WorldWideScience

Sample records for model year trucks

  1. Application for certification 1993 model year heavy-duty trucks - Ford

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-01-01

    Each year, each manufacturer of passenger cars, light-duty trucks, motorcycles, or heavy-duty engines submits to EPA an application for certification. In the application, the manufacturer gives a detailed technical description of the vehicles or engines he intends to market during the upcoming model year. These engineering data include explanations and/or drawings which describe engine/vehicle parameters such as basic engine design, fuel systems, ignition systems and exhaust and evaporative emission control systems. It also provides information on emission test procedures, service accumulation procedures, fuels to be used, and proposed maintenance requirements to be followed during testing. Section 16 of the application contains the results of emission testing, a statement or compliance to the regulations, production engine parameters, and a Summary Sheet Input Form on which issuance of a Certificate of Conformity is based.

  2. Application for certification 1993 model year light-duty trucks - Isuzu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-01-01

    Every year, each manufacturer of passenger cars, light-duty trucks, motorcycles, or heavy-duty engines submits to EPA an application for certification. In the application, the manufacturer gives a detailed technical description of the vehicles or engines he intends to market during the upcoming model year. These engineering data include explanations and/or drawings which describe engine/vehicle parameters such as basic engine design, fuel systems, ignition systems and exhaust and evaporative emission control systems. It also provides information on emission test procedures, service accumulation procedures, fuels to be used, and proposed maintenance requirements to be followed during testing. Section 16 of the application contains the results of emission testing, a statement of compliance to the regulations, production engine parameters, and a Summary Sheet Input Form on which issuance of a Certificate of Conformity is based.

  3. Application for certification 1993 model year light-duty trucks - Mitsubishi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-01-01

    Every year, each manufacturer of passenger cars, light-duty trucks, motorcycles, or heavy-duty engines submits to EPA an application for certification. In the application, the manufacturer gives a detailed technical description of the vehicles or engines he intends to market during the upcoming model year. These engineering data include explanations and/or drawings which describe engine/vehicle parameters such as basic engine design, fuel systems, ignition systems and exhaust and evaporative emission control systems. It also provides information on emission test procedures, service accumulation procedures, fuels to be used, and proposed maintenance requirements to be followed during testing. Section 16 of the application contains the results of emission testing, a statement of compliance to the regulations, production engine parameters, and a Summary Sheet Input Form on which issuance of a Certificate of Conformity is based.

  4. Application for certification 1993 model year light-duty trucks - Nissan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-01-01

    Every year, each manufacturer of passenger cars, light-duty trucks, motorcycles, or heavy-duty engines submits to EPA an application for certification. In the application, the manufacturer gives a detailed technical description of the vehicles or engines he intends to market during the upcoming model year. These engineering data include explanations and/or drawings which describe engine/vehicle parameters such as basic engine design, fuel systems, ignition systems and exhaust and evaporative emission control systems. It also provides information on emission test procedures, service accumulation procedures, fuels to be used, and proposed maintenance requirements to be followed during testing. Section 16 of the application contains the results of emission testing, a statement of compliance to the regulations, production engine parameters, and a Summary Sheet Input Form on which issuance of a Certificate of Conformity is based.

  5. Application for certification 1993 model year light-duty trucks - Mazda

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-01-01

    Every year, each manufacturer of passenger cars, light-duty trucks, motorcycles, or heavy-duty engines submits to EPA an application for certification. In the application, the manufacturer gives a detailed technical description of the vehicles or engines he intends to market during the upcoming model year. These engineering data include explanations and/or drawings which describe engine/vehicle parameters such as basic engine design, fuel systems, ignition systems and exhaust and evaporative emission control systems. It also provides information on emission test procedures, service accumulation procedures, fuels to be used, and proposed maintenance requirements to be followed during testing. Section 16 of the application contains the results of emission testing, a statement of compliance to the regulations, production engine parameters, and a Summary Sheet Input Form on which issuance of a Certificate of Conformity is based.

  6. Application for certification 1993 model year light-duty trucks - Chrysler

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-01-01

    Every year, each manufacturer of passenger cars, light-duty trucks, motorcycles, or heavy-duty engines submits to EPA an application for certification. In the application, the manufacturer gives a detailed technical description of the vehicles or engines he intends to market during the upcoming model year. These engineering data include explanations and/or drawings which describe engine/vehicle parameters such as basic engine design, fuel systems, ignition systems and exhaust and evaporative emission control systems. It also provides information on emission test procedures, service accumulation procedures, fuels to be used, and proposed maintenance requirements to be followed during testing. Section 16 of the application contains the results of emission testing, a statement of compliance to the regulations, production engine parameters, and a Summary Sheet Input Form on which issuance of a Certificate of Conformity is based.

  7. 40 CFR 86.097-9 - Emission standards for 1997 and later model year light-duty trucks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Emission standards for 1997 and later model year light-duty trucks. 86.097-9 Section 86.097-9 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM NEW AND IN-USE HIGHWAY VEHICLES AND ENGINES General Provisions...

  8. 40 CFR 86.099-9 - Emission standards for 1999 and later model year light-duty trucks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Emission standards for 1999 and later model year light-duty trucks. 86.099-9 Section 86.099-9 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM NEW AND IN-USE HIGHWAY VEHICLES AND ENGINES General Provisions...

  9. 40 CFR 86.001-9 - Emission standards for 2001 and later model year light-duty trucks

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Emission standards for 2001 and later model year light-duty trucks 86.001-9 Section 86.001-9 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM NEW AND IN-USE HIGHWAY VEHICLES AND ENGINES General Provisions...

  10. 40 CFR 86.004-9 - Emission standards for 2004 and later model year light-duty trucks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Emission standards for 2004 and later model year light-duty trucks. 86.004-9 Section 86.004-9 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM NEW AND IN-USE HIGHWAY VEHICLES AND ENGINES General Provisions...

  11. 40 CFR 85.2204 - Short test standards for 1981 and later model year light-duty trucks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Short test standards for 1981 and later model year light-duty trucks. 85.2204 Section 85.2204 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF AIR POLLUTION FROM MOBILE SOURCES Emission Control System Performance Warranty...

  12. ACEEE's green book: The environmental guide to cars and trucks, Model year 2000

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DeCicco, J.; Kliesch, J.; Thomas, M.

    2000-07-01

    This pathbreaking guide ranks cars and trucks according to environmental friendliness. Buyers can compare cars, vans, pickups, and sport utility vehicles by their environmental impacts, including air pollution, global warming, and fuel efficiency. Inside the guide: how to buy the cleanest and most efficient vehicle that meets your needs; Green Scores for all 2000 makes and models, listed by class--compact, mid-size, and large cars, vans, pickups, and sport utilities; Best of 2000 section featuring the greenest models in each class; Green by Design chapter highlighting advanced technologies and what makes some vehicles greener than others; listings for electric and other alternative fuel vehicles in addition to gasoline and diesel vehicles; tips on keeping your vehicle running cleanly and efficiently; and the environmental impacts of vehicles, including global warming and the health effects of vehicle pollution.

  13. 40 CFR 86.709-99 - In-use emission standards for 1999 and later model year light-duty trucks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 19 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false In-use emission standards for 1999 and later model year light-duty trucks. 86.709-99 Section 86.709-99 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM NEW AND IN-USE HIGHWAY VEHICLES AND ENGINES (CONTINUED)...

  14. 40 CFR 86.709-94 - In-use emission standards for 1994 and later model year light-duty trucks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 19 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false In-use emission standards for 1994 and later model year light-duty trucks. 86.709-94 Section 86.709-94 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM NEW AND IN-USE HIGHWAY VEHICLES AND ENGINES (CONTINUED)...

  15. Projection of light-truck population to year 2025

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1978-10-01

    The recent growth in the number of light trucks is a matter of considerable interest in that it may have far-reaching implications for gasoline consumption. This paper forecasts the number of light trucks in the years to 2025. The forecast is based on economic scenarios developed by SRI International. Except for the case of the most-dismal economic forecast, the number of light trucks is predicted to increase monotonically and to show the greatest rate of increase between 1973 and 1980.

  16. Fleet average NOx emission performance of 2007 model year light-duty vehicles, light-duty trucks and medium-duty passenger vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2009-09-15

    This report summarized the regulatory requirements related to nitrous oxide (NO{sub x}) fleet averaging for light-duty vehicles, light-duty trucks, and medium-duty passenger vehicles under the On-Road Vehicle and Engine Emission Regulations. The regulations introduced more stringent national emission standards for on-road vehicles and engines and include technical standards that establish maximum limits on vehicle exhaust emissions. The fleet average NO{sub x} emission performance of individual companies and the overall Canadian fleet for 2007 was summarized, and the effectiveness of the Canadian fleet average NO{sub x} emission program was evaluated in relation to its environmental performance objectives. A total of 22 companies submitted reports for 294 test groups comprising 1,599,051 vehicles of the 2007 model year. The average NO{sub x} value for the entire LDV/LLDT fleet was 0.06897630 grams per mile. The average value for the HLDT/MDPV fleet was 0.160668 grams per mile. NO{sub x} values for both overall fleets remained better than the corresponding fleet average NO{sub x} standards, and were consistent with the environmental performance objectives of the regulations. 9 tabs., 3 figs.

  17. Reducing Truck Emissions at Container Terminals in a Low Carbon Economy: Proposal of a Queueing-based Bi-Objective Model for Optimizing Truck Arrival Pattern

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Gang; GOVINDAN, Kannan; Golias, Mihalis M.

    2012-01-01

    This study proposes a methodology to optimize truck arrival patterns to reduce emissions from idling truck engines at marine container terminals. A bi-objective model is developed minimizing both truck waiting times and truck arrival pattern change. The truck waiting time is estimated via...... a queueing network. Based on the waiting time, truck idling emissions are estimated. The proposed methodology is evaluated with a case study, where truck arrival rates vary over time. We propose a Genetic Algorithm based heuristic to solve the resulting problem. Result shows that, a small shift of truck...... arrivals can significantly reduce truck emissions, especially at the gate....

  18. Heavy truck modeling for fuel consumption. Simulations and measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sandberg, T.

    2001-12-01

    Fuel consumption for heavy trucks depends on many factors like roads, weather, and driver behavior that are hard for a manufacturer to influence. However, one design possibility is the power train configuration. Here a new simulation program for heavy trucks is created to find the configuration of the power train that gives the lowest fuel consumption for each transport task. For efficient simulations the model uses production code for speed and gear control, and it uses exchangeable data sets to allow simulation of the whole production range of engine types, on recorded road profiles from all over the world. Combined with a graphical user interface this application is called STARS (Scania Truck And Road Simulation). The forces of rolling resistance and air resistance in the model are validated through an experiment where the propeller shaft torque of a heavy truck is measured. It is found that the coefficient of rolling resistance is strongly dependent on tire temperature, not only on vehicle speed as expected. This led to the development of a new model for rolling resistance. The model includes the dynamic behavior of the tires and relates rolling resistance to tire temperature and vehicle speed. In another experiment the fuel consumption of a test truck in highway driving is measured. The altitude of the road is recorded with a barometer and used in the corresponding simulations. Despite of the limited accuracy of this equipment the simulation program manage to predict a level of fuel consumption only 2% lower than the real measurements. It is concluded that STARS is a good tool for predicting fuel consumption for trucks in highway driving and for comparing different power train configurations.

  19. Heavy truck modeling for fuel consumption. Simulations and measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sandberg, T.

    2001-12-01

    Fuel consumption for heavy trucks depends on many factors like roads, weather, and driver behavior that are hard for a manufacturer to influence. However, one design possibility is the power train configuration. Here a new simulation program for heavy trucks is created to find the configuration of the power train that gives the lowest fuel consumption for each transport task. For efficient simulations the model uses production code for speed and gear control, and it uses exchangeable data sets to allow simulation of the whole production range of engine types, on recorded road profiles from all over the world. Combined with a graphical user interface this application is called STARS (Scania Truck And Road Simulation). The forces of rolling resistance and air resistance in the model are validated through an experiment where the propeller shaft torque of a heavy truck is measured. It is found that the coefficient of rolling resistance is strongly dependent on tire temperature, not only on vehicle speed as expected. This led to the development of a new model for rolling resistance. The model includes the dynamic behavior of the tires and relates rolling resistance to tire temperature and vehicle speed. In another experiment the fuel consumption of a test truck in highway driving is measured. The altitude of the road is recorded with a barometer and used in the corresponding simulations. Despite of the limited accuracy of this equipment the simulation program manage to predict a level of fuel consumption only 2% lower than the real measurements. It is concluded that STARS is a good tool for predicting fuel consumption for trucks in highway driving and for comparing different power train configurations.

  20. Truck fleet model for design and assessment of flexible pavements

    OpenAIRE

    Belay, Abraham; O'Brien, Eugene J.; Kroese, Dirk P.

    2008-01-01

    The mechanistic empirical method of flexible pavement design/assessment uses a large number of numerical truck model runs to predict a history of dynamic load. The pattern of dynamic load distribution along the pavement is a key factor in the design/ assessment of flexible pavement. While this can be measured in particular cases, there are no reliable methods of predicting the mean pattern for typical traffic conditions. A simple linear quarter car model is developed here which aims to reprod...

  1. Analyzing the Impact of Trucks on Traffic Flow Based on an Improved Cellular Automaton Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dewen Kong

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to analyze the impact of trucks on traffic flow and propose an improved cellular automaton model, which considers both the performance difference between passenger cars and trucks and the behaviour change of passenger cars under the impact of trucks. A questionnaire survey has been conducted to find out whether the impact of trucks exists and how the behaviour of passenger car drivers changes under the impact of trucks. The survey results confirm that the impact of trucks exists and indicate that passenger car drivers will enlarge the space gap, decelerate, and change lanes in advance when they are affected. Simulation results show that traffic volume is still affected by percentages of trucks in the congestion phase in the proposed model compared with traditional heterogeneous cellular automaton models. Traffic volume and speed decrease with the impact of trucks in the congestion phase. The impact of trucks can increase traffic congestion as it increases. However, it has different influences on the speed variance of passenger cars in different occupancies. In the proposed model, the relative relationship of the space gap between car-following-truck and car-following-car is changeable at a certain value of occupancy, which is related to the impact of trucks.

  2. Framework for a Disaggregate Truck Trip Generation Model Based on a Survey of Retail Businesses

    OpenAIRE

    Shin, Hyeon-Shic; Kawamura, Kazuya

    2005-01-01

    While considerable strides have been made in forecasting truck travel demand in the past several years, there remain several critical gaps that need to be addressed. The new trends in goods movements like the growth of e-commerce and distribution systems will likely affect the patterns of truck trip generation. Through an extensive literature review, it was found that past truck trip generation analyses used only aggregate variables or proxies of economic activities such as land use types, nu...

  3. The Production Measurement Model of Open Pit Mine Based on Truck Operation Diagram

    OpenAIRE

    Sun Xiao-Yu; Kong Xiao; Zhang Wei-Guo

    2016-01-01

    Conventional production measurement of truck dispatching system in open pit mine has not been effectively expressed by a mathematical model, which brings a negative effect on the subsequent data mining and a compatibility issue to apply the production measurement with fixed assignment of truck. In this study, based on the proposed concept that truck is not only the carrier of transport material, but also act as the bridges and linkages between the loading sites and the unloading sites, a new ...

  4. Developing high-resolution urban scale heavy-duty truck emission inventory using the data-driven truck activity model output

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perugu, Harikishan; Wei, Heng; Yao, Zhuo

    2017-04-01

    Air quality modelers often rely on regional travel demand models to estimate the vehicle activity data for emission models, however, most of the current travel demand models can only output reliable person travel activity rather than goods/service specific travel activity. This paper presents the successful application of data-driven, Spatial Regression and output optimization Truck model (SPARE-Truck) to develop truck-related activity inputs for the mobile emission model, and eventually to produce truck specific gridded emissions. To validate the proposed methodology, the Cincinnati metropolitan area in United States was selected as a case study site. From the results, it is found that the truck miles traveled predicted using traditional methods tend to underestimate - overall 32% less than proposed model- truck miles traveled. The coefficient of determination values for different truck types range between 0.82 and 0.97, except the motor homes which showed least model fit with 0.51. Consequently, the emission inventories calculated from the traditional methods were also underestimated i.e. -37% for NOx, -35% for SO2, -43% for VOC, -43% for BC, -47% for OC and - 49% for PM2.5. Further, the proposed method also predicted within ∼7% of the national emission inventory for all pollutants. The bottom-up gridding methodology used in this paper could allocate the emissions to grid cell where more truck activity is expected, and it is verified against regional land-use data. Most importantly, using proposed method it is easy to segregate gridded emission inventory by truck type, which is of particular interest for decision makers, since currently there is no reliable method to test different truck-category specific travel-demand management strategies for air pollution control.

  5. The Production Measurement Model of Open Pit Mine Based on Truck Operation Diagram

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sun Xiao-Yu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Conventional production measurement of truck dispatching system in open pit mine has not been effectively expressed by a mathematical model, which brings a negative effect on the subsequent data mining and a compatibility issue to apply the production measurement with fixed assignment of truck. In this study, based on the proposed concept that truck is not only the carrier of transport material, but also act as the bridges and linkages between the loading sites and the unloading sites, a new truck operation diagram was established, which was further developed to a basic data matrix and a production measurement model. The new model allowed to calculatethe production measurement of the transport, loading, unloading, material and etc, respectively, as well as with any calculation in combination of more than one factor as needed.It solved the compatibility issue between conventional production measurement and the production measurement of fixed assignment of truck with good practical results.

  6. Projections of automobile, light truck, and bus stocks and sales, to the year 2000

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knorr, R.; Millar, M.

    1979-11-01

    Future stocks and sales of automobiles, light trucks, and buses are projected in this document. Automobile projections are developed for fleet and non-fleet sectors. Total auto stock is projected as a function of the number of households and of personal income, with adjustment for present and anticipated shifts from automobiles to light trucks. Automobile stocks and sales are projected to increase steadily through the year 2000 with a slightly larger growth rate associated with fleet autos. Projections of light-truck stocks and sales are developed for personal, service/utility, agriculture, manufacturing, government, wholesale/retail, and other uses based on anticipated employment and output for each of the use sectors. Projections anticipate the largest growth area to be that of personal light trucks. Bus stocks and sales are projected as a function of user populations, existing fleet characteristics, and anticipated usage patterns. School, intercity, and transit buses are included in the study. School buses are projected to have the largest percentage of growth in this sector.

  7. Mixed Integer Programming Model and Incremental Optimization for Delivery and Storage Planning Using Truck Terminals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakakibara, Kazutoshi; Tian, Yajie; Nishikawa, Ikuko

    We discuss the planning of transportation by trucks over a multi-day period. Each truck collects loads from suppliers and delivers them to assembly plants or a truck terminal. By exploiting the truck terminal as a temporal storage, we aim to increase the load ratio of each truck and to minimize the lead time for transportation. In this paper, we show a mixed integer programming model which represents each product explicitly, and discuss the decomposition of the problem into a problem of delivery and storage, and a problem of vehicle routing. Based on this model, we propose a relax-and-fix type heuristic in which decision variables are fixed one by one by mathematical programming techniques such as branch-and-bound methods.

  8. UPDATING THE FREIGHT TRUCK STOCK ADJUSTMENT MODEL: 1997 VEHICLE INVENTORY AND USE SURVEY DATA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, S.C.

    2000-11-16

    The Energy Information Administration's (EIA's) National Energy Modeling System (NEMS) Freight Truck Stock Adjustment Model (FTSAM) was created in 1995 relying heavily on input data from the 1992 Economic Census, Truck Inventory and Use Survey (TIUS). The FTSAM is part of the NEMS Transportation Sector Model, which provides baseline energy projections and analyzes the impacts of various technology scenarios on consumption, efficiency, and carbon emissions. The base data for the FTSAM can be updated every five years as new Economic Census information is released. Because of expertise in using the TIUS database, Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) was asked to assist the EIA when the new Economic Census data were available. ORNL provided the necessary base data from the 1997 Vehicle Inventory and Use Survey (VIUS) and other sources to update the FTSAM. The next Economic Census will be in the year 2002. When those data become available, the EIA will again want to update the FTSAM using the VIUS. This report, which details the methodology of estimating and extracting data from the 1997 VIUS Microdata File, should be used as a guide for generating the data from the next VIUS so that the new data will be as compatible as possible with the data in the model.

  9. Postural sway, working years and BMI in healthy truck drivers: an observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohlendorf, Daniela; Troebs, Paul; Lenk, Andreas; Wanke, Eileen; Natrup, Jörg; Groneberg, David

    2017-07-12

    The following study analyses the influence of risk factors among the occupational group of truck drivers on postural control and body mass index (BMI). Observational study. One motorway station close to several highways in Germany. 180 truck drivers (177 male/3 female), aged 21-65 years old, took part in this study. Postural control was examined using a pressure plate. In order to examine the influence of body weight (BMI) and working years on postural control, subjects were divided into samples of five and three groups, respectively. Furthermore, it was evaluated whether the subjects suffered from back pain. For data analysis, the Kruskal-Wallis test was used as the data were not normally distributed. Once the p value of the Kruskal-Wallis test was p≤0.05, the Conover-Iman comparison and afterwards the Bonferroni-Holm correction were used. The significance level was set at α ≤0.05. Regarding the number of working years, a significant increase of frontal (p≤0.04) and sagittal (p≤0.001) sway were observed. The correlation of the five BMI groups with the number of working years demonstrates that an increase of the working years leads to an increase of BMI (p≤0.03). Furthermore, the majority of truck drivers participating in this study suffered from back pain (61.7%). BMI and musculoskeletal impairment are indicators of health risk factors. In this study, it is shown that an increasing number of working years and an increasing BMI lead to a decrease in frontal and sagittal postural sway. In addition, the number of working years correlates with body weight and back pain. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  10. Modeling mechanical restriction differences between car and heavy truck in two-lane cellular automata traffic flow model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xin; Li, Xingang; Xiao, Yao; Jia, Bin

    2016-06-01

    Real traffic is heterogeneous with car and truck. Due to mechanical restrictions, the car and the truck have different limited deceleration capabilities, which are important factors in safety driving. This paper extends the single lane safety driving (SD) model with limited deceleration capability to two-lane SD model, in which car-truck heterogeneous traffic is considered. A car has a larger limited deceleration capability while a heavy truck has a smaller limited deceleration capability as a result of loaded goods. Then the safety driving conditions are different as the types of the following and the leading vehicles vary. In order to eliminate the well-known plug in heterogeneous two-lane traffic, it is assumed that heavy truck has active deceleration behavior when the heavy truck perceives the forming plug. The lane-changing decisions are also determined by the safety driving conditions. The fundamental diagram, spatiotemporal diagram, and lane-changing frequency were investigated to show the effect of mechanical restriction on heterogeneous traffic flow. It was shown that there would be still three traffic phases in heterogeneous traffic condition; the active deceleration of the heavy truck could well eliminate the plug; the lane-changing frequency was low in synchronized flow; the flow and velocity would decrease as the proportion of heavy truck grows or the limited deceleration capability of heavy truck drops; and the flow could be improved with lane control measures.

  11. Investigation of Class 2b Trucks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, S.C.

    2002-04-03

    The popularity of trucks in the class 2 category--that is, those with a 6,000 to 10,000 pounds (lbs) gross vehicle weight rating (GVWR)--has increased since the late 1970s/early 1980s. The purpose of this research is to identify and examine vehicles in the upper portion of the class 2 weight range (designated as vehicle class 2b) and to assess their impact. Vehicles in class 2b (8,500-10,000 lbs GVWR) include pickup trucks, sport utility vehicles (SUVs), and large vans (i.e., not minivans). Oak Ridge National Laboratory researched each individual truck model to determine which models were class 2b trucks and arrived at four methodologies to derive sales volumes. Two methods--one for calendar year and one for model year sales--were recommended for producing believable and reliable results. The study indicates that 521,000 class 2b trucks were sold in calendar year 1999--6.4% of sales of all trucks under 10,000 lbs. Eighty-two percent of class 2b trucks sold in 1999 were pickups; one third of class 2b trucks sold in 1999 were diesel. There were 5.8 million class 2b trucks on the road in 2000, which amounts to 7.8% of all trucks under 10,000 lbs. Twenty-four percent of the class 2b truck population is diesel. Estimates show that class 2b trucks account for 8% of annual miles traveled by trucks under 10,000 lbs and 9% of fuel use. Data on class 2b trucks are scarce. As the Tier 2 standards, which apply to passenger vehicles in the 8,500-10,000 lb GVWR category, become effective, additional data on class 2b trucks may become available--not only emissions data, but data in all areas. At the moment, distinguishing class 2b trucks from class 2 trucks in general is a substantial task requiring data on an individual model level.

  12. Optimization model of truck flow at open-pit mines and standards for feasibility test

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ying Zhang; Yong Zhao; Qiwei Lu; Wenli Xu

    2004-01-01

    In order to increase production efficiency at open-pit mines, on the basis of linear programming, a practical mathematical model for optimizing truck flow was developed, which improved the traditional fixed manual schedule method. The model has advantages from linear programming and objective programming, makes most handling points working at full capacity and keeps an optimized ratio between trucks and excavators. For ensuring feasibility of the model in practical production, four standards for feasibility test were proposed. The model satisfied all the standards. The application in a large scale open-pit iron mine indicated that the model reduced the number of required trucks by 10% compared with the fixed manual schedule method.

  13. Fleet average NOx emission performance of 2008 model year light-duty vehicles, light-duty trucks and medium-duty passenger vehicles[In relation to the On-Road Vehicle and Engine Emission Regulations under the Canadian Environmental Protection Act, 1999

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2010-12-15

    The On-Road Vehicle and Engine Emission Regulations came into effect under the Canadian Environmental Protection Act in 2004. The regulations introduced more stringent emissions standards for on-road vehicles and engines, and aligned Canada's emission standards for various vehicles with those of the United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). This report summarized the fleet average nitrogen oxide (NO{sub x}) emissions performance of individual companies and the overall Canadian fleet for the 2008 model year for light duty vehicles (LDV), light duty trucks (LLDT), heavy light duty trucks (HLDT) and medium duty passenger vehicles (MDPV). The report evaluated the effectiveness of the Canadian fleet average NO{sub x} emission program in achieving its stated environmental performance objectives. The report demonstrated that approximately 99 percent of the LDV and LLDT fleet, and 71 percent of the HLDT and MDPV fleet were certified to a bin at, or below, the applicable fleet average NO{sub x} standard. Average NO{sub x} values continued to decrease, in accordance with the performance objectives of the regulations. 9 tabs., 5 figs.

  14. Development of a multi-layer perceptron artificial neural network model to determine haul trucks energy consumption

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Soofastaei Ali; Aminossadati Saiied M.; Arefi Mohammad M.; Kizil Mehmet S.

    2016-01-01

    The mining industry annually consumes trillions of British thermal units of energy, a large part of which is saveable. Diesel fuel is a significant source of energy in surface mining operations and haul trucks are the major users of this energy source. Gross vehicle weight, truck velocity and total resistance have been recognised as the key parameters affecting the fuel consumption. In this paper, an artificial neural net-work model was developed to predict the fuel consumption of haul trucks in surface mines based on the gross vehicle weight, truck velocity and total resistance. The network was trained and tested using real data collected from a surface mining operation. The results indicate that the artificial neural network modelling can accurately predict haul truck fuel consumption based on the values of the haulage param-eters considered in this study.

  15. Simulation and analysis of a Truck Model's ride comfort based on fuzzy adaptive control theory

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIANG Li-biao; WANG Deng-feng; NI Qiang; TAN Wei-ming

    2007-01-01

    This paper tried to analyse and verify the fuzzy adaptive control strategy of electronic control air suspension system for heavy truck. Created the seven-freedoms vehicle suspension model, and the road input model; with Matlab/Simulink toolboxes and modules, built dynamical system simulation model for heavy truck with air suspension, fuzzy adaptive control model, height control model for air spring, and intelligent control and analyse on root mean square value of acceleration of gravity center of the vehicle under excitation of road. Results show that the fuzzy control had less help to the body vibration on the better pavement, but had the better benefit on the bad road, and the vehicle's root mean square value of acceleration of gravity center is less than passive suspension's obviously.

  16. Fleet average NO{sub x} emission performance of 2004 model year light-duty vehicles, light-duty trucks and medium-duty passenger vehicles[In relation to the On-Road Vehicle and Engine Emission Regulations under the Canadian Environmental Protection Act, 1999

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-05-15

    The On-Road Vehicle and Engine Emission Regulations came into effect on January 1, 2004. The regulations introduced more stringent national emission standards for on-road vehicles and engines, and also required that companies submit reports containing information concerning the company's fleets. This report presented a summary of the regulatory requirements relating to nitric oxide (NO{sub x}) fleet average emissions for light-duty vehicles, light-duty trucks, and medium-duty passenger vehicles under the new regulations. The effectiveness of the Canadian fleet average NO{sub x} emission program at achieving environmental performance objectives was also evaluated. A summary of the fleet average NO{sub x} emission performance of individual companies was presented, as well as the overall Canadian fleet average of the 2004 model year based on data submitted by companies in their end of model year reports. A total of 21 companies submitted reports covering 2004 model year vehicles in 10 test groups, comprising 1,350,719 vehicles of the 2004 model year manufactured or imported for the purpose of sale in Canada. The average NO{sub x} value for the entire Canadian LDV/LDT fleet was 0.2016463 grams per mile. The average NO{sub x} values for the entire Canadian HLDT/MDPV fleet was 0.321976 grams per mile. It was concluded that the NO{sub x} values for both fleets were consistent with the environmental performance objectives of the regulations for the 2004 model year. 9 tabs.

  17. Modeling Temperature Development of Li-Ion Battery Packs in Hybrid Refuse Truck Operating at Different Ambient Conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Coman, Paul Tiberiu; Veje, Christian

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a dynamic model for simulating the heat dissipation and the impact of Phase Change Materials (PCMs) on the peak temperature in Lithium-ion batteries during discharging operation of a hybrid truck under different ambient temperatures.......This paper presents a dynamic model for simulating the heat dissipation and the impact of Phase Change Materials (PCMs) on the peak temperature in Lithium-ion batteries during discharging operation of a hybrid truck under different ambient temperatures....

  18. Modeling Temperature Development of Li-Ion Battery Packs in Hybrid Refuse Truck Operating at Different Ambient Conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Coman, Paul Tiberiu; Veje, Christian

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a dynamic model for simulating the heat dissipation and the impact of Phase Change Materials (PCMs) on the peak temperature in Lithium-ion batteries during discharging operation of a hybrid truck under different ambient temperatures.......This paper presents a dynamic model for simulating the heat dissipation and the impact of Phase Change Materials (PCMs) on the peak temperature in Lithium-ion batteries during discharging operation of a hybrid truck under different ambient temperatures....

  19. Buildup and simulation of a truck model with rear air suspension using leaf spring as guiding rod

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    A new kind of commercial truck is presented, which has rear air suspension using leaf spring as guiding rod instead of original leaf spring. ADAMS/Car is used as a tool to build the whole truck model. The designed truck's constant-radius cornering analysis and its ride performance simulation analysis under B class random road condition are carried out according to national experimental method standards. Compared the simulation results with the field test results indicate that performance index of the designed air suspension truck's constant-radius cornering and its ride performance meets the design requirements and reaches its prospective target. And results from simulation are similar to those from tests in value and trend, which indicates the virtual prototype is correct. The model can be used further to optinize suspension parameters and do some design work on the control system of air suspension.

  20. Reducing Truck Emissions at Container Terminals in a Low Carbon Economy: Proposal of a Queueing-based Bi-Objective Model for Optimizing Truck Arrival Pattern

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Gang; GOVINDAN, Kannan; Golias, Mihalis M.

    2012-01-01

    a queueing network. Based on the waiting time, truck idling emissions are estimated. The proposed methodology is evaluated with a case study, where truck arrival rates vary over time. We propose a Genetic Algorithm based heuristic to solve the resulting problem. Result shows that, a small shift of truck...

  1. The Rapid Development of Chinese Heavy Truck Industry : Adapted Porter’s Diamond Model Study

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Xiaonan; Cao, Lei

    2012-01-01

    Chinese heavy truck industry has witnessed an unprecedentedprosper since 2009, and it has been attracting an increasing number of westernheavy truck companies to conduct business activities. However, differentindustry environment has brought different situation including the government’spolicies and consumers’ buying habits for local companies and foreign competitors.Thus, this study aims to analyze the impact of industry factors in Chinese heavy truck industry by examining a collection of th...

  2. The Detroit Diesel DELTA Engine for Light Trucks and SUVs - Year 2000 Update

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nabil S. Hakim; Charles E. Freese; Stanley P. Miller

    2000-06-19

    Detroit Diesel Corporation (DDC) is developing the DELTA 4.0L V6 engine, specifically for the North American light truck market. This market poses unique requirements for a diesel engine, necessitating a clean sheet engine design. DELTA was developed from a clean sheet of paper, with the first engine firing just 228 days later. The process began with a Quality Function Deployment (QFD) analysis, which prioritized the development criteria. The development process integrated a co-located, fully cross-functional team. Suppliers were fully integrated and maintained on-site representation. The first demonstration vehicle moved under its own power 12 weeks after the first engine fired. It was demonstrated to the automotive press 18 days later. DELTA has repeatedly demonstrated its ability to disprove historical North American diesel perceptions and compete directly with gasoline engines. This paper outlines the Generation 0.0 development process and briefly defines the engine. A brief indication of the Generation 0.5 development status is given.

  3. 40 CFR 600.512-12 - Model year report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... economy standard or the “required fuel economy level” pursuant to 49 CFR part 533, as applicable. Model year reports for light trucks meeting required fuel economy levels pursuant to 49 CFR 533.5(g) and (h... requirements. (9) For 2011 and later model year reports, the “required fuel economy level” pursuant to 49...

  4. Work Climate, Organizational Commitment, and Highway Safety in the Trucking Industry: Toward Causal Modeling of Large Truck Crashes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, Carroll M.; Scott, Aaron J.; Nafukho, Fredrick M.

    2008-01-01

    While theoretical models aimed at explaining or predicting employee turnover outcomes have been developed, minimal consideration has been given to the same task regarding safety, often measured as the probability of a crash in a given time frame. The present literature review identifies four constructs from turnover literature, which are believed…

  5. Modeling and Analysis of Truck Mounted Concrete Pump Boom by Virtual Prototyping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wu Ren

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available By far there is lack of research on different working conditions between rigid and flexible dynamics of truck mounted concrete pump booms. First a 3D model has been established by using virtual prototyping technology of a 37 m long boom in Pro/Engineering software. Then the rigid body simulation model has been built. Next modal superimposition method is adopted to change the 4 rigid body booms into flexible ones. Kinematics law and dynamic characteristics of 4 common working conditions had been studied then. Next tip displacement and the first boom hydraulic cylinder force of the 4 working conditions between rigid and flexible models have been researched. Furthermore the first natural frequencies of the structure have been calculated. The results show that the frequency of the horizontal condition has the lowest of all and the roof condition has the largest of all. Besides the cylinder forces of the flexible model are larger than the corresponding rigid ones because of the flexible boom vibration. Finally an experiment has been done on a boom test rig which proved that the established simulation model is reasonable and the frequency results are correct. All of these provide design reference to mechanical manipulator as well as reducing product development cost of such mechanism.

  6. 40 CFR 600.512-08 - Model year report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...” pursuant to 49 CFR part 533, as applicable. Model year reports for light trucks meeting required fuel economy levels pursuant to 49 CFR 533.5(g) and (h) shall include information in sufficient detail to... reports, the “required fuel economy level” pursuant to 49 CFR parts 531 or 533, as applicable. Model...

  7. Mining truck scheduling with stochastic maintenance cost

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Erkan TOPAL; Salih RAMAZAN

    2012-01-01

    Open pit mining operations utilize large scale and expensive equipment.For the mines implementing shovel and truck operation system,trucks constitute a large portion of these equipment and are used for hauling the mined materials.In order to have sustainable and viable operation,these equipment need to be utilized efficiently with minimum operating cost.Maintenance cost is a significant proportion of the overall operating costs.The maintenance cost of a truck changes non-linearly depending on the type,age and truck types.A new approach based on stochastic integer programming (SIP) techniques is used for annually scheduling a fixed fleet of mining trucks in a given operation,over the life of mine (multi-year time horizon) to minimize maintenance cost.The maintenance cost data in mining usually has uncertainty caused from the variability of the operational conditions at mines.To estimate the cost,usually historic data from different operations for new mines,and/or the historic data at the operating mines are used.However,maintenance cost varies depending on road conditions,age of equipment and many other local conditions at an operation.Traditional models aim to estimate the maintenance cost as a deterministic single value and financial evaluations are based on the estimated value.However,it does not provide a confidence on the estimate.The proposed model in this study assumes the truck maintenance cost is a stochastic parameter due to the significant level of uncertainty in the data and schedules the available fleet to meet the annual production targets.The scheduling has been performed by applying both the proposed stochastic and deterministic approaches.The approach provides a distribution for the maintenance cost of the optimized equipment schedule minimizing the cost.

  8. A discrete-event model to simulate the effect of truck bunching due to payload variance on cycle time, hauled mine materials and fuel consumption

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    A. Soofastaei; S.M. Aminossadati; M.S. Kizil; P. Knights

    2016-01-01

    Data collected from truck payload management systems at various surface mines shows that the payload variance is significant and must be considered in analysing the mine productivity, energy consumption, greenhouse gas emissions and associated cost. Payload variance causes significant differences in gross vehicle weights. Heavily loaded trucks travel slower up ramps than lightly loaded trucks. Faster trucks are slowed by the presence of slower trucks, resulting in‘bunching’, production losses and increasing fuel consumptions. This paper simulates the truck bunching phenomena in large surface mines to improve truck and shovel systems’ efficiency and minimise fuel consumption. The study concentrated on complet-ing a practical simulation model based on a discrete event method which is most commonly used in this field of research in other industries. The simulation model has been validated by a dataset collected from a large surface mine in Arizona state, USA. The results have shown that there is a good agreement between the actual and estimated values of investigated parameters.

  9. Experimental and computational studies of active flow control on a model truck-trailer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jahanmiri Mohsen

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Active flow control is probably the most challenging research area in vehicle aerodynamics. Being able to manipulate a flow field in order to achieve desired results beneficial to engineering is the only way to meet today’s demands for competitive and efficient solutions in the automotive industry. The current work studies the flow control on a semi detailed model truck by using detached-eddy simulations and wind tunnel experiments aiming at reducing the aerodynamic drag. This study combines both passive and active flow control applied on the rear end of the trailer. An indigenous fluidic actuator (loudspeaker in cavity with slots is used as a synthetic jet in the experiment. Both experiments and computations demonstrate that the active flow control works successfully and results in flow reattachment to the flaps. The numerical simulations show that the drag coefficient, CD decreased by 3.9% when AFC was activated compared to the baseline case without flaps. The corresponding decrease when AFC was deactivated (with flaps was only 0.7%. The experimental results show a decrease of CD by 3.1% for the case with activated AFC compared to the baseline case. When AFC was deactivated the corresponding decrease in CD was 1.8%. A detailed flow analysis made in computations and experiments is used to explain these results.

  10. Toy Trucks in Video Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2015-01-01

    discovered that using scale-models like toy trucks has a strongly encouraging effect on developers/designers to collaboratively make sense of field videos. In our analysis of such scale-model sessions, we found some quite fundamental patterns of how participants utilise objects; the participants build shared...... that when analysing for instance truck drivers’ practices, the use of toy trucks to replicate actions in scale helps participants engage experiential knowledge as they use their body to make sense of the on-going action....

  11. Availability-based simulation and optimization modeling framework for open-pit mine truck allocation under dynamic constraints

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mena Rodrigo; Zio Enrico; Kristjanpoller Fredy; Arata Adolfo

    2013-01-01

    We present a novel system productivity simulation and optimization modeling framework in which equipment availability is a variable in the expected productivity function of the system.The framework is used for allocating trucks by route according to their operating performances in a truck-shovel system of an open-pit mine,so as to maximize the overall productivity of the fleet.We implement the framework in an originally designed and specifically developed simulator-optimizer software tool.We make an application on a real open-pit mine case study taking into account the stochasticity of the equipment behavior and environment.The total system production values obtained with and without considering the equipment reliability,availability and maintainability (RAM) characteristics are compared.We show that by taking into account the truck and shovel RAM aspects,we can maximize the total production of the system and obtain specific information on the production availability and productivity of its components.

  12. Lift truck safety review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cadwallader, L.C.

    1997-03-01

    This report presents safety information about powered industrial trucks. The basic lift truck, the counterbalanced sit down rider truck, is the primary focus of the report. Lift truck engineering is briefly described, then a hazard analysis is performed on the lift truck. Case histories and accident statistics are also given. Rules and regulations about lift trucks, such as the US Occupational Safety an Health Administration laws and the Underwriter`s Laboratories standards, are discussed. Safety issues with lift trucks are reviewed, and lift truck safety and reliability are discussed. Some quantitative reliability values are given.

  13. Sizing models and performance analysis of waste heat recovery organic Rankine cycles for heavy duty trucks

    OpenAIRE

    Guillaume, Ludovic; Legros, Arnaud; Quoilin, Sylvain; Declaye, Sébastien; Lemort, Vincent

    2013-01-01

    This paper attempts to address this problematic of selecting the architecture, the expander and the working fluid for a waste heat recovery organic (or non-organic) Rankine cycle on a truck engine. It focuses especially on three expander technologies: the scroll, the piston and the screw expanders, and three working fluids: R245fa, ethanol and water. Peer reviewed

  14. Shock Wave Loading on a Two-Dimensional Generic Truck/Shelter Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-08-01

    66 3"SlUHTT:24-42-1S 5TATM:I 24 8 2 4 a I S TX’ M TEST:2D TRC 2ŕ SMST: 24-02-15 STATION:2 II *24 8 8 li TEST:2D T•J 3M ~SHOT: 24.-42-I S STA•m:$3 24e...STATI•: 7 I S2 4 3 IS TIME. am EST:D TRUCK SWOT : 24-42-2 STATIN: ,a 24 a a i TEST:2 TRUCK SHOT: 24-2-22 STATION:9 90 S 2 4 6 S ’i TM. EC Figure B-14

  15. Reducing truck emissions at container terminals in a low carbon economy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Gang; GOVINDAN, Kannan; Golias, Mihalis M.

    2013-01-01

    This study proposes a methodology to optimize truck arrival patterns to reduce emissions from idling truck engines at marine container terminals. A bi-objective model is developed minimizing both truck waiting times and truck arrival pattern change. The truck waiting time is estimated via...... a queueing network. Based on the waiting time, truck idling emissions are estimated. The proposed methodology is evaluated with a case study, where truck arrival rates vary over time. We propose a Genetic Algorithm based heuristic to solve the resulting problem. Result shows that, a small shift of truck...... arrivals can significantly reduce truck emissions, especially at the gate....

  16. A mediation model linking dispatcher leadership and work ownership with safety climate as predictors of truck driver safety performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zohar, Dov; Huang, Yueng-hsiang; Lee, Jin; Robertson, Michelle

    2014-01-01

    The study was designed to test the effect of safety climate on safety behavior among lone employees whose work environment promotes individual rather than consensual or shared climate perceptions. The paper presents a mediation path model linking psychological (individual-level) safety climate antecedents and consequences as predictors of driving safety of long-haul truck drivers. Climate antecedents included dispatcher (distant) leadership and driver work ownership, two contextual attributes of lone work, whereas its proximal consequence included driving safety. Using a prospective design, safety outcomes, consisting of hard-braking frequency (i.e. traffic near-miss events) were collected six months after survey completion, using GPS-based truck deceleration data. Results supported the hypothesized model, indicating that distant leadership style and work ownership promote psychological safety climate perceptions, with subsequent prediction of hard-braking events mediated by driving safety. Theoretical and practical implications for studying safety climate among lone workers in general and professional drivers in particular are discussed.

  17. Fill That Truck | Poster

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feds Feed Families is a federal workforce initiative to fight hunger in our local communities. This year’s campaign began on June 13 and will continue until the end of August. After collecting approximately 550 pounds of food each of the last two years, NCI at Frederick is making a push to collect even more this summer. On June 29, during Take Your Child to Work Day, a 10-foot truck will be parked in the hub area along Chandler Street and Wood Street.

  18. 集装箱码头集卡动态调度模型优化%A Model Optimization of Yard Truck Dynamic Scheduling in Container Terminal

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐远琴; 韩晓龙

    2013-01-01

    集卡调度问题是影响集装箱码头操作效率的重要决策问题.在同一时段对集装箱进行装卸作业的情况下,考虑到集卡调度优化问题,为此建立了以集卡运作时间最小的动态调度优化模型,该模型为码头装卸作业调度提供了决策支持.算例结果表明了该模型的有效性和实用性.%Yard truck scheduling is an important decision factor which influences the container terminal operation efficiency.Under the condition of synchronously handling operations both loading and unloading,an optimization problem of yard truck scheduling was studied.The problem was formulated as a yard truck dynamic scheduling model.The objective was to minimize the time of yard truck operation.The model was useful for the loading and unloading operation decision of scheduling in container terminals.The effectiveness and usefulness of the model were verified by a case.

  19. Test, Evaluation, and Demonstration of Practical Devices/Systems to Reduce Aerodynamic Drag of Tractor/Semitrailer Combination Unit Trucks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scott Smith; Karla Younessi; Matt Markstaller; Dan Schlesinger; Bhaskar Bhatnagar; Donald Smith; Bruno Banceu; Ron Schoon; V.K. Sharma; Mark Kachmarsky; Srikant Ghantae; Michael Sorrels; Conal Deedy; Justin Clark; Skip Yeakel; Michael D. Laughlin; Charlotte Seigler; Sidney Diamond

    2007-04-30

    Class 8 heavy-duty trucks account for over three-quarters of the total diesel fuel used by commercial trucks (trucks with GVWRs more than 10,000 pounds) in the United States each year. At the highway speeds at which these trucks travel (i.e., 60 mph or greater), aerodynamic drag is a major part of total horsepower needed to move the truck down the highway, Reductions in aerodynamic drag can yield measurable benefits in fuel economy through the use of relatively inexpensive and simple devices. The goal of this project was to examine a number of aerodynamic drag reduction devices and systems and determine their effectiveness in reducing aerodynamic drag of Class 8 tractor/semitrailer combination-units, thus contributing to DOE's goal of reducing transportation petroleum use. The project team included major heavy truck manufacturers in the United States, along with the management and industry expertise of the Truck Manufacturers Association as the lead investigative organization. The Truck Manufacturers Association (TMA) is the national trade association representing the major North American manufacturers of Class 6-8 trucks (GVWRs over 19,500 lbs). Four major truck manufacturers participated in this project with TMA: Freightliner LLC; International Truck and Engine Corporation; Mack Trucks Inc.; and Volvo Trucks North America, Inc. Together, these manufacturers represent over three-quarters of total Class 8 truck sales in the United States. These four manufacturers pursued complementary research efforts as part of this project. The project work was separated into two phases conducted over a two-year period. In Phase I, candidate aerodynamic devices and systems were screened to focus research and development attention on devices that offered the most potential. This was accomplished using full-size vehicle tests, scale model tests, and computational fluid dynamics analyses. In Phase II, the most promising devices were installed on full-size trucks and their

  20. Model Year 2016 Fuel Economy Guide: EPA Fuel Economy Estimates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2015-11-01

    The Fuel Economy Guide is published by the U.S. Department of Energy as an aid to consumers considering the purchase of a new vehicle. The Guide lists estimates of miles per gallon (mpg) for each vehicle available for the new model year. These estimates are provided by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency in compliance with Federal Law. By using this Guide, consumers can estimate the average yearly fuel cost for any vehicle. The Guide is intended to help consumers compare the fuel economy of similarly sized cars, light duty trucks and special purpose vehicles. The vehicles listed have been divided into three classes of cars, three classes of light duty trucks, and three classes of special purpose vehicles.

  1. Model Year 2005 Fuel Economy Guide: EPA Fuel Economy Estimates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2004-11-01

    The Fuel Economy Guide is published by the U.S. Department of Energy as an aid to consumers considering the purchase of a new vehicle. The Guide lists estimates of miles per gallon (mpg) for each vehicle available for the new model year. These estimates are provided by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency in compliance with Federal Law. By using this Guide, consumers can estimate the average yearly fuel cost for any vehicle. The Guide is intended to help consumers compare the fuel economy of similarly sized cars, light duty trucks and special purpose vehicles. The vehicles listed have been divided into three classes of cars, three classes of light duty trucks, and three classes of special purpose vehicles.

  2. Model Year 2008 Fuel Economy Guide: EPA Fuel Economy Estimates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2007-10-01

    The Fuel Economy Guide is published by the U.S. Department of Energy as an aid to consumers considering the purchase of a new vehicle. The Guide lists estimates of miles per gallon (mpg) for each vehicle available for the new model year. These estimates are provided by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency in compliance with Federal Law. By using this Guide, consumers can estimate the average yearly fuel cost for any vehicle. The Guide is intended to help consumers compare the fuel economy of similarly sized cars, light duty trucks and special purpose vehicles. The vehicles listed have been divided into three classes of cars, three classes of light duty trucks, and three classes of special purpose vehicles.

  3. Model Year 2009 Fuel Economy Guide: EPA Fuel Economy Estimates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2008-10-01

    The Fuel Economy Guide is published by the U.S. Department of Energy as an aid to consumers considering the purchase of a new vehicle. The Guide lists estimates of miles per gallon (mpg) for each vehicle available for the new model year. These estimates are provided by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency in compliance with Federal Law. By using this Guide, consumers can estimate the average yearly fuel cost for any vehicle. The Guide is intended to help consumers compare the fuel economy of similarly sized cars, light duty trucks and special purpose vehicles. The vehicles listed have been divided into three classes of cars, three classes of light duty trucks, and three classes of special purpose vehicles.

  4. Model Year 2007 Fuel Economy Guide: EPA Fuel Economy Estimates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2007-10-01

    The Fuel Economy Guide is published by the U.S. Department of Energy as an aid to consumers considering the purchase of a new vehicle. The Guide lists estimates of miles per gallon (mpg) for each vehicle available for the new model year. These estimates are provided by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency in compliance with Federal Law. By using this Guide, consumers can estimate the average yearly fuel cost for any vehicle. The Guide is intended to help consumers compare the fuel economy of similarly sized cars, light duty trucks and special purpose vehicles. The vehicles listed have been divided into three classes of cars, three classes of light duty trucks, and three classes of special purpose vehicles.

  5. Model Year 2006 Fuel Economy Guide: EPA Fuel Economy Estimates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2005-11-01

    The Fuel Economy Guide is published by the U.S. Department of Energy as an aid to consumers considering the purchase of a new vehicle. The Guide lists estimates of miles per gallon (mpg) for each vehicle available for the new model year. These estimates are provided by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency in compliance with Federal Law. By using this Guide, consumers can estimate the average yearly fuel cost for any vehicle. The Guide is intended to help consumers compare the fuel economy of similarly sized cars, light duty trucks and special purpose vehicles. The vehicles listed have been divided into three classes of cars, three classes of light duty trucks, and three classes of special purpose vehicles.

  6. Model Year 2015 Fuel Economy Guide: EPA Fuel Economy Estimates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2014-12-01

    The Fuel Economy Guide is published by the U.S. Department of Energy as an aid to consumers considering the purchase of a new vehicle. The Guide lists estimates of miles per gallon (mpg) for each vehicle available for the new model year. These estimates are provided by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency in compliance with Federal Law. By using this Guide, consumers can estimate the average yearly fuel cost for any vehicle. The Guide is intended to help consumers compare the fuel economy of similarly sized cars, light duty trucks and special purpose vehicles. The vehicles listed have been divided into three classes of cars, three classes of light duty trucks, and three classes of special purpose vehicles.

  7. Model Year 2010 Fuel Economy Guide: EPA Fuel Economy Estimates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2009-10-14

    The Fuel Economy Guide is published by the U.S. Department of Energy as an aid to consumers considering the purchase of a new vehicle. The Guide lists estimates of miles per gallon (mpg) for each vehicle available for the new model year. These estimates are provided by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency in compliance with Federal Law. By using this Guide, consumers can estimate the average yearly fuel cost for any vehicle. The Guide is intended to help consumers compare the fuel economy of similarly sized cars, light duty trucks and special purpose vehicles. The vehicles listed have been divided into three classes of cars, three classes of light duty trucks, and three classes of special purpose vehicles.

  8. Model Year 2014 Fuel Economy Guide: EPA Fuel Economy Estimates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2013-12-01

    The Fuel Economy Guide is published by the U.S. Department of Energy as an aid to consumers considering the purchase of a new vehicle. The Guide lists estimates of miles per gallon (mpg) for each vehicle available for the new model year. These estimates are provided by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency in compliance with Federal Law. By using this Guide, consumers can estimate the average yearly fuel cost for any vehicle. The Guide is intended to help consumers compare the fuel economy of similarly sized cars, light duty trucks and special purpose vehicles. The vehicles listed have been divided into three classes of cars, three classes of light duty trucks, and three classes of special purpose vehicles.

  9. Scheduling of Inbound Trucks at a Cross-Docking Facility: Bi-Objective VS Bi-Level Modeling Approaches

    OpenAIRE

    Golias, Mihalis M.; Saharidis, Georgios K.D.; Maria Boile; Sotirios Theofanis

    2012-01-01

    This paper examines the problem of scheduling of inbound trucks to the inbound doors at a cross-docking facility. The authors optimize for two conflicting objectives: minimize the total service time for all the inbound trucks and minimize the delayed completion of service for a subset of the inbound trucks, which are considered as preferential customers. The problem is formulated as a bi-objective and as a bi-level mixed integer problem. Due to the nature of the former and the complexity of t...

  10. A Super-show of Super Trucks-Auman EST in Europe%超级卡车的超级秀--记欧曼EST超级卡车的欧洲之旅

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邵子桐

    2016-01-01

    BFDA was the only Chinese truck business in this year event of IAA 2016 in German, which had attracted a great attention from audiences and industry as well. This model of Auman EST Super Trucks was placed gloriously into the same exhibition hall as Mercedes-Benz Urban eTruck was, through which the company made a public announcement on the spot that Auman EST will be launched in the world market, as to be tested under the world-strict standard.

  11. Model Year 2017 Fuel Economy Guide: EPA Fuel Economy Estimates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2016-11-01

    The Fuel Economy Guide is published by the U.S. Department of Energy as an aid to consumers considering the purchase of a new vehicle. The Guide lists estimates of miles per gallon (mpg) for each vehicle available for the new model year. These estimates are provided by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency in compliance with Federal Law. By using this Guide, consumers can estimate the average yearly fuel cost for any vehicle. The Guide is intended to help consumers compare the fuel economy of similarly sized cars, light duty trucks and special purpose vehicles.

  12. Model Year 2011 Fuel Economy Guide: EPA Fuel Economy Estimates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2010-11-01

    The Fuel Economy Guide is published by the U.S. Department of Energy as an aid to consumers considering the purchase of a new vehicle. The Guide lists estimates of miles per gallon (mpg) for each vehicle available for the new model year. These estimates are provided by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency in compliance with Federal Law. By using this Guide, consumers can estimate the average yearly fuel cost for any vehicle. The Guide is intended to help consumers compare the fuel economy of similarly sized cars, light duty trucks and special purpose vehicles.

  13. Model Year 2012 Fuel Economy Guide: EPA Fuel Economy Estimates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2011-11-01

    The Fuel Economy Guide is published by the U.S. Department of Energy as an aid to consumers considering the purchase of a new vehicle. The Guide lists estimates of miles per gallon (mpg) for each vehicle available for the new model year. These estimates are provided by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency in compliance with Federal Law. By using this Guide, consumers can estimate the average yearly fuel cost for any vehicle. The Guide is intended to help consumers compare the fuel economy of similarly sized cars, light duty trucks and special purpose vehicles.

  14. Model Year 2013 Fuel Economy Guide: EPA Fuel Economy Estimates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2012-12-01

    The Fuel Economy Guide is published by the U.S. Department of Energy as an aid to consumers considering the purchase of a new vehicle. The Guide lists estimates of miles per gallon (mpg) for each vehicle available for the new model year. These estimates are provided by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency in compliance with Federal Law. By using this Guide, consumers can estimate the average yearly fuel cost for any vehicle. The Guide is intended to help consumers compare the fuel economy of similarly sized cars, light duty trucks and special purpose vehicles.

  15. Developing Chinese Heavy Truck Industry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tang Jintao

    2009-01-01

    @@ Strong economic recovery=Great opportunity in heavy trucks Based on the four trillion investment expansionary fiscal policy and the loose monetary policy,China's economy is stimulated.Meanwhile,the CITIC Securities Research Dept.estimated that the economic growth will be better than expected in 2009 and 2010.Macro-economic expectations continue to improve and the fix-asset investment growth rate hit a new high level of the recent five years.

  16. Modeling and Simulation of Truck Engine Cooling System for Onboard Diagnosis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱正礼; 张建武; 包继华

    2004-01-01

    A cooling system model of a selected internal combustion engine has been built for onboard diagnosis. The model uses driving cycle data available within the production Engine Control Module (ECM): vehicle speed, engine speed, and fuel flow rate for the given ambient temperature and pressure, etc. Based on the conservation laws for heat transfer and mass flow process, the mathematical descriptions for the components involved in the cooling circuit are obtained and all the components are integrated into a model on Matlab/Simulink platform. The model can simulate the characteristics of thermostat (e.g. time-lag, hysteresis effect).The changes of coolant temperature, heat transfer flow rate, and pressure at individual component site are also shown.

  17. Work Truck Idling Reduction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2017-03-01

    Hybrid utility trucks, with auxiliary power sources for on-board equipment, significantly reduce unnecessary idling resulting in fuel costs savings, less engine wear, and reduction in noise and emissions.

  18. SIMULATION MODELS OF HEAVY TRUCKS TRAFFIC CONTROL WITH ELECTRIC DC DRIVE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. N. Hurski

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A model of the straight course of movement of the mobile machine with a traction electric motor DC. Traffic management controller provides a closed classical scheme with feedback. The mathematical model of the electric DC motor with the energy dissipation in the rotor bearings. Design scheme of mobile machines include speed dial controller, traction electric motor, gearbox, transmission and progressively moving mass on the elastic­dissipative wheel. The results of the simulation of the machine in the form of temporary processes of change control signals, voltage and current in the windings of the motor and traction power developed on the wheel.

  19. Modeling and Design of Hybrid PEM Fuel Cell Systems for Lift Trucks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hosseinzadeh, Elham

    . The most common type of fuel cell used for automotive applications is the PEM fuel cell. They are known for their high efficiency, low emissions and high reliability. However, the biggest obstacles to introducing fuel cell vehicles are the lack of a hydrogen infrastructure, cost and durability of the stack....... This model can be used as a guideline for optimal PEMFC operation with respect to electrical efficiency and net power production. In addition to the optimal operation, investigation of different coolants and operating conditions provides some recommendations for water and thermal management of the system...

  20. MODELING AND CALCULATION OF FLOW AMPLIFIER PARAMETERS IN STEERING OF HEAVY TRUCKS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. P. Avtushko

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper analyzes prospects pertaining to development of methods for dynamic calculation of monitoring hydraulic units with various types of relations.  Calculated diagram of steering hydraulic drive with flow amplifier and turning cylinder has been given in the paper and its dynamic model has been developed. A hydraulic drive is considered as a system with lumped parameters. It is supposed that properties of working fluid are unchangeable during transient process; leakages and cavitations do not occur; fluid can be pressed; resistance of service drain line is taken into account. Model has been developed with due account of resistance of manifolds and internal channels of flow amplifier, hydrodynamic forces, that influence on amplifier control valves, and friction forces of movable elements. Multi-variant dynamic calculation has been done and some results of the investigations are presented in the paper. The paper also contains analysis that shows influence of various design and component parameters of flow amplifier on the drive dynamics. 

  1. A Computer-aided Application for Modeling and Monitoring Operational and Maintenance Information in Mining Trucks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikulin, Christopher; Ulloa, Andres; Carmona, Carlos; Creixell, Werner

    2016-09-01

    The combination of maintenance planning and key performance indicators are relevant to create a more holistic scenario of the mining activities. On the one hand, reliability and maintainability are system characteristics suitable for planning maintenance strategies. On the other hand, key performance indicators are suitable to analyze cost and resource consumption information about mining equipment. Nevertheless in practice, both approaches are modeled separately and frequently by different team-works of a mining company. With this in mind, a computer-aided application was conceived to drive with better efficacy the operational and maintenance strategy in a complex process where the equipment is in continuous movement such as the transportation process in an open-mine pit.

  2. Impacts of Left Lane Truck Restriction on Urban Freeways

    OpenAIRE

    Yang, Choon-Heon; Regan, A C

    2007-01-01

    This paper examines the impacts of truck lane restriction on urban freeways using traffic simulation models. The study includes three main parts: Part (1) provides insights into conditions under which truck lane restrictions would work well; Part (2) identifies the best number of lanes to restrict and shows that this is an important factor in the success of lane restriction; Part (3) investigates potential impacts of truck lane restriction through a case study using a region with some of the ...

  3. Modelling Truck Camper Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kramlich, G. R., II; Kobylski, G.; Ahner, D.

    2008-01-01

    This note describes an interdisciplinary project designed to enhance students' knowledge of the basic techniques taught in a multivariable calculus course. The note discusses the four main requirements of the project and then the solutions for each requirement. Concepts covered include differentials, gradients, Lagrange multipliers, constrained…

  4. 长大下坡货车制动器温度模型%Prediction Model of Brake Temperature of Truck on Long and Steep Downgrade

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    靳恩勇; 杜博英

    2011-01-01

    In order to study the temperature curve of braking thermal decay of heavy-duty truck in long and steep downgrade sections, a temperature prediction model of heavy-duty truck's brake under the condition of engine braking and exhaust braking was established based on the theory of energy conservation. By the braking temperature test on long and steep downgrade expressway sections, continuous temperature data of brake under the conditions of different braking ways, different loads, and climbing on continuous uphill road were obtained. Meanwhile, the engine power curve of heavy-duty truck was obtained through laboratory bench test. Finally, some model parameters, such as initial temperature, ambient temperature, etc. were revised by validation of test data.The results show that the main factors affecting the temperature of the brake are truck load, downhill slope length, slope and operation speed. The model provides a theoretical basis for the research of driving safety on the long and steep downgrade of expressway.%为了研究在道路长大下坡上载重货车制动器热衰减的温度曲线,应用能量守恒理论建立了载重货车在发动机制动和排气制动时制动器温度预测模型.通过在高速公路长大下坡路段进行制动器测温试验,得到了制动器在不同制动方式、载重时的连续升温数据和连续上坡时的连续降温数据;同时通过室内台架试验,得到了载重货车发动机功率曲线.最后通过试验数据检验,对模型中部分参数,如初始温度、环境温度等进行了修正.研究结果表明,货车荷载、下坡坡长、坡度、运行车速是影响制动器温度的主要因素,模型为高速公路长大下坡安全研究提供了一定的理论基础.

  5. Toy Trucks in Video Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2015-01-01

    Video fieldstudies of people who could be potential users is widespread in design projects. How to analyse such video is, however, often challenging, as it is time consuming and requires a trained eye to unlock experiential knowledge in people’s practices. In our work with industrialists, we have...... discovered that using scale-models like toy trucks has a strongly encouraging effect on developers/designers to collaboratively make sense of field videos. In our analysis of such scale-model sessions, we found some quite fundamental patterns of how participants utilise objects; the participants build shared...

  6. Lower Cross-Braced Truck and Swing Motion Truck Have Different Effect on Freight Car Dynamics Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chao Chen

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available There are two major types of trucks for freight car in Chinese railroad. One is the lower cross-braced truck; the other is the swing motion truck. To evaluate the different performance, diamond resistant rigidity of the lower cross-braced truck and the lateral stiffness of the swing motion truck are analyzed. To simulate the dynamics performance of the swing motion truck, an equivalent lateral stiffness is calculated. Then it is modeled as a lateral spring between side frames and bolstered to simulate the swing. After that, two typical freight cars’ models which use the two types of trucks are built in SIMPACK. The L/V Ratio and Wheel Load Reduction Ratio are chosen for evaluating running safety of the freight car. The simulation results are compared and they prove that the impact force between wheel and rail when the car passing curve can be reduced effectively as the swing motion truck has a better lateral flexible. Therefore, it has a lower L/V ratio under the same running and loading condition. However, the swing leads a larger lateral displacement of the car-body, so the gravity center of loaded car has a larger lateral displacement than the car with lower cross-braced truck; which results to a larger Wheel Load Reduction Ratio.  

  7. Heavy Truck Clean Diesel Cooperative Research Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Milam, David

    2006-12-31

    This report is the final report for the Department of Energy on the Heavy Truck Engine Program (Contract No. DE-FC05-00OR22806) also known as Heavy Truck Clean Diesel (HTCD) Program. Originally, this was scoped to be a $38M project over 5 years, to be 50/50 co-funded by DOE and Caterpillar. The program started in June 2000. During the program the timeline was extended to a sixth year. The program completed in December 2006. The program goal was to develop and demonstrate the technologies required to enable compliance with the 2007 and 2010 (0.2g/bhph NOx, 0.01g/bhph PM) on-highway emission standards for Heavy Duty Trucks in the US with improvements in fuel efficiency compared to today's engines. Thermal efficiency improvement from a baseline of 43% to 50% was targeted.

  8. Application of Sleeper Cab Thermal Management Technologies to Reduce Idle Climate Control Loads in Long-Haul Trucks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lustbader, J. A.; Venson, T.; Adelman, S.; Dehart, C.; Yeakel, S.; Castillo, M. S.

    2012-10-01

    Each intercity long-haul truck in the U.S. idles approximately 1,800 hrs per year, primarily for sleeper cab hotel loads. Including workday idling, over 2 billion gallons of fuel are used annually for truck idling. NREL's CoolCab project works closely with industry to design efficient thermal management systems for long-haul trucks that keep the cab comfortable with minimized engine idling and fuel use. The impact of thermal load reduction technologies on idle reduction systems were characterized by conducting thermal soak tests, overall heat transfer tests, and 10-hour rest period A/C tests. Technologies evaluated include advanced insulation packages, a solar reflective film applied to the vehicle's opaque exterior surfaces, a truck featuring both film and insulation, and a battery-powered A/C system. Opportunities were identified to reduce heating and cooling loads for long-haul truck idling by 36% and 34%, respectively, which yielded a 23% reduction in battery pack capacity of the idle-reduction system. Data were also collected for development and validation of a CoolCalc HVAC truck cab model. CoolCalc is an easy-to-use, simplified, physics-based HVAC load estimation tool that requires no meshing, has flexible geometry, excludes unnecessary detail, and is less time-intensive than more detailed computer-aided engineering modeling approaches.

  9. Roller Toaster Food Truck

    OpenAIRE

    López Tarache, Óscar Mauricio; Guerrero Prieto, Juan Sebastián

    2015-01-01

    Creación y desarrollo de un restaurante móvil "Food Truck Roller Toaster" el cual produce y comercializa Sándwiches y Ensaladas Gourmet bajo el concepto de lo Tostado. Durante la Tesis se tratan temas de desarrollo de marca, diseño de producto, estudios de mercado, entre otros.

  10. Investigation on Drag Reduction of Trucks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QI Xiao-ni; LIU Zhen-yan

    2008-01-01

    A study of the mechanism of fences was given to reduce drag by means of theoretical analysis, numerical simulation and experimental research. A 3D mathematical model has been developed based on computational fluid dynamics software Phoenics that was capable of handling steady state, 3D flow to simulate the flow field around the truck. The experiment made in a low speed wind tunnel is used as references for validation. By analyzing the results of calculation and experiment, the flowing mechanism of the flow field around the container truck and the drag-reducing mechanism of #-shaped fences on the truck are unveiled, which provides theoretical guidance to the aerodynamic formation designing and amelioration.

  11. Ride comfort optimization of a multi-axle heavy motorized wheel dump truck based on virtual and real prototype experiment integrated Kriging model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bian Gong

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The optimization of hydro-pneumatic suspension parameters of a multi-axle heavy motorized wheel dump truck is carried out based on virtual and real prototype experiment integrated Kriging model in this article. The root mean square of vertical vibration acceleration, in the center of sprung mass, is assigned as the optimization objective. The constraints are the natural frequency, the working stroke, and the dynamic load of wheels. The suspension structure for the truck is the adjustable hydro-pneumatic suspension with ideal vehicle nonlinear characteristics, integrated with elastic and damping elements. Also, the hydraulic systems of two adjacent hydro-pneumatic suspension are interconnected. Considering the high complexity of the engineering model, a novel kind of meta-model called virtual and real prototype experiment integrated Kriging is proposed in this article. The interpolation principle and the construction of virtual and real prototype experiment integrated Kriging model were elucidated. Being different from traditional Kriging, virtual and real prototype experiment integrated Kriging combines the respective advantages of actual test and Computer Aided Engineering simulation. Based on the virtual and real prototype experiment integrated Kriging model, the optimization results, obtained by experimental verification, showed significant improvement in the ride comfort by 12.48% for front suspension and 11.79% for rear suspension. Compared with traditional Kriging, the optimization effect was improved by 3.05% and 3.38% respectively. Virtual and real prototype experiment integrated Kriging provides an effective way to approach the optimal solution for the optimization of high-complexity engineering problems.

  12. An analysis on China’s segmented truck market in 2007

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    <正>The truck market in 2007 maintained the rapid growth trend formed in 2006. The year saw a total of 2.1145 million trucks sold, a year on year growth of 22.46 percent. Detailed figures: finished truck: 1.5164 million units, a year on year growth of 15.11 percent; truck chassis: 450,400 units, a year on year growth of 31.98 percent; semi-trailer: 177,800 units, a year on year growth of 91.86 percent.

  13. Development and Validation of a Simple Analytical Model of the Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cell (Pemfc) in a Fork-Lift Truck Power System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hosseinzadeh, Elham; Rokni, Masoud

    2013-01-01

    for the auxilary components depending on the stack power or current. Further, at the higher current densities, heat losses and net power of the system increase, while system efficiency decreases. Furthermore, the system performance was not sensitive to the coolant temperature when water is used as the coolant....... management, system sensitivity to coolant inlet temperature, air and fuel stoichiometry, anode inlet pressure, stack operating conditions, etc. System efficiency and electrical power at different operating conditions are also discussed. The results show that 12–30% of stack power is allocated......In this study, a general proton exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) model has been developed in order to investigate the balance of plant of a fork-lift truck thermodynamically. The model takes into account the effects of pressure losses, water crossovers, humidity aspects, and voltage...

  14. Effects of After-Treatment Control Technologies on Heavy-Duty Diesel Truck Emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preble, C.; Dallmann, T. R.; Kreisberg, N. M.; Hering, S. V.; Harley, R.; Kirchstetter, T.

    2015-12-01

    Diesel engines are major emitters of nitrogen oxides (NOx) and the black carbon (BC) fraction of particulate matter (PM). Diesel particle filter (DPF) and selective catalytic reduction (SCR) emission control systems that target exhaust PM and NOx have recently become standard on new heavy-duty diesel trucks (HDDT). There is concern that DPFs may increase ultrafine particle (UFP) and total particle number (PN) emissions while reducing PM mass emissions. Also, the deliberate catalytic oxidation of engine-out NO to NO2 in continuously regenerating DPFs may lead to increased tailpipe emission of NO2 and near-roadway concentrations that exceed the 1-hr national ambient air quality standard. Increased NO2 emissions can also promote formation of ozone and secondary PM. We report results from ongoing on-road studies of HDDT emissions at the Port of Oakland and the Caldecott Tunnel in California's San Francisco Bay Area. Emission factors (g pollutant per kg diesel) were linked via recorded license plates to each truck's engine model year and installed emission controls. At both sites, DPF use significantly increased the NO2/NOx emission ratio. DPFs also significantly increased NO2 emissions when installed as retrofits on older trucks with higher baseline NOx emissions. While SCR systems on new trucks effectively reduce total NOx emissions and mitigate these undesirable DPF-related NO2 emissions, they also lead to significant emission of N2O, a potent greenhouse gas. When expressed on a CO2-equivalent basis, the N2O emissions increase offsets the fuel economy gain (i.e., the CO2 emission reduction) associated with SCR use. At the Port, average NOx, BC and PN emission factors from new trucks equipped with DPF and SCR were 69 ± 15%, 92 ± 32% and 66 ± 35% lower, respectively, than modern trucks without these emission controls. In contrast, at the Tunnel, PN emissions from older trucks retrofit with DPFs were ~2 times greater than modern trucks without DPFs. The difference

  15. Effects of Variation in Truck Factor on Pavement Performance in Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rabia Chaudry

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Seasonal variation coupled with heavy axle loading is the key factor in rapid road deterioration in Pakistan. The serviceability loss is further accelerated by the fact that truck drivers and owners consider overloading as a profitable practice unaware of the adverse effects of this practice. Weigh-in-motion data from two stations located between two major cities of Pakistan (Peshawar and Rawalpindi on Grand Trunk Road (N-5 were collected and analyzed. Analysis of variance and comparison of actual and designed truck factor were performed to identify the most damaging axle truck type. It was found that axle truck type 3 (single/tandem axle is most damaging among all truck types. The actual truck factor for axle truck type 3 is 6.4 times greater than design truck factor. Regression expressions of different forms were also investigated to determine the relationship between truck factor and gross vehicular weight for the specified truck types. An optimum generalization strategy was used to prevent over-generalization and ensure accuracy. For data analysis, 75% of data was used to develop regression models and remaining 25% was to validate those models. The results show that the polynomial expressions performed best and provide a robust relationship that can be employed by the highway authorities to estimate truck factor from gross vehicular weight with a high degree of confidence. It was also observed that damaging effect of various types of trucks was very severe and quite high.

  16. CUSTOMER'S PERCEPTION TOWARDS FOOD TRUCK PRODUCTS IN INDIA

    OpenAIRE

    Dr. Ramakrishna Bandaru*, Prof. H. Venkateshwarlu

    2017-01-01

    Food Truck business is a very famous and a growing business in today’s time. Over the decade, every country in the world has been following the trend of the mobile food business. The silent feature of the food truck business is ‘customer reach and satisfaction’. Along with the increase in people living standards, ‘food on wheel’ business made a popular. According to IBIS World report, the food truck industry in the world has grown an average of 9.3% per year over the last five years. Slowly,...

  17. 49 CFR 399.207 - Truck and truck-tractor access requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Truck and truck-tractor access requirements. 399... Vehicles § 399.207 Truck and truck-tractor access requirements. (a) General rule. Any person entering or exiting the cab or accessing the rear portion of a high profile COE truck or truck-tractor shall...

  18. 49 CFR 393.61 - Truck and truck tractor window construction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Truck and truck tractor window construction. 393.61 Section 393.61 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL... and truck tractor window construction. Each truck and truck tractor (except trucks engaged in...

  19. Analysis of truck platoon dynamics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhoeff, L.; Zuurbier, J.; Lupker, H.A.

    1999-01-01

    This paper presents the analysis of truck platoon dynamics using a simulation environment. In this case the platoon consists of a number of trucks following each other using driver algorithms. MADYMO (a multibody and FE software package) and MATLAB/SIMULINK are coupled to allow for these driver algo

  20. Team development and team performance. Responsibilities, responsiveness and results : A longitudinal study of teamwork at Volvo Trucks Umeå

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuipers, B.

    2005-01-01

    A three-year longitudinal study of more than 150 self-managing work teams was carried out at Volvo Trucks Umea, Sweden. Data obtained by this study were used to test a model about the performance effects of team development, answering the following research questions: (1) how can the team developmen

  1. Team development and team performance. Responsibilities, responsiveness and results : A longitudinal study of teamwork at Volvo Trucks Umeå

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuipers, B.

    2005-01-01

    A three-year longitudinal study of more than 150 self-managing work teams was carried out at Volvo Trucks Umea, Sweden. Data obtained by this study were used to test a model about the performance effects of team development, answering the following research questions: (1) how can the team

  2. 集装箱卡车运输问题的基于图的建模方法%Graph-based modeling method for container truck transportation problems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张瑞友; 汪定伟; 尹原永

    2011-01-01

    对港口和发货人/收货人之间的集装箱卡车运输问题给出了基于图的建模方法.该图不仅可以描述进出口空箱或满箱的运输,而且可以描述空集装箱作为运输资源的属性,这种图将确定的活动描述为顶点,将不确定的活动描述为弧,称为确定活动在顶点上的图(DAOV图).基于这种方法,建立了集装箱卡车运输问题的基本情形、多堆场多港口情形以及堆场上的空箱数目给定情形的数学模型;相应问题被描述为带时间窗的多旅行商问题(m-TSPTW)、多堆场的m-TSPTW以及带资源约束的m-TSPTW.而且这种方法可以扩展到集装箱卡车运输问题的更一般情形,这体现出该建模方法的有效性.%A graph-based modeling method of container truck transportation problems between terminals and final shippers/receivers was proposed in this paper. The graph can formulate not only the transportation of import/export full/empty containers, but also the transportation resource attribute of empty containers. The graph denotes determinate activities with vertexes and denotes indeterminate activities with arcs. Therefore, it is named as determinate-activities-on-vertexes (DAOV) graph. Based on the proposed graph, the basic case, multi-depot multi-terminal case, and the case with given number of empty containers on depots, of the container truck transportation problems were mathematically modeled. They fall into the multiple traveling salesman problem with time windows (m-TSPTW), multi-depot m-TSPTW, and m-TSPTW with resource constraints, respectively. Furthermore, the modeling method can be extended to more general cases of the problems, which indicates the validity of the presented graph-based modeling method.

  3. STD in Bangladesh's trucking industry: prevalence and risk factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibney, L; Saquib, N; Macaluso, M; Hasan, K N; Aziz, M M; Khan, A Y M H; Choudhury, P

    2002-02-01

    This study characterises the prevalence of a broad spectrum of sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) (herpes simplex virus 2, syphilis, chlamydia, gonorrhoea), and examines associations between risk factors and infection in men working in Bangladesh's trucking industry. Given the high risk sexual behaviours of truck drivers and helpers in many contexts, as well as the direct health effects of STDs and their role in facilitating HIV transmission, it is important to understand the prevalence of STDs and associated risk factors in this population. A cross sectional study was conducted at Tejgaon truck stand, one of the largest truck stands in Dhaka, the capital city. The study group, comprising 388 truck drivers and helpers, was selected via a two tiered sampling strategy. Of 185 trucking agencies based at the truck stand, 38 agencies were randomly selected, and a mean of 10 subjects (drivers/helpers) were recruited from each agency. Urine and blood samples were collected from subjects after an interview about their lifestyle and a comprehensive physical examination. Gold standard laboratory tests were conducted for the detection of STD. Multiple logistic regression was used to assess associations between infections and potential risk factors. The levels of prevalence of disease were HSV-2 (25.8%), serological syphilis (5.7%), gonorrhoea (2.1%), chlamydia (0.8%). For infection with any bacterial STD (syphilis, gonorrhoea, or chlamydia) the only significant risk factor was having sex with a commercial sex worker in the past year (OR=3.54; CI=1.29-9.72). For HSV-2, truck helpers working primarily on interdistrict routes were significantly more likely to be infected than drivers working on these routes (OR=2.51, CI=1.13--5.55). The high prevalence of HSV-2, and to a lesser extent syphilis, and the low levels of condom use despite high numbers of casual sexual partners, illustrate the importance of promoting condom use, particularly in commercial sexual encounters, to men

  4. Assessment of the risk of transporting propane by truck and train

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geffen, C.A.

    1980-03-01

    The risk of shipping propane is discussed and the risk assessment methodology is summarized. The risk assessment model has been constructed as a series of separate analysis steps to allow the risk to be readily reevaluated as additional data becomes available or as postulated system characteristics change. The transportation system and accident environment, the responses of the shipping system to forces in transportation accidents, and release sequences are evaluated to determine both the likelihood and possible consequences of a release. Supportive data and analyses are given in the appendices. The risk assessment results are related to the year 1985 to allow a comparison with other reports in this series. Based on the information presented, accidents involving tank truck shipments of propane will be expected to occur at a rate of 320 every year; accidents involving bobtails would be expected at a rate of 250 every year. Train accidents involving propane shipments would be expected to occur at a rate of about 60 every year. A release of any amount of material from propane trucks, under both normal transportation and transport accident conditions, is to be expected at a rate of about 110 per year. Releases from propane rail tank cars would occur about 40 times a year. However, only those releases that occur during a transportation accident or involve a major tank defect will include sufficient propane to present the potential for danger to the public. These significant releases can be expected at the lower rate of about fourteen events per year for truck transport and about one event every two years for rail tank car transport. The estimated number of public fatalities resulting from these significant releases in 1985 is fifteen. About eleven fatalities per year result from tank truck operation, and approximately half a death per year stems from the movement of propane in rail tank cars.

  5. Lateral Dynamics Of A Railway Truck On Flexible Tangent Track

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saha*, A. K.; Karmakar, R.; Bhattacharyya, R.

    A railway vehicle becomes unstable beyond a critical speed. Assessment of the critical speed is important for safety and passenger comfort. Bond graph model of a railway truck-wheelset system on flexible tangent track has been created with eighteen degrees of freedom considering six degrees of freedom for each wheelset and the truck unit without any linearity approximation for the wheelsets. Kalker's linear creep theory has been used for rail-wheel contact forces. The bond graph model of a single wheelset created earlier has been used for the front and rear wheelsets to model the truck-wheelset system. The model is created and simulated for a given set of nominal parameter values with rigid track condition. Truck-critical speeds and stability bahaviour are studied through simulations. Critical speed of a truck is found to be higher than that of a wheelset at the same axle load and conicity for nominal primary suspension and wheelbase. Contrary to the variation of critical speed of a single wheelset with increasing conicity critical speed of a truck decreases with increasing conicity.

  6. Mobile vehicles in the Netherlands. Prognoses to the year 2020. Description and application of the model PROMIN; Mobiele werktuigen in Nederland. Prognoses tot 2020

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bouwman, M.E.

    1996-03-01

    Mobile machinery consists of `special vehicles` as well as `off-road vehicles`. According to the Dutch Central Bureau of Statistics (CBS) special vehicles are converted (pick-up) trucks for a specific function, e.g. ambulances, garbage trucks and concrete mixers. Off-road vehicles do not have licence plates, but are self-propelling, are converted (pick-up) trucks for a specific function, e.g. ambulances, garbage trucks and concrete mixers. A model to calculate energy use of and emissions from mobile machinery is described for the period 1990-2020. In 1990 the calculated energy use of off-road vehicles is 28.6 PJ, amounting to 1.0% of the total energy use in the Netherlands. Agricultural machinery (9 PJ) has the largest share in this use, followed by special vehicles, excavators and fork-lift trucks. Emissions from mobile machinery are calculated for a great diversity of compounds using the model. The most important are CO2, CO, VOC, NOx and aerosols. The two CPB scenarios Global Shift and European Renaissance are used in order to make prognoses of energy use of and emissions from mobile machinery. Three policy options are assumed: no policy, a policy in which the actual emission standards are used, and a policy in which the standards are accentuated further for the year 2020. 70 refs.

  7. Dual-Fuel Truck Fleet: Start-Up Experience

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NREL

    1998-09-30

    Although dual-fuel engine technology has been in development and limited use for several years, it has only recently moved toward full-scale operational capability for heavy-duty truck applications. Unlike a bifuel engine, which has two separate fuel systems that are used one at a time, a dual-fuel engine uses two fuel systems simultaneously. One of California's South Coast Air Quality Management District (SCAQMD) current programs is a demonstration of dual-fuel engine technology in heavy-duty trucks. These trucks are being studied as part of the National Renewable Energy Laboratory's (NREL's) Alternative Fuel Truck Program. This report describes the start-up experience from the program.

  8. Application for certification 1982 model year heavy-duty diesel engines - General Motors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1982-01-01

    Every year, each manufacturer of passenger cars, light-duty trucks, motorcycles, or heavy-duty engines submits to EPA an application for certification. In the application, the manufacturer gives a detailed technical description of the vehicles or engines he intends to market during the upcoming model year. These engineering data include explanations and/or drawings which describe engine/vehicle parameters such as basic engine design, fuel systems, ignition systems and exhaust and evaporative emission control systems. It also provides information on emission test procedures, service accumulation procedures, fuels to be used, and proposed maintenance requirements to be followed during testing.

  9. Study on model selection of truck tires in strip mines%露天矿汽车轮胎选型研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐汉宝; 姬长生; 姚国栋; 孙金龙

    2012-01-01

    The consumption of the truck tire usually accounts for a higher proportion in the total transportation costs in strip mines, reasonable selection of tire model benefits reduction of transportation costs. Considering the fuzziness and hierarchy of the factors of tire model selection, the expert questionnaire method was used to build the tire selection model based on fuzzy decision. The tire parameters, environment adaptability and manufacturer factors served as the first-class indexes, and 12 other factors such as road condition adaptability, ton kilometer per hour (TKPH) etc. as the second-class indexes. And then, analytic hierarchy process (AHP) was applied to determine the weight of each factor, and the fuzzy decision was applied to determine the optimal tire model. At last, a case study was presented to illustrate the application process of the model.%露天矿汽车轮胎消耗占运输成本比重大,合理选择轮胎型号有利于降低运输总成本。考虑到轮胎选型因素的模糊性和层次性,采用专家问卷调查法,建立了基于模糊决策的轮胎选型模型,以轮胎参数、环境适应性和厂家因素为一级指标,以路况适应性、TKPH(每小时吨公里值)等12个因素为二级指标,使用层次分析法确定各因素权重,利用模糊决策确定最佳轮胎型号。通过实例分析,说明了模型的应用过程。

  10. Application of Chaos Theory in Trucks' Overloading Enforcement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abbas Mahmoudabadi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Trucks' overloading is considered as one of the most substantial concerns in road transport due to a possible road surface damage, as well as, are less reliable performance of trucks' braking system. Sufficient human resource and adequate time scheduling are to be planned for surveying trucks' overloading; hence, it seems required to prepare an all-around model to be able to predict the number of overloaded vehicles. In the present research work, the concept of chaos theory has been utilized to predict the ratio of trucks which might be guessed overloaded. The largest Lyapunov exponent is utilized to determine the presence of chaos using experimental data and concluded that the ratio of overloaded trucks reflects chaotic behavior. The prediction based on chaos theory is compared with the results of simple smoothing and moving average methods according to the well-known criterion of mean square errors. The results have also revealed that the chaotic prediction model would act more capably comparing the analogous methods including simple smoothing and moving average to predict the ratio of passing trucks to be possibly overloaded.

  11. MCDA APPLIED TO PERFORMANCE APPRAISAL OF SHORT-HAUL TRUCK DRIVERS: A CASE STUDY IN A PORTUGUESE TRUCKING COMPANY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raquel Morte

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Performance appraisal increasingly assumes a more important role in any organizational environment. In the trucking industry, drivers are the company's image and for this reason it is important to develop and increase their performance and commitment to the company's goals. This paper aims to create a performance appraisal model for trucking drivers, based on a multi-criteria decision aid methodology. The PROMETHEE and MMASSI methodologies were adapted using the criteria used for performance appraisal by the trucking company studied. The appraisal involved all the truck drivers, their supervisors and the company's Managing Director. The final output is a ranking of the drivers, based on their performance, for each one of the scenarios used. The results are to be used as a decision-making tool to allocate drivers to the domestic haul service.

  12. A model and its algorithms for truck congestion toll at container terminals%集装箱码头集卡拥堵收费模型与算法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曾庆成; 陈文浩; 黄玲

    2015-01-01

    研究集装箱码头集卡拥堵收费问题,目的是减少集卡排队等待时间,以及由集卡排队引起的污染排放。为确定最优的拥堵费率,建立了集卡拥堵收费的双层规划模型。模型考虑了码头运营商、集卡司机和政府管理者之间的博弈关系。在上层模型中,码头运营商以总排队费用最低为目标;下层是用户均衡模型,集卡司机以广义费用最低为目标选择到达时段,通过上下层模型间的反馈决定最优的拥堵收费方案。为求解模型,设计基于文化基因启发式(MH )算法和逐点固定流体近似(PSFFA)算法的求解方法,利用 MH 算法搜索最优收费方案,利用PSFFA算法计算排队时间。最后,应用算例对模型和算法的有效性进行验证。结果表明,拥堵收费可以有效地减少集卡排队时间,所设计的模型考虑了集卡收费的影响因素,以及码头运营商和集卡司机等主体之间的利益关系,为缓解码头集卡拥堵提供了一种有效的方法。%The issue of modeling truck congestion toll at container terminals is addressed to decrease the truck queuing and ease related air pollution.A bi-level programming model is developed to determine the optimal congestion toll rates. In the model, the game relationship of terminals operators,truckers and government regulators is considered.The upper level model is to minimize the total cost caused by truck queuing for terminals operators.And the lower level is user equilibrium model,in which each truck driver determines its arrival time to minimize the generalized cost. According to the feedback between upper-level and lower-level model,the optimal congestion toll strategy is determined.To solve the problem of this model,a method based on memetic heuristic (MH)algorithm and pointwise stationary fluid flow approximation (PSFFA)algorithm is designed. MH algorithm is used to search the optimal toll rates and PSFFA algorithm is

  13. Logistics of in-wood chipping and trucking of chips; Palstahaketuksen logistinen ketju

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nuuja, J. [Joensuu Univ. (Finland). Faculty of Forestry; Asikainen, A. [Metsaeosaamiskeskus, Joensuu (Finland). Joensuu Science Park

    1996-12-31

    In this study a in wood chipper and truck transport of chips were modelled and studied by discrete-event simulation. The input data, which included stand characteristics and information about transport distances was compiled by GRASS-program. This data based on the inventory done by Forestry Center TAPIO. With the model various transport alternatives were compared and the effect of work condition factors were studied. It was find out, that a long distance transport with interchangeable container truck gives better productivity than a truck with a trailer. This results from shorter loading time for the interchangeable container truck

  14. Real-world activity, fuel use, and emissions of diesel side-loader refuse trucks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandhu, Gurdas S.; Frey, H. Christopher; Bartelt-Hunt, Shannon; Jones, Elizabeth

    2016-03-01

    Diesel refuse trucks have the worst fuel economy of onroad highway vehicles. The real-world effectiveness of recently introduced emission controls during low speed and low engine load driving has not been verified for these vehicles. A portable emission measurement system (PEMS) was used to measure rates of fuel use and emissions on six side-loader refuse trucks. The objectives were to: (1) characterize activity, fuel use, and emissions; (2) evaluate variability between cycles and trucks; and (3) compare results with the MOVES emission factor model. Quality assured data cover 210,000 s and 550 miles of operation during which the trucks collected 4200 cans and 50 tons of waste material. The average fuel economy was 2.6 mpg. Trash collection contributed 70%-80% of total fuel use and emissions. The daily activity Operating Mode (OpMode) distribution and cycle average fuel use and emissions is different from previously used cycles such as Central Business District (CBD), New York Garbage Truck (NYGT), and William H. Martin (WHM). NOx emission rates for trucks with selective catalytic reduction were over 90% lower than those for trucks without. Similarly, trucks with diesel particulate filters had over 90% lower particulate matter (PM) emissions than trucks without. Compared to unloaded trucks, loaded truck averaged 18% lower fuel economy while NOx and PM emissions were higher by 65% and 16%, respectively. MOVES predicted values are highly correlated to empirical data; however, MOVES estimates are 37% lower for NOx and 300% higher for PM emission rates. The data presented here can be used to develop more representative cycles and improve emission factors for side-loader refuse trucks, which in turn can improve the accuracy of refuse truck emission inventories.

  15. Occupational conditions and the risk of the use of amphetamines by truck drivers

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Oliveira, Lúcio Garcia; de Souza, Letícia Maria de Araújo; Barroso, Lúcia Pereira; Gouvêa, Marcela Júlio César; de Almeida, Carlos Vinícius Dias; Muñoz, Daniel Romero; Leyton, Vilma

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To test whether the occupational conditions of professional truck drivers are associated with amphetamine use after demographic characteristics and ones regarding mental health and drug use are controlled for. METHODS Cross-sectional study, with a non-probabilistic sample of 684 male truck drivers, which was collected in three highways in Sao Paulo between years 2012 and 2013. Demographic and occupational information was collected, as well as data on drug use and mental health (sleep quality, emotional stress, and psychiatric disorders). A logistic regression model was developed to identify factors associated with amphetamine use. Odds ratio (OR; 95%CI) was defined as the measure for association. The significance level was established as p < 0.05. RESULTS The studied sample was found to have an average age of 36.7 (SD = 7.8) years, as well as low education (8.6 [SD = 2.3] years); 29.0% of drivers reported having used amphetamines within the twelve months prior to their interviews. After demographic and occupational variables had been controlled for, the factors which indicated amphetamine use among truck drivers were the following: being younger than 38 years (OR = 3.69), having spent less than nine years at school (OR = 1.76), being autonomous (OR = 1.65), working night shifts or irregular schedules (OR = 2.05), working over 12 hours daily (OR = 2.14), and drinking alcohol (OR = 1.74). CONCLUSIONS Occupational aspects are closely related to amphetamine use among truck drivers, which reinforces the importance of closely following the application of law (Resting Act (“Lei do Descanso”); Law 12,619/2012) which regulates the workload and hours of those professionals. Our results show the need for increased strictness on the trade and prescription of amphetamines in Brazil. PMID:26398875

  16. Occupational conditions and the risk of the use of amphetamines by truck drivers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lúcio Garcia de Oliveira

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE To test whether the occupational conditions of professional truck drivers are associated with amphetamine use after demographic characteristics and ones regarding mental health and drug use are controlled for.METHODS Cross-sectional study, with a non-probabilistic sample of 684 male truck drivers, which was collected in three highways in Sao Paulo between years 2012 and 2013. Demographic and occupational information was collected, as well as data on drug use and mental health (sleep quality, emotional stress, and psychiatric disorders. A logistic regression model was developed to identify factors associated with amphetamine use. Odds ratio (OR; 95%CI was defined as the measure for association. The significance level was established as p < 0.05.RESULTS The studied sample was found to have an average age of 36.7 (SD = 7.8 years, as well as low education (8.6 [SD = 2.3] years; 29.0% of drivers reported having used amphetamines within the twelve months prior to their interviews. After demographic and occupational variables had been controlled for, the factors which indicated amphetamine use among truck drivers were the following: being younger than 38 years (OR = 3.69, having spent less than nine years at school (OR = 1.76, being autonomous (OR = 1.65, working night shifts or irregular schedules (OR = 2.05, working over 12 hours daily (OR = 2.14, and drinking alcohol (OR = 1.74.CONCLUSIONS Occupational aspects are closely related to amphetamine use among truck drivers, which reinforces the importance of closely following the application of law (Resting Act (“Lei do Descanso”; Law 12,619/2012 which regulates the workload and hours of those professionals. Our results show the need for increased strictness on the trade and prescription of amphetamines in Brazil.

  17. Experimental validation of a truck roll model using asynchronous measurements with low signal-to-noise ratios

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Evers, W.-J.; Besselink, I.J.M.; Teerhuis, A.P.; Oomen, T.; Nijmeijer, H.

    2010-01-01

    There is a large body of literature on model validation, but there is no method available that can effectively use asynchronous repeated measurements with low signal-to-noise ratios. The aim of this paper is to present a novel frequency-domain model validation method, which is suitable for this type

  18. Heavy Truck Engine Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nelson, Christopher

    2009-01-08

    The Heavy Duty Truck Engine Program at Cummins embodied three significant development phases. All phases of work strove to demonstrate a high level of diesel engine efficiency in the face of increasingly stringent emission requirements. Concurrently, aftertreatment system development and refinement was pursued in support of these efficiency demonstrations. The program's first phase focused on the demonstration in-vehicle of a high level of heavy duty diesel engine efficiency (45% Brake Thermal Efficiency) at a typical cruise condition while achieving composite emissions results which met the 2004 U.S. EPA legislated standards. With a combination of engine combustion calibration tuning and the development and application of Urea-based SCR and particulate aftertreatment, these demonstrations were successfully performed by Q4 of 2002. The second phase of the program directed efforts towards an in-vehicle demonstration of an engine system capable of meeting 2007 U.S. EPA legislated emissions requirements while achieving 45% Brake Thermal Efficiency at cruise conditions. Through further combustion optimization, the refinement of Cummins Cooled EGR architecture, the application of a high pressure common rail fuel system and the incorporation of optimized engine parasitics, Cummins Inc. successfully demonstrated these deliverables in Q2 of 2004. The program's final phase set a stretch goal of demonstrating 50% Brake Thermal Efficiency from a heavy duty diesel engine system capable of meeting 2010 U.S. EPA legislated emissions requirements. Cummins chose to pursue this goal through further combustion development and refinement of the Cooled EGR system architecture and also applied a Rankine cycle Waste Heat Recovery technique to convert otherwise wasted thermal energy to useful power. The engine and heat recovery system was demonstrated to achieve 50% Brake Thermal Efficiency while operating at a torque peak condition in second quarter, 2006. The 50% efficient

  19. N2O and NO2 Emissions from Heavy-Duty Diesel Trucks with Advanced Emission Controls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preble, C.; Harley, R.; Kirchstetter, T.

    2014-12-01

    Diesel engines are the largest source of nitrogen oxides (NOx) emissions nationally, and also a major contributor to the black carbon (BC) fraction of fine particulate matter (PM). Recently, diesel particle filter (DPF) and selective catalytic reduction (SCR) emission control systems that target exhaust PM and NOx have become standard equipment on new heavy-duty diesel trucks. However, the deliberate catalytic oxidation of engine-out nitric oxide (NO) to nitrogen dioxide (NO2) in continuously regenerating DPFs leads to increased tailpipe emission of NO2. This is of potential concern due to the toxicity of NO2 and the resulting increases in atmospheric formation of other air pollutants such as ozone, nitric acid, and fine PM. While use of SCR reduces emissions of both NO and NO2, it may lead to increased emissions of nitrous oxide (N2O), a potent greenhouse gas. Here we report results from on-road measurements of heavy-duty diesel truck emissions conducted at the Port of Oakland and the Caldecott Tunnel in the San Francisco Bay Area. Emission factors (g pollutant per kg of diesel) were linked via recorded license plates to individual truck attributes, including engine model year and installed emission control equipment. Between 2009 and 2013, the fraction of DPF-equipped trucks at the Port of Oakland increased from 2 to 99%, and median engine age decreased from 11 to 6 years. Over the same period, fleet-average emission factors for black carbon and NOx decreased by 76 ± 22% and 53 ± 8%, respectively. However, direct emissions of NO2 increased, and consequently the NO2/NOx emission ratio increased from 0.03 ± 0.02 to 0.18 ± 0.03. Older trucks retrofitted with DPFs emitted approximately 3.5 times more NO2 than newer trucks equipped with both DPF and SCR. Preliminary data from summer 2014 measurements at the Caldecott Tunnel suggest that some older trucks have negative emission factors for N2O, and that for newer trucks, N2O emission factors have changed sign and

  20. On the dynamics of the three-piece-freight truck

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xia, Fujie; True, Hans

    2003-01-01

    Although the three-piece-freight truck is a simple design its mathematical model is very complicated. The model is definitely a nonlinear dynamical system, where the nonlinearities arise from the nonlinear kinematic and dynamical contact relations between wheels and rails, the suspensions...... of the adapters. Due to the clearances between the car body and the side supports on the bolster, the side supports must be modelled as nonlinear dead-band springs. The stick-slip action and the play between elements of the truck makes the dynamical model a structure varying system. We present the dynamical...

  1. DESIGN OF EXPERIMENTS IN TRUCK COMPANY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bibiana Kaselyova

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Design of experiment (DOE represent very powerful tool for process improvement vastly supported by six sigma methodology. This approach is mostly used by large and manufacturing orientated companies. Presented research is focused on use of DOE in truck company, which is medium size and service orientated. Such study has several purposes. Firstly, detailed description of improvement effort based on DOE can be used as a methodological framework for companies similar to researched one. Secondly, it provides example of successfully implemented low cost design of experiment practise. Moreover, performed experiment identifies key factors, which influence the lifetime of truck tyres.Design/methodology: The research in this paper is based on experiment conducted in Slovakian Truck Company. It provides detailed case study of whole improvement effort, together with problem formulation, design creation and analysis, as well as the results interpretation. The company wants to improve lifetime of the truck tyres. Next to fuel consumption, consumption of tyres and their replacement represent according to them, one of most costly processes in company. Improvement effort was made through the use of PDCA cycle. It start with analysis of current state of tyres consumption. The variability of tyres consumption based on years and types was investigated. Then the causes of tyres replacement were identified and screening DOE was conducted. After a screening design, the full factorial design of experiment was used to identify main drivers of tyres deterioration and breakdowns. Based on result of DOE, the corrective action were propose and implement.Findings: Based on performed experiment our research describes process of tyres use and replacement. It defines main reasons for tyre breakdown and identify main drivers which influence truck tyres lifetime. Moreover it formulates corrective action to prolong tyres lifetime.Originality: The study represents full

  2. LNG fuelling for mine trucks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Melanson, B.E.; Hodgins, K.B. [Westport Innovations Inc., Vancouver, BC (Canada)

    2006-07-01

    Diesel-powered mine haul trucks consume large amounts of fuel. The diesel engines provide the trucks with the flexibility to readily move material while optimizing speed and efficiency. However, the high cost for diesel fuel has prompted the need for lower-cost solutions. Since many mining regions have access to low-cost liquefied natural gas (LNG) feedstock through indigenous natural gas resources and coal mine methane, the use of LNG for mine haul trucks offers a solution to lower operating costs. In addition to reducing the reliance on petroleum resources, the use of LNG would also contribute to a reduction in noise, air pollutants, and greenhouse gas emissions. This presentation demonstrated that significant fuel cost savings can be realized in regions where LNG has cost advantage to diesel fuel. High pressure direct injection (HPDI) of natural gas in a compression ignition engine offers the high performance and efficiency characteristics of diesel engines while reducing particulate matter, nitrogen oxides, sulphur oxides and greenhouse gases. HPDI has been demonstrated in on-road Class 8 trucks since 2001 and mine haul trucks are now considered a prime target for implementing change to lower-carbon gaseous fuels. The supply of LNG fuel will be a necessary aspect of the introduction of HPDI to mining. LNG can be transported to mine sites or it can be produced on or near mining operations that have access to methane sources or pipelines. It was concluded that HPDI powered mine trucks offer a safe, economic and environmentally progressive solution for mine operators. 2 figs.

  3. Aerodynamics Research Revolutionizes Truck Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    During the 1970s and 1980s, researchers at Dryden Flight Research Center conducted numerous tests to refine the shape of trucks to reduce aerodynamic drag and improved efficiency. During the 1980s and 1990s, a team based at Langley Research Center explored controlling drag and the flow of air around a moving body. Aeroserve Technologies Ltd., of Ottawa, Canada, with its subsidiary, Airtab LLC, in Loveland, Colorado, applied the research from Dryden and Langley to the development of the Airtab vortex generator. Airtabs create two counter-rotating vortices to reduce wind resistance and aerodynamic drag of trucks, trailers, recreational vehicles, and many other vehicles.

  4. Urban Freight Truck Routing under Stochastic Congestion and Emission Considerations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taesung Hwang

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Freight trucks are known to be a major source of air pollutants as well as greenhouse gas emissions in U.S. metropolitan areas, and they have significant effects on air quality and global climate change. Emissions from freight trucks during their deliveries should be considered by the trucking service sector when they make routing decisions. This study proposes a model that incorporates total delivery time, various emissions including CO2, VOC, NOX, and PM from freight truck activities, and a penalty for late or early arrival into the total cost objective of a stochastic shortest path problem. We focus on urban transportation networks in which random congestion states on each link follows an independent probability distribution. Our model finds the best truck routing on a given network so as to minimize the expected total cost. This problem is formulated into a mathematical model, and two solution algorithms including a dynamic programming approach and a deterministic shortest path heuristic are proposed. Numerical examples show that the proposed approach performs very well even for the large-size U.S. urban networks.

  5. 30 CFR 57.16016 - Lift trucks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Lift trucks. 57.16016 Section 57.16016 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND... § 57.16016 Lift trucks. Fork and other similar types of lift trucks shall be operated with the: (a...

  6. 30 CFR 56.16016 - Lift trucks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Lift trucks. 56.16016 Section 56.16016 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND....16016 Lift trucks. Fork and other similar types of lift trucks shall be operated with the— (a) Upright...

  7. Improvement of underrun protection of trucks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Coo, P.J.A. de; Blaauw, G.J.

    1999-01-01

    Truck accidents represent a significant factor in the overall road accident scene, namely 25 to 30% of the fatal accidents in the EU. Collision partners of trucks are mainly passenger cars in car-to-truck frontal collisions. The severity of this kind of accidents is due to the incompatibility of bot

  8. Air quality benefits of universal particle filter and NOx controls on diesel trucks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, L.; Mcdonald, B. C.; Harley, R.

    2015-12-01

    Heavy-duty diesel trucks are a major source of black carbon/particulate matter and nitrogen oxide emissions on urban and regional scales. These emissions are relevant to both air quality and climate change. Since 2010 in the US, new engines are required to be equipped with emission control systems that greatly reduce both PM and NOx emissions, by ~98% relative to 1988 levels. To reduce emissions from the legacy fleet of older trucks that still remain on the road, regulations have been adopted in Califonia to accelerate the replacement of older trucks and thereby reduce associated emissions of PM and NOx. Use of diesel particle filters will be widespread by 2016, and universal use of catalytic converters for NOx control is required by 2023. We assess the air quality consequences of this clean-up effort in Southern California, using the Community Multiscale Air Quality model (CMAQ), and comparing three scenarios: historical (2005), present day (2016), and future year (2023). Emissions from the motor vehicle sector are mapped at high spatial resolution based on traffic count and fuel sales data. NOx emissions from diesel engines in 2023 are expected to decrease by ~80% compared to 2005, while the fraction of NOx emitted as NO2 is expected to increase from 5 to 18%. Air quality model simulations will be analyzed to quantify changes in NO2, black carbon, particulate matter, and ozone, both basin-wide and near hot spots such as ports and major highways.

  9. Truck Thermoacoustic Generator and Chiller

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keolian, Robert

    2011-03-31

    This Final Report describes the accomplishments of the US Department of Energy (DOE) cooperative agreement project DE-FC26-04NT42113 - Truck Thermoacoustic Generator and Chiller - whose goal is to design, fabricate and test a thermoacoustic piezoelectric generator and chiller system for use on over-the-road heavy-duty-diesel trucks, driven alternatively by the waste heat of the main diesel engine exhaust or by a burner integrated into the thermoacoustic system. The thermoacoustic system would utilize engine exhaust waste heat to generate electricity and cab air conditioning, and would also function as an auxiliary power unit (APU) for idle reduction. The unit was to be tested in Volvo engine performance and endurance test cells and then integrated onto a Class 8 over-the-road heavy-duty-diesel truck for further testing on the road. The project has been a collaboration of The Pennsylvania State University Applied Research Laboratory, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Clean Power Resources Inc., and Volvo Powertrain (Mack Trucks Inc.). Cost share funding was provided by Applied Research Laboratory, and by Clean Power Resources Inc via its grant from Innovation Works - funding that was derived from the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania. Los Alamos received its funding separately through DOE Field Work Proposal 04EE09.

  10. A tough truck for ATLAS

    CERN Document Server

    2003-01-01

    One of the mobile support structures that will be used to manoeuvre and assemble components of the ATLAS detector in its cavern was put through its paces at the end of July and passed its load tests with flying colours. The tests, which involved the surveyors taking measurements to detect any load-induced mechanical deformations, were carried out in Building 191. "The "truck" has been subjected to static tests with loads of up to 1250 tonnes and can carry and transport on air cushions a nominal load of up to 1000 tonnes at a top speed of 30 cm per minute," explains project leader Tommi Nyman. "It took two weeks to assemble the truck's components, the last of which arrived at CERN on 24 June. It then took a further 20 days to load the truck up for the test." The 8.5 metre-high truck will be used for final assembly of some of the ATLAS components, including the calorimeters, in cavern UX15. This powerful device is the result of a collaboration between CERN and the Henryk Niewodniczanski Institute of Nuclear ...

  11. Fuel Efficiency in Truck Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ştefan Farkas

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports range of activities and offer information regarding activities performed at Paccar Inc. truck’s plant in order to reduce of fuel consumption in truck industry. There are six major areas investigated: Aerodynamics, Component Spec’ing, Advanced Technology, Route Management, Driver Behaviour, Proper Maintenance. New technologies to improve vehicle fuel efficiency are also reported.

  12. Dynamic Bridge Response for a Bridge-friendly Truck

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Šmilauer

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available A truck with controlled semi-active suspensions traversing a bridge is examined for benefits to the bridge structure. The original concept of a road-friendly truck was extended to a bridge-friendly vehicle, using the same optimization tools. A half-car model with two independently driven axles is coupled with simply supported bridges (beam, slab model with the span range from 5 m to 50 m. Surface profile of the bridge deck is either stochastic or in the shape of a bump or a pot in the mid-span. Numerical integration in the MATLAB/SIMULINK environment solves coupled dynamic equations of motion with optimized truck suspensions. The rear axle generates the prevailing load and to a great extent determines the bridge response. A significant decrease in contact road-tire forces is observed and the mid-span bridge deflections are on average smaller, when compared to commercial passive suspensions. 

  13. Analysis of vehicle headway distribution on multi-lane freeway considering car–truck interaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dewen Kong

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The primary objective of this study is to identify the characteristics of vehicle headway on multi-lane freeway under lane management in China considering car–truck interaction. More specifically, the study focused on answering the following two questions: (1 whether the car–truck interaction has impact on headway, that is, headway varies by different leading and following vehicle types and (2 what is the best-fitted distribution model for particular headway type under lane management. The team collected traffic data, including traffic flow rates, percentage of trucks, speeds, headways, and so on from four segments of Shanghai-Nanjing freeway, Jiangsu Province in China. Then, some statistical methods were used to analyze the vehicle headway. It was found that car–car, car/truck, and truck–truck headways are significantly different from each other. Also, the traffic flow rate, percentage of trucks, and lane position were found to have an influence on the vehicle headway through the tests. Using the maximum-likelihood estimation, Kolmogorov–Smirnov test, and chi-square test techniques, the distribution models and parameter functions for each headway type were built and validated. The results showed that lognormal model is suitable for car–car and truck–truck headway types, and inverse Gaussian model fits the car/truck headway type well.

  14. Impact of trucking network flow on preferred biorefinery locations in the southern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timothy M. Young; Lee D. Han; James H. Perdue; Stephanie R. Hargrove; Frank M. Guess; Xia Huang; Chung-Hao Chen

    2017-01-01

    The impact of the trucking transportation network flow was modeled for the southern United States. The study addresses a gap in existing research by applying a Bayesian logistic regression and Geographic Information System (GIS) geospatial analysis to predict biorefinery site locations. A one-way trucking cost assuming a 128.8 km (80-mile) haul distance was estimated...

  15. Sleeper Cab Climate Control Load Reduction for Long-Haul Truck Rest Period Idling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lustbader, J. A.; Kreutzer, C.; Adelman, S.; Yeakel, S.; Zehme, J.

    2015-04-29

    Annual fuel use for long-haul truck rest period idling is estimated at 667 million gallons in the United States. The U.S. Department of Energy’s National Renewable Energy Laboratory’s CoolCab project aims to reduce heating, ventilating, and air conditioning (HVAC) loads and resulting fuel use from rest period idling by working closely with industry to design efficient long-haul truck climate control systems while maintaining occupant comfort. Enhancing the thermal performance of cab/sleepers will enable smaller, lighter, and more cost-effective idle reduction solutions. In order for candidate idle reduction technologies to be implemented at the original equipment manufacturer and fleet level, their effectiveness must be quantified. To address this need, a number of promising candidate technologies were evaluated through experimentation and modeling to determine their effectiveness in reducing rest period HVAC loads. For this study, load reduction strategies were grouped into the focus areas of solar envelope, occupant environment, and conductive pathways. The technologies selected for a complete-cab package of technologies were “ultra-white” paint, advanced insulation, and advanced curtains. To measure the impact of these technologies, a nationally-averaged solar-weighted reflectivity long-haul truck paint color was determined and applied to the baseline test vehicle. Using the complete-cab package of technologies, electrical energy consumption for long-haul truck daytime rest period air conditioning was reduced by at least 35% for summer weather conditions in Colorado. The National Renewable Energy Laboratory's CoolCalc model was then used to extrapolate the performance of the thermal load reduction technologies nationally for 161 major U.S. cities using typical weather conditions for each location over an entire year.

  16. Fatal truck-bicycle accident involving dragging for 45 km.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klintschar, M; Darok, M; Roll, P

    2003-08-01

    Vehicle-bicycle accidents with subsequent dragging of the rider over long distances are extremely rare. The case reported here is that of a 16-year-old mentally retarded bike rider who was run over by a truck whose driver failed to notice the accident. The legs of the victim became trapped by the rear axle of the trailer and the body was dragged over 45 km before being discovered under the parked truck. The autopsy revealed that the boy had died from the initial impact and not from the dragging injuries which had caused extensive mutilation. The reports of the technical expert and the forensic pathologist led the prosecutor to drop the case against the truck driver for manslaughter.

  17. Analysis and Modeling on Motor Drive Control System for Electric Drive Mining Trucks Based on Simulink%基于Simulink电动轮矿用自卸车电机驱动控制系统建模仿真

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡兴志; 罗建国; 李学哲; 于润祥; 宫新勇

    2015-01-01

    电机驱动系统是电动轮矿用自卸车的核心部分,而交流异步电机在驱动系统中占主导地位,研究开发先进的异步电机驱动控制系统能够有效提高矿用自卸车动力经济性和安全可靠性。对电动轮矿用自卸车电驱动系统结构进行分析,编写牵引特性计算程序从而为异步电机提供数学模型,基于Simulink环境下对异步电机进行建模,分析了电流、磁链和转矩;同时在Simulink环境下对矿用自卸车电驱动异步电机转子磁场定向矢量控制算法(IFOC)和直接转矩控制算法(DTC)进行了建模仿真与比较分析,结果表明研究结果为此类研究提供理论依据和方法支持,可以应用于设计生产。%The motor drive system is the core part of the mining truck. AC induction motor drive system is the dominated motor propulsion system for mining truck. The high performance of induction motor drive control system can effectively promote mining dump truck ’s dynamic, economic, security and reliability performance. This article is mainly focused on the control algorithm of induction motor drive system. Computer program written to provide traction characteristics mathematical model for induction motor based on Simulink environment for induction motor model, analyze current, flux and torque. Simulink software while using electric drive mining trucks induction motor rotor field oriented vector control algorithm (IFOC) and direct torque control algorithm (DTC) is modeled with a comparative analysis of the results showed that the results obtained in these studies provide theoretical and methodological support, can be applied to the design and production.

  18. Outputs and cost of HIV prevention programmes for truck drivers in Andhra Pradesh, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dandona Rakhi

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background HIV prevention programmes for truck drivers form part of the HIV control efforts, but systematic data on the outputs and cost of providing such services in India are not readily available for further planning and use of resources. Methods Detailed cost and output data were collected from written records and interviews for 2005–2006 fiscal year using standardized methods at six sampled HIV prevention programmes for truck drivers in the Indian state of Andhra Pradesh. The total economic cost for these programmes was computed and the relation of unit cost of services per truck driver with programme scale was assessed using regression analysis. Results A total of 120,436 truck drivers were provided services by the six programmes of which 55.9% were long distance truck drivers. The annual economic cost of providing services to a truck driver varied between programmes from US$ 1.52 to 4.56 (mean US$ 2.49. There was an inverse relation between unit economic cost of serving a truck driver and scale of the programme (R2 = 0.63; p = 0.061. The variation between programmes in the average number of contacts made by the programme staff with truck drivers was 1.3 times versus 5.8 times for contacts by peer educators. Only 1.7% of the truck drivers were referred by the programmes for counseling and HIV testing. Conclusion These data provide information for further planning of HIV prevention programmes for truck drivers and estimating the resources needed for such programmes. The findings suggest the need to strengthen the role of peer educators and increase referral of truck drivers for HIV testing.

  19. Medium Truck Duty Cycle Data from Real-World Driving Environments: Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lascurain, Mary Beth [ORNL; Franzese, Oscar [ORNL; Capps, Gary J [ORNL; Siekmann, Adam [ORNL; Thomas, Neil [ORNL; LaClair, Tim J [ORNL; Barker, Alan M [ORNL; Knee, Helmut E [ORNL

    2012-11-01

    Since the early part of the 20th century, the US trucking industry has provided a safe and economical means of moving commodities across the country. At present, nearly 80% of US domestic freight movement involves the use of trucks. The US Department of Energy (DOE) is spearheading a number of research efforts to improve heavy vehicle fuel efficiencies. This includes research in engine technologies (including hybrid and fuel cell technologies), lightweight materials, advanced fuels, and parasitic loss reductions. In addition, DOE is developing advanced tools and models to support heavy vehicle research and is leading the 21st Century Truck Partnership and the SuperTruck development effort. Both of these efforts have the common goal of decreasing the fuel consumption of heavy vehicles. In the case of SuperTruck, a goal of improving the overall freight efficiency of a combination tractor-trailer has been established. This Medium Truck Duty Cycle (MTDC) project is a critical element in DOE s vision for improved heavy vehicle energy efficiency; it is unique in that there is no other existing national database of characteristic duty cycles for medium trucks based on collecting data from Class 6 and 7 vehicles. It involves the collection of real-world data on medium trucks for various situational characteristics (e.g., rural/urban, freeway/arterial, congested/free-flowing, good/bad weather) and looks at the unique nature of medium trucks drive cycles (stop-and-go delivery, power takeoff, idle time, short-radius trips). This research provides a rich source of data that can contribute to the development of new tools for FE and modeling, provide DOE a sound basis upon which to make technology investment decisions, and provide a national archive of real-world-based medium-truck operational data to support energy efficiency research. The MTDC project involved a two-part field operational test (FOT). For the Part-1 FOT, three vehicles each from two vocations (urban transit and

  20. Medium Truck Duty Cycle Data from Real-World Driving Environments: Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lascurain, Mary Beth [ORNL; Franzese, Oscar [ORNL; Capps, Gary J [ORNL; Siekmann, Adam [ORNL; Thomas, Neil [ORNL; LaClair, Tim J [ORNL; Barker, Alan M [ORNL; Knee, Helmut E [ORNL

    2012-11-01

    Since the early part of the 20th century, the US trucking industry has provided a safe and economical means of moving commodities across the country. At present, nearly 80% of US domestic freight movement involves the use of trucks. The US Department of Energy (DOE) is spearheading a number of research efforts to improve heavy vehicle fuel efficiencies. This includes research in engine technologies (including hybrid and fuel cell technologies), lightweight materials, advanced fuels, and parasitic loss reductions. In addition, DOE is developing advanced tools and models to support heavy vehicle research and is leading the 21st Century Truck Partnership and the SuperTruck development effort. Both of these efforts have the common goal of decreasing the fuel consumption of heavy vehicles. In the case of SuperTruck, a goal of improving the overall freight efficiency of a combination tractor-trailer has been established. This Medium Truck Duty Cycle (MTDC) project is a critical element in DOE s vision for improved heavy vehicle energy efficiency; it is unique in that there is no other existing national database of characteristic duty cycles for medium trucks based on collecting data from Class 6 and 7 vehicles. It involves the collection of real-world data on medium trucks for various situational characteristics (e.g., rural/urban, freeway/arterial, congested/free-flowing, good/bad weather) and looks at the unique nature of medium trucks drive cycles (stop-and-go delivery, power takeoff, idle time, short-radius trips). This research provides a rich source of data that can contribute to the development of new tools for FE and modeling, provide DOE a sound basis upon which to make technology investment decisions, and provide a national archive of real-world-based medium-truck operational data to support energy efficiency research. The MTDC project involved a two-part field operational test (FOT). For the Part-1 FOT, three vehicles each from two vocations (urban transit and

  1. Fleet Compliance Annual Report: Model Year 2015, Fiscal Year 2016

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2016-12-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) regulates covered state government and alternative fuel provider fleets, pursuant to the Energy Policy Act of 1992 (EPAct), as amended. This report details compliance for model year 2015, fiscal year 2016.

  2. Long-Haul Truck Sleeper Heating Load Reduction Package for Rest Period Idling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lustbader, Jason Aaron; Kekelia, Bidzina; Tomerlin, Jeff; Kreutzer, Cory J.; Yeakel, Skip; Adelman, Steven; Luo, Zhiming; Zehme, John

    2016-04-05

    Annual fuel use for sleeper cab truck rest period idling is estimated at 667 million gallons in the United States, or 6.8% of long-haul truck fuel use. Truck idling during a rest period represents zero freight efficiency and is largely done to supply accessory power for climate conditioning of the cab. The National Renewable Energy Laboratory's CoolCab project aims to reduce heating, ventilating, and air conditioning (HVAC) loads and resulting fuel use from rest period idling by working closely with industry to design efficient long-haul truck thermal management systems while maintaining occupant comfort. Enhancing the thermal performance of cab/sleepers will enable smaller, lighter, and more cost-effective idle reduction solutions. In addition, if the fuel savings provide a one- to three-year payback period, fleet owners will be economically motivated to incorporate them. For candidate idle reduction technologies to be implemented by original equipment manufacturers and fleets, their effectiveness must be quantified. To address this need, several promising candidate technologies were evaluated through experimentation and modeling to determine their effectiveness in reducing rest period HVAC loads. Load reduction strategies were grouped into the focus areas of solar envelope, occupant environment, conductive pathways, and efficient equipment. Technologies in each of these focus areas were investigated in collaboration with industry partners. The most promising of these technologies were then combined with the goal of exceeding a 30% reduction in HVAC loads. These technologies included 'ultra-white' paint, advanced insulation, and advanced curtain design. Previous testing showed more than a 35.7% reduction in air conditioning loads. This paper describes the overall heat transfer coefficient testing of this advanced load reduction technology package that showed more than a 43% reduction in heating load. Adding an additional layer of advanced insulation

  3. Long-Haul Truck Sleeper Heating Load Reduction Package for Rest Period Idling: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lustbader, Jason; Kekelia, Bidzina; Tomerlin, Jeff; Kreutzer, Cory; Adelman, Steve; Yeakel, Skip; Luo, Zhiming; Zehme, John

    2016-03-24

    Annual fuel use for sleeper cab truck rest period idling is estimated at 667 million gallons in the United States, or 6.8% of long-haul truck fuel use. Truck idling during a rest period represents zero freight efficiency and is largely done to supply accessory power for climate conditioning of the cab. The National Renewable Energy Laboratory's CoolCab project aims to reduce heating, ventilating, and air conditioning (HVAC) loads and resulting fuel use from rest period idling by working closely with industry to design efficient long-haul truck thermal management systems while maintaining occupant comfort. Enhancing the thermal performance of cab/sleepers will enable smaller, lighter, and more cost-effective idle reduction solutions. In addition, if the fuel savings provide a one- to three-year payback period, fleet owners will be economically motivated to incorporate them. For candidate idle reduction technologies to be implemented by original equipment manufacturers and fleets, their effectiveness must be quantified. To address this need, several promising candidate technologies were evaluated through experimentation and modeling to determine their effectiveness in reducing rest period HVAC loads. Load reduction strategies were grouped into the focus areas of solar envelope, occupant environment, conductive pathways, and efficient equipment. Technologies in each of these focus areas were investigated in collaboration with industry partners. The most promising of these technologies were then combined with the goal of exceeding a 30% reduction in HVAC loads. These technologies included 'ultra-white' paint, advanced insulation, and advanced curtain design. Previous testing showed more than a 35.7% reduction in air conditioning loads. This paper describes the overall heat transfer coefficient testing of this advanced load reduction technology package that showed more than a 43% reduction in heating load. Adding an additional layer of advanced insulation

  4. Long-Haul Truck Sleeper Heating Load Reduction Package for Rest Period Idling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lustbader, Jason; Kekelia, Bidzina; Tomerlin, Jeff; Kreutzer, Cory; Adelman, Steve; Yeakel, Skip; Luo, Zhiming; Zehme, John

    2016-06-01

    Annual fuel use for sleeper cab truck rest period idling is estimated at 667 million gallons in the United States, or 6.8% of long-haul truck fuel use. Truck idling during a rest period represents zero freight efficiency and is largely done to supply accessory power for climate conditioning of the cab. The National Renewable Energy Laboratory's CoolCab project aims to reduce heating, ventilating, and air conditioning (HVAC) loads and resulting fuel use from rest period idling by working closely with industry to design efficient long-haul truck thermal management systems while maintaining occupant comfort. Enhancing the thermal performance of cab/sleepers will enable smaller, lighter, and more cost-effective idle reduction solutions. In addition, if the fuel savings provide a one- to three-year payback period, fleet owners will be economically motivated to incorporate them. For candidate idle reduction technologies to be implemented by original equipment manufacturers and fleets, their effectiveness must be quantified. To address this need, several promising candidate technologies were evaluated through experimentation and modeling to determine their effectiveness in reducing rest period HVAC loads. Load reduction strategies were grouped into the focus areas of solar envelope, occupant environment, conductive pathways, and efficient equipment. Technologies in each of these focus areas were investigated in collaboration with industry partners. The most promising of these technologies were then combined with the goal of exceeding a 30% reduction in HVAC loads. These technologies included 'ultra-white' paint, advanced insulation, and advanced curtain design. Previous testing showed more than a 35.7% reduction in air conditioning loads. This paper describes the overall heat transfer coefficient testing of this advanced load reduction technology package that showed more than a 43% reduction in heating load. Adding an additional layer of advanced insulation

  5. Solar hydrogen for urban trucks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Provenzano, J.: Scott, P.B.; Zweig, R. [Clean Air Now, Northridge, CA (United States)

    1997-12-31

    The Clean Air Now (CAN) Solar Hydrogen Project, located at Xerox Corp., El Segundo, California, includes solar photovoltaic powered hydrogen generation, compression, storage and end use. Three modified Ford Ranger trucks use the hydrogen fuel. The stand-alone electrolyzer and hydrogen dispensing system are solely powered by a photovoltaic array. A variable frequency DC-AC converter steps up the voltage to drive the 15 horsepower compressor motor. On site storage is available for up to 14,000 standard cubic feet (SCF) of solar hydrogen, and up to 80,000 SCF of commercial hydrogen. The project is 3 miles from Los Angeles International airport. The engine conversions are bored to 2.9 liter displacement and are supercharged. Performance is similar to that of the Ranger gasoline powered truck. Fuel is stored in carbon composite tanks (just behind the driver`s cab) at pressures up to 3600 psi. Truck range is 144 miles, given 3600 psi of hydrogen. The engine operates in lean burn mode, with nil CO and HC emissions. NO{sub x} emissions vary with load and rpm in the range from 10 to 100 ppm, yielding total emissions at a small fraction of the ULEV standard. Two trucks have been converted for the Xerox fleet, and one for the City of West Hollywood. A public outreach program, done in conjunction with the local public schools and the Department of Energy, introduces the local public to the advantages of hydrogen fuel technologies. The Clean Air Now program demonstrates that hydrogen powered fleet development is an appropriate, safe, and effective strategy for improvement of urban air quality, energy security and avoidance of global warming impact. Continued technology development and cost reduction promises to make such implementation market competitive.

  6. Sexual behavior among truck drivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Rajiv Kumar; Joshi, Hari Shankar

    2012-01-01

    A cross-sectional study was conducted on Lucknow highway in Bareilly district of Uttar Pradesh to study the knowledge of truck drivers about HIV transmission and prevention and to study the sexual behaviour of these drivers with reference to HIV/AIDS. Age, marital status, education, income, drinking alcohol, length of stay away from home, knowledge about transmission and prevention of HIV, and HIV-prone behavior of truck drivers were studied. Chi-square, mean, and SD were calculated. In all, 289 (97.6%) drivers had heard about HIV/AIDS. Only 242 (81.8%) were aware of HIV transmission by heterosexual route. Misconceptions such as HIV transmission by mosquito bites, living in same room, shaking hands, and sharing food were found. Out of 174 (58.8%) who visited Commercial Sex Workers (CSW), 146 (83.9%) used a condom. 38 (12.8%) visited more than 5 CSW in the last 3 months. Time away from home on the road, marital status, alcohol use, and income class were associated with visiting CSW. High-risk behavior was established in the study population. Safe sex and use of condoms need to be promoted among the truck drivers and better condom availability needs to be assured on highways.

  7. Analysis of a distributed system for lifting trucks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groote, J.F.; Pang, J.; Wouters, A.G.

    2001-01-01

    The process-algebraic language muCRL is used to analyse an existing distributed system for lifting trucks. Four errors are found in the original design. We propose solutions for these problems and show by means of model-checking that the modified system meets the requirements.

  8. Effect of chassis frame compliance on heavy truck ride quality

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ledesma, R.H. [Meritor Automotive, Inc., Troy, MI (United States)

    1998-12-31

    This paper presents the prediction of ride quality for a heavy truck through the use of time-domain (transient and steady-state) analysis within a multibody dynamics formulation. Two models of the heavy truck are developed. In the first model, the chassis is assumed to be infinitely rigid so that the multibody system consists only of rigid bodies that are interconnected through mechanical constraints or user-defined force elements. In the second model, the compliance of the chassis frame is considered in the formulation. This is done through the assumed modes method wherein the selected modes of chassis frame deformation are coupled with the nonlinear equations of motion associated with the large rigid body displacements of the spring and unsprung masses. The two vehicle models are validated by simulating a heavy truck traveling along a highway with vertical force inputs. Ride quality is then quantified through the root mean square (RMS) vertical acceleration of a specified critical location in the heavy truck. Comparison of the simulation results with test results indicate that chassis frame compliance plays an important role in predicting ride quality, especially when the natural frequency of the chassis frame is within the frequency range of the suspension modes. Design sensitivity studies are then conducted in order to determine which suspension design parameter has the most significant effect on the ride quality of the subject vehicle.

  9. Evaluating impact of truck announcements on container stacking efficiency

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E. van Asperen (Eelco); B. Borgman (Bram); R. Dekker (Rommert)

    2013-01-01

    textabstractContainer stacking rules are an important factor in container terminal efficiency. We build on prior research and use a discrete-event simulation model to evaluate the impact of a truck announcement system on the performance of online container stacking rules. The information that is con

  10. 40 CFR 86.000-9 - Emission standards for 2000 and later model year light-duty trucks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ..., the manufacturer must establish to the satisfaction of the Administrator that actual production volume... at any time than the leanest air to fuel mixture required to obtain maximum torque (lean best torque... projected production for U.S. sale, which engine families will be used to attain the required...

  11. 49 CFR 238.419 - Truck-to-car-body and truck component attachment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Truck-to-car-body and truck component attachment. 238.419 Section 238.419 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued... attachment. (a) The ultimate strength of the truck-to-car-body attachment for each unit in a train shall...

  12. Benefit of energy absorption by the truck in a frontal car-to-truck collision

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Coo, P.J.A. de; Adalian, C.

    2000-01-01

    EEVC Working Group 14 is investigating the effect of fixing energy absorbing front underrun protection systems (eaFUPS) to trucks instead of rigid devices in order to reduce the injury severity to car occupants in car-to-truck frontal collisions. Three car-to-truck crash tests with cars from

  13. Comparison of visibility measurement techniques for forklift truck design factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Chin-Bong; Park, Peom; Kim, Young-Ho; Susan Hallbeck, M; Jung, Myung-Chul

    2009-03-01

    This study applied the light bulb shadow test, a manikin vision assessment test, and an individual test to a forklift truck to identify forklift truck design factors influencing visibility. The light bulb shadow test followed the standard of ISO/DIS 13564-1 for traveling and maneuvering tests with four test paths (Test Nos. 1, 3, 4, and 6). Digital human and forklift truck models were developed for the manikin vision assessment test with CATIA V5R13 human modeling solutions. Six participants performed the individual tests. Both employed similar parameters to the light bulb shadow test. The individual test had better visibility with fewer numbers and a greater distribution of the shadowed grids than the other two tests due to eye movement and anthropometric differences. The design factors of load backrest extension, lift chain, hose, dashboard, and steering wheel should be the first factors considered to improve visibility, especially when a forklift truck mainly performs a forward traveling task in an open area.

  14. Evaluating sustainability of truck weight regulations: A system dynamics view

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pei Liu

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Targeting the problem of overload trucking in Highway Transportation of iron ore from Caofeidian to Tangshan (HTCT, this paper aims to assess long-term effects of alternative Truck Weight Regulation (TWR policies on sustainability of HTCT. Design/methodology/approach: A system dynamics model was established for policy evaluation. The model, composed of six interrelating modules, is able to simulate policies effects on trucking issues such as freight flow, truck traffic flow, pavement performance, highway transport capacity and trucking time, and further on the Cumulative Economic Cost (CEC including transport cost and time cost of freight owners and the Cumulative Social Cost (CSC including pavement maintenance cost, green house gas emission cost, air pollutants emission cost and traffic accidents cost, so the effects of TWR policies on sustainability of HTCT could be evaluated. Findings: According to different values of overload ratio which a TWR policy allows, alternative TWR policies are classified into three types, which are The Rigid Policy (TRP, The Moderate Policy (TMP and The Tolerant Policy (TTP. Results show that the best policy for sustainability of HTCT depends on the importance of CSC which is expected by the local government. To be specific, (1 if CSC is considered much less important than CEC, the local government should continue implementing the current TTP with the maximum overload ratio; (2 if CSC is considered much more important than CEC, then TRP is recommended; and (3 if CSC is considered slightly more important than CES, TMP with overload ratio of 80% is the best. Practical implications: Conclusions of this paper may help the local government design appropriate TWR policies to achieve sustainability of HTCT. Originality/value: To the best of our knowledge, this is the first effort to evaluate TWR policies on sustainability of regional freight transportation based on system dynamics modeling.

  15. Application for certification for 1978 model year heavy-duty vehicles - General Motors corporation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1978-03-01

    Every year each manufacturer of passenger cars, light-duty trucks, motorcycles or heavy-duty engines submits to EPA an application for certification. The application consists of two parts. In the part I, the manufacturer gives a detailed technical description of the vehicles or engines he intends to market during the upcoming model year. These engineering data include explanations and/or drawings which describe engine/vehicle parameters such as basic engine design, fuel systems, ignition systems, and exhaust and evaporative emission control systems. The part I also provides information on emission test procedures, service accumulation procedures, fuels to be used, and proposed maintenance requirements to be followed during testing. The part II application, submitted after emission testing is completed, contains the results of emission testing, a statement of compliance to the regulations, and maintenance instructions to be followed by the ultimate owners of the vehicles.

  16. Application for certification 1986 model year light-duty vehicles - General Motors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1985-01-01

    Every year, each manufacturer of passenger cars, light-duty trucks, motorcycles, or heavy-duty engines submits to EPA an application for certification. In the application, the manufacturer gives a detailed technical description of the vehicles or engines he intends to market during the upcoming model year. These engineering data include explanations and/or drawings which describe engine/vehicle parameters such as basic engine design, fuel systems, ignition systems and exhaust and evaporative emission control systems. It also provides information on emission test procedures, service accumulation procedures, fuels to be used, and proposed maintenance requirements to be followed during testing. Section 16 of the application contains the results of emission testing, a statement of compliance to the regulations, production engine parameters, and a Summary Sheet Input Form on which issuance of a Certificate of Conformity is based.

  17. Application for certification, 1986 model year heavy-duty vehicles - General Motors Corporation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1985-01-01

    Every year, each manufacturer of passenger cars, light-duty trucks, motorcycles, or heavy-duty engines submits to EPA an application for certification. In the application, the manufacturer gives a detailed technical description of the vehicles or engines he intends to market during the upcoming model year. These engineering data include explanations and/or drawings which describe engine/vehicle parameters such as basic engine design, fuel systems, ignition systems and exhaust and evaporative emission control systems. It also provides information on emission test procedures, service accumulation procedures, fuels to be used, and proposed maintenance requirements to be followed during testing. Section 16 of the application contains the results of emission testing, a statement of compliance to the regulations, production engine parameters, and a Summary Sheet Input Form on which issuance of a Certificate of Conformity is based.

  18. Application for certification for 1979 model year for heavy-duty vehicles - General Motors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1978-11-21

    Every year, each manufacturer of passenger cars, light-duty trucks, motorcycles or heavy-duty engines submits to EPA an application for certification. The application consists of two parts. In the part I, the manufacturer gives a detailed technical description of the vehicles or engines he intends to market during the upcoming model year. These engineering data include explanations and/or drawings which describe engine/vehicle parameters such as basic engine design, fuel systems, ignition systems an exhaust and evaporative emission control systems. The part I also provides information on emission test procedures, service accumulation procedures, fuels to be used, and proposed maintenance requirements to be followed during testing. The part II application submitted after emission testing is completed, contains the results of emission testing, a statement of compliance to the regulations, and maintenance instructions to be followed by the ultimate owners of the vehicles.

  19. Application for certification, 1989 model year light-duty vehicles - General Motors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1989-01-01

    Every year, each manufacturer of passenger cars, light-duty trucks, motorcycles, or heavy-duty engines submits to EPA an application for certification. In the application, the manufacturer gives a detailed technical description of the vehicles or engines he intends to market during the upcoming model year. These engineering data include explanations and/or drawings which describe engine/vehicle parameters such as basic engine design, fuel systems, ignition systems and exhaust and evaporative emission control systems. It also provides information on emission test procedures, service accumulation procedures, fuels to be used, and proposed maintenance requirements to be followed during testing. Section 16 of the application contains the results of emission testing, a statement of compliance to the regulations, production engine parameters, and a Summary Sheet Input Form on which issuance of a Certificate of Conformity is based.

  20. Application for certification 1981 model year light-duty vehicles - General Motors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-01-01

    Every year, each manufacturer of passenger cars, light-duty trucks, motorcycles, or heavy-duty engines submits to EPA an application for certification. In the application, the manufacturer gives a detailed technical description of the vehicles or engines he intends to market during the upcoming model year. These engineering data include explanations and/or drawings which describe engine/vehicle parameters such as basic engine design, fuel systems, ignition systems and exhaust and evaporative emission control systems. It also provides information on emission test procedures, service accumulation procedures, fuels to be used, and proposed maintenance requirements to be followed during testing. Section 16 of the application contains the results of emission testing, a statement of compliance to the regulations, production engine parameters, and a Summary Sheet Input Form on which issuance of a Certificate of Conformity is based.

  1. Application for certification 1983 model year heavy-duty engines - General Motors Corporation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1983-01-01

    Every year, each manufacturer of passenger cars, light-duty trucks, motorcycles, or heavy-duty engines submits to EPA an application for certification. In the application, the manufacturer gives a detailed technical description of the vehicles or engines he intends to market during the upcoming model year. These engineering data include explanations and/or drawings which describe engine/vehicle parameters such as basic engine design, fuel systems, ignition systems and exhaust and evaporative emission control systems. It also provides information on emission test procedures, service accumulation procedures, fuels to be used, and proposed maintenance requirements to be followed during testing. Section 16 of the application contains the results of emission testing, a statement of compliance to the regulations, production engine parameters, and a Summary Sheet Input Form on which issuance of a Certificate of Conformity is based.

  2. Application for certification, 1991 model-year light-duty vehicles - General motors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-01-01

    Every year, each manufacturer of passenger cars, light-duty trucks, motorcycles, or heavy-duty engines submits to EPA an application for certification. In the application, the manufacturer gives a detailed technical description of the vehicles or engines he intends to market during the upcoming model-year. These engineering data include explanations and/or drawings which describe engine/vehicle parameters such as basic engine design, fuel systems, ignition systems and exhaust and evaporative emission control systems. It also provides information on emission test procedures, service accumulation procedures, fuels to be used, and proposed maintenance requirements to be followed during testing. Section 16 of the application contains the results of emission testing, a statement of compliance to the regulations, production engine parameters, and a Summary Sheet Input Form on which issuance of a Certificate of Conformity is based.

  3. Application for certification, 1990 model-year light-duty vehicles - General Motors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-01-01

    Every year, each manufacturer of passenger cars, light-duty trucks, motorcycles, or heavy-duty engines submits to EPA an application for certification. In the application, the manufacturer gives a detailed technical description of the vehicles or engines he intends to market during the upcoming model year. These engineering data include explanations and/or drawings which describe engine/vehicle parameters such as basic engine design, fuel systems, ignition systems and exhaust and evaporative emission control systems. It also provides information on emission test procedures, service accumulation procedures, fuels to be used, and proposed maintenance requirements to be followed during testing. Section 16 of the application contains the results of emission testing, a statement of compliance to the regulations, production engine parameters, and a Summary Sheet Input Form on which issuance of a Certificate of Conformity is based.

  4. Application for certification 1981 model year heavy duty gasoline vehicles - General Motors Corporation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-01-01

    Every year, each manufacturer of passenger cars, light-duty trucks, motorcycles, or heavy-duty engines submits to EPA an application for certification. In the application, the manufacturer gives a detailed technical description of the vehicles or engines he intends to market during the upcoming model year. These engineering data include explanations and/or drawings which describe engine/vehicle parameters such as basic engine design, fuel systems, ignition systems, and exhaust and evaporative emission control systems. It also provides information on emission test procedures, service accumulation procedures, fuels to be used, and proposed maintenance requirements to be followed during testing. Section 16 of the application contains the results of emission testing, a statement of compliance to the regulations, production engine parameters, and a Summary Sheet Input Form on which issuance of a Certificate of Conformity is based.

  5. Application for certification, 1986 model year heavy-duty vehicles/engines - General Motors Corporation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1986-01-01

    Every year, each manufacturer of passenger cars, light-duty trucks, motorcycles, or heavy-duty engines submits to EPA an application for certification. In the application, the manufacturer gives a detailed technical description of the vehicles or engines he intends to market during the upcoming model year. These engineering data include explanations and/or drawings which describe engine/vehicle parameters such as basic engine design, fuel systems, ignition systems and exhaust and evaporative emission control systems. It also provides information on emission test procedures, service accumulation procedures, fuels to be used, and proposed maintenance requirements to be followed during testing. Section 16 of the application contains the results of emission testing, a statement of compliance to the regulations, production engine parameters, and a Summary Sheet Input Form on which issuance of a Certificate of Conformity is based.

  6. Application for certification for 1979 model year for light-duty vehicles - General Motors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1978-11-21

    Every year, each manufacturer of passenger cars, light-duty trucks, motorcycles or heavy-duty engines submits to EPA an application for certification. The application consists of two parts. In the part I, the manufacturer gives a detailed technical description of the vehicles or engines he intends to market during the upcoming model year. These engineering data include explanations and/or drawings which describe engine/vehicle parameters such as basic engine design, fuel systems, ignition systems and exhaust and evaporative emission control systems. The part I also provides information on emission test procedures, service accumulation procedures, fuels to be used, and proposed maintenance requirements to be followed during testing. The part II application submitted after emission testing is completed, contains the results of emission testing, a statement of compliance to the regulations, and maintenance instructions to be followed by the ultimate owners of the vehicles.

  7. Application for certification model year 1981 light-duty vehicles - General Motors Corporation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-01-01

    Every year, each manufacturer of passenger cars, light-duty trucks, motorcycles, or heavy-duty engines submits to EPA an application for certification. In the application, the manufacturer gives a detailed technical description of the vehicles or engines he intends to market during the upcoming model year. These engineering data include explanations and/or drawings which describe engine/vehicle parameters such as basic engine design, fuel systems, ignition systems, and exhaust and evaporative emission control systems. It also provides information on emission test procedures, service accumulation procedures, fuels to be used, and proposed maintenance requirements to be followed during testing. Section 16 of the application contains the results of emission testing, a statement of compliance to the regulations, production engine parameters, and a Summary Sheet Input Form on which issuance of a Certificate of Conformity is based.

  8. Application for certification 1981 model year heavy-duty diesel engines - General Motors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-01-01

    Every year, each manufacturer of passenger cars, light-duty trucks, motorcycles, or heavy-duty engines submits to EPA an application for certification. In the application, the manufacturer gives a detailed technical description of the vehicles or engines he intends to market during the upcoming model year. These engineering data include explanations and/or drawings which describe engine/vehicle parameters such as basic engine design, fuel systems, ignition systems and exhaust and evaporative emission control systems. It also provides information on emission test procedures, service accumulation procedures, fuels to be used, and proposed maintenance requirements to be followed during testing. Section 16 of the application contains the results of emission testing, a statement of compliance to the regulations, production engine parameters, and a Summary Sheet Input Form on which issuance of a Certificate of Conformity is based.

  9. Application for certification, 1992 model-year light-duty vehicles - General Motors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-01-01

    Every year, each manufacturer of passenger cars, light-duty trucks, motorcycles, or heavy-duty engines submits to EPA an application for certification. In the application, the manufacturer gives a detailed technical description of the vehicles or engines that he intends to market during the upcoming model year. These engineering data include explanations and/or drawings which describe engine/vehicle parameters such as basic engine design, fuel systems, ignition systems and exhaust and evaporative emission control systems. It also provides information on emission test procedures, service accumulation procedures, fuels to be used, and proposed maintenance requirements to be followed during testing. Section 16 of the application contains the results of emission testing, a statement of compliance to the regulations, production engine parameters, and a Summary Sheet Input Form on which issuance of a Certificate of Conformity is based.

  10. Application for certification, 1988 model year light-duty vehicles - General Motors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1988-01-01

    Every year, each manufacturer of passenger cars, light-duty trucks, motorcycles, or heavy-duty engines submits to EPA an application for certification. In the application, the manufacturer gives a detailed technical description of the vehicles or engines he intends to market during the upcoming model year. These engineering data include explanations and/or drawings which describe engine/vehicle parameters such as basic engine design, fuel systems, ignition systems, and exhaust and evaporative emission-control systems. Information is also provided on emission test procedures, service accumulation procedures, fuels to be used, and proposed maintenance requirements to be followed during testing. Section 16 of the application contains the results of emission testing, a statement of compliance to the regulations, production engine parameters, and a Summary Sheet Input Form on which issuance of a Certificate of Conformity is based.

  11. Application for certification for 1978 model year heavy-duty vehicles - General Motors Corporation, supplement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1978-03-01

    Every year each manufacturer of passenger cars, light-duty trucks, motorcycles or heavy-engines submits to EPA an application for certification. The application consists of two parts. In the part I, the manufacturer gives a detailed technical description of the vehicles or engines he intends to market during the upcoming model year. These engineering data include explanations and/or drawings which describe engine/vehicle parameters such as basic engine design, fuel systems, ignition systems, and exhaust and evaporative emission control systems. The part I also provides information on emission test procedures, service accumulation procedures, fuels to be used, and proposed maintenance requirements to be followed during testing. The part II application, submitted after emission testing is completed, contains the results of emission testing, a statement of compliance to the regulations, and maintenance instructions to be followed by the ultimate owners of the vehicles.

  12. Application for certification 1980 model year heavy-duty engines - General Motors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-01-01

    Every year, each manufacturer of passenger cars, light-duty trucks, motorcycles, or heavy-duty engines submits to EPA an application for certification. In the application, the manufacturer gives a detailed technical description of the vehicles or engines he intends to market during the upcoming model year. These engineering data include explanations and/or drawings which describe engine/vehicle parameters such as basic engine design, fuel systems, ignition systems, and exhaust and evaporative emission control systems. It also provides information on emission test procedures, service accumulation procedures, fuels to be used, and proposed maintenance requirements to be followed during testing. Section 16 of the application contains the results of emission testing, a statement of compliance to the regulations, production engine parameters, and a Summary Sheet Input Form on which issuance of a Certificate of Conformity is based.

  13. Application for certification 1984 model year heavy-duty diesel engines - General Motors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1984-01-01

    Every year, each manufacturer of passenger cars, light-duty trucks, motorcycles, or heavy-duty engines submits to EPA an application for certification. In the application, the manufacturer gives a detailed technical description of the vehicles or engines he intends to market during the upcoming model year. These engineering data include explanations and/or drawings which describe engine/vehicle parameters such as basic engine design, fuel systems, ignition systems and exhaust and evaporative emission control systems. It also provides information on emission test procedures, service accumulation procedures, fuels to be used, and proposed maintenance requirements to be followed during testing. Section 16 of the application contains the results of emission testing, a statement of compliance to the regulations, production engine parameters, and a Summary Sheet Input Form on which issuance of a Certificate of Conformity is based.

  14. Application for certification 1980 model year light-duty vehicles - General Motors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-01-01

    Every year, each manufacturer of passenger cars, light-duty trucks, motorcycles, or heavy-duty engines submits to EPA an application for certification. In the application, the manufacturer gives a detailed technical description of the vehicles or engines he intends to market during the upcoming model year. These engineering data include explanations and/or drawings which describe engine/vehicle parameters such as basic engine design, fuel systems, ignition systems, and exhaust and evaporative emission control systems. It also provides information on emission test procedures, service accumulation procedures, fuels to be used, and proposed maintenance requirements to be followed during testing. Section 16 of the application contains the results of emission testing, a statement of compliance to the regulations, production engine parameters, and a Summary Sheet Input Form on which issuance of a Certificate of Conformity is based.

  15. Application for certification 1987 model year light-duty vehicles - General Motors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1987-01-01

    Every year, each manufacturer of passenger cars, light-duty trucks, motorcycles, or heavy-duty engines submits to EPA an application for certification. In the application, the manufacturer gives a detailed technical description of the vehicles or engines he intends to market during the upcoming model year. The engineering data include explanations and/or drawings which describe engine/vehicle parameters such as basic engine design, fuel systems, ignition systems and exhaust and evaporative emission control systems. They also provide information on emission test procedures, service accumulation procedures, fuels to be used, and proposed maintenance requirements to be followed during testing. Section 16 of the application contains the results of emission testing, a statement of compliance to the regulations, production engine parameters, and a Summary Sheet Input Form on which issuance of a Certificate of Conformity is based.

  16. Application for certification 1987 model year heavy-duty vehicles/engines - General Motors Corporation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1987-01-01

    Every year, each manufacturer of passenger cars, light-duty trucks, motorcycles, or heavy-duty engines submits to EPA an application for certification. In the application, the manufacturer gives a detailed technical description of the vehicles or engines he intends to market during the upcoming model year. These engineering data include explanations and/or drawings which describe engine/vehicle parameters such as basic engine design, fuel systems, ignition systems and exhaust and evaporative emission control systems. They also provide information on emission test procedures, service accumulation procedures, fuels to be used, and proposed maintenance requirements to be followed during testing, a statement of compliance to the regulations, production engine parameters, and a Summary Sheet Input Form on which issuance of a Certificate of Conformity is based.

  17. Application for certification for 1979 model year for heavy-duty engines - General Motors Co

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-03-30

    Every year, each manufacturer of passenger cars, light-duty trucks, motorcycles or heavy-duty engines submits to EPA an application for certification. The application consists of two parts. In the part I, the manufacturer gives a detailed technical description of the vehicles or engines he intends to market during the upcoming model year. These engineering data include explanations and/or drawings which describe engine vehicle parameters such as basic engine design, fuel systems, ignition systems and exhaust and evaporative emission control systems. The part I also provides information on emission test procedures, service accumulation procedures, fuels to be used, and proposed maintenance requirements to be followed during testing. The part II application, submitted after emission testing is completed, contains the results of emission testing, a statement of compliance to the regulations, and maintenance instructions to be followed by the ultimate owners of the vehicles.

  18. Application for certification 1993 model year light-duty vehicles - Chrysler

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-01-01

    Every year, each manufacturer of passenger cars, light-duty trucks, motorcycles, or heavy-duty engines submits to EPA an application for certification. In the application, the manufacturer gives a detailed technical description of the vehicles or engines he intends to market during the upcoming model year. These engineering data include explanations and/or drawings which describe engine/vehicle parameters such as basic engine design, fuel systems, ignition systems and exhaust and evaporative emission control systems. It also provides information on emission test procedures, service accumulation procedures, fuels to be used, and proposed maintenance requirements to be followed during testing. Section 16 of the application contains the results of emission testing, a statement of compliance to the regulations, production engine parameters, and a Summary Sheet Input Form on which issuance of a Certificate of Conformity is based.

  19. Application for certification 1993 model year light-duty vehicles - Honda

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-01-01

    Every year, each manufacturer of passenger cars, light-duty trucks, motorcycles, or heavy-duty engines submits to EPA an application for certification. In the application, the manufacturer gives a detailed technical description of the vehicles or engines he intends to market during the upcoming model year. These engineering data include explanations and/or drawings which describe engine/vehicle parameters such as basic engine design, fuel systems, ignition systems and exhaust and evaporative emission control systems. It also provides information on emission test procedures, service accumulation procedures, fuels to be used, and proposed maintenance requirements to be followed during testing. Section 16 of the application contains the results of emission testing, a statement of compliance to the regulations, production engine parameters, and a Summary Sheet Input Form on which issuance of a Certificate of Conformity is based.

  20. Application for certification 1993 model year heavy-duty diesel engines - Cummins Engine Company

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-01-01

    Each year, each manufacturer of passenger cars, light-duty trucks, motorcycles, or heavy-duty engines submits to EPA an application for certification. In the application, the manufacturer gives a detailed technical description of the vehicles or engines he intends to market during the upcoming model year. These engineering data include explanations and/or drawings which describe engine/vehicle parameters such as basic engine design, fuel systems, ignition systems and exhaust and evaporative emission control systems. It also provides information on emission test procedures, service accumulation procedures, fuels to be used, and proposed maintenance requirements to be followed during testing. Section 16 of the application contains the results of emission testing, a statement or compliance to the regulations, production engine parameters, and a Summary Sheet Input Form on which issuance of a Certificate of Conformity is based.

  1. Application for certification 1993 model year light-duty vehicles - Nissan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-01-01

    Every year, each manufacturer of passenger cars, light-duty trucks, motorcycles, or heavy-duty engines submits to EPA an application for certification. In the application, the manufacturer gives a detailed technical description of the vehicles or engines he intends to market during the upcoming model year. These engineering data include explanations and/or drawings which describe engine/vehicle parameters such as basic engine design, fuel systems, ignition systems and exhaust and evaporative emission control systems. It also provides information on emission test procedures, service accumulation procedures, fuels to be used, and proposed maintenance requirements to be followed during testing. Section 16 of the application contains the results of emission testing, a statement of compliance to the regulations, production engine parameters, and a Summary Sheet Input Form on which issuance of a Certificate of Conformity is based.

  2. Application for certification 1993 model year light-duty vehicles - Rover Group

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-01-01

    Every year, each manufacturer of passenger cars, light-duty trucks, motorcycles, or heavy-duty engines submits to EPA an application for certification. In the application, the manufacturer gives a detailed technical description of the vehicles or engines he intends to market during the upcoming model year. These engineering data include explanations and/or drawings which describe engine/vehicle parameters such as basic engine design, fuel systems, ignition systems and exhaust and evaporative emission control systems. It also provides information on emission test procedures, service accumulation procedures, fuels to be used, and proposed maintenance requirements to be followed during testing. Section 16 of the application contains the results of emission testing, a statement of compliance to the regulations, production engine parameters, and a Summary Sheet Input Form on which issuance of a Certificate of Conformity is based.

  3. Application for certification 1993 model year light-duty vehicles - Ford

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-01-01

    Every year, each manufacturer of passenger cars, light-duty trucks, motorcycles, or heavy-duty engines submits to EPA an application for certification. In the application, the manufacturer gives a detailed technical description of the vehicles or engines he intends to market during the upcoming model year. These engineering data include explanations and/or drawings which describe engine/vehicle parameters such as basic engine design, fuel systems, ignition systems and exhaust and evaporative emission control systems. It also provides information on emission test procedures, service accumulation procedures, fuels to be used, and proposed maintenance requirements to be followed during testing. Section 16 of the application contains the results of emission testing, a statement of compliance to the regulations, production engine parameters, and a Summary Sheet Input Form on which issuance of a Certificate of Conformity is based.

  4. Application for certification 1994 model year light-duty vehicles - Ferrari

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-01-01

    Every year, each manufacturer of passenger cars, light-duty trucks, motorcycles, or heavy-duty engines submits to EPA an application for certification. In the application, the manufacturer gives a detailed technical description of the vehicles or engines he intends to market during the upcoming model year. These engineering data include explanations and/or drawings which describe engine/vehicle parameters such as basic engine design, fuel systems, ignition systems and exhaust and evaporative emission control systems. It also provides information on emission test procedures, service accumulation procedures, fuels to be used, and proposed maintenance requirements to be followed during testing. Section 16 of the application contains the results of emission testing, a statement of compliance to the regulations, production engine parameters, and a Summary Sheet Input Form on which issuance of a Certificate of Conformity is based.

  5. Application for certification 1993 model year light-duty vehicles - Fiat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-01-01

    Every year, each manufacturer of passenger cars, light-duty trucks, motorcycles, or heavy-duty engines submits to EPA an application for certification. In the application, the manufacturer gives a detailed technical description of the vehicles or engines he intends to market during the upcoming model year. These engineering data include explanations and/or drawings which describe engine/vehicle parameters such as basic engine design, fuel systems, ignition systems and exhaust and evaporative emission control systems. It also provides information on emission test procedures, service accumulation procedures, fuels to be used, and proposed maintenance requirements to be followed during testing. Section 16 of the application contains the results of emission testing, a statement of compliance to the regulations, production engine parameters, and a Summary Sheet Input Form on which issuance of a Certificate of Conformity is based.

  6. Application for certification 1993 model year light-duty vehicles - Porsche

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-01-01

    Every year, each manufacturer of passenger cars, light-duty trucks, motorcycles, or heavy-duty engines submits to EPA an application for certification. In the application, the manufacturer gives a detailed technical description of the vehicles or engines he intends to market during the upcoming model year. These engineering data include explanations and/or drawings which describe engine/vehicle parameters such as basic engine design, fuel systems, ignition systems and exhaust and evaporative emission control systems. It also provides information on emission test procedures, service accumulation procedures, fuels to be used, and proposed maintenance requirements to be followed during testing. Section 16 of the application contains the results of emission testing, a statement of compliance to the regulations, production engine parameters, and a Summary Sheet Input Form on which issuance of a Certificate of Conformity is based.

  7. Application for certification 1993 model year heavy-duty diesel engines - Isuzu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-01-01

    Each year, each manufacturer of passenger cars, light-duty trucks, motorcycles, or heavy-duty engines submits to EPA an application for certification. In the application, the manufacturer gives a detailed technical description of the vehicles or engines he intends to market during the upcoming model year. These engineering data include explanations and/or drawings which describe engine/vehicle parameters such as basic engine design, fuel systems, ignition systems and exhaust and evaporative emission control systems. It also provides information on emission test procedures, service accumulation procedures, fuels to be used, and proposed maintenance requirements to be followed during testing. Section 16 of the application contains the results of emission testing, a statement or compliance to the regulations, production engine parameters, and a Summary Sheet Input Form on which issuance of a Certificate of Conformity is based.

  8. Application for certification 1993 model year light-duty vehicles - BMW

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-01-01

    Every year, each manufacturer of passenger cars, light-duty trucks, motorcycles, or heavy-duty engines submits to EPA an application for certification. In the application, the manufacturer gives a detailed technical description of the vehicles or engines he intends to market during the upcoming model year. These engineering data include explanations and/or drawings which describe engine/vehicle parameters such as basic engine design, fuel systems, ignition systems and exhaust and evaporative emission control systems. It also provides information on emission test procedures, service accumulation procedures, fuels to be used, and proposed maintenance requirements to be followed during testing. Section 16 of the application contains the results of emission testing, a statement of compliance to the regulations, production engine parameters, and a Summary Sheet Input Form on which issuance of a Certificate of Conformity is based.

  9. Application for certification 1994 model year light-duty vehicles - Porsche

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-01-01

    Every year, each manufacturer of passenger cars, light-duty trucks, motorcycles, or heavy-duty engines submits to EPA an application for certification. In the application, the manufacturer gives a detailed technical description of the vehicles or engines he intends to market during the upcoming model year. These engineering data include explanations and/or drawings which describe engine/vehicle parameters such as basic engine design, fuel systems, ignition systems and exhaust and evaporative emission control systems. It also provides information on emission test procedures, service accumulation procedures, fuels to be used, and proposed maintenance requirements to be followed during testing. Section 16 of the application contains the results of emission testing, a statement of compliance to the regulations, production engine parameters, and a Summary Sheet Input Form on which issuance of a Certificate of Conformity is based.

  10. Application for certification 1993 model year light-duty vehicles - Volvo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-01-01

    Every year, each manufacturer of passenger cars, light-duty trucks, motorcycles, or heavy-duty engines submits to EPA an application for certification. In the application, the manufacturer gives a detailed technical description of the vehicles or engines he intends to market during the upcoming model year. These engineering data include explanations and/or drawings which describe engine/vehicle parameters such as basic engine design, fuel systems, ignition systems and exhaust and evaporative emission control systems. It also provides information on emission test procedures, service accumulation procedures, fuels to be used, and proposed maintenance requirements to be followed during testing. Section 16 of the application contains the results of emission testing, a statement of compliance to the regulations, production engine parameters, and a Summary Sheet Input Form on which issuance of a Certificate of Conformity is based.

  11. Application for certification 1993 model year light-duty vehicles - Nummi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-01-01

    Every year, each manufacturer of passenger cars, light-duty trucks, motorcycles, or heavy-duty engines submits to EPA an application for certification. In the application, the manufacturer gives a detailed technical description of the vehicles or engines he intends to market during the upcoming model year. These engineering data include explanations and/or drawings which describe engine/vehicle parameters such as basic engine design, fuel systems, ignition systems and exhaust and evaporative emission control systems. It also provides information on emission test procedures, service accumulation procedures, fuels to be used, and proposed maintenance requirements to be followed during testing. Section 16 of the application contains the results of emission testing, a statement of compliance to the regulations, production engine parameters, and a Summary Sheet Input Form on which issuance of a Certificate of Conformity is based.

  12. Toyota's early 2000 model year application for certification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1998-10-22

    Every year, each manufacturer of passenger cars, light-duty trucks, motorcycles, or heavy-duty engines submits to EPA an application for certification. In the application, the manufacturer gives a detailed technical description of the vehicles or engines he intends to market during the upcoming model year. These engineering data include explanations and/or drawings which describe engine/vehicle parameters such as basic engine design, fuel systems, ignition systems and exhaust and evaporative emission control systems. It also provides information on emission test procedures, service accumulation procedures, fuels to be used, and proposed maintenance requirements to be followed during testing. Section 16 of the application contains the results of emission testing, a statement of compliance to the regulations, production engine parameters, and a Summary Sheet Input Form on which issuance of a Certificate of Conformity is based.

  13. Application for certification 1993 model year light-duty vehicles - Mercedes Benz

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-01-01

    Every year, each manufacturer of passenger cars, light-duty trucks, motorcycles, or heavy-duty engines submits to EPA an application for certification. In the application, the manufacturer gives a detailed technical description of the vehicles or engines he intends to market during the upcoming model year. These engineering data include explanations and/or drawings which describe engine/vehicle parameters such as basic engine design, fuel systems, ignition systems and exhaust and evaporative emission control systems. It also provides information on emission test procedures, service accumulation procedures, fuels to be used, and proposed maintenance requirements to be followed during testing. Section 16 of the application contains the results of emission testing, a statement of compliance to the regulations, production engine parameters, and a Summary Sheet Input Form on which issuance of a Certificate of Conformity is based.

  14. Application for certification 1993 model year heavy-duty diesel engines - Hino Motors Inc

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-01-01

    Each year, each manufacturer of passenger cars, light-duty trucks, motorcycles, or heavy-duty engines submits to EPA an application for certification. In the application, the manufacturer gives a detailed technical description of the vehicles or engines he intends to market during the upcoming model year. These engineering data include explanations and/or drawings which describe engine/vehicle parameters such as basic engine design, fuel systems, ignition systems and exhaust and evaporative emission control systems. It also provides information on emission test procedures, service accumulation procedures, fuels to be used, and proposed maintenance requirements to be followed during testing. Section 16 of the application contains the results of emission testing, a statement or compliance to the regulations, production engine parameters, and a Summary Sheet Input Form on which issuance of a Certificate of Conformity is based.

  15. Application for certification 1993 model year light-duty vehicles - Rolls Royce

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-01-01

    Every year, each manufacturer of passenger cars, light-duty trucks, motorcycles, or heavy-duty engines submits to EPA an application for certification. In the application, the manufacturer gives a detailed technical description of the vehicles or engines he intends to market during the upcoming model year. These engineering data include explanations and/or drawings which describe engine/vehicle parameters such as basic engine design, fuel systems, ignition systems and exhaust and evaporative emission control systems. It also provides information on emission test procedures, service accumulation procedures, fuels to be used, and proposed maintenance requirements to be followed during testing. Section 16 of the application contains the results of emission testing, a statement of compliance to the regulations, production engine parameters, and a Summary Sheet Input Form on which issuance of a Certificate of Conformity is based.

  16. Application for certification 1993 model year light-duty vehicles - Mitsubishi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-01-01

    Every year, each manufacturer of passenger cars, light-duty trucks, motorcycles, or heavy-duty engines submits to EPA an application for certification. In the application, the manufacturer gives a detailed technical description of the vehicles or engines he intends to market during the upcoming model year. These engineering data include explanations and/or drawings which describe engine/vehicle parameters such as basic engine design, fuel systems, ignition systems and exhaust and evaporative emission control systems. It also provides information on emission test procedures, service accumulation procedures, fuels to be used, and proposed maintenance requirements to be followed during testing. Section 16 of the application contains the results of emission testing, a statement of compliance to the regulations, production engine parameters, and a Summary Sheet Input Form on which issuance of a Certificate of Conformity is based.

  17. Application for certification 1993 model year light-duty vehicles - Vector Aeromotive

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-01-01

    Every year, each manufacturer of passenger cars, light-duty trucks, motorcycles, or heavy-duty engines submits to EPA an application for certification. In the application, the manufacturer gives a detailed technical description of the vehicles or engines he intends to market during the upcoming model year. These engineering data include explanations and/or drawings which describe engine/vehicle parameters such as basic engine design, fuel systems, ignition systems and exhaust and evaporative emission control systems. It also provides information on emission test procedures, service accumulation procedures, fuels to be used, and proposed maintenance requirements to be followed during testing. Section 16 of the application contains the results of emission testing, a statement of compliance to the regulations, production engine parameters, and a Summary Sheet Input Form on which issuance of a Certificate of Conformity is based.

  18. Application for certification 1993 model year heavy-duty diesel engines - Mitsubishi Motors Corporation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-01-01

    Each year, each manufacturer of passenger cars, light-duty trucks, motorcycles, or heavy-duty engines submits to EPA an application for certification. In the application, the manufacturer gives a detailed technical description of the vehicles or engines he intends to market during the upcoming model year. These engineering data include explanations and/or drawings which describe engine/vehicle parameters such as basic engine design, fuel systems, ignition systems and exhaust and evaporative emission control systems. It also provides information on emission test procedures, service accumulation procedures, fuels to be used, and proposed maintenance requirements to be followed during testing. Section 16 of the application contains the results of emission testing, a statement or compliance to the regulations, production engine parameters, and a Summary Sheet Input Form on which issuance of a Certificate of Conformity is based.

  19. Application for certification 1993 model year light-duty vehicles - General Motors Corporation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-01-01

    Every year, each manufacturer of passenger cars, light-duty trucks, motorcycles, or heavy-duty engines submits to EPA an application for certification. In the application, the manufacturer gives a detailed technical description of the vehicles or engines he intends to market during the upcoming model year. These engineering data include explanations and/or drawings which describe engine/vehicle parameters such as basic engine design, fuel systems, ignition systems and exhaust and evaporative emission control systems. It also provides information on emission test procedures, service accumulation procedures, fuels to be used, and proposed maintenance requirements to be followed during testing. Section 16 of the application contains the results of emission testing, a statement of compliance to the regulations, production engine parameters, and a Summary Sheet Input Form on which issuance of a Certificate of Conformity is based.

  20. Application for certification 1993 model year light-duty vehicles - Liphardt and Associates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-01-01

    Every year, each manufacturer of passenger cars, light-duty trucks, motorcycles, or heavy-duty engines submits to EPA an application for certification. In the application, the manufacturer gives a detailed technical description of the vehicles or engines he intends to market during the upcoming model year. These engineering data include explanations and/or drawings which describe engine/vehicle parameters such as basic engine design, fuel systems, ignition systems and exhaust and evaporative emission control systems. It also provides information on emission test procedures, service accumulation procedures, fuels to be used, and proposed maintenance requirements to be followed during testing. Section 16 of the application contains the results of emission testing, a statement of compliance to the regulations, production engine parameters, and a Summary Sheet Input Form on which issuance of a Certificate of Conformity is based.

  1. Application for certification 1993 model year light-duty vehicles - Jaguar cars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-01-01

    Every year, each manufacturer of passenger cars, light-duty trucks, motorcycles, or heavy-duty engines submits to EPA an application for certification. In the application, the manufacturer gives a detailed technical description of the vehicles or engines he intends to market during the upcoming model year. These engineering data include explanations and/or drawings which describe engine/vehicle parameters such as basic engine design, fuel systems, ignition systems and exhaust and evaporative emission control systems. It also provides information on emission test procedures, service accumulation procedures, fuels to be used, and proposed maintenance requirements to be followed during testing. Section 16 of the application contains the results of emission testing, a statement of compliance to the regulations, production engine parameters, and a Summary Sheet Input Form on which issuance of a Certificate of Conformity is based.

  2. Application for certification 1993 model year light-duty vehicles - Volkswagen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-01-01

    Every year, each manufacturer of passenger cars, light-duty trucks, motorcycles, or heavy-duty engines submits to EPA an application for certification. In the application, the manufacturer gives a detailed technical description of the vehicles or engines he intends to market during the upcoming model year. These engineering data include explanations and/or drawings which describe engine/vehicle parameters such as basic engine design, fuel systems, ignition systems and exhaust and evaporative emission control systems. It also provides information on emission test procedures, service accumulation procedures, fuels to be used, and proposed maintenance requirements to be followed during testing. Section 16 of the application contains the results of emission testing, a statement of compliance to the regulations, production engine parameters, and a Summary Sheet Input Form on which issuance of a Certificate of Conformity is based.

  3. Application for certification 1993 model year light-duty vehicles - Harley Davidson

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-01-01

    Every year, each manufacturer of passenger cars, light-duty trucks, motorcycles, or heavy-duty engines submits to EPA an application for certification. In the application, the manufacturer gives a detailed technical description of the vehicles or engines he intends to market during the upcoming model year. These engineering data include explanations and/or drawings which describe engine/vehicle parameters such as basic engine design, fuel systems, ignition systems and exhaust and evaporative emission control systems. It also provides information on emission test procedures, service accumulation procedures, fuels to be used, and proposed maintenance requirements to be followed during testing. Section 16 of the application contains the results of emission testing, a statement of compliance to the regulations, production engine parameters, and a Summary Sheet Input Form on which issuance of a Certificate of Conformity is based.

  4. Application for certification 1993 model year light-duty vehicles - Kia motors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-01-01

    Every year, each manufacturer of passenger cars, light-duty trucks, motorcycles, or heavy-duty engines submits to EPA an application for certification. In the application, the manufacturer gives a detailed technical description of the vehicles or engines he intends to market during the upcoming model year. These engineering data include explanations and/or drawings which describe engine/vehicle parameters such as basic engine design, fuel systems, ignition systems and exhaust and evaporative emission control systems. It also provides information on emission test procedures, service accumulation procedures, fuels to be used, and proposed maintenance requirements to be followed during testing. Section 16 of the application contains the results of emission testing, a statement of compliance to the regulations, production engine parameters, and a Summary Sheet Input Form on which issuance of a Certificate of Conformity is based.

  5. Application for certification 1993 model year light-duty vehicles - Jaguar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-01-01

    Every year, each manufacturer of passenger cars, light-duty trucks, motorcycles, or heavy-duty engines submits to EPA an application for certification. In the application, the manufacturer gives a detailed technical description of the vehicles or engines he intends to market during the upcoming model year. These engineering data include explanations and/or drawings which describe engine/vehicle parameters such as basic engine design, fuel systems, ignition systems and exhaust and evaporative emission control systems. It also provides information on emission test procedures, service accumulation procedures, fuels to be used, and proposed maintenance requirements to be followed during testing. Section 16 of the application contains the results of emission testing, a statement of compliance to the regulations, production engine parameters, and a Summary Sheet Input Form on which issuance of a Certificate of Conformity is based.

  6. Design and Validation Testing of TruckScan to Assay Large Sacks of Fukushima Radioactive Debris on a Truck

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suzuki, Atsuo [Canberra-Japan (Japan); Bronson, Frazier [Canberra Industries Inc. (United States)

    2015-07-01

    As a result of the March 2011 earthquake and resulting tsunami in Japan, there was a serious accident at the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant. This accident has contaminated soil and vegetation in a wide area around the plant. Decontamination projects over the last 4 years have resulted in large numbers of 1 cubic meter canvas bags of debris, commonly called Super Sacks [SS]. These are currently stored nearby where they were generated, but starting in 2015, they will be moved to various Interim Storage Facilities [ISF]. Trucks will typically carry 8-20 of these SSs. When the trucks arrive at the ISF they need to be rapidly sorted into groups according to radioactivity level, for efficient subsequent processing. Canberra Industries, Inc. [CI] has designed a new truck monitoring system 'TruckScan' for use at these ISFs. The TruckScan system must measure the entire truck loaded with multiple closely packed SSs, and generate a nuclide specific assay report showing the radioactivity in each individual SS. The Canberra-Japan office, along with Obayashi Corporation have performed validation testing to demonstrate to the regulatory authorities that the proposed technique was sufficiently accurate. These validation tests were conducted at a temporary storage area in Fukushima prefecture. Decontaminated waste of various representative types and of various levels of radioactivity was gathered and mixed to create homogeneous volumes. These volumes were sampled multiple times and assayed with laboratory HPGe detectors to determine the reference concentration of each pile. Multiple SSs were loaded from each pile. Some of the SSs were filled 50% full, others 75% full, and others 100% full, to represent the typical loading configuration of the existing SSs in the field. The content of the SSs are either sand, soil, or vegetation with densities ranging from 0.3 g/cc - 1.6 g/cc. These SSs with known concentrations of Cs-134 and Cs-137 were then loaded onto trucks in

  7. 纯电动轻型卡车再生制动系统的仿真与控制策略%Modeling and simulation of regenerative braking system for pure electric light truck

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋百玲; 周学升; 李佳; 王兴; 程崇; 孙世磊

    2015-01-01

    为保证纯电动轻型货车在具有最佳制动力分配的前提下多回收制动能量,仿真模拟了双能量源再生制动系统,设计了理想制动力分配再生制动控制策略。以东风EQ5030轻型货车为原型,根据纯电动轻型货车对能量和功率的双重要求,组成超级电容+蓄电池的双能量源储能结构。利用Matlab/Sumilink软件,建立再生制动系统仿真模型。在典型的道路循环工况下,对两种控制策略进行仿真对比。结果表明:本文设计的理想制动力分配再生制动控制策略比传统并联再生制动控制策略能量回收率提高了37.33%,增加了汽车的续驶里程。%A dual-energy-source regenerative braking-system simulation model was established to ensure an electric light-truck recover braking-energy as much as possible within a best braking force distribution. A dual energy source regenerative braking system was simulated to design an ideal braking force distribution of regenerative braking control strategy. A light truck named Dongfeng EQ5030 was taken as the prototype with a super capacitor being introduced into a pure electric-vehicle energy-storage-system to meet the demand of energy and power for a pure electric vehicle light truck. An ideal braking force distribution of regenerative braking control strategy was designed. A simulation model of regenerative braking system was established using the Matlab/Sumilink software to simulate and contrast two different control strategies under typical road cycle. The results show that the energy recovery rate increases by 37.33% than that of the traditional paralel control strategy for the ideal braking force distribution of regenerative braking control strategy designed. It causes electric cars increase travel distance.

  8. HD Diesel Hybrid Truck Powertrain Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-11

    These are typically connected through a power take-off on the transmission or in the drivetrain . - Other trucks such as over-the-road tractors need...technologies for MD and HD trucks and buses that may be provided as options for customers. • Hydraulic Hybrid drivetrains - uses a pressurized

  9. Potential Safety Benefit of the Blind Spot Detection System for Large Trucks on the Vulnerable Road Users in Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Ming-Hang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Considering motorcyclists, pedestrians and bicyclists as vulnerable road users (VRUs, more than 75 percent of the victims of fatal crashes involving large trucks in Taiwan are VRUs. Most crashes occurred at or were due to the blind spots of large trucks because of the size and traveling locations of the VRUs. This study applies typology and statistical methods to estimate the potential safety benefit of blind spot detection (BSD systems for large trucks on VRUs. The pre-crash scenarios associated with the blind spots of large trucks were derived by counting the maneuvers of large trucks and VRUs, prior to crashes, the truck drivers’ improper behaviors (cause of crashes, and the crash types. The number of crashes and fatalities were counted for the pre-crash scenario relevant to the BSD systems. A value of 0.8 of human machine interface factor (HMIF based on a previous study was applied to estimate the potential safety benefits of the BSD system. The results show that the implementation of BSD systems on all large trucks could help avoid about 24, 10, and 11 percent of large truck-involved crashes with pedestrians, bicycles, and motorcycles, respectively. The BSD systems could also save 5 pedestrians, 3 bicyclists, and 15 motorcyclists per year from crashes involving large trucks.

  10. Heavy-duty truck emissions in the South Coast Air Basin of California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bishop, Gary A; Schuchmann, Brent G; Stedman, Donald H

    2013-08-20

    California and Federal emissions regulations for 2007 and newer heavy-duty diesel engines require an order of magnitude reduction in particulate matter and oxides of nitrogen spurring the introduction of new aftertreatment systems. Since 2008, four emission measurement campaigns have been conducted at a Port of Los Angeles location and an inland weigh station in the South Coast Air Basin of California. Fuel specific oxides of nitrogen emissions at the Port have decreased 12% since 2010 while infrared opacity (a measure of particulate matter) remained low, showing no diesel particulate filter deterioration. The weigh station truck's fuel specific oxides of nitrogen emission reductions since 2010 (18.5%) almost double the previous three year's reductions and are the result of new trucks using selective catalytic reduction systems. Trucks at the weigh station equipped with these systems have a skewed oxides of nitrogen emissions distribution (half of the emissions were from 6% of the measurements) and had significantly lower emissions than similarly equipped Port trucks. Infrared thermographs of truck exhaust pipes revealed that the mean temperature observed at the weigh station (225 ± 4.5 °C) was 70 °C higher than for Port trucks, suggesting that the catalytic aftertreatment systems on trucks at our Port site were often below minimum operating temperatures.

  11. This year`s model: Geochemical modeling and groundwater quality

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tuchfeld, H.A.; Simmons, S.P.; Jesionek, K.S. [GeoSyntec Consultants, Walnut Creek, CA (United States)]|[GeoSyntec Consultants, Atlanta, GA (United States); Romito, A.A. [Browning-Ferris Industries, Inc., Houston, TX (United States)

    1998-07-01

    It has been determined that landfill gas migration is a source of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in groundwater. This can occur through: direct partitioning of migrating gas constituents into the groundwater; alteration of the physiochemical properties of the groundwater; and by indirect means (such as migration of landfill gas condensate and vadose zone water contaminated by landfill gas). This article examines the use of geochemical modeling as a useful tool for differentiating the effects of municipal solid waste (MSW) landfill gas versus leachate on groundwater quality at MSW landfill sites.

  12. Fuel Cell Powered Lift Truck

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moulden, Steve [Sysco Food Service, Houston, TX (United States)

    2015-08-20

    This project, entitled “Recovery Act: Fuel Cell-Powered Lift Truck Sysco (Houston) Fleet Deployment”, was in response to DOE funding opportunity announcement DE-PS36-08GO98009, Topic 7B, which promotes the deployment of fuel cell powered material handling equipment in large, multi-shift distribution centers. This project promoted large-volume commercialdeployments and helped to create a market pull for material handling equipment (MHE) powered fuel cell systems. Specific outcomes and benefits involved the proliferation of fuel cell systems in 5-to 20-kW lift trucks at a high-profile, real-world site that demonstrated the benefits of fuel cell technology and served as a focal point for other nascent customers. The project allowed for the creation of expertise in providing service and support for MHE fuel cell powered systems, growth of existing product manufacturing expertise, and promoted existing fuel cell system and component companies. The project also stimulated other MHE fleet conversions helping to speed the adoption of fuel cell systems and hydrogen fueling technology. This document also contains the lessons learned during the project in order to communicate the successes and difficulties experienced, which could potentially assist others planning similar projects.

  13. Professional experience and traffic accidents/near-miss accidents among truck drivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girotto, Edmarlon; Andrade, Selma Maffei de; González, Alberto Durán; Mesas, Arthur Eumann

    2016-10-01

    To investigate the relationship between the time working as a truck driver and the report of involvement in traffic accidents or near-miss accidents. A cross-sectional study was performed with truck drivers transporting products from the Brazilian grain harvest to the Port of Paranaguá, Paraná, Brazil. The drivers were interviewed regarding sociodemographic characteristics, working conditions, behavior in traffic and involvement in accidents or near-miss accidents in the previous 12 months. Subsequently, the participants answered a self-applied questionnaire on substance use. The time of professional experience as drivers was categorized in tertiles. Statistical analyses were performed through the construction of models adjusted by multinomial regression to assess the relationship between the length of experience as a truck driver and the involvement in accidents or near-miss accidents. This study included 665 male drivers with an average age of 42.2 (±11.1) years. Among them, 7.2% and 41.7% of the drivers reported involvement in accidents and near-miss accidents, respectively. In fully adjusted analysis, the 3rd tertile of professional experience (>22years) was shown to be inversely associated with involvement in accidents (odds ratio [OR] 0.29; 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.16-0.52) and near-miss accidents (OR 0.17; 95% CI 0.05-0.53). The 2nd tertile of professional experience (11-22 years) was inversely associated with involvement in accidents (OR 0.63; 95% CI 0.40-0.98). An evident relationship was observed between longer professional experience and a reduction in reporting involvement in accidents and near-miss accidents, regardless of age, substance use, working conditions and behavior in traffic. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. APPLICATION OF MSC ADAMS – NX NASTRAN/FEMAP INTERFACE IN STRENGTH CALCULATIONS OF TRUCK FRAMES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam PRZEMYK

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the finite element method (FEM is used to calculate the strength of truck frames by integrating the MSC Adams software, for dynamics analysis of mechanical systems, and the NX Nastran/Femap software. At the same time, a method for reducing degrees of freedom is been developed based on the Craig–Bampton method. The interface is applied in order to calculate the strength of the frame in the selected truck, which runs on the test track. The selected model of truck can be treated as the virtual prototype that is useful in the design process.

  15. Operator health risk evaluation of off-highway dump truck under shovel loading condition

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    申焱华; 许敏; 金纯; 高玉; 魏福林

    2015-01-01

    To evaluate the operator health risk exposed to whole-body vibration (WBV) while the electric-shovel loads the ore on the truck body, the semi-truck mathematical model and 3-D virtual prototype were built to simulate the high shockwave of truck cab under the shovel loading. Discrete element method was utilized to accurately estimate the impacting force on the truck body. Based on the ISO 2631-5 criteria, theSed is about 0.56 MPa in both models, which means that the dump operators have a high probability of adverse health effects over long-term exposure to these vibrations. The 4-DOF operator model was built to investigate the biodynamic response of seated-human body exposed to WBV in terms of the transmission of vibrations through the body. The results show that the response peak is in the frequency range of 4−6 Hz corresponding to the primary body resonant frequency.

  16. The design and implementation of a garbage truck fleet management system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen, C. H.

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, the improvement of cloud computing and mobile computing techniques has led to the availability of a variety of mobile applications (‘apps’ in the app store. For instance, a garbage truck app that can provide the immediate location of a garbage truck, the location of collection points, and forecasted arrival times of garbage trucks would be useful for mobile users. Since the power consumption of apps on mobile devices if of concern to mobile users, an optimised power-saving mechanism for updating messages, which is based on location information, for a proposed garbage truck fleet management system (GTFMS is proposed and implemented in this paper. The GTFMS is a three- component system that includes the on-board units on garbage trucks, a fleet management system, and a garbage truck app. In this study, an arrival time forecasting method is designed and implemented in the fleet management system, so that the garbage truck app can retrieve the forecasted arrival time via web services. A message updating event is then triggered that reports the location of garbage truck and the forecasted arrival time. In experiments conducted on case studies, the results showed that the mean accuracy of predicted arrival time by the proposed method is about 81.45 per cent. As for power consumption, the cost of traditional mobile apps is 2,880 times that of the mechanism proposed in this study. Consequently, the GTFMS can provide the precise forecasted arrival time of garbage trucks to mobile users, while consuming less power.

  17. Improving Road Safety of Tank Truck in Indonesia by Speed Limiter Installation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pranoto Hadi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Indonesia has one of the highest number of fatalities caused by traffic accident. It is become main concern since last decades. Approximately of 10% fatalities is caused by tank truck accident, it recorded by PT. Pertamina Persero, Indonesia in 2015 that 17% and 20% tank truck accident is caused by over speed and fatigue, respectively. Therefore, over speed has become main factor the occurrence of tank truck accident. Main objective of this research is to install speed limiter on the tank truck in order to improve safety engineering system, decrease accident and to maintain engine performance. This research is conducted in Indonesia especially in Java-Bali route travel. Speed limiter is installed to the tank truck engine which completed by fuel cut-off solenoid to reduce the speed automatically when it exceeding the maximum speed that has been determined. From the result shows that top speed which performed by driver up to 133 km/h when tank truck uninstalled by speed limiter. Meanwhile, when speed limiter is installed to the tank truck, top speed locked at 70 km/h even though the driver want to speed up. It means that fuel cut-off system is very effective to lock the speed at 70 km/h and it shown the improvement up to 65%. The monitoring activities observed that the decreasing number of fatalities caused by tank truck accident become 7% as compared to last year of 17%. It can be found that the speed limiter coupled by speed recorder was very efficient to improve safety engineering system of the tank truck.

  18. Effects of irregular-shift work and physical activity on cardiovascular risk factors in truck drivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marqueze, Elaine Cristina; Ulhôa, Melissa Araújo; Moreno, Claudia Roberta de Castro

    2013-06-01

    To analyze the putative effect of type of shift and its interaction with leisure-time physical activity on cardiovascular risk factors in truck drivers. A cross-sectional study was undertaken on 57 male truck drivers working at a transportation company, of whom 31 worked irregular shifts and 26 worked on the day-shift. Participants recorded their physical activity using the International Physical Activity Questionnaire along with measurements of blood pressure, body mass index and waist-hip ratio. Participants also provided a fasting blood sample for analysis of lipid-related outcomes. Data were analyzed using a factorial model which was covariate-controlled for age, smoking, work demand, control at work and social support. Most of the irregular-shift and day-shift workers worked more than 8 hours per day (67.7% and 73.1%, respectively). The mean duration of experience working the irregular schedule was 15.7 years. Day-shift workers had never engaged in irregular-shift work and had been working as a truck driver for 10.8 years on average. The irregular-shift drivers had lower work demand but less control compared to day-shift drivers (p active irregular-shift workers had higher systolic and diastolic arterial pressures (143.7 and 93.2 mmHg, respectively) than moderately-active day-shift workers (116 and 73.3 mmHg, respectively) (p physical activity, irregular-shift drivers had higher total cholesterol and LDL-cholesterol concentrations (211.8 and 135.7 mg/dl, respectively) than day-shift workers (161.9 and 96.7 mg/dl, respectively (ANCOVA, p physical activity.

  19. Designing Optimal LNG Station Network for U.S. Heavy-Duty Freight Trucks using Temporally and Spatially Explicit Supply Chain Optimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Allen

    unless a significant station capital subsidy, upwards of 50 percent and even then it might not be enough. However, a doubling of LNG truck demand will initialize network commercialization in the modeling base year, 2012 (the same year Clean Energy Corp. launched their national LNG network) in California and then gradually establish in other hotspot regions in Mid-West and Mid-Atlantic throughout the time horizon. The model shows that trucking routes in California are highly commercial due to high traffic volume and regional advantages. The model can be used by industry to inform necessary policies and to plan future infrastructure deployment along trucking routes that are likely to provide the highest returns.

  20. The External Effects Model of Diesel Consumption of Transport Trucks in Open-pit Mine%露天矿运输卡车柴油消耗的外部影响模型

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    温廷新; 戚磊; 邵良杉

    2015-01-01

    To establish a nonlinear model between the diesel consumption of transport trucks in open-pit mine and its main external influence factors,the support vector regression ( SVR) method is adopted,and the statistical data of actual pro-duction and dispatcher in a domestic open-pit coal mine are taken as original samples. With selection of output,volume,dis-tance,height,loading time,fuel up amount,rock volume as seven main external indexes,and by using the factor analysis meth-od to extract common factors as the input of the model,the training process of diesel consumption model is analyzed to make the simulation training through programming the corresponding program in MATLAB and finally get the diesel consumption model based on SVR. The training and testing results show that:the model can meet the precision requirement,and work well on the diesel consumption calculation and prediction of transportation truck in open-pit mine;This model can provide decision support for reasonable production schedule and guide to reduce the diesel consumption.%为建立露天矿运输卡车柴油消耗与其主要外部影响因素之间的非线性模型,采用回归型支持向量机( SVR)方法,并以国内某露天煤矿实际生产调度统计的数据作为原始样本,选取产量、运量、运距、高差、装车时间、加油量、岩量等7个主要外部影响指标,使用因子分析方法提取公共因子作为模型的输入,分析柴油消耗模型的训练过程,通过在MATLAB上编写相应程序并进行仿真训练,最终得出基于SVR的柴油消耗模型。训练和测试结果表明:该模型满足精度要求,能够很好地对露天矿运输卡车的柴油消耗进行计算和预测,可以为进行合理的生产调度提供决策支持,同时也为降低柴油消耗提供指导作用。

  1. Is My Project's Truck Factor Low? Theoretical and Empirical Considerations About the Truck Factor Threshold

    OpenAIRE

    Torchiano, Marco

    2011-01-01

    The Truck Factor is a simple way, proposed by the agile community, to measure the system's knowledge distribution in a team of developers. It can be used to highlight potential project problems due to the inadequate distribution of the system knowledge. Notwithstanding its relevance, only few studies investigated the Truck Factor and proposed ways to efficiently measure, evaluate and use it. In particular, the effective use of the Truck Factor is limited by the lack of reliable thresholds. In...

  2. In-use NOx emissions from diesel and liquefied natural gas refuse trucks equipped with SCR and TWC respectively.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misra, Chandan; Ruehl, Chris; Collins, John Francis; Chernich, Don; Herner, Jorn

    2017-02-07

    The California Air Resources Board (ARB) and the City of Sacramento undertook this study to characterize the in-use emissions from model year (MY) 2010 or newer diesel, liquefied natural gas (LNG) and hydraulic hybrid diesel engines during real-world refuse truck operation. Emissions from five trucks: two diesels equipped with selective catalytic reduction (SCR), two LNG's equipped with three-way catalyst (TWC) and one hydraulic hybrid diesel equipped with SCR were measured using a portable emissions measurement system (PEMS) in the Sacramento area. Results showed that the brake-specific NOx emissions for the LNG trucks equipped with the TWC catalyst were lowest of all the technologies tested. Results also showed that the brake specific NOx emissions from the conventional diesel engines were significantly higher despite the exhaust temperature being high enough for proper SCR function. Like diesel engines, the brake specific NOx emissions from the hydraulic hybrid diesel also exceeded certification although this can be explained on the basis of the temperature profile. Future studies are warranted to establish whether the below average SCR performance observed in this study is a systemic issue or is it a problem specifically observed during this work.

  3. "Auman Speed"--A Miracle of China's Commercial Truck Industry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    @@ In 2004, Foton Auman, located in a beautiful place-Beijing Hongluosi, made a remarkable achievement, selling nearly 45,000mid-heavy-duty trcuks. From 2002 to2004, Foton Auman has completed the whole process which the traditional truck enterprises need take several decades to complete. As soon as Foton Auman entered the market, it has become a competitive challenger in China's mid-heavytruck market, with its unique products and advanced philosophy in management; it takes Foton Auman less than three years to become the biggest group in China's mid-heavy-truck industry and become a leading enterprise of the market. The development of Foton Auman is called"Auman Speed" by auto circle and experts.

  4. Scheduling Trucks in a Cross-Dock with Mixed Service Mode Dock Doors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bodnar, Peter; Azadeh, Kaveh; Koster, René de

    2017-01-01

    The problem considered in this paper is how to schedule inbound and outbound trucks subject to time windows at a multidoor cross-dock. Dock doors can either be dedicated to inbound or outbound trucks or be capable of handling both truck types. In addition, loads are allowed to be temporarily...... and an adaptive large neighborhood search heuristic is proposed to compute near-optimal solutions of real size instances. Computational experiments show that the proposed heuristic algorithm can obtain high-quality solutions within short computation times. We apply the model to cross-dock scheduling and design...... problems of four warehouses of a large retailer and show that substantially smaller cross-docks can be used by using dock-doors flexibly and properly scheduling the trucks....

  5. Hydraulic Hybrid Parcel Delivery Truck Deployment, Testing & Demonstration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gallo, Jean-Baptiste [Calstart Incorporated, Pasadena, CA (United States)

    2014-03-07

    Although hydraulic hybrid systems have shown promise over the last few years, commercial deployment of these systems has primarily been limited to Class 8 refuse trucks. In 2005, the Hybrid Truck Users Forum initiated the Parcel Delivery Working Group including the largest parcel delivery fleets in North America. The goal of the working group was to evaluate and accelerate commercialization of hydraulic hybrid technology for parcel delivery vehicles. FedEx Ground, Purolator and United Parcel Service (UPS) took delivery of the world’s first commercially available hydraulic hybrid parcel delivery trucks in early 2012. The vehicle chassis includes a Parker Hannifin hydraulic hybrid drive system, integrated and assembled by Freightliner Custom Chassis Corp., with a body installed by Morgan Olson. With funding from the U.S. Department of Energy, CALSTART and its project partners assessed the performance, reliability, maintainability and fleet acceptance of three pre-production Class 6 hydraulic hybrid parcel delivery vehicles using information and data from in-use data collection and on-road testing. This document reports on the deployment of these vehicles operated by FedEx Ground, Purolator and UPS. The results presented provide a comprehensive overview of the performance of commercial hydraulic hybrid vehicles in parcel delivery applications. This project also informs fleets and manufacturers on the overall performance of hydraulic hybrid vehicles, provides insights on how the technology can be both improved and more effectively used. The key findings and recommendations of this project fall into four major categories: -Performance, -Fleet deployment, -Maintenance, -Business case. Hydraulic hybrid technology is relatively new to the market, as commercial vehicles have been introduced only in the past few years in refuse and parcel delivery applications. Successful demonstration could pave the way for additional purchases of hydraulic hybrid vehicles throughout the

  6. Effects of irregular-shift work and physical activity on cardiovascular risk factors in truck drivers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elaine Cristina Marqueze

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To analyze the putative effect of type of shift and its interaction with leisure-time physical activity on cardiovascular risk factors in truck drivers. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was undertaken on 57 male truck drivers working at a transportation company, of whom 31 worked irregular shifts and 26 worked on the day-shift. Participants recorded their physical activity using the International Physical Activity Questionnaire along with measurements of blood pressure, body mass index and waist-hip ratio. Participants also provided a fasting blood sample for analysis of lipid-related outcomes. Data were analyzed using a factorial model which was covariate-controlled for age, smoking, work demand, control at work and social support. RESULTS: Most of the irregular-shift and day-shift workers worked more than 8 hours per day (67.7% and 73.1%, respectively. The mean duration of experience working the irregular schedule was 15.7 years. Day-shift workers had never engaged in irregular-shift work and had been working as a truck driver for 10.8 years on average. The irregular-shift drivers had lower work demand but less control compared to day-shift drivers (p < 0.05. Moderately-active irregular-shift workers had higher systolic and diastolic arterial pressures (143.7 and 93.2 mmHg, respectively than moderately-active day-shift workers (116 and 73.3 mmHg, respectively (p < 0.05 as well as higher total cholesterol concentrations (232.1 and 145 mg/dl, respectively (p = 0.01. Irrespective of their physical activity, irregular-shift drivers had higher total cholesterol and LDL-cholesterol concentrations (211.8 and 135.7 mg/dl, respectively than day-shift workers (161.9 and 96.7 mg/dl, respectively (ANCOVA, p < 0.05. CONCLUSIONS: Truck drivers are exposed to cardiovascular risk factors due to the characteristics of the job, such as high work demand, long working hours and time in this profession, regardless of shift type or leisure-time physical

  7. Research on rigid–flexible coupling dynamic characteristics of boom system in concrete pump truck

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongbin Tang

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Concrete pump truck plays an important role in infrastructure construction and national economic development. In recent years, its boom system becomes longer, and its dynamic and control become more complicated. In order to study the dynamic characteristics of boom system, three dynamic models such as multi-rigid-body model, rigid–flexible coupling model, and rigid–flexible coupling model with equivalent hydraulic cylinder were built in this work. Simulation analysis and experimental analysis were done, and they show that we should not only consider the large-range motion but also consider the small flexible deformation to study the dynamic characteristics of boom system precisely. It provides the theoretical basis to vibration control, trajectory prediction, and life assessment for boom system and such structures.

  8. The association between adolescent entry into the trucking industry and risk of HIV among long-distance truck drivers in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, Ram Manohar; Dube, Madhulika; Saggurti, Niranjan; Pandey, Arvind; Mahapatra, Bidhubhusan; Ramesh, Sowmya

    2012-01-01

    This study examines the relationship between entry into the trucking industry during adolescence and both sexually transmitted infections (STIs) and infection by the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) among long-distance truck drivers in India. Data were sourced from a cross-sectional survey (sample size: 2066) undertaken in 2007 among long-distance truck drivers. The survey spread across major transshipment locations covering the bulk of India's transport volume along four routes. Participants were interviewed about sexual behaviors and were tested for HIV and STIs. The present authors constructed two synthetic cohorts based on the participants' duration of employment in the trucking industry: (1) low (duration ≤ 6 years) and (2) high experience (duration ≥ 7 years). Based on age at entry into the trucking industry, participants were termed as either adolescent (age at entry 4.0%, respectively; adjusted OR: 1.9; 95% CI: 1.2-3.1) and syphilis (5.7% versus 3.5%, respectively; adjusted OR: 1.8; 95% CI: 1.1-3.1). These results suggest the need for focused behavioral change programs in HIV prevention interventions for adolescent truckers in India and elsewhere.

  9. Antecedents of Truck Drivers’ Job Satisfaction and Retention Proneness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prockl, Günter; Teller, Christoph; Kotzab, Herbert

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to (1) explore the antecedents of truck drivers’ job satisfaction, (2) identify the impact of financial and nonfinancial job properties on satisfaction with the job and with one's employer, and (3) the drivers’ proneness to retaining their jobs. Based on the extant...... literature, we develop a conceptual model that is tested using survey data for 164 truck drivers. Multiple linear and ordinal logistic regressions were used to estimate the proposed effects. The results reveal that nonfinancial job properties and satisfaction with one's employer affect job satisfaction...... is statistically significant. Financial and nonfinancial job properties affect satisfaction with one's employer whereas the former shows a lower impact compared to the latter. Satisfaction with the job and one's employer impacts retention proneness. The contribution of this study was to (1) add...

  10. Effects of Retrofitting Emission Control Systems on all In-Use Heavy Diesel Trucks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millstein, D.; Harley, R. A.

    2009-12-01

    Diesel exhaust is now the largest source of nitrogen oxide (NOx) emissions nationally in the US, and contributes significantly to emissions of fine particulate black carbon (soot) as well. New national standards call for dramatically lower emissions of exhaust particulate matter (PM) and NOx from new diesel engines starting in 2007 and 2010, respectively. Unfortunately it will take decades for the cleaner new engines to replace those currently in service on existing heavy-duty trucks. The state of California recently adopted a rule to accelerate fleet turnover in the heavy-duty truck sector, requiring that all in-use trucks meet the new exhaust PM standards by 2014. This will entail retrofit of diesel particle filters or replacement for over a million existing diesel engines. Diesel particle filters can replace the muffler on existing trucks, and there is extensive experience with retrofit of this control equipment on public sector fleets such as diesel-powered transit buses. Nitrogen dioxide (NO2) is used as an oxidizing agent to remove carbon particles from the particle filter, to prevent it from becoming plugged. To create the needed NO2, NOx already present in engine exhaust as nitric oxide (NO) is deliberately oxidized to NO2 upstream of the particle filter using a platinum catalyst. The NO2/NOx ratio in exhaust emissions therefore increases to ~35% in comparison to much lower values (~5%) typical of older engines without particle filters. We evaluate the effects on air quality of increased use of diesel particle traps and NOx controls in southern California using the Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) model. Compared to a reference scenario without the retrofit program, we found black carbon concentrations decreased by ~20%, with small increases (4%) in ambient ozone concentrations. During summer, average NO2 concentrations decrease despite the increase in primary NO2 emissions - because total NOx emissions are reduced as part of a parallel but more

  11. Approaches of truck drivers and non-truck drivers toward reckless on-road behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenbloom, Tova; Eldror, Ehud; Shahar, Amit

    2009-07-01

    The purpose of the study was to compare the reported approaches of truck drivers to those of non-truck drivers toward reckless on-road behaviors. One hundred and sixty-seven adult males, including 70 non-truck drivers, completed the questionnaires voluntarily. The truck drivers were employees of a concrete manufacturing company working at various company plants throughout Israel. Seventy were professional mixer truckers and 27 were tip-truckers. The participants completed the Reckless Driving Self-Report Scale based on Taubman Ben-Ari et al. [Taubman Ben-Ari, O., Florian, V., Mikulincer, M., 1999. The impact of mortality salience on reckless driving: a test of terror management mechanisms. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 76, 35-45], adapted for truck drivers for this study. It was expected that non-professional, as compared to professional (truck) drivers, would be more permissive regarding reckless driving, since driving risks are less prominent in their daily driving experience. An ANOVA performed on mean reckless-driving scores yielded significant results. The post hoc Schéffe test indicated significantly higher reckless-driving scores for automobile drivers as compared to both mixer-truck driver scores and tip-truck driver scores. In addition, the reckless-driving scores for mixer-truck drivers were significantly higher than the tip-truck driver scores. We discuss various explanations for the findings and consider possible implications for training strategies in organizations as well as for media campaigns focused on mutual safe road use of truck drivers and private vehicle drivers.

  12. Factors associated with falling asleep at the wheel among long-distance truck drivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCartt, A T; Rohrbaugh, J W; Hammer, M C; Fuller, S Z

    2000-07-01

    Data on the prevalence and hypothesized predictors of falling asleep while driving were gathered through face-to-face interviews with 593 long-distance truck drivers randomly selected at public and private rest areas and routine roadside truck safety inspections. Hypothesized predictor variables related to drivers' typical work and rest patterns, extent of daytime and night-time drowsiness, symptoms of sleep disorder, measures of driving exposure, and demographic characteristics. A sizeable proportion of long-distance truck drivers reported falling asleep at the wheel of the truck: 47.1% of the survey respondents had ever fallen asleep at the wheel of a truck, and 25.4% had fallen asleep at the wheel in the past year. Factor analysis reduced the large set of predictors to six underlying, independent factors: greater daytime sleepiness; more arduous schedules, with more hours of work and fewer hours off-duty; older, more experienced drivers; shorter, poorer sleep on road; symptoms of sleep disorder; and greater tendency to night-time drowsy driving. Based on multivariate logistic regression, all six factors were predictive of self-reported falling asleep at the wheel. Falling asleep was also associated with not having been alerted by driving over shoulder rumble strips. The results suggest that countermeasures that limit drivers' work hours and enable drivers to get adequate rest and that identify drivers with sleep disorders are appropriate methods to reduce sleepiness-related driving by truck drivers.

  13. Accident rates for heavy truck-tractors in Michigan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blower, D; Campbell, K L; Green, P E

    1993-06-01

    Accident rates of heavy truck-tractors are modelled using log-linear methods. The accident data used are a census of truck-tractor involvements in Michigan from May 1987 to April 1988. Travel data used to calculate the rates were produced by a survey of truck-tractors in Michigan covering the same time period. Both the accident and travel data were limited to Michigan-registered tractors operating in Michigan. Log-linear models of casualty and property-damage-only accident rates were developed using number of trailers, road type, area type, and time of day as predictor variables. Overall, differences between tractors with one and two trailers were not significant. Tractors with no trailers (bobtails) have significantly higher accident rates. Characteristics of the operating environment were found to have larger effects on the accident rate than tractor configuration (except for the bobtail). Rates varied by a factor of up to 6.8, depending on the road type. Casualty accident risk at night was 1.4 times the risk during the day. The risk of a casualty accident in rural areas was 1.6 times that of urban areas.

  14. Diesel Engine Light Truck Application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2007-12-31

    The Diesel Engine Light Truck Application (DELTA) program consists of two major contracts with the Department of Energy (DOE). The first one under DE-FC05-97-OR22606, starting from 1997, was completed in 2001, and consequently, a final report was submitted to DOE in 2003. The second part of the contract was under DE-FC05-02OR22909, covering the program progress from 2002 to 2007. This report is the final report of the second part of the program under contract DE-FC05-02OR22909. During the course of this contract, the program work scope and objectives were significantly changed. From 2002 to 2004, the DELTA program continued working on light-duty engine development with the 4.0L V6 DELTA engine, following the accomplishments made from the first part of the program under DE-FC05-97-OR22606. The program work scope in 2005-2007 was changed to the Diesel Particulate Filter (DPF) soot layer characterization and substrate material assessment. This final report will cover two major technical tasks. (1) Continuation of the DELTA engine development to demonstrate production-viable diesel engine technologies and to demonstrate emissions compliance with significant fuel economy advantages, covering progress made from 2002 to 2004. (2) DPF soot layer characterization and substrate material assessment from 2005-2007.

  15. Scheduling trucks in cross docking systems with temporary storage and dock repeat truck holding pattern using genetic algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ehsan Ghobadian

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Cross docking is one of the most important issues in management of supply chains. In cross docking, different items delivered to a warehouse by inbound trucks are directly arranged and reorganized based on customer demands, routed and loaded into outbound trucks for delivery purposes to customers without virtually keeping them at the warehouse. If any item is kept in storage, it is normally for a short amount of time, say less than 24 hours. In this paper, we consider a special case of cross docking where there is temporary storage and implements genetic algorithm to solve the resulted problem for some realistic test problems. In our method, we first use some heuristics as initial solutions and then improve the final solution using genetic algorithm. The performance of the proposed model is compared with alternative solution strategy, the GRASP method.

  16. Scheduling trucks in cross docking systems with temporary storage and dock repeat truck holding pattern using GRASP method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassan Javanshir

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Cross docking play an important role in management of supply chains where items delivered to a warehouse by inbound trucks are directly sorted out, reorganized based on customer demands, routed and loaded into outbound trucks for delivery to customers without virtually keeping them at the warehouse. If any item is held in storage, it is usually for a short time, which is normally less than 24 hours. The proposed model of this paper considers a special case of cross docking where there is temporary storage and uses GRASP technique to solve the resulted problem for some realistic test problems. In our method, we first use some heuristics as initial solutions and then improve the final solution using GRASP method. The preliminary test results indicate that the GRASP method performs better than alternative solution strategies.

  17. Work related injuries in Washington State's Trucking Industry, by industry sector and occupation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Caroline K; Williams, Jena

    2014-04-01

    The trucking industry continues to have some of the highest work-related injury and illness rates and costs of any industry in the United States. Until recently, little focus has been placed on addressing non-motor vehicle collision related injuries within the trucking industry. Drivers are exposed to multiple physical risk factors that contribute to occupational injuries in order to complete their job duties, such as loading/unloading freight, decoupling trailers, strapping down loads and ingress and egress from the cab and trailer. About one-fourth of all truck driver injuries in the United States are related to slips, trips, and falls near the truck. The purpose of this descriptive study is to report on recent injuries in the trucking industry in Washington State. Data are presented by occupation and industry sector, in order to better understand the magnitude of specific injuries in terms of time-loss days and workers' compensation costs. All accepted, compensable (time-loss) claims from 2005 to 2010 within the trucking industry in Washington State were reviewed. Counts, rates, median and quartile data are presented. Logistic regression models are presented to identify factors associated with more severe claims. Non-traumatic musculoskeletal disorders of the neck, back and upper extremities are the most frequent injuries across all industry sectors and occupations in the trucking industry. Vehicle related claims had the highest median costs and time loss days and Courier and Messenger claims had the highest risk for higher time loss claims. Injuries varied substantially by sector and within sectors by occupation. It is important to review work-related injuries within the trucking industry by sector and occupation in order to maximize limited resources for injury prevention within this important sector. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  18. Real Driving NOx Emissions of European Trucks and Detection of Manipulated Emission Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pöhler, Denis; Adler, Tim; Krufczik, Chsristopher; Horbanski, Martin; Lampel, Johannes; Platt, Ulrich

    2017-04-01

    Nitrogen dioxide (NO2) is the most problematic pollutant in Europe and many other countries. NO2 has a negative impact for the health and the environment, and in most European cities the currently allowed mean annual limit of 40μg/m3 is exceeded. Vehicles, especially Diesel, are the most relevant source. They emit NOx (NO + NO2), and NO can also be converted to NO2 in the atmosphere. Thus vehicle NOx emissions are regulated in the EU with the EURO Norm Standard (e.g. EURO 6 since 1.1.2013 for trucks with 400mg/kWh). Trucks achieve these low emissions with complex emission after treatment systems. All EURO 6 trucks and almost all EURO 5 trucks use the SCR system consuming AdBlue to reduce the NOx emissions. Since the diesel emission scandal for cars, it is well known that real driving emissions (RDE) can be several times higher that the EURO Norm Standard. The main problem is that RDE are only randomly investigated. Here we present a study of NOx RDE of more than 250 randomly chosen trucks on German highways. The measurements were performed with a newly developed mobile NOx-ICAD + CO2 -instrument applying the plume chasing measurement principle, where the pollutants are investigated in the emission plume and were converted to emission factors to be compared to the EURO standard. For most trucks the brand, the model name, the country of registration and its EURO class could be determined and used in a statistical analysis. The observed NOx emission data show that typical truck RDE are in the range of the expected EURO Norm or slightly higher. However, almost every fourth truck from Eastern Europe show emissions much higher that the EURO Norm. This was not observed for German trucks. As the emissions increase up to a factor of 5 to 10 these view trucks contribute significantly to the air pollution. These high emissions clearly indicate a defect emission treatment system. Most likely it indicates illegal manipulated emissions systems where the AdBlue injection is

  19. APBF-DEC NOx Adsorber/DPF Project: SUV / Pick-up Truck Platform

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Webb, C; Weber, P; Thornton,M

    2003-08-24

    The objective of this project is to determine the influence of diesel fuel composition on the ability of NOX adsorber catalyst (NAC) technology, in conjunction with diesel particle filters (DPFs), to achieve stringent emissions levels with a minimal fuel economy impact. The test bed for this project was intended to be a light-duty sport utility vehicle (SUV) with a goal of achieving light-duty Tier 2-Bin 5 tail pipe emission levels (0.07 g/mi. NOX and 0.01 g/mi. PM). However, with the current US market share of light-duty diesel applications being so low, no US 2002 model year (MY) light-duty truck (LDT) or SUV platforms equipped with a diesel engine and having a gross vehicle weight rating (GVWR) less than 8500 lb exist. While the current level of diesel engine use is relatively small in the light-duty class, there exists considerable potential for the diesel engine to gain a much larger market share in the future as manufacturers of heavy light-duty trucks (HLDTs) attempt to offset the negative impact on cooperate average fuel economy (CAFE) that the recent rise in market share of the SUVs and LDTs has caused. The US EPA Tier 2 emission standards also contain regulation to prevent the migration of heavy light-duty trucks and SUV's to the medium duty class. This preventive measure requires that all medium duty trucks, SUV's and vans in the 8,500 to 10,000 lb GVWR range being used as passenger vehicles, meet light-duty Tier 2 standards. In meeting the Tier 2 emission standards, the HLDTs and medium-duty passenger vehicles (MDPVs) will face the greatest technological challenges. Because the MDPV is the closest weight class and application relative to the potential upcoming HLDTs and SUV's, a weight class compromise was made in this program to allow the examination of using a diesel engine with a NAC-DPF system on a 2002 production vehicle. The test bed for this project is a 2500 series Chevrolet Silverado equipped with a 6.6L Duramax diesel engine

  20. Business plan for Gourmet Food Truck in Helsinki

    OpenAIRE

    Mulmi, Mukesh

    2015-01-01

    This thesis work is about food truck and food truck industry in Finland. In Finland, Culinary scenes are booming and growing but, the food truck concept is new to Finland. Food truck industry is very young and currently, there is a hype for food truck and people are admiring new cuisines. Author himself is working as a cook. And he is passionate about food and restaurant industry. The main purpose of the thesis was to explore more about food truck industry in Finland and create the busine...

  1. Cultural discourse embedded in truck scripts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ömer Gökhan Ulum

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The bond between a driver and his truck has been the subject of many famous films. If not actual adoration of the vehicle, it certainly is the destiny shared between a living human and a running machine, both heading for a common destination. Who and what else can replace this bond? Here, we see the truck bearing decorations, bumper sticks, script, and pictures of animate and inanimate objects all reflecting the taste and psyche of the driver. This study aims to introduce a thematic analysis into this picturesque look of over a thousand trucks with specific focus on scripts borne by trailers based on the assumption that content of scripts would be representing inner worlds of truck drivers. Photographed as well as internet-based data related to vehicles provided the source for this study. Scripts were thematised, and categorized observing nationality of origin of license plates. With its findings, the study yields valuable results regarding values and beliefs truck drivers of different nationalities hold to themselves. A variety of psychological profiles, harboring feelings such as sadness, joy, dejection, rejection, love, disappointments, anger, vengeance, etc., all expressed through scripts was also surfaced in this study.

  2. 基于大气退化物理模型恢复算法的露天矿车辆助驾技术%Haul truck assisted drive technology based on recovery algorithm of atmospheric degradation physical models in open-pit

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙恩吉

    2011-01-01

    Haul trucks transportation is one of the most important transportation methods in large surface mining operations. It is the key factor that affects the mining productivity and cost effective. However, its accidents rate and the dangers are far higher than other types of developing transportation surface mining accidents. For the environmental characteristics of surface mining roads and the weather factors, the open-pit haul truck security risks during haul trucks transportation was eliminated by the installation of the haul trucks CCD camera equipments. Haul trucks transportation environment detection video display enhancement technologies were proposed based on the physical models of atmospheric degradation, recovery algorithm to improve the haul trucks drivers visual distance under the rain, snow, fog dust, etc lower visibility severe weather condition in surface mining operations. The research results indicated that it increases reliability and reduces uncertainty in surface mining operations.%露天矿汽车运输是大型露天矿主要运输方式之一,是影响露天矿生产能力和经济效益的关键因素.本文分析了露天矿车辆运输事故原因,针对露天矿卡车运输道路环境特点与天气因素,通过安装于车体外的高清CCD摄像设备,来消除卡车肓区的安全隐患,并基于大气退化物理模型恢复算法,实现了在雨、雪、雾、灰尘等恶劣天气条件下的露天矿车辆运输道路环境探测影像增强技术,提高露天矿卡车司机的可视距离,降低事故发生率.本文的研究对于提高露天矿车辆运输安全,降低露天矿事故发生率具有重要意义,并以某大型露天煤矿为应用实例验证了其可行性.

  3. Fuel Cell Hydroge Manifold for Lift Trucks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hosseinzadeh, Elham

    Reducing CO2 emissions are getting more attention because of global warming. The transport sector which is responsible for a significant amount of emissions is going to reduce them due to new and upcoming regulations. Using fuel cells may be one way to help to reduce the emissions from this sector....... Battery driven lift trucks are being used more and more in different companies to reduce their emissions. However, battery driven lift trucks need long time to recharge and may be out of work for a long time. Fuel cell driven lift trucks diminish this problem and are therefore getting more attention....... The most common type of fuel cell used for automotive applications is PEM fuel cell. They are known for their high efficiency, low emissions and high reliability. However, lack of a hydrogen infrastructure, cost and durability of the stack is considered the biggest obstacles to the introduction of fuel...

  4. Three-Dimensional Center of Gravity Detection for Trucks Hauling Marine Containers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Runan Dang

    2016-01-01

    a truck scale model was used. It was driven by remote control. Results of positions of the center of gravity delivered from D3DCG were compared to those obtained using ordinary piece-by-piece calculations. Secondly, this paper assessed examples of D3DCG installed on an actual truck loading real marine containers. Results proved that D3DCG is valuable for real-time detection of the center of gravity when driving. This achievement will greatly contribute to the prevention of rollover accidents.

  5. design and fabrication of a multipurpose railroad hand truck

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    material handling management, a company's operational performance may ... types of trucks are of specialized nature for handling particular .... Source [11] ... plan views of the hand truck are shown in 3rd angle .... Supply Chain Management:.

  6. A Novel Approach for Estimating Truck Factors

    OpenAIRE

    Avelino, Guilherme; Passos, Leonardo; Hora, Andre; Valente, Marco Tulio

    2016-01-01

    Truck Factor (TF) is a metric proposed by the agile community as a tool to identify concentration of knowledge in software development environments. It states the minimal number of developers that have to be hit by a truck (or quit) before a project is incapacitated. In other words, TF helps to measure how prepared is a project to deal with developer turnover. Despite its clear relevance, few studies explore this metric. Altogether there is no consensus about how to calculate it, and no suppo...

  7. Fuel Cell Hydroge Manifold for Lift Trucks

    OpenAIRE

    Hosseinzadeh, Elham; Rokni, Masoud; Elmegaard, Brian

    2012-01-01

    Reducing CO2 emissions are getting more attention because of global warming. The transport sector which is responsible for a significant amount of emissions is going to reduce them due to new and upcoming regulations. Using fuel cells may be one way to help to reduce the emissions from this sector. Battery driven lift trucks are being used more and more in different companies to reduce their emissions. However, battery driven lift trucks need long time to recharge and may be out of work for a...

  8. Effects of diesel particle filter retrofits and accelerated fleet turnover on drayage truck emissions at the Port of Oakland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dallmann, Timothy R; Harley, Robert A; Kirchstetter, Thomas W

    2011-12-15

    Heavy-duty diesel drayage trucks have a disproportionate impact on the air quality of communities surrounding major freight-handling facilities. In an attempt to mitigate this impact, the state of California has mandated new emission control requirements for drayage trucks accessing ports and rail yards in the state beginning in 2010. This control rule prompted an accelerated diesel particle filter (DPF) retrofit and truck replacement program at the Port of Oakland. The impact of this program was evaluated by measuring emission factor distributions for diesel trucks operating at the Port of Oakland prior to and following the implementation of the emission control rule. Emission factors for black carbon (BC) and oxides of nitrogen (NO(x)) were quantified in terms of grams of pollutant emitted per kilogram of fuel burned using a carbon balance method. Concentrations of these species along with carbon dioxide were measured in the exhaust plumes of individual diesel trucks as they drove by en route to the Port. A comparison of emissions measured before and after the implementation of the truck retrofit/replacement rule shows a 54 ± 11% reduction in the fleet-average BC emission factor, accompanied by a shift to a more highly skewed emission factor distribution. Although only particulate matter mass reductions were required in the first year of the program, a significant reduction in the fleet-average NO(x) emission factor (41 ± 5%) was observed, most likely due to the replacement of older trucks with new ones.

  9. Measurement of Black Carbon and Particle Number Emission Factors from Individual Heavy-Duty Trucks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ban-Weiss, George A.; Lunden, Melissa M.; Kirchstetter, Thomas W.; Harley, Robert A.

    2009-02-02

    Emission factors for black carbon (BC) and particle number (PN) were measured from 226 individual heavy-duty (HD) diesel-fueled trucks driving through a 1 km-long California highway tunnel in August 2006. Emission factors were based on concurrent increases in BC, PN, and CO{sub 2}B concentrations (measured at 1 Hz) that corresponded to the passage of individual HD trucks. The distributions of BC and PN emission factors from individual HD trucks are skewed, meaning that a large fraction of pollution comes from a small fraction of the in-use vehicle fleet. The highest-emitting 10% of trucks were responsible for {approx} 40% of total BC and PN emissions from all HD trucks. BC emissions were log-normally distributed with a mean emission factor of 1.7 g kg {sup -1} and maximum values of {approx} 10 g kg{sup -1}. Corresponding values for PN emission factors were 4.7 x 10{sup 15} and 4 x 10{sup 16} kg{sup -1}. There was minimal overlap among high-emitters of these two pollutants: only 1 of the 226 HD trucks measured was found to be among the highest 10% for both BC and PN. Monte Carlo resampling of the distribution of BC emission factors observed in this study revealed that uncertainties (1{sigma}) in extrapolating from a random sample of n HD trucks to a population mean emission factor ranged from {+-} 43% for n = 10 to {+-} 8% for n = 300, illustrating the importance of sufficiently large vehicle sample sizes in emissions studies. Studies with low sample sizes are also more easily biased due to misrepresentation of high-emitters. As vehicles become cleaner on average in future years, skewness of the emissions distributions will increase, and thus sample sizes needed to extrapolate reliably from a subset of vehicles to the entire in-use vehicle fleet are expected to become more of a challenge.

  10. Evaluations of 1997 Fuel Consumption Patterns of Heavy Duty Trucks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santini, Danilo

    2001-08-05

    The proposed 21st Century Truck program selected three truck classes for focused analysis. On the basis of gross vehicle weight (GVW) classification, these were Class 8 (representing heavy), Class 6 (representing medium), and Class 2b (representing light). To develop and verify these selections, an evaluation of fuel use of commercial trucks was conducted, using data from the 1997 Vehicle Inventory and Use Survey (VIUS). Truck fuel use was analyzed by registered GVW class, and by body type.

  11. 30 CFR 56.14131 - Seat belts for haulage trucks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Seat belts for haulage trucks. 56.14131 Section... Equipment Safety Devices and Maintenance Requirements § 56.14131 Seat belts for haulage trucks. (a) Seat belts shall be provided and worn in haulage trucks. (b) Seat belts shall be maintained in...

  12. 29 CFR 1917.43 - Powered industrial trucks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Powered industrial trucks. 1917.43 Section 1917.43 Labor... (CONTINUED) MARINE TERMINALS Cargo Handling Gear and Equipment § 1917.43 Powered industrial trucks. (a) Applicability. This section applies to every type of powered industrial truck used for material or...

  13. Statistical analysis of Caterpillar 793D haul truck engine data and through-life diagnostic information using the proportional hazards model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carstens, W. A.

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Physical asset management (PAM is of increasing concern for companies in industry today. A key performance area of PAM is asset care plans (ACPs, which consist of maintenance strategies such as usage based maintenance (UBM and condition based maintenance (CBM. Data obtained from the South African mining industry was modelled using a CBM prognostic model called the proportional hazards model (PHM. Results indicated that the developed model produced estimates that were reasonable representations of reality. These findings provide an exciting basis for the development of future Weibull PHMs that could result in huge maintenance cost savings and reduced failure occurrences.

  14. Medium Truck Duty Cycle Data from Real-World Driving Environments: Project Interim Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Franzese, Oscar [ORNL; Lascurain, Mary Beth [ORNL; Capps, Gary J [ORNL

    2011-01-01

    Since the early part of the 20th century, the US trucking industry has provided a safe and economical means of moving commodities across the country. At the present time, nearly 80% of the US domestic freight movement involves the use of trucks. The US Department of Energy (DOE) is spearheading a number of research efforts to improve heavy vehicle fuel efficiencies. This includes research in engine technologies (including hybrid and fuel cell technologies), lightweight materials, advanced fuels, and parasitic loss reductions. In addition, DOE is developing advanced tools and models to support heavy vehicle truck research, and is leading the 21st Century Truck Partnership whose stretch goals involve a reduction by 50% of the fuel consumption of heavy vehicles on a ton-mile basis. This Medium Truck Duty Cycle (MTDC) Project is a critical element in DOE s vision for improved heavy vehicle energy efficiency and is unique in that there is no other national database of characteristic duty cycles for medium trucks. It involves the collection of real-world data for various situational characteristics (rural/urban, freeway/arterial, congested/free-flowing, good/bad weather, etc.) and looks at the unique nature of medium trucks drive cycles (stop-and-go delivery, power takeoff, idle time, short-radius trips), to provide a rich source of data that can contribute to the development of new tools for fuel efficiency and modeling, provide DOE a sound basis upon which to make technology investment decisions, and provide a national archive of real-world-based medium-truck operational data to support heavy vehicle energy efficiency research. The MTDC project involves a two-part field operational test (FOT). For the Part-1 FOT, three vehicles, each from two vocations (urban transit and dry-box delivery) were instrumented for one year of data collection. The Part-2 FOT will involve the towing/recovery and utility vocations. The vehicles participating in the MTDC project are doing so

  15. Medium Truck Duty Cycle Data from Real-World Driving Environments: Project Interim Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Franzese, Oscar [ORNL; Lascurain, Mary Beth [ORNL; Capps, Gary J [ORNL

    2011-01-01

    Since the early part of the 20th century, the US trucking industry has provided a safe and economical means of moving commodities across the country. At the present time, nearly 80% of the US domestic freight movement involves the use of trucks. The US Department of Energy (DOE) is spearheading a number of research efforts to improve heavy vehicle fuel efficiencies. This includes research in engine technologies (including hybrid and fuel cell technologies), lightweight materials, advanced fuels, and parasitic loss reductions. In addition, DOE is developing advanced tools and models to support heavy vehicle truck research, and is leading the 21st Century Truck Partnership whose stretch goals involve a reduction by 50% of the fuel consumption of heavy vehicles on a ton-mile basis. This Medium Truck Duty Cycle (MTDC) Project is a critical element in DOE s vision for improved heavy vehicle energy efficiency and is unique in that there is no other national database of characteristic duty cycles for medium trucks. It involves the collection of real-world data for various situational characteristics (rural/urban, freeway/arterial, congested/free-flowing, good/bad weather, etc.) and looks at the unique nature of medium trucks drive cycles (stop-and-go delivery, power takeoff, idle time, short-radius trips), to provide a rich source of data that can contribute to the development of new tools for fuel efficiency and modeling, provide DOE a sound basis upon which to make technology investment decisions, and provide a national archive of real-world-based medium-truck operational data to support heavy vehicle energy efficiency research. The MTDC project involves a two-part field operational test (FOT). For the Part-1 FOT, three vehicles, each from two vocations (urban transit and dry-box delivery) were instrumented for one year of data collection. The Part-2 FOT will involve the towing/recovery and utility vocations. The vehicles participating in the MTDC project are doing so

  16. Case Study: Natural Gas Regional Transport Trucks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laughlin, M.; Burnham, A.

    2016-08-01

    Learn about Ryder System, Inc.'s experience in deploying nearly 200 CNG and LNG heavy-duty trucks and construction and operation of L/CNG stations using ARRA funds. Using natural gas in its fleet, Ryder mitigated the effects of volatile fuel pricing and reduced lifecycle GHGs by 20% and petroleum by 99%.

  17. Forklift Truck, 4000-Pound-Capacity, Gasoline-Engine-Driven, Solid-Rubber-Tired, Allis-Chalmers Model ACC 45 NSN 3930-01-075-4937 -- Army User Survey,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-03-01

    91 octane irisearch method ) or better recommended LPG Standard tank is ICC 33 5 lb ICC 43 5 Ib and ASME 50 It ranks optiorally available Rriquirrrs...19.31 Published by Equipment Guide-Book Division, Nielsen/DATAQUEST 15 AACC 45 Cushion Tire Truck 094 2310 RI, HT ANGL I ST A’KIN. AMV t PI O𔃻,I

  18. The determinants of fuel use in the trucking industry – volume, size and the rebound effect

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mulalic, Ismir

    2011-01-01

    We analyse the determinants of trucking firm fuel use. We develop a simple model to show that trucking firm fuel use depends, in addition to the fuel price and the traffic volume, also on the output of the trucking firm’s production process (the movement of cargo) measured in tonkilometres...... decompose the standard definition of the rebound effect for motor vehicles, i.e. the elasticity of traffic volume with respect to fuel cost, into the elasticity by which changes in fuel costs affects freight activity and the elasticity by which changes in freight activity affect traffic volume. We estimate...... these elasticities using a simultaneous-equation model based on aggregate time-series data for Denmark for 1980-2007. Our best estimates of the short run and the long run rebound effects for road freight transportation are 19% and 28%, respectively. We also find that an increase in the fuel price surprisingly has...

  19. Optimization of Front Axle Suspension System of Articulated Dump Truck

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Langer, Thomas Heegaard; Christensen, Brian B.; Mouritsen, Ole Ø.

    2010-01-01

    ongoing research collaboration between Hydrema Produktion A/S, Aalborg University and the University of Agder on comfort improvement. The main goal of the research project is to improve ride comfort of articulated construction machinery by use of multibody simulation models. In this paper the application...... that has been subjected to comfort improvement is a two axle articulated dump truck. The comfort has been in terms of whole body vibration exposure and the overall improvement has been made possible by adding front axle suspension. However, a hydraulic stabilizing system between the tractor and trailer...

  20. Greenhouse gas issues in the North American trucking industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barla, P. [Center for Data and Analysis in Transportation CDAT, Departement d' economique, Universite Laval, 1025 Avenue des sciences sociales, Quebec, QC, G1V 0A6 (Canada)

    2010-05-15

    In this paper, we examine some of the issues associated with reducing greenhouse gas emissions in the North American trucking industry. We review some basic descriptive statistics to apprehend the basic conditions in the three countries of North America and describe the North American trucking industry and the changes in its GHG performance. We also present some of the policies that have been either implemented or are being considered to reduce trucking GHG emissions. We then discuss some of the issues involved in choosing instruments to reduce trucking emissions. Specifically, we discuss the following instruments: incentives and standard to improve truck fuel efficiency, a tax on CO2, and tradable permits systems.

  1. A comprehensive analysis of factors influencing the injury severity of large-truck crashes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Xiaoyu; Srinivasan, Sivaramakrishnan

    2011-01-01

    Given the importance of trucking to the economic well being of a country and the safety concerns posed by the trucks, a study of large-truck crashes is critical. This paper contributes by undertaking an extensive analysis of the empirical factors affecting injury severity of large-truck crashes. Data from a recent, nationally representative sample of large-truck crashes are examined to determine the factors affecting the overall injury severity of these crashes. The explanatory factors include the characteristics of the crash, vehicle(s), and the driver(s). The injury severity was modeled using two measures. Several similarities and some differences were observed across the two models which underscore the need for improved accuracy in the assessment of injury severity of crashes. The estimated models capture the marginal effects of a variety of explanatory factors simultaneously. In particular, the models indicate the impacts of several driver behavior variables on the severity of the crashes, after controlling for a variety of other factors. For example, driver distraction (truck drivers), alcohol use (car drivers), and emotional factors (car drivers) are found to be associated with higher severity crashes. A further interesting finding is the strong statistical significance of several dummy variables that indicate missing data - these reflect how the nature of the crash itself could affect the completeness of the data. Future efforts should seek to collect such data more comprehensively so that the true effects of these aspects on the crash severity can be determined. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Electro-deposition painting process improvement of cab truck by Six Sigma concept

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawitu, Kitiya; Chutima, Parames

    2017-06-01

    The case study company is a manufacturer of trucks and currently facing a high rework cost due to the thickness of the electro-deposited paint (EDP) of the truck cab is lower than standard. In addition, the process capability is very low. The Six Sigma concept consisting of 5 phases (DMAIC) is applied to determine new parameter settings for each significant controllable factor. After the improvement, EDP thickness of the truck cab increases from 17.88μ to 20μ (i.e. standard = 20 ± 3μ). Moreover, the process capability indexes (Cp and Cpk) are increased from 0.9 to 1.43, and from 0.27 to 1.43, respectively. This improvement could save the rework cost about 1.6M THB per year.

  3. Reducing Marine Container Terminal Gate Congestion with Vessel-Dependent Time Windows For Truck Entries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Gang; Yang, Zhongzhen; Jiang, Liping

    In recent years, marine container terminal gate congestion has become a serious issue, because it not only limits the efficiency of the logistics system but also generates serious air pollution. The direct reason has been recognized to be the unmanaged container truck arrivals. One of the possible...... solutions is that the terminal operator provides vessel-dependent time windows for the truck entries, which has already been used in many Chinese seaports. Previously, the authors proposed the idea of time window optimization and analyzed its economic feasibility in the context of the export direction gate...... problems are also discussed, such as vessel delays and yard capacity....

  4. Recovery Act--Class 8 Truck Freight Efficiency Improvement Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trucks, Daimler [Daimler Trucks North America Llc, Portland, OR (United States)

    2015-07-26

    Daimler Trucks North America completed a five year, $79.6M project to develop and demonstrate a concept vehicle with at least 50% freight efficiency improvement over a weighted average of several drive cycles relative to a 2009 best-in-class baseline vehicle. DTNA chose a very fuel efficient baseline vehicle, the 2009 Freightliner Cascadia with a DD15 engine, yet successfully demonstrated a 115% freight efficiency improvement. DTNA learned a great deal about the various technologies that were incorporated into Super Truck and those that, through down-selection, were discarded. Some of the technologies competed with each other for efficiency, and notably some of the technologies complemented each other. For example, we found that Super Truck’s improved aerodynamic drag resulted in improved fuel savings from eCoast, relative to a similar vehicle with worse aerodynamic drag. However, some technologies were in direct competition with each other, namely the predictive technologies which use GPS and 3D digital maps to efficiently manage the vehicles kinetic energy through controls and software, versus hybrid which is a much costlier technology that essentially targets the same inefficiency. Furthermore, the benefits of a comprehensive, integrated powertrain/vehicle approach was proven, in which vast improvements in vehicle efficiency (e.g. lower aero drag and driveline losses) enabled engine strategies such as downrating and downspeeding. The joint engine and vehicle developments proved to be a multiplier-effect which resulted in large freight efficiency improvements. Although a large number of technologies made the selection process and were used on the Super Truck demonstrator vehicle, some of the technologies proved not feasible for series production.

  5. Relationship Between Perceived In-Cabin Air Quality and Truck Drivers’ Self-Reported Health and Alertness

    OpenAIRE

    Richard TAY; Tan, Zhongchao; Cheng, Xiaoying

    2008-01-01

    This study surveyed 253 truck drivers and found that many drivers scored poorly on the Stanford and Epworth sleepiness scales indicating that they may not be as alert as they should be while driving. Moreover, those who rated the air in their truck cabins as fresh reported less irritation to their eyes, noses, throats, and skin, scored better in both sleepiness scales, and reported fewer sleep-related medical symptoms. Finally, the results of the ordinal logistic model indicate that drivers’ ...

  6. Assessment of the risk of transporting uranium hexafluoride by truck and train

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geffen, C.A.; Johnson, J.F.; Davis, D.K.; Friley, J.R.; Ross, B.A.

    1978-08-01

    This report is the fifth in a series of studies of the risk of transporting potentially hazardous energy materials. The report presents an assessment of the risk of shipping uranium hexafluoride (UF/sub 6/) by truck and rail. The general risk assessment methodology, summarized in Section 3, used in this study is that developed for the first study in this series. The assessment includes the risks from release of uranium hexafluoride during truck or rail transport due to transportation accidents. The contribution to the risk of deteriorated or faulty packaging during normal transport was also considered. The report is sectioned to correspond to the specific analysis steps of the risk assessment model. The transportation system and accident environment are described in Sections 4 and 5. Calculation of the response of the shipping system to forces produced in transportation accidents are presented in Section 6 and the results of a survey to determine the condition of the package during transport are presented in Section 7. Sequences of events that could lead to a release of radioactive material from the shipping cask during transportation are postulated in Section 8 using fault tree analysis. These release sequences are evaluated in Sections 9 through 11, to determine both the likelihood and the possible consequences of each release. Supportive data and analyses are given in the appendices. The results of the risk assessment have been related to the year 1985, when it is projected that 100 GW of electric power will be generated annually by nuclear power plants. It was estimated that approximately 46,000 metric tons (MT) of natural UF/sub 6/ and 14,600 MT of enriched UF/sub 6/ would be shipped in the reference year.

  7. The impacts of multiple rest-break periods on commercial truck driver's crash risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chen; Xie, Yuanchang

    2014-02-01

    Driver fatigue has been a major contributing factor to fatal commercial truck crashes, which accounted for about 10% of all fatal motor vehicle crashes that happened between 2009 and 2011. Commercial truck drivers' safety performance can deteriorate easily due to fatigue caused by long driving hours and irregular working schedules. To ensure safety, truck drivers often use off-duty time and short rest breaks during a trip to recover from fatigue. This study thoroughly investigates the impacts of off-duty time prior to a trip and short rest breaks on commercial truck safety by using Cox proportional hazards model and Andersen-Gill model. It is found that increasing total rest-break duration can consistently reduce fatigue-related crash risk. Similarly, taking more rest breaks can help to reduce crash risk. The results suggest that two rest breaks are generally considered enough for a 10-hour trip, as three or more rest breaks may not further reduce crash risk substantially. Also, the length of each rest break does not need to be very long and 30min is usually adequate. In addition, this study investigates the safety impacts of when to take rest breaks. It is found that taking rest breaks too soon after a trip starts will cause the rest breaks to be less effective. The findings of this research can help policy makers and trucking companies better understand the impacts of multiple rest-break periods and develop more effective rules to improve the safety of truck drivers. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd and National Safety Council. All rights reserved.

  8. HUNTING PHENOMENON STUDY OF RAILWAY CONVENTIONAL TRUCK ON TANGENT TRACKS DUE TO CHANGE IN RAIL WHEEL GEOMETRY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    KARIM H. ALI ABOOD

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available A mathematical dynamic model of railway conventional truck is presented with 12 degrees of freedom equations of motion. The presented dynamic system consists of conventional truck attached with two single wheelsets in which equipped with lateral, longitudinal and vertical linear stiffness and damping primary and secondary suspensions. This investigated model governs lateral displacement, vertical displacement, roll yaw angles of each of wheelset and the lateral displacement, vertical displacement, roll and yaw angle of conventional truck. Kalker's linear theory has been adopted to evaluate the creep forces which are introduced on rail wheels due to rail wheel contact. The railway truck mathematical equations of motion are solved using fourth order Rung-Kutta method which requires that differential equations to be transformed into a set of first order differential equations. The transformed state space equations are simulated with computer aided simulation to represent the dynamic behavior and time solution of dynamics of conventional truck moving on tangent tracks. Influences of the geometric parameters of the rail wheel such as wheel conicity and nominal rolling radius on the dynamic stability of the system are investigated. It is concluded that the geometric parameters of the rail wheel have different effects on the hunting instability and on the change of the critical hunting velocity of the system. In addition critical hunting velocity of rail trucks is proportional inversely with the square roots of wheel conicity but high critical hunting velocity obtained by increasing the nominal rolling radius of the rail wheel.

  9. Scrotal neoplasia: would truck drivers be at greater risk?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Seabra

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To analyze how scrotal neoplasias have been managed during the past decade and to question possible factors or professions associated to its presence. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We retrospectively evaluated every case reported from 1995 to 2005 at our hospital. We described the clinical scenario, complementary exams, treatments and outcomes. We also tried to verify if there was any risk, predisposing factors or professions that would explain the cancer origin. RESULTS: Six cases were reviewed. Out of these, three patients were truck drivers. Five of them showed restricted lesions without inguinal lymph nodes enlargement. Histologically, six patients presented squamous carcinoma, with two of them having the verrucous type. The median age of patients was 52 years old (31 to 89. The five patients who are still alive had their lesions completely removed with safety margin and primary closure. CONCLUSIONS: We have noticed that the scrotal carcinoma behavior is similar to that of the penis, where removal of the lesion and study of the regional lymph nodes help to increase the patient survival rate. The outstanding fact was that three out of six patients were truck drivers, raising the hypothesis that such profession, maybe due to the contact or attrition with the diesel exhaust expelled by the engine or to sexual promiscuity, would imply in a larger risk of developing this rare neoplasia.

  10. Study Based on Bridge Health Monitoring System on Multihazard Load Combinations of Earthquake and Truck Loads for Bridge Design in the Southeast Coastal Areas of China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dezhang Sun

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Similar to American LRFD Bridge Design Specifications, the current Chinese bridge design code is fully calibrated against gravity load and live load. Earthquake load is generally considered alone and has its own methodology, however, which is not covered in the code in a consistent probability-based fashion. Earthquake load and truck load are the main loads considered in the basis of bridge design in more than 70% of seismic areas in China. They are random processes, and their combination is the main subject of this paper. Seismic characteristics of southeast coastal areas of China are discussed and an earthquake probability curve is calculated through seismic risk analysis. Using measured truck load data from a Bridge Health Monitoring System, the multimodal characteristics of truck load are analyzed and a probability model for a time interval t is obtained by fitting results and reliability theory. Then, a methodology is presented to combine earthquake load and truck load on a probabilistic basis. To illustrate this method, truck load and earthquake load combinations are used. Results conceptually illustrate that truck load and earthquake load are not dominant in southeast coastal areas of China, but the effect of their combination is. This methodology quantitatively demonstrates that the design is controlled by truck load in most ranges; that is, truck load is more important to bridge design in the region.

  11. Clean Diesel Engine Component Improvement Program Diesel Truck Thermoelectric Generator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elsner, N. B. [Hi-Z Technology, Inc., San Diego, CA (United States); Bass, J. C. [Hi-Z Technology, Inc., San Diego, CA (United States); Ghamaty, S. [Hi-Z Technology, Inc., San Diego, CA (United States); Krommenhoek, D. [Hi-Z Technology, Inc., San Diego, CA (United States); Kushch, A. [Hi-Z Technology, Inc., San Diego, CA (United States); Snowden, D. [Hi-Z Technology, Inc., San Diego, CA (United States); Marchetti, S. [Hi-Z Technology, Inc., San Diego, CA (United States)

    2005-03-16

    Hi-Z Technology, Inc. (Hi-Z) is currently developing four different auxiliary generator designs that are used to convert a portion (5 to 20%) of the waste heat from vehicle engines exhaust directly to electricity. The four designs range from 200 Watts to 10 kW. The furthest along is the 1 kW Diesel Truck Thermoelectric Generator (DTTEG) for heavy duty Class 8 Diesel trucks, which, under this program, has been subjected to 543,000 equivalent miles of bouncing and jarring on PACCAR's test track. Test experience on an earlier version of the DTTEG on the same track showed the need for design modifications incorporated in DTTEG Mod 2, such as a heavy duty shock mounting system and reinforcement of the electrical leads mounting system, the thermocouple mounting system and the thermoelectric module restraints. The conclusion of the 543,000 mile test also pointed the way for an upgrading to heavy duty hose or flex connections for the internal coolant connections for the TEG, and consideration of a separate lower temperature cooling loop with its own radiator. Fuel savings of up to $750 per year and a three to five year payback are believed to be possible with the 5 % efficiency modules. The economics are expected to improve considerably to approach a two year payback when the 5 kW to 10 kW generators make it to the market in a few years with a higher efficiency (20%) thermoelectric module system called Quantum Wells, which are currently under development by Hi-Z. Ultimately, as automation takes over to reduce material and labor costs in the high volume production of QW modules, a one year payback for the 5 kW to10 kW generator appears possible. This was one of the stated goals at the beginning of the project. At some future point in time, with the DTTEG becoming standard equipment on all trucks and automobiles, fuel savings from the 25% conversion of exhaust heat to useable electricity nationwide equates to a 10% reduction in the 12 to 15 million barrels per day of

  12. Feasibility of landfill gas as a liquefied natural gas fuel source for refuse trucks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zietsman, Josias; Bari, Muhammad Ehsanul; Rand, Aaron J; Gokhale, Bhushan; Lord, Dominique; Kumar, Sunil

    2008-05-01

    The purpose of this paper is to develop a methodology to evaluate the feasibility of using landfill gas (LFG) as a liquefied natural gas (LNG) fuel source for heavy-duty refuse trucks operating on landfills. Using LFG as a vehicle fuel can make the landfills more self-sustaining, reduce their dependence on fossil fuels, and reduce emissions and greenhouse gases. Acrion Technologies Inc. in association with Mack Trucks Inc. developed a technology to generate LNG from LFG using the CO2 WASH process. A successful application of this process was performed at the Eco Complex in Burlington County, PA. During this application two LNG refuse trucks were operated for 600 hr each using LNG produced from gases from the landfill. The methodology developed in this paper can evaluate the feasibility of three LFG options: doing nothing, electricity generation, and producing LNG to fuel refuse trucks. The methodology involved the modeling of several components: LFG generation, energy recovery processes, fleet operations, economic feasibility, and decision-making. The economic feasibility considers factors such as capital, maintenance, operational, and fuel costs, emissions and tax benefits, and the sale of products such as surplus LNG and food-grade carbon dioxide (CO2). Texas was used as a case study. The 96 landfills in Texas were prioritized and 17 landfills were identified that showed potential for converting LFG to LNG for use as a refuse truck fuel. The methodology was applied to a pilot landfill in El Paso, TX. The analysis showed that converting LFG to LNG to fuel refuse trucks proved to be the most feasible option and that the methodology can be applied for any landfill that considers this option.

  13. Adaptive Virtual Tow Bar and Transition of Control : A truck driving simulator study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wilschut, E.S.; Willemsen, D.M.C.; Hogema, J.H.; Martens, M.H.

    2016-01-01

    Background : Truck platooning, with trucks being virtually connected, is getting more and more attention. Truck platooning offers the potential for substantial fuel savings while allowing the truck driver in the platoon to take a rest. However, at the current state of technology, truck drivers are

  14. Raley's LNG Truck Site Final Data Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Battelle

    1999-07-01

    Raley's is a 120-store grocery chain with headquarters in Sacramento, California, that has been operating eight heavy-duty LNG trucks (Kenworth T800 trucks with Cummins L10-300G engines) and two LNG yard tractors (Ottawa trucks with Cummins B5.9G engines) since April 1997. This report describes the results of data collection and evaluation of the eight heavy-duty LNG trucks compared to similar heavy-duty diesel trucks operating at Raley's. The data collection and evaluation are a part of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)/National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) Alternative Fuel Truck Evaluation Project.

  15. Differential Control Strategy based on an Equal Slip Rate for an All-wheel Electricdrive Underground Articulated Dumping Truck

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin Chun

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available A differential control strategy based on equal slip rates is introduced to improve the steering stability of an all-wheelelectric-drive underground articulated dumping truck. Steering kinematic and dynamic models of the truck are derived to describe the movement relationship and force of the driving wheels. In consideration of the difficulty of obtaining the absolute velocity for an all-wheel-drive truck, an acceleration sensor was set on a test truck, and a kalman filter was applied to obtain the actual value for the truck body. Simulation results for an equal-slip control strategy were compared with experimental results for an equal-torque control strategy. In the simulation, the four-wheel slip rate was 0.08 and the steering system of the truck was stable. The results verify that the equal-slip control strategy makes better use of the ground adhesion coefficient, is able to reasonably distribute drive power, notably reduces tire wear, and improves the use of driving power.

  16. Coupling model and its algorithm for truck scheduling based on time-window constraint%考虑时间窗约束的集卡调度耦合模型及求解

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梁承姬; 王玲玲; 佘文婧

    2014-01-01

    In order to achieve the minimum number of Yard Truck ( YT) and the shortest delay time in the problem of YT scheduling of container terminals, an innovative optimization method using multidisciplinary variable coupling is presented. Firstly, the problem is divided into YT distribution problem and YT configuration problem, and the YT dispatching sub-model and YT configuration sub-model are established respectively. The two sub models are linked through the common design variables, and the YT coordinated scheduling coupling model based on quay crane job scheduling and time-window constraint is built with setting the iteration conditions. Finally, the coupling model is used to solve certain examples, using C# language calling CPLEX12.2, and the optimal YT num-ber and the coordinated scheduling scheme for multiple operation routes are obtained. The scheme has good convergence. The results show that the presented scheme can decrease the number of YT by 7.69% and reduce the total delay time by 10.12%, compared with using YT dispatching model and YT configuration model respectively, which indicates the effectiveness and practicality of the new scheme.%针对集装箱码头集卡调度问题,目的为使集卡数最小且延误时间最短。创新性的采用多学科变量耦合优化设计方法,将该问题分为集卡运输方式问题和集卡数量配置问题,分别建立集卡分派子模型和集卡配置子模型,使用公用设计变量连接模型,设定迭代计算条件建立基于岸桥作业并考虑时间窗约束的集卡协调调度耦合模型。利用该耦合模型应用C#语言调用CPLEX12.2对算例进行求解,得到面向多作业路的最优集卡数量和协调调度方案,方案具有良好的收敛性。结果表明,与分别采用集卡调度模型和配置模型比集卡数降低7.69%,总延误时间降低10.12%,说明该模型的有效性和实用性。

  17. Improving truck safety: Potential of weigh-in-motion technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernard Jacob

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Trucks exceeding the legal mass limits increase the risk of traffic accidents and damage to the infrastructure. They also result in unfair competition between transport modes and companies. It is therefore important to ensure truck compliance to weight regulation. New technologies are being developed for more efficient overload screening and enforcement. Weigh-in-Motion (WIM technologies allow trucks to be weighed in the traffic flow, without any disruption to operations. Much progress has been made recently to improve and implement WIM systems, which can contribute to safer and more efficient operation of trucks.

  18. Truck Essential Power Systems Efficiency Improvements for Medium-Duty Trucks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larry Slone; Jeffrey Birkel

    2007-12-31

    With a variety of hybrid vehicles available in the passenger car market, electric technologies and components of that scale are becoming readily available. Commercial vehicle segments have lagged behind passenger car markets, leaving opportunities for component and system development. Escalating fuel prices impact all markets and provide motivation for OEMs, suppliers, customers, and end-users to seek new techniques and technologies to deliver reduced fuel consumption. The research presented here specifically targets the medium-duty (MD), Class 4-7, truck market with technologies aimed at reducing fuel consumption. These technologies could facilitate not only idle, but also parasitic load reductions. The development efforts here build upon the success of the More Electric Truck (MET) demonstration program at Caterpillar Inc. Employing a variety of electric accessories, the MET demonstrated the improvement seen with such technologies on a Class 8 truck. The Truck Essential Power Systems Efficiency Improvements for Medium-Duty Trucks (TEPS) team scaled the concepts and successes of MET to a MD chassis. The team designed an integrated starter/generator (ISG) package and energy storage system (ESS), explored ways to replace belt and gear-driven accessory systems, and developed supervisory control algorithms to direct the usage of the generated electricity and system behavior on the vehicle. All of these systems needed to fit within the footprint of a MD vehicle and be compatible with the existing conventional systems to the largest extent possible. The overall goal of this effort was to demonstrate a reduction in fuel consumption across the drive cycle, including during idle periods, through truck electrification. Furthermore, the team sought to evaluate the benefits of charging the energy storage system during vehicle braking. The vehicle features an array of electric accessories facilitating on-demand, variable actuation. Removal of these accessories from the belt or

  19. Application of Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cell for Lift Trucks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hosseinzadeh, Elham; Rokni, Masoud

    2011-01-01

    In this study a general PEMFC (Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cell) model has been developed to take into account the effect of pressure losses, water crossovers, humidity aspects and voltage over potentials in the cells. The model is zero dimensional and it is assumed to be steady state. The effect...... in order to account for water back diffusion. Further Membrane water content is assumed to be a linear function of thickness. PEM fuel cell is working at rather low operating conditions which makes it suitable for the automotive systems. In this paper motive power part of a lift truck has been investigated...... of concentration loss is neglected while the effect of activation and ohmic losses is investigated in the system. Some semi-empirical equations are required to predict the amount of exchange current density for calculation of ohmic loss and water diffusion coefficient through membrane. These equations are applied...

  20. 49 CFR 537.7 - Pre-model year and mid-model year reports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... with § 537.9 and based upon the fuel economy values and projected sales figures provided under... accordance with 49 CFR 531.5(c) and 49 CFR 533.5(h) and based upon the projected sales figures provided under... accordance with subpart D of 40 CFR part 600, (2) Body style, (3) Beginning model year 2010, base tire...

  1. 77 FR 43368 - Navistar Truck Development and Technology Center, a Subsidiary of Navistar International...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-24

    ... Employment and Training Administration Navistar Truck Development and Technology Center, a Subsidiary of... October 20, 2011, applicable to workers of Navistar International Truck Development and Technology Center... Truck Development and Technology Center, a Subsidiary of Navistar International Corporation,...

  2. Analysis of Technology Options to Reduce the Fuel Consumption of Idling Trucks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    F. Stodolsky; L. Gaines; A. Vyas

    2000-06-01

    Long-haul trucks idling overnight consume more than 838 million gallons (20 million barrels) of fuel annually. Idling also emits pollutants. Truck drivers idle their engines primarily to (1) heat or cool the cab and/or sleeper, (2) keep the fuel warm in winter, and (3) keep the engine warm in the winter so that the engine is easier to start. Alternatives to overnight idling could save much of this fuel, reduce emissions, and cut operating costs. Several fuel-efficient alternatives to idling are available to provide heating and cooling: (1) direct-fired heater for cab/sleeper heating, with or without storage cooling; (2) auxiliary power units; and (3) truck stop electrification. Many of these technologies have drawbacks that limit market acceptance. Options that supply electricity are economically viable for trucks that are idled for 1,000-3,000 or more hours a year, while heater units could be used across the board. Payback times for fleets, which would receive quantity discounts on the prices, would be somewhat shorter.

  3. Prevalence of drugs in oral fluid from truck drivers in Brazilian highways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bombana, Henrique Silva; Gjerde, Hallvard; Dos Santos, Marcelo Filonzi; Jamt, Ragnhild Elén Gjulem; Yonamine, Mauricio; Rohlfs, Waldo José Caram; Muñoz, Daniel Romero; Leyton, Vilma

    2017-03-01

    Traffic accidents are responsible for 1.25 million deaths worldwide and are the most common cause of death among those aged 15-29 years. In Brazil, traffic accidents caused more than 44,000 deaths in 2014. The use of psychoactive drugs is an important risk factor for being involved in traffic accidents. Previous studies have found that psychoactive substances are commonly used by truck drivers in Brazil to maintain their extensive work schedule and stay awake while driving during nighttime hours. The state of Sao Paulo is one of the most important states regarding goods transportation. Important highways cross through Sao Paulo to other regions from Brazil and to other countries in Latin America. This study aims to determine the prevalence of illicit drug use by truck drivers in the state of Sao Paulo through toxicological analyses of oral fluid. Truck drivers were randomly stopped by police officers on federal roads during morning hours. Oral fluid samples were collected using the Quantisal™ device. In addition, a questionnaire concerning sociodemographic characteristics and health information was administered. Oral fluid samples were screened for amphetamine, cocaine, and tetrahydrocannabinol (Δ9-THC) by ELISA and the confirmation was performed using ultra performance liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry detection (UPLC-MS/MS). Of the 764 drivers stopped, 762 agreed to participate. The participants were driving an average of 614km and 9.4h a day. Of the total samples, 5.2% (n=40) tested positive for drugs. Cocaine was the most frequently found drug (n=21), followed by amphetamine (n=16) and Δ9-THC (n=8). All drivers were men with an average age of 42.5 years. With these results we were able to verify that many truck drivers were still consuming psychoactive drugs while driving, and cocaine was the most prevalent one. This reinforces the need for preventive measures aimed at controlling the use of illicit drugs by truck drivers in Brazil.

  4. Truck Roll Stability Data Collection and Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stevens, SS

    2001-07-02

    The principal objective of this project was to collect and analyze vehicle and highway data that are relevant to the problem of truck rollover crashes, and in particular to the subset of rollover crashes that are caused by the driver error of entering a curve at a speed too great to allow safe completion of the turn. The data are of two sorts--vehicle dynamic performance data, and highway geometry data as revealed by vehicle behavior in normal driving. Vehicle dynamic performance data are relevant because the roll stability of a tractor trailer depends both on inherent physical characteristics of the vehicle and on the weight and distribution of the particular cargo that is being carried. Highway geometric data are relevant because the set of crashes of primary interest to this study are caused by lateral acceleration demand in a curve that exceeds the instantaneous roll stability of the vehicle. An analysis of data quality requires an evaluation of the equipment used to collect the data because the reliability and accuracy of both the equipment and the data could profoundly affect the safety of the driver and other highway users. Therefore, a concomitant objective was an evaluation of the performance of the set of data-collection equipment on the truck and trailer. The objective concerning evaluation of the equipment was accomplished, but the results were not entirely positive. Significant engineering apparently remains to be done before a reliable system can be fielded. Problems were identified with the trailer to tractor fiber optic connector used for this test. In an over-the-road environment, the communication between the trailer instrumentation and the tractor must be dependable. In addition, the computer in the truck must be able to withstand the rigors of the road. The major objective--data collection and analysis--was also accomplished. Using data collected by instruments on the truck, a ''bad-curve'' database can be generated. Using

  5. Analysis of Maintenance Service Contracts for Dump Trucks Used in Mining Industry with Simulation Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dymasius, A.; Wangsaputra, R.; Iskandar, B. P.

    2016-02-01

    A mining company needs high availability of dump trucks used to haul mining materials. As a result, an effective maintenance action is required to keep the dump trucks in a good condition and hence reducing failure and downtime of the dump trucks. To carry out maintenance in-house requires a high intensive maintenance facility and high skilled maintenance specialists. Often, outsourcing maintenance is an economic option for the company. An external agent takes a proactive action with offering some maintenance contract options to the owner. The decision problem for the owner is to decide the best option and for the agent is to determine the optimal price for each option offered. A non-cooperative game-theory is used to formulate the decision problems for the owner and the agent. We consider that failure pattern of each truck follows a non-homogeneous Poisson process (NHPP) and a queueing theory with multiple servers is used to estimate the downtime. As it involves high complexity to model downtime using a queueing theory, then in this paper we use a simulation method. Furthermore, we conduct experiment to seek for the best number of maintenance facilities (servers) which minimises maintenance and penalty costs incurred to the agent.

  6. Safety restraint systems in heavy truck rollover scenarios

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Slaats, P.M.A.; Coo, P.J.A. de

    2003-01-01

    Safety restraint systems have been widely applied in the passenger car industry. The heavy truck industry has followed along, integrating the seat belts in the seat system. The effectiveness of seat belts, in particular in rollover scenarios, was studied for a number of heavy truck rollover scenario

  7. 78 FR 60010 - Pilot Program on NAFTA Trucking Provisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-30

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration Pilot Program on NAFTA Trucking Provisions AGENCY: Federal... Trade Agreement (NAFTA) cross-border long-haul trucking provisions in compliance with section 6901(b)(2...

  8. Heavy Duty Diesel Truck and Bus Hybrid Powertrain Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-01

    include utility boom trucks and beverage haulers. Eaton Corp. manufactures a parallel hybrid-electric drivetrain that is used by many of the truck...Original Equipment Manufacturers (OEMs). Most of the hybrid buses use series hybrid-electric drivetrains , and key manufacturers are BAE Systems, ISE...Competing Alternatives to Diesel-Electric Hybrid Powertrains ............................................ 153 6.1 Hydraulic Hybrid Drivetrains

  9. 49 CFR 215.119 - Defective freight car truck.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RAILROAD FREIGHT CAR SAFETY STANDARDS Freight Car Components Suspension System § 215.119 Defective freight car truck. A railroad may not place or continue in service a... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Defective freight car truck. 215.119 Section...

  10. 29 CFR 1915.120 - Powered industrial truck operator training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Powered industrial truck operator training. 1915.120... Gear and Equipment for Rigging and Materials Handling § 1915.120 Powered industrial truck operator training. Note: The requirements applicable to shipyard employment under this section are identical...

  11. Measurement of Workability of Fresh Concrete Using a Mixing Truck.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amziane, Sofiane; Ferraris, Chiara F; Koehler, Eric P

    2005-01-01

    The main objective of this study is to evaluate the workability of fresh portland cement concrete while it is still in the mixing truck by determining fundamental rheological parameters (plastic viscosity and yield stress). Nine concrete mixtures with different values of yield stress and plastic viscosity were tested in a concrete truck. The measurements made with the truck were based on the typical method of determining the flow behavior in a traditional fluid rheometer; that is, the shear rate in the mixing truck was swept from high to low by varying the rotation speed of the drum. The results of these experiments are discussed and compared with data provided by the ICAR rheometer, a portable rheometer designed for measuring concrete rheology. The test results indicate that the mixing truck equipment is sufficiently sensitive to detect differences in yield stress, slump, and plastic viscosity. However, the plastic viscosity determined by the truck measurement did not correlate with plastic viscosity as measured by the ICAR rheometer, while the yield stress determined by the truck measurement did correlate well with the measured slump and the ICAR rheometer results Suggestions are given on how to improve the mixing truck for better use as a rheometer.

  12. Overweight truck shipments to nuclear waste repositories: legal, political, administrative and operational considerations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1986-03-01

    This report, prepared for the Chicago Operations Office and the Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (OCRWM) of the US Department of Energy (DOE), identifies and analyzes legal, political, administrative, and operational issues that could affect an OCRWM decision to develop an overweight truck cask fleet for the commercial nuclear waste repository program. It also provides information required by DOE on vehicle size-and-weight administration and regulation, pertinent to nuclear waste shipments. Current legal-weight truck casks have a payload of one pressurized-water reactor spent fuel element or two boiling-water reactor spent fuel elements (1 PWR/2 BWR). For the requirements of the 1960s and 1970s, casks were designed with massive shielding to accommodate 6-month-old spent fuel; the gross vehicle weight was limited to 73,280 pounds. Spent fuel to be moved in the 1990s will have aged five years or more. Gross vehicle weight limitation for the Interstate highway system has been increased to 80,000 pounds. These changes allow the design of 25-ton legal-weight truck casks with payloads of 2 PWR/5 BWR. These changes may also allow the development of a 40-ton overweight truck cask with a payload of 4 PWR/10 BWR. Such overweight casks will result in significantly fewer highway shipments compared with legal-weight casks, with potential reductions in transport-related repository risks and costs. These advantages must be weighed against a number of institutional issues surrounding such overweight shipments before a substantial commitment is made to develop an overweight truck cask fleet. This report discusses these issues in detail and provides recommended actions to DOE.

  13. COMPETITIVE PRESSURE SYSTEMS MAPPING IN THE BRAZILIAN TRUCK MARKET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Costa da Cruz

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The automotive business in Brazil achieved 10% of the industry revenue and 6% of the formal employment by 2008. The commercial vehicle segment concentrated so far eight truck makers that experienced their best market figures in 2008, the economy crisis in 2009, and an extraordinary recovery in 2010. Government tax reduction programs as well as special financing incentives were undoubtedly decisive to re-stimulate the business during the crisis. Positive Brazilian perspectives with the boom in the agricultural, oil and gas, mining and infrastructure activities plus the coming sports events call the attention of new players that are quickly implementing different business strategies to become part of the game. New emission regulations starting from 2012 also bring uncertainties, challenges and opportunities. With the growing globalization and market concentration it's critical for any industry understand and minimize the forces of competitive pressures. The main goal of this paper, therefore, is to contribute to the academy with an alternative approach of strategic and behavioral analysis of rivalry and competition different than the five forces model of Porter. Ford, Iveco, MAN, Mercedes-Benz, Scania and Volvo were assessed from 2008 to 2010 within three main performance indicators – unit sales, gross revenues and operating profits – supporting the elaboration of the competitive pressure systems mapping model of D'aveni, including a hypothetical future scenario with a new entrant and the potential impacts in the system. Main findings and results portray the asymmetrical strategic behavior of competitors and the temporary dynamic stability in the Brazilian truck industry.

  14. The association between adolescent entry into the trucking industry and risk of HIV among long-distance truck drivers in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mishra RM

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Ram Manohar Mishra,1 Madhulika Dube,2 Niranjan Saggurti,1 Arvind Pandey,3 Bidhubhusan Mahapatra,1 Sowmya Ramesh11Population Council, New Delhi, 2Department of Statistics, Maharshi Dayanand University, Rohtak, Haryana, 3National Institute of Medical Statistics, Indian Council of Medical Research, New Delhi, IndiaAbstract: This study examines the relationship between entry into the trucking industry during adolescence and both sexually transmitted infections (STIs and infection by the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV among long-distance truck drivers in India. Data were sourced from a cross-sectional survey (sample size: 2066 undertaken in 2007 among long-distance truck drivers. The survey spread across major transshipment locations covering the bulk of India's transport volume along four routes. Participants were interviewed about sexual behaviors and were tested for HIV and STIs. The present authors constructed two synthetic cohorts based on the participants' duration of employment in the trucking industry: (1 low (duration ≤ 6 years and (2 high experience (duration ≥ 7 years. Based on age at entry into the trucking industry, participants were termed as either adolescent (age at entry < 18 complete years or adult entrants (age at entry ≥ 18 complete years. In the low-experience cohort, the adolescent entrants were more likely than the adult entrants to have sex with paid female partners (42.6% versus 27.2%, respectively; adjusted odds ratio [OR]: 1.9; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.3–2.9 and to practice inconsistent condom use with such partners (69.1% versus 26.8%, respectively; adjusted OR: 5.3; 95% CI: 2.4–11.6. However, no significant differences were found in STI and HIV prevalence between the adolescent and the adult entrants in this cohort. In the high-experience cohort, the adolescent entrants were about two times more likely than the adult entrants to practice inconsistent condom use with paid female partners (38.5% versus

  15. Aspects of dual models many years ago

    CERN Document Server

    Corrigan, E

    2008-01-01

    In October 1969, almost forty years ago I started my three years as a graduate student in the Department of Applied Mathematics and Theoretical Physics, Cambridge. During the previous year, as was customary then, I took Part III of the Mathematics Tripos. This was a thorough grounding in many of the tools then useful in elementary particle theory. However, by today's standards, it was lacking in some respects, especially in the area of quantum field theory - the most notable omission being any mention of Yang-Mills gauge theory.

  16. Impact of Paint Color on Rest Period Climate Control Loads in Long-Haul Trucks: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lustbader, J.; Kreutzer, C.; Jeffers, M.; Adelman, S.; Yeakel, S.; Brontz, P.; Olson, K.; Ohlinger, J.

    2014-02-01

    Cab climate conditioning is one of the primary reasons for operating the main engine in a long-haul truck during driver rest periods. In the United States, sleeper cab trucks use approximately 667 million gallons of fuel annually for rest period idling. The U.S. Department of Energy's National Renewable Energy Laboratory's (NREL) CoolCab Project works closely with industry to design efficient thermal management systems for long-haul trucks that minimize engine idling and fuel use while maintaining occupant comfort. Heat transfer to the vehicle interior from opaque exterior surfaces is one of the major heat pathways that contribute to air conditioning loads during long-haul truck daytime rest period idling. To quantify the impact of paint color and the opportunity for advanced paints, NREL collaborated with Volvo Group North America, PPG Industries, and Dometic Environmental Corporation. Initial screening simulations using CoolCalc, NREL's rapid HVAC load estimation tool, showed promising air-conditioning load reductions due to paint color selection. Tests conducted at NREL's Vehicle Testing and Integration Facility using long-haul truck cab sections, 'test bucks,' showed a 31.1% of maximum possible reduction in rise over ambient temperature and a 20.8% reduction in daily electric air conditioning energy use by switching from black to white paint. Additionally, changing from blue to an advanced color-matched solar reflective blue paint resulted in a 7.3% reduction in daily electric air conditioning energy use for weather conditions tested in Colorado. National-level modeling results using weather data from major U.S. cities indicated that the increase in heating loads due to lighter paint colors is much smaller than the reduction in cooling loads.

  17. A methodology for multihazards load combinations of earthquake and heavy trucks for bridges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Dezhang; Wang, Xu; Sun, Baitao

    2014-01-01

    Issues of load combinations of earthquakes and heavy trucks are important contents in multihazards bridge design. Current load resistance factor design (LRFD) specifications usually treat extreme hazards alone and have no probabilistic basis in extreme load combinations. Earthquake load and heavy truck load are considered as random processes with respective characteristics, and the maximum combined load is not the simple superimposition of their maximum loads. Traditional Ferry Borges-Castaneda model that considers load lasting duration and occurrence probability well describes random process converting to random variables and load combinations, but this model has strict constraint in time interval selection to obtain precise results. Turkstra's rule considers one load reaching its maximum value in bridge's service life combined with another load with its instantaneous value (or mean value), which looks more rational, but the results are generally unconservative. Therefore, a modified model is presented here considering both advantages of Ferry Borges-Castaneda's model and Turkstra's rule. The modified model is based on conditional probability, which can convert random process to random variables relatively easily and consider the nonmaximum factor in load combinations. Earthquake load and heavy truck load combinations are employed to illustrate the model. Finally, the results of a numerical simulation are used to verify the feasibility and rationality of the model.

  18. A Methodology for Multihazards Load Combinations of Earthquake and Heavy Trucks for Bridges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dezhang Sun

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Issues of load combinations of earthquakes and heavy trucks are important contents in multihazards bridge design. Current load resistance factor design (LRFD specifications usually treat extreme hazards alone and have no probabilistic basis in extreme load combinations. Earthquake load and heavy truck load are considered as random processes with respective characteristics, and the maximum combined load is not the simple superimposition of their maximum loads. Traditional Ferry Borges-Castaneda model that considers load lasting duration and occurrence probability well describes random process converting to random variables and load combinations, but this model has strict constraint in time interval selection to obtain precise results. Turkstra’s rule considers one load reaching its maximum value in bridge’s service life combined with another load with its instantaneous value (or mean value, which looks more rational, but the results are generally unconservative. Therefore, a modified model is presented here considering both advantages of Ferry Borges-Castaneda's model and Turkstra’s rule. The modified model is based on conditional probability, which can convert random process to random variables relatively easily and consider the nonmaximum factor in load combinations. Earthquake load and heavy truck load combinations are employed to illustrate the model. Finally, the results of a numerical simulation are used to verify the feasibility and rationality of the model.

  19. Assessment of the risk of transporting spent nuclear fuel by truck

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elder, H.K.

    1978-11-01

    The assessment includes the risks from release of spent fuel materials and radioactive cask cavity cooling water due to transportation accidents. The contribution to the risk of package misclosure and degradation during normal transport was also considered. The results of the risk assessment have been related to a time in the mid-1980's, when it is projected that nuclear plants with an electrical generating capacity of 100 GW will be operating in the U.S. For shipments from reactors to interim storage facilities, it is estimated that a truck carrying spent fuel will be involved in an accident that would not be severe enough to result in a release of spent fuel material about once in 1.1 years. It was estimated that an accident that could result in a small release of radioactive material (primarily contaminated cooling water) would occur once in about 40 years. The frequency of an accident resulting in one or more latent cancer fatalities from release of radioactive materials during a truck shipment of spent fuel to interim storage was estimated to be once in 41,000 years. No accidents were found that would result in acute fatalities from releases of radioactive material. The risk for spent fuel shipments from reactors to reprocessing plants was found to be about 20% less than the risk for shipments to interim storage. Although the average shipment distance for the reprocessing case is larger, the risk is somewhat lower because the shipping routes, on average, are through less populated sections of the country. The total risk from transporting 180-day cooled spent fuel by truck in the reference year is 4.5 x 10/sup -5/ fatalities. An individual in the population at risk would have one chance in 6 x 10/sup 11/ of suffering a latent cancer fatality from a release of radioactive material from a truck carrying spent fuel in the reference year. (DLC)

  20. Assessment of NHTSA’s Report “Relationships Between Fatality Risk, Mass, and Footprint in Model Year 2003-2010 Passenger Cars and LTVs”

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wenzel, Tom [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2016-06-01

    NHTSA recently completed a logistic regression analysis updating its 2003, 2010, and 2012 studies of the relationship between vehicle mass and US fatality risk per vehicle mile traveled (VMT; Kahane 2010, Kahane 2012, Puckett 2016). The new study updates the 2012 analysis using FARS data from 2005 to 2011 for model year 2003 to 2010. Using the updated databases, NHTSA estimates that reducing vehicle mass by 100 pounds while holding footprint fixed would increase fatality risk per VMT by 1.49% for lighter-than-average cars and by 0.50% for heavierthan- average cars, but reduce risk by 0.10% for lighter-than-average light-duty trucks, by 0.71% for heavier-than-average light-duty trucks, and by 0.99% for CUVs/minivans. Using a jack knife method to estimate the statistical uncertainty of these point estimates, NHTSA finds that none of these estimates are statistically significant at the 95% confidence level; however, the 1.49% increase in risk associated with mass reduction in lighter-than-average cars, and the 0.71% and 0.99% decreases in risk associated with mass reduction in heavier-than-average light trucks and CUVs/minivans, are statistically significant at the 90% confidence interval. The effect of mass reduction on risk that NHTSA estimated in 2016 is more beneficial than in its 2012 study, particularly for light trucks and CUVs/minivans. The 2016 NHTSA analysis estimates that reducing vehicle footprint by one square foot while holding mass constant would increase fatality risk per VMT by 0.28% in cars, by 0.38% in light trucks, and by 1.18% in CUVs and minivans.This report replicates the 2016 NHTSA analysis, and reproduces their main results. This report uses the confidence intervals output by the logistic regression models, which are smaller than the intervals NHTSA estimated using a jack-knife technique that accounts for the sampling error in the FARS fatality and state crash data. In addition to reproducing the NHTSA results, this report also examines the

  1. AERODYNAMIC CHARACTERISTICS ABOUT MINING DUMP TRUCK AND THE IMPROVEMENT OF HEAD SHAPE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    The external flow field around a certain mining dump truck was simulated. The airflow structure and the aerodynamic drag were discussed, and the relationship between airflow characteristics and aerodynamic drag were obtained. In order to solve the problem of head shape of the truck, three scenarios including edge rounding, installing splitter planes and their combination were put forward to improve the head shape through numerical simulation and analysis. The model and method were selected to be three dimensional and time-independent. The Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes equations were solved using the finite volume method. The RNG k-ε model was chosen for the closure of the turbulent quantities. The results show that the third scenario is the best one, because of its aerodynamic characteristics being better than those of unimproved model.

  2. Geomagnetic Information Model for the Year 2013

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Brkić

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The finalization of the survey of the Basic Geomagnetic Network of the Republic of Croatia (BGNRC and completion of geomagnetic information models for the Institute for Research and Development of Defence Systems of the Ministry of Defence and the State Geodetic Administration (e.g. Brkić M., E. Jungwirth, D. Matika and Ž. Bačić, 2012, Geomagnetic Information and Safety, 3rd Conference of Croatian National Platform for Disaster Risk Reduction, National Protection and Rescue Directorate, Zagreb was followed in 2012 with validity confirmation of the GI2012 predictive model by geomagnetic observations in quiet conditions. The differences between the measured and modelled declination were found to be within the expected errors of the model. It needs to be pointed out that this was the first successful implementation of night surveying (especially suitable for geomagnetic surveys of airports in the Republic of Croatia.

  3. Long-haul truck drivers want healthful meal options at truck-stop restaurants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitfield Jacobson, Pamela J; Prawitz, Aimee D; Lukaszuk, Judith M

    2007-12-01

    Long-haul truckers are confined, by parking regulations and other constraints, to dining at truck-stop restaurants. Objectives were to (a) compare truckers' anthropometrics with recommended guidelines; and (b) assess eating/exercise habits, importance of healthful food choices, and attitudes about restaurants' provision of healthful options. Hypotheses were: (a) overweight/obese drivers will place less importance on healthful food choices than will drivers of optimal weight; (b) importance of healthful food choices and attitudes about their provision will be positively correlated. Questionnaires included Food Choices Index, Nutrition Attitude Survey, and demographic information; bioelectrical impedance assessed weight, body fat, and body mass index. Subjects (n=92) were truckers at a Midwestern truck-stop restaurant; 79 were overweight, 52 were obese. Mean rating of importance of healthful choices was above average. There was no difference in importance of healthful food choices for overweight/obese and optimal weight drivers, t(89)=-1.312; P=0.19. Drivers placing more importance on healthful food choices had more positive attitudes about restaurants' provision of such options, r(90)=0.74, Pfoods if available and appetizing. Registered dietitian-directed wellness programs that include education, support, and cooperation of truck-stop restaurants are critical to reduce obesity and risk of disease in this population.

  4. Evaluating efficiency in the Brazilian trucking industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Fernandes Wanke

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to investigate the issue of efficiency in the Brazilian motor carrier industry using both DEA (Data Envelopment Analysis and SFA (Stochastic Frontier Analysis in a complimentary fashion. The study is based on secondary data collected from Transporte Moderno/Maiores e Melhores, a specialized magazine that annually reports statistics on the largest Brazilian trucking companies. Results corroborate not only that increasing returns to scale prevail within this industry, but also provide support for a moderate impact of economies of scope on efficiency levels. Implications in terms of mergers and acquisitions and the impact of cargo diversity and the geographical scope of the operation on virtual efficiency levels are also addressed.

  5. Evaluating efficiency in the Brazilian trucking industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Fernandes Wanke

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to investigate the issue of efficiency in the Brazilian motor carrier industry using both DEA (Data Envelopment Analysis and SFA (Stochastic Frontier Analysis in a complimentary fashion. The study is based on secondary data collected from Transporte Moderno/Maiores e Melhores, a specialized magazine that annually reports statistics on the largest Brazilian trucking companies. Results corroborate not only that increasing returns to scale prevail within this industry, but also provide support for a moderate impact of economies of scope on efficiency levels. Implications in terms of mergers and acquisitions and the impact of cargo diversity and the geographical scope of the operation on virtual efficiency levels are also addressed.

  6. Real-world emissions from model year 1993, 2000, and 2010 passenger cars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ross, M.; Goodwin, R.; Watkins, R. [and others

    1995-11-01

    Air pollution by cars and light trucks is a major problem in metropolitan areas in the United States and around the world. Much of the discussion of this issue is based on the emissions per vehicle mile as determined under somewhat artificial testing conditions. The pollutants actually emitted vary considerably with the particular vehicle and the way it is driven, but the average emissions per mile are much higher than the test values. This report concerns the sources and levels of excess emissions, and the potential for reducing them. The history of automotive emissions regulation reveals remarkable success in reducing the emissions of carbon monoxide (CO), hydrocarbons (HC) and oxides of nitrogen (NO{sub x}) from new automobiles - as measured in certification tests. The grams-per-mile (g/mile) standards for these tests are stringent, with 96% reductions mandated in comparison to the estimated pre-control (mid-1960s) levels for CO and HC; and 75% reductions mandated for NO{sub x}. Powerful new technologies have been developed and incorporated into every new vehicle in order to accomplish these reductions. Most noteworthy are the catalytic converter and closed-loop engine controls; the latter includes sensors before and after the engine proper, and computer analysis of the information leading to real-time control of fuel injection, with the principal objective of maintaining just the right chemical balance of fuel and air. The average lifetime real-world g/mile emissions associated with conventional gasoline fueled cars for model years 1993, 2000, and 2010 have been projected. Results are discussed.

  7. Product modelling: '20 years of stalemate'?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Galle, Per

    1998-01-01

    In a recent special issue of Design Studies Michael Ramscar, John Lee, and Helen Pain level a severe criticism against a field of research known as product modeling; a criticism that would be rather damaging if it were based on cogent arguments. I shall argue in this paper that it is not....

  8. Microdata Simulation Modeling After Twenty Years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haveman, Robert H.

    1986-01-01

    This article describes the method and the development of microdata simulation modeling over the past two decades. After tracing a brief history of this evaluation method, its problems and prospects are assessed. The effects of this research method on the development of the social sciences are examined. (JAZ)

  9. A cognitive Analysis of truck Drivers' right-hand Turns

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    G. Sieker, Tobias; G. Skulason, Thorgeir; Sletting, Kristian

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents an investigation of truck drivers’ performance during right-hand turns performed in intersections with traffic lights in order to elicit the truck drivers’ domain, decision-making processes, and the strategies used while executing the turn. To gain knowledge about this, a truck...... using several brief glances in mirrors, and that the front and near-zone mirrors are never used during right-hand turns. Controlling the vehicle is found to be more or less automatic, whereas their focus is on the orientation about surroundings. Lastly, the drivers’ behavior is discussed in relation...

  10. A Cognitive Analysis of Truck Drivers’ Right-hand Turns

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sieker, Tobias Grønborg; G. Skulason, Thorgeir; Sletting, Kristian

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents an investigation of truck drivers’ performance during right-hand turns performed in intersections with traffic lights in order to elicit the truck drivers’ domain, decision-making processes, and the strategies used while executing the turn. To gain knowledge about this, a truck...... using several brief glances in mirrors, and that the front and near-zone mirrors are never used during right-hand turns. Controlling the vehicle is found to be more or less automatic, whereas their focus is on the orientation about surroundings. Lastly, the drivers’ behavior is discussed in relation...

  11. A Decision Support Method for Truck Scheduling and Storage Allocation Problem at Container

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CAO Jinxin; SHI Oixin; Der-Horng Lee

    2008-01-01

    Truck scheduling and storage allocation, as two separate subproblems in port operations, have been deeply studied in past decades. However, from the operational point of view, they are highly interde-pendent. Storage allocation for import containers has to balance the travel time and queuing time of each container in yard. This paper proposed an integer programming model handling these two problems as a whole. The objective of this model is to reduce congestion and waiting time of container trucks in the termi-nal so as to decrease the makespan of discharging containers. Due to the inherent complexity of the prob-lem, a genetic algorithm and a greedy heuristic algorithm are designed to attain near optimal solutions. It shows that the heuristic algorithm can achieve the optimal solution for small-scale problems. The solutions of small- and large-scale problems obtained from the heuristic algorithm are better than those from the ge-netic algorithm.

  12. The Thirring model 40 years later

    CERN Document Server

    Ilieva, N P

    1999-01-01

    Solutions to the Thirring model are constructed in the framework of algebraic QFT. It is shown that for all positive temperatures there are fermionic solutions only if the coupling constant is $\\lambda = \\sqrt{2(2n+1)\\pi}, n\\in many) live in orthogonal spaces, so the whole Hilbert space becomes non-separable and in each of its sectors a different Urgleichung holds. This feature certainly cannot be seen by any power expansion in $\\lambda$. Moreover, if the statistic parameter is tied to the coupling constant it is clear that such an expansion is doomed to failure and will never reveal the true structure of the theory. On the basis of the model in question, it is not possible to decide whether fermions or bosons are more fundamental since dressed fermions can be constructed either from bare fermions or directly from the current algebra.

  13. 冷藏车降温数学模型建立与影响因素分析%Establishment of Cooling Mathematical Model and Analysis of Influence Factors for Refrigerated Trucks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李锦; 谢如鹤; 刘广海; 吕宁; 陈遥烽

    2013-01-01

    基于动态热平衡理论,建立了冷藏车厢内温度随时间变化的降温数学模型,并对所建模型进行了相应的试验验证,进而分析了冷藏运输过程中相关参数对降温性能的影响.研究结果表明:冷藏车厢制冷降温过程中,车厢内的温度随时间的变化呈指数规律下降;车厢体隔热材料厚度减小、制冷机组制冷量减小,或车厢体隔热材料热导率增大、车厢外表面对太阳辐射的吸收系数增大、车速加大、车厢漏气倍数增大、货物呼吸热增大等均会导致车厢内降温所需时间延长,反之,车厢内降温所需时间将缩短,且以车厢体隔热材料的热导率、制冷机组制冷量、运输货物产生的呼吸热对冷藏车降温所需时间影响最大;当车厢体隔热材料热导率每增加0.001 W/(m·K)时,等同需要将车厢体隔热材料增加5 mm厚度;当车速在0~ 40 km/h内任意车速条件下行驶时,降温所需时间变化不大,而当车速在40 ~ 80 km/h范围内不同车速条件下行驶时,随着车速的提高降温所需时间将明显延长;车厢内空气流速对车厢内空气的降温快慢几乎没有影响.%In order to improve and enhance the cooling performance of the refrigerated trucks,a mathematical model of cooling process was established in a refrigerated compartment based on dynamic thermal equilibrium theory,by considering heat transfer of the external sol-air temperature through the compartment structure,air and water vapor leakage,and respiratory heat of goods within the refrigerated compartment.The correctness of mathematical model was proved by test.The test results showed that the air temperature decreased exponentially with time during the cooling process of air in refrigerated compartment.The cooling time increased when the thickness of compartment insulation material or cooling capacity of refrigeration system was reduced,or the thermal conductivity of compartment insulation material

  14. Regional forecasting with global atmospheric models; Fourth year report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crowley, T.J.; North, G.R.; Smith, N.R. [Applied Research Corp., College Station, TX (United States)

    1994-05-01

    The scope of the report is to present the results of the fourth year`s work on the atmospheric modeling part of the global climate studies task. The development testing of computer models and initial results are discussed. The appendices contain studies that provide supporting information and guidance to the modeling work and further details on computer model development. Complete documentation of the models, including user information, will be prepared under separate reports and manuals.

  15. Simulation-Based Approach to Operating Costs Analysis of Freight Trucking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ozernova Natalja

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the problem of costs uncertainty in road freight transportation services. The article introduces the statistical approach, based on Monte Carlo simulation on spreadsheets, to the analysis of operating costs. The developed model gives an opportunity to estimate operating freight trucking costs under different configuration of cost factors. Important conclusions can be made after running simulations regarding sensitivity to different factors, optimal decisions and variability of operating costs.

  16. A COMPARISON OF TRUCK DRIVER SAFETY BETWEEN THE EU AND THE USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ján KAPUSTA

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Road transportation is playing an important role in almost all freight movements and contributes to the economy. It has the highest share in the modal division of transported goods. This situation is not about to change in the coming years. Therefore, it is necessary to change the current situation and modify rules and regulations, which could lead to a decrease in the number of accidents in either the EU or the USA. This paper identifies and compares different safety measures, rules and regulations governing the safety of truck transport in the EU and the USA. The number of accidents is a good safety indicator. Finally, suggestions for improvements in terms of truck drivers’ safety in the EU and the USA are proposed.

  17. 基于刚柔耦合模型的电动轮自卸车平顺性分析与优化%Analysis and Optimization of Ride Comfort of Electric Wheel Dump Truck Based on a Rigid-flexible Coupling Model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    伍文广; 谷正气; 米承继

    2014-01-01

    In order to evaluate and optimize the ride comfort of the dump truck ,this paper presen-ted a domestic large-scale electric wheel dump truck ride comfort test ,in an open pit mine ,and the vi-bration acceleration of the position such as the deck and the chair etc .were obtained .The results show that the ride is poorer ,and should be optimized .In order to improve the model’s accuracy ,a coupled multi-body dynamics model of this truck was built ,containing flexible main-frame ,and model were verified by the test data .The results show that the precision is increased by 11.5% than that from pure rigid body dynamics model .According to the characteristics of the nonlinear hydro-pneumatic suspension ,using the hydro-pneumatic suspension parameters as the design variables ,and using the ride comfort evaluation value as objective function ,an approximate surrogate model of ride comfort was built ,the Pointer algorithm was adopted to ride comfort optimization ,the results show that the ride comfort of the truck improves by 27% after optimization .%为了分析和优化自卸车的平顺性,在国内某矿山上对某国产大型电动轮自卸车进行了平顺性试验,得到了其甲板、座椅等位置的振动加速度并进行了分析,结果表明,其行驶平顺性较差,应当对其进行优化。为了提高平顺性分析动力学模型的精确性,建立了包含柔性化车架的整车刚柔耦合多体动力学模型,并通过试验数据对模型进行了验证,结果表明,所建立的模型精度比纯刚体动力学模型提高了11.5%。针对非线性油气悬架的特点,以油气悬架结构参数为设计变量,以平顺性综合评价值为目标函数,建立了平顺性优化近似模型,采用Pointer算法对其平顺性进行了优化,结果表明,优化后自卸车的平顺性提高了27%。

  18. Advanced Electric Systems and Aerodynamics for Efficiency Improvements in Heavy Duty Trucks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larry Slone; Jeffrey Birkel

    2007-10-31

    The Advanced Electric Systems and Aerodynamics for Efficiency Improvements in Heavy Duty Trucks program (DE-FC26-04NT42189), commonly referred to as the AES program, focused on areas that will primarily benefit fuel economy and improve heat rejection while driving over the road. The AES program objectives were to: (1) Analyze, design, build, and test a cooling system that provided a minimum of 10 percent greater heat rejection in the same frontal area with no increase in parasitic fan load. (2) Realize fuel savings with advanced power management and acceleration assist by utilizing an integrated starter/generator (ISG) and energy storage devices. (3) Quantify the effect of aerodynamic drag due to the frontal shape mandated by the area required for the cooling system. The program effort consisted of modeling and designing components for optimum fuel efficiency, completing fabrication of necessary components, integrating these components into the chassis test bed, completing controls programming, and performance testing the system both on a chassis dynamometer and on the road. Emission control measures for heavy-duty engines have resulted in increased engine heat loads, thus introducing added parasitic engine cooling loads. Truck electrification, in the form of thermal management, offers technological solutions to mitigate or even neutralize the effects of this trend. Thermal control offers opportunities to avoid increases in cooling system frontal area and forestall reduced fuel economy brought about by additional aerodynamic vehicle drag. This project explored such thermal concepts by installing a 2007 engine that is compliant with current regulations and bears additional heat rejection associated with meeting these regulations. This newer engine replaced the 2002 engine from a previous project that generated less heat rejection. Advanced power management, utilizing a continuously optimized and controlled power flow between electric components, can offer additional

  19. The Aerodynamics of Heavy Vehicles III : Trucks, Buses and Trains

    CERN Document Server

    Orellano, Alexander

    2016-01-01

    This volume contains papers presented at the International conference “The Aerodynamics of Heavy Vehicles III: Trucks, Buses and Trains” held in Potsdam, Germany, September 12-17, 2010 by Engineering Conferences International (ECI). Leading scientists and engineers from industry, universities and research laboratories, including truck and high-speed train manufacturers and operators were brought together to discuss computer simulation and experimental techniques to be applied for the design of more efficient trucks, buses and high-speed trains in the future.   This conference was the third in the series after Monterey-Pacific Groove in 2002 and Lake Tahoe in 2007.  The presentations address different aspects of train aerodynamics (cross wind effects, underbody flow, tunnel aerodynamics and aeroacoustics, experimental techniques), truck aerodynamics (drag reduction, flow control, experimental and computational techniques) as well as computational fluid dynamics and bluff body, wake and jet flows.

  20. 78 FR 26106 - Pilot Program on NAFTA Trucking Provisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-03

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ] DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration Pilot Program on NAFTA Trucking Provisions AGENCY: Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration (FMCSA). ACTION: Notice; correction. SUMMARY: The FMCSA...

  1. A Cognitive Analysis of Truck Drivers’ Right-hand Turns

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sieker, Tobias Grønborg; G. Skulason, Thorgeir; Sletting, Kristian

    2015-01-01

    using several brief glances in mirrors, and that the front and near-zone mirrors are never used during right-hand turns. Controlling the vehicle is found to be more or less automatic, whereas their focus is on the orientation about surroundings. Lastly, the drivers’ behavior is discussed in relation......This paper presents an investigation of truck drivers’ performance during right-hand turns performed in intersections with traffic lights in order to elicit the truck drivers’ domain, decision-making processes, and the strategies used while executing the turn. To gain knowledge about this, a truck...... driving instructor is interviewed, and four truck drivers are observed and interviewed. This results in a cognitive work analysis with the phases work domain analysis, control task analysis and strategies analysis. Through this study it is indicated that many different types of information are sought...

  2. Active Noise Control of the Heavy Truck Interior Cab

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    In order to control the noise of the heavy truck interior cab effectively, the active noise control methods are employed. First, an interior noise field test for the heavy truck is performed, and frequencies of interior noise of this vehicle are analyzed. According to the spectrum analysis of acquired noise signal, it is found out that the main frequencies of interior noise are less than 800Hz. Then the least squares lattice (LSL) algorithm is used as signal processing algorithm of the controller and a closed-loop control DSP system, based on TMS 320VC5416, is developed. The residual signal at driver's ear is used as feedback signal. Lastly, the developed ANC system is loaded into the heavy truck cab, and controlling the noise at driver's ear for that truck at different driving speeds is attempted. The noise control test results indicate that the cab interior noise is reduced averagely by 0.9 dBA at different driving speeds.

  3. STUDY ON AERODYNAMIC CHARACTERISTICS OF VAN-BODY TRUCKS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    The aerodynamic characteristics of the van-body truck were studied by means of theoretical analysis, numerical simulation and wind tunnel experiments. The concept of critical length was presented for the van-body truck in wind tunnel experiments, the proper critical Reynolds number was found and the effects of ground parameters in ground effect simulation on the aerodynamic measurements were examined. It shows that two structure parameters, van height and the gap between the cab and the van, can obviously influence the aerodynamic characteristics, and the additional aerodynamic devices, the wind deflector and the vortex regulator in the rear, can considerably reduce the aerodynamic drag of the van-body truck. Numerical simulations provided rich information of the flow fields around the van-body trucks.

  4. 1990 Nationwide Truck Activity and Commodity Survey selected tabulations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-06-01

    The Nationwide Truck Activity and Commodity Survey (NTACS) provides detailed activity data for a sample of trucks covered in the 1987 Truck Inventory and Use Survey (TIUS) for days selected at random over a 12-month period ending in 1990. The NTACS was conducted by the US Bureau of the Census for the US Department of Transportation (DOT). A Public Use File for the NTACS was developed by Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) under a reimbursable agreement with the DOT. The content of the Public Use File and the detailed design of the NTACS are described in the ORNL Report [open quotes]Technical Documentation for the 1990 Nationwide Truck Activity and Commodity Survey Public Use File[close quotes]. (1992). ORNL Technical Report No. TM-12188, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN 37831. The main purpose of this summary report is to provide selected tables based on the public use file.

  5. Behavioral risk factors for STD/HIV transmission in Bangladesh's trucking industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibney, Laura; Saquib, Nazmus; Metzger, Jesse

    2003-04-01

    To examine behaviors that could influence STD/HIV transmission in Bangladesh's trucking industry, a survey was orally administered to 388 truck drivers/helpers at Tejgaon truck stand in Dhaka. A two-tiered sampling strategy was used: 38 trucking agencies were randomly selected and a mean of 10.2 subjects was recruited from each agency. Focus group and in-depth interviews were also conducted. The focus was on behaviors that affect (i) exposure to STD/HIV infection, (ii) efficiency of transmission of infection and (iii) duration of infectiousness. The findings illustrated that intravenous drug use was not an important risk factor; only 1 subject had used drugs intravenously. Sexual risk behaviors, however, were prevalent: the mean number of sexual partners in the past year was 4.57 (SD=8.70) and in the past 3 months was 1.82 (SD=3.27). Premarital and extramarital sex was common, often with commercial sex workers (CSW); 54% of all subjects had relations with at least 1 CSW in the past year. In a multiple logistic regression analysis, subjects who engaged in other types of socially risky behavior (drinking alcohol, ingesting or smoking recreational drugs, having sex with other men) were significantly (pfashion, and over 1/3 did not change their sexual behavior while infected. To reduce the potential for the spread of STD/HIV in this population, appropriate treatment practices for sexually transmitted infections need to be encouraged and condom use promoted, particularly in the context of casual sexual relations.

  6. Determination of Practical ESALs Per Truck Values on Indiana Roads

    OpenAIRE

    2000-01-01

    The Indiana Department of Transportation (INDOT) has been using ESAL (Equivalent Single Axle Load) values for pavement design. The current ESAL values were obtained in the late 1970. However, truck deregulation and higher allowable maximum loads have increased the 1970's values. Updated ESAL values are needed for better road designs. The 1998 and 1999 traffic data from the all Weight-in-Motion (WIM) stations were obtained and used to compute updated ESAL values for multiple unit trucks (Class...

  7. Scheduling inbound and outbound trucks at cross docking terminals

    OpenAIRE

    Nils Boysen; Malte Fliedner; Armin Scholl

    2007-01-01

    At cross docking terminals, shipments from inbound trucks are unloaded, sorted and moved to dispatch points where they are directly loaded onto outbound trucks for an immediate delivery elsewhere in the distribution system. This warehouse management concept aims at realizing economies in transportation cost by consolidating divergent shipments to full truckloads without requiring excessive inventory at the cross dock. The efficient operation of such a system requires an appropriate coordinati...

  8. Improving the efficiency of weigh in motion systems through optimized allocating truck checking oriented procedure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abbas Mahmoudabadi

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available In the present paper, an effective procedure is proposed to determine the best location(s for installing Weigh in Motion systems (WIM. The main objective is to determine locations for best performance, defined as the maximum number of once-checked trucks' axle loads and minimizing unnecessary actions. The aforesaid method consists of two main stages, including solving shortest path algorithm and selecting the best location for installing WIM(s. A proper mathematical model has also been developed to achieve objective function. The number of once-checked trucks, unnecessary actions and average installing costs are defined as criteria measures. The proposed procedure was applied in a road network using experimental data, while the results were compared with the usual methods of locating enforcement facilities. Finally, it is concluded that the proposed procedure seems to be more efficient than the traditional methods and local experts' points of view.

  9. Adaptation of topology optimization on truck-structure; Kinshitsukaho ni yoru iso saitekika shuho no truck kozo eno tekiyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tachibana, H.; Kojima, A.; Chiba, S. [Mitsubishi Motors Corp., Tokyo (Japan)

    1997-10-01

    An optimization using the homogenization method has been applied to a truck-structure on the concept design stage. A truck-structure is grouped into 3 classes (thin plate structure , thick plate structure and solid structure), then example, effectiveness and method for the application for the purpose of weight reduction , high rigidity and high eigen-frequency are introduced. 3 refs., 24 figs., 1 tab.

  10. Development of ACC system for heavy-duty trucks; Ogata truck yo shakan seigyo kuruzu control no kaihatsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hirayama, S.; Shibata, N. [Hino Motors, Ltd., Tokyo (Japan); Okata, H.; Matsuoka, K. [Denso Corp., Aichi (Japan)

    1999-01-01

    This paper presents ACC (Adaptive Cruise Control) system for heavy duty trucks which is now on the market. The ACC system consists of the distance warning system with a scanning laser radar device and the conventional cruise control system. The ACC is carefully tuned taking the characteristics of heavy-duty trucks into consideration. That has made it possible to achieve lower degree of driver`s fatigue as well as higher ride comfort and easier driving. (author)

  11. Study on the Cost Model of Container Truck Transportation Network G1 Facing the Hinterland of Regional Port:Based on Touring Strategy%面向支线港腹地的集装箱卡车运输网络G1的成本模型研究--巡回装运策略下

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    成桂芳; 吕玉兰

    2016-01-01

    This paper studies the container truck transportation network G1 which is composed of one container feeder port terminal and a number of consignees for port hinterland. Focusing on the total cost of the transport network, the network involves two types of decision-makers: the container terminal freight operator and the consignee. The former is responsible for the provision of transport services, and the latter is responsible for leasing the container and entering into a contract of carriage with the freight terminal. This paper establishes the total cost model of the container truck transportation network G1 facing the feeder port hinterland under touring strategy.%本文研究了由一个集装箱支线港码头和偶数个收货人组成的面向港口腹地的集装箱卡车运输网络G1。着眼于运输网络的总成本,该网络涉及到两种类型的决策者:集装箱码头货运站经营人和收货人,前者负责提供运输服务,而收货人负责租赁集装箱并与货运站签订运输合同。本文建立巡回装运运输策略下,面向支线港腹地的集装箱卡车运输网络G1的总成本模型。

  12. 40 CFR 85.2302 - Definition of model year.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Definition of model year. 85.2302 Section 85.2302 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF AIR POLLUTION FROM MOBILE SOURCES Determination of Model Year for Motor Vehicles and Engines Used in Motor Vehicles Under...

  13. 40 CFR 85.2303 - Duration of model year.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Duration of model year. 85.2303 Section 85.2303 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF AIR POLLUTION FROM MOBILE SOURCES Determination of Model Year for Motor Vehicles and Engines Used in Motor Vehicles Under Section...

  14. 40 CFR 600.512-86 - Model year report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 29 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Model year report. 600.512-86 Section 600.512-86 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) ENERGY POLICY FUEL ECONOMY AND CARBON-RELATED EXHAUST EMISSIONS OF MOTOR VEHICLES Fuel Economy Regulations for Model Year 1978 Passenger Automobiles and for 1979...

  15. The effect of vibration exposure during haul truck operation on grip strength, touch sensation, and balance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollard, Jonisha; Porter, William; Mayton, Alan; Xu, Xueyan; Weston, Eric

    2017-01-01

    Falls from mobile equipment are reported at surface mine quarry operations each year in considerable numbers. Research shows that a preponderance of falls occur while getting on/off mobile equipment. Contributing factors to the risk of falls include the usage of ladders, exiting onto a slippery surface, and foot or hand slippage. Balance issues may also contribute to fall risks for mobile equipment operators who are exposed to whole-body vibration (WBV). For this reason, the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, Office of Mine Safety and Health Research conducted a study at four participating mine sites with seven haul truck operators. The purpose was to ascertain whether WBV and hand-arm vibration (HAV) exposures for quarry haul truck operators were linked to short-term decreases in performance in relation to postural stability, touch sensation threshold, and grip strength that are of crucial importance when getting on/off the trucks. WBV measures of frequency-weighted RMS accelerations (wRMS) and vibration dose value (VDV), when compared to the ISO/ANSI standards, were mostly below levels identified for the Health Guidance Caution Zone (HGCZ), although there were instances where the levels were within and above the specified Exposure Action Value. Comparably, all mean HAV levels, when compared to the ISO/ANSI standards, were below the HGCZ. For the existing conditions and equipment, no significant correlation could be identified between the WBV, HAV, postural stability, touch sensation threshold, and grip strength measures taken during this study.

  16. Risk Factors for Cardiovascular Disease, Metabolic Syndrome and Sleepiness in Truck Drivers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio de Padua Mansur

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available AbstractBackground:Truck driver sleepiness is a primary cause of vehicle accidents. Several causes are associated with sleepiness in truck drivers. Obesity and metabolic syndrome (MetS are associated with sleep disorders and with primary risk factors for cardiovascular diseases (CVD. We analyzed the relationship between these conditions and prevalence of sleepiness in truck drivers.Methods:We analyzed the major risk factors for CVD, anthropometric data and sleep disorders in 2228 male truck drivers from 148 road stops made by the Federal Highway Police from 2006 to 2011. Alcohol consumption, illicit drugs and overtime working hours were also analyzed. Sleepiness was assessed using the Epworth Sleepiness Scale.Results:Mean age was 43.1 ± 10.8 years. From 2006 to 2011, an increase in neck (p = 0.011 and abdominal circumference (p < 0.001, total cholesterol (p < 0.001, triglyceride plasma levels (p = 0.014, and sleepiness was observed (p < 0.001. In addition, a reduction in hypertension (39.6% to 25.9%, p < 0.001, alcohol consumption (32% to 23%, p = 0.033 and overtime hours (52.2% to 42.8%, p < 0.001 was found. Linear regression analysis showed that sleepiness correlated closely with body mass index (β = 0.19, Raj2 = 0.659, p = 0.031, abdominal circumference (β = 0.24, Raj2 = 0.826, p = 0.021, hypertension (β = -0.62, Raj2 = 0.901, p = 0.002, and triglycerides (β = 0.34, Raj2 = 0.936, p = 0.022. Linear multiple regression indicated that hypertension (p = 0.008 and abdominal circumference (p = 0.025 are independent variables for sleepiness.Conclusions:Increased prevalence of sleepiness was associated with major components of the MetS.

  17. Risk Factors for Cardiovascular Disease, Metabolic Syndrome and Sleepiness in Truck Drivers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansur, Antonio de Padua; Rocha, Marcos ABS; Leyton, Vilma; Takada, Julio Yashio; Avakian, Solange Desirée; Santos, Alexandre J; Novo, Gisele C; Nascimento, Arledson Lima; Muñoz, Daniel Romero; Rohlfs, Waldo J C

    2015-01-01

    Background Truck driver sleepiness is a primary cause of vehicle accidents. Several causes are associated with sleepiness in truck drivers. Obesity and metabolic syndrome (MetS) are associated with sleep disorders and with primary risk factors for cardiovascular diseases (CVD). We analyzed the relationship between these conditions and prevalence of sleepiness in truck drivers. Methods We analyzed the major risk factors for CVD, anthropometric data and sleep disorders in 2228 male truck drivers from 148 road stops made by the Federal Highway Police from 2006 to 2011. Alcohol consumption, illicit drugs and overtime working hours were also analyzed. Sleepiness was assessed using the Epworth Sleepiness Scale. Results Mean age was 43.1 ± 10.8 years. From 2006 to 2011, an increase in neck (p = 0.011) and abdominal circumference (p < 0.001), total cholesterol (p < 0.001), triglyceride plasma levels (p = 0.014), and sleepiness was observed (p < 0.001). In addition, a reduction in hypertension (39.6% to 25.9%, p < 0.001), alcohol consumption (32% to 23%, p = 0.033) and overtime hours (52.2% to 42.8%, p < 0.001) was found. Linear regression analysis showed that sleepiness correlated closely with body mass index (β = 0.19, Raj2 = 0.659, p = 0.031), abdominal circumference (β = 0.24, Raj2 = 0.826, p = 0.021), hypertension (β = -0.62, Raj2 = 0.901, p = 0.002), and triglycerides (β = 0.34, Raj2 = 0.936, p = 0.022). Linear multiple regression indicated that hypertension (p = 0.008) and abdominal circumference (p = 0.025) are independent variables for sleepiness. Conclusions Increased prevalence of sleepiness was associated with major components of the MetS. PMID:26761367

  18. Management of Truck Loading Weight: A Critical Review of the Literature and Recommended Remedies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aliakbari Mozhgan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Traffic accidents involving heavy trucks have social and economic effects on society. However, little research has focused on the influence of heavy truck specifications such as weight. Apportioning the maximum permissible gross weight of trucks allows trucking companies/owners to consolidate loads, and therefore reduce the vehicle-kilometres required to collect and distribute a given amount of goods/material. While drivers/managers are responsible for ensuring that trucks are loaded appropriately and in compliance with regulations, some may take chances and overload vehicles. This increases the need for formal and documented inspections, in order to reduce traffic hazards on public roads due to overweight loading. According to a New South Wales Centre for Road Safety report in 2014, crashes involving heavy trucks often result in serious road trauma outcomes. When a heavy truck is involved in a crash, the vehicle mass raises the crash forces involved and hence increases the severity of the crash. Therefore, interventions should be established to mitigate or prevent these crashes from occurring. Currently, weight checks are required for trucks and truck drivers must drive to a weighbridge for a weight check. Since this is a random process, truck drivers may take the risk of driving an over-loaded truck on some occasions. This paper reviews existing studies concerning safe system interventions in relation to truck gross weight management and a framework is presented to effectively manage truck loading weight. The result may be a reduction of injuries and fatalities involving heavy trucks.

  19. Development and Implementation of a Battery-Electric Light-Duty Class 2a Truck including Hybrid Energy Storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kollmeyer, Phillip J.

    This dissertation addresses two major related research topics: 1) the design, fabrication, modeling, and experimental testing of a battery-electric light-duty Class 2a truck; and 2) the design and evaluation of a hybrid energy storage system (HESS) for this and other vehicles. The work begins with the determination of the truck's peak power and wheel torque requirements (135kW/4900Nm). An electric traction system is then designed that consists of an interior permanent magnet synchronous machine, two-speed gearbox, three-phase motor drive, and LiFePO4 battery pack. The battery pack capacity is selected to achieve a driving range similar to the 2011 Nissan Leaf electric vehicle (73 miles). Next, the demonstrator electric traction system is built and installed in the vehicle, a Ford F150 pickup truck, and an extensive set of sensors and data acquisition equipment is installed. Detailed loss models of the battery pack, electric traction machine, and motor drive are developed and experimentally verified using the driving data. Many aspects of the truck's performance are investigated, including efficiency differences between the two-gear configuration and the optimal gear selection. The remainder focuses on the application of battery/ultracapacitor hybrid energy storage systems (HESS) to electric vehicles. First, the electric truck is modeled with the addition of an ultracapacitor pack and a dc/dc converter. Rule-based and optimal battery/ultracapacitor power-split control algorithms are then developed, and the performance improvements achieved for both algorithms are evaluated for operation at 25°C. The HESS modeling is then extended to low temperatures, where battery resistance increases substantially. To verify the accuracy of the model-predicted results, a scaled hybrid energy storage system is built and the system is tested for several drive cycles and for two temperatures. The HESS performance is then modeled for three variants of the vehicle design, including the

  20. Acceptance test report for core sample trucks 3 and 4

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Corbett, J.E.

    1996-04-10

    The purpose of this Acceptance Test Report is to provide documentation for the acceptance testing of the rotary mode core sample trucks 3 and 4, designated as HO-68K-4600 and HO-68K-4647, respectively. This report conforms to the guidelines established in WHC-IP-1026, ``Engineering Practice Guidelines,`` Appendix M, ``Acceptance Test Procedures and Reports.`` Rotary mode core sample trucks 3 and 4 were based upon the design of the second core sample truck (HO-68K-4345) which was constructed to implement rotary mode sampling of the waste tanks at Hanford. Successful completion of acceptance testing on June 30, 1995 verified that all design requirements were met. This report is divided into four sections, beginning with general information. Acceptance testing was performed on trucks 3 and 4 during the months of March through June, 1995. All testing was performed at the ``Rock Slinger`` test site in the 200 West area. The sequence of testing was determined by equipment availability, and the initial revision of the Acceptance Test Procedure (ATP) was used for both trucks. Testing was directed by ICF-KH, with the support of WHC Characterization Equipment Engineering and Characterization Project Operations. Testing was completed per the ATP without discrepancies or deviations, except as noted.

  1. [Amphetamine use by truck drivers on highways of Sao Paulo State: a risk for the occurrence of traffic accidents?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takitane, Juliana; de Oliveira, Lucio Garcia; Endo, Ligia Góes; de Oliveira, Keziah Cristina Barbosa Gruber; Muñoz, Daniel Romero; Yonamine, Mauricio; Leyton, Vilma

    2013-05-01

    The use of amphetamines in Brazil is common among truck drivers, which may be an important factor in the occurrence of traffic accidents. This article seeks to estimate the prevalence of amphetamine use among truck drivers. Drivers (N = 134) were stopped on two different highways in Sao Paulo state and they were asked to answer a questionnaire and provide a urine sample for toxicological analysis. All data were analyzed on Stata 8.0. All participants were males with low levels of schooling, whose mean age was 40.8 years. The presence of amphetamines was detected in 10.8% of all urine samples collected, being commonly justified in order to make truck drivers able to maintain their state of awareness. Amphetamine use was detected among truck drivers on Sao Paulo highways. The problem is that when the stimulant effects wear off, sleepiness due to sleep deprivation reduces concentration and good driver performance, making drivers vulnerable to traffic accidents and the related effects.

  2. Development of a multi-year climate prediction model | Alexander ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Development of a multi-year climate prediction model. ... The available water resources in Southern Africa are rapidly approaching the limits of economic exploitation. ... that could be attributed to climate change arising from human activities.

  3. American Recovery & Reinvestment Act: Fuel Cell Hybrid Power Packs and Hydrogen Refueling for Lift Trucks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Block, Gus

    2011-07-31

    HEB Grocery Company, Inc. (H-E-B) is a privately-held supermarket chain with 310 stores throughout Texas and northern Mexico. H-E-B converted 14 of its lift reach trucks to fuel cell power using Nuvera Fuel Cells’ PowerEdge™ units to verify the value proposition and environmental benefits associated with the technology. Issues associated with the increasing power requirements of the distribution center operation, along with high ambient temperature in the summer and other operating conditions (such as air quality and floor surface condition), surfaced opportunities for improving Nuvera’s PowerEdge fuel cell system design in high-throughput forklift environments. The project included on-site generation of hydrogen from a steam methane reformer, called PowerTap™ manufactured by Nuvera. The hydrogen was generated, compressed and stored in equipment located outside H-E-B’s facility, and provided to the forklifts by hydrogen dispensers located in high forklift traffic areas. The PowerEdge fuel cell units logged over 25,300 operating hours over the course of the two-year project period. The PowerTap hydrogen generator produced more than 11,100 kg of hydrogen over the same period. Hydrogen availability at the pump was 99.9%. H-E-B management has determined that fuel cell forklifts help alleviate several issues in its distribution centers, including truck operator downtime associated with battery changing, truck and battery maintenance costs, and reduction of grid electricity usage. Data collected from this initial installation demonstrated a 10% productivity improvement, which enabled H-E-B to make economic decisions on expanding the fleet of PowerEdge and PowerTap units in the fleet, which it plans to undertake upon successful demonstration of the new PowerEdge reach truck product. H-E-B has also expressed interst in other uses of hydrogen produced on site in the future, such as for APUs used in tractor trailers and refrigerated transport trucks in its fleet.

  4. Supplying of Assembly Lines Using Train of Trucks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Čujan, Zdeněk; Fedorko, Gabriel

    2016-11-01

    The typical supply system conceptions, i.e. the concepts "Just-in-time" (JIT) and "Just-in-sequence" (JIS) are very important factors with regard to a fluent operation of the assembly lines. Therefore the contemporary intra plant transport systems are being replaced by a new kind of the transportation technology, namely by means of the trains of trucks. The trains of trucks are used in two possible operational modes: either with a driver or without driver (fully automated). The trucks of the logistic trains are also cheaper and they are able to carry a larger volume and mass of the material at once. There are reduced in this way not only the investment costs, but also the operational expenses.

  5. Temperature mapping of trucks transporting fertile eggs and day-old chicks: Efficiency and/or acclimatization?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aérica C. Nazareno

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the thermal profiles of trucks used for transporting fertile eggs and day-old chicks. This study was carried out in a broiler hatchery in the State of Sao Paulo. The experiment was conducted during three months, in which six egg loads and 11 chick loads were observed. Thermal profile assessments were performed in an environmental controlled trucks with thermal control and following dimensions: 7.5 x 2.6 x 2.5 m for eggs, and 8.0 x 2.5 x 2.5 m for chicks. The maximum transport capacities were approximately of 592 boxes of eggs and 630 boxes of chicks, distributed all over the lorry. The thermal profiles were assessed at five-minutes-interval for eggs and in ten-minutes-interval for chicks, using thermal variables such as temperature, relative humidity and specific enthalpy. Geostatistics was used to model spatial dependency (by kriging. The results showed that the acclimatization in trucks was deficient. The loads were found to be submitted to an incompatible temperature, showing a huge thermal variety in the body trucks.

  6. Air pollution dispersion model in Prague - land development plan modelling of the year 2010

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hornicek, K. [Road and Motorway Directorate (Czech Republic)

    2000-07-01

    Prague municipality operates an unique air pollution model, which reflects changing of air quality situation in the town. The model was generated at the beginning of last decade and solves gradual changes of air quality in a period of 90's. The next logical step aims to upgrade this model as a tool for visualisation of all predictable air quality changes, which can affect environmental condition for inhabitants in Prague region. The object of model simulation is to estimate these changes in term of 2010. The model simulation includes following problems: Share of heating media in near future variants of heating systems used in the different residential parts of the town planned system of new roads used at that time traffic volume in network of existing and new roads traffic condition, emission parameters of air pollutants coming from power plants, heating systems, cars and trucks All the above described problems content emission and concentration parts of air pollutants. The road network of the city has been simulated by using about 3000 pieces of road segment and 350 pieces of crossing with original track values, speed, grade and traffic conditions. One of the aims of the final project is to visualize the main changes between present concentrations of different pollutants and the target concentrations in 2010. The key pollutant, which is very significant for the road network of the city, is NOx. Present situation in the field of transport is: 90 % of the area - air pollution is getting better remaining 10 % of the area - concentration of pollutants are increasing (mainly in the neighbourhood of main motorways and newly designed roads). The main reason for improvement of global air pollution situation in Prague is rapid progress of changes in heating systems of residential areas in the town. In comparison with that total emissions coming from transport are generally in the same level like in 1998. The highest values of concentration are present along new large

  7. Roadmap and technical white papers for the 21st century truck partnership

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None

    2006-12-01

    21st Century Truck Partnership will support the development and implementation of technologies that will cut fuel use and emissions and enhance safety, affordability, and performance of trucks and buses.

  8. Occupational Hydrofluoric Acid Injury from Car and Truck Washing--Washington State, 2001-2013

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Reeb-Whitaker, Carolyn K; Eckert, Carly M; Anderson, Naomi J; Bonauto, David K

    2015-01-01

    .... The death of a truck wash worker from ingestion of an HF-based wash product and 48 occupational HF burn cases associated with car and truck washing in Washington State during 2001-2013 are summarized in this report...

  9. A multi-objective set covering problem: A case study of warehouse allocation in truck industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atefeh Malekinezhad

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Designing distribution centers is normally formulated in a form of set covering where is primary objective is to minimize the number of connected facilities. However, there are other issues affecting our decision on selecting suitable distribution centers such as weather conditions, temperature, infrastructure facilities, etc. In this paper, we propose a multi-objective set covering techniques where different objectives are considered in an integrated model. The proposed model of this paper is implemented for a real-world case study of truck-industry and the results are analyzed.

  10. The market for large rigid haul trucks in surface mining

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gilewicz, P.

    2002-04-15

    Originally published in 2001 this updated report provides a definition of the market for large rigid haulers in surface mining. The analysis covers changes to the mining market segments buying these machines including the gains made by coal producers, retrenchment in copper mining, the consolidation taking place among gold mining companies, and the expansion of iron ore producers in Australia and Brazil. It includes a detailed accounting of 2001 truck shipments, and an analysis of trends in the Ultra-truck segment. It concludes with a revised forecast for shipments through 2006. 12 charts, 56 tabs., 2 apps.

  11. Impact of Platon ETC system on intercity trucking cost

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pogotovkina Natalya

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In 2015 Platon ETC System, a system of charging trucks with gross vehicle weight exceeding 12 tons, was implemented in Russia. The payment is collected as a compensation fo0 the damage caused to the federal public roads. Platon system is an additional source of financing for the road sector. However, its implementation made the carriers face the increasing costs. This paper presents the first results of the system functioning and the problems, associated with it. We consider the foreign systems of truck charging. The results of calculations, which show the effect of the toll collection on the prime cost of road freight transportation, are also presented.

  12. Long-Haul Truck Idling Burns Up Profits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2015-08-12

    Long-haul truck drivers perform a vitally important service. In the course of their work, they must take rest periods as required by federal law. Most drivers remain in their trucks, which they keep running to provide power for heating, cooling, and other necessities. Such idling, however, comes at a cost; it is an expensive and polluting way to keep drivers safe and comfortable. Increasingly affordable alternatives to idling not only save money and reduce pollution, but also help drivers get a better night's rest.

  13. Amphetamine, cocaine and cannabinoids use among truck drivers on the roads in the State of Sao Paulo, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leyton, V; Sinagawa, D M; Oliveira, K C B G; Schmitz, W; Andreuccetti, G; De Martinis, B S; Yonamine, M; Munoz, D R

    2012-02-10

    Drugs are important risk factors for traffic accidents. In Brazil, truck drivers report using amphetamines to maintain their extensive work schedule and stay awake. These drugs can be obtained without prescription easily on Brazilian roads. The use of these stimulants can result in health problems and can be associated with traffic accidents. There are Brazilian studies that show that drivers use drugs. However, these studies are questionnaire-based and do not always reflect real-life situations. The purpose of this study was to demonstrate the prevalence of drug use by truck drivers on the roads of Sao Paulo State, Brazil, during 2009. Drivers of large trucks were randomly stopped by police officers on the interstate roads during morning hours. After being informed of the goals of the study, the drivers gave written informed consent before providing a urine sample. In addition, a questionnaire concerning sociodemographic characteristics and health information was administered. Urine samples were screened for amphetamines, cocaine, and cannabinoids by immunoassay and the confirmation was performed using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Of the 488 drivers stopped, 456 (93.4%) provided urine samples, and 9.3% of them (n=42) tested positive for drugs. Amphetamines were the most commonly found (n=26) drug, representing 61.9% of the positive samples. Ten cases tested positive for cocaine (23.8%), and five for cannabinoids (11.9%). All drivers were male with a mean age of 40 ± 10.8 years, and 29.3% of them reported some health problem (diabetes, high blood pressure and/or stress). A high incidence of truck drivers who tested positive for drug use was found, among other reported health problems. Thus, there is an evident need to promote a healthier lifestyle among professional drivers and a need for preventive measures aimed at controlling the use of drugs by truck drivers in Brazil.

  14. Consistent Condom Use during Casual Sex among Long-Truck Drivers in Togo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yaya, Issifou; Landoh, Dadja Essoya; Saka, Bayaki; Vignikin, Kokou; Aboubakari, Abdoul-Samadou; N’dri, Kouamé Mathias; Gbetoglo, Kodjo Dodji; Edorh, Atavi-Mensah; Ahlegnan, Komla; Yenkey, Holali Comlan; Toudeka, Ayawavi Sitsopé; Pitché, Palokinam

    2016-01-01

    Background In 2008, the proportion of truck drivers who were not systematically protected during sex was 63% with casual partners and 60% with sex workers. Despite the high level of knowledge on HIV/AIDS and the growing awareness of the existence of the risk of HIV infection, condom use always encounters resistance among truck drivers in Togo. We sought to document the factors associated with condom use during casual sex among trucks’ drivers in Togo. Methods This was an analytical cross-sectional study conducted in 2010 and targeted truckers at truck station on the two main roads of Togo, Lomé-Cinkassé and Kodjoviakopé-Sanvee Condji. Results In this study, 1,782 trucks’ drivers and their helpers were interviewed. All were men, and their mean age was 28.8 ± 8.8 years. Trucks’ drivers were doing an average of 3 stops on their journeys and 1,229 (69%) of them had at least two years of experience in the work. Of the 1,782 trucks’ drivers, only 620 (34.8%) had consistently used condoms during casual sex in the last three months. In multivariate analysis, predictors were: education level (primary schooling: OR = 1.54; p = 0.002; Secondary schooling and higher OR = 1.38; p = 0.036), good knowledge of ways of HIV transmission (OR = 1.53; p = 0.000), tested for HIV (OR = 1.67, p = 0.000), duration in the profession (2–5 years: OR = 1.43, p = 0.008; more than 5 years: OR = 1.38, p = 0.027), and HIV risk’s perception (OR = 1.44, p = 0.000). Conclusion These results highlight factors associated with consistent condom use during casual sex by truck drivers in Togo. This is a key population group at high risk of HIV transmission toward which the national HIV/AIDS control program should strengthen the HIV prevention strategies. PMID:27071059

  15. 30 CFR 57.14131 - Seat belts for surface haulage trucks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Seat belts for surface haulage trucks. 57.14131... and Equipment Safety Devices and Maintenance Requirements § 57.14131 Seat belts for surface haulage trucks. (a) Seat belts shall be provided and worn in haulage trucks. (b) Seat belts shall be...

  16. 26 CFR 48.4061(a)-5 - Sale of automobile truck bodies and chassis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 16 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Sale of automobile truck bodies and chassis. 48..., Tread Rubber, and Taxable Fuel Automotive and Related Items § 48.4061(a)-5 Sale of automobile truck bodies and chassis. (a) Sale of completed vehicle. An automobile truck (as defined by §...

  17. 76 FR 40980 - Pilot Program on NAFTA Long-Haul Trucking Provisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-12

    ... TRANSPORTATION Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration Pilot Program on NAFTA Long-Haul Trucking Provisions... the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) cross-border long-haul trucking provisions. This pilot... (NAFTA) cross-border long-haul trucking provisions. This pilot program would allow Mexico-domiciled motor...

  18. Potential CO2 savings by increasing truck size: A Korean case study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kim, N.S.; Wiegmans, B.; Bu, L.

    2016-01-01

    n this paper, we present a method to estimate CO2 reduction potential by increasing the truck size. Trucks are apparently the most preferred freight transport option for most shippers. Therefore, increasing the truck size may be a realizable and practical strategy, except when logistics companies

  19. 78 FR 76888 - MAP-21 Comprehensive Truck Size and Weight Limits Study Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-19

    ... Federal Highway Administration MAP-21 Comprehensive Truck Size and Weight Limits Study Materials AGENCY... for Progress in the 21st Century Act (MAP-21) Comprehensive Truck Size and Weight Limits Study, which... public meetings on the MAP-21 Comprehensive Truck Size and Weight Limits Study and to announce...

  20. Reducing truck emissions at container terminals in a low carbon economy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Gang; GOVINDAN, Kannan; Golias, Mihalis M.

    2013-01-01

    a queueing network. Based on the waiting time, truck idling emissions are estimated. The proposed methodology is evaluated with a case study, where truck arrival rates vary over time. We propose a Genetic Algorithm based heuristic to solve the resulting problem. Result shows that, a small shift of truck...

  1. 7 CFR 58.317 - Bulk butter trucks, boats, texturizers, and packers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Bulk butter trucks, boats, texturizers, and packers... and Grading Service 1 Equipment and Utensils § 58.317 Bulk butter trucks, boats, texturizers, and packers. Bulk butter trucks, boats, texturizers, and packers shall be constructed of aluminum,...

  2. 49 CFR 230.100 - Defects in tender truck axles and journals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Defects in tender truck axles and journals. 230... Steam Locomotives and Tenders Running Gear § 230.100 Defects in tender truck axles and journals. (a... wheel seats that is more than 1/8 of an inch in depth. (b) Tender truck journal condemning...

  3. The energy consumption and cost savings of truck electrification for heavy duty vocational applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gao, Zhiming [ORNL; Lin, Zhenhong [ORNL; Franzese, Oscar [ORNL

    2017-01-01

    This paper evaluates the application of battery electric vehicles (BEVs) and genset plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs) to Class-7 local delivery trucks and genset PHEV for Class-8 utility bucket trucks over widely real-world driving data performed by conventional heavy-duty trucks. A simulation tool based on vehicle tractive energy methodology and component efficiency for addressing component and system performance was developed to evaluate the energy consumption and performance of the trucks. As part of this analysis, various battery sizes combined with different charging powers on the E-Trucks for local delivery and utility bucket applications were investigated. The results show that the E-Truck applications not only reduce energy consumption but also achieve significant energy cost savings. For delivery E-Trucks, the results show that periodic stops at delivery sites provide sufficient time for battery charging, and for this reason, a high-power charger is not necessary. For utility bucket PHEV trucks, energy consumption per mile of bucket truck operation is typically higher because of longer idling times and extra high idling load associated with heavy utility work. The availability of on-route charging is typically lacking at the work sites of bucket trucks; hence, the battery size of these trucks is somewhat larger than that of the delivery trucks studied.

  4. 49 CFR 238.219 - Truck-to-car-body attachment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Truck-to-car-body attachment. 238.219 Section 238... I Passenger Equipment § 238.219 Truck-to-car-body attachment. Passenger equipment shall have a truck-to-car-body attachment with an ultimate strength sufficient to resist without failure the...

  5. Characterization of the chemical composition of PM2.5 emitted from on-road China III and China IV diesel trucks in Beijing, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Bobo; Shen, Xianbao; Cao, Xinyue; Yao, Zhiliang; Wu, Yunong

    2016-05-01

    The composition of diesel exhaust fine particulate matter (PM2.5) is of growing interest because of its impacts on health and climatic factors and its application in source apportionment and aerosol modeling. We characterized the detailed chemical composition of the PM2.5, including the organic carbon (OC), elemental carbon (EC), water-soluble ions (WSIs), and elemental contents, emitted from China III and China IV diesel trucks (nine each) based on real-world measurements in Beijing using a portable emissions measurement system (PEMS). Carbonaceous compounds were the dominant components (totaling approximately 87%) of the PM2.5, similar to the results (greater than 80% of the PM2.5) of our previous study of on-road China III diesel trucks. In general, the amounts of individual component groups (carbonaceous compounds, WSIs, and elements) and PM2.5 emissions for China IV diesel trucks were lower than those of China III diesel trucks of the same size, except for the WSIs and elements for the light- and medium-duty diesel trucks. The EC/OC mass ratios were strongly dependent on the emission standards, and the ratios of China IV diesel trucks were higher than those of China III diesel trucks of the same size. The chemical species in the PM2.5 were significantly affected by the driving conditions. Overall, the emission factors (EFs) of the PM2.5 and OC under non-highway (NHW) driving conditions were higher than those under highway (HW) driving conditions, and the EC/OC mass ratios presented an increasing trend, with decreasing OC/PM2.5 and increasing EC/PM2.5 from NHW to HW driving conditions; similar trends were reported in our previous study. In addition, Pearson's correlation coefficients among the PM2.5 species were analyzed to determine the relationships among the various chemical components.

  6. Regional forecasting with global atmospheric models; Third year report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crowley, T.J.; North, G.R.; Smith, N.R. [Applied Research Corp., College Station, TX (United States)

    1994-05-01

    This report was prepared by the Applied Research Corporation (ARC), College Station, Texas, under subcontract to Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) as part of a global climate studies task. The task supports site characterization work required for the selection of a potential high-level nuclear waste repository and is part of the Performance Assessment Scientific Support (PASS) Program at PNL. The work is under the overall direction of the Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (OCRWM), US Department of Energy Headquarters, Washington, DC. The scope of the report is to present the results of the third year`s work on the atmospheric modeling part of the global climate studies task. The development testing of computer models and initial results are discussed. The appendices contain several studies that provide supporting information and guidance to the modeling work and further details on computer model development. Complete documentation of the models, including user information, will be prepared under separate reports and manuals.

  7. Research on harmonic vibration of boom system of concrete pump truck based on model of rigid-flexible coupling body%基于刚柔混合模型泵车臂架谐响应振动的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李典灿

    2013-01-01

    To study boom system harmonic vibration of the concrete pump truck caused by the periodical load and frictional force in the delivery pipe, a virtual prototype model of rigid-flexible coupling body of actual pump truck boom system was created to simulate harmonic vibration analysis. First, the file of modal neutral file is created in the software Ansys; then, the file is imported into the software ADAMS. The simulation result shows that one order modal frequency of boom system is 0.71 Hz. In X direction and Y direction, displacement amplitude of frequency response is the maximal. Two order modal frequency of boom system is 0. 89 Hz, and vibration displacement and acceleration in Z direction of two order modal frequency is maximal.%主要研究了混凝土泵车输送管在周期性载荷作用下造成泵车臂架系统的谐响应振动问题.采用刚-柔耦合模型理论对某型号的泵车臂架系统创建虚拟样机模型,首先在Ansys中生成模态中性文件,然后将该文件导入ADAMS软件生成刚-柔耦合虚拟模型并进行谐响应动力学仿真分析.仿真分析结果表明臂架系统的1阶模态振动频率为0.71Hz,在X和Y方向上,1阶模态的位移频率响应幅值最大;臂架系统的2阶模态振动频率为0.89 Hz.臂架系统的2阶模态Z方向的振动位移和加速度同时达到最大.

  8. The estimation of yearly probability gain for seismic statistical model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    Based on the calculation method of information gain in the stochastic process presented by Vere-Jones, the relation between information gain and probability gain is studied, which is very common in earthquake prediction, and the yearly probability gain for seismic statistical model is proposed. The method is applied to the non-stationary Poisson model with whole-process exponential increase and stress release model. In addition, the prediction method of stress release model is obtained based on the inverse function simulation method of stochastic variable.

  9. Luttinger model the first 50 years and some new directions

    CERN Document Server

    Mattis, Daniel C

    2014-01-01

    The Luttinger Model is the only model of many-fermion physics with legitimate claims to be both exactly and completely solvable. In several respects it plays the same role in many-body theory as does the 2D Ising model in statistical physics. Interest in the Luttinger model has increased steadily ever since its introduction half a century ago. The present volume starts with reprints of the seminal papers in which it was originally introduced and solved, and continues with several contributions setting out the landscape of the principal advances of the last fifty years and of prominent new dire

  10. 78 FR 20373 - Pilot Program on NAFTA Trucking Provisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-04

    ..., FMCSA announced in the Federal Register [76 FR 40420] its intent to proceed with the initiation of a... commercial zones as detailed in the Agency's April 13, 2011, Federal Register proposal [76 FR 20807]. The... Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration Pilot Program on NAFTA Trucking Provisions AGENCY:...

  11. 77 FR 12356 - Pilot Program on NAFTA Trucking Provisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-29

    ... the Federal Register on January 17, 2008 (73 FR 3316), or you may visit http://edocket.access.gpo.gov... municipalities (border commercial zones). On July 8, 2011, FMCSA announced in the Federal Register [76 FR 40420... Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration Pilot Program on NAFTA Trucking Provisions AGENCY:...

  12. 77 FR 40938 - Pilot Program on NAFTA Trucking Provisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-11

    ... Management System published in the Federal Register on January 17, 2008 (73 FR 3316), or you may visit http... announced in the Federal Register [76 FR 40420] its intent to proceed with the initiation of a U.S.-Mexico... Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration Pilot Program on NAFTA Trucking Provisions AGENCY:...

  13. 78 FR 24293 - Pilot Program on NAFTA Trucking Provisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-24

    ... Management System published in the Federal Register on January 17, 2008 (73 FR 3316), or you may visit http... announced in the Federal Register [76 FR 40420] its intent to proceed with the initiation of a U.S.-Mexico... Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration Pilot Program on NAFTA Trucking Provisions AGENCY:...

  14. 76 FR 56868 - Pilot Project on NAFTA Trucking Provisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-14

    ... 17, 2008 (73 FR 3316), or you may visit http://edocket.access.gpo.gov/2008/pdf/E8-785.pdf . Public... commercial zones). On July 8, 2011, FMCSA announced in the Federal Register [76 FR 40420] its intent to... Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration Pilot Project on NAFTA Trucking Provisions AGENCY:...

  15. 76 FR 56272 - Pilot Project on NAFTA Trucking Provisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-12

    ... 17, 2008 (73 FR 3316), or you may visit http://edocket.access.gpo.gov/2008/pdf/E8-785.pdf . Public... commercial zones). On July 8, 2011, FMCSA announced in the Federal Register [76 FR 40420] its intent to... Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration Pilot Project on NAFTA Trucking Provisions AGENCY:...

  16. 77 FR 47693 - Pilot Program on NAFTA Trucking Provisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-09

    ... January 17, 2008 (73 FR 3316), or you may visit http://edocket.access.gpo.gov/2008/pdf/E8-785.pdf . Public... commercial zones). On July 8, 2011, FMCSA announced in the Federal Register [76 FR 40420] its intent to... Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration Pilot Program on NAFTA Trucking Provisions AGENCY:...

  17. 78 FR 11728 - Pilot Project on NAFTA Trucking Provisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-19

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration Pilot Project on NAFTA Trucking Provisions AGENCY: Federal... program is a part of FMCSA's implementation of the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) cross...

  18. 77 FR 27837 - Pilot Program on NAFTA Trucking Provisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-11

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration Pilot Program on NAFTA Trucking Provisions AGENCY: Federal... part of FMCSA's implementation of the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) cross-border long...

  19. 77 FR 56255 - Pilot Program on NAFTA Trucking Provisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-12

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration Pilot Program on NAFTA Trucking Provisions AGENCY: Federal... program is a part of FMCSA's implementation of the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) cross...

  20. 78 FR 38431 - Pilot Program on NAFTA Trucking Provisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-26

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration Pilot Program on NAFTA Trucking Provisions AGENCY: Federal... part of FMCSA's implementation of the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) cross-border long...

  1. 76 FR 73765 - Pilot Project on NAFTA Trucking Provisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-29

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration Pilot Project on NAFTA Trucking Provisions AGENCY: Federal... program is a part of FMCSA's implementation of the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) cross...

  2. 29 CFR 1910.180 - Crawler locomotive and truck cranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ..., mounted on a base or car equipped for travel on railroad track. It may be self-propelled or propelled by... angle indicator (boom) is an accessory which measures the angle of the boom to the horizontal. (9) The... as a car, truck, crawlers, or wheel platform. (13) The boom (crane) is a member hinged to the front...

  3. SVOC emissions from diesel trucks operating on biodiesel fuels

    Science.gov (United States)

    This study measured semivolatile organic compounds (SVOCs) in particle matter (PM) emitted from three heavy-duty trucks equipped with modern after-treatment technologies. Emissions testing was conducted as described by the George et al. VOC study also presented as part of this se...

  4. EPA, Seattle truck repair firm settle water pollution case

    Science.gov (United States)

    (SEATTLE - May 13, 2015) Western Peterbilt, LLC, a Seattle truck sales and repair shop, has reached a settlement with the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency stemming from violations of the federal Clean Water Act. As part of the settlement, the company h

  5. NREL Highlight: Truck Platooning Testing; NREL (National Renewable Energy Laboratory)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2015-05-21

    NREL's fleet test and evaluation team assesses the fuel savings potential of semi-automated truck platooning of line-haul sleeper cabs with modern aerodynamics. Platooning reduces aerodynamic drag by grouping vehicles together and safely decreasing the distance between them via electronic coupling, which allows multiple vehicles to accelerate or brake simultaneously. In 2014, the team conducted track testing of three SmartWay tractor - two platooned tractors and one control tractor—at varying steady-state speeds, following distances, and gross vehicle weights. While platooning improved fuel economy at all speeds, travel at 55 mph resulted in the best overall miles per gallon. The lead truck demonstrated fuel savings up to 5.3% while the trailing truck saved up to 9.7%. A number of conditions impact the savings attainable, including ambient temperature, distance between lead and trailing truck, and payload weight. Future studies may look at ways to optimize system fuel efficiency and emissions reductions.

  6. Testing Refrigeration Trucks for the Emergency Evacuation of Companion Animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langman, Vaughan A; Ellifrit, Nancy; Sime, Debra; Rowe, Mike; Hogue, Allan

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to quantify the changes in oxygen (O2) and carbon dioxide (CO2) in sealed refrigerator trucks scheduled to be used for transporting companion animals (dogs and cats) during an emergency evacuation. A total of 122 nonhuman animals (total weight = 1,248 kg) housed in individual crates were loaded into a 16-m refrigeration truck. Once they were loaded, the doors were closed and the percentages of O2 and CO2 were measured every 5 min by O2 and CO2 analyzers, and they were used to quantify the changes in gas pressure in the sealed truck. CO2 had a much higher-than-predicted increase, and O2 had a higher-than-predicted decrease. These 2 pressures in combination with the functionality of the respiratory system will limit the animal's ability to load O2, and over time, they will initiate asphyxia or suffocation. Over time, the partial pressure of oxygen (PO2) in the sealed truck will decrease, causing hypoxia, and the partial pressure of carbon dioxide (PCO2) will increase, causing hypercapnia.

  7. A Cognitive Analysis of Truck Drivers’ Right-hand Turns

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sieker, Tobias Grønborg; G. Skulason, Thorgeir; Sletting, Kristian;

    2015-01-01

    driving instructor is interviewed, and four truck drivers are observed and interviewed. This results in a cognitive work analysis with the phases work domain analysis, control task analysis and strategies analysis. Through this study it is indicated that many different types of information are sought...... to change blindness and confirmation bias....

  8. Stress analysis of portable safety platform (Core Sampler Truck)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ziada, H.H.

    1995-03-30

    This document provides the stress analysis and evaluation of the portable platform of the rotary mode core sampler truck No. 2 (RMCST {number_sign}2). The platform comprises railing, posts, deck, legs, and a portable ladder; it is restrained from lateral motion by means of two brackets added to the drill-head service platform.

  9. A new assessment method for car to truck compatibility

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koike, A.; Coo, P.J.A. de

    2012-01-01

    Frontal collisions between cars and trucks lead to high fatality rate of the car driver. Therefore the Japanese road administration announced a directive like ECE-R 93 (2000/40/EC), compulsory since September 1st, 2011. As known, this directive describes a ‘rigid’ Front Underrun Proctection (FUP)

  10. Podnikatelský plán Boy´s Burger Food Truck

    OpenAIRE

    Kábelová, Zuzana

    2015-01-01

    The main goal of this Master thesis is to verify the viability of the food truck with fast food. This type of business is well-known in the United States of America. The purpose is to find out whether the firm will be profitable and sufficiently attractive to customers in chosen market. This Master thesis is divided into theoretical and practical part. The theoretical part describes the business models and current tips for business plan and starting the business. Next there is made a list of ...

  11. Aerodynamic Drag Reduction for a Generic Truck Using Geometrically Optimized Rear Cabin Bumps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdellah Ait Moussa

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The continuous surge in gas prices has raised major concerns about vehicle fuel efficiency, and drag reduction devices offer a promising strategy. In this paper, we investigate the mechanisms by which geometrically optimized bumps, placed on the rear end of the cabin roof of a generic truck, reduce aerodynamic drag. The incorporation of these devices requires proper choices of the size, location, and overall geometry. In the following analysis we identify these factors using a novel methodology. The numerical technique combines automatic modeling of the add-ons, computational fluid dynamics and optimization using orthogonal arrays, and probabilistic restarts. Numerical results showed reduction in aerodynamic drag between 6% and 10%.

  12. Experiment and Simulation of Medium-Duty Tactical Truck for Fuel Economy Improvement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allen M. Quail

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Fuel economy improvement on medium-duty tactical truck has and continues to be a significant initiative for the U.S. Army. The focus of this study is the investigation of Automated Manual Transmissions (AMT and mild hybridization powertrain that have potential to improve the fuel economy of the 2.5-ton cargo trucks. The current platform uses a seven-speed automatic transmission. This study utilized a combination of on-road experimental vehicle data and analytical vehicle modeling and simulation. This paper presents the results of (1 establishment of a validated, high fidelity baseline analytical vehicle model, (2 modeling and simulation of two AMTs and their control strategy, (3 optimization of transmissions shift schedules, and (4 modeling and simulation of engine idle stop/start and Belt-Integrated-Starter-Generator (B-ISG systems to improve the fuel economy. The fuel economy discrepancy between experimental average and the baseline simulation result was 2.87%. The simulation results indicated a 14.5% and 12.2% fuel economy improvement for the 10-speed and 12-speed AMT respectively. A stop/start system followed by a B-ISG mild hybrid system incorporating regenerative braking was estimated to improve fuel economy 3.39% and 10.2% respectively.

  13. Managing truck arrivals with time windows to alleviate gate congestion at container terminals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, G.; Govindan, Kannan; Yang, Z.

    2013-01-01

    Long truck queues at gates often limit the efficiency of a container terminal and generate serious air pollution. To reduce the gate congestion, this paper proposes a method called'vessel dependent time windows (VDTWs)' to control truck arrivals, which involves partitioning truck entries into gro......Long truck queues at gates often limit the efficiency of a container terminal and generate serious air pollution. To reduce the gate congestion, this paper proposes a method called'vessel dependent time windows (VDTWs)' to control truck arrivals, which involves partitioning truck entries...... in the system. A conventional Genetic Algorithm (GA), a multi-society GA, and a hybrid algorithm using GA and Simulated Annealing are used to solve the optimization problem. A case study based on a real container terminal in China is performed, which shows the VDTWs method can flatten the truck arrivals...

  14. Constraining hybrid inflation models with WMAP three-year results

    CERN Document Server

    Cardoso, A

    2006-01-01

    We reconsider the original model of quadratic hybrid inflation in light of the WMAP three-year results and study the possibility of obtaining a spectral index of primordial density perturbations, $n_s$, smaller than one from this model. The original hybrid inflation model naturally predicts $n_s\\geq1$ in the false vacuum dominated regime but it is also possible to have $n_s<1$ when the quadratic term dominates. We therefore investigate whether there is also an intermediate regime compatible with the latest constraints, where the scalar field value during the last 50 e-folds of inflation is less than the Planck scale.

  15. Challenges in validating model results for first year ice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melsom, Arne; Eastwood, Steinar; Xie, Jiping; Aaboe, Signe; Bertino, Laurent

    2017-04-01

    In order to assess the quality of model results for the distribution of first year ice, a comparison with a product based on observations from satellite-borne instruments has been performed. Such a comparison is not straightforward due to the contrasting algorithms that are used in the model product and the remote sensing product. The implementation of the validation is discussed in light of the differences between this set of products, and validation results are presented. The model product is the daily updated 10-day forecast from the Arctic Monitoring and Forecasting Centre in CMEMS. The forecasts are produced with the assimilative ocean prediction system TOPAZ. Presently, observations of sea ice concentration and sea ice drift are introduced in the assimilation step, but data for sea ice thickness and ice age (or roughness) are not included. The model computes the age of the ice by recording and updating the time passed after ice formation as sea ice grows and deteriorates as it is advected inside the model domain. Ice that is younger than 365 days is classified as first year ice. The fraction of first-year ice is recorded as a tracer in each grid cell. The Ocean and Sea Ice Thematic Assembly Centre in CMEMS redistributes a daily product from the EUMETSAT OSI SAF of gridded sea ice conditions which include "ice type", a representation of the separation of regions between those infested by first year ice, and those infested by multi-year ice. The ice type is parameterized based on data for the gradient ratio GR(19,37) from SSMIS observations, and from the ASCAT backscatter parameter. This product also includes information on ambiguity in the processing of the remote sensing data, and the product's confidence level, which have a strong seasonal dependency.

  16. Review of the UPFC Different Models in Recent Years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmoud Zadehbagheri

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Unified Power Flow Controller (UPFC is one of the most intriguing and, potentially, the most versatile classes of Flexible AC Transmission Systems (FACTS devices. The UPFC is a device which can control simultaneously tree parameters line impedance, voltage, phase angle and dynamic compensation of AC power system. In order to analyse its true effects on power systems, it is important to model its constraints, due to various ratings and operating limits. This paper reviews on the different models of UPFC used in recent years and gives sets of information for each model of the UPFC in AC transmission. Then the different models are compared and features of each model are examined.

  17. Plug-In Hybrid Urban Delivery Truck Technology Demonstration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miyasato, Matt [South Coast Air Quality Management District Building Corporation, Diamond Bar, CA (United States); Impllitti, Joseph [South Coast Air Quality Management District Building Corporation, Diamond Bar, CA (United States); Pascal, Amar [South Coast Air Quality Management District Building Corporation, Diamond Bar, CA (United States)

    2015-07-31

    The I-710 and CA-60 highways are key transportation corridors in the Southern California region that are heavily used on a daily basis by heavy duty drayage trucks that transport the cargo from the ports to the inland transportation terminals. These terminals, which include store/warehouses, inland-railways, are anywhere from 5 to 50 miles in distance from the ports. The concentrated operation of these drayage vehicles in these corridors has had and will continue to have a significant impact on the air quality in this region whereby significantly impacting the quality of life in the communities surrounding these corridors. To reduce these negative impacts it is critical that zero and near-zero emission technologies be developed and deployed in the region. A potential local market size of up to 46,000 trucks exists in the South Coast Air Basin, based on near- dock drayage trucks and trucks operating on the I-710 freeway. The South Coast Air Quality Management District (SCAQMD), California Air Resources Board (CARB) and Southern California Association of Governments (SCAG) — the agencies responsible for preparing the State Implementation Plan required under the federal Clean Air Act — have stated that to attain federal air quality standards the region will need to transition to broad use of zero and near zero emission energy sources in cars, trucks and other equipment (Southern California Association of Governments et al, 2011). SCAQMD partnered with Volvo Trucks to develop, build and demonstrate a prototype Class 8 heavy-duty plug-in hybrid drayage truck with significantly reduced emissions and fuel use. Volvo’s approach leveraged the group’s global knowledge and experience in designing and deploying electromobility products. The proprietary hybrid driveline selected for this proof of concept was integrated with multiple enhancements to the complete vehicle in order to maximize the emission and energy impact of electrification. A detailed review of all

  18. 冷板冷藏汽车箱体内温度场的数值模拟及试验%Numerical simulation and experiment of temperature field distribution in box of cold plate refrigerated truck

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张哲; 郭永刚; 田津津; 李曼

    2013-01-01

    Refrigerated transportation is an important for the cold chain of subsidiary agricultural products. As resource shortage becoming more serious and environmental disciplines more strict, an environmentally protecting and energy-saving cold plate refrigerated truck, which is also multi-functional in heat preservation and refrigeration, is urgently needed by refrigerated transportation. Cold plate refrigerated truck is rapidly expanding in recent years. Due to the outside thermal environment, the temperature of cargo area has a steady increase and uneven distribution, which has a negative influence on the quality of refrigerated cargoes. Therefore, ensuring a uniform temperature field distribution of cargo area is the critical issue to improve the quality of transported cargoes. The temperature distribution of cold plate refrigerated truck is one of the key factors affecting its storage and transportation quality. A uniform temperature field can keep goods fresh during transportation. Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) is more and more widely used in refrigeration at present, and many studies have demonstrated the effectiveness of CFD in simulation analysis for the heat transfer field. Buoyancy lift is the volume force caused by non-uniform faces in each part of the fluid’s density. The heat exchange of cold plate can be deemed as the natural heat exchange in a vast space that owns an internal heat source. In this paper, the interior temperature field of an empty container was calculated by means of numerical modeling and the effect of two stacking ways on temperature field and flow field in cargo area was also analyzed. k-εmodel and simple algorithm combined with Boussinesq assumption was used to simulate the three-dimension temperature distribution in cold plat refrigerated truck. In order to know the effect of different stack methods on temperature field and flow field in cargo area, stack methods were divided into two ways including close stacking and

  19. Predictive 5-Year Survivorship Model of Cystic Fibrosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liou, Theodore G.; Adler, Frederick R.; FitzSimmons, Stacey C.; Cahill, Barbara C.; Hibbs, Jonathan R.; Marshall, Bruce C.

    2007-01-01

    The objective of this study was to create a 5-year survivorship model to identify key clinical features of cystic fibrosis. Such a model could help researchers and clinicians to evaluate therapies, improve the design of prospective studies, monitor practice patterns, counsel individual patients, and determine the best candidates for lung transplantation. The authors used information from the Cystic Fibrosis Foundation Patient Registry (CFFPR), which has collected longitudinal data on approximately 90% of cystic fibrosis patients diagnosed in the United States since 1986. They developed multivariate logistic regression models by using data on 5,820 patients randomly selected from 11,630 in the CFFPR in 1993. Models were tested for goodness of fit and were validated for the remaining 5,810 patients for 1993. The validated 5-year survivorship model included age, forced expiratory volume in 1 second as a percentage of predicted normal, gender, weight-for-age z score, pancreatic sufficiency, diabetes mellitus, Staphylococcus aureus infection, Burkerholderia cepacia infection, and annual number of acute pulmonary exacerbations. The model provides insights into the complex nature of cystic fibrosis and supplies a rigorous tool for clinical practice and research. PMID:11207152

  20. HIV infection, genital symptoms and sexual risk behavior among Indian truck drivers from a large transportation company in South India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annie Dude

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Sentinel surveillance conducted in the high Human Immuno-deficiency Virus (HIV prevalent state of Andhra Pradesh includes sub-populations thought to be at high-risk for HIV, but has not included truck drivers. Novel HIV prevention programs targeting this population increasingly adopt public - private partnership models. There have been no targeted studies of HIV prevalence and risk behavior among truck drivers belonging to the private sector in India. Methods: A sample of 189 truck drivers, aged between 15 and 56, were recruited from Gati Limited′s large trucking depot in Hyderabad, India. A quantitative survey instrument was conducted along with blood collection for HIV 1/2 testing. Multivariate regression models were utilized to determine predictors of HIV infection and risk behavior. Results: 2.1% of subjects were infected with HIV. Older age was protective against self-reported genital symptoms (OR = 0.77; P = 0.03, but these were more likely among those truck drivers with greater income (OR = 1.05; P = 0.02, and those who spent more time away from home (OR = 25.7; P = 0.001. Men with higher incomes also reported significantly more sex partners (OLS coefficient = 0.016 more partners / 100 rupees in monthly income, P = 0.04, as did men who spent a great deal of time away from home (OLS coefficient = 1.30, P = 0.002. Drivers were more likely to report condom use with regular partners if they had ever visited a female sex worker (OR = 6.26; P = 0.002, but married drivers exhibited decreased use of condoms with regular partners (OR = 0.14, P = 0.008. Men who had higher levels of knowledge regarding HIV and HIV preventative practices were also more likely to use condoms with regular partners (OR = 1.22, P = 0.03. Conclusion: Time away from home, urban residence, income, and marital status were the strongest correlates of genital symptoms for Sexually Transmitted Infections (STI and risk behaviors, although none were consistent

  1. SCR SYSTEMS FOR HEAVY DUTY TRUCKS: PROGRESS TOWARDS MEETING EURO 4 EMISSION STANDARDS IN 2005

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frank, W; Huethwohl, G; Maurer, B

    2003-08-24

    Emissions of diesel engines contain some components, which support the generation of smog and which are classified hazardous. Exhaust gas aftertreatment is a powerful tool to reduce the NOx and Particulate emissions. The NOx-emission can be reduced by the SCR technology. SCR stands for Selective Catalytic Reduction. A reduction agent has to be injected into the exhaust upstream of a catalyst. On the catalyst the NOx is reduced to N2 (Nitrogen) and H2O (Water). This catalytic process was developed in Japan about 30 years ago to reduce the NOx emission of coal-fired power plants. The first reduction agent used was anhydrous ammonia (NH3). SCR technology was used with diesel engines starting mid of the 80s. First applications were stationary operating generator-sets. In 1991 a joint development between DaimlerChrysler, MAN, IVECO and Siemens was started to use SCR technology for the reduction of heavy duty trucks. Several fleet tests demonstrated the durability of the systems. To day, SCR technology is the most promising technology to fulfill the new European Regulations EURO 4 and EURO 5 being effective Oct. 2005 and Oct. 2008. The efficient NOx reduction of the catalyst allows an engine calibration for low fuel consumption. DaimlerChrysler decided to use the SCR technology on every heavy duty truck and bus in Europe and many other truck manufacturers will introduce SCR technology to fulfill the 2005 emission regulation. The truck manufacturers in Europe agreed to use aqueous solution of Urea as reducing agent. The product is called AdBlue. AdBlue is a non toxic, non smelling liquid. The consumption is about 5% of the diesel fuel consumption to reduce the NOx emissions. A small AdBlue tank has to be installed to the vehicle. With an electronically controlled dosing system the AdBlue is injected into the exhaust. The dosing system is simple and durable. It has proven its durability during winter and summer testing as well as in fleet tests. The infrastructure for Ad

  2. Modeling diarrhea disease in children less than 5 years old.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kale, Pauline Lorena; Hinde, John Philip; Nobre, Flávio Fonseca

    2004-07-01

    Identification of the temporal pattern of diarrhea disease in children less than 5 years of age in Rio de Janeiro City (1995-1998) to provide support for decisions about prevention and control of the disease. The weekly counts of hospitalizations and deaths due to diarrhea disease were analyzed separately. An initial generalized linear model (GLM) was derived using variables related to weather and month. Displays of fitted generalized additive models (GAM) including a spline smoothed function of time suggested additional predictors that were used to obtain new models. The initial models did not properly account for the observed cyclical pattern of the data. Graphical displays of the GAM model show a nonhomogeneous decline and annual cycles. Stepwise fitting of GLMs with two factors (cycle and season), and a time trend, showed that the full three-way interaction model was required. Plots of the residuals from the death model suggested a mixture of distributions while the residuals from the hospitalization model were approximately normal. The same general pattern for both time series was found by graphical inspection and fitting of appropriate GLMs. This study provides some additional evidence that severe cases of diarrhea disease may be attributed to rotavirus.

  3. Computable general equilibrium model fiscal year 2013 capability development report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Edwards, Brian Keith [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Rivera, Michael Kelly [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Boero, Riccardo [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-05-17

    This report documents progress made on continued developments of the National Infrastructure Simulation and Analysis Center (NISAC) Computable General Equilibrium Model (NCGEM), developed in fiscal year 2012. In fiscal year 2013, NISAC the treatment of the labor market and tests performed with the model to examine the properties of the solutions computed by the model. To examine these, developers conducted a series of 20 simulations for 20 U.S. States. Each of these simulations compared an economic baseline simulation with an alternative simulation that assumed a 20-percent reduction in overall factor productivity in the manufacturing industries of each State. Differences in the simulation results between the baseline and alternative simulations capture the economic impact of the reduction in factor productivity. While not every State is affected in precisely the same way, the reduction in manufacturing industry productivity negatively affects the manufacturing industries in each State to an extent proportional to the reduction in overall factor productivity. Moreover, overall economic activity decreases when manufacturing sector productivity is reduced. Developers ran two additional simulations: (1) a version of the model for the State of Michigan, with manufacturing divided into two sub-industries (automobile and other vehicle manufacturing as one sub-industry and the rest of manufacturing as the other subindustry); and (2) a version of the model for the United States, divided into 30 industries. NISAC conducted these simulations to illustrate the flexibility of industry definitions in NCGEM and to examine the simulation properties of in more detail.

  4. Foothills Model Forest: a ten-year review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simpson, R.

    2002-04-01

    The first ten years of the Foothills Model Forest, established in 1992, is reviewed. The model forest has been established to develop sustainable forest management within the broader concept of sustainable development and integrated resource management. The project focuses on issues such as wildlife habits and habitats; biodiversity monitoring; natural disturbance trends and patterns; and socio-economic studies. In Phase One of the Canadian Model Forest Network the Foothills Model Forest focused primarily on conducting world class research to advance the concept of sustainable forest management. Phase Two was devoted to communicating the results of that research, with a strong emphasis on generating baseline awareness of the concept of sustainable forest management and creating public awareness of the project's mandate in Alberta. Work during the next five years is expected to focus on demonstration and implementation of research results to forest managers and practitioners and others with a stake in the continued sustainability of Alberta's forests. The Sustainable Forest Management project shares a common objective with the Alberta Chamber of Resources' Integrated Landscape Management project; both projects recognise that reducing the industrial footprint is key to sustainable development. The emphasis on demonstration and implementation in the third phase of the Foothills Model Forest is expected to ensure continued sustainability of forests, ecosystems, communities and resources, with full recognition of the fact that the goal of sustainable development can be achieved only by full cooperation and integrated action of all stakeholders.

  5. Workplace violence mitigation: the three-year model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harmon, Justin

    2016-01-01

    In presenting a three-year model for workplace violence mitigation in this article, the author sees it as providing a way to gauge the maturity of the program. This model, he says, functions similarly to a high performing security awareness program where certain themes need to be repeated on a routine basis just so situational awareness does not fall by the wayside. While the program outlined here is not a guaranteed formula for success, it is a framework to work within to ensure you have a roadmap upon which to build success.

  6. Fifteen Years of Research on Business Model Innovation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Foss, Nicolai Juul; Saebi, Tina

    2017-01-01

    Over the last 15 years, business model innovation (BMI) has gained an increasing amount of attention in management research and among practitioners. The emerging BMI literature addresses an important phenomenon but lacks theoretical underpinning, and empirical inquiry is not cumulative. Thus...... research and show how the complexity theory, innovation, and other streams of literature can help overcome many of the gaps in the BMI literature....

  7. Fuel Cell-Powered Lift Truck Fleet Deployment Projects Final Technical Report May 2014

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klingler, James J [GENCO Infrastructure Solutions, Inc.

    2014-05-06

    The overall objectives of this project were to evaluate the performance, operability and safety of fork lift trucks powered by fuel cells in large distribution centers. This was accomplished by replacing the batteries in over 350 lift trucks with fuel cells at five distribution centers operated by GENCO. The annual cost savings of lift trucks powered by fuel cell power units was between $2,400 and $5,300 per truck compared to battery powered lift trucks, excluding DOE contributions. The greatest savings were in fueling labor costs where a fuel cell powered lift truck could be fueled in a few minutes per day compared to over an hour for battery powered lift trucks which required removal and replacement of batteries. Lift truck operators where generally very satisfied with the performance of the fuel cell power units, primarily because there was no reduction in power over the duration of a shift as experienced with battery powered lift trucks. The operators also appreciated the fast and easy fueling compared to the effort and potential risk of injury associated with switching heavy batteries in and out of lift trucks. There were no safety issues with the fueling or operation of the fuel cells. Although maintenance costs for the fuel cells were higher than for batteries, these costs are expected to decrease significantly in the next generation of fuel cells, making them even more cost effective.

  8. Business plan of a food truck in Saint Petersburg

    OpenAIRE

    Zavyalova, Ekaterina

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of the thesis was to investigate how to write a proper business plan and then implement gained knowledge in creating a business plan of a food truck in Saint Petersburg. A business plan serves as a guide for an entrepreneur in the process of company establishment and enables to gain funding from potential investors. The primary objective was to study essential components of a business plan. The theoretical framework comprises of core issues on company establishment and desc...

  9. 21st Century Truck Partnership 2013 Fall Meeting Summary Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-14

    Steels (AHHSs), Long- Fiber Carbon Composites , etc.  Dissimilar Material Joining − Robust Bio- Fuels − Heavy-Duty Vehicles  SuperTruck II...National Automotive Center U.S. Army Tank Automotive Research, Development and Engineering Center (TARDEC) U.S. Army Research Development and...Program Executive Officer, Tank Automotive Command (TACOM), Combat Support & Combat Service Support (CS&CSS) for providing the Warfighter’s

  10. Short Sea Shipping: Barriers, Incentives and Feasibility of Truck Ferry

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-08-05

    99 11.2 Value of Time . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 100 11.3 Sensitivity Analysis...higher value of time , and as such should be able to bear substantially higher tolls (emphasis mine) [34]. Holguin, et al. analyzed truck-only-tolls as to...comparable. When the ferry in-delivery time is longer, the rate can be lowered from the competing mode’s rate by an amount equal to the shipper’s value of time . Conversely

  11. FATIGUE WELDING JOINT RESISTANCE OF MINING DUMP TRUCK BEARING CONSTRUCTIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Rakitsky

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper investigates a possibility to apply European norms on designing of welded constructions for frames of heavy-load mining dump trucks. Comparison of results concerning tests of welding joint specimen made of local steel with recommended standards of fatigue curves is executed in the paper. The paper reveals that while forecasting resource of automotive constructions with the accepted practical accuracy it is possible to use generalized fatigue resistance characteristics of standard welding joints. 

  12. Zero emissions trucks. An overview of state-of-the-art technologies and their potential

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Den Boer, E.; Aarnink, S. [CE Delft, Delft (Netherlands); Kleiner, F.; Pagenkopf, J. [German Aerospace Center DLR, Cologne (Germany)

    2013-07-15

    The study by CE Delft and the German Aerospace Center (DLR), commissioned by the International Council on Clean Transportation (ICCT), surveys the technology potential for zero-emission road freight transport in the EU. For short distance transport, battery electric technology is feasible, as distribution trucks have lower range requirements and recharging can occur at scheduled downtimes (e.g. overnight). For long haul applications, battery electric vehicles coupled with overhead wires (catenary) or in-road charging (dynamic) infrastructure are possible, as well as fuel cell drivelines. The cost differential between conventional and zero emission HDVs will diminish over the next 10-15 years, as fuel savings offset other costs. If zero-emission technologies are introduced on a large scale in the onroad freight transport sector beginning in 2020, the total end-user costs will not significantly increase. The total cost of ownership within this study do not consider required infrastructure investments. All zero emission technologies require major infrastructure investments, whether hydrogen refuelling stations, in-road inductive charging, or other systems. Broad policy support is needed to encourage the development and evaluation of various technology options. Over time, the policy focus must shift from stimulating innovation and technology adoption to regulation, if it is to spur a successful transformation of the truck market.

  13. Work-Related Musculoskeletal Disorders in Truck Drivers and Official Workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abolfazl Mozafari

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Work-related musculoskeletal disorders (WMSDs are common among drivers and official workers. Musculoskeletal disorders are frequent causes of absenteeism in many countries. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of musculoskeletal disorders and risk factors associated with these symptoms. A total of 346 workers and truck drivers were participated in this case-control study. All the participants were interviewed using a self- administered questionnaire containing demographic data and a Nordic questionnaire about presence site and characteristics of pain. Then the data were gathered, and the prevalence of the mentioned parameters and the relationship between variables in the questionnaire were analyzed statistically. The results of this study revealed that 78.6% out of truck drivers and 55.5% out of official workers had musculoskeletal disorders in on-year and there was a significant difference between two groups in this regard (PP<0.001. Within the limits of this study, it can be concluded that the musculoskeletal troubles have a high frequency among the drivers and official workers. Both groups usually remain on a prolonged uncomfortable postures and high static muscle load which may imply a risk for development of the troubles.

  14. Multi-scale traffic safety and operational performance study of large trucks on mountainous interstate highway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Suren; Chen, Feng; Wu, Jun

    2011-01-01

    In addition to multi-vehicle accidents, large trucks are also prone to single-vehicle accidents on the mountainous interstate highways due to the complex terrain and fast-changing weather. By integrating both historical data analysis and simulations, a multi-scale approach is developed to evaluate the traffic safety and operational performance of large trucks on mountainous interstate highways in both scales of individual vehicle as well as traffic on the whole highway. A typical mountainous highway in Colorado is studied for demonstration purposes. Firstly, the ten-year historical accident records are analyzed to identify the accident-vulnerable-locations (AVLs) and site-specific critical adverse driving conditions. Secondly, simulation-based single-vehicle assessment is performed for different driving conditions at those AVLs along the whole corridor. Finally, the cellular-automaton (CA)-based simulation is carried out to evaluate the multi-vehicle traffic safety as well as the operational performance of the traffic by considering the actual speed limits, including the differential speed limits (DSL) at some locations. It is found that the multi-scale approach can provide insightful and comprehensive observations of the highway performance, which is especially important for mountainous highways.

  15. State and Alternative Fuel Provider Fleets - Fleet Compliance Annual Report: Model Year 2015, Fiscal Year 2016

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2016-12-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) regulates covered state government and alternative fuel provider fleets, pursuant to the Energy Policy Act of 1992 (EPAct), as amended. Covered fleets may meet their EPAct requirements through one of two compliance methods: Standard Compliance or Alternative Compliance. For model year (MY) 2015, the compliance rate with this program for the more than 3011 reporting fleets was 100%. More than 294 fleets used Standard Compliance and exceeded their aggregate MY 2015 acquisition requirements by 8% through acquisitions alone. The seven covered fleets that used Alternative Compliance exceeded their aggregate MY 2015 petroleum use reduction requirements by 46%.

  16. Upgrades for truck transportation of SNM in the Russian Federation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gardner, B.H. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Kornilovich, E. [Construction Bureau for Motor Vehicle Transport Equipment, Mytischy (Russian Federation)

    1998-08-01

    The goal of this project is the rapid reduction of risk to truck transportation of SNM in Russia. Enhanced protection is being accomplished by cooperation between the US Department of Energy, MINATOM of Russia, the Russian Ministry of Defense, and various Russian Institutes. This program provides an integrated program of specialized trucks that are equipped with hardened overpack (SNM vault) containers, alarm and communications systems, and armored cabs. Armored escort vehicles are also provided to increase the survivability of the guards escorting convoys. Only indigenous Russian equipment, modified and/or manufactured by Designing Bureau for Motor Vehicle Transport Equipment (KBATO), is provided under this program. The US will not provide assistance in the truck transportation arena without a commitment from the Russian facility to provide heavily armed escorts for SNM movement. Each site conducts a detailed transportation needs assessment study that is used as the basis for prioritizing assistance. The Siberian Chemical Combine (Tomsk-7) was the initial site of cooperation. The designs used at Tomsk-7 are serving as the baseline for all future vehicles modified under this program. In FY98, many vehicles systems have been ordered for various institutes. Many additional systems will be ordered in FY99.

  17. Assessment of the risk of transporting gasoline by truck

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1978-11-01

    Based on shipping assumptions and the current accident rate of 2.5 x 10/sup -6/ per mile, it is estimated that gasoline tank trucks will be involved in 1,781 accidents in 1980, and that 110 of the accidents (about one in 15) will result in a release of 3,000 gallons of gasoline or more from the tank truck. About one in four of the releases are expected to result in a large fire. The estimated number of fatalities from the gasoline releases in 1980 is 29, with 12 of these fatalities being drivers of gasoline tank trucks, and the other 17 being occupants of other vehicles involved in the accident. Fatalities of other members of the public were found to occur infrequently. An additional 26 persons are expected to be fatally injured from the accident forces, regardless of the hazardous nature of the cargo. These total fatality figures (55) were compared to the prediction of 43 deaths of the Bureau of Motor Carrier Safety.

  18. Computer monitors and controls all truck-shovel operations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chironis, N.P.

    1985-03-01

    The intense competition in the coal industry and the advances in computer technology have led several large mines to consider computer dispatching systems as a means of optimizing production. Quintette Coal, Ltd., of Vancouver, B.C., has engaged Modular Mining Systems, Inc., of Tucson, to install a comprehensive truck-dispatch system at a new, multiseam mine northeast of Vancouver. This open-pit operation will rely on truck-shovel teams to uncover both steam and metallurgical coal. The mine is already using about 12 shovels and 50 trucks to produce 3 million tpy. By 1986, production will hit 5 million tpy of metallurgical coal and 1.3 million tpy of steam coal. The coal is under contract to be shipped to Japan. Denison Mines Ltd., owns 50% of Quintette Coal. Of the other 14 shareholders, 10 are Japanese steel companies. Although about 10 non-coal mines worldwide are using some form of computer-controlled dispatching system, Quintette is the first coal company to do so and western US mines are reportedly studying the Quintette system carefully.

  19. Advanced Electric Systems and Aerodynamics for Efficiency Improvements in Heavy Duty Trucks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larry Slone; Jeffrey Birkel

    2007-10-31

    The Advanced Electric Systems and Aerodynamics for Efficiency Improvements in Heavy Duty Trucks program (DE-FC26-04NT42189), commonly referred to as the AES program, focused on areas that will primarily benefit fuel economy and improve heat rejection while driving over the road. The AES program objectives were to: (1) Analyze, design, build, and test a cooling system that provided a minimum of 10 percent greater heat rejection in the same frontal area with no increase in parasitic fan load. (2) Realize fuel savings with advanced power management and acceleration assist by utilizing an integrated starter/generator (ISG) and energy storage devices. (3) Quantify the effect of aerodynamic drag due to the frontal shape mandated by the area required for the cooling system. The program effort consisted of modeling and designing components for optimum fuel efficiency, completing fabrication of necessary components, integrating these components into the chassis test bed, completing controls programming, and performance testing the system both on a chassis dynamometer and on the road. Emission control measures for heavy-duty engines have resulted in increased engine heat loads, thus introducing added parasitic engine cooling loads. Truck electrification, in the form of thermal management, offers technological solutions to mitigate or even neutralize the effects of this trend. Thermal control offers opportunities to avoid increases in cooling system frontal area and forestall reduced fuel economy brought about by additional aerodynamic vehicle drag. This project explored such thermal concepts by installing a 2007 engine that is compliant with current regulations and bears additional heat rejection associated with meeting these regulations. This newer engine replaced the 2002 engine from a previous project that generated less heat rejection. Advanced power management, utilizing a continuously optimized and controlled power flow between electric components, can offer additional

  20. Continuous global geomagnetic field models for the past 3000 years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korte, Monika; Constable, Catherine

    2003-11-01

    Several global geomagnetic field models exist for recent decades, but due to limited data availability models for several centuries to millennia are rare. We present a continuous spherical harmonic model for almost 3 millennia from 1000 b.c. to 1800 a.d., based on a dataset of directional archaeo- and paleomagnetic data and axial dipole constraints. The model, named Continuous Archaeomagnetic and Lake Sediment Geomagnetic Model for the last 3k years (CALS3K.1), can be used to predict both the field and secular variation. Comparisons and tests with synthetic data lead to the conclusion that CALS3K.1 gives a good general, large-scale representation of the geomagnetic field, but lacks small-scale structure due to the limited resolution of the sparse dataset. In future applications the model can be used for comparisons with additional, new data for that time span. For better resolved regions, the agreement of data with CALS3K.1 will provide an idea about the general compatibility of the data with the field and secular variation in that region of the world. For poorly covered regions and time intervals we hope to iteratively improve the model by comparisons with and inclusion of new data. Animations and additional snapshot plots of model predictions as well as the model coefficients and a FORTRAN code to evaluate them for any time can be accessed under http://www.mahi.ucsd.edu/cathy/Holocene/holocene.html. The whole package is also stored in the Earthref digital archive at http://www.earthref.org/...

  1. Powertrain Controls Optimization for HD Hybrid Line Haul Trucks - FY2014 Annual Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, David E. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2014-12-01

    This is a vehicle system level project, encompassing analytical modeling and supervisory controls development as well as experimental verification/validation testing at the component, powertrain, and full vehicle system level. This project supports the goal of petroleum consumption reduction for medium and heavy trucks through the development of advanced hybrid technologies and control systems. VSST has invested previously in R&D to support hybrid energy storage systems (Li-ion plus ultra-caps) for light duty, passenger car applications. This research will be extended to the MD and HD sector where current battery technology is not mature enough to handle the substantial regenerative braking power levels these trucks are capable of producing. With this hybrid energy storage system, substantial gains in overall vehicle efficiency are possible. In addition, advanced combustion technologies, such as RCCI, will be implemented into an advanced hybrid powertrain for a Class 8 line haul application. This powertrain, leveraged from other VSST work (Meritor, a current ORNL/VSST partner), is ideal for taking advantage of the benefits of RCCI operation due to its series hybrid mode of operation. Emissions control is also a focus of this project, especially due to the fact that RCCI creates a low temperature exhaust stream that must addressed.

  2. Noise induced hearing loss risk assessment in truck drivers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Karimi

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Hearing sense is one of the key elements which may have impact on the driver′s task quality. This cross-sectional study investigates the hearing status of 500 truck drivers by pure tone audiometry (AC in one of the cities in Fars province, Iran. Hearing threshold levels of the subjects were measured in frequencies of 500Hz-8000Hz. Screening and determination of permanent threshold shift (PTS was the first aim of this study. Hence tests were done at least 16 hours after any exposure to noticeable sound. The effect of age as a confounding factor was considered using ISO equation and subtracted from whole hearing threshold. The threshold of 25 dB HL and above was considered abnormal but the calculation of hearing was also carried out using 0 dB HL as reference. Subjects were categorized into two groups on the basis of working experience and the hearing threshold of 25 dB was considered a boundary of normal hearing sense. The results of Pearson Chi-Square test showed that working experience as an independent variable has significant contributing effect on hearing thresholds of truck drivers in frequencies of 500, 1000, 2000 and 4000 Hz (p greater than 0.05. Also, it was shown that currently nine and 12.6 % of truck drivers suffer from impaired hearing sense in left and right respectively (hearing threshold level greater than 25 dB in mid frequencies (500, 1000, 2000 Hz and 45% in high frequencies of both ears (4000 and 8000 Hz. The results indicated that hearing damage of professional drivers was expected to occur sooner at 4000 and 8000 Hz than lower frequencies. Finally it was deduced that the occupational conditions of truck drivers may have bilateral, symmetrical harmful effect on hearing threshold sense in all frequencies mainly in frequency of 4000 Hz, so health surveillance programs such as education and periodic medical examinations are emphasized for pre-diagnosing and prevention of any possible impairment and an urgent need to take up

  3. Noise induced hearing loss risk assessment in truck drivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karimi, Ali; Nasiri, Saleh; Kazerooni, Farshid Khodaparast; Oliaei, Mohammad

    2010-01-01

    Hearing sense is one of the key elements which may have impact on the driver's task quality. This cross-sectional study investigates the hearing status of 500 truck drivers by pure tone audiometry (AC) in one of the cities in Fars province, Iran. Hearing threshold levels of the subjects were measured in frequencies of 500Hz-8000Hz. Screening and determination of permanent threshold shift (PTS) was the first aim of this study. Hence tests were done at least 16 hours after any exposure to noticeable sound. The effect of age as a confounding factor was considered using ISO equation and subtracted from whole hearing threshold. The threshold of 25 dB HL and above was considered abnormal but the calculation of hearing was also carried out using 0 dB HL as reference. Subjects were categorized into two groups on the basis of working experience and the hearing threshold of 25 dB was considered a boundary of normal hearing sense. The results of Pearson Chi-Square test showed that working experience as an independent variable has significant contributing effect on hearing thresholds of truck drivers in frequencies of 500, 1000, 2000 and 4000 Hz (p greater than 0.05). Also, it was shown that currently nine and 12.6 % of truck drivers suffer from impaired hearing sense in left and right respectively (hearing threshold level greater than 25 dB) in mid frequencies (500, 1000, 2000 Hz) and 45% in high frequencies of both ears (4000 and 8000 Hz). The results indicated that hearing damage of professional drivers was expected to occur sooner at 4000 and 8000 Hz than lower frequencies. Finally it was deduced that the occupational conditions of truck drivers may have bilateral, symmetrical harmful effect on hearing threshold sense in all frequencies mainly in frequency of 4000 Hz, so health surveillance programs such as education and periodic medical examinations are emphasized for pre-diagnosing and prevention of any possible impairment and an urgent need to take up some interventions

  4. Challenges for the CMS Computing Model in the First Year

    CERN Document Server

    Fisk, Ian

    2009-01-01

    CMS is in the process of commissioning a complex detector and a globally distributed computing infrastructure simultaneously. This represents a unique challenge. Even at the beginning there is not sufficient analysis or organized processing resources at CERN alone. In this presentation we discuss the unique computing challenges CMS expects to face during the first year of running and how they influence the baseline computing model decisions. During the early accelerator commissioning periods, CMS will attempt to collect as many events as possible when the beam is on in order to provide adequate early commissioning data. Some of these plans involve overdriving the Tier-0 infrastructure during data collection with recovery when the beam is off. In addition to the larger number of triggered events, there will be pressure in the first year to collect and analyze more complete data formats as the summarized formats mature. The large event formats impact the required storage, bandwidth, and processing capacity acro...

  5. Synthesising 30 years of mathematical modelling of Echinococcus transmission.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jo-An M Atkinson

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Echinococcosis is a complex zoonosis that has domestic and sylvatic lifecycles, and a range of different intermediate and definitive host species. The complexities of its transmission and the sparse evidence on the effectiveness of control strategies in diverse settings provide significant challenges for the design of effective public health policy against this disease. Mathematical modelling is a useful tool for simulating control packages under locally specific transmission conditions to inform optimal timing and frequency of phased interventions for cost-effective control of echinococcosis. The aims of this review of 30 years of Echinococcus modelling were to discern the epidemiological mechanisms underpinning models of Echinococcus granulosus and E. multilocularis transmission and to establish the need to include a human transmission component in such models. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: A search was conducted of all relevant articles published up until July 2012, identified from the PubMED, Web of Knowledge and Medline databases and review of bibliographies of selected papers. Papers eligible for inclusion were those describing the design of a new model, or modification of an existing mathematical model of E. granulosus or E. multilocularis transmission. A total of 13 eligible papers were identified, five of which described mathematical models of E. granulosus and eight that described E. multilocularis transmission. These models varied primarily on the basis of six key mechanisms that all have the capacity to modulate model dynamics, qualitatively affecting projections. These are: 1 the inclusion of a 'latent' class and/or time delay from host exposure to infectiousness; 2 an age structure for animal hosts; 3 the presence of density-dependent constraints; 4 accounting for seasonality; 5 stochastic parameters; and 6 inclusion of spatial and risk structures. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: This review discusses the conditions under

  6. Condition Based Maintenance for Light Trucks

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-10

    Congress on Computational Intelligence, FUZZ-IEEE’2002, pp. 1027-1032, Hilton Hawaiian Village Hotel , Honolulu, Hawaii, May 12-17, 2002, ISBN: 0- 7803-7281-6 ...transitions between active composite linguistic models are determined by the state transitions of the HFB-FSM. The state transitions of the HFB-FSM are

  7. Improving Road Safety of Tank Truck in Indonesia by Speed Limiter Installation

    OpenAIRE

    Pranoto Hadi; Leman A.M; Baba Ishak; Feriyanto Dafit; Putra Gama Widya

    2017-01-01

    Indonesia has one of the highest number of fatalities caused by traffic accident. It is become main concern since last decades. Approximately of 10% fatalities is caused by tank truck accident, it recorded by PT. Pertamina Persero, Indonesia in 2015 that 17% and 20% tank truck accident is caused by over speed and fatigue, respectively. Therefore, over speed has become main factor the occurrence of tank truck accident. Main objective of this research is to install speed limiter on the tank tru...

  8. Evaluation of ergonomic physical risk factors in a truck manufacturing plant: case study in SCANIA Production Angers

    Science.gov (United States)

    ZARE, Mohsen; MALINGE-OUDENOT, Agnes; HÖGLUND, Robert; BIAU, Sophie; ROQUELAURE, Yves

    2015-01-01

    The aims of this study were 1) to assess the ergonomic physical risk factors from practitioner’s viewpoint in a truck assembly plant with an in-house observational method and the NIOSH lifting equation, and 2) to compare the results of both methods and their differences. The in-house ergonomic observational method for truck assembly i.e. the SCANIA Ergonomics Standard (SES) and the NIOSH lifting equation were applied to evaluate physical risk factors and lifting of loads by operators. Both risk assessment approaches revealed various levels of risk, ranging from low to high. Two workstations were identified by the SES method as high risk. The NIOSH lifting index (LI) was greater than two for four lifting tasks. The results of the SES method disagreed with the NIOSH lifting equation for lifting tasks. Moreover, meaningful variations in ergonomic risk patterns were found for various truck models at each workstation. These results provide a better understanding of the physical ergonomic exposure from practitioner’s point of view in the automotive assembly plant. PMID:26423331

  9. Evaluation of ergonomic physical risk factors in a truck manufacturing plant: case study in SCANIA Production Angers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zare, Mohsen; Malinge-Oudenot, Agnes; Höglund, Robert; Biau, Sophie; Roquelaure, Yves

    2016-01-01

    The aims of this study were 1) to assess the ergonomic physical risk factors from practitioner's viewpoint in a truck assembly plant with an in-house observational method and the NIOSH lifting equation, and 2) to compare the results of both methods and their differences. The in-house ergonomic observational method for truck assembly i.e. the SCANIA Ergonomics Standard (SES) and the NIOSH lifting equation were applied to evaluate physical risk factors and lifting of loads by operators. Both risk assessment approaches revealed various levels of risk, ranging from low to high. Two workstations were identified by the SES method as high risk. The NIOSH lifting index (LI) was greater than two for four lifting tasks. The results of the SES method disagreed with the NIOSH lifting equation for lifting tasks. Moreover, meaningful variations in ergonomic risk patterns were found for various truck models at each workstation. These results provide a better understanding of the physical ergonomic exposure from practitioner's point of view in the automotive assembly plant.

  10. An innovative food truck chain, strategic planning inspired from the lean start up methodology

    OpenAIRE

    Peñate, Paul Tavares

    2015-01-01

    Mestardo em Marketing Suportada pela abordagem Lean , o Projecto apresenta um modelo de negócios de uma nova marca de Food Truck, inicialmente a ser lançada na Bélgca. Foodies’TruckZ é a marca sugerida para um novo modelo de negócio de Food Truck que procura inovar alavancando economias de escala, sobretudo em Marketing, e através de uma frota co-propriedade das carinhas food truck. Neste modelo de negócio a partilha no investimento do camião, na comunicação e outros aspectos de marketing ...

  11. THE DEVELOPMENT AND EXPERIMENT OF ACOMPUTER-CONTROLLED TRUCK DISPATCHING SYSTEM IN SURFACE MINE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    苏靖; 刘胜富; 赵铁林

    1996-01-01

    The development and experiment of a computer-controlled truck dispatching system insurface mine is presented in this paper. It includes the system overall design, the system workingmode design, the selection of the best truck travel path, the development of truck fleet program-ming, the development of database management system, and the development of truck real timedispatching, etc. The successful experiment is carried out in Huolinhe surface mine, and the sat-isfied results are obtained. Application of this system can improve the system production and themine management. This system is the first one in our country at present.

  12. Six reasons why hours of service regulations for truck drivers are violated

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grøn, Sisse

      ABSTRACT Two decades of research has established a correlation between tiredness and fatigue, and traffic accident involving truck drivers.  Regulations limiting the driving hours of truck drivers thus are necessary precautions. But compliance is a problem. The answer from authorities tend......, because a truck driver's work is unpredictable and independent, but the regulation is action-defining and inflexible. Thus the regulations provoke violations because they counteract with the reality of truck drivers´ work conditions. The fifth reason is that the regulation counteracts with a general...

  13. Comparing Gravimetric and Real-Time Sampling of PM2.5 Concentrations Inside Truck Cabins

    OpenAIRE

    Zhu, Ying; Smith, Thomas J.; Davis, Mary E.; Jonathan I. Levy; Herrick, Robert; Jiang, Hongyu

    2011-01-01

    As part of a study on truck drivers’ exposure and health risk, pickup and delivery (P&D) truck drivers’ on-road exposure patterns to PM2.5 were assessed in five weeklong sampling trips in metropolitan areas of five U.S. cities from April to August of 2006. Drivers were sampled with real-time (DustTrak) and gravimetric samplers to measure average in-cabin PM2.5 concentrations and to compare their correspondence in moving trucks. In addition, GPS measurements of truck locations, meteorological ...

  14. Electric urban delivery trucks: energy use, greenhouse gas emissions, and cost-effectiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Dong-Yeon; Thomas, Valerie M; Brown, Marilyn A

    2013-07-16

    We compare electric and diesel urban delivery trucks in terms of life-cycle energy consumption, greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, and total cost of ownership (TCO). The relative benefits of electric trucks depend heavily on vehicle efficiency associated with drive cycle, diesel fuel price, travel demand, electric drive battery replacement and price, electricity generation and transmission efficiency, electric truck recharging infrastructure, and purchase price. For a drive cycle with frequent stops and low average speed such as the New York City Cycle (NYCC), electric trucks emit 42-61% less GHGs and consume 32-54% less energy than diesel trucks, depending upon vehicle efficiency cases. Over an array of possible conditions, the median TCO of electric trucks is 22% less than that of diesel trucks on the NYCC. For a drive cycle with less frequent stops and high average speed such as the City-Suburban Heavy Vehicle Cycle (CSHVC), electric trucks emit 19-43% less GHGs and consume 5-34% less energy, but cost 1% more than diesel counterparts. Considering current and projected U.S. regional electricity generation mixes, for the baseline case, the energy use and GHG emissions ratios of electric to diesel trucks range from 48 to 82% and 25 to 89%, respectively.

  15. Challenges for the CMS computing model in the first year

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fisk, I, E-mail: ifisk@fnal.go [Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory (United States)

    2010-04-01

    CMS is in the process of commissioning a complex detector and a globally distributed computing infrastructure simultaneously. This represents a unique challenge. Even at the beginning there is not sufficient analysis or organized processing resources at CERN alone. In this presentation we discuss the unique computing challenges CMS expects to face during the first year of running and how they influence the baseline computing model decisions. During the early accelerator commissioning periods, CMS will attempt to collect as many events as possible when the beam is on in order to provide adequate early commissioning data. Some of these plans involve overdriving the Tier-0 infrastructure during data collection with recovery when the beam is off. In addition to the larger number of triggered events, there will be pressure in the first year to collect and analyze more complete data formats as the summarized formats mature. The large event formats impact the required storage, bandwidth, and processing capacity across all the computing centers. While the understanding of the detector and the event selections is being improved, there will likely be a larger number of reconstruction passes and skims performed by both central operations and individual users. We discuss how these additional stresses impact the allocation of resources and the changes from the baseline computing model.

  16. Challenges for the CMS computing model in the first year

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fisk, I.; /Fermilab

    2009-05-01

    CMS is in the process of commissioning a complex detector and a globally distributed computing infrastructure simultaneously. This represents a unique challenge. Even at the beginning there is not sufficient analysis or organized processing resources at CERN alone. In this presentation we discuss the unique computing challenges CMS expects to face during the first year of running and how they influence the baseline computing model decisions. During the early accelerator commissioning periods, CMS will attempt to collect as many events as possible when the beam is on in order to provide adequate early commissioning data. Some of these plans involve overdriving the Tier-0 infrastructure during data collection with recovery when the beam is off. In addition to the larger number of triggered events, there will be pressure in the first year to collect and analyze more complete data formats as the summarized formats mature. The large event formats impact the required storage, bandwidth, and processing capacity across all the computing centers. While the understanding of the detector and the event selections is being improved, there will likely be a larger number of reconstruction passes and skims performed by both central operations and individual users. We discuss how these additional stresses impact the allocation of resources and the changes from the baseline computing model.

  17. Effect of Weight and Roadway Grade on the Fuel Economy of Class-8 Frieght Trucks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Franzese, Oscar [ORNL; Davidson, Diane [ORNL

    2011-11-01

    In 2006-08, the Oak Ridge National Laboratory, in collaboration with several industry partners, collected real-world performance and situational data for long-haul operations of Class-8 trucks from a fleet engaged in normal freight operations. Such data and information are useful to support Class-8 modeling of combination truck performance, technology evaluation efforts for energy efficiency, and to provide a means of accounting for real-world driving performance within combination truck research and analyses. The present study used the real-world information collected in that project to analyze the effects that vehicle speed and vehicle weight have on the fuel efficiency of Class-8 trucks. The analysis focused on two type of terrains, flat (roadway grades ranging from -1% to 1%) and mild uphill terrains (roadway grades ranging from 1% to 3%), which together covered more than 70% of the miles logged in the 2006-08 project (note: almost 2/3 of the distance traveled on mild uphill terrains was on terrains with 1% to 2% grades). In the flat-terrain case, the results of the study showed that for light and medium loads, fuel efficiency decreases considerably as speed increases. For medium-heavy and heavy loads (total vehicle weight larger than 65,000 lb), fuel efficiency tends to increase as the vehicle speed increases from 55 mph up to about 58-60 mph. For speeds higher than 60 mph, fuel efficiency decreases at an almost constant rate with increasing speed. At any given speed, fuel efficiency decreases and vehicle weight increases, although the relationship between fuel efficiency and vehicle weight is not linear, especially for vehicle weights above 65,000 lb. The analysis of the information collected while the vehicles were traveling on mild upslope terrains showed that the fuel efficiency of Class-8 trucks decreases abruptly with vehicle weight ranging from light loads up to medium-heavy loads. After that, increases in the vehicle weight only decrease fuel

  18. Fifty years of numerical modeling of baroclinic ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarkisyan, A. S.

    2012-02-01

    This paper presents a brief critical analysis of the main historical stages of numerical modeling for the last fifty years. It was a half a century ago that the numerical simulation of an actual baroclinic ocean was initiated by the author and his students [1, 2]. In meteorology, studies on the numerical modeling of a baroclinic atmosphere existed much earlier [21, 22]. Despite this, a similar move in oceanography was met with strong resistance. At that time, there were many studies on the calculation of the total mass transport. The founders of this field, V.B. Shtokman, H. Sverdrup, and W. Munk, were mistaken in believing that they addressed baroclinic models of the ocean. The author preferred works by V. Ekman [12] and I. Sandström and B. Helland-Hansen [19]. A generalization of recent studies made it possible to come to some conclusions on the need to use the level of the free oceanic surface as a basis rather than the function of total mass transport, on the role of the baroclinic β effect (BARBE), on the joint effect of baroclinicity and bottom relief (JEBAR), etc. The author conditionally divides these fifty years into the following three stages. (1) The first stage was 1961-1969, when the author and his students performed almost exclusively diagnostic and adaptation calculations of climatic characteristics. (2) The second stage began with papers by K. Bryan [23] and his students. This is an important and promising stage involving mainly prognostic studies and four-dimensional analysis. The major advances in modeling at this stage (the Gulf Stream separation point [61], the Kuroshio seasonal evolution [63], the formation of the cold intermediate layer in the Black Sea [80], the subsurface countercurrent in the Caspian Sea [25], the realistic four-dimensional analysis of the Kara Sea [60], etc.) were due to high-resolution and/or data assimilation with an adequate period of integration. (3) The third stage began with the activities of international

  19. Healthcare Programmes for Truck Drivers in Sub-Saharan Africa: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samanta Tresha Lalla-Edward

    Full Text Available Truck drivers have unique health needs, and by virtue of their continuous travel, experience difficulty in accessing healthcare. Currently, planning for effective care is hindered by lack of knowledge about their health needs and about the impact of on-going programmes on this population's health outcomes. We reviewed healthcare programmes implemented for sub-Saharan African truck drivers, assessed the evaluation methods, and examined impact on health outcomes.We searched scientific and institutional databases, and online search engines to include all publications describing a healthcare programme in sub-Saharan Africa where the main clients were truck drivers. We consulted experts and organisations working with mobile populations to identify unpublished reports. Forest plots of impact and outcome indicators with unadjusted risk ratios and 95% confidence intervals were created to map the impact of these programmes. We performed a subgroup analysis by type of indicator using a random-effects model to assess between-study heterogeneity. We conducted a sensitivity analysis to examine both the summary effect estimate chosen (risk difference vs. risk ratio and model to summarise results (fixed vs. random effects.Thirty-seven publications describing 22 healthcare programmes across 30 countries were included from 5,599 unique records. All programmes had an HIV-prevention focus with only three expanding their services to cover conditions other primary healthcare services. Twelve programmes were evaluated and most evaluations assessed changes in input, output, and outcome indicators. Absence of comparison groups, preventing attribution of the effect observed to the programme and lack of biologically confirmed outcomes were the main limitations. Four programmes estimated a quantitative change in HIV prevalence or reported STI incidence, with mixed results, and one provided anecdotal evidence of changes in AIDS-related mortality and social norms. Most

  20. Aberrant Behaviors and Road Accidents among Iranian Truck Drivers, 2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amir Houshang Mehrparvar

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available structural dimensions of which as well as technologic failures such as road quality, and tech-nical faults of automobiles, need to be assessed in detail. Iran has the first order in the world for deadly road accidents. This study was designed to assess the association between aberrant behaviors of truck drivers and the incidence of road accidents in Yazd, center of Iran, in 2010.Methods: This cross-sectional descriptive-analytic study was conducted on 300 truck drivers in Yazd. We used 3 questionnaires, including one for demographic data, Driver Behavior Questionnaire (DBQ, and one for drivers' self-evaluation of the of their driving.Results: Five types of the behavior had the highest frequency: Misjudge speed of oncoming vehicle when overtaking.; Deliberately disregard the speed limits late at night or very early in the morning.; Ignore 'give way' signs, and narrowly avoid colliding with traffic having right of way.; Stuck behind a slow-moving vehicle on a two-lane highway, you are driven by frustration to try to overtake in risky circumstances.; Drive with only 'half-an-eye' on the road while looking at a map, changing a cassette or radio channel, etc. The more the driver's driv-ing was influenced by emotional and mental states the more deliberate violations and slips.Conclusion: Among truck drivers, safety has not developed sufficiently, and because of the dangers of road accidents both for the drivers and other people and its economic losses, the importance of the presenting some solutions is completely obvious.

  1. Psychoactive substance use by truck drivers: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girotto, Edmarlon; Mesas, Arthur Eumann; de Andrade, Selma Maffei; Birolim, Marcela Maria

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to summarise the scientific evidence on the prevalence of psychoactive substance use and on the factors associated with their intake among truck drivers. A systematic review was performed in the databases PubMed, Scientific Electronic Library Online, Latin American and Caribbean Health Sciences, and Cochrane and 36 cross-sectional studies were identified with quantitative results about the use of psychoactive substances by truck drivers. Out of these, 28 were carried out in countries with large land areas and 23 obtained their information through self-reporting. The most frequently studied substances were alcohol (n=25), amphetamines (n=17), marijuana (n=16) and cocaine (n=13). The prevalence of the use of these substances greatly varied: alcohol (0.1-91.0%); amphetamines (0.2-82.5%), marijuana (0.2-29.9%), cocaine (0.1-8.3%). The frequency of substance use was lower in studies that investigated the presence of these substances in biological samples than in those based on self-reported use. In 12 studies that evaluated factors associated with the intake of psychoactive substances, the following stood out: younger age, higher income, longer trips, alcohol consumption, driving in the night shift, travelling interstate routes, long or short sleep, fewer hours of rest, little experience of the driver, connection with small and medium sized companies, income below levels determined by labour agreements, productivity-based earnings and prior involvement in accidents. The frequency of psychoactive substance use by truck drivers seems to be high, although that greatly varies according to the type of substance and the method of collecting the information. The use of these substances was mainly associated with indicators of poor working conditions.

  2. One thousand years of fires: Integrating proxy and model data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalie Marie Kehrwald

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The current fires raging across Indonesia are emitting more carbon than the annual fossil fuel emissions of Germany or Japan, and the fires are still consuming vast tracts of rainforest and peatlands. The National Interagency Fire Center (www.nifc.gov notes that 2015 is one worst fire years on record in the U.S., where more than 9 million acres burned -- equivalent to the combined size of Massachusetts and New Jersey. The U.S. and Indonesian fires have already displaced tens of thousands of people, and their impacts on ecosystems are still unclear. In the case of Indonesia, the burning peat is destroying much of the existing soil, with unknown implications for the type of vegetation regrowth. Such large fires result from a combination of fire management practices, increasing anthropogenic land use, and a changing climate. The expected increase in fire activity in the upcoming decades has led to a surge in research trying to understand their causes, the factors that may have influenced similar times of fire activity in the past, and the implications of such fire activity in the future. Multiple types of complementary data provide information on the impacts of current fires and the extent of past fires. The wide array of data encompasses different spatial and temporal resolutions (Figure 1 and includes fire proxy information such as charcoal and tree ring fire scars, observational records, satellite products, modern emissions data, fire models within global land cover and vegetation models, and sociodemographic data for modeling past human land use and ignition frequency. Any single data type is more powerful when combined with another source of information. Merging model and proxy data enables analyses of how fire activity modifies vegetation distribution, air and water quality, and proximity to cities; these analyses in turn support land management decisions relating to conservation and development.

  3. Multi-year predictability in a coupled general circulation model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Power, Scott; Colman, Rob [Bureau of Meteorology Research Centre, Melbourne, VIC (Australia)

    2006-02-01

    Multi-year to decadal variability in a 100-year integration of a BMRC coupled atmosphere-ocean general circulation model (CGCM) is examined. The fractional contribution made by the decadal component generally increases with depth and latitude away from surface waters in the equatorial Indo-Pacific Ocean. The relative importance of decadal variability is enhanced in off-equatorial ''wings'' in the subtropical eastern Pacific. The model and observations exhibit ''ENSO-like'' decadal patterns. Analytic results are derived, which show that the patterns can, in theory, occur in the absence of any predictability beyond ENSO time-scales. In practice, however, modification to this stochastic view is needed to account for robust differences between ENSO-like decadal patterns and their interannual counterparts. An analysis of variability in the CGCM, a wind-forced shallow water model, and a simple mixed layer model together with existing and new theoretical results are used to improve upon this stochastic paradigm and to provide a new theory for the origin of decadal ENSO-like patterns like the Interdecadal Pacific Oscillation and Pacific Decadal Oscillation. In this theory, ENSO-driven wind-stress variability forces internal equatorially-trapped Kelvin waves that propagate towards the eastern boundary. Kelvin waves can excite reflected internal westward propagating equatorially-trapped Rossby waves (RWs) and coastally-trapped waves (CTWs). CTWs have no impact on the off-equatorial sub-surface ocean outside the coastal wave guide, whereas the RWs do. If the frequency of the incident wave is too high, then only CTWs are excited. At lower frequencies, both CTWs and RWs can be excited. The lower the frequency, the greater the fraction of energy transmitted to RWs. This lowers the characteristic frequency of variability off the equator relative to its equatorial counterpart. Both the eastern boundary interactions and the accumulation of

  4. 75 FR 20396 - Yale Industrial Trucks-PGH, Inc. Monroeville, PA; Notice of Negative Determination Regarding...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-19

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF LABOR Employment and Training Administration Yale Industrial Trucks-PGH, Inc. Monroeville, PA; Notice of Negative... negative determination of the TAA petition filed on behalf of workers at Yale Industrial Trucks-PGH,...

  5. EVALUATION OF FUEL CELL AUXILIARY POWER UNITS FOR HEAVY-DUTY DIESEL TRUCKS

    Science.gov (United States)

    A large number of heavy-duty trucks idle a significant amount. Heavy-duty line-haul truck engines idle about 30-50% of the time the engine is running. Drivers idle engines to power climate control devices (e.g., heaters and air conditioners) and sleeper compartment accessories (e...

  6. A study on sexual risk behaviors of long-distance truck drivers in central India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aditya Thakur

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: The sexual behavior of trucking populations has been associated with the transmission of sexually transmitted infections (STI and HIV in India and elsewhere in the world. The objective of the study was to describe the Health seeking and sexual risks behaviors among the long distance truck drivers and to estimate the prevalence of STI symptoms in the long distance truck driver. Methods: Cross sectional study conducted on the Long Distance truck drivers plying on national highway passing through Bhopal state Highway, who halted at road side group of and ldquo;Dhabas and rdquo; (road side hotels at 3 exits ways of Bhopal City M.P (India. A total of 309 truck drivers approached over a period of 90 days. Out of these 251 consented for the study. Result: The study revealed that 49 % of the long distance truck driver had CSW exposure in last 6 months. The prevalence of STI symptoms was found to be 21.51 % among the long distance truck drivers. The Truck Driver who had exposure with CSW more than five times in the last 6 months were found to be more careless regarding using condoms while having intercourse with the CSW's. Conclusion: Effort like availability of condoms in the high risk group settings is required. Dhabas should be made to function as a sentinel centre for promoting awareness for HIV/AIDS and STIs. [Int J Res Med Sci 2015; 3(7.000: 1769-1774

  7. Locomotor diseases among male long-haul truck drivers and other professional drivers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Anker; Kaerlev, Linda; Tüchsen, Finn

    2007-01-01

    -249) and for other truck drivers (SHR: 130, 95% CI: 108-156) compared to bus drivers (SHR: 110, 95% CI: 79-149). All drivers had high SHR for lesions of the ulnar nerve (SHR: 159, 95% CI: 119-207), especially bus drivers (SHR: 197, 95% CI: 116-311). Long-haul truck drivers had high SHRs for synovitis and bursitis...

  8. 75 FR 45198 - Commercial Driver's License (CDL) Standards; Volvo Trucks North America, Renewal of Exemption

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-02

    ... the company to enable this individual to continue test-driving commercial motor vehicles (CMVs) in the... Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration Commercial Driver's License (CDL) Standards; Volvo Trucks... requirement to hold a commercial driver's license (CDL) submitted by Volvo Trucks North America (Volvo) on...

  9. 49 CFR 230.108 - Steam locomotive leading and trailing trucks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Steam locomotive leading and trailing trucks. 230.108 Section 230.108 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL... Steam Locomotives and Tenders Trucks, Frames and Equalizing System § 230.108 Steam locomotive leading...

  10. 49 CFR 393.128 - What are the rules for securing automobiles, light trucks and vans?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false What are the rules for securing automobiles, light... automobiles, light trucks and vans? (a) Applicability. The rules in this section apply to the transportation of automobiles, light trucks, and vans which individually weigh 4,536 kg. (10,000 lb) or...

  11. The Impact of Wireless Technology on Loading Trucks at an Auto Parts Distribution Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goomas, David T.

    2012-01-01

    An intervention was introduced for truck loaders that used wireless vehicle mount computers that included auditory, visual feedback, and immediate data delivery. The implementation reliably reduced pallets from being loaded out of sequence for all outbound trucks in multistop routes. The role of the organizational behavior management (OBM)…

  12. The Merger between Volvo-Renault VI-Mack Trucks: The Keys to A Successful Marriage

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Marc Raynaud

    2006-01-01

    @@ Three brands, one group The merger of Volvo Trucks with Renault Ⅵ and Mack created a new heavy goods vehicles group comprised of the Mack, Renault and Volvo brands. The three companies, which were initially merged into Volvo Global Trucks (VGT),kept their own brand identities and their distribution networks.

  13. 76 FR 20807 - Pilot Program on NAFTA Long-Haul Trucking Provisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-13

    ... Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration Pilot Program on NAFTA Long-Haul Trucking Provisions AGENCY... implementation of the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) cross-border long-haul trucking provisions... Mexican Law or Regulation.'' Background Before 1982, Mexico- and Canada-domiciled motor carriers could...

  14. Locomotor diseases among male long-haul truck drivers and other professional drivers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Anker; Kaerlev, Linda; Tüchsen, Finn

    2007-01-01

    -249) and for other truck drivers (SHR: 130, 95% CI: 108-156) compared to bus drivers (SHR: 110, 95% CI: 79-149). All drivers had high SHR for lesions of the ulnar nerve (SHR: 159, 95% CI: 119-207), especially bus drivers (SHR: 197, 95% CI: 116-311). Long-haul truck drivers had high SHRs for synovitis and bursitis...

  15. Port trucks route optimization based on GA-ACO%基于遗传蚁群算法的港口集卡路径优化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹庆奎; 赵斐

    2013-01-01

    The port trucks congestion problem existed in many ports.For this reason,the port trucks route cost optimization model faced the ‘work surface’ was established by exploring the effect factors of port trucks operation efficiency and the cost composition of the truck route in the container gantry crane system.Then genetic algorithm-ant colony optimization algorithm (GA-ACO) is proposed in view of the model and analyzed the problems with an example,compared optimization results with those by ant colony algorithm from the changes of truck route convergence,variable cost,penalty cost and total cost.The results show that genetic algorithm-ant colony optimization algorithm is faster converge to the optimal solution and gain less cost.%为了解决港口中存在的集卡拥堵问题,在集装箱龙门吊装卸工艺系统下,探讨了影响集卡作业效率的因素和集卡路径构成成本,建立了面向“作业面”的港口集卡路径成本优化模型.针对这一模型设计了遗传蚁群算法并结合实例对问题求解,且从集卡路径收敛、可变成本、惩罚成本和总成本的变化四个方面将该优化结果与蚁群算法的寻优结果进行对比,证明遗传蚁群算法能够较快地收敛于最优解且所得成本更小.

  16. Performance simulation and analysis of a fuel cell/battery hybrid forklift truck

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hosseinzadeh, Elham; Rokni, Masoud; Advani, Suresh G.

    2013-01-01

    The performance of a forklift truck powered by a hybrid system consisting of a PEM fuel cell and a lead acid battery is modeled and investigated by conducting a parametric study. Various combinations of fuel cell size and battery capacity are employed in conjunction with two distinct control...... strategies to study their effect on hydrogen consumption and battery state-of-charge for two drive cycles characterized by different operating speeds and forklift loads. The results show that for all case studies, the combination of a 110 cell stack with two strings of 55 Ah batteries is the most economical...... choice for the hybrid system based on system size and hydrogen consumption. In addition, it is observed that hydrogen consumption decreases by about 24% when the maximum speed of the drive cycle is decreased from 4.5 to 3 m/s. Similarly, by decreasing the forklift load from 2.5 to 1.5 ton, the hydrogen...

  17. Computation of rolling resistance caused by rubber hysteresis of truck radial tire

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MA Gai-ling; XU Hong; CUI Wen-yong

    2007-01-01

    Applying the results of stress and strain calculated by 3D finite element model of truck radial tire 11.00R20, a MATLAB program used to compute rolling resistance of the tire caused by hysteresis rolling resistance (HRR) is worked out. The HRR distribution on different part of tire section, and the effects of speed, load, internal pressure and the width of the rim on HRR are analyzed. The analysis results showed that energy loss produced by tread rubber contributes the most part to HRR of the whole tire, and that to decrease the HRR, the hysteresis factor of the tread rubber should be reduced, and the distribution of the stress and strain on the section be optimized.

  18. Truck Drivers And Risk Of STDs Including HIV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bansal R.K

    1995-01-01

    Full Text Available Research Question: Whether long distance truck drivers are at a higher risk of contracting and transmitting STDs including HIV? Objectives: i To study the degree of knowledge of HIV and AIDS among long- distance truck drivers. ii Assess their sexual behaviour including condom use. iii Explore their prevailing social influences and substance abuse patterns. iv Explore their treatment seeking bahaviour as regards STDs. v Deduce their risk of contracting and transmitting STDs including HIV. Study Design: Cross- sectional interview. Setting: Transport Nagar, Indore (M.P Participants: 210 senior drivers (First drivers and 210 junior drivers (Second drivers. Study Variables: Extra-Marital sexual intercourse, condom usage, past and present history of STDs, treatment and counseling, substance abuse, social â€" cultural milieu. Outcome Variables: Risk of contraction of STDs. Statistical Analysis: Univariate analysis. Results: 94% of the drivers were totally ignorant about AIDS. 82.9% and 43.8 % of the senior and junior drivers had a history of extra- marital sex and of these only 2 regularly used condoms. 13.8% and 3.3 % of the senior and junior drivers had a past or present history suggestive of STD infection. Alcohol and Opium were regularly used by them. Conclusion: The studied drivers are at a high risk of contracting and transmitting STDs including HIV.

  19. Occupational Hydrofluoric Acid Injury from Car and Truck Washing--Washington State, 2001-2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reeb-Whitaker, Carolyn K; Eckert, Carly M; Anderson, Naomi J; Bonauto, David K

    2015-08-21

    Exposure to hydrofluoric acid (HF) causes corrosive chemical burns and potentially fatal systemic toxicity. Car and truck wash cleaning products, rust removers, and aluminum brighteners often contain HF because it is efficient in breaking down roadway matter. The death of a truck wash worker from ingestion of an HF-based wash product and 48 occupational HF burn cases associated with car and truck washing in Washington State during 2001-2013 are summarized in this report. Among seven hospitalized workers, two required surgery, and all but one worker returned to the job. Among 48 injured workers, job titles were primarily auto detailer, car wash worker, truck wash worker, and truck driver. Because HF exposure can result in potentially severe health outcomes, efforts to identify less hazardous alternatives to HF-based industrial wash products are warranted.

  20. Technology Roadmap for the 21st Century Truck Program, a government-industry research partnership

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2000-12-01

    The 21st Century Truck Program has been established as a government-industry research partnership to support the development and implementation of commercially viable technologies that will dramatically cut fuel use and emissions of commercial trucks and buses while enhancing their safety and affordability as well as maintaining or enhancing performance. The innovations resulting from this program will reduce dependence on foreign oil, improve our nation's air quality, provide advanced technology for military vehicles, and enhance the competitiveness of the U.S. truck and bus industry while ensuring safe and affordable freight and bus transportation for the nation's economy. This Technology Roadmap for the 21st Century Truck Program has been prepared to guide the development of the technical advancements that will enable the needed improvements in commercial truck fuel economy, emissions, and safety.

  1. Theories beyond the standard model, one year before the LHC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimopoulos, Savas

    2006-04-01

    Next year the Large Hadron Collider at CERN will begin what may well be a new golden era of particle physics. I will discuss three theories that will be tested at the LHC. I will begin with the supersymmetric standard model, proposed with Howard Georgi in 1981. This theory made a precise quantitative prediction, the unification of couplings, that has been experimentally confirmed in 1991 by experiments at CERN and SLAC. This established it as the leading theory for physics beyond the standard model. Its main prediction, the existence of supersymmetric particles, will be tested at the large hadron collider. I will next overview theories with large new dimensions, proposed with Nima Arkani-Hamed and Gia Dvali in 1998. This links the weakness of gravity to the presence of sub-millimeter size dimensions, that are presently searched for in experiments looking for deviations from Newton's law at short distances. In this framework quantum gravity, string theory, and black holes may be experimentally investigated at the large hadron collider. I will end with the recent proposal of split supersymmetry with Nima Arkani-Hamed. This theory is motivated by the possible existence of an enormous number of ground states in the fundamental theory, as suggested by the cosmological constant problem and recent developments in string theory and cosmology. It can be tested at the large hadron collider and, if confirmed, it will lend support to the idea that our universe and its laws are not unique and that there is an enormous variety of universes each with its own distinct physical laws.

  2. 29 CFR 779.371 - Some automobile, truck, and farm implement establishments may qualify for exemption under section...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Some automobile, truck, and farm implement establishments... OR SERVICES Exemptions for Certain Retail or Service Establishments Automobile, Truck, Farm Implement, Trailer, and Aircraft Sales and Services § 779.371 Some automobile, truck, and farm...

  3. Analysis of major trends in U.S. commercial trucking, 1977-2002.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bertram, K. M.; Santini, D .J.; Vyas, A. D.

    2009-06-10

    This report focuses on various major long-range (1977-2002) and intermediate-range (1982-2002) U.S. commercial trucking trends. The primary sources of data for this period were the U.S. Bureau of the Census Vehicle Inventory and Use Survey and Truck Inventory and Use Survey. In addition, selected 1977-2002 data from the U.S. Department of Energy/Energy Information Administration and from the U.S. Department of Transportation/Federal Highway Administration's Highway Statistics were used. The report analyzes (1) overall gasoline and diesel fuel consumption patterns by passenger vehicles and trucks and (2) the population changes and fuels used by all commercial truck classes by selected truck type (single unit or combination), during specified time periods, with cargo-hauling commercial trucks given special emphasis. It also assesses trends in selected vehicle miles traveled, gallons per vehicle miles traveled, and gallons per cargo ton-mile traveled, as well as the effect of cargo tons per truck on fuel consumption. In addition, the report examines long-range trends for related factors (e.g., long-haul mileages driven by heavy trucks) and their impacts on reducing fuel consumption per cargo-ton-mile and the relative shares of total commercial fuel use among truck classes. It identifies the effects of these trends on U.S. petroleum consumption. The report also discusses basic engineering design and performance, national legislation on interstate highway construction, national demographic trends (e.g., suburbanization), and changes in U.S. corporate operations requirements, and it highlights their impacts on both the long-distance hauling and shorter-distance urban and suburban delivery markets of the commercial trucking industry.

  4. Eight Year Climatologies from Observational (AIRS) and Model (MERRA) Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hearty, Thomas; Savtchenko, Andrey; Won, Young-In; Theobalk, Mike; Vollmer, Bruce; Manning, Evan; Smith, Peter; Ostrenga, Dana; Leptoukh, Greg

    2010-01-01

    We examine climatologies derived from eight years of temperature, water vapor, cloud, and trace gas observations made by the Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) instrument flying on the Aqua satellite and compare them to similar climatologies constructed with data from a global assimilation model, the Modern Era Retrospective-Analysis for Research and Applications (MERRA). We use the AIRS climatologies to examine anomalies and trends in the AIRS data record. Since sampling can be an issue for infrared satellites in low earth orbit, we also use the MERRA data to examine the AIRS sampling biases. By sampling the MERRA data at the AIRS space-time locations both with and without the AIRS quality control we estimate the sampling bias of the AIRS climatology and the atmospheric conditions where AIRS has a lower sampling rate. While the AIRS temperature and water vapor sampling biases are small at low latitudes, they can be more than a few degrees in temperature or 10 percent in water vapor at higher latitudes. The largest sampling biases are over desert. The AIRS and MERRA data are available from the Goddard Earth Sciences Data and Information Services Center (GES DISC). The AIRS climatologies we used are available for analysis with the GIOVANNI data exploration tool. (see, http://disc.gsfc.nasa.gov).

  5. Model year 2010 Ford Fusion Level-1 testing report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rask, E.; Bocci, D.; Duoba, M.; Lohse-Busch, H.; Energy Systems

    2010-11-23

    As a part of the US Department of Energy's Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity (AVTA), a model year 2010 Ford Fusion was procured by eTec (Phoenix, AZ) and sent to ANL's Advanced Powertrain Research Facility for the purposes of vehicle-level testing in support of the Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity. Data was acquired during testing using non-intrusive sensors, vehicle network information, and facilities equipment (emissions and dynamometer). Standard drive cycles, performance cycles, steady-state cycles, and A/C usage cycles were conducted. Much of this data is openly available for download in ANL's Downloadable Dynamometer Database. The major results are shown in this report. Given the benchmark nature of this assessment, the majority of the testing was done over standard regulatory cycles and sought to obtain a general overview of how the vehicle performs. These cycles include the US FTP cycle (Urban) and Highway Fuel Economy Test cycle as well as the US06, a more aggressive supplemental regulatory cycle. Data collection for this testing was kept at a fairly high level and includes emissions and fuel measurements from an exhaust emissions bench, high-voltage and accessory current/voltage from a DC power analyzer, and CAN bus data such as engine speed, engine load, and electric machine operation. The following sections will seek to explain some of the basic operating characteristics of the MY2010 Fusion and provide insight into unique features of its operation and design.

  6. Acoustic Vocal Tract Model of One-year-old Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Vojnović

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The physical shape of vocal tract and its formant (resonant frequencies are directly related. The study of this functional connectivity is essential in speech therapy practice with children. Most of the perceived children’s speech anomalies can be explained on a physical level: malfunctioning movement of articulation organs. The current problem is that there is no enough data on the anatomical shape of children’s vocal tract to create its acoustic model. Classical techniques for vocal tract shape imaging (X-ray, magnetic resonance, etc. are not appropriate for children. One possibility is to start from the shape of the adult vocal tract and correct it based on anatomical, morphological and articulatory differences between children and adults. This paper presents a method for vocal tract shape estimation of the child aged one year. The initial shapes of the vocal tract refer to the Russian vowels spoken by an adult male. All the relevant anatomical and articulation parameters, that influence the formant frequencies, are analyzed. Finally, the hypothetical configurations of the children’s vocal tract, for the five vowels, are presented.

  7. Metabolic syndrome among professional bus and truck drivers in Kashan, 2008

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamidreza Saberi

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: The literature data and our own studies show that in drivers of transport vehicles, work-related risk factors for arterial hypertension, ischemic heart disease, and metabolic syndrome are largely intensified. These involve occupational risk factors as well as classic ones, such as obesity, limited physical activity, shift work, or tobacco smoking. However, studies published over the past two decades on the health of bus and truck drivers have received relatively less attention in developing countries. Methods: In a cross-sectional study 429 Kashan City male bus and truck drivers that enter the occupational health service for health examination were enrolled. The study focused on the presence of the metabolic syndrome, as defined by the National Cholesterol Education Program Expert Panel on Detection, Evaluation and Treatment of High Blood Cholesterol in Adults (NCEP ATP III and statistical tests such as t-test, chi-square test and Pearson’s correlation coefficient were used to analyze the data. Results: The prevalence of metabolic syndrome according to ATP-III was 35.9% mostly at age range 30-39 years. The prevalence of overweight was 41% Obesity, 23.1% hypertension, 42.9% Diabetes, 7% hypertriglyceridemia, 53.4% and low HDL cholesterol, 48.7%. In addition, between diabetes and hypertension and between hypertension and smoking meaningful relation was seen (p=0.006. Conclusion: We observed a high prevalence of metabolic syndrome in these groups to be significantly higher than other groups in Iran. So, Occupation must be considered as a risk factor for impaired health status, leading to temporary or permanent disability to work.

  8. Meanings and vulnerability to HIV/AIDS among long-distance truck drivers in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magno, Laio; Castellanos, Marcelo Eduardo Pfeiffer

    2016-12-22

    To understand the meanings assigned by long-distance truck drivers to HIV/AIDS and its transmission and prevention, bearing in mind different contexts of vulnerability. Qualitative research with 22 truck drivers. Semi-structured interviews and participant observation were conducted in highways of the state of Bahia in 2013. We selected male truck drivers, with one year or more of work experience in long-distance routes. We carried out the thematic analysis of the interviews, to identify different contexts of vulnerability. The results showed that the insertion of truck drivers in contexts of high social vulnerability (poor working conditions, violence on the roads, and use of alcohol and other drugs) along with the advances in access and effectiveness of treatment for AIDS promote a reduced perception of the risk and severity of this disease. In addition, the notion of "risk group" and the symbolic division between "home space" (protected) and "street space" (unprotected) intensified a restricted and specific use of condoms, guided by the opposition between "woman of the street" (unknown women, prostitutes, among others) and "woman of the house" (wives, girlfriends). The meanings assigned by truckers to AIDS incorporated elements of recent transformations of the expanded social context, such as the development of health technologies (especially anti-retroviral drugs) and the guarantee of free access to treatment in the Brazilian public health system; but also incorporated old elements of social vulnerability context - such as the poor working conditions on Brazilian highways. Compreender os significados atribuídos pelos caminhoneiros de rota longa ao HIV/aids e à sua transmissão e prevenção, tendo em vista diferentes contextos de vulnerabilidade. Pesquisa qualitativa com 22 caminhoneiros. Foram realizadas entrevistas semi-estruturadas e observação participante em rodovias do estado da Bahia em 2013. Foram selecionados caminhoneiros do sexo masculino, com um

  9. 76 FR 74853 - 2017 and Later Model Year Light-Duty Vehicle Greenhouse Gas Emissions and Corporate Average Fuel...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-01

    ..., the term ``light-duty truck'' means a pick-up truck, sport-utility vehicle, or minivan of up to 8,500 lbs gross vehicle weight rating, and ``medium-duty passenger vehicle'' means a sport-utility vehicle.... How would the proposal impact non-GHG emissions and their associated effects? 1. Inventory 2. Health...

  10. Model year 2010 Honda insight level-1 testing report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rask, E.; Bocci, D.; Duoba, M.; Lohse-Busch, H. (Energy Systems)

    2011-03-22

    As a part of the US Department of Energy's Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity (AVTA), a model year 2010 Honda Insight was procured by eTec (Phoenix, AZ) and sent to ANL's Advanced Powertrain Research Facility for the purposes of vehicle-level testing in support of the Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity (AVTA). Data was acquired during testing using non-intrusive sensors, vehicle network information, and facilities equipment (emissions and dynamometer data). Standard drive cycles, performance cycles, steady-state cycles and A/C usage cycles were tested. Much of this data is openly available for download in ANL's Downloadable Dynamometer Database (D3). The major results are shown here in this report. Given the preliminary nature of this assessment, the majority of the testing was done over standard regulatory cycles and seeks to obtain a general overview of how the vehicle performs. These cycles include the US FTP cycle (Urban) and Highway Fuel Economy Test cycle as well as the US06, a more aggressive supplemental regulatory cycle. Data collection for this testing was kept at a fairly high level and includes emissions and fuel measurements from an exhaust emissions bench, high-voltage and accessory current and voltage from a DC power analyzer, and CAN bus data such as engine speed, engine load, and electric machine operation when available. The following sections will seek to explain some of the basic operating characteristics of the MY2010 Insight and provide insight into unique features of its operation and design.

  11. Thermal and water management of low temperature Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cell in fork-lift truck power system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hosseinzadeh, Elham; Rokni, Masoud; Rabbani, Raja Abid

    2013-01-01

    A general zero-dimensional Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cell (PEMFC) model has been developed for forklift truck application. The balance of plant (BOP) comprises of a compressor, an air humidifier, a set of heat exchangers and a recirculation pump. Water and thermal management of the fuel cell...... voltage when membrane is fully hydrated otherwise it causes a drastic voltage drop in the stack. Furthermore, by substituting liquid water with water-ethylene glycol mixture of 50%, the mass flow of coolant increases by about 32-33% in the inner loop and 60-65% in the outer loop for all ranges of current...

  12. Algorithms for Pallet Building and Truck Loading in an Interdepot Transportation Problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Teresa Alonso

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the problem of a logistics company that has to serve its customers by first putting the products on pallets and then loading the pallets into trucks. Besides the standard geometric constraints of products not overlapping each other and not exceeding the dimensions of pallets and trucks, in this real problem, there are many other constraints, related to the total weight of the load, the maximum weight supported by each axle, and the distribution of the load inside the truck. Although the problem can be decomposed into two phases, pallet loading and truck loading, we have taken a combined approach, building and placing pallets at the same time. For each position in the truck, a pallet is built and tailored for that position according to the constraints of height and weight. We have developed a GRASP algorithm, in which the constructive algorithm is randomized and an improvement phase is added to obtain high-quality solutions. The algorithm has been tested on two sets of real instances with different characteristics, involving up to 44 trucks. The results show that solutions with an optimal or near optimal number of trucks are obtained in very short computing times.

  13. Comparing gravimetric and real-time sampling of PM(2.5) concentrations inside truck cabins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Ying; Smith, Thomas J; Davis, Mary E; Levy, Jonathan I; Herrick, Robert; Jiang, Hongyu

    2011-11-01

    As part of a study on truck drivers' exposure and health risk, pickup and delivery (P&D) truck drivers' on-road exposure patterns to PM(2.5) were assessed in five, weeklong sampling trips in metropolitan areas of five U.S. cities from April to August of 2006. Drivers were sampled with real-time (DustTrak) and gravimetric samplers to measure average in-cabin PM(2.5) concentrations and to compare their correspondence in moving trucks. In addition, GPS measurements of truck locations, meteorological data, and driver behavioral data were collected throughout the day to determine which factors influence the relationship between real-time and gravimetric samplers. Results indicate that the association between average real-time and gravimetric PM(2.5) measurements on moving trucks was fairly consistent (Spearman rank correlation of 0.63), with DustTrak measurements exceeding gravimetric measurements by approximately a factor of 2. This ratio differed significantly only between the industrial Midwest cities and the other three sampled cities scattered in the South and West. There was also limited evidence of an effect of truck age. Filter samples collected concurrently with DustTrak measurements can be used to calibrate average mass concentration responses for the DustTrak, allowing for real-time measurements to be integrated into longer-term studies of inter-city and intra-urban exposure patterns for truck drivers.

  14. Vulnerability of bus and truck drivers affected from vehicle engine noise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naba Kumar Mondal

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to find out the vulnerability of bus and truck drivers due to constant exposure of vehicle-engine noise inside the vehicle cabin. Comparative results revealed that noise levels inside the cabin of buses and trucks were in the range of 88.6–102.4 dB and 87.95–103.4 dB, respectively. The health status of bus and truck drivers was assessed by measuring their systolic and diastolic pressure, pulse rate, BMI, digestion problem, hearing loss, vision problem, back pain and irritation. Paired t-test of the results revealed non-significant (p < 0.05 relation between systolic and diastolic pressure of both bus and truck drivers. The pulse rate of truck driver was significantly (p < 0.01 related with noise level inside the cabin of truck. The humidity level inside the cabin showed a positive relation with vehicle age (p < 0.01 and driving period (p < 0.01. This study clearly suggests that vehicle engine noise adversely affects the cardiovascular health of both bus and truck drivers.

  15. Hood of the truck statistics for food animal practitioners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slenning, Barrett D

    2006-03-01

    This article offers some tips on working with statistics and develops four relatively simple procedures to deal with most kinds of data with which veterinarians work. The criterion for a procedure to be a "Hood of the Truck Statistics" (HOT Stats) technique is that it must be simple enough to be done with pencil, paper, and a calculator. The goal of HOT Stats is to have the tools available to run quick analyses in only a few minutes so that decisions can be made in a timely fashion. The discipline allows us to move away from the all-too-common guess work about effects and differences we perceive following a change in treatment or management. The techniques allow us to move toward making more defensible, credible, and more quantifiably "risk-aware" real-time recommendations to our clients.

  16. Wishbone Structure for Front Independent Suspension of a Military Truck

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.V. Jagirdar

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Wishbone structure for double wishbone front-independent Suspension for a military truck application is presented. At present, the vehicle is equipped with rigid axle with leaf springs. There are two aspects that dictate the design of wishbone structure, viz. the path of relative motion between the constituents of the suspension system and the forces transmitted between them. Also, enhancement of mobility was made possible by maintaining the live axle in the system. A double wishbone, double coil spring with twin damper configuration was employed for this application. MBD Analysis was carried out using MSC ADAMS. A double wishboneindependent suspension has been designed for the front axle and has been successfully integrated with the vehicle.Defence Science Journal, 2010, 60(2, pp.178-183, DOI:http://dx.doi.org/10.14429/dsj.60.337

  17. Combined Aero and Underhood Thermal Analysis for Heavy Duty Trucks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vegendla, Prasad [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Sofu, Tanju [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Saha, Rohit [Cummins Inc., Columbus, IN (United States); Madurai Kumar, Mahesh [Cummins Inc., Columbus, IN (United States); Hwang, L. K [Cummins Inc., Columbus, IN (United States)

    2017-01-31

    Aerodynamic analysis of the medium-duty delivery truck was performed to achieve vehicle design optimization. Three dimensional CFD simulations were carried out for several improved designs, with a detailed external component analysis of wheel covers, side skirts, roof fairings, and rounded trailer corners. The overall averaged aerodynamics drag reduction through the design modifications were shown up to 22.3% through aerodynamic considerations alone, which is equivalent to 11.16% fuel savings. The main identified fuel efficiencies were based on second generation devices, including wheel covers, side skirts, roof fairings, and rounded trailer corners. The important findings of this work were; (i) the optimum curvature radius of the rounded trailer edges found to be 125 mm, with an arc length of 196.3 mm, (ii) aerodynamic drag reduction increases with dropping clearance of side skirts between wheels and ground, and (iii) aerodynamic drag reduction increases with an extension of front bumper towards the ground.

  18. The dynamics of the three-piece-freight truck

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xia, Fujie

    2002-01-01

    and dynamical contact relations between wheels and rails, the nonlinear suspensions and the nonlinear dry friction damping. For low speeds of the truck the kinematic and dynamical nonlinearities might be linearized, but the very strongly nonlinear suspensions and the dry friction damping can not be linearized...... be numerically simulated. Its applications are illustrated in two simple systems. One is an oscillator with a Coulomb dry friction damper in chapter 2 and the other one is the wedge damper in chapter 3. In the mechanical system it is possible that the degrees of freedom will vary with the different friction...... are derived. Chapter 8 provides the numerical methods for the simulation of the system, the discussion focuses on the differential algebraic equations(DAEs) with discontinuous characteristics caused by the two-dimensional friction. In chapter 9 the numerical investigation is provided. The four general...

  19. Fatigue Design of Leaf Springs for New Generation Trucks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giannakis, E.; Malikoutsakis, M.; Savaidis, G.

    2016-11-01

    Taking as example high-performance parabolic leaves made of the high-strength steel 52CrMoV4 used for the suspensión of heavy truck axles, the present paper focuses on the effect of the manufacturing process (heat treatment and stress peening) on their performance under fatigue loading. Investigations of the microstructure and the mechanical properties of the core and the surface of selected prototype specimens reveal the degradation of the mechanical surface properties due to the applied manufacturing process. The results of these investigations have been used as input for analytical fatigue life calculations and the theoretical assessment of every individual life-influencing factor (material, heat treatment, surface treatment, loading). Wohler (S-N) curves for various probabilities of survival were experimentally determined and compared to the calculated ones. The agreement between Experiment and Theory is satisfactory.

  20. In-use measurement of the activity, fuel use, and emissions of front-loader refuse trucks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandhu, Gurdas S.; Frey, H. Christopher; Bartelt-Hunt, Shannon; Jones, Elizabeth

    2014-08-01

    Field measurements were made for six front-loader refuse trucks for over 560 miles (901 km) and 47 h of operation using a portable emissions measurement system, electronic control unit data logger, and global positioning system receivers. Daily activity, fuel use rates, and emission rates are quantified in terms of operating mode bins defined by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency for the MOVES emission factor model. On average, 44 (±4) percent of time was spent at idle, 5 (±1) percent braking or decelerating, 11 (±2) percent coasting, 23 (±3) percent cruising or accelerating at low speed (up to 25 mph, 40.2 kmph), 10 (±2) percent cruising or accelerating at moderate speed (25-50 mph, 40.2 to 80.4 kmph), and 7 (±3) percent cruising or accelerating at high speed (50 mph, 80.4 kmph or higher). Fuel use and emission rates varied among operating modes by factors of 6-24. The estimated daily activity cycle average fuel economy ranges from 2.3 to 3.2 mpg (0.98-1.4 kmpl). The PM emission rates for trucks with diesel particulate filters are 98 percent lower compared to those without. Variation in truck weight lead to differences in average fuel use and emission rates of 20 percent or less, except for hydrocarbons. The variation in the empirically-based daily activity cycle average rates were highly correlated with MOVES estimates, except for hydrocarbons. The data collected here are useful for quantifying daily activity specific to front-loaders, and for developing fuel use and emission estimates and models for this type of vehicle.

  1. Correlates of STI symptoms among female sex workers with truck driver clients in two Mexican border towns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Nadine E

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Female sex workers (FSW are at increased risk for HIV and other STI due to occupation-related risks and exposures. Long-distance truck drivers have been implicated in the spread of HIV, but less is known about HIV/STI risks of FSW servicing truck drivers, especially in North America. As part of an international collaborative pilot study, we interviewed FSWs servicing truck driver clients along two major transportation corridors to explore factors associated with recent STI symptoms. Methods A cross-sectional study of 200 FSW was conducted in Mexico: 100 from Nuevo Laredo (U.S. border; 100 from Ciudad Hidalgo (Guatemalan border. Eligibility criteria included age ≥18 years, speaking English or Spanish, and having ≥1 truck driver client in the past month. The main outcome was reporting any recent STI symptoms, defined as experiencing genital/anal warts, genital ulcers/sores, genital itching, or abnormal vaginal discharge in the past 6 months. Logistic regression was used to identify correlates of recent STI symptoms. Results Median age of FSW was 29 years, 74% were single, 87% had th grade education, and median income was 4000 pesos/month ($300 USD. Sex work occurred at a bar/cantina for 70%. One-quarter had never been tested for HIV, 53% reported lifetime drug use, 22% reported drinking alcohol before/during transactional sex and 17% reported recent STI symptoms. After controlling for age and study site, factors associated with STI symptoms were lifetime drug use (AOR 2.9, 95% CI 1.2-6.9, drug use before/during sex (AOR 2.8, 95% CI 1.1-7.1, alcohol use before/during sex (AOR 5.2, 95% CI 2.2, 12.6, forced sex ever (AOR 2.6, 95% CI 1.1-6.1, lifetime history of arrest (AOR 2.3, 95% CI 1.0-5.0, and being surveyed in Nuevo Laredo rather than Ciudad Hidalgo (AOR 4.8, 95% CI 2.0-10.0. Conclusions The associations we observed between recent STI symptoms and drug and alcohol use suggest that interventions are needed that promote

  2. Correlates of STI symptoms among female sex workers with truck driver clients in two Mexican border towns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Nadine E; Strathdee, Steffanie A; Uribe-Salas, Felipe J; Patterson, Thomas L; Rangel, Maria Gudelia; Rosen, Perth; Brouwer, Kimberly C

    2012-11-20

    Female sex workers (FSW) are at increased risk for HIV and other STI due to occupation-related risks and exposures. Long-distance truck drivers have been implicated in the spread of HIV, but less is known about HIV/STI risks of FSW servicing truck drivers, especially in North America. As part of an international collaborative pilot study, we interviewed FSWs servicing truck driver clients along two major transportation corridors to explore factors associated with recent STI symptoms. A cross-sectional study of 200 FSW was conducted in Mexico: 100 from Nuevo Laredo (U.S. border); 100 from Ciudad Hidalgo (Guatemalan border). Eligibility criteria included age ≥18 years, speaking English or Spanish, and having ≥1 truck driver client in the past month. The main outcome was reporting any recent STI symptoms, defined as experiencing genital/anal warts, genital ulcers/sores, genital itching, or abnormal vaginal discharge in the past 6 months. Logistic regression was used to identify correlates of recent STI symptoms. Median age of FSW was 29 years, 74% were single, 87% had <9th grade education, and median income was 4000 pesos/month ($300 USD). Sex work occurred at a bar/cantina for 70%. One-quarter had never been tested for HIV, 53% reported lifetime drug use, 22% reported drinking alcohol before/during transactional sex and 17% reported recent STI symptoms. After controlling for age and study site, factors associated with STI symptoms were lifetime drug use (AOR 2.9, 95% CI 1.2-6.9), drug use before/during sex (AOR 2.8, 95% CI 1.1-7.1), alcohol use before/during sex (AOR 5.2, 95% CI 2.2, 12.6), forced sex ever (AOR 2.6, 95% CI 1.1-6.1), lifetime history of arrest (AOR 2.3, 95% CI 1.0-5.0), and being surveyed in Nuevo Laredo rather than Ciudad Hidalgo (AOR 4.8, 95% CI 2.0-10.0). The associations we observed between recent STI symptoms and drug and alcohol use suggest that interventions are needed that promote consistent and effective safer sex practices, especially

  3. Building a Model of Early Years Professionalism from Practitioners’ Perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brock, Avril

    2013-01-01

    Practitioner voice has been absent from debates regarding what constitutes professional behaviour and practice in the early years. This research identifies and uses the professional knowledge of a group of early years educators to create a typology of professionalism. The typology comprises seven inter-related dimensions of early years…

  4. Effect of truck position and multiple truck loading on response of long-span metal culverts

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Elshimi, Tamer M; Brachman, Richard W.I; Moore, Ian D

    2014-01-01

    .... This paper shows results of three-dimensional finite element analysis, employing orthotropic shell theory and explicitly modeling the geometry of corrugated plates for a specific box culvert tested...

  5. Real-world energy use and emission rates for idling long-haul trucks and selected idle reduction technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frey, H Christopher; Kuo, Po-Yao

    2009-07-01

    Long-haul freight trucks typically idle for 2000 or more hours per year, motivating interest in reducing idle fuel use and emissions using auxiliary power units (APUs) and shore-power (SP). Fuel-use rates are estimated based on electronic control unit (ECU) data for truck engines and measurements for APU engines. Engine emission factors were measured using a portable emission measurement system. Indirect emissions from SP were based on average utility grid emission factors. Base engine fuel use and APU and SP electrical load were analyzed for 20 trucks monitored for more than 1 yr during 2.76 million mi of activity within 42 U.S. states. The average base engine fuel use varied from 0.46 to 0.65 gal/hr. The average APU fuel use varied from 0.24 to 0.41 gal/hr. Fuel-use rates are typically lowest in mild weather, highest in hot or cold weather, and depend on engine speed (revolutions per minute [RPM]). Compared with the base engine, APU fuel use and emissions of carbon dioxide (CO2) and sulfur dioxide (SO2) are lower by 36-47%. Oxides of nitrogen (NO(x)) emissions are lower by 80-90%. Reductions in particulate matter (PM), carbon monoxide (CO), and hydrocarbon emissions vary from approximately 10 to over 50%. SP leads to more substantial reductions, except for SO2. The actual achievable reductions will be lower because only a fraction of base engine usage will be replaced by APUs, SP, or both. Recommendations are made for reducing base engine fuel use and emissions, accounting for variability in fuel use and emissions reductions, and further work to quantify real-world avoided fuel use and emissions.

  6. Technical documentation for the 1990 Nationwide Truck Activity and Commodity Survey Public Use File

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-09-01

    The Nationwide Truck Activity and Commodity Survey (NTACS) provides detailed activity data for a sample of trucks covered in the 1987 Truck Inventory and Use Survey (TIUS) for days selected at random over a 12-month period ending in 1990. The NTACS was conducted by the US Bureau of the Census for the US Department of Transportation (DOT). A Public Use File for the NTACS was developed by Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) under a reimbursable agreement with the DOT. The content of the Public Use File and the design of the NTACS are described in this document.

  7. Technical documentation for the 1990 Nationwide Truck Activity and Commodity Survey Public Use File

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-09-01

    The Nationwide Truck Activity and Commodity Survey (NTACS) provides detailed activity data for a sample of trucks covered in the 1987 Truck Inventory and Use Survey (TIUS) for days selected at random over a 12-month period ending in 1990. The NTACS was conducted by the US Bureau of the Census for the US Department of Transportation (DOT). A Public Use File for the NTACS was developed by Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) under a reimbursable agreement with the DOT. The content of the Public Use File and the design of the NTACS are described in this document.

  8. Alternative-fueled truck demonstration natural gas program: Caterpillar G3406LE development and demonstration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-06-01

    In 1990, the California Energy Commission, the South Coast Air Quality Management District, and the Southern California Gas Company joined together to sponsor the development and demonstration of compressed natural gas engines for Class 8 heavy-duty line-haul trucking applications. This program became part of an overall Alternative-Fueled Truck Demonstration Program, with the goal of advancing the technological development of alternative-fueled engines. The demonstration showed natural gas to be a technically viable fuel for Class 8 truck engines.

  9. Genetic algorithm with master-slave structure for forklift truck dispatching in bulk cargo logistics%基于主—从两级遗传算法的港口散货物流铲车调度

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张维存; 康凯; 崔婷玉

    2012-01-01

    In port bulk cargo logistics, reasonable forklift truck operation considering forklift truck capacity constraints will improve the whole operational efficiency and increase customers' satisfaction. A Genetic Algorithm ( GA) with master-slave structure was proposed to solve the forklift truck with capacity constraints dispatching in port bulk cargo logistics. First, a mathematical model was built for the goal to shorten trucks' time from arriving to leaving the yard on the basis that a forklift truck with capacity constraints will serve a truck and a truck must be served by one forklift. Then, a real coded GA with master-slave structure and its decoding method were proposed after the analysis of forklifts with capacity constraints and trucks. In addition, when coded in slave structure, heuristic rules and penalty function were designed in order to avoid infeasible solutions. Finally, an application example was used to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed algorithm. And the Gantt chart was used to show the optimal strategy when dispatching trucks with capacity constraints.%港口散货物流中,在考虑铲车能力约束条件下合理的铲车调度将提高整体的运作效率,并增强顾客满意度.通过分析货位上待服务的货车与有能力约束的铲车之间的关系,提出了利用主—从级遗传算法解决该类有能力约束的铲车调度问题.首先,建立了以缩短顾客停留时间为目标的数学模型.其次,设计了主、从递阶型式的两级遗传算法.算法中,主级求解铲车到货位的分配问题,从级求解主级所分配铲车能力约束下的货车服务次序及服务时间.另外,为避免非可行解产生,在主从级遗传算法的解码中均设计了启发式规则和惩罚函数.最后,通过一个应用实例的对比实验分析验证了此算法的有效性,并将最优解通过甘特图的形式展现出来.

  10. Cupola modeling research: Phase 2 (Year one), Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-11-20

    Objective was to develop a mathematical model of the cupola furnace (cast iron production) in on-line and off-line process control and optimization. In Phase I, the general structure of the heat transfer, fluid flow, and chemical models were laid out, providing reasonable descriptions of cupola behavior with a one-dimensional representation. Work was also initiated on a two-dimensional model. Phase II was focused on perfecting the one-dimensional model. The contributions include these from MIT, Michigan University, and GM.

  11. Effects of particulate matter exposure on blood 5-hydroxymethylation: results from the Beijing truck driver air pollution study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez-Guerra, Marco; Zheng, Yinan; Osorio-Yanez, Citlalli; Zhong, Jia; Chervona, Yana; Wang, Sheng; Chang, Dou; McCracken, John P; Díaz, Anaite; Bertazzi, Pier Alberto; Koutrakis, Petros; Kang, Choong-Min; Zhang, Xiao; Zhang, Wei; Byun, Hyang-Min; Schwartz, Joel; Hou, Lifang; Baccarelli, Andrea A

    2015-01-01

    Previous studies have reported epigenetic changes induced by environmental exposures. However, previous investigations did not distinguish 5-methylcytosine (5mC) from a similar oxidative form with opposite functions, 5-hydroxymethylcytosine (5hmC). Here, we measured blood DNA global 5mC and 5hmC by ELISA and used adjusted mixed-effects regression models to evaluate the effects of ambient PM10 and personal PM2.5 and its elemental components-black carbon (BC), aluminum (Al), calcium (Ca), potassium (K), iron (Fe), sulfur (S), silicon (Si), titanium (Ti), and zinc (Zn)-on blood global 5mC and 5hmC levels. The study was conducted in 60 truck drivers and 60 office workers in Beijing, China from The Beijing Truck Driver Air Pollution Study at 2 exams separated by one to 2 weeks. Blood 5hmC level (0.08%) was ∼83-fold lower than 5mC (6.61%). An inter-quartile range (IQR) increase in same-day PM10 was associated with increases in 5hmC of 26.1% in office workers (P = 0.004), 20.2% in truck drivers (P = 0.014), and 21.9% in all participants combined (P 0.05). 5mC showed no correlations with PM10, PM2.5, and elemental components measures (FWER > 0.05). Our study suggests that exposure to ambient PM10 affects 5hmC over time, but not 5mC. This finding demonstrates the need to differentiate 5hmC and 5mC in environmental studies of DNA methylation.

  12. Waste pretreatment and interfacing system dynamic simulation model (ITHINK model) FY-96 year-end report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harmsen, R.W.

    1996-09-30

    The Waste Pretreatment and Interfacing Systems Dynamic Simulation (ITHINK) Model (see WHC-SD-WM-DR-013) was originally created to investigate the required pretreatment facility processing rates required to meet the Tri-Party Agreement (TPA) waste vitrification milestones. The TPA milestones are satisfied by retrieving the TX tank farm (salt cake) single-shell tanks (SSTs)first and by utilizing a relatively constant retrieval rate to the year 2018 when retrieval is completed.

  13. Computable general equilibrium model fiscal year 2014 capability development report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Edwards, Brian Keith [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Boero, Riccardo [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2016-05-11

    This report provides an overview of the development of the NISAC CGE economic modeling capability since 2012. This capability enhances NISAC's economic modeling and analysis capabilities to answer a broader set of questions than possible with previous economic analysis capability. In particular, CGE modeling captures how the different sectors of the economy, for example, households, businesses, government, etc., interact to allocate resources in an economy and this approach captures these interactions when it is used to estimate the economic impacts of the kinds of events NISAC often analyzes.

  14. An Innovative Learning Model for Computation in First Year Mathematics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tonkes, E. J.; Loch, B. I.; Stace, A. W.

    2005-01-01

    MATLAB is a sophisticated software tool for numerical analysis and visualization. The University of Queensland has adopted Matlab as its official teaching package across large first year mathematics courses. In the past, the package has met severe resistance from students who have not appreciated their computational experience. Several main…

  15. Model forest program: Year in review, 1992-1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-01-01

    As part of the Green Plan, introduced by the Federal Government in late 1990, a network of model forests was developed to demonstrate the concept of sustainable forest management in practical terms on a working scale. This annual report describes the competitive site selection process, the forests involved in the project, program milestones, the operation of model forests, and highlights of the project. Financial data is included.

  16. Truck Rates For Selected North, South, And Northeastern Brazilian Soybean Export Transportation Routes

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Agriculture — Compares monthly truck rates from north Mato Grosso and East Tocantins to the ports Itaituba, Porto Velho, Santarém, São Luís, Santos, and Paranaguá. This is figure...

  17. Biodiesel and Cold Temperature Effect on Speciated Mobile Source Air Toxics from Modern Diesel Trucks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Speciated volatile organic compounds (VOCs) with a particular focus on mobile source air toxics (MSATs) were measured in diesel exhaust from three heavy-duty trucks equipped with modern aftertreatment technologies. Emissions testing was conducted on a temperature controlled chass...

  18. Biodiesel and Cold Temperature Effects on Speciated Mobile Source Air Toxics from Modern Diesel Trucks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Speciated volatile organic compounds (VOCs) with a particular focus on mobile source air toxics (MSATs) were measured in diesel exhaust from three heavy-duty trucks equipped with modern aftertreatment technologies. Emissions testing was conducted on a temperature controlled chass...

  19. 75 FR 56651 - ITS Joint Program Office; Trucking Industry Mobility & Technology Coalition Annual Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-16

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION ITS Joint Program Office; Trucking Industry Mobility & Technology Coalition Annual Meeting AGENCY... the 9th day of September 2010. John Augustine, Managing Director, ITS Joint Program Office....

  20. 1990 Nationwide Truck Activity and Commodity Survey selected tabulations. Summary report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-06-01

    The Nationwide Truck Activity and Commodity Survey (NTACS) provides detailed activity data for a sample of trucks covered in the 1987 Truck Inventory and Use Survey (TIUS) for days selected at random over a 12-month period ending in 1990. The NTACS was conducted by the US Bureau of the Census for the US Department of Transportation (DOT). A Public Use File for the NTACS was developed by Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) under a reimbursable agreement with the DOT. The content of the Public Use File and the detailed design of the NTACS are described in the ORNL Report {open_quotes}Technical Documentation for the 1990 Nationwide Truck Activity and Commodity Survey Public Use File{close_quotes}. (1992). ORNL Technical Report No. TM-12188, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN 37831. The main purpose of this summary report is to provide selected tables based on the public use file.