated with the spatial gradient of the alpha particle pressure. 23 refs., 5 figs

  9. Boundary modes in quasiperiodic elastic structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosa, Matheus I. N.; Pal, Raj K.; Arruda, José R. F.; Ruzzene, Massimo

    2018-03-01

    Topological metamaterials are a new class of materials that support topological modes such as edge modes and interface modes, which are commonly immune to scattering and imperfections. This novelty has been the subject of extensive research in many branches of physics such as electronics, photonics, phononics, and acoustics. The nontrivial topological properties related to the presence of topological modes are tipically found in periodic media. However, it was recently demonstrated that structures called quasicrystals may also exhibit nontrivial topological behavior attributed to dimensions higher than that of the quasicrystal. While quasiperiodicity has received a lot of attention in the fields of crystallography and photonics, research into quasiperiodic elastic structures has been scarce. In this paper, we show how the concepts of quasiperiodicity may be applied to the design of topological mechanical metamaterials. We start by investigating the boundary modes present in quasiperiodic 1D phononic lattices. These modes have the interesting property of being localized at either one of the two different boundaries depending on the value of an additional parameter, which is remnant of the higher dimension. A smooth variation of this parameter in either time or a spatial dimension can lead to a robust transfer of energy between two sites of the structure. We present an idealized mechanical system composed by an array of coupled rods that may be used as a platform for realizing this kind of robust transfer of energy. These are preliminary investigations into a entirely new class of structures which may lead to novel engineering applications.

  10. Particle Distribution Modification by Low Amplitude Modes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    White, R.B.; Gorelenkov, N.; Heidbrink, W.W.; Van Zeeland, M.A.

    2009-01-01

    Modification of a high energy particle distribution by a spectrum of low amplitude modes is investigated using a guiding center code. Only through resonance are modes effective in modifying the distribution. Diagnostics are used to illustrate the mode-particle interaction and to find which effects are relevant in producing significant resonance, including kinetic Poincare plots and plots showing those orbits with time averaged mode-particle energy transfer. Effects of pitch angle scattering and drag are studied, as well as plasma rotation and time dependence of the equilibrium and mode frequencies. A specific example of changes observed in a DIII-D deuterium beam distribution in the presence of low amplitude experimentally validated Toroidal Alfven (TAE) eigenmodes and Reversed Shear Alfven (RSAE) eigenmodes is examined in detail. Comparison with experimental data shows that multiple low amplitude modes can account for significant modification of high energy beam particle distributions. It is found that there is a stochastic threshold for beam profile modification, and that the experimental amplitudes are only slightly above this threshold.

  11. Modes of storage ring coherent instabilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, J.M.

    1986-12-01

    Longitudinal impedance in a beam and various modes of longitudinal coherent instabilities are discussed. The coasting beam coherent instability, microwave instability, and single-bunch longitudinal coherent instabilities are considered. The Vlasov equation is formulated, and a method of solving it is developed. The synchrotron modes are treated, which take the possible bunch shape distortion fully into consideration. A method of treating the synchrotron mode coupling in the case of a small bunch is discussed which takes advantage of the fact that only a few of the synchrotron modes can contribute in such a case. The effect of many bunches on the coherent motion of the beam and the longitudinal symmetric coupled bunch modes are discussed. The transverse impedance is then introduced, and the transverse coasting beam instability is discussed. Various bunched beam instabilities are discussed, including both single bunch instabilities and coupled bunch instabilities. The Vlasov equation for transverse as well as longitudinal motion of particles is introduced as well as a method of solving it within a linear approximation. Head-tail modes and short bunch instabilities and strong coupling instabilities in the long bunch case are covered

  12. The Use Of {sup 15}N in the Study of Nitrogen Uptake and Metabolism in Plants; Primenenie azota-15 pri izuchenii vzaimodejstviya azotnykh udobrenij s pochvoj i usvoeniya ikh rasteniyami

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gyrbuchev, I.; Dinchev, D. [Institut Pochvovedenija Im.N. Pushkarova, Sofija (Bulgaria)

    1968-07-01

    sledujushhih svobodnyh aminokislotah: arginine, gistidine, lizine i amidoasparagine. V svjazannyh aminokislotah - alanine, treonine, serine i glicine - soderzhalos' naibol'shee kolichestvo 15N. Primenenie fosfora uvelichivalo kolichestvo azota v aminokislotah. Ustanovleno, chto oborot azota byl samym bol'shim v hlorofille i konstitutivnyh belkah. Pri issledovanii kachestva pshenichnyh zeren bylo ustanovleno, chto naibol'shee kolichestvo azota bylo obnaruzheno v gljutenine, zatem vo frakcijah ostatochnogo azota, prolamina i vodorastvorimyh azotnyh soedinenijah. Naimen'shee kolichestvo bylo obnaruzheno v albumine i globuline.

  13. A dual-mode driver IC with monolithic negative drive-voltage capability and digital current-mode controller for depletion-mode GaN HEMT

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wen, Y.; Rose, M.; Fernandes, R.; van Otten, R.; Bergveld, H.J.; Trescases, O.

    2017-01-01

    This work presents a driver and controller integrated circuit (IC) for depletion-mode gallium nitride (GaN) high-electron-mobility transistors (HEMTs). The dual-mode driver can be configured for cascode-drive (CD) or HEMT-drive (HD) mode. In the CD mode, a cascode low-voltage DMOS is driven to

  14. The energy spectrum of electromagnetic normal modes in dissipative media: modes between two metal half spaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sernelius, Bo E

    2008-01-01

    The energy spectrum of electromagnetic normal modes plays a central role in the theory of the van der Waals and Casimir interaction. Here we study the modes in connection with the van der Waals interaction between two metal half spaces. Neglecting dissipation leads to distinct normal modes with real-valued frequencies. Including dissipation seems to have the effect that these distinct modes move away from the real axis into the complex frequency plane. The summation of the zero-point energies of these modes render a complex-valued result. Using the contour integration, resulting from the use of the generalized argument principle, gives a real-valued and different result. We resolve this contradiction and show that the spectrum of true normal modes forms a continuum with real frequencies

  15. Single-mode ytterbium-doped large-mode-area photonic bandgap rod fiber amplifier

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alkeskjold, Thomas Tanggaard; Scolari, Lara; Broeng, Jes

    2011-01-01

    bandgap structure. The structure allows resonant coupling of higher-order modes from the core and acts as a spatially Distributed Mode Filter (DMF). With this approach, we demonstrate passive SM performance in an only ~50cm long and straight ytterbium-doped rod fiber. The amplifier has a mode field...... diameter of ∼59Lim at 1064nm and exhibits a pump absorption of 27dB/m at 976nm. © 2011 Optical Society of America....

  16. Comparison of detectability in step-and-shoot mode and continuous mode digital tomosynthesis systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Changwoo; Han, Minah; Baek, Jongduk

    2017-03-01

    Digital tomosynthesis system has been widely used in chest, dental, and breast imaging. Since the digital tomosynthesis system provides volumetric images from multiple projection data, structural noise inherent in X-ray radiograph can be reduced, and thus signal detection performance is improved. Currently, tomosynthesis system uses two data acquisition modes: step-and-shoot mode and continuous mode. Several studies have been conducted to compare the system performance of two acquisition modes with respect to spatial resolution and contrast. In this work, we focus on signal detectability in step-and-shoot mode and continuous mode. For evaluation, uniform background is considered, and eight spherical objects with diameters of 0.5, 0.8, 1, 2, 3, 5, 8, 10 mm are used as signals. Projection data with and without spherical objects are acquired in step-and-shoot mode and continuous mode, respectively, and quantum noise are added. Then, noisy projection data are reconstructed by FDK algorithm. To compare the detection performance of two acquisition modes, we calculate task signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of channelized Hotelling observer with Laguerre-Gauss channels for each spherical object. While the task-SNR values of two acquisition modes are similar for spherical objects larger than 1 mm diameter, step-and-shoot mode yields higher detectability for small signal sizes. The main reason of this behavior is that small signal is more affected by X-ray tube motion blur than large signal. Our results indicate that it is beneficial to use step-and-shoot data acquisition mode to improve the detectability of small signals (i.e., less than 1 mm diameter) in digital tomosynthesis systems.

  17. Interferometric characterization of few-mode fibers (FMF) for mode-division multiplexing (MDM)

    OpenAIRE

    Muliar, Olena; Usuga Castaneda, Mario A.; Rottwitt, Karsten; Lægsgaard, Jesper

    2015-01-01

    The rapid growth of global data traffic demands the continuous search for new technologies and systems that could increase transmission capacity in optical links and recent experiments show that to do so, it is advantageous to explore new degrees of freedom such as polarization, wavelength or optical modes. Mode division multiplexing (MDM) appears in this context as a promising and viable solution for such capacity increase, since it utilizes multiple spatial modes of an optical fiber as indi...

  18. Nonlinear drift tearing mode. Strong mode of excitation and stabilization mechanisms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galeev, A.A.; Zelenyj, L.M.; Kuznetsova, M.M.

    1985-01-01

    A nonlinear theory of magnetic disturbance development in collisionless configurations with magnetic field shear is considered. The instability evolution is investigated with account for the dynamics of ions and potential electric fields which determine the mode stabilization. It has been found that the drift tearing mode possesses metastable properties: in a nonlinear mode even the growth of linearly stable disturbances of the finite amplitude is possible

  19. Frustration of Bragg reflection by cooperative dual-mode interference: a new mode of optical propagation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yariv, A

    1998-12-01

    A new optical mode of propagation is described, which is the natural eigenmode (supermode) of a fiber (or any optical waveguide) with two cospatial periodic gratings. The mode frustrates the backward Bragg scattering from the grating by destructive interference of its two constituent submodes (which are eigenmodes of a uniform waveguide). It can be used in a new type of spatial mode conversion in optical guides.

  20. A streamlined failure mode and effects analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ford, Eric C., E-mail: eford@uw.edu; Smith, Koren; Terezakis, Stephanie; Croog, Victoria; Gollamudi, Smitha; Gage, Irene; Keck, Jordie; DeWeese, Theodore; Sibley, Greg [Department of Radiation Oncology and Molecular Radiation Sciences, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD 21287 (United States)

    2014-06-15

    Purpose: Explore the feasibility and impact of a streamlined failure mode and effects analysis (FMEA) using a structured process that is designed to minimize staff effort. Methods: FMEA for the external beam process was conducted at an affiliate radiation oncology center that treats approximately 60 patients per day. A structured FMEA process was developed which included clearly defined roles and goals for each phase. A core group of seven people was identified and a facilitator was chosen to lead the effort. Failure modes were identified and scored according to the FMEA formalism. A risk priority number,RPN, was calculated and used to rank failure modes. Failure modes with RPN > 150 received safety improvement interventions. Staff effort was carefully tracked throughout the project. Results: Fifty-two failure modes were identified, 22 collected during meetings, and 30 from take-home worksheets. The four top-ranked failure modes were: delay in film check, missing pacemaker protocol/consent, critical structures not contoured, and pregnant patient simulated without the team's knowledge of the pregnancy. These four failure modes hadRPN > 150 and received safety interventions. The FMEA was completed in one month in four 1-h meetings. A total of 55 staff hours were required and, additionally, 20 h by the facilitator. Conclusions: Streamlined FMEA provides a means of accomplishing a relatively large-scale analysis with modest effort. One potential value of FMEA is that it potentially provides a means of measuring the impact of quality improvement efforts through a reduction in risk scores. Future study of this possibility is needed.

  1. Default Mode Network Connectivity in Stroke Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuladhar, Anil Man; Snaphaan, Liselore; Shumskaya, Elena; Rijpkema, Mark; Fernandez, Guillén; Norris, David G; de Leeuw, Frank-Erik

    2013-01-01

    The pathophysiology of episodic memory dysfunction after infarction is not completely understood. It has been suggested that infarctions located anywhere in the brain can induce widespread effects causing disruption of functional networks of the cortical regions. The default mode network, which includes the medial temporal lobe, is a functional network that is associated with episodic memory processing. We investigated whether the default mode network activity is reduced in stroke patients compared to healthy control subjects in the resting state condition. We assessed the whole brain network properties during resting state functional MRI in 21 control subjects and 20 'first-ever' stroke patients. Patients were scanned 9-12 weeks after stroke onset. Stroke lesions were located in various parts of the brain. Independent component analyses were conducted to identify the default mode network and to compare the group differences of the default mode network. Furthermore, region-of-interest based analysis was performed to explore the functional connectivity between the regions of the default mode network. Stroke patients performed significantly worse than control subjects on the delayed recall score on California verbal learning test. We found decreased functional connectivity in the left medial temporal lobe, posterior cingulate and medial prefrontal cortical areas within the default mode network and reduced functional connectivity between these regions in stroke patients compared with controls. There were no significant volumetric differences between the groups. These results demonstrate that connectivity within the default mode network is reduced in 'first-ever' stroke patients compared to control subjects. This phenomenon might explain the occurrence of post-stroke cognitive dysfunction in stroke patients.

  2. A streamlined failure mode and effects analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ford, Eric C.; Smith, Koren; Terezakis, Stephanie; Croog, Victoria; Gollamudi, Smitha; Gage, Irene; Keck, Jordie; DeWeese, Theodore; Sibley, Greg

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: Explore the feasibility and impact of a streamlined failure mode and effects analysis (FMEA) using a structured process that is designed to minimize staff effort. Methods: FMEA for the external beam process was conducted at an affiliate radiation oncology center that treats approximately 60 patients per day. A structured FMEA process was developed which included clearly defined roles and goals for each phase. A core group of seven people was identified and a facilitator was chosen to lead the effort. Failure modes were identified and scored according to the FMEA formalism. A risk priority number,RPN, was calculated and used to rank failure modes. Failure modes with RPN > 150 received safety improvement interventions. Staff effort was carefully tracked throughout the project. Results: Fifty-two failure modes were identified, 22 collected during meetings, and 30 from take-home worksheets. The four top-ranked failure modes were: delay in film check, missing pacemaker protocol/consent, critical structures not contoured, and pregnant patient simulated without the team's knowledge of the pregnancy. These four failure modes hadRPN > 150 and received safety interventions. The FMEA was completed in one month in four 1-h meetings. A total of 55 staff hours were required and, additionally, 20 h by the facilitator. Conclusions: Streamlined FMEA provides a means of accomplishing a relatively large-scale analysis with modest effort. One potential value of FMEA is that it potentially provides a means of measuring the impact of quality improvement efforts through a reduction in risk scores. Future study of this possibility is needed

  3. A streamlined failure mode and effects analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ford, Eric C; Smith, Koren; Terezakis, Stephanie; Croog, Victoria; Gollamudi, Smitha; Gage, Irene; Keck, Jordie; DeWeese, Theodore; Sibley, Greg

    2014-06-01

    Explore the feasibility and impact of a streamlined failure mode and effects analysis (FMEA) using a structured process that is designed to minimize staff effort. FMEA for the external beam process was conducted at an affiliate radiation oncology center that treats approximately 60 patients per day. A structured FMEA process was developed which included clearly defined roles and goals for each phase. A core group of seven people was identified and a facilitator was chosen to lead the effort. Failure modes were identified and scored according to the FMEA formalism. A risk priority number,RPN, was calculated and used to rank failure modes. Failure modes with RPN > 150 received safety improvement interventions. Staff effort was carefully tracked throughout the project. Fifty-two failure modes were identified, 22 collected during meetings, and 30 from take-home worksheets. The four top-ranked failure modes were: delay in film check, missing pacemaker protocol/consent, critical structures not contoured, and pregnant patient simulated without the team's knowledge of the pregnancy. These four failure modes had RPN > 150 and received safety interventions. The FMEA was completed in one month in four 1-h meetings. A total of 55 staff hours were required and, additionally, 20 h by the facilitator. Streamlined FMEA provides a means of accomplishing a relatively large-scale analysis with modest effort. One potential value of FMEA is that it potentially provides a means of measuring the impact of quality improvement efforts through a reduction in risk scores. Future study of this possibility is needed.

  4. Task Performance with List-Mode Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caucci, Luca

    This dissertation investigates the application of list-mode data to detection, estimation, and image reconstruction problems, with an emphasis on emission tomography in medical imaging. We begin by introducing a theoretical framework for list-mode data and we use it to define two observers that operate on list-mode data. These observers are applied to the problem of detecting a signal (known in shape and location) buried in a random lumpy background. We then consider maximum-likelihood methods for the estimation of numerical parameters from list-mode data, and we characterize the performance of these estimators via the so-called Fisher information matrix. Reconstruction from PET list-mode data is then considered. In a process we called "double maximum-likelihood" reconstruction, we consider a simple PET imaging system and we use maximum-likelihood methods to first estimate a parameter vector for each pair of gamma-ray photons that is detected by the hardware. The collection of these parameter vectors forms a list, which is then fed to another maximum-likelihood algorithm for volumetric reconstruction over a grid of voxels. Efficient parallel implementation of the algorithms discussed above is then presented. In this work, we take advantage of two low-cost, mass-produced computing platforms that have recently appeared on the market, and we provide some details on implementing our algorithms on these devices. We conclude this dissertation work by elaborating on a possible application of list-mode data to X-ray digital mammography. We argue that today's CMOS detectors and computing platforms have become fast enough to make X-ray digital mammography list-mode data acquisition and processing feasible.

  5. Normal modes of weak colloidal gels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varga, Zsigmond; Swan, James W.

    2018-01-01

    The normal modes and relaxation rates of weak colloidal gels are investigated in calculations using different models of the hydrodynamic interactions between suspended particles. The relaxation spectrum is computed for freely draining, Rotne-Prager-Yamakawa, and accelerated Stokesian dynamics approximations of the hydrodynamic mobility in a normal mode analysis of a harmonic network representing several colloidal gels. We find that the density of states and spatial structure of the normal modes are fundamentally altered by long-ranged hydrodynamic coupling among the particles. Short-ranged coupling due to hydrodynamic lubrication affects only the relaxation rates of short-wavelength modes. Hydrodynamic models accounting for long-ranged coupling exhibit a microscopic relaxation rate for each normal mode, λ that scales as l-2, where l is the spatial correlation length of the normal mode. For the freely draining approximation, which neglects long-ranged coupling, the microscopic relaxation rate scales as l-γ, where γ varies between three and two with increasing particle volume fraction. A simple phenomenological model of the internal elastic response to normal mode fluctuations is developed, which shows that long-ranged hydrodynamic interactions play a central role in the viscoelasticity of the gel network. Dynamic simulations of hard spheres that gel in response to short-ranged depletion attractions are used to test the applicability of the density of states predictions. For particle concentrations up to 30% by volume, the power law decay of the relaxation modulus in simulations accounting for long-ranged hydrodynamic interactions agrees with predictions generated by the density of states of the corresponding harmonic networks as well as experimental measurements. For higher volume fractions, excluded volume interactions dominate the stress response, and the prediction from the harmonic network density of states fails. Analogous to the Zimm model in polymer

  6. Alpha particle destabilization of the TAE modes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheng, C.Z.

    1991-01-01

    The high frequency, low mode number toroidicity-induced Alfven eigenmodes (TAE) are shown to be driven unstable by the circulating and/or trapped α-particles through the wave-particle resonances. For a poloidal harmonic to satisfy the resonance condition it requires that the α-particle birth speed v α ≥ v A /(2|m-nq|), where v A is the Alfven speed, m is the poloidal mode number, and n is the toroidal mode number. To destabilize the TAE modes, the inverse Landau damping associated with the α-particle pressure gradient free energy must overcome the velocity space Landau damping due to both the slowing-down α-particle and the core Maxwellian electron and ion distributions. Stability criteria in terms of the α-particle beta β α , α-particle pressure gradient parameter (ω * /ω A ) (ω * is the α-particle diamagnetic drift frequency), and (v α /v A ) parameters are presented for TFTR, CIT, and ITER tokamaks. The volume averaged α-particle beta threshold for TAE instability also depends sensitively on the core electron and ion temperature. Typically the volume averaged α-particle beta threshold is in the order of 10 -4 if the continuum damping effect is absent. Typical growth rates of the n = 1 TAE mode can be in the order of 10 -2 ω A , where ω A = v A /qR. Stability of higher n TAE modes is also studied. Other types of global Alfven waves are stable due to sideband mode continuum damping resulting from toroidal coupling effects. If the Alfven continuum gap does not exist across the whole minor radius, continuum damping exists for some poloidal harmonics. The continuum damping effect is studied by employing both a resistive MHD stability code (NOVA-R) and an analytical matching method, and the results are presented. 1 ref

  7. Transition from L mode to high ion temperature mode in CHS heliotron/torsatron plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ida, K.; Osakabe, M.; Tanaka, K.

    2001-01-01

    A high ion temperature mode (high T i mode) is observed for neutral beam heated plasmas in the Compact Helical System (CHS) Heliotron/torsatron. The high T i mode plasma is characterized by a high central ion temperature, T i (0), and is associated with a peaked electron density profile produced by neutral beam fueling with low wall recycling. Transition from L mode to high T i mode has been studied in CHS. The central ion temperature in the high T i mode discharges reaches to 1 keV which is 2.5 times higher than that in the L mode discharges. The ion thermal diffusivity is significantly reduced by a factor of more than 2-3 in the high T i mode plasma. The ion loss cone is observed in neutral particle flux in the energy range of 1-6 keV with a narrow range of pitch angle (90±10 degree) in the high T i mode. However, the degradation of ion energy confinement due to this loss cone is negligible. (author)

  8. L to H-mode Power Threshold and Confinement Characteristics of H-modes in KSTAR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, H. S.; Na, Y.S., E-mail: ftwalker.hyuns@gmail.com [Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Ahn, J. W. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge (United States); Jeon, Y. M.; Yoon, S. W.; Lee, K. D.; Ko, W. H.; Bae, Y. S.; Kim, W. C.; Kwak, J. G. [National Fusion Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-09-15

    Full text: Since KSTAR has obtained the H-mode in 2010 campaign, H-mode plasmas were routinely obtained with combined heating of NBI with maximum power of 1.5 MW and ECRH with maximum power of {approx} 0.3 MW and {approx} 0.6 MW for 110 GHz and 170 GHz, respectively. The L- to H-mode power threshold and confinement properties of KSTAR H-modes are investigated in this work. Firstly, the L- to H-mode power threshold and the power loss to the seperatrix are calculated by power balance analysis for about collected 400 shots. As a result, a trend of roll-over is observed in the power threshold of KSTAR H-mode compared with the multi-machine power threshold scaling in the low density regime. Dependence of the power threshold on other parameters are also investigated such as the X-point position and shaping parameters like as triangularity and elongation. In addition, the reason of reduction of power threshold in 2011 campaign compared with that in 2010 is addressed. Secondly, the confinement enhancement factors are calculated to evaluate the performance of KSTAR H-modes. The calculated H{sub 89-p} and H{sub 98} (y, 2) represent that the confinement is enhanced in most KSTAR H-mode discharges. Interestingly, even in L-mode phases, confinement is observed to be enhanced against the multi-machine scalings. H{sub exp} factor is newly introduced to evaluate the amount of confinement improvement in the H-mode phase compared with the L-mode phase in a single discharge. H{sub exp} exhibits that the global energy confinement time of the H-mode phase is improved about 1.3 - 2.0 times compared with that of the L-mode phase. Finally, interpretive and predictive numerical simulations are carried out using the ASTRA code for typical KSTAR H-mode discharges. The Weiland model and the GLF23 model are employed for calculating the anomalous contributions of both electron and ion heat transport in predictive simulations. For the H-mode phase, the Weiland model reproduces the experiment

  9. A comprehensive spectral theory of zonal-mode dynamics in trapped electron mode turbulence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Terry, P.W.; Gatto, R.; Baver, D.A.; Fernandez, E.

    2005-01-01

    A comprehensive, self-consistent theory for spectral dynamics in trapped electron mode (TEM) turbulence offers critical new understanding and insights into zonal-mode physics. This theory shows that 1) zonal mode structure, anisotropy, excitation, and temporal behavior arise at and from the interface of nonlinear advection and linear wave properties; 2) waves induce a marked spectral energy-transfer anisotropy that preferentially drives zonal modes relative to non zonal modes; 3) triplet correlations involving density (as opposed to those involving only flow) mediate the dominant energy transfer at long wavelengths; 4) energy transfer becomes inverse in the presence of wave anisotropy, where otherwise it is forward; 5) zonal-mode excitation is accompanied by excitation of a spectrum of damped eigenmodes, making zonal modes nonlinearly damped; and 6) the combination of anisotropic transfer to zonal modes and their nonlinear damping make this the dominant saturation mechanism for TEM turbulence. This accounts for the reduction of turbulence level by zonal modes, not zonal-flow ExB shearing. (author)

  10. The H-mode operational window as determined from the ITER H-mode database

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ryter, F.; Kardaun, O.J.W.F.; Stroth, U.

    1994-01-01

    The H-mode is a promising regime for fusion reactors and it is essential to be able to predict its operational window in future devices. The 'H-Mode Database Working Group' started in 1992 to gather, analyze and compare H-mode threshold data from several divertor tokamaks so that predictions could be made. The database and first results were presented and the threshold database has been improved and extended since. The work has two objectives: 1) to predict the minimum heating power necessary to reach the H-mode in future devices, 2) to contribute to physics studies of the L-H transition. (author) 11 refs., 2 figs

  11. Mode conversion efficiency to Laguerre-Gaussian OAM modes using spiral phase optics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longman, Andrew; Fedosejevs, Robert

    2017-07-24

    An analytical model for the conversion efficiency from a TEM 00 mode to an arbitrary Laguerre-Gaussian (LG) mode with null radial index spiral phase optics is presented. We extend this model to include the effects of stepped spiral phase optics, spiral phase optics of non-integer topological charge, and the reduction in conversion efficiency due to broad laser bandwidth. We find that through optimization, an optimal beam waist ratio of the input and output modes exists and is dependent upon the output azimuthal mode number.

  12. Coupled-Mode Theory derivation of the formal equivalence between a three-mode waveguide and a set of three mutually coupled single-mode waveguides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boucher Yann G.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The formal identification between a two-mode waveguide and a system of two mutually coupled single-mode waveguides stems from the symmetries of the evolution operator. When the gap tends to zero, the super-modes of the coupled system merge continuously into the modes of the multimode waveguide. For modelling purposes, it is very tempting to extend the analogy to three-mode waveguides (and beyond. But not without some precautions…

  13. Report of the PRI biofuel-ethanol; Rapport du PRI biocarburant-ethanol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2004-07-01

    This evaluation report presents three research programs in the framework of the physiological behavior of the yeast ''Saccharomyces cerevisiae'', with high ethanol content. These studies should allowed to select an efficient yeast for the ethanol production. The first study concerns the development of an enzymatic process for the hydrolysis and the fermentation. The second study deals with the molecular and dynamical bases for the yeast metabolic engineering for the ethanol fuel production. The third research concerns the optimization of performance of microbial production processes of ethanol. (A.L.B.)

  14. Report of the PRI biofuel-ethanol; Rapport du PRI biocarburant-ethanol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2004-07-01

    This evaluation report presents three research programs in the framework of the physiological behavior of the yeast ''Saccharomyces cerevisiae'', with high ethanol content. These studies should allowed to select an efficient yeast for the ethanol production. The first study concerns the development of an enzymatic process for the hydrolysis and the fermentation. The second study deals with the molecular and dynamical bases for the yeast metabolic engineering for the ethanol fuel production. The third research concerns the optimization of performance of microbial production processes of ethanol. (A.L.B.)

  15. Detennination Qf Optimuni on-fann Seed Pri~ing Time for Maize ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    maize seed to on-far111 priming is an important development which can be used to improve ... Key words: semi-arid: crop establishment; sorghum; maize: on-farm seed priming; Zimbapwe. ... faster growth and higher yield after seed prim-, ing.

  16. All-fiber Raman Probe using Higher Order Modes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Stine Højer Møller; Rishøj, Lars Søgaard; Rottwitt, Karsten

    2013-01-01

    We demonstrate the first all-fiber Raman probe utilizing higher order modes for the excitation. The spectrum of cyclohexane is measured using both the fundamental mode as well as in-fiber-generated Bessel-like modes.......We demonstrate the first all-fiber Raman probe utilizing higher order modes for the excitation. The spectrum of cyclohexane is measured using both the fundamental mode as well as in-fiber-generated Bessel-like modes....

  17. Probabilistic analysis of ''common mode failures''

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Easterling, R.G.

    1978-01-01

    Common mode failure is a topic of considerable interest in reliability and safety analyses of nuclear reactors. Common mode failures are often discussed in terms of examples: two systems fail simultaneously due to an external event such as an earthquake; two components in redundant channels fail because of a common manufacturing defect; two systems fail because a component common to both fails; the failure of one system increases the stress on other systems and they fail. The common thread running through these is a dependence of some sort--statistical or physical--among multiple failure events. However, the nature of the dependence is not the same in all these examples. An attempt is made to model situations, such as the above examples, which have been termed ''common mode failures.'' In doing so, it is found that standard probability concepts and terms, such as statistically dependent and independent events, and conditional and unconditional probabilities, suffice. Thus, it is proposed that the term ''common mode failures'' be dropped, at least from technical discussions of these problems. A corollary is that the complementary term, ''random failures,'' should also be dropped. The mathematical model presented may not cover all situations which have been termed ''common mode failures,'' but provides insight into the difficulty of obtaining estimates of the probabilities of these events

  18. Multi-Mode Cavity Accelerator Structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiang, Yong; Hirshfield, Jay Leonard

    2016-01-01

    This project aimed to develop a prototype for a novel accelerator structure comprising coupled cavities that are tuned to support modes with harmonically-related eigenfrequencies, with the goal of reaching an acceleration gradient >200 MeV/m and a breakdown rate <10"-"7/pulse/meter. Phase I involved computations, design, and preliminary engineering of a prototype multi-harmonic cavity accelerator structure; plus tests of a bimodal cavity. A computational procedure was used to design an optimized profile for a bimodal cavity with high shunt impedance and low surface fields to maximize the reduction in temperature rise Δ T. This cavity supports the TM010 mode and its 2nd harmonic TM011 mode. Its fundamental frequency is at 12 GHz, to benchmark against the empirical criteria proposed within the worldwide High Gradient collaboration for X-band copper structures; namely, a surface electric field E_s_u_r"m"a"x< 260 MV/m and pulsed surface heating Δ T"m"a"x< 56 °K. With optimized geometry, amplitude and relative phase of the two modes, reductions are found in surface pulsed heating, modified Poynting vector, and total RF power - as compared with operation at the same acceleration gradient using only the fundamental mode.

  19. Default mode network connectivity during task execution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vatansever, D; Menon, D K; Manktelow, A E; Sahakian, B J; Stamatakis, E A

    2015-11-15

    Initially described as task-induced deactivations during goal-directed paradigms of high attentional load, the unresolved functionality of default mode regions has long been assumed to interfere with task performance. However, recent evidence suggests a potential default mode network involvement in fulfilling cognitive demands. We tested this hypothesis in a finger opposition paradigm with task and fixation periods which we compared with an independent resting state scan using functional magnetic resonance imaging and a comprehensive analysis pipeline including activation, functional connectivity, behavioural and graph theoretical assessments. The results indicate task specific changes in the default mode network topography. Behaviourally, we show that increased connectivity of the posterior cingulate cortex with the left superior frontal gyrus predicts faster reaction times. Moreover, interactive and dynamic reconfiguration of the default mode network regions' functional connections illustrates their involvement with the task at hand with higher-level global parallel processing power, yet preserved small-world architecture in comparison with rest. These findings demonstrate that the default mode network does not disengage during this paradigm, but instead may be involved in task relevant processing. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. A novel mode-locking technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Shaoh; Chen Youming; Chen Taolue; Si Xiangdong; Yang Yi; Deng Ximing

    1993-01-01

    A novel mode-locked Nd:YAG oscillator has been developed by using an ultrafast photoconductive feedback controlled loop, and mode-locked pulses with a duration of 100ps have been obtained. The energy instability of the pulse trains is ±5%. In this type of mode-locking technology, a type of deep-level doped GaAs (Cr-doped) photoconductive switch, which has a fast response in time and is free of avalance process, is used to drive a Pockels' cell to realize mode-locking. The dark resistance of this type of photoconductive switch is 6 orders of magnitude higher than that of the intrinsic single-crystal silicon, and it can reach a level as high as 10 9 ohms. Consequently, it is able to withstand longterm operation at several thousand DC volts. By means of the photoconductive ohmic switch characteristics, the authors have designed a positive feedback control network which has a very fast response time, and can couple a voltage of up to a thousand volts. Using this unit in a Nd:YAG laser, they have successfully realized a very stable mode-locked pulse train with pulse width shorter than 100 ps. The operation principle, and the results of the preliminary experiments are presented here. 1 ref., 3 figs

  1. Piezoelectric energy harvesting through shear mode operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malakooti, Mohammad H; Sodano, Henry A

    2015-01-01

    Piezoelectric materials are excellent candidates for use in energy harvesting applications due to their high electromechanical coupling properties that enable them to convert input mechanical energy into useful electric power. The electromechanical coupling coefficient of the piezoelectric material is one of the most significant parameters affecting energy conversion and is dependent on the piezoelectric mode of operation. In most piezoceramics, the d 15 piezoelectric shear coefficient is the highest coefficient compared to the commonly used axial and transverse modes that utilize the d 33 and the d 31 piezoelectric strain coefficients. However, complicated electroding methods and challenges in evaluating the performance of energy harvesting devices operating in the shear mode have slowed research in this area. The shear deformation of a piezoelectric layer can be induced in a vibrating sandwich beam with a piezoelectric core. Here, a model based on Timoshenko beam theory is developed to predict the electric power output from a cantilever piezoelectric sandwich beam under base excitations. It is shown that the energy harvester operating in the shear mode is able to generate ∼50% more power compared to the transverse mode for a numerical case study. Reduced models of both shear and transverse energy harvesters are obtained to determine the optimal load resistance in the system and perform an efficiency comparison between two models with fixed and adaptive resistances. (paper)

  2. Infrared helioseismology - Detection of the chromospheric mode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deming, D.; Kaeufl, H. U.; Espenak, F.; Glenar, D. A.; Hill, A. A.

    1986-01-01

    Time-series observations of an infrared solar OH absorption line profile have been obtained on two consecutive days using a laser heterodyne spectrometer to view a 2 arcsec portion of the quiet sun at disk center. A power spectrum of the line center velocity shows the well-known photospheric p-mode oscillations very prominently, but also shows a second feature near 4.3 mHz. A power spectrum of the line intensity shows only the 4.3 mHz feature, which is identified as the fundamental p-mode resonance of the solar chromosphere. The frequency of the mode is observed to be in substantial agreement with the eigenfrequency of current chromospheric models. A time series of two beam difference measurements shows that the mode is present only for horizontal wavelengths greater than 19 Mm. The period of a chromospheric p-mode resonance is directly related to the sound travel time across the chromosphere, which depends on the chromospheric temperature and geometric height. Thus, detection of this resonance will provide an important new constraint on chromospheric models.

  3. Multi-Mode Cavity Accelerator Structure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jiang, Yong [Yale Univ., New Haven, CT (United States); Hirshfield, Jay Leonard [Omega-P R& D, Inc., New Haven, CT (United States)

    2016-11-10

    This project aimed to develop a prototype for a novel accelerator structure comprising coupled cavities that are tuned to support modes with harmonically-related eigenfrequencies, with the goal of reaching an acceleration gradient >200 MeV/m and a breakdown rate <10-7/pulse/meter. Phase I involved computations, design, and preliminary engineering of a prototype multi-harmonic cavity accelerator structure; plus tests of a bimodal cavity. A computational procedure was used to design an optimized profile for a bimodal cavity with high shunt impedance and low surface fields to maximize the reduction in temperature rise ΔT. This cavity supports the TM010 mode and its 2nd harmonic TM011 mode. Its fundamental frequency is at 12 GHz, to benchmark against the empirical criteria proposed within the worldwide High Gradient collaboration for X-band copper structures; namely, a surface electric field Esurmax< 260 MV/m and pulsed surface heating ΔTmax< 56 °K. With optimized geometry, amplitude and relative phase of the two modes, reductions are found in surface pulsed heating, modified Poynting vector, and total RF power—as compared with operation at the same acceleration gradient using only the fundamental mode.

  4. Two operating modes for turbocharger system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bayomi, Nazih N.; Abd El-Maksoud, Rafea M.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► A turbocharger system that operates in power assisted mode is introduced. ► The parameters affecting performance of the turbocharger is presented. ► Different operational charts for turbocharger are presented. ► The parametric study is helpful guide to determine turbocharger dimensioning. - Abstract: The present paper introduces a turbocharger system that operates in two different modes according to turbocharging requirements. In the first mode, the turbocharger is operating with power assistance at lower engine speeds where the power of the exhaust gases is insufficient. Thereafter, the second mode is switched leading the compressor and the turbine of the turbocharger to rotate separately for best performance. Analysis is presented to find out the parameters affecting the operation of the turbocharger and their values to achieve enhanced turbocharger performance with high efficient impellers. The parameters studied are based on data of the turbocharger operating conditions and the operational requirements of the engine. The analysis considers the turbocharger system, its turbine and its compressor. The operational charts demonstrate the simulated results for two operating modes. This study is helpful as a guide to determine the turbocharger dimensioning and blade profile assignment without using any given blade dimensional value.

  5. Mode conversion in magneto photonic crystal fibre

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Otmani, Hamza; Bouchemat, Mohamed; Hocini, Abdesselam; Boumaza, Touraya; Benmerkhi, Ahlem

    2017-01-01

    The first concept of an integrated isolator was based on nonreciprocal TE–TM mode conversion, the nonreciprocal coupling between these modes is caused by the Faraday rotation if the magnetization is aligned along the z–axis, parallel to mode propagation. We propose to study this magneto-optical phenomenon, by the simulation of magneto photonic crystal fibre (MPCF), it consists of a periodic triangular lattice of air-holes filled with magnetic fluid which consists of magnetic nanoparticles into a BIG (Bismuth Iron Garnet) fibre. We simulated the influence of gyrotropy and the wavelength, and calculated Faraday rotation and modal birefringence. In this fibre the light is guided by internal total reflection, like classical fibres. However it was shown that they could function on a mode conversion much stronger than conventional fibres. - Highlights: • We propose to study mode conversion TE–TM, by the simulation of magneto photonic crystal fibre (MPCF). • We simulated the influence of gyrotropy. • We simulated the wavelength. • We calculated Faraday rotation. • We calculated modal birefringence.

  6. Gyrokinetic simulation of internal kink modes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naitou, Hiroshi; Tsuda, Kenji; Lee, W.W.; Sydora, R.D.

    1995-05-01

    Internal disruption in a tokamak has been simulated using a three-dimensional magneto-inductive gyrokinetic particle code. The code operates in both the standard gyrokinetic mode (total-f code) and the fully nonlinear characteristic mode (δf code). The latter, a recent addition, is a quiet low noise algorithm. The computational model represents a straight tokamak with periodic boundary conditions in the toroidal direction. The plasma is initially uniformly distributed in a square cross section with perfectly conducting walls. The linear mode structure of an unstable m = 1 (poloidal) and n = 1 (toroidal) kinetic internal kink mode is clearly observed, especially in the δf code. The width of the current layer around the x-point, where magnetic reconnection occurs, is found to be close to the collisionless electron skin depth. This is consistent with the theory in which electron inertia has a dominant role. The nonlinear behavior of the mode is found to be quite similar for both codes. Full reconnection in the Alfven time scale is observed along with the electrostatic potential structures created during the full reconnection phase. The E x B drift due to this electrostatic potential dominates the nonlinear phase of the development after the full reconnection

  7. The structure of ideal MHD Alfven modes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turnbull, A.D.; Chu, M.S.; Lao, L.L.; Greene, J.M.; Strait, E.J.; Chance, M.S.

    1991-01-01

    Continuum Alfven modes have undergone a resurgence in interest with the recent realization that so-called Toroidicity-Induced Alfven Eigenmodes (TAE modes) can be destabilized either by energetic beam ions in a strongly heated plasma or by alpha particles in a burning plasma. The GATO Ideal MHD Stability code, which minimizes the potential energy according to a variational formulation, has now been modified to isolate and calculate stable continuum eigenmodes. The existence of the TAE mode and its associated gap has been verified, using this code, for a circular cross-section, finite aspect ratio equilibrium. Moreover, the eigenfrequencies and eigenmodes obtained from this variational calculation are found to be in extremely good quantitative agreement with those obtained from the non-variational NOVA code. A systematic survey of the stable continuum has further revealed a surprising diversity in the structure of the continuum Alfven modes; the logarithmic singularity can be so broad, in some cases, as to occupy the whole cross-section. This has important implications for heating experiments which aim to locally excite the plasma by rf waves in the Alfven frequency range. The structure of several representative examples is discussed. The Alfven continuum, in general, and the TAE mode and its associated gap, in particular, are also found to be strongly modified by cross-sectional shaping. The dependence of the spectrum on various shaping factors is explored

  8. Ballooning mode stabilization by moderate sheared rotation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hameiri, E.

    1996-01-01

    Sheared toroidal plasma rotation has been known for some time to have a stabilizing effect on the ballooning modes. A recent calculation showed that a large flow shear, with dΩ/dq of the order of the Alfven toroidal frequency, can stabilize the ballooning modes. This latest result is, in fact, not so optimistic. For observed flows with Mach number of order unity one gets dΩ/dq smaller by a factor O(√β) from the required level (if the flow shear length is of the same order as the magnetic shear length). Moreover, the calculation does not take into account a possibly large transient growth of the mode amplitude due to its Floquet structures We show here that, in fact, there is a general tendency of the ballooning mode to stabilize as soon as the flow shear dΩ/dq exceeds the (O√β smaller) open-quotes slowclose quotes magnetosonic wave frequency. Our analysis is perturbative, where the small parameter is related to the small coupling between the slow and Alfven waves-as is the case in a high aspect-ratio tokamak. (In the perturbation it is important to take the Hamiltonian nature of the governing equations into account.) Moreover, our results apply to the relevant transient growth of the mode amplitude

  9. Financial Performance of Entry Mode Decisions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boyd, Britta; Dyhr Ulrich, Anna Marie; Hollensen, Svend

    2012-01-01

    Based on a survey of 170 Danish SMEs the paper examines influences on entry mode choices and the financial outcome of these decisions. The main research objectives are divided into two steps: Step 1: To determine the factors influencing the choice of foreign entry modes by Danish companies. Step ...... and implications are provided for companies willing to invest more into foreign markets in order to achieve a higher degree of control and better financial results.......Based on a survey of 170 Danish SMEs the paper examines influences on entry mode choices and the financial outcome of these decisions. The main research objectives are divided into two steps: Step 1: To determine the factors influencing the choice of foreign entry modes by Danish companies. Step 2......: To determine the relationship between the choice of entry mode and export performance, measured in terms of financial outcome. Drawing from transaction cost theory the authors develop and test a model where different factors affect the level of control chosen by the parent company. This study contributes...

  10. Mode entanglement of Gaussian fermionic states

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spee, C.; Schwaiger, K.; Giedke, G.; Kraus, B.

    2018-04-01

    We investigate the entanglement of n -mode n -partite Gaussian fermionic states (GFS). First, we identify a reasonable definition of separability for GFS and derive a standard form for mixed states, to which any state can be mapped via Gaussian local unitaries (GLU). As the standard form is unique, two GFS are equivalent under GLU if and only if their standard forms coincide. Then, we investigate the important class of local operations assisted by classical communication (LOCC). These are central in entanglement theory as they allow one to partially order the entanglement contained in states. We show, however, that there are no nontrivial Gaussian LOCC (GLOCC) among pure n -partite (fully entangled) states. That is, any such GLOCC transformation can also be accomplished via GLU. To obtain further insight into the entanglement properties of such GFS, we investigate the richer class of Gaussian stochastic local operations assisted by classical communication (SLOCC). We characterize Gaussian SLOCC classes of pure n -mode n -partite states and derive them explicitly for few-mode states. Furthermore, we consider certain fermionic LOCC and show how to identify the maximally entangled set of pure n -mode n -partite GFS, i.e., the minimal set of states having the property that any other state can be obtained from one state inside this set via fermionic LOCC. We generalize these findings also to the pure m -mode n -partite (for m >n ) case.

  11. Photonic lantern adaptive spatial mode control in LMA fiber amplifiers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montoya, Juan; Aleshire, Chris; Hwang, Christopher; Fontaine, Nicolas K; Velázquez-Benítez, Amado; Martz, Dale H; Fan, T Y; Ripin, Dan

    2016-02-22

    We demonstrate adaptive-spatial mode control (ASMC) in few-moded double-clad large mode area (LMA) fiber amplifiers by using an all-fiber-based photonic lantern. Three single-mode fiber inputs are used to adaptively inject the appropriate superposition of input modes in a multimode gain fiber to achieve the desired mode at the output. By actively adjusting the relative phase of the single-mode inputs, near-unity coherent combination resulting in a single fundamental mode at the output is achieved.

  12. Unconventional modes in lasers with spatially varying gain and loss

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ge Li; Tuereci, H. E.; Chong, Y. D.; Stone, A. D.; Rotter, S.

    2011-01-01

    We discuss a class of lasing modes created by a spatially inhomogeneous gain profile. These lasing modes are ''extra modes,'' in addition to, and very different from, conventional lasing modes, which arise from the passive cavity resonances. These new modes do not have high intensity across the entire gain region, but instead are localized at the gain boundary and throughout the gain-free region. They are surface modes, originating from the transmission resonances of the gain-free region. Using an S-matrix description we connect these surface modes to the lasing modes in PT-symmetric (balanced gain-loss) cavities.

  13. Stability of longitudinal modes in a bunched beam with mode coupling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Satoh, K.

    1981-06-01

    In this paper we study a longitudinal coherent bunch instability in which the growth time is comparable to or less than the period of synchrotron oscillations. Both longitudinal and transverse bunch instabilities have been studied. In most treatments, however, the coherent force is assumed to be small and is treated as a perturbation compared with the synchrotron force. This makes the problem simpler because an individual synchrotron mode is decoupled. As bunch current increases, the coherent force is no longer small and the mode frequency shift becomes significant compared with the synchrotron frequency. Therefore in this case it is necessary to include coupling of the synchrotron modes. Recently a fast blow-up instability which comes from mode coupling was studied. Their method is to derive a dispersion relation for a bunched beam using the Vlasov equation and to analyze it as in a coasting beam. They showed that if mode coupling is included the Vlasov equation predicts a fast microwave instability with a stability condition similar to that for a coasting beam. In this paper we will partly follow their method and present a formalism which includes coupling between higher-order radial modes as well as coupling between synchrotron modes. The formalism is considered to be generalization of the Sacherer formalism without mode coupling. This theory predicts that instability is induced not only by coupling between different synchrotron modes, but also by coupling between positive and negative modes, since negative synchrotron modes are included in the theory in a natural manner. This formalism is to be used for a Gaussian bunch and a parabolic bunch, and is also useful for transverse problems

  14. Entry Mode and Performance of Nordic Firms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wulff, Jesper

    2015-01-01

    including the proposed moderating effect, on average, yield higher post-entry performance. This study sheds light on inconsistent results found in previous research investigating the impact of international experience and has practical implications for managerial decision-making.......This study investigates whether the relationship between mode of international market entry and non-location bound international experience is weaker for firms that are large or have a high foreign to total sales ratio, labeled multinational experience. Empirical evidence based on 250 foreign...... market entries made by Norwegian, Danish and Swedish firms suggests that the association between equity mode choice and non-location bound international experience diminishes in the presence of higher levels of multinational experience. Furthermore, firms whose entry mode choice is predicted by the model...

  15. Default mode contributions to automated information processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vatansever, Deniz; Menon, David K; Stamatakis, Emmanuel A

    2017-11-28

    Concurrent with mental processes that require rigorous computation and control, a series of automated decisions and actions govern our daily lives, providing efficient and adaptive responses to environmental demands. Using a cognitive flexibility task, we show that a set of brain regions collectively known as the default mode network plays a crucial role in such "autopilot" behavior, i.e., when rapidly selecting appropriate responses under predictable behavioral contexts. While applying learned rules, the default mode network shows both greater activity and connectivity. Furthermore, functional interactions between this network and hippocampal and parahippocampal areas as well as primary visual cortex correlate with the speed of accurate responses. These findings indicate a memory-based "autopilot role" for the default mode network, which may have important implications for our current understanding of healthy and adaptive brain processing.

  16. Coupling of tearing modes in tokamaks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Finn, J.M.

    1977-01-01

    The simultaneous presence of tearing modes of different helical pitches leads to the destruction of magnetic surfaces, which has been suggested as the mechanism leading to the onset of the disruptive instability in tokamaks. For current profiles in which the m = 2 mode is unstable, but the m = 3 is stable, the coupling of the m = 3 to the m = 2 through the poloidal variation of the toroidal field can drive the m = 3 amplitude psi 3 to order psi 2 times the inverse aspect ratio. Detailed calculations, both analytical and numerical, have been performed for two models for the equilibrium and m = 2 mode structure. A slab model and incompressible m = 3 perturbations are assumed. The m = 3 amplitude increases with shear, up to a point, showing that as the current channel shrinks, overlap of resonances becomes more likely. The results also apply qualitatively to other m, m +- 1 interactions

  17. Long wave polar modes in semiconductor heterostructures

    CERN Document Server

    Trallero-Giner, C; García-Moliner, F; Garc A-Moliner, F; Perez-Alvarez, R; Garcia-Moliner, F

    1998-01-01

    Long Wave Polar Modes in Semiconductor Heterostructures is concerned with the study of polar optical modes in semiconductor heterostructures from a phenomenological approach and aims to simplify the model of lattice dynamics calculations. The book provides useful tools for performing calculations relevant to anyone who might be interested in practical applications. The main focus of Long Wave Polar Modes in Semiconductor Heterostructures is planar heterostructures (quantum wells or barriers, superlattices, double barrier structures etc) but there is also discussion on the growing field of quantum wires and dots. Also to allow anyone reading the book to apply the techniques discussed for planar heterostructures, the scope has been widened to include cylindrical and spherical geometries. The book is intended as an introductory text which guides the reader through basic questions and expands to cover state-of-the-art professional topics. The book is relevant to experimentalists wanting an instructive presentatio...

  18. Modeling Operating Modes during Plant Life Cycle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Sten Bay; Lind, Morten

    2012-01-01

    Modelling process plants during normal operation requires a set a basic assumptions to define the desired functionalities which lead to fullfillment of the operational goal(-s) for the plant. However during during start-up and shut down as well as during batch operation an ensemble of interrelated...... modes are required to cover the whole operational window of a processs plant including intermediary operating modes. Development of such an model ensemble for a plant would constitute a systematic way of defining the possible plant operating modes and thus provide a platform for also defining a set...... of candidate control structures. The present contribution focuses on development of a model ensemble for a plant with an illustartive example for a bioreactor. Starting from a functional model a process plant may be conceptually designed and qualitative operating models may be developed to cover the different...

  19. Examination of the 'web mode effect'

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clement, Sanne Lund; Shamshiri-Petersen, Ditte

    Declining response rates is one of the most significant challenges for survey based research today. Seen in isolation, traditional interviewer based data collection methods are still the most effective but also the most expensive, especially the greater difficulty in gaining responses taken...... into account. As a solution, mixed-mode designs have been employed as a way to achieve higher response rates, while keeping the overall costs low. In particular, the use of web based surveys has expanded considerably during the last few years, both as a single data collection method and as a component in mixed...... with telephone surveys, not enabling determination of a “web mode effect”. In this case, differences might as well be due to differences between self-administered and interviewer-administered collection methods. Other parts of literature on mixed-mode design including a web option are using stratified sampling...

  20. Coupled seismoacoustic modes on the seafloor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, Rhett; Lomnitz, Cinna

    2002-05-01

    Wave-to-wave coupling arises when an acoustic pulse selects a Rayleigh mode of the same speed and both travel together swapping energy across an interface [Ewing et al., 1957]. A distinctive signal is observed at the Hawaii-2 Observatory for purely oceanic paths from earthquakes on the Blanco and Mendocino Fracture Zones, off the coast of North America. The signal appears to be a composite of undispersed higher Rayleigh modes propagating along the ocean floor both in the sediments and in the water. The new coupled modes are identified by their frequency composition and their phase and group velocities. Seismoacoustic coupling at the seafloor is conditioned on (a) the presence of a low-velocity interface at the ocean floor, and (b) the wavelength of the Rayleigh component being shorter than the depth of the water layer.

  1. Magnetohydrodynamic waves driven by p-modes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khomenko, Elena; Santamaria, Irantzu Calvo

    2013-01-01

    Waves are observed at all layers of the solar atmosphere and the magnetic field plays a key role in their propagation. While deep down in the atmosphere the p-modes are almost entirely of acoustic nature, in the upper layers magnetic forces are dominating, leading to a large variety of new wave modes. Significant advances have been made recently in our understanding of the physics of waves interaction with magnetic structures, with the help of analytical theories, numerical simulations, as well as high-resolution observations. In this contribution, we review recent observational findings and current theoretical ideas in the field, with an emphasis on the following questions: (i) Peculiarities of the observed wave propagation in network, plage and facular regions; (ii) Role of the mode transformation and observational evidences of this process: (iii) Coupling of the photosphere, chromosphere, and above by means of waves propagating in magnetic structures.

  2. Flower-petal mode converter for NLC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoag, H.A.; Tantawi, S.G.; Callin, R.; Deruyter, H.; Farkas, Z.D.; Ko, K.; Kroll, N.; Lavine, T.L.; Menegat, A.; Vlieks, A.E.

    1993-01-01

    It is important to minimize power loss in the waveguide system connecting klystron, pulse-compressor, and accelerator in an X-Band NLC. However, existing designs of klystron output cavity circuits and accelerator input couplers utilize rectangular waveguide which has relatively high transmission loss. It is therefore necessary to convert to and from the low-loss mode in circulator waveguide at each end of the system. A description is given of development work on high-power, high-vacuum open-quote flower-petal close-quote transducers, which convert the TE 10 mode in rectangular guide to the TE 01 mode in circular guide. A three-port modification of the flower petal device, which can be used as either a power combiner at the klystron or a power divider at the accelerator is also described

  3. Mode demultiplexer using angularly multiplexed volume holograms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wakayama, Yuta; Okamoto, Atsushi; Kawabata, Kento; Tomita, Akihisa; Sato, Kunihiro

    2013-05-20

    This study proposes a volume holographic demultiplexer (VHDM) for extracting the spatial modes excited in a multimode fiber. A unique feature of the demultiplexer is that it can separate a number of multiplexed modes output from a fiber in different directions by using multi-recorded holograms without beam splitters, which results in a simple configuration as compared with that using phase plates instead of holograms. In this study, an experiment is conducted to demonstrate the basic operations for three LP mode groups to confirm the performance of the proposed VHDM and to estimate the signal-to-crosstalk noise ratio (SNR). As a result, an SNR of greater than 20 dB is obtained.

  4. Exploring extra dimensions through inflationary tensor modes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Im, Sang Hui; Nilles, Hans Peter; Trautner, Andreas

    2018-03-01

    Predictions of inflationary schemes can be influenced by the presence of extra dimensions. This could be of particular relevance for the spectrum of gravitational waves in models where the extra dimensions provide a brane-world solution to the hierarchy problem. Apart from models of large as well as exponentially warped extra dimensions, we analyze the size of tensor modes in the Linear Dilaton scheme recently revived in the discussion of the "clockwork mechanism". The results are model dependent, significantly enhanced tensor modes on one side and a suppression on the other. In some cases we are led to a scheme of "remote inflation", where the expansion is driven by energies at a hidden brane. In all cases where tensor modes are enhanced, the requirement of perturbativity of gravity leads to a stringent upper limit on the allowed Hubble rate during inflation.

  5. Contained Modes In Mirrors With Sheared Rotation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fetterman, Abraham J.; Fisch, Nathaniel J.

    2010-01-01

    In mirrors with E x B rotation, a fixed azimuthal perturbation in the lab frame can appear as a wave in the rotating frame. If the rotation frequency varies with radius, the plasma-frame wave frequency will also vary radially due to the Doppler shift. A wave that propagates in the high rotation plasma region might therefore be evanescent at the plasma edge. This can lead to radially localized Alfven eigenmodes with high azimuthal mode numbers. Contained Alfven modes are found both for peaked and non-peaked rotation profiles. These modes might be useful for alpha channeling or ion heating, as the high azimuthal wave number allows the plasma wave frequency in the rotating frame to exceed the ion cyclotron frequency.

  6. Helicon normal modes in Proto-MPEX

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piotrowicz, P. A.; Caneses, J. F.; Green, D. L.; Goulding, R. H.; Lau, C.; Caughman, J. B. O.; Rapp, J.; Ruzic, D. N.

    2018-05-01

    The Proto-MPEX helicon source has been operating in a high electron density ‘helicon-mode’. Establishing plasma densities and magnetic field strengths under the antenna that allow for the formation of normal modes of the fast-wave are believed to be responsible for the ‘helicon-mode’. A 2D finite-element full-wave model of the helicon antenna on Proto-MPEX is used to identify the fast-wave normal modes responsible for the steady-state electron density profile produced by the source. We also show through the simulation that in the regions of operation in which core power deposition is maximum the slow-wave does not deposit significant power besides directly under the antenna. In the case of a simulation where a normal mode is not excited significant edge power is deposited in the mirror region. ).

  7. Translating 'Asian' Modes of Healing and Biomedicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sleeboom-Faulkner, Margaret

    2015-01-01

    This review article discusses the 'translation of Asian modes of healing and medicine' in six recently published books by raising seven questions. They serve both to review the volumes and to ask how we have moved from understanding systems of healing in terms of tradition and modernity, science and nonscience, globalization and locality, innovation and cultural heritage, to translating them in terms of assemblages, products, modes of resistance, social (dis-)harmony, and ecological balance. The questions span subjects ranging from the meaning of 'Asian' in Asian modes of healing, the object of healing and classifications of systems of healing to their relation with 'biomedicine,' modernization and the state, the extents to which communities share healing tradition, and their existential meaning in context.

  8. Flower-petal mode converter for NLC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoag, H.A.; Tantawi, S.G.; Callin, R.

    1993-04-01

    It is important to minimize power loss in the waveguide system connecting klystron, pulse-compressor, and accelerator in an X-Band NLC. However, existing designs of klystron output cavity circuits and accelerator input couplers utilize rectangular waveguide which has relatively high transmission loss. It is therefore necessary to convert to and from the low-loss mode in circular waveguide at each end of the system. A description is given of development work on high-power, high-vacuum 'flower-petal' transducers, which convert the TE 10 mode in rectangular guide to the TE 01 mode in circular guide. A three-port modification of the flower petal device, which can be used as either a power combiner at the klystron or a power divider at the accelerator is also described

  9. Compressive multi-mode superresolution display

    KAUST Repository

    Heide, Felix

    2014-01-01

    Compressive displays are an emerging technology exploring the co-design of new optical device configurations and compressive computation. Previously, research has shown how to improve the dynamic range of displays and facilitate high-quality light field or glasses-free 3D image synthesis. In this paper, we introduce a new multi-mode compressive display architecture that supports switching between 3D and high dynamic range (HDR) modes as well as a new super-resolution mode. The proposed hardware consists of readily-available components and is driven by a novel splitting algorithm that computes the pixel states from a target high-resolution image. In effect, the display pixels present a compressed representation of the target image that is perceived as a single, high resolution image. © 2014 Optical Society of America.

  10. Mode-2 social science knowledge production?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kropp, Kristoffer; Blok, Anders

    2011-01-01

    The notion of mode-2 knowledge production points to far-reaching transformations in science-society relations, but few attempts have been made to investigate what growing economic and political demands on research may entail for the social sciences. This case study of new patterns of social science...... knowledge production outlines some major institutional and cognitive changes in Danish academic sociology during 'mode-2' times, from the 1980s onwards. Empirically, we rely on documentary sources and qualitative interviews with Danish sociologists, aiming to reconstruct institutional trajectories...... show how a particular cognitive modality of sociology — 'welfare reflexivity' — has become a dominant form of Danish sociological knowledge production. Welfare reflexivity has proven a viable response to volatile mode-2 policy conditions....

  11. Single-mode coherent synchrotron radiation instability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Heifets

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available The microwave instability driven by the coherent synchrotron radiation (CSR has been previously studied [S. Heifets and G. V. Stupakov, Phys. Rev. ST Accel. Beams 5, 054402 (2002] neglecting effect of the shielding caused by the finite beam pipe aperture. In practice, the unstable mode can be close to the shielding threshold where the spectrum of the radiation in a toroidal beam pipe is discrete. In this paper, the CSR instability is studied in the case when it is driven by a single synchronous mode. A system of equations for the beam-wave interaction is derived and its similarity to the 1D free-electron laser theory is demonstrated. In the linear regime, the growth rate of the instability is obtained and a transition to the case of continuous spectrum is discussed. The nonlinear evolution of the single-mode instability, both with and without synchrotron damping and quantum diffusion, is also studied.

  12. Nonlinear magnetohydrodynamics of edge localized mode precursors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guo, Z. B., E-mail: guozhipku@gmail.com [State Key Laboratory of Nuclear Physics and Technology, School of Physics, Peking University, Beijing (China); WCI Center for Fusion Theory, NFRI, Gwahangno 113, Yusung-gu, Daejeon 305-333 (Korea, Republic of); Wang, Lu [SEEE, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, Hubei 430074 (China); Wang, X. G. [State Key Laboratory of Nuclear Physics and Technology, School of Physics, Peking University, Beijing (China)

    2015-02-15

    A possible origin of edge-localized-mode (ELM) precursors based on nonlinear ideal peeling-ballooning mode is reported. Via nonlinear variational principle, a nonlinear evolution equation of the radial displacement is derived and solved, analytically. Besides an explosive growth in the initial nonlinear phase, it is found that the local displacement evolves into an oscillating state in the developed nonlinear phase. The nonlinear frequency of the ELM precursors scales as ω{sub pre}∼x{sup 1/3}ξ{sup ^}{sub ψ,in}{sup 2/3}n, with x position in radial direction, ξ{sup ^}{sub ψ,in} strength of initial perturbation, and n toroidal mode number.

  13. Contained Modes In Mirrors With Sheared Rotation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abraham J. Fetterman and Nathaniel J. Fisch

    2010-10-08

    In mirrors with E × B rotation, a fixed azimuthal perturbation in the lab frame can appear as a wave in the rotating frame. If the rotation frequency varies with radius, the plasma-frame wave frequency will also vary radially due to the Doppler shift. A wave that propagates in the high rotation plasma region might therefore be evanescent at the plasma edge. This can lead to radially localized Alfven eigenmodes with high azimuthal mode numbers. Contained Alfven modes are found both for peaked and non-peaked rotation profiles. These modes might be useful for alpha channeling or ion heating, as the high azimuthal wave number allows the plasma wave frequency in the rotating frame to exceed the ion cyclotron frequency. __________________________________________________

  14. Contained modes in mirrors with sheared rotation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fetterman, Abraham J.; Fisch, Nathaniel J.

    2010-01-01

    In mirrors with ExB rotation, a fixed azimuthal perturbation in the laboratory frame can appear as a wave in the rotating frame. If the rotation frequency varies with radius, the plasma-frame wave frequency will also vary radially due to the Doppler shift. A wave that propagates in the high rotation plasma region might therefore be evanescent at the plasma edge. This can lead to radially localized Alfven eigenmodes with high azimuthal mode numbers. Contained Alfven modes are found both for peaked and nonpeaked rotation profiles. These modes might be useful for alpha channeling or ion heating, as the high azimuthal wave number allows the plasma wave frequency in the rotating frame to exceed the ion cyclotron frequency.

  15. Evolution of transverse modes in FELIX macropulses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weits, H.H.; Lin, L.; Werkhoven, G.H.C. van

    1995-01-01

    We present ringdown measurements of both the intracavity beam, using a low reflection beamsplitter, as well as the hole-outcoupled beam of FELIX, the intracavity measurements being taken at various sets of transverse coordinates. Recent measurements show a significant difference in the decay of the signals at different radial positions, suggesting the presence of higher order transverse modes. The formation of transverse modes depends on the properties of the cold cavity and its losses (i.e. resonator parameters, diffraction and outcoupling at the hole, absorption and edge losses on the mirrors, waveguide clipping), as well as on the gain mechanism. Both simulations with the axisymmetric ELIXER code and previous hole-outcoupled measurements indicated a substantial energy content of the 2nd or 4th Gauss-Laguerre (GL) mode for the 20-30 μm regime of FELIX. Moreover, as FELIX has a phase degenerate cavity, the fundamental and higher order transverse modes can interplay to create a reduced outcoupling efficiency at the hole. For example, in contrast to the decay rate of 13% per roundtrip that we would expect for a pure gaussian beam when we include a loss of 6% for the reflection at the intracavity beamsplitter, recent simulations indicate a decay rate as high as 23% of the hole-outcoupled signal. In this case the 2nd order GL mode contains 30% of the total intracavity power. The effect of transverse modes on subpulses in the limit cycle regime is an interesting aspect. As soon as a subpulse is losing contact with the electrons, its transverse pattern will exhibit an on-axis hole after a few roundtrips, according to the simulations. This process could mean that the subpulses are less pronounced in the hole-outcoupled signal of FELIX 1

  16. Failure mode and effects analysis: an empirical comparison of failure mode scoring procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashley, Laura; Armitage, Gerry

    2010-12-01

    To empirically compare 2 different commonly used failure mode and effects analysis (FMEA) scoring procedures with respect to their resultant failure mode scores and prioritization: a mathematical procedure, where scores are assigned independently by FMEA team members and averaged, and a consensus procedure, where scores are agreed on by the FMEA team via discussion. A multidisciplinary team undertook a Healthcare FMEA of chemotherapy administration. This included mapping the chemotherapy process, identifying and scoring failure modes (potential errors) for each process step, and generating remedial strategies to counteract them. Failure modes were scored using both an independent mathematical procedure and a team consensus procedure. Almost three-fifths of the 30 failure modes generated were scored differently by the 2 procedures, and for just more than one-third of cases, the score discrepancy was substantial. Using the Healthcare FMEA prioritization cutoff score, almost twice as many failure modes were prioritized by the consensus procedure than by the mathematical procedure. This is the first study to empirically demonstrate that different FMEA scoring procedures can score and prioritize failure modes differently. It found considerable variability in individual team members' opinions on scores, which highlights the subjective and qualitative nature of failure mode scoring. A consensus scoring procedure may be most appropriate for FMEA as it allows variability in individuals' scores and rationales to become apparent and to be discussed and resolved by the team. It may also yield team learning and communication benefits unlikely to result from a mathematical procedure.

  17. X-ray fractography of fatigue fracture surface under mode I and mode III loading

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akiniwa, Yoshiaki; Tanaka, Keisuke; Tsumura, Tsuyoshi

    2001-01-01

    The propagation behavior of a circumferential fatigue crack in cylindrical bars of a carbon steel (JIS SGV410) and a stainless steel (JIS SUS316NG) was investigated under cyclic axial and torsional loadings. The J-integral range was used as a fracture mechanics parameter. When compared at the same J-integral range, the crack propagation rate under mode III was smaller than that under mode I. Parallel markings perpendicular to the crack propagation direction were observed on the fatigue fracture surface obtained under mode III loading. The residual stresses in the radial direction, σ r , and in the tangential direction, σ θ , were measured for both mode I and mode III fatigue fracture surfaces. For mode I fracture surface, σ r was tension, and was almost constant irrespective of the applied J-integral range. σ θ was close to zero for both materials. On the other hand, for mode III, σ r and σ θ were compression. For SUS316NG steel, the compressive stress of σ θ increased with the J-integral range. For SGV410 steel, the change of σ θ with the J-integral range was small. The breadth of diffraction profiles increased with J-integral range for both mode I and III. The breadth was found to be a good parameter to evaluate the applied J-integral range. (author)

  18. New Edge Coherent Mode Providing Continuous Transport in Long Pulse H-mode Plasmas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, H.Q.; Xu, G.S.; Wan, B.N.

    2014-01-01

    An electrostatic coherent mode near the electron diamagnetic frequency (20–90 kHz) is observed in the steep-gradient pedestal region of long pulse H-mode plasmas in the Experimental Advanced Super-conducting Tokamak, using a newly developed dual gas-puff-imaging system and diamond-coated reciproc...

  19. Nonlinear simulation of tearing mode and m=1 kink mode based on kinetic RMHD model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yagi, M.; Yoshida, S.; Itoh, S.-I.; Naitou, H.; Nagahara, H.; Leboeuf, J.-N.; Itoh, K.; Matsumoto, T.; Tokuda, S.; Azumi, M.

    2005-01-01

    In this paper, we investigate dynamics of sawtooth oscillation and neoclassical tearing modes based on kinetic RMHD model, putting an emphasis on interaction with microscopic and transport processes. The simulation results show that the assumption in the conventional theory of neoclassical tearing mode is rather rude. (author)

  20. Robust fiber optic flexure sensor exploiting mode coupling in few-mode fiber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelsen, Bryan; Rudek, Florian; Taudt, Christopher; Baselt, Tobias; Hartmann, Peter

    2015-05-01

    Few-mode fiber (FMF) has become very popular for use in multiplexing telecommunications data over fiber optics. The simplicity of producing FMF and the relative robustness of the optical modes, coupled with the simplicity of reading out the information make this fiber a natural choice for communications. However, little work has been done to take advantage of this type of fiber for sensors. Here, we demonstrate the feasibility of using FMF properties as a mechanism for detecting flexure by exploiting mode coupling between modes when the cylindrical symmetry of the fiber is perturbed. The theoretical calculations shown here are used to understand the coupling between the lowest order linearly polarized mode (LP01) and the next higher mode (LP11x or LP11y) under the action of bending. Twisting is also evaluated as a means to detect flexure and was determined to be the most reliable and effective method when observing the LP21 mode. Experimental results of twisted fiber and observations of the LP21 mode are presented here. These types of fiber flexure sensors are practical in high voltage, high magnetic field, or high temperature medical or industrial environments where typical electronic flexure sensors would normally fail. Other types of flexure measurement systems that utilize fiber, such as Rayleigh back-scattering [1], are complicated and expensive and often provide a higher-than necessary sensitivity for the task at hand.

  1. Three mode Er3+ ring-doped fiber amplifier for mode-division multiplexed transmission

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jung, Y.; Kang, Q.; Sleiffer, V.A.J.M.; Inan, B.; Kuschnerov, M.; Veljanovski, V.; Corbett, B.; Winfield, R.; Li, Z.; Teh, P.S.; Dhar, A.; Sahu, J.K.; Poletti, F.; Alam, S.U.; Richardson, D.J.

    2013-01-01

    We successfully fabricate three-mode erbium doped fiber with a confined Er3+ doped ring structure and experimentally characterize the amplifier performance with a view to mode-division multiplexed (MDM) transmission. The differential modal gain was effectively mitigated by controlling the relative

  2. Foreign direct investment mode choice : entry and establishment modes in transition economies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dikova, Desislava; van Witteloostuijn, Arien

    In this study, we bridge two streams of foreign direct investment literature, specifically studies on establishment mode choice (i.e., the choice between an acquisition and a greenfield establishment) and studies on entry mode choice (i.e., the choice between a wholly owned outlet and a subsidiary

  3. A Bloch mode expansion approach for analyzing quasi-normal modes in open nanophotonic structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Lasson, Jakob Rosenkrantz; Kristensen, Philip Trøst; Mørk, Jesper

    2014-01-01

    We present a new method for determining quasi-normal modes in open nanophotonic structures using a modal ex- pansion technique. The outgoing wave boundary condition of the quasi-normal modes is satisfied automatically without absorbing boundaries, representing a significant advantage compared...

  4. Competition and transformation of modes of unidirectional air waveguide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Yu-xin; Kong, Xiang-kun; Fang, Yun-tuan

    2016-10-01

    In order to study the mode excitation of the unidirectional air waveguide, we place a line source at different positions in the waveguide. The source position plays an important role in determining the result of the competition of the even mode and the odd mode. For the source at the edge of the waveguide, the odd mode gets advantage over the even mode. As a result, the odd mode is excited, but the even mode is suppressed. For the source at the center of the waveguide, the even mode is excited, but the odd mode is suppressed. With two sources at two edges of the waveguide, the even mode is released because the two odd modes are canceled.

  5. 12 Mode, MIMO-Free OAM Transmission

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ingerslev, Kasper; Gregg, Patrick; Galili, Michael

    2017-01-01

    Simultaneous MIMO-free transmission of a record number (12) of orbital angular momentum modes over 1.2 km is demonstrated. WDM compatibility of the system is shown by using 60 WDM channels with 25 GHz spacing and 10 GBaud QPSK.......Simultaneous MIMO-free transmission of a record number (12) of orbital angular momentum modes over 1.2 km is demonstrated. WDM compatibility of the system is shown by using 60 WDM channels with 25 GHz spacing and 10 GBaud QPSK....

  6. Curbing - The Metallic Mode In-Between

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aaen, Mathias; McGlashan, Julian; Sadolin, Cathrine

    2017-01-01

    recording of EGG and acoustic signals using Speech Studio. Images were analyzed based on consensus agreement. Statistical analysis of acoustic, LTAS, and EGG parameters was undertaken using Student paired t tests. Results The reduced metallic singing mode Curbing has an identifiable laryngeal gesture....... Curbing has a more open setting than Overdrive and Edge, with high visibility of the vocal folds, and the false folds giving a rectangular appearance. LTAS showed statistically significant differences between Curbing and the full metallic modes, with less energy across all spectra, yielding a high second...

  7. Linear mode conversion in a toroidal plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hellsten, T.

    1980-05-01

    Linear mode conversion at the perpendicular ion cyclotron resonance has been treated for an axially symmetric toroidal plasma. The mode conversion appears between a fast electromagnetic wave and a slow-quasi electrostatic wave, due to finite electron inertia. The problem reduces to the Orr-Sommerfeld equation where the coefficients determining the reflectron, transmission and conversion are functions of the arc length along a poloidal intersection of the resonance surface. These coefficients can be determined from eigenfunctions of an ordinary differential equation. (author)

  8. Microwave bessel beams generation using guided modes

    KAUST Repository

    Salem, Mohamed; Kamel, Aladin Hassan; Niver, Edip

    2011-01-01

    A novel method is devised for Bessel beams generation in the microwave regime. The beam is decomposed in terms of a number of guided transverse electric modes of a metallic waveguide. Modal expansion coefficients are computed from the modal power orthogonality relation. Excitation is achieved by means of a number of inserted coaxial loop antennas, whose currents are calculated from the excitation coefficients of the guided modes. The efficiency of the method is evaluated and its feasibility is discussed. Obtained results can be utilized to practically realize microwave Bessel beam launchers. © 2006 IEEE.

  9. Spatial light modulation for mode conditioning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Glückstad, Jesper; Palima, Darwin

    We demonstrate patented techniques for generating tuneable complex field distributions for controllable coupling to high-order guided modes of micro-structured fibres. The optical Fourier transform of binary phase-only patterns which are encoded on a computer-controlled spatial light modulator......, generates complex field distributions for selective launching of a desired mode. Both the amplitude and the phase of the programmable fields are modulated by straightforward and fast adjustments of simple pre-defined binary phase-only diffractive patterns. Experiments demonstrate tuneable coupling...

  10. Baby Skyrme model and fermionic zero modes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Queiruga, J. M.

    2016-09-01

    In this work we investigate some features of the fermionic sector of the supersymmetric version of the baby Skyrme model. We find that, in the background of Bogomol'nyi-Prasad-Sommerfield compact baby Skyrmions, fermionic zero modes are confined to the defect core. Further, we show that, while three Supersymmetry (SUSY) generators are broken in the defect core, SUSY is completely restored outside. We study also the effect of a D-term deformation of the model. Such a deformation allows for the existence of fermionic zero modes and broken SUSY outside the compact defect.

  11. Design project management mode as the introduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Xiaoping

    2014-01-01

    This article consider nuclear power plant's current design schedule management mode as the introduction, analysis of current management in-depth, summed up the advantage and disadvantage of the existing management mode. It makes use of mature closed loop cycle project management, and submits progress tracking model assumptions. It also introduces the purpose and background of the progress automation model, the theoretical assumptions of the model, the design criteria and evaluation system of indicators of progress. Based on the achievement process model, this article mainly discusses the specific processes and key points of the project closed loop cycle, and the improvement of the process of project management. (author)

  12. Higher order modes of coupled optical fibres

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alexeyev, C N; Yavorsky, M A; Boklag, N A

    2010-01-01

    The structure of hybrid higher order modes of two coupled weakly guiding identical optical fibres is studied. On the basis of perturbation theory with degeneracy for the vector wave equation expressions for modes with azimuthal angular number l ≥ 1 are obtained that allow for the spin–orbit interaction. The spectra of polarization corrections to the scalar propagation constants are calculated in a wide range of distances between the fibres. The limiting cases of widely and closely spaced fibres are studied. The obtained results can be used for studying the tunnelling of optical vortices in directional couplers and in matters concerned with information security

  13. Microwave bessel beams generation using guided modes

    KAUST Repository

    Salem, Mohamed

    2011-06-01

    A novel method is devised for Bessel beams generation in the microwave regime. The beam is decomposed in terms of a number of guided transverse electric modes of a metallic waveguide. Modal expansion coefficients are computed from the modal power orthogonality relation. Excitation is achieved by means of a number of inserted coaxial loop antennas, whose currents are calculated from the excitation coefficients of the guided modes. The efficiency of the method is evaluated and its feasibility is discussed. Obtained results can be utilized to practically realize microwave Bessel beam launchers. © 2006 IEEE.

  14. C5 capsule operation modes analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Negut, Gh.; Ancuta, Mirela; Stefan, Violeta

    2008-01-01

    This paper is part of the Nuclear Research Institute Program 13 dedicated to 'TRIGA Research Reactor performance enhancing' and its objective is improving the engineering of the structural materials irradiation. The paper raises the knowledge level on C5 capsule irradiation modes and utilizes previous results in order to increase C5 performances. In the paper the irradiation modes to test zirconium yttrium sample are assessed. These tests are proposed by AECL. There are presented the C5 initial conditions and models. Also. there are presented the thermal hydraulic conditions during normal and accidental operation. The results will be used in the C5 safety report. (authors)

  15. Mode-locked silicon evanescent lasers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koch, Brian R; Fang, Alexander W; Cohen, Oded; Bowers, John E

    2007-09-03

    We demonstrate electrically pumped lasers on silicon that produce pulses at repetition rates up to 40 GHz. The mode locked lasers generate 4 ps pulses with low jitter and extinction ratios above 18 dB, making them suitable for data and telecommunication transmitters and for clock generation and distribution. Results of both passive and hybrid mode locking are discussed. This type of device could enable new silicon based integrated technologies, such as optical time division multiplexing (OTDM), wavelength division multiplexing (WDM), and optical code division multiple access (OCDMA).

  16. CMOS Current-mode Operational Amplifier

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaulberg, Thomas

    1992-01-01

    current-mode feedback amplifier or a constant bandwidth in a transimpedance feedback amplifier. The amplifier is found to have a gain bandwidth product of 8 MHz, an offset current of 0.8 ¿A (signal-range ±700¿A) and a (theoretically) unlimited slew-rate. The amplifier is realized in a standard CMOS 2......A fully differential-input differential-output current-mode operational amplifier (COA) is described. The amplifier utilizes three second generation current-conveyors (CCII) as the basic building blocks. It can be configured to provide either a constant gain-bandwidth product in a fully balanced...

  17. A CMOS current-mode operational amplifier

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaulberg, Thomas

    1993-01-01

    current-mode feedback amplifier or a constant bandwidth in a transimpedance feedback amplifier. The amplifier is found to have a gain-bandwidth product of 3 MHz, an offset current of 0.8 μA (signal range ±700 μA), and a (theoretically) unlimited slew rate. The amplifier is realized in a standard CMOS 2......A fully differential-input, differential-output, current-mode operational amplifier (COA) is described. The amplifier utilizes three second-generation current conveyors (CCIIs) as the basic building blocks. It can be configured to provide either a constant gain-bandwidth product in a fully balanced...

  18. CMOS Current-mode Operational Amplifier

    OpenAIRE

    Kaulberg, Thomas

    1992-01-01

    A fully differential-input differential-output current-mode operational amplifier (COA) is described. The amplifier utilizes three second generation current-conveyors (CCII) as the basic building blocks. It can be configured to provide either a constant gain-bandwidth product in a fully balanced current-mode feedback amplifier or a constant bandwidth in a transimpedance feedback amplifier. The amplifier is found to have a gain bandwidth product of 8 MHz, an offset current of 0.8 ¿A (signal-r...

  19. Failure modes of composite sandwich beams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gdoutos E.

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available A thorough investigation of failure behavior of composite sandwich beams under three-and four-point bending was undertaken. The beams were made of unidirectional carbon/epoxy facings and a PVC closed-cell foam core. The constituent materials were fully characterized and in the case of the foam core, failure envelopes were developed for general two-dimensional states of stress. Various failure modes including facing wrinkling, indentation failure and core failure were observed and compared with analytical predictions. The initiation, propagation and interaction of failure modes depend on the type of loading, constituent material properties and geometrical dimensions.

  20. Digital mode selection using an intracavity SLM

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Burger, L

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available stream_source_info Burger_2012.pdf.txt stream_content_type text/plain stream_size 6646 Content-Encoding ISO-8859-1 stream_name Burger_2012.pdf.txt Content-Type text/plain; charset=ISO-8859-1 Digital mode selection using... HoloEye HEO1080P as well as with the newer generation Hamamatsu X10468 SLMs. See comparison in Table 1. Nevertheless, we have demonstrated that this device can be used to digitally select for a number of transverse and radial modes. The advantage...