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Sample records for model-measurement discrepancy ensuring

  1. Large sample area and size are needed for forest soil seed bank studies to ensure low discrepancy with standing vegetation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    You-xin Shen

    Full Text Available A large number of small-sized samples invariably shows that woody species are absent from forest soil seed banks, leading to a large discrepancy with the seedling bank on the forest floor. We ask: 1 Does this conventional sampling strategy limit the detection of seeds of woody species? 2 Are large sample areas and sample sizes needed for higher recovery of seeds of woody species? We collected 100 samples that were 10 cm (length × 10 cm (width × 10 cm (depth, referred to as larger number of small-sized samples (LNSS in a 1 ha forest plot, and placed them to germinate in a greenhouse, and collected 30 samples that were 1 m × 1 m × 10 cm, referred to as small number of large-sized samples (SNLS and placed them (10 each in a nearby secondary forest, shrub land and grass land. Only 15.7% of woody plant species of the forest stand were detected by the 100 LNSS, contrasting with 22.9%, 37.3% and 20.5% woody plant species being detected by SNLS in the secondary forest, shrub land and grassland, respectively. The increased number of species vs. sampled areas confirmed power-law relationships for forest stand, the LNSS and SNLS at all three recipient sites. Our results, although based on one forest, indicate that conventional LNSS did not yield a high percentage of detection for woody species, but SNLS strategy yielded a higher percentage of detection for woody species in the seed bank if samples were exposed to a better field germination environment. A 4 m2 minimum sample area derived from power equations is larger than the sampled area in most studies in the literature. Increased sample size also is needed to obtain an increased sample area if the number of samples is to remain relatively low.

  2. Deterministic Discrepancy Minimization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bansal, N.; Spencer, J.

    2013-01-01

    We derandomize a recent algorithmic approach due to Bansal (Foundations of Computer Science, FOCS, pp. 3–10, 2010) to efficiently compute low discrepancy colorings for several problems, for which only existential results were previously known. In particular, we give an efficient deterministic algori

  3. A panorama of discrepancy theory

    CERN Document Server

    Srivastav, Anand; Travaglini, Giancarlo

    2014-01-01

    Discrepancy theory concerns the problem of replacing a continuous object with a discrete sampling. Discrepancy theory is currently at a crossroads between number theory, combinatorics, Fourier analysis, algorithms and complexity, probability theory and numerical analysis. There are several excellent books on discrepancy theory but perhaps no one of them actually shows the present variety of points of view and applications covering the areas "Classical and Geometric Discrepancy Theory", "Combinatorial Discrepancy Theory" and "Applications and Constructions". Our book consists of several chapters, written by experts in the specific areas, and focused on the different aspects of the theory. The book should also be an invitation to researchers and students to find a quick way into the different methods and to motivate interdisciplinary research.

  4. Ensuring access to psychotropic

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2007-09-04

    Sep 4, 2007 ... Options for sourcing of quality drugs are outlined with practical examples. An argument is ... that of ensuring a regular, adequate supply of appropriate, safe, .... points in the chain means that there have been more failures.

  5. Diagnostic discrepancies in clinical practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Issa, Victor Sarli; Dinardi, Layara Fernanda Lipari; Pereira, Thiago Vicente; de Almeida, Lyna Kyria Rodrigues; Barbosa, Thaisa Silveira; Benvenutti, Luiz Alberto; Ayub-Ferreira, Silvia Moreira; Bocchi, Edimar Alcides

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Autopsies are the gold standard for diagnostic accuracy; however, no recent study has analyzed autopsies in heart failure (HF). We reviewed 1241 autopsies (January 2000–May 2005) and selected 232 patients with HF. Clinical and autopsy diagnoses were analyzed and discrepancies categorized according to their importance regarding therapy and prognosis. Mean age was 63.3 ± 15.9 years; 154 (66.4%) patients were male. The causes of death at autopsy were end-stage HF (40.9%), acute myocardial infarction (17.2%), infection (15.9), and pulmonary embolism 36 (15.5). Diagnostic discrepancies occurred in 191 (82.3%) cases; in 56 (24.1%), discrepancies were related to major diagnoses with potential influence on survival or treatment; pulmonary embolism was the cause of death for 24 (42.9%) of these patients. In 35 (15.1%), discrepancies were related to a major diagnosis with equivocal influence on survival or treatment; in 100 (43.1%), discrepancies did not influence survival or treatment. In multivariate analysis, age (OR: 1.03, 95% CI: 1.008–1.052, P = 0.007) and presence of diabetes mellitus (OR: 0.359, 95% CI: 0.168–0.767, P = 0.008) influenced the occurrence discrepancies. Diagnostic discrepancies with a potential impact on prognosis are frequent in HF. These findings warrant reconsideration in diagnostic and therapeutic practices with HF patients. PMID:28121951

  6. Challenges of Ensuring Equity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pasgaard, Maya

    Forest protection projects with the aim to Reduce Emissions from Deforestation and Forest Degradation while ensuring social co-benefits (REDD+) are introduced at a fast pace and extensive scale across the global South as an instrument to mitigate climate change. Besides the intended positive outc...

  7. Ensuring Software IP Cleanliness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahshad Koohgoli

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available At many points in the life of a software enterprise, determination of intellectual property (IP cleanliness becomes critical. The value of an enterprise that develops and sells software may depend on how clean the software is from the IP perspective. This article examines various methods of ensuring software IP cleanliness and discusses some of the benefits and shortcomings of current solutions.

  8. Ensuring Students' Success

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oblinger, James L.

    2006-01-01

    James L. Oblinger, Chancellor of North Carolina State University, argues that higher education must continually evolve new methods of teaching and learning to support students' lifelong skills and impending careers. Part of ensuring students' success lies in finding alternative learning models, such as the Student-Centered Activities for Large…

  9. Ensuring Students' Success

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oblinger, James L.

    2006-01-01

    James L. Oblinger, Chancellor of North Carolina State University, argues that higher education must continually evolve new methods of teaching and learning to support students' lifelong skills and impending careers. Part of ensuring students' success lies in finding alternative learning models, such as the Student-Centered Activities for Large…

  10. Ensuring Economic Health

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    @@ Though China's economy is breathing a sigh of relief after several nervous months,it is still not time to sit back and relax.Much needs to be done to ensure the sustainability of growth momentum.Guo Tianvong,Director of the Research Center of the China Banking Industry of the Central University of Finance and Economics,discussed this issue in an article recently published in the Shanghai Securities Journal.Edited excerpts follow……

  11. Toward Ensuring Health Equity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petkovic, Jennifer; Epstein, Jonathan; Buchbinder, Rachelle

    2015-01-01

    : The English, Dutch, French, and Turkish Health Assessment Questionnaires and English and French Osteoarthritis Knee and Hip Quality of Life questionnaires were evaluated by applying 3 readability formulas: Flesch Reading Ease, Flesch-Kincaid grade level, and Simple Measure of Gobbledygook; and a new tool...... abstained, 1 no). Twenty-two participants agreed that cultural equivalency of PROM should be assessed and suitable methods used (7 abstained, 2 no). Special interest group participants identified challenges with cross-cultural adaptation including resources required, and suggested patient involvement...... for improving translation and adaptation. CONCLUSION: Future work will include consensus exercises on what methods are required to ensure PROM are appropriate for people with low literacy and different cultures....

  12. Ensuring food security

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valeriy Valentinovich Patsiorkovskiy

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper is devoted to the questions of further development of agricultural and food policy in the Russian Federation. The subject of in-depth consideration is the problem related to ensuring food safety. A critical review and analysis of major regulations in the field of food safety is made, including in the implementation of sanitary and epidemiological surveillance. The necessity of the expansion of measures to improve the statistics of food poisoning is grounded. The basic reasons for the spread of management practices of production and sale of food products that pose a threat to human life are revealed. The factors of unhindered penetration of local markets in the cities and the surrounding countrysides with counterfeiting, smuggling and production of global junk food manufacturers and consumer goods are defined. A systematic view is put on the problems of food production in the private farms, ways to limit direct access to the market of food and food raw materials, which production was not controlled and who have not passed state registration, are suggested. One of these problems is creation of independent industrial structures that link production and sales of small-scale sector goods.

  13. Discrepancy, chaining and subgaussian processes

    CERN Document Server

    Mendelson, Shahar

    2011-01-01

    We show that for a typical coordinate projection of a subgaussian class of functions, the infimum over signs $\\inf_{(\\epsilon_i)}{\\sup_{f\\in F}}|{\\sum_{i=1}^k\\epsilon_i}f(X_i)|$ is asymptotically smaller than the expectation over signs as a function of the dimension $k$, if the canonical Gaussian process indexed by $F$ is continuous. To that end, we establish a bound on the discrepancy of an arbitrary subset of $\\mathbb {R}^k$ using properties of the canonical Gaussian process the set indexes, and then obtain quantitative structural information on a typical coordinate projection of a subgaussian class.

  14. Effective discrepancy and numerical experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varet, Suzanne; Lefebvre, Sidonie; Durand, Gérard; Roblin, Antoine; Cohen, Serge

    2012-12-01

    Many problems require the computation of a high dimensional integral, typically with a few tens of input factors, with a low number of integrand evaluations. To avoid the curse of dimensionality, we reduce the dimension before applying the Quasi-Monte Carlo method. We will show how to reduce the dimension by computing approximate Sobol indices of the variables with a two-levels fractional factorial design. Then, we will use the Sobol indices to define the effective discrepancy, which turns out to be correlated with the QMC error and thus enables one to choose a good sequence for the integral estimation.

  15. Discrepant Events: Why They Fascinate Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shrigley, Robert L.

    1987-01-01

    Describes how discrepant events can be employed as a viable teaching strategy. Reviews the theory of cognitive dissonance and provides examples and approaches in its resolution. Offers samples of discrepancy events and unexpected situations. (ML)

  16. Discrepancies in Goldmann tonometer readings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamaoui, Marie; Tahi, Hassan; Nose, Izuru; Fantes, Francisco; Parel, Jean-Marie A.

    1999-06-01

    Purpose: To evaluate discrepancies in Goldmann tonometer readings in eyes with varying degrees of corneal hydration and stromal amount. Methods. 6 Eye Bank eyes, donated by Florida Lion's Eye Bank, were evaluated. Each eye was affixed to a customized artificial orbit system with intraocular pressure (IOP) measured directly by a pressure transducer inserted into the vitreous and with a Goldmann tonometric readings. The eyes were dehydrated for 5-minute intervals in a 30% Dextran-BSS solution, with readings taken between each submersion. Once corneal thickness stabilized, a corneal trephination of 6mm was made. The corneal buttons were frozen and dehydrated by lyophilization and weighed. Results. Preliminary results show a possible overestimation in thicker corneas and an underestimation in thinner corneas, as previously published. Corresponding data on the weight of corneal material is provided. Further studies need to be conducted to determine statistical significance of the data. Conclusion. This study uses Eye Bank eyes with a protocol that produces results similar to previously published results. Further studies in correlating the amount of corneal stroma and discrepancies in Goldmann tonometer readings of intraocular pressure are important especially with the increasing acceptance of corneal refractive surgeries.

  17. Medication discrepancies at discharge from an internal medicine service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrero-Herrero, José-Ignacio; García-Aparicio, Judit

    2011-02-01

    Medication errors most commonly occur at the time of medication prescribing and particularly at the moment of the transitions of care. The objectives of this study were to identify and characterize the discrepancies between the physicians' discharge medication orders and the medication lists at admission obtained by an internal medicine specialist physician in a general internal medicine service. This descriptive, retrospective, study was carried out at a tertiary care university teaching hospital in Spain. It was based on the review of non selected, consecutive, hospital discharge reports. Discrepancies were identified, categorized and characterized through the analysis of the information (medication lists, laboratory tests results, diagnosis, and clinical evolution) contained in them. We analyzed 954 discharge reports. In the medication reconciliation process, we find discrepancies in 832 (87.2%) of them. Justified discrepancies were found in 828 (86.8%) reports and unjustified discrepancies in 52 (5.4%). Omission of a medication was the most frequent medication error detected in 86.4% of cases, followed by incomplete prescription (9.6%). The number of diagnosis, the length of hospital stay and the number of permanent medications at admission were the characteristics of cases associated with medication discrepancies in multivariate linear regression (Premarkable the low number of medication errors detected in our study. Appropriate routines to ensure an accurate medication history collection and a methodical elaboration of the medication list at discharge, when performed by trained internists, are important for an adequate medication reconciliation process. Copyright © 2010 European Federation of Internal Medicine. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Attraction, Discrepancy and Responses to Psychological Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patton, Michael J.

    The responses of a laboratory subject (S) to a counselor-accomplice and to the psychological treatment situation are examined by manipulating experimentally interpersonal attraction and communication discrepancy. Four treatment conditions were set up: (1) topic similarity and positive attraction for counselor, (2) topic discrepancy and positive…

  19. 40 CFR 761.210 - Manifest discrepancies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... PROHIBITIONS PCB Waste Disposal Records and Reports § 761.210 Manifest discrepancies. (a) Manifest discrepancies are differences between the quantity or type of PCB waste designated on the manifest or shipping paper and the quantity or type of PCB waste actually delivered to and received by a designated facility...

  20. Belief Discrepancy Reasoning in the Elderly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enright, Robert D.; And Others

    1983-01-01

    Examined the development of belief discrepancy reasoning, or how people evaluate disagreeing others, with 44 college and elderly respondents. Results showed the elderly were significantly lower in belief discrepancy reasoning and higher in dogmatism than the college sample. The elderly sample did not evidence intolerance, but rather relativism.…

  1. Discrepancy of LS-sequences of partitions

    CERN Document Server

    Carbone, Ingrid

    2010-01-01

    In this paper we give a precise estimate of the discrepancy of a class of uniformly distributed sequences of partitions. Among them we found a large class having low discrepancy (which means of order 1/N. One of them is the Kakutani-Fibonacci sequence.

  2. Ensuring Quality Nursing Home Care

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... your healthcare provider about your medications, symptoms, and health problems. May 2013 Ensuring Quality Nursing Home Care Expert information from Healthcare Professionals Who Specialize in the Care of Older Adults After you’ve placed your family member in a facility KEEP VISITING! Seeing family ...

  3. Low-discrepancy blue noise sampling

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmed, Abdalla,; Perrier, Hélène; Coeurjolly, David; Ostromoukhov, Victor; Guo, Jianwei; Yan, Dong-Ming; Huang, Hui; Deussen, Oliver

    2016-01-01

    International audience; We present a novel technique that produces two-dimensional low- discrepancy (LD) blue noise point sets for sampling. Using one- dimensional binary van der Corput sequences, we construct two- dimensional LD point sets, and rearrange them to match a target spectral profile while preserving their low discrepancy. We store the rearrangement information in a compact lookup table that can be used to produce arbitrarily large point sets. We evaluate our tech- nique and compar...

  4. CRISIS FOCUS Ensuring Economic Health

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    Though China’s economy is breathing a sigh of relief after several nervous months,it is still not time to sit back and relax.Much needs to be done to ensure the sustainability of growth momentum.Guo Tianyong,Director of the Research Center of the China Banking Industry of the Central University of Finance and Economics,discussed this issue in an article recently published in the Shanghai Securities Journal.Edited excerpts follow:

  5. Ensuring cleanliness in operating theatres.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charkowska, Anna

    2008-01-01

    High cleanliness of a hospital environment is necessary to ensure safe working conditions for the medical staff, a correct process of hospitalization and to protect hospital visitors, an aspect rarely mentioned. A supply of air cleaned in highly-effective air filters to hospital wards with air conditioning systems and exhaust of infected air will help in maintaining the required standards of cleanliness. This article presents information on recommended classes of air and surface cleanliness, with special focus on operating theatres and suites.

  6. Discrepancies between iodine and technetium thyroid scintigraphy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barth, J.D.; Bakker, W.H.; Henneman, G.

    1978-08-04

    For routine thyroid scanning, the sodium pertechnetate Tc-99m scan is preferred over sodium iodide I-131 scanning in many laboratories. Radiation safety for the patient and reduction of costs are the primary reasons for this. Discrepancies can occur between iodine scans (iodine I-123 and /sup 131/I) as compared with /sup 99m/Tc scans: e.g., a nodule appearing cold on an iodine scan may be warm with a /sup 99m/Tc scan. To give other examples of discrepancies that can occur when /sup 99m/Tc is compared with iodine, we present two cases.

  7. Parent-Child Discrepancies in Educational Expectations: Differential Effects of Actual versus Perceived Discrepancies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yijie; Benner, Aprile D.

    2014-01-01

    This study explored how discrepancies between parents' and adolescents' educational expectations influenced adolescents' achievement using a nationally representative, longitudinal sample of 14,041 students (14 years old at baseline). "Actual" discrepancies (i.e., those between parents' and adolescents' actual…

  8. Parent-Child Discrepancies in Educational Expectations: Differential Effects of Actual versus Perceived Discrepancies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yijie; Benner, Aprile D.

    2014-01-01

    This study explored how discrepancies between parents' and adolescents' educational expectations influenced adolescents' achievement using a nationally representative, longitudinal sample of 14,041 students (14 years old at baseline). "Actual" discrepancies (i.e., those between parents' and adolescents' actual…

  9. Discrepancy between snack choice intentions and behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weijzen, P.L.G.; Graaf, de C.; Dijksterhuis, G.B.

    2008-01-01

    Objective To investigate dietary constructs that affect the discrepancy between intentioned and actual snack choice. Design Participants indicated their intentioned snack choice from a set of 4 snacks (2 healthful, 2 unhealthful). One week later, they actually chose a snack from the same set. Within

  10. Impact of team-versus ward-aligned clinical pharmacy on unintentional medication discrepancies at admission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrne, Sharon M; Grimes, Tamasine C; Jago-Byrne, Marie-Claire; Galvin, Mairéad

    2017-02-01

    Background Medication reconciliation at admission to hospital reduces the prevalence of medication errors. Strategies are needed to ensure timely and efficient delivery of this service. Objective To investigate the effect of aligning clinical pharmacy services with consultant teams, by pharmacists attending post-admission ward rounds, in comparison to a ward-based service, on prevalence of unintentional unresolved discrepancies 48 h into admission. Setting A 243-bed public university teaching hospital in Ireland. Method A prospective, uncontrolled before-after observational study. A gold standard preadmission medication list was completed for each patient and compared with the patient's admission medication prescription and discrepancies were noted. Unresolved discrepancies were examined at 48 h after admission to determine if they were intentional or unintentional. Main outcome measured Number of patients with one or more unintentional, unresolved discrepancy 48 h into admission. Results Data were collected for 140 patients, of whom 73.5% were over 65 years of age. There were no differences between before (ward-aligned) and after (team-aligned) groups regarding age, number of medications or comorbidities. There was a statistically significant reduction in the prevalence of unintentional, unresolved discrepancy(s) per patient (67.3 vs. 27.3%, p medication (13.7 vs. 4.1%, p medications and comorbidities (adjusted odds ratio 4.9, 95% confidence interval 2.3-10.6). Conclusion A consultant team-based clinical pharmacy service contributed positively to medication reconciliation at admission, reducing the prevalence of unintentional, unresolved discrepancy(s) present 48 h after admission.

  11. On the discrepancy of coloring finite sets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Hajela

    1990-01-01

    Full Text Available Given a subset S of {1,…,n} and a map X:{1,…,n}→{−1,1}, (i.e. a coloring of {1,…,n} with two colors, say red and blue define the discrepancy of S with respect to X to be dX(S=|∑i∈SX(i| (the difference between the reds and blues on S. Given n subsets of {1,…,n}, a question of Erdos was to find a coloring of {1,…,n} which simultaneously minimized the discrepancy of the n subsets. We give new and simple proofs of some of the results obtained previously on this problem via an inequality for vectors.

  12. A qualitative study describing nursing home nurses sensemaking to detect medication order discrepancies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogelsmeier, Amy; Anderson, Ruth A; Anbari, Allison; Ganong, Lawrence; Farag, Amany; Niemeyer, MaryAnn

    2017-08-04

    Medication reconciliation is a safety practice to identify medication order discrepancies when patients' transitions between settings. In nursing homes, registered nurses (RNs) and licensed practical nurses (LPNs), each group with different education preparation and scope of practice responsibilities, perform medication reconciliation. However, little is known about how they differ in practice when making sense of medication orders to detect discrepancies. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to describe differences in RN and LPN sensemaking when detecting discrepancies. We used a qualitative methodology in a study of 13 RNs and 13 LPNs working in 12 Midwestern United States nursing homes. We used both conventional content analysis and directed content analysis methods to analyze semi-structured interviews. Four resident transfer vignettes embedded with medication order discrepancies guided the interviews. Participants were asked to describe their roles with medication reconciliation and their rationale for identifying medication order discrepancies within the vignettes as well as to share their experiences of performing medication reconciliation. The analysis approach was guided by Weick's Sensemaking theory. RNs provided explicit stories of identifying medication order discrepancies as well as examples of clinical reasoning to assure medication order appropriateness whereas LPNs described comparing medication lists. RNs and LPNs both acknowledged competing demands, but when performing medication reconciliation, RNs were more concerned about accuracy and safety, whereas LPNs were more concerned about time. Nursing home nurses, particularly RNs, are in an important position to identify discrepancies that could cause resident harm. Both RNs and LPNs are valuable assets to nursing home care and keeping residents safe, yet RNs offer a unique contribution to complex processes such as medication reconciliation. Nursing home leaders must acknowledge the differences

  13. Discrepancies between film and digital mammography interpretations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malhotra, Poonam; Kallergi, Maria; Alexander, Dominik; Berman, Claudia G.; Gardner, Mary; Hersh, Marla R.; Hooper, Lisa; Kim, Jihai J.; Venugopal, Priya

    2002-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the frequency and reasons of disagreement between film and full-field digital mammography (FFDM) interpretations observed in a prospective clinical trial performed with the GE Senographe 2000D system. The data from 643 mammography examinations comprising both digital and film mammograms were analyzed for this purpose. Reports indicated that 455 findings were identified on the digital softcopy reading and 457 findings on the standard film mammography with 408 discrepancies. Findings with discrepancies were matched and analyzed. A reason was identified and a relative conspicuity score of 0 to 10 was assigned to each finding at the time of resolution; 0 corresponded to a finding highly conspicuous on digital, 10 to a finding highly conspicuous on film, and 5 denoted equal visibility on both. After review, agreement was established between the two modalities in 73.3% of the findings; 13.5% of findings were seen better on digital and 13.2% of the findings were seen better on film. Approximately 63% of the discrepancies occurred due to variability in the reporting style of the radiologists and/or unavailability of prior films for comparison. Three cancer cases were identified in this study; two were seen on both modalities and one only on film. In conclusion, no statistically significant differences were observed between digital and film mammography, a result that despite the small size of our dataset is in agreement with previous reports. Inter-observer variability, display differences, and presentation disagreements are the main reasons for interpretation differences that are primarily identified in the classification and BIRADS assignment.

  14. Bin Packing via Discrepancy of Permutations

    CERN Document Server

    Eisenbrand, Friedrich; Rothvoß, Thomas

    2010-01-01

    A well studied special case of bin packing is the 3-partition problem, where n items of size >1/4 have to be packed in a minimum number of bins of capacity one. The famous Karmarkar-Karp algorithm transforms a fractional solution of a suitable LP relaxation for this problem into an integral solution that requires at most O(log n) additional bins. The three-permutations-conjecture of Beck is the following. Given any 3 permutations on n symbols, one can color the symbols red and blue, such that in any interval of any of those permutations, the number of red and blue symbols differs only by a constant. Beck's conjecture is well known in the field of discrepancy theory. We establish a surprising connection between bin packing and Beck's conjecture: If the latter holds true, then the additive integrality gap of the 3-partition linear programming relaxation is bounded by a constant. This result indicates that improving approximability results for bin packing requires a better understanding of discrepancy theory.

  15. Meat-consumption statistics: reliability and discrepancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pål Börjesson

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Interest in meat consumption and its impact on the environment and health has grown markedly over the last few decades and this upsurge has led to greater demand for reliable data. This article aims to describe methods for producing meat-consumption statistics and discuss their limitations and strengths; to identify uncertainties in statistics and to estimate their individual impact; to outline how relevant data are produced and presented at the national (Swedish, regional (Eurostat, and international (FAOSTAT levels; to analyze the consequences of identified discrepancies and uncertainties for estimating the environmental and health effects of meat consumption; and to suggest recommendations for improved production, presentation, and use of meat-consumption statistics. We demonstrate many inconsistencies in how meat-consumption data are produced and presented. Of special importance are assumptions on bone weight, food losses and waste, weight losses during cooking, and nonmeat ingredients. Depending on the methods employed to handle these ambiguous factors, per capita meat-consumption levels may differ by a factor of two or more. This finding illustrates that knowledge concerning limitations, uncertainties, and discrepancies in data is essential for a correct understanding, interpretation, and use of meat-consumption statistics in, for instance, dietary recommendations related to health and environmental issues.

  16. Discrepancy Score Reliabilities in the WISC-IV Standardization Sample

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glass, Laura A.; Ryan, Joseph J.; Charter, Richard A.; Bartels, Jared M.

    2009-01-01

    This investigation provides internal consistency reliabilities for Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children--Fourth Edition (WISC-IV) subtest and index discrepancy scores using the standardization sample as the data source. Reliabilities range from 0.50 to 0.82 for subtest discrepancy scores and from 0.78 to 0.88 for index discrepancy scores.…

  17. Discrepancies in data reporting for rabies, Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nel, Louis H

    2013-04-01

    Human rabies is an ancient disease but in modern times has primarily been associated with dog rabies-endemic countries of Asia and Africa. From an African perspective, the inevitable and tragic consequences of rabies require serious reflection of the factors that continue to drive its neglect. Established as a major disease only after multiple introductions during the colonial era, rabies continues to spread into new reservoirs and territories in Africa. However, analysis of reported data identified major discrepancies that are indicators of poor surveillance, reporting, and cooperation among national, international, and global authorities. Ultimately, the absence of reliable and sustained data compromises the priority given to the control of rabies. Appropriate actions and changes, in accordance to the One Health philosophy and including aspects such as synchronized, shared, and unified global rabies data reporting, will not only be necessary, but also should be feasible.

  18. Imaging with Kantorovich--Rubinstein Discrepancy

    KAUST Repository

    Lellmann, Jan

    2014-01-01

    © 2014 Society for Industrial and Applied Mathematics. We propose the use of the Kantorovich-Rubinstein norm from optimal transport in imaging problems. In particular, we discuss a variational regularization model endowed with a Kantorovich- Rubinstein discrepancy term and total variation regularization in the context of image denoising and cartoon-texture decomposition. We point out connections of this approach to several other recently proposed methods such as total generalized variation and norms capturing oscillating patterns. We also show that the respective optimization problem can be turned into a convex-concave saddle point problem with simple constraints and hence can be solved by standard tools. Numerical examples exhibit interesting features and favorable performance for denoising and cartoon-texture decomposition.

  19. Leg length discrepancy in scoliotic patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Amico, Moreno; Roncoletta, Piero; Di Felice, Francesca; Porto, Daniele; Bellomo, Rosagrazia; Saggini, Raoul

    2012-01-01

    The aetiological aspects as well as postural attitude implications represent an open question in scoliosis evaluation and treatment. Leg length discrepancy (LLD) is often recognised in scoliotic patients, but surprisingly still controversial is the use of underfoot wedge corrections in order to compensate pelvis tilt. In fact, literature reports conflicting results on the efficacy of LLD equalization also given the argued uncertainty of LLD clinical assessment and limitations related to X-ray measurements. Moreover concern is about anatomic and functional LLD and associated estimation of the pelvic torsion. In such a topic, a significant helpful tool has been demonstrated to be 3D kinematic optoelectronic measurements and other useful data obtained from force platforms and/or baropodographic systems. 135 (94.4%) out of 143 Scoliotic patients sample (av. age 16.4±10.2 Y range 4-66 Y), have been found to improve posture when LLD was corrected. The 143 patients showed a mean lower limb discrepancy of μ=10.2±5.2mm associated to a mean main scoliotic curve μ=16.4°±9.4° Cobb (frontal plane), mean Spinal offset μ=7.5±5.5mm and mean Global offset μ=10.1±7.1mm. The applied paired t-test comparison (indifferent vs. corrected orthostasis) showed significant (p < 0.05) postural improvements could be obtained in the whole or in a part of the considered postural parameters, after the application of suitable under-foot wedge. The present investigation confirm results of a previous study demonstrating the efficacy of under-foot wedge use in leg asymmetry correction, posture re-balancing and spine deformities reduction, pointing out the significant contribution of the 3D opto-electronic measurement approach in the critical process of assessing the correct under-foot wedge size, therapy planning and monitoring.

  20. Cultural estrangement: the role of personal and societal value discrepancies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernard, Mark M; Gebauer, Jochen E; Maio, Gregory R

    2006-01-01

    Study 1 examined whether cultural estrangement arises from discrepancies between personal and societal values (e.g., freedom) rather than from discrepancies in attitudes toward political (e.g., censorship) or mundane (e.g., pizza) objects. The relations between different types of value discrepancies, estrangement, subjective well-being, and need for uniqueness also were examined. Results indicated that personal-societal discrepancies in values and political attitudes predicted estrangement, whereas mundane attitude discrepancies were not related to estrangement. As expected, value discrepancies were the most powerful predictor of estrangement. Value discrepancies were not related to subjective well-being but fulfilled a need for uniqueness. Study 2 replicated the relations between value discrepancies, subjective well-being, and need for uniqueness while showing that a self-report measure of participants' values and a peer-report measure of the participants' values yielded the same pattern of value discrepancies. Together, the studies reveal theoretical and empirical benefits of conceptualizing cultural estrangement in terms of value discrepancies.

  1. Internal factors influencing the knowledge continuity ensuring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hana Urbancová

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the systematic ensuring of knowledge continuity is the continuity of an organisation’s development, the quality of managerial positions and the continuity of decision-making. By ensuring knowledge continuity, organisations may gain a performance-enhancing factor. The objective of the article is to identify the level of impact of decisive internal factors determining knowledge continuity ensuring and contributing to the efficiency of the organisations. Knowledge continuity ensuring as an internal force, however, can together with the right employees, help adapt more quickly to external conditions that organisations can hardly control. Monitoring and ensuring knowledge continuity can contribute to a higher quality of processes in general, in particular processes exploiting knowledge, and thus help improve the level of management. The first part of the article presents theoretical views on the aspects of knowledge continuity ensuring in organisations while the second part analyses the findings of the surveys carried out among managers in organisations in the Czech Republic. Based on the summary of the outcomes obtained it is possible to say that internal factors influence knowledge continuity ensuring in organisations, however, the level of impact of individual factors is determined by their size. The findings regarding the impact of each of the factors show that the most significant barriers to knowledge continuity ensuring are those associated with the human factor.

  2. Prevalence and prediction of positive discrepancy creation: examining a discrepancy between two self-regulation theories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, J M; Hollenbeck, J R; Ilgen, D R

    1996-10-01

    The conflicting perspectives of control theory (CT) and self-efficacy theory (SET) concerning positive discrepancy creation (PDC) were tested and are discussed. According to CT, discrepancies between past performance and future goals are continually reduced. This is contrary to SET's focus on setting future goals higher than past performance levels. Participants performed several trials in a multitask environment, during which they did as many or as few problems as they chose on each of 4 intellectual tasks. Results suggest that PDC is not uncommon in a multitask environment, even after extensive task experience. Regression decomposition techniques identified 2 types of PDC: goal driven and performance driven. Need for achievement, instrumentality, and expectancy predicted the 2 types of PDC with varying success across the 4 tasks. The 2 types of PDC reflect the different theoretical approaches and these 2 self-regulation theories.

  3. Private vs. public self-consciousness and self-discrepancies

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    Background We studied the relationships of self-discrepancies with private and public self-consciousness. It was postulated that private self-consciousness is more strongly related to actual–ideal discrepancy than to actual–ought discrepancy, and that the latter is more strongly related to public self-consciousness. Participants and procedure The sample consisted of 71 students aged 19-25, who completed the Self-Consciousness Scale and the DRP procedure for measuring self-...

  4. Ensuring the Safety of Your Endoscopic Procedure

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... EURP) Excellence in GI Practice Operations Recognition Program (PRP) Tools to Educate Patients Polyp Information Sheets Foundation ... endoscopes to ensure patient safety. Quality Assurance and Training Any facility in which gastrointestinal endoscopy is performed ...

  5. Ensuring success for J-NIH

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kadowaki, Takashi

    2013-01-01

    ...). By integrating all MedR&D projects currently run by the government's compartmentalized ministries, the new institution is expected to ensure strategic budget allocations and facilitate a seamless flow from basic biomedical...

  6. Standard Model measurements with the ATLAS detector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassani Samira

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Various Standard Model measurements have been performed in proton-proton collisions at a centre-of-mass energy of √s = 7 and 8 TeV using the ATLAS detector at the Large Hadron Collider. A review of a selection of the latest results of electroweak measurements, W/Z production in association with jets, jet physics and soft QCD is given. Measurements are in general found to be well described by the Standard Model predictions.

  7. A Discrepancy-Based Methodology for Nuclear Training Program Evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cantor, Jeffrey A.

    1991-01-01

    A three-phase comprehensive process for commercial nuclear power training program evaluation is presented. The discrepancy-based methodology was developed after the Three Mile Island nuclear reactor accident. It facilitates analysis of program components to identify discrepancies among program specifications, actual outcomes, and industry…

  8. Discrepancy Score Reliabilities in the WAIS-IV Standardization Sample

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glass, Laura A.; Ryan, Joseph J.; Charter, Richard A.

    2010-01-01

    In the present investigation, the authors provide internal consistency reliabilities for Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Fourth Edition (WAIS-IV) subtest and Index discrepancy scores using the standardization sample as the data source. Reliabilities ranged from 0.55 to 0.88 for subtest discrepancy scores and 0.80 to 0.91 for Index discrepancy…

  9. Discrepancy Score Reliabilities in the WAIS-IV Standardization Sample

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glass, Laura A.; Ryan, Joseph J.; Charter, Richard A.

    2010-01-01

    In the present investigation, the authors provide internal consistency reliabilities for Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Fourth Edition (WAIS-IV) subtest and Index discrepancy scores using the standardization sample as the data source. Reliabilities ranged from 0.55 to 0.88 for subtest discrepancy scores and 0.80 to 0.91 for Index discrepancy…

  10. Private vs. public self-consciousness and self-discrepancies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam Falewicz

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Background We studied the relationships of self-discrepancies with private and public self-consciousness. It was postulated that private self-consciousness is more strongly related to actual–ideal discrepancy than to actual–ought discrepancy, and that the latter is more strongly related to public self-consciousness. Participants and procedure The sample consisted of 71 students aged 19-25, who completed the Self-Consciousness Scale and the DRP procedure for measuring self-discrepancies. Results The results did not confirm the hypotheses, but revealed a correlation between actual–ideal discrepancy and social anxiety. It also turned out that private self-consciousness negatively correlates with the time of rating ideal-self attributes and positively with the time of rating ought-self attributes. Conclusions Self-consciousness may be related not so much to the size of self-discrepancies as to the accessibility of the content of each self-standard. The results are also consistent with the sequence of studies that challenge the central thesis of Higgins’s theory concerning the specific relationship between actual-ought discrepancy and anxiety.

  11. Ensuring Quality in a Virtual Reference Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbier, Pat; Ward, Joyce

    2004-01-01

    Soon after AskALibrarian, Florida's Statewide Virtual Reference Desk, began to offer Chat Reference to the public in 2003, a Quality Assurance Workgroup was established to ensure that the service patrons received would be friendly, accurate, and adequate. To make certain that best practices were used in answering the real time questions, two…

  12. Discrepancy between mRNA and protein abundance: Insight from information retrieval process in computers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Degeng

    2008-01-01

    Discrepancy between the abundance of cognate protein and RNA molecules is frequently observed. A theoretical understanding of this discrepancy remains elusive, and it is frequently described as surprises and/or technical difficulties in the literature. Protein and RNA represent different steps of the multi-stepped cellular genetic information flow process, in which they are dynamically produced and degraded. This paper explores a comparison with a similar process in computers - multi-step information flow from storage level to the execution level. Functional similarities can be found in almost every facet of the retrieval process. Firstly, common architecture is shared, as the ribonome (RNA space) and the proteome (protein space) are functionally similar to the computer primary memory and the computer cache memory respectively. Secondly, the retrieval process functions, in both systems, to support the operation of dynamic networks – biochemical regulatory networks in cells and, in computers, the virtual networks (of CPU instructions) that the CPU travels through while executing computer programs. Moreover, many regulatory techniques are implemented in computers at each step of the information retrieval process, with a goal of optimizing system performance. Cellular counterparts can be easily identified for these regulatory techniques. In other words, this comparative study attempted to utilize theoretical insight from computer system design principles as catalysis to sketch an integrative view of the gene expression process, that is, how it functions to ensure efficient operation of the overall cellular regulatory network. In context of this bird’s-eye view, discrepancy between protein and RNA abundance became a logical observation one would expect. It was suggested that this discrepancy, when interpreted in the context of system operation, serves as a potential source of information to decipher regulatory logics underneath biochemical network operation. PMID

  13. Anxiety, self-discrepancy, and regulatory focus theory: acculturation matters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levinson, Cheri A; Rodebaugh, Thomas L

    2013-03-01

    Previous research has found that Asians (vs. Caucasians) exhibit higher levels of ought and undesired self-discrepancies and prevention focus, all of which have been linked with anxiety. We examined these ethnic differences in the context of acculturation. Participants (N=155) completed two sessions scheduled a week apart. In Session 1, participants completed a computer task to measure self-discrepancy and prevention focus. In Session 2, participants' ought self-discrepancies and closeness to an undesired self were primed. Moderation analyses indicated that Asian participants who were highly assimilated to an Asian culture exhibited higher levels of a prevention focus. Acculturation also had significant moderation effects for affect when self-discrepancies were primed. Our results suggest that interventions based on these systems (i.e., self-system therapy) should consider acculturation when treating diverse individuals.

  14. Discrepancy and Disliking Do Not Induce Negative Opinion Shifts

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Takács, Károly; Flache, Andreas; Mäs, Michael

    2016-01-01

    .... Results confirm that similarities induce attraction, but results do not support that discrepancy or disliking entails negative influence. Instead, our findings suggest a robust positive linear relationship between opinion distance and opinion shifts.

  15. The Seesaw Technique for Correction of Vertical Alar Discrepancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyun, Sang Min; Medikeri, Gaurav Shankar; Jung, Dong-Hak

    2015-09-01

    Alar vertical discrepancy including alar base has been viewed as one of the most challenging reconstructive problems in rhinoplasty. The authors have created a simple technique that consistently gives aesthetically acceptable results. The authors have designed the seesaw technique to correct alar discrepancy (type 1 to 3). Type 1 has been used in 14 patients, type 2 has been used in three patients, and type 3 has been used in seven patients. Alar discrepancy was corrected satisfactorily in all cases, with good cosmetic outcome. One case required scar revision and another case required revision for overcorrection; satisfactory results were ultimately achieved in both cases. This new technique is quite easy to design and is effective in the correction of alar discrepancy. It yields good postoperative results along with satisfactory aesthetic outcomes.

  16. Are Discrepancies in RANS Modeled Reynolds Stresses Random?

    CERN Document Server

    Xiao, Heng; Wang, Jian-xun; Paterson, Eric G

    2016-01-01

    In the turbulence modeling community, significant efforts have been made to quantify the uncertainties in the Reynolds-Averaged Navier--Stokes (RANS) models and to improve their predictive capabilities. Of crucial importance in these efforts is the understanding of the discrepancies in the RANS modeled Reynolds stresses. However, to what extent these discrepancies can be predicted or whether they are completely random remains a fundamental open question. In this work we used a machine learning algorithm based on random forest regression to predict the discrepancies. The success of the regression--prediction procedure indicates that, to a large extent, the discrepancies in the modeled Reynolds stresses can be explained by the mean flow feature, and thus they are universal quantities that can be extrapolated from one flow to another, at least among different flows sharing the same characteristics such as separation. This finding has profound implications to the future development of RANS models, opening up new ...

  17. Entropy discrepancy and total derivatives in trace anomaly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amin Faraji Astaneh

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In this note we address the discrepancy found by Hung, Myers and Smolkin between the holographic calculation of entanglement entropy (using the Jacobson–Myers functional for the holographic minimal surface and the CFT trace anomaly calculation if one uses the Wald prescription to compute the entropy in six dimensions. As anticipated in our previous work [1] the discrepancy originates entirely from a total derivative term present in the trace anomaly in six dimensions.

  18. Energy Supplies Ensured in Earthquake Region

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chen Hebin

    2008-01-01

    @@ China is releasing oil products from its state reserve stockpiles to areas stricken by earthquake on May 12 to ensure energy supply. PetroChina has also resumed fuel distribution in those regions. The State Reserve Bureau has sent 6,313 tons of oil products to the quake-hit areas. The reserve bureau will also release gasoline and diesel from its stockpiles in Jiangyou, Sichuan and Guiyang, Guizhou to quake hit areas. The government has also diverted jet fuel tankers to Shuangliu and Mianyang airports in Sichuan to ensure air transport.China National Aviation Fuel Group Corp. has sent 68 tankers carrying 3,200 tons of jet fuel to the airports.

  19. Patients' perception of leg length discrepancy post total hip arthroplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sykes, Alice; Hill, Janet; Orr, John; Humphreys, Patricia; Rooney, Aidan; Morrow, Esther; Beverland, David

    2015-01-01

    Perception of a leg length discrepancy post total hip arthroplasty (THA) is one of the most common sources of patient dissatisfaction and can have a direct influence on the considered success of the operation.This research examined postoperative perception of imposed limb discrepancies in a group of THA patients compared to a group of participants with no previous hip surgery. Two subgroups of THA patients were involved: those who did not perceive a difference in limb length following THA and those that did.Discrepancies were imposed in 2.5 mm increments. For discrepancies ≥5 mm, a significant number of participants were aware of a difference (74%). There was no significant difference in perception of imposed discrepancies between THA patients and participants with no previous hip surgery. THA patients who perceived a difference in their limb lengths postoperatively had significantly worse pain and oxford scores when compared to THA patients who perceived their limb lengths to be equal. Knowing the boundaries between LLDs that go undetected and those that patients are aware of could guide surgeons when evaluating the balance between correct soft tissue tension and the resulting unequal leg length. From these findings, discrepancies >5 mm are likely to be perceived. Whether this perception would lead directly to a negative outcome score and patient dissatisfaction is more complex to project and likely to be patient specific. Intraoperative methods to aid the controlled positioning of implanted components could help maintain and restore leg length to within an acceptable amount that patients cannot perceive.

  20. RISK MANAGEMENT IN ENSURING AVIATION (TRANSPORT SECURITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. E. Prozorov

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with risk management in aviation (transport security based on the three-level assessment of the current threat levels according to the method of application of countermeasures, presented by ICAO in the form of a matrix of risk management, as well as by the introduction of measures to ensure transport safety, depending on the category of transport infrastructure (or vehicle and the level of Iransport safety. The article illustrates the complementarity of the two approaches, suggesting a higher efficiency of relevant processes in their joint application.

  1. Maxillary bone defects and their relationship to transverse maxillary discrepancies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claludia A Peña-Montero

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The relationship between the presence of bone defects (fenestrations and dehiscences observed in lateral slices in computerized axial tomography (CAT images and maxillomandibular transverse discrepancies was determined. Methods: The sample was composed of 160 CAT scan files, corresponding to 9-25-year-old patients, which had been taken prior to orthodontic treatment at a radiology center in Guadalajara, México, from 2009 to 2012. They were grouped by age, and we identified bone defects in maxillary teeth (first and second premolars and first molars. The maxillary (JL-JR and mandibular (GA-AG widths were measured, and the maxillomandibular discrepancy ([GA-AG]-[JL-JR] was calculated. Chi-square and t-tests were performed. Results: The values of maxillomandibular discrepancies increased with the age of the patient. There was no association between the magnitude of the maxillomandibular discrepancy and the presence of bone defects. The gender of the individual was not a decisive factor in whether bone defects were present. Conclusion: Bone defects occur in the vast majority of patients pretreatment regardless of the magnitude of the maxillomandibular discrepancy.

  2. Discrepancy analysis and Australian norms for the Trail Making Test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senior, Graeme; Piovesana, Adina; Beaumont, Patricia

    2017-07-28

    Discrepancy analyses refer to comparison methods that evaluate the relationship or differences between two measures in the same individual. A common type of discrepancy analysis involves the comparison of two trials within a measure, such as, Trails A and B of the Trail Making Test (TMT). The TMT is well-suited to this role as the two measures are highly correlated, assess similar underlying constructs, and most importantly demonstrate differential vulnerability to the impact of pathology. While the inclusion of these types of data in the form of difference scores or ratios has become more frequent, this information has been presented only for demographically adjusted subgroups and has not taken into account the level of performance of the comparison trial, Trails A. The role and advantages of discrepancy analysis with the TMT stratified by level of Trails A performance were demonstrated with an Australian normative sample of 647 participants and a heterogeneous clinical sample consisting of 2,292 Australian and U.S. The ability to differentiate between the influence of slowed visual scanning and/or graphomotor speed, and reduced mental flexibility was demonstrated by applying the normative data to clinical case discrepancies. The importance of accounting for the variability in discrepancy scores associated with the level of performance of Trails A was also highlighted. A simple, efficient, and effective approach to examining the basis for differences between TMT-A and TMT-B performances is provided to examine the relative contributions of perceptual/motor abilities, and mental flexibility.

  3. The [Fe IV] Discrepancy: Constraining the Iron Abundances in Nebulae

    CERN Document Server

    Rodríguez, M; Einert, Thomas; Lipowsky, Peter; Schilling, Jorg; Bowick, Mark; Bausch, Andreas; Rodriguez, Monica; Rubin, Robert H.

    2005-01-01

    We study the current discrepancy between the model-predicted and measured concentrations of Fe++ and Fe3+ in ionized nebulae. We calculate a set of photoionization models, updated with the atomic data relevant to the problem, and compare their results with those derived for the available nebulae where both [Fe III] and [Fe IV] lines have been measured. Our new model results are closer to the measured values than the results of previous calculations, but a discrepancy remains. This discrepancy translates into an uncertainty in the derived Fe abundances of a factor up to ~4. We explore the possible causes of this discrepancy and find that errors in the Fe atomic data may be the most likely explanation. The discrepancy can be fully accounted for by any of the following changes: (1) an increase by a factor of ~10 in the recombination rate (radiative plus dielectronic, or charge transfer) for Fe3+, (2) an increase by a factor of 2-3 in the effective collision strengths for Fe++, or (3) a decrease by a factor of 2-...

  4. The Role of Corporations in Ensuring Biodiversity

    Science.gov (United States)

    KELLY; HODGE

    1996-11-01

    / Corporations own approximately 25% of all private land in the United States and, therefore, play an essential role in protecting biodiversity and maintaining natural habitats. The Wildlife Habitat Council (WHC) is a unique joint venture between conservation organizations and corporations to utilize corporate lands for ensuring biodiversity. The following case studies demonstrate how corporations have helped ensure healthy ecosystems and provided critical leadership in regional efforts. Amoco Chemical Company's Cooper River Plant has been instrumental in developing a cooperative project that involves numerous corporations, plantation owners, private citizens, nonprofit organizations, government agencies, and community groups to develop a comprehensive, ecosystem-based management plan for part of the Cooper River in Charleston, South Carolina, USA. The second case focuses on the Morie Company, a national sand quarry operator headquartered in southern New Jersey, USA. Morie Company is working with WHC, community groups, the Pinelands Commission, and other state regulatory agencies to explore sustainable development opportunities for companies within the Pinelands regulations. The third case takes us to DuPont Company's Asturias, Spain, site. A win-win success story of improved habitat and cost savings is the result of DuPont's concern for the environment, ability to work with a variety of groups, and willingness to consider innovative restoration techniques. The fourth case discusses Consumers Power Company's Campbell Plant in West Olive, Michigan, USA. In addition to implementing projects that contribute to biodiversity, Consumers Power has developed an environmental education field station to teach others about the importance of natural habitats. The final case highlights Baltimore Gas & Electric Company's efforts to maintain habitat for endangered species at their Calvert Cliffs site in Maryland.KEY WORDS: Partnerships; Stewardship; International; Habitats

  5. Ensuring Economic Security in Lending Sphere

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Vadimovich Kochikin

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Relevance of the topic is determined by the need for sustainable development of the country’s banking system, capable of ensuring the process of raising funds to producers and the public for their projects. One of the implementation of this objective is to discourage unfair behavior in financial markets. Trust is a key factor in the development of financial markets, therefore it is necessary to suppress the appearance of unfair practices and participants – black creditors, falsification of financial statements, trading on insider information and market manipulation. It requires a whole range of activities, and above all ensuring the inevitability and proportionality of punishment for unscrupulous players, the introduction of requirements for the business reputation of the management of financial institutions.The article is devoted to structuring legal violations in the lending sphere. The analysis of indicators of credit organizations in Russia was conducted to fulfill this aim. This analysis revealed the causes of sustainable growth of overdue accounts payable – job cuts in enterprises, violations in the financial sector, various errors in the credit granting / raising. The authors carry out the systematization and classification of offenses in the area of lending, provide examples, as well as factual material illustrating the violations in the lending process having the characteristics of a fraud. The article substantiates the obligations of employees of the credit institution, in the result of which risks of granting credit to fraudsters can be reduced. The methods of fraud prevention should include the identified methods of protection against fraud in the area under consideration – exchange of information by banks associated with the criminal intentions of customers; technology development and technical support, training, and personnel responsibilities.

  6. Ensuring sustainable development within a changing climate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meltofte Traerup, S.L. (Technical Univ. of Denmark, Risoe National Lab. for Sustainable Energy, Systems Analysis Div., Roskilde (Denmark))

    2010-09-15

    The research in this thesis focuses on the impacts of and adaptation to present variations in climate and to projected future changes. The research has dealt with different levels, i.e. household/community, national/policymaking, and sectoral level, to show different perspectives of the implications of climate variability and change to development. In particular, it focuses on how present variations in rainfall patterns affect rural households, ways to strengthen households' resilience to climate variability, and the costs and benefits of adaptation measures. The research attempts to contribute to the knowledge that informs the development community and national governments for policy-making on the implications of climate change on development planning and strategies. It is argued in the thesis that it is essential for sustainable development to mainstream climate change into strategies and planning where relevant. To do this a knowledge of the costs and benefits of diverse adaptation measures is essential. Fluctuations in annual and seasonal rainfall, both in terms of modest and excessive rains, are found to cause negative shocks to rural household incomes in the Kagera a region of Tanzania. An analysis of rainfall and household data for the region shows large local discrepancies in the distribution of rainfall, as well as in households reporting shocks to income caused by harvest failure. It is also evident from the research results that the timing of rainfall seems to play a greater role than the level of annual precipitation. The coping strategies that households report following subsequent to a harvest failure further show local divergence in the choice of, for example, taking casual employment and relying on support from others in the form of informal networks. These results support earlier work which points in the same direction and emphasizes that policies should be targeted to local specificities. This provides a great motivation for targeted

  7. The Cepheid mass discrepancy and pulsation-driven mass loss

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Neilson, H.R.; Cantiello, M.; Langer, N.

    2011-01-01

    Context. A longstanding challenge for understanding classical Cepheids is the Cepheid mass discrepancy, where theoretical mass estimates using stellar evolution and stellar pulsation calculations have been found to differ by approximately 10−20%. Aims. We study the role of pulsation-driven mass loss

  8. Discrepancy and Disliking Do Not Induce Negative Opinion Shifts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Takács, Károly; Flache, Andreas; Maes, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Both classical social psychological theories and recent formal models of opinion differentiation and bi-polarization assign a prominent role to negative social influence. Negative influence is defined as shifts away from the opinion of others and hypothesized to be induced by discrepancy with or

  9. Discrepancies between Parents' and Children's Attitudes toward TV Advertising

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baiocco, Roberto; D'Alessio, Maria; Laghi, Fiorenzo

    2009-01-01

    The authors conducted a study with 500 parent-child dyads. The sample comprised 254 boys and 246 girls. The children were grouped into 5 age groups (1 group for each age from 7 to 11 years), with each group comprising 100 children. The survey regards discrepancies between children and their parents on attitudes toward TV advertising to determine…

  10. Limb-length discrepancy measured with computerized axial tomographic equipment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huurman, W.W.; Jacobsen, F.S.; Anderson, J.C.; Chu, W.K.

    1987-06-01

    A simple, rapid, and accurate method for measuring limb-length discrepancies with computerized axial tomographic equipment is described. With this method less irradiation is delivered and some of the errors of computation are eliminated, compared with conventional methods. The costs of the technique are comparable with those of scanograms. The method is particularly applicable in the patient who has contracture of a joint.

  11. Synchronising Tender Drawings and Documents as an Aid for Discrepancies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ismail Iznny

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper recommends an aid to control discrepancies between drawings and documents in a project. The synchronisation may assist to better project’s preparation and documentations. The causes of discrepancies that found out during the contract stage may lead to ineffectiveness of construction cost. The controlling process initiated from the tendering stage as to minimize the causal by any of the consultants which some items may left behind or possibly not describe fully without the thorough affiliation of coordination. The method to reduce discrepancies between drawings and documents is identified through Case Study based on ‘hands on’ project. The case study is focused on the preparation of architectural detailing. Therefore, the relationship of 2-Dimensional (2-D Tender Drawings and bills of quantities is compared with the Elements of Building Works by Malaysian Standard Method of Measurement of Building Works Second Edition (SMM. The relationship study will simplify and supersede any unnecessary detailing. Thus, the application of the synchronisation method will result effectiveness of documentation during the contract stage by reducing discrepancies.

  12. Discrepancy and Disliking Do Not Induce Negative Opinion Shifts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Takacs, Karoly; Flache, Andreas; Maes, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Both classical social psychological theories and recent formal models of opinion differentiation and bi-polarization assign a prominent role to negative social influence. Negative influence is defined as shifts away from the opinion of others and hypothesized to be induced by discrepancy with or dis

  13. Comparing Multiple Discrepancies Theory to Affective Models of Subjective Wellbeing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blore, Jed D.; Stokes, Mark A.; Mellor, David; Firth, Lucy; Cummins, Robert A.

    2011-01-01

    The Subjective Wellbeing (SWB) literature is replete with competing theories detailing the mechanisms underlying the construction and maintenance of SWB. The current study aimed to compare and contrast two of these approaches: multiple discrepancies theory (MDT) and an affective-cognitive theory of SWB. MDT posits SWB to be the result of perceived…

  14. Gender Discrepancies and Victimization of Students with Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simpson, Cynthia G.; Rose, Chad A.; Ellis, Stephanie K.

    2016-01-01

    Students with disabilities have been recognized as disproportionately involved within the bullying dynamic. However, few studies have examined the interaction between disability status, gender, and grade level. The current study explored the gender discrepancies among students with and without disabilities in middle and high school on bullying,…

  15. Discrepancy Dinosaurs and the Evolution of Specific Learning Disability Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moores-Abdool, Whitney; Unzueta, Caridad H.; Vazquez Donet, Dolores; Bijlsma, Eduard

    2008-01-01

    Identifying Specific Learning Disability (SLD) has been an arduous task. Until IDEA 2004, diagnosing SLD was limited to IQ discrepancy models lacking in both empirical evidence and contributing to minority over-representation. This paper examines the history of SLD assessment, the phenomena of minority over-representation, and the implementation…

  16. Sex Differences in Children's Discrepant Perceptions of Peer Acceptance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Stephanie D.; Van Gessel, Christine A.; David-Ferdon, Corinne; Kistner, Janet A.

    2013-01-01

    Sex differences in children's play patterns during middle childhood are thought to promote greater awareness of social acceptance among girls compared with boys. The present study posited that girls are more discerning of peer acceptance than are boys; however, these sex differences were predicted to vary depending on how discrepant perceptions…

  17. 31 CFR 306.44 - Discrepancies in names.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Discrepancies in names. 306.44 Section 306.44 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) FISCAL SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY BUREAU OF THE PUBLIC DEBT GENERAL REGULATIONS GOVERNING...

  18. Sex Differences in Children's Discrepant Perceptions of Peer Acceptance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Stephanie D.; Van Gessel, Christine A.; David-Ferdon, Corinne; Kistner, Janet A.

    2013-01-01

    Sex differences in children's play patterns during middle childhood are thought to promote greater awareness of social acceptance among girls compared with boys. The present study posited that girls are more discerning of peer acceptance than are boys; however, these sex differences were predicted to vary depending on how discrepant perceptions…

  19. Ensuring Machine and Tractor Aggregates Operability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redreev, G. V.

    2016-08-01

    the operability of the machine and tractor aggregates is ensured by processes which occur in machine units and considered as technical systems. In order to develop theoretical understanding of the processes in technical systems as the basis and purpose of the repairserving actions, the author's concept is presented which relies on on the basic concepts of "processes in technical systems", "maintenance and repair of performers", "maintenance and repair of technology" "objectives of the maintenance and repair". Analysis of the basic concepts of "processes in technical systems" made possible to distinguishing four types of relations: of order, stipulation, exactingness, and non-contradiction. It is shown that the implementation of maintenance and repair of technology should be conducted according to the assessment of the effectiveness of processes in technical systems, revealed in complex diagnosis. The perfection of the design of the machine in terms of its technical operation can be estimated according to the degree of consistency of processes in technical systems, purposes of maintenance and repair. In order to increase the efficiency of the lubrication system,the modernised design of the centrifugal oil filter with permanent control of its cleaning power is offered, which allows changing the technology of the maintenance of engine lubrication system by separating the operations of crankcase oil replacement and the rotor filter cleaning.

  20. [Information technology for ensuring drug safety].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuchiya, Fumito

    2014-01-01

    In Japan, information technology (IT) in the medical field has prevailed as a means for handling claims for health insurance reimbursement. In contrast, IT is primarily used for electronic medical records in Western countries. Originally, preparation of health insurance claims was one of the outcomes of computerized medical information in Japan. As its protocols are already well established in Japan, information from the insurance claim system is hard to integrate into the Electronic Medical Chart system. To ensure drug safety, it is necessary to determine the number of users, and to accurately tabulate the incidence of adverse events. For this purpose, three kinds of information are required: prescription information, dispensing information, and drug administration information. Prescription information and dispensing information should be consistent with each other in content. Dispensing information is essential to identify the "substance" when adverse events occur. Drug administration information is the "true drug history". With these three kinds of information, it should be possible to enter drug safety data as evidence. To accurately capture these three kinds of information, it is necessary to utilize Standard Drug Code and Standard Usage Master, suggesting that it may be necessary to reconstruct the current system.

  1. [Prevention and treatment of dento-maxillary discrepancy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delhaye, S; Saba, S Bou; Delatte, M

    2006-06-01

    The many clinical and radiological signs of arch length discrepancy simplify the practitioner's task of diagnosing it early. When they need to deal with insufficient room in the dental arch, orthodontists have available to them a large variety of therapeutic possibilities that require relatively little cooperation from young patients and that often work quickly to correct beginning malocclusions in the mixed dentition or that prevent them from worsening. Orthodontists decide whether to use space maintainers, increase arch length, or embark on a program of serial extraction depending upon the type of disorder, its severity, and its etiology. The principle objectives of early treatment in arch length discrepancy cases are to re-establish a balanced occlusion and to reduce the duration and the complexity of definitive treatment in the adult dentition.

  2. Are gravitational constant measurement discrepancies linked to galaxy rotation curves ?

    CERN Document Server

    Klein, Norbert

    2016-01-01

    The discrepancies between recently reported experimental values of the gravitational constant were analysed within an inertia interpretation of MOND theory. According to this scenario the relative gravitational acceleration between a test mass and an array of source masses determines the magnitude of post Newtonian corrections at small magnitudes of acceleration. The analysis was applied to one of the most advanced recent Cavendish-type experiment which revealed an experimental value for the gravitational constant of 180 ppm above the current CODATA value with more than five standard deviations significance. A remarkable agreement between this discrepancy and the acceleration anomalies inherent of galaxy rotation curves was found by a consistent extrapolation within the framework of MOND. This surprising result suggests that the two anomalies on totally different length scales may originate from the same underlying physics.

  3. A probable stellar solution to the cosmological lithium discrepancy

    CERN Document Server

    Korn, A J; Richard, O; Barklem, P S; Mashonkina, L I; Collet, R; Piskunov, N; Gustafsson, B

    2006-01-01

    The measurement of the cosmic microwave background has strongly constrained the cosmological parameters of the Universe. When the measured density of baryons (ordinary matter) is combined with standard Big Bang nucleosynthesis calculations, the amounts of hydrogen, helium and lithium produced shortly after the Big Bang can be predicted with unprecedented precision. The predicted primordial lithium abundance is a factor of two to three higher than the value measured in the atmospheres of old stars. With estimated errors of 10 to 25%, this cosmological lithium discrepancy seriously challenges our understanding of stellar physics, Big Bang nucleosynthesis or both. Certain modifications to nucleosynthesis have been proposed, but found experimentally not to be viable. Diffusion theory, however, predicts atmospheric abundances of stars to vary with time, which offers a possible explanation of the discrepancy. Here we report spectroscopic observations of stars in the metalpoor globular cluster NGC 6397 that reveal t...

  4. Outcome discrepancies and selective reporting: impacting the leading journals?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Padhraig S Fleming

    Full Text Available Selective outcome reporting of either interesting or positive research findings is problematic, running the risk of poorly-informed treatment decisions. We aimed to assess the extent of outcome and other discrepancies and possible selective reporting between registry entries and published reports among leading medical journals.Randomized controlled trials published over a 6-month period from July to December 31st, 2013, were identified in five high impact medical journals: The Lancet, British Medical Journal, New England Journal of Medicine, Annals of Internal Medicine and Journal of American Medical Association were obtained. Discrepancies between published studies and registry entries were identified and related to factors including registration timing, source of funding and presence of statistically significant results.Over the 6-month period, 137 RCTs were found. Of these, 18% (n = 25 had discrepancies related to primary outcomes with the primary outcome changed in 15% (n = 20. Moreover, differences relating to non-primary outcomes were found in 64% (n = 87 with both omission of pre-specified non-primary outcomes (39% and introduction of new non-primary outcomes (44% common. No relationship between primary or non-primary outcome change and registration timing (prospective or retrospective; P = 0.11, source of funding (P = 0.92 and presence of statistically significant results (P = 0.92 was found.Discrepancies between registry entries and published articles for primary and non-primary outcomes were common among trials published in leading medical journals. Novel approaches are required to address this problem.

  5. Discrepancies in reporting the CAG repeat lengths for Huntington's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quarrell, Oliver W; Handley, Olivia; O'Donovan, Kirsty; Dumoulin, Christine; Ramos-Arroyo, Maria; Biunno, Ida; Bauer, Peter; Kline, Margaret; Landwehrmeyer, G Bernhard

    2012-01-01

    Huntington's disease results from a CAG repeat expansion within the Huntingtin gene; this is measured routinely in diagnostic laboratories. The European Huntington's Disease Network REGISTRY project centrally measures CAG repeat lengths on fresh samples; these were compared with the original results from 121 laboratories across 15 countries. We report on 1326 duplicate results; a discrepancy in reporting the upper allele occurred in 51% of cases, this reduced to 13.3% and 9.7% when we applied acceptable measurement errors proposed by the American College of Medical Genetics and the Draft European Best Practice Guidelines, respectively. Duplicate results were available for 1250 lower alleles; discrepancies occurred in 40% of cases. Clinically significant discrepancies occurred in 4.0% of cases with a potential unexplained misdiagnosis rate of 0.3%. There was considerable variation in the discrepancy rate among 10 of the countries participating in this study. Out of 1326 samples, 348 were re-analysed by an accredited diagnostic laboratory, based in Germany, with concordance rates of 93% and 94% for the upper and lower alleles, respectively. This became 100% if the acceptable measurement errors were applied. The central laboratory correctly reported allele sizes for six standard reference samples, blind to the known result. Our study differs from external quality assessment (EQA) schemes in that these are duplicate results obtained from a large sample of patients across the whole diagnostic range. We strongly recommend that laboratories state an error rate for their measurement on the report, participate in EQA schemes and use reference materials regularly to adjust their own internal standards.

  6. A biometric approach to predictable treatment of clinical crown discrepancies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Stephen J

    2007-08-01

    Dental professionals have long been guided by mathematical principles when interpreting aesthetic and tooth proportions for their patients. While many acknowledge that such principles are merely launch points for a smile design or reconstructive procedure, their existence appears to indicate practitioners' desire for predictable, objective, and reproducible means of achieving success in aesthetic dentistry. This article introduces innovative aesthetic measurement gauges as a means of objectively quantifying tooth size discrepancies and enabling the clinician to perform aesthetic restorative dentistry with success and predictability.

  7. Ensuring US National Aeronautics Test Capabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, Timothy J.

    2010-01-01

    process; and the reductions in wind tunnel testing requirements within the largest consumer of ATP wind tunnel test time, the Aeronautics Research Mission Directorate (ARMD). Retirement of the Space Shuttle Program and recent perturbations of NASA's Constellation Program will exacerbate this downward trend. Therefore it is crucial that ATP periodically revisit and determine which of its test capabilities are strategically important, which qualify as low-risk redundancies that could be put in an inactive status or closed, and address the challenges associated with both sustainment and improvements to the test capabilities that must remain active. This presentation will provide an overview of the ATP vision, mission, and goals as well as the challenges and opportunities the program is facing both today and in the future. We will discuss the strategy ATP is taking over the next five years to address the National aeronautics test capability challenges and what the program will do to capitalize on its opportunities to ensure a ready, robust and relevant portfolio of National aeronautics test capabilities.

  8. Discrepancies in Communication Versus Documentation of Weight-Management Benchmarks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turer, Christy B.; Barlow, Sarah E.; Montaño, Sergio; Flores, Glenn

    2017-01-01

    To examine gaps in communication versus documentation of weight-management clinical practices, communication was recorded during primary care visits with 6- to 12-year-old overweight/obese Latino children. Communication/documentation content was coded by 3 reviewers using communication transcripts and health-record documentation. Discrepancies in communication/documentation content codes were resolved through consensus. Bivariate/multivariable analyses examined factors associated with discrepancies in benchmark communication/documentation. Benchmarks were neither communicated nor documented in up to 42% of visits, and communicated but not documented or documented but not communicated in up to 20% of visits. Lowest benchmark performance rates were for laboratory studies (35%) and nutrition/weight-management referrals (42%). In multivariable analysis, overweight (vs obesity) was associated with 1.6 more discrepancies in communication versus documentation (P = .03). Many weight-management benchmarks are not met, not documented, or performed without being communicated. Enhanced communication with families and documentation in health records may promote lifestyle changes in overweight children and higher quality care for overweight children in primary care.

  9. Constructive Discrepancy Minimization by Walking on The Edges

    CERN Document Server

    Lovett, Shachar

    2012-01-01

    Minimizing the discrepancy of a set system is a fundamental problem in combinatorics. One of the cornerstones in this area is the celebrated six standard deviations result of Spencer (AMS 1985): In any system of n sets in a universe of size n, there always exists a coloring which achieves discrepancy 6\\sqrt{n}. The original proof of Spencer was existential in nature, and did not give an efficient algorithm to find such a coloring. Recently, a breakthrough work of Bansal (FOCS 2010) gave an efficient algorithm which finds such a coloring. His algorithm was based on an SDP relaxation of the discrepancy problem and a clever rounding procedure. In this work we give a new randomized algorithm to find a coloring as in Spencer's result based on a restricted random walk we call "Edge-Walk". Our algorithm and its analysis use only basic linear algebra and is "truly" constructive in that it does not appeal to the existential arguments, giving a new proof of Spencer's theorem and the partial coloring lemma.

  10. Ensuring quality control of forensic accounting for efficient and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ensuring quality control of forensic accounting for efficient and effective ... has taken the center stage in every discussion whether in business or social. ... To ensure a valid conclusion of the study the ex-post facto research design was applied.

  11. Perspectives of Security Ensuring within the Framework of Barcelona Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T N Kirabaev

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Barcelona process was aimed to become an important mechanism in the realization of ideas of peace, stability and security ensuring in the Mediterranean Sea region. Cooperation in the sphere of security ensuring means openness of the regional states, social and economic reforms, human rights protection. The article deals with the problem of security ensuring by nonmilitary means.

  12. The psychophysics of detecting binocular discrepancies of luminance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Formankiewicz, Monika A; Mollon, J D

    2009-07-01

    In the natural world, a binocular discrepancy of luminance can signal a glossy surface. Using a spatial forced choice task, we have measured the ability of subjects to detect binocular luminance disparities. We show that the detection of binocular luminance disparity shares several basic psychophysical features with the detection of surface properties such as lightness and chromaticity: an approximation to Weber's Law, spatial summation, temporal summation, and a deterioration with increasing eccentricity. We also discuss whether color-deficient subjects could derive reliable information about chromaticity from the binocular disparities of luminance induced by a monocularly worn color filter.

  13. Explaining the discrepancy between forced fold amplitude and sill thickness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoggett, Murray; Jones, Stephen M.; Reston, Timothy; Magee, Craig; Jackson, Christopher AL

    2017-04-01

    Understanding the behaviour of Earth's surface in response to movement and emplacement of magma underground is important because it assists calculation of subsurface magma volumes, and could feed into eruption forecasting. Studies of seismic reflection data have observed that the amplitude of a forced fold above an igneous sill is usually smaller than the thickness of the sill itself. This observation implies that fold amplitude alone provides only a lower bound for magma volume, and an understanding of the mechanism(s) behind the fold amplitude/sill thickness discrepancy is also required to obtain a true estimate of magma volume. Mechanisms suggested to explain the discrepancy include problems with seismic imaging and varying strain behaviour of the host rock. Here we examine the extent to which host-rock compaction can explain the fold amplitude/sill thickness discrepancy. This mechanism operates in cases where a sill is injected into the upper few kilometres of sedimentary rock that contain significant porosity. Accumulation of sediment after sill intrusion reduces the amplitude of the forced fold by compaction, but the sill itself undergoes little compaction since its starting porosity is almost zero. We compiled a database of good-quality 2D and 3D seismic observations where sill thickness has been measured independently of forced fold geometry. We then backstripped the post-intrusion sedimentary section to reconstruct the amplitude of the forced fold at the time of intrusion. We used the standard compaction model in which porosity decays exponentially below the sediment surface. In all examples we studied, post-sill-emplacement compaction can explain all of the fold amplitude/sill thickness discrepancy, subject to uncertainty in compaction model parameters. This result leads directly to an improved method of predicting magma volume from fold amplitude, including how uncertainty in compaction parameters maps onto uncertainty in magma volume. Our work implies

  14. Combining discrepancy analysis with sensorless signal resampling for condition monitoring of rotating machines under fluctuating operations

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Heyns, T

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available for extensive datasets that are representative of different machine fault conditions. The envelope of the filtered signal is referred to as a discrepancy transform, since the discrepancy signal indicates the presence of fault-induced signal distortions...

  15. Neuropsychological and Academic Achievement Correlates of Abnormal WISC-R Verbal-Performance Discrepancies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lueger, Robert J.; And Others

    1985-01-01

    Examined neuropsychological and academic achievement correlates of statistically abnormal verbal-performance discrepancies on the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children (Revised). Results indicated that abnormal discrepancies reflect specific aphasia deficits rather than generalized neuropsychological dysfunction and that academic achievement…

  16. F -Discrepancy for Efficient Sampling in Approximate Dynamic Programming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cervellera, Cristiano; Maccio, Danilo

    2016-07-01

    In this paper, we address the problem of generating efficient state sample points for the solution of continuous-state finite-horizon Markovian decision problems through approximate dynamic programming. It is known that the selection of sampling points at which the value function is observed is a key factor when such function is approximated by a model based on a finite number of evaluations. A standard approach consists in generating these points through a random or deterministic procedure, aiming at a balanced covering of the state space. Yet, this solution may not be efficient if the state trajectories are not uniformly distributed. Here, we propose to exploit F -discrepancy, a quantity that measures how closely a set of random points represents a probability distribution, and introduce an example of an algorithm based on such concept to automatically select point sets that are efficient with respect to the underlying Markovian process. An error analysis of the approximate solution is provided, showing how the proposed algorithm enables convergence under suitable regularity hypotheses. Then, simulation results are provided concerning an inventory forecasting test problem. The tests confirm in general the important role of F -discrepancy, and show how the proposed algorithm is able to yield better results than uniform sampling, using sets even 50 times smaller.

  17. Esthetics in Orthodontics: interest points, reference points and discrepancy points

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Alexandre Câmara

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available It is fundamental for orthodontists and all professionals related with facial, oral and dental esthetics to know how the individuals observe dentofacial structures. Thus, it will be the purpose of this Orthodontic Insight to present and describe the Interest, Reference and Discrepancy. Points With the knowledge and perception of these points it will be easier for orthodontists to create a convergent canal of communication with their patients.É fundamental para os ortodontistas e todos os profissionais que estão envolvidos com a estética facial, bucal e dentária conhecer a forma como os indivíduos observam as estruturas dentofaciais. Sendo assim, será o objetivo desse artigo apresentar e descrever os pontos de Interesse, de Referência e de Discrepância. Com o conhecimento e percepção desses pontos, será mais fácil para os ortodontistas criar canais convergentes de comunicação com os seu pacientes.

  18. On Range Searching in the Group Model and Combinatorial Discrepancy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Kasper Green

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we establish an intimate connection between dynamic range searching in the group model and combinatorial discrepancy. Our result states that, for a broad class of range searching data structures (including all known upper bounds), it must hold that $t_ut_q = Omega(disc^2/lg n)$ where...... $t_u$ is the worst case update time, $t_q$ the worst case query time and $disc$ is the combinatorial discrepancy of the range searching problem in question. This relation immediately implies a whole range of exceptionally high and near-tight lower bounds for all of the basic range searching problems....... We list a few of them in the following:begin{itemize}item For half space range searching in $d$-dimensional space, we get a lower bound of $t_u t_q = Omega(n^{1-1/d}/lg n)$. This comes within a $lg n lg lg n$ factor of the best known upper bound. item For orthogonal range searching in $d...

  19. ON range searching in the group model and combinatorial discrepancy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Kasper Green

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we establish an intimate connection between dynamic range searching in the group model and combinatorial discrepancy. Our result states that, for a broad class of range searching data structures (including all known upper bounds), it must hold that $t_u t_q=\\Omega(\\mbox{disc}^2......)$, where $t_u$ is the worst case update time, $t_q$ is the worst case query time, and disc is the combinatorial discrepancy of the range searching problem in question. This relation immediately implies a whole range of exceptionally high and near-tight lower bounds for all of the basic range searching...... problems. We list a few of them in the following: (1) For $d$-dimensional halfspace range searching, we get a lower bound of $t_u t_q=\\Omega(n^{1-1/d})$. This comes within an lg lg $n$ factor of the best known upper bound. (2) For orthogonal range searching, we get a lower bound of $t_u t...

  20. Exploration of Quantum Interference in Document Relevance Judgement Discrepancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benyou Wang

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Quantum theory has been applied in a number of fields outside physics, e.g., cognitive science and information retrieval (IR. Recently, it has been shown that quantum theory can subsume various key IR models into a single mathematical formalism of Hilbert vector spaces. While a series of quantum-inspired IR models has been proposed, limited effort has been devoted to verify the existence of the quantum-like phenomenon in real users’ information retrieval processes, from a real user study perspective. In this paper, we aim to explore and model the quantum interference in users’ relevance judgement about documents, caused by the presentation order of documents. A user study in the context of IR tasks have been carried out. The existence of the quantum interference is tested by the violation of the law of total probability and the validity of the order effect. Our main findings are: (1 there is an apparent judging discrepancy across different users and document presentation orders, and empirical data have violated the law of total probability; (2 most search trials recorded in the user study show the existence of the order effect, and the incompatible decision perspectives in the quantum question (QQ model are valid in some trials. We further explain the judgement discrepancy in more depth, in terms of four effects (comparison, unfamiliarity, attraction and repulsion and also analyse the dynamics of document relevance judgement in terms of the evolution of the information need subspace.

  1. The Regression-Based Discrepancy Definition of Learning Disability: A Critical Appraisal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cahan, Sorel; Fono, Dafna; Nirel, Ronit

    2012-01-01

    The regression-based discrepancy definition of learning disabilities has been suggested by Rutter and Yule as an improvement of the well-known and much criticized achievement-intelligence discrepancy definition, whereby the examinee's predicted reading attainment is substituted for the intelligence score in the discrepancy expression. Even though…

  2. Differences in the Interpretation of Discrepant and Nondiscrepant Messages by Normal and Disturbed Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friend, Margaret; Becker, Judith E.

    1986-01-01

    The report examines research on differences in the interpretations of discrepant and nondiscrepant messages by normal and emotionally disturbed children and reports on a study in which tone of voice and verbal content were discrepant in their affective meaning. A review of the research on discrepant messages, their delivery, interpretation, and…

  3. An Alternative Presentation of Incremental Validity: Discrepant SAT and HSGPA Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattern, Krista D.; Shaw, Emily J.; Kobrin, Jennifer L.

    2011-01-01

    This study examined discrepant high school grade point average (HSGPA) and SAT performance as measured by the difference between a student's standardized SAT composite score and standardized HSGPA. The SAT-HSGPA discrepancy measure was used to examine whether certain students are more likely to exhibit discrepant performance and in what direction.…

  4. Discrepancy between presumptive and definite causes of chronic cough

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YU Li; QIU Zhi-hong; WEI Wei-li; LIU Bo; XU Xiang-huai; L(U) Han-jing; QIU Zhong-min

    2011-01-01

    Background The current diagnostic algorithms for chronic cough require the establishment of the primary presumptive causes followed by the confirmation of diagnosis with the specific therapies.The aim of the study was to investigate the discrepancy between presumptive and definite causes and its clinical implication.Methods A total of 109 patients with chronic cough underwent laboratory investigations to identify the cause of cough; including sinus computerized tomography (if needed),histamine bronchial provocation,induced sputum cytology and 24-hour esophageal pH or multi-channel intraluminal impedance combined with pH monitoring.The presumptive causes were confirmed by treating them sequentially.The difference between presumptive and definite causes of chronic cough was compared.Results Single cause was more frequent in the definite diagnosis than in the presumptive diagnosis (78.9% vs.54.1%,x2=15.01,P=0.0001).In contrast,multiple causes were significantly fewer in definite diagnosis than in the presumptive diagnosis (15.6% vs.37.6%,x2=13.53,P=0.0002).There was a discrepancy between definite and presumptive causes in 30 patients (27.5%).Compared with the presumptive causes,definite upper airway cough syndrome (24.8% vs.11.9%,x2=6.0,P=0.01) and gastroesophageal reflux disease (6.4% vs.0,x2=7.23,P=0.007) was more frequent as a single cause of chronic cough while cough variant asthma plus gastroesophageal reflux disease (3.7% vs.11.9%,x2=5.17,P=0.02) and upper airway cough syndrome plus nonasthmatic eosinophilic bronchitis (0 vs.9.2%,x2=10.48,P=0.001) were fewer as multiple causes of chronic cough.Conclusions A discrepancy was common between presumptive and definite causes of chronic cough.To treat presumptive causes sequentially may be a suitable solution for avoidance of erroneous multiple causes and possible over-treatment.

  5. Subjective-objective sleep discrepancy among older adults: associations with insomnia diagnosis and insomnia treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kay, Daniel B; Buysse, Daniel J; Germain, Anne; Hall, Martica; Monk, Timothy H

    2015-02-01

    Discrepancy between subjective and objective measures of sleep is associated with insomnia and increasing age. Cognitive behavioural therapy for insomnia improves sleep quality and decreases subjective-objective sleep discrepancy. This study describes differences between older adults with insomnia and controls in sleep discrepancy, and tests the hypothesis that reduced sleep discrepancy following cognitive behavioural therapy for insomnia correlates with the magnitude of symptom improvement reported by older adults with insomnia. Participants were 63 adults >60 years of age with insomnia, and 51 controls. At baseline, participants completed sleep diaries for 7 days while wearing wrist actigraphs. After receiving cognitive behavioural therapy for insomnia, insomnia patients repeated this sleep assessment. Sleep discrepancy variables were calculated by subtracting actigraphic sleep onset latency and wake after sleep onset from respective self-reported estimates, pre- and post-treatment. Mean level and night-to-night variability in sleep discrepancy were investigated. Baseline sleep discrepancies were compared between groups. Pre-post-treatment changes in Insomnia Severity Index score and sleep discrepancy variables were investigated within older adults with insomnia. Sleep discrepancy was significantly greater and more variable across nights in older adults with insomnia than controls, P ≤ 0.001 for all. Treatment with cognitive behavioural therapy for insomnia was associated with significant reduction in the Insomnia Severity Index score that correlated with changes in mean level and night-to-night variability in wake after sleep onset discrepancy, P sleep discrepancy patterns may guide more targeted treatments for late-life insomnia.

  6. Genomic Position Mapping Discrepancies of Commercial SNP Chips

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fadista, João; Bendixen, Christian

    2012-01-01

    The field of genetics has come to rely heavily on commercial genotyping arrays and accompanying annotations for insights into genotype-phenotype associations. However, in order to avoid errors and false leads, it is imperative that the annotation of SNP chromosomal positions is accurate and unamb......The field of genetics has come to rely heavily on commercial genotyping arrays and accompanying annotations for insights into genotype-phenotype associations. However, in order to avoid errors and false leads, it is imperative that the annotation of SNP chromosomal positions is accurate...... and unambiguous. We report on genomic positional discrepancies of various SNP chips for human, cattle and mouse species, and discuss their causes and consequences....

  7. Aircraft recognition based on the discrepancy of polygon intersection area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Xiujian; Wang, Yanfang; Feng, Qi

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, a new algorithm that based on discrepancy of polygon intersection area for aircraft recognition is presented. The recognition algorithm process involves three parts: generating polygon of aircraft, placing overlapping plane polygons and computing the area of total intersecting polygons. For the purpose of getting the polygon of aircraft, the picture that was ready to be recognized has gone through a series of pre-processing and the smallest circumference polygon algorithm was used to get approximate polygon of the target contour. To make the two compared polygons have the approximate area, the similar principle was utilized. The matching procedure was divided into four steps including computing intersecting points, computing polygon intersecting sets, computing the intersecting area and getting the intersecting rate to recognize the aircraft. The data structure of algorithm is based on doubly liked list principle. A mass of simulations illustrate that the proposed algorithm is effective and reasonable.

  8. EVALUASI PROGRAM KONSELING DI SMP KOTA MALANG: DISCREPANCY MODEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wahyu Nanda Eka Saputra

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk  mengetahui kesenjangan antara performansi program konseling di SMP Kota Malang dengan standar yang telah ditentukan. Penelitian ini menggunakan standar dari Guidelines for Performance Based Professional School Counselor Evaluation. Standar tersebut berbunyi “konselor sekolah professional melaksanakan konseling pada siswa secara individual dan kelompok yang teridentifikasi kebutuhan dan masalahnya dan memerlukan bantuan”. Penelitian ini adalah penelitian evaluasi. Evaluasi yang dilakukan dalam penelitian ini menggunakan discrepancy model. Pendekatan yang digunakan adalah pendekatan sistem yang difokuskan pada perencanaan, pelaksanaan, dan evaluasi program konseling. Berdasarkan analisis hasil evaluasi, program konseling di SMP Kota Malang masih jauh dari standar. Hasil penelitian ini merekomendasikan kepada konselor untuk memperbaiki kualitas pelaksanaan program konseling, sehingga memberikan pengaruh positif bagi siswa.

  9. Some Properties of a Measure of Information Discrepancy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FANG Shun-lan; FANG Wei-wu

    2002-01-01

    Based on a group of axioms, a measure of information discrepancyamong multiple information sources has been introduced in [7,8, 10] and it possesses some peculiar properties compared with other measures of information discrepancy, so it can be used in some areas, where the traditional measures are not valid or not efficient, for example, in the study of DNA sequence comparison, prediction of protein structure class, evidence analysis, questionnaire analysis, and so on. In this paper, using the optimization techniques,we prove that it is a distance function and show that it is also an approximation of x2 function. These two properties will stimulate further applications of the measure to information processing and system analysis.

  10. Management of bimaxillary transverse discrepancy with vertical excess

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dinesh C Chaudhary

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A 14-year-old boy reported with a complaint of severe irregularity of lower teeth and forwardly placed upper teeth. History revealed snoring as an occasional complaint. The case was diagnosed as mild class II skeletally with increased lower anterior face height, bimaxillary transverse discrepancy leading to severe crowding in the lower arch, V-shaped upper arch with increased overjet and deep bite. Three phase treatment was planned. In the first phase, bimaxillary expansion with mid-symphyseal distraction osteogenesis and rapid maxillary expansion was carried out. After this phase of treatment, the episodes of snoring vanished. The second phase was 1 year of orthodontics to produce symmetric well-aligned arches in good function and aesthetics. Third, the treatment concluded with reduction-advancement genioplasty for correction of vertical excess and surgical camouflage.

  11. Linking Cognition to Cognitive Dissonance through Scientific Discrepant Events

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allen G. Rauch

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this workshop and paper is to provide a conceptual framework that will develop skills in the areas of observation, cognition/meta-cognition with emphasis on critical thinking, decision making and problem solving. Simultaneously, this endeavour is designed to stimulate one‟s curiosity and thereby provide motivation to learn. These are accomplished through the learning style methodology with emphasis on interactive instructional resources addressing a multi-modality approach to teaching and learning. It will be shown that discrepant events impact thinking with respect to problem solving. The aforementioned is demonstrated with the use of gravity, molecular structure and optical illusions. The workshop presenters will show how cognitive dissonance, precipitated within each of these constituents, fosters curiosity and therefore provides an ideal motivational component for exploration.

  12. Discrepancies in expert decision-making in forensic fingerprint examination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mustonen, Virpi; Hakkarainen, Kai; Tuunainen, Juha; Pohjola, Pasi

    2015-09-01

    The purpose of the present study was to analyse professional fingerprint examiners' investigative practices in the context of discrepancy decisions concerning challenging latents during fingerprint analysis and identification. The participants were fingerprint experts from the Forensic Laboratory of the Finnish National Bureau of Investigation. The data were from five audio-recorded "discrepancy meetings" where two examiners were discussing the rationale and justification for their differing interpretations of challenging and distorted fingerprint evidence. The meetings were chaired by the quality manager of the fingerprint group, who also in the first author of this article. The research questions addressed were as follows: What does the examiner see in the latent fingerprints? What does the examiner actively do with the latents? How were decisions made during the investigative process? In accordance with Goodwin's professional vision framework, the results revealed how the participants used partial and limited information in making judgments about the difficult and distorted latents. The examiners appeared to be involved in active, constructive efforts, mentally, to repair poor latents by supplementing with missing information. They also highlighted various aspects of latents by colour coding as well as manipulated fingerprint images in several ways so as to make the significant patterns easier to recognize. Because the methods and practices of characterizing latents were only vaguely specified, the examiners used locally developed ad hoc practices to facilitate their investigations, ending up with different interpretations. It is concluded in the article that the fingerprint community in Finland should make strong efforts to develop the methods of fingerprint investigation and determine clearer criteria for decision making and documentation practices. Furthermore, the interpretations made by fingerprint experts should be made more transparent to the customers.

  13. Quasirandom geometric networks from low-discrepancy sequences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estrada, Ernesto

    2017-08-01

    We define quasirandom geometric networks using low-discrepancy sequences, such as Halton, Sobol, and Niederreiter. The networks are built in d dimensions by considering the d -tuples of digits generated by these sequences as the coordinates of the vertices of the networks in a d -dimensional Id unit hypercube. Then, two vertices are connected by an edge if they are at a distance smaller than a connection radius. We investigate computationally 11 network-theoretic properties of two-dimensional quasirandom networks and compare them with analogous random geometric networks. We also study their degree distribution and their spectral density distributions. We conclude from this intensive computational study that in terms of the uniformity of the distribution of the vertices in the unit square, the quasirandom networks look more random than the random geometric networks. We include an analysis of potential strategies for generating higher-dimensional quasirandom networks, where it is know that some of the low-discrepancy sequences are highly correlated. In this respect, we conclude that up to dimension 20, the use of scrambling, skipping and leaping strategies generate quasirandom networks with the desired properties of uniformity. Finally, we consider a diffusive process taking place on the nodes and edges of the quasirandom and random geometric graphs. We show that the diffusion time is shorter in the quasirandom graphs as a consequence of their larger structural homogeneity. In the random geometric graphs the diffusion produces clusters of concentration that make the process more slow. Such clusters are a direct consequence of the heterogeneous and irregular distribution of the nodes in the unit square in which the generation of random geometric graphs is based on.

  14. Discrepancy of whiteness and UV protection in wet state.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarbuk, Anita; Grancarić, Ana Marija; Situm, Mirna

    2014-12-01

    The incidence of skin cancer is increasing by epidemic proportions. Basal cell cancer remains the most common skin neoplasm, and simple excision is generally curative. On the other hand, aggressive local growth and metastasis are common features of malignant melanoma, which accounts for 75 percent of all deaths associated with skin cancer. In Croatia only, more than 20,000 new cases of skin cancer has been diagnosed in 2008 of which melanoma 286 new cases and 118 yearly deaths in men, and 275 new cases and 79 deaths in women population. The back sides in men and women, as well as the lower limbs in women, are the most common site for melanomas. The primary cause of skin cancer is believed to be a long exposure to solar ultraviolet (UV) radiation crossed with the amount of skin pigmentation in the population. There are indications that other parts of solar spectrum (e.g., blue light) might also have effects on skin and eyes. Most people think all clothing will protect them, but that's not the case. UV clothing can show UVprotection, but in the most cases it does not provide full sun screening properties. UV protection ability highly depends on large number of factors such are type of fiber, fabric surface and construction, type and concentration of dyestuff, fluorescent whitening agent (FWA), UV-B protective agents, as well as nanoparticles, if applied. For that reason, jeans and tightly woven fabrics offer a very good level of protection. However, on a hot summer day, those aren't the kinds of clothing people usually reach for. More often, when they are on the beach, they wear T-shirt, as well during the swimming in the sea, thinking that it will protect them. Therefore, in this paper the discrepancy of UVprotection in wet state was researched. For the purpose, FWA and UVabsorber were applied in wide concentration range to white cotton knit fabrics commonly used for T-shirts. Afterwards, the discrepancy in whiteness and UVprotection was research in distilled water

  15. A cooperative approach to ensure software product quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Sangeetha

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Quality is the process of ensuring that software developed satisfies customer requirements. Among the many software quality attributes like functionality, usability, capability, maintainability, etc., reliability is a major factor to assure quality of the software. Reliability ensures that software is failure free. In this work, we propose to ensure quality through a behavioral model that evaluates business requirements and gives priority for quality attributes. The model consists of behavioural and human perspectives in assessment. It is used for assessment of software developed.

  16. Randomized discrepancy bounded local search for transmission expansion planning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bent, Russell W [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Daniel, William B [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2010-11-23

    In recent years the transmission network expansion planning problem (TNEP) has become increasingly complex. As the TNEP is a non-linear and non-convex optimization problem, researchers have traditionally focused on approximate models of power flows to solve the TNEP. Existing approaches are often tightly coupled to the approximation choice. Until recently these approximations have produced results that are straight-forward to adapt to the more complex (real) problem. However, the power grid is evolving towards a state where the adaptations are no longer easy (e.g. large amounts of limited control, renewable generation) and necessitates new approaches. Recent work on deterministic Discrepancy Bounded Local Search (DBLS) has shown it to be quite effective in addressing this question. DBLS encapsulates the complexity of power flow modeling in a black box that may be queried for information about the quality of proposed expansions. In this paper, we propose a randomization strategy that builds on DBLS and dramatically increases the computational efficiency of the algorithm.

  17. Low Critical Micelle Concentration Discrepancy between Theory and Experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García Daza, Fabián A; Mackie, Allan D

    2014-06-05

    Experimental measurements for a variety of surfactants unexpectedly show that the critical micelle concentration (CMC) becomes constant with respect to increasing the size of the hydrophobic tail. This observation disagrees with theoretical models where it is expected to continue to decrease exponentially. Because of the lack of a satisfactory explanation for such a discrepancy from theory, we have studied these systems using a coarse-grained model within the single-chain mean field (SCMF) theory combined with relevant micellar kinetic effects. In particular, a microscopic model for poly(ethylene oxide) alkyl ether was applied to describe a series of nonionic gemini surfactants. When kinetic effects are used to correct the equilibrium CMC values from the SCMF scheme together with the loss of surfactants due to adsorption on the experimental recipient, it is possible to reproduce the correct order of magnitude of the experimental CMC results. Hence it appears that the experimental values disagree with the theoretical predictions because they are not true equilibrium values due to the fact that the time scales for these low CMC values become astronomically large.

  18. Discrepancies between judgment and choice of action in moral dilemmas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sébastien eTassy

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Everyone has experienced the potential discrepancy between what one judges as morally acceptable and what one actually does when a choice between alternative behaviors is to be made. The present study explores empirically whether judgment and choice of action differ when people make decisions on dilemmas involving moral issues. 240 participants evaluated 24 moral and non-moral dilemmas either by judging (Is it acceptable to… or reporting the choice of action they would make (Would you do…. We also investigated the influence of varying the number of people benefiting from the decision and the closeness of relationship of the decision maker with the potential victim on these two types of decision. Variations in the number of beneficiaries from the decision did not influence judgment nor choice of action. By contrast, closeness of relationship with the victim had a greater influence on the choice of action than on judgment. This differentiation between evaluative judgments and choices of action argues in favor of each of them being supported by (at least partially different psychological processes.

  19. Accuracy of digital American Board of Orthodontics Discrepancy Index measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dragstrem, Kristina; Galang-Boquiren, Maria Therese S; Obrez, Ales; Costa Viana, Maria Grace; Grubb, John E; Kusnoto, Budi

    2015-07-01

    A digital analysis that is shown to be accurate will ease the demonstration of initial case complexity. To date, no literature exists on the accuracy of the digital American Board of Orthodontics Discrepancy Index (DI) calculations when applied to pretreatment digital models. Plaster models were obtained from 45 previous patients with varying degrees of malocclusion. Total DI scores and the target disorders were computed manually with a periodontal probe on the original plaster casts (gold standard) and digitally using Ortho Insight 3D (Motion View Software, Hixson, Tenn) and OrthoCAD (Cadent, Carlstadt, NJ). Intrarater and interrater reliabilities were assessed for 15 subjects using the Spearman rho correlation test. Accuracies of the DI scores and target disorders were assessed for all 45 subjects using Wilcoxon signed ranks tests. Intrarater and interrater reliabilities were high for total DI scores and most target disorders (r > 0.8). No significant difference was found between total DI score when measured with OrthoCAD compared with manual calculations. The total DI scores calculated by Ortho Insight 3D were found to be significantly greater than those by manual calculation by 2.71 points. The findings indicate that a DI calculated by Ortho Insight 3D may lead the clinician to overestimate case complexity. OrthoCAD's DI module was demonstrated to be a clinically acceptable alternative to manual calculation of the total scores. Copyright © 2015 American Association of Orthodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. A statistical investigation of the mass discrepancy-acceleration relation

    CERN Document Server

    Desmond, Harry

    2016-01-01

    We use the mass discrepancy-acceleration relation (the correlation between the ratio of dark-to-visible mass and acceleration in galaxies; MDAR) to test the galaxy-halo connection. We analyse the MDAR using a set of 14 statistics which quantify its four most important features: its shape, its scatter, the presence of a "characteristic acceleration scale," and the correlation of its residuals with other galaxy properties. We construct an empirical framework for the galaxy-halo connection in $\\Lambda$CDM to generate predictions for these statistics, starting with conventional correlations (halo abundance matching; AM) and introducing more where required. Comparing to the SPARC data (Lelli, McGaugh & Schombert 2016), we find: 1) The approximate shape of the MDAR is readily reproduced by AM, and there is no evidence that the acceleration at which dark matter becomes negligible has less spread in the data than in AM mocks; 2) Even under conservative assumptions, AM significantly overpredicts the scatter in the...

  1. Discrepant hardening observed in cosmic-ray elemental spectra

    CERN Document Server

    Ahn, H S; Bagliesi, M G; Beatty, J J; Bigongiari, G; Childers, J T; Conklin, N B; Coutu, S; DuVernois, M A; Ganel, O; Han, J H; Jeon, J A; Kim, K C; Lee, M H; Lutz, L; Maestro, P; Malinin, A; Marrocchesi, P S; Minnick, S; Mognet, S I; Nam, J; Nam, S; Nutter, S L; Park, I H; Park, N H; Seo, E S; Sina, R; Wu, J; Yang, J; Yoon, Y S; Zei, R; Zinn, S Y; 10.1088/2041-8205/714/1/L89

    2010-01-01

    The balloon-borne Cosmic Ray Energetics And Mass (CREAM) experiment launched five times from Antarctica has achieved a cumulative flight duration of about 156 days above 99.5% of the atmosphere. The instrument is configured with complementary and redundant particle detectors designed to extend direct measurements of cosmic-ray composition to the highest energies practical with balloon flights. All elements from protons to iron nuclei are separated with excellent charge resolution. Here we report results from the first two flights of ~70 days, which indicate hardening of the elemental spectra above ~200 GeV/nucleon and a spectral difference between the two most abundant species, protons and helium nuclei. These results challenge the view that cosmic-ray spectra are simple power laws below the so-called knee at ~1015 eV. This discrepant hardening may result from a relatively nearby source, or it could represent spectral concavity caused by interactions of cosmic rays with the accelerating shock. Other possible ...

  2. Quantifying discrepancies in opinion spectra from online and offline networks

    CERN Document Server

    Lee, Deokjae; Yook, Soon-Hyung; Park, Juyong

    2016-01-01

    Online social media such as Twitter are widely used for mining public opinions and sentiments on various issues and topics. The sheer volume of the data generated and the eager adoption by the online-savvy public are helping to raise the profile of online media as a convenient source of news and public opinions on social and political issues as well. Due to the uncontrollable biases in the population who heavily use the media, however, it is often difficult to measure how accurately the online sphere reflects the offline world at large, undermining the usefulness of online media. One way of identifying and overcoming the online-offline discrepancies is to apply a common analytical and modeling framework to comparable data sets from online and offline sources and cross-analyzing the patterns found therein. In this paper we study the political spectra constructed from Twitter and from legislators' voting records as an example to demonstrate the potential limits of online media as the source for accurate public ...

  3. Quantifying discrepancies in opinion spectra from online and offline networks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deokjae Lee

    Full Text Available Online social media such as Twitter are widely used for mining public opinions and sentiments on various issues and topics. The sheer volume of the data generated and the eager adoption by the online-savvy public are helping to raise the profile of online media as a convenient source of news and public opinions on social and political issues as well. Due to the uncontrollable biases in the population who heavily use the media, however, it is often difficult to measure how accurately the online sphere reflects the offline world at large, undermining the usefulness of online media. One way of identifying and overcoming the online-offline discrepancies is to apply a common analytical and modeling framework to comparable data sets from online and offline sources and cross-analyzing the patterns found therein. In this paper we study the political spectra constructed from Twitter and from legislators' voting records as an example to demonstrate the potential limits of online media as the source for accurate public opinion mining, and how to overcome the limits by using offline data simultaneously.

  4. Quantifying discrepancies in opinion spectra from online and offline networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Deokjae; Hahn, Kyu S; Yook, Soon-Hyung; Park, Juyong

    2015-01-01

    Online social media such as Twitter are widely used for mining public opinions and sentiments on various issues and topics. The sheer volume of the data generated and the eager adoption by the online-savvy public are helping to raise the profile of online media as a convenient source of news and public opinions on social and political issues as well. Due to the uncontrollable biases in the population who heavily use the media, however, it is often difficult to measure how accurately the online sphere reflects the offline world at large, undermining the usefulness of online media. One way of identifying and overcoming the online-offline discrepancies is to apply a common analytical and modeling framework to comparable data sets from online and offline sources and cross-analyzing the patterns found therein. In this paper we study the political spectra constructed from Twitter and from legislators' voting records as an example to demonstrate the potential limits of online media as the source for accurate public opinion mining, and how to overcome the limits by using offline data simultaneously.

  5. Study on the Abundance Discrepancy Problem in the Magellanic Clouds

    CERN Document Server

    Cipriano, L Toribio San; Domínguez-Guzmán, G; García-Rojas, J

    2016-01-01

    We present chemical abundances of carbon (C) and oxygen (O) in the Large and Small Magellanic Clouds from deep and high-quality optical spectra of HII regions. The data have been taken using the Ultraviolet-Visual Echelle Spectrograph at the 8.2-m Very Large Telescope with the goal of detecting the faint CII and OII recombination lines. For all the objects of the sample, we determine C^2+ abundances from recombination lines and O^2+ abundances from recombination lines and collisionally excited lines. In addition, we calculate the abundance discrepancy factors (ADFs) for O^2+ and C^2+, as well as the O/H, C/H and C/O ratios. We study the behaviour of the ADF comparing the values obtained in the Magellanic Clouds with those obtained for other HII regions in different galaxies. We also compare the nebular and stellar abundances in two regions of the sample. Finally, we discuss the chemical evolution of the MCs through the O/H, C/H and C/O radial gradients and the changes of the C/O ratio as a function of O/H.

  6. A statistical investigation of the mass discrepancy-acceleration relation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desmond, Harry

    2017-02-01

    We use the mass discrepancy-acceleration relation (the correlation between the ratio of total-to-visible mass and acceleration in galaxies; MDAR) to test the galaxy-halo connection. We analyse the MDAR using a set of 16 statistics that quantify its four most important features: shape, scatter, the presence of a `characteristic acceleration scale', and the correlation of its residuals with other galaxy properties. We construct an empirical framework for the galaxy-halo connection in LCDM to generate predictions for these statistics, starting with conventional correlations (halo abundance matching; AM) and introducing more where required. Comparing to the SPARC data, we find that: (1) the approximate shape of the MDAR is readily reproduced by AM, and there is no evidence that the acceleration at which dark matter becomes negligible has less spread in the data than in AM mocks; (2) even under conservative assumptions, AM significantly overpredicts the scatter in the relation and its normalization at low acceleration, and furthermore positions dark matter too close to galaxies' centres on average; (3) the MDAR affords 2σ evidence for an anticorrelation of galaxy size and Hubble type with halo mass or concentration at fixed stellar mass. Our analysis lays the groundwork for a bottom-up determination of the galaxy-halo connection from relations such as the MDAR, provides concrete statistical tests for specific galaxy formation models, and brings into sharper focus the relative evidence accorded by galaxy kinematics to LCDM and modified gravity alternatives.

  7. CONDITIONS AND MAIN CRITERIA OF ENSURING FOOD SECURITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mikhailushkin P. V.

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The article considers the main components, factors and criteria of ensuring food security of the modern state. Need of state regulation of economy as a whole and its food subcomplex in particular has been designated

  8. Strategies for Ensuring Quality in the Business Education ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Toshiba

    to ensure quality in the business education programme in tertiary institutions in ... syllabus and provision of requisite infrastructure and facilities to the business education ..... delivered at Excellence Hotel on 6th July. Vol. 8 (1) Serial No.

  9. The Role of Communication in Ensuring Sustained Behavior Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    In Part 2 of a three-part webinar series on communications strategies and methods, we address how communications tools can be used throughout the implementation of climate and clean energy programs to achieve behavior change and ensure sustained.

  10. The Role of Communication in Ensuring Sustained Behavior Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    In Part 2 of a three-part webinar series on communications strategies and methods, we address how communications tools can be used throughout the implementation of climate and clean energy programs to achieve behavior change and ensure sustained.

  11. Relationship between self-discrepancy and worries about penis size in men with body dysmorphic disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veale, David; Miles, Sarah; Read, Julie; Bramley, Sally; Troglia, Andrea; Carmona, Lina; Fiorito, Chiara; Wells, Hannah; Wylie, Kevan; Muir, Gordon

    2016-06-01

    We explored self-discrepancy in men with body dysmorphic disorder (BDD) concerned about penis size, men without BDD but anxious about penis size, and controls. Men with BDD (n=26) were compared to those with small penis anxiety (SPA; n=31) and controls (n=33), objectively (by measuring) and investigating self-discrepancy: actual size, ideal size, and size they felt they should be according to self and other. Most men under-estimated their penis size, with the BDD group showing the greatest discrepancy between perceived and ideal size. The SPA group showed a larger discrepancy than controls. This was replicated for the perceptions of others, suggesting the BDD group internalised the belief that they should have a larger penis size. There was a significant correlation between symptoms of BDD and this discrepancy. This self-actual and self-ideal/self-should discrepancy and the role of comparing could be targeted in therapy.

  12. Ensuring Strategic Stability In The Second Nuclear Age

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-02-16

    good chance of nuclear retaliation.4 Thus, stability centered on the threat the atomic bomb presented, as no promise of victory was beneficial if...paper argues the United States must seek a balanced systems approach to ensure strategic stability in a nuclear multiplicity environment among its...approach to ensure strategic stability in a nuclear multiplicity environment among its nuclear-armed peers, near peers and nonpeers. This paper will not

  13. The role of ambiguity and discrepancy in the early phases of innovation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laursen, Linda Nhu; Tollestrup, Christian H. T.

    2015-01-01

    and discrepancy, we seek to understand if it might be there for a reason. Through a laboratory experiment, we propose ambiguity and discrepancy actually have a function in concept development. Accordingly the paper contributes with a better understanding of, the role ambiguity and discrepancy as triggers of sense......Innovation literature mainly focuses on eliminating ambiguity and discrepancy from the early phases of innovation. This study questions this implicit assumption, as it may provide an oversimplified view on, how to attain proficiency. Instead of narrowly focusing on reducing ambiguity...

  14. The role of ambiguity and discrepancy in the early phases of innovation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laursen, Linda Nhu; Tollestrup, Christian H. T.

    2015-01-01

    Innovation literature mainly focuses on eliminating ambiguity and discrepancy from the early phases of innovation. This study questions this implicit assumption, as it may provide an oversimplified view on, how to attain proficiency. Instead of narrowly focusing on reducing ambiguity...... and discrepancy, we seek to understand if it might be there for a reason. Through a laboratory experiment, we propose ambiguity and discrepancy actually have a function in concept development. Accordingly the paper contributes with a better understanding of, the role ambiguity and discrepancy as triggers of sense...... making in conceptualisation in the early phases of innovation....

  15. Frequency of discrepancies in retracted clinical trial reports versus unretracted reports: blinded case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, Graham D; Nowbar, Alexandra N; Mielewczik, Michael; Shun-Shin, Matthew J; Francis, Darrel P

    2015-09-20

    To compare the frequency of discrepancies in retracted reports of clinical trials with those in adjacent unretracted reports in the same journal. Blinded case-control study. Journals in PubMed. 50 manuscripts, classified on PubMed as retracted clinical trials, paired with 50 adjacent unretracted manuscripts from the same journals. Reports were randomly selected from PubMed in December 2012, with no restriction on publication date. Controls were the preceding unretracted clinical trial published in the same journal. All traces of retraction were removed. Three scientists, blinded to the retraction status of individual reports, reviewed all 100 trial reports for discrepancies. Discrepancies were pooled and cross checked before being counted into prespecified categories. Only then was the retraction status unblinded for analysis. Total number of discrepancies (defined as mathematically or logically contradictory statements) in each clinical trial report. Of 479 discrepancies found in the 100 trial reports, 348 were in the 50 retracted reports and 131 in the 50 unretracted reports. On average, individual retracted reports had a greater number of discrepancies than unretracted reports (median 4 (interquartile range 2-8.75) v 0 (0-5); Pretracted than those without a discrepancy (odds ratio 5.7 (95% confidence interval 2.2 to 14.5); Pretracted than unretracted reports: factual discrepancies (P=0.002), arithmetical errors (P=0.01), and missed P values (P=0.02). Results from a retrospective analysis indicated that citations and journal impact factor were unlikely to affect the result. Discrepancies in published trial reports should no longer be assumed to be unimportant. Scientists, blinded to retraction status and with no specialist skill in the field, identify significantly more discrepancies in retracted than unretracted reports of clinical trials. Discrepancies could be an early and accessible signal of unreliability in clinical trial reports. © Cole et al 2015.

  16. Evidence for the selective reporting of analyses and discrepancies in clinical trials: a systematic review of cohort studies of clinical trials.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kerry Dwan

    2014-06-01

    were common, but reasons for these discrepancies were not discussed in the trial reports. To ensure transparency, protocols and statistical analysis plans need to be published, and investigators should adhere to these or explain discrepancies.

  17. INTERNAL CONTROLS IN ENSURING GOOD CORPORATE GOVERNANCE IN FINANCIAL INSTITUTIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    KOSMAS NJANIKE

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper assessed factors that influence the internal controls in ensuring good corporate governance in financial institutions in developing economies with special reference to Zimbabwe. The research paper assessed how lack of internal controls affected good corporate governance and aimed to bring out elements of good corporate governance. It emerged that failure to effectively implement internal controls contributed significantly to poor corporate governance. The study discovered that internal control system overrides and the issue of “fact cat” directors also contributed to poor corporate governance. The study recommended that there is need for the board of directors to guarantee an organizational structure that clearly defines management responsibilities, authority and reporting relationships. There is also need to ensure that delegated responsibilities are effectively carried out to ensure compliance with internal controls of the financial institution concerned.

  18. College Students' Affective Distress: The Role of Expectation Discrepancies and Communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agliata, Allison Kanter; Renk, Kimberly

    2009-01-01

    The discrepancy between college students' performance and parents' expectations may be related to college students' affective distress. Further, the role that parent-college student communication reciprocity may play in the context of these discrepancies has not been examined. As a result, this study examined parent-college student expectation…

  19. Does Hot Water Freeze Faster Than Cold? Or Why Mpemba's Ice Cream Is a Discrepant Event

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmer, Bill

    1993-01-01

    A discrepant event is a happening contrary to our current beliefs. Discrepant events are said to be useful in clarifying concepts. This is one of the interesting features of current theories of constructivism. The story of Mpemba's ice cream is quite well known, but it is the educational aspects of the experiment that are of interest in this…

  20. Can the Media Affect Us? Social Comparison, Self-Discrepancy, and the Thin Ideal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bessenoff, Gayle R.

    2006-01-01

    The current study explored body image self-discrepancy as moderator and social comparison as mediator in the effects on women from thin-ideal images in the media. Female undergraduates (N = 112) with high and low body image self-discrepancy were exposed to advertisements either with thin women (thin ideal) or without thin women…

  1. Abdominal and pelvic computed tomography (CT) interpretation: discrepancy rates among experienced radiologists

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abujudeh, Hani H.; Boland, Giles W.; Kaewlai, Rathachai; Rabiner, Pavel; Thrall, James H. [Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Department of Radiology, Boston, MA (United States); Halpern, Elkarn F.; Gazelle, G.S. [Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Department of Radiology, Boston, MA (United States); Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Institute for Technology Assessment, Boston, MA (United States)

    2010-08-15

    To assess the discrepancy rate for the interpretation of abdominal and pelvic computed tomography (CT) examinations among experienced radiologists. Ninety abdominal and pelvic CT examinations reported by three experienced radiologists who specialize in abdominal imaging were randomly selected from the radiological database. The same radiologists, blinded to previous interpretation, were asked to re-interpret 60 examinations: 30 of their previous interpretations and 30 interpreted by others. All reports were assessed for the degree of discrepancy between initial and repeat interpretations according to a three-level scoring system: no discrepancy, minor, or major discrepancy. Inter- and intrareader discrepancy rates and causes were evaluated. CT examinations included in the investigation were performed on 90 patients (43 men, mean age 59 years, SD 14, range 19-88) for the following indications: follow-up/evaluation of malignancy (69/90, 77%), pancreatitis (5/90, 6%), urinary tract stone (4/90, 4%) or other (12/90, 13%). Interobserver and intraobserver major discrepancy rates were 26 and 32%, respectively. Major discrepancies were due to missed findings, different opinions regarding interval change of clinically significant findings, and the presence of recommendation. Major discrepancy of between 26 and 32% was observed in the interpretation of abdominal and pelvic CT examinations. (orig.)

  2. Can the Media Affect Us? Social Comparison, Self-Discrepancy, and the Thin Ideal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bessenoff, Gayle R.

    2006-01-01

    The current study explored body image self-discrepancy as moderator and social comparison as mediator in the effects on women from thin-ideal images in the media. Female undergraduates (N = 112) with high and low body image self-discrepancy were exposed to advertisements either with thin women (thin ideal) or without thin women…

  3. Great Expectations: Examining the Discrepancy between Expectations and Experiences on College Student Retention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pleitz, Jacob D.; MacDougall, Alexandra E.; Terry, Robert A.; Buckley, M. Ronald; Campbell, Nicole J.

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to build upon previous efforts evaluating the degree to which the discrepancy between student expectations and experiences can result in greater rates of attrition in education. Data were collected from 225 students at a large Midwestern public university and analyzed to assess the discrepancy between expectations…

  4. Implicit and explicit self-esteem discrepancies, victimization and the development of late childhood internalizing problems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leeuwis, F.H.; Koot, J.M.; Creemers, D.H.M.; Lier, P.A.C. van

    2015-01-01

    Discrepancies between implicit and explicit self-esteem have been linked with internalizing problems among mainly adolescents and adults. Longitudinal research on this association in children is lacking. This study examined the longitudinal link between self-esteem discrepancies and the development

  5. Understanding and Using Informants Reporting Discrepancies of Youth Victimization: A Conceptual Model and Recommendations for Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodman, Kimberly L.; De Los Reyes, Andres; Bradshaw, Catherine P.

    2010-01-01

    Discrepancies often occur among informants' reports of various domains of child and family functioning and are particularly common between parent and child reports of youth violence exposure. However, recent work suggests that discrepancies between parent and child reports predict subsequent poorer child outcomes. We propose a preliminary…

  6. Self-discrepancy: Long-term test-retest reliability and test-criterion predictive validity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Neill; Bryan, Brandon C; Thrash, Todd M

    2016-01-01

    Long-term test-retest reliability and predictive test-criterion evidence of validity of scores on measures of the real-ideal self-discrepancy and of the real-ought self-discrepancy were tested over periods of 1 year and 3 years. A sample of 184 undergraduates completed at 2 time points 1 year apart 3 instruments that each measure the 2 self-discrepancies: the idiographic Self-Concept Questionnaire-Personal Constructs, the nonidiographic Self-Concept Questionnaire-Conventional Constructs, and the content-free Abstract Measures. A separate sample of 141 undergraduates completed the instruments 3 years apart. Both samples completed 3 depression instruments and 3 anxiety instruments at the second time point. Results of analyses using latent variables modeled with 3 observed variables showed substantial statistically significant test-retest reliabilities and significant test-criterion prediction of anxiety and depression on the real-ideal and real-ought discrepancy measures over both time periods. Results for the observed variables showed significant 1-year and 3-year reliabilities for scores on all self-discrepancy measures, as well as significant 1-year and 3-year predictive validity for scores on all self-discrepancy measures, except the abstract measure of real-ought discrepancy in predicting scores on all depression measures and on at least 1 anxiety measure. The findings support very strong long-term stabilities of the self-discrepancy personality constructs and their long-term associations with anxiety and depression.

  7. 16 CFR 641.1 - Duties of users of consumer reports regarding address discrepancies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Duties of users of consumer reports... CREDIT REPORTING ACT DUTIES OF USERS OF CONSUMER REPORTS REGARDING ADDRESS DISCREPANCIES § 641.1 Duties of users of consumer reports regarding address discrepancies. (a) Scope. This section applies...

  8. 12 CFR 41.82 - Duties of users regarding address discrepancies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... CREDIT REPORTING Duties of Users of Consumer Reports Regarding Address Discrepancies and Records Disposal... consumer reports (user) that receives a notice of address discrepancy from a consumer reporting agency... request the consumer report and the address(es) in the agency's file for the consumer. (c)...

  9. 12 CFR 717.82 - Duties of users regarding address discrepancies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... CREDIT UNIONS FAIR CREDIT REPORTING Duties of Users of Consumer Reports Regarding Address Discrepancies... applies to a user of consumer reports (user) that receives a notice of address discrepancy from a consumer... consumer report and the address(es) in the agency's file for the consumer. (c) Reasonable...

  10. 12 CFR 571.82 - Duties of users regarding address discrepancies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... CREDIT REPORTING Duties of Users of Consumer Reports Regarding Address Discrepancies and Records Disposal... consumer reports (user) that receives a notice of address discrepancy from a consumer reporting agency... consumer report and the address(es) in the agency's file for the consumer. (c) Reasonable...

  11. 19 CFR 125.34 - Countersigning of documents and notation of bad order or discrepancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Countersigning of documents and notation of bad... and Receipt § 125.34 Countersigning of documents and notation of bad order or discrepancy. When a... and shall note thereon any bad order or discrepancy. When available, the importing carrier's...

  12. Discrepancies between sources providing the medication histories of acutely hospitalised patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karkov, Louise Lindved; Schytte-Hansen, Simon; Nørgaard, Lotte Stig

    2010-01-01

    practitioner (GP) and the in-home care provider. A discrepancy was defined as any disagreement or omission of information between the four sources concerning name, form, strength and dose for each drug with which the patient was being treated. Main outcome measure The number of discrepancies between the data...

  13. 75 FR 67453 - Identity Theft Red Flags and Address Discrepancies Under the Fair and Accurate Credit...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-02

    ... Office of Thrift Supervision Identity Theft Red Flags and Address Discrepancies Under the Fair and...: Identity Theft Red Flags and Address Discrepancies under the Fair and Accurate Credit Transactions Act of... issue jointly guidelines for financial institutions and creditors regarding identity theft with...

  14. Latent Difference Score Modeling: A Flexible Approach for Studying Informant Discrepancies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Haan, Amaranta; Prinzie, Peter; Sentse, Miranda; Jongerling, Joran

    2017-04-13

    The current study proposes a flexible approach to studying informant discrepancies: Latent Difference Scores modeling (LDS). The LDS approach is demonstrated using an empirical example in which associations between mother-adolescent and father-adolescent discrepant parenting perceptions, and concurrent and later adolescent externalizing behaviors, were investigated. Early adolescents (N = 477, aged 12-15 years), mothers (N = 470), and fathers (N = 440) filled out questionnaires about mothers' and fathers' parenting. Results using the LDS approach are compared to results obtained by the 2 existing approaches for informant discrepancies: Observed Difference Scores modeling (ODS) and Polynomial Regression Analyses (PRA). Results from the LDS approach show that adolescents perceive their mothers' and fathers' parenting less favorably than mothers and fathers themselves, and that stronger mother-adolescent discrepancies are consistently related to stronger father-adolescent discrepancies. Parent-adolescent discrepancies were concurrently associated with more aggressive and rule-breaking behaviors, but not longitudinally. Results generalized across the 2 discrepancy approaches, but only very few significant associations were found in the PRA. Advantages and limitations of all 3 approaches to studying informant discrepancies are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  15. Implicit and explicit self-esteem discrepancies, victimization and the development of late childhood internalizing problems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leeuwis, F.H.; Koot, J.M.; Creemers, D.H.M.; Lier, P.A.C. van

    2015-01-01

    Discrepancies between implicit and explicit self-esteem have been linked with internalizing problems among mainly adolescents and adults. Longitudinal research on this association in children is lacking. This study examined the longitudinal link between self-esteem discrepancies and the development

  16. DISCREPANCIES AND CONTRADICTIONS OF INTELLECTUAL CAPITAL MEASUREMENT MODELS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simona Survilaitė

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Purpose – the main idea of measuring intellectual capital is that organisations, institutions and enterprises can successfully manage and control intellectual capital with the consequences that it increases company‘s value added and assures normal and stable activity. Nevertheless, many authors indicate that intellectual capital is a complex and sophisticated concept, which is difficult to capture, measure and manage. Intellectual capital measurement models are controversial due to inconsistent and different perspectives, point of views demonstrated by management, distinction between academic theory and practical execution. The main purpose of this scientific paper is to present contradictions appearing while trying to capture, measure and manage intellectual capital. Design/methodology/approach – scientific literature review. Findings – the knowledge era has brought a new perspective into every organisation, institution and management strategies are becoming more related with intangibility. The concept of intangible assets can be analyzed and investigated through intellectual capital point of view. Nowadays academic literature is full of intellectual capital scientific papers and can be categorized into three main groups: intellectual capital as a concept, intellectual capital structure and structural parts, intellectual capital measurement models. This scientific paper is prepared to analyze the third group, which concerns mostly of how to capture, measure and manage intellectual capital. Research limitations/implications – the most challenging aspect is the discrepancies and contradictions in the measurement of intellectual capital. The differences of various enterprises broaden the perspective of intellectual capital and multiple points of view and attitudes are formalized into different methods of intellectual capital capture, measurement and managing. Practical implications – the universal model of intellectual capital

  17. Ensuring economic, health, and social well-being for Papua New Guinea through trade.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fa'alili-Fidow, Jacinta

    2011-01-01

    The impacts of trade liberalization and open markets on global, regional, and local economies are a key consideration for those involved in government, business, and financial sectors. However, their impacts on health and social well-being of populations are not well-evidenced acknowledged within the health sector, let alone the impact on developing countries. As free trade becomes an inevitable outcome for many developing nations, the full implications of trade on economies, environments, and population health needs to be better articulated in order to ensure fully informed trade negotiations that support equitable outcomes. This article takes a broad look at the key issues for Papua New Guinea (PNG) in trade and how these translate to discrepancies in economic, health, and social benefits for its population. Despite its active trading and high GDP, only 10% of the population experience better economic and social outcomes. The bulk of PNG's population lives in poverty, challenged by geographical, cultural, and political barriers to better income, education, and health. Progress needs to be made to minimize these barriers and to allow more of PNG's population to experience the economic benefits generated through trade activities. A balance needs to be maintained between the desire of developed countries to broaden their markets, and the efforts of developing countries to promote and protect the health and well-being of their populations through increasing participation in global markets. PACER Plus presents an opportunity for pursuing alternative models of trade agreements that support and develop Pacific health.

  18. U language-related differences between discrepancy-defined and non-discrepancy-defined poor readers: a longitudinal study of dyslexia in New Zealand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tunmer, William E; Chapman, James W

    2007-02-01

    Language-related differences between discrepancy-defined and non-discrepancy-defined poor readers were examined in a three-year longitudinal study that began at school entry. The discrepancy-defined (dyslexic) poor readers (n=19) were identified in terms of poor reading comprehension and average or above average listening comprehension performance, and the non-discrepancy-defined (non-dyslexic) poor readers (n=19) in terms of both poor reading and listening comprehension performance. The two poor reader groups and a group of normally developing readers (n=55) were given several oral language, phonological processing, and reading performance measures at six testing occasions. Results indicated that in addition to expected differences on the oral language measures, the non-discrepancy-defined poor readers also showed greater phonological processing deficits than the dyslexic poor readers. The results are discussed in terms of the lack of official recognition of dyslexia in New Zealand, the whole language orientation of classroom reading instruction, and the inadequacy of Reading Recovery for minimizing reading problems.

  19. Evaluation of discrepancy between measured and modelled oxidized mercury species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Kos

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available L. Zhang et al. (2012, in a recent report, compared model estimates with new observations of oxidized and particulate mercury species (Hg2+ and Hgp in the Great Lakes region and found that the sum of Hg2+ and Hgp varied between a factor of 2 to 10 between measurements and model. They suggested too high emission inputs as Hg2+ and too fast oxidative conversion of Hg0 to Hg2+ and Hgp as possible causes. This study quantitatively explores measurement uncertainties in detail. These include sampling efficiency, composition of sample, interfering species and calibration errors. Model (Global/Regional Atmospheric Heavy Metals Model – GRAHM sensitivity experiments are used to examine the consistency between various Hg measurements and speciation of Hg near emission sources to better understand the discrepancies between modelled and measured concentrations of Hg2+ and Hgp. We find that the ratio of Hg0, Hg2+ and Hgp in the emission inventories, measurements of surface air concentrations of oxidized Hg and measurements of wet deposition are currently inconsistent with each other in the vicinity of emission sources. Current speciation of Hg emissions suggests higher concentrations of Hg2+ in air and in precipitation near emission sources; however, measured air concentrations of Hg2+ and measured concentrations of Hg in precipitation are not found to be significantly elevated near emission sources compared to the remote regions. The averaged unbiased root mean square error (RMSE between simulated and observed concentrations of Hg2+ is found to be reduced by 42% and for Hgp reduced by 40% for 21 North American sites investigated, when a ratio for Hg0 : Hg2+ : Hgp in the emissions is changed from 50 : 40 : 10 (as specified in the original inventories to 90 : 8 : 2. Unbiased RMSE reductions near emissions sources in the eastern United States and Canada are found to be reduced by up to 58% for Hg2+. Significant improvement in the model simulated spatial

  20. Discrepancies Between Laboratory Shock Experiments on Minerals and Natural Events

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Carli, P. S.; Xie, Z.; Sharp, T. G.

    2009-12-01

    Numerous laboratory shock recovery experiments performed over the past 50 years have provided substantial data on the effects of shock waves on rocks and minerals. However, it has become increasingly clear that the pressure "calibrations" based on shock effects observed in these experiments are inconsistent with interpretations based on static high-pressure data. A fundamental question is whether shock pressures are somehow different from static high pressures. Fifty years ago, many journal reviewers doubted that phase transformations could take place on a sub-microsecond time scale. Shock wave workers responded by invoking "special" properties of shock compression. However, all available evidence is consistent with the hypothesis that phase transitions under shock pressure are no different from phase transitions under static high pressures. The discrepancies noted above result from the fact that the parameter space, especially shock pressure duration, accessible to shock recovery experiments is so small by comparison with natural events. Furthermore virtually all shock recovery experiments on rocks and minerals have used high impedance sample containers, with the result that the samples have been subjected to thermodynamic loading paths substantially from a natural event. Consider the case of a chondritic meteorite made up of minerals having a wide range of shock properties. In a natural shock event the transient (nano-second scale) shock pressure at the shock front can vary by as much as an order of magnitude from grain to grain or even within a single grain. There are corresponding local differences in shock temperature. Assuming a mineral grain size of about a mm, the pressure inhomogeneities will equilibrate in less than a microsecond, wheras the temperature inhomogenities will require seconds to equilibrate. Recent studies of high-pressure phases in meteorites have provided evidence for pressure durations in the range of seconds, long enough for high pressure

  1. The role of self-image concerns in discrepancies between implicit and explicit self-esteem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laws, Valerie L; Rivera, Luis M

    2012-11-01

    Four experiments examined the hypothesis that individuals who hold discrepant implicit and explicit self-esteem possess relatively strong self-image concerns. As a result, they may act irrationally when expressing sexual health attitudes. In support of the hypothesis, Experiments 1a and 1b demonstrate that large self-esteem discrepancy participants possess strong implicit self-image ambivalence relative to small self-esteem discrepancy participants. In Experiments 2 and 3, participants who varied in self-esteem discrepancies received either negative or positive (or no) feedback on an intelligence test, and then they were given an opportunity to express implicit and explicit attitudes toward condoms. Large self-esteem discrepancy participants who received a self-threat responded irrationally and expressed relatively strong negative implicit (but not explicit) attitudes toward condoms. However, this detrimental effect was completely reversed following a self-affirmation to large discrepancy participants. The implicit and explicit attitudes toward condoms of small discrepancy participants were unaffected by a self-threat or a self-affirmation.

  2. Discrepancies in Leader and Follower Ratings of Transformational Leadership: Relationship with Organizational Culture in Mental Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aarons, Gregory A; Ehrhart, Mark G; Farahnak, Lauren R; Sklar, Marisa; Horowitz, Jonathan

    2017-07-01

    The role of leadership in the management and delivery of health and allied health services is often discussed but lacks empirical research. Discrepancies are often found between leaders' self-ratings and followers' ratings of the leader. To our knowledge no research has examined leader-follower discrepancies and their association with organizational culture in mental health clinics. The current study examines congruence, discrepancy, and directionality of discrepancy in relation to organizational culture in 38 mental health teams (N = 276). Supervisors and providers completed surveys including ratings of the supervisor transformational leadership and organizational culture. Polynomial regression and response surface analysis models were computed examining the associations of leadership discrepancy and defensive organizational culture and its subscales. Discrepancies between supervisor and provider reports of transformational leadership were associated with a more negative organizational culture. Culture suffered more where supervisors rated themselves more positively than providers, in contrast to supervisors rating themselves lower than the provider ratings of the supervisor. Leadership and leader discrepancy should be a consideration in improving organizational culture and for strategic initiatives such as quality of care and the implementation and sustainment of evidence-based practice.

  3. Gender Role Discrepancy Stress, High-Risk Sexual Behavior, and Sexually Transmitted Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reidy, Dennis E; Brookmeyer, Kathryn A; Gentile, Brittany; Berke, Danielle S; Zeichner, Amos

    2016-02-01

    Nearly 20 million new sexually transmitted infections occur every year in the United States. Traditionally, men have demonstrated much greater risk for contraction of and mortality from STDs perhaps because they tend to engage in a number of risky sexual activities. Research on masculinity suggests that gender roles influence males' sexual health by encouraging risk-taking behavior, discouraging access to health services, and narrowly defining their roles as partners. However, despite the propensity of highly masculine men to engage in high-risk sexual behavior, there is reason to suspect that men at the other end of the continuum may still be driven to engage in similar high-risk behaviors as a consequence of gender socialization. Discrepancy stress is a form of gender role stress that occurs when men fail to live up to the ideal manhood derived from societal prescriptions (i.e., Gender Role Discrepancy). In the present study, we surveyed a national sample of 600 men via Amazon Mechanical Turk to assess perceived gender role discrepancy, experience of discrepancy stress, and the associations with risky sexual behavior and potential contraction of STDs. Results indicated that men who believe they are less masculine than the typical man (i.e., gender role discrepancy) and experience distress stemming from this discrepancy (i.e., discrepancy stress) engage in high-risk sexual behavior and are subsequently diagnosed with more STDs. Findings are discussed in relation to implications for primary prevention strategies.

  4. What Factors Moderate Self-Other Discrepancies in Decision Making? Results from a Vaccination Scenario.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrova, Dafina; Garcia-Retamero, Rocio; van der Pligt, Joop

    2016-09-20

    When we make risky decisions for others, we tend to follow social norms about risks. This often results in making different decisions for others than we would make for ourselves in a similar situation (i.e., self-other discrepancies). In an experiment, we investigated self-other discrepancies in young adults' decisions to purchase a vaccine against a sexually-transmitted virus for themselves or for another person (i.e., the target of the decision). When the target's preferences were in line with social norms, surrogates showed large self-other discrepancies in line with these norms. When the target's preferences were contrary to social norms, surrogates did not show self-other discrepancies in line with these preferences; instead they still followed social norms, F(1, 140) = 21.45, p other discrepancies more in line with the target's preferences, even when these were contrary to the norm. Surrogates whose own risk attitudes were contrary to social norms showed larger self-other discrepancies, F(1, 128) = 5.38, p = .022, η p 2 = .04. These results demonstrate that perceived social norms about risk can predict self-other discrepancies in risky decisions, even when the target's preferences are known and at odds with the social norm. Further, the surrogates' numeracy, empathy, and propensity to take risks influence the extent to which risky decisions for others resemble risky decisions for oneself.

  5. A graphic method for timing the correction of leg-length discrepancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eastwood, D M; Cole, W G

    1995-09-01

    We have developed a clinical method for the graphic recording, analysis and planning of treatment of leg-length discrepancy during growth. Initially, the clinically determined discrepancy is plotted against the chronological age yearly, and then in late childhood at six-monthly intervals. CT and measurements of skeletal age are made in middle and late childhood to confirm the clinical findings. In a prospective study in 20 children, we observed that only eight had a linear increase in discrepancy. The observed pattern of increase was therefore used to estimate the mature discrepancy. Epiphyseodesis reference slopes were used to determine the most appropriate time and type of epiphyseodesis. In all children, the leg-length discrepancy at maturity was within 1 cm of the predicted amount. Changes in discrepancy due to leg lengthening or correction of deformity were also plotted graphically. We conclude that the clinical graphic method is simple to use, takes into account the varying patterns of discrepancy, and minimises radiation dosage.

  6. Impact of Computerized Order Entry to Pharmacy Interface on Order-Infusion Pump Discrepancies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca A. Russell

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. The ability of safety technologies to decrease errors, harm, and risk to patients has yet to be demonstrated consistently. Objective. To compare discrepancies between medication and intravenous fluid (IVF orders and bedside infusion pump settings within a pediatric intensive care unit (PICU before and after implementation of an interface between computerized physician order entry (CPOE and pharmacy systems. Methods. Within a 72-bed PICU, medication and IVF orders in the CPOE system and bedside infusion pump settings were collected. Rates of discrepancy were calculated and categorized by type. Results were compared to a study conducted prior to interface implementation. Expansion of PICU also occurred between study periods. Results. Of 455 observations, discrepancy rate decreased for IVF (p=0.01 compared to previous study. Overall discrepancy rate for medications was unchanged; however, medications infusing without an order decreased (p<0.01, and orders without corresponding infusion increased (p<0.05. Conclusions. Following implementation of an interface between CPOE and pharmacy systems, fewer discrepancies between IVF orders and infusion pump settings were observed. Discrepancies for medications did not change, and some types of discrepancies increased. In addition to interface implementation, changes in healthcare delivery and workflow related to ICU expansion contributed to observed changes.

  7. En Route to Depression: Self-Esteem Discrepancies and Habitual Rumination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Wendy J; Hine, Donald W

    2016-02-01

    Dual-process models of cognitive vulnerability to depression suggest that some individuals possess discrepant implicit and explicit self-views, such as high explicit and low implicit self-esteem (fragile self-esteem) or low explicit and high implicit self-esteem (damaged self-esteem). This study investigated whether individuals with discrepant self-esteem may employ depressive rumination in an effort to reduce discrepancy-related dissonance, and whether the relationship between self-esteem discrepancy and future depressive symptoms varies as a function of rumination tendencies. Hierarchical regressions examined whether self-esteem discrepancy was associated with rumination in an Australian undergraduate sample at Time 1 (N = 306; M(age) = 29.9), and whether rumination tendencies moderated the relationship between self-esteem discrepancy and depressive symptoms assessed 3 months later (n = 160). Damaged self-esteem was associated with rumination at Time 1. As hypothesized, rumination moderated the relationship between self-esteem discrepancy and depressive symptoms at Time 2, where fragile self-esteem and high rumination tendencies at Time 1 predicted the highest levels of subsequent dysphoria. Results are consistent with dual-process propositions that (a) explicit self-regulation strategies may be triggered when explicit and implicit self-beliefs are incongruent, and (b) rumination may increase the likelihood of depression by expending cognitive resources and/or amplifying negative implicit biases.

  8. Diagnostic discrepancies in clinical practice: An autopsy study in patients with heart failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Issa, Victor Sarli; Dinardi, Layara Fernanda Lipari; Pereira, Thiago Vicente; de Almeida, Lyna Kyria Rodrigues; Barbosa, Thaisa Silveira; Benvenutti, Luiz Alberto; Ayub-Ferreira, Silvia Moreira; Bocchi, Edimar Alcides

    2017-01-01

    Autopsies are the gold standard for diagnostic accuracy; however, no recent study has analyzed autopsies in heart failure (HF).We reviewed 1241 autopsies (January 2000-May 2005) and selected 232 patients with HF. Clinical and autopsy diagnoses were analyzed and discrepancies categorized according to their importance regarding therapy and prognosis.Mean age was 63.3 ± 15.9 years; 154 (66.4%) patients were male. The causes of death at autopsy were end-stage HF (40.9%), acute myocardial infarction (17.2%), infection (15.9), and pulmonary embolism 36 (15.5). Diagnostic discrepancies occurred in 191 (82.3%) cases; in 56 (24.1%), discrepancies were related to major diagnoses with potential influence on survival or treatment; pulmonary embolism was the cause of death for 24 (42.9%) of these patients. In 35 (15.1%), discrepancies were related to a major diagnosis with equivocal influence on survival or treatment; in 100 (43.1%), discrepancies did not influence survival or treatment. In multivariate analysis, age (OR: 1.03, 95% CI: 1.008-1.052, P = 0.007) and presence of diabetes mellitus (OR: 0.359, 95% CI: 0.168-0.767, P = 0.008) influenced the occurrence discrepancies.Diagnostic discrepancies with a potential impact on prognosis are frequent in HF. These findings warrant reconsideration in diagnostic and therapeutic practices with HF patients.

  9. Metabolic syndrome and discrepancy between actual and self-identified good weight: Aerobics Center Longitudinal Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wirth, Michael D; Blake, Christine E; Hébert, James R; Sui, Xuemei; Blair, Steven N

    2015-03-01

    This study examined whether the discrepancy between measured and self-identified good weight (weight discrepancy) predicts metabolic syndrome (MetSyn). This study included 6,413 participants enrolled in the Aerobics Center Longitudinal Study (mean follow-up: 4.8±3.8 years). Weight discrepancy was defined as measured weight minus self-identified good weight. MetSyn was defined using standard definitions. Hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs) for incident MetSyn, by weight discrepancy category, were estimated using Cox proportional hazards regression. The multivariable-adjusted HR for MetSyn was 3.48 (95% CI=2.48-4.86) for those who maintained higher weight discrepancy over time compared to individuals with lower weight discrepancy. Additional adjustment for body mass index did not change this interpretation (HR=3.44; 95% CI=2.46-4.82). Weight discrepancy may be a useful screening characteristic and target for future interventions to further reduce the risk of chronic weight-related disorders, included MetSyn.

  10. ATLAS Standard Model Measurements Using Jet Grooming and Substructure

    CERN Document Server

    Ucchielli, Giulia; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    Boosted topologies allow to explore Standard Model processes in kinematical regimes never tested before. In such LHC challenging environments, standard reconstruction techniques quickly hit the wall. Targeting hadronic final states means to properly reconstruct energy and multiplicity of the jets in the event. In order to be able to identify the decay product of boosted objects, i.e. W bosons, $t\\bar{t}$ pairs or Higgs produced in association with $t\\bar{t}$ pairs, ATLAS experiment is currently exploiting several algorithms using jet grooming and jet substructure. This contribution will mainly cover the following ATLAS measurements: $t\\bar{t}$ differential cross section production and jet mass using the soft drop procedure. Standard Model measurements offer the perfect field to test the performances of new jet tagging techniques which will become even more important in the search for new physics in highly boosted topologies.”

  11. Overview of the Standard Model Measurements with the ATLAS Detector

    CERN Document Server

    Liu, Yanwen; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    The ATLAS Collaboration is engaged in precision measurement of fundamental Standard Model parameters, such as the W boson mass, the weak-mixing angle or the strong coupling constant. In addition, the production cross-sections of a large variety of final states involving high energetic jets, photons as well as single and multi vector bosons are measured multi differentially at several center of mass energies. This allows to test perturbative QCD calculations to highest precision. In addition, these measurements allow also to test models beyond the SM, e.g. those leading to anomalous gauge couplings. In this talk, we give a broad overview of the Standard Model measurement campaign of the ATLAS collaboration, where selected topics will be discussed in more detail.

  12. Treatment of a Class I malocclusion with a carious mandibular incisor and no Bolton discrepancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kokich, V O

    2000-07-01

    Occasionally orthodontists must plan treatment for a patient with extensive caries or a traumatic injury to one mandibular incisor. If the patient has a Bolton discrepancy, one treatment option could involve extraction of the affected mandibular incisor. However, if the patient does not have a Bolton discrepancy and a mandibular incisor is extracted, the treatment becomes more complicated. This case report will present and discuss the ramifications of extracting one mandibular incisor in a patient without an anterior tooth-size discrepancy. The CDABO Student Case Selection Committee chose this case for publication.

  13. Self-esteem discrepancies and identity-expressive consumption: Evidence from Norwegian adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tunca, Burak

    2016-01-24

    Prior research established that simultaneously holding discrepant explicit (deliberate, controlled) and implicit (automatic, uncontrolled) self-esteem gives rise to self-enhancing behaviours. Given that individuals tend to enhance their self-concepts with brands that are associated with positive identities, this study examined whether self-esteem discrepancy was related to the extent to which individuals developed connections with brands that are associated with their in-groups. Findings from an adolescent sample (ages 16-18) indicated that adolescents with larger discrepancies between explicit and implicit self-esteem were more likely to construct their self-concepts using in-group-linked brands.

  14. Ensuring rigour and trustworthiness of qualitative research in clinical pharmacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadi, Muhammad Abdul; José Closs, S

    2016-06-01

    The use of qualitative research methodology is well established for data generation within healthcare research generally and clinical pharmacy research specifically. In the past, qualitative research methodology has been criticized for lacking rigour, transparency, justification of data collection and analysis methods being used, and hence the integrity of findings. Demonstrating rigour in qualitative studies is essential so that the research findings have the "integrity" to make an impact on practice, policy or both. Unlike other healthcare disciplines, the issue of "quality" of qualitative research has not been discussed much in the clinical pharmacy discipline. The aim of this paper is to highlight the importance of rigour in qualitative research, present different philosophical standpoints on the issue of quality in qualitative research and to discuss briefly strategies to ensure rigour in qualitative research. Finally, a mini review of recent research is presented to illustrate the strategies reported by clinical pharmacy researchers to ensure rigour in their qualitative research studies.

  15. How ScienceQuest Ensures Success for All

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Judith Zorfass

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Informal educational programs that reach out to minority youth in low-income urban areas need to anticipate diversity. Not only will participants exhibit a range of abilities and needs, but some, just like in any population, are likely to have learning disabilities. ScienceQuest, an informal science education program funded by the National Science Foundation, was designed to ensure that youth aged 10 to 14 with diverse abilities and needs, including learning disabilities, can successfully participate and succeed in inquiry-based learning. The program uses the I-Search curriculum as the basis of its inquiry process. Embedded in this curriculum are the following inclusive practices: youth are motivated to explore their topic; they use varied media that supports their learning styles; they are guided to process information through multiple means; and they have access to technology tools. These ongoing inclusive practices ensure that everyone successfully explores the world around them.

  16. Ensuring the Validity of the Micro Foundation in DSGE Models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreasen, Martin Møller

    The presence of i) stochastic trends, ii) deterministic trends, and/or iii) stochastic volatil- ity in DSGE models may imply that the agents' objective functions attain infinite values. We say that such models do not have a valid micro foundation. The paper derives sufficient condi- tions which...... ensure that the objective functions of the households and the firms are finite even when various trends and stochastic volatility are included in a standard DSGE model. Based on these conditions we test the validity of the micro foundation in six DSGE models from the literature. The models of Justiniano...... & Primiceri (American Economic Review, forth- coming) and Fernández-Villaverde & Rubio-Ramírez (Review of Economic Studies, 2007) do not satisfy these sufficient conditions, or any other known set of conditions ensuring finite values for the objective functions. Thus, the validity of the micro foundation...

  17. The Concept of a Method Ensuring Aeronautical Data Quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dudek Ewa

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the concept of a method ensuring quality of aeronautical data. European Union (among others UE 73/2010 as well as international (among others ICAO Annex 15 regulations introduce a number of requirements regarding the quality and safety of aeronautical data. Those directives set up a complementary regulations system. However with their objective and scope they determine mainly the specifications and requirements that are to be implemented and compatible. Mentioned regulations also refer to selected international standards (e.g. ISO 19157, focused on quality and safety of geographic data and information. Nevertheless within the scope of considered regulations and norms no algorithms and methods of ensuring required quality in the process of aeronautical data collection and processing were determined. Taking into account the identified needs, authors proposed the application of statistical method for process quality management – six-sigma.

  18. Ensuring the quality of logistic service of automobile dealers

    OpenAIRE

    Tatyana A. Salimova; Lyudmila A. Fedos’kina

    2017-01-01

    Objective to substantiate the functional directions of activities of the enterprises of dealer chain of an automotive company aimed at ensuring the quality of logistics servicing of automobiles. Methods the study is based on the use of general scientific methods comparison scientific generalization logical analysis analogy and specific scientific methods systemic functional simulation. Results the article states that one of the key criteria of consumer behavior of car buye...

  19. Cep63 and cep152 cooperate to ensure centriole duplication.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicola J Brown

    Full Text Available Centrosomes consist of two centrioles embedded in pericentriolar material and function as the main microtubule organising centres in dividing animal cells. They ensure proper formation and orientation of the mitotic spindle and are therefore essential for the maintenance of genome stability. Centrosome function is crucial during embryonic development, highlighted by the discovery of mutations in genes encoding centrosome or spindle pole proteins that cause autosomal recessive primary microcephaly, including Cep63 and Cep152. In this study we show that Cep63 functions to ensure that centriole duplication occurs reliably in dividing mammalian cells. We show that the interaction between Cep63 and Cep152 can occur independently of centrosome localisation and that the two proteins are dependent on one another for centrosomal localisation. Further, both mouse and human Cep63 and Cep152 cooperate to ensure efficient centriole duplication by promoting the accumulation of essential centriole duplication factors upstream of SAS-6 recruitment and procentriole formation. These observations describe the requirement for Cep63 in maintaining centriole number in dividing mammalian cells and further establish the order of events in centriole formation.

  20. Cep63 and cep152 cooperate to ensure centriole duplication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Nicola J; Marjanović, Marko; Lüders, Jens; Stracker, Travis H; Costanzo, Vincenzo

    2013-01-01

    Centrosomes consist of two centrioles embedded in pericentriolar material and function as the main microtubule organising centres in dividing animal cells. They ensure proper formation and orientation of the mitotic spindle and are therefore essential for the maintenance of genome stability. Centrosome function is crucial during embryonic development, highlighted by the discovery of mutations in genes encoding centrosome or spindle pole proteins that cause autosomal recessive primary microcephaly, including Cep63 and Cep152. In this study we show that Cep63 functions to ensure that centriole duplication occurs reliably in dividing mammalian cells. We show that the interaction between Cep63 and Cep152 can occur independently of centrosome localisation and that the two proteins are dependent on one another for centrosomal localisation. Further, both mouse and human Cep63 and Cep152 cooperate to ensure efficient centriole duplication by promoting the accumulation of essential centriole duplication factors upstream of SAS-6 recruitment and procentriole formation. These observations describe the requirement for Cep63 in maintaining centriole number in dividing mammalian cells and further establish the order of events in centriole formation.

  1. Modern Paradigm of Ensuring Competitive Advantages of an Enterprise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klymchuk Alyona O.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The article considers evolution of development of the paradigm of ensuring competitive advantages of an enterprise. Foreign and domestic scientists focus on individual directions of development of competitive advantages and pay insufficient attention to new management concepts – development of the information society, knowledge economy and dynamism of integration processes. The goal of the study is formation of the modern paradigm of ensuring competitive advantages of an enterprise with consideration of tendencies of development of the knowledge economy, information society and integration processes. Enterprise competitiveness is a synergetic characteristic, which reflects enterprise capability of dynamic response to changes of the market situation with the aim of keeping predominance over other economic subjects. Management of the future, on the basis of the management 2.0 concept, should take into account interests not only of top management and shareholders but also employees, local communities and territories and meet requirements of the society in general, individual groups of consumers and tendencies of development of managerial and information technologies. The paradigm of the modern theory of ensuring competitive advantages should include models of keeping competitive advantages in the existing markets and models of development of future markets; strategy of development of enterprise competitiveness, human capital development and efficient enterprise management.

  2. Ensuring Sustainable Development through Urban Planning in Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Qasim

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Urban planning includes land use management and environmental change. It makes arrangement for community facilities and services. Since, sustainable development has been included as a vital end product of all planning goals it also provides for balanced use of land, housing and transportation and better quality of life. Present urban planning in Pakistan is not ensuring sustainable development in Pakistan. This is tested through the case study of master planning in Rawalpindi and its implementation through housing schemes in Rawalpindi, Pakistan. Large portions of provisions of master plans are not implemented. This paper explains how the urban planning will be made enabled to ensure sustainable development in Pakistan. Six numbers of housing schemes and two squatter settlements have been surveyed through questionnaires, secondary data, the opinions of the experts from related fields and site observations. Amenities and social services at far distance, very less green area, Less quantity and bad quality of water, absence of comprehensive solid waste management and sewage disposal system and nontreatment of solid waste, effluent and sewage, prevalent unhygienic conditions and air and water pollution are the existing factors effecting the sustainability. There is a need to revisit the urban planning and a comprehensive Urban and Environment Planning Law at national level and at provincial level is recommended to enable the urban planning to ensure the sustainable development in Pakistan

  3. Discrepancy between actual and ideal body images; Impact on eating and exercise behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anton, S D; Perri, M G; Riley, J R

    2000-12-01

    This study examined how discrepancies between actual and ideal body images are related to eating and exercise patterns. A total of 115 college-age women completed the Body Discrepancy Scale (BDS, a measure of the discrepancy between one's "actual" vs. "ideal" weight and size), a leisure-time physical activity survey, and questionnaires assessing the intake of fat and fiber (i.e., fruits and vegetables), as well as measures of maladaptive eating attitudes and behaviors. Partial correlations (controlling for Body Mass Index, BMI) showed that scores on the BDS were significantly (P'sbody image dissatisfaction (r=.32) and binge eating (r=.32). Collectively, these findings suggest that discrepancies between actual and ideal body images are associated with maladaptive eating and exercise patterns.

  4. Body self-discrepancies and women's social physique anxiety: the moderating role of the feared body.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodman, Tim; Steer, Rebecca

    2011-05-01

    We explored ideal, ought, and feared body image self-discrepancies as predictors of social physique anxiety within Carver, Lawrence, and Scheier's and Woodman and Hemmings' interaction frameworks. One hundred women completed actual, ideal, ought, and feared body self-discrepancy visual analogue scales, the Social Physique Anxiety Scale and the Beck Depression Inventory-II. Moderated hierarchical regression analyses indicated that the relationship between ought body fat discrepancies and social physique anxiety was moderated by proximity to the feared fat self. Specifically, the positive relationship between ought fat discrepancies and social physique anxiety was stronger when women were far from their feared body self. The results highlight the importance of considering the feared self in order to more fully understand the relationship between body image and social physique anxiety.

  5. Reported methodologic quality and discrepancies between large and small randomized trials in meta-analyses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjaergard, L L; Villumsen, J; Gluud, C

    2001-01-01

    To explore whether reported methodologic quality affects estimated intervention effects in randomized trials and contributes to discrepancies between the results of large randomized trials and small randomized trials in meta-analyses....

  6. Interpretation of images and discrepancy between osteoarthritic findings and symptomatology in temporomandibular joint

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsukasa Sano

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available The discrepancy between osteoarthritic findings on images and symptomatology can sometimes be problematic in clinical work. In this article, we focus on osteoarthritis and related entities on images, and especially on MR images.

  7. A counterexample to Beck's conjecture on the discrepancy of three permutations

    CERN Document Server

    Newman, Alantha

    2011-01-01

    Given three permutations on the integers 1 through n, consider the set system consisting of each interval in each of the three permutations. Jozsef Beck conjectured (c. 1987) that the discrepancy of this set system is O(1). We give a counterexample to this conjecture: for any positive integer n = 3^k, we exhibit three permutations whose corresponding set system has discrepancy Omega(log(n)). Our counterexample is based on a simple recursive construction, and our proof of the discrepancy lower bound is by induction. This example also disproves a generalization of Beck's conjecture due to Spencer, Srinivasan and Tetali, who conjectured that a set system corresponding to l permutations has discrepancy O(sqrt(l)).

  8. Perceptions of Counselor Expertness: The Effects of Interpretation Content, Discrepancy, and Type.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strohmer, Douglas C.; And Others

    1985-01-01

    Examined the effects of the counselor's use of interpretation on participants' perceptions of counselor expertness. A main effect for interpretation type (propositional versus semantic interpretation) and an interaction between degree of discrepancy and interpretation type were found. (Author/BL)

  9. 12 CFR 222.82 - Duties of users regarding address discrepancies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Identity Theft § 222.82 Duties of users regarding address discrepancies. (a) Scope. This section applies to... consumer's identity in accordance with the requirements of the Customer Identification Program (CIP)...

  10. A Case for Not Going SAT-Optional: Students with Discrepant SAT and HSGPA Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattern, Krista D.; Shaw, Emily J.; Kobrin, Jennifer L.

    2010-01-01

    Presented at the national conference for the American Educational Research Association (AERA) in 2010. This presentation describes an alternative way of presenting the unique information provided by the SAT over HSGPA, namely examining students with discrepant SAT-HSGPA performance.

  11. Imaging the elusive H-poor gas in planetary nebulae with large abundance discrepancy factors

    CERN Document Server

    García-Rojas, J; Boffin, H M J; Monteiro, H; Jones, D; Wesson, R; Cabrera-Lavers, A; Rodríguez-Gil, P

    2016-01-01

    The discrepancy between abundances computed using optical recombination lines (ORLs) and collisionally excited lines (CELs) is a major, unresolved problem with significant implications for the determination of chemical abundances throughout the Universe. In planetary nebulae (PNe), the most common explanation for the discrepancy is that two different gas phases coexist: a hot component with standard metallicity, and a much colder plasma enhanced in heavy elements. This dual nature is not predicted by mass loss theories, and direct observational support for it is still weak. In this work, we present our recent findings that demonstrate that the largest abundance discrepancies are associated with close binary central stars. OSIRIS-GTC tunable filter imaging of the faint O II ORLs and MUSE-VLT deep 2D spectrophotometry confirm that O II ORL emission is more centrally concentrated than that of [O III] CELs and, therefore, that the abundance discrepancy may be closely linked to binary evolution.

  12. Agreements and Discrepancies between FDA Reports and Journal Papers on Biologic Agents Approved for Rheumatoid Arthritis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Amarilyo, Gil; Furst, Daniel E; Woo, Jennifer M P

    2016-01-01

    approach, patient inclusion, rounding effect, and counting discrepancies. However, no differences were categorized as critical. CONCLUSION: There was no empirical evidence to suggest biased estimates between the two sources. Increased and detailed transparency in publications would improve...

  13. Cardiovascular drugs : discrepancies in demographics between pre- and post-registration use

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wieringa, NF; de Graeff, PA; van der Werf, GT; Vos, R

    1999-01-01

    Objectives: To study discrepancies in demographic characteristics between patients participating in pre-registration phase III trials of cardiovascular drugs, registered in the Netherlands, and patient populations in daily practice representing the actual users of the drugs after registration. Metho

  14. Patterns and Predictors of Mother-Adolescent Discrepancies across Family Constructs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rote, Wendy M; Smetana, Judith G

    2016-10-01

    Parent-child discrepancies pervade the family literature; they appear in reports of relationship dynamics (e.g., conflict; Laursen et al. 1998), parent and child behaviors (e.g., monitoring; De Los Reyes et al. 2010), and individual family members' beliefs (e.g., parental legitimate authority; Smetana 2011). Discrepancies are developmentally normative (Steinberg 2001) but also may be indicators of relationship and adjustment problems for teens (Ohannessian 2012). Because of this variation, it is important to consider the extent to which parent-child discrepancies are a function of both the dyad and the family construct considered. The present study contributed to our understanding of informant discrepancies in family relationships by considering the patterning, consistency, and correlates of mother-adolescent discrepancies across three family constructs that vary in their objectivity. Using person-centered analyses, discrepancies in adolescents' and mothers' ratings of parents' right to know about teens' activities, mothers' knowledge of them, and positive mother-adolescents relationships were examined in 167 middle class, primarily European American mother-adolescent dyads (M teen age = 15.68 years, SD = .64, 53 % female). Each construct was best described by three profiles, one where adolescents' standardized ratings were consistently higher than mothers', one showing the reverse, and one revealing little disagreement. Adolescent-reported problem behavior (but not depression), behavioral and psychological control, and mothers' wellbeing significantly predicted profile membership. Most dyads maintained consistent membership in a discrepancy profile across at least two family constructs. Results contribute to understanding the different sources of discrepancies in views of the family.

  15. Parental and Peer Factors Associated with Body Image Discrepancy among Fifth-Grade Boys and Girls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wentzel, Kathryn; Elliott, Marc N.; Dittus, Patricia J.; Kanouse, David E.; Wallander, Jan L.; Pasch, Keryn E.; Franzini, Luisa; Taylor, Wendell C.; Qureshi, Tariq; Franklin, Frank A.; Schuster, Mark A.

    2015-01-01

    Many young adolescents are dissatisfied with their body due to a discrepancy between their ideal and actual body size, which can lead to weight cycling, eating disorders, depression, and obesity. The current study examined the associations of parental and peer factors with fifth-graders’ body image discrepancy, physical self-worth as a mediator between parental and peer factors and body image discrepancy, and how these associations vary by child’s sex. Body image discrepancy was defined as the difference between young adolescents’ self-perceived body size and the size they believe a person their age should be. Data for this study came from Healthy Passages, which surveyed 5,147 fifth graders (51 % females; 34 % African American, 35 % Latino, 24 % White, and 6 % other) and their primary caregivers from the United States. Path analyses were conducted separately for boys and girls. The findings for boys suggest father nurturance and getting along with peers are related negatively to body image discrepancy; however, for girls, fear of negative evaluation by peers is related positively to body image discrepancy. For both boys and girls, getting along with peers and fear of negative evaluation by peers are related directly to physical self-worth. In addition, mother nurturance is related positively to physical self-worth for girls, and father nurturance is related positively to physical self-worth for boys. In turn, physical self-worth, for both boys and girls, is related negatively to body image discrepancy. The findings highlight the potential of parental and peer factors to reduce fifth graders’ body image discrepancy. PMID:23334988

  16. Linking Informant Discrepancies to Observed Variations in Young Children’s Disruptive Behavior

    OpenAIRE

    De Los Reyes, Andres; Henry, David B.; Tolan, Patrick H.; Wakschlag, Lauren S.

    2009-01-01

    Prior work has not tested the basic theoretical notion that informant discrepancies in reports of children’s behavior exist, in part, because different informants observe children’s behavior in different settings. We examined patterns of observed preschool disruptive behavior across varying social contexts in the laboratory and whether they related to parent-teacher rating discrepancies of disruptive behavior in a sample of 327 preschoolers. Observed disruptive behavior was assessed with a la...

  17. Discrepancy between financial disclosures of authors of clinical practice guidelines and reports by industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreatos, Nikolaos; Zacharioudakis, Ioannis M; Zervou, Fainareti N; Muhammed, Maged; Mylonakis, Eleftherios

    2017-01-01

    There is a substantial effort to increase the accuracy of conflicts of interest (COI) reporting, and reduce the influence of COI between physicians and industry, especially as it relates to clinical practice guidelines.We used the newly implemented Open Payments dataset to evaluate the accuracy of COI disclosures of authors of clinical practice guidelines that were either newly published or revised within 2014 and were included in the National Guideline Clearinghouse (NGC) website (maintained by the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services). Authors were considered as having inaccurate COI disclosure if they had not reported all companies from which they had received funds >$5000 in the 12 months preceding the guideline's publication.We identified 223 guidelines that were either newly published (109/223; 48.9%) or revised (114/223; 51.1%) within 2014 and were included in the NGC website. Among the 1329 guideline authors with available Open Payments data, 523 received >$5000 from at least 1 healthcare-associated entity. However, only 56 out of the 523 authors (10.7%) were found to have accurate COI disclosure. The percentage of authors with accurate COI disclosure in revised guidelines was significantly lower than in newly published guidelines (6.8% vs 14.3%; P disclose "research payments" (37/49, 75.5%) compared to "general payments" (488/559, 87.3%, P = 0.02) as well as "other/associated research funding" (430/506, 85.0%, P = 0.08). No statistically significant association was detected between funding amount and disclosure accuracy.The majority of guideline authors lacked significant COIs, but among authors that received significant funds from at least 1 healthcare-associated entity the frequency of accurate disclosure was low. These findings indicate that the current process of disclosing COIs may be suboptimal and a proactive approach should be adopted in order to minimize COI reporting discrepancies. Furthermore, every effort should be undertaken

  18. Body Image Self-Discrepancy and Depressive Symptoms Among Early Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solomon-Krakus, Shauna; Sabiston, Catherine M; Brunet, Jennifer; Castonguay, Andree L; Maximova, Katerina; Henderson, Mélanie

    2017-01-01

    This study examined whether body image self-discrepancy was a correlate of depressive symptoms among 556 early adolescents (45% girls; Mage = 11.65, SD = .94 years). Participants completed self-report measures of their self-perceived actual and ideal body shapes and depressive symptoms. Sex-stratified polynomial regressions were used to examine the associations between depressive symptoms and (1) agreement (i.e., similar actual and ideal body shapes); (2) discrepancy (i.e., different actual and ideal body shapes); (3) direction of discrepancy (i.e., actual > ideal or actual body self-perceptions are). For both sexes, depressive symptoms were more frequent when the direction of the discrepancy was such that participants perceived their actual body was larger than their ideal body. Furthermore, depressive symptoms were more frequent when the degree of the discrepancy between actual and ideal body shape perceptions was larger. Based on these findings, body image self-discrepancy may be a risk factor for depressive symptoms among early adolescents. Copyright © 2016 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Parent-Adolescent Discrepancies in Perceived Parenting Characteristics and Adolescent Developmental Outcomes in Poor Chinese Families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, Janet T Y; Shek, Daniel T L

    2014-01-01

    We examined the relationships between parent-adolescent discrepancies in perceived parenting characteristics (indexed by parental responsiveness, parental demandingness, and parental control) and adolescent developmental outcomes (indexed by achievement motivation and psychological competence) in poor families in Hong Kong. A sample of 275 intact families having at least one child aged 11-16 experiencing economic disadvantage were invited to participate in the study. Fathers and mothers completed the Parenting Style Scale and Chinese Parental Control Scale, and adolescents completed the Social-Oriented Achievement Motivation Scale and Chinese Positive Youth Development Scale in addition to paternal and maternal Parenting Style Scale and Chinese Parental Control Scale. Results indicated that parents and adolescents had different perceptions of parental responsiveness, parental demandingness, and paternal control, with adolescents generally perceived lower levels of parenting behaviors than did their parents. While father-adolescent discrepancy in perceived paternal responsiveness and mother-adolescent discrepancy in perceived maternal control negatively predicted adolescent achievement motivation, mother-adolescent discrepancy in perceptions of maternal responsiveness negatively predicted psychological competence in adolescents experiencing economic disadvantage. The present findings provided support that parent-child discrepancies in perceived parenting characteristics have negative impacts on the developmental outcomes of adolescents experiencing economic disadvantage. The present study addresses parent-child discrepancies in perceived parental behaviors as "legitimate" constructs, and explores their links with adolescent psychosocial development, which sheds light for researchers and clinical practitioners in helping the Chinese families experiencing economic disadvantage.

  20. Physics-informed machine learning approach for reconstructing Reynolds stress modeling discrepancies based on DNS data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jian-Xun; Wu, Jin-Long; Xiao, Heng

    2017-03-01

    Turbulence modeling is a critical component in numerical simulations of industrial flows based on Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) equations. However, after decades of efforts in the turbulence modeling community, universally applicable RANS models with predictive capabilities are still lacking. Large discrepancies in the RANS-modeled Reynolds stresses are the main source that limits the predictive accuracy of RANS models. Identifying these discrepancies is of significance to possibly improve the RANS modeling. In this work, we propose a data-driven, physics-informed machine learning approach for reconstructing discrepancies in RANS modeled Reynolds stresses. The discrepancies are formulated as functions of the mean flow features. By using a modern machine learning technique based on random forests, the discrepancy functions are trained by existing direct numerical simulation (DNS) databases and then used to predict Reynolds stress discrepancies in different flows where data are not available. The proposed method is evaluated by two classes of flows: (1) fully developed turbulent flows in a square duct at various Reynolds numbers and (2) flows with massive separations. In separated flows, two training flow scenarios of increasing difficulties are considered: (1) the flow in the same periodic hills geometry yet at a lower Reynolds number and (2) the flow in a different hill geometry with a similar recirculation zone. Excellent predictive performances were observed in both scenarios, demonstrating the merits of the proposed method.

  1. Discrepant Perspectives on Conflict Situations Among Urban Parent-Adolescent Dyads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Elizabeth M; Lindstrom Johnson, Sarah R; Jones, Vanya C; Haynie, Denise L; Cheng, Tina L

    2016-03-01

    Parents influence urban youths' violence-related behaviors. To provide effective guidance, parents should understand how youth perceive conflict, yet little empirical research has been conducted regarding parent and youth perceptions of conflict. The aims of this article are to (a) report on the nature of discrepancies in attribution of fault, (b) present qualitative data about the varying rationales for fault attribution, and (c) use quantitative data to identify correlates of discrepancy including report of attitudes toward violence, parental communication, and parents' messages about retaliatory violence. Interviews were conducted with 101 parent/adolescent dyads. The study population consisted of African American female caretakers (n = 92; that is, mothers, grandmothers, aunts) and fathers (n = 9) and their early adolescents (mean age = 13.6). A total of 53 dyads were discrepant in identifying instigators in one or both videos. When discrepancy was present, the parent was more likely to identify the actor who reacted to the situation as at fault. In the logistic regression models, parental attitudes about retaliatory violence were a significant correlate of discrepancy, such that as parent attitudes supporting retaliatory violence increased, the odds of discrepancy decreased. The results suggest that parents and adolescents do not always view conflict situations similarly, which may inhibit effective parent-child communication, parental advice, and discipline. Individuals developing and implementing family-based violence prevention interventions need to be cognizant of the complexity of fault attribution and design strategies to promote conversations around attribution of fault and effective conflict management.

  2. WISC-R Verbal and Performance IQ Discrepancy in an Unselected Cohort: Clinical Significance and Longitudinal Stability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moffitt, Terrie E.; Silva, P. A.

    1987-01-01

    Examined children whose Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Revised (WISC-R) verbal and performance Intelligence Quotient discrepancies placed them beyond the 90th percentile. Longitudinal study showed 23 percent of the discrepant cases to be discrepant at two or more ages. Studied frequency of perinatal difficulties, early childhood…

  3. Informant Discrepancies in the Assessment of Childhood Psychopathology: A Critical Review, Theoretical Framework, and Recommendations for Further Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Los Reyes, Andres; Kazdin, Alan E.

    2005-01-01

    Discrepancies often exist among different informants' (e.g., parents, children, teachers) ratings of child psychopathology. Informant discrepancies have an impact on the assessment, classification, and treatment of childhood psychopathology. Empirical work has identified informant characteristics that may influence informant discrepancies.…

  4. How NASA Utilizes Dashboards to Help Ensure Mission Success

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blakeley, Chris

    2013-01-01

    NASA is actively planning to expand human spaceflight and robotic exploration beyond low Earth orbit. To prepare for the challenge of exploring these destinations in space, NASA conducts missions here on Earth in remote locations that have physical similarities to extreme space environments. Program managers for the Advanced Exploration Systems program requested a simple way to track financial information to ensure that each task stayed within their budgetary constraints. Using SAP BusinessObjects Dashboards (Formerly Xcelsius), a dashboard was created to satisfy all of their key requirements. Lessons learned, along with some tips and tricks, will be highlighted during this session.

  5. Techniques for Efficiently Ensuring Data Storage Security in Cloud Computing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Banoth, Rajkumar

    2011-01-01

    The Cloud Computing is the next generation architecture of IT Enterprise. It moves the application software and databases to the large data centers, where the management of the data and services may not be fully trustworthy. Here, focus is on cloud data storage security, an important aspect...... of quality of service. To ensure the correctness of users’ data in the cloud, we propose an effective and flexible distributed scheme with two salient features. By utilizing the homomorphic token with distributed verification of erasure-coded data, the scheme achieves the integration of storage correctness...

  6. Ensuring the Validity of the Micro Foundation in DSGE Models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreasen, Martin Møller

    The presence of i) stochastic trends, ii) deterministic trends, and/or iii) stochastic volatil- ity in DSGE models may imply that the agents' objective functions attain infinite values. We say that such models do not have a valid micro foundation. The paper derives sufficient condi- tions which...... ensure that the objective functions of the households and the firms are finite even when various trends and stochastic volatility are included in a standard DSGE model. Based on these conditions we test the validity of the micro foundation in six DSGE models from the literature. The models of Justiniano...... in these models remains to be established....

  7. Ensuring Food Security Through Enhancing Microbiological Food Safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikš-Krajnik, Marta; Yuk, Hyun-Gyun; Kumar, Amit; Yang, Yishan; Zheng, Qianwang; Kim, Min-Jeong; Ghate, Vinayak; Yuan, Wenqian; Pang, Xinyi

    2015-10-01

    Food safety and food security are interrelated concepts with a profound impact on the quality of human life. Food security describes the overall availability of food at different levels from global to individual household. While, food safety focuses on handling, preparation and storage of foods in order to prevent foodborne illnesses. This review focuses on innovative thermal and non-thermal technologies in the area of food processing as the means to ensure food security through improving food safety with emphasis on the reduction and control of microbiological risks. The antimicrobial efficiency and mechanism of new technologies to extend the shelf life of food product were also discussed.

  8. THE ROLE OF MORTGAGE CREDIT IN ENSURING ECONOMIC GROWTH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. L. Garipova

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The decision of the important social task - ensuring the availability of housing for the mass of the population of the country, on the one hand, allowed to launch investment, savings, financial and credit mechanisms for ensuring economic growth of the Russian economy on the other. Despite the high degree of sophistication in the scientific literature of the organization of mortgage lending system, a study of its impact on economic growth factors in the scientific literature clearly insufficient. The original article was the theory of economic growth, which allowed on the basis of research of interaction of demand for residential property, it deals with the housing mortgage credit to justify a conclusion about its importance not only for solution of social tasks, availability of housing, but also a significant impact on the demand and supply on the residential property market. Based on the analysis of statistical data for the period from 2006 to 2012, and their correlation analysis carried out research of factors of development of housing markets and mortgage lending, namely incomes, housing prices, interest rates on loans, «channel lending conditions, the terms of banking mortgage.Purchase on Elibrary.ru > Buy now

  9. Investment-innovation mechanism of ensuring competitiveness of industrial enterprises

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kozyk Vasyl V.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The article considers the process of formation of the investment-innovation mechanism of ensuring competitiveness of industrial enterprises. It identifies the essence, composition, goals and means of functioning of this mechanism. It establishes sequence of the process of functioning of the investment-innovation mechanism of ensuring competitiveness of economic subjects. It marks out such particular types of this mechanism: mechanism of renovation of fixed assets of an enterprise, mechanism of formation of channels and network of sales of enterprise products, mechanism of expansion of production capacity of the enterprise on manufacture of traditional types of products, mechanism of introduction of new progressive production processes, mechanism of development and production of innovation products, and mechanism of reduction of the level of risk of investment activity of the enterprise. The article conducts modelling of the process of development and realisation of investment solutions on introduction of progressive technologies of manufacture of products at the enterprise. It offers a method of selection of the most competitive variant of technology of manufacture of products depending on the level of quality and also specific current capital outlays for their manufacture.

  10. Work-family conflict and self-discrepant time allocation at work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahm, Patricia C; Glomb, Theresa M; Manchester, Colleen Flaherty; Leroy, Sophie

    2015-05-01

    We examine the relationships between work-to-family conflict, time allocation across work activities, and the outcomes of work satisfaction, well-being, and salary in the context of self-regulation and self-discrepancy theories. We posit work-to-family conflict is associated with self-discrepant time allocation such that employees with higher levels of work-to-family conflict are likely to allocate less time than preferred to work activities that require greater self-regulatory resources (e.g., tasks that are complex, or those with longer term goals that delay rewards and closure) and allocate more time than preferred to activities that demand fewer self-regulatory resources or are replenishing (e.g., those that provide closure or are prosocial). We suggest this self-discrepant time allocation (actual vs. preferred time allocation) is one mechanism by which work-to-family conflict leads to negative employee consequences (Allen, Herst, Bruck, & Sutton, 2000; Mesmer-Magnus & Viswesvaran, 2005). Using polynomial regression and response surface methodology, we find that discrepancies between actual and preferred time allocations to work activities negatively relate to work satisfaction, psychological well-being, and physical well-being. Self-discrepant time allocation mediates the relationship between work-to-family conflict and work satisfaction and well-being, while actual time allocation (rather than the discrepancy) mediates the relationship between work-to-family conflict and salary. We find that women are more likely than men to report self-discrepant time allocations as work-to-family conflict increases. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved.

  11. Side-to-side growth discrepancies in children with hemiplegic cerebral palsy: association with function, activity and social participation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marise Bueno Zonta

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Evaluate side-to-side discrepancies in children with hemiplegic cerebral palsy (HCP, and investigate associations of these discrepancies with patients’ age at initiation of physical therapy, motor and cognitive function, and degree of activities and social participation. Method: We obtained eight side-to-side measurements from 24 HCP children with mean age 49.3±5.2 months. Results: Early initiation of physical therapy was associated with lower discrepancy in hand length (p=0.037. Lower foot length discrepancy was associated with lower requirement for caregiver assistance in activities related to mobility. Increased side-to-side discrepancy was associated with reduced wrist extension and increased spasticity. Discrepancy played a larger role in children with hemineglect and in those with right involvement. Conclusion: Increased discrepancy in HCP children was associated with reduced degree of activity/social participation. These results suggest an association between functional use of the extremities and limb growth.

  12. A learning program that ensures prompt and versatile vocal imitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Wan-Chun; Nottebohm, Fernando

    2007-12-18

    Here we show how a migratory songbird, the chipping sparrow (Spizella passerina), achieves prompt and precise vocal imitation. Juvenile chipping sparrow males develop five to seven potential precursor songs; the normal development of these songs requires intact hearing but not imitation from external models. The potential precursor songs conform with general species-typical song parameters but differ from the song of wild, adult territorial males. As chipping sparrow males return from migration to start their first breeding season, they settle close to an older adult. The young male then stops producing all but one of its precursor songs, retaining the one that most resembles that of its neighbor. This single song then becomes more variable and, in a matter of days, is altered to closely match the neighbor's song. This elegant solution ensures species specificity and promptness of imitation.

  13. Ensuring Pain Relief for Children at the End of Life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie-Claude Grégoire

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Pain management in the context of pediatric palliative care can be challenging. The present article reviews, through a case-based presentation, the nonpharmacological and pharmacological methods used to ensure adequate pain control in children facing end of life. Details on the impressive range of opioid dosages required and routes of administration are highlighted from published literature and clinical experience. Where available, evidence-based recommendations are provided. Potential side effects of pain medication and barriers to good pain control are discussed. Novel analgesics and innovative delivery methods are presented as future tools enhancing pain relief at the end of life. Some challenges to ethically grounded research in this important context of care are reviewed.

  14. Strategies to ensure the welfare of street children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saurabh RamBihariLal Shrivastava

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Street children refer to a vulnerable section of children who lives on the street in the absence of any guidance of a responsible person, to ensure their own or their family′s survival. Multiple determinants have been ascertained in the causation of the menace of street children. In order to address the challenges faced by street children, there is an indispensable need to develop a comprehensive strategy by involving all the concerned stakeholders. To conclude, to counter the menace of street children, there is a definite need to understand the role of heterogeneous determinants that push children towards street life, so that the welfare needs of street children can be safeguarded and the problem can be addressed at the grass root level.

  15. Cystatin F Ensures Eosinophil Survival by Regulating Granule Biogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthews, Stephen P; McMillan, Sarah J; Colbert, Jeff D; Lawrence, Rachel A; Watts, Colin

    2016-04-19

    Eosinophils are now recognized as multifunctional leukocytes that provide critical homeostatic signals to maintain other immune cells and aid tissue repair. Paradoxically, eosinophils also express an armory of granule-localized toxins and hydrolases believed to contribute to pathology in inflammatory disease. How eosinophils deliver their supporting functions while avoiding self-inflicted injury is poorly understood. We have demonstrated that cystatin F (CF) is a critical survival factor for eosinophils. Eosinophils from CF null mice had reduced lifespan, reduced granularity, and disturbed granule morphology. In vitro, cysteine protease inhibitors restored granularity, demonstrating that control of cysteine protease activity by CF is critical for normal eosinophil development. CF null mice showed reduced pulmonary pathology in a model of allergic lung inflammation but also reduced ability to combat infection by the nematode Brugia malayi. These data identify CF as a "cytoprotectant" that promotes eosinophil survival and function by ensuring granule integrity. VIDEO ABSTRACT.

  16. Distributed Design of a Central Service to Ensure Deterministic Behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Imran Ali Jokhio

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available A central authentication service to EPC (Electronic Product Code system architecture is proposed in our previous work. A challenge for a central service always arises that how it can ensure a certain level of delay while processing emergent data. The increasing data in the EPC system architecture is tags data. Therefore, authenticating increasing number of tag in the central authentication service with a deterministic time response is investigated and a distributed authentication service is designed in a layered approach. A distributed design of tag searching services in SOA (Service Oriented Architecture style is also presented. Using the SOA architectural style a self-adaptive authentication service over Cloud is also proposed for the central authentication service, that may also be extended for other applications.

  17. Optimized System Design to Ensure Safe and Smooth Operation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Huilin; Zhao Lei; Ren Hua

    2008-01-01

    After the replacement with automatic system for the down direction hump of Zhengzhou North Station, some problems occurred in the sub-system of the speed control of the TW-2 hump automatic system and the sub-system of the sorting interlocking, such as poor control accuracy, complicated operation, too long time for mode switch of different performances etc. had made it impossible to meet the physical requirements of the sorting performance of the station, having an adverse effect on the safety and efficiency of the hump. Through intensive analysis on both external and internal causes, some counter measures had been put forward to solve the problems and some validations were carried out on the site. Therefore the aims to ensure safe and reliable operation of the station were reached.

  18. Masculine discrepancy stress, teen dating violence, and sexual violence perpetration among adolescent boys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reidy, Dennis E; Smith-Darden, Joanne P; Cortina, Kai S; Kernsmith, Roger M; Kernsmith, Poco D

    2015-06-01

    Addressing gender norms is integral to understanding and ultimately preventing violence in both adolescent and adult intimate relationships. Males are affected by gender role expectations which require them to demonstrate attributes of strength, toughness, and dominance. Discrepancy stress is a form of gender role stress that occurs when boys and men fail to live up to the traditional gender norms set by society. Failure to live up to these gender role expectations may precipitate this experience of psychological distress in some males which, in turn, may increase the risk to engage in physically and sexually violent behaviors as a means of demonstrating masculinity. Five-hundred eighty-nine adolescent males from schools in Wayne County, Michigan completed a survey assessing self-perceptions of gender role discrepancy, the experience of discrepancy stress, and history of physical and sexual dating violence. Logistic regression analyses indicated boys who endorsed gender role discrepancy and associated discrepancy stress were generally at greater risk to engage in acts of sexual violence but not necessarily physical violence. Boys who experience stress about being perceived as "sub-masculine" may be more likely to engage in sexual violence as a means of demonstrating their masculinity to self and/or others and thwarting potential "threats" to their masculinity by dating partners. Efforts to prevent sexual violence perpetration among male adolescents should perhaps consider the influence of gender socialization in this population and include efforts to reduce distress about masculine socialization in primary prevention strategies. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  19. Strategic objectives for improving understanding of informant discrepancies in developmental psychopathology research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Los Reyes, Andres

    2013-08-01

    Developmental psychopathology researchers and practitioners commonly conduct behavioral assessments using multiple informants' reports (e.g., parents, teachers, practitioners, children, and laboratory observers). These assessments often yield inconsistent conclusions about important questions in developmental psychopathology research, depending on the informant (e.g., psychiatric diagnoses and risk factors of disorder). Researchers have theorized why informant discrepancies exist and advanced methodological models of informant discrepancies. However, over 50 years of empirical data has uncovered little knowledge about these discrepancies beyond that they exist, complicate interpretations of research findings and assessment outcomes in practice, and correlate with some characteristics of the informants providing reports (e.g., demographics and mood levels). Further, recent studies often yield take-home messages about the importance of taking a multi-informant approach to clinical and developmental assessments. Researchers draw these conclusions from their work, despite multi-informant approaches to assessment long being a part of best practices in clinical and developmental assessments. Consequently, developmental psychopathology researchers and practitioners are in dire need of a focused set of research priorities with the key goal of rapidly advancing knowledge about informant discrepancies. In this paper, I discuss these research priorities, review work indicating the feasibility of conducting research addressing these priorities, and specify what researchers and practitioners would gain from studies advancing knowledge about informant discrepancies in developmental psychopathology research.

  20. Exploring disadvantageous inequality aversion in children: How cost and discrepancy influence decision-making

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanda eWilliams

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This research examined disadvantageous inequality aversion in 4- and 6-year-old children. Using the resource allocation paradigm, we explored how inequality aversion was influenced by whether a cost was associated with the equitable choice. We also investigated whether preferences for equality differed depending on whether the inequitable choice presented a small or large discrepancy between the payoff of the participant and their partner. The results demonstrated that cost plays a large role in decision-making, as children preferred equality more when there was no cost associated with it compared to when there was a cost. Interestingly, the effect of cost also affected discrepancy, with children more likely to choose equality when the discrepancy was large as opposed to small, in cost trials but not in no cost trials. Finally, the effect of discrepancy also interacted with age, with older children being more sensitive to the discrepancy between themselves and their partner Together, these results suggest that children’s behaviour is not indiscriminately guided by a generalized aversion to inequality or established fairness norms. Alternate motives for inequality aversion are discussed.

  1. Parent-Adolescent Discrepancies Regarding Adolescents' Peer-Related Loneliness: Associations with Adolescent Adjustment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spithoven, Annette W M; Vanhalst, Janne; Lodder, Gerine; Bijttebier, Patricia; Goossens, Luc

    2017-03-27

    Because loneliness is a subjective experience, it is often examined using self-reports. Yet, researchers have started to use other-reports to examine loneliness. As previous research suggests that discrepancies between self- and other views might have important implications for adolescents' mental health, the current study examines discrepancies in multi-informant reports on adolescents' loneliness in relation with prosocial behavior, aggression, and adolescents' parent-related loneliness. The sample consisted of 374 mother-adolescent dyads and 318 father-adolescent dyads (41.80% male, M age  = 15.67 years, SD = 1.25). Results indicated that informants used different reference points to assess adolescents' peer-related loneliness, but were otherwise comparable. Moreover, informant discrepancies were associated with greater adolescents' reported parent-related loneliness. The current study did not provide evidence that discrepancies were related to prosocial or aggressive behavior. The current study adds to the notion that other-reports on loneliness show substantial convergence with self-reports. In addition, this study indicates that the discrepancy between other- and self-reports on loneliness holds valuable information for adolescent socio-emotional adjustment.

  2. Controllability discrepancy and irreducibility/reducibility of Floquet factorisations in linear continuous-time periodic systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Jun; Lu, Xinbiao; Qian, Huimin

    2016-09-01

    The paper reports interesting but unnoticed facts about irreducibility (resp., reducibility) of Flouqet factorisations and their harmonic implication in term of controllability in finite-dimensional linear continuous-time periodic (FDLCP) systems. Reducibility and irreducibility are attributed to matrix logarithm algorithms during computing Floquet factorisations in FDLCP systems, which are a pair of essential features but remain unnoticed in the Floquet theory so far. The study reveals that reducible Floquet factorisations may bring in harmonic waves variance into the Fourier analysis of FDLCP systems that in turn may alter our interpretation of controllability when the Floquet factors are used separately during controllability testing; namely, controllability interpretation discrepancy (or simply, controllability discrepancy) may occur and must be examined whenever reducible Floquet factorisations are involved. On the contrary, when irreducible Floquet factorisations are employed, controllability interpretation discrepancy can be avoided. Examples are included to illustrate such observations.

  3. Weight discrepancy and body appreciation of Zimbabwean women in Zimbabwe and Britain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swami, Viren; Mada, Rujeko; Tovée, Martin J

    2012-09-01

    Few studies have investigated a cultural group's corporeal experiences in both its country of origin and a host, Western country using the same methodology. To overcome this dearth in the literature, the present study examined body image among 140 women in Harare, Zimbabwe, and an age-matched sample of 138 Zimbabwean migrants in Britain. Participants completed measures of actual-ideal weight discrepancy, body appreciation, and lifetime exposure to Western and Zimbabwean media. Preliminary analyses showed that there were no significant differences in body mass index between the two groups. Further analyses showed that Zimbabwean women in Britain had significantly greater weight discrepancy and lower body appreciation than their counterparts in Zimbabwe. In addition, weight discrepancy and body appreciation among both samples were significantly associated with exposure to Western media, but not Zimbabwean media. These findings support the contention that transcultural migration may place individuals at risk for symptoms of negative body image. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Development of WAIS-III General Ability Index Minus WMS-III memory discrepancy scores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lange, Rael T; Chelune, Gordon J; Tulsky, David S

    2006-09-01

    Analysis of the discrepancy between intellectual functioning and memory ability has received some support as a useful means for evaluating memory impairment. In recent additions to Wechlser scale interpretation, the WAIS-III General Ability Index (GAI) and the WMS-III Delayed Memory Index (DMI) were developed. The purpose of this investigation is to develop base rate data for GAI-IMI, GAI-GMI, and GAI-DMI discrepancy scores using data from the WAIS-III/WMS-III standardization sample (weighted N = 1250). Base rate tables were developed using the predicted-difference method and two simple-difference methods (i.e., stratified and non-stratified). These tables provide valuable data for clinical reference purposes to determine the frequency of GAI-IMI, GAI-GMI, and GAI-DMI discrepancy scores in the WAIS-III/WMS-III standardization sample.

  5. National cultural values and the evolution of process and outcome discrepancies in international strategic alliances

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kumar, Rajesh; Nti, Kofi O

    2004-01-01

    discrepancies that may emerge during the course of an alliance. They argue that national culture affects alliance evolution by influencing partners sensitivity to discrepancy detection , shaping the nature of attributions they make, and by affecting the partners reactions to discrepancies. They focus...... on differences in three value orientations among cultures. activity orientation, mastery over nature, and assumptions about human nature are the value orientations that affect alliance functioning. The author/s argue that alliances are prone to interpretational, attributional, and behavioral conflicts......The article assesses the role played by national cultural values in shaping the evolution of international strategic alliances. The authors build on a systems dynamic model of alliance evolution in which the developmental path of an alliance depends on how the partners manage process and outcome...

  6. Discrepancies between implicit and explicit self-esteem: implications for narcissism and self-esteem instability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeigler-Hill, Virgil

    2006-02-01

    There appear to be two forms of high self-esteem: secure high self-esteem (which is often linked with psychological health) and fragile high self-esteem (which is generally associated with poor psychological adjustment and impaired interpersonal relationships). Discrepant high self-esteem is a form of fragile self-esteem characterized by high explicit self-esteem and low implicit self-esteem. The present study examined whether discrepant high self-esteem was associated with narcissism and self-esteem instability in an undergraduate sample. Using multiple measures of implicit self-esteem, two basic findings emerged from the present study. First, participants with discrepant high self-esteem possessed the highest levels of narcissism. Second, participants with high explicit self-esteem and high implicit self-esteem displayed the most stable self-esteem. Findings are discussed in terms of secure and fragile high self-esteem.

  7. A STUDY OF THE DISCREPANCY BETWEEN FEDERAL AND STATE MEASUREMENTS OF ON-HIGHWAY FUEL CONSUMPTION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hwang, HL

    2003-08-11

    Annual highway fuel taxes are collected by the Treasury Department and placed in the Highway Trust Fund (HTF). There is, however, no direct connection between the taxes collected by the Treasury Department and the gallons of on-highway fuel use, which can lead to a discrepancy between these totals. This study was conducted to determine how much of a discrepancy exists between the total fuel usages estimated based on highway revenue funds as reported by the Treasury Department and the total fuel usages used in the apportionment of the HTF to the States. The analysis was conducted using data from Highway Statistics Tables MF-27 and FE-9 for the years 1991-2001. It was found that the overall discrepancy is relatively small, mostly within 5% difference. The amount of the discrepancy varies from year to year and varies among the three fuel types (gasoline, gasohol, special fuels). Several potential explanations for these discrepancies were identified, including issues on data, tax measurement, gallon measurement, HTF receipts, and timing. Data anomalies caused by outside forces, such as deferment of tax payments from one fiscal year to the next, can skew fuel tax data. Fuel tax evasion can lead to differences between actual fuel use and fuel taxes collected. Furthermore, differences in data collection and reporting among States can impact fuel use data. Refunds, credits, and transfers from the HTF can impact the total fuel tax receipt data. Timing issues, such as calendar year vs. fiscal year, can also cause some discrepancy between the two data sources.

  8. An assessment of the cause of the "Extension Discrepancy" with reference to the west Galicia margin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reston, Timothy; McDermott, Ken

    2013-04-01

    A common observation at rifted margins is that the amount of extension measurable from faulting is too little to explain the observed crustal thinning and subsidence. This is the "extension discrepancy". Several causes have been proposed, including depth-dependent stretching or thinning, sequential faulting, subseismic faulting and polyphase faulting. In this contribution we explore the different possibilities, with specific reference to the West Galicia margin. If we take the observations at face value, then it seems unavoidable that the upper crust must be stretched and thinned less than the middle and lower crust, however is it unclear where the displaced lower crust has gone as there is no inverse discrepancy. Furthermore, there is independent evidence against large-scale DDS from seismic velocities and from the occurrence of upper crustal, lower crustal and mantle rocks in close proximity at the deep margin. We thus reject DDS as a sole cause of the extension discrepancy, although recognise that small-scale local DDS associated with asymmetric faulting is expected. Such small-scale DDS is an inherent part of models of sequential faulting, but these do not predict an overall extension discrepancy, so cannot alone explain one. Subseismic faulting also alone seems inadequate as it cannot explain the extreme thinning observed at the deep margin. However, as subseismic faulting is a requirement of the fractal distribution of fault sizes and the limited resolution of the seismic method, it most certainly does contribute to the extension discrepancy. Polyphase faulting, in which the thinnest crust has been affected by more than one phase of faulting, resulting in complex and poorly imaged structural architecture, is both predicted at deep margins, and in combination with subseismic faulting, capable of explaining the extension discrepancy. We demonstrate that the west Galicia margin has undergone more than one phase of faults, that these faults cross-cut each other

  9. The effect of a clinical pharmacist discharge service on medication discrepancies in patients with heart failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eggink, Rixt Nynke; Lenderink, Albert W; Widdershoven, Jos W M G; van den Bemt, Patricia M L A

    2010-12-01

    Heart failure patients are regularly admitted to hospital and frequently use multiple medication. Besides intentional changes in pharmacotherapy, unintentional changes may occur during hospitalisation. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of a clinical pharmacist discharge service on medication discrepancies and prescription errors in patients with heart failure. A general teaching hospital in Tilburg, the Netherlands. An open randomized intervention study was performed comparing an intervention group, with a control group receiving regular care by doctors and nurses. The clinical pharmacist discharge service consisted of review of discharge medication, communicating prescribing errors with the cardiologist, giving patients information, preparation of a written overview of the discharge medication and communication to both the community pharmacist and the general practitioner about this medication. Within 6 weeks after discharge all patients were routinely scheduled to visit the outpatient clinic and medication discrepancies were measured. The primary endpoint was the frequency of prescription errors in the discharge medication and medication discrepancies after discharge combined. Forty-four patients were included in the control group and 41 in the intervention group. Sixty-eight percent of patients in the control group had at least one discrepancy or prescription error against 39% in the intervention group (RR 0.57 (95% CI 0.37-0.88)). The percentage of medications with a discrepancy or prescription error in the control group was 14.6% and in the intervention group it was 6.1% (RR 0.42 (95% CI 0.27-0.66)). This clinical pharmacist discharge service significantly reduces the risk of discrepancies and prescription errors in medication of patients with heart failure in the 1st month after discharge.

  10. Centric relation-intercuspal position discrepancy and its relationship with temporomandibular disorders. A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiménez-Silva, Antonio; Tobar-Reyes, Julio; Vivanco-Coke, Sheilah; Pastén-Castro, Eduardo; Palomino-Montenegro, Hernán

    2017-10-01

    The objective of this study is to assess the relationship between centric relation-intercuspal position discrepancy (CR-ICP discrepancy) and temporomandibular disorders (TMDs), by systematically reviewing the literature. A systematic research was performed between 1960 and 2016 based on electronic databases: PubMed, Cochrane Library, Medline, Embase, Scopus, EBSCOhost, BIREME, Lilacs and Scielo, including all languages. Analytical observational clinical studies were identified. Two independent authors selected the articles. PICO format was used to analyze the studies. The Newcastle-Ottawa Scale (NOS) was used to verify the quality of the evidence. Four hundred and sixty-seven potentially eligible articles were identified. Twenty studies were analyzed, being grouped according to intervention in studies in orthodontic patients (n = 3) and studies in subjects without intervention (n = 17). Quality of evidence was low, with an average score of 3.36 according to Newcastle-Ottawa Scale. In most studies, the presence of CR-ICP discrepancy is associated with the presence of muscle (pain) and joint disorders (noise, disc displacement, pain, crepitus, osteoarthritis and osteoarthrosis). However, the lack of consistency of the results reported reduces the validity of the studies making it impossible to draw any definite conclusions. Because of the heterogeneity of the design and methodology and the low quality of the articles reviewed, it is not possible to establish an association between CR-ICP discrepancy and TMD. The consequence of CR-ICP discrepancy on the presence of TMD requires further research, well-defined and validated diagnostic criteria and rigorous scientific methodologies. Longitudinal studies are needed to identify CR-ICP discrepancy as a possible risk factor for the presence of TMD.

  11. Ensuring the quality of logistic service of automobile dealers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatyana A. Salimova

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective to substantiate the functional directions of activities of the enterprises of dealer chain of an automotive company aimed at ensuring the quality of logistics servicing of automobiles. Methods the study is based on the use of general scientific methods comparison scientific generalization logical analysis analogy and specific scientific methods systemic functional simulation. Results the article states that one of the key criteria of consumer behavior of car buyers is the availability of presales and aftersales service. The current research works in the sphere of logistics services are analyzed which refer to the approaches to its definition as well as selecting the criteria for its functional quality. It is established that the increase of interest in the activities of logistics centers of car service is due to several reasons such as the growing complexity of their construction and the increased competition in this area. The critical review of the scientific literature was conducted as well as the analysis of the scientific problem of determining the functional areas of logistics service of an automobile company with a view to ensuring quality and enhancing the satisfaction of end users of automobiles. The key areas of corporate logistics services were systematized and classified detailing for each of these areas was made. Different approaches were described to defining the range of services at different stages of the life cycle of technical means. Basing on the studied viewpoints four components of the functional activities of service centers were formulated presales service car sales aftersales maintenance and disposal of vehicles. Basing on these components a model of brand service of a car company was formed taking into account the functional characteristics of each component. Scientific novelty a functional model was developed of the system of service vehicles in a brand servicesales chain automotive company allowing to provide

  12. Chordee repair utilizing a novel technique ensuring neurovascular bundle preservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dean, G E; Burno, D K; Zaontz, M R

    2000-03-01

    Penile chordee, with and without hypospadias, is amenable to surgical correction. The Nesbit technique of dorsal plication of the ventral tunica albuginea is effective in correcting most cases of corporal disproportion. A hazard with this approach is the potential inclusion of the dorsal neurovascular bundle, with resultant erectile and sensory dysfunction. We developed a simple technique using the Freer elevator to isolate the neurovascular bundle prior to plication. This ensures that no injury occurs to the neurovascular bundle during plication. Since 1994, 37 boys with chordee have been repaired using this approach. Their ages at the time of operation ranged from 5 months to 28 years (mean 9 months). Following standard degloving of the penis, an incision through Buck's fascia is made lateral and parallel to the neurovascular bundle at the maximum level of the chordee. A similar incision is carried out on the contralateral side. A 4-mm-wide Freer elevator is positioned under Buck's fascia while hugging the tunica albuginea. The Freer elevator slides across the midline to the contralateral side, separating Buck's fascia and underlying layers from the tunica albuginea. Following isolation of the bundle, each corporal body is plicated by creating a longitudinal incision through the tunica albuginea, which then is closed transversely with a 5-0 polydioxanone suture. Buck's fascia subsequently is closed with an absorbable suture following confirmation of chordee correction. No complications have been encountered during a mean follow-up of 21 months (range 5-51 months). No patients have required reoperation for persistent chordee. We developed a technique that elevates the neurovascular bundle prior to plication, thereby ensuring no injury to this structure. We have successfully used this modified Nesbit technique since 1994 and have had no complications. Utilization of the Freer elevator adds an estimated 5 minutes to chordee correction compared to a standard

  13. Spectral analysis of atmospheric composition: application to surface ozone model-measurement comparisons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowdalo, Dene R.; Evans, Mathew J.; Sofen, Eric D.

    2016-07-01

    Models of atmospheric composition play an essential role in our scientific understanding of atmospheric processes and in providing policy strategies to deal with societally relevant problems such as climate change, air quality, and ecosystem degradation. The fidelity of these models needs to be assessed against observations to ensure that errors in model formulations are found and that model limitations are understood. A range of approaches are necessary for these comparisons. Here, we apply a spectral analysis methodology for this comparison. We use the Lomb-Scargle periodogram, a method similar to a Fourier transform, but better suited to deal with the gapped data sets typical of observational data. We apply this methodology to long-term hourly ozone observations and the equivalent model (GEOS-Chem) output. We show that the spectrally transformed observational data show a distinct power spectrum with regimes indicative of meteorological processes (weather, macroweather) and specific peaks observed at the daily and annual timescales together with corresponding harmonic peaks at one-half, one-third, etc., of these frequencies. Model output shows corresponding features. A comparison between the amplitude and phase of these peaks introduces a new comparison methodology between model and measurements. We focus on the amplitude and phase of diurnal and seasonal cycles and present observational/model comparisons and discuss model performance. We find large biases notably for the seasonal cycle in the mid-latitude Northern Hemisphere where the amplitudes are generally overestimated by up to 16 ppbv, and phases are too late on the order of 1-5 months. This spectral methodology can be applied to a range of model-measurement applications and is highly suitable for Multimodel Intercomparison Projects (MIPs).

  14. Cervical and Incisal Marginal Discrepancy in Ceramic Laminate Veneering Materials: A SEM Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranganathan, Hemalatha; Ganapathy, Dhanraj M; Jain, Ashish R

    2017-01-01

    Marginal discrepancy influenced by the choice of processing material used for the ceramic laminate veneers needs to be explored further for better clinical application. This study aimed to evaluate the amount of cervical and incisal marginal discrepancy associated with different ceramic laminate veneering materials. This was an experimental, single-blinded, in vitro trial. Ten central incisors were prepared for laminate veneers with 2 mm uniform reduction and heavy chamfer finish line. Ceramic laminate veneers fabricated over the prepared teeth using four different processing materials were categorized into four groups as Group I - aluminous porcelain veneers, Group II - lithium disilicate ceramic veneers, Group III - lithium disilicate-leucite-based veneers, Group IV - zirconia-based ceramic veneers. The cervical and incisal marginal discrepancy was measured using a scanning electron microscope. ANOVA and post hoc Tukey honest significant difference (HSD) tests were used for statistical analysis. The cervical and incisal marginal discrepancy for four groups was Group I - 114.6 ± 4.3 μm, 132.5 ± 6.5 μm, Group II - 86.1 ± 6.3 μm, 105.4 ± 5.3 μm, Group III - 71.4 ± 4.4 μm, 91.3 ± 4.7 μm, and Group IV - 123.1 ± 4.1 μm, 142.0 ± 5.4 μm. ANOVA and post hoc Tukey HSD tests observed a statistically significant difference between the four test specimens with regard to cervical marginal discrepancy. The cervical and incisal marginal discrepancy scored F = 243.408, P < 0.001 and F = 180.844, P < 0.001, respectively. This study concluded veneers fabricated using leucite reinforced lithium disilicate exhibited the least marginal discrepancy followed by lithium disilicate ceramic, aluminous porcelain, and zirconia-based ceramics. The marginal discrepancy was more in the incisal region than in the cervical region in all the groups.

  15. Cervical and incisal marginal discrepancy in ceramic laminate veneering materials: A SEM analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hemalatha Ranganathan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Marginal discrepancy influenced by the choice of processing material used for the ceramic laminate veneers needs to be explored further for better clinical application. Aims: This study aimed to evaluate the amount of cervical and incisal marginal discrepancy associated with different ceramic laminate veneering materials. Settings and Design: This was an experimental, single-blinded, in vitro trial. Subjects and Methods: Ten central incisors were prepared for laminate veneers with 2 mm uniform reduction and heavy chamfer finish line. Ceramic laminate veneers fabricated over the prepared teeth using four different processing materials were categorized into four groups as Group I - aluminous porcelain veneers, Group II - lithium disilicate ceramic veneers, Group III - lithium disilicate-leucite-based veneers, Group IV - zirconia-based ceramic veneers. The cervical and incisal marginal discrepancy was measured using a scanning electron microscope. Statistical Analysis Used: ANOVA and post hoc Tukey honest significant difference (HSD tests were used for statistical analysis. Results: The cervical and incisal marginal discrepancy for four groups was Group I - 114.6 ± 4.3 μm, 132.5 ± 6.5 μm, Group II - 86.1 ± 6.3 μm, 105.4 ± 5.3 μm, Group III - 71.4 ± 4.4 μm, 91.3 ± 4.7 μm, and Group IV - 123.1 ± 4.1 μm, 142.0 ± 5.4 μm. ANOVA and post hoc Tukey HSD tests observed a statistically significant difference between the four test specimens with regard to cervical marginal discrepancy. The cervical and incisal marginal discrepancy scored F = 243.408, P < 0.001 and F = 180.844, P < 0.001, respectively. Conclusion: This study concluded veneers fabricated using leucite reinforced lithium disilicate exhibited the least marginal discrepancy followed by lithium disilicate ceramic, aluminous porcelain, and zirconia-based ceramics. The marginal discrepancy was more in the incisal region than in the cervical region in all the groups.

  16. [ABO/D discrepancies in the era of automation and molecular immunohematology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamouche, Elias; Bouix, Olivier

    2015-01-01

    ABO/D grouping errors are still causing fatalities despite the substantial decrease observed over the past thirty years. This risk reduction is due, in part, to the increased automation of immunohematology techniques, a better control of clerical errors and a better knowledge of group discrepancies. The first part of the text will summarize the etiologies of group discrepancies while the second part will expose briefly the historical and technical evolution in immunohematology. Finally in the third part, the role of molecular techniques in immunohematology will be discussed.

  17. Micro dose acquisition in Leg length Discrepancy using the EOS imaging system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Janni; Mussmann, Bo; Pedersen, Niels Wisbech

    to the acquisition of diagnostic images a scout image is acquired at extremely low dose for planning purposes, i.e. approximately 1% of the dose required for diagnostic images. Dose reduction is important because children and adolescents are more sensitive to radiation than adults and they may undergo several LLD......Objectives Leg Length Discrepancy (LLD) is often diagnosed in young patients who undergo repeated x-ray examinations quantifying the length discrepancy and monitoring progression. In our department LLD images are currently acquired using a low dose bi-plane system named EOS. Prior...

  18. Liquid standards utilization for metrological ensuring of spectrophotometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mogilnaya, L. G.; Sayapin, A. I.; Solov'ev, Victor A.

    1993-12-01

    At the present time the testing of spectrophotometrical measuring means (spectrophotometers) in the ultraviolet and visible spectrum in accordance with the existing USSR verification scheme carried out by means of glass light filters, types KS-100, KS-102 certified with standard instruments. The main shortage of these light filters when using them as the standard measures is the necessity to certify them for transmission coefficient. To solve the problem, it seems reasonable to develop and use the liquid standard samples of optical density (LS) as highly efficient and economical means ensuring the unity of measurements in the spectrophotometry. In this report the possibility of utilization of the set of LS of optical density is considered. The set of LS represents acid and water solutions of organic compounds of five types (LS 04-1, LS 04-2, LS 04-3, LS 04-4, LS 04-5) having two levels of optical density in the wave band of 220 - 720 nm.

  19. Ensuring quality in qualitative inquiry: using key concepts as guidelines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Debra Frances Campbell

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The field of qualitative scientific inquiry employs a fast-growing variety of approaches, whose traditions, procedures, and structures vary, depending on the type of study design and methodology (i.e., phenomenological, ethnographic, grounded theory, case study, action research, etc.. With the interpretive approach, researchers do not utilize the same measures of validity used in positivist approaches to scientific inquiry, since there is "...no one standard or accepted structure as one typically finds in quantitative research" (Creswell, 2007. With the absence of a single standard, how, then, is it possible for qualitative researchers to know whether or not their study was done with rigor, that it has validity, that it is ready to submit to their peers? The research literature is sprinkled with references to quality in qualitative inquiry, which helps to construe a study's validity. Markula (2008 suggests that we validate our study's findings by assuring readers that it was done "in the best possible way." While each research tradition has its own set of criteria for judging quality, we present here general concepts drawn from the literature. We hope this article will provide a framework from which qualitative researchers can judge their work before submitting it to their peers¸ one which will help ensure that their study was done "in the best possible way."

  20. Self-discrepancy: structural differences between clinical and non-clinical populations evaluated with MCMI-II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ângela Brandão

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available This research addresses the personality as a complex and dynamic structure and it relates the self-discrepancy theory with Millon's theory of personality. Self-discrepancy theory predicts that Ideal and Ought discrepancies originate different negative emotions. Millon's bipsychosocial theoty emphasizes the interaction between organism, environment and social learning, making salient the circularity of the interaction. The present study refers to the Real-Self (RS, Ideal-Self (IS and Ought-Self (OS discrepancies, evaluated using the MCMI-II in two different samples (clinical and non-clinical. The RSs results are different in the two samples and they were analized scale by scale. The RS-IS and RS-OS discrepancies results for each trait scale analyzes were mixed. It was given greater emphasis to RS-RI discrepancies and implications for personality theories and case conceptualization are taken into consideration.

  1. Cross-modal discrepancies in coarticulation and the integration of speech information: the McGurk effect with mismatched vowels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, K P; Gerdeman, A

    1995-12-01

    Two experiments examined the impact of a discrepancy in vowel quality between the auditory and visual modalities on the perception of a syllable-initial consonant. One experiment examined the effect of such a discrepancy on the McGurk effect by cross-dubbing auditory /bi/ tokens onto visual /ga/ articulations (and vice versa). A discrepancy in vowel category significantly reduced the magnitude of the McGurk effect and changed the pattern of responses. A 2nd experiment investigated the effect of such a discrepancy on the speeded classification of the initial consonant. Mean reaction times to classify the tokens increased when the vowel information was discrepant between the 2 modalities but not when the vowel information was consistent. These experiments indicate that the perceptual system is sensitive to cross-modal discrepancies in the coarticulatory information between a consonant and its following vowel during phonetic perception.

  2. Discrepancies between explicit and implicit self-esteem are linked to symptom severity in borderline personality disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vater, Aline; Schröder-Abé, Michela; Schütz, Astrid; Lammers, Claas-Hinrich; Roepke, Stefan

    2010-12-01

    The present study examined whether discrepancies between explicit and implicit self-esteem are associated with symptom severity in a sample of patients with borderline personality disorder (BPD). We hypothesized that implicit-explicit self-esteem discrepancies foster autoaggressive behavior and dysphoria, and impair self-perception. We found that the two forms of self-esteem discrepancies, damaged and fragile self-esteem were related to the severity of overall borderline symptoms, autoaggression, dysphoria, and deficits in self-perception. In contrast, more general psychopathological impairment, such as depression, was not related to self-esteem discrepancies. Taken together our results indicate that discrepancies between explicit and implicit self-esteem are associated with certain borderline symptoms that may be based on internal tension. The findings can be interpreted within the framework of self-discrepancies and dichotomous attitudes in patients with BPD.

  3. When do self-discrepancies predict negative emotions? Exploring formal operational thought and abstract reasoning skills as moderators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, Erin N; Holmberg, Nicole J; Lovejoy, M Christine; Pittman, Laura D

    2014-01-01

    Individual differences in higher-order cognitive abilities may be an important piece to understanding how and when self-discrepancies lead to negative emotions. In the current study, three measures of reasoning abilities were considered as potential moderators of the relationship between self-discrepancies and depression and anxiety symptoms. Participants (N = 162) completed measures assessing self-discrepancies, depression and anxiety symptoms, and were administered measures examining formal operational thought, and verbal and non-verbal abstract reasoning skills. Both formal operational thought and verbal abstract reasoning were significant moderators of the relationship between actual:ideal discrepancies and depressive symptoms. Discrepancies predicted depressive symptoms for individuals with higher levels of formal operational thought and verbal abstract reasoning skills, but not for those with lower levels. The discussion focuses on the need to consider advanced reasoning skills when examining self-discrepancies.

  4. Knowledge of partner's ability as a moderator of group motivation gains: an exploration of the Köhler discrepancy effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Messé, Lawrence A; Hertel, Guido; Kerr, Norbert L; Lount, Robert B; Park, Ernest S

    2002-06-01

    O. Köhler (1926, 1927) found that less able performers tried harder as team members under conjunctive task demands (Kohler motivation gain effect) and that the greatest gain occurred with moderately discrepant coworker abilities (Köhler discrepancy effect). Recent investigations have reproduced Köhler's overall motivation gain but not the discrepancy effect. The present research examined whether workers' foreknowledge of task abilities--present in Kohler's research, absent in contemporary studies--moderates the discrepancy effect. Participants worked alone or in 2-person teams under conjunctive task demands. Experiment 1 manipulated foreknowledge of ability. Experiment 2 manipulated discrepancy: a (confederate) teammate performed slightly, moderately, or substantially better. Both experiments found (a) overall motivation gains and (b) discrepancy moderation under foreknowledge conditions. Implications for understanding group motivation gains are discussed.

  5. Universal Health Insurance in India: Ensuring equity, efficiency, and quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shankar Prinja

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Indian health system is characterized by a vast public health infrastructure which lies underutilized, and a largely unregulated private market which caters to greater need for curative treatment. High out-of-pocket (OOP health expenditures poses barrier to access for healthcare. Among those who get hospitalized, nearly 25% are pushed below poverty line by catastrophic impact of OOP healthcare expenditure. Moreover, healthcare costs are spiraling due to epidemiologic, demographic, and social transition. Hence, the need for risk pooling is imperative. The present article applies economic theories to various possibilities for providing risk pooling mechanism with the objective of ensuring equity, efficiency, and quality care. Asymmetry of information leads to failure of actuarially administered private health insurance (PHI. Large proportion of informal sector labor in India′s workforce prevents major upscaling of social health insurance (SHI. Community health insurance schemes are difficult to replicate on a large scale. We strongly recommend institutionalization of tax-funded Universal Health Insurance Scheme (UHIS, with complementary role of PHI. The contextual factors for development of UHIS are favorable. SHI schemes should be merged with UHIS. Benefit package of this scheme should include preventive and in-patient curative care to begin with, and gradually include out-patient care. State-specific priorities should be incorporated in benefit package. Application of such an insurance system besides being essential to the goals of an effective health system provides opportunity to regulate private market, negotiate costs, and plan health services efficiently. Purchaser-provider split provides an opportunity to strengthen public sector by allowing providers to compete.

  6. Ensuring the population living safety in the contaminated areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. I. Voronov

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The state policy of the Russian Federation to ensure population, living in the contaminated areas, life safety is implemented by means of federal programs.12 programs for overcoming the Chernobyl accident consequences, children’s population protection and housing provision for the Chernobyl accident liquidators are adopted and realized during this time. Total financing amount from the federal budget is more than 9,2 billion rubles. The main efforts are directed to create necessary infrastructure in settlements, development and deployment rehabilitation measures for agricultural lands and forests, creation of radiation situation monitoring systems, increase housekeeping safety culture in the contaminated territories, informational support and social and psychological rehabilitation of the population. Within the state programs are developing complex systems of a radiation situation monitoring in 12 subjects of the Russian Federation. Experts training for the outreach work with population, concerning radiation safety, increasing population knowledge level about radiation in a format of seminars, conferences, with use of online technologies is provided. The project on creation the uniform interdepartmental information system on overcoming radiation accidents aftermath, integrating the operating information systems of The Ministry of the Russian Federation for Civil Defence, Emergencies and Elimination of Consequences of Natural Disasters, Federal Service for Hydrometeorology and Environmental Monitoring, the Russian Federal Service for Surveillance on Consumer Rights Protection and Human Wellbeing and the Russian Academy of Sciences is realized.However, the problem of overcoming the radiation accidents aftermath remains relevant up to date.In 14 subjects of the Russian Federation there are territories contaminated by radioactive materials as a result of the Chernobyl accident where more than 1,5 million people live.

  7. Ensuring Sustainable Data Interoperability Across the Natural and Social Sciences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Downs, R. R.; Chen, R. S.

    2015-12-01

    environmental stewardship by 2030. These efforts suggest the need for a holistic approach towards improving and implementing strategies, policies, and practices that will ensure long-term sustainability and interoperability of scientific data repositories and networks across multiple scientific domains.

  8. An approach to ensuring quality in environmental software

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gelston, G.M.; Lundgren, R.E.; McDonald, J.P.; Hoopes, B.L.

    1998-05-01

    Environmental software is often used to determine impacts to the public, workers, and the environment from environmental contamination. It is vital, therefore, that the modeling results, and the software that provides them, be scientifically defensible and capable of withstanding the most rigorous of technical reviews. The control and assurance of quality is a critical factor for the project team that develops environmental software at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory. This document describes the philosophy, process, and activities that ensure a quality product throughout the life cycle of requirements analysis, design, programming, modification, testing, and implementation of environmental software. Environmental software developed by the project team is designed using an object-oriented approach. This software offers increased benefits, such as ease of maintenance and retention of the development and testing legacy of individual components, over traditional hard wired software. These benefits allow the design and testing of the models and future additions to be faster and less costly. This software is developed using a modular framework concept that allows a variety of models to work within a single construct. This software has two parts: an overall system framework and a set of modules. Each module has up to three components: a user interface, a scientific model, and pre/post-processors. Each of these pieces has a different set of quality criteria associated with it. However, whatever form this software might take for a particular client, standard processes apply to protect the information from inappropriate use. The information contained within this document can be applied to most environmental software to analyze risk in multiple environmental media.

  9. SteadyCom: Predicting microbial abundances while ensuring community stability.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siu Hung Joshua Chan

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Genome-scale metabolic modeling has become widespread for analyzing microbial metabolism. Extending this established paradigm to more complex microbial communities is emerging as a promising way to unravel the interactions and biochemical repertoire of these omnipresent systems. While several modeling techniques have been developed for microbial communities, little emphasis has been placed on the need to impose a time-averaged constant growth rate across all members for a community to ensure co-existence and stability. In the absence of this constraint, the faster growing organism will ultimately displace all other microbes in the community. This is particularly important for predicting steady-state microbiota composition as it imposes significant restrictions on the allowable community membership, composition and phenotypes. In this study, we introduce the SteadyCom optimization framework for predicting metabolic flux distributions consistent with the steady-state requirement. SteadyCom can be rapidly converged by iteratively solving linear programming (LP problem and the number of iterations is independent of the number of organisms. A significant advantage of SteadyCom is compatibility with flux variability analysis. SteadyCom is first demonstrated for a community of four E. coli double auxotrophic mutants and is then applied to a gut microbiota model consisting of nine species, with representatives from the phyla Bacteroidetes, Firmicutes, Actinobacteria and Proteobacteria. In contrast to the direct use of FBA, SteadyCom is able to predict the change in species abundance in response to changes in diets with minimal additional imposed constraints on the model. By randomizing the uptake rates of microbes, an abundance profile with a good agreement to experimental gut microbiota is inferred. SteadyCom provides an important step towards the cross-cutting task of predicting the composition of a microbial community in a given environment.

  10. Diverse cultures at work: ensuring safety and health through leadership and participation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Starren, A.; Luijters, K.; Drupsteen, L.; Vilkevicius, G.; Stulginskis, A.; Eeckelaert, L.; Elsler, D.

    2013-01-01

    The differences between cultures are helpful in understanding discrepancies when several nationalities are working together. Cross-cultural studies describe characteristics of cultures and differences between different cultures. Therefore, the cross-cultural literature is very helpful in describing

  11. Diverse cultures at work: ensuring safety and health through leadership and participation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Starren, A.; Luijters, K.; Drupsteen, L.; Vilkevicius, G.; Stulginskis, A.; Eeckelaert, L.; Elsler, D.

    2013-01-01

    The differences between cultures are helpful in understanding discrepancies when several nationalities are working together. Cross-cultural studies describe characteristics of cultures and differences between different cultures. Therefore, the cross-cultural literature is very helpful in describing

  12. Medication reconciliation to solve discrepancies in discharge documents after discharge from the hospital.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geurts, M.M.; Flier, M. van der; Vries-Bots, A.M. de; Brink van der Wal, T.I.; Gier, J.J. de

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: When patients are admitted to, and discharged from hospital there is a high chance of discrepancies and errors occurring during the transfer of patients' medication information. This often causes drug related problems. Correct and fast communication of patients' medication information

  13. Medication reconciliation to solve discrepancies in discharge documents after discharge from the hospital

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geurts, Marlies M. E.; van der Flier, Merel; de Vries-Bots, Anne M. B.; Brink-van der Wal, Thaliet I. C.; de Gier, Johan J.

    Background When patients are admitted to, and discharged from hospital there is a high chance of discrepancies and errors occurring during the transfer of patients' medication information. This often causes drug related problems. Correct and fast communication of patients' medication information

  14. When Discrepant Events Change the Plans: An Unexpected Investigation of Physical Properties and Reactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madden, Lauren; Seifried, Joyce; Farnum, Kerry; D'Armiento, Angela

    2016-01-01

    Discrepant events are often used by science educators to incite interest and excitement in learners, yet sometimes their results are farther-reaching. The following article describes how one such event--dissolving packing peanuts in acetone--led to a change in the course of a college-level elementary science teaching methods class and to the…

  15. Discrepancies in Outcome Reporting Exist Between Protocols and Published Oral Health Cochrane Systematic Reviews.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandis, Nikolaos; Fleming, Padhraig S; Worthington, Helen; Dwan, Kerry; Salanti, Georgia

    2015-01-01

    To assess discrepancies in the analyzed outcomes between protocols and published reviews within Cochrane oral health systematic reviews (COHG) on the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews (CDSR). All COHG systematic reviews on the CDSR and the corresponding protocols were retrieved in November 2014 and information on the reported outcomes was recorded. Data was collected at the systematic review level by two reviewers independently. One hundred and fifty two reviews were included. In relation to primary outcomes, 11.2% were downgraded to secondary outcomes, 9.9% were omitted altogether in the final publication and new primary outcomes were identified in 18.4% of publications. For secondary outcomes, 2% were upgraded to primary, 12.5% were omitted and 30.9% were newly introduced in the publication. Overall, 45.4% of reviews had at least one discrepancy when compared to the protocol; these were reported in 14.5% reviews. The number of review updates appears to be associated with discrepancies between final review and protocol (OR: 3.18, 95% CI: 1.77, 5.74, previews, discrepancies between outcomes in pre-published protocols and final reviews continue to be common. Solutions such as the use of standardized outcomes to reduce the prevalence of this issue may need to be explored.

  16. A Discrepancy in Comprehension and Production in Early Language Development in ASD: Is It Clinically Relevant?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidson, Meghan M.; Ellis Weismer, Susan

    2017-01-01

    This study examined the extent to which a discrepant comprehension-production profile (i.e., relatively more delayed comprehension than production) is characteristic of the early language phenotype in autism spectrum disorders (ASD) and tracked the developmental progression of the profile. Our findings indicated that a discrepant…

  17. Whose Story Is This? Discrepancy Triggers Readers' Attention to Source Information in Short Narratives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rouet, Jean-François; Le Bigot, Ludovic; de Pereyra, Guillaume; Britt, M. Anne

    2016-01-01

    Three experiments investigated the role of source information (i.e., who said what) in readers' comprehension of short informational texts. Based on the Discrepancy-Induced Source Comprehension assumption (Braasch, Rouet, Vibert, & Britt, 2012), we hypothesized that readers would be more likely to make use of source information when…

  18. Discrepant Story Task (DST): An Instrument Used to Explore Narrative Strategies in Bullying

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smorti, Andrea.; Ortega-Rivera, J.; Ortega, R.

    2006-01-01

    The main aim of this contribution is to describe an instrument devised to study some of the cognitive processes that occur when people interpret social events (Discrepant Story Task-DST; Smorti, 2004). In particular, this instrument analyses the narrative processes of interpretation used by an observer when witnessing progressive and…

  19. Official Policies and Teachers' Tendency to Act: Exploring the Discrepancies in Teachers' Perceptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shapira-Lishchinsky, Orly; Gilat, Israel Z.

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the study is to investigate whether there are discrepancies between teachers' perceptions of the "official policies" and their "tendency to act," based on their ethical decision-making. A qualitative analysis of 60 Israeli teachers' questionnaires consisting of critical ethical incidents revealed multifaceted ethical…

  20. College Students' Adjustment: The Role of Parent-College Student Expectation Discrepancies and Communication Reciprocity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agliata, Allison Kanter; Renk, Kimberly

    2008-01-01

    Parents' influence on college students' adjustment is underestimated frequently. As college students often set goals based on their perceptions of their parents' expectations, discrepancies between college students' and their parents' expectations may be related to their adjustment. The purpose of this study was to examine parent-college student…

  1. The Importance of Breaking Set: Socialized Cognitive Strategies and the Gender Discrepancy in Mathematics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villalobos, Ana

    2009-01-01

    Theories that explain the gender discrepancy in mathematics almost universally explain why boys are "better at math" than girls while failing to adequately account for girls' higher grades in math classes or better performances on tests of computational ability. This article develops a new, more comprehensive theoretical model that explains girls'…

  2. Does work-related training reduce the discrepancy between function requirements and competencies?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E.R. Kappe; G.E. Bijwaard (Govert)

    2005-01-01

    textabstractThe issue of lifelong learning is high on the political agenda. However, despite this political interest and the large economic literature on human capital, the impact of work-related training on the discrepancy between function requirements and the skills of the employee has been ignore

  3. The Midpoint as an Anchor: Another Look at Discrepancy of Position and Attitude Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nemeth, Charlan; Endicott, Jeffrey

    1976-01-01

    The results show that subjects show more attitude change towards, and acceptance of, the positions on the same side of the issue than on the opposite side of the issue but that their preference is most marked where a high discrepancy exists between communicator and recipient of the opinion. (Author/DEP)

  4. Quantifying the Discrepancy in RANS Modeling of Reynolds Stress Eigenvectors System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jinlong; Thompson, Roney; Wang, Jianxun; Sampaio, Luiz; Xiao, Heng

    2016-11-01

    Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) equations are the dominant tool for engineering design and analysis applications involving wall bounded turbulent flows. However, the modeled Reynolds stress tensor is known to be a main source of uncertainty, comparing to other sources like geometry, boundary conditions, etc. Recently, several works have been conducted with the aim to quantify the uncertainty of RANS simulation by studying the discrepancy of anisotropy and turbulence kinetic energy of the Reynolds stress tensor with respect to a reference database obtained from DNS. On the other hand, the eigenvectors system of Reynolds stress tensor is less investigated. In this work, a general metric is proposed to visualize the discrepancy between two eigenvectors systems. More detailed metrics based on the Euler angle and the direction cosine are also proposed to quantify the discrepancy of eigenvectors systems. The results show that even a small discrepancy of the eigenvectors of the Reynolds stress can lead to a drastically different mean velocity field, demonstrating the importance of quantifying this kind of uncertainty/error. Furthermore, the Euler angle and the direction cosine are compared for the purpose of uncertainty quantification and machine learning, respectively.

  5. Consonant Differentiation Mediates the Discrepancy between Non-verbal and Verbal Abilities in Children with ASD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Key, A. P.; Yoder, P. J.; Stone, W. L.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Many children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) demonstrate verbal communication disorders reflected in lower verbal than non-verbal abilities. The present study examined the extent to which this discrepancy is associated with atypical speech sound differentiation. Methods: Differences in the amplitude of auditory event-related…

  6. The association between physical self-discrepancies and women's physical activity: the mediating role of motivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunet, Jennifer; Sabiston, Catherine; Castonguay, Andree; Ferguson, Leah; Bessette, Natalia

    2012-02-01

    The objectives of this study were to test the associations between physical self-discrepancies (actual:ideal and actual:ought) and physical activity behavior, and to examine whether motivational regulations mediate these associations using self-discrepancy (Higgins, 1987) and organismic integration (Deci & Ryan, 1985) theories as guiding frameworks. Young women (N = 205; M(age) = 18.87 years, SD = 1.83) completed self-report questionnaires. Main analyses involved path analysis using a polynomial regression approach, estimation of direct and indirect effects, and evaluation of response surface values. Agreement between actual and ideal (or ought) physical self-perceptions was related to physical activity both directly and indirectly as mediated by the motivational regulations (R(2) = .24-.30). Specifically, when actual and ideal self-perceptions scores were similar, physical activity levels increased as actual and ideal scores increased. Furthermore, physical activity levels were lower when the discrepancy was such that ideal or ought self were higher than actual self. These findings provide support for integrating self-discrepancy and organismic integration theories to advance research in this area.

  7. Culture-Led Discrepancies and Negotiating Conflicts in Strategic Outsourcing Alliances

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gammelgaard, Jens; Kumar, Rajesh; Worm, Verner

    2013-01-01

    such alliances fail. While empirical studies are abundant, theoretical frameworks that explicate the role of national cultural differences in shaping the dynamics of outsourcing alliances are rare. This article builds on Kumar and Nti's (1998) discrepancy model to specify how culture affects the dynamics...

  8. Dietary restraint, life satisfaction and self-discrepancy by gender in university students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berta Schnettler

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to characterize dieting and non-dieting university students by gender, based on their satisfaction with life and their food-related life, self-discrepancy, food behavior and health-related aspects. A non-probabilistic sample of 305 students from five Chilean state universities responded a questionnaire that included the Revised Restraint Scale, the Satisfaction with Life Scale, the Satisfaction with Food-related Life Scale, the Health-related Quality of Life Index, the Nutrition Interest Scale and the Self-Discrepancy Index. Socio-demographic characteristics, food behavior, and approximate weight and height were also enquired. Chronic dieters and non-dieters were distinguished according to the median score of the Revised Restraint Scale. 51.1% of women and 55.5% of men classified as chronic dieters, sharing characteristics such as nutrition concern, mental health problems, higher body mass index, and physical and economic self-discrepancy. Women dieters reported lower life satisfaction and satisfaction with food-related life, more health problems and health-related restriction of food, while men dieters showed higher social and emotional self-discrepancy.

  9. Understanding Discrepancy in Perceptions of Values: Individuals with Mild to Moderate Dementia and Their Family Caregivers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reamy, Allison M.; Kim, Kyungmin; Zarit, Steven H.; Whitlatch, Carol J.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose of the Study: We explore discrepancies in perceptions of values and care preferences between individuals with dementia (IWDs) and their family caregivers. Design and Methods: We interviewed 266 dyads consisting of an individual with mild to moderate dementia and his or her family caregiver to determine IWDs' beliefs for 5 values related to…

  10. 78 FR 48418 - Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; Nautical Discrepancy Reporting System

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-08

    ... thousand charts covering the 3.5 million square nautical miles of coastal waters in the U.S. Exclusive... series of nine nautical books that supplement nautical charts with essential marine information that.../discrepancy.aspx ). The data obtained through this system is used to update U.S. nautical charts and...

  11. 12 CFR 334.82 - Duties of users regarding address discrepancies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... STATEMENTS OF GENERAL POLICY FAIR CREDIT REPORTING Duties of Users of Consumer Reports Regarding Address... section applies to a user of consumer reports (user) that receives a notice of address discrepancy from a... consumer report and the address(es) in the agency's file for the consumer. (c) Reasonable belief....

  12. Power and Violence: The Relation between Communication Patterns, Power Discrepancies, and Domestic Violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babcock, Julia C.; And Others

    1993-01-01

    Examined discrepancies in economic status, decision-making power, communication patterns, and communication skill in three groups of spouses (n=95): domestically violent, maritally distressed/nonviolent, and maritally happy/nonviolent. Domestically violent couples were more likely than nonviolent groups to engage in husband-demand/wife-withdraw…

  13. Discrepancies in Parent’s and Adult Child’s Reports of Support and Contact

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mandemakers, Jornt J.; Dykstra, Pearl A.

    2008-01-01

    This study uses data on support and contact in 4,055 parent-child dyads drawn from the Netherlands Kinship Panel Study to test explanations of reporting discrepancies, which focus on sources of bias and inaccurate reporting. Contrary to the generational stake hypothesis, parents’ reports are not cha

  14. Discrepancies in parent's and adult child's reports of support and contact

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mandemakers, J.; Dykstra, P.A.

    2008-01-01

    This study uses data on support and contact in 4,055 parent-child dyads drawn from the Netherlands Kinship Panel Study to test explanations of reporting discrepancies, which focus on sources of bias and inaccurate reporting. Contrary to the generational stake hypothesis, parents’ reports are not cha

  15. The Importance of Breaking Set: Socialized Cognitive Strategies and the Gender Discrepancy in Mathematics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villalobos, Ana

    2009-01-01

    Theories that explain the gender discrepancy in mathematics almost universally explain why boys are "better at math" than girls while failing to adequately account for girls' higher grades in math classes or better performances on tests of computational ability. This article develops a new, more comprehensive theoretical model that explains girls'…

  16. Discourse Analysis of Interpersonal Meaning to Understand the Discrepancy between Teacher Knowing and Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilhan, Emine Gül Çelebi; Erbas, Ayhan Kürsat

    2016-01-01

    As is well known, bridging teacher knowledge or learning with practice is not a straightforward task. This paper aims to explore this discrepancy between a mathematics teacher's knowing and practices and to offer ways of alignment between the two based on the social/interpersonal meanings and their realization through teacher's discourse. In this…

  17. Longitudinal and Cross-Cultural Validation of the Belief-Discrepancy Reasoning Construct.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enright, Robert D.; And Others

    1984-01-01

    Tests the construct of belief-discrepancy reasoning (i.e., judgments people make about others who disagree with them). First, fourth, seventh, and tenth graders were assessed and retested one year later. Longitudinal trends supported a four-stage development toward open-mindedness which was confirmed by another study of fourth and seventh graders…

  18. Linking Informant Discrepancies to Observed Variations in Young Children's Disruptive Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Los Reyes, Andres; Henry, David B.; Tolan, Patrick H.; Wakschlag, Lauren S.

    2009-01-01

    Prior work has not tested the basic theoretical notion that informant discrepancies in reports of children's behavior exist, in part, because different informants observe children's behavior in different settings. We examined patterns of observed preschool disruptive behavior across varying social contexts in the laboratory and whether they…

  19. The SAT® and SAT Subject Tests™: Discrepant Scores and Incremental Validity. Research Report 2012-2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobrin, Jennifer L.; Patterson, Brian F.

    2012-01-01

    This study examines student performance on the SAT and SAT Subject Tests in order to identify groups of students who score differently on these two tests, and to determine whether certain demographic groups score higher on one test compared to the other. Discrepancy scores were created to capture individuals' performance differences on the…

  20. Media Representations of Bullying toward Queer Youth: Gender, Race, and Age Discrepancies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paceley, Megan S.; Flynn, Karen

    2012-01-01

    In 2010, media coverage on the bullying of queer youth increased dramatically. This study examined online news media's portrayal of the gender, race, and age of bullying victims. Content analyses of ten sources were compared to research on the dynamics of sexuality-based bullying. Discrepancies were found for gender and race (with White males…

  1. Consonant Differentiation Mediates the Discrepancy between Non-verbal and Verbal Abilities in Children with ASD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Key, A. P.; Yoder, P. J.; Stone, W. L.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Many children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) demonstrate verbal communication disorders reflected in lower verbal than non-verbal abilities. The present study examined the extent to which this discrepancy is associated with atypical speech sound differentiation. Methods: Differences in the amplitude of auditory event-related…

  2. Impact of IQ Discrepancy on Executive Function in High-Functioning Autism: Insight into Twice Exceptionality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalbfleisch, M. Layne; Loughan, Ashlee R.

    2012-01-01

    We examined the impact of IQ discrepancy (IQD) within (1) and above (1+) one standard deviation on executive function in HFA using the BRIEF. We hypothesized that IQD would benefit executive function. IQD 1 is hallmarked by deficits in BRIEF indices and subscales inhibit, shift, initiate, working memory, planning and organization, and monitor…

  3. Informant Discrepancies in Adult Social Anxiety Disorder Assessments: Links With Contextual Variations in Observed Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Los Reyes, Andres; Bunnell, Brian E.; Beidel, Deborah C.

    2017-01-01

    Multi-informant assessments of adult psychopathology often result in discrepancies among informants’ reports. Among 157 adults meeting criteria for either the generalized (n = 106) or nongeneralized (n = 51) social anxiety disorder (SAD) subtype, we examined whether discrepancies between patients’ and clinicians’ reports of patients’ symptoms related to variations in both SAD subtype and expressions of social skills deficits across multiple social interaction tasks. Latent class analyses revealed two behavioral patterns: (a) context-specific social skills deficits and (b) cross-context social skills deficits. Similarly, patients’ symptom reports could be characterized by concordance or discordance with clinicians’ reports. Patient–clinician concordance on relatively high levels of patients’ symptoms related to an increased likelihood of the patient meeting criteria for the generalized relative to nongeneralized subtype. Further, patient–clinician concordance on relatively high levels of patients’ symptoms related to an increased likelihood of consistently exhibiting social skills deficits across social interaction tasks (relative to context-specific social skills deficits). These relations were robust in accounting for patient age, clinical severity, and Axis I and II comorbidity. Further, clinical severity did not completely explain variability in patients’ behavior on laboratory tasks or discrepancies between patient and clinician reports. Findings provide the first laboratory-based support for the ability of informant discrepancies to indicate cross-contextual variability in clinical adult assessments, and the first of any developmental period to indicate this for SAD assessments. These findings have important implications for clinical assessment and developmental psychopathology research. PMID:23421526

  4. Side-to-side growth discrepancies in children with hemiplegic cerebral palsy: association with function, activity and social participation

    OpenAIRE

    Marise Bueno Zonta; Amâncio Ramalho-Júnior; Marilene Puppi; Isac Bruck,; Neiva Magdalena; Muzzolon, Sandra Regina B.; Arnolfo Carvalho-Neto; Lúcia H Coutinho dos Santos

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Evaluate side-to-side discrepancies in children with hemiplegic cerebral palsy (HCP), and investigate associations of these discrepancies with patients’ age at initiation of physical therapy, motor and cognitive function, and degree of activities and social participation. Method: We obtained eight side-to-side measurements from 24 HCP children with mean age 49.3±5.2 months. Results: Early initiation of physical therapy was associated with lower discrepancy in hand length (p=0.037)....

  5. Evaluation and comparison of tooth size discrepancies among different malocclusion groups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mujagić, A.

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The compliance of proportions between the mesiodistal dimensions of the upper and the lower teeth is necessary for good intercuspidation. Given that a significant discrepancy in tooth size can prevent ideal occlusion at the end of orthodontic treatment, the absence of tooth size discrepancy is a significant factor for the realization of the ideal occlusion. Aim: Aim of this study was to determine whether there is a difference in the incidence of tooth size discrepancies among different skeletal malocclusion groups in the orthodontic patients. Material and methods: The sample comprised 300 pretreatment study casts (118 males and 182 females with fully erupted and complete permanent dentition except third molars, which were selected randomly from records of orthodontic patients. All subjects were divided in three groups, according to the Angle classification of malocclusion. The measurements were made on study models with digital calipers accurately to 0.01 mm. The Class was defined by using the Steiner analysis on lateral cephalograms. The subjects were divided into three groups depending on the value of the ANB angle. For every subject, the value of the angles SNA, SNB and ANB was measured. The reliability of measurements was examined by the Pearson’s correlation coefficient. To determine whether there were gender differences an independent sample t-test was performed. Results: There is no statistically significant differences in Bolton’s discrepancy by different gender, or at different classes. The average value of the anterior Bolton ratio was 78.16 and of the overall were 90.87. Values of the anterior and overall Bolton ratios are highest in patients with Class III. The highest average value of anterior discrepancy was in male subjects with III Class (-0.72, while the highest average value of overall discrepancy was in male subjects with II Class (0.65. Conclusion: The results of the study show that there are no

  6. Self-discrepancies in work-related upper extremity pain: relation to emotions and flexible-goal adjustment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goossens, Mariëlle E; Kindermans, Hanne P; Morley, Stephen J; Roelofs, Jeffrey; Verbunt, Jeanine; Vlaeyen, Johan W

    2010-08-01

    Recurrent pain not only has an impact on disability, but on the long term it may become a threat to one's sense of self. This paper presents a cross-sectional study of patients with work-related upper extremity pain and focuses on: (1) the role of self-discrepancies in this group, (2) the associations between self-discrepancies, pain, emotions and (3) the interaction between self-discrepancies and flexible-goal adjustment. Eighty-nine participants completed standardized self-report measures of pain intensity, pain duration, anxiety, depression and flexible-goal adjustment. A Selves Questionnaire was used to generate self-discrepancies. A series of hierarchical regression analyses showed relationships between actual-ought other, actual-ought self, actual-feared self-discrepancies and depression as well as a significant association between actual-ought other self-discrepancy and anxiety. Furthermore, significant interactions were found between actual-ought other self-discrepancies and flexibility, indicating that less flexible participants with large self-discrepancies score higher on depression. This study showed that self-discrepancies are related to negative emotions and that flexible-goal adjustment served as a moderator in this relationship. The view of self in pain and flexible-goal adjustment should be considered as important variables in the process of chronic pain.

  7. Gender stereotype endorsement differentially predicts girls' and boys' trait-state discrepancy in math anxiety

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madeleine eBieg

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Mathematics is associated with anxiety for many students; an emotion linked to lower well-being and poorer learning outcomes. While findings typically show females to report higher trait math anxiety than males, no gender differences have to date been found in state (i.e., momentary math anxiety. The present diary study aimed to replicate previous findings in investigating whether levels of academic self-concept was related to this discrepancy in trait versus state anxiety measures. Additionally, mathematics-related gender stereotype endorsement (mathematics is a male domain was investigated as an additional predictor of the trait-state discrepancy. The sample included 755 German 9th and 10th graders who completed self-report measures of trait math anxiety, math self-concept, and gender stereotype endorsement, in addition to state measures of anxiety after math classes by use of a standardized diary for 2-3 weeks (Nwithin = 6207. As expected, females reported higher trait math anxiety but no gender differences were found for state math anxiety. Also in line with our assumptions, multilevel analyses showed the discrepancy between trait and state anxiety to be negatively related to students’ self-concept (i.e., a lower discrepancy for students with higher self-concepts. Furthermore, gender stereotype endorsement differentially predicted the trait-state discrepancy: When controlling for self-concept in mathematics, females who endorsed the gender stereotype of math being a male domain more strongly overestimated their trait math anxiety as compared to their state anxiety whereas this effect was not significant for males. The present findings suggest that gender stereotype endorsement plays an important role in explaining gender differences in math anxiety above and beyond academic self-concept. Implications for future research and educational practice are discussed.

  8. Gender stereotype endorsement differentially predicts girls' and boys' trait-state discrepancy in math anxiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bieg, Madeleine; Goetz, Thomas; Wolter, Ilka; Hall, Nathan C

    2015-01-01

    Mathematics is associated with anxiety for many students; an emotion linked to lower well-being and poorer learning outcomes. While findings typically show females to report higher trait math anxiety than males, no gender differences have to date been found in state (i.e., momentary) math anxiety. The present diary study aimed to replicate previous findings in investigating whether levels of academic self-concept was related to this discrepancy in trait vs. state anxiety measures. Additionally, mathematics-related gender stereotype endorsement (mathematics is a male domain) was investigated as an additional predictor of the trait-state discrepancy. The sample included 755 German 9th and 10th graders who completed self-report measures of trait math anxiety, math self-concept, and gender stereotype endorsement, in addition to state measures of anxiety after math classes by use of a standardized diary for 2-3 weeks (N within = 6207). As expected, females reported higher trait math anxiety but no gender differences were found for state math anxiety. Also in line with our assumptions, multilevel analyses showed the discrepancy between trait and state anxiety to be negatively related to students' self-concept (i.e., a lower discrepancy for students with higher self-concepts). Furthermore, gender stereotype endorsement differentially predicted the trait-state discrepancy: When controlling for self-concept in mathematics, females who endorsed the gender stereotype of math being a male domain more strongly overestimated their trait math anxiety as compared to their state anxiety whereas this effect was not significant for males. The present findings suggest that gender stereotype endorsement plays an important role in explaining gender differences in math anxiety above and beyond academic self-concept. Implications for future research and educational practice are discussed.

  9. Reasons for discrepancy between incidence and prevalence of epilepsy in lower income countries: Epilepsia's survey results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathern, Gary W; Beninsig, Laurie; Nehlig, Astrid

    2015-02-01

    From July to August 2014, Epilepsia conducted an online survey seeking opinions that explained the discrepancy between the incidence and prevalence of epilepsy in lower income countries. Data on cumulative incidence suggest a higher rate of active epilepsy than reported in lifetime prevalence surveys. This study reports the findings of that poll addressing the proposal in our Controversy in Epilepsy series that it could be from increased death rates. The survey consisted of a question addressing possible reasons to explain the discrepancy between the incidence and prevalence of epilepsy. Another four questions addressed demographic information. There were 34 responders who completed the survey. Half (50%) of the responders felt that the discrepancy between cumulative incidence and lifetime prevalence was due to lack of uniform definitions and misclassification of patients in study design, 23.5% said the discrepancy was due to a higher mortality from diseases and conditions such as trauma and infections associated with epilepsy, 23.5% indicated that the stigma of epilepsy prevented people from acknowledging their disease in prevalence surveys, and 2.9% felt it was from poor access to qualified medical personal and utilization of medical treatments that increased death rates directly related to epilepsy. Within the limitations of sample size, the results of this survey support that the discrepancy between the incidence and prevalence of epilepsy in lower income regions of the world is due to problems in acquiring the data and stigma rather than higher mortality from diseases associated with epilepsy and repeated seizures. Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2014 International League Against Epilepsy.

  10. Detection of alloimmunization to ensure safer transfusion practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rashmi Sood

    2013-01-01

    significant role in improving blood safety. Centers that have incorporated antibody screen test and identification have ensured safe transfusion. Identified patients should be flagged in a database and information shared. Such patients can be given carry-on cards and educated about the names of the identified antibodies. Full red cell phenotyping of individuals, patients and donors, can be feasibility.

  11. Má oclusão Classe III de Angle com discrepância anteroposterior acentuada Angle Class III malocclusion with severe anteroposterior discrepancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Alexandre Câmara

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available O caso clínico apresentado refere-se ao tratamento de uma paciente com 36 anos, que apresentava uma má oclusão Classe III esquelética e dentária, com ausência dos caninos superiores. Foi realizado um tratamento ortodôntico-cirúrgico combinado, com avanço de maxila (Le Fort 1 e ajustes oclusais nos primeiros pré-molares superiores, que substituíram os caninos. Esse caso foi apresentado à Diretoria do Board Brasileiro de Ortodontia e Ortopedia Facial (BBO, representando a categoria 4, ou seja, uma má oclusão com discrepância anterossuperior acentuada, como parte dos requisitos para a obtenção do título de Diplomado pelo BBO.This case report describes the treatment of a 36-year-old patient who presented a skeletal and dental Class III malocclusion and missing upper canines. The patient was treated with orthosurgical maxillary advancement (Le Fort 1 and occlusal adjustment of the first premolars, which replaced the canines. This case was presented to the Brazilian Board of Orthodontics and Facial Orthopedics (BBO, as representative of Category 4, i.e., malocclusion with severe anteroposterior discrepancy, as part of the requirements for obtaining the BBO Diploma.

  12. A study of preservice elementary teachers enrolled in a discrepant-event-based physical science class

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lilly, James Edward

    This research evaluated the POWERFUL IDEAS IN PHYSICAL SCIENCE (PIiPS) curriculum model used to develop a physical science course taken by preservice elementary teachers. The focus was on the evaluation of discrepant events used to induce conceptual change in relation to students' ideas concerning heat, temperature, and specific heat. Both quantitative and qualitative methodologies were used for the analysis. Data was collected during the 1998 Fall semester using two classes of physical science for elementary school teachers. The traditionally taught class served as the control group and the class using the PIiPS curriculum model was the experimental group. The PIiPS curriculum model was evaluated quantitatively for its influence on students' attitude toward science, anxiety towards teaching science, self efficacy toward teaching science, and content knowledge. An analysis of covariance was performed on the quantitative data to test for significant differences between the means of the posttests for the control and experimental groups while controlling for pretest. It was found that there were no significant differences between the means of the control and experimental groups with respect to changes in their attitude toward science, anxiety toward teaching science and self efficacy toward teaching science. A significant difference between the means of the content examination was found (F(1,28) = 14.202 and p = 0.001), however, the result is questionable. The heat and energy module was the target for qualitative scrutiny. Coding for discrepant events was adapted from Appleton's 1996 work on student's responses to discrepant event science lessons. The following qualitative questions were posed for the investigation: (1) what were the ideas of the preservice elementary students prior to entering the classroom regarding heat and energy, (2) how effective were the discrepant events as presented in the PIiPS heat and energy module, and (3) how much does the "risk taking

  13. Pharmacist-led medication reconciliation to reduce discrepancies in transitions of care in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allende Bandrés, Maria Ángeles; Arenere Mendoza, Mercedes; Gutiérrez Nicolás, Fernando; Calleja Hernández, Miguel Ángel; Ruiz La Iglesia, Fernando

    2013-12-01

    Medication errors are one of the main causes of morbidity amongst hospital inpatients. More than half of medication errors occur at 'interfaces of care', when patients are discharged or transferred to the care of another physician. Medication reconciliation is the process of reviewing patients' complete previous medication regimen, comparing it with current prescriptions, and analysing and resolving any discrepancies that the pharmacist does not believe to be intentional (unjustified discrepancies). To quantify and analyse reconciliation unjustified discrepancies detected by a pharmacist in patients admitted to an internal medicine unit (IMU) over a 3-year period. The hospital employs a pharmacist who acts as a link between the primary care services and the internal medicine specialist care unit. A retrospective descriptive study on the reconciliation discrepancies found was carried out. Medication reconciliation was performed upon admission in all patients transferred from the Accident and Emergency department (A&E) and admitted to the IMU, and also at the time of discharge. The interventions were categorised based on the consensus document on terminology and medication classification published by the Spanish Society of Hospital Pharmacy. Number of patients with unjustified discrepancies, also known as reconciliation errors. 2,473 patients had their treatment reviewed at the time of admission and 1,150 at discharge. 866 reconciliation discrepancies were detected in 446 patients (1.94 per patient). 807 (93 %) were accepted by the prescribing physician and classified as reconciliation errors. 16.8 % of patients had at least one reconciliation error: 63.8 % of these errors were incomplete prescriptions, 16.6 % were medication omissions and 10.5 % were errors in dosage, administration method and/or frequency. The rate of medication errors found in this study is low compared with other similar studies. The most common error was "incomplete prescriptions", most of them

  14. Implicit and explicit self-esteem discrepancies in people with psychogenic nonepileptic seizures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimaro, Lian V; Roberts, Nicole A; Moghaddam, Nima G; Dawson, David L; Brown, Ian; Reuber, Markus

    2015-05-01

    Self-esteem (SE), or one's sense of competence and worth, is reduced in many mental and physical disorders. Low SE is associated with perceived stigma and disability and poor treatment outcomes. The present study examined implicit and explicit SE (automatic and deliberate views about the self) in people with epilepsy and people with psychogenic nonepileptic seizures (PNESs). Discrepancies between implicit SE and explicit SE have been found to correlate with psychological distress in disorders often associated with PNESs but are relatively unexplored in PNESs. We hypothesized that, compared with epilepsy, PNESs would be associated with lower self-reported SE and greater discrepancies between implicit SE and explicit SE. Thirty adults with PNESs, 25 adults with epilepsy, and 31 controls without a history of seizures were asked to complete the Rosenberg Self-esteem Scale as a measure of explicit SE and an Implicit Relational Assessment Procedure as a measure of implicit SE. The State-Trait Anxiety Inventory and Patient Health Questionnaire-15 (a somatic symptom inventory) were also administered. We found significant group differences in explicit (p<0.001) but not implicit SE. Patients with PNESs reported lower SE than the other groups. No group differences were found in implicit SE. Implicit-explicit SE discrepancies were larger in the group with PNESs than in the other groups (p<0.001). Higher frequency of PNESs (but not epileptic seizures) was associated with lower explicit SE (rs=-.83, p<0.01) and greater SE discrepancies (i.e., lower explicit relative to implicit SE; rs=.65, p<0.01). These relationships remained significant when controlling for anxiety and somatization. Patients with PNESs had lower explicit SE than those with epilepsy or healthy controls. In keeping with our expectations, there were greater discrepancies between implicit SE and explicit SE among patients with PNESs than in the other groups. Our results, including the strong relationship between

  15. The Relations among Measurements of Informant Discrepancies within a Multisite Trial of Treatments for Childhood Social Phobia

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Los Reyes, Andres; Alfano, Candice A.; Beidel, Deborah C.

    2010-01-01

    Discrepancies between informants' reports of children's behavior are robustly observed in clinical child research and have important implications for interpreting the outcomes of controlled treatment trials. However, little is known about the basic psychometric properties of these discrepancies. This study examined the relation between…

  16. Enhancing DSN Operations Efficiency with the Discrepancy Reporting Management System (DRMS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatillon, Mark; Lin, James; Cooper, Tonja M.

    2003-01-01

    The DRMS is the Discrepancy Reporting Management System used by the Deep Space Network (DSN). It uses a web interface and is a management tool designed to track and manage: data outage incidents during spacecraft tracks against equipment and software known as DRs (discrepancy Reports), to record "out of pass" incident logs against equipment and software in a Station Log, to record instances where equipment has be restarted or reset as Reset records, and to electronically record equipment readiness status across the DSN. Tracking and managing these items increases DSN operational efficiency by providing: the ability to establish the operational history of equipment items, data on the quality of service provided to the DSN customers, the ability to measure service performance, early insight into processes, procedures and interfaces that may need updating or changing, and the capability to trace a data outage to a software or hardware change. The items listed above help the DSN to focus resources on areas of most need.

  17. Discrepancies between CFHTLenS cosmic shear & Planck: new physics or systematic effects?

    CERN Document Server

    Kitching, Thomas D; Heavens, Alan F; Jimenez, Raul

    2016-01-01

    There is currently a discrepancy in the measured value of the amplitude of matter clustering, parameterised using sigma_8, inferred from galaxy weak lensing and CMB data. In this paper we investigate what could mitigate this discrepancy. We consider systematic effects in the weak lensing data and include intrinsic galaxy alignments, and biases in photometric redshift estimates. We also apply a non-parametric approach to model the baryonic feedback on the dark matter clustering, which is flexible enough to reproduce the OWLS and Illustris simulation results. Finally we extend the cosmological analysis of the weak lensing data to include the effect of massive neutrinos. The statistic we use, 3D cosmic shear, is a method that extracts cosmological information from weak lensing data using a spherical-Bessel function power spectrum approach. There are several advantages that this affords, in particular that the method does not rely on binning in redshift, or covariance estimation from simulations. It also allows f...

  18. Smoking identities and behavior: evidence of discrepancies, issues for measurement and intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ridner, S Lee; Walker, Kandi L; Hart, Joy L; Myers, John A

    2010-06-01

    Although researchers and health care practitioners tend to use standard categories to classify smokers and nonsmokers, recent research suggests that individual smokers may use a variety of self-definitions regarding their smoking behavior. The purpose of this study was to examine smoking identity and smoking behavior among college students, specifically, the relationship between self-identifying as a smoker, nonsmoker, occasional smoker, or social smoker and number of days smoked in the past month. Data were obtained during a campuswide health assessment of randomly selected full-time students (N = 741). Results indicate discrepancy between smoking identity and cigarette use. Twenty percent of students who smoked in the past 30 days self-identified as nonsmokers. Such discrepancies have implications for data collection in research as well as on questionnaires and in health care interviews. Failure to understand actual smoking behavior may increase the risk that individuals will not receive effective smoking prevention and cessation interventions.

  19. Resolving the electron temperature discrepancies in HII Regions and Planetary Nebulae: kappa-distributed electrons

    CERN Document Server

    Nicholls, David C; Sutherland, Ralph S

    2012-01-01

    The measurement of electron temperatures and metallicities in H ii regions and Planetary Nebulae (PNe) has-for several decades-presented a problem: results obtained using different techniques disagree. What it worse, they disagree consistently. There have been numerous attempts to explain these discrepancies, but none has provided a satisfactory solution to the problem. In this paper, we explore the possibility that electrons in H ii regions and PNe depart from a Maxwell-Boltzmann equilibrium energy distribution. We adopt a "kappa-distribution" for the electron energies. Such distributions are widely found in Solar System plasmas, where they can be directly measured. This simple assumption is able to explain the temperature and metallicity discrepancies in H ii regions and PNe arising from the different measurement techniques. We find that the energy distribution does not need to depart dramatically from an equilibrium distribution. From an examination of data from Hii regions and PNe it appears that kappa ~ ...

  20. Analysis of Slight Discrepancy Between Quantum Dynamics and Classical Statistical Dynamics For Second Order Field Theories

    CERN Document Server

    Werbos, P J

    2003-01-01

    Quantum Field Theory (QFT) makes predictions by combining two sets of assumptions: (1) quantum dynamics, such as a Schrodinger or Liouville equation; (2) quantum measurement, such as stochastic collapse to an eigenfunction of a measurement operator. A previous paper defined a classical density matrix R encoding the statistical moments of an ensemble of states of classical second-order Hamiltonian field theory. It proved Tr(RQ)=E(Q), etc., for the usual field operators as defined by Weinberg, and it proved that those observables of the classical system obey the usual Heisenberg dynamic equation. However, R itself obeys dynamics different from the usual Liouville equation! This paper derives those dynamics, and calculates the discrepancy between CFT and normal form QFT in predicting general observables g(Q,P). There is some preliminary evidence for the conjecture that the discrepancies disappear in equilibrium states (bound states and scattering states) for finite bosonic field theories. Even if not, they appea...

  1. Caregiver and Adolescent Discrepancies in Perceptions of Violence and Their Associations with Early Adolescent Aggression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindstrom Johnson, Sarah; Reichenberg, Raymond; Bradshaw, Catherine P; Haynie, Denise L; Cheng, Tina L

    2016-10-01

    This article examined the role of caregiver messages about violence and exposure to neighborhood violence on adolescent aggression in light of research regarding discrepancies between parents and their children. Drawing upon data from an urban African American sample of 144 caregiver/early adolescent dyads (M = 12.99; SD = 0.93; 58.7 % female) we examined covariates of discrepancies between caregiver and adolescent reports of perceptions of violence as well as their association with adolescent aggression. Analyses suggested that concordance in perceptions of violence was associated with children's attitudes about violence and caregivers' perceptions of family communication. Structural equation modeling indicated a unique role for individual perceptions and suggested that agreement in awareness of neighborhood violence could be protective for early adolescent involvement in aggression.

  2. Can X-rays provide a solution to the abundance discrepancy problem in photoionised nebulae?

    CERN Document Server

    Ercolano, Barbara

    2009-01-01

    We re-examine the well-known discrepancy between ionic abundances determined via the analysis of recombination lines (RLs) and collisionally excited lines (CELs). We show that abundance variations can be mimicked in a {\\it chemically homogeneous} medium by the presence of dense X-ray irradiated regions which present different ionisation and temperature structures from those of the more diffuse medium they are embedded in, which is predominantly ionised by extreme-ultraviolet radiation. The presence of X-ray ionised dense clumps or filaments also naturally explains the lower temperatures often measured from O {\\sc ii} recombination lines and from the Balmer jump when compared to temperatures determined by CELs. We discuss the implications for abundances determined via the analysis of CELs and RLs and provide a simple analytical procedure to obtain upwards corrections for CEL-determined abundance. While we show that the abundance discrepancy factor (ADF) and the Balmer Jump temperature determined from observati...

  3. Radiative Heating in MSL Entry: Comparison of Flight Heating Discrepancy to Ground Test and Predictive Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruden, Brett A.; Brandis, Aaron M.; White, Todd R.; Mahzari, Milad; Bose, Deepak

    2014-01-01

    During the recent entry of the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL), the heat shield was equipped with thermocouple stacks to measure in-depth heating of the thermal protection system (TPS). When only convective heating was considered, the derived heat flux from gauges in the stagnation region was found to be underpredicted by as much as 17 W/sq cm, which is significant compared to the peak heating of 32 W/sq cm. In order to quantify the contribution of radiative heating phenomena to the discrepancy, ground tests and predictive simulations that replicated the MSL entry trajectory were performed. An analysis is carried through to assess the quality of the radiation model and the impact to stagnation line heating. The impact is shown to be significant, but does not fully explain the heating discrepancy.

  4. WAIS-IV GAI and CPI discrepancies in multiple sclerosis and traumatic brain injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    J Ryan, Joseph; Kreiner, David S; Glass Umfleet, Laura; Gontkovsky, Samuel T; Myers-Fabian, Allison

    2016-10-25

    We examined relationships between the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Fourth Edition (WAIS-IV) General Ability Index (GAI) and Cognitive Proficiency Index (CPI) in two clinical samples. The mean pattern produced by 42 individuals with multiple sclerosis (MS) and 47 with traumatic brain injury (TBI) was the same, GAI > CPI. This pattern occurred in 61.9% and 78.7% of the protocols of patients with MS or TBI, respectively. The MS sample earned a significantly larger CPI mean than did patients with TBI. The group means did not differ on the GAI. Patients with TBI had significantly larger GAI-CPI discrepancy score means than those with MS. Receiver operating characteristics (ROC) analysis assessed the ability of GAI-CPI discrepancies to differentiate the samples. The area under curve (AUC) was 0.67, 95% [0.55, 0.78], which indicated low accuracy in terms of group classification.

  5. Discrepant ratios of arterial versus venous thrombosis in hemophilia A as compared with hemophilia B.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girolami, Antonio; Bertozzi, Irene; de Marinis, Giulia Berti; Tasinato, Valentina; Sambado, Luisa

    2014-04-01

    The occurrence of thrombosis in patients with congenital bleeding disorders represents an exceptional event. Hemophilia A and hemophilia B patients have been showed to present both arterial and venous thrombosis (85 cases of arterial thrombosis and 34 cases of venous thrombosis). The great majority of arterial thrombosis are myocardial infarction or other acute coronary syndromes, whereas the majority of venous thrombosis are deep vein thrombosis and/or pulmonary embolisms. However there are discrepancies in the proportion of arterial and venous thrombosis seen in hemophilia A versus hemophilia B. The ratio of arterial versus venous thrombosis in hemophilia A is 3.72 whereas that for hemophilia B is 1.12. This indicates that arterial thrombosis is more frequent in hemophilia A as compared to hemophilia B and the opposite is true for venous thrombosis. The potential significance of this discrepancy is discussed.

  6. Affective Evaluations of Exercising: The Role of Automatic-Reflective Evaluation Discrepancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brand, Ralf; Antoniewicz, Franziska

    2016-12-01

    Sometimes our automatic evaluations do not correspond well with those we can reflect on and articulate. We present a novel approach to the assessment of automatic and reflective affective evaluations of exercising. Based on the assumptions of the associative-propositional processes in evaluation model, we measured participants' automatic evaluations of exercise and then shared this information with them, asked them to reflect on it and rate eventual discrepancy between their reflective evaluation and the assessment of their automatic evaluation. We found that mismatch between self-reported ideal exercise frequency and actual exercise frequency over the previous 14 weeks could be regressed on the discrepancy between a relatively negative automatic and a more positive reflective evaluation. This study illustrates the potential of a dual-process approach to the measurement of evaluative responses and suggests that mistrusting one's negative spontaneous reaction to exercise and asserting a very positive reflective evaluation instead leads to the adoption of inflated exercise goals.

  7. Lamb Shift in Muonic Hydrogen. II. Analysis of the Discrepancy of Theory and Experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Jentschura, U D

    2010-01-01

    Currently, both the g factor measurement of the muon as well as the Lamb shift 2S-2P measurement in muonic hydrogen are in disagreement with theory. Here, we investigate possible theoretical explanations, including proton structure effects and small modifications of the vacuum polarization potential. In particular, we investigate a conceivable small modification of the spectral function of vacuum polarization in between the electron and muon energy scales due to a virtual millicharged particle and due to an unstable vector boson originating from a hidden sector of an extended standard model. We find that a virtual millicharged particle which could explain the muonic Lamb shift discrepancy alters theoretical predictions for the muon anomalous magnetic moment by many standard deviations and therefore is in conflict with experiment. Also, we find no parameterizations of an unstable virtual vector boson which could simultaneously explain both "muonic" discrepancies without significantly altering theoretical predi...

  8. Discrepancy between self- and observer ratings of performance in social phobics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rapee, R M; Lim, L

    1992-11-01

    Twenty-eight subjects meeting Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (rev. 3rd ed.; American Psychiatric Association, 1987) criteria for social phobia and without a comorbid affective disorder and 33 nonclinical controls were asked to present a brief, impromptu speech to a small audience. Speakers themselves, as well as members of the audience, rated each speaker on a public speaking questionnaire that included both specific items (e.g., voice shook) and global items (e.g., appeared confident). For global items, no significant difference was indicated between the two groups on observers' ratings of public speaking performance. However, social phobics rated their own performance worse than did nonclinical controls, and there was a significantly greater discrepancy between self and other ratings for social phobics than controls. Fear of negative evaluation was the only significant predictor of the self-other discrepancy on global items.

  9. Facts and Findings on the Statistical Discrepancies of the Korean Balance of Payments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sangyong Joo

    2000-03-01

    Full Text Available The Korea experienced drastic increases in the statistical discrepancy in balance of payments since 1997. In general, the expansion and complexity of external transactions induced by contributing capital account liberalization has contributed to this fact. The abolition of the export/import approval system seems to have accelerated the mismeasurement and omissions in external transactions. Of course, the influence of currency crisis occurred cannot be ruled out. Among economic factors, Won/dollar exchange rate volatility is found to have significant explanatory power on the magnitude of statistical discrepancy, while exchange rate returns have not. WE interpret this as the demand for relatively safe currency rising in presence of the uncertainty in domestic currency values.

  10. THGEM gain calculations using Garfield: Solving discrepancies between the simulation and experimental data

    CERN Document Server

    Azevedo, C D R; Silva, L F N D Carramate A L M; Veloso, J F C A

    2016-01-01

    Discrepancies between the measured and simulated gain in Thick Micropatterned gaseous detectors (MPGD), namely THGEM, have been observed by several groups. In order to simulate the gas gain avalanche the community relies in the calculations performed in Garfield++ that was known to produce differences of 2 orders of magnitude relatively to the experimental data for thick MPGDs. In this work, simulations performed for Ne/5%CH4, Ar/5%CH4 and Ar/30%CO2 mixtures shown that Garfield++ is able to perfectly describe the experimental data if Penning effect is included in the simulation. The comparison between the number of excitations, which may lead to a Penning transfer, in THGEM and GEM is also shown, explaining the less pronounced gain discrepancies observed in GEM.

  11. Intelligence quotient discrepancy indicates levels of motor competence in preschool children at risk for developmental delays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu TY

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Tzu-Ying Yu,1 Kuan-Lin Chen,2,3 Willy Chou,4,5 Shu-Han Yang,4 Sheng-Chun Kung,4 Ya-Chen Lee,2 Li-Chen Tung4,6,7 1Department of Occupational Therapy, College of Medicine, I-Shou University, Kaohsiung, 2Department of Occupational Therapy, College of Medicine, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan, 3Department of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, National Cheng Kung University Hospital, College of Medicine, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan, 4Department of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, Chi-Mei Medical Center, Tainan, 5Department of Recreation and Health Care Management, Cha Nan University of Pharmacy and Science, Tainan, 6School of Medicine, Kaohsiung Medical University, Kaohsiung, 7School of Medicine, Chung Shan Medical University, Taichung, Taiwan Purpose: This study aimed to establish 1 whether a group difference exists in the motor competence of preschool children at risk for developmental delays with intelligence quotient discrepancy (IQD; refers to difference between verbal intelligence quotient [VIQ] and performance intelligence quotient [PIQ] and 2 whether an association exists between IQD and motor competence.Methods: Children’s motor competence and IQD were determined with the motor subtests of the Comprehensive Developmental Inventory for Infants and Toddlers and Wechsler Preschool and Primary Scale of Intelligence™ – Fourth Edition. A total of 291 children were included in three groups: NON-IQD (n=213; IQD within 1 standard deviation [SD], VIQ>PIQ (n=39; VIQ>PIQ greater than 1 SD, and PIQ>VIQ (n=39; PIQ>VIQ greater than 1 SD.Results: The results of one-way analysis of variance indicated significant differences among the subgroups for the “Gross and fine motor” subdomains of the Comprehensive Developmental Inventory for Infants and Toddlers, especially on the subtests of “body-movement coordination” (F=3.87, P<0.05 and “visual-motor coordination” (F=6.90, P<0.05. Motor competence was significantly

  12. Tuina for Leg Length Discrepancy and Lumbosacral Pain Due to Sacroiliac Joint Subluxation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Zhao-xing; Zhu Hong; Wang Rui-hui; Du Xu; Qu Hong-yan

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To observe theclinical effect of tuina reduction manipulation on leg length discrepancy and lumbosacral pain due to sacroiliac joint subluxation. Methods: A total of 60eligible cases were randomly allocated into an observation group and a control group, 30 in each group. Cases in the observation group were treated with conventional tuina plus reduction manipulation of sacroiliac joint subluxation; whereas cases in the control group were treated with conventional tuina plus acupuncture. The clinical effects were observed after 10 times of treatment. In addition, the relapse rates were observed 2 months after treatment. Results: The total effective rate in the observation group was 80.0%, versus 50.0% in the control group, showing a statistically significant difference (P Conclusion: Tuina reduction manipulation can obtain substantial therapeutic effect for leg length discrepancy and lumbosacral pain due to sacroiliac joint subluxation, coupled with a low relapse rate.

  13. The symptoms and functioning severity scale (SFSS): psychometric evaluation and discrepancies among youth, caregiver, and clinician ratings over time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Athay, M Michele; Riemer, Manuel; Bickman, Leonard

    2012-03-01

    This paper describes the development and psychometric evaluation of the symptoms and functioning severity scale (SFSS), which includes three parallel forms to systematically capture clinician, youth, and caregiver perspectives of youth symptoms on a frequent basis. While there is widespread consensus that different raters of youth psychopathology vary significantly in their assessment, this is the first paper that specifically investigated the discrepancies among clinician, youth, and caregiver ratings throughout the treatment process within a community mental health setting. Results for all three respondent versions indicated the SFSS is a psychometrically sound instrument for use in this population. Significant discrepancies in scores existed at baseline among the three respondents. Longitudinal analyses reveal the youth-clinician and caregiver-clinician score discrepancies decreased significantly over time. Differences by youth gender existed for caregiver-clinician discrepancies. The average youth-caregiver score discrepancy remained consistent throughout treatment. Implications for future research and clinical practice are discussed.

  14. COMMUNICATION OF EDUCATIONAL ATTAINMENT AND INCOMES: THE REASONS AND DISCREPANCY CONSEQUENCES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yriy Chistyakov

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available According to the theory of human capital improvement of education attainment results in increase of income of human capital’s owner. This issue is interest to majority of wage earners, all the more at the economic crisis. Authors of this paper analyze presence and closeness of connection between worker’s education attainment and amount of salary on data of Kaluga region. In the paper probable reasons and discrepancy of revealed issue.

  15. Discrepancy between ambient annealing and H{sup +} implantation in optical absorption of ZnO

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lv, Jinpeng, E-mail: hitljp@gmail.com [College of Astronautics, Nanjing University of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Nanjing, Jiangsu (China); Li, Chundong [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin, Heilongjiang (China)

    2016-05-15

    The discrepancy between sub-bandgap absorption in ZnO induced by thermal annealing and H{sup +} implantation is investigated in this study for the first time. Results indicate that nonreductive annealing-induced optical absorption is independent of annealing ambient, and can be assigned to V{sub O}, whereas the absorption centers caused by H{sup +} implantation and H{sub 2} annealing are primarily associated with V{sub O} and ionized Zn{sub i}.

  16. Application of improved discrepancy principle in inversionof atmosphere infrared remote sensing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    With the use of techniques in nonlinear problems, the IDP (improved discrepancy prin-ciple) method has been proposed and applied to the optimal smooth factor (parameter y) in theinversion process of atmosphere profiles from satellite observation. This method has also beenused to inverse atmospheric parameters from the observation of new generation geostationaryoperational environmental satellite (GOES-8). Results show that this method is more accurate thanthat in use

  17. Computerized versus motivational interviewing alcohol interventions: impact on discrepancy, motivation, and drinking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, James G; Dennhardt, Ashley A; Skidmore, Jessica R; Martens, Matthew P; McDevitt-Murphy, Meghan E

    2010-12-01

    The authors conducted two randomized clinical trials with ethnically diverse samples of college student drinkers in order to determine (a) the relative efficacy of two popular computerized interventions versus a more comprehensive motivational interview approach (BASICS) and (b) the mechanisms of change associated with these interventions. In Study 1, heavy drinking participants recruited from a student health center (N = 74, 59% women, 23% African American) were randomly assigned to receive BASICS or the Alcohol 101 CD-ROM program. BASICS was associated with greater post-session motivation to change and self-ideal and normative discrepancy relative to Alcohol 101, but there were no group differences in the primary drinking outcomes at 1-month follow-up. Pre to post session increases in motivation predicted lower follow-up drinking across both conditions. In Study 2, heavy drinking freshman recruited from a core university course (N = 133, 50% women, 30% African American) were randomly assigned to BASICS, a web-based feedback program (e-CHUG), or assessment-only. BASICS was associated with greater post-session self-ideal discrepancy than e-CHUG, but there were no differences in motivation or normative discrepancy. There was a significant treatment effect on typical weekly and heavy drinking, with participants in BASICS reporting significantly lower follow-up drinking relative to assessment only participants. In Study 2, change in the motivation or discrepancy did not predict drinking outcomes. Across both studies, African American students assigned to BASICS reported medium effect size reductions in drinking whereas African American students assigned to Alcohol 101, e-CHUG, or assessment did not reduce their drinking.

  18. Implicit and Explicit Self-Esteem Discrepancies, Victimization and the Development of Late Childhood Internalizing Problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leeuwis, Franca H; Koot, Hans M; Creemers, Daan H M; van Lier, Pol A C

    2015-07-01

    Discrepancies between implicit and explicit self-esteem have been linked with internalizing problems among mainly adolescents and adults. Longitudinal research on this association in children is lacking. This study examined the longitudinal link between self-esteem discrepancies and the development of internalizing problems in children. It furthermore examined the possible mediating role of self-esteem discrepancies in the longitudinal link between experiences of peer victimization and internalizing problems development. Children (N = 330, M(age) = 11.2 year; 52.5 % female) were followed over grades five (age 11 years) and six (age 12 years). Self-report measures were used annually to test for victimization and internalizing problems. Implicit self-esteem was assessed using an implicit association test, while explicit self-esteem was assessed via self-reports. Self-esteem discrepancies represented the difference between implicit and explicit self-esteem. Results showed that victimization was associated with increases in damaged self-esteem (higher levels of implicit than explicit self-esteem. Additionally, damaged self-esteem at age 11 years predicted an increase in internalizing problems in children over ages 11 to 12 years. Furthermore, damaged self-esteem mediated the relationship between age 11 years victimization and the development of internalizing problems. No impact of fragile self-esteem (lower levels of implicit than explicit self-esteem) on internalizing problems was found. The results thus underscore that, as found in adolescent and adult samples, damaged self-esteem is a predictor of increases in childhood internalizing problems. Moreover, damaged self-esteem might explain why children who are victimized develop internalizing problems. Implications are discussed.

  19. Discrepancies between direct and indirect measures of interpersonal and neurocognitive skills in autism spectrum disorder children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Pérez, M Mar; Calero, M Dolores; Mata, Sara; Molinero, Clara

    2016-10-01

    Subjects with autistic spectrum disorders (ASD) show persistent deficits in social interaction. In order to explore the scope of their deficits, it is of great interest to compare the different interpersonal skills and executive functions of ASD subjects to those of children with typical development. Assessing these skills usually involves a large variety of informants (parents, teachers, other family members) and of measures, with frequent discrepancies between direct performance measures and indirect measures (third-party report). Different explanations of this mismatch between measures have been addressed in previous studies. We wish to analyze whether there are differences between children with ASD and children with typical development on several direct performance measures of interpersonal and neurocognitive skills and one third-party report on real-life performance of interpersonal skills; we also want to look at whether discrepancies appear between the two types of measurements in the two groups of participants. A total of 68 Spanish children between the ages of 7 and 12 years participated; 34 were children with ASD, and 34 showed typical development. All participants were tested for recognition of emotions, solving interpersonal conflicts, and executive function. Significant differences between the two groups were not found on most of the direct performance measures, but they did appear in the report by third parties, in favor of the group with typical development. There was also a significant association between neurocognitive and social variables in the latter group. There were intergroup differences and discrepancies between the direct performance and indirect measures in children with ASD, and these must be explained. For this reason, future studies could seek to explain the cause of these discrepancies with a greater number of measures for each of the skills.

  20. Discrepancies between implicit and explicit self-esteem among adolescents with social anxiety disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schreiber, Franziska; Bohn, Christiane; Aderka, Idan M; Stangier, Ulrich; Steil, Regina

    2012-12-01

    Previous studies have found high implicit self-esteem (ISE) to prevail concurrently with low explicit self-esteem (ESE) in socially anxious adults. This suggests that self-esteem discrepancies are associated with social anxiety disorder (SAD). Given that the onset of SAD often occurs in adolescence, we investigated self-esteem discrepancies between ISE and ESE in adolescents suffering from SAD. Two implicit measures (Affect Misattribution Procedure, Implicit Association Test) were used both before and after a social threat activation in 20 adolescents with SAD (14-20 years), and compared to 20 healthy adolescents who were matched for age and gender. The Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale, the Social Cognitions Questionnaire and Beck Depression Inventory were administered as explicit measures. We expected discrepant self-esteem (high ISE, low ESE) in adolescents with SAD, in comparison to congruent self-esteem (positive ISE, positive ESE) in healthy controls, after social threat activation. Both the patient and control groups exhibited high positive ISE on both implicit measures, before as well as after social threat induction. Explicitly, patients suffering from SAD revealed lower levels of ESE, compared to the healthy adolescents. This study is the first to examine ISE and ESE in a clinical sample of adolescent patients with SAD. Our results suggest that SAD is associated with a discrepancy between high ISE and low ESE, after a social-threat manipulation. The findings are discussed in relation to other studies using implicit measures in SAD and may provide a more comprehensive understanding of the role of self-esteem in adolescent SAD. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. In vitro evaluation of the marginal and internal discrepancies of different esthetic restorations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amal Abdelsamad SAKRANA

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: This study examined the fit of two types of all-ceramic single crowns and indirect composite resin full coverage crowns. Material and Methods: Thirty intact human mandibular first premolars were selected for this study and prepared using a machine to standardize the dimensions and randomly divided into 3 groups. Slip cast (IC (In-Ceram Zirconia, Vita Zahnfabrik, copy-milled zirconia (CM (ICE, Zirkonzahn and indirect composite resin crowns (NECO, HeraeusKulzer, Hanau, Germany, (N=30, 10 per group were fabricated according to each manufacturer's recommendations. Before cementation, discrepancies were measured at the marginal zone in each crown. Crowns were then cemented with G-Cem capsule self-adhesive luting cement (GC Corporation, Tokyo, Japan. Four positions were marked for each zone (mid-facial, mid-mesial, mid-distal, and mid-lingual and three measurements were made at each of the four positions yielding to a total of 12 measurements per crown before and after cementation. The measurements were performed at a different magnification using a stereo microscope (SZ11, Olympus, Japan. Marginal, axial and occlusal zone discrepancies (µm were evaluated after cementation. The data were statistically analyzed using two-way ANOVA and Tukey's test. Results: Before cementation, significantly less marginal discrepancies were noted compared with after cementation in all groups (p0.05. Occlusal zone discrepancies were significantly higher than those of the marginal and axial zones in all groups (p<0.05. Conclusions: Slip cast and copy-milled zirconia crowns showed comparable fit to composite resin crowns in all marginal, axial and occlusal areas.

  2. Residual malformations and leg length discrepancy after treatment of fibular hemimelia

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    Soucacos Panayotis N

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Fibular hemimelia has been reported as the most common congenital longitudinal deficiency of the long bones. Previous studies have focused on the best treatment options for this congenital condition. There is very little to our knowledge in the literature focused on residual persisting malformations and leg length discrepancy after treatment. Methods Seven patients presenting fibular hemimelia in eight fibulae received treatment between years 1988 and 2001. Pre-treatment average leg length discrepancy was 5.3 cm. All patients presented associated congenital deformities of the ipsilateral leg. Six patients received surgical treatment. Average post-treatment follow up was 9.7 years. Residual malformations and leg length discrepancy were recorded for all patients. It is a retrospective case series study at one institution by two of the presenting authors as senior surgeons. Results Average leg length gained after successful bone lengthening in six patients was 5.06 cm. Although there was a significant functional improvement, a number of residual malformations and leg length inequality was recorded. Residual average leg length discrepancy of 3.1 cm was observed in five patients who completed surgical treatment. Five patients presented a limp. Residual anterior-medial bowing of the tibia was observed in four patients. Calf atrophy was present in all seven patients. Valgus deformity of the ankle was remained in two patients. Conclusions Treatment of fibular hemimelia, even in cases graded as successful, showed to be accompanied by a number of persisting residual deformities and recurrent leg length inequality. Although the number of patients is limited, the high rate of this phenomenon is indicative of the significance of the report. The family and the patients themselves should have the right expectations and will be more co-operative when well informed about this instance. A report of common post-treatment residual deformities

  3. Specific and global coagulation assays in the diagnosis of discrepant mild hemophilia A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowyer, Annette E; Van Veen, Joost J; Goodeve, Anne C; Kitchen, Steve; Makris, Michael

    2013-12-01

    The activity of the factor VIII coagulation protein can be measured by three methods: a one or two-stage clotting assay and a chromogenic assay. The factor VIII activity of most individuals with mild hemophilia A is the same regardless of which method is employed. However, approximately 30% of patients show marked discrepancies in factor VIII activity measured with the different methods. The objective of this study was to investigate the incidence of assay discrepancy in our center, assess the impact of alternative reagents on factor VIII activity assays and determine the usefulness of global assays of hemostasis in mild hemophilia A. Factor VIII activity was measured in 84 individuals with mild hemophilia A using different reagents. Assay discrepancy was defined as a two-fold or greater difference between the results of the one-stage and two-stage clotting assays. Rotational thromboelastometry and calibrated automated thrombography were performed. Assay discrepancy was observed in 31% of individuals; 12% with lower activity in the two-stage assay and 19% with lower activity in the one-stage assay. The phenotype could not always be predicted from the individual's genotype. Chromogenic assays were shown to be a suitable alternative to the two-stage clotting assay. Thromboelastometry was found to have poor sensitivity in hemophilia. Calibrated automated thrombography supported the results obtained by the two-stage and chromogenic assays. The current international guidelines do not define the type of assay to be used in the diagnosis of mild hemophilia A and some patients could be misclassified as normal. In our study, 4% of patients would not have been diagnosed on the basis of the one-stage factor VIII assay. Laboratories should use both one stage and chromogenic (or two-stage) assays in the diagnosis of patients with possible hemophilia A.

  4. Discrepancies between Multi-Electrode LFP and CSD Phase-Patterns: A Forward Modeling Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hindriks, Rikkert; Arsiwalla, Xerxes D; Panagiotaropoulos, Theofanis; Besserve, Michel; Verschure, Paul F M J; Logothetis, Nikos K; Deco, Gustavo

    2016-01-01

    Multi-electrode recordings of local field potentials (LFPs) provide the opportunity to investigate the spatiotemporal organization of neural activity on the scale of several millimeters. In particular, the phases of oscillatory LFPs allow studying the coordination of neural oscillations in time and space and to tie it to cognitive processing. Given the computational roles of LFP phases, it is important to know how they relate to the phases of the underlying current source densities (CSDs) that generate them. Although CSDs and LFPs are distinct physical quantities, they are often (implicitly) identified when interpreting experimental observations. That this identification is problematic is clear from the fact that LFP phases change when switching to different electrode montages, while the underlying CSD phases remain unchanged. In this study we use a volume-conductor model to characterize discrepancies between LFP and CSD phase-patterns, to identify the contributing factors, and to assess the effect of different electrode montages. Although we focus on cortical LFPs recorded with two-dimensional (Utah) arrays, our findings are also relevant for other electrode configurations. We found that the main factors that determine the discrepancy between CSD and LFP phase-patterns are the frequency of the neural oscillations and the extent to which the laminar CSD profile is balanced. Furthermore, the presence of laminar phase-differences in cortical oscillations, as commonly observed in experiments, precludes identifying LFP phases with those of the CSD oscillations at a given cortical depth. This observation potentially complicates the interpretation of spike-LFP coherence and spike-triggered LFP averages. With respect to reference strategies, we found that the average-reference montage leads to larger discrepancies between LFP and CSD phases as compared with the referential montage, while the Laplacian montage reduces these discrepancies. We therefore advice to conduct

  5. Discrepancies between multi-electrode LFP and CSD phase-patterns: A forward modeling study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rikkert Hindriks

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Multi-electrode recordings of local field potentials (LFP's provide the opportunity to investigate the spatiotemporal organization of neural activity on the scale of several millimeters. In particular, the phases of oscillatory LFP's allow studying the coordination of neural oscillations in time and space and to tie it to cognitive processing. Given the computational roles of LFP phases, it is important to know how they relate to the phases of the underlying current source densities (CSD's that generate them.Although CSD's and LFP's are distinct physical quantities, they are often (implicitly identified when interpreting experimental observations.That this identification is problematic is clear from the fact that LFP phases change when switching to different electrode montages, while the underlying CSD phases remain unchanged. In this study we use a volume-conductor model to characterize discrepancies between LFP and CSD phase-patterns, to identify the contributing factors, and to assessthe effect of different electrode montages. Although we focus on cortical LFP's recorded with two-dimensional (Utah arrays, our findings are also relevant for other electrode configurations. We found that the main factors that determine the discrepancy between CSD and LFP phase-patterns are the frequency of the neural oscillations and the extent to which the laminar CSD profile is balanced. Furthermore, the presence of laminar phase-differences in cortical oscillations, as commonly observed in experiments, precludes identifying LFP phases with those of the oscillations at a given cortical depth. This observation potentially complicates the interpretation of spike-LFP coherence and spike-triggered CSD averages. With respect to reference strategies, we found that the average-reference montage leads to larger discrepancies between LFP and CSD phases as compared with the referential montage, while the Laplacian montage reduces these discrepancies.

  6. Outcome of premolar extractions on Bolton's overall ratio and tooth size discrepancies in South India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varghese, Shaji T.; Yerasi, Purushothama R.; Jose, Lijo K.; Mohammed Haris, T. P.; Mathew, Tom; Ealla, Kranti K. R.

    2016-01-01

    Aims and Objectives: Attainment of ideal occlusion is often restricted by disproportionate sizes of individual teeth, which is otherwise termed as tooth size discrepancy (TSD). While extraction of teeth for orthodontic purposes is not uncommon, there is considerable resistance against this school of thought. The extraction of premolars, in particular, received considerable attention because of the potential TSD that could result following the extraction of premolars. The aim of the present study was to identify the consequence of premolar extractions on Bolton's overall ratios in South Indian population. Materials and Methods: One hundred participants were recruited into the study through purposive nonproportionate quota sampling. Pretreatment dental casts of the study participants were measured for mesiodistal tooth widths to determine Bolton's overall ratio before the hypothetical tooth extractions were performed. The hypothetical extractions were executed in four different combinations as follows: (a) Maxillary and mandibular first premolars, (b) maxillary first premolars and mandibular second premolars, (c) maxillary second premolars and mandibular first premolars, and (d) maxillary and mandibular second premolars. Bolton's overall ratios were calculated after the hypothetical tooth extractions were performed. Statistical analysis was done using the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences, version 20 software. Results: It was observed that extractions performed in any of the combinations followed in this study resulted in a decrease of overall Bolton's ratios. However, the discrepancy in tooth size was highest with the extraction of all first premolars, whereas least discrepancy was recorded with all second premolars extraction. It was also found that, based on the combination of teeth chosen for extraction, there was significant difference in Bolton's overall ratios between males and females. Conclusion: In formulating a treatment plan involving premolar

  7. Smile design for the adolescent patient--interdisciplinary management of anterior tooth size discrepancies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waldman, Alexander B

    2008-05-01

    Adolescent patients often seek orthodontic treatment to correct spacing of the maxillary anterior teeth. If the spacing is caused by a tooth size discrepancy that affects one or more anterior teeth, an interdisciplinary treatment plan involving orthodontic, restorative, and periodontal treatment is recommended to achieve a harmonious esthetic result. This article describes a clinical approach for treatment of these complex cases, focusing on the importance of tooth form, gingival esthetics, and treatment sequencing.

  8. Discrepancy Between Standing Posture and Sagittal Balance During Walking in Adult Spinal Deformity Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arima, Hideyuki; Yamato, Yu; Hasegawa, Tomohiko; Togawa, Daisuke; Kobayashi, Sho; Yasuda, Tatsuya; Banno, Tomohiro; Oe, Shin; Matsuyama, Yukihiro

    2017-01-01

    Retrospective case series. The present study aimed to determine the characteristics of patients with adult spinal deformity (ASD) with a discrepancy between standing and walking postures. Standing radiographic parameters are typically used to evaluate patients with ASD. Patients with ASD with relatively good sagittal alignment on standing radiography have, however, been reported to walk with a forward trunk tilt. Patients with ASD (n = 93; 13 men, 80 women; mean age, 65.0 yr) who underwent corrective surgery and preoperative gait analysis at our hospital between 2011 and 2013 were included. Spine radiographs and gait analysis data were acquired preoperatively. Standing-trunk tilt angle (STA) on lateral standing x-ray, gait-trunk tilt angle (GTA) from lateral gait images, and radiographic parameters of the spine and pelvis (lumbar lordosis [LL], pelvic tilt, and sagittal vertical axis) were measured. We calculated the increasing trunk tilt angle (ITA), by subtracting the STA from the GTA, for use as an index of discrepancy between standing posture and sagittal balance during walking. We examined the relation between radiographic parameters and ITA. The mean preoperative STA and GTA were 3.5° and 11.1°, respectively. The mean preoperative ITA, which represents the degree of discrepancy between standing posture and sagittal balance during walking, was 7.6°. The mean preoperative sagittal vertical axis, LL, pelvic incidence (PI), pelvic tilt, and PI minus LL were 102.6 mm, 20.3°, 52.9°, 32.1°, and 32.6°, respectively. The PI minus LL mismatch was positively correlated with the ITA (R = 0.237, P = 0.023). In particular, patients with ASD with a PI minus LL mismatch of more than 40° had a significantly greater ITA. Gait analysis revealed that a preoperative standing-walking discrepancy is associated with severe PI - LL mismatch. 4.

  9. 75 FR 8272 - Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement; Acquisition Strategies To Ensure Competition...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-24

    ... Regulation Supplement; Acquisition Strategies To Ensure Competition Throughout the Life Cycle of Major... Reform Act of 2009, section 202, Acquisition Strategies to Ensure Competition throughout the Lifecycle of... requirements. Section 202 directs the Secretary of Defense (SECDEF) to ensure that the acquisition strategy...

  10. 41 CFR 102-118.100 - What must my agency ensure is on each SF 1113?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... ensure is on each SF 1113? 102-118.100 Section 102-118.100 Public Contracts and Property Management... Services § 102-118.100 What must my agency ensure is on each SF 1113? Your agency must ensure during its prepayment audit of a TSP bill that the TSP filled out the Public Vouchers, SF 1113, completely including...

  11. 25 CFR 39.409 - How does the OIEP Director ensure accountability?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false How does the OIEP Director ensure accountability? 39.409... EQUALIZATION PROGRAM Accountability § 39.409 How does the OIEP Director ensure accountability? (a) The Director of OIEP must ensure accountability in student counts and student transportation by doing all of...

  12. 75 FR 15597 - Ensuring Enforcement and Implementation of Abortion Restrictions in the Patient Protection and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-29

    ... Executive Order 13535--Ensuring Enforcement and Implementation of Abortion Restrictions in the Patient... ] Executive Order 13535 of March 24, 2010 Ensuring Enforcement and Implementation of Abortion Restrictions in... adequate enforcement mechanism to ensure that Federal funds are not used for abortion services (except...

  13. Limb lengthening in Africa: tibial lengthening indicated for limb length discrepancy and postosteomyelitis pseudarthrosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ibrahima F

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Farikou Ibrahima,1,2 Pius Fokam,2 Félicien Faustin Mouafo Tambo11Department of Surgery and Specialties, Faculty of Medicine and Biomedical Sciences, University of Yaoundé I, Yaoundé, 2Department of Surgery, Douala General Hospital, Douala, CameroonBackground: We present a case of lengthening of a tibia to treat postosteomyelitis pseudarthrosis and limb length discrepancy by the Ilizarov device.Objective: The objective was to treat the pseudarthrosis and correct the consequent limb length discrepancy of 50 mm.Materials and methods: The patient was a 5-year-old boy. Osteotomy of the tibia, excision of fibrosis, and decortications were carried out. After a latency period of 5 days, the lengthening started at a rate of 1 mm per day.Results: The pseudarthrosis healed and the gained correction was 21.73%. The index consolidation was 49 days/cm. Minor complications were reported.Discussion: Osteomyelitis of long bones is a common poverty-related disease in Africa. The disease usually is diagnosed at an advanced stage with complications. In these conditions, treatment is much more difficult. Most surgical procedures treating this condition use the Ilizarov device. The most common reported surgical complications are refractures and recurrence of infection.Conclusion: This technique should be popularized in countries with limited resources because it would be an attractive alternative to the amputations that are sometimes performed.Keywords: Limb length discrepancy (LLD, bone gap, Ilizarov device

  14. Total Limb Rotation after Unilateral Total Knee Arthroplasty: Side-to-Side Discrepancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Kwang-Jun; Yoon, Seok-Tae; Ko, Young-Bong

    2016-08-01

    Total limb rotation, an important anatomical feature of the lower limb, is defined as any rotation of the lower limb on its longitudinal axis. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the discrepancies of rotational profiles of total limb between nonoperated and operated limb following unilateral total knee arthroplasty. We conducted an analysis of the computed tomography (CT) data from 32 patients undergoing primary unilateral total knee arthroplasty. Using these CT scan, rotational profiles of total limb, such as femoral neck anteversion angle expressed as femoral torsion angle (FTA), tibial torsion angle (TTA), knee joint rotation angle (KJRA), and total limb rotation (TLR) were measured. There were significant discrepancies of FTA and KJRA between operated and nonoperated limb following unilateral total knee arthroplasty. The mean difference of operated and nonoperated side for FTA and KJRA were -6.51 ± 11.88 degrees (p = 0.0041) and -6.83 ± 5.04 degrees (p knee joint can lead to a total limb rotational discrepancy in patient undergoing unilateral total knee arthroplasty.

  15. Beyond general behavioral theories: structural discrepancy in young motorcyclist's risky driving behavior and its policy implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Yi-Shih; Wong, Jinn-Tsai

    2012-11-01

    While many studies examine the mean score differences of psychological determinants between heterogeneous driver groups, this study reveals a structural discrepancy in a causal behavioral framework. Using young motorcyclists (ages 18-28) as subjects, this study investigates the various roles of key influential factors in determining risky driving behavior. Multi-group analysis of structural equation modeling shows that age and gender are two factors that can effectively distinguish heterogeneous driver groups exhibiting different decision-making mechanisms in shaping their risky driving behaviors. When encountering undesirable traffic conditions, road rage can immediately increase male motorcyclists' intentions to engage in risky driving behaviors; on the other hand, young female motorcyclists further calculate their perceived risk to determine whether to engage in risky driving behaviors. This result shows that there is a significant link between risk perception and traffic condition awareness for experienced drivers (ages 25-28), but not for younger drivers (ages 18-24). This finding shows that while well-developed theories such as planned behavior and risk homeostasis provide general frameworks to explain risky driving behavior, heterogeneous driver groups may exhibit structural discrepancies that reflect their various decision-making mechanisms. This suggests that, in addition to mean differences, understanding structural discrepancies among heterogeneous groups could help researchers identify effective intervention strategies.

  16. Assay discrepancy in mild haemophilia A: entire population study in a National Haemophilia Centre.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poulsen, A L; Pedersen, L H; Hvas, A-M; Poulsen, L H; Thykjaer, H; Ingerslev, J

    2009-01-01

    Assay discrepancy in mild haemophilia, here defined by a significantly higher factor VIII (FVIII):C response by the one-stage procoagulant assay as compared with a two-stage enzymatic method, has repeatedly been reported in literature. The purpose of this study was to determine the overall prevalence of this phenomenon amongst mild haemophilia families from a population of 2.95 million inhabitants in the Western Danish region. Information was collected retrospectively through a thorough search of archives of the National Haemophilia Centre in Aarhus. We identified 109 patients with mild haemophilia A amongst whom 92 were eligible to enter the study. These represent a total of 53 unrelated families. Our data illustrate that this assay discrepancy pattern is found quite frequently amongst our mild haemophilia A families. While the ratio of FVIII:C chromogenic/FVIII:C clot values was quite consistent amongst patients belonging to same family pattern, ratios in the entire cohort of families ranged from 0.18 to 1.00. Selecting a cut-off level for the FVIII:C chromogenic/FVIII:C clot ratios at 0.7, 0.6 and 0.5, respectively, we found that 38 (72%), 27 (51%) and 19 (36%) of families, respectively, displayed this assay discrepancy. In 10 patients, the FVIII:C chromogenic level was inside the category of moderate haemophilia at >0.01-area.

  17. Health risk behaviors and depressive symptoms among Hispanic adolescents: Examining acculturation discrepancies and family functioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cano, Miguel Ángel; Schwartz, Seth J; Castillo, Linda G; Unger, Jennifer B; Huang, Shi; Zamboanga, Byron L; Romero, Andrea J; Lorenzo-Blanco, Elma I; Córdova, David; Des Rosiers, Sabrina E; Lizzi, Karina M; Baezconde-Garbanati, Lourdes; Soto, Daniel W; Villamar, Juan Andres; Pattarroyo, Monica; Szapocznik, José

    2016-03-01

    Drawing from a theory of bicultural family functioning 2 models were tested to examine the longitudinal effects of acculturation-related variables on adolescent health risk behaviors and depressive symptoms (HRB/DS) mediated by caregiver and adolescent reports of family functioning. One model examined the effects of caregiver-adolescent acculturation discrepancies in relation to family functioning and HRB/DS. A second model examined the individual effects of caregiver and adolescent acculturation components in relation to family functioning and HRB/DS. A sample of 302 recently immigrated Hispanic caregiver-child dyads completed measures of Hispanic and U.S. cultural practices, values, and identities at baseline (predictors); measures of family cohesion, family communications, and family involvement 6 months postbaseline (mediators); and only adolescents completed measures of smoking, binge drinking, inconsistent condom use, and depressive symptoms 1 year postbaseline (outcomes). Measures of family cohesion, family communications, and family involvement were used to conduct a confirmatory factor analysis to estimate the fit of a latent construct for family functioning. Key findings indicate that (a) adolescent acculturation components drove the effect of caregiver-adolescent acculturation discrepancies in relation to family functioning; (b) higher levels of adolescent family functioning were associated with less HRB/DS, whereas higher levels of caregiver family functioning were associated with more adolescent HRB/DS; (c) and only adolescent reports of family functioning mediated the effects of acculturation components and caregiver-adolescent acculturation discrepancies on HRB/DS.

  18. Tooth-size discrepancy: A comparison between manual and digital methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriele Dória Cabral Correia

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Technological advances in Dentistry have emerged primarily in the area of diagnostic tools. One example is the 3D scanner, which can transform plaster models into three-dimensional digital models. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to assess the reliability of tooth size-arch length discrepancy analysis measurements performed on three-dimensional digital models, and compare these measurements with those obtained from plaster models. MATERIAL AND METHODS: To this end, plaster models of lower dental arches and their corresponding three-dimensional digital models acquired with a 3Shape R700T scanner were used. All of them had lower permanent dentition. Four different tooth size-arch length discrepancy calculations were performed on each model, two of which by manual methods using calipers and brass wire, and two by digital methods using linear measurements and parabolas. RESULTS: Data were statistically assessed using Friedman test and no statistically significant differences were found between the two methods (P > 0.05, except for values found by the linear digital method which revealed a slight, non-significant statistical difference. CONCLUSIONS: Based on the results, it is reasonable to assert that any of these resources used by orthodontists to clinically assess tooth size-arch length discrepancy can be considered reliable.

  19. Subjective-Objective Sleep Discrepancy in Older Adults With MCI and Subsyndromal Depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiNapoli, Elizabeth A; Gebara, Marie Anne; Kho, Terry; Butters, Meryl A; Gildengers, Ariel G; Albert, Steven M; Dew, Mary Amanda; Erickson, Kirk I; Reynolds, Charles F; Karp, Jordan F

    2017-01-01

    We investigated the prevalence and correlates of discrepancies between self-reported sleep quality (Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index) and objective sleep efficiency (actigraphy) in older adults with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and subsyndromal depression. This was a secondary analysis of a clincial trial with 59 adults aged 60 years and older with MCI and subsyndromal depression. We included baseline data on participants' subjective sleep quality, objective sleep efficiency, depressive symptoms, insomnia diagnosis, and cognitive functioning. Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index subjective sleep quality and actigraphy-measured sleep efficiency were not significantly correlated ( r = -.06; P = .64), with 61% of participants having subjective-objective sleep discrepancies. Correlates of subjective-objective sleep discrepancy included the presence of an insomnia diagnosis and impaired memory, particularly delayed memory. These findings are important because subjective underestimation of symptoms in older adults with memory impairments may result in sleep disturbances going unrecognized in clinical practice; on the other hand, an insomnia disorder may be a possible remediable contribution to subjective overestimation of sleep disturbances.

  20. Informative Disagreements: Associations Between Relationship Distress, Depression, and Discrepancy in Interpersonal Perception Within Couples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knobloch-Fedders, Lynne M; Critchfield, Kenneth L; Staab, Erin M

    2015-12-24

    This study evaluated the associations between relationship distress, depression symptoms, and discrepancy in interpersonal perception within couples. After completing a series of discussion tasks, couples (N = 88) rated their behavior using the circumplex-based Structural Analysis of Social Behavior Model (SASB; Benjamin, 1979, 1987, 2000). Overall, couple members were strikingly similar in their interpersonal perceptions, and tended to see themselves as friendly, reciprocal in their focus, and balanced between connection and separateness. As hypothesized, however, perceptual discrepancy was related to relationship distress and depression. Relationship distress was associated with discrepancy regarding transitive behavior focused on the partner, while depression was associated with disagreement about intransitive, self-focused behavior. Analysis of affiliation and autonomy revealed that relationship distress was associated with seeing oneself as reacting with more hostility than the partner sees, and perceiving one's partner as more hostile, more controlling, and less submissive than he or she does. Partners of depressed individuals viewed themselves as more controlling than their mate did. Men's depression was associated with disagreement between partners regarding men's self-focused behavior. Results underscore the importance of considering interpersonal perception when conceptualizing relationship distress and depression within intimate relationships.

  1. Effects of CO-CR discrepancy in daily orthodontic treatment planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    COSTEA, CARMEN MARIA; BADEA, MÎNDRA EUGENIA; VASILACHE, SORIN; MESAROŞ, MICHAELA

    2016-01-01

    Background and aims Nowadays centric relation is defined as a musculoskeletal stable position, with the condyles forward, as far upward as possible, centered transversely and with the articular disc properly interposed. On the other hand, centric occlusion or maximum intercuspidation is a dental determined position. The purpose of this pilot study is to evaluate the direction, frequency and magnitude of the discrepancy between centric occlusion and centric relation in all three axial directions, in a muscular non-deprogrammed population, before the beginning of orthodontic treatment. Methods The study group was represented by 40 symptomatic and asymptomatic patients seeking orthodontic treatment in a private dental office in Cluj-Napoca, Romania between 2014 and 2015. All patients had full records and articulator mounted models. All measurements were analyzed three-dimensionally. Results 85% of the patients had vertical and 87.5% had horizontal CO-CR discrepancy for both condyles. 87.5% of the cases have had a significant condylar displacement in at least one of the three planes. Conclusions We should be aware of the dental occlusion determined by the dental contacts and the occlusion dictated by the musculoskeletal stable position of the condyles. The bigger the discrepancy between these two positions at the level of the condyles, the greater the chances to have either a patient who will develop a form of TMD before/during or after the orthodontic or prosthetic treatment, or a patient suffering already, but poorly diagnosed. PMID:27152081

  2. A discrepancy measure for segmentation evaluation from the perspective of object recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jian; He, Yuhong; Caspersen, John; Jones, Trevor

    2015-03-01

    Within the framework of geographic object-based image analysis (GEOBIA), segmentation evaluation is one of the most important components and thus plays a critical role in controlling the quality of GEOBIA workflow. Among a variety of segmentation evaluation methods and criteria, discrepancy measurement is believed to be the most useful and is therefore one of the most commonly employed techniques in many applications. Existing measures have largely ignored the importance of object recognition in segmentation evaluation. In this study, a new discrepancy measure of segmentation evaluation index (SEI) redefines the corresponding segment using a two-sided 50% overlap instead of one-sided 50% overlap that has been commonly used. The effectiveness of SEI is further investigated using the schematic segmentation cases and remote sensing images. Results demonstrate that the proposed SEI outperforms the other two existing discrepancy measures, Euclidean Distance 2 (ED2) and Euclidean Distance 3 (ED3), both in terms of object recognition accuracy and identification of detailed segmentation differences.

  3. Photogrammetric determination of discrepancies between actual and planned position of dental implants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forlani, G.; Rivara, F.

    2014-05-01

    The paper describes the design and testing of a photogrammetric measurement protocol set up to determine the discrepancies between the planned and actual position of computer-guided template-based dental implants. Two moulds with the implants positioned in pre- and post- intervention are produced and separately imaged with a highly redundant block of convergent images; the model with the implants is positioned on a steel frame with control points and with suitable targets attached. The theoretical accuracy of the system is better than 20 micrometers and 0.3-0.4° respectively for positions of implants and directions of implant axes. In order to compare positions and angles between the planned and actual position of an implant, coordinates and axes directions are brought to a common reference system with a Helmert transformation. A procedure for comparison of positions and directions to identify out-of-tolerance discrepancies is presented; a numerical simulation study shows the effectiveness of the procedure in identifying the implants with significant discrepancies between pre- and post- intervention.

  4. Discrepancies in Outcome Reporting Exist Between Protocols and Published Oral Health Cochrane Systematic Reviews.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolaos Pandis

    Full Text Available To assess discrepancies in the analyzed outcomes between protocols and published reviews within Cochrane oral health systematic reviews (COHG on the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews (CDSR.All COHG systematic reviews on the CDSR and the corresponding protocols were retrieved in November 2014 and information on the reported outcomes was recorded. Data was collected at the systematic review level by two reviewers independently.One hundred and fifty two reviews were included. In relation to primary outcomes, 11.2% were downgraded to secondary outcomes, 9.9% were omitted altogether in the final publication and new primary outcomes were identified in 18.4% of publications. For secondary outcomes, 2% were upgraded to primary, 12.5% were omitted and 30.9% were newly introduced in the publication. Overall, 45.4% of reviews had at least one discrepancy when compared to the protocol; these were reported in 14.5% reviews. The number of review updates appears to be associated with discrepancies between final review and protocol (OR: 3.18, 95% CI: 1.77, 5.74, p<0.001. The risk of reporting significant results was lower for both downgraded outcomes [RR: 0.52, 95% CI: 0.17, 1.58, p = 0.24] and upgraded or newly introduced outcomes [RR: 0.77, 95% CI: 0.36, 1.64, p = 0.50] compared to outcomes with no discrepancies. The risk of reporting significant results was higher for upgraded or newly introduced outcomes compared to downgraded outcomes (RR = 1.19, 95% CI: 0.65, 2.16, p = 0.57. None of the comparisons reached statistical significance.While no evidence of selective outcome reporting was found in this study, based on the present analysis of SRs published within COHG systematic reviews, discrepancies between outcomes in pre-published protocols and final reviews continue to be common. Solutions such as the use of standardized outcomes to reduce the prevalence of this issue may need to be explored.

  5. 自我差异和身体意象%Self-discrepancy and body image

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈颜; 缪绍疆

    2015-01-01

    Objective To review the correlation between self-discrepancy and body image based on the papers published before 2014 at home and abroad,with an attempt to provide an new idea for body image disorder.Methods Major online database including Sciencedirect,Springer,CNKI,and Wan Fang datebase were searched in January 2014.The key words we used are "body image"," body dissatisfaction"," body self-discrepancy" and so on.Results Totally 40 studies enrolled,the analysis show self-discrepancy is an important mechanism to affect body image,and body self-discrepancies has been found to be associated with body-related behaviors,emotional experience and eating disorder.Conclusion self-discrepancies are cognitive structures,which can influence ongoing information processing without individual' s awareness,resulting in Cognitive biases and body image disorder.Further research is needed exploring the discriminate validity of the body self,the method of measurement an so on.%目的 以国内外2014年以前发表的针对自我差异与身体意象关系的文献,综述自我差异与身体意象关系等方面的重要研究成果,为今后身体意象失调患者的治疗提供新的视角.方法 2014年1月在Sciencedirect、Springer、中国知网、万方数据库等数据库,以“自我差异”、“身体意象”等为检索词,从自我差异理论的视角来分析身体意象失调问题.结果 检索文献826篇,纳入文献40篇.结果显示自我差异是影响身体意象失调的重要机制,而且身体自我差异与个体的行为、情绪、进食障碍等有着密切关系.结论 自我差异是一种重要的认知结构,自发地影响个体的信息处理过程,从而可能导致认知偏差和身体意象失调.未来的研究可就身体自我的区分效度、测量方法等作进一步探讨.

  6. The Humble Leader: Association of Discrepancies in Leader and Follower Ratings of Implementation Leadership With Organizational Climate in Mental Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aarons, Gregory A; Ehrhart, Mark G; Torres, Elisa M; Finn, Natalie K; Beidas, Rinad S

    2017-02-01

    Discrepancies, or perceptual distance, between leaders' self-ratings and followers' ratings of the leader are common but usually go unrecognized. Research on discrepancies is limited, but there is evidence that discrepancies are associated with organizational context. This study examined the association of leader-follower discrepancies in Implementation Leadership Scale (ILS) ratings of mental health clinic leaders and the association of those discrepancies with organizational climate for involvement and performance feedback. Both involvement and performance feedback are important for evidence-based practice (EBP) implementation in mental health. A total of 593 individuals-supervisors (leaders, N=80) and clinical service providers (followers, N=513)-completed surveys that included ratings of implementation leadership and organizational climate. Polynomial regression and response surface analyses were conducted to examine the associations of discrepancies in leader-follower ILS ratings with organizational involvement climate and performance feedback climate, aspects of climate likely to support EBP implementation. Both involvement climate and performance feedback climate were highest where leaders rated themselves low on the ILS and their followers rated those leaders high on the ILS ("humble leaders"). Teams with "humble leaders" showed more positive organizational climate for involvement and for performance feedback, contextual factors important during EBP implementation and sustainment. Discrepancy in leader and follower ratings of implementation leadership should be a consideration in understanding and improving leadership and organizational climate for mental health services and for EBP implementation and sustainment in mental health and other allied health settings.

  7. Impact of a pharmacy technician-centered medication reconciliation program on medication discrepancies and implementation of recommendations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kraus SK

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To evaluate the impact of a pharmacy-technician centered medication reconciliation (PTMR program by identifying and quantifying medication discrepancies and outcomes of pharmacist medication reconciliation recommendations. Methods: A retrospective chart review was performed on two-hundred patients admitted to the internal medicine teaching services at Cooper University Hospital in Camden, NJ. Patients were selected using a stratified systematic sample approach and were included if they received a pharmacy technician medication history and a pharmacist medication reconciliation at any point during their hospital admission. Pharmacist identified medication discrepancies were analyzed using descriptive statistics, bivariate analyses. Potential risk factors were identified using multivariate analyses, such as logistic regression and CART. The priority level of significance was set at 0.05. Results: Three-hundred and sixty-five medication discrepancies were identified out of the 200 included patients. The four most common discrepancies were omission (64.7%, non-formulary omission (16.2%, dose discrepancy (10.1%, and frequency discrepancy (4.1%. Twenty-two percent of pharmacist recommendations were implemented by the prescriber within 72 hours. Conclusion: A PTMR program with dedicated pharmacy technicians and pharmacists identifies many medication discrepancies at admission and provides opportunities for pharmacist reconciliation recommendations.

  8. Effect of flavour of liquid Ensure diet supplement on energy intake in male SD rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Archer, Zoe A; Brown, Yvonne A; Rayner, D Vernon; Stubbs, R James; Mercer, Julian G

    2006-10-30

    Outbred male Sprague-Dawley rats were provided with one of the four flavours of the liquid diet, Ensure, in addition to chow pellets, to examine whether differences in flavour lead to differences in energy intake i.e. degree of over-consumption. For half the rats, the Ensure supplement was provided for 14 days and then withdrawn for the final 8 days of the study, whereas the remaining animals were allowed to consume Ensure for 22 days. All four flavours of Ensure, chocolate, vanilla, coffee and asparagus, induced a sustained increase in daily energy intake of approximately 15%. There was an effect of flavour on initial consumption of the Ensure diet, with coffee and asparagus flavours being consumed less avidly than vanilla or chocolate. However, this effect was short-lived. Overall, there was no effect of flavour on body weight gain, energy intake from Ensure, total energy intake, body composition, or measured blood hormones and metabolites. Withdrawal of Ensure resulted in reductions in body weight gain, total energy intake, fat but not lean tissue mass, and concentrations of blood leptin, non-esterified fatty acids and triglycerides, but there was no effect of the flavour of Ensure previously supplied on any of these parameters. The ability of the liquid diet, Ensure, to stimulate long-term caloric over-consumption is not due to its flavouring. Rather, other attributes of Ensure must be more important, such as its intrinsic flavour, liquid formulation, macronutrient composition, and ease of ingestion, digestion and absorption.

  9. Associations between appearance-related self-discrepancies and young women's and men's affect, body satisfaction, and emotional eating: a comparison of fixed-item and participant-generated self-discrepancies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halliwell, Emma; Dittmar, Helga

    2006-04-01

    This study examines the associations between appearance-related, actual-ideal self-discrepancies--from both own and romantic partner's standpoints--and negative affect, body satisfaction, and eating behavior. It extends previous research through studying both genders and the romantic partner standpoint, but its main novel contribution is a systematic comparison between idiographic, participant-generated, and nomothetic, fixed-item measures of appearance-related self-discrepancies. The findings show that these measures cannot be, and should not be, treated as equivalent. The idiographic measures were superior in predicting outcome variables when considering the own standpoint. Nomothetic measures did demonstrate some gender-specific associations, but only from the romantic partner standpoint, and only for women. These findings can be explained with respect to the assessment of accessible, versus available, self-discrepancies. Implications for self-discrepancy and body image theory and research are discussed.

  10. Lengthening of replanted or revascularized lower limbs: is length discrepancy a contraindication for limb salvage?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parmaksizoglu, Fatih; Beyzadeoglu, Tahsin

    2002-08-01

    Some replantation cases require substantial bone shortening for primary closure. Leg-length discrepancy can be restored by lengthening of the replanted or revascularized extremities. Between 1991 and 2000, four patients with four total and two subtotal below-knee amputations had replantation or revascularization for their severely damaged extremities. All of them had extensive debridement, vascular repair, bone shortening and nerve repair for sensibility of their soles. One of the replanted extremities failed and had to undergo below-knee amputation because of sepsis. No other infection or vascular complications were encountered following the replantations or revascularizations. After bony consolidation, four legs were lengthened; for elimination of length discrepancy in three cases, and for obtaining balanced body proportion in one case in which the other leg was also amputated. In all procedures, a unilateral dynamic axial external fixator was used. The lengthening was performed from the proximal tibial metaphysis, with a subperiosteal osteotomy. Evaluation of injury according to the Mangled Extremity Severity Score (MESS) would encourage the surgeon to avoid salvage surgery with a shortened extremity, because of the required debridement of soft tissue and bone. These authors think the amount of limb shortening is not a major criterion in evaluating a traumatic total or subtotal below-knee amputation for salvage replantation or revascularization. A knee that has stable joint motion and the possibility of preservation of sensibility of the sole broadens the scope of indications for limb salvage, even with deliberate shortening that can be restored by lengthening; length discrepancy is not a contraindication for limb salvage.

  11. Morozov-type discrepancy principle for nonlinear ill-posed problems under -condition

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    M Thamban Nair

    2015-05-01

    For proving the existence of a regularization parameter under a Morozov-type discrepancy principle for Tikhonov regularization of nonlinear ill-posed problems, it is required to impose additional nonlinearity assumptions on the forward operator. Lipschitz continuity of the Freéchet derivative and requirement of the Lipschitz constant to depend on a source condition is one such restriction (Ramlau P, Numer. Funct. Anal. Optim. 23(1&22) (2003) 147–172). Another nonlinearity condition considered by Scherzer (Computing, 51 (1993) 45–60) was by requiring the forward operator to be close to a linear operator in a restricted sense. A seemingly natural nonlinear assumption which appears in many applications which attracted attention in various contexts of the study of nonlinear problems is the so-called -condition. However, a Morozov-type discrepancy principle together with -condition does not seem to have been studied, except in a recent paper by the author (Bull. Aust. Math. Soc. 79 (2009) 337–342), where error estimates under a general source condition is derived, by assuming the existence of the parameter. In this paper, the existence of the parameter satisfying a Morozov-type discrepancy principle is proved under the -condition on the forward operator, by assuming the source condition as in the papers of Scherzer (Computing, 51 (1993) 45–60) and Ramlau (Numer. Funct. Anal. Optim. 23(1&22) (2003) 147–172). This source condition is, in fact, a special case of the source condition in the author’s paper (Bull. Aust. Math. Soc. 79 (2009) 337–342).

  12. Size discrepancy between sonographic and pathological evaluation of solitary papillary thyroid carcinoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bachar, Gideon, E-mail: gidybahar@gmail.com [Department of Otorhinolaryngology and Head and Neck Surgery, Rabin Medical Center, Beilinson Campus, Petach Tikva 49100 (Israel); Sackler Faculty of Medicine, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv (Israel); Buda, Inon, E-mail: inonbuda@gmail.com [Department of Otorhinolaryngology and Head and Neck Surgery, Rabin Medical Center, Beilinson Campus, Petach Tikva 49100 (Israel); Sackler Faculty of Medicine, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv (Israel); Cohen, Maya, E-mail: mayac@clalit.org.il [Department of Imaging, Rabin Medical Center, Beilinson Campus, Petach Tikva 49100 (Israel); Sackler Faculty of Medicine, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv (Israel); Hadar, Tuvia, E-mail: hadartuv@gmail.com [Department of Otorhinolaryngology and Head and Neck Surgery, Rabin Medical Center, Beilinson Campus, Petach Tikva 49100 (Israel); Sackler Faculty of Medicine, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv (Israel); Hilly, Ohad, E-mail: ohadhilly@gmail.com [Department of Otorhinolaryngology and Head and Neck Surgery, Rabin Medical Center, Beilinson Campus, Petach Tikva 49100 (Israel); Sackler Faculty of Medicine, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv (Israel); Schwartz, Nofrat, E-mail: nofrat@gmail.com [Sackler Faculty of Medicine, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv (Israel); Department of Otolaryngology, Meir Hospital, Kefar Sabah, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv (Israel); Shpitzer, Thomas, E-mail: thomas-s@013net.net [Department of Otorhinolaryngology and Head and Neck Surgery, Rabin Medical Center, Beilinson Campus, Petach Tikva 49100 (Israel); Sackler Faculty of Medicine, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv (Israel); Segal, Karl, E-mail: segalk@clalit.org.il [Department of Otorhinolaryngology and Head and Neck Surgery, Rabin Medical Center, Beilinson Campus, Petach Tikva 49100 (Israel); Sackler Faculty of Medicine, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv (Israel)

    2013-11-01

    Background: Sonographic size of suspicious thyroid lesions is an essential parameter in the evaluation of thyroid nodules, determining the need for needle biopsy and has impact on the extent of surgery. Limited data is available on the correlation between the size of the thyroid nodule on sonography and the actual size measured during histological examination. The aim of the present study was to compare these two modalities and to discuss the potential clinical implications of the findings in the study population. Methods: The database of Rabin Medical Center was reviewed for all patients with histologically proven papillary carcinoma of the thyroid treated by thyroid surgery between 2005 and 2010. Results: 292 patients with papillary thyroid carcinoma were included. The mean sonographic size of the nodule was 2.19 ± 1.15 cm. The mean pathological diameter was 1.69 ± 1.09 cm. Discrepancies between tumor histological diameter and the sonographically measurement were more prominent in tumors larger than 1.5 cm. Nonetheless, 18.8% of thyroid nodules that were measured by US as larger than 1 cm, were found to be smaller than 1 cm on final pathology. Similarly, 7.2% of nodules evaluated by sonography were determined as being larger than 4 cm, while their definitive size was smaller than 4 cm. Conclusions: We noted a significant discrepancy between the preoperative sonographic and the pathologic size measurements for papillary thyroid carcinoma. The sonographic evaluation misclassifies both patients with small and large thyroid tumors, and consequently exposes them to unnecessary workup and more extensive operation. This discrepancy between the ultrasound findings and actual tumor size should be taken into account in clinical practice and help guide the evaluation and treatment of patients with thyroid nodules.

  13. Comparison of Tooth Size Discrepancy in Cl II Malocclusion Patients with Normal Occlusions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moradi M.

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Statement of Problem: There must be a proper mesiodistal tooth size ratio (Bolton analysis between maxillary and mandibular teeth for good occlusal interdigitation. Therefore the Bolton analysis should be considered during diagnosis, treatment planning and predication of ultimate results.Purpose: The purpose of this study was to appraise tooth size ratios in Cl II malocclusion group and compare them with normal individuals. Materials and Method: This study was carried out on 60 pre-treatment orthodontic casts of class II malocclusion patients and 60 diagnostic casts of normal occlusion individuals which were selected through cluster sampling in accordance with the selective criteria. Each group consisted of 30 men and 30 women. The greatest mesiodistal diameters of all the teeth on each cast were measured by a digital calliper with 0.01mm accuracy except the second and third molars. Then tooth size ratios were analyzed as Bolton described. The statistical analysis were performed by chi-square and t-tests using SPSS. Results: The prevalence of anterior and overall tooth size discrepancy was rela-tively high (28.3%, 20%, showing no significant difference between men and women (p> 0.05. The mean of anterior and overall tooth- size ratios in Cl II malocclusion group were 79.18 and 92.39 respectively, which were statistically different from the Bolton study (ideal occlusion ratios (p 0.05.Conclusion: Considering the high frequency of tooth size discrepancy among CLII patients and the significant difference in Bolton ratios between this malocclusion and ideal occlusions; it seems that tooth size discrepancy can be considered as a possible etiologic factor and Bolton analysis should be performed as a pre-treatment diagnostic tool for this type of malocclusion.

  14. Sequential faulting explains the asymmetry and extension discrepancy of conjugate margins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranero, César R; Pérez-Gussinyé, Marta

    2010-11-11

    During early extension, cold continental lithosphere thins and subsides, creating rift basins. If extension continues to final break-up, the split and greatly thinned plates subside deep below sea level to form a conjugate pair of rifted margins. Although basins and margins are ubiquitous structures, the deformation processes leading from moderately extended basins to highly stretched margins are unclear, as studies consistently report that crustal thinning is greater than extension caused by brittle faulting. This extension discrepancy might arise from differential stretching of brittle and ductile crustal layers, but that does not readily explain the typical asymmetric structure of conjugate margins-in cross-section, one margin displays gradual thinning accompanied by large faults, and the conjugate margin displays abrupt thinning but smaller-scale faulting. Whole-crust detachments, active from early in the rifting, could in theory create both thinning and asymmetry, but are mechanically problematical. Furthermore, the extension discrepancy occurs at both conjugate margins, leading to the apparent contradiction that both seem to be upper plates to a detachment fault. Alternative models propose that much brittle extension is undetected because of seismic imaging limitations caused either by subseismic-resolution faulting, invisible deformation along top-basement 100-km-scale detachments or the structural complexity of cross-cutting arrays of faults. Here we use depth-migrated seismic images to accurately measure fault extension and compare it with crustal thinning. The observations are used to create a balanced kinematic model of rifting that resolves the extension discrepancy by producing both fault-controlled crustal thinning which progresses from a rift basin to the asymmetric structure, and extreme thinning of conjugate rifted margins. Contrary to current wisdom, the observations support the idea that thinning is to a first degree explained by simple

  15. A study in the use of the position of discrepant events in the teaching of science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frassinelli, John James

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether alternative placement of discrepant events would impact affective and cognitive outcomes of ninth-grade physical science students grouped into intact classes and classified as either "high" or "low" in prior academic achievement. Although researchers have found discrepant events to be effective in terms of cognition and recall, their chronological placement within science lessons had not been empirically researched. In this study, discrepant events were presented before, during, and after specific science lessons involving thermodynamics and heat. Discrepant events were withheld from the control group. To measure affective outcomes, the "enjoyment" and "motivation" scales taken from Sandman's (1973) Attitudes Towards Science Inventory (ATSI) were used to index subjects' global feelings about studying science, while a 20-item set of Semantic Differential (SD) scales was employed to determine their attitudes regarding the specific subject matter taught. To measure cognitive outcomes, a 20-item, selected response test was constructed by the researcher, with 6 items intended to assess subjects' knowledge of unit materials, and 14 items designed to query their understanding of unit concepts. Each subject (N = 131) was administered identical forms of each test in both pre-and post-test formats, both before and after the four-week study. Analyzed using a 4 x 2 mixed Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) model, data pertinent to the ATSI suggested neither between- nor within-group differences in subjects' global attitudes about studying science, although data pertinent to the SD scales indicated generally improved attitudes about studying thermodynamics and heat (F (1,122) = 2.759, p < .10). On the cognitive pretests and posttests, significant two-way interactions were observed for the overall test and experimental condition (F (3,121) = 4.068, p < .01), as well as for the overall test and higher prior achievement in physical

  16. The commonality of extreme discrepancies in the ability profiles of academically gifted students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DAVID F. LOHMAN

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Extreme discrepancies in abilities are more common among the most and least able students than among average ability children. Therefore, procedures for identifying gifted children that deliberately or inadvertently rely on a composite score that averages across ability domains will exclude many children who reason exceptionally well in particular symbol systems. In this article, we first discuss general issues in the measurement of ability profiles. We then introduce a method for categorizing score profiles and finally document the reliability and stability of score profiles using the 2000 standardization data of the Cognitive Abilities Test (Lohman & Hagen, 2001a.

  17. Comments on a Discrepancy Between the Relativistic and the Quantum Concepts of Light

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pombo, Claudia

    2007-12-01

    The realist point of view of a physical theory assumes that physical concepts must have a correspondent in the phenomenological world. We adopt a slightly modified form of realism, based on Carnap's separation of languages, in which only the observational concepts, belonging to the observational language, have a phenomenological correspondent. Other physical concepts, belonging to a theoretical language, do not correspond to entities in the physical world. This point of view is named observational realism. Based on these ideas, we review the notions of relativistic and quantum observation, independently from measurement, and show that there is a discrepancy between the concepts of wave light in relativity and in quantum mechanics.

  18. Evaluation of vertical marginal discrepancy of zirconia copings, before and after cementation

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    Resumo: O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a discrepância marginal vertical de copings zircônia, Zirkonzahn® CAD/CAM (Computer Aided Design/Computer Aided Manufacturing). Foram confeccionados 30 copings de zircônia tetragonal policristalina estabilizada por ítrio (Y-TZP) do sistema CAD/CAM e 30 copings metálicos (grupo controle). Os copings foram cimentados com dois tipos de cimento: fosfato de zinco (SS White®) e cimento resinoso (Rely X ARC®, 3M¿ ESPE¿), constituindo dois subgrupos de 15...

  19. Predictors of the discrepancy between objective and subjective cognition in bipolar disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Miskowiak, K. W.; Petersen, Jeff Zarp; Ott, C. V.

    2016-01-01

    aimed to develop such a methodology to explore clinical characteristics predictive of subjective-objective discrepancy in a large BD patient cohort. METHODS: Data from 109 remitted BD patients and 110 healthy controls were pooled from previous studies, including neuropsychological test scores, self...... characterized by greater socio-occupational difficulties, more perceived stress, and lower quality of life. CONCLUSION: Objective neuropsychological assessment seems especially warranted in patients with (residual) mood symptoms, BD type II, chronic illness, and/or high IQ for correct identification...

  20. Discrepancy measurements of copings prepared by three casting methods and two different alloys, on ITI implants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siadat H.

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim: An important criterion for success assessment of implant-supported prostheses is marginal fit. Vertical and horizontal discrepancy can result in loosening of the prosthetic screw, crestal bone resorption, peri-implantitis and loss of osseointegration. Despite careful attention to waxing, investing, and casting, marginal discrepancies are inevitable. The aim of this study was to evaluate the marginal gap and overhang in three casting methods with two different alloys in ITI implants.Materials and Methods: In this experimental in vitro study 48 analog abutments were randomly divided into six groups as follows: 1 burn out cap + BegoStar, 2 impression cap + BegoStar, 3 conventional wax up + BegoStar, 4 burn out cap + Verabond2, 5 impression cap + Verabond2, 6 conventional wax up + Verabond2. Waxing was done in 0.7 mm thickness verified by a digital gauge and a putty index was made for all groups. Reamer was used for correction of the finish line after casting in all groups. Castings were seated on analog abutments and embedded in acrylic resin. Specimens were sectioned by isomet instrument and polished and cleaned by ultrasonic cleaner for 10 min. The marginal gap and overextended margins of castings were examined under a  Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM (X200. The mean gap and margin overextension were calculated for each group. Data were analyzed by multivariate analysis and Bonferroni post-hoc test with p<0.05 as the level of significance.Results: No significant difference in gap size was observed among the three casting methods with two alloys (P=0.056. The marginal gap was not different in the studied casting methods (P=0.092. Gold alloy crowns showed lower marginal gaps compared to base metal alloy crowns (P<0.001. No significant difference in overhang size was observed among casting methods with two alloys (P=0.093. Base metal alloy crowns showed less overhang compared to gold alloy crowns (P<0.001. There was a

  1. Assessing Leg length Discrepancy Using a Biplane Low Dose Imaging System. A Comparative Diagnostic Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Janni; Mussmann, Bo Redder; Torfing, Trine

    study was to evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of leg length (LL) measurements performed on low dose pre-view images acquired using a new bi-planar imaging system. The administered radiation dose from the pre-view image is approximately 20,17μGycm2 vs. 2670μGycm2 when acquiring the diagnostic image......Purpose. The etiology of leg length discrepancy (LLD) is multiple and children with LLD often undergo repetitive radiographic assessment and monitoring, stressing the need for a reliable measuring tool whilst administering as little radiation to the child as possible. The aim of this retrospective...

  2. Coparenting in immigrant Chinese Canadian families: the role of discrepancies in acculturation and expectations for adolescent assistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chance, Lauren J; Costigan, Catherine L; Leadbeater, Bonnie J

    2013-12-01

    For immigrant families, differential acculturation between mothers and fathers may present challenges to parenting adolescents. The current study investigated the concurrent relations among discrepancies in parental acculturation, discrepancies in parental expectations for adolescents, and coparenting quality with a sample of 162 married immigrant Chinese Canadian couples with adolescents (mean age = 14.94 years; SD = 1.73). Acculturation was assessed as parents' behavioral involvement in both Canadian and Chinese cultures. As predicted, mother-father differences in acculturation (in relation to both cultures) were related to discrepant expectations for how much adolescents should assist the family. Further, mother-father differences in Chinese acculturation were related to fathers' perceptions of a poorer coparenting relationship. Finally, this relation was partially mediated by discrepant parental expectations for adolescent assistance. Implications for parenting roles, enculturation, family dynamics, and intervention are considered.

  3. New x-ray measurements in Helium-like Atoms increase discrepancy between experiment and theoretical QED

    CERN Document Server

    Chantler, Christopher T; Gillaspy, John D; Hudson, Lawrence T; Smale, Lucas F; Henins, Albert; Kimpton, Justin A; Takacs, Endre

    2014-01-01

    A recent 15 parts-per-million (ppm) experiment on muonic hydrogen found a major discrepancy with QED and independent nuclear size determinations. Here we find a significant discrepancy in a different type of exotic atom, a medium-Z nucleus with two electrons. Investigation of the data collected is able to discriminate between available QED formulations and reveals a pattern of discrepancy of almost 6 standard errors of experimental results from the most recent theoretical predictions with a functional dependence proportional to Z^n where n=4. In both the muonic and highly charged systems, the sign of the discrepancy is the same, with the measured transition energy higher than predicted. Some consequences are possible or probable, and some are more speculative. This may give insight into effective nuclear radii, the Rydberg, the fine-structure constant or unexpectedly large QED terms.

  4. Predictors of discrepancies between fathers and mothers in rating behaviors of preschool children with and without ADHD

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veen-Mulders, van der Lianne; Nauta, Maaike H; Timmerman, Marieke E; van den Hoofdakker, Barbara J; Hoekstra, Pieter J

    To examine child factors and parental characteristics as predictors of discrepancies between parents' ratings of externalizing and internalizing behavior problems in a sample of preschool children with ADHD and behavior problems and in a nonclinical sample. We investigated correspondence and

  5. Ensuring Stability

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    "Stable"will be a key word for China’s economy in 2012.That’s the beat set at the annual Central Economic Work Conference held in Beijing on December 12-14,which reviewed this year’s development and mapped out plans for the next year.Policymakers at the conference decided to keep macroeconomic policies stable,seek a stable and relatively fast economic growth,stabilize consumer prices and maintain social stability in 2012.On the basis of stability,the government will transform the development model,deepen reform and improve people’s livelihood.

  6. Clinicopathologic factors and outcomes of histologic discrepancy between differentiated and undifferentiated types after endoscopic resection of early gastric cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shim, Choong Nam; Kim, Hyunki; Kim, Dong Wook; Chung, Hyun Soo; Park, Jun Chul; Lee, Hyuk; Shin, Sung Kwan; Lee, Sang Kil; Lee, Yong Chan

    2014-07-01

    Histologic discrepancies among specimens obtained by forceps biopsy and endoscopic resection (ER) between the differentiated and undifferentiated types often occur in early gastric cancer (EGC). This study aimed to evaluate the predictive clinicopathologic characteristics and clinical implications of histologic discrepancies in EGC. From August 2005 to March 2012, 596 lesions from 579 patients underwent ER for EGC. The lesions studied were diagnosed as the differentiated histologic type from forceps biopsy specimens. The lesions were grouped according to the occurrence of histologic discrepancy between the differentiated and undifferentiated types in specimens obtained by ER as concordant (n = 570) or discordant (n = 26). The main outcome measures were en bloc resection, complete resection, and curative resection rates. The histologic discrepancy rate was 4.4% among the studied lesions. Larger size, lesion location in the mid third of the stomach, easy friability, exudates, and submucosal invasion shown on endoscopic ultrasound were significantly related to histologic discrepancy in the univariate analysis. In the multivariate analysis, lesion location in the mid third of the stomach [odds ratio (OR) 5.34, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.59-19.13] and easy friability (OR 29.26, 95% CI 2.30 to >999.9) were significant factors associated with histologic discrepancy. The complete resection and curative resection rates were significantly lower and the additional operation rates after ER were significantly higher in the discordant group. The EGCs with histologic discrepancy between the differentiated and undifferentiated types changed the therapeutic outcomes of ER. Easily friable lesions located in the mid third of the stomach carry a significant risk for histologic discrepancy in undifferentiated histology when ER of EGCs is performed.

  7. The influence of discrepancies between adolescent and parent ratings of family dynamics on the well-being of adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stuart, Jaimee; Jose, Paul E

    2012-12-01

    The present study examined whether discrepancies between adolescent and parent ratings of family dynamics predict adolescent well-being over time. Self-report data from 972 adolescent-parent dyads collected at two time points separated by one year were analyzed. Both adolescents and parents rated a variety of family dynamics (e.g., cohesion), and adolescents reported on their levels of well-being (confidence, purpose in life, and positive relations with others). Significant discrepancies between adolescents' and parents' perceptions of family functioning were found for all positive family dynamics, but not for family conflict. Furthermore, discrepancies increased over time and larger discrepancies were noted for older adolescents. Results from the residualized path model showed that discrepancies were bidirectionally related to adolescent well-being. In addition, age was found to moderate the predictive model. Specifically, 14-15 year olds (year 10) were found to be more stable in their well-being over time than younger adolescents. Also, results indicate that well-being is a significantly stronger negative predictor of discrepancies over time for the 14-15 year olds (year 10) than the for 10-11 year olds (year 6). The authors suggest that future research would benefit from investigations of the relationship between divergent perspectives of family members and adjustment outcomes of adolescents.

  8. College students' self-discrepancy on the Internet, from the perspectives of desktop practices, self-control, and academic training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tzeng, Jeng-Yi

    2010-10-01

    The self-discrepancy theory argues that perceived discrepancy between one's actual self and ideal self may induce anxiety, and that this in turn may motivate people to reduce or eliminate this perceived discrepancy by changing their behaviors. Based on this theory, this study investigated how college students perceived discrepancies between their actual and their reported ideal uses of the Internet. Their Internet use was examined on three levels: the grand level (i.e., hours spent online per week), the activity level (i.e., hours spent engaging in certain online activities per week), and the tool level (i.e., hours spent using certain Internet tools per week). Three particular factors were also selected for investigation: the participants' different desktop practices, levels of academic training, and exertions of self-control. The results indicate that the participants' perceptions of actual versus ideal discrepancies were shaped by the different levels (i.e., grand, activity, tool) of their Internet use. Additionally, this study shows that perceived self-discrepancy relating to the time that college students spend on the Internet may not be a problem in itself, but it may symbolize more profound psychological or behavioral factors that need to be addressed.

  9. Sexual Closeness Discrepancies: What They Are and Why They Matter for Sexual Well-Being in Romantic Relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frost, David M; McClelland, Sara I; Dettmann, Miranda

    2017-03-31

    This study examined the impact of sexual closeness on sexual well-being. We developed a nuanced and multifaceted conceptualization of sexual closeness in the form of a constellation of ideal sexual closeness with a partner, actual sexual closeness, and the discrepancy between the two. Data were obtained from a diverse sample of N = 619 participants who took part in the Lives and Relationships Study: A longitudinal survey of men and women in relationships living in the U.S. and Canada. Increases in sexual closeness discrepancies over a period of 1 year predicted concomitant decreases in two indicators of sexual well-being: sexual satisfaction and orgasm frequency evaluations. Decreases in sexual closeness discrepancies resulted in improvement in sexual well-being. Individuals who reported no sexual closeness discrepancies and experienced no changes in sexual closeness discrepancies tended to have the highest levels of sexual well-being. Importantly, sexual closeness discrepancies were robust predictors of sexual well-being, above and beyond individuals' actual sexual closeness, general relationship closeness, and other demographic and relationship characteristics known to be associated with sexual well-being. The present findings demonstrate that how close people feel sexually to their relationship partners is part of a general constellation of factors related to relationship closeness that, only when considered together, sufficiently explain the ways in which experiences of closeness impact sexual well-being in romantic relationships.

  10. Predictors of the discrepancy between objective and subjective cognition in bipolar disorder: a novel methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miskowiak, K W; Petersen, J Z; Ott, C V; Knorr, U; Kessing, L V; Gallagher, P; Robinson, L

    2016-12-01

    The poor relationship between subjective and objective cognitive impairment in bipolar disorder (BD) is well-established. However, beyond simple correlation, this has not been explored further using a methodology that quantifies the degree and direction of the discrepancy. This study aimed to develop such a methodology to explore clinical characteristics predictive of subjective-objective discrepancy in a large BD patient cohort. Data from 109 remitted BD patients and 110 healthy controls were pooled from previous studies, including neuropsychological test scores, self-reported cognitive difficulties, and ratings of mood, stress, socio-occupational capacity, and quality of life. Cognitive symptom 'sensitivity' scores were calculated using a novel methodology, with positive scores reflecting disproportionately more subjective complaints than objective impairment and negative values reflecting disproportionately more objective than subjective impairment ('stoicism'). More subsyndromal depressive and manic symptoms, hospitalizations, BD type II, and being male positively predicted 'sensitivity', while higher verbal IQ predicted more 'stoicism'. 'Sensitive' patients were characterized by greater socio-occupational difficulties, more perceived stress, and lower quality of life. Objective neuropsychological assessment seems especially warranted in patients with (residual) mood symptoms, BD type II, chronic illness, and/or high IQ for correct identification of cognitive deficits before commencement of treatments targeting cognition. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Analysis of discrepancy between neurologic findings and CT findings in 60 patients with herniated nucleus pulposus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Hyun; Kim, Kab Tae; Sol, Chang Hyo; Kim, Byung Soo [College of Medicine, Pusan National University, Busan(Korea, Republic of)

    1987-06-15

    The herniated nucleus pulposus (HNP) is a major cause of low back pain and sciatica. High resolution computed tomography is the most accurate diagnostic tool to define a HNP, because it provides a complete in vivo analysis of bony framework of lumbar spine as well as the supporting soft tissue structures and neural elements. But the discrepancy between neurologic findings and CT findings is often confusing. From May 1983 to August 1986, sixty patients with HNP who had both CT and surgical intervention at Pusan National University Hospital were analyzed. The feasibility of the neurologic examination on HNP and the effect of HNP on nerve root were evaluated on the basis of CT findings. The results were as follows : 1. Thirty-four cases (56.7%) of clinical impression were matched to CT findings in determining level of HNP and affected nerve root. 2. In evaluation of affected level, there was high trend to cause discrepancy between neurologic findings and CT findings in multiple disc involvement than in single involvement. 3. There was no correlation between degree of nerve root compression determined by CT and pattern of neurologic signs (motor weakness, sensory deficit, and reflex change)

  12. Unveiling The Sigma-Discrepancy II: Revisiting the Evolution of ULIRGs & The Origin of Quasars

    CERN Document Server

    Rothberg, Barry; Rodrigues, Myriam; Sanders, David B

    2013-01-01

    We present the first central velocity dispersions (sigma_o) measured from the 0.85 micron Calcium II Triplet (CaT) for 8 advanced (i.e. single nuclei) local (z < 0.15) Ultraluminous Infrared Galaxies (ULIRGs). First, these measurements are used to test the prediction that the "sigma-Discrepancy," in which the CaT sigma_o is systematically larger than the sigma_o obtained from the 1.6 or 2.3 micron stellar CO band-heads, extends to ULIRG luminosities. Next, we combine the CaT data with rest-frame I-band photometry obtained from archival Hubble Space Telescope data and the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) to derive dynamical properties for the 8 ULIRGs. These are then compared to the dynamical properties of 9,255 elliptical galaxies from the SDSS within the same redshift volume and of a relatively nearby (z < 0.4) sample of 53 QSO host galaxies. A comparison is also made between the I-band and H-band dynamical properties of the ULIRGs. We find four key results: 1) the sigma-Discrepancy extends to ULIRG lum...

  13. The discrepancy between risky and riskless utilities: a matter of framing?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stalmeier, P F; Bezembinder, T G

    1999-01-01

    Utilities differ according to whether they are derived from risky (gamble) and riskless (visual analog scale, time-tradeoff) assessment methods. The discrepancies are usually explained by assuming that the utilities elicited by risky methods incorporate attitudes towards risk, whereas riskless utilities do not. In (cumulative) prospect theory, risk attitude is conceived as consisting of two components: a decision-weight function (attentiveness to changes in, or sensitivity towards, chance) and a utility function (sensitivity towards outcomes). The authors' data suggest that a framing effect is a hitherto unrecognized and important factor in causing discrepancies between risky and riskless utilities. They collected risky evaluations with the gamble method, and riskless evaluations with difference measurement. Risky utilities were derived using expected-utility theory and prospect theory. With the latter approach, sensitivity towards outcomes and sensitivity towards chance are modeled separately. When the hypothesis that risky utilities from prospect theory coincide with riskless utilities was tested, it was rejected (n = 8, F(1,7) = 132, p = 0.000), suggesting that a correction for sensitivity towards chance is not sufficient to resolve the difference between risky and riskless utilities. Next, it was assumed that different gain/loss frames are induced by risky and riskless elicitation methods. Indeed, identical utility functions were obtained when the gain/loss frames were made identical across methods (n = 7), suggesting that framing was operative. The results suggest that risky and riskless utilities are identical after corrections for sensitivity towards chance and framing.

  14. Resolving SSM/I-Ship Radar Rainfall Discrepancies from AIP-3

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    The third algorithm intercomparison project (AIP-3) involved rain estimates from more than 50satellite rainfall algorithms and ground radar measurements within the Intensive Flux Array (IFA) over the equatorial western Pacific warm pool region during the Tropical Ocean Global Atmosphere coupled Ocean-Atmosphere Response Experiment (TOGA COARE). Early results indicated that there was a systematic bias between rainrates from satellite passive microwave and ground radar measurements. The mean rainrate from radar measurements is about 50% underestimated compared to that from passive microwave-based retrieval algorithms. This paper is designed to analyze rain patterns from the Florida State University rain retrieval algorithm and radar measurements to understand physically the rain discrepancies. Results show that there is a clear range-dependent bias associated with the radar measurements.However, this range-dependent systematical bias is almost eliminated with the corrected radar rainrates.Results suggest that the effects from radar attenuation correction, calibration and beam filling are the major sources of rain discrepancies. This study demonstrates that rain retrievals based on satellite measurements from passive microwave radiometers such as the Special Sensor of Microwave Imager (SSM/I)are reliable, while rain estimates from ground radar measurements are correctable.

  15. Volume calculation of CT lung lesions based on Halton low-discrepancy sequences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shusheng; Wang, Liansheng; Li, Shuo

    2017-03-01

    Volume calculation from the Computed Tomography (CT) lung lesions data is a significant parameter for clinical diagnosis. The volume is widely used to assess the severity of the lung nodules and track its progression, however, the accuracy and efficiency of previous studies are not well achieved for clinical uses. It remains to be a challenging task due to its tight attachment to the lung wall, inhomogeneous background noises and large variations in sizes and shape. In this paper, we employ Halton low-discrepancy sequences to calculate the volume of the lung lesions. The proposed method directly compute the volume without the procedure of three-dimension (3D) model reconstruction and surface triangulation, which significantly improves the efficiency and reduces the complexity. The main steps of the proposed method are: (1) generate a certain number of random points in each slice using Halton low-discrepancy sequences and calculate the lesion area of each slice through the proportion; (2) obtain the volume by integrating the areas in the sagittal direction. In order to evaluate our proposed method, the experiments were conducted on the sufficient data sets with different size of lung lesions. With the uniform distribution of random points, our proposed method achieves more accurate results compared with other methods, which demonstrates the robustness and accuracy for the volume calculation of CT lung lesions. In addition, our proposed method is easy to follow and can be extensively applied to other applications, e.g., volume calculation of liver tumor, atrial wall aneurysm, etc.

  16. Sexual behavior and HIV risk among age-discrepant, same-sex male couples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Chadwick K; Gomez, Anu Manchikanti; Hoff, Colleen; Grisham, Kirk K; Wilson, Patrick A; Dworkin, Shari L

    2016-06-13

    Research has suggested that men who have sex with men and who have older sexual partners are at increased risk of HIV infection. However, while several studies have explored risk among men in age-discrepant non-primary partnerships, only two have explored age discrepancy and risk in primary same-sex male relationships. We used data from semi-structured in-depth interviews to explore sexual behaviour and HIV risk among 14 Black, white and interracial (Black/white) same-sex male couples with an age difference of 10 or more years. Most couples regularly used condoms, and sexual positioning tended to lead to lower risk for younger partners. Some serodiscordant couples abstained from anal sex, while others used seropositioning to avoid transmission within the relationship. Within some couples, older partners acted as mentors on HIV prevention and broader life lessons. Future studies should further explore the potential risks and benefits of large age differences in same-sex male primary relationships.

  17. A comparison of cancer burden and research spending reveals discrepancies in the distribution of research funding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carter Ashley JR

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Ideally, the distribution of research funding for different types of cancer should be equitable with respect to the societal burden each type of cancer imposes. These burdens can be estimated in a variety of ways; “Years of Life Lost” (YLL measures the severity of death in regard to the age it occurs, "Disability-Adjusted Life-Years" (DALY estimates the effects of non-lethal disabilities incurred by disease and economic metrics focus on the losses to tax revenue, productivity or direct medical expenses. We compared research funding from the National Cancer Institute (NCI to a variety of burden metrics for the most common types of cancer to identify mismatches between spending and societal burden. Methods Research funding levels were obtained from the NCI website and information for societal health and economic burdens were collected from government databases and published reports. We calculated the funding levels per unit burden for a wide range of different cancers and burden metrics and compared these values to identify discrepancies. Results Our analysis reveals a considerable mismatch between funding levels and burden. Some cancers are funded at levels far higher than their relative burden suggests (breast cancer, prostate cancer, and leukemia while other cancers appear underfunded (bladder, esophageal, liver, oral, pancreatic, stomach, and uterine cancers. Conclusions These discrepancies indicate that an improved method of health care research funding allocation should be investigated to better match funding levels to societal burden.

  18. Determining the limits of orthodontic treatment of overbite, overjet, and transverse discrepancy: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Squire, Douglas; Best, Al M; Lindauer, Steven J; Laskin, Daniel M

    2006-06-01

    Because of the severity of some malocclusions, it is not always possible to treat them without a combination of orthodontics and orthognathic surgery. However, many insurance carriers have difficulty in deciding whether such treatment should be covered. The purpose of this study was to develop a simple method that can be used by insurance carriers to determine when a malocclusion is not correctable by orthodontics alone. Twenty-eight orthodontists independently evaluated 30 sets of pretreatment dental models (10 with overjet from -6 to 12 mm, 10 with overbite from 60% to 100%, and 10 with transverse discrepancies from single tooth to total arch crossbite) to determine whether the conditions were orthodontically treatable. They were instructed to assume that growth was complete and that the treatment would not seriously compromise facial esthetics. It was the opinion of the orthodontists that a positive overjet greater than 8 mm, a negative overjet of -4 mm or greater, and a transverse discrepancy greater than 3 mm were not orthodontically treatable. However, most orthodontists believed that they could treat all overbite patients without surgery. These data can serve as a simple guideline for helping insurance carriers determine the need for orthognathic surgery.

  19. Price Discrepancy Between Sellers and Buyers When Making Decisions for the Self and Others.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ziyuan; Zhang, Baojun; Li, Zhongquan

    2016-06-01

    In daily life, people make decisions not only for themselves but also on behalf of others. There may be differences in terms of the endowment effect when making decisions in these two situations. In Study 1, this question was investigated with an existing dataset exploring the traditional endowment effect, in which 86 students (M age = 20.8 years, SD = 5.0) at Harvard University were asked to make a decision on selling or buying a coffee mug for themselves or for others as brokers. When making decisions for the self, the average price demanded by sellers was much higher than that offered by buyers; while making decisions for others, the price discrepancy disappeared. In Study 2, a similar study was conducted with a sample of 42 Chinese university students (M age = 22.3 years, SD = 2.5), and a similar pattern of results was obtained. Further analysis indicated that when making decisions for others, only buyers increased their valuations, therefore mitigating the seller-buyer price discrepancy. Finally, the findings were interpreted from the perspective of Construal Level Theory.

  20. What triggers $\\theta_{13}$ discrepancy between Daya Bay and T2K?

    CERN Document Server

    Haba, Naoyuki; Shimada, Kyousuke; Yamaguchi, Yuya

    2015-01-01

    There seems to be a non-negligible discrepancy between Daya Bay and T2K experimental results of a neutrino mixing angle, $\\theta_{13}$ . We show the discrepancy can be simply passed away even in the standard three neutrinos framework by taking the same value of $\\Delta m^2_{32}$ with a normal neutrino mass hierarchy and Dirac CP phase $\\delta = -\\pi/ 2$, which is favorable in T2K experiment. For numerical analyses of neutrino oscillation probabilities, there are five independent parameters, $\\Delta m_{21}^2$, $\\Delta m_{32}^2$, $\\theta_{12}$, $\\theta_{23}$, and $\\delta$. We reevaluate $\\theta_{13}$ by scatter plots within $1 \\sigma$ range of five-dimensional parameters space suggested by PDG, T2K, and Daya Bay. We project onto $\\delta$-$\\sin^2 2 \\theta_{13}$ plane and find an overlap area of $\\theta_{13}$ suggested by T2K and Daya Bay. In the normal hierarchy case, the largest overlap area is given by parameters set suggested by T2K, and the overlap area becomes small in order of parameters sets suggested by ...

  1. ENSURING RADIATION SAFETY AT THE XXVII WORLD SUMMER UNIVERSIADE IN KAZAN BY ROSPOTREBNADZOR BODIES AND ORGANIZATIONS. Сommunication 2. Ensuring radiation safety during the universiade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. G. Onischenko

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In the second communication, the authors present and analyze in detail in chronological order all the activities performed in the course of providing radiation safety of the XXVII World Summer Universiade in Kazan. Special attention is given to assessing the effectiveness of the measures envisaged and implemented. Recommendations to improve the planning system have been developed, the list of measures ensuring radiation safety of the participants and guests to be held before and during large-scale events to ensure radiation safety was specified.

  2. 24 CFR 81.102 - Verification and enforcement to ensure GSE data integrity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Verification and enforcement to ensure GSE data integrity. 81.102 Section 81.102 Housing and Urban Development Office of the Secretary... Provisions § 81.102 Verification and enforcement to ensure GSE data integrity. (a) Independent verification...

  3. Collaborative efforts are needed to ensure proper knowledge dissemination of telemedicine projects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Neel Kolthoff; Jensen, Lena Sundby; Kayser, Lars

    2014-01-01

    . The investigators should ensure proper documentation and dissemination of changes both during and after the projects in order to ensure transparency, and national or international organisations should establish a database with relevant data fields. FUNDING: not relevant. TRIAL REGISTRATION: not relevant....

  4. 34 CFR 602.18 - Ensuring consistency in decision-making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Ensuring consistency in decision-making. 602.18 Section... relies on for making accrediting decisions is accurate; and (e) Provides the institution or program with... Criteria for Recognition Required Standards and Their Application § 602.18 Ensuring consistency in...

  5. The Essence and Phases of the Comprehensive System of Ensuring the Economic Security of Enterprise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ianioglo, Alina; Polajeva, Tatjana

    2017-01-01

    In present conditions of instability of the environment, entrepreneurs assume the most of the business risks. In this regard, problems of ensuring the economic security become particularly important. The comprehensive system of ensuring the economic security of enterprise was worked out and the results are presented in the article. This system is…

  6. Graduation Requirements for Students with Disabilities: Ensuring Meaningful Diplomas for All Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Achieve, Inc., 2013

    2013-01-01

    The call to ensure that every student, including students with disabilities, graduates from high school well prepared for college and careers is acknowledged by policymakers, professionals and business leaders. This policy brief was developed to provide guidance to state education policy leaders to support the goal of ensuring that students with…

  7. Technical Education as a Tool for Ensuring Sustainable Development: A Case of India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Gagan Deep; Uppal, Raminder Singh; Mahendru, Mandeep

    2016-01-01

    This paper notes that education needs to essentially lead to sustainable development serving two-fold purpose--eradicating the problems of unemployment and poverty; and ensuring equitable distribution of wealth while ensuring the right understanding leading to a peaceful, prosperous and developed world. In its current state, technical education…

  8. The structure of the ensuring of the functioning of Special Olympics’ program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Perederiy A.V.

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The structure of the ensuring components of the program of Special Olympics, consisting of medical, psychological-pedagogical and material- technical ensuring. Medical ensuring includes admission procedure for athletes training to a particular sport, athletes' medical monitoring, medical care sports events and the program (Healthy Athletes. Psychological-pedagogical ensuring is an extremely important component, given nosological features athletes with intellectual disabilities, represented permitted to participate in Special Olympics programs, psychological and pedagogical support training athletes and psychiatric examination program participants of Special Olympics. In the technical ensuring regarded the structure and volumes involved and spent resources for the programs of Special Olympics and special equipment, equipment, inventory used during in training and competition. All levels of programs functioning of the Special Olympics are interrelated and interdependent, equally important to address their various problems.

  9. Methods for dealing with discrepant records in linked population health datasets: a cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Algert Charles S

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Linked population health data are increasingly used in epidemiological studies. If data items are reported on more than one dataset, data linkage can reduce the under-ascertainment associated with many population health datasets. However, this raises the possibility of discrepant case reports from different datasets. Methods We examined the effect of four methods of classifying discrepant reports from different population health datasets on the estimated prevalence of hypertensive disorders of pregnancy and on the adjusted odds ratios (aOR for known risk factors. Data were obtained from linked, validated, birth and hospital data for women who gave birth in a New South Wales hospital (Australia 2000–2002. Results Among 250173 women with linked data, 238412 (95.3% women had perfect agreement on the occurrence of hypertension, 1577 (0.6% had imperfect agreement; 9369 (3.7% had hypertension reported in only one dataset (under-reporting and 815 (0.3% had conflicting types of hypertension. Using only perfect agreement between birth and discharge data resulted in the lowest prevalence rates (0.3% chronic, 5.1% pregnancy hypertension, while including all reports resulted in the highest prevalence rates (1.1 % chronic, 8.7% pregnancy hypertension. The higher prevalence rates were generally consistent with international reports. In contrast, perfect agreement gave the highest aOR (95% confidence interval for known risk factors: risk of chronic hypertension for maternal age ≥40 years was 4.0 (2.9, 5.3 and the risk of pregnancy hypertension for multiple birth was 2.8 (2.5, 3.2. Conclusion The method chosen for classifying discrepant case reports should vary depending on the study question; all reports should be used as part of calculating the range of prevalence estimates, but perfect matches may be best suited to risk factor analyses. These findings are likely to be applicable to the linkage of any specialised health services

  10. Gifted Students' WISC-IV Discrepancies and Performance, Academic Competence, and Academic Attitude

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brletich, Anne M.

    2013-01-01

    In the era of No Child Left Behind (ED, 2001), public school administrators have dedicated resources to ensuring all students reach proficiency in basic skills on the state mandated assessments. The focus on reaching proficiency on NCLB assessments is less of a concern for gifted students who exceed grade level expectations and have the potential…

  11. Pneumonia Recovery; Discrepancies in Perspectives of the Radiologist, Physician and Patient

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bruns, A.H.W.; Oosterheert, J.J.; El Moussaoui, R.; Opmeer, B.C.; Hoepelman, A.I.M.; Prins, J.M.

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Chest radiographs are often used to diagnose community-acquired pneumonia (CAP), to monitor response to treatment and to ensure complete resolution of pneumonia. However, radiological exams may not reflect the actual clinical condition of the patient. OBJECTIVE: To compare the radiograph

  12. Discrepancies between Abstracts Presented at International Association for Dental Research Annual Sessions from 2004 to 2005 and Full-Text Publication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soni Prasad

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the discrepancies between abstracts presented at the IADR meeting (2004-2005 and their full-text publication. Material and Methods. Abstracts from the Prosthodontic Section of IADR meeting were obtained. The following information was collected: abstract title, number of authors, study design, statistical analysis, outcome, and funding source. PubMed was used to identify the full-text publication of the abstracts. The discrepancies between the abstract and the full-text publication were examined, categorized as major and minor discrepancies, and quantified. The data were collected and analyzed using descriptive analysis. Frequency and percentage of major and minor discrepancies were calculated. Results. A total of 109 (95.6% articles showed changes from their abstracts. Seventy-four (65.0% and 105 (92.0% publications had at least one major and one minor discrepancies, respectively. Minor discrepancies were more prevalent (92.0% than major discrepancies (65.0%. The most common minor discrepancy was observed in the title (80.7%, and most common major discrepancies were seen in results (48.2%. Conclusion. Minor discrepancies were more prevalent than major discrepancies. The data presented in this study may be useful to establish a more comprehensive structured abstract requirement for future meetings.

  13. Discrepancy between photodynamic injuries and pheophorbide A accumulation in digestive tissues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evrard, S.; Koenig, M.; Damge, C.; Marescaux, Jacques; Aprahamian, M.

    1995-01-01

    This report describes the discrepancy between pheophorbide A (PH-A) localization and photodynamically induced necrosis for the digestive tract. After an IV 9 mg/Kg-1 sensitization, the dye was caught by the whole digestive tract and its inherent vessels, as shown by fluorescence microscopy. The dye fluorescence disappeared within 24 h from the stomach and the jejunum. It remained high in the pancreas, the portal vein, the bile duct, the arteries and the duodenal mucosae. A light dose, 660 nm, 100 J/cm-2, 24 h after Ph-A sensitization, induced a necrosis of the duodenal mucosae. The pancreas and the hepatic pedicle were relatively unaffected by photodynamic therapy (PDT). The duodenal response to PDT results logically from its selective PH-A retention. But hepatic pedicule and pancreas immunities for PDT involve either protecting singlet oxygen scavengers or photosensitizer quenchers.

  14. The relationship of internality-externality, self-acceptance, and self-ideal discrepancies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lombardo, J P; Fantasia, S C; Solheim, G

    1975-06-01

    Internals (n=35) and externals (n=38) responded to Rotter's (12) I-E scale under two sets of instructions: standard (as the kind of persons they really were) and ideal-self instructions (as if they were the types of persons they would like to be) and the self-acceptance questionnaire (4). Results indicated (a) on both instruments the discrepancy between real and ideal-self was significantly larger in externals: (b) the external ideal-self includes an internal locus of control; (c) a significant discriminatory factor between internals and externals is their perceived control over their own destiny and not social institutions. The results were discussed in terms of the relationship of externality to maladjustment, neuroticism, and possible causes for this relationship.

  15. LYRIDS AND PERSEIDS METEOROIDS: RECONCILIATION AND DISCREPANCY BETWEEN COMETARY OUTGASSING THEORY AND ELECTROPHONIC SOUND DATA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Molina, A. [Departamento de Fisica Aplicada, Universidad de Granada, Facultad de Ciencias, Avda. Severo Ochoa s/n, E-18071 Granada (Spain); Moreno, F. [Instituto de Astrofisica de Andalucia, CSIC, Glorieta de la Astronomia s/n, E-18008 Granada (Spain)

    2013-04-15

    We obtain the diameter of the most massive grains that might be ejected from the nuclear surface of the comets C/1861 G1 (Thatcher) and 109P/Swift-Tuttle using an outgassing model. The prevenient meteoroids of these two comets produce the known Lyrids and Perseids showers and it is thought that they produce electrophonic sounds. We compare our results with the minimum sized of such meteoroids capable of generating such sounds and we reconcile the discrepancy found by Beech in the case of the Lyrids. However, we conclude that the only outgassing mechanism is not compatible with the existence of electrophonic sounds due to Perseid meteoroids, and other mechanisms must be invoked to justify the presence of meter-sized boulders in the Perseid stream.

  16. Explaining the discrepancy between intentions and actions: the case of hypothetical bias in contingent valuation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ajzen, Icek; Brown, Thomas C; Carvajal, Franklin

    2004-09-01

    An experiment was designed to account for intention-behavior discrepancies by applying the theory of planned behavior to contingent valuation. College students (N = 160) voted in hypothetical and real payment referenda to contribute $8 to a scholarship fund. Overestimates of willingness to pay in the hypothetical referendum could not be attributed to moderately favorable latent dispositions. Instead, this hypothetical bias was explained by activation of more favorable beliefs and attitudes in the context of a hypothetical rather than a real referendum. A corrective entreaty was found to eliminate this bias by bringing beliefs, attitudes, and intentions in line with those in the real payment situation. As a result, the theory of planned behavior produced more accurate prediction of real payment when participants were exposed to the corrective entreaty.

  17. Consistencies and Discrepancies in Communication Between Parents and Teenage Children About Sexuality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teresita María Sevilla

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The family is one of the most important socializing agents in adolescent sex education. However, multiple barriers to communication within families have been identified. Therefore, this study aimed to characterize and understand the processes by which parents and their adolescent children communicate about sexuality. Two questionnaires were completed by 711 fathers/mothers and 566 male/female students in 21 schools in Cali (Colombia, and 15 discussion groups were formed. The results showed that conversations about sexuality focused on protection for women and on sexuality promotion for men. Furthermore, it was found that greater fluency exists in father/son and mother/daughter conversations. The largest discrepancy between parents and teenagers was the adults' belief that it is sufficient to mention certain topics in a directive manner and the children's expectations that parents will discuss the value and dynamics of the sexual experience. Embarrassment and lack of communication tools hinder communication processes.

  18. Self-discrepancy and regulatory fit in avatar-based exergames.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Seung-A Annie

    2012-12-01

    Drawing from Higgins's self-discrepancy theory and regulatory focus theory, this study examined the use of activated selves and regulatory foci in health games. Utilizing the Wii's avatar-creating and exergaming features, a 2 (activated self: actual self versus ideal self) x 2 (regulatory focus: promotion versus prevention) x 2 (efficacy appeals: self-efficacy versus response-efficacy) between-subjects experiment tested the interactions of activated selves, regulatory foci, and efficacy appeals on low-calorie dieting intentions after health game playing. Results from an experiment with 156 participants demonstrated that a fit between regulatory focus and efficacy appeals induced greater dieting intentions when the actual self was activated while the opposite effect occurred when the ideal self was activated. Theoretical contributions to basic and applied social psychology as well as managerial implications for consumer behavior research are considered.

  19. Implicit and explicit self-esteem discrepancies in paranoia and depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valiente, Carmen; Cantero, Dolores; Vázquez, Carmelo; Sanchez, Álvaro; Provencio, María; Espinosa, Regina

    2011-08-01

    The main purpose of the present study was to examine implicit and explicit self-esteem (SE) in patients with persecutory delusions. In samples of paranoid patients, depressed patients, and healthy controls, implicit SE was assessed using the experimental go/no-go association task, whereas explicit SE was measured using 2 self-reporting questionnaires: the self-worth subscale of the World Assumption Scale (Janoff-Bulman, 1989) and the self-acceptance subscale of the Scales of Psychological Well-Being (Ryff & Keyes, 1995). Our analysis revealed that depressed patients showed lower explicit SE than did paranoid and healthy control participants. However, participants with persecutory delusions had significantly lower implicit SE scores than did healthy controls. We interpret the discrepancies observed between overt and covert measures in the paranoid group as psychological defense mechanisms. The present study stresses the clinical and theoretical importance of the use of implicit measures in psychopathology.

  20. Can natural variability explain the discrepancy between observed and modeled sea ice trends?

    CERN Document Server

    Rosenblum, Erica

    2016-01-01

    Observations indicate that the Arctic sea ice cover is rapidly retreating while the Antarctic sea ice cover is steadily expanding. State-of-the-art climate models, by contrast, tend to predict a moderate decrease in both the Arctic and Antarctic sea ice covers. A number of recent studies have attributed this discrepancy in each hemisphere to natural variability, suggesting that the models are consistent with the observations when simulated natural variability is taken into account. Here we examine sea ice changes during 1979-2013 in simulations from the most recent Coupled Model Intercomparison Project (CMIP5) as well as the Community Earth System Model Large Ensemble (CESM-LE). We find that accurately simulated Arctic sea ice retreat occurs only in simulations with too much global warming, whereas accurately simulated Antarctic sea ice expansion tends to occur in simulations with too little global warming. We show that because of this, simulations from both ensembles do not capture the observed asymmetry bet...

  1. Cross reactivity of S. aureus to murine cytokine assays: A source of discrepancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Javed, Numan; Xue, Guang; Lu, Ailing; Xing, Yue; Iwakura, Yoichiro; Xiao, Hui; Lecoeur, Hervé; Späth, Gerald F; Meng, Guangxun

    2016-05-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is one of the versatile Gram positive bacteria causing a range of diseases. Upon challenge, host immune cells recognize S. aureus and mount diverse immune responses including production of pro-inflammatory cytokines such as IL-1β and TNF-α. These cytokines are important mediators of inflammation which can be detected via various immunological methods such as enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and immunoblotting. In the current study, we found that a number of clinical isolates as well as laboratory strains of S. aureus exhibited cross reactivity with ELISA antibodies for murine IL-1β and TNF-α assays. This cross reactivity generates exaggerated false positive signals which can be a source of discrepancy for the understanding of real immune responses against S. aureus infection by host immune cells.

  2. Discrepancies between Antigen and Polymerase Chain Reaction Tests for the Detection of Rotavirus and Norovirus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyun Soo; Kim, Jae-Seok

    2016-05-01

    We compared the results of an antigen test (ELISA) with those of polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for the detection of rotavirus and norovirus in stool specimens. Rotavirus and norovirus antigen-positive stool specimens were collected, and rotavirus and norovirus PCRs were performed on these specimens. Of the 325 rotavirus antigen-positive specimens, 200 were positive for both assays and 125 were PCR negative. Of 286 norovirus antigen-positive specimens, 51 were PCR negative. Comparison of the lower limit of detection showed that rotavirus PCR was 16 times more sensitive and norovirus PCR was over 4,000 times more sensitive than the ELISA. Discrepant results between ELISA and PCR were common, and the possibility of false-positive and false-negative results should be considered with rotavirus and norovirus assays.

  3. Microdose acquisition in adolescent leg length discrepancy using a low-dose biplane imaging system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Janni; Mussmann, Bo Redder; Hjarbæk, John

    2017-01-01

    Background Children with leg length discrepancy often undergo repeat imaging. Therefore, every effort to reduce radiation dose is important. Using low dose preview images and noise reduction software rather than diagnostic images for length measurements might contribute to reducing dose. Purpose...... To compare leg length measurements performed on diagnostic images and low dose preview images both acquired using a low-dose bi-planar imaging system. Material and Methods Preview and diagnostic images from 22 patients were retrospectively collected (14 girls, 8 boys; mean age, 12.8 years; age range, 10...... strongly imply that leg length measurements performed on preview images from a low-dose bi-planar imaging system are comparable to measurements performed on diagnostic images....

  4. Does Mother Know Best? Parental Discrepancies in Assessing Child Behavioral and Educational Outcomes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gupta, Nabanita Datta; Lausten, Mette; Pozzoli, Dario

    2017-01-01

    We investigate the degree of correspondence between parents’ reports on child behavioral and educational outcomes using wave four of a rich Danish longitudinal survey of children (the DALSC). All outcomes are measured at age 11 when the children are expected to be in fifth grade. Once discrepancies...... are detected, we analyze whether they are driven by noisy evaluations or by systematic bias, focusing on the role of parental characteristics and response heterogeneity. We then explicitly assess the relative importance of the mother’s versus the father’s assessments in explaining child academic performance...... and diagnosed mental health to investigate whether one parent is systematically a better informant of their child’s outcomes than the other. Our results show that parental psychopathology, measured as maternal distress, is a source of systematic misreporting of child functioning, that the parent–child...

  5. LBP and lower limb discrepancy: 3D evaluation of postural rebalancing via underfoot wedge correction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Amico, Moreno; Roncoletta, Piero; Di Felice, Francesca; Porto, Daniele; Bellomo, Rosagrazia; Saggini, Raoul

    2012-01-01

    Leg Length Discrepancy (LLD) is very often associated to Low Back Pain (LBP), but still controversial is the use of underfoot wedge correction (heel rise) to re-balance pelvis and trunk posture. In a review of our last 5 years clinical activity we observed that more than 70% out of 300 LBP patients presented a LLD. In more than 80 % we ascertained, via Baropodography, the presence of underfoot asymmetric load, during standing. More durable therapy recovery effect has been observed when LLD correction had been adopted. These reasons led us to start a study to assess if a Full 3D multifactorial Posture evaluation approach, by means of Opto-electronic device associated to foot pressure maps recording, was able to quantitatively discriminate the clinically observed phenomena. On a 94 LBP (av. age 46.3±16 Y range 15-82 Y) patients sample, 83 (88%) have been found to improve posture when LLD was corrected. The 94 patients showed a mean lower limb discrepancy of μ=8±3.2mm associated to a mean scoliotic lumbar curve μ=10.5°±5.1° Cobb (frontal plane), mean Spinal offset μ=6.6±4.9mm and mean Global offset 10.7±8.8mm. The applied paired t-test comparison (indifferent vs. corrected orthostasis) showed significant (p < 0.05) postural improvements could be obtained in the whole or in a part of the considered parameters, both in rebalancing and in spine deformities reduction after the application of suitable under-foot wedge. The joint 3D opto-electronic and foot pressure map approach proved to be effective to control several clinical parameters with statistical significance.

  6. Adolescent Loneliness and Social Skills: Agreement and Discrepancies Between Self-, Meta-, and Peer-Evaluations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lodder, G M A; Goossens, L; Scholte, R H J; Engels, R C M E; Verhagen, M

    2016-12-01

    Lonely adolescents report that they have poor social skills, but it is unknown whether this is due to an accurate perception of a social skills deficit, or a biased negative perception. This is an important distinction, as actual social skills deficits require different treatments than biased negative perceptions. In this study, we compared self-reported social skills evaluations with peer-reported social skills and meta-evaluations of social skills (i.e., adolescents' perceptions of how they believe their classmates evaluate them). Based on the social skills view, we expected negative relations between loneliness and these three forms of social skills evaluations. Based on the bias view, we expected lonely adolescents to have more negative self- and meta-evaluations compared to peer-evaluations of social skills. Participants were 1342 adolescents (48.64 % male, M age = 13.95, SD = .54). All classmates rated each other in a round-robin design to obtain peer-evaluations. Self- and meta-evaluations were obtained using self-reports. Data were analyzed using polynomial regression analyses and response surface modeling. The results indicated that, when self-, peer- and meta-evaluations were similar, a greater sense of loneliness was related to poorer social skills. Loneliness was also related to larger discrepancies between self- and peer-evaluations of loneliness, but not related to the direction of these discrepancies. Thus, for some lonely adolescents, loneliness may be related to an actual social skills deficit, whereas for others a biased negative perception of one's own social skills or a mismatch with the environment may be related to their loneliness. This implies that different mechanisms may underlie loneliness, which has implications for interventions.

  7. Time-Dependent Discrepancies between Assessments of Sensory Function after Incomplete Cervical Spinal Cord Injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macklin, Richard A; Bae, Jihye; Orell, Melanie; Anderson, Kim D; Ellaway, Peter H; Perez, Monica A

    2017-05-01

    We recently demonstrated that the electrical perceptual threshold (EPT) examination reveals spared sensory function at lower spinal segments compared with the International Standards for Neurological Classification of Spinal Cord Injury (ISNCSCI) examination in humans with chronic incomplete cervical spinal cord injury (SCI). Here, we investigated whether discrepancies in sensory function detected by both sensory examinations change over time after SCI. Forty-five participants with acute (10 years) incomplete cervical SCI and 30 control subjects were tested on dermatomes C2-T4 bilaterally. EPT values were higher in subjects with acute (2.5 ± 0.8 mA), chronic (2.2 ± 0.7 mA), or extended-chronic (2.8 ± 1.1 mA) SCI compared with controls (1.0 ± 0.1 mA). The EPT examination detected sensory impairments in spinal segments above (2.3 ± 0.9) and below (4.2 ± 2.6) the level detected by the ISNCSCI sensory examination in participants with acute and chronic SCI, respectively. Notably, both examinations detected similar levels of spared sensory function in the extended-chronic phase of SCI (0.8 ± 0.5). A negative correlation was found between differences in EPT and ISNCSCI sensory levels and time post-injury. These observations indicate that discrepancies between EPT and ISNCSCI sensory scores are time-dependent, with the EPT revealing impaired sensory function above, below, or at the same spinal segment as the ISNCSCI examination. We propose that the EPT is a sensitive tool to assess changes in sensory function over time after incomplete cervical SCI.

  8. THE DISCREPANT KINEMATICS OF ORLs AND CELs IN NGC 7009 AS A FUNCTION OF IONIZATION STRUCTURE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Richer, Michael G. [Instituto de Astronomia, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Apartado Postal 106, 22800 Ensenada, BC (Mexico); Georgiev, Leonid; Torres-Peimbert, Silvia [Instituto de Astronomia, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Apartado Postal 70-264, CP 04510 Mexico DF (Mexico); Arrieta, Anabel, E-mail: richer@astrosen.unam.mx, E-mail: silvia@astroscu.unam.mx, E-mail: anabel.arrieta@ibero.mx [Departamento de Fisica y Matematicas, Universidad Iberoamericana, Prolongacion Paseo de la Reforma 880, Lomas de Santa Fe, CP 01210 Mexico DF (Mexico)

    2013-08-20

    We present spatially and velocity-resolved echelle spectroscopy for NGC 7009 obtained with the UVES spectrograph at the European Southern Observatory's Very Large Telescope. Our objective is to analyze the kinematics of emission lines excited by recombination and collisions with electrons to determine whether similarities or differences could be useful in elucidating the well-known abundance discrepancy derived from them. We construct position-velocity maps for recombination, fluorescence, charge transfer, and collisionally excited lines. We find a plasma component emitting in the C II, N II, O II, and Ne II recombination lines whose kinematics are discrepant: they are incompatible with the ionization structure derived from all other evidence and the kinematics derived from all of these lines are unexpectedly very similar. We find direct evidence for a recombination contribution to [N II] {lambda}5755. Once taken into account, the electron temperatures from [N II], [O III], and [Ne III] agree at a given position and velocity. The electron densities derived from [O II] and [Ar IV] are consistent with direct imaging and the distribution of hydrogen emission. The kinematics of the C II, N II, O II, and Ne II lines does not coincide with the kinematics of the [O III] and [Ne III] forbidden emission, indicating that there is an additional plasma component to the recombination emission that arises from a different volume from that giving rise to the forbidden emission from the parent ions within NGC 7009. Thus, the chemical abundances derived from either type of line are correct only for the plasma component from which they arise. Apart from [N II] {lambda}5755, we find no anomaly with the forbidden lines usually used to determine chemical abundances in ionized nebulae, so the abundances derived from them should be reliable for the medium from which they arise.

  9. Unique discrepancy between cerebral blood flow and glucose metabolism in hemimegalencephaly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uematsu, Mitsugu; Haginoya, Kazuhiro; Togashi, Noriko; Hino-Fukuyo, Naomi; Nakayama, Tojo; Kikuchi, Atsuo; Abe, Yu; Wakusawa, Keisuke; Matsumoto, Yoko; Kakisaka, Yosuke; Kobayashi, Tomoko; Hirose, Mieko; Yokoyama, Hiroyuki; Iinuma, Kazuie; Iwasaki, Masaki; Nakasato, Nobukazu; Kaneta, Tomohiro; Akasaka, Manami; Kamei, Atsushi; Tsuchiya, Shigeru

    2010-12-01

    Hemimegalencephaly (HME) presents as severe refractory seizures and requires early surgical treatment to prevent progression to catastrophic epilepsy. Single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) and positron emission tomography (PET) are useful imaging techniques for the presurgical evaluation of patients with intractable epilepsy. However, the results in HME are variable and no study has compared SPECT and PET performed at around the same time. We performed SPECT and PET for nine patients with HME, which was defined as a whole or part of affected hemisphere enlargement (three males, six females; age range 0.5-20 years). The ictal and interictal states were determined based on the presence or absence of clinical seizures during all PET examinations and majority of SPECT examinations. The perfusion pattern in the malformed hemisphere was increased or equal, despite the reduced glucose metabolism in six out of nine patients. Five of the six patients who underwent early surgical treatment showed this kind of perfusion/metabolism discrepancy. Importantly, even the non-affected hemisphere in early infantile cases already lacked the normal hypoperfusion and hypometabolism patterns of immature frontal lobes, which was most prominent in case with poor surgical prognosis. In all six surgical patients, epileptic seizures appeared before 4 months of age. By contrast, none of the non-surgical patients had seizures before 4 months of age. In conclusion, although the number of patients examined is small and the result is still preliminary, the perfusion/metabolism discrepancy found in this study may show potential characteristic aspect of HME and further study with simultaneous EEG recording will make clear if this finding can be useful indicator for early surgical treatment in HME. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Substantial Discrepancy Between Fluid and Weight Loss During Acute Decompensated Heart Failure Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Testani, Jeffrey M; Brisco, Meredith A; Kociol, Robb D; Jacoby, Daniel; Bellumkonda, Lavanya; Parikh, Chirag R; Coca, Steven G; Tang, W H Wilson

    2015-07-01

    Net fluid and weight loss are used ubiquitously to monitor diuretic response in acute decompensated heart failure research and patient care. However, the performance of these metrics has never been evaluated critically. The weight and volume of aqueous fluids such as urine should be correlated nearly perfectly and with very good agreement. As a result, significant discrepancy between fluid and weight loss during the treatment of acute decompensated heart failure would indicate measurement error in 1 or both of the parameters. The correlation and agreement (Bland-Altman method) between diuretic-induced fluid and weight loss were examined in 3 acute decompensated heart failure trials and cohorts: (1) Diuretic Optimization Strategies Evaluation (DOSE) (n = 254); (2) Evaluation Study of Congestive Heart Failure and Pulmonary Artery Catheterization Effectiveness (ESCAPE) (n = 348); and (3) Penn (n = 486). The correlation between fluid and weight loss was modest (DOSE r = 0.55; ESCAPE r = 0.48; Penn r = 0.51; P fluid than weight loss was found across populations (-0.74 to -2.1 kg-L, P ≤ .002). A consistent pattern of baseline characteristics or in-hospital treatment parameters that could identify patients at risk of discordant fluid and weight loss was not found. Considerable discrepancy between fluid balance and weight loss is common in patients treated for acute decompensated heart failure. Awareness of the limitations inherent to these commonly used metrics and efforts to develop more reliable measures of diuresis are critical for both patient care and research in acute decompensated heart failure. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Application of new WAIS-III/WMS-III discrepancy scores for evaluating memory functioning: relationship between intellectual and memory ability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lange, Rael T; Chelune, Gordon J

    2006-05-01

    Analysis of the discrepancy between memory and intellectual ability has received some support as a means for evaluating memory impairment. Recently, comprehensive base rate tables for General Ability Index (GAI) minus memory discrepancy scores (i.e., GAI-memory) were developed using the WAIS-III/WMS-III standardization sample (Lange, Chelune, & Tulsky, in press). The purpose of this study was to evaluate the clinical utility of GAI-memory discrepancy scores to identify memory impairment in 34 patients with Alzheimer's type dementia (DAT) versus a sample of 34 demographically matched healthy participants. On average, patients with DAT obtained significantly lower scores on all WAIS-III and WMS-III indexes and had larger GAI-memory discrepancy scores. Clinical outcome analyses revealed that GAI-memory scores were useful at identifying memory impairment in patients with DAT versus matched healthy participants. However, GAI-memory discrepancy scores failed to provide unique interpretive information beyond that which is gained from the memory indexes alone. Implications and future research directions are discussed.

  12. Discrepancies between perceptions of real and ideal yoga teachers and their relationship to emotional well-being.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Crystal L; Riley, Kristen E; Besedin, Elena Y; Stewart, V Michelle

    2013-01-01

    Although more individuals are adopting yoga into their lives, little research has examined practitioners' expectations and experiences of their yoga instructor's behavior. Discrepancies between real and ideal behaviors of yoga instructors may lead to unsatisfactory experiences and decrease the potential impact of yoga practice. This study investigated differences between yoga practitioners' real and ideal perceptions of their yoga teacher's behavior and the relationship between discrepant beliefs and students' symptoms of depression, anxiety,and stress. The Perceptions of Yoga Teacher Questionnaire (PYTQ), a recently developed survey of student attitudes regarding yoga teachers' behavior, was administered ina national online survey of yoga students and teachers. Greater discrepancy between real and idea yoga teacher behavior was anticipated to be positively associated with practitioners' symptoms of depression, anxiety, and stress. Pearson correlations corrected for multiple comparisons revealed that yoga students and teachers are generally satisfied with their teacher's behaviors. Significant discrepancies between real and ideal teacher behavior were found for both groups. Higher discrepancy scores were associated with symptoms of stress and anxiety but not depression for students, but not for teachers. These preliminary findings provide insight into the relationship between expectancies and real yoga teacher behaviors and their links to student emotional adjustment.More research in this area is warranted.

  13. Comparison of margin discrepancy of complete gold crowns fabricated using printed, milled, and conventional hand-waxed patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munoz, Sergio; Ramos, Van; Dickinson, Douglas P

    2017-07-01

    The recent application of printing for the fabrication of dental restorations has not been compared and evaluated for margin discrepancy (margin fit) with restorations fabricated using milling and conventional hand-waxing techniques. The purpose of this in vitro study was to evaluate and compare margin discrepancy of complete gold crowns (CGCs) fabricated from printed, milled, and conventional hand-waxed patterns. Thirty crown patterns were produced by each of 3 different methods: printed by ProJet DP 3000, milled by LAVA CNC 500, and hand waxed, then invested and cast into CGCs. Each crown was evaluated at 10 positions around the margin on the corresponding epoxy die under ×50 light microscopy to determine the mean and maximum margin discrepancy. Measurements were made using a micrometer positioning stage. The results were compared by ANOVA (α=.05). Milled and hand-waxed patterns were not statistically different from each other (P>.05), while printed patterns produced significantly higher mean and maximum margin discrepancy than milled and hand-waxed patterns (Ppatterns were not significantly different from each other. The ProJet DP 3000 printed patterns were significantly different from LAVA CNC 500 milled and hand-waxed patterns, with an overall poorer result. Fabricating CGCs from printed patterns produced a significantly higher number of crowns with unacceptable margin discrepancy (>120 μm). Copyright © 2016 Editorial Council for the Journal of Prosthetic Dentistry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Survey of the TS-ECE Discrepancy and recent investigations in ICRF heated plasmas at Alcator C-Mod

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reinke M. L.

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports on a new investigation of the long-standing, unresolved discrepancy between Thomson Scattering (TS and Electron Cyclotron Emission (ECE measurements of electron temperature in high temperature tokamak plasmas. At the Alcator C-Mod tokamak, ion cyclotron range of frequency (ICRF heating is used to produce high temperature conditions where the TS- ECE discrepancy, as observed in the past at JET and TFTR, should appear. Plasmas with Te(0 up to 8 keV are obtained using three different heating scenarios: Ion Cyclotron Resonance Heating (ICRH, ICRF mode conversion heating and a combination of the two heating methods. This is done in order to explore the hypothesis that ICRH-generated fast ions may be related to the discrepancy. In all high temperature cases at C-Mod, we find no evidence for the type of discrepancy reported at JET and TFTR. Here we present the C-Mod results along with a summary of past work on the TS-ECE discrepancy.

  15. Outsourcing your medical practice call center: how to choose a vendor to ensure regulatory compliance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Bill

    2014-01-01

    Medical practices receive hundreds if not thousands of calls every week from patients, payers, pharmacies, and others. Outsourcing call centers can be a smart move to improve efficiency, lower costs, improve customer care, ensure proper payer management, and ensure regulatory compliance. This article discusses how to know when it's time to move to an outsourced call center, the benefits of making the move, how to choose the right call center, and how to make the transition. It also provides tips on how to manage the call center to ensure the objectives are being met.

  16. Intergenerational discrepancies of parental control among Chinese American families: Links to family conflict and adolescent depressive symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juang, Linda P; Syed, Moin; Takagi, Miyuki

    2007-12-01

    This study investigated how discrepancies between adolescents' and parents' endorsement of parental control contribute to adolescent depressive symptoms. Family conflict was hypothesized to mediate the link between parent-adolescent discrepancies and depressive symptoms. The sample consisted of 166 pairs of Chinese American adolescents and their parents. The results indicated that, as predicted, greater discrepancies between adolescents and their parents on parental control related to greater adolescent depressive symptoms. Furthermore, adolescent's perceived degree of family conflict partially mediated this relation. Both parents and adolescents are changing and adapting to their cultural contexts; some in synchrony and some not. Identifying areas where parents and adolescents diverge concerning values, behaviors, and beliefs, is an important avenue to understanding Chinese American adolescents' mental health.

  17. Discrepancies in Southern Hemisphere Mid-latitude Atmospheric Variability of the NCEP-NCAR and ECMWF Reanalyses

    CERN Document Server

    Dell'Aquila, A; Calmanti, S; Lucarini, V

    2005-01-01

    In this paper we compare the representation of the southern hemisphere midlatitude winter variability in the NCEP-NCAR and ECMWF reanalyses. We use the classical Hayashi spectral technique, recently applied to compare the description of the atmospheric variability in the northern hemisphere on different spectral sub-domains as provided by the two reanalyses. We find relevant discrepancies in the description of the variability at different spatial and temporal scales. ERA40 is generally characterised by a larger variance, especially in the high frequency spectral region. In the southern hemisphere, also in the satellite period, the assimilated data are relatively scarce, predominately over the oceans, and they provide a weaker constraint to the model dynamics. In the pre-satellite period the discrepancies between the two reanalyses are large and randomly distributed while after the 1979 the discrepancies are smaller but systematic. Moreover, a sudden jump in the VTPR period (1973-1978) is observed, mostly in t...

  18. Post-prior discrepancies in the continuum distorted wave-eikonal initial state approximation for ion-helium ionization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ciappina, M F [CONICET and Departamento de Fisica, Universidad Nacional del Sur, 8000 Bahia Blanca (Argentina); Cravero, W R [CONICET and Departamento de Fisica, Universidad Nacional del Sur, 8000 Bahia Blanca (Argentina); Garibotti, C R [CONICET and Division Colisiones Atomicas, Centro Atomico Bariloche, 8400 Bariloche (Argentina)

    2003-09-28

    We have explored post-prior discrepancies within continuum distorted wave-eikonal initial state theory for ion-atom ionization. Although there are no post-prior discrepancies when electron-target initial and final states are exact solutions of the respective Hamiltonians, discrepancies do arise for multielectronic targets, when a hydrogenic continuum with effective charge is used for the final electron-residual target wavefunction. We have found that the prior version calculations give better results than the post version, particularly for highly charged projectiles. We have explored the reasons for this behaviour and found that the prior version shows less sensitivity to the choice of the final state. The fact that the perturbation potentials operate upon the initial state suggests that the selection of the initial bound state is relatively more important than the final continuum state for the prior version.

  19. [Histologic discrepancy between gastric biopsy and resection specimen in the era of endoscopic treatment for early gastric cancer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joo, Mee; Kim, Kyoung-Mee

    2014-11-01

    Endoscopic resection (ER) is accepted as a treatment option for early gastric cancer in patients with negligible risk of lymph node metastasis. Determination of histologic differentiation of adenocarcinoma based on pretreatment endoscopic biopsy is critical in deciding the treatment strategy of ER versus surgical resection. However, discrepancies are frequent between pretreatment biopsies and ER specimens, which may result in an additional gastrectomy after ER. In this context, a review on possible factors contributing to the diagnostic discrepancy in the histologic difference between the pretreatment biopsy and ER is necessary. Two major factors are significantly associated with this discrepancy: pathologic characteristics of the tumor itself, i.e. histologic heterogeneity (tumor factor), and diagnostic procedure performed by endoscopists or pathologists (human factor). In this review, we focus on pathologic report of pretreatment biopsy specimens and its clinical significance.

  20. Predictors of Nightly Subjective-Objective Sleep Discrepancy in Poor Sleepers over a Seven-Day Period

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herbert, Vanessa; Pratt, Daniel; Emsley, Richard; Kyle, Simon D.

    2017-01-01

    This study sought to examine predictors of subjective/objective sleep discrepancy in poor sleepers. Forty-two individuals with insomnia symptoms (mean age = 36.2 years, 81% female) were recruited to take part in a prospective study which combined seven days of actigraphy with daily assessment of sleep perceptions, self-reported arousal, sleep effort, and mood upon awakening. A high level of intra-individual variability in measures of sleep discrepancy was observed. Multilevel modelling revealed that higher levels of pre-sleep cognitive activity and lower mood upon awakening were significantly and independently predictive of the underestimation of total sleep time. Greater levels of sleep effort predicted overestimation of sleep onset latency. These results indicate that psychophysiological variables are related to subjective/objective sleep discrepancy and may be important therapeutic targets in the management of insomnia. PMID:28282912

  1. Satisfaction with open sexual agreements in Australian gay men's relationships: the role of perceived discrepancies in benefit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosking, Warwick

    2013-10-01

    This study investigated whether satisfaction with open sexual agreements in gay men's relationships was associated with perceptions of discrepancies in the benefit experienced from those agreements. Three types of perceived discrepancy between the self and the relationship partner were examined: frequency of casual sex, attractiveness of casual partners, and "overall" benefit. Results from a survey conducted in 2010 of 685 Australian gay men in relationships with open agreements showed that men perceiving discrepancies in benefit, particularly those representing "under-benefit", were less satisfied with their agreement than were men perceiving equal benefit. These results supported hypotheses derived from equity theory and provide insight into factors associated with gay men's satisfaction with open agreements. These findings also have important practical implications. Professionals counselling gay men or couples experiencing low satisfaction with open agreements may consider raising issues of unequal benefit and work with their clients towards achieving equality.

  2. NGC 6778: Strengthening the link between extreme abundance discrepancy factors and central star binarity in planetary nebulae

    CERN Document Server

    Jones, David; García-Rojas, Jorge; Corradi, Romano L M; Boffin, Henri M J

    2015-01-01

    We present new optical spectra of the nearby, bright, planetary nebula NGC 6778. The nebula has been known to emit strong recombination lines for more than 40 years but this is the first detailed study of its abundances. Heavy element abundances derived from recombination lines are found to exceed those from collisionally excited lines by a factor of ~20 in an integrated spectrum of the nebula, which is among the largest known abundance discrepancy factors. Spatial analysis of the spectra shows that the abundance discrepancy factor is strongly, centrally peaked, reaching ~40 close to the central star. The central star of NGC 6778 is known to be a short period binary, further strengthening the link between high nebular abundance discrepancy factors and central star binarity.

  3. State Child Support Agencies with Programs to Ensure Current Support Orders Reflect Current Earnings

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Interactive Program Innovation Map - Click on State or Territory for information about child support agency programs designed to ensure that child support orders...

  4. 36 CFR 805.4 - Ensuring environmental documents are actually considered in Council decisionmaking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... officials required to consider environmental documents Recommendations for legislation During staff... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Ensuring environmental... Property ADVISORY COUNCIL ON HISTORIC PRESERVATION PROCEDURES FOR IMPLEMENTATION OF NATIONAL...

  5. Ensuring safe foods and medical products through stronger regulatory systems abroad

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Riviere, J. Edmond; Buckley, Gillian J

    2012-01-01

    ...) border inspections to be sufficient to ensure product purity and safety, and incidents such as American deaths due to adulterated heparin imported from China propelled the problem to public awareness...

  6. Algorithm To Ensure And Enforce Brute-Force Attack-Resilient Password In Routers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed Farik

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Issues of weak login passwords arising from default passwords in wired and wireless routers has been a concern for more than a decade. In this research we develop and test an algorithm to ensure and enforce passwords in routers that are resistant to brute-force attack. A comparative analysis is performed to show the improved strengths of passwords derived via this algorithm. Implementation of this algorithm in routers will ensure setup of brute-force attack resistant passwords.

  7. Qualitive electronic management of information in health services as an implement of ensuring of total quality.

    OpenAIRE

    Tsounis A.; Sarafis P.

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: the promotion and ensuring of quality is an important challenge for modern social-care organizations, which are complex systems based in the intensity of work, with a large number of inputs and outputs. Aim : The aim of this task is to negotiate the issue of the qualitative electronic management of information in healthcare services, as an important implement of support of the qualitative functions of a hospital and by extension as an implement of ensuring of total quality in it...

  8. Posterior transverse interarch discrepancy on HbE β thalassemia patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuniar Zen

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: One of the symptoms that often arises on thalassemia patients is disharmony dentofacial, class II skeletal malocclusion, as a result of the malrelation of maxilla and mandible. This malrelation can be affected by either maxillary bone position, dentoalveolar maxillary position, mandibular bone position, dentoalveolar mandibular position, or combinations of those components. Purpose: The study was aimed to examine whether there is posterior transverse interarch discrepancy on the HbE β thalassemia patients or not. Methods: This study is an observational research with cross-sectional design. The sample consisted of 33 HbE β thalassemia patients and 33 non-thalassemia patients as a control group aged 12–14 years. Lateral cephalogram was carried out and dental casts of maxillary and mandibular dental arches were also taken in all of those patients. Results: There was no difference between the maxillary intermolar width of the HbE β thalassemia patients and that of the normal ones, but the mandibular intermolar width of the HbE β thalassemia patients was significantly smaller than that of the normal ones. Beside that, posterior transverse interarch discrepancy of of the HbE β thalassemia patients was significantly greater than that of the normal ones, which showed great difference between maxillary and mandibular intermolar widths. Conclusion: Posterior transverse interarch discrepancy of the HbE β thalassemia patients was different from that of the normal ones. The dentofacial abnormalities on the HbE β thalassemia patients aged 12–14 years primarily was due to disporposional dentofacial growth in the vertical, sagittal, and transversal directions, especially in the posterior region.Latar belakang: Salah satu akibat yang sering timbul pada penderita talasemia adalah disharmoni dentofasial berupa maloklusi skeletal kelas II yang merupakan kelainan hubungan maksila dan mandibula. Malrelasi ini dapat dipengaruhi oleh posisi

  9. Marginal and internal discrepancies of zirconia copings: effects of milling system and finish line design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro, Isabella Lima Arrais; Campos, Fernanda; Sousa, Rafael Santiago; Alves, Maria Luiza Lima; Rodrigues, Dalton Matos; Souza, Rodrigo Othavio Assuncão; Bottino, Marco Antonio

    2015-01-01

    Discrepancies at the abutment/crown interface can affect the longevity of zirconia restorations. The aim was to evaluate the marginal and internal discrepancies (MD and ID) of zirconia copings manufactured by two milling systems with different finish lines. Three aluminum-master-dies (h = 5.5 mm; Ψ =7.5 mm; 6΀), with different finish lines (large chamfer [LC]; tilted chamfer [TC]; rounded shoulder [RS]) were fabricated. Twenty impressions were made from each master die and poured. Sixty zirconia copings were manufactured and divided according to the factors "finish line" and "milling system" (n = 10): CAD LC = Computer-aided design/computer-aided manufacturing (CAD/CAM) + LC; CAD TC = CAD/CAM + TC; CAD RS = CAD/CAM + RS; MAD LC = manually aided design/manually aided manufacturing (MAD/MAM) + LC; MAD TC = MAD/MAM + TC; and MAD RS = MAD/MAM + RS. For MD analysis, each coping was fixed, and the distance between the external edges of the coping and the edge of the cervical preparation was measured (50 points). Using the same copings, the ID of each coping was evaluated, by the replica technique, at 12 points equally distributed among the regions (n = 10): Ray (R), axial (A), and occlusal (Occl). The measurements were performed by optical microscopy (Χ250). The data (μm) were subjected to parametric and non-parametric statistical analyses. For the MAD/MAM system, the "finish line" (P = 0.0001) affected significantly the MD median values (μm): LC = 251.80 a , RS = 68.40 a and TC = 8.10 b (Dunn's test). For the CAD/CAM system, the median MD values (μm) were not affected by the factor "finish line" (P = 0.4037): LC = 0.82 a , RS = 0.52 a , and TC = 0.89 a . For the ID, it was observed interaction between the finish line types and the region (P = 0.0001) and between region and milling system (P = 0.0031) (RM-ANOVA). The CAD/CAM system presented lower MD values, regardless the finish line. However, the MAD/MAM system showed ID values smaller than those of CAD/CAM.

  10. Discrepant comorbidity between minority and white suicides: a national multiple cause-of-death analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stack Steven

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Clinician training deficits and a low and declining autopsy rate adversely impact the quality of death certificates in the United States. Self-report and records data for the general population indicate that proximate mental and physical health of minority suicides was at least as poor as that of white suicides. Methods This cross-sectional mortality study uses data from Multiple Cause-of-Death (MCOD public use files for 1999–2003 to describe and evaluate comorbidity among black, Hispanic, and white suicides. Unintentional injury decedents are the referent for multivariate analyses. Results One or more mentions of comorbid psychopathology are documented on the death certificates of 8% of white male suicides compared to 4% and 3% of black and Hispanic counterparts, respectively. Corresponding female figures are 10%, 8%, and 6%. Racial-ethnic discrepancies in the prevalence of comorbid physical disease are more attenuated. Cross-validation with National Violent Death Reporting System data reveals high relative underenumeration of comorbid depression/mood disorders and high relative overenumeration of schizophrenia on the death certificates of both minorities. In all three racial-ethnic groups, suicide is positively associated with depression/mood disorders [whites: adjusted odds ratio (AOR = 31.9, 95% CI = 29.80–34.13; blacks: AOR = 60.9, 95% CI = 42.80–86.63; Hispanics: AOR = 34.7, 95% CI = 23.36–51.62] and schizophrenia [whites: AOR = 2.4, 95% CI = 2.07–2.86; blacks: AOR = 4.2, 95% CI = 2.73–6.37; Hispanics: AOR = 4.1, 95% CI = 2.01–8.22]. Suicide is positively associated with cancer in whites [AOR = 1.8, 95% CI = 1.69–1.93] and blacks [AOR = 1.8, 95% CI = 1.36–2.48], but not with HIV or alcohol and other substance use disorders in any group under review. Conclusion The multivariate analyses indicate high consistency in predicting suicide-associated comorbidities across racial-ethnic groups using MCOD data

  11. Medication reconciliation errors in a tertiary care hospital in Saudi Arabia: admission discrepancies and risk factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazhar, Faizan; Akram, Shahzad; Al-Osaimi, Yousif A; Haider, Nafis

    2017-01-01

    Medication reconciliation is a major component of safe patient care. One of the main problems in the implementation of a medication reconciliation process is the lack of human resources. With limited resources, it is better to target medication reconciliation resources to patients who will derive the most benefit from it. The primary objective of this study was to determine the frequency and types of medication reconciliation errors identified by pharmacists performing medication reconciliation at admission. Each medication error was rated for its potential to cause patient harm during hospitalization. A secondary objective was to determine risk factors associated with medication reconciliation errors. This was a prospective, single-center pilot study conducted in the internal medicine and surgical wards of a tertiary care teaching hospital in the Eastern province of Saudi Arabia. A clinical pharmacist took the best possible medication history of patients admitted to medical and surgical services and compared with the medication orders at hospital admission; any identified discrepancies were noted and analyzed for reconciliation errors. Multivariate logistic regression was performed to determine the risk factors related to reconciliation errors. A total of 328 patients (138 in surgical and 198 in medical) were included in the study. For the 1419 medications recorded, 1091 discrepancies were discovered out of which 491 (41.6%) were reconciliation errors. The errors affected 177 patients (54%). The incidence of reconciliation errors in the medical patient group was 25.1% and 32.0% in the surgical group (perror was the omission (43.5% and 51.2%). Lipid-lowering (12.4%) and antihypertensive agents were most commonly involved. If undetected, 43.6% of order errors were rated as potentially requiring increased monitoring or intervention to preclude harm; 17.7% were rated as potentially harmful. A multivariate logistic regression model showed that patients aged ≥65 years

  12. Reducing the Discrepancy Between ASTER and MODIS Land Surface Temperature Products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Changqing Ke

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Human-induced global warming has significantly increased the importance ofsatellite monitoring of land surface temperature (LST on a global scale. The MODerate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS provides a 1-km resolution LST productwith almost daily coverage of the Earth, invaluable to both local and global change studies.The Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission Reflection Radiometer (ASTER provides aLST product with a high spatial resolution of 90-m and a 16-day recurrent cycle,simultaneously acquired at the same height and nadir view as MODIS. ASTER andMODIS are complementary in resolution, offering a unique opportunity for scale-relatedstudies. ASTER and MODIS LST have been widely used but the errors in LST were mostlydisregarded. Correction of ASTER-to-MODIS LST discrepancies is essential for studiesreliant upon the joint use of these sensors. In this study, we compared three correctionapproaches: the Wan et al.’s approach, the refined Wan et al.’s approach, and thegeneralized split window (GSW algorithm based approach. The Wan et al.’s approachcorrects the MODIS 1-km LST using MODIS 5-km LST. The refined approach modifiesthe Wan et al.’s approach through incorporating ASTER emissivity and MODIS 5-km data.The GSW algorithm approach does not use MODIS 5-km but only ASTER emissivity data. We examined the case over a semi-arid terrain area for the part of the Loess Plateau of China. All the approaches reduced the ASTER-to-MODIS LST discrepancy effectively. With terrain correction, the original ASTER-to-MODIS LST difference reduced from 2.7±1.28 K to -0.1±1.87 K for the Wan et al.’s approach, 0.2±1.57 K for the refined approach, and 0.1±1.33 K for the GSW algorithm based approach. Among all the approaches, the GSW algorithm based approach performed best in terms of mean, standard deviation, root mean square root, and correlation coefficient.

  13. Second opinion and discrepancy in the diagnosis of soft tissue lesions at surgical pathology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharif Muhammad

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To determine the frequency and magnitude of discrepancies in the surgical pathological diagnosis of soft tissue lesions on review and second opinion in a histopathology center. Study Design: Cross-sectional, observational. Place and Duration of Study: Department of Histopathology, Armed Forces Institute of Pathology, Rawalpindi, from April 2006 to May 2007. Materials and Methods: All the cases of soft tissue as well as bone lesions, irrespective of age and gender, which were referred for second opinion or review after being reported elsewhere, were included in the study. A panel of antibodies of soft tissue, epithelial and lymphoid markers was applied according to the requirements of each case. The cases were categorized as category A where there was concurrence between initial diagnosis and diagnosis at review. Category B included cases where there was disagreement in the specific diagnostic entity as per WHO classifications without therapeutic implications. Category C was cases where the category of benign or malignant diagnosis remained the same but there was disagreement in the specific diagnosis with definite therapeutic implications. Category D had diagnosis of benign changed to malignant while category E had cases where diagnosis of malignancy was changed to a benign lesion. Results: During the study period, 34 cases of soft tissue lesions were received for review and second opinion. The mean age of the patients was 39 ΁ 22 years and immunohistochemistry was performed in 21 (62% of 34 cases. Concurrence between the review and initial diagnosis was seen in 18 (53% cases (category A. Discrepancy in the diagnosis at review and initial consultation was seen in 16 (47% cases. There were four (11.8% cases that were placed in category B as the diagnosis of benign and malignant remained the same but the specific diagnostic entity was changed. Category C included eight (23.5% cases where the review diagnosis changed the therapeutic

  14. Medication reconciliation errors in a tertiary care hospital in Saudi Arabia: admission discrepancies and risk factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mazhar F

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Medication reconciliation is a major component of safe patient care. One of the main problems in the implementation of a medication reconciliation process is the lack of human resources. With limited resources, it is better to target medication reconciliation resources to patients who will derive the most benefit from it. Objective: The primary objective of this study was to determine the frequency and types of medication reconciliation errors identified by pharmacists performing medication reconciliation at admission. Each medication error was rated for its potential to cause patient harm during hospitalization. A secondary objective was to determine risk factors associated with medication reconciliation errors. Methods: This was a prospective, single-center pilot study conducted in the internal medicine and surgical wards of a tertiary care teaching hospital in the Eastern province of Saudi Arabia. A clinical pharmacist took the best possible medication history of patients admitted to medical and surgical services and compared with the medication orders at hospital admission; any identified discrepancies were noted and analyzed for reconciliation errors. Multivariate logistic regression was performed to determine the risk factors related to reconciliation errors. Results: A total of 328 patients (138 in surgical and 198 in medical were included in the study. For the 1419 medications recorded, 1091 discrepancies were discovered out of which 491 (41.6% were reconciliation errors. The errors affected 177 patients (54%. The incidence of reconciliation errors in the medical patient group was 25.1% and 32.0% in the surgical group (p<0.001. In both groups, the most frequent reconciliation error was the omission (43.5% and 51.2%. Lipid-lowering (12.4% and antihypertensive agents were most commonly involved. If undetected, 43.6% of order errors were rated as potentially requiring increased monitoring or intervention to preclude harm; 17

  15. Benefits and applications of laser-induced sparks in real scale model measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gómez-Bolaños, Javier; Delikaris-Manias, Symeon; Pulkki, Ville Topias

    2015-01-01

    The characteristics of using a laser-induced spark as a monopole source in scale model measurements were assessed by comparison with an electric spark and a miniature spherical loudspeaker. Room impulse responses of first order directivity sources were synthesized off-line using six spatially dis...... to synthesize room responses of directional sources, e.g., to obtain directional information about reflections inside scale models....

  16. Deep learning of symmetrical discrepancies for computer-aided detection of mammographic masses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kooi, Thijs; Karssemeijer, Nico

    2017-03-01

    When humans identify objects in images, context is an important cue; a cheetah is more likely to be a domestic cat when a television set is recognised in the background. Similar principles apply to the analysis of medical images. The detection of diseases that manifest unilaterally in symmetrical organs or organ pairs can in part be facilitated by a search for symmetrical discrepancies in or between the organs in question. During a mammographic exam, images are recorded of each breast and absence of a certain structure around the same location in the contralateral image will render the area under scrutiny more suspicious and conversely, the presence of similar tissue less so. In this paper, we present a fusion scheme for a deep Convolutional Neural Network (CNN) architecture with the goal to optimally capture such asymmetries. The method is applied to the domain of mammography CAD, but can be relevant to other medical image analysis tasks where symmetry is important such as lung, prostate or brain images.

  17. The discrepancy in G-band contrast: Where is the quiet Sun?

    CERN Document Server

    Uitenbroek, Han; Rimmele, Thomas

    2007-01-01

    We compare the rms contrast in observed speckle reconstructed G-band images with synthetic filtergrams computed from two magneto-hydrodynamic simulation snapshots. The observations consist of 103 bursts of 80 frames each taken at the Dunn Solar Telescope (DST), sampled at twice the diffraction limit of the telescope. The speckle reconstructions account for the performance of the Adaptive Optics (AO) system at the DST to supply reliable photometry. We find a considerable discrepancy in the observed rms contrast of 14.1% for the best reconstructed images, and the synthetic rms contrast of 21.5% in a simulation snapshot thought to be representative of the quiet Sun. The areas of features in the synthetic filtergrams that have positive or negative contrast beyond the minimum and maximum values in the reconstructed images have spatial scales that should be resolved. This leads us to conclude that there are fundamental differences in the rms G-band contrast between observed and computed filtergrams. On the basis of...

  18. V4046 Sgr: Touchstone to Investigate Spectral Type Discrepancies for Pre-main Sequence Stars

    CERN Document Server

    Kastner, Joel H; Sargent, Benjamin; Smith, C T; Rayner, John

    2014-01-01

    Determinations of the fundamental properties (e.g., masses and ages) of late-type, pre-main sequence (pre-MS) stars are complicated by the potential for significant discrepancies between the spectral types of such stars as ascertained via optical vs. near-infrared observations. To address this problem, we have obtained near-IR spectroscopy of the nearby, close binary T Tauri system V4046 Sgr AB with the NASA Infrared Telescope Facility (IRTF) SPEX spectrometer. The V4046 Sgr close binary (and circumbinary disk) system provides an important test case for spectral type determination thanks to the stringent observational constraints on its component stellar masses (i.e., ~0.9 Msun each) as well as on its age (12-21 Myr) and distance (73 pc). Analysis of the IRTF data indicates that the composite near-IR spectral type for V4046 Sgr AB lies in the range M0-M1, i.e., significantly later than the K5+K7 composite type previously determined from optical spectroscopy. However, the K5+K7 composite type is in better agre...

  19. How modeling can reconcile apparently discrepant experimental results: the case of pacemaking in dopaminergic neurons.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guillaume Drion

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Midbrain dopaminergic neurons are endowed with endogenous slow pacemaking properties. In recent years, many different groups have studied the basis for this phenomenon, often with conflicting conclusions. In particular, the role of a slowly-inactivating L-type calcium channel in the depolarizing phase between spikes is controversial, and the analysis of slow oscillatory potential (SOP recordings during the blockade of sodium channels has led to conflicting conclusions. Based on a minimal model of a dopaminergic neuron, our analysis suggests that the same experimental protocol may lead to drastically different observations in almost identical neurons. For example, complete L-type calcium channel blockade eliminates spontaneous firing or has almost no effect in two neurons differing by less than 1% in their maximal sodium conductance. The same prediction can be reproduced in a state of the art detailed model of a dopaminergic neuron. Some of these predictions are confirmed experimentally using single-cell recordings in brain slices. Our minimal model exhibits SOPs when sodium channels are blocked, these SOPs being uncorrelated with the spiking activity, as has been shown experimentally. We also show that block of a specific conductance (in this case, the SK conductance can have a different effect on these two oscillatory behaviors (pacemaking and SOPs, despite the fact that they have the same initiating mechanism. These results highlight the fact that computational approaches, besides their well known confirmatory and predictive interests in neurophysiology, may also be useful to resolve apparent discrepancies between experimental results.

  20. The discrepancy between food plant preferance and suitability in the moth Dysauxes ancilla

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.-E. Betzholtz

    2003-11-01

    Full Text Available Growth responses to and preference for different food plants were studied in larvae of the geographically isolated Swedish population of the moth Dysauxes ancilla. Laboratory rearing of D. ancilla larvae showed that, besides a mixed diet, four species from different plant families supported development to the adult moth. There was a significant suitability order among these species according to higher female adult weight and shorter development time; mixed diet and Calluna vulgaris > Hieracium pilosella > Thymus serpyllum > Brachytecium sp. However, these species were not top ranked in preference trials by the larvae. Instead larvae preferred Rumex acetosella, a plant that did not support development to adult moth as a single food source. This discrepancy between larval performance and preference may be explained by advantages from food mixing by the polyphagous larvae; an improved nutrient balance, a possibility of diluting toxic secondary substances and of switching foods to fit changing physiological needs. In Nature other factors such as microclimatic conditions, predators and parasitoids probably also influence the foraging behaviour of D. ancilla larvae.

  1. A Further Note on the Force Discrepancy for Wing Theory in Euler Flow

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Edmund Chadwick; Ali Hatam

    2009-11-01

    Uniform steady potential flow past a wing aligned at a small angle to the flow direction is considered. The standard approach is to model this by a vortex sheet, approximated by a finite distribution of horseshoe vortices. In the limit as the span of the horseshoe vortices tends to zero, an integral distribution of infinitesimal horseshoe vortices over the vortex sheet is obtained. The contribution to the force on the wing due to the presence of one of the infinitesimal horseshoe vortices in the distribution is focused upon. Most of the algebra in the force calculation is evaluated using Maple software and is given in the appendices. As in the two previous papers by the authors on wing theory in Euler flow [E Chadwick, A slender-wing theory in potential flow, Proc. R. Soc. A461 (2005) 415–432, and E Chadwick and A Hatam, The physical interpretation of the lift discrepancy in Lanchester–Prandtl lifting wing theory for Euler flow, leading to the proposal of an alternative model in Oseen flow, Proc. R. Soc. A463 (2007) 2257–2275], it is shown that the normal force is half that expected. In this further note, in addition it is demonstrated that the axial force is infinite. The implications and reasons for these results are discussed.

  2. Depressive symptoms moderate the effects of a self-discrepancy induction on overgeneral autobiographical memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smets, Jorien; Griffith, James W; Wessel, Ineke; Walschaerts, Dominique; Raes, Filip

    2013-01-01

    According to the CaRFAX model, rumination is one of the key underlying mechanisms of overgeneral autobiographical memory (OGM). The association between rumination and OGM is well established in clinical populations, but this relationship is not robust in nonclinical samples. A series of null findings is reported in the current paper. Additionally we followed up on recent findings suggesting that a state of rumination needs to be active in order to detect a relationship between trait-rumination and OGM. Secondary school students (N= 123) completed questionnaires assessing trait-rumination and depressive symptoms as well as two autobiographical memory tests (AMTs), one before and one after a self-discrepancy induction. This induction should trigger state-rumination, which would subsequently promote the retrieval of general rather than specific memories. Trait-rumination failed to predict increases in OGM. We did find, however, that higher BDI-II scores were positively related to an increase in OGM following the induction. This adds to the growing body of evidence that OGM reactivity might be more important than baseline memory specificity.

  3. Change in attitudes about employed mothers: exposure, interests, and gender ideology discrepancies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kroska, Amy; Elman, Cheryl

    2009-06-01

    Using a sample of continuously-married individuals (793 women and 847 men) and their spouses drawn from the first two waves of the NSFH, we examine change in individuals' attitudes about mothers' employment. We investigate hypotheses derived from three models of attitude change: the exposure model, the interest-based model, and the control model. We find support for hypotheses derived from all three. Consistent with exposure hypotheses, the adoption of fundamentalist beliefs reduces egalitarianism, while spouses' egalitarianism and spouses' education are positively related to individuals' own egalitarianism. As predicted in both exposure and interest hypotheses, women's entry into employment is positively related to women's egalitarianism, while wives' occupational prestige is positively related to men's egalitarianism. Congruent with the interest model, the presence of a young child is positively associated with women's egalitarianism. Consistent with the exposure model, the number of children in the home reduces men's egalitarianism, and a traditional division of housework decreases women's egalitarianism. Finally, consistent with the gender ideology discrepancy hypothesis, derived from the control model, individuals whose background, work, and family life are inconsistent with their gender ideology at wave 1 shift their gender ideology at wave 2 in a direction that is more compatible with their background, work, and family life: egalitarians with traditional life patterns at wave 1 are more traditional in their gender ideology at wave 2, and traditionals with egalitarian life patterns at wave 1 are more egalitarian at wave 2. We discuss the implications of these patterns for larger scale change in gender ideology.

  4. Discrepancies between the ultrasonographic and gross pathological size of papillary thyroid carcinomas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hahm, Soo Yeon; Shin, Jung Hee; Oh, Young Lyun; Son, Young Ik [Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-07-15

    The goal of this study was to investigate the level of agreement between tumor sizes measured on ultrasonography (US) and in pathological specimens of papillary thyroid carcinomas (PTCs) and to identify the US characteristics contributing to discrepancies in these measurements. We retrospectively reviewed the US findings and pathological reports of 490 tumors in 431 patients who underwent surgery for PTC. Agreement was defined as a difference of <20% between the US and pathological tumor size measurements. Tumors were divided by size into groups of 0.5-1 cm, 1-2 cm, 2-3 cm, and ≥3 cm. We compared tumors in which the US and pathological tumor size measurements agreed and those in which they disagreed with regard to the following parameters: taller-than-wide shape, infiltrative margin, echogenicity, microcalcifications, cystic changes in tumors, and the US diagnosis. The rate of agreement between US and the pathological tumor size measurements was 64.1% (314/490). Statistical analysis indicated that the US and pathological measurements significantly differed in tumors <1.0 cm in size (P=0.033), with US significantly overestimating the tumor size by 0.2 cm in such tumors (P<0.001). Cystic changes were significantly more frequent in the tumors where US and pathological tumor size measurements disagreed (P<0.001). Thyroid US may overestimate the size of PTCs, particularly for tumors <1.0 cm in size. This information may be helpful in guiding decision making regarding surgical extent.

  5. Resolving a discrepancy between experimental and theoretical lifetimes in atomic negative ions

    CERN Document Server

    Brage, Tomas

    2016-01-01

    Recently the lifetime of the excited $^{2}P_{1/2}$-state of S$^-$ was measured to be $503\\pm 54$ s (B\\"ackstr\\"om \\textit{et al.} Phys. Rev. Lett. 114, 143003 (2015)). The earlier theoretical lifetime of $436$ s was clearly outside the experimental error bars. To investigate this discrepancy we have performed systematic and large-scale Multi-configuration Dirac-Hartree-Fock calculations for this system. After including a careful treatment of correlation and relativistic effects, we predict a well-converged value of $492$ s for this lifetime, with an uncertainty considerably less than 1 \\%, thereby removing the apparent conflict between theory and experiment. We also show that this result corresponds to the non-relativistic limit in the $LS$-approximation for the M1-transition within this $^2P$-term. This approach for the M1-transition yields lifetimes for several $^2P$ fine-structure transitions in negative ions, which only depends on the transition energy and shows excellent agreement with recent lifetime me...

  6. Ionized gas diagnostics from protoplanetary discs in the Orion Nebula and the abundance discrepancy problem

    CERN Document Server

    Mesa-Delgado, A; Esteban, C; García-Rojas, J; Flores-Fajardo, N; López-Martín, L; Tsamis, Y G; Henney, W J

    2012-01-01

    We present results from integral field spectroscopy with PMAS. The observed field contains: five protoplanetary discs (also known as proplyds), the high-velocity jet HH 514 and a bowshock. Spatial distribution maps are obtained for different emission line fluxes, the c(H{\\beta}) coefficient, electron densities and temperatures, ionic abundances of different ions from collisionally excited lines (CELs), C2+ and O2+ abundances from recombination lines (RLs) and the abundance discrepancy factor of O2+, ADF(O2+). We find that collisional de-excitation has a major influence on the line fluxes in the proplyds. If this is not properly accounted for then physical conditions deduced from commonly used line ratios will be in error, leading to unreliable chemical abundances for these objects. We obtain the intrinsic emission of the proplyds 177-341, 170-337 and 170-334 by a direct subtraction of the background emission, though the last two present some background contamination due to their small sizes. A detailed analys...

  7. Renal length discrepancy by ultrasound is a reliable predictor of an abnormal DMSA scan in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khazaei, Mahmood R; Mackie, Fiona; Rosenberg, Andrew R; Kainer, Gad

    2008-01-01

    A renal length discrepancy (RLD) of more than 10 mm by ultrasound (US) is accepted as a potential indicator of an underlying renal pathology; however, there are few supporting data for this in children. Our objective was to determine a cutoff at which RLD on US is a reliable predictor of dimercaptosuccinate acid (DMSA) scan abnormality. We present data from 90 patients who had both renal US and a DMSA scan, as well as DMSA scan results compared with bipolar RLD by US. Positive (PPV) and negative (NPV) predictive values were calculated for renal RLD from 6 to >10 mm. The left kidney was longer in 56%, whereas the right kidney was longer in 37%; their lengths were equal in 8%. For children at all ages, a left kidney longer than the right by >or=10 mm or a right kidney longer than the left by >or=7 mm gave a PPV for DMSA abnormality of 79% and 100%, respectively. In children older than 4 years, if the right kidney was longer by >or=7 mm or if the left kidney was longer by >or=10 mm, the PPVs for DMSA abnormality were 100% and 63%, respectively. In children younger than 4 years, when the right kidney was longer by >or=6 mm or the left was kidney longer by >or=10 mm, the PPV were 86% and 100%, respectively. Thus, children with a right kidney longer than the left by even DMSA scan.

  8. Discrepancy Between Clinician and Research Assistant in TIMI Score Calculation (TRIAGED CPU

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taylor, Brian T.

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Several studies have attempted to demonstrate that the Thrombolysis in Myocardial Infarction (TIMI risk score has the ability to risk stratify emergency department (ED patients with potential acute coronary syndromes (ACS. Most of the studies we reviewed relied on trained research investigators to determine TIMI risk scores rather than ED providers functioning in their normal work capacity. We assessed whether TIMI risk scores obtained by ED providers in the setting of a busy ED differed from those obtained by trained research investigators. Methods: This was an ED-based prospective observational cohort study comparing TIMI scores obtained by 49 ED providers admitting patients to an ED chest pain unit (CPU to scores generated by a team of trained research investigators. We examined provider type, patient gender, and TIMI elements for their effects on TIMI risk score discrepancy. Results: Of the 501 adult patients enrolled in the study, 29.3% of TIMI risk scores determined by ED providers and trained research investigators were generated using identical TIMI risk score variables. In our low-risk population the majority of TIMI risk score differences were small; however, 12% of TIMI risk scores differed by two or more points. Conclusion: TIMI risk scores determined by ED providers in the setting of a busy ED frequently differ from scores generated by trained research investigators who complete them while not under the same pressure of an ED provider. [West J Emerg Med. 2015;16(1:24–33.

  9. Ozone: Unresolved discrepancies for dipole oscillator strength distributions, dipole sums, and van der Waals coefficients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Ashok; Thakkar, Ajit J.

    2011-08-01

    Dipole oscillator strength distributions (DOSDs) for ozone are constructed from experimental photoabsorption cross-sections combined with constraints provided by the Kuhn-Reiche-Thomas sum rule, the high-energy behavior of the dipole-oscillator-strength density, and molar refractivity data. A lack of photoabsorption data in the intermediate energy region from 24 to 524 eV necessitates the use of a mixture rule in that region. For this purpose, a DOSD for O2 is constructed first. The dipole properties for O2 are essentially the same as those obtained in earlier work even though most of the input data is from more recent experiments. A discrepancy is found between the refractivity data and photoabsorption data in the 10-20.6 eV range for ozone. A reliable ozone DOSD of the sort obtained for many other species remains out of reach. However, it is suggested that the true dipole properties of ozone lie between those predicted by two distributions that we present.

  10. On the stability of cationic complexes of neon with helium--solving an experimental discrepancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartl, Peter; Denifl, Stephan; Scheier, Paul; Echt, Olof

    2013-10-21

    Helium nanodroplets are doped with neon and ionized by electrons. The size-dependence of the ion abundance of HenNex(+), identified in high-resolution mass spectra, is deduced for complexes containing up to seven neon atoms and dozens of helium atoms. Particularly stable ions are inferred from anomalies in the abundance distributions. Two pronounced anomalies at n = 11 and 13 in the HenNe(+) series confirm drift-tube data reported by Kojima et al. [T. M. Kojima et al., Z. Phys. D, 1992, 22, 645]. The discrepancy with previously published spectra of neon-doped helium droplets, which did not reveal any abundance anomalies [T. Ruchti et al., J. Chem. Phys., 1998, 109, 10679-10687; C. A. Brindle et al., J. Chem. Phys., 2005, 123, 064312], is most likely due to limited mass resolution, which precluded unambiguous analysis of contributions from different ions with identical nominal mass. However, calculated dissociation energies of HenNe(+) reported so far do not correlate with the present data, possibly because of challenges in correctly treating the linear, asymmetric [He-Ne-He](+) ionic core in HenNe(+). Anomalies identified in the distributions of HenNex(+) for x > 1, including prominent ones at He12Ne2(+) and He14Ne2(+), may help to better understand solvation of Ne(+) and Nex(+) in helium.

  11. A dirichlet process covarion mixture model and its assessments using posterior predictive discrepancy tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yan; Brinkmann, Henner; Rodrigue, Nicolas; Lartillot, Nicolas; Philippe, Hervé

    2010-02-01

    Heterotachy, the variation of substitution rate at a site across time, is a prevalent phenomenon in nucleotide and amino acid alignments, which may mislead probabilistic-based phylogenetic inferences. The covarion model is a special case of heterotachy, in which sites change between the "ON" state (allowing substitutions according to any particular model of sequence evolution) and the "OFF" state (prohibiting substitutions). In current implementations, the switch rates between ON and OFF states are homogeneous across sites, a hypothesis that has never been tested. In this study, we developed an infinite mixture model, called the covarion mixture (CM) model, which allows the covarion parameters to vary across sites, controlled by a Dirichlet process prior. Moreover, we combine the CM model with other approaches. We use a second independent Dirichlet process that models the heterogeneities of amino acid equilibrium frequencies across sites, known as the CAT model, and general rate-across-site heterogeneity is modeled by a gamma distribution. The application of the CM model to several large alignments demonstrates that the covarion parameters are significantly heterogeneous across sites. We describe posterior predictive discrepancy tests and use these to demonstrate the importance of these different elements of the models.

  12. A prenatal case with discrepant findings between non-invasive prenatal testing and fetal genetic testings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Qiong; Sun, Baojuan; Huang, Xiaoli; Jing, Xin; Liu, Hailiang; Jiang, Fuman; Zhou, Jie; Lin, Mengmeng; Yue, Hongni; Hu, Ping; Ning, Ying

    2014-01-01

    At 17(+4) week, non-invasive prenatal testing (NIPT) results of a 24-years-old mother showed high risk of monosomy X (45, X). Abnormally shaped head and cardiac defects were observed in prenatal ultrasound scan at 19(+3) week. Amniocentesis conducted at 19(+3) week identified karyotype 47, XX, +18, which suggested that the NIPT failed to detect trisomy 18 (T18) in this case. With a further massively parallel sequencing (MPS) of maternal blood, fetal and placental tissues, we found a confined placental mosaicism (CPM) with non-mosaic T18 fetus and multiclonal placenta with high prevalence of 45, X and low level of T18 cells. FISH and SNP-array evidence from the placental tissue confirmed genetic discrepancy between the fetus and placenta. Because the primary source of the fetal cell-free DNA that NIPT assesses is mostly originated from trophoblast cells, the level of T18 placental mosaicism may cause false negative NIPT result in this rare case of double aneuploidy.

  13. Source entitativity and the elaboration of persuasive messages: the roles of perceived efficacy and message discrepancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Jason K; Wegener, Duane T

    2009-07-01

    Compared with nonentitative groups, entitative targets are considered to elicit more elaborative processing because of the singularity or unity they represent. However, when groups serve as sources of persuasive messages, other dynamics may operate. The current research suggests that entitativity is intrinsically linked to perceptions of a group's efficacy related to the advocacy, and this efficacy combines with the position of the appeal to determine message elaboration. When messages are counterattitudinal, entitative (efficacious) sources should elicit greater processing than nonentitative groups because of concern that the entitative sources may be more likely to bring about the negative outcomes proposed. However, when appeals are proattitudinal, sources low in entitativity (nonefficacious) should initiate more elaboration due to concern that they may be unlikely to facilitate the positive outcomes proposed. These hypotheses were supported in a series of studies. Preliminary studies established the entitativity-efficacy relation (Studies 1A and 1B). Primary persuasion studies showed that manipulations of source entitativity (Studies 2 and 3) and source efficacy (Studies 4A and 4B) have opposite effects on processing as a function of message discrepancy.

  14. MOND impact of the recently updated mass-discrepancy-acceleration relation

    CERN Document Server

    Milgrom, Mordehai

    2016-01-01

    McGaugh et al. (2016) have used their extensive SPARC sample to update the well-known mass-discrepancy-acceleration relation (MDAR), which is one of the major predicted "MOND laws". This is not a newly discovered relation. Rather, it improves on the many previous studies of it, with more and better data. Like its precedents, it bears crucial ramifications for the observed dynamical anomalies in disc galaxies, and, in particular, on their resolution by the MOND paradigm. Their result, indeed, constitute a triumph for MOND. However, unlike previous analyses of the MDAR, McGaugh et al. have chosen to obfuscate the MOND roots of their analysis, and its connection with, and implications for, this paradigm. For example, the fitting formula they use, seemingly as a result of some unexplained inspiration, follows in its salient properties from the basic tenets of MOND, and has already been used in the past in several MOND analyses. No other possible origin for such a function is known. Given that this formula had alr...

  15. Can Massive Gravity Explain the Mass Discrepancy - Acceleration Relation of Disk Galaxies?

    CERN Document Server

    Trippe, Sascha

    2013-01-01

    The empirical mass discrepancy-acceleration (MDA) relation of disk galaxies provides a key test for models of galactic dynamics. In terms of modified laws of gravity and/or inertia, the MDA relation quantifies the transition from Newtonian to modified dynamics at low centripetal accelerations a_c < 10^-10 m/s^2. As yet, neither dynamical models based on dark matter nor proposed modifications of the laws of gravity/inertia have predicted the functional form of the MDA relation. In this work, I revisit the MDA data and compare them to four different theoretical scaling laws. Three of these scaling laws are entirely empirical, the fourth one - the "simple mu" function of Modified Newtonian Dynamics - derives from a toy model of gravity based on massive gravitons (the "graviton picture"). All theoretical MDA relations comprise one free parameter of the dimension of an acceleration, Milgrom's constant a_M. I find that the "simple mu" function provides a good fit to the data free of notable systematic residuals ...

  16. Resolving a discrepancy between experimental and theoretical lifetimes in atomic negative ions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brage, Tomas; Grumer, Jon

    2017-01-01

    A recent measurement of the lifetime of the excited 3p5 {}2{P}1/2 state in the S- negative ion, which is dominated by a forbidden magnetic dipole transition to the {}2{P}3/2 ground state, reveals a discrepancy with earlier theoretical predictions. To investigate this we have performed systematic and large-scale multiconfiguration Dirac-Hartree-Fock calculations for this system. After including a careful treatment of correlation and relativistic effects, we predict a well-converged value for this lifetime, with an uncertainty considerably less than 1%, thereby removing the apparent conflict between theory and experiment. We also show that this result corresponds to the non-relativistic limit in the LS coupling approximation for the magnetic dipole transition within this 2 P term. In addition we demonstrate the usefulness of the latter approach for 2 P transitions in O-, Se- and Te-, as well as for analogous M1 transitions within 2 D terms in Ni- and Pt- ions.

  17. Discrepancy between clinician and research assistant in TIMI score calculation (TRIAGED CPU).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Brian T; Mancini, Michelino

    2015-01-01

    Several studies have attempted to demonstrate that the Thrombolysis in Myocardial Infarction (TIMI) risk score has the ability to risk stratify emergency department (ED) patients with potential acute coronary syndromes (ACS). Most of the studies we reviewed relied on trained research investigators to determine TIMI risk scores rather than ED providers functioning in their normal work capacity. We assessed whether TIMI risk scores obtained by ED providers in the setting of a busy ED differed from those obtained by trained research investigators. This was an ED-based prospective observational cohort study comparing TIMI scores obtained by 49 ED providers admitting patients to an ED chest pain unit (CPU) to scores generated by a team of trained research investigators. We examined provider type, patient gender, and TIMI elements for their effects on TIMI risk score discrepancy. Of the 501 adult patients enrolled in the study, 29.3% of TIMI risk scores determined by ED providers and trained research investigators were generated using identical TIMI risk score variables. In our low-risk population the majority of TIMI risk score differences were small; however, 12% of TIMI risk scores differed by two or more points. TIMI risk scores determined by ED providers in the setting of a busy ED frequently differ from scores generated by trained research investigators who complete them while not under the same pressure of an ED provider.

  18. Unconstrained, phonemic and semantic verbal fluency: age and education effects, norms and discrepancies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolle Zimmermann

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To present performance norms and discrepancy score of three one-minute verbal fluency tasks (VFTs; to investigate age and education effects; to analyze the differences between time intervals; and to investigate whether these differences varied according to age and education. METHOD: Three hundred adults divided into three age groups (19-39; 40-59; 60-75 and two groups of educational level (2 to 7 years; 8 years or more performed unconstrained, semantic, and phonemic VFTs. We compared the performance of the groups using two-way ANOVA with post-hoc Bonferroni test. The depression scale score was covariate. The time interval of verbal fluency was the variable used for subjects' comparison (repeated measures ANOVA. RESULTS AND CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggest that there are age and education effects on phonemic and unconstrained VFTs. We also found an interaction between those variables in the semantic VFT (time intervals and total time and in the differences between semantic and phonemic tasks. The repeated measures analysis revealed age effects on semantic VFTs and education effects on the phonemic and semantic VFTs. Such findings are relevant for clinical neuropsychology, contributing to avoid false-positive or false-negative interpretation.

  19. Striking discrepancy of anomalous body experiences with normal interoceptive accuracy in depersonalization-derealization disorder.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthias Michal

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Disembodiment is a core feature of depersonalization disorder (DPD. Given the narratives of DPD patients about their disembodiment and emotional numbing and neurobiological findings of an inhibition of insular activity, DPD may be considered as a mental disorder with specific impairments of interoceptive awareness and body perception. METHODS: We investigated cardioceptive accuracy (CA of DPD patients (n=24 as compared to healthy controls (n=26 with two different heartbeat detection tasks ("Schandry heartbeat counting task" and "Whitehead heartbeat discrimination task". Self-rated clearness of body perception was measured by questionnaire. RESULTS: Contrary to our hypothesis, DPD patients performed similarly to healthy controls on the two different heartbeat detection tasks, and they had equal scores regarding their self-rated clearness of body perception. There was no correlation of the severity of "anomalous body experiences" and depersonalization with measures of interoceptive accuracy. Only among healthy controls CA in the Schandry task was positively correlated with self-rated clearness of body perception. Depersonalization was unrelated to severity of depression or anxiety, while depression and anxiety were highly correlated. Anxiety and depression did not modify the associations of depersonalization with interoceptive accuracy. CONCLUSIONS: Our main findings highlight a striking discrepancy of normal interoception with overwhelming experiences of disembodiment in DPD. This may reflect difficulties of DPD patients to integrate their visceral and bodily perceptions into a sense of their selves. This problem may be considered an important target for psychotherapeutic treatment approaches.

  20. Dentoalveolar compensation according to skeletal discrepancy and overjet in skeletal Class III patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sung-Jin; Kim, Kyung-Ho; Yu, Hyung-Seog; Baik, Hyoung-Seon

    2014-03-01

    This study was designed to investigate dentoalveolar compensation in untreated skeletal Class III patients with either positive or negative overjet. The positive overjet groups consisted of 104 adults, divided into group 1 (angle between sella-nasion to mandibular plane (SN-MP) > 38°, n = 30), group 2 (30° overjet groups (groups 4-6) consisted of 90 adults who were closely matched to the positive overjet groups with regard to the ANB and SN-MP angles. Twenty-two cephalometric measurements were compared between the matched groups. In the positive overjet groups, correlation analysis was performed between the skeletal and dental measurements, and regression analysis was performed to determine the incisor-mandibular plane angle. The maxillary incisors were more proclined and the occlusal plane was more flattened in the positive overjet groups than in the negative overjet groups; however, there was no statistically significant difference between them with regard to mandibular incisor inclination. The inclinations of the maxillary and mandibular incisors were correlated with both the sagittal and vertical skeletal measurements. Eight regression equations for the incisor-mandibular plane angle were calculated with the highest coefficient of determination of 0.547. Proclination of the maxillary incisors and flattening of the occlusal plane contributed to a positive overjet. Mandibular incisor inclination was more closely associated with sagittal and vertical skeletal discrepancies and was not affected by the incisal relationship. Copyright © 2014 American Association of Orthodontists. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Leg length discrepancy and osteoarthritis in the knee, hip and lumbar spine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, Kelvin J; Azari, Michael F

    2015-09-01

    Osteoarthritis (OA) is an extremely common condition that creates substantial personal and health care costs. An important recognised risk factor for OA is excessive or abnormal mechanical joint loading. Leg length discrepancy (LLD) is a common condition that results in uneven and excessive loading of not only knee joints but also hip joints and lumbar motion segments. Accurate imaging methods of LLD have made it possible to study the biomechanical effects of mild LLD (LLD of 20mm or less). This review examines the accuracy of these methods compared to clinical LLD measurements. It then examines the association between LLD and OA of the joints of the lower extremity. More importantly, it addresses the largely neglected association between LLD and degeneration of lumbar motion segments and the patterns of biomechanical changes that accompany LLD. We propose that mild LLD may be an important instigator or contributor to OA of the hip and lumbar spine, and that it deserves to be rigorously studied in order to decrease OA's burden of disease.

  2. Effect of medication reconciliation on unintentional medication discrepancies in acute hospital admissions of elderly adults: A multicenter study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bemt, P.M.L.A. van den; Schrieck-De Loos, E.M. van der; Linden, C. van der; Theeuwes, A.M.L.J.; Pol, A.G.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives To investigate the effect of pharmacy-based medication reconciliation on the frequency of unintentional medication discrepancies in acutely admitted individuals aged 65 and older. Design Multicenter intervention study with pre-post design. Setting Twelve Dutch hospitals. Participants One

  3. The Glass Half Empty: How Emotional Exhaustion Affects the State-Trait Discrepancy in Self-Reports of Teaching Emotions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Goetz

    Full Text Available Following from previous research on intensity bias and the accessibility model of emotional self-report, the present study examined the role of emotional exhaustion in explaining the discrepancy in teachers' reports of their trait (habitual versus state (momentary, "real" emotions. Trait reports (habitual emotions, exhaustion were assessed via trait questionnaires, and state reports (momentary emotions were assessed in real time via the experience sampling method by using personal digital assistants (N = 69 high school teachers; 1,089 measures within teachers. In line with our assumptions, multi-level analyses showed that, as compared to the state assessment, teachers reported higher levels of habitual teaching-related emotions of anger, anxiety, shame, boredom, enjoyment, and pride. Additionally, the state-trait discrepancy in self-reports of negative emotions was accounted for by teachers' emotional exhaustion, with high exhaustion levels corresponding with a greater state-trait discrepancy. Exhaustion levels did not moderate the state-trait discrepancy in positive emotions indicating that perceived emotional exhaustion may reflect identity-related cognitions specific to the negative belief system. Implications for research and educational practice are discussed.

  4. The Glass Half Empty: How Emotional Exhaustion Affects the State-Trait Discrepancy in Self-Reports of Teaching Emotions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goetz, Thomas; Becker, Eva S.; Bieg, Madeleine; Keller, Melanie M.; Frenzel, Anne C.; Hall, Nathan C.

    2015-01-01

    Following from previous research on intensity bias and the accessibility model of emotional self-report, the present study examined the role of emotional exhaustion in explaining the discrepancy in teachers’ reports of their trait (habitual) versus state (momentary, “real”) emotions. Trait reports (habitual emotions, exhaustion) were assessed via trait questionnaires, and state reports (momentary emotions) were assessed in real time via the experience sampling method by using personal digital assistants (N = 69 high school teachers; 1,089 measures within teachers). In line with our assumptions, multi-level analyses showed that, as compared to the state assessment, teachers reported higher levels of habitual teaching-related emotions of anger, anxiety, shame, boredom, enjoyment, and pride. Additionally, the state-trait discrepancy in self-reports of negative emotions was accounted for by teachers’ emotional exhaustion, with high exhaustion levels corresponding with a greater state-trait discrepancy. Exhaustion levels did not moderate the state-trait discrepancy in positive emotions indicating that perceived emotional exhaustion may reflect identity-related cognitions specific to the negative belief system. Implications for research and educational practice are discussed. PMID:26368911

  5. College Counseling Center Clients' Expectations about Counseling: How They Relate to Depression, Hopelessness, and Actual-Ideal Self-Discrepancies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldfarb, Dori E.

    2002-01-01

    Examines relationships between depression, hopelessness, actual-ideal self-discrepancies (AISDs), and clients' expectations about counseling among 80 college students. Less hopeless participants expected more improvement from and more commitment to counseling. No significant relationships were found between depression or AISDs and expectations…

  6. Internal Consistency and Associated Characteristics of Informant Discrepancies in Clinic Referred Youths Age 11 to 17 Years

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Los Reyes, Andres; Youngstrom, Eric A.; Pabon, Shairy C.; Youngstrom, Jennifer K.; Feeny, Norah C.; Findling, Robert L.

    2011-01-01

    In this study, we examined the internal consistency of informant discrepancies in reports of youth behavior and emotional problems and their unique relations with youth, caregiver, and family characteristics. In a heterogeneous multisite clinic sample of 420 youths (ages 11-17 years), high internal consistency estimates were observed across…

  7. Students with Specific Spelling Disability: A Collective Case Study Identifying the Experiential and Behavioral Causes for the Discrepancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flaherty, Michael Thomas

    2013-01-01

    The goal of this study was to determine potential causes for the reading and spelling discrepancies of 26 middle school students. All were proficient in reading, but non-proficient in spelling, a pattern typical in students with Specific Spelling Disability (SSD). The focus of the study was on linguistic knowledge while encoding and decoding, plus…

  8. Discrepancies Between Perceptions of the Parent-Adolescent Relationship and Early Adolescent Depressive Symptoms : An Illustration of Polynomial Regression Analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nelemans, S A; Branje, S J T; Hale, W W; Goossens, L; Koot, H M; Oldehinkel, A J; Meeus, W H J

    2016-01-01

    Adolescence is a critical period for the development of depressive symptoms. Lower quality of the parent-adolescent relationship has been consistently associated with higher adolescent depressive symptoms, but discrepancies in perceptions of parents and adolescents regarding the quality of their rel

  9. Discrepancies between perceptions of the parent-adolescent relationship and early adolescent depressive symptoms : An illustration of polynomial regression analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nelemans, S. A.; Branje, S. J. T.; Hale, W. W.; Goossens, L.; Koot, H. M.; Oldehinkel, A. J.; Meeus, W.H.J.

    2016-01-01

    Adolescence is a critical period for the development of depressive symptoms. Lower quality of the parent-adolescent relationship has been consistently associated with higher adolescent depressive symptoms, but discrepancies in perceptions of parents and adolescents regarding the quality of their

  10. Missing and discrepant data on the Eating Disorder Examination Questionnaire (EDE-Q): Quantity, quality, and implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Nichole R; Cotter, Elizabeth W; Lydecker, Janet A; Mazzeo, Suzanne E

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine relations among missing and discrepant data on the Eating Disorders Examination Questionnaire (EDE-Q; Fairburn & Beglin, 1994) and individual demographic factors and eating disorder symptoms. Data from 3968 men and women collected in five independent studies were examined. Descriptive statistics were used to detect the quantity of missing and discrepant data, as well as independent samples t-tests and chi-square analyses to examine group differences between participants with and without missing or discrepant data. Results indicated significant differences in data completeness by participant race/ethnicity and severity of eating disorder symptoms. White participants were most likely to provide complete survey responses, and Asian American participants were least likely to provide complete survey responses. Participants with incomplete surveys reported greater eating disorder symptoms and behaviors compared with those with complete surveys. Similarly, those with discrepant responses to behavioral items reported greater eating disorder symptoms and behaviors compared with those with congruent responses. Practical implications and recommendations for reducing and addressing incomplete data on the EDE-Q are discussed.

  11. Is Leg Length Discrepancy Associated With the Side of Radiating Pain in Patients With a Lumbar Herniated Disc?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    ten Brinke, Albert P.T.; van der Aa, Hans E.; van der Palen, Jacobus Adrianus Maria; Oosterveld, Frits P.T.

    1999-01-01

    Study Design. The association between leg length discrepancy and the side of the radiating pain in lumbar disc herniation was investigated in a case series. Objectives. To investigate whether pain tends to radiate into the longer or shorter leg in patients with a lumbar herniated disc. Summary of Ba

  12. The influence of intersensory discrepancy on visuo-haptic integration is similar in 6-year-old children and adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bianca eJovanovic

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available When participants are given the opportunity to simultaneously feel an object and see it through a magnifying or reducing lens, adults estimate object size to be in-between visual and haptic size. Studies with young children, however, seem to demonstrate that their estimates are dominated by a single sense. In the present study, we examined whether this age difference observed in previous studies, can be accounted for by the large discrepancy between felt and seen size in the stimuli used in those studies. In addition, we studied the processes involved in combining the visual and haptic inputs. Adults and 6-year old children judged objects that were presented to vision, haptics or simultaneously to both senses. The seen object length was reduced or magnified by different lenses. In the condition inducing large intersensory discrepancies, children’s judgments in visuo-haptic conditions were almost dominated by vision, whereas adults weighted vision just by 40%. Neither the adults’ nor the children’s discrimination thresholds were predicted by models of visuo-haptic integration. With smaller discrepancies, the children’s visual weight approximated that of the adults and both the children’s and adults' discrimination thresholds were well predicted by an integration model, which assumes that both visual and haptic inputs contribute to each single judgment. We conclude that children integrate seemingly corresponding multisensory information in similar ways as adults do, but focus on a single sense, when information from different senses is strongly discrepant.

  13. Exploration of the Raven APMNational Adult Reading Test Discrepancy as a Measure of Intellectual Decline in Older Persons

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Berg, Esther; Nys, Gudrun M. S.; Brands, Augustina M. A.; Ruis, Carla; van Zandvoort, Martine J. E.; Kessels, Roy P. C.

    2013-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that the discrepancy between performance on fluid and crystallized intelligence measures may serve as an indicator for intellectual decline. The validity of this procedure in older persons is unknown. The present study developed a multiple regression equation, to predict

  14. Health-Related Factors Associated with Discrepancies between Children's Potential and Attained Secondary School Level : A Longitudinal Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Heide, Iris; Gehring, Ulrike; Koppelman, Gerard H.; Wijga, Alet H.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives This longitudinal study examines children's health-related characteristics in relation to discrepancies between their educational potential assessed by a cognitive test in primary school at age 11 and their attained secondary school level at age 14. Methods Data were used from 1510 partic

  15. Resisting Peer Pressure: Characteristics Associated with Other-Self Discrepancies in College Students' Levels of Alcohol Consumption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crawford, Lizabeth A.; Novak, Katherine B.

    2007-01-01

    Since college undergraduates tend to increase their use of alcohol to match what they perceive to be normative, the assumption has been that students who believe that others on campus drink more than they do (a common misperception) are in a vulnerable position. Taking a different perspective, we consider large other-self discrepancies in levels…

  16. The Glass Half Empty: How Emotional Exhaustion Affects the State-Trait Discrepancy in Self-Reports of Teaching Emotions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goetz, Thomas; Becker, Eva S; Bieg, Madeleine; Keller, Melanie M; Frenzel, Anne C; Hall, Nathan C

    2015-01-01

    Following from previous research on intensity bias and the accessibility model of emotional self-report, the present study examined the role of emotional exhaustion in explaining the discrepancy in teachers' reports of their trait (habitual) versus state (momentary, "real") emotions. Trait reports (habitual emotions, exhaustion) were assessed via trait questionnaires, and state reports (momentary emotions) were assessed in real time via the experience sampling method by using personal digital assistants (N = 69 high school teachers; 1,089 measures within teachers). In line with our assumptions, multi-level analyses showed that, as compared to the state assessment, teachers reported higher levels of habitual teaching-related emotions of anger, anxiety, shame, boredom, enjoyment, and pride. Additionally, the state-trait discrepancy in self-reports of negative emotions was accounted for by teachers' emotional exhaustion, with high exhaustion levels corresponding with a greater state-trait discrepancy. Exhaustion levels did not moderate the state-trait discrepancy in positive emotions indicating that perceived emotional exhaustion may reflect identity-related cognitions specific to the negative belief system. Implications for research and educational practice are discussed.

  17. Discrepancies in the histologic type between biopsy and resected specimens: A cautionary note for mixed-type gastric carcinoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komatsu, Shuhei; Ichikawa, Daisuke; Miyamae, Mahito; Kosuga, Toshiyuki; Konishi, Hirotaka; Shiozaki, Atsushi; Fujiwara, Hitoshi; Okamoto, Kazuma; Kishimoto, Mitsuo; Otsuji, Eigo

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate discrepancies between biopsy and resected specimens using the Japanese Classification of Gastric Carcinoma (JCGC) and tumor-node-metastasis (TNM) classification. METHODS: A total of 376 consecutive paired samples from biopsy and resected gastric specimens, which were derived from curative gastrectomy for gastric cancer between 2008 and 2011, were retrospectively analyzed. RESULTS: (1) Discrepancies in the histologic type were observed between biopsy and resected specimens; 11.7% (44/376) in the JCGC and 18.1% (68/376) in TNM. In specimens diagnosed as the differentiated type from biopsy specimens, 14.4% (28/195) in the JCGC and 41.1% (67/163) in TNM were finally diagnosed as the undifferentiated type from resected specimens; and (2) the incidence of mixed-type gastric cancer was significantly higher in specimens with discrepancies than in those without in both the JCGC and TNM (both P type gastric cancers. CONCLUSION: Mixed-type gastric cancer was associated with a high incidence of histologic discrepancies between biopsy and resected specimens in both the JCGC and TNM definitions. Care should be taken in deciding treatments based on diagnosis of the histologic type for mixed-type gastric cancer from biopsy specimens. PMID:25914478

  18. Discrepancies in the histologic type between biopsy and resected specimens: a cautionary note for mixed-type gastric carcinoma

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Komatsu, Shuhei; Ichikawa, Daisuke; Miyamae, Mahito; Kosuga, Toshiyuki; Konishi, Hirotaka; Shiozaki, Atsushi; Fujiwara, Hitoshi; Okamoto, Kazuma; Kishimoto, Mitsuo; Otsuji, Eigo

    2015-01-01

    ... gastrectomy for gastric cancer between 2008 and 2011, were retrospectively analyzed. (1) Discrepancies in the histologic type were observed between biopsy and resected specimens; 11.7% (44/376) in the JCGC and 18.1% (68/376) in TNM...

  19. Effect of medication reconciliation on unintentional medication discrepancies in acute hospital admissions of elderly adults: A multicenter study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bemt, P.M.L.A. van den; Schrieck-De Loos, E.M. van der; Linden, C. van der; Theeuwes, A.M.L.J.; Pol, A.G.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives To investigate the effect of pharmacy-based medication reconciliation on the frequency of unintentional medication discrepancies in acutely admitted individuals aged 65 and older. Design Multicenter intervention study with pre-post design. Setting Twelve Dutch hospitals. Participants One

  20. Identification of the discrepancy bone-teeth in children between 5 and 11 years with oral breathing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clotilde de la Caridad Mora Pérez

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: The correct proportion between teeth arches and size is crucial, thus there are different methods to measure dental size. Objective: To apply the method Moyer-Jenkin and its modification in mixed dentition. Method: Analytical, cross-sectional design, developed in the period January-April, 2007. The sample included 60 children between the ages of 5 and 11 years with oral breathing and Angle Class II and mixed dentition from the primary school "Guerrillero Heroico", Health Area II in Cienfuegos. Microsoft Word and SPSS 15.0 in English were used to process data. The studied variables were: measures and time. Results: The measurements of bone-teeth discrepancies for both maxillas were similar for both methods, without statistical significant differences. Regarding the discrepancy level, there was a moderated discrepancy in the studied group, with a marked increase in the mandible. There was a prevalence of normal incisive index and a reduction of macrodontism in negative discrepancies. Conclusions: The effectiveness of the modified method was proved, related with the reduction of the application time compared with Moyers-Jenkin method.

  1. Discrepancies in Military Middle-School Adolescents' and Parents' Perceptions of Family Functioning, Social Support, Anger Frequency, and Concerns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crow, Janet R.; Seybold, Amanda K.

    2013-01-01

    Previous literature suggests that adolescents' and parents' perceptions of family functioning are typically quite disparate and that perceptual discrepancies increase when a family is under stress. During the years of deployments to Iraq and Afghanistan adolescents in military families have faced uniquely stressful circumstances which may…

  2. A Discrepancy Index for the Study of Participation with an Application to the Case of Higher Education in Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larcinese, Valentino

    2008-01-01

    This article proposes and applies a simple method to measure the distance from a situation of uniform participation. First, a discrepancy index based on the use of generalized Lorenz curves is presented. This index can be expressed in terms of means and Gini indices of relevant characteristics in the populations of participants and that of a…

  3. Who is at risk for diagnostic discrepancies? Comparison of pre- and postmortal diagnoses in 1800 patients of 3 medical decades in East and West Berlin.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Wittschieber

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Autopsy rates in Western countries consistently decline to an average of <5%, although clinical autopsies represent a reasonable tool for quality control in hospitals, medically and economically. Comparing pre- and postmortal diagnoses, diagnostic discrepancies as uncovered by clinical autopsies supply crucial information on how to improve clinical treatment. The study aimed at analyzing current diagnostic discrepancy rates, investigating their influencing factors and identifying risk profiles of patients that could be affected by a diagnostic discrepancy. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Of all adult autopsy cases of the Charité Institute of Pathology from the years 1988, 1993, 1998, 2003 and 2008, the pre- and postmortal diagnoses and all demographic data were analyzed retrospectively. Based on power analysis, 1,800 cases were randomly selected to perform discrepancy classification (class I-VI according to modified Goldman criteria. The rate of discrepancies in major diagnoses (class I was 10.7% (95% CI: 7.7%-14.7% in 2008 representing a reduction by 15.1%. Subgroup analysis revealed several influencing factors to significantly correlate with the discrepancy rate. Cardiovascular diseases had the highest frequency among class-I-discrepancies. Comparing the 1988-data of East- and West-Berlin, no significant differences were found in diagnostic discrepancies despite an autopsy rate differing by nearly 50%. A risk profile analysis visualized by intuitive heatmaps revealed a significantly high discrepancy rate in patients treated in low or intermediate care units at community hospitals. In this collective, patients with genitourinary/renal or infectious diseases were at particularly high risk. CONCLUSIONS: This is the current largest and most comprehensive study on diagnostic discrepancies worldwide. Our well-powered analysis revealed a significant rate of class-I-discrepancies indicating that autopsies are still of value. The identified risk

  4. Objectification in Virtual Romantic Contexts: Perceived Discrepancies between Self and Partner Ideals Differentially affect Body Consciousness in Women and Men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Overstreet, Nicole M; Quinn, Diane M; Marsh, Kerry L

    2015-11-01

    The current study examined whether exposure to sexually objectifying images in a potential romantic partner's virtual apartment affects discrepancies between people's perception of their own appearance (i.e., self-perceptions) and their perception of the body ideal that is considered desirable to a romantic partner (i.e., partner-ideals). Participants were 114 heterosexual undergraduate students (57 women and 57 men) from a northeastern U.S. university. The study used a 2 (Participant Gender) x 2 (Virtual Environment: Sexualized vs. Non-Sexualized) between-subjects design. We predicted that women exposed to sexually objectifying images in a virtual environment would report greater discrepancies between their self-perceptions and partner-ideals than men, which in turn would contribute to women's body consciousness. Findings support this hypothesis and show that perceived discrepancies account for the relationship between exposure to sexually objectifying images and body consciousness for women but not men. We also found gender asymmetries in objectification responses when each component of perceived discrepancies, i.e., self-perceptions versus perceptions of a romantic partner's body ideal, were examined separately. For men, exposure to muscular sexualized images was significantly associated with their self-perceptions but not their perceptions of the body size that is considered desirable to a romantic partner. For women, exposure to thin sexualized images was significantly associated with their perceptions that a romantic partner preferred a woman with a smaller body size. However, exposure to these images did not affect women's self-perceptions. Implications for gender asymmetries in objectification responses and perceived discrepancies that include a romantic partner's perceptions are discussed.

  5. Are quantum dots toxic? Exploring the discrepancy between cell culture and animal studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsoi, Kim M; Dai, Qin; Alman, Benjamin A; Chan, Warren C W

    2013-03-19

    Despite significant interest in developing quantum dots (QDs) for biomedical applications, many researchers are convinced that QDs will never be used for treating patients because of their potential toxicity. The perception that QDs are toxic is rooted in two assumptions. Cadmium-containing QDs can kill cells in culture. Many researchers then assume that because QDs are toxic to cells, they must be toxic to humans. In addition, many researchers classify QDs as a homogeneous group of materials. Therefore, if CdSe QDs are harmful, they extrapolate this result to all QDs. Though unsubstantiated, these assumptions continue to drive QD research. When dosing is physiologically appropriate, QD toxicity has not been demonstrated in animal models. In addition, QDs are not uniform: each design is a unique combination of physicochemical properties that influence biological activity and toxicity. In this Account, we summarize key findings from in vitro and in vivo studies, explore the causes of the discrepancy in QD toxicological data, and provide our view of the future direction of the field. In vitro and in vivo QD studies have advanced our knowledge of cellular transport kinetics, mechanisms of QD toxicity, and biodistribution following animal injection. Cell culture experiments have shown that QDs undergo design-dependent intracellular localization and they can cause cytotoxicity by releasing free cadmium into solution and by generating free radical species. In animal experiments, QDs preferentially enter the liver and spleen following intravascular injection, undergo minimal excretion if larger than 6 nm, and appear to be safe to the animal. In vitro and in vivo studies show an apparent discrepancy with regard to toxicity. Dosing provides one explanation for these findings. Under culture conditions, a cell experiences a constant QD dose, but the in vivo QD concentration can vary, and the organ-specific dose may not be high enough to induce detectable toxicity. Because QDs

  6. Ensuring patient choices about dignity and place of death are respected at the end of life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bracegirdle, Lorna-Rose

    Ensuring patient choice and dignity are priorities in providing high quality end of life care. This artide discusses the importance of psychosocial care when patients receive a terminal diagnosis, and the district nurse's role in ensuring their choices about place of death are respected. It examines some of the dilemmas nurses may face in respecting patients' preferences about place of care and death, and looks at how services may need to change in the future to meet the needs of the increasing ageing population.

  7. The discrepancy in the perception of the public-political speech in Croatia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanta, Ivan; Lesinger, Gordana

    2014-03-01

    Key place in this paper takes the study of political speech in the Republic of Croatia and their impact on voters, or which keywords are in political speeches and public appearances of politicians in Croatia that their voting body wants to hear. Given listed below we will define the research topic in the form of a question - is there a discrepancy in the perception of the public-political speech in Croatia, and which keywords are specific to the two main regions in Croatia and that inhabitant these regions respond. Marcus Tullius Cicero, the most important Roman orator, he used a specific associative mnemonic technique that is called "technique room". He would talk expound on keywords and conceptual terms that he needed for the desired topic and join in these make them, according to the desired order, in a very creative and unique way, the premises of the house or palace, which he knew well. Then, while holding the speech intended to pass through rooms of the house or palace and then put keywords and concepts come to mind, again according to the desired order. Given that this is a specific kind of research political speech that is relatively recent in Croatia, it should be noted that there is still, this kind of political communication is not sufficiently explored. Particularly the emphasis on the impact and use of keywords specific to the Republic of Croatia, in everyday public and political communication. The paper will be analyzed the political, campaign speeches and promises several winning candidates, and now Croatian MEPs, specific keywords related to: economics, culture, science, education and health. The analysis is based on comparison of the survey results on the representation of key words in the speeches of politicians and qualitative analysis of the speeches of politicians on key words during the election campaign.

  8. Discrepancy between haemagglutination and radioimmunological techniques for measurement of serum thyroglobulin autoantibodies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feldt-Rasmussen, U.; Perrild, H.; Bech, K.; Bliddal, H.; Date, J.; Hoeier Madsen, M.; Nordfang, O.; Ryder, L.P.; Thomsen, M.; Kappelgaard, E. (Dept. of Internal Medicine and Endocrinology, Herlev University Hospital, Dept. of Medicine E, Frederiksberg Hospital, Dept. of Clinical Chemistry, Odense University Hospital, Autoimmune Lab., Serum Institute, Tissue Typing Laboratory and Medical Dept. TA, Rigshospitalet, Copenhagen, Denmark)

    1983-01-01

    Recently, it has been suggested that in some patients with autoimmune thyroid diseases the tanned red cell (TRC) method for detection of thyroglobulin autoantibodies (TgAb) is negative where TgAb measured by radioimmunoassay (RIA) show positive values. To investigate this further, patients with thyroid diseaes, pernicious anaemia and a control group were studied for serum concentrations of TgAb by TRC and by quantitative RIA, calibrated against MRC Standard A65/93. Antibodies for microsomes (MAb) were measured immunofluoretically. There was in all patient groups Hashimoto's thyroiditis (n=41), Graves' disease (n=50), Idiopathic myxoedemia (n=12), euthyroid Graves' disease (n=7), pernicious anaemia (n=81) a discrepancy between TgAb measured by TRC and RIA, respectively, whereas there was a reasonable correlation between the presence of TgAb by RIA and the presence of MAb. A possible interference from antinuclear antibodies and rheumatoid factors was ruled out. There was no increased frequency of TgAb measured by RIA in the control group. Fractionation of TRC negative sera revealed macromolecular TRC-activity, whereas TgAb positive sera by both methods had almost exclusively RIA and TRC activiy corresponding to TgG. Based on these results and others it seems that the TRC method for measurement of serum TgAb is of limited diagnostic value. Furthermore, the TRC method is in many cases not sensitive for screening fo TgAb prior to measurement of serum Tg which is of importance as this method shows false values in the presence of TgAb due to methodologial interference.

  9. A discrepancy of Chlamydia trachomatis incidence and prevalence trends in Finland 1983–2003

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lehtinen Matti

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Reported rates of Chlamydia trachomatis are on the rise contradicting the declining rates of C. trachomatis associated reproductive sequelae in Western countries. Population based evaluation of the real trend of C. trachomatis infection is important to contemplate prevention efforts. We studied C. trachomatis occurrence during the past 20 years in Finland comparing incidence rate data based on serology and reported C. trachomatis laboratory notifications. Methods A random sample of 7999 women with two consecutive pregnancies within five years was selected from the population of the Finnish Maternity Cohort (FMC serum bank stratified by calendar year and age. C. trachomatis IgG antibodies were determined by a standard peptide-ELISA. The reported incidence rates of C. trachomatis infections based on case notifications were obtained from the National Registry of Infectious Diseases (NIDR. Results C. trachomatis seroprevalence rates decreased significantly from 1983 to 2003 both in women under 23 years of age (23.3% to 9.2% and in women between 23–28-years of age (22.2% to 12.6%. However, seroconversion rates increased from 31 per 10000 person years in 1983–85 to 97 per 10000 person years in 2001–2003 (incidence rate ratio 3.2, 95% CI, 1.1–8.7 among the older age group. Seroconversion rate was highest (264 in 1983–1985 in the younger age-group, then declined and subsequently increased again (188 in 2001–2003. The incidence based on seroconversions was in agreement with the reported incidence rates in both age groups. Conclusion C. trachomatis seroprevalence rate decreased during 1983–2003 among fertile-aged women in Finland. During the same time period incidence rates based both on seroconversions and reported laboratory notifications of diagnosed C. trachomatis infections increased. The discrepancy between the C. trachomatis incidence and seroprevalence trends warrants further studies.

  10. Inter-Method Discrepancies in Brain Volume Estimation May Drive Inconsistent Findings in Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katuwal, Gajendra J.; Baum, Stefi A.; Cahill, Nathan D.; Dougherty, Chase C.; Evans, Eli; Evans, David W.; Moore, Gregory J.; Michael, Andrew M.

    2016-01-01

    Previous studies applying automatic preprocessing methods on Structural Magnetic Resonance Imaging (sMRI) report inconsistent neuroanatomical abnormalities in Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD). In this study we investigate inter-method differences as a possible cause behind these inconsistent findings. In particular, we focus on the estimation of the following brain volumes: gray matter (GM), white matter (WM), cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), and total intra cranial volume (TIV). T1-weighted sMRIs of 417 ASD subjects and 459 typically developing controls (TDC) from the ABIDE dataset were estimated using three popular preprocessing methods: SPM, FSL, and FreeSurfer (FS). Brain volumes estimated by the three methods were correlated but had significant inter-method differences; except TIVSPM vs. TIVFS, all inter-method differences were significant. ASD vs. TDC group differences in all brain volume estimates were dependent on the method used. SPM showed that TIV, GM, and CSF volumes of ASD were larger than TDC with statistical significance, whereas FS and FSL did not show significant differences in any of the volumes; in some cases, the direction of the differences were opposite to SPM. When methods were compared with each other, they showed differential biases for autism, and several biases were larger than ASD vs. TDC differences of the respective methods. After manual inspection, we found inter-method segmentation mismatches in the cerebellum, sub-cortical structures, and inter-sulcal CSF. In addition, to validate automated TIV estimates we performed manual segmentation on a subset of subjects. Results indicate that SPM estimates are closest to manual segmentation, followed by FS while FSL estimates were significantly lower. In summary, we show that ASD vs. TDC brain volume differences are method dependent and that these inter-method discrepancies can contribute to inconsistent neuroimaging findings in general. We suggest cross-validation across methods and emphasize the

  11. How historic simulation-observation discrepancy affects future warming projections in a very large model ensemble

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodwin, Philip

    2016-10-01

    Projections of future climate made by model-ensembles have credibility because the historic simulations by these models are consistent with, or near-consistent with, historic observations. However, it is not known how small inconsistencies between the ranges of observed and simulated historic climate change affects the future projections made by a model ensemble. Here, the impact of historical simulation-observation inconsistencies on future warming projections is quantified in a 4-million member Monte Carlo ensemble from a new efficient Earth System Model (ESM). Of the 4-million ensemble members, a subset of 182,500 are consistent with historic ranges of warming, heat uptake and carbon uptake simulated by the Climate Model Intercomparison Project 5 (CMIP5) ensemble. This simulation-consistent subset projects similar future warming ranges to the CMIP5 ensemble for all four RCP scenarios, indicating the new ESM represents an efficient tool to explore parameter space for future warming projections based on historic performance. A second subset of 14,500 ensemble members are consistent with historic observations for warming, heat uptake and carbon uptake. This observation-consistent subset projects a narrower range for future warming, with the lower bounds of projected warming still similar to CMIP5, but the upper warming bounds reduced by 20-35 %. These findings suggest that part of the upper range of twenty-first century CMIP5 warming projections may reflect historical simulation-observation inconsistencies. However, the agreement of lower bounds for projected warming implies that the likelihood of warming exceeding dangerous levels over the twenty-first century is unaffected by small discrepancies between CMIP5 models and observations.

  12. Lens glutathione homeostasis: Discrepancies and gaps in knowledge standing in the way of novel therapeutic approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Xingjun; Monnier, Vincent M; Whitson, Jeremy

    2016-06-29

    Cataract is the major cause of blindness worldwide. The WHO has estimated around 20 million people have bilateral blindness from cataract, and that number is expected to reach 50 million in 2050. The cataract surgery is currently the main treatment approach, though often associated with complications, such as Posterior Capsule Opacification (PCO)-also known as secondary cataract. The lens is an avascular ocular structure equipped with an unusually high level of glutathione (GSH), which plays a vital role in maintaining lens transparency by regulating lenticular redox state. The lens epithelium and outer cortex are thought to be responsible for providing the majority of lens GSH via GSH de novo synthesis, assisted by a continuous supply of constituent amino acids from the aqueous humor, as well as extracellular GSH recycling from the gamma-glutamyl cycle. However, when de novo synthesis is impaired, in the presence of low GSH levels, as in the aging human lens, compensatory mechanisms exist, suggesting that the lens is able to uptake GSH from the surrounding ocular tissues. However, these uptake mechanisms, and the GSH source and its origin, are largely unknown. The lens nucleus does not have the ability to synthesize its own GSH and fully relies on transport from the outer cortex by yet unknown mechanisms. Understanding how aging reduces GSH levels, particularly in the lens nucleus, how it is associated with age-related nuclear cataract (ARNC), and how the lens compensates for GSH loss via external uptake should be a major research priority. The intent of this review, which is dedicated to the memory of David C. Beebe, is to summarize our current understanding of lens GSH homeostasis and highlight discrepancies and gaps in knowledge that stand in the way of pharmacologically minimizing the impact of declining GSH content in the prevention of age-related cataract.

  13. Role and Responsibility of Board of Governors [BOG] in Ensuring Educational Quality in Colleges & Universities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naik, B. M.

    2012-01-01

    The paper presents in brief the need and importance of effective, imaginative and responsible governing boards in colleges and universities, so as to ensure educational quality. BOG should engage fruitfully with the principal and activities in college/ university. UGC, AICTE have now prescribed creation of effective boards for both government and…

  14. Throwing down the Gauntlet: Ten Ways to Ensure That Higher Education Research Continues to Matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perna, Laura W.

    2016-01-01

    As members of ASHE, we have an obligation to ensure that ASHE is an association that both promotes career development of members and advances the production and dissemination of high-quality research-based knowledge on current and emerging issues in higher education. In this presidential address, I look to the future of ASHE, offering questions…

  15. 41 CFR 51-7.3 - Ensuring environmental documents are actually considered in agency determinations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... environmental documents as a part of their decision-making: (1) Action: Request. (2) Start of NEPA process: Upon... Property Management Other Provisions Relating to Public Contracts COMMITTEE FOR PURCHASE FROM PEOPLE WHO... contains requirements to ensure adequate consideration of environmental documents in agency decision-making...

  16. Ensuring Operational Readiness: Private Military Contractor Support for the United States Air Force

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-03-15

    Ensuring Operational Readiness: Private Military Contractor Support for the United States Air Force A Monograph by Maj Stephen P. Joca United...States Air Force School of Advanced Military Studies United States Army Command and General Staff College Fort Leavenworth, Kansas 2017 Approved...Operational Readiness: Private Military Contractor Support for the United States Air Force Approved by: __________________________________, Monograph

  17. 76 FR 2581 - Action To Ensure Authority To Issue Permits Under the Prevention of Significant Deterioration...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-14

    ... Deterioration Program to Sources of Greenhouse Gas Emissions: Federal Implementation Plan for Jefferson County... Air Pollution Control District (LMAPCD), through the Commonwealth of Kentucky, has not submitted by... greenhouse gases (GHGs). This action will ensure that a permitting authority--EPA--is available in...

  18. 34 CFR 200.66 - Requirements to ensure that funds do not benefit a private school.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... private school. 200.66 Section 200.66 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education... of Eligible Children in Private Schools § 200.66 Requirements to ensure that funds do not benefit a private school. (a) An LEA must use funds under subpart A of this part to provide services that supplement...

  19. Beyond Recruitment: Retention and Promotion Strategies To Ensure Diversity and Success.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howland, Joan

    1999-01-01

    Discusses the need for libraries not only to recruit, but also to retain, diverse professional staffs. Topics include diversity as a multi-dimensional concept; creating an environment conducive to retention; ensuring equity in regard to promotion, professional development, and success; the tenure process in academic libraries; and mentoring…

  20. Ensuring Reliable Communication in Disaster Recovery Operations with Reliable Routing Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Varun G. Menon

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this research paper is to ensure reliable and continuous communication between the rescue officers and other people during disaster recovery and reconstruction operations. Most of the communication infrastructure gets damaged during the disaster and proper communication cannot be established in the area which leads to longer delays in emergency operations and increased damage to life and property. Various methods proposed to enable communication between the people using wireless ad hoc networks do not guarantee reliable delivery of data with fast moving devices. This paper presents a Reliable Routing Technique (RRT that ensures reliable data delivery at the destination device even when the people with the mobile devices are moving in the network. We make use of the broadcasting property of the wireless network and create a priority list of probable forwarding candidates at each device. With this technique, RRT ensures that if a forwarder device is unable to forward the data packet due to movement of mobile devices, the next priority candidate forwards the data packet to the destination device, thus ensuring reliability of data delivery in the network. Simulation results show that RRT achieves significant performance improvement with better data delivery in ad hoc networks.